The histories of Livy, books I, XXI, and XXII. With extracts from books IX, XXVI, XXXV, XXXVIII, XXXIX, XLV. Edited and annotated, by Thomas Chase ...
Livy., Chase, Thomas, ed. 1827-1892.

Page  [unnumbered] CHASE AND STUART'S CLASSICAL SERIES. T RE E HISTORIES OF LIVY, BOOKS I, XXI, AND XXII, WITH EXTRACTS FROM BOOKS IX, XXVI, XXXV, XXXVIII, XXXIX, XLY. BY THOMAS CHASE, M.A., PROFESSOR OF PHILOLOGY IN HAVERFORD COLLEGE; MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN ORIENTAL AND AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETIES, ETC. PHILADELPHIA: ELDREDGE & BROTHER, 17 North' Seventh Street. 1874.

Page  [unnumbered] 'j6 Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872, by ELDRE-DGE & BROT'ER, in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. J. FAGAN & SON, ELECTROTYPERS, PHILRAD'A. CAXTON PRESS OF SHERMAN a 00.

Page  [unnumbered] TO THE UN SPIRI -TED OFP, HILOLOGY IN AMERICA, ESPECIALLY THOSE WITHIN THE WALLS OF MY OWN ALMA MATER. SPARTAMz ORNATE...:Y, =,-, %p.X ~.. *:'~:,?,<-...,.....

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Page  [unnumbered] PREFACE. THE text of Livy, though handed down by the manuscripts in an imperfect and unsatisfactory state, has been in a great degree rescued and restored by the critical labors of many illustrious philologists, Foremost are the great names of JOHN FREDERICK GRONOV and JOHN NICHOLAS MADVIG; but around them clusters a brilliant array of scholars hardly inferior to these great chiefs, among whom Crevier, Drakenborch, Kreyssig, Bekker, Alschefski, Haupt, Hertz, and above all Weissenborn, cannot pass unmentioned. The work of an editor is made both easier and more difficult by so many and such guides: easy indeed when stars of the first magnitude shine in conjunction, but hard sometimes when they are opposed. There is, it is true, one in this list, whom a man might follow even with his eyes shut, and feel assured that he would never be led far astray. The unrivalled sagacity with which the great Danish philologist scents out the true reading in a tangled maze of hopeless obscurity is one of the marvels of our later day.. It is hard to resist the fascination of such genius; yet, with due diffidence, I may say that in sonme cases I have been less certain that the words MADVIG gives are those which Livy actually wrote, than that they are the best. possible expression in Latin of the thought Livy wished to convey. No man for the last thousand years has been a more

Page  VI vi PRE'FACE. finished master of Latin syntax and of Latin style than Madvig; no one is more competent to tell how the great Roman authors ought to have written. It is possible, however, that they did not always write as well as they ought. They had a share of the same freedom of composition, and the same liability to careless oversight, as our own writers, though in less degree; and we must allow them, perhaps, an occasional solecism. Furthermore-pace tanti viri dixerinin — there are cases sometimes where a higher law than, formal grammatical regularity rightly asserts itself, and offence itself is glorious. But this by no means in extenuation of the merits of the greatest of living critics, and still less to cast upon him the slightest imputation of narrow pedantry; it is only my excuse for daring sometimes to differ from one who has done more for the emendation of the text of Livy than all other scholars put together. Next to Madvig, I am indebted for; my text particularly to the editions of Weissenborn, Hertz, and Alschefski. The grounds of my preference among different readings have, in some of the most important cases, been stated in the notes, so far as the special purposes of this edition seemed to permit. As regards the forms of words, I have not hesitated, in spite of the objections of sciolists,.to adopt' for the most part that " new orthography'- which is'the old. WAith Hertz, too, as well as after the great example of Munro in his Lucretius, I have followed the'e manuscripts.to some extent in giving different forms -:fo::th:same word in- different. places..-Muinro

Page  VII PREFACE. vii contends that such was the practice of the old writers themselves. This course has some advantages in an edition designed for students habituated to the conventional orthography of the grammarians, and is perhaps safest while some questions remain unsolved. It is my conviction, however, that the final result of' scholarly investigation in this field will be the adoption of a uniform orthography for each age or each author, with the exception of occasional variation in a few forms, which, like hath and has in English, can be proved to have stood side by side. The convenience of students has been consulted in indicating i consonans and u consonans by the characters so long appropriated to that purpose. In the Notes it has been my aim, as it was in my editions of Horace and Virgil, to give such aid as is most necessary and most useful for students in our colleges and schools. Credit is given to various scholars whose labors have been helpful. Two of these deserve special acknowledgment,-Weissenborn, for his commentary on all the, books, and Seeley for his notes on the First. Professor Seeley's "Historical Examination of Book First." deserves the careful study of every scholar. I have appended to this edition the page and a half in which he sums up the result of his examination, trusting that many who read it will be induced to follow its able author in the exhaustive investigation by which he arrives at these conclusions. THOMAS CHIASE.;No. —Conjectural roadings,-adopted by a. lics.

Page  VIII LIVY AND HIS HISTORY OF ROME. TITUS LIVIUS was a few years younger than Virgil and Horace, but older than Propertius and Ovid, with whom he shines in the brilliant constellation of genius which adorns the Augustan age. He was born probably in the year 59 or 57 B. C., at Patavium, now Padua, which in his day was a populous and-wealthy city, while famed at the same time for strictness of morals. Livy was probably of an equestrian family; bred and living in that middle rank which is so favorable for the development of character and talent. There is some reason to believe that he was a teacher of rhetoric. He wrote books on philosophy,.and also dialogues, partly historical and partly philosophical. He enjoyed the friendship of Augustus, and it was his counsel which induced the emperor's grandson, Claudius, - who was afterwards emperor,-to apply his attention to the writing of historical works. An instance of Livy's celebrity is mentioned by Pliny (Epist. ii. 3), who tells us that a Spaniard travelled from Gades to Rome solely for the purpose of seeing the author of the great Roman history, and returned as soon as he had satisfied his curiosity. The historian died in his native city, A. D. 17. The first decad (or ten books) of Livy's "colossal history" appears to have been written between the years 27 and 20 B. C. The whole work consisted, it has been supposed, of one hundred and.forty-two books, covering the whole period from the foundation of the city till the year-9 B. C.; but Niebuhr suggests that the author probably intended to complete fifteen decads, but died before he could accomplish his object. "His purpose in undertaking it was to draw, with all the charms which his artistic skill and delicate taste could give, a complete picture of the history of the Roman people, and of the laudable or blameworthy peculiarities of its prominent personages, that he might inflame the patriotic feelings of his countrymen, and contribute to the instruction and entertainment of the world at large. Livy generally looks at, an historical event or character from a moral point of view: he wishes to excite our;admiration of the great, love of the good, and' viil

Page  IX LIVY AND HIS HISTORY OF ROME. ix hatred of the bad; he feels a proud pleasure in describing the power of the Romans, or the purity of manners by which they were at first distinguished; and the history of the early ages of the state seems to have consoled him for the wickedness and wretchedness which he had seen and felt during the civil wars. His conservatism, and habitual admiration of the olden times above the modern, merely because they were the olden times, are exhibited in the early parts of his work, especially in his description of the contests between the patricians and plebeians. Livy's partiality to the patricians may well be blamed; his conservatism, however, never led him to wink at cruelty or baseness, or to conceal or knowingly misstate.facts." Truth he held as a sacred thing. At the same time he was strangely wanting in that careful, laborious research, and that skill in weighing and sifting evidence, which are among the foremost requisites of the historian. He took such.materials as came to hand, founding himself especially upon the. annalists, contenting himself with purging them of their absurdities; and arranging their best matter in an attractive form. Where they disagreed, he endeavored to decide between them " with the judgment of a man of sense," but not by any well-ascertained philosophical principles of historical criticism. " However turbid the current of his information, in no case did he ever dream of ascending to the fountainhead. He never attempted to test the accuracy of the assertions of others by examining ancient monuments, or investigating the antiquities of the various Italian tribes." He seems, moreover, to have performed his task piecemeal, without taking a broad and comprehen-: sive view of his whole subject. In the history of the kings, he followed Ennius. With Polybius he was unacquainted until after he had related the first half of the Punic war; -throughout the fourth decad, however, he. adheres very closely to that "incomparable" authority. Of the details of the geography even of his own country, he betrays a singular ignorance, which greatly impairs the va.lue of his narrative. In a simply literdry point of view, however, Livy's composition is almost faultless. His narrative " flows on in a calin but strong current, clear and sparkling but deep and unbroken; the diction displays richness without heaviness, and simplicity without tameness. Nor is his art as a painter less wonderful. There is a distinctness of outline and a warmth of coloring in all his delineations, whether of living men in action, or of things inanimate, which never fail. to call up the whole scene, with all its adjuncts, before our eyes." Upon the whole, looking at the work both in its external and internal characteristics, we may well say to students of Livy, in the words of Niebuhr (Lectures i.

Page  X X LIVY AND HIS HISTO-RY OF ROME. 296), "You cannot study his work too much, both as scholars, and as men who seek and love that which is beautifull. His faults, which we cannot deny, are like the faults of a bosom friend, which we must know but towards which we ought not to be unjust, and which ought not to disturb our feelings." The first book, and some portions of the second Punic war, are, in Niebuhr's judgment, the most beautiful portions of the whole work. Unrortunately, the larger part of this great history is no longer extant. We have the first, third, and fourth decads, and half of the fifth, -thirty-five books, - with a fragment of book ninety-first. We possess,: however, summaries of all the books but two, which, though dry and meagre, are yet valuable as in some instances our sole authorities for important facts. The peculiarities of Livy's style, as distinguished from Cicero and Caesar, are grouped by Grysar under the following heads: 1. Freer use of words. 2. Poetic diction. 3. Peculiarities of syntax. 4. Grecisms.'5. Bolder constructions. 6. Structure of the sentence. 1. Taking materials from old chronicles and (in the history of the kings) from Ennius, he easily adopted their forms of expression: hence archaisnls and sometimes pleonasm. 2. D6derlein calls Livy an imitator of Virgil; and certainly he uses many words which, while found in the poets, are never met with in the older prose writers. The.poetic coloring of his style appears also in the use of simple verbs for compound, in his fondness for the neuter adjective as substantive both with and without an added genitive, in various poetical constructions (as quid tsur0res loquor, instead of de turrmibus), and in the frequency with which he introduces tropes and metaphors. 3. It is a peculiarity of Livy's syntax to use the genitive with the verb sum. to signify participation in something or that to which anything serves. The latter idea he often expresses by the dative of the gerundive. His use of the dative instead of the ablative with a or of the accusative with ad, is not particularly frequent. The neuter of the perfect passive participle often stands alone in Livy in the ablative absolute. The aoristic use of the perfect indicative instead of the pluperfect, and of the perfect subjunctive instead of the imperfect, is common to Livy, Nepos, Sallust, Tacitus, and other historians. More exceptional is Livy's frequent use of the infinitive instead of the subjunctive, not only in indirect questions, but also in the oratio obliqua. This use, however, is donfined to passages in orations which Livy puts in the mouth of another person. He uses sometimes the infinitive for the gerund, partiCelafly after temipuss occasioi consilium,. The construction Qf the par

Page  XI LIVY AND H"IS HISTORY OF ROME. xi tides prope and paene with the verb is much more common with Livy than with other writers. HIe uses the participles with unusual frequency and boldness; 4. (Before proceeding to the fourth head, I cannot forbear remarking that the term "Grecivsms" is- used by Grysar in somne cases too freely, as it has also been unnecessarily employed by many grammar:ans, to indicate constructions which are as natural and idiomatic in Latin as -in Greek. (See Greenough on'Ihe Latist Subjunctive, p. 15.) It is true, however, that such constructions were often developed and extended from the influence of Greek writers; and a pure Grecism is occasionally found.) Among Livy's Grecisrns, Grysar numbers the adjective use of participles (in Greek preceded by the article), as adhortatio invicesnl; ad exploranda cirea loca; the connection ofintransitive verbs with abstract substantives derived from them; the use of collective nouns with a plural verb; the free use both of the genitive to show the respect in which the signification of an adjective is taken, and of the accusative of specification; the use of the participle for an abstraet substantive, as degeneiatum int aliis i. 53)-; freedom in attraction, as raptim, quibuzs quisque poterat, elatis (i. 29); and finally various Greek modes of expression, as quid utt (va ri), extra quzlansi (EKra; at #b), cUm eo uIt (ai", rsOia&E), and qua-ttm pro (J Klnr or } 7rpba) after a comparative, as xxi. 29 and 32: which last construction is never found in Cicero or Caesar, though often in Tacitus. 5. Livy's conlstructions are often bold and poetical, sometimes perhaps too evidently artificial. 6. He sometimes inserts too many short clau/ives, to the injury of the symmetry and clearness of the sentence. To sum up, Livy appears, in accordance with the taste of his age, to have departed somewhat from the simplicity and strength of' earlier writers, and to have sought to add a charm to his style by novelty and greater freedom of expression. I subjoin Zumpt's statement of the distinction between the styles of Livy and Cicero: "This difference is principally to be found in Livy's frequent introduction of poetical words and constructions into his prose: e. g. temepestas for tenmpus, miortales for honines, letulnt for lnex, degere for vivere,, or oyei)e svitanm, qite-qute for et-et; further, in the use of the mere ablative without the preposition in, to express place' where;' in the pleo. nastic employment of adverbs, with compound verbs, to strengthen the meaning of the preposition contained in the verb; e. g. prius praeci-. pere, ante praeoccutpare, retro repetere, rltrstus repetere, retro redire, pergere porro, indulcere exercitsm in agrulmz hostilnt; in collective nouns in the singular being connected with a predicate in the plural: e. g. oomnisi multitdeo' abeent t in gesl tttrba circsunrftusifrmeneba t; clntamor concuisusqu'

Page  XII Xii LIVY AND HIS HISTORY OF ROME. popttli, mirantiumn quid ei esset; Ronoanorltm milwus mille intexfecti; and lastly, in the use of quams for magis quaen; e. g. ipsorltn quanm'Hannibalis interesse. There are other variations between the language of Livy and that of Cicero, which, however, must be attributed to, and are indeed proofs of, the progressive development of Latin syntax. We may mention, as one of these, the use of the future participle active in a hypothetical sense; for example (xxiii. 44), deditauris se Hannibrali son fulisse crcessentdun Roinlantum prmssidiumn -- that is,'if they had been intending to give themselves up to Hannibal,' etc." There has been much idle speculation as to what that "Patavinity" was, with which, as Quintilian tells us, Livy was reproached by the celebrated orator, historian, and poet, Asinius Pollio. Livy's style had its peculiar characteristics,- and one of them - his fondness for poetical forms and constructions - might easily be censured by a lover of classicosimplicity. But it has been in all ages a cheap and easy-device, whenever the accident of birth allows it, to stigmatize whatever does not please one's own taste with the charge.of provincialism.

Page  13 P RAE FAT I O. 1lACTURUSNE operae pretium sim, si a primordio urbis res populi Romani perscripserim, nec satis scio, nec, si sciam, dicere ausim, quippe qui curm veterem turn vulgatam esse rem videam, dum novi semper scriptores aut in rebus certius aliquid allaturos se 5 aut scribendi arte rudem vetustatem superaturos credunt. Utcumque erit, juvabit tamen rerun gestarum memoriae principis terrarum populi pro virili parte et ipsum consuluisse; et si in tanta scriptorum turba mea fama in obscuro sit, nobilitate ac magnitudine-eorum 10 me, qu; nomini officient meo, consoler. Res est praeterea et inmensi operis, ut quae supra septingentesimum annum repetatur, et quae ab exiguis profecta initiis eo creverit, ut jam magnitudine laboret sua; et legentium plerisque haud dubito quin primae 15 origines proximaque originibus minus praebitura voluptatis sint, festinantibus ad haec nova, quibus jam pridem praevalentis populi vires se ipsae conficiunt. Ego contra hoc quoque laboris praemium petam, ut me a conspectu malorumn, quae nostra tot per annos 20 vidit aetas, tantisper certe, dum prisca illa tota mente repeto, avertam, omnis expers curae, quae scribentis 13

Page  14 14 PRA EFATIO. animumn, etsi non flectere a vero, sollicitum tamen efficere posset. Quae ante conditam condendamve urbem poeticis magis decora fabulis quam incorruptis rerum: gestarum 5 monumentis traduntur, ea nec adfirmare nec refAllere in animo est. Datur haec venia antiquitati, ut miseendo humnana divinis primordia urbiunm augustiora faciat; et si cui populo licere oportet consecrare origines suas et ad deos referre auctores, ea belli gloria 10 est populo Romano, ut, cumr suum conditorisque sui parentern Martem potissimum ferat, tam et hoc gentes. humanae patiantur aequo animo quam imperium patiuntur. Sel haec et his similia, utcumque animadversa aut 15 existimata erunt, haut in magno equidem. ponam discrimine; ad illa mihi pro se quisque acriter intendat animum, quae vita, qui mores fuerint, per quos viros quibusque artibus domi militiaeque et partum et auctum imperiumr sit; labente deinde paulatim disci20 plina velut desidentis primo mores sequatgr animo, deinde ut magis magisque lapsi sint, turn ire copperint praecipites, donec ad haec tempora, quibus nec wVtia nostra nec remedia pati possumnus, perventum est. Hoc illud est praecipue in cognitione rerum 25 salubre ac frugiferum, omnis te exempli documenta in inlustri posita monumento intueri: inde tibi tuaeque reipublicae quod imitere capias, inde, foedum inceptu, foedum exitu, quod vites.

Page  15 PRA EFATIO. 15 Ceterum aut me amor negotii suscepti fallit, aut nulla umquam respublica nec major nec sanctior nec bonis exemplis ditior fuit, nec in quam civitatem tam serae -avaritia luxuriaque -inmigraverint, nec ubi tantus ac tam diu paupertati ac parsimoniae honos 5 fuerit: adeo quanto rerum minus, tanto minus cupiditatis erat. Nuper divitiae avaritiam et abundantes voluptates desiderium per luxum atque libidinem pereundi perdendique omnia invexere. Sed querellae, ne tum quidem gratae ftiturae, cumi forsitan necessa- 10 riae erunt, ab initio certe tantae. ordiendae rei absint. Cum bonis potius ominibus votisque et precationibus deorum dearumque, si, ut poetis, npbis quoque mos esset, libentius inciperemus, ut orsis tantumr operis - - successus prosperos darent. 15

Page  16 [PERIOCHA LIBRI I.] [ADVENTuS Aeneae in Italiam et res gestae. Ascani regnum Albae et Silvi et deinceps Silviorum. Numitoris filia a Marte compressa, nati Romulus et Remus. Amulius obtruncatus, urbs a Romulo condita, senatus lectus, cum Sabinis bellatum, spolia opima Feretrio Iovi lata, in curias populus divisus, Fidenates, Veientes victi, Romulus consecratus. Numa Pompilius ritus sacrorum tradidit. porta Iani clausa. Tullus Hostilius Albanos bello diripuit. trigeminorum pugna. Metti Fufeti supplicium. Tullus fulmine consumptus. Ancus Marcius Latinos devicit, Ostiam condidit. Tarquinius Priscus Latinos superavit, circum fecit, finitimos devicit, muros et cloacas fecit. Servio Tullio caput arsit. Servius Tullius Veientes devicit et populum in classes divisit, aedem Dianae dedicavit. Tarquinius Superbus occiso Tullio regnum irnvasit. Tulliae scelus in patrem. Turnus Herdonius per Tarquinium occisus. bellum cum Vulscis. fraude Sex. Tarquini Glabii direpti. Capitolium inchoatum. Termini et Iuventae arae moveri non potuerunt. Lucretia se occidit. Superbi expulsio. regnatum est annis CCLV.]' 16

Page  17 TI T I LI I AB VRBE CONDITA LIBER PRIMVS. I. J;AM primum'omnium satis constat, Troja capta in ceteros saevitum esse Trojanos, duobus, Aeneae Antenorique, et vetusti jure hospitii et quia pacis reddendaeque Helenae semper auctores fuerunt, omne jus belli Achivos. abstinuisse; casibus deinde variis 5 Antenorem cum multitudine Enetumrn, qui seditione ex Paphlagonia pulsi et sedes et ducem, rege Pylaemene ad Trojam amisso, quaerebant, venisse in intimum Adriatici maris sinurn, Euganeisqu:e, qui inter mare Alpesque incolebant, pulsis Enetos Trojanosque 10 eas tenuisse terras. Et in quem primo egressi sunt locum, Troja vocatur, pagoqle Trojano inde nomen est, gens universa Veneti appellati. Aeneam ab simili clade domo profugum, sed ad majora rerum -initia ducentibus fatis, primo in Macedoniam venisse, 15 inde in Siciliam quaerentem sedes delatum, ab Sicilia classe ad Laurentern agrum tenuisse. Troja et huic loco nomen est. Ibi egressi Trojani, ut quibus ab inmenso prope errore nihil praeter arma et naves superesset, cum praedam ex agris agerent, Latinus 20 rex Aboriginesque, qui tumrn ea tenebant loca, ad arcendarn vim advenarum armati ex urbe atque agris concurrunt. Duplex inde fama est. Alii proelio victum Latinum pacem cum Aenea, deinde adfinitatem junxisse 25 2 -Livy. 17

Page  18 18 TITI LIAI AB VRBE CONDITA tradunt; alii, cum instructae acies constitissent, priusquam signa canerent, processisse Latinurn inter prirmores ducemque advenarum evocasse ad conloquium; percunctatum deinde, qui mortales essent, 5 unde aut quo casu profecti domo quidve quaerentes in agrum Laurentem exissent, postquam audierit, multitudinem Trojanos esse, ducem Aeneam, filium Anchisap et Yeneris, cremata patria domo profugos sedem condei[laequa urbis locum quaerere, et nobili10 tatem admirat inri gentis virique et animum vel bello vel paci paratum, dextra data fidem futurae amicitiae sanxisse. Inde foedus; cthi{iAnter duces, i ter exercitus salutationern factAm. Aenearm apuid Latinum fuisse in hospitio;,bi Latinum apud penates deos 15 domesticurn publlco adjunxisse foedus, filia Aeneae in'matrimonium data. Ea utique res Trojanis spem adfirmat tandem stabili certaque sede finiendi erroris. Oppidum condunt, Aeneas ab nomine uxoris Lavinium appellat. Brevi stirps q toque virilis ex novo 20 matrimonio fuit, cui Ascaniumr parentes dixere nonlen. II. Bello deinde Aborigines Trojanique simul petiti. Turnus rex Rutulorum, cui pacta Lavinia ante adventumr Aeneae fuerat, prael-atum! sibi advenam aegre patiens, simul Aeneae Latinoque bellum 25 intulerat. Neutra acies laeta ex eo certarni'e abiit: victi Rutuli, victores Aborigines Trojanique ducem Latinum amisere.' Inde Turnus Rutulique diffisi (. rebus ad florentes o les Etruscorum Mezentiumque regem eorum confugiunt, qui Caere, opulento tum 30 oppido, imperitans, jam inde ab initio minirieilaetus novae origine urbis, et tum nimio plus quam satis: tutum esset accolis rem Trojanam crescere ratus, baud gravatim socia arma Rutulis junxit. Aeneas, adversus tanti belli terrorem ut animos 35 Aboriginum sibi conciliaret, nec sub eodem jure solurn sed etiam nomnine omnnes essent, Latinos utramque gentem appellavit5;, nec deinde Aborigines Trojanis studio ac fide erga regem Aeneam cessere. Fretusque his animis coalescentium in dies magis

Page  19 LIBER I, 2-3. 19 duorum populorum Aeneas, quamquam tanta opibus Etruria erat, ut jam pon terras solum, sed mare etiam -per totam Italiae lonigitudinem ab Alpibus ad fretum Siculum, fama nominis sui implesset, tamen, cunm mioenibus bellum propulsare posset, in aciem copias 5 eduxit. Secunduil inde proelium Latinis, Aeneae etiam ultimurn mortalium operum fuit. Situs est, quemcumque eum dici jus fasque est, super Numicum fluvium; Jovem Indigetem appellant. III. Nondum maturus imperio Ascanius Aeneae 10 filius erat, tamen-id imperium ei ad puberem aetatem ~incolume mansit; tantisper tutela muliebri (tanta indoles in Lavinia erat) res Latina et regnum avitum paternumque puero stetit. Haud ambigarn (quis enirn rein tam veteremn pro certo adfirmet?) hicine fuerit 15 Ascanius an major quam hic, Creusa matre Ilio incolurni natus comesqua inde paternae fugae, quem Iulurn eundemi Julia gens auctorem norninis sui nuncupat. Is Ascanius, ubicumque et quacumque rnatre genitus (certe natum Aenea constat) abun- 20 dante Lwvini multitudine, florentem jam, ut tum res erant, atque opulentam urbem. matri seu novercae reliquit, novarn ipse aliam sub Albano monte condi(lit, quae ab situ porrectae in dorso urbis Longa Alba appellata.:.: 25 Inter Lavinium bt Albarn Longam deductam coloniam triginta ferme interfuere anni. Tantum tamen opes creverant maxime fuisi.Etruscis, ut ne morte quidem Aeneae nec deinde": int{er inuliebrem tutelam rudimentumque primum puerilis regni movere arma 30 aut Mezentius Etruscique aut ulli alii accolae ausi sint. Pax ita convenerat, ut Etruscis Latinisque' fluvius Albula, quem nunc Tiberim vocant, finis esse. Silvius deinde regnat, Ascani filius, casu quodam 35 in silvis'iiatus. -Is Aeneam Silvium creat, is. deinde Latinum Silvium, Ab eo coloniae ali4t"it eductae, Prisci Latini appellati. Mansit Silviis postea omnibus cognomen, qui Albae regnaverunt. Latino Alba

Page  20 20 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA ortus, Alba Atys, Atye Capys, Capye Capetus, Capeto Tiberinus, qui in trajectu Albulae amnis subrnersus celebre ad posteros nomen flumini dedit. Agrippa inde Tiberini filius, post Agrippam Romulus Silvius, 5 a patre accepto imperio, regnat. Aventino fulmine ipse ictus regnum per mailus tradidit. -Is sepultus in eo colle, qui nunc pars Romanae est urbis, cognomen colli fecit. jvroca deinde regnat. - Is Numitorem atque Amulium procreat; Numitori, qui stirpis 10 maximus erat, regnum vetustum Silviae gentis legat. Plus tamen vis potuit quamr voluntas patris aut ~verecundia. aetatis; -pulso fratre Amulius regnat. Addit scel " scelus: stirpem fratris virilem interimit; fratriS fihia Reae Silviae per speclem honibris, 15 cum Vestalem eamrn legisset, perpetua virginitate spem partus adimit. JA-;:-... IV. Sed debebaturiut opinor, fatis tantae origo urbis maxilnique secun)3ium l.deorum opes imnperii principium. Vi compressa Vestalis cum geminum 20 partum edidisset, seu -ita rata, seu.quia deus auctor culpae honestior erat, Martem ine{t'a" stirpis,/patrern nuncupat, Sed nec dii nec homines aut ipsanm aut stirpem a crudelitate regia vindicant: sacerdos vinct a' in custodiam datur, pueros in profluentem aquanm 256mitti jubet.; Forte quadam divinitus!lper ripas iTiberis effusus lenibus stagnis nec adiri S'qita ad justi cursumn poterat amnis, et posse quanmvis la9guida mergi aqua, infantes s e ferentibus dabat. ta velut defuncti 30 regis imperio, in proxima eluvie, ubi nune ficus Ruminalis est (Romularem vocatain ferunt) pueros exponunt. — Vastae turn in his locis solitudilnes erant. Tenet fama, cum flRuitantem alveum`,' quo expositi erant pueri, teiqlis''in{sicco aqua destituisset, luparn 35 sitientem ex montibus, qui circa sunt, ad puerilem vag(itum cursum flexisse; ealm summissas infakntibus,adeo mitem praebuisse mammas, ut linguia lambentem pueros magister regii pecoris invenerit (Faustulo fuisse nomen ferunt), ab eo ad stabula Larentiae

Page  21 LIBER I, 4-5. 21 uxori educandos dato's Sunt qui Larentiamfvulgato corpore lupam inter pastores vocatam putent; inde loc.umr fabulae ac miraculo datum. Ita geniti itdaqu' educati, cum primum adolevit ~aetas, nee in stabdi'snec''ad pecora segnes, venando 5 peragrare saltus..ipc,robore corporibus aniiisque'Sumpto, jam non feras tantumn subsistere, sed in latrones praeda onudsos impetus facere, pastoribusque rapta dividere, et cum his, crescente in dies grege juvenum, seria ac jocos celebrare. 10 V. Jam tumrn in Palatio [monte] Lupercal hoc fuisse ludicrum ferunt, et a Pallanteo, urbe Arcadica, Pallantium, dein Palatium montem appellatum. Ibi Evandrum, qui ex eo genere Arcadum multis ante tempestatibus tenuerit loca, sollemne allatum ex 15 Arcadia instituisse, ut nudi juvenes Lycaeurn Pana venerantes per lusium atque lasciviam currerent, quem Romani deinde vocaverunt Inuum. z 1 Huic deditis ludicro, curm sollemne notum esset, insidiatos ob iramr praedae amissae latrones, cum 20 Romulus vi se defendisset, Remum cepisse, captum regi Amulio tradidisse ultro accusantes. Crimini maxime dabant in Numitoris agros ab iis impetum fieri; inde eos, collecta juvenum manu, hostilem in modumrn praedas agere. Sic ad supplicium Numitori 25 Remus deditur. Jam inde ab initio Faustulo spes fuerat, regiam stirpem, apud se educari': nam et expositos jussu regis infantes sciebat, et tempus, quo ipse eos sustulisset,. ad id ipsum congruere; sed rem inmaturam nisi aut 30 per occasionem aurt per necessitatem aperiri noluerat., Necessitas prior veiit; ita minetu subactus.'oinulo rem aperit. Forte et Nnrmitori, cum. in custodia Reinurn haberet audissetque genminos esse fratres, comparando et aetatem eorum et ipsam minime ser- 35 vilem indolem, tetigerat animum memoria nepotum; sciscitandoque eodem pervenit, ut haut procul esset, quin Remum agnosceret. Ita undique regi dolus nectitur. Romulus non

Page  22 22 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA cum globo juvenum (nec enim erat ad apertam vim par) sed aliis alio itinere jussis certo tenlpore ad regiam venire pastoribus, ad regem impetumr facit, et a domo Nunmitoris alia comparata manu adjuvat Remus. 5 Ita regem obtruncant.Y',', i; VI. Numitor inter primum tumultum hostis invasisse urbem atque adortos regiam dictitans, cum pubem Albanam in arcem praesidio artmisque obtinen-,da'm avocasset, postquam juvenes perpetrata caede 10 pergere ad se gratulantes vidit, extemplo advocato -coin-cili" —scelus in se fratris, originem nepotutn, ut geniti, ut educati, ut cogniti essent, caedern deinceps tyranni seque ejus auctorem ostendit. Juvenes per mediam contibonemdagmine ingressi cunl avum regem 15 salutassent, secuta ex omni multitudine conseutien yox ratum nomen imperiumque regi efficit.:-: - Ita Numitori Albana re permissa, Roniulum Remumque cupido cepit in iis locis, ubi expositi ubique educati erant, urbis condendae. Et supererat multi20 tudo Albanorum Latinorumque; ad id pastores quoque accesserant, qui'omnes facile spem facerent, parvam Albam, parvum Lavinium prae ea urbe, quae conderetur, fore. Intervenit deinde his cogitationibus avitum malum, regni cupido, atque inde 25 foedum certamen coortum a satis miti principio. Quoniam gemini essent nec aetatis verecundia discrimen facere posset, ut dii, quorum tutelae ea loca essent, auguriis legerent, qui nomen novae urbi daret, qui conditam imperio regeret, Palatium Romulus, Re30 mus Aventinum ad inaugurandurn templa capiunt. VII. Priori Remo augurium venisse fertur sex vultures; jamque nuntiato augurio cum duplex numerus Romulo sese ostendisset, utrumque regem sua multitudo consalutaverat: tempore illi praecepto, at 35 hi nutnero avium regnum trahebant. Inde curn altercatione congressi certamine irarum. ad caedem vertuntur; ibi in turba ictus Remus cecidit. Vulgatior fama est, ludibrio fratris Remull novos.transiluisse muros, inde ab irato Romulo, cum verbis quo

Page  23 LIBER I, 6-7. 23 que increpitans adjecisset "sic deinde, quicumque alius transiliet moenia mea! ", interfectum. Ita solus potitus imperio Romulus; condita urbs conditoris nomine appellata. Palatium primum, in quo ipse erat educatus, mu- 5 niit. Sacra diis aliis Albano ritu, Graeco Herculi, ut ab Evandro instituta erant, facit. Herculem in ea loca, Geryone interempto, boves mira specie abegisse memorant, ac prope Tiberim fluvium, qua prae se armentum agens nando trajecerat, loco herbido, ut 10 quiete et pabulo laetiore reficeret boves, et ipsum fessum via procubuisse. Ibi cum eum cibo vinoque gravatum sopor oppressisset, pastor accola ejus loci noinine Cacus, ferox viribus, captus pulchritudine bourn cum avertere eam praedam vellet, quia, si 15 agendo armentum in speluncam compulisset, ipsa vestigia quaerentern dominum eo deductura erant, aversos boves, eximium quemque pulchritudine, caudis in speluncam traxit. Hercules ad prirnam auroram somno excitus curn 20 gregem perlustrasset oculis et partem abesse numero sensisset, pergit ad proximam speluncam, si forte eo vestigia ferrent. Quae ubi omnia foras versa vidit nec in partem aliamn ferre, confusus atque incertus animi ex loco infesto agere porro armentum occepit. 25 Inde cum actae boves quaedam ad desiderium, ut fit, relictarum mugissen t, reddita inclusarum ex spelunca boum vox Herculem convertit. Quem cum ad speluncam vadentem Cacus vi prohibere conatus esset, ictus clava, fidem pastorum nequiquam invocans, 30 morte occubuit. Evander tum ea, profugus ex Peloponneso, auctoritate magis quam imperio regebat loca, venerabilis vir nmiraculo litterarum, rei novae inter rudes artium homines, venerabilior divinitate credita Carmentae 35 matris, quam fatiloquam ante Sibyllae in Italiam. adventum miratae eae gentes fuerant. Is turn Evander, concursu jastorum trepidantium- circa advenam manifestae reum caedis excitus, postquamn facinus

Page  24 24 TITI LIVI AB V-RBE CONDITA facinorisque causam audivit, habitum formamque viri aliquantum ampliorern augustioremnque humana intuens, rogitat, qui vir esset. Ubi nomen patremque ac patriamn accepit, " Jove nate, Hercules, salve" * inquit; "'te mihi mater, veridica interpres deum,:-, aucturum caelestium numerum cecinit, tibique aram hic dicatuml iri, quam opulentissima olim in terris gens.maximam vocet tuoque ritu colat." Dextra Hercules data accipere se omen inpleturumque fata 10 ara condita ac dicata ait. Ibi turn primurn, bove eximia capta de grege, sacruml Herculi, adhibitis ad ministerium dapemque Potitiis ac Pinariis, quae turn familiae maxime inclitae ea loca incolebant,-factum. Forte ita evenit, ut Potitii ad tempus praesto essent, 15 hisque exta apponerentur, Pinarii, extis adesis, ad ceteram venirent dapem. Inde institutum mansit, donec Pinarium genus fuit, ne extis sollemnium. vescerentur. Potitii ab Evandro edocti,'iantstites. sacri ejus per multas aetates fuerunt, donec:tradito 20 servis publicis sollemni familiae ministerio, genus omnne Potitiorum interiit. Haec tumn sacra Romulus una ex omnibus peregrina suscepit, jam tumrn inmortalitatis virtute partae, ad quam eum sua.fata ducebant, fautor. 25 VIII. Rebus divinis rite perpetratis, vocataque ad concilium multitudine, quae coalescere in'populi unius corpus nulla re praeter'iuain legibus poterat,: jura dedit; quae ita sancta generi hominum agresti fore ratus, si se ipse venerabilem insignibus imperil 30 fecisset, cum cetero habitu se augustiorem, turnm maxime lictoribus duodecim sumptis. fecit, Alii ab numero avium, quae augurio regnum portenderant, eum. secutum numerum putant; me haut paenitet eorum sententiae esse, quibus et apparitores hoc genus 35 ab Etruscis finitimis, unde sella curulis, unde toga praetexta sumpta est, et numerum quoque ipsum ductum placet, et ita habuisse Etruscos, quod ex duodecim populis- communiter creato rege Oingulos singuli populi lictores dederint.

Page  25 LIBER I, 8-9. 25 Crescebat interim urbs munitionibus.alia atque alia adpetendo loca, curn in spem ma'gis futurae multitudinis quamu ad id, quod turn hominum erat, munirent. Deinde, ne vana urbis magnitudo esset, adliciendae multitudinis causa, vetere consilio con- 5 dentium urbes, qui, obscuram atque humilem conciendo ad' se multitudinem, natam e terra sibi prolern ementiebantur, locum, qui nune saeptus: descendentibus inter duos lucos'est, asylum aperit. Eo ex finitimis populis turba omnis sine discrimine, liber an 10 servus esset, avida novarum rerum perfilgit, idque primium ad coeptam magnitudinem roboris fiuit. Cum jam virium haud paeniteret, consilium deinde viribus parat: centum creat senatores, sive quia is numerus satis erat, sive quia soli centum erant, qui 15 creari patres possent - patres certe ab honore, patriciique progenies eorum appellati. IX. Jam res Romana adeo erat valida, ut cuili- bet finitimarum civitatum bello par esset; sed pentri'i mulierum hominis aetatem duratura magnitudo erat, 20 quippe quibus nec domi spes prolis nec cutn finitimis conubia essent. Tum ex consilio patrum Romulus legatos circum vicinas gentes misit, qui societatem:J% conubiumque novo populo peterent: urbes quoque, ut cetera, ex infimno nasci; dein, quas sua virtus ac 25 dii juvent, magnas opes sibi magnumque nomen. facere; satis scire origini Romanae et deos adfuisse et non defuturam virtutem: proinde ne gravarentur?-. homines cum hominibus sanguineim ac genus iniscere.'-"' Nusquam benigne legatio audita est, adeo simul 30 spernebant, simul tantam in medio crescentem molem sibi ac posteris suis metuebant. A plerisque rogitantibus dimissi, ecquod feminisquoque asylum aperuissent: id enim deifuifi:'uoinpar conubiui fore. Aegre id i.Romana pubes passa, et haud dubie ad 35 vim sp'ectare res coepit. Cui tempus locumque aptum ut daret'Romulus, aegritudinem animi dissimulans ludos ex industrial?; parat Neptuno Equestri sollemnis; Consualia vocat.

Page  26 26 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA Indici deinde finitimis spectaculum jubet, quantoque apparatu turn sciebant aut poterant concelebrat, ut rein claram exspectatamque faceret. Multi mortales convenere, studio etiam videndae novae urbis, 5 maxime proximi quique, Caeninenses, Crustumini, Antemnates; etiaml Sabinorum ornnis multitudo culn; —liberis ac conjugibus venit. Invitati hospitaliter per domos cumn situm moeniaque et frequente'm tectis urbem vidissent, mirantur, tarn brevi rem Romanam 10.,crevisse. Ubi spectaculi tempus venit, deditaeque ieo mentes cum oculis erant, tum ex composito orta vis, signoque dato juventus Romana ad rapiendas virgines discurrit. Magna pars forte, in quem quaeque inciderat, raptae; quasdam forina excellentes 15 primoribus patrum destinatas ex plebe homines, quibus datum negotium erat, domnos deferebant. Unam longe ante alias specie ac pulehritudine insignem a globo Talassii cujusdam raptam ferunt, multisque sciscitantibus, cuinam eam ferrent, identidem, nie 20 quis violaret, Talassio ferri clamitatum; inde nuptialem bane vocem factam. Turbato per metum ludicro,:' maesti parentes virginum profugiunt, incusantes violati hospitii foedus deumque invocantes, cujus ad sollemne ludosque per fas ac fidern decepti venissent. 25 Nec raptis aut spes de se melior aut indignatio est minor. Sed ipse Romulus circumnibat docebatque, patrumr id superbia factum, qui conubium finitimis negassent; illas tamen in matrimonio, in societate fortunarum 30 ornnium civitatisque, et, quo nihil carius' hurnano generi sit,'liberuin fore;' mollirent modo iras, et, quibus fors corpora dedisset, darent animos; saepe ex injuria postmodum gratiam ortam; eoque melioribus usuras viris, quod adnisurus pro se -quisque sit, ut,.35 cum suam vicem functus officio sit, parentium etian patriaeque expleat desiderium. Accedebant blanditiae virorumn, factum.purgantium cupiditate'atque amnore, quae maxime ad' muliebre ingenium efficaces preces sunt.

Page  27 LIBER I, 10-11. 27 X. Jam admodum mitigati animi raptis erant. At raptarurn parentes tun Imaxime sordida veste lacrimisque et querellis civitates concitabant. Nec doxni tanltum indignationes continebant, sed congregabantur undique ad Titum Tatium, regem Sabino- 5 rum, et legationes eo, quod nfaximum Tatii nomen in iis regioiiibus erat, conveniebant. Caeuinenses Crustumlinique et Antemnates erant, ad quos ejus injuriae pars pertinebat. Lente agere his Tatius Sabinique visi sunt; ipsi inter se tres populiYc ommuniter bellurn 10 parant. Nec Crustumini quidem atque Anteninates pro ardore iraque Caeninensium satis se inpigre novent; ita per se ipsum nomen Caeninum in agrumn Romanunr impetti'fn'facit.' Setd effiisgevastantibus fit obvius curn exercitu Romulus, levique certamine 15 docet, vanam sine viribus iram esse. Exercitum fundit fugtqufusum persequitur; regem in proelio.... obtruncat et spoliat; duce hostium occiso urbemprimo impetu capit. Inde. exercitu victore reducto, ipse, cum factis vir 20 magnificus tumr factorum ostentator haut minor, spolia - ducis hostium caesi suspensa fabricato ad id.pte;-. ferculo gereniSi'll Capitoliuml' —escendit, ibique ea curnm ad quercum pastoribus sacram deposuisset, simul cum dono desigIia"vi't templo Jovis finis cognomenque ad- 25' didit deo. " Juppiter Feretri," inquit, "haec tibi victor Romulus rex regia arma fero, templumlque his regionibus, quas modo animQ metatus sumn, dedico, sedem opimnis spoliis, quae, regibus ducibusque hostium caesis, me auctorein sequentes posteri ferent." 30 Haec templi est origo, quod' primum omnium Romae sacraturn est. Ita deinde diis visutn, nec inritamn conditoris templi vocem esse, qua laturos eo spolia posteros nunculpavit, nec multitudine conpotumn ejus doni vulgari laudem. Bina postea, inter tot annos, 35 tot bella, opima parta sunt spolia: adeo rara ejus fbrtuna decoris fatit. XI. Dumn erailii Roimani gerunt, Antemnatium exercitus per occasionem ac solitudinem hostiliter. in

Page  28 28 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA fines Romanos incursionema facit; raptim et ad hos Roniana legio ducta palantes in agris oppressit. Fusi igitur primno inpetu et clainore hostes, oppidumn captum, dupliciquevictoria ovantem Rornulum Her5 silia conjunx precibus raptarum fatigata orat, ut parentibus earum det veniarn et in civitatern accipiat; ita rem coalescere concordia posse. Facile imnpetratum. Inde contra Crustuminos profectus bellum infe10 rentes. Ibi millus etiam, quod alienis cladibus ceciderant animi, certaminis fuit. Utroque coloniae nmissae; plures inventi, qui propter ubertatem terrae -:in Crustuminull nomina darent. Et Romam inde - firequenter migratum est, a parentibus maxime ac 15 propinquis raptarum. -Novissimumn ab Sabinis bellum ortum, multoque id maximum fuit: nihil enim per iram aut cupiditatem actum est, nec ostenderunt bellum prius quam intulerunt. Consilio etiam additus dolus. Spurius 20 Talpeius Romanae praeer'at.. arici. Hujus filiam virginem auro corruinpit Tatius, ut armatos in arcem ac-cipiat; - aquam forte ea tum sacris extra moenia petitum ierat.,,Accepti obrutam armis necavere, seu Ut vi capta pitlus arx videretur, seu prodendi exempli 25 causa, ne quid usquani fidum proditori: esset. Additur fabula, quo-d: vulgo Sabini aureas arcmillas nmagni ponderis brachio laevo gemnnatosque nmagna specie "anulos habuerint, pepigisse, eam quod i,,sinistris manibus baberent; eo scuta illi pro" a'ureis donis 30.congesta. Sunt qui eam, ex pacto traden'di quod in sinistris manibus haberent, derecto arma petisse dicant, et, fraude visam agere, sua ipsaln peelemptam mercede. XII. Tenuere tamen arcem Sabini; atque inde 35 postero die, cum Romanus exercitus instructus quod inter Palatinum Capitolinumque collem campi est complesset, non priaus;:descenderunt in aequum, quam, ira et cupidit-te recuperandae arcis stimulante animos, in adversum,ornani suaiiere. Principes utrim-.

Page  29 LIBER I. 12-13. - 29 que pugnam ciebant, ab Sabinis Mettius Curtius, ab Romanis Hostius Hostilius. Hic rein Romanam iniquo loco ad prima signa anitno atque audacia sustinebat. Ut Hostius cecidit, confestimn Romana inclinatur acies fusaque est. Ad vetereml portamrn 5 Palatii Romulus, et ipse turbi- fugientiumn actus, arma ad caelum tollkls, "Juppiter, tuis" inquit "jussus avibus hic in Palatio prima urbi fundamenta jeci.' Arcem jam scelere eriptame Sabini habent; inde huc armati sup-'ttainedia valle tendunt.. At 10 tu, pater deum hominumnque, hine saltem! arce li6stes derne terroreln Romanis fugamque foedamn siste. Hic ego tibi ternplum Statori Jovi, quod monumento sit posteris, tua praesenti ope servataml urbemn esse, voveo." Haec precatus, velut si sensisset auditas 15 preces, " hinc," iquit, " Romani, Juppiter optimus maximus resistere atque iterarieipugnam jubet." Restitere Romani. tamquam caelesti voce jussi; ipse ad primores Romulus provolat. Mettius Curtius ab Sabinis princeps ab arce decu- 20 currerat et effusos egerat Romanos toto quanturn foro spatium est; nec procul jam a porta Palatii erat, clamitans "vicimnus perfidos hospites, inbelles hostes; jam sciunt, longe aliud esse virgines rapere, aliud pugnare cum viris." In eum haec glohrialtem cum 25' globo ferocissimorum juvenum Romulus impeturn facit. Ex equo tumrn forte Mettius pugiabat; eo pelli facilius- fuit. Pulsum Romani persecuntur, et alia Romana acies audacia regis accensa fundit Sabinos. Mettius in. paludern sese, strepitu sequentium trepi- 30 dante equo, conjecit; averteratque ea res etiam. Sabinos tanti periculo viri. Et ille quidem, adnuentibus' ac vocantibus suis, favore multorum addito animo, evadit; Romani Sabinique in media convalle duorum montium redintegrant proeliuin; sed res Ro- 35 manna erat superior. XIII. Turn Sablinae mulieres, quarum ex injuria belluln ortum erat, crinibus passis scissaque veste, victo malis inuliebri pavore, ausae se inter tela

Page  30 30 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA volantia inferre, ex transverso impetu facto dirimere infestas acies, dirimere iras, hinc patres hinc viros orantes, ne sanguine se nefando soceri generique respergerent, ne parricidio maculareilt partus suos, 5 nepotum illi, hi liberum progeniem. j,"Si adfinitatis inter vos, si confubii piget, in nos vertite iras; nos causa belli, nos vulneruim ac caedium viris ac paren-tibus sumus; rnelius peribimus quarm sine alteris vestrumn viduae aut orbhae vivemus." 10 Movet res cutn multitudinem turn duces; silentium et repentina fit. quies; inde ad foedus faciendum duces prodeliint; nec pacem modo, sed civitatem unam ex duabus faciunt; regnum coinsociant, itnperium omne conferunt Romain.: Ita geminata urbe, 15 ut Sabinis tamen aliquid daretur, Quirites a Curibus appellati. Monumenturn ejus pugnae, ubi primuin ex profunda emersus palude equum Curtius in vado statuit, Curtium lacym appellarunt. Ex bello tam tristl laeta repente pax cariores Sa20 binas viris ac parentibus et ante omnes Romulo ipsi fecit. Itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nornlna earum curiis inposuit. Id non traditur, cum haut: dubie aliquanito numerus major hoc mulierum fiuerit, aetate an dignitatibus suis virorumrve an 25 sorte le'tae sint, quae nomina curiis darent. Eodem tempore et centuriae tres equitum conscriptae sunt: Ramnenses ab Romulo, ab T. Tatio Titienses appellati; Lucerurn nominis et originis causa incerta est. Inde non modo commune, sed 30 concors etiamn regnum duobus regibus fuit. X1V. Post aliquot annos propinqui regis Tatii legatos Laurentium pulsant; cumque Laurentes jure gentium agerent, apud Tatium gratia suorum etpreces plus poterant. Igitur illorum poenam in se 35 vertit: narn,Lavini, cum ad sollemne sacrificium eo venisset, concursu facto interficitur. Earn rem minus aegre quam dignum erat tulisse Romulum ferunt, seu ob infidam societatem regni, seu quia haut injuria caesum credebat. Itaque bello quidem abstinuit;

Page  31 LIBER I, 14-15. 31 ut tamlen expiarentur legatorum injuriae regisque caedes, foedus inter, Roinam Laviniumque urbes renovatum est. Et curn his quidem insperata pax erat: aliud multo propius atque, in ipsis prope portis bellurn 5 ortum. Fidenates inimis vicinas prope se convales-. cere opes rati, priusquam tantum roboris esset, quan — tum futurum apparebat occupant bellurn facere.' Juventute armata imnlii/g:, "astatur agri quod inter urbem ac Fidenas est; inde ad laevama versi, quia 10 dextra Tiberis arcebat, icum magna. trepidatione agrestium popula;ntur tumultusque repens ex agris in urbem inlatus pro nuihtio fuit. Excitus Romulus, (neque enim dilationem pati tam vicinum bellum poterat,) exercitumn educit, castra a Fidenis mille 15 passuum locat. Ibi modico praesidio relicto, egressus omnibus copiis partein militum locis circa- densa ob3ita virgulta obscuris subsidere in insidiis jussit; cum parte majore atque omnii equitatu profectus, id quod quaerebat, tumultuoso et minaci genere pugnae, 20 adequitando ipsis prope portis, hostem excivit. Fugae quoque, quae simulanda erat, eadem equestris pugna causam minus mirabilem dedit. Et cum, velut inter pugnae fugaeque consilium trepidante equitatu, pedes quoque referret gradum, plenis repente portis effusi 25 hostes, inpulsa Romana' acie; studio instandi sequendique trahuntur ad locuin insidiarum. IJde subito exorti Romani transversam invadunt hostium aciem. Addunt pavorem mota castris signa eorum, qui in praesidio relicti fuerant. Ita multiplici terrore per- 30 culsi Fidenates, prius paene quam Romulus, quique cum eo visi erant, circumagerent frenis equos, terga vertunt; multoque effusius,. quippe vera fuga., qui simulantes paulo ante secuti erant, oppidum repetebant. Non tamen eripuere se hosti: haerens in tergo 35 Romanus, priusquam fores portarum obicerentur, velut.agmine uno inrurnpit.'.,. XV. Belli Fidenatis contagione inritati Veientium animi et consanguinitate, (nam Fidenates quo

Page  32 32 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA que Etrusci fuerunt,) et quod ipsa propinquitas loci, si Romnana arma omnibus infes-ta finitimis essent, stimulabat. In fines RIomanos excucurrerunt populal.: bundi inagis quamx justi nmore belli. Itaque non 5 castris positis, non exspectato hostiunm exercitu, raptam ex agris praedaln portantes Veios rediere. Romafius contra, postquain hostem in agris non in venit, dimicationi ultiznae instructus intentusque Tiberiri transit. Quemn postquain castra ponere et 10 ad urbein accessurumn Veientes audivere, obviam egressi, at potius acie decernerent, quam inclusi de tectis moeniibusque dirmicarent. Ibi viribus nulla arte adjutis, tantum veterani robore exercitus rex Romanus vicit, persecutusque fusos ad iloenia hostes 15 urbe valida rauris ac situ ipso munita abstinuit; agros rediens vastat, ulcisceidi' magis quanl praedae studo: eaque clade haut minus quam adversa pugna subacti, Veientes pacem petitum oratores Romam. mittunt. Agri parte multatis in centum annos in20 dut~iae datae. Haec' ferme IRomulo regnante domi militiaeqiue gesta, quorum nihil absonuin fidei divinae originis divirnitatisque post mortemn creditae fuit,-.non animus in regno avito recuperando, non condendae urbis 25 co;nsilium, non bello ac pace firmandae. Ab illo eniiimn profecto viribus datis tantumn, v,'I-lbit, ut in quadraginta deinde annos tutam pacenm haberet. Multitudini tamen gratior fuiit quam patribus, longe ante -aliios acceptissirnus militum aninlis: trecentosque 30 armatos ad custodian corporis, quos Celeres appellavit, non in bello solurn, sed etiam in pace habuit. XVI. His inmoirrtalibus editis o'peribus, cum ad exercitumi recenisenium contionem' ii campo ad Caprae.paludein haberet, subito coo(t'a ternpestas 35 cunm maglno firagre tonitribusque tam denso regem'operuit nimbo, ut consp)ectum ejus contioni abstulerit; nec deinde in terris Rornulus fuit. Romana pubes, sedato tandem' pavore, postquam ex tam turbido die serena et tranquilla lux rediit, ubi vacuam sedem

Page  33 LIBER I, 16-17. 33 regiam vidit, etsi satis credebat patribus, qui proxumi,steterant, sublirnem raptumr, procella, tanmen velut orbitatis metu ictfiahaestuim aliquamdiu silentium obtinuit. iDeinde, a paucis initio facto, deum deo natum, regem parentemque urbis Romanae salvere 5 universi Romulum jubent; pacem precibus exposcunt, uti volens propitius suam semper sospitet" progeniem. Fuisse credo tumrn quoque aliquos, qui discerptum regem patrum manibus taciti arguer'nt' manavit enim haec quoque, sed perobsc"iiirafama; illam alte- 10 ram admiratio viri.et pavor praesens nobilitavit. Et consilio etiam unius hominis addita rei dicitur fides. Namque Proculus Julius, sollicita civitate desiderio regis et infensa patribus, gravis, ut traditur, quarmvis magnae rei' auctor, in contionem' prodit. 15 "Romulus," inquit, "Quirites, parens urbis hujus, prima hodierna luce caelo repente delapsus se mihi obvium dedit. Cum' perfusus horrore venerabundus adstitissem, petens precibus, ut contra intueri fas esset:'abi, nuntia,' inquit,'Romanis, caelestes ita 20 velle, ut mea Roma caput orbis terrarum sit; proinde rem militarem colant, sciantque et ita posteris tradant, nullas opes humanas armis Romanis resistere posse.' Haec" inquit "locutus sublimis-abiit." Mirum quantum illi viro nuntianti haec fidei fuerit, 25 quamque desiderium Romuli apud plebem exercitumque facta fide inmortalitatis lenitum sit. XVII. Patrium interim animos certamen regni ac cupido versabat; necdum ad singulos, quia nemo magnopere eminebat in novo populo, pervenerat; 30 factionibus inter ordines- certabatur. Oriundi ab Sabinis, ne, quia post Tati mortem ab sua parte non erat regnatum, in societate aequa possessionem imperil amitterent, sui corporis creari regem volebant; Rormani veteres peregrinum regem aspernabantur. 35 In variis voluntatibus regnari tamen omnes volebant, libertatis dulcedine nondum experta. Timor deinde patrep incessit, ne civitatem sine imperio, exercitum sine duce, multarum circa civitatium inritatis animis, 8 - Livy.

Page  34 34 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA vis aliqua externa adoriretur. Et esse igitur aliquod caput placebat, et nemo alteri concedere in animum inducebat. Ita rem inter se centum patres, decem decuriis 5 factis, singulisque in singulas decurias creatis, qui summae rerum praeessent, consociant. IDecem imperitabant, unus cum insignibus imperii et lictoribus erat; quinque dierum spatio finiebatur imperium, ac per omnes in orbem ibat; annuumque intervallum 10 regni fuit. Id ab re, quod nunc quoque tenet nomen, interregnum appellatum. Fremere. deinde plebs: multiplicatam servitutem, centum pro uno dominos factos; nec ultra nisi regem, et ab ipsis creatum videbantur passuri. Cume sensis15 sent ea moveri patres, offerendum ultro rati quod amissuri erant, ita gratiam ineunt summa potestate populo permissa, ut non plus darent juris quam detinerent. Decreverunt enim, ut, cum populus regem jussisset, id sic ratum esset, si patres auctores fierent. 20 Hodie quoque in legibus nmagistratibusque rogandis usurpatur idem jus, vi adempta: priusquam populus suffragium ineat, in incertum comitiorum eventum patres auctores fiunt. Tumr interrex, contione advocata, "quod bonum 25 faustumfelixque sit," inquit, " Quirites, regem create: ita. patribus visum est. Patres deinde, si dignum, qui secundus ab Romulo numeretur, crearitis, auctores fient." Adeo id gratum plebi fuit, ut, ne victi beneficio viderentur, id modo sciscerent juberentque, 30 ut senatus decerneret, qui Romae regnaret. - XVIII. Inclita justitia religioque ea tempestate Numae Pompili erat. Curibus Sabinis habitabat, consultissimus vir, ut in illa quisquam esse aetate poterat, omnis divini atque humani juris. Auctorem -35 doctrinae ejus, quia non extat alius, falso Samium Pythagoram edunt, quem, Servio Tullio regnante Romae,.centum amplius post annos, in ultima Italiae ora circa Metapontum Heracleamque et Crotonem juvenum aemulantium studia coetus habuisse constat,

Page  35 LIBER I, 18-19. 35 Ex quibus locis, etsi ejusdem aetatis fuisset, quae fama in Sabinos? aut quo linguae commercio quemquam ad cupiditatem discendi excivisset? quove praesidio unus per tot gentes dissonas sermone moribusque pervenisset? Suopte igitur ingenio temperatum ani- 5 mum virtutibus fuisse opinor magis, instructumque non tam peregrinis artibus, quam disciplina tetrica ac tristi veterum Sabinorum, quo genere nullum quondam incorruptius fuit. Audito nomine Numae patres Romani, quamquam 10 inclinari opes ad Sabinos rege inde sumpto videbantur, tamen neque se quisquam nec factionis suae alium nec denique patrum aut civium quemquam praeferre illi viro ausi, ad unum omnes Numae Pompilio regnum deferendum decernunt. Accitus, 15 sicut Romulus augurato urbe condenda regnum adeptus est, de se quoque deos consuli jussit. Inde ab augure, cui deinde honoris ergo publicum id perpetuumque sacerdotium fuit, deductus in arcem, in lapide ad meridiem versus consedit. Augur ad 20 laevam ejus capite velato sedem cepit, dextra manu baculum sine nodo aduncum tenens, quem lituum appellarunt. Inde ubi, prospecti in urbem agrumque capto, deos precatus regiones ab oriente ad occasum determinavit, dextras ad meridiem partes, laevas 25 ad septemtrionem esse dixit; signum contra, quoad longissime conspectum oculi ferebant, animo finivit; turn, lituo in laevam malium translato, dextra in caput Numae imposita, precatus ita est: "Juppiter pater, si est fas hune Numam Pompilium, cujus ego 30 caput teneo, regem Romae esse, uti tu signa nobis certa adelarassis inter eos fines, quos feci." Turn peregit verbis auspicia, quae mitti vellet; quibus missis declaratus rex Numa de templo descendit. XIX. Qui regno ita potitus urbemrn novamn, condi- 35 tam vi et armis, jure earn legibusque ac moribus de integro condere parat. Quibus cum inter bella adsuescere videret non posse, (quippe efferari militia animos,) mitigandum ferocem populum armorum de

Page  36 36 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA suetudine ratus, Janum ad infimum Argiletum indicem pacis bellique fecit, apertus ut in armis esse civitatem, clausus pacatos circa omnes populos significaret. Bis deinde post Numae regnum clausus fuit, 5.semel T. Manlio consule post Punicum prirnum perfectum bellum, iterum, quod nostrae aetati dii dederunt ut videremrus, post bellum Actiacum, ab imperatore Caesare Augusto pace terra marique parta. Clauso eo, cumr omnium circa finitimorum societate 10 ac foederibus junxisset animos, positis externorura periculorum curis ne luxuriarent otio animi, quos metus hostium disciplinaque militaris continuerat,.omnium primum remn ad multitudinem inperitam et illis saeculis rudem efficacissimam, deorum meturn 15 iniciendum ratus est. Qui cum descendere ad animos sine aliquo conmento miraculi non posset, simulat sibi cum dea Egeria congressus nocturnos esse; ejus se. monitu, quae acceptissima diis essent, sacra instituere, sacerdotes suos cuique deorum praeficere. *20 Atque omnium primum ad cursus lunae in duodecim menses describit annum, quem, quia tricenos dies singulis mensibus- luna non explet desuntque dies solido anno, qui solstitiali circumlagitur orbe, intercalariis mensibus interponendis ita dispensavit,.25 ut vicesimo anno ad metam eandem solis, unde orsi essent, plenis omnium annorum spatiis dies congruerent. Idern nefastos dies fastosque fecit, quia aliquando nihil cum populo agi utile futurum erat. XX. Tum sacerdotibus creandis animum adjecit, 30 quamquam ipse plurima sacra obibat, ea maxime quae nunc ad Dialem flaminem pertinent. Sed quia in civitate bellicosa plures Romuli quam Nuinae similes reges putabat fore, iturosque ipsos ad bella, ne sacra regiae vicis desererentur, flaminem Jovi 35 adsiduum sacerdotem creavit, insignique eum veste et curuli regia sella adornavit. Huic duos flamines adjecit, Marti unum, alterum Quirino; virginesque Vestae legit, Alba oriundum sacerdotium et genti conditoris haud alienum. Iis, ut adsiduae temp-li

Page  37 LIBER i, 20-21. 37 antistites essent, stipendiumr de publico statuit, virginitate aliisque caerimoniis venerabiles ac sanctas fecit. Salios item duodecim Marti Gradivo legit, tunicaeque pictae insigne dedit et super tunicam aeneum 5 pectori tegumen; caelestiaque arma, quae ancilia appellantur, ferre ac per urbem ire canentes carmina cum tripudiis sollemnique saltatu jussit. Pontificem deinde Numam Marcium, Marci filium, ex patribus legit, eique sacra omnia exscripta ex- 10 signataque attribuit, quibus hostiis, quibus diebus, ad quae templa sacra fierent, atque unde in eos sumptus pecunia erogaretur. Cetera quoque omnia publica privataque sacra pontificis scitis subjecit, ut esset, quo consultum. plebes veniret, ne quid divini juris 15 neglegendo patrios ritus peregrinosque adsciscendo turbaretur; nec Caelestes modo caerimonias, sed justa quoque funebria placandosque manes'ut idem pontifex edoceret, quaeque prodigia fulminibus aliove quo visu missa susciperentur atque curarentur. Ad ea 20 elicienda ex mentibus divinis Jovi Elicio aram in Aventino dicavit, deumque consuluit auguriis, quae suscipienda essent. XXI. Ad haec consultanda procurandaque multitudine omni a vi et armis conversa, et animi aliquid 25 agendo occupati erant, et deorum assidua insidens cura, cum interesse rebus humanis caeleste numen videretur, ea pietate omnium pectora imbuerat, ut fides ac jusjurandum proximo legum ac poenarum metu civitatem regerent. Et cum ipsi se homines in 30 regis, velut unici exempli, mores formarent, turn finitumi etiam populi, qui antea castra, non urbemn positam in. medio ad sollicitandam omnium pacem crediderant, in eamrn verecundiam adducti sunt, ut civitatem totam in cultumr versamr deorum violare 35 ducerent nefas. Lucus erat, quem medium ex opaco sp'ecu fons perenni rigabat aqua: quo quia se persaepe Numa sine arbitris velut ad congressum deae inferebat, Camenis

Page  38 38 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA eum lucum sacravit, quod earum ibi concilia cum conjuge sua Egeria essent. Et soli Fidei sollemne instituit. Ad id sacrarium flamines bigis curru arcuato vehi jussit, manuque ad digitos usque invo5 luta rem divinam facere, significantes, fidemn tutandam, sedemque ejus etiam in dextris sacratarn esse. Multa alia sacrificia locaque sacris faciendis, quae Argeos pontifices vocant, dedicavit. Omnnium tarnen maximum ejus operum fuit tutela per omne regni 10 tempus haud minor pacis quam regni. Ita duo deinceps reges, alius alia via, ille bello hic pace, civitatem auxerunt; Romulus septem et triginta regnavit annos, Numa tres et quadraginta. Cum valida turn temperata et belli et pacis artibus 15 erat civitas. XXII. Numae morte ad interregnum res rediit. Inde Tullum Hostilium, nepotem Hostili, cujus in infima arce clara pugna adversus Sabinos fuerat, regem populus jussit; patres auctores facti. Hic non1 20 solurn proximo regi dissimilis, sed ferocior etiam, quam Romulus foit. Cum aetas viresque tum avita quoque gloria anirnum stimulabat. Senescere igitur civitatem otio ratus undique materiam excitandi belli quaerebat. 25 Forte evenit, ut agrestes Romani ex Albano agro, Albani ex Romano praedas invicem agerent. Imperitabat tum Gaius Cluilius Albae. Utrimque legati fere sub idem teinpus ad res repetendas missi. Tullus praeceperat suis, ne quid prius quam mandata age30 rent; satis sciebat, negaturum Albanum: ita pie bellum indici posse. Ab Albanis socordius res acta; excepti hospitio ab Tullo blande ac benigne, comi fronte regis convivium celebrant. Tantisper Romani et res repetiverant priores et neganti Albano bellum 35 in tricesimumn diem indixerant. H[aec renuntiant Tullo. Tum legatis Tullus dicendi potestatem, quid petentes venerint, fecit. Illi omnium ignari primum purgando terunt tempus: se invitos quicquam, quod

Page  39 LIBER I, 22-23. 39 minus placeat Tullo, dicturos, sed imperio subigi: res repetitum se venisse, ni reddantur, bellum indicere jussos. Ad haec Tullus "nuntiate" inquit "regi vestro, regem Romanurn deos facere testes, uter prius populus res repetentes legatos aspernatus 5 dimiserit, ut in eurn omnes expetant hujusce clades belli." XXIII. Haec nuntiant domum Albani. Et bellum utrimque summa ope parabatur, civili simillimum bello, prope inter parentes natosque, Trojanaml 10 utramque prolem, cum Lavinium ab Troja, ab Lavinio Alba, ab Albanorum stirpe regum oriundi Romani essent. Eventus tamen belli minus miserabilem dimicationem fecit, quod nec acie certatum est, et, tectis modo dirutis alterius urbis, duo populi in unum 15 confusi sunt. Albani priores ingenti exercitu in agrum Romanum impetum fecere. Castra ab urbe t/' haud plus quinque milia passuum'locant, fossa circumdant: fossa Cluilia ab nomine ducis per aliquot saecula appellata est, donec cum re nomen quoque vetus- 20 tate abolevit. In his castris Cluilius, Albanus rex, moritur, dictatorem Albani Mettium Fufetium creant. Interim Tullus, ferox praecipue morte regis, magnumque deoruim numen, ab ipso capite orsum, in omne nomen Albanum expetiturum poenas ob bellurn 25 impium dictitans, nocte praeteritis hostium castris, infesto exercitu in agrum Albanum pergit. Ea res ab stativis excivit Mettium. Ducit quam proxume ad hostem potest. Inde legatum praemissum nuntiare Tullo jubet, priusquam dimicent, opus esse colloquio; 30 si secum congressus sit, satis scire, ea se allaturum, quae nihilo minus ad rem IRomanam quam ad Albanam pertineant. Haud aspernatus Tullus, tametsi vana adferri rebatur, in aciem educit. Exeunt contra et Albani:' 35 Postquam instructi utrimque stabant, cum paucis procerum in medium duces prodeunt. Ibi infit Albanus: "injurias et non redditas res, ex foedere quae repetitae sint, et ego regem-nostrum Cluilium causam

Page  40 4Q TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA hujusce esse belli audisse videor, nec te dubito, Tulle, eademr prae te ferre: sed si vera potius quam dictu speciosa dicenda sunt, cupido imperii duos cognatos vicinosque populos ad arma stimulat. Neque recte 5 anperperam interpretor; fuerit ista ejus deliberatio, qui bellum suscepit. Me Albani gerendo bello ducem creavere. Illud.te, Tulle, monitum velimr: Etrusca res quanta circa nos, teque maxime, sit, quo propior es Tuscis, hoc magis scis. Multum illi terra, pluri10 mum mari pollent. Memor esto, jamn cum. signurn pugnae dabis, has duas acies spectaculo fore, ut fessos confectosque simul victoremn ac victum adgrediantur. itaque si nos di amant, quoniain non contenti libertate certa in dubiam imperii servitiique aleam imus, 15 ineamus aliquam viam, qua, utri utris imperent; sine magna clade, sine multo sanguine utriusque populi decerni possit." Haud displicet res Tullo, quamquam. cum indole animi tum spe victoriae ferocior erat. Quaerentibus utrimque ratio initur, cui et 20 fortuna ipsa praebuit materiam. XXIV. Forte in duobus tum exercitibus erant igemini fratresj nec aetate nec viribus dispares: iolraftios Curiatiosque fuisse satis constat, nec ferme res antiqua alia est nobilior; tamen in re tam clara 25 nominum error manet, utrius popui Horatii, utrius Curiatii fuerint. Auctores utroqie trahunt: plures tamen invenio, qui Romanos Horatios vocent; hos ut sequar, inclinat animus. jgCum trigeminis agunt regesj ut pro sua quisque 30 patria dimicent ferro: ibi umperium fore, unde victoria fuerit. Nihil recugi&tui:; tempus et locus convenit. Priusquam dimicarent, foehdus ictum inter Romanos et Albanos est his legit-isi, uit, cujus populi cives eo certamine vicissent, is alteri populo cum 35 bona pace imperitaret. - Foedera alia aliis legibus, ceterum eodemr modo omnia fiunt. Tum ita factum accepimus, nec ullius vetustior foederis memoria est: fetialis regem Tullum ita rogavit: "jubesne me, rex, cum patre patrato

Page  41 LIBER I, 124-25. 41 populi Albani foedus ferire?" jubente rege, "sag-\ti mina" inquit "te, rex, posco;" rex ait, " puram tollito;" fetialis ex arce graminis herbam puram at- j1 tulit;)postea regem ita rogavit: "rex, facisne me tu regiuinpuntium populi Romani Quiritiumn vasa 5 comitesque meos?" rex iespondit: "quod sine fraude mea populique Romani Quiritium fiat, facio." Fetialis erat M. Valerius; is patrem patratum Spurium Fusium fecit, verbena caput, capillosque tangens. Pater patratus ad jus juranium patrandum, id est 10 sancienidum fit -foedus; multisque id verbis, quae longo effata carinle non operae est referre; peragit. Legibus deinde recitatis, " audi," inquit, "Juppiter,' audi, pater patrate populi Albanij audi tu, popullus Albanus: ut illa palam prima postrema ex illis 15 tabulis ceAVe recitata sunt sine dolo mal-o, utique ea hic hodie rectissime intellecta sunt, illis legibus populus Romranus prior non deficiet. Si prior defexit publico consilio dolo malo, turn illo die, Juppiter, populum Romanulr sic ferito, -ut ego hunc -porculn 20 hic hodie feriam, tantoque magis ferito, quanto magis — i:'. potes pollesque.''-;id ubi dixit, porcum saxo silice percussit. Sua item carmina Albani suumque jus jurandum per suum dictatoremr suosque sacerdotes peregerunt. -25 XXV. Foedere icto, trigemini sicut convenerat arma capiunt. Cum/ gl'i utrsb'sque adhortarentur, deos patrios, patriam ac parentes, quidquid civium domi, quidquid in exercitu sit, illorum tune arma,. illorum intueri manus, feroces et suopte ingenio et 30 pleni adhortantium vocibus, in medium inter duas acies procedunt. Consederant. utrimque pro castris duo exercitus, periculi magis praesentis quam curae.expertes; quippe imperium agebatur, in tam paucorum virtute atque fortuna positum. Itaque ergo 35 etecti suspensique in minime gratumn spectaculum animo intenduntur. Datur signum, infestisque- armis; velut acies, terni juvenes, magnorum exercituum animos gerentes, con

Page  42 42 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA currunt. Nec his nec illis periculum suum, —publicum imperium servitiumque obversatur animo, futuraque ea deinde patriae fortuna,.quam ipsi fecissent. - Ut primo statim concursu increpuere arma mican5 tesque fulsere gladii, horror ingens spectantis perstringit, et neutro inclinata spe torpebat vox spiri-.tusque. Consertis deinde manibus, cum jam non motus tantum corporum agitatioque anceps telorurn armorumque, sed vulnera quoque et sanguis specta10 culo essent, duo Romani super alium alius, vulneratis tribus Albanis, exspirantes corruerunt. Ad quorum casum cum conclamasset gaudio Albanus exercitus, Romanas legiones jam spes tota, nonadum tamen cura deseruerat, exanimes vice unius, 15 quem tres Curiatii circumsteterant. Forte is integer fuit, ut universis solus nequaquam par, sic adversus singulos ferox. Ergo ut segregaret pugnam eorum,.capessit fugam, ita ratus secuturos, ut quemque vulnere adfectum corpus sineret. Jam aliquantum 20 spatii ex eo loco, ubi pugnaturm est, aufugerat, cum respiciens videt magnis intervallis sequentes, unum haut procul ab sese abesse. In eum magno irnpetu rediit; et dum Albanus exercitus inclamat Curiatiis, uti opem ferant fratri, jam Horatius, caeso hoste vic25 tor, secundam pugnam petebat. /! Tune clamore, qualis ex insperato faventium solet,:Romani adjuvant militem suum, et ille defungi proelio festinat. Prius itaque quam alter, qui nec procul aberat, consequi posset, et alterum Curiatium 30 conficit. Jaimque aequato Marte singuli supererant, sed nec spe nec viribus pares. Alterum intactum ferro corpus et geminata victoria ferocem in certamen tertium dabat; alter, fessum vulnere, fessum cursu trahens corpus, victusque fratrum ante se 35 strage, victori obicitur hosti. Nec illud proelium fuit. Romanus exsultans "duos" inquit "fratrum manibus dedi, tertium causae belli hujusce, ut Romanlus Albano imperet, dabo." Male sustinenti arma gladium superne jugulo defigit, jacentem spoliat.

Page  43 LIBER I, 26. 43 Romani ovantes ac gratulantes Horatium accipiunt eo majore cum gaudio, quo prope metumn res fuerat. Ad sepulturam inde suorum nequaquam paribus i! animis vertuntur, quippe imperio alteri aucti, alteri dicionis alienae facti. Sepulcra extant quo quisque 5 loco cecidit, duo Romana uno loco propius Albam, tria Albana Romam versus, sed distantia locis, ut et pugnatume est. XXVI. Priusquamn inde digrederentur, roganti Mettio, ex foedere icto quid imperaret, imperat Tul- 10 lus; uti juventutem in armis habeat; usurum se eorum opera, si bellum cum Veientibus foret. Ita exercitus inde donlos abducti. Princeps Horatius ibat, trigernina spolia prae se gerens; cui soror virgo, quae desponsa uni ex Curiatiis fuerat, obvia ante portamn 15 Capenam fuit, cognitoque super umeros fratris paludamento sponsi, quod ipsa confecerat, solvit crines et flebiliter nomine sponsum mortuum appellat. Movet feroci juveni animum conploratio sororis in victoria sua tantoque gaudio publico. Stricto itaque gladio, 20 simul verbis increpans, transfigit puellam. "Abi hinc'cum inmaturo amore ad sponsum," inquit, "oblita fratrum morituorum vivique, oblita patriae.'Sic eat, quaecumque Romana lugebit hostem." Atrox visum id facinus patribus plebique, sed 25 recens meritum facto obstabat. Tamen raptus in jus ad regem. Rex, ne ipse tam tristis ingratique ad vulgus judicii ac secundum judicium supplicii auctor esset, concilio populi advocato, "duumviros," inquit, "qui Horatio perduellionem judicent, secundum 30 legem facio." Lex horrendi carminis erat: "duumviri perduellionern judicent; si a duumviris provocarit, provocatione certato; si vincent, caput obnubito, infelici arbori reste suspendito, verberato vel intra pomerium 35 vel extra pomerium." Hace lege duumviri creati, qui se absolvere non rebantur ea lege ne innoxium quidem posse, cum condemnassent, turn alter ex his "Publi Horati, tibi perduellionem judico" inquit.

Page  44 44 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA " Lictor, conliga manus." Accesserat lictor iniciebatque laqueum. Tum Horatius, auctore Tullo, clemente legis interprete, "provoco" inquit. Itaque provocatione certatum ad populum est. 5 Moti. homines sunt in eo judicio maxime Publio Horatio patre proclamante, se filiam jure caesam judicare; ni ita esset, patrio jure in filium animadversurum fuisse. Orabat deinde, ne se, quem paulo ante cum egregia stirpe conspexissent, orbum liberis 10 facerent. —nter haec senex juvenern amplexus, spolia Curiatiorum fixa eo loco, qui nunc. pila Horatia appellatur, ostentans, " huncine," aiebat, " quem modo decoratum ovantemque victoria incedentem vidistis, Quirites, eum sub furca vinctum inter verbera et 15 cruciatus videre potestis? quod vix Albanorum oculi tam deforme spectaculum ferre possent. I, lictor, conliga.manus, quae paulo ante armatae imperium populo Romano pepererunt, i, caput obnube liberatoris urbis hujus, arbore infelici suspende, verbera 20 vel intra pomerium, modo inter illa pila -et spolia hostium, vel extra pomerium, modo inter sepulcra Curiatiorum. Quo enim ducere hunc juvenemn potestis, ubi non sua decora eum a tanta foeditate supplicii vindicent?" 25 Non tulit populus nec patris lacrimas nec ipsius parem in omni periculo anilnum;- absolveruntque, admiratione magis virtutis quam j ure causae. Itaque, ut caedes manifesta aliquo tamen piaculo lueretur, imperatum patri, ut filiumn-expiaret pecunia publica. 30 Is, quibusdam piacularibus sacrificiis factis, quae deinde genti Horatiae tradita sunt, transmisso per viain tigillo, capite adoperto velut sub jugurn misit juvenem. Id hodie quoque publice semper refectum *manet: sororium tigillurn vocant. Horatiae, sepul35 crum, quo loco corruerat icta, constructum est saxo quadrato.. XXVII. Nec diu -pax. Albana mansit.: Invidia vulgi, quod tribus militibus fortuna publica conmissa fuerat, vanum ingenium dictatoris corrupit, et, quo

Page  45 LIBER I, 27. 45 niam recta consilia haut bene evenerant, pravis reconciliare popularium a/nimos coepit. Igitur ut prius in bello pacem, sic in pace bellum quaerens, quia suae civitati animorum plus quam virium cernebat esse, ad bellum palam atque ex edicto gerundum 5 alios concitat populos, suis per speciem societatis proditionem reservat. Fidenates, colonia Romana, Veientibus sociis consilii adsumptis; pacto transitionis Albanorum ad bellum atque arma incitantur. Cum Fidenae aperte descissent, Tullus, Mettio 10 exercituque ejus ab Alba accito, contra hostes ducit. Ubi Anienem transiit, ad confluentis collocat castra. Inter eum locum et Fidenas Veientium exercitus Tiberim transierat. Hi et in acie prope flumen tenuere dextrum cornu; in sinistro Fidenates propius 15 montes consistunt. Tullus adversus Veientem hostem derigit suos; Albanos contra legionem Fidenatium conlocat. Albano non plus animi erat quam fidei. Nec manere ergo nec transire aperte ausus sensim ad montes succedit; inde, ubi satis subisse sese ratus est; 20 erigit totam aciem, fluctuansque animo, ut tereret tempus, ordines explicat. Consilium erat, qua fortuna rem daret, ea -inclinare vires. Miraculo primo esse Romanis, qui proxumi steterant, ut nudari latera sua sociorum digressu senserunt; inde eques citato 25 equo nuntiat regi, abire Albanos. Tullus in re trepida duodecim vovit Salios, fanaque Pallori ac Pavori. Equitem clara increpans voce, ut hostes exaudirent, redire in proelium jubet; nihil trepidatione opus esse; suo jussu circumduci Albanum exercitum-, 30 ut' Fidenatium nuda terga invadant; item imperat, ut hastas equites erigerent. Id factum mnagnae parti peditum Romanorum conspectum abeuntis Albani exercitus intersaepsit; qui viderant, id quod ab rege auditum erat rati, eo acrius pugnant. 35 Terror ad hostes transit: et audiverant clara voce dictum, et magna pars Fidenatium, ut qui coloni additi -Romanis essent, Latine sciebant. Itaque, ne subito ex collibus decursu'Albanorum interclude

Page  46 46 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA rentur ab oppido, terga vertunt. Instat Tullus, fusoque Fidenatium cornu in Veientem alieno pavore perculsum ferocior redit. Nec illi tulere impetum, sed ab effusa fuga flumen objectum ab tergo arcebat. 5 Quo postquam fuga inclinavit, alii arma foede jactantes in aquam caeci ruebant, alii, dum cunctantur in ripis, inter fugae pugnaeque consilium obpressi. Non alia ante Romana pugna atrocior fuit. XXVIII. Tumrn Albanus exercitus, spectator cer10 taminis, deductus in campos. Mettius Tullo devictos hostes gratulatur, contra Tullus Mettium benigne adloquitur. Quod bene vertat, castra Albanos Romanis castris jungere jubet, sacrificium lustrale in diem posterum parat. Ubi inluxit, paratis omnibus, 15 ut adsolet, vocari ad contionem utrumque exercitum jubet. Praecones, ab extremo orsi, primos excivere Albanos.. Hi, novitate etiam rei moti, ut regemn Romanurn contionantem audirent, proximi constitere. Ex conposito armata circunldatur Romana legio; 20 centurionibus datum negotium erat, ut sine mora imperia exsequerentur. Tum ita Tullus infit: "Romani, si umquam ante alias ullo in bello fuit, quod primum dis inmortalibus gratias ageretis, deinde vestrae ipsorumn virtuti, hes25 ternum id proelium fuit. Dimicatum est enim non magis cum hostibus, quam, quae dimicatio major atque periculosior est, cum proditione ac perfidia sociorum. Nam, ne vos falsa opinio teneat, injussu mleo Albani subiere ad montes, nec imnperium illud 30 meum, sed consilium et imperii simulatio fuit, ut nec vobis, ignorantibus deseri vos, averteretur a certamine animus, et hostibus, circumveniri se ab tergo ratis, terror ac fuga iniceretur. Nec ea culpa, quam arguo, omniuln Albanorum est: ducem secuti sunt, ut et vos, 35 si quo ego inde agmen declinare voluissem, fecissetis. Mettius ille est ductor itineris hujus, Mettius foederis Romani Albanique ruptor. Audeat deinde talia alius, nisi in hunc insigne jam documentum mortalibus dedero."

Page  47 LIBER I, 28-29. 47 Centuriones armati Mettiumn circumsistunt; rex cetera, ut orsus erat, peragit: "quod bonumrn faustum felixque sit populo Romano ac mihi vobisque, Albani, populum omnem Albanum Romam traducere in animo est, civitatem dare plebi, primores in patres legere, 5 unam urbem, unam rem publicam facere; ut ex uno quondam in duos populos divisa Albana res est, sic nunc in unum redeat." Ad haec Albana pubes, inermis ab armatis saepta, in variis voluntatibus communi tamen metu cogente, silentium tenet. Turn 10 Tullus "Metti Fufeti," inquit, "si ipse discere posses fidem ac foedera servare, vivo tibi ea disciplina a me adhibita esset; nunc, quoniam tuum insanabile ingenium est, at tu tuo supplicio doce humanuml genus - ea sancta credere, quae a te violata sunt. Ut igitur 15 paulo ante animum inter Fidenatem Romanamque rem ancipitem gessisti, ita jam corpus passim distrahendumn dabis." Exinde duabus admotis quadrigis,;in currus earum distenturn inligat Mettium; deinde in diversum iter 20 equi concitati, lacerum in utroque. curru corpus, qua inhaeserant vinculis membra, portantes. Avertere omnes ab tanta foeditate spectaculi oculos. Primum ultimumque illud supplicium apud Romanos exempli parumrn memoris legum humanarum fuit; in aliis glo- 25 riari licet, nulli gentium mitiores placuisse poenas. XXIX. Inter haec jam praemissi Albam erant equites, qui multitudinem traducerent Romam. Legiones deinde ductae ad diruendam urbem. Quae ubi intravere portas, non quidem fuit tumultus ille 30 nec pavor, qualis captarum esse urbium solet, cum, effractis portis stratisve -ariete muris aut arce vi capta, clamor hostilis et cursus per urbem armatorum omnia ferro flammaque miscet; sed silentium triste ac tacita maestitia ita defixit omnium animos, ut prae mnetu 35 obliti, quid relinquerent, quid securn ferrent, deficiente consilio rogitantesque alii alios, nunc in liminibus starent, nune errabundi domos suas, ultimum illud visuri, pervagarentur.

Page  48 48 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA Ut vero jam equitum clamor exire jubentium instabat, jam fragor tectorum, quae diruebantur, ultimis urbis partibus audiebatur, pulvisque ex distantibus locis ortus velut nube inducta.omnia impleverat, 5 raptim, quibus.quisque poterat, elatis, curn larem ac penates tectaque, in quibus natus quisque educatusque esset, relinquentes exirent, jam continens agmen migrantium inpleverat vias, et conspectus aliorum mutua miseratione integrabat lacrimas, vocesque 10 etiam miserabiles exaudiebantur, mulierum praecipue, cum obsessa ab armatis.templa augusta praeterirent ac velut captos relinquerent deos. Egressis urbem Albanis, Romanus passim publica privataque omnia tecta adaequat solo, unaque hora quadrin15 gentoruln annorum opus, quibus Alba steterat, excidio ac ruinis dedit. Templis tamen deum (ita enim edictum ab rege fuerat) temperatum est. XXX.'' Roma interim crescit Albae ruinis. Duplicatur civium numerus; Caelius additur urbi molls, 20 et, quo frequentius habitaretur, eam sedem Tullus regiae capit, ibique deinde. habitavit. Principes Albanorum. in patres, ut ea quoque pars rei publicae cresceret, legit, Tullios, Servilios, Quinctios, Geganios, Curiatios, Cloelios; templumque ordini ab se 25 aucto curiam fecit, quae Hostilia usque ad patrum nostrorum aetatem appellata est. Et ut omniurn ordinum viribus aliquid ex novo populo adiceretur, equitum decem turmas ex Albanis legit, legiones et veteres eodem supplemento explevit et novas scripsit. 3,0.Hac fiducia virium Tullus Sabinis bellum indicit, genti ea tempestate secundum Etruscos opulentissimae viris armisque. Utrimque injuriae factae ac res nequiquam erant repetitae: Tullus ad Feroniae.fanum mercatu frequenti negotiatores Romanos con35 prehensos querebatur; Sabini, servos suos prius in lucum confugisse ac Romae retentos. Hae causae belli ferebantur. Sabini, haut parum memores, et suarum virium partem Romae ab Tatio locatam et Romanam rem

Page  49 LIBER I, 30-31. 49 Iliuper etiam adjectione populi Albani auctam, circumspicere et ipsi externa auxilia. Etruria erat vicina, proximi Etruscorum Veientes. Inde, ob residuas bellorum iras maxime sollicitatis ad defectionem animis, voluntarios traxere, et apud vagos quosdam 5 ex inopi plebe etiam merces valuit; publico auxilio nullo adjuti sunt, valuitque apud Veientes (nain de ceteris minus mirum est) pacta cum Romulo indutiarum fides. Cum bellum utrimque summa ope pararent, verti- 10 que in eo res videretur, utri prius arma inferrent, occupat Tullus in agrum Sabinum transire. Pugna atrox ad silvam maIitiosam fuit, ubi et peditum quidem robore, ceterum equitatu aucto nuper plurimum Romana acies valuit. Ab equitibus repente invectis 15 turbati ordines sunt Sabinorum, nec pugna deinde illis constare nec fuga explicari sine magna caede potuit. XXXI. Devictis Sabinis, cum in magna gloria magnisque opibus regnum Tulli ac tota res Romana 20 esset, nuntiatum regi patribusque est, in monte Albano lapidibus pluvisse. Quod cum credi vix posset, missis ad id visendum prodigium, in conspectu, haut aliter -quam cum grandinem venti glomeratam in terras agunt, crebri cecidere caelo lapides. Visi 25 etiam audire vocem ingentemn ex summi cacuminis luco, ut patrio ritu sacra Albani facerent, quae, velut diis quoque simul cum patria relictis, oblivioni dederant, et aut Romana sacra susceperant aut fortunae, ut fit, obirati cultum reliquerant defm. Ro- 30 manis quoque ab eodem prodigio novendiale sacrum publice suseeptum est, seu voce caelesti ex Albano monte missa (nam id quoque traditur) seu aruspicum monitu; mansit certe sollemne, ut, quandoque idem prodigium nuntiaretur, feriae per novem dies age- 35 rentur. Haud ita multo post pestilentia laboratum est. ~ Unde cum pigritia militandi oreretur, nulla tamen ab armis quies dabatur a bellicoso rege, salubriora 4- Livy.

Page  50 50 TITI LIVI AB VR:BE CONDITA etiam credente militiae quam domi juvenum corpora esse, donec ipse quoque longinquo morbo est inplicatus. Tunc adeo fracti simul cum corpore sunt spiritus illi feroces, ut, qui nihil ante ratus esset 5 minus regium quam sacris dedere animum, repente omnibus magnis parvisque superstitionibus obnoxius degeret, religionibusque etiam populum inpleret. Vulgo jam homines, eum statumr rerum, qui sub Numa rege fuerat, requirentes, unam opem aegris 10 corporibus relictam, si pax veniaque ab diis impetrata esset, credebant. Ipsum regem tradunt volventem conmentarios Numae, cum ibi quaedam occulta sollemnia sacrificia Jovi Elicio f acta invenisset, operatum iis sacris se abdidisse; sed non rite 15 initum aut curatum id sacrum esse, nec solurn nullam ei' oblatam caelestium speciem, sed ira Jovis sollicitati prava religione fulmine ictum cum domo conflagrasse. ~Y Tullus magna gloria belli regnavit annos duos et triginta. 20 XXXII. Mortuo Tullo, res, ut institutum jam inde ab initio erat, ad patres redierat, hique interregem nominaverant. Quo comitia habente Ancum Marcium regem populus-creavit; patres fuere auctores. Numae Pompili regis nepos, filia ortus,'Ancus 25 -Marcius erat. Qui ut regnare coepit, et avitae gloriae memor et quia.proximum.regnum, cetera egregium., ab una parte haut satis prosperum fuerat, aut neglectis religionibus aut prave cultis, longe antiquissimum ratus sacra publica ut a Numa instituta 30 erant facere, omnia ea ex -commentariis regis pontificem ir album elata proponere in publico jubet. Inde et civibus otii cupidis et finitimis civitatibus facta spes, in avi mores atque instituta regem abiturum. Igitur Latini, cum _quibus Tullo regnante 35 ictum foedus erat, sustulerant animos, et, cum incur-. sionem in agrum Romanum fecissent, repetentibus res Romanis superbe responsum. reddunt, desidem Romanum regem inter sacella et aras acturum esse regnum rati.

Page  51 LIB'ER I; 32. 5I Medium erat in' Anco ingenium, et Numae et Romuli memor; et praeterquam quod avi regnomagis necessariam fuisse pacem credebat cum in novo turn feroci populo, etiam, quod illi contigisset otium sine injuria, id se haud facile habiturum; 5 temptari patientiam et temptatam contemnii, temporaque esse Tullo regi aptiora quam Numae. Ut tamen, quoniam Numa in pace religiones instituisset, a se bellicae caerimoniae proderentur, nec gererentur solum, sed etiam indicerentur bella aliquo ritu; jus 10 ab antiqua gente Aequiculis, -quod nunc- fetiales habent, descripsit, quo res repetuntur. Legatus ubi ad fines eorum venit, unde res repetuntur, capite velato filo (lanae velamen est) "audi, Juppiter," inquit, " audite fines " (cujuscumque gentis 15 sunt, nominat), " audiat fas! ego sum publicus nuntius populi Romani; juste pieque legatus vehio, verbisque meis fides sit." Peragit deinde postulata. Inde Jovem testern facit: "si ego injuste impieque illos homines illasque res dedier mihi exposco, tum patriae 20' compotem me numnqualn siris esse." lIIaec, cum fines suprascandit, -haec, quicumque ei primus vir obvius fuerit, haec portam ingrediens, haec forum ingressus, paucis verbis carminis concipiendique juris jurandi mutatis, peragit. Si non deduntur quos exposcit, 25 diebus tribus et triginta (tot enimn sollem'nes sunt) peractis bellumr ita indicit: "audi, Juppiter, et tu, Jane Quirine; diique omnes caelestes, vosque terrestres vosque inferni, audite!' ego vos testor, populum illum" (quicumque est, nominat) "injustum esse 30 neque jus persolvere; sed de istis rebus in patria majores natu consulemus, quo pacto' jus nostrum adipiscamur." Cum' his: nuntius:Romam ad consulendum redit. Confestim rex his ferme verbis patres consulebat: " quarum.rerum, litium, causaruin con- 35' dixit pater patratus- populi Romani Quiritium patri patrato Priscorum Latinorum hominibusque Priscis La-tinis, 1 qduas res. nec dederunt nec solverunt-nec fecerunt, quas res dari, solvi, fieri oportuit, dic,"

Page  52 15129 TITI LIVI AB VRB:E CONDITA inquit ei, quem prilmum' sententiam rogabat, "quid censes?" Tum ille: "puro pioque duello quaerendas censeo, itaque consentio consciscoque." Inde ordine alii rogabantur; quandoque pars major eorum, qui 5 aderant, in eandemrn sententiam ibat, bellum erat consensum. Fieri solitum, ut fetialis hastam ferratamr aut sanguine'am praeustam ad fines eorurn ferret et, non minus tribus puberibus praesentibus, diceret: "quod populi Priscorumr Latinorum hominesque 10 Prisci Latini adversus populum Romanum Quiritium fecerunt, deliquerunt, quod populus Romanus Quiritium bellum cum Priscis Latinis jussit esse, senatusque -populi Romani Quiritiurn censuit, consensit, conscivit, ut bellum cum Priscis Latinis fieret, ob 15 earn rem ego populusque Romanus populis Priscorum Latinorum hominibusque Priscis Latinis bellum indico facioque." Id ubi dixisset, hastam in fines eorum emittebat. Hoc tum modo ab Latinis repetitae res ac bellurnm indicturn, moremque eum posteri 20 acceperunt. XXXIII. Ancus, demandata cura sacrorum flaminibus sacerdotibusque allis, exercitu novo conscripto, profectus Politorium, urbem Latinorum, vi cepit;;secutusque' morem regum priorum, qui remn 25 Romanam auxerant hostibus in civitatem accipiendis, mul'titudinem omnerm Romam traduxit. =-Et cum circa Palatium, sedem veterum Romanorum, Sabini Capitolium atque arcem, Caelium montem Albani inplessent, Aventinum novae multitudini datum. 30 Additi eodem haut ita multo post, Tellenis Ficanaque captis- novi cives. Politorium inde rursus bello repetitum, quod vacuum occupaverant Prisci Latini; eaque causa; diruendae urbis ejus fuit Romanis, ne hostiurm:semper 35 receptaculum esset. Postremo omni bello Latino Medullian' conpulso, aliquanmdiu ibi Marte incerto varia victoria puguatum est: nam et urbs tuta munitionibus:praesid'ioque firmata valido erat, et, castiis inilaperto positis-yaliquotiens exercitus:Latinus

Page  53 -LIBER I, 33-34. 63 comminus cum Romanis signa contulerat. Ad ultimum omnibus copiis conisus Ancus acie primum vincit, inde ingenti praeda potens Romam redit, turn quoque multis milibus Latinorum in civitatem acceptis, quibus, ut jungeretur Palatio Aventinum, ad 5 Murciae datae sedes. Janiculum quoque adjectum, non inopia loci, sed ne, quando ea arx hostium esset. Id non muro solum, sed etiam ob commoditatem itineris ponte sublicio, tum primurn in Tiberi facto, conjungi urbi placuit. 10 Quiritium quoque fossa, haut parvum munimentum a planioribus aditu locis, Anci regis opus est. Ingenti incremento rebus auctis, cum in tanta multitudine hominum, discrimine recte an perperam facti confuso, facinora clandestina fierent, carcer ad ter- 15 rorem increscentis audaciae media urberinminens foro aedificatur. Nec urbs tantum hoc rege crevit, sed etiam ager finesque silva Messia Veientibus ademupta usque ad mare imperium prolatum, et in ore Tiberis Ostia urbs 20 condita; salinae circa factae, egregieque rebus bello gestis, aedis Jovis Feretrii amplificata. XXXIV. Anco regnante Lucumo, vir inpiger ac divitiis potens, Romam commigravit cupidinemaxime ac spe magni honoris, cujus adipiscendi Tarquiniis 25 (nam ibi quoque peregrina stirpe oriundus erat) facultas non fuerat. Demarati Corinthii filius erat, qui ob seditiones domo profugus cum Tarquiniis forte consedisset, uxore ibi ducta, duos* filios genuit. Nomina his Lucumo atque Arruns fuerunt. Lucumo 30 superfuit patri bonorum omnium heres; Arruns prior quam pater moritur, uxore gravida relicta. Nec diu manet superstes filio pater; qui cum, ignorans nurum ventremi ferre, inmemor in testando nepotis decessisset, puero, post avi mortem in nullam sortem bono- 35 rum nato, ab inopia Egerio inditum nomen. Lucumoni contra, omnium heredi bonorum, cum divitiae jam animos facerent, auxit ducta in matrimoniu:m Tanaquil, summo loco nata et quae baud facile iis, in

Page  54 ..:i! TITI LIVI AB V. RBE CONDITA quibus nata erat, humniliora sineret ea,.quo innupsisset. Spernentibus Etruscis Lucurtonem, exule advena ortumn, ferre indignitatem non potuit, oblitaque ingenitae erga patriarn caritatis, dummodo virum - 5 honoratum videret, consiliumn migrandi ab Tarquiniis cepit. Roma est ad id potissima visa; in novo populo, ubi omnis repentina atque ex virtute nobilitas sit, futurum locum forti ac strenuo viro; regnasse Tatiumn Sabinum, arcessitum in regnum. Numam a 10 Curibus, et Ancum Sabina matre ortum nobilemque *una imagine Nuinae esse. Facile persuadet ut. cupido honorum et cui Tarquinii materna tantum patria esset. Sublatis itaque rebus arnigrant Romam,. Ad Jani15 culum forte ventum erat; ibi ei carpento sedenti cum uxore aquila suspensis demissa leniter alis pilleum aufert, superque carpentum cum magno clangore volitans, rursus, velut ministerio divinitus missa, capiti. apte reponit; inde sublirnis abit. Accepisse 20 id augurium laeta dicitur Tanaquil, perita, ut vulgo Etrusci, caelestium prodigiorum mulier. Excelsa et alta sperare conplexa virum jubet: earn alitem, ea r:egione caeli et-ejus dei nuntiarn venisse; circa summum culmen hominis auspicium fecisse; levasse hu25 mano superpositum capiti decus, ut divinitus eidem redderet. Has,spes cogitationesque secum portantes urbem ingressi sunt, domicilioque ibi comparato L. Tarquinium Priscum edidere noren. Romanis conspicuum 30 eum novitas divitiaeque faciebant;, et ipse fortunam, benigno.adloquio, comitate.invitandi, beneficiisque quos- poterat.sibi colnciliando, adjuvabat, donec in regiam quoque de eo fama perlata est. Notitiamque eamr.brevi apud regem-liberaliter dextreque. obeundo 35 officia in familiaris amicitiae. adduxerat.jura,,ut publicis pariter ac privatis consiliis bello — domique interesset, et per omnia'expertus postremo tutor etiam liberis regis testamento institueretur.., -,: XXV. Regnavit Ancus.: annos quattoQr. et -vi

Page  55 LIBER1 I,'35. 55 ginti, cuilibet superiorum regum belli pacisque et artibus et gloria par. Jam filii prope puberem aetatein erant. Eo magis Tarquinius instare, ut quam primum comitia regi creando fierent; quibus indictis, sub tempus pueros venatum ablegavit. Is- 5 que primus et petisse ambitiose regnum et orationem dicitur habuisse ad conciliandos plebis animos conpositam. Curm se non rem novarn petere, quippe qui non primus, quod quispiam indignari mirarive posset, sed tertius Romae peregrinus regnum adfectet; et 10 Tatium non ex peregrino solum, sed etiam ex hoste regem facturn, et Numam ignarum urbis, non petentem, in regnuin ultro accitum; se, ex quo sui potens fuerit, Romam cum conjuge ac fortunis omnibus cormmigrasse; majorem partem aetatis ejus, qua civilibus 15 officiis fungantur homines, Romae se quam in vetere patria vixisse; domi militiaeque sub haut paenitendo magistro, ipso Anco rege, Romana se jura, Romanos ritus-didicisse; obsequio et observantia in regem cum omnibus, benignitate erga alios cum rege ipso cer- 20 tasse; —haec eum, haut falsa memorantem ingenti consensu populus Rornanus regnare jussit. Ergo virum cetera egregiumn secuta, quam in- petendo habuerat, etiam regnantem ambitio- est; nec minus regni sui firmandi quam augendae rei:publicae 25 memor, centumr in patres legit, qui deinde minorum gentium sunt appellati, factio haut dubia regis, cujus beneficio in curiam venerant. Bellum primum cum Latinis gessit, et oppidum ibi Apiolas vi cepit; praedaque inde majore, quam quanta 30 belli fama fuerat, revecta, ludos- opulentius instru-ctiusque quarm priores reges fecit. Tune primum circo, qui nune maximus dicitur, designatus locus est. -Loca divisa patribus equitibusque, ubi spectacula sibi quisque facerentf; fori appellati. Spectavere furcis duo- 35 denos ab terra spectacula alta sustinentibus pedes. Ludicrum fuit equi pugilesque, ex Etruria maxime acciti. Sollemnes deinde annui mansere ludi, Romani magnique vanrie: appellati. Ab eodem- rege et

Page  56 56 TITI LIVI- AB VRBE CONDITA circa.forum.privatis aedificanda divisa sunt loca, porticus; tabernaeque factae. XXXVI. Muro quoque lapideo circumdare urbem parabat, cum Sabinum hellum coeptis intervenit. 5 Adeoque ea subita res fuit, ut prius Anienem transirent hostes quam obviam ire ac prohibere exercitus Romanus posset. Itaque trepidatum Romae est; et primo dubia victoria, magna utrimque caede pugnaturn est. Reductis deinde in castra hostium copiis, 10 datoque: spatio Romanis ad conparandum de integro bellum, Tarquinius, equitem maxime suis deesse viribus.. ratus, ad Ramnis, Titienses, Luceres, quas centurias Romulus scripserat, addere alias constituit suoque insignes relinquere noline.. 15 Id quia inaugurato'Romulus fecerat, negare Attus Navius, inclitus. ea tempestate augur, neque mutari neque noyum constitui, nisi. aves addixissent, posse. Ex eo ira regi mota; eludensque artem, ut ferunt, "age,.dum," inquit, "-divine tu, inaugura, fierine pos20: sit,:quod, nunc.ego mente concipio."' Cum ille in augurio -rem. expertus profecto futuram -dixisset, "atquiii hoe animo agitavi," inquit, "te novacula cotem.discissurum:. cape haec et perage, quod aves tuae fieri posse portend unt." Tum illum haud cunc25 tanter discidisse cotem.. ferunt. Statua Atti capite velato,-quo in loco res acta est, in comitio in gradibus ipsis ad laevam curiae fuit; cotem quoque eodem locoQ sitamr fuisse memorant, ut esset ad posteros miraculi ejus monumentum. 30:: Auguriis certe sacerdotioque augurum tantus honos accessit, ut nihil belli domique postea nisi auspicato gereretur, concilia populi, exercitus vocati, su-mma rerum, ubi aves non admisissent, -dirimerentur. Neque. tum-Tarquinius de equitum centuriis quicquam: 35 mutavit; numero. alterurn tantum adjecit, ut mille et octingenti equites in tribus centuriis- essent. Pos.teriores modo sub.isdem nominibus, qui additi erant,? appellati sunt;:quas nunc, quia geminatae- sunt, -sex vocant; centurias...

Page  57 L'IBE-R I, 36-38. 67 XXXVII. Hac parte copiarumr aucta iterum. cum Sabinis confligitur. Sed praeterquam quod viribus creverat Romanus exercitus, ex occulto etiam additur dolus, missis, qui magnam vim lignorum, inAnienis -ripa jacentem,:ardentein in flumen coni- 5 cerent; ventoque juvante accensa ligna, et pleraque in ratibus inpacta sublicis cum haererent, pontein incendunt, Ea quoque res in pugna terrorem attulit Sabinis, et fusis eadem fugam inpediit; multique m.ortales, curm hostes effugissent, in flumine ipso peri- 10 ere:; quorum fluitantia arma -ad urbemn cognita inTiberi -prius paene, quam nuntiari posset, insignem: victoriam fecere. Eo proelio praecipua equitum gloria fuit: utrimque ab cornibus positos, cumrejam pelleretur media 15 peditum suorum acies, ita incurrisse ab lateribus ferunt, ut non sisterent modo Sabinas legiones ferociter instantes cedentibus,-sed subito in fugam. averte-rent. Montes effu-so cursu Sabini petebant, et pauci tenuere; maxima pars, ut ante dictum est, ab equi- 20' tibus in flumen acti stint. Tarquinius instandum perterritis ratus, praeda captivisque Romam missis, spoliis hostium (id votum Vulcano erat) ingenti cumulo accensis, pergit porro:in- agrum Sabinumexercitum inducere.; et, quamquam male gestae res 25erant; nec gesturos melius sperare poterant,- tamen; quia consulendi res non dabat spatium,-iere obviamSabini tumultuario milite; iterumque ibi fusi, perditis jam prope rebus, pacem petiere. - XXXVIII. Collatia, et quicquid citra Collatiam 30 agri erat, Sabinis adempturm; Egerius (fratris hie filius erat regis) Collatiae in praesidio relictus. Deditosque Collatinos ita accipio, eamque deditionis formulam esse: rex:interrogavit: "estisne vos legati oratoresque missi a populo Conlatino, ut vos po- 35 pulumque -C(onlatinum dederetis?;'"-" Sumus.""Estne populus Conlatinus in sua potestate?" "-Est."? —" "Deditisne vos populumque Conlatinum, urbem, agros, aquam, terminos, delibra, utensiliai

Page  58 TITI LIVI AB VR:BE- CONDITA divina humanaque omnia, in meam populique Romani dicionen?" - "Dedimus." -'At ego recipio."' Bello Sabino perfecto Tarquinius triumphans Ro5 mamin redit. Ihde Priscis Latinis bellum fecit, ubi nusquam ad universae rei dimicationem ventum est: ad singula oppida circumferendo arma omne nomen Latinum domuit. Corniculum, Ficulea vetus, Cameria, Crustumerium, Ameriola, Medullia, Nomen10 turn, haec de Priscis Latinis aut qui ad Latinos defecerant capta oppida. Pax deinde est facta. Majore inde animo pacis opera inchoata, quam quanta mole gesserat bella, ut non quietior populus domi esset quam militiae fuisset: nam et muro lapi15 deo, cujus exordium operis Sabino bello turbatum erat, urbem, qua nondum munierat, cingere parat, et infima urbis Loca circa forum aliasque interjectas collibus convalles, quia ex planis locis haut facile evehebant aquas, cloacis fastigio in Tiberim ductis 20 siccat, et aream ad aedem in Capitolio Jovis; quam voverat bello Sabino, jam praesagiente animo futu~ram olim amplitudinem loci, occupat fundamentis. XXXIX. Eo tempore in regia prodigium visu eventuque mirabile fuit. Puero dormienti, cui Servio 25 Tullio fuit nomen, caput arsisse ferunt multorum in conspectu; plurimlo igitur clamore inde ad-4t-ae. rei miraculum orto, excitos reges, et, cum-:qtidam familiarium aquam ad restinguendum ferret, ab re — gina retentum, sedatoque eain tumultu moveri vetu-, 30 isse puerum, donec sua sponte experrectus esset; mox cum -somno et flammam abisse. Tumr abducto in secretumr viro Tanaquil "viden' tu puerum hunc," inquit, "quem tam humili. cultu educamus?'Scire licet hunc lumen quondam rebus nostris dubiis futu35 rum praesidiumque regiae adflictae; proinde materiam ingentis publice privatimque decoris omni indulgentia nostra nutriamus." Inde puerum liberun-loco coeptum haberi erudirique. artibus,. quibus ingenia ad magnae fortunae- cul:

Page  59 LIBER I, 39-40. 59 tum excitantur. Evenit facile, quod diis cordi est. Juvenis evasit vere indolisr-, regiae, nec, curn quaere-'retur gener Tarquinio, quisqu'am Romanae juventutis ulla. art e conferri potuit, filiamque ei suam rex de-, spondit.. 5 Hic quacumque de causa tantus illi honos habitus credere prohibet, serva natum eum parvumque ipsum servisse. Eorum magis sententiae sum, qui, Corniculo capto, Servi Tulli, qui princeps in illa urbe fuerat, gravidam viro occiso uxorem, cum inter reli- 10 quas captivas cognita esset, ob unicam nobilitatem ab regina RoiWana prohibitam ferunt servitio partum Romae edidisse Prisci Tarquini' doto; inde tanto beneficio et inter mulieres familiaritatem auctaml et puerum, ut in'donmo a parvo eductum, in caritate 1.5 atque honore fuisse; fortunam matris, quod capta patria in hostium manus venerit, ut- serva natus crederetur, fecisse. XL. Duodequadragesimo ferme anno, ex quo regnare coeperat Tarquinius, non apud' regem modo, 20 sed apud patres plebernque longe maximo honore Servius Tullius erat. Turn Anci filii duo, etsi antea semper pro indignissimo habuerant, se patrio regno tutoris fraude pulsos, regnare Romae advenam non modo vicinae, sed ne Italicae quidem stirpis, tum 25 inpensius iis indignitas crescere, si ne ab Tarquinio. quidem ad se rediret regnum, sed praeceps inde porro ad servitia caderet, ut in eadem civitate post centesimum fere annum quod Romulus, deo prognatus, deus ipse, tenuerit regnum, donec in terris fuerit, id servus 30 serva natus possideat. Cum commune Romani nominis, tum praecipue id domus suae dedecus fore, si, Anci regis virili stirpe salva, non- modo advenis, set servis etiam regnum Romnae pateret. Ferro igitur eam arcere contumeliam- statuunt: sed 35 et injuriae dolor in Tarquinium ipsum magis quam in Servium eos stimulabat, et [quia] gravior ultor caedis; si superesset, rex futurus erat quam privatus; tumrn Serviao occiso, quemcumrque alium generum- dele.;

Page  60 60. TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA gisset, eundem regni heredem facturus videbatur; ob haec ipsi regi insidiae parantur. Ex pastoribus duo ferocissimi delecti ad facinus, quibus consueti erant uterque'agrestibus ferramentis, in vestibuloe, regiae 5 quam potuere tumultuosissimae specie rixae in se omnes apparitores regios convertunt; inde, cum ambo regem appellarent clamorque eorum penitus in regiam pervenisset, vocati -ad rege.m pergunt. Primo uterque vociferari et certattim alter alteri obstrepere; l0.coerciti ab lictore et jussi invicenl dicere tandem,' obloqui desistunt; unus rem ex conposito orditur. Dum intentus in eum se rex totus aVerteret, alter elatam securilimin caput dejecit, relictoque in vulnere telo anmbo se foras eiciunt. 15 XLI. Tarquilnium moribundum'cum qui circa erant excepjissent, illos fugientes lictores conprehendunt. Clamor inde concursusque populi mirantium, quid rei esset.. Tanaquil inter tumnultum claudi reg iam jubet, arbit's cicit, simnul quae curando vulneri 2::opus sunt, tamquam spes subesset, sedulo conparat,'"; simul, si destituat spes, alia praesidia molitur... Servio propere accito cum paene exsanguem virum ostendisset, dextram tenens orat, ne inultam mortem soceri, ne-socrum inimicis ludibriboesse sinat. " Tuumn 25 est," inquit, " Servi, si vir es, regnum, non eorurn, qui alienis manibus pessirrum facinus fecere. Erige te deosque duces sequere, qui clarum hoc fore caput divino quondam circumfuso igni portenderunt. Nunc te' illa -caelestis excitet flamma, nunc expergiscere^ 30 vere. Et nos peregrini regnavimus; qui sis, non unllde natus sis, reputa. Si tua re subita consilia torpent, at tu mea consilia sequere." Cum clamor impetusque'multitudinis vix sustineri posset, ex superiore parte aedium- per fenestras in Novam viam 35 versas (habitabat enim rex ad Jovis Statoris) popu-. ~:lum Tanaquil adloquitur. Jubet bono animno esse: sopitum fuisse regem subito ictu; ferrum haut altg-in corpus descendisse; jam'ad se redisse;, inspectum vtilnus abterso cruore.; omnia salubria esse; confi

Page  61 LIBER I, 41-43. 61 dere, prope diem ipsum eos visuros; interim Servio Tullio jubere populum dicto audientem esse; eum..;.. jura redditurum obiturumque alia regis munia esse. Servius cum trabea et lictoribus prodit,,ac, sede regia sedens, alia decernit, de aliis consulturum se regem 5 esse simulat. Itaque per aliquot dies, cum jam exspirasset- Tarquinius, celata miorte, per speciem alienae fuligendae vidis suas opes firmavit; tum demum palam factum est conplid'ratione in regia orta. Servius, praesidio firmo" munitus, primus injussu populi volun- 10 tate patrumn regnavit. Anci liberi jam tum, cum, conprensis sceleris ministris, vivere regem et tantas esse opes Servi nuntiatum est, Suessam. Pometiamr exulatum ierant. XLII. Neec jam publicis magis consiliis Servius 15 quam privatis munire: opes, et, ne, qualis Anci liberum animus adversus Tarquinium fuerat, talis adversus se Tarquini liberum esset, duas filias juvenibus regiis Lucio atque Arrunti Tarquini'is jungit; nec rupit tamen fati necessitatemn huranis consiliis, quin 20 invidia regni etiam inter domesticos infida omnia atque infesta faeceret... Peropportune ad praesentis quietem status bellum cum Veientibus (jam.enim induti'e eexierant) al-iis que Etruscis sumptum. In eo bello et virtus et'for- 25 tuna:enituit Tulli; fusoque ingenti hostium exercitu, haut dubius rex, seu patrum seu plebis gnimos peri- -: clitaretur, Romam rediit. Adgrediturque' inde ad pacis longe maximum opus, ut, quemadmodum Numa divini auctor juris fuisset, ita Servium conditorem 30 omnis in civitate discriminis ordinumque, quibus inter.'gradus dignitatis fortunaeque aliquid interlucet, posteri- fama,ferrent. Censum enim instituit, rem saluberrimanam tanto filturo.imperio, ex. quo belli pacisque. runimia non viritim, ut ante, sed- pro habitu 35 pecuniarum fierent.; tum classis centuriasque et hune ordinem -ex censu descripsit, vel paci decorum vel bell-o...... -.XLIII. I Ex.iis,.qui.centum- milium. aeris aut ma

Page  62 62 TITI LIVI AB VRBE- CONDITA jorem censum haberent, octoginta confecit centurias, quadra.genas seniorum ac juniorum: primae classis omnes appellati; seniores ad urbis custodialn ut praesto essent, juvenes ut foris bella gererent. Armna 5 his imperata galea, clipeum, ocreae, lorica, omnia ex aere, haec, ut tegumenta corporis essent, tela in hostemr hastaque et gladius. Additae huic classi duae fabrum centuriae, quae sine- armis stipendia facerent; datum munus, ut machinas in bello ferrent. Secunda 10 classis infra centumrn usque ad quinque et septuaginta milium censum instituta, et ex iis, senioribus junioribusque, viginti conscriptae centuriae; arma imperata scutum pro clipeo et praeter loricam omnia eadem. Tertiae classis [in] quinquaginta milium 15 censum esse voluit; totidem centuriae et hae, eodemque discrimine aetatium factae; nec de armis quicquam mutatumn; ocreae tantum ademptae. In quarta classe census quinque et viginti milium; totidem centuriae factae, arma mutata; nihil praeter hastamn et 20 verutum datum. Quinta classis aucta; centuriae triginta factae; fundas lapidesque missiles hi secum gerebant.; In his accensi, cornicines, tubicinesque, in tres centurias distributi. Undecim milibus haec classis- censebatur. Hoc minor census reliqu:am mul25 titudinemn habuit; inde una centuria facta est, imiunis militia. Ita pedestri exercitu ornato distributoque, equitum ex primoribus civitatis duodecim scripsit centurias; sex item alias centurias, tribus ab Romulo institutis, 30 sub isdem, quibus inauguratae erant, nominibus fecit. Ad equos emendos dena milia aeris ex publico data, et,.: quibus equos alerent, viduae attributae, quae bina milia aeris in annos singulos penderent. Haec omnia in dites a pauperibus inclinata onera. 35 Deinde est honos additus: non enim, ut ab Romulo traditum ceteri servaverant reges, viritim suffragium eadem vi eodemque jure promisce omnibus datum est-;. sed gradus facti, ut neque exclusus quisquam suffragio videretur et vis omnis penes.primores

Page  63 LIBER I, 44. 63 civitatis esset. Equites enimn vocabantur primi; octoginta inde primae classis centuriae [primum peditum vocabantur]0; ibi si variaret, quod raro incidebat, ut secundae classis vocarentur, nec fere umquam infra ita descenderent, ut ad infimos pervenirent. Nec 5 mirari oportet, hune ordinem, qui nune est post expletas quinque et triginta tribus, duplicato earum numero centuriis juniorum seniorumque, ad institutarn ab Servio Tullio summam non convenire. Quadrifariam enim urbe divisa regionibus -collibusque, 10 qui habitabantur, partes eas tribus appellavit, ut ego arbitror, a tributo; nam ejus quoque aequaliter ex censu conferendi ab eodem inita ratio est; neque eae tribus ad centuriarum distributionem numerumque quicquam pertinuere. 15: XLIV. Censu perfecto, quem maturaverat metu legis de incensis latae curn vinculorum minis mortisque, edixit, ut omnes cives Romani, equites peditesque, in suis quisque centuriis, in campo Martio prima luce adessent. Ibi instructum exercitum omnem 20 suovetaurilibus lustravit, idque conditum lustrum appellatum, quia is censendo finis factus est. Milia octoginta eo lustro civium censa dicuntur; adicit seriptorum antiquissimus Fabius Pictor, eorum, qui arma ferre poss$nt, eum numerum fuisse. 25 Ad eam multitudinem urbs quoque amplificanda visa est. Addit duos colles, Quirinalem Viminalemque; inde deinceps auget Esquilias, ibique ipse, ut loco dignitas fieret, habitat. Aggere et fossis et muro circumdat urbem; ita pomerium profert. Pomerium, 30 verbi vim solam intuentes, postmoerium interpretantur esse; est autem magis circamnoeriurn, locus, quem in condendis urbibus quondam Etrusci, qua murum ducturi erant, certis circa terminis inaugurato consecrabant, ut neque interiore parte aedificia moenibus 35 continuarentur, quae nunc vulgo etiam- conjungunt, et extrinsecus purl aliquid ab humano cultu pateret soli. Hoc spatium, quod neque habitari neque arari fas erat, non magis quod post murum esset quam

Page  64 64 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA quod murus post id, pomerium Romani appellarunt; et in urbis incremenlto semper, quantum moenia processura erant, tantum termini hi consecrati proferebantur. 5 XLV. Aucta civitate magnitudine urbis, formatis omnibus domi et ad belli et ad pacis usus, ne semper armis opes acquirerentur, consilio augere imperium conatus est, sirnul et aliquod addere urbi decus. Jam tum erat inclitum Dianae Ephesiae fanum. Id coni10 muniter a civitatibus Asiae factum faina ferebat. Eum consensum deosque consociatos laudare mire Servius inter proceres Latinorum, curn quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque de industria junxerat. Saepe iterando eadem perpulit tandem,.15 ut Romae fanumn Dianae populi Latini cum populo Romano facerent. Ea erat confessio, caput rerumn Romam esse, de quo totiens armis certatum fuerat. Id quamquam omissum jam ex omniun cura Latinorum ob rem totiens infeliciter temptatam armis 20 videbatur, uni se ex Sabinis fors dare visa est privato consilio imperii recuperandi. Bos in Sabinis nata cuidamn patri familiiae dicitur miranda magnitudine ac specie; fixa per multas aetates cornua in vestibulo templi Dianae monumentum ei fuere miraculo. 25 Habita, gt erat, res prodigii loco est, et cecinere vates,'cuju~ civitatis eam civis Dianae immolasset, ibi fore imperium; idque carmen pervenerat ad antistitem fani Dianae. Sabinus, ut prima apta dies sacrificio visa est, boverm, Romam actam, deducit ad 30 fanum Dianae. et ante aram statuit. Ibi antistes " Rornanus, cum eum magnitudo victimae celebrata farna movisset,, memor responsi, Sabinum ita adloquitur: "quidnam tu, hospes, paras?" inquit, "inceste sacrificium Dianae facere? Quinl tu ante vivo 35 perfunderis flumine? infima valle praefluit Tiberis." ReligiQne tactus hospes, qui omnia, ut prodigio responderet eventus, cuperet rite facta, extemplo descendit ad Tiberim; interea Romanus immnolat Dianae bovem. Id mire gratum regi aitque civitati fuit.

Page  65 LIBER i, 45-46. 65 XLVI. Servius quamquam jam usu haut dubium regnum possederat, tamen, quia interdum jactari voces a juvene Tarquinio audiebat, se injussu populi regnare, conciliata prius voluntate plebis agro capto ex hostibus viritim diviso, ausus est ferre ad populum, 5 vellent juberentne se regnare; tantoque consensu, quanto haud quisqiuam alius ante, rex est declaratus. Neque ea res Tarquinio spem adfectandi regni minuit; immo eo inpensius, quia de agro plebis adversa patrum voluntate senserat agi, criminandi Servii 10 apud patres crescendique in curia sibi occasionem datam ratus est, et ipse juvenis ardentis animi et domi uxore Tullia inquietum animum stimulante. Tulit enim et Romana regia sceleris tragici exemplum, ut taedio regum maturior veniret libertas, ulti- 15 mumque regnum esset, quod scelere partum foret. Hic L.'l'arquinius (Prisci Tarquini regis filius neposne fuerit, parum liquet; pluribus tamen auctoribus filium ediderim) fratrem habuerat Arruntem Tarquinium, mitis ingenii juvenem. His duobus, ut 20 ante dictum est, duae Tulliae, regis filiae, nupserant, et ipsae longe dispares moribus. Forte ita inciderat, ne duo violenta ingenia matrimonio jungerentur, fortuna, credo, populi Romani, quo diuturnius Servi regnum esset constituique civitatis'mores possent. 25 Angebatur ferox Tullia, nihil materiae in viro neque ad cupiditatem neque ad audaciam esse; tota in alterum aversa Tarquinium eum mirari, eum virum dicere ac regio sanguine ortum; spernere sororem, quod, virum nacta, muliebri cessaret audacia. Con- 30 trahit celeriter similitudo eos, ut fere fit malum malo aptissimum; sed initium'turbandi omnia a femina ortum est. Ea secretis viri alieni adsuefacta sermonibus, nullis verborum contumeliis parcere, de viro ad fratrem, de sorore ad virum; et se rectius viduam et 35 illum caelibem futurum fuisse contendere, qua-m cum inpari jungi, ut elanguescendum aliena ignavia esset. Si sibi eum, quo digna esset, dii dedissent virum, domi -e prope diem, visuramn regnum fuisse, quod 6 -- Liv,.

Page  66 66 TITI LIVI A-B VRBE CONDITA apud patrem videat. Celeriter'adulescentem suae temeritatis implet. Ita Lucius Tarquinius et Tullia minor, prope continuatis funeribus cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis, magis 5 non prohibente Servio quam adprobante. XLVII. Tumrn vero in dies infestior Tulli senectus, infestius coepit regnum esse. Jam enim ab scelere ad aliud spectare mulier scelus; nec nocte nec interdiu virum conquiescere- pati, ne gratuita 10 praeterita parricidia essent: non sibi defuisse, cui nupta diceretur, nec cum quo tacita serviret; defuisse, qui se regno dignum putaret, qui meminisset, se esse Prisci Tarquini filium, qui habere quam sperare regnum mallet. "Si tu is es, cui nuptam esse 15 me arbitror, et virum et regem appello; sin minus, eo nunc pejus mutata res est, quod istic cum ignavia est scelus. Quin accingeris? Non tibi ab Corintho nee ab Tarquiniis, ut patri tuo, peregrina regna moliri necesse est; di te penates patriique et patris 20 imago et domus regia et in domo regale solium et nomen Tarquinium creat vocatque regem. Aut si ad haec parum est animi, quid frustraris civitatem? quid te ut regium juvenem conspici sinis? Facesse hinc:Tarquinios aut Corinthum-; devolvere retro ad 25 stirpem, fratris similior quam patris." His aliisque increpando juvenem instigat, nec conquiescere ipsa potest, si, cum Tanaquil, peregrina mulier, tantum moliri potuisset animo, ut duo continua regna viro ac deinceps genero dedisset, ipsa, regio semine orta, 30 nullum momentum in dando adimendoque regno faceret. His;muliebribus instinctus furiis Tarquinius cireumire et prensare minorum maxime gentiu-m patres; admonere paterni beneficii ac pro eo gratiam repe35 tere; adlicere donis juvenes; cumn de se ingentia pollicendo, turn regis criminibus, omnibus locis crescere. Postremo, ut jam-agendae rei tempus visum est, stipatus agmine armatorum in forum inrupit. Inde, omnibus perculsis pavore, in regia sede pro curia

Page  67 LIBER I, 47-48. - 67 sedens; patres in curiam per praeconem ad regem Tarquinium citari jussit. Convenere extemplo, alii'jam ante ad hoc praeparati, alii metu, ne non venisse fraudi esset, novitate ac miraculo attoniti et jam de Servio acturn rati. - 5 Ibi Tarquinius maledicta ab stirpe ultima orsus:'servurn servaque natum, post mortem indignam ~parentis sui, non interregno, ut antea, inito, non comitiis habitis, non per suffragium populi, non auetoribus patribus, muliebri dono regnum occupasse. 10 Ita natum, ita creature regem, fautorem infimi generis horninum, ex quo- ipse sit, odio alienae honestatis ereptum primoribus agrum sordidissimo cuique divisisse; omnia onera, quae communia quondam fuerint, inclinasse in primores civitatis; instituisse censum, 15 ut insignis ad invidiam locupletiorum fortuna esset et parata, unde, ubi vellet, egentissimis largiretur.'XLVIII. Huic orationi Servius cum, intervenisset trepido nuntio excitatus, extemplo.a vestibulo curiae magna voce " quid hoc "- inquit, " Tarquini, 20 rei est? qua tu audacia me vivo vocare ausus es patres. aut in sede considere mea?" Cum ille ferociter ad haec: "se patris sui tenere sedem, mnulto quam servum potiorem filium regis -regni heredem; satis- illum diu per licentiam eludentem insultasse 25 rdominis," clamor ab utriusque fautoribus oritur, et concursus populi fiebat in curiam, apparebatque, regnaturum, qui vicisset. Tum Tarquinius, necessitate jam etiam ipsa cogente ultima audere, multo et aetate et viribus validior, medium arripit Servium elatum- 30 que e curia in inferiorem partem per gradus deicit; inde ad cogendum senatum in curiam redit. - Fit fuga regis apparitorum atque comituml; ipse- prope exsanguis ab iis, qui missi -'ab Tarquinio fugientem consecuti- erant, interficitur. Creditur, quia non 35 abhorret a- cetero scelere, admonitu Tulliae id factum.: Carpento certe, id quod satis constat,:in-.forui invecta, nec reverita coetum virorum, evocavit virum e curiaregemque prima appellavit. A qu0 facessere

Page  68 68 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA jussa ex tanto tumultu, cum se domum reciperet pervenissetque ad summum Cyprium vicum, ubi Dianiuml nuper fuit, flectenti carpentum dextra in Urbiumn clivum, ut in collem Esquiliarum eveheretur, 5 restitit pavidus atque inhibuit frenos is qui jumenta agebat, jacenLtemque dominae Servium trucidatum ostendit. Foedum. inhumanumnque inde traditur scelus, monumentoque locus est: Sceleratum vicum vocant, quo, amens, agitantibus furiis sororis ac viri, 10 Tullia per patris corpus carpentumr egisse fertur, partemque sanguinis ac caedis paternae cruento vehiculo, contaminata ipsa respersaque, tulisse ad penates suos virique sui, quibus iratis malo regni principio similes prope diem exitus sequerentur. 15 Servius Tullius regnavit annos quattuor et quadraginta ita, ut bono etiam moderatoque succedenti regi difficilis aemulatio esset; ceterum id quoque ad gloriam accessit, quod cum illo simul justa ac legitima regna occiderunt. Id ipsum tam mite ac tam 20 moderatum imperium tamen, quia unius esset, deponere eum in animo habuisse quidam auctores sunt, ni scelus intestinum liberandae patriae consilia agitanti intervenisset. XLIX. Inde L. Tarquinius regnare occepit, cui 25 Superbo cognomen facta indiderunt, quia socerumn gener sepultura prohibuit, Romulum quoque insepultum perisse dictitans, primoresque patrum, quos Servi rebus favisse credebat, interfecit; conscius deinde male quaerendi regni ab se ipso adversus se 30 exemplum capi posse, armatis corpus circumsaepsit; neque enim ad jus regni quicquam praeter vim habebat, ut qui neque populi jussu neque auctoribus patribus regnaret. Eo accedebat, ut in caritate civium nihil spei reponenti metu regnum tutandum 35 esset. Quem ut pluribus incuteret, cognitiones capitalium rerum sine- consiliis per se solus exercebat, perque eam causam occidere, in exilium agere, bonis multare poterat non suspectos modo aut invisos, wed unde nihil aliud quam praedam sperare posset,

Page  69 LIBER i, 49-50. 69 Praecipue ita patrum numero inminuto, statuit nullos in patres legere, quo contemptior paucitate ipsa ordo esset minusque per se nihil agi indignarentur. Hic enim regum primus traditum a prioribus morema de omnibus senatum consulendi solvit; do- 5 mesticis consiliis rem publicam administravit; bellumrn, pacem, foedera, societates per se ipse, cum quibus voluit, injussu populi ac senatus, fecit diremitque. Latinorum sibi maxime gentem conciliabat, ut 10 peregrinis quoque opibus tutior inter cives esset, neque hospitia modo cum primoribus eorum, sed adfinitates quoque jungebat. Octavio Mamilio Tusculano (is longe princeps Latini nominis erat, si famae credimus, ab Ulixe deaque Circa oriundus), 15 ei Mamilio filiam nuptum dat, perque eas nuptias multos sibi cognatos amicosque ejus conciliat. L. Jam magna Tarquini auctoritas inter Latinorum proceres erat, cum in diem certam, ut ad lucum Ferentinae conveniant, indicit; esse, quae 20 agere de rebus cornmunibus velit. Conveniunt frequentes prima luce; ipse Tarquinius diem quider servavit, sed paulo ante quam sol occideret venit. Multa ibi toto die in concilio variis jactata sermonibus erant. Turnus Herdonius ab Aricia ferociter in 25 absentern Tarquinium erat invectus:'haud: mirum esse, Superbo inditum Romae cognomen' (jam enim ita clam quidem-mussitantes, volgo tamen, eum appellabant);'an quicquam superbius esse quam ludificari sic omne nomen Latinum? Principibus longe a 30 domo excitis, ipsum, qui concilium indixerit, non adesse. Temptari profecto patientiam, ut, si jugum acceperint, obnoxios premat. Cui enim non apparere; adfectare eum imperium in Latinos? Quod si sui- bene crediderint cives, aut si creditum illud, et 35 non raptum parricidio sit, credere et Latinos, quamquam ne sic quidem alienigenae, debere; sin suos ejus paeniteat, quippe qui alii super alios -trucidentur, exulatum- eant; anmittant bona, quid spei melioris

Page  70 '70 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA Latinis port'endi? Si se audiant, domum suam quemque inde abituros, neque magis' observaturos diem concilii quam ipse, qui indixerit, observet.' 5 Haec atque alia eodemn pertinentia seditiosus-facinorosusque homo hisque artibus opes domi nactus cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius. Is finis orationi fuit. Aversi omnes ad Tarquinium salutandum; qui, silentio facto, monitus a proxumis, ut 10 purgaret se, quod id temporis venisset,'disceptatorem ait'se sumptumi inter patrem et filium, cura reconciliandi eos' in gratiamn moratum esse, et, quia'ea res exemisset illum diem, postero die acturum,'quae constituisset. Ne id quidemr ab Turno tulisse taciturn 15 ferunt; dixisse enim, nullam breviorem esse cognitionem quam inter patremi et filium, paucisque tranSigi'verbis posse: ni pareat patri, habiturum infortutnium esse. LI.'Haec Aricinus in regem Romanum increpans 20 ex- concilio, abiit. Quam rein Tarquinius aliquanto quam videbatur aegrius ferens confestim Turno necem machinatur, ut eundem terrorem, quo civium animos domi oppresserat, Latinis iniceret. Et quia pro imperio pala'm interfici non poterat, oblato falso crimine 25 insontem oppressit. Per adversae factionis quosdam.Aricinos servumn Turni auro corrupit, ut in deversoriumr ejus vim magnam gladiorurn inferri clam sineret..Ea curm una nocte.perfecta essent, Tarquinius, paulo ante lucem accitis ad se principibus Latinorum, quasi 30 re'nova perturbatus, moram suam hesternam, velut deorum quadam providentia inlatam, ait saluti sibi atque' illis fuisse. Ab Turno dici sibi'et primorib-us populorum parari necem, ut Latinorum- solus imperiumr teneat. Adgressurum fuisse hesterno die in 35 concilio; dilatam remin esse, quod auctor concilii afuerit, quem- maxime peteret. Inde illam absentis insectationem esse natam, quod morando spem destituerit. Non dubitare, Si vera deferantur, quin prima

Page  71 LIBER I, 51-52. 71 luce, ubi ventum in concilium sit, instructus cum conjuratorum manu armatusque venturus sit. Dici gladiorum ingentem esse numerum ad eum convectum. Id vanum' necne sit, extenlplo sciri posse. Rogare eos, ut inde secum ad Turnum veniant. 5.Suspectamn fecit rem et ingenium Turni ferox et oratio hesterna et mora Tarquinii, quod videbatur ob eam differri caedis potuisse. Eunt inclinatis quidem ad credendum animis, tamen, nisi gladiis deprehensis, cetera vana existimaturi. 10 Ubi est eo ventum, Turnum, ex somno excitat-um, circumsistunt custodes; conprehensisque servis, qui caritate domini vim. parabant, cum gladii abditi ex omnibus locis deverticuli protraherentur, enimnvero manifesta res visa, injectaeque Turno catenae; et 15 confestim Latinorum conciliurn magno cum tumultu advocatur. Ibi tam atrox invidia orta est gladiis in lnedio positis, ut indicta causa, novo genere leti, dejectus ad caput aquae Ferentinae, crate superne injecta saxisque congestis, mergeretur. 20 LII. Revocatis deinde ad concilium Latinis Tarquinius conlaudatisque, qui Turnum novantem res pro manifesto0 parricidio merita poena adfecissent, ita verba fecit:' posse quidem se vetustojure agere, quod, cum omnes Latini ab Alba oriundi sint, [in] eo foe- 25 dere teneantur,.quo ab Tullo res omnis Albana cum coloniis suis in Romanum cesserit imperium; ceterum se utilitatis [id] magis omnium causa censere, ut renovetur id foedus, secundaque potius fortuna populi Romani ut participes Latini fruantur, quam urbium 30 excidia vastationesque agrorum, quas Anco prius,.patre deinde suo regnante perpessi sint, seinper aut exspectent aut patiantur.' Haut difficulter persuasum Latinis, quamquam in eo foedere superior Romana res erat; ceterum et 35 capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire curn rege videbant, et Turnus sui cuique periculi, si adversatus esset, recens erat documenturn. Ita renovatum fbe

Page  72 72 TITI LIVI.AB VR-BE CONDITA dus, indictumque junioribuis Latinorum, ut ex foedere die certa ad lucum Ferentinae armati frequentes adessent. Qui ubi ad edictum romnani regis ex omnibus populis convenere, ne ducem suum neve 5 secretum imperium propriave signa haberent, miscuit manipulos ex Latinis Romanisque, ut ex binis singulos faceret binosque ex singulis; ita geminatis manipulis centuriones inposuit. LIII. Nec, ut injustus in pace rex, ita dux belli 10 pravus fuit; quin ea arte aequasset superiores reges, ni degeneratum in aliis huic quoque decori offecisset. Is primus Voiscis bellum in ducentos amplius post suam aetatern annos movit, Suessanmque Pometiam ex iis vi cepit. 15 Ubi cum divendenda praeda quadraginta talenta argenti refecisset, concepit animo earn amplitudinem Jovis. ternpli, quae digna defm hominumque rege, quae Romano imperio, quae ipsius etiam loci majestate esset; captivam pecuniam in aedificationem ejus 20 templi seposuit. Excepit deinde eum lentius spe bellum, quo Gabios, T propinquam urbem, nequiquam vi adortus, cumn obsidendi quoque urbem spes pulso aimenibus adempta esset, postremno minime arte Romana, fraude ac dolo, 25 adgressus est. Nam cum, velut posito bello, fundamentis templi jaciendis aliisque urbanis operibus intentfum se esse simularet, Sextus filius ejus, qui minimus ex tribus erat, transfugit ex composito Gabios, patris in se saevitiam intolerabilem conquerens: 30'jam ab alienis in suos vertisse superbiam, et liberorumr quoque eum frequentiae taedere, ut, quam in curia solitudinem fecerit, domi quoque faciat, ne quam stirpem, ne quem heredem regni relinquat. Se quidem inter tela et gladios patris elapsum nihil 35 usquarn sibi tutum nisi apud hostes L. Tarquini credidisse. Nam ne errarent, manere iis bellum, quod positum simuletur, et per occasionem eum incautos invasurum. Quod si apud eos supplicibus locus non

Page  73 LIBER I 53-54. 73 sit, pererraturum se omne Latium, Volscosque [se] in'de et Aequos et Hernicos petiturum, donec ad eos perveniat, qui a patrum crudelibus atque impiis suppliciis tegere liberos sciant. Forsitan etiam ardoris aliquid ad bellum armaque se adversus superbis- 5 simum regem ac ferocissimum populum inventurum.' Cum, si nihil inorarentur, infensus ira porro inde abiturus' videretur, benigne ab Gabinis excipitur. Vetant mirari, si, qualis-in cives, qualis in socios, 10 talis ad ultimum in liberos esset; in se ipsum postremo saeviturum, si alia desint. Sibi vero grat;un adventum ejus esse, futurumque credere brevi, ut, illo adjuvante, a portis Gabinis sub Romana moenia bellum transferatur. 15 LIV. Inde in consilia publica adhiberi. Ubi cum de aliis rebus adsentire se veteribus Gabinis diceret, quibus eae notiores essent, ipse identidem belli auctor esse et in eo sibi praecipuam prudentiam adsumere, quod utriusque populi vires nosset, sciret- 20 que invisam profecto superbiam regiamn civibus esse, quam ferre ne liberi quidem potuissent. Ita cum sensim ad rebel-andum primores Gabinorum incitaret, ipse cum promptissimis juvenuln praedatum atque in expeditiones iret, et, dictis factisque omnibus ad fal- 25 lendum instructis, vana accresceret fides, dux ad ultimum belli-legitur. Ibi cum, inscia multitudine quid ageretur, proelia parva inter Rornam Gabiosque fierent, quibus plerumque Gabina res superior esset, tum certatim summi infimique Gabinorum Sex. Tar- 30 quinium dono deuim sibi missum ducem credere. Apud milites vero obeundo pericula ac labores pariter, praedam munifice largiendo, tanta caritate esse, ut non pater Tarquinius potentior Romae quam filius Gabiis esset. 35 Itaque postquam satis virium collectum ad omnes conatus videbat, tum ex suis unum sciscitatum Romami ad patrem mittit, quidnam se facere vellet,

Page  74 74 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA quandoquidem, ut omnia unus Gabiis posset, ei dii dedissent. Huic nuntio, quia, credo, dubiae fidei videbatur, nihil voce responsum est; rex velut deliberabundus in hortum aedium transit, sequenti 5 nuntio filii; ibi inambulans tacitus summa papaverum.capita dicitur baculo decussisse. Interrogando exspectandoque responsum nuntius fessus, ut re inperfecta, redit Gabios; quae dixerit ipse quaeque viderit, refert: seu ira seu odio seu superbia 10 insita ingenio nullam eum vocem emisisse. Sexto ubi, quid vellet parens quidque praeciperet tacitis ambagibus, patuit, primores civitatis criminando alios- apud populum, alios sua ipsos invidia opportunos interernit. Multi palam, quidam, in quibus 15 minus speciosa criminatio erat futura, clam interfecti. Patuit quibusdam volentibus fuga, aut in exilium acti sunt, absentiumque bona juxta atque interemptorum divisui fuere. Largitiones inde prae-daeque; et dulcedine privati commodi sensus malo-'20 rum publicorum adimi, donec orba consilio auxilioque Gabina res regi Romano sine ulla dimicatione in manum traditur. LV. Gabiis receptis, Tarquinius pacem cum Aequorum gente fecit, foedus cum Tuscis renovavit. 25 Inde ad negotia urbana animum convertit; quorum erat primurn, ut Jovis templum in monte Tarpeio monumentum regni sui nominisque relinqueret:'larquinios reges ambos, patrem vovisse, filium perfecisse. Et ut libera a ceteris religionibus area esset tota 30 Jovis templique ejus, quod inaedificaretur, exaugurare fana sacellaque statuit, quae aliquot ibi a Tatio rege primum in ipso discrirnine adversus Romulum pugnae vota, consecrata inaugurataque postea fuerant. Inter principia condendi hujus operis movisse 35 numen ad indicandam talnti imperii molem traditur deos; nam cum omniurn sacellorum exaugurationes admitterent aves, in Termini fano non addixere; idque omen auguriumque ita acceptum est, non

Page  75 LIBER I, 55-56. 75 motarn Termini sedem unumque eum deorum non evocatum sacratis sibi finibus firma stabiliaque cuncta portendere, Hoc perpetuitatis auspicio acceptoj secutumrn aliud magnitudinemn imperil portendens prodigium est: caput humanum integra facie aperienti- 5 -bus fundamenta templi dicitur apparuisse, quae visa species haut per ambages arcem earm imperii caputque rerum fore portendebat; idque ita cecinere vates, quique in urbe erant quosque ad earnm rein consultandam ex Etruria acciverant. Augebatur ad in- 10 pensas regis animus; itaque Pomptinae manubiae, quae perducendo ad culmen operi destinatae erant, vix in fundamenta suppeditavere. Eo magis Fabio, praeterquam quod antiquior est, crediderim, quadraginta ea sola talenta fuisse, quam Pisoni, qui- quad- 15 raginta milia pondo argenti seposita in eamrn rem scribit, summam pecuniae neque ex unius tum urbis praeda sperandam et nullius ne horum quidem [nmagnificentiae] operum fundamenta non exsuperaturam. 20 LVI. Intentus perficiendo templo, fabris undique ex Etruria accitis, non pecunia solum ad id publica est usus, sed operis etiam ex plebe. Qui curn haut parvus et ipse militiae adderetur labor, minus tamen plebs gravabatur, se templa defim exaedificare maani- 25 bus suis, quam postquam et ad alia, ut specie minora, sic laboris aliquanto majoris, traducebantur. opera, foros in circo faciendos, cloacanique maximam, receptaculumn omnium purgamentorum urbis, sub terra agendamr; quibus duobus operibus vix nova haec 30 magnificentia' quicqiiam adaequare potuit. His la-boribus exercita plebe, quia et urbi multitudinem, ubi usus non esset, oneri rebatur esse, et colonis mittendis occupari latius imperii fines volebat, Signiam Circeiosque colonos misit, praesidia urbi futura terra 35 marique. Raec agenti portenturn terribile visum: anguis ex columna lignea elapsus cum terrorem:fugamque in

Page  76 76 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA regia fecisset, ipsius regis non tam subito pavore perculit pectus quam anxiis inplevit curis. Itaque cum ad publica prodigia Etrusci tantum vates adhiberentur, hoc velut domestico exterritus visu Delphos ad 5 maxime inclitum in terris oraculum mittere statuit. Neque responsa sortium ulli alii committere ausus, duos filios per ignotas ea tempestate terras, ignotiora maria, in Graeciam misit. Titus et Arruns profecti. 10 Comes iis additus L. Junius Brutus, Tarquinia, sorore regis, natus, juvenis longe alius ingenii, quam cujus simulationem induerat. Is cum primores civitatis, in quibus fratrem suum, ab avunculo interfectos audisset, neque in animo suo quicquam regi 15.timendum neque in fortuna concupiscendum relinquere statuit, contemptuque tutus esse, ubi in jure parum praesidii esset. Ergo ex industria factus ad imitationem stultitiae, cum se suaque praedae esse regi.sineret, Bruti quoque haut abnuit cognomen, ut 20 sub ejus obtentu cognominis liberator ille populi Romani animus latens opperiretur tempora sua. Is turn ab Tarquiniis ductus Delphos, ludibrium verius quam comes, aureum baculum inclusum corneo cavato ad id baculo tulisse donum Apollini dicitur, per am25 bages effigiem ingenii sui. Quo postquam ventum est, perfectis patris man. datis, cupido incessit animos juvenum sciscitandi, ad quem eorum regnum Romanum esset venturum. Ex infimo specu vocem redditam: ferunt: "irnperium 30 summum Romae habebit, qui vestrum primus, o juvenes, osculum matri tulerit." Tarquinii, ut Sextus, qui Romae relictus fuerat, ignarus responsi expersque imperii esset, rem summa ope taceri jubent.; ipsi inter se, uter prior, cum Romam redisset, matri 35 osculum daret, sorti permittunt. Brutus alio ratus spectare Pythicam.vocem, velut si prolapsus cecidisset, terra.m osculo contigit,: scilicet quod ea comrmu-nis mater omniumr mortalium esset.. Reditum

Page  77 LIBER Ij 57. 77 inde Romam, ubi adversus Rutulos bellum summa vi parabatur. LVII. Ardeam Rutuli habebant, gens, ut in ea regione atque in ea aetate, divitiis praepollens; eaque ipsa causa belli fuit, quod rex Romanus cum ipse 5 ditari, exhaustus magnificentia publicorum operum, turn praeda delenire popularium -animos studebat, praeter aliam superbiam regno infestos etiam, quod se in fabrorum ministeriis ac servili tam diu habitos opere ab rege indignabantur. Temptata res est, si 10 primo impetu capi Ardea posset; ubi id parum processit, obsidione munitionibusque coepti premi hostes. In his stativis, ut fit longo magis quam acri bello, satis liberi commeatus erant, primoribus tamen magis quam militibus; regii quidem juvenes interdum otium 15 conviviis comisationibusque inter se terebant. Forte potantibus his apud Sex. Tarquinium, ubi et Collatinus cenabat Tarquinius, Egerii filius, incidit de uxoribus mentio. Suam quisque laudare miris modis; inde certamine accenso, Collatinus negat 20 verbis opus esse; paucis id quidem horis posse sciri, quantum ceteris praestet Lucretia sua. "Quin, si vigor juventae inest,' conscendimus equos invisimusque praesentes nostrarum ingenia? id cuique spectatissimum sit, quod necopinato viri adventu 25 occurrerit oculis." Incaluerant vino; "age sane!" omnes. Citatis equis avolant Ronlam. Quo cum primis se intendentibus tenebris pervenissent, pergunt inde Collatiam, ubi Lucretiam hautquaquam ut regias 30 nurus, quas in convivio luxuque cum aequalibus viderant tempus terentes, sed nocte sera deditam lanae inter lucubrantes ancillas in medio aedium sedentem inveniunt. Muliebris certaminis laus penes Lucretiam fuit. Adveniens vir Tarquiniique excepti 35 benigne; victor maritus comiter invitat regios juvenes. Ibi Sex. Tarquinium mala libido Lucretiae per vim.stuprandae capit; cum forma turnm spectate. cas

Page  78 78 TITI LI~VI- AB VRBBE CONDITA titas incitat. Et tum- quidem ab nocturno juvenali ludo in castra redeunt. LVIII. Paucis interjectis diebus Sex. Tarquinius, inscio Collatino, cum comite uno Collatiam venit. 5 Ubi exceptus benigne ab ignaris consilii, cum post cenam in hospitale cubiculum deductus esset, amore ardens, postquam satis tuta circa sopitique omnes videbantur, stricto gladio ad dormientem Lucretiam venit, sinistraque manu mulieris pectore oppresso, 10 "tace, Lucretia,"' inquit, "Sex. Tarquinius sum; ferrum in mnanu est; moriere, si emiseris vocem." Cum pavida ex somno mulier nullam opem, prope mortem inminentem videret, tumrn Tarquinius fateri amorem, orare, miscere precibus minas, versare in omnes partes 15 muliebrem animum. Ubi obstinatarn videbat et ne mortis quidem metu inclinari, addit ad metum dedecus: cum mortua jugulatum servum nudum positurdm ait, ut- in sordido adulterio necata dicatur. Quo terrore cum vicisset obstinatam pudicitiam ve20 lut victrix libido, profectusque inde Tarquinius ferox expugnato decore muliebri esset, Lucretia maesta tanto malo nuntium Romam eundem ad patrem Ardeamque ad virum mittit, ut cum singulis fidelibus amicis veniant; ita facto maturatoque opus 25. esse; rem atrocern incidisse. Spurius Lucretius curm P. Valerio, Volesi filio, Collatinus cum L. Junio Bruto venit, cum quo forteRomam rediens -ab nuntio uxoris erat conventus. Lucretiarn sedentem maestam in cubiculo invniunt. 30. Adventu suorum lacrimae obortae, quaerentique viro "satin salve??." "minimem" inquit, "quid enim salvi est; mulieri amissa pudicitia.? Vestigia- viri alieni, Collatine, in lecto sunt tuo; ceterum corpus: est tantumrn violatum, animus insons; mors testis-erit,. Sed 35 date dextras fidemquej haud inpune adultero fore. Sex. est Tarquinius; qui, hostis pro hospitej prior e nocte vi armatus mihi sibique, si vos viri estis, pestiferum hinc abstulit' gaudium." Dant ordine ominne

Page  79 LIBER I, 58-59. 79.fidem; consolantur aegram animi, avertendo noxam ab coacta in auctorem delicti: mentem peccare, non corpus, et, unde consilium afuerit, culpam abesse. "Vos" inquit "videritis, quid illi debeatur; ego me etsi peccato absolvo, supplicio non libero; nec ulla:5 deinde inpudica Lucretiae exemplo vivet." Cultrum, quem sub veste abditum habebat, eum in corde defigit, prolapsaque in vulnus moribunda cecidit. Conclamat vir paterque. LIX. Brutus, illis luctu occupatis, cultrum ex 10 volnere Lucretiae extractum manantem cruore prae se tenens, "per hunc" inquit ":castissimum ante regiam injuriam sanguinem juro, vosque, dii, testes facio, me L. Tarquinium Superbum, cum scelerata conjuge et omni liberorum stirpe, ferro, igni, qua- 15 cumque denique vi possim, exacturum, nec illos nec. alium quernquam regnare Romae passurum." Cultrum deinde Collatino tradit, inde Lucrjeiio ac Va-: lerio, stupentibus miraculo rei, urfde novum in Brutipectore ingenium. Ut praeceptu.ni erat, jurant; toti- 20 que ab luctu versi in iram, BrutuE F, jam inde ad expugnandum regnum vocanteni, secuntur ducem. Elatum domo Lucretiae corpus in forum deferunt; concientque miraculo, ut fit, rei novae atque indignitate homines. Pro se quisque scelus regium ac vim 25 queruntur. Movetr cum patris maestitia, tumrn Brutus castigator lacrinmarum atque inertium querellarum, auctorque, quod viros, quod:Romanos deceret, arma capiendi adversus hostilia ausos. Ferocissimus quisque juvenum cum armis voluntarius adest, sequitur 30 et cetera Juventus. Inde parte praesidio relicta Collatiae ad portas custodibusque datis, ne quis eum motuin regibus nuntiaret, ceteri armati, duce Bruto, Romam: profecti. Ubi eo ventuma est, quacumque incedit armata multitudo, pavorem -ac tumultum 35 facit;: rursus, ubi anteire primores civitatis vident, quidquidlsit,-haud temere esse-rentur. Necminorem motum animorum -Romae tam atrox res facit, quam

Page  80 80 TITI LIVI.AB VRBE CONDIT.A Collatiae fecerat; ergo ex omnibus locis urbis in forum curritur. Quo simul ventum est, praeco ad tribunum Celerum, in quo tum magistratu forte Brutus erat, populum advocavit. Ibi oratio habita 5 nequaquam ejus pectoris ingeniique, quod simulatum ad earn diem fuerat, de vi ac libidine Sex. Tarquinii, de stupro infand-o Lucretiae et miserabili caede, de orbitate Tricipitini, cui morte filiae causa mortis indignior ac miserabilior esset. Addita superbia ipsius 10 regis, miseriaeque et labores plebis in fossas cloacasque exhauriendas demersae; Romanos homines, victores omnium circa populorum, opifices ac lapicidas pro bellatoribus factos. Indigna Servi Tulli regis memorata caedis, et invecta corpori patris nefando 15 vehiculo filia, invocatique ultores parentum dii. His atrocioribusque, credo, aliis, quae praesens rerum indignitas haudquaquam relatu scriptoribus facilia subicit, memoratis, incensam multitudinem perpulit, ut imperium regi abrogaret exulesque esse juberet L. 20 Tarquinium cum conjuge ac liberis. Ipse junioribus, qui ultro nomina dabant, lectis armatisque, ad concitandum inde adversus regem exercitum Ardeam in castra est profectus; imperium in urbe Lucretio, praefecto urbis jam ante ab rege instituto, relinquit. 25 Inter hunc tumnultum Tullia domo profugit, exsecrantibus, quacumque incedebat, invocantibusque parenturn furias viris mulieribusque. LX. Harum rerum nuntiis in castra perlatis, cum re nova trepidus rex pergeret Romam ad compri30 mendos notus, flexit viam Brutus (senserat enirn adventum), ne obvius fieret; eodemque fere tempore, diversis itineribus, Brutus Ardeam, Tarquinius Romam venerunt. Tarquinio clausae portae exiliumque indictum; liberatorem urbis laeta castra acce35 pere, exactique inde liberi regis: duo patrem secuti sunt, qui exulatum Caere in Etruscos ierunt; Sextus ~Tarquinius Gabios, tamquam in suum regnum, pro

Page  81 LIBER -I, 59-60. 81. fectus, ab ultoribus-veterum simultatium, quas sibi ipse caedibus rapinisque concierat, est interfectus. L. Tarquinius Superbus regnavit annos quinque et viginti, Regnatum Romae ab condita urbe ad liberatam annos ducentos quadraginta quattuor. Duo 5 consules inde comitiis centuriatis a praefecto urbis ex conmentariis Servi fTulli creati sunt, L. Junius Brutus et L. Tarquinius Collatinus. 6 - Livy.

Page  82 [PERIOCHA LIBRI XXI.] [INITIA belli Punici secundi narrantur et Hannibalis ducis Poenorum contra foedus per Hiberum flumen transitus. a quo Saguntumrn sociorum populi Romani civitas obsessa octavo mense capta est. de quibus iniuriis missi legati ad Carthaginienses qui quererentur. cum:satisfacere nollent, bellum eis indictum est. Hannibal superato Pyrenaeo saltwper Gallias fusis Volcis, qui obsistere conati erant ei, et ad-Alpes venit et laborioso per eas transitu, cum- montanos quoqueGallos obvios aliquot proeliis repulisset, descendit in Italiam et ad Ticinum flumen Romanos equestri proelio fudit. in quo vulneratum. P. Cornelium Scipionem protexit filius, qui Africani postea nomen accepit. iterumque exercitu Romano ad flumen Trebiam fuso Hannibal: Apenninum quoque permagna vexatione militum propter vim temipestatium transiit. Cn. Cornelius Scipio in Hispania contra Poenos prospere pugnavit duce hostium Magone capto.] 82

Page  83 TITI L I VI AB VRBE CONDITA LUP VICESIMVS PRIMIVS. - I. IN parte operis mei licet mihi rpefari.jquod in principio summae totius professi plerique sunt rerum scriptores, bellum inaxirne omnium memorabile, quae umquamn g nesta me scripturum, quod:. Hannibale duce Carthaginienses cum populo Romano 5 ssee. Nam neque validiores opibus ullae inter se civitates gentesque contulerunt arma, neque his ipsis tantum umquam virium aut roois fuit; et haud ignotas. belli.artes inter sese, sed expertas primo Punico c.iserebant bello; et adeo varia fortuna belli 1-0 ancp.sque Mars fuit, ut propius pBericm ulm lt qui vjgjt.'Odiis etiam prope majoribus cert- - runt quam viribus, Romanis. indignantibus, quod victoribus victi ultro inferrent arma, Poenis, quod superbe avareque crederent imperitatum victis esse. 15 2i~a est etiam, Hannibalemr, annorum ferme novem,'pueriliter blandientem patri Hamilcari, ut duceretur in Hispaniam, cum, perfecto Africo bello, exercitum. eo trajecturus sacrificaret, altaribus admotum, tactis sacris, jure jurando adactum, se, cum primum osset, 20 hostem fore populo Romano.. Angebant ingentis spiritus virum Sicilia Sardiniaque" amissae: nami et Siciliarn nimis celeri desperatione rerum concessam, et Sardiniam inter motumn Africae fraude Romanorum, stipendio etiam insuper inposito, interceptam. 25.

Page  84 84 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA II His anxius curis ita se Africo bello, quod fuit sub recentem Romanam pacem, per quinque annos, ita deinde novem annis in Hispania augendo Punico imperio gessit, ut ppareretmius eum quam quod 5 gereret agitare in animo belium, et, si diutius vixisset, Hamilcare- duce Poenos arma Italiae inlaturos iss quae Hannibalis ductu intulerunt. Mors Hamilcaris peropportuna et pueritia Hannibalis distulerunt bellum. Medius Hasdrubal inter 10 patrem ac filium octo ferme annos imperium obtinuit, flore aetatis, uti ferunt, primo Hamilcari conciliatus, gener inde ob altam indolem profecto animi adscitus, et, quia gener erat, factioni-arcinae opibus, quae apud milites plebemque plus quamn m di j erant, 15 haud sane voluntate principum, in imperio positus. Is, plura consilio quam vi gerens, hospitiis magis regulorum conciliandisque per amicitiam principum novis gentibus quam bello aut armnis rein Carthaginiensem auxit.. Ceterum nihilo ei pax tutior fuit; 20 barbarus eum quidam palam ob iram interfecti ab -eo domini obtruncat; conprensusque ab circumstanti-bus haud alio uaam si evasisset vultu, tormentis quoque cum laceraretur, eoWTitirI bitu oris, ut, superante l:.laetitia dolores, ridentis etiam speciem praebuerit. 25: Cum hoc Hasdrubale, quia mirae artis in sollicitandis gentibus imperioque suo jungendis fuerat, foedus renovaverat populus Romanus, ut finis utriusque imperil esset amnis Hiberus, Saguntinisque:.:mediis infter imperia duorum populorum libertas 30 sery-aet ur_ III. In Iasdrubalis locum haud dubia res fuit, quin praerogtiva militaris, qua extemplo juvenis Hannibal in praetorium delatus imperatorque iigenti omniulm clamore atque adsensu appellatus erat, *.* -5 favbo' plebis sequebatur.N HRunc vixdurn:. puberem'. Hasdrubal litteris ad se accersierat, a.ctaque-:res etiam in senatu fuerat. Barcinis -nitnitfi- u:ut adsuesceret militiae Hannibal atque in peri.as s:cederet opes, Hanno, alterius factionis priceps, ":'et

Page  85 LIBER XXI, 2-4. 85 aequum postulare videtur" inquit "Hasdrubal, et ego tamen non censeo quod petit tribuendum."' Cum admiratione tam ancipitis sententiae in se omnis con — vertisset, ".florem aetatis" inquit " Hasdrubal, quem ipse patri Hannibalis fruendum praebuit, justo jure 5 eum a filio repeti censet; nos tamen minime decet juventutem nostram pro: militari rudimento adsuefacere libidini praetorum..An hoc timemus, ne Hami-lcaris filius nimis sero imperia inmodica et regni paterni speciem videat,- et, cujus regis genero 10 hereditarii sint relicti exercitus nostri, ejus filio parum mature serviamus? Ego istum juvenem doni / tenendum, sub legibus, sub magistratibus, docendum. vivere aequo jure cum ceteris, censeo, ne quandoque parvus hic ignis incendium ingens exsuscitet." 15 IV. Pauci, -ac ferme optimus.quisque, Hantioni adsentiebantur; sed, ut plerumque fit, major pars meliorem vicit. Missus Hannibal in. Hispaniam primo statim adventu omnem exercitum in se con- - vertit; Hamilcarem juvenem redditumn sibi veteres 20 milites credere; eundem vigorem in vultu-,vimlqnuein oculis,.habitum oris lineamentaque intueri.'- Dein brevi effecit, ut pater in se minimum momentum- a: favorem conciliandum esset. Numquam ingeniunlm:.. idem ad res diversissimas, parendum atque impe-' 25I randum, habilius fuit. Itaque haut. facile diseer-'i. neres, utrum imperatori an exercitui.-carior' ess:e.t —:: neque Hasdrubal' aliumn quemquam praeficere ma:le:. ubi- quid fortiter ac strenue agendum esset,. nequemilites alio duce plus colfidere aut audere.* Pluri- 30 mum audaciae ad pericula capessenda, plurimum consilii inter ipsa pericula erat. Nullo labore aut corpuS. fatigari aut animus vinci poterat. Caloris ac frlgoris patientia par; cibl potionisque desiderio naturali, non' voluptate modus finitus;. >igiliarum 35 somnique nec die nec nocte discriminata tempora; id quod gerendis rebus superesset, quieti datum; ea neque molli strato neque silentio accersita;- multi. saepe militari sagulo opertum humi jacenter inter

Page  86 86 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA custodias stationesque militum conspexerunt. Vestitus nihil inter aequales excellens; arma atque equi conspiciebantur. Equitum peditumque idem longe primus erat; princeps in proelium ibat, ultimus con5 serto proelio excedebat. Has tantas viri virtutes ingentia vitia aequabant: inhumana crudelitas, perfidia plus quam Punica, nihil veri, nihil sancti, nullus defim metus, nullum jus jurandum, nulla religio. Cum hac indole vir10 tutum atque vitiorum triennio sub Hasdrubale imperatore meruit, nulla re, quae agenda videndaque magno futuro dui esset, praetermlssa. V. Ceterumn ex quo die dux est declaratus, velut Italia ei provincia decreta bellumnque Romanum 15 mandatum esset, nihil prolatandum rat, ne se quoquie, ut patrem Hamilcarem, deinde Hasdrubalem, cunctantem casus aliquis opprimeret, Saguntinis inferre bellum statuit. VQuibus o upn. nis, quia haut dubie Romana arma movebantur, in 20 Olcadulm prius fines (ultra Hiberum ea gens in parte magis quam in dicione Carthaginiensium erat) induxit exercitum, ut non petisse: Saguntinos, sed rerum serie, finitimis dornitis gentibs,: jungendoque, tractus ad id bellurn- videri posset. Ctta amu-.rben 25 opulentam, caput gentis ejus, expugnat diripitque; quo metu percuisae minores civitates stipendio in-'::po0sito imperium accepere. Victor exercitus opulen-:.'sque praeda Carthaginem' Novam in hiberna est deductus... Ibi large partiendo praedam stipendioque 30 praeterito cum fide exsolvendo cunctis civium sociorumque animis in se firmatis, vere primo in Vaceae. promotum bellum. Hermandica et ArnbQca eorumr urbes, vi captae. Arbocala et virtute et multitudine oppidanorum diu defensa.'Ab Hermandica: profugi 35 exulibus Olcadum, priore aie. domitae -gentis, cum se junxissent, concitant Caprdet!, dort.ique Hannibalem regressum ex Vaccaeis haui-t.- procuL Tag flumine, agmen grave praeda turba.ver:e. i..o,Hannibal proelio abstiluit, castrisque super-ripamn

Page  87 LIBER XXT, 5-6. 87 positis, cum prima quies silentiumque ab hostibus fuit, amnemr vado trajecit, valloque ita producto ut locum ad transgrediendun hostes haberent, invadere eos transeuntes statuit. Equitibu'S praceplit, ut, cum ingressos aquam viderent, adorirentur impeditum 5 agmen; in ripa elepantos- tquadrginta autem erant) disponit. Carpetanorum cum adpendicibus Olcadum Vaccaeorumque centum milia fuere, invicta acies, si aequo dimicaretur campo. Itaque et ingenio feroces et muttitutdine freti, et, quod metu 10 cessisse credebant hosterm, id morari victoriam ratiA quod interesset amnis, clamore sublato, passim sine ullius lmperlo, qua cuique proximum est,-in amnerm ruunt. Et ex parte altera ripae vis ingens equitum in flumen inmissa, medioque alveo hautquaquam pari 15 certamine, concursum, quippe ubi pedes instabilis ac vix vado fidens vel ab inermi equite, equo temere acto, perverti possqe eques corpore armisque liber, equo vel per me-iios gurgites stabili, comminus emi. nusque rein gereret.4Pars magna flumline absumpta; -20 quidam verticoso amni delati in hostis ab elephantis obtriti sunt, Postremi, uibus regressus in suam ipaim tutior fiUt, ex varia trepidatione cu. in unu:( colligerentur, priusquam -a tanto r reclnert-. animos, Hannibal agmine quadrato amnem ingressu2: 2: fugam ex ripa fecit, vastatisque agris intra paucos dies Carpetanos quoque in deditionem accepit; et ~jam omnia trans Hiberum praeter Saguntinos, Carthaginiensium erant. VI. Gum Saguntinis bellum nondum erat, ce- 30 terum jam belli causa. Certamina cum finitimis serebantur, maraxume Turdetanis. Quibus cum- adesset idem qui litis erat sator, nec certamen juris, sed vim quaeri appareret, legati a Saguntinis Romam missi, auxilium ad belluin jam haut dubie inminens 35Consules tune Rom6e erant P. Cornelius Scipio: et Ti, Sempronllus Longus. Qui cum, legatis in senatum introductis, de re publica retulissent., placuissetZ. A~~~~~~~~S~~

Page  88 88 TITI LIVI AB VRBE. CONDITA que mitti legatos in Hispaniam ad res:seciorum inspiciendas, quibus si videretur - digna causa, et Han-,. nibali denuntiarent ut ab Saguntinis, sociis populi Romani, abstieret et Carthaginem in Africam trai5 cerent ac soclorum populi Romani querimonias de, ferrent, -hac legatione decreta necdum missa, orn-, nium spe celerius Saguntum oppugnari adlaturn est. Tunle relata de integro res. ad. senatum; et alii, provincias consulibus Hispaniam atque Africam. decer10 nentes, terra marique rem gerendam censebant, alii totum in Hispaniam Hannibalemque intendebant! bellum; erant, qui non temere movendam rem tantam, expectandosque ex Hispania legatos, censerent. Haec sententia, quae tutissima videbatur, vicit; 15 legatique eo maturius missi, P. Valerius Flaccus et Q. Baebius Tamphilus, Saguntum ad Hannibalern atque inde Carthaginein, si non absisterear bello, ad.ducem ipsum in poenam foederis rupti deposcendum. V.II. Dum ea Romani paan consultantque, jam 20 Saguntum summa vi.oppugnabatur. Civitas ea longe opulentissima ultra Hiberum fuit, sita passus mille ferme a mari. Oriundi a Zacyntho insula dicuntur, mixtique etiam ab Ardea Rutulooum quidam generis; ceterum in tantas brevi creverant opes seu maritimis 25 sen terrestribus fructibus seu multitudinis incremento seu disciplinae sanctitate, qua Vdem socialem usque ad perniciem suam coluerunt. Hannibal infesto exercitu ingressus finis, pervastatis passim agris, urbem tripertito adgreditur. An30 gulus muri erat in planiorem patentioremque, quam cetera circa, vallem vergens; adversus eum vineas: agere instituit, per quas aries moenibus admoveri posset. Sed ut locus procul muro satis aequus agendis vineis fuit, ita hautquaquam prospere, postquam 35 ad effectum operis ventum est, coeptis succedebat. Et turris ingens inminebat, et murus, ut in suspecto loco, supra ceterae modum altitudinis emunitus erat, et juventus delecta, ubi plurimum periculi ac timoris ostendebatur, ibi vi majore obsistebant.2 Ac- primo

Page  89 LIBER XXI, 7-8. 89' missilibus submovere hostem, nec quicquam satis tutum munientibus pati; deinde jam non pro moenibus modo atque turri tela micare, sed ad erumpendum etiain in stationes operaque hostium animus erat; quibus tumultuariis certaminibus haud ferme 5 plures Saguntini cadebant quam Poeni. UYe. Hannibal ipse, dum murum incautius su b, ad versum femur tragula graviter ictus cecidit, tanta circa-fuga ac trepidatio fuit, ut non multui abesset quin opera ac vineae desererentur. 10. VIII. Obsidio deinde per paucos dies magis quam oppugnatio fuit, dum vulnus ducis curaretur; per quod tempus ut quies certaminum erat, ita ab apparatu operum ac munitionurn nil- cessatum. Itaque acrius' de integro coortum est bellum, pluribus- 15 que partibus (vix accipientibus quibusdam opera locis) vineae coeptae agi admoverique aries. Abundabat multitudine hominum Poenus (ad centum quinquaginta milia habuisse in armis satis creditur); oppidani ad omnia tuenda atque':beunda multi- 20fariam distineri coepti sunt; non sufficiebant itaque. Jam feriebantur arietibus muri, quassataeque multae partes erant; - u.ontipentibus ruinis nudaverat urbem; tris deinceps turris, quantumrnque inter ias muri erat, cum fragore ingenti prociderunt. /Captuhm. 25 oppiduin ea ruina crediderant Poeni; qua, velut si pariter utrosque nturus texisset, ita utrimque in pugnam procursunrri est. /Nihil tumultuariae pugnae simile erat, quales in oppugnationibus urbium per occasionem partis alterius conseri solent lsed justae 30 acies, velut patenti dampo, inter ruinas muri- tectaque urbis modico-distantia intervallo coI.att nt.'Hinc spes,' hinc desperatio animos inrita tP 66no cepisse jam se urbem, si paulum adnitatur, credente; Saguntinis projnudata moehibus,patria corpora oppo- 35 nentibus, nec ullo pedern i'eferente, ne in relictum a se locumi hostem inmitteilt Itaque ujlo acrius et conferti magis utrimque pugnabant, eo plures vulnerabantur, nullo inter-arma corporaque vano inter

Page  90 90 TITI LIVI AB'VRBE CONDITA cidente telo. Phalarica erat Saguntinis, missile telurn hastili abiegno et cetera tereti praeterquam ad extremum; und&trrrum extabat; id, sicut in pilo,, quadratuim stuppa circumligabantt linebantque pice; 5 ferrumn autem tres longtum ha e pedes, ut cum armis transfigere corpus posset. Sed id rnaxime, etia Si haesisset in scuto nec penetrasset in corpus, pavorem flac ebatJlud, cum medium- accensum mitteretur, con'eeptuimque ipso motu multo majoremr 10 ignem ferret, armea omitti cogebat, nudumque militern ad insequentes ictus praebebat. IX. Cum diu'- aceps fuisset certamen, et Saguntinis, quia praeter spem' resisterent, crevissent aniri, Poenuls, quia non vicisset, pro victo V essemorem 15 repente oppidani tollunt, hostemque -in ruinas muri expellunt, inde inpeditum trepidanternmque exturbant, postremo fusum fugatumque in castra red"gunt. Interim ab Roma legatos venisse nuntiatumn est; quibus obvialn ad mare missi ab Hannibale, qui 20 dicerent, nee tuto eos.adituros.inter tot tam effrenatarum gentium arma, nec Hannibali in tanto discrimine rerum operae esse legattiones audire. Apparebat, non.admissos) Carthaginem protinus ituros. Litteras igitur nuntiosque ad principes factionis 25 Barcinae. praemittit, ut praepararent suorum. animos, ne L..uipars altera gratificari populo Romano posset. X. Itaque, praeterquam quod adinissi au'ditique sunt, ea aqimie vana atque inrita legatio fuit.' Hanno- unus adversus senatum causam foederis, 30 magno silentio,propter auctoritatem suam, non curn adsensu audientium, egit, per deos federu arbitros ac testis senatum obtestans, ne Romarnum cum Saguntino suscitarent bellum:'"n praedixisse se, ne Hamilcaris progeniem ad exercitum mitter6ent; 35 non manes, non stirpem ejus conquiescere:v-ri,:-ie:, umquam, donec sanguinis nominisque Ba rcini quilsquam supersit, quietura Romana-foedera. "Juvene'i flagranlterm cupidine r viia mnque unam ad- idc-.e-.-r nentem, si ex bellis bella serendo. succinct:us'- ail

Page  91 LIBER XX,. 9-10. 91 legionibusque viv.t velut materiam igni praebentes, ad exercitus misistis.) Aluistis ergo hoc incendiumn, quo nunc ardetis. Saguntum vestri circumsedent exercitus, unde arcentur foedere; mox Carthaginemr circumsedebunt Romanae legiones,. ducibus isdem 5, diis, per quos riore bello,rpta foedera sunt ulti.' Utrum hostena an vos.an fortunam ut.riusque populiig-n'oratis? Legatos ab sociis et pro sociis venientes bonus imperator, vester in castra non admisit;>jus gelntium susiit; hi tamen, unde ne hostium quidem 10 legati arcentur, pulsi, ad nos venerunt, res ex fbedere repetintur; ut publica fraus absit auctorem culpae et reum criminis deposcuht. Quo lenius agunt, seglrius incipiunt, eo, cum qoeperint, vereor ne perseverantius saeviant. \Aegatis insulas Erycemque 15 ante oculos proponite, quae terra marique lper quattuor et viginti annos passi sitis.-~N'ec puer hic dux erat, seCd pater ipse Hamilcar, Mars alter, ut isti volunt; sed.Tarento, id est Italia, non abstinueramus ex- foedere,' sicut' nunc Sagunto non abstinemus. 20 Yicerunt ergo cdii homines, et id de equo verbis a gmbebatuiq uter. popiulus foedus rupisset, eventus belli, velut aeq'nus judexuunle jus stabat, e"i victoriatm dedit. \Carthagini. nunc Hannibal vineas turresque admovet, Carthaginis moenia quatit ariete. 25 Sagunti- ruinae (falsus utinam vates sim!) nostris capitibus incident, susceptumque'cum Saguntinis bellum habendium cum Romanis est.\ Dedemus ergo IHannibalem? dice t aliquis. Scio meam levem esse, in eo auctoritatem propter paternas inimicitias >sed 30 et HWamilcarem.eo perisse laetatus sum, quod, si ille viveret, bellumn jam' haberemus cum Romanis, et hunc jtiveuein tamqwam furiam facernque hujus belli odi ac: detestor;\ne dedendum solum ad piaculum rupti foederis, sed, si nemo deposcat, deveheidniA in 35 ultimas maris terrarumnque oras, ablegaihdm co, iulnde nec ad nos nomen famaque ejus accidere, neque ille sollicitare quietae civitatis statum possit.'Ego ita ceniiseo, legatos extemfplo Romam mittendos qui

Page  92 92 — TITI- LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA senatui satisfaciant; alios qui Haninibali nuntient ut exercitum ab Sagunto abducat, ipsumque Hannibalem ex foedere Romrnis dedant; tertiam legationem ad res Saguntinis reddendas decerno." 5;XI. KCum Hanno perorasset, nemini omnium certare oratione cur1 eo necesse fuit; adeo prope omlnis senatus Hannibalis erat, infestiusque locutum arguebant Hannonem qiuami Flaccum Valerium, legatum RomanuniSlu esponsunm inde legatis Romanis est, 10'bellurn ortum ab Saguntinis, non ab Hannibale esse; poptlum Romanum injuste facere, si Saguntinos vetustissimae Carthaginiensium societati praeponat.' \ Dum Romani tempus terunt legationibus mitten15 dis, Hannibal, quia fessum militeii proeliis operibusque habebat; paucorum iis dierum quietem dedit, stationibus ad custodiam vinearum aliorumque operum dispositis.KInterim animos eorum nunc ira in -hostis stimulando, nune spe praemiorum accendit.; 20 ut vero pro contione praedam captae urbis edixit militum iore, adeo accensi omnes sunt, ut, si.extemplo signum datum esset, nulla vi resisti videretur posse.\Saguntini ut a proeliis quietem habuerant, nec lacessentes nec lacessiti per aliquot dies, ita non 25 nocte non die umquam cessaverant ab opere, ut novun niururn ab ea parte, qua patefactum oppidum ruinis erat, reficerent.Ilnde oppugnatio eos aliquanto atrocior quam ante adorta eit, nec, qua primum aut potissimum parte ferrent -opei, cum: omnia variis 30 clamoribus streperent, satis scire poterant. N Ipse Hannibal, qua turris mobilis, omnia munimenta urbis superans altitudine, agebatur, hortator aderat., Quae cum admota, catapultis ballistisque per onnia tabulata dispositis, nluros defensoribus nudasset, tumr 35 Hannibal occasionem ratus, qtungentos ferime.Afos cum dolabris- ad subruendniimn abinmo murum:nittit. Nec erat difficile oplus, quod caemebta non calce durata erant, sed illterlita luto, structurae antiqua genere. Itaque latius quam qua caederetur ruebat,

Page  93 LIBER XXI, 11-12..93 perque patentia ruinis agmina armatorum. in urbem vadebant. Locum quoque editu' icaipiunt, conlatisque eo catapultis ballistisque, ut castellum in ipsa urbe velut. arcern inminentem haberent, muro. circumJant. Et Saguntini murum: interioreu, ab non- 5 duml capta parte urbis ducunt. Utirimque summa vi et muniunt et pugnant; sed, interiora tuendo, minorem in dies urbem- Saguntini faciunt. Simlul crescit inopia onmniurn longa obsidione, et minuitur expectatio externae opis, cum tam procul Romnani, 10 -uiica spes, circa omnia hostium essent. Paulimper timen adfectos animos recreavit repe'ntina profactio 1iannibalis in Oretanos Carpetanosque, qui duo po-:1puli,,d llef acerbitate consternati, retentis, con-'quisitoribus,'metum defectionis cum praebuissent, 15'oppressi celeritate Hannibalis omiserunt mota' arma. XII. Nec Sagunti oppugnatio segnior erat, Ma-, harbale Himilconis filio (eum praefecera't Hannibal):ita inpigre rein agente, ut ducem abesse, nec. cives nec hostes sentirent. Is et proelia aliquot secu.nda 20 fecit, et tribus arietibus aliquantumn muri discussit, strataque orilia recitibus rui'is advenienti Hannibali ostendit. Itaque ad ipsam arcem extemplo ductus exercitus, atroxque proelium cum, s 5 utrimque caede initum, et pars arcis capta s 25. Teinptata' deinde per- duos est exigua pacis spes, Alconemn Saountinurn et Alorcum Hispanum. Alco, insciis Saguntinis: precibus aliquid moturum ratus, cum ad Hannlllibalem noctu Vransisset, postquam nihil lacrimnae moveban't condicionesque tristes. ut ab. irato 30 victore ferebantur, transfug'ex oratore factus'apud hosterm mansit,'morituru'."adfirmans qui sub condicionibuls sii de pace. a.L Postulabatur autem, reddererit res: Turdetanis, tra;ditoque omni auro atque argentt egressi urbe cuM"'singulis vestimentis ibi 35 habirent ubi Poenus- Jussisset. Has.pacis leges abnukente Alcone accepturos Saguntinos, Alorcus,: vinci ui;n/imos, ubi alia vincaituth adfirmans, se pacis ejus, initerpretem fore pollicetur; erat autein turn

Page  94 94 TITI LIVI,ASB VRBE CONDITA miles Hannibalis, ceterum publice Saguntinis amicus atque hospes. Tradito palam telo custodibus hostium, transgressus munimenta_ ad praetorerm Sagun-, tinumr (et ipse ita jubebat) est deductus Quo cum 5 extemplo concursus omnis generis hominunm esset factus, subinota -cetera multitudine, senatus Alorco datus est, cujus talis oratio fuit: XIII. "Si civis vester Alco, sicut ad pacem petendam ad Hannibalem venit, ita pacis condiciones 10 ab Hannibale' ad vos retulisset, supervacaneum hoc mihi fuisset iter, quo, nec orator Hannibalis nec transfuga:ad vos veni; sed cum ille aut vestra aut sua culpa manserit apud hostem (sua, si metum simnulavit, vestra, si periculum est apud vos vera 15 referentibus), ego, ne ignoraretis esse aliquas et salutis et pacis vobis condiciones, pro vetusto hospitio, quod mihi vobiscim est, ad vos veni. -'Vestra autem causa me, nec ullius -alterius, loqui quae loquor apud vos, vel ea fi4-s sit, quod neque dum vestris viribus 20:restitistis, neque dum auxilia ab Romanis sperastis, pacis: umquam apud vos mentionem feci. Postquam nee ab Romnanis vobis ulla est spes, nec vestra'vos jam aut. arma aut moenia satis defendunt, pacem adfero ad vos magis necessariam quam aequam.. 25. Cujus ita aliqua spes est, si earn, quern ad modurnm ut victor fert Hannibal, sic vos ut victi;dietis, et non id quod amittitur in- damno, cum omnian victoris sint, sed quidquid relinquitur pro munere, habituri estis. Urbem vobis, quam ex magna parte dirutamn, captam 30 fere Itotam- habet, adimit, agros relinquit, locum. adsignaturus in quo novurnm oppiduim aedificetis: aurum et argentum omne, publicum privatumque, aad se jubet de-i.: corpora vestra, conljugum ac l:iberoruir vestrorum, servat inviolata, si inermes cunm binis:es35 timentis velitis ab Saghnto exire. taee' victor-: hostis imperat; haec, quamquam suint gravia atq.ie a: erta, fortuna vestra vobis suadet, Equidem: haaud despero, cum omnium potestas ei facta sit, aliquidd- e khis::re bus remissurumi; sed vel haec patienda censeo, potiii:U

Page  95 LIBER XXI, 13-15. 95 quam trucidari corpora vestra, rapi trahique ante ora vestra conjuges ac liberos belli jure sinatis." /t XIV. Ad haec audienda, cum, circumfusa pau-'latim multitudine, permixtum senatii esset populi concilium, repente primores9 secessione facta, pri- -5 usquam responsum daretur, argentum aurumq.ue omne ex publico privatoquej in forum conlatum in ignem ad id raptim factum conicientes, eodem pleri-. que semet ipsi praecipitaverunt.Y Cum ex eo pavor ac trepidatio totam urbem pervasisset, alius insuper 10 tumultus ex arce auditur. Turris diu-quassata prociderat, perque ruinam ejus cohors Poenorumsimpetu facto,cum signum impevatori dedisset nudatam stationibhs custodiisque solitis hostium esse urbem, non cubctandum in tali occasione ratus Hannibal, totis 15 viribus adgressu$ u.irbem,momento cepit, signo dato, ut omnes pub e terficerenu, Qduod imperium crudele, ceterum prope necessarium cognitum ipso eventu est: cui enim parci potuit ex iis, qui aut:inclusi cum conjugibus ac liberis domos super se ipsos 20 concremraverunt, aut armati nullum ante finem pugnae quam morientes fecerunt? XV. Captum oppidum est cum ingenti praeda'. Quamquam pleraque ab dominis de industria corrupta erant, et in caedibus- vix ullum dis-crimen 25 aetatis ira fecerat, et captivi militum praeda fuerant, tamen et ex pretio rerum venditarum. aliquantum pecuniae redacturn esse constat, et multam pretiosam supellectilem vestemque missam' Carthaginem.:'- OayQmense quam coeptum oppugnari capturl 30 Saguntum -u scripsere; iide Cartha;ginem Novam in hiberna Hannibalem concessisse; quinto deinde mense quam ab Carthagine profectus sit in Italiam pervenisse. \ Quae si ita sunt, fieri non potuit ut P.;,"!Cornelius Ti. Sem-pronius consules fuerint, 35' ad quo:.et princlpio oppugnatlonlislegati Saguntini missi sint,'et qui in suo magiktratu cum Hannibale,. alter ad' Ticinum amnem, ambo altquanto post ad Tream, pugnaverint. " Aut omnia ybreviora ali-',:.i..,.:-. ~,,

Page  96 96 TITI LIVI A'B VRBE CONDITA quanto.fuere, aut Saguntum principio anni quo P. -Cornelius Ti. Semproniu consules fuerunt, non coeptum oppugnari est, sed captuml.n' Narn excessisse pugna ad r'rebiam in annum Cn. Servili et C. Fla5 mini non potest, quia C. Flaminius, Arim'ini consulatum iniit, creatus a Ti. Sernpronlo consiile, qui post pugnam ad Trebiam ad creandos consules Romaln cuin venisset, comitlls perfectis ad exercitum in hiberna rediit. 10 XVI. Sub idem fere tempus et legati, qui redierant ab Carthagine, Romam retulerunt omnia hostilia esse, et Sagunti excidium nuntiatum est; tantusque simul maeror patres misericordiaque sociorum peremptorum indigne et pudor non lati 15 auxilii et ira in Carthaginienses metusque de summa reyrum cepit, velut si jam ad portas hostis esset, ut tot uno tempore motibus animi'turbati trepidarent magis quam consulereilt\nam neque hostem acriorein bellicosioremque secum congressum, nec rem Ro20 manam tam desidem umquam fuisse atque inbellem.> Sardos Cors oque.et Tistros atque Illyrios lacessisse magis quam exercuisse Romana arma,- et cum Gallis tu'multuatum verius quam belligelatum: Poen'im, hostem veteranum, trium et viginti annorunm militia 25 durissima inter Hispanas gentes' semper victorem, duci acerrlmo adsuetum, receitem ab excidio opulentissimae urbis, Hiberum t trahere secumr tot excitos Hispanorum populos; concituyum avidas,semper armorum, Gallicas gentes: cum orbe. ter30 rarum bellum gerendum -in Italia ac pro moenibus Romanis esse. XVII. Nominatae jam antea consulibus provinciae erant; tumrn sortiri jussi. \Cornelio.Hispania,:Sempronio Africa cumr Sicilia: evenit..:,: e:;xin:eum.35 annum decretae legiones, et soucitm: quatuui!psis,.:ideretur, et classis quanta pararni posset. -t.. et viginti peditum Romanorum- iilih:sa pte:hille octingenti equites, sociorum qiadra.gitCami'i' peditum, qaattuor milia:et quadringenti eq1ite;

Page  97 LIBER XXI,' 16-18. - 97 naves ducentae viginti quinqueremes, celoces Viginti deducti.' -Latum inde ad populum, vellent juberent populo Carthaginiensi bellum indici; ejusque belli causa supplicatio per urbem habita atque adorati dii, ut bene ac feliciter eveniret quod bellum populus'5 Romanus jussisset. Inter- consules ita copiae divisae: Sempronio datac legiones. duae (ea quaterna milia erant peditum et treceni equites) et sociorum sedecim n ilia peditum, equites mille octingenti; naves longae centum sexa-'10 ginta, celoces duodecim. Cum-his terrestribus maritimisque copiis Ti. Senpronius.:missus in Siciliam, ita ill Africam transmissurus,: si ad arcendum Italia Poenum consul alter satis -esset. Cornelio minus copiarurm datum, quia L. Manlius praetor et ipse 15 cum haud invalido praesidio in Galliam mittebatur; navium maxime Cornelio numerus deminutus;: sexaginta quinqueremes datae (neque enim mari yenturumn aut ea parte belli dimicaturum hostem credebant) et duae Romanae legiones cum suo justo 20 equitatu et quattuordecim milibus sociorum peditum, equitibus mille sexcentis. Duas legiones Romanas et decem milia sociorum peditum, mille equites sociQs, sexcentos Romahos Gallia provincia eodem":' e s~a in' Punicumrn bellurn habuit. 25 XVIII. His ita conparatis, ut omnia justa ante bellum fierent, legatos majores natu, Q. Fabium, M. Liviumn, L. Aemilium, C. Licinium, Q. Baebium, in Africam mittunt ad -percunctandos Carthaginienses, publicone consilio'Hannibal Saguntu.. oppugnasset, 30 et si,: id quod facturi videbantur, faterentu-r ac: defenderent publico consilio factum,'ut- indicerent populo Carthaginiensi bellum.x Romani postquam. / Carthaginem veierunt, cum% senatus datus esset, et Q. Fabius nihil ultra quamn puiinm quod mandatum 35 erat:i: perqunctatus esset, tuim:" -ex Carthaginiensibus unus:- "raeceps vestra, Romani, et prior legatio_ fuit,. cum.Hannibalem tamquam suo consilio Sa; guntum:oppgnantem deposcebatis.; ceterum haee 7 -Livjy..

Page  98 98 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA legatio verbis adhuc lenior est, re asperior. Tune enim Hannibal et insimulabatur et deposcebatur; nunc ab nobis, et confessio culpae exprimitur, et, ut a confessis, res extemplo repetuntur. Ego autem 5 non,'privato publicone consilio Saguntum oppugnatum sit,' quaerendum censeam, sed'utrum jure an injuria;' nostra enim haec quaestio atque animadversio in civem nostrum est, quid nostro aut suo fecerit arbitrio; vobiscum una disceptatio est, 10 licueritne per foedus fieri. Itaque quoniam discerni placet, quid publico consilio, quid sua sponte imperatores faciant, nobis vobiscum foedus esit C. Lutatio consule ictum, in quo cumr cav'%leRgt utrorumque sociis, nihil de Saguntinis (needum enim erant socii 15 vestri) cautum est.'At enim eo foedere, quod cum Hasdrubale ictum est, Saguntini excipiuntur.' Adversus; quod ego nihil dicturus sum, nisi quod a vobis didici: vos enim quod C. Lutatius consul primo nobiscum foedus icit, quia neque auctoritate patrum 20 nec populi jussu ictum erat, negastis vos eo teneri, itaque aliud de integro foedus publico consilio ictum est. Si vos non tenent foedera vestra nisi ex auctoritate aut jussu vestro icta, ne nos quidem H-Idrubalis foedus, quod nobis insciis icit, obligare potuit. 25:Proinde omittite Sagunti atque Hiberi mentionem facere, et quod diu parturit animus vester aliquando ~ pariat."'~:.. Turn Romanus, sinu ex toga facto, "hic" inquit "vobis bellum et pacem portamus; utrum placet, 30 sumite." Sub hanc, vocem haut minus ferociter,'daret utrum, vellet,' subclamatum est. Et cum is iterum, sinu effuso, bellum: dare dixisset, accipere se omrnes responderunt, et, quibus acciperent aimnis., isdem se gesturos. 35 XIX. Haec derecta percunctatio ac deiw:urtiatiod6 belli magis ex dignitate populilRomasni visa:-est:quan -de foederum jure verbis disceptare, cum iate;!tui. rmatxime Sagunto excisa. Nanl si verborumr di::d t!onis res. esset, quid. foedus HasdrubaS -QuA: L-;

Page  99 LIBER XXI, 19-20. 9:9 tatii priore foedere, quod mutatum est, conparandum eiat? cum in Lutati foedere dis ee';aditym esset, ita id ratum fore, si populus scivisset, in Hasdrubalis foedere nec exceptum tale quicquam fuerit, et tot annorum silentio itavivo eo,conprobatum sit foedus, 5 ut ne mortuo quidem auctore quicquam mutaretur. Quamquam, et si priore foedere staretur, satis cautum erat Saguntinis, sociis utrorumque exceptis; nami. neque additum erat'iis. qui tunc essent,' nec'ne qui postea adsumerentur.' Et cum adsumere novos 10 liceret socios, quis aequum censere~t aut ob nulla quemquam merita in amicitiam recipi, aut receptos in fidem non defendi? tantum ne Carthaginiensiumi socii aut sollicitarentur ad defectionem, aut sua sponte desciscentes reciperentur.' 15 Legati Romani ab Carthagine, sicut iis Romae imperatuni erat; in Hispaniam, ut adirent civitates et in societatem perlicerent aut averterent a Poenis, trajecerunt.' Ad Bargiisios primujve'nerunt, a quibus benigne excepti, quia taedebat imperii Punici; 20 multos trans Hiberum populos ad cupidinem novae fortunae erexerunt. Ad Volcianos inde est ventum, quorum celebre per Hispaniam responsumrn ceteros populos ab' societate Romana avertit. Ita enim maximus natu ex iis in concilio respondit: "quae 25 verecundia est, Romani, postulare vos, uti vestram Carthaginiensiurm amicitiae praeponamus, oum qui id fecerunt, Saguntinos, crudelius quam Poenus hostis'perdidit, vos socii prodideritis? Ibi quaeratis socios censeo, ubi Saguntina clades ignota est. His- 30 panis populis, sicut lugubre, ita insigne documentum Satgunti ruinae erunt, ne quis fidei Romanae aut societati confidat." Inde extemplo abire finibus Volcianorum jussi, ab nullo deinde concilio Hispaniae benigniora verba tulere. Ita nequiquam 35 peragrata Hispania in Galliam transeunt. X;X. In isS nova terribilisque species visa.est, quod armati (ita mos gentis erat) in concilium venenit. Cltum, verbis. extollentes gloriam- virtutemque

Page  100 1.u00 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA populi Romani ac magnitudinem imperii, petissent, ne Poeono bellurn Italiae inferenti per agros urbesque suas transiturn- darent, tantus cum fremitu risus dicltur o'rtts, ut vix a magistratibus majoribusque 5 natu juventus sedaretur; adeo stolida inpudensque postulatio visa est, censere, ne. in Italiam transmittant Galli bellurn, ipsos id avertere in se, agrosque suos pro alienis populandos obicere.k'Sedato tandem fremitu, responsum lqgatis est, neque Romanorum in 10 se meritum esse neque:Car1fhaginiensium injuriam, ob quae aut pro Romanis aut adversus Poenos sumant arma; contra ea audire sese, gentis suae homines agro finibusque Italiae pelji a populo Romano stipendiumque pendere et cetera indigna pati. Eadem ~15ferme in ceteris Galliae conciliis dicta auditaque; ~tnec hospitale quicquam pacatjumve satis prius audiAtum quam Massiliam venere. Ibi omnia ab sociis inquisita cum cura ac fide cognita: praeoccupatos jam ante ab Hannibale Gallorum animos esse; sed 20 ne illi quidem ipsi satis mitem gentem fore (adeo ferocia atque indomita ingenia e")-, -ni subinde auro, cujus avidissima gens est, principum animi concilientur. Ita peragratis Hispaniae et Galliae populis, -legati Romam redeunt, haud ita multo post quam:25 consules in provincias profecti erant. Civitatem omnem expectatione belli erectam invenerunt, satis constante fama jam Hiberum Poenos tramisisse.:"XXI. Hannibal Sagunto capto Carthaginemn Novam in hiberna concesserat, ibique auditis quae Ro30 mae quaeque Carthagine acta decretaque forent, seque non ducem solum sed etiam causam esse belli, partitis divenditisque reliquiis praedae,.nihil ultra differendum ratus, Hispani generis milites convocat. "Credo ego.os," inquit, "socii, et ipsos cernere, 35 pacatis omnibus Hispaniae.populis, aut finiendam nobis militiam exercitusque dimittendos esse, aut in alias terras transferendum bellum; ita enim hae.gentes non pacis soli'm sed etiam victoriae honios.florebunt, si ex aliis gen-tibus praedam et.glri..

Page  101 LIBER XXI, 21-22. 101 qpaeremus. Itaque cule longinqua a domo instet tTit'~aJ,'incertumque sit, quando domos vestras et quae cuique ibi cara sunt visuri sitis, si quis vestum suos invisere volt, conmeatum do. Primo vere edico adsitis, ut, diis bene juvantibus, bellum ingentis glo- 5 riae praedaeque futurum incipiamus." Omnibus fere visendi domos oblata'ultr potestas grata erat, et jam desiderantibus. suos et longius in fuituruni providentibus desideri`lP. r totutm tempus hiemis quies inter labores aut jam exhaustos aut 10 mox exhauriendos renovavit. corpora animosque ad omnia de integro patienda. Vere primo ad edictum convenere. Hannibal, cum recensuisset omnium gentium auxilia, Gadis profectus,Herculi vota exsolvit, novisque 15 se obligat votis, si cetera prospera evenissent. Inde partiens curas simul' in inferendurn atque arcendum bellum,. ne, durnm ipse terrestri per Hispaniam Galliasque itinere' Italiam peteret, nuda apertaque Romanis Africa ab Sicilia esset, valido praesidio 20 firmare eam statuit; pro eo supplementum ipse ex Africa maxime jaculatorum, levium armis, petiit, utAfri in Hispania, Hispani in Africa, melior procul ab domo futurus uterque miles, velut mutuis pigneribus. obligati, stipendia facerent.' Tredecim milia 25 octingentos quinquaginta pedites cetratos misit in Africam, et funditores Baleares octingehtos septuaginta, equites mixtos ex multis gentibus mille ducentos. Has copias partim Carthagini praesidio esse, partim distribui per Africam jubet. Simul conqui- 30 sitoribus in civitates missis, quattuor milia conscripta delectae juventutis, praesidium' eosdem et obsides, duci Carthiaginem jubet. XXII. Neque Hispania-m neglegendam ratus, atque id- eo minus, quod haud ignarus erat, circum- 35 itan ab: Romanis eamrn legatis ad sollicitandos principum aninmos Hasarubali fratri, viro inpigro, eam provinciam destinat, firmatque eum Africis maxime praesidiis, peditum Afrorum undecim milibus octin-.

Page  102 102 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA gentis quinquaginta, Liguribus trecentis, Baliaribus quingentis. Ad haec peditum auxilia additi equites Libyphoenices, mixtum Punicurn Afris genus, quadringenti quinquaginta, et Numidae Maurique, 5 accolae Oceani, ad mille octingenti, et parva Ilergeturn manus ex Hispania, ducenti equites, et, ne quod terrestris deesset auxilii genus, elephanti viginti unus. Classis praeterea data ad tuendam maritumam oram,lsuia, qua parte belli vicerant, ea tum quoque 10 rem gesturos Romnanos credi poterat,'quinquaginta quinqueremes, quadriremes duae, trirenies quinque; sed aptae instructaeque remigio triginta et duae quinqueremes erant et triremes quinque. Ab Gadibus Carthaginem ad hiberna exercitus 15 rediit; atque inde profectus. praeter t Omissam urbem ad Hiberum maritima ora ducit. Ibi farma est in quiete visum ab eo juvenem divina specie, qui se ab Jove diceret. ducem in Italiam Hannibali missum: proinde sequeretur, neque usquarn a se deflecteret 20 oculos. Pavidum primo, nusquam circumspicientem aut respicientem,.secutum; deinde cura ingenii humani, cum, quidnam id esset quod respicere vetitus esset, agitaret animo, temperare oculis nequivisse; tum vidisse post see.. serpentem inira magnitudine 25 curn ingyenti arborum ac virgultorum strage ferri, ac post inseq-ul- um fragore caeli nimbum. Tum, quae moles ea quidve prodigii esset, quaerentem audisse, vastitatem italiae esse; pergeret porro ire, nec ultra inquireret, sineretque fata in occulto esse.. 30 XXIII. Hoc visu laetus tripertito Hiberuml copias trajecit, praemissis qui Gallorum animos, qua traducendus exercitus erat, donis conciliarent, Alpiumque transitus specularentur. Nonaginta milia peditum, duodecim milia equitum Hiberum traduxit. 3:5 Ilergetes inde Bargusiosque et Ausetanos et Lacetaniam, quae-subjecta Pyrenaeis montibus est, subegit, oraeque huic omni praefecit Hannonem, ut fauces, quae Hispanias Galliis jungunt, in potestate essent. Decem milia peditum Hannoni ad praesidiumi —obti

Page  103 LIBER XXI, 23-25. 103 nendae regionis data, et mille equites. Postquam per Pyrenaeum salturn traduci exercitus est coept/us, rumorque per barbaros manavit certior de bello Romano, tria milia inde Carpetanorurn peditum iter averterunt. Constabat non1 tam bello motos, quam 5 longinquitate viae insuperabilique Alpium trantitu, Hannibal, quia revocare aut vi retinere eos anuceps erat, ne ceterorum etiarn feroces anirni inritarentur, supra septem milia hominum dornos remisit, quos et ipsos gravari militia senserat, Carpetanos quoque ab 10 se dimissos simulans.'XXIV. Inde, ne mora atque otium animos sol-: licitaret, cum reliquis copiis Pyrenaeuin transgreditur, et ad oppidum Iliberri castra locat. Galli quamqcuam Italiae bellum inferri audiebant, tamen, 15 quia vi subactos trans Pyrenaeum Hispanos farma erat praesidiaque valida inposita, metu servitutis ad arma consternati Ruscinonem aliquot populi conveniunt. Quod ubi Hannibali nuntiatum est, moram magis quam bellum metuens, oratores ad regulos 20 eorum misit, conloqui semet ipsum cum iis velle; [et] vel illi propius Iliberrimn accedereat, vel se Ruscinonem prcessurum, ut ex propinquo congressus facilior ess4t; nam et accepturum eos in castra sua se laetum, pec cunctanter se ipsum ad eos ven- 25 turum; hospitem- enim se Galliae, non hostern, advenisse, nec stricturum ante gladium, si per Gallos liceat, quam in Italiam venisset. Et per nuntios quidem haec; ut vero reguli Gallorum, castris ad.lliberrim extemplo motis, haud gravanter ad Poenum 30 venerunt, capti donis cum bona pace exercitum per finis suos praeter Ruscinonem oppidum transmiserunt. XXV. In Italiam interim nihil ultra, qua-m Hiberum transisse Hannibalem, a Massiliensium legatis 35 Romam perlaturn erat, cum, perrinde ac si Alpis jam transisset, Boii sollicitatis Insubribus defecerunt, nec tam ob veteres in populum Ronianum iras, quam quod nuper circa Padum Placentiam Cremonamque

Page  104 104 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA colonias in agr-um Gallicumr deductas aegre patiebantur. Itaque armis repente arreptis, in eum ipsum agrum iimpetu facto, tantum terroris ac tumultus fecerunt, ut non agrestis modo nlultitudo, sed ipsi 5 triumviri Romani, qui ad agrum venerant adsignandum, diffisi Placentiae moenibus Mutinam confugertint, C. Lutatius, C. Servilius, M. Annius. Lutati nomen haud dubium est; pro Annio Servilioque M'. Aciliunm et C. Herennium habent quidaum annales, 10 alii P. Cornelium Asinam et C. Papirium Masonem. Id quoque dubium est, legati ad expostulandurn missi ad Boios violati sint, an in triumnviros agrum metantis impetus sit factus. Mutinae cum obsiderentur, et gens ad oppugnan15 darum urbium artes rudis, pigerrimna eadem ad militaria opera, segnis intactis adsideret muris, simulari coeptum de pace agi; evocatique ab Gallorum principibus legati ad conloquium, non contra jus modo gentium, sed violata -etiam, quae data in id tempus 20 erat, fide, conprehenduntur, negantibus Gallis, nisi:obsides sibi' redderentur, eos dimissuros. Cum haec de legatis nuntiata essent et Mutina praesidiumque in periculo esset, L. Manlius praetor ira accensus effusum agmen ad Mutinam ducitVSilvae tune 25 circa viam erant, plerisque incultis. [bi, inexplorato profectus, in insidias praecipitat, multaque cum caede suorum aegre in apertos camnpos eemersit. Ibi castra colnmunita, et, quia Gallis ad temptanda ea defuit spes, refecti sunt militum animi, quarnquam ad [quin30 gentos] cecidisse satis constabat. Iter deinde de integro coeptum, nec, dum per patentia loca ducebatur agmen, apparuit hostis; ubi rursus silvae intratae, tum postremos adorti cum magna trepidatione ac pavore omnium septingentos milites occiderunt, sex 35(signa ademere. Finis et Gallis territandi et pavendi fuit Romanis, ut e saltu invio atque inpedito evasere. Inde apertis locis facile tutantes agmen Roman tannetum, vicum propincum Pado, contendere. Ibi se munimento ad tempus commeatbusque- fluminis et

Page  105 LIBER XX I, 25-26. 1;05 Brixianorum etiam Gallorum auxilio adversus crescentem in dies multitudinem hostium tutabantur. XXVI. Qui tumultus repens postquam est Romam perlatus, et Punicum insuper Gallico bellum. auctum patres acceperunt, C. Atilium praetorern cum 5 una legione Romana et quinque milibus sociorum, dilectu novo a consule conscriptis, auxilium ferre Manlio jubent; qui sine ullo certamine (abscesserant enim metu hostes) rannetum pervenit. Et P. Cornelius, in loczum ejus, quae missa cum 10 praetore erat, scripta legione nova, profectus ab urbe sexaginta longis navibus, pra@ter oram Etruriae-'Ligurumque et inde Salyum montis pervenit Massiliam, et ad proxunuln ostiuin Rhodani (pluribus enim divisus amneis in mare decurrit) castra locat, 15 vixdum satis credens Hannibalem superasse Pyrenaeos montis. Quem ut de Rhodani quoque transitu agitare animadvertit, incertus, quonam ei loco occurreret, necdum satis refectis ab jactatione marituma militibus, trecentos interim delectos equites ducibus 20 Massiliensibus et auxiliaribus Gallis ad exploranda omnia visendosque ex tuto hostes praemittit. Hannibal, ceteris metu aut pretio pacatis, jam in Volcarum pervenerat agrum, gentis validae. Col'unt autem circa utramque ripain Rhiodani; sed diffisi;25 citeriore agro arceri Poenum posse, ut'flumen pro. munimento haberent, omnibus ferme suis trans Rhodanum trajectis, ulteriorem ripam amnis arinis obtinebant. ~Ceteros accolas fluminis Hannibal et eorum ipsorum,, quos sedes suae tenuerant, simul perliiciti0 donis ad naves urndique contrahendas fabricandasque, sinul- et ipsi traici exercitum levarique quam prinlurm regionem suam tanta hominum urgente turba cupie- i bant. Itaque ingens coacta vis navium est lintriumque ternere ad vicinalem\usum paratarum; no-!35 Vassque alias primurn Gal inchoante cavabant ex. singulis -arboribus, deinde et ipsi milites, simul copia materiae simul facilitate operis inducti, alveos informes, nihil dummodo innare aquae et capere onera

Page  106 106 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA possent curantes, raptim, quibus se suaque transveherent, faciebant. XXVII. Jamque omnibus satis conparatis ad traiciendum, terrebant ex adverso hostes, omnem 5 ripam equites virique obtinentes; quos ut averteret, Hannoneml Bomilcaris filium vigilia prima noctis cum parte copiarum, maxime Hispanis, adverso flumine ire iter unius diei jubet, et, ubi primum possit, quam occultissime trajecto amni, circum10 ducere agmen, ut, cum opufs facto sit, adoriatur ab tergo hostem. Ad id dati duces Galli edocent, inde milia quinque et viginti ferme supra parvae insulae circumfusum amnem latiore, ubi dividebatur, eoque minus alto alveo transiturn ostendere. Ibi raptim 15 caesa materia ratesque fabricatae, in quibus equi virique et alia onera traicerentur. Hispani sine ulla mole, in utres vestimentis conjectis, ipsi caetris superpositis incubantes flumen tranavere. Et alius exercitus rattbus junctis trajectus, castris prope- j 20 flumen positis, nocturno itinere atque operis labore -:fessus quiete unius diei reficitur, intento duce ad consilium opportune exsequendum. Postero die profecti ex loco edito fumo significant transisse se et baud procul Ibesse; quod ubi accepit Hannibal, ne tem25 pori deesset, dat signum ad traiciendum. Jam paratas aptatasque habebat pedes lintres, eques fere propter equos naves. Navium agmen ad excipiendum adversi impeturm fluminis parte superiore transmittens, tranquillitatem infra traicientibus lintribus 30 praebebat. Equorunr pars magna. nantes loris a puppibus trahebantur, praeter eos, quos instratos'" frenatosque, ut externplo egresso in ripam equiti usui essent, inposuerant in naves. 4,-XXVIII. Galli occursant in ripa cum variis 35 ululatibus cantuque moris sui, quatientes scuta super capita vibrantesque dexteris tela, quamquam:et ex adverso terrebat tanta vis naviurn cum ingenti so0o.fluminis et clamore vario nautarum militumque; et qui nitebantur perrumpere impeturn fluminis et qui:

Page  107 LIBER XXI, 27-28. 107 ex altera ripa traicientes suos hortabantur. Jam satis paventes adverso tumultu terribilior ab tergo adortus clamor, castris ab Hannone captis. Mox et ipse aderat, ancepsque terror circumstabat, et e nlavibus tanta vi armatorum ill terrain evadente et ab 5 tergo inprovisa premente acie. Galli, postquam utroque vim facere conati pellebantur, qua patere visum maxime iter, perrumpunt, trepidique in vicos passimn suos diffugiunt. Hannibal, ceteris copiis per otiuin trajectis, spernens jam Gallicos tumultus, castra 10 locat. Elephantorum traiciendorumi varia consilia fuisse credo; certe variat memnoria actae rei.'Quidam congregatis ad ripam elephanti.tradunt ferocissimum ex iis inritatum ab rectbre suo, cum relugien- 15 tern in aquam [nantemrn] sequeretur traxisse gregem, ut quemque timentem altitudinem Aestitueret vadum, impetu.ipso fluminis in alteram,riparn rapiente. Ceterulm magis constat ratibus trajectos; id ut tutius') consilium ante rem foret, ita acta re ad fidem pronius 20. est. Ratem unam, ducentos'longam pedes, quinquaginta latam, a terra in amnem porrexerunt, quam, ne secunda aqua deferretur, pluribus validis retinaculis parte superiore ripae religatam pontis in'modum hunmo injecta constraverunt, ut beluae audacter velut 25 per solum ingrederentur., Altera ratis aeque lata, longa pedes centum, ad- traiciendum flumen apta, huic copulata est; tum elephanti per stabilem ratem tamquam viam, praegredientibus feminis, acti ubi in minoremr adplicatam transgressi sunt, extemplo reso- 30 lutis quibus leviter adnexa erat vilnculis, ab actuariis aliquot navibus ad alteram ripam pertrahitur. Ita -primis expositis, alii deinde repetiti ac trajecti sunt.:Nihil sane trepidabant, donec continenti velut ponteagerentur; primus. erat pavor, cum, soluta ab ceteris 35 rate, in altum raperentur; ibi urgentes inter se, cedentibus extremis ab aqua, trepidationis aliquan-.turn edebant, donec quietem ipse timor circumspectantibus aquam fecisset.: Excidere etiam saevientes

Page  108 108 TITI LIVI AB VRBE OONDITA quidam in flumen; sed pondere ipso stabiles, dejectis rectoribus, quaerendis pedetemptim vadis in terram evaLsere. XXIX. Dum elephanti traiciuntur, interim Han5 nibal Nurnumidas equites quingentos ad castra Roinana miserat speculaturn, ubi et quantae copiae essent et quid pararent. Huic alae equitum missi, ut ante dictum est, ab ostio Rhodani -trecenti Romanorum equites occurrunt. Proelium atrocius quam pro 10 numero pugnantium editur; nam praeter multa vulnera caedes etiam prope par utrimque fuit, fugaque et pavor Numnidarunl Romanis jam admodum fessis victoriam dedit. Victores ad centurn sexaginta, nec ormnes Romani, sed pars G(allorunm, victi anlplius 15 ducernti ceciderunt.X Hoc principium simul olpenque belli, iut su-mmae rerum prosperum eventurn, it'abaud sane incruentam ancipitisque certaminis victoriam Romranis portendit. Ut, re ita gesta, ad utrumque ducem sui redierunt, 20 nec SScipioni stare sententia poterat, nisi ut ex consilii coeptisque hostis et ipse conatus ca-peret, et Halnibalem incertum, utrum coeptum in Italiam _intenderet iter, an cum eo, qui primus se obtulisset -Rornanus exercitus, manus consereret, avertit a prae25 senti certamine Boioruml legatorumn regulquiie Magali adventts, qui, se duces itinerum, socios periculi ifore: adfirmantes, integro bello nusquam ante libatis viribus Italiam adgrediendami censent. Multitudo timebat- quidem hostem, nondum oblitterata memoria 30 superioris belli; sed magis iter inmensum Alpesque, ren1 fama utique inexpertis horrendam, metuebat. XXX. Itaque Hannibal, postquam ipsi sententia stetit pergere ire atque Italiam petere, advocata':':contione, varie militum versat aniinos castigan'do 35 adhortandoque:'mirari se, quinam pectora: senmper impavida repens terror invaserit. Per tot annros vrin centis eos stipendia facere, neque ante Hispania excessisse quam omnes gentesque et terrae,. quas duo., diversa maria amplectantur, Carthaginiensium essen.i

Page  109 LIBER XXI, 29-31. 109 Indignatos deinde, quod, quicumque Saguntum obsedissent, velut ob noxam sibi dedi postularet populus Romanus, Hiberum. trajecisse ad delendum nomen Romanorum liberandumque orbein terrarum. Turnum nemini visum id longum, cum ab occasu solis ad 5 exortus intenderent iter; nunc, postquain multo majorem partern itineris emensam cernant, Pyrenaeumn saltum'inter ferocissimnas gentes superatum, Rhodanurn, tantum amnem, tot inilibus Gallorum proliibentibus, domita etiam ipsius fluminis vi, tra- 10 jectum, in conspectu Alpis habeant, quarum alterum latus Italiae sit, in ipsis portis hostium fatigatos subsistere.-quid Alpis aliud esse credentes quamt montium altitudines? Fingerent altiores Pyrenaei jugis; nullas profecto terras caelum contingere nec inex- 15. superabiles humano generi esse. Alpis quidem habitari, coli, gignere atque alere aniamantes; pervias fauces esse exercitibus. Eos ipsos, quos cernant, legatos non pinnis sublime elatos Alpis transgressos. Ne majores quidem eorum indigenas, sed advenas 20 Italiae cultores has ipsas Alpis ingentibus saepe agininibus cum.liberis. ac conjugibus, migrantium modo, tuto transmisisse. Militi quidem armnato, nihil secum praeter instrumenta belli portanti, quid invium aut inexsuperabile esse? Saguntum ut caperetur, 25 quid per octo menses periculi, quid laboris exhausturn esse? Romam, caput orbis terrarum, petentibus.' quicquam'adeo asperum atque arduum videri, quod inceptum moretur? Cepisse quondam Gallos ea, quae adiri posse Poenus desperet; proinde aut 30 cederent animo atque virtute genti per eos dies totiens ab se victae, aut itineris finem sperent campum interjacentem Tiberi ac rnoenibus Romanis.'? XXXI. His adhortationibus incitatos corpora curare:atque ad iter se parare jubet. Postero die 35 profectus adversa ripa Rhodani mediterranea Galliae petit, non quia rectior -ad Alpis via esset, sed, qu.anturn a mari recessisset, minus obvium fore Romnanum::redens, cum quo, priusquam in Italiam ventum

Page  110 110 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA foret, non erat in animo manus conserere. Quartis castris ad Insulam pervenit. Ibi Isara Rhodanusque amnes diversis ex Alpibus decurrentes, agri aliquantum amplexi confluunt in unum; mediis campis Il5 sulae nomen inditum. oIncolunt prope Allobroges, gens jam inde nulla Gallica. gente opibus aut fama inferior. Tum discors erat. Regni certarnine ambigebant fratres; major, et qui prius iniperitarat, Brancus nomine, minore ab fratre et coetu juniorum, 10 qui jure minus, vi plus poterat, pellebatur. Hujus seditionis peropportuna disceptatio cum adFI-annibalem rejecta esset,iwarbiter regni factus, quod ea senatus.principumque sententia fuerat) imperium majori restituit.\f Ob id meriturm commeatu.-copiaque 15 rerum omnium, maxime vestis, est adjutus, quam infames frigoribus Alpes praeparari cogebant. Sedatis certaminibus Allobrogum cum, jam Alpes peteret, non recta regione iter instituit, sed ad laevam in Tricastinos flexit; inde per extremam -20Qoram Vocontiorum agri tendit in Tricorios, haut:usquam inpedita via priusquam ad Druentiam flumen pervenit. Is et ipse Alpinus amnis longe omnium Galliae fluminum difficillimus transitu est; nam, cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen 25 navium patiens est, quia nullis coercitus ripis, pluribus simul neque isdem alveis fluens, nova semper vada novosque gurgites, (et ob eadem pediti quoque incerta via est,) ad hoc saxa glareosa volvens, nihil stabile nec tutum ingredienti praebet. Et turn forte 30imbribus auctus ingentem transgredientibus tumulturn fecit, cum super cetera trepidatione ipsi sua atque incertis clamoribus turbarentur. XXXII. P. Cornelius consul triduo fere postquam Hannibal a ripa Rhodani movit, quadrato 35 agmine ad -castra hostiurn venerat, nullam dimicandi moram facturus; ceterum ubi deserta mnunime.ita nec facile se tantum praegressos adsecuturumn.videt, ad mare ac naves redlit, tutius faciliusque ita des:identi -ab Alpibus Hannibali occursurus. Ne t

Page  111 LIBER XXI, 31-32. 111 nuda:..auxiliis Romanis Hispania esset, quam provinciamr-: sortitus erat, Cn. Scipionem fratrem cum maxima parte copiarum adversus Hasdrubalem misit, non ad tuendos tantummodo veteres socios conciliandosque novos, sed etiam ad pellendum His- 5 pania Hasdrubalem. Ipse cum admodum exiguis copiis Geniramh repetit, eo, qui circa Padum erat exercitus, Italiamr defensurus. Hannibal ab Druentia campestri maxime itinere ad Alpis;:cum bona pace incolentium ea loca Gal- 10 lorum plvenit. Turnm, quamquam fama prius, qua incerta in majus fere ferri' solen., praecepta res erat, tamen ex propinquo visa montiumn altitudo nivesque caelo prope inmixtae, tecta informia inposita rupibus, pecora jumentaque torrida frigore, homines intonsi et 15 inculti, animalia inanimaque ornnia rigentia gelu, cetera visu quam dictu foediora, terrorema renovarunt. Erigentibus in primos agmen clivos apparuerunt inminentes tumulos insidentes montani,.. qui, si valles occultiores insedissent, coorti ad pugnan repente-20 ingentein fugam s4ragemque dedissent.iHannibal consistere signa jussit; Gallisque ad vis nda loca praemissis, postquain conperit transitum ea non esse, castra inter confragosa omnia praergptacque, qum. extentissima potest valle, locat. Tum per eos em 25 Gallos, haud sane multum lingua moribusque abhorrentis cum se inmiscuissent conloquiis moiftanorum, edoctt, interdiu tantum obsideri saltum, nocte in sua quemque dilabi tecta;,luce prima subiit tumulos, ut ex aperto atque interdiu, vim per Agustias facturus. 30' Die deinde simulando aliud quod parabatux consumpto, cum eodem quo:. conferant loco castra communissent, ubi primum degressos tumulis montanos laxatasque sensit custodias, pluribus ignibus quam pro numero manentium in specienm factis, in- 35 pedirmentisque cum equite relictis et maxulea parte peditum, ipse cum expeditis, acerrimo quoque viro, raptim. angustias evadit, iisque ipsis tumulis, quos hotes tenuerant, consedit.

Page  112 112 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA XXXIII. Prima deinde luce castra mota, et agmen relicum incedere coepit. Jam montani signo dato ex castellis ad stationern solitam convenlebant, cum repente conspiciunt alios, arce occupata sua, 5 super caput inminentis, alios via transire hostis. Utraque siLnul objecta res ocuiis animisque inmobiles parumper eos defixit; deinde, ut trepidationenm in angustiislsuoque ipsum tumultu misceri agmen videre, equis maxime consternatis.1 quidquid adjeci1sent ipsi 10 terroris,satis ad perniciem fore rati,: transversls'upibus, per juxta invia ac devia adsueti decurrunt. Turn vero simul ab hostibus, simul ab iniquitate locorum Poeni oppugnabantur, plusque inter ipsos, sibi quoque tendente ut periculo prius evaderet, 15 quam cum hostibus, certaminis erat. Equi maxime infestum agmen faciebant, qui et clamoribus dissonis, quos nemora etiam repercussaeque valles augebant, territi trepidabant, et icti fortve aut vulnerati. adeo consternabantur, ut stragem ingentem simul homi20 num ac sarcinarum omnis generis facerent; multosque turba, cum praecipites deruptaeque utrimque angustiae essent, in inmensum altitudinis dejecit, quOsdinm et armatos; sed ruinae maxime modo jumnenta cum oneribus devolvebantur. Quae quarn25 quam foeda yisu erant, stetit parumper tamen Han-.nibal ac suos continuit, ne. tumultunl ac trepidationem augeret; deinde, postquam.interrumpi agmen vidit periculumque esse, ne exutum inpediinentis_ exercitum nequiquair incolumem: traduxisset, de30 currit ex superiore loco, et, cum irmpetu ipso fudisset hostetn, suis quoque turnultum auxit. Sed is tumultus -nomento tem'oris, postquam liberata itinera fuga montatorum erant, sedatur, nec per otium modo, sed prope silentio mox omnes traducti. Cas35 tellurn inde, quod caput ejus regionis erat, viculosque Circumjectos capit, et captivo cibo ac pecorib.us: per triduum exercitum aluit; et, quia nec a montanis primo perculsis nec loco magno opere Jnpediebaiatuir aliqiautum co triduo viae confecit.

Page  113 LIBEl. XXI 33-35. 113 "XXXIV. Perventum inde ad frequentem cultoribus alium, ut inter montanos, populum. Ibi non bello aperto, sed suis artibus, fraude et insidiis, est prope circumventus. Magn) natu principes castellorum oratores ad Poenum veniunt,'alienis malis, 5 utili exemplo, doctos' memorantes'amicitiam malle quam vim experiri Poenorum; itaque oboedienter imperata facturos, commeatum itinerisque duces et / ad fidem promissorum obsides acciperet.' \ Hannibal,' nec temere credendum nec aspernandum ratus, ne 10 repudiati aperte hostes fierent, benigne cum respondisset, obsidibus quos dabant acceptis et commneatu quem in viam ipsi detulerant usus, nequaquam ut inter pacatos conposito agmine duces eorum sequitur. Primuni agmen elephanti et equites erant; ipse post 15 cum robore peditum circumspectans sollicitus omnia incedebat. Ubi in angustiorem viam et parte altera subjectam jugo insuper inminenti ventum est, undique ex insidiis barbari, a fronte, ab tergo coorti, comminus, eminus petunt, saxa ingentia in agmen de- 20 volvunt. Maxima ab tergo vis hominum urgebat. In eos versa peditum acies haut dubium fecit, quin, nisi' firmata"extrema agminis fuissent, ingens in eo saltu accipienda clades fuerit. Tune quoque ad extremum periculi ac prope perniciem ventum est; nam, 25 dum cunctatur Hannibal demittere agmen in angus- tias, quia non, ut ipse equitibus praesidio erat, ita -- peditibus quicquam ab tergo auxilii reliquerat, occursantes per obliqua montani, interrupto medio agmine, viam insedere, noxque una Hannibali sine 30 equitibus atque inpedimentis acta est. XXXV. Postero die, jam segnius intercursantibus barbaris, junctae copiae, saltusque haud sine clade, majore tamen jumentorum quam hominum pernicie, superatus. Inde montani pauciores jam' et 35 latrocinii magis qua.m belli more concursabant, modo in primumn, modo in novissimum agmen, utcumque' aut locus opportunitatem daret aut progressi norative aliquam' occasionem fecissent. Elephanti, sicuat 8.. Livy.

Page  114 114 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA i per artas praecipitesque vias magna mora agebantur, ita tutum ab hostibus, quacunque incederent, quia insuetis adeundi propius metus erat, agmen praebebant. k 5 INono die in jugum Alpium perventum est per invia pleraque et errores, quos aut ducentium fraus, aut, ubi fides iis non esset, ternere initae valles a conjectantibus iter. faciebant. Biduum in jugo stativa habita, fessisque labore ac pugnando quies data mili10 tibus; jumentaque aliquot, quae prolapsa in rupibus erant, sequendo vestigia agminis in castra pervenere.:Fessis taedio tot malorum nivis etiam casus, occidente jam sidere Vergiliarum, ingentern terrorem adjecit. Per omnnia nive oppleta cum, signis prima luce motis, 15 segniter agmen incederet, pigritiaque et desperatio in omnium vultu emineret, praegressus signa.Hannibal in promunturio quodam, unde longe ac late prospectus erat, consistere jussis militibus Italialn ostentat subjectosque Alpinis montibus Circumpadanos cam20 pos:'moenia eos tum transcendere non Italiae modo, sed etiam urbis Romlanae; cetera plana, proclivia!; fore; uno aut-summum altero proelio arcem et caput; Italiae in manu ac potestate habituros.' - Procedere inde agmen coepit, jam nihil ne hostibus 25 quidem praeter parva furta per occasionem temptantibus. Ceterum iter multo quam in ascensu fuerat (ut pleraque Alpium ab Italia sicut breviora ita arrectiora sunt) difficilius fuit; omnis enim ferme ~via praeceps, angusta, lubrica erat,' ut neque sustinere 30 se a lapsu possent, nec qui paulum titubassent haerere adfixi vestigio suo, aliique super alios et jumenta in homines succiderent. XXXVI. Ventum deinde ad multo angustiorem rupem, atque ita rectis saxis, ut aegre expedites lmiles -35 temptabundus manibusque retinens virgulta.::a. irpes circa eminentes4demittere sese posset..-Ntura locus jam ante praeceps recenti lapsu terrae in- ed'. m mille admodum altitudinem abruptus-erat. ib i-n'velut ad finem viae equites' constitissent, -micrai>tii

Page  115 LIBER XXI, 36-37. 115 Hannibali, quae res. moraretur -agmen, nuntiatur, rupem inviaml esse. Digressus deinde ipse ad locum visendum. Haut dubia res visa, quin per invia circa nec trita antea, quamvis longo ambitu, circumduceret agmen. Ea vero via insuperabilis fuit; nam cum 5 super veterem nivem ini AaAova modicae altitudinis esset, molli nec praealtae facile pedes ingredientiurn insistebant; ut vero tot hominum jumentorumque incessu dilapsa est, per nudam infra glaciem fluentemnque tabem liquescentis nivis ingredie- 10 ~ bantur.. Taetra ibi luctatio erat, via lubrica glacie non recipiente vestigium et-in prono citius pedes fallente, ut, seu manibus in adsurgendo seu genu se, adjuvissent, ipsis adniniculis prolapsis, iterum corruerent; niec stirpes circa radicesve, ad. quas pede 15 aut manu quisquam eniti posset, erant; ita in levi tan turn glacie tabidaque nive volutabantur. Jumenta secabant interdum etiam infimam ingredientia nivem, et prolapsa jactandis gravius in conitendo ungulis penitus perfringebant, ut pleraque, velut pedica 20 capta, haererent in dura et alte concreta glacie. XXXVII. Tandem nequiquam jumentis atque hominibus fatigatis, castra in jugo posita, aegerrime-~ ad id ipsurn loco purgato; tantum nivis fodiendum atque egerendumrn fuit. Inde ad rupem muniendam, 25 per quam unamn,via esse poterat, milites ducti, cum caedendurn esset saxum, arboribus circa inmanibus dejectis detruncatisquej struem ingentem lignorum faciunt, eamnque, cum et vis venti apta faciendo igni coorta esset, succendunt, ardentiaque saxa, infuso 30 aceto, putrefaciunt. Ita torridam incendio rupern ferro pandunt, molliuntque anfractibus modi-is clivos, ut nol jumenta solum, sed elephanti etiam deduci possent. Quadridutm circa rupem consumpturn, JUinentis prope fame absumptis; nuda enim 35 fere cacumina sunt, et si quid est pabuli, obruunt gnives. Inferiora valles apricbsqe'quosdam colles:abhent, rivosque prope silvas, et jam humano cultu:di:niora loca. Ibi jumenta in pabulum missa, et

Page  116 116 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA: quies muniendo fessis hominibus data. Triduo inde ad planum descensum, jam et locis mollioribus et accolarum ingeniis, XXXVIII. Hoc maxime modo in Italiam per5 ventum est, quinto mense a Carthagine Nova, ut quidam auctores sunt, quinto decimo die Alpibus superatis. Quantae copiae transgresso in Italiam Hannibali fuerint, nequaquam inter auctores constat. Qui plurimum, centum milia peditum, viginti equitum 10 fuisse scribunt, qui minimum, viginti milia peditum, sex equitum. L. Cincius Alimentus, qui captum se ab Hannibale scribit, maxime me auctor moveret, nisi. confunderet numerum Gallis Liguribusque additis: curn his octoginta milia peditum, decem equi15 tum adducta; (in Italia magis adfluxisse veri simile est, et ita quidam auctores sunt;) ex ipso autem audisse Hannibale, postquam Rhodanum transierit, triginta sex milia hominum ingentemque numerum equorum et aliorum jumentorum amisisse. Taurini 20 Semigalli proxuma gens erat in Italiam degresso. Id cumn inter omnes constet, eo magis miror ambigi, quanam Alpis transierit, et vulgo credere Poenino (atque inde nomen ei jugo Alpium inditum) transgressum, Coelium per Crenmonis jugum dicere trans25 isse; qui ambo saltus e"jn non in Taurinos, sed per alios montanos ad i's Gallos deduxissent Nec veri simile est ea "t'i Galliam patuisse itinera; utique quae ad Poenim ferunt obsaepta gentibus Semigermanis fuiscin... Neque hercule montibus his, 3Q'si quem forte id:io-:+t)ab transitu Poenorum ullo -Seduni Veragriquiholae jugi ejus, norunt nonzen inditum, sed ab eq4ueim in summo sacratum vertice Poeninum monta.h' appel1ant. XXXIX. P4dopportune ad principia rerumTau35 rinis, proximae genti, adversus Insubres motumn helum erat. Sed armare exercitum Hannibal, ut parti alteri auxilio esset, in reficiendo maxime sentientem contracta ante mala, non poterat; otium enirm ex la-bore, copia ex inopia, cultus ex inluvie-tabeque,

Page  117 LIBER XXI,- 38-40. 117 squalida et prope efferata corpora varie movebat. Ea P. Cornelio consuli causa fuit, cum Pisas navibus venisset, exercitu a Manlio Atilioque accepto tirone. et ill ]novis ignomniniis trepicdo, ad Padum festinandi, ut curn hoste nlolndum refecto manus consereret. Sed' 5 cum Placentiam consul venit, jam ex stativis moverat Hannibal, Taurinorumque unam urbem, caput gentis ejus, quia volentis' in amicitiam non veniebant, vi expugnarat; et junxisset sibi non metu solum, sed etiaml voluntate, Gallos accolas Padi, ni~eos circum- 10 spectantis defectionis tempussubito adventu consul oppressisset. Et Hannibal movit ex Taurinis, incertos, quae pars sequenda esset,- Gallos praesentem secuturos esse ratus. Jam prope in conspectu erant exercitus, convenerantque duces, sicuti inter se non- 15 durn satis noti,-ita jam inbutus uterque quadam admiratione alterius. Nam et Hannibalis apud Romanos, jan ante Sagunti excidium, celeberrimnum nomen erat, et Scipionem Hannibal eo ipso, quod adversus se dux potissimum lectus esset, praestantem 20 virum credebat; et auxerant inter se opinionem, Scipio, quod, relictus in Gallia, obvius fuerat in Italiam transgresso Hannibali, Hannibal et conatu tam audaci traiciendarum Alpium et effectu. Occupavit tamen Scipio Padum traicere, et ad 25 Ticinum amnem motis castris, priusqualm educeret in aciem, adhortandorum militum causa,talem orationem est exorsus: XL. "Si eum exercitum,: milites, educerem in aciem, quem in Gallia mecurn habui, supersedissem 30 loqui apud vos; quid enim adhortari referret. aut eos equites, qui equitatum hostium ad Rhodanum flumen egregie vicissent, aut eas legiones, cum quibus fugientern hunc ipsum hostem secutus ponfessionem cedentis ac detractantis certamen,pro victoria, habui? Nunc, 35 quia ille exercitus, HIispaniae provinciae scriptus, ibi cum fratre Cn. Scipione meis auspiciis rem gerit, ubi eum gerere senatus populusque Romanus voluit, ego, ut.consulem ducem adversus Hannibalem ac Poenos

Page  118 118' TITf LIVI-AB VRBE CONDITA haberetis, ipse -me huic voluntario certamini obtuli, novo imperatori apud novos milites pauca verba facienda sunt. Ne genus belli neve hostem ignoretis, cum iis est vobis, milites, pugnandum, quos terra 5 marique priore bello vicistis, a quibus stipendium per viginti anlnos exegistis, a quibuscapta belli praemia Siciliam ac Sardiniam, habetis. Erit igitur inl hoc certamine is vobis illisque animus, qui victoribus et victis esse solet. Nec nunc illi, quia 10 audent, sed quia necesse est, pugnaturi sunt; nisi creditis, qui exercitu incolumi pugnam detractavere, eos, duabus partibus peditum equitumque in transitu Alpium amissis, [quum plures paene perierint quam supersint,] plus spei nactos esse.'At enim pauci 15 quidem sunt, sed vigentes aninlis corporibusque, quorum robora ac vires vix sustinere vis ulla possit.' Effigies immo, umbrae hominum, fame, frigore, inluvie, squalore enecti, contusi ac debilitati inter saxa rupesque; ad hoc praeusti artus, nive rigentes nervi, 20 membra torrida gelu, quassata fractaque arma, claudi ac. debiles equi.- Cum hoc equite, cum hoc pedite pugnaturi estis; reliquias extremas hostium, non hostem habebitis; ac nihil nlagis vereor, quam ne,:: vos cum pugnaveritis, Alpes vicisse Hannibalem 25; vlideantur. Sed ita forsitan decuit, cum foederum ruptore duce ac populo deos ipsos, sine ulla humana ope pcommittere ac proffigare.belum, nos, qui secundum deos violati sumus, commissum ac profligatum conficere. 30 XLI. Non vereor, ne quis me.haec vestri adhortandi causa magnifice loqui existimet, ipsum aliter animo adfectum esse. Licuit in Hispaniam, provinciam rmeam, quo jam profectus eram, cum exercitu ire meo, ubi et fratrem consilii participem 35 ac periculi socium haberem, et Hasdrubalem' potius quam Hannibalem hostemniet minorem haud dubie: molem belli; tamen, cum praeterveherer navibus, Galliae oram, ad famam hujus hostis in terramin egressus, praemisso equitatu, ad Rhodanum movi castra.

Page  119 LIBER XXI, 40-41. 119 Equestri proelio, qua parte copiarum conserendi manum fortuna data est, hostem fudi; peditum agmen, quod in modum. fugientium raptim agebatur, quia adsequi terra non poteram; regressus ad navis, quanta maxime potui celeritate, tanto maris terra- 5 rumque circuitu, in radicibus prope Alpium huic timendo hosti obvius fui. Utrum, cum declinarem certamen, inprovisus incidisse videor, an occurrere in vestigiis ejus, lacessere ac trahere ad decernendum?'.,xperiri juvat, utrum alios repente Cartha- 10 ginienses per viginti annos terra ediderit, an idem. sint, qui ad Aegatis pugnaverunt insulas, et quos ab Eryce duodevicenis denariis aestimatos,emisistis, et utrum Hannibal hic sit aemulus itineruln'Herculis, ut ipse fert, an vectigalis stip'iediariusque et'servus 15 populi Romania patre relictus. Quem nisi Saguntinum scelus agitaret, respiceret profecto, si non patriam victam,- domum certe: patremque et foedera Hamilcaris scripta manu, qdi jussus ab consule nostro, praesidium deduxit ab Eryce, qi, graves. inpositas 20 victis Carthaginiensibus. Ieges, fremens ma rensque accepit, qui decedere Sicilia, qui stipendium.populo Romano dare pactus est. Itaque vos ego, milites, non eo solum animo quo adversus alios hostes soletis, pugnare velim, sed cum 25 indignatione quadam atque ira, velut si servos videatis vestros arna repente contra vos ferentes. kicuit, ad Erycem clausos ultimo supplicio huma: norum, fale, interficere; licuit victricem classem in Africam traicere atque intra paucos dies sine ullo 30 certamine Carthaginem delere; veniam dedimus precantibus, emisimus ex obsidione, pacem cum victis fecimus, tutelae deinde nostrae duximus, curn Africo bello urgerentur. Pro his inpertitis furiosum juvenem sequentes oppugnatum patriam nostran veniunt. 35 Atque utinam. pro decore tantum hoc vobis et non pro salute esset certamen! Non de possessione Siciliae ac Sardiniae, de quibus quondam agebatur, sed pro Italia vobis est pugnandum. Nec est alius

Page  120 120 TITI LTVI AB VRBE CONDITA ab tergo exercitus, qui, nisi nos vincimus- hosti obsistat, nec Alpes aliae sunt, quas diim superant conparari nova possint praesidia: hic est obstandum, milites, velut si ante Romana moenia pugnemus. 5 Unus quisque se non corpus suum, sed conjugem ac liberos parvos armis protegere putet; nec domesticas solum agitet curas, sed identidem hoc animo reputet, nostras nunc intueri manus, senatum populumque Romanulm: qualis nostra vis virtusque fuerit, talemrn 1.0-deinde fortunam illius urbis ac Romani imperii fore." XLII. Haec aput Romanos consul. Hannibal rebus prius quam verbis adhortandos milites ratus, circumdato ad spectaculum exercitu, captivos mon15. tanos vinctos in medio statuit, armisque Gallicis ante pedes eorum projectis, interrogare interpretem jussit, ecquis, si vinculis levaretur armaque et equum victor acciperet, decertare ferro vellet. Cum ad unum omnes ferrum pugnamque poscerent et dejecta 20 in id sors esset, se quisque eum optabat, quem fortuna in id certamen legeret, et, ut cujusque sors exciderat, alacer, inter gratulantes gaudio exultans, cum sui moris tripudiis, arma raptim capiebat. Ubi vero dimicarent, is habitus animorumjnon inter ejus25 dem modo condicionis, hornineserat, sed etiam inter spectantes vulgo, ut non vincentium magis quam,bene morientium fortuna laudaretur. XLIII. Cum sic aliquot spectatis paribus adfectos dimisisset, contione inde advocata ita aput 30 eos locutus fertur: "si, quem animum in alienae sortis exemplo paulo ante ha~buistis, eundem mox in aestimanda fortjuna vestra habueritis, vicimus, milites; neque enim spectaculum modo illud, sed quaedam veluti imago vestrae condicionis erat. Ac nescio 35 an majora vincula majoresque necessitates vobis quam captivis vestris fortuna: circumdederit. Dextra. laevaque duo maria claudunt, nullam ne ad effugiuim quidem navem habentes; circa Padus amnis, major rPadus] ac violentior Rhodano, ab tergo Alpes

Page  121 LIBER XXI, 42-43. 121 urgent, vix integris vobis ac vigentibus transitae. Hic vincendumr aut moriendumn, milites, est, ubi primum hosti occurristis. Et eadem fortuna, quae necessitatem pugnandi inposuit, praemia vobis ea ~victoribus proponit, quibus ampliora homines ne ab 5.tdiis quidem inmor1alibus optare solent. Si S/ciliam tantum ac Sardiniam parentibus nostris ereptas nostra virtute recuperaturi essemus, satis tamen ampla pretia essent; quidquid Romani tot triumphis partum congestumque possident; id omne-vestrum, cum ipsis 10 dominis futurum est; in hanc tam opimam mercedem, agite dumn, diis bene. juvantibus arma capite. Satis adhuc in vastis Lusitaniae Celtiberiaeque montibus,pecora consectanio, nullum emolumentum. tot laborum periculorumque vestrorum vidistis; tempus 15 est jam opulenta vos ac ditia stipendia facere et magna-operae pretia mereri, tanturn itineris per tot -montes fluminaque et tot'armata's gentes emensos. Hic vobis terminum: laborum, orvqt dedit; hic dignam mercedern emeritis stipenUins dabit.' Nec, 20 quam magni nominis bellum est, tam difficilem existimaritis victoriam fore; saepe et con;temptus hostis cruentum certgynen edidit,- et inclyti populi regesque perlevi mo cit'victi sunt. Nam,dempto hoc uno fulgore nominis kRomani, quid est, cur illi 25 vobis conparandi sint? Ut' viginti annorum militiam vestram cum illa virtute, curn illa fortuna taceam, ab Herculis columnis, ab Oceano terminisque ultimis terrarum pet tot ferocissimos Hispaniae et Galliae populos vincentes huc pervenistis; pugna- 30 bitis curm exercitu tirone, hac ipsa aestate caeso, victo, circuinsesso a Gallis, ignoto adhue duci suo ignorantique ducern. An,me in praetorio patris, clarissimi imperatoris. prope natum, certe eductum, domitorem Hispaiiae': Galliaeque, victoream eundem non 35 Alpinarum modo gentium, sed ipsarum, quod multo majus est, Alpium, cum semenstri'hoc conferam duce, desertore exercitus sui? Cui si qois,dem-ptis signis, Poenos Romanosque hodie ostendat, ignoraturam

Page  122 122 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA certum habeo, utrius exercitus sit consul. Non ego illud parvi aestino, milites, quod nemo est vestrum, cujus non ante oculos ipse saepe militare aliquod ediderim facinus, cui non idem ego virtutis spectator 5 ac testis notatfa temporibus locisque referre sua possim decora. Cum laudatis a me miliens donatisque,. alumnus prius omnium vestrum quam imperator, procedam in aciem adversus ignotos inter se ignorantesque. 10 XLIV. Quocumque circumtuli oculos, plena omnia video animorum ac roboris: veteranum peaditem, generQsissimarum gentiurm equites frenatos — infrenatosque.vos socios fidelissimos fortissimosque, vos, Carthaginienses, cum pro patria turn ob iram 150justissimam -pugnaturos. Inferimus belium infestisque sigiiis descendimus in Italiam, tanto audacius fortiusque pugnaturi quam hostis, quanto major spes, major est animus inferentis vim quam arcentis. Accendit praeterea et stimulat animos dolor, injuria, 20 indignitas. Ad supplicium depoposcerunt me ducem primum, deinde vos omnes, qui Sagunturn oppugnassetis; deditos ultimis cruciatibus adfecturi fuerunt. Crudelissima ac superbissima gens siia omnia suique arbitrii facit; cum quibus bellum, curn quibus 25 pacern habeamus, se modum inponere aecum censet. Circumscribit includitque nos terminis montium fluminumque, quos non excedamus, neque eos, quos statuit, terminos observat. " Ne transieris Hiberum! ne quid rei tibi sit cum Saguntinis!" "At non ad 30 Hiberum est Sagunltum." "Nusquam- te vestigio moveris!'" Parum' est, quod veterrimnas proyiIcias meas Siciliami ac Sardiniami adimis? Etiamr: i Hispanias, et, si inde cessero, in Africam transcendes? Transcendes autem? Transcendisse dico. 35 Duos consules hujus anni, unum in Africarn, alterull in Hispaniam mriserunt. Nihil usquam nobis relictum est, nisi quod armis vindicarimus. Illis timnidis et ignavis esse licet, qui respectumrn habent, quos sua terra, suus ager,per tuta ac pacata itinera

Page  123 LIBER XXI, 44-45. 123 fugientes accipient; vobis necesse est. fortibus viris esse, et, omnibus inter victoriam mortemve certa desperatione:abruptis, aut vincere, aut, si fortuna dubitabit, in proelio potius quaml in ftlga mortem oppetere; Si hoc bene fixum omnibus [destinatum] 5 in animo est, iterum di am, vicistis; nullum -eOIttempt tnzortis telum ab vincendum,homini ab dis. inmortalibus acrius datum est." - XLV. His adhortationibus cum utrimque ad certamen accensi militum. animi essent, Romani ponte 10 Ticinum jungunt, tutandiqie poiltis causa castellum insuper inponunt; Poenus, hosti-bus opere occupatis, Maharbalem cum ala Numidarum, equitibus quingentis, ad depopulandos sociorum populi Romani agros,mittit; Gallis parci quamrn maxime jubet, prin- 15 cipunmque animos ad defectionemn sollicitari. Ponte perfecto traductus Romanus exercitus in agrum Insubrium )quinque milia passnm' ab Ictumulis consedit. Ibi Hannibal castra habebat; revocatoque pro- 20 pere Maharbale atque equitibus, cumn instare certamen cerneret, nihil umquam satis dicthm praemonitumque, ad cohortandos milites ratus, vocatis ad contionem certa praemia pronuntiat, in quorum spem pugnarent:', agrum sese daturaum esse in Italia, Africa, 25 Hispania, ubi quisque velit, inmunem ipsi qui accepisset lib2erisque ~,qui pecuniar- quam agrum maluisset, ei se argento satisfacturum;.;4:tui sociorum cives Garthaginienses fieri vellent, potestatem facturum; qui domos redire mallent,-:datururm se operarnm ne 30 cujus suor"tiM popularilm -mutatarn secum fortunam esse vellent.'. Servis quoque dominos prosecutis libertaterm proponit, binaque pro his mancipia dominis se redditu;irur. V/:Eaque'ut rata scirent fore, agnum laeva wmann, dextera silicem retinens, si falleret, Jovem 35. ceterosque precatus deos, ita'se mactarent, quem ad modulm ipse agnum mactasset, secunduml precationem caput pecudis saxo elisit. VTum vero omnes, velut diis auctoribus in spem suam quisque acceptis, id

Page  124 124 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA morae quod nondum pugnarent ad potienda sperata rati, proelium uno animo et voce una poscunt.. XLVI. Aput Romanos hautquaquam tanta alacritas erat, super cetera recentibus etiarn territos 5 prodigiis; nam et lupus intraverat castra laniatisque obviis ipse intactus evaserat, et examen apurn in arbore praetorio imminente consederat. Quibus procuratis, Scipio cum equitatu jaculatoribusque expeditis profectus ad castra hostium ex pro10 pinquo copiasque quantae et cujus generis essent, speculandas, obvius fit Hannibali et ipsi cum equitibus ad exploranda circa loca progresso. Neutri alteros primo cernebant; depsior- deinde incessu tot hominumn equorumque oriens pulvis signum propin15 quantium h/ostiumn fuit. Consistit utrumque agmen, et ad proelium sese expediebant.: Scipio jaculatores et Gallos equites in fronte locat, Ronmanos sociorumque quod roboris fuit in subsidiis; Hannibal frenatos equites in medium accipit, cornua Numidis firmat. 20 Vixdum clamore sublato, jaculatores fugerunt inter subsidia ad secundam aciem. Inde equitum certamen erat aliqluamdiu anceps; dein, quia turbabant equos pedites intermixti, multis labentibus ex equis aut desilientibus ubi suos premi circumventos vidis25 sent, jam magna ex parte ad pedes pugna venerat, donec Numidae, qui in cornibus erant, circumvecti paulum ab tergo se ostenderunt.*: Is pavor perculit Romanos, auxitque pavorem consulis vulnus periculumque intercursu tum primum pubescentis filii 30 pulsatunm. Hic erat juvenis, penes quem perfecti hujusce belli laus est, Africanus ob egregiam victoriam de Hannibale Poenisque appellatus. - Fuga tamen effusa jaculatorusm inaxume fuit, quos primos Numidaeinvase35 runt,alius confertus equitatus consulem in medium acceptum, non armis modo, sed etiam corporibus suis protegens, in castra nusquam trepide neque effuse cedendo reduxit. Servati consulis decus-Coelius ad servum natione Ligurem delegatNmalim equidem de

Page  125 LIBER XXI, 46-48. 125 filio verum esse, quod et plures tradidere auctores et fama obtinuit. XLVII. Hoc primum cum Hannibale proelium' fuit; quo facile apparuit [et] equitatu meliorern Poenum esse, et ob id campos patentis, quales sunt 5 inter Padum Alpesque, bello gerendo Romanis aptos: non esse. Itaque proxima nocte, jussis militibus vasa silentio conligere, castra ab Ticino mota festinatuinque ad Padurn est, ut ratibus, quibus junxerat flumen, nondum resolutis sine tumultu atque insectatione 10 hostis copias traiceret.4 Prius Placentiam pervenere quam satis sciret Hannibal ab Ticino profectos; tamnen ad sexcentos moratorum in citeriore ripa Padi,. segniter rateln solventes, cepit. Transire pontera non potuit, ut extrema resolu'ta erant, tota rate 15 in secundam aquam labente. 4 Coelius auctor est Magonem cum equitatu et Hispanis peditibus flunien extemplo transnasse, ipsum Hannibalem per superiora Padi vada exercitumn traduxisse, elephantis in ordinem a/d sustinendum impetum fluminis oppositis. ~ Ea20 peritis amnis ejus vix fidem fecerint; nam neque equites armis equisque salvis tantam vim'fluminis superasse veri simile est, ut jam-Hispanos omnis in- - flati travexerint utres, et multortim dierum circuitu Padi vada petenda fuerun;, qua ekercitus gravis in- 25 pedimentis traduci posset.\i Potiores aput me auctoreis sunt, qui biduo vix locum rate jungendo flumini in-_ ventum tradunt;'ea cum Magone equites Hispanorum -expeditos praemissos.~, Dum Hannibal, circa flumen legationibus Gallorum audiendis moratus, 30 traicit gravius peditum agmen, interim Mago equitesque ab transitu flu minis diei unius itinere Placen-.tiam. ad hostes conteildunt. /Hannibal paucis post diebus sex.l milia a Placentia -castra cornmunivit, et postero die in conspectu hostiuin- acie derecta potes- O35 tatem pug nag fecit. XLVIiI. Insequenti noete caedes in castris Romanis, tumultu tamen quam re major, ab auxiliaribus Gallis facta est. Ad.duo.milia peditum et du

Page  126 126 TITI LIVI -AB VRBE CONDITA centi equites, vigilibus ad portas trucidatis, ad Hannibalem transfugiunt; quos Poenus benigne adlocutus, et'spe ingentium donorum accensos in civitates quemque suas ad, sollicitandos popularium animos 5 dimisit. Scipio caedern earn signum defectionis omnium Gallorum esse ratus, (contactosque eo scelere velut injecta rabie ad arma ituros) quanlquam gravis adhuc vulnere erat, tamen quarth vigilia noctis insequentis tacito agmine profectus, ad Trebiam fluvium 10 jam in loca altiora collisque impeditiores equiti castra movet.V Minus quam ad Ticinum fefellit; missisque Hannibal primum-Numidis, deinde omni equitatu, turbasset utique novissimum agmen, ni aviditate praedae in vacua Romana castra Numida;e dever15ttissent. Ibi dum perscrutantes loca omnia castrorum - nullo satis digno morae pretio tempus terunt, emissus -hostis est de rnanibus; et cum jam transgressos Tre-biam,Romanos metantisque castra conspexissent, paucos -moratorum occiderunt citra flumen inter20 ceptos.: Scipio nec vexationem vulneris in via jactati ultra patiens et collegam (jam enim et revocatum ex Sicilia audierat) ratus expectandum, locum, qui prope flumen tutissimus stativis est visus, delectum communiit. Nec procul inde Hannibal cum conse25 disset, quantum victoria equestri elatus, tantum anxius inopia, quae per hostium agros euntem, nusquam praeparatis commeatibus, major in dies excipiebat, ad Clastidium vicum, quo magnum frumenti numerurn congesserant Romani, mittit.'4 Ibi curn vim 30 pararent, spes facta proditionis; nec sane magno pretio, numnmis aureis quadringentis,' Dasio Brundisino praefecto praesidi corrupto, traditur Hanni-,bali Clastifdium. Id horreum fuit Poenis sedentibus ad Trebiam. In captivos ex tradito praesidio, ut 35: tIma clementiae in principio rerum colligeretur, nihil saevitu.m est. XLIX. Cum ad Trebiam, terrestre constitisset i.ellum, interim circa Siciliam insulasque Italiae imminentes et a Sempronio consule et ante adventum

Page  127 LIBER XXI, 48-49. 127 ejus terra marique res gestae. Viginti quinqueremes curm mille armatis ad depopulandanl oram Italiae a Carthaginiensibus missae; novem Liparas, octo ad insulam Vulcani tenuerunt, tres in fretunl avertit -aestus. Ad eas conspectas a Messana duodecim 5 naves ab Hierone rege Syracusanorum missae, qui turn forte Messanae erat consulem Romanum opperiens, nullo repugnante captas naves Messanam in portum deduxerunt. Cognitum ex captivis, praeter viginti naves, cujus ipsi classis essent, in Italiam 10 missas, quinque et triginta alias quinqueremes Siciliam petere ad sollicitandos veteres socios; Lilybaei occupandi.praecipuam curam esse; credere, eademn tempestate, qua ipsi disjecti forent, eam quoque clas-semi ad Aegatis insulas dejectam. Haec, sicut audita 15 erant, rex M. Aemilio praetori, cujus Sicilia provincia erat, perscribit, monetque, ut Lilybaeum firmo teneret praesidio. Extemplo et a praetore circa civitates missi legati tribunique, qui suos ad curam custodiae inteliderent, et ante omnia Lilybaeum 20 teneri apparatu belli, edicto proposito, ut socii navales decem dierum cocta cibaria ad naves deferrent, ut, ubi signum datum esset, ne quid moram conscendendi faceret, perque omnem oram, qui ex -speculis prospicerent adventantem hostium classem,; 25 missis. Itaque, quamquam de industria morati curi sum navium erant Carthaginienses, ut ante luceta) accederent Lilybaeum, praesensum tamen est, quia et luna pernox erat et sublatis armamentis veniebant. Extemplo datum e speculis signum et in op- 30 pido ad arma conclarnatum est et- in naves conscensum; pars militum in muris portarumque in stationibus, pars in navibus erant. Et Carthaginienses, quia rem fore haut cum inparatis cernebant, usque ad lucem portu se abstinuerunt, demendis armarentis 35 eo tempore aptandaque ad pugnam classe absumpto. Ubi inluxit, recepere classem in: alturn, ut spatium pugnae:esset exitumque liberum e portu naves hostium haberent.'Nec Romani detrectavere pugnam,

Page  128 128 TITI LIVI AB V:RBE CONDITA et memoria circa ea ipsa loca gestarumn rerum freti et inilitum multitudine ac virtute. YC L. Ubi in altuin evecti sunt, Romanus conserere pugnam et ex propinquo vires conferre velle; contra 5 eludere Poenus, et arte, non vi, rem gerere, naviunmque quam viroruin aut armorum malle certamnen fa;cere. Nam ut sociis navalibus adfatim instructamn classein, ita inopem rnilite habebant, et, sicubi conserta.navis esset, hautquaquam par numerus arma10 torum ex ea pugnabat. Quod ubi animadversum est, et Romanis multitudo sua auxit animumn et paucitas illis minuit. Extemplo septera naves Punicae circumventae, fugam ceterae ceperunt. Mille et septingenti fuere in navibus captis milites nautaeque,.15 in his tres nobiles Cartlaginiensium. Classis Romana incolurnis, una tantum perforata navi, sed ea quoque ipsa reduce, in porturn rediit. Secundum hanc pugna.m, nondum gnaris ejus qui Messanae erant, Ti. Sempronius gonsul Messanam 20venit. Ei fretum intranti rex Hiero classem armatam ornatamque obviam duxit, transgressusque ex regia in praetoriam navem, gratulatus sospitem curm exercitu et naLvibus advenisse precatusque prosperum ac felicern in Siciliam transituin, staturn deinde in25 sulae et Carthaginiensium conata exposuit, pollicitusque est, quo animo priore bello populum Romanuin juvenis adjuvisset, eo senein adjuturum; fiumentum vestimentaque sese legionibUs consulis sociisque navalibus gratis praebiturum; grande periculum 30 Lilybaeo mnaritumisque civitatibus esse, et quibusdarm volentibus novas res fore. Ob haec consuli nihil cunctandum visumn quin Lilybaeumn classe peteret. Et rex regiaque classis una profecti. Navigantes inde, pugnatum ad Lilybaeum fusasque et 35 captas hostium naves, accepere. LI. A Lilybaeo consul, Hierone cum classe regia dimisso relictoque praetore ad tuendam Siciliae oram, ipse in insulam Melitam, quae a Catthaginiensibus tenebatur, trajecit. Advenienti Hamilcar Gisgonis

Page  129 LIBER XXI, 50-52.:129 filius, praefectus praesidii, cum paulo minus duobus milibus irilitum oppidumque cum insula traditur. Indepost paucos dies rediturn Lilybaeuim, captivique et a consule et a praetore, praeter insignes nobilitate viros, sub corona venierunt. Postquam ab ea parte 5 satis tutam Sieiliam censebat consul, ad insulas Vulcani, quia fama erat stare'ibi Punicam classem, trajecit; nee quisquam hostium circa eas insulas inventus; nam forte transmiserant ad vastandam Italiae oramn, depopulatoque Viboniensi agro, urbem etiam 10 terrebant. Repetenti Siciliamn consuli exscensio hostium in agrum Viboniensem facta "nuntiatur, litteraeque ab senatu de transitu in Italiam Hannibalis, et ut primo quoque tempore conlegae ferret auxilium, missae traduntur. Multis simnul auxius curis exer- 15 citum extemplo in naves inpositum Ariminum mari supero misit, Sexto Pomponio legato cuni viginti quinque longis,-navibus Viboniensem agrum maritimainque oram' Italiae tuendam adtribuit, M. Aemilio praetori quinquaginta navium classem explevit. 20 Ipse, conpositis Siciliae rebus,. decem navibus oram Italiae legens Ariminum pervenit. Inde curm exer- / citu suo profectus ad Trebiam flumen conlegae conjungitur. LIT. Jam ambo consules et quidquid Rotnana- 25 rum viriumn erat, Hannibali oppositum, aut illis copiis defendi posse Romanum imperium aut spem nullam aliam esse satis declarabat. Tamen consul alter, equestri proelio uno et vulnere suo admonitus, trahi. rem malebat; recentis animi alter eoque 30 ferocior nullam dilationem patiebatur. -Quod inter -Trebiam Padumque agri est Galli tumrn incolebant, in duorum praepotentium populorum certamine per ambiguum favorem haut dubie. gratiam victoris spectantes. Id Romani, modo ne quid moverent, aequo 35 satis, Poenus peri niqlup animo ferebat, ab Gallis gccitum se venisse a'd liberandos eos dictitans. Ob eamn iram, simul ut praeda miitem aleret, duo milia -peditum et mille equites,-Numidas plerosque, mixtoa 9 - Livy.

Page  130 130 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA quosdam et Gallos, populari omnem deinceps agrum usque ad Padi ripas jussit. Egentes ope Galli, cum ad id dubios servassent animos, coacti ab auctoribus injuriae ad vindices futuros declinant, legatisque ad 5 consules missis, auxilium Romanorum terrae ob nimiam cultorum fidem in Romanos laboranti orant. Cornelio nec causa nec tempus agendae rei placebat, suspectaque ei gens erat cum ob infida multa facinora, tumrn, ut illa vetustate obsolevissent, ob recenteml 10 Boiorum- perfidiam; Sempronius contra, continendis in fide sociis maximum vinculum esse primos qui eguissent ope defensos censebat. Conlega cunctante, equitatum suum, mille peditum jaculatoribus ferme admixtis, ad defendendum Gallicum agrum trans 15 Trebiam mittit. Sparsos et inconpositos, ad hoc gravis praeda plerosque cum inopinato invasissent, ingentem terrorem caedemque ac fugam usque ad castra stationesque hostium fecere; unde multitudine effusa pulsi rursus subsidio suorum proelium resti20 tuere. Varia inde pugna sequentes cedentesque cum ad extremum aequassent certamen, major tamen hostium caedes, penes Romanos fama victoriae fuit. LIII. Ceterum nemini omnium major justiorque 25 quam ipsi consuli videri; gaudio efferri; qua parte copiarum alter consul victus foret, ea se vicisse:'restitutos ac refectos militibus animos, nec quemquam esse praeter conlegam, qui dilatam dimicationem vellet; eum, animo magis quam corpore 30 aegrurn, memoria vulneris aciem ac tela horrere. Sed non esse cum aegro senescendum. Quid enim ultra differri aut teri tempus? quem tertium consulem, quem alium exercitun expectari? Castra Carthaginiensium in Italia ac prope in conspectu 35 urbis esse. Non Siciliam ac Sardiniam, victis ademptas, nec cis Hiberum Hispaniam. peti, set solo patrio terraque in qua geniti forent, pelli Romanos. "Quantum ingemiscant" inquit "patres nostri, circa moenia Carthaginis bellare soliti- si videant nos, prq

Page  131 LIBER xxI, 53-54. 131 geniem suam, duos consules consularesque exercitus, in media'Italia paventis intra castra, Poenumn, quod inter Alpis Apenninumque agri sit, suae dicionis fecisse? "A Haec adsidens aegro conlegae, haec in praetorio prope contionabundus agere.Y, Stimulabat:5 et tem-pus propincurn comitiorum, ne in novos consules bellum differretur, et occasio in se unum vertendae gloriae, dum aeger conlega erat. Itaque, nequiquam dissentiente Cornelio, parari ad propincum certamen milites jubet. 10 Hannibal cum, quid optimum foret hosti, cerneret, vix ullam spem habebat ternere atque inprovide quicquam consules acturos; curm alterius ingenium, fama prius, deinde re cognitum, per'ir-j m ac ferox sciret esse, ferociusque facturn prospero cum praeda- 15 toribus suis certaminne crederet, adesse gerendae rei fortunam haud diffidebat. Cujus ne quod praeter"mitteret tempus sollicitus intentusque erat, dum) tiro hostium miles esset;\dum melioremr ex ducibus inutilem vulnus faceret, dum Gallorum animi vige- 20 rent, quorum ingentem multitudinem sciebat segnius secuturam, quanto longius ab domo traherentur. Cum ob haec taliaque speraret propincum certamen et facere, si cessaretur, cuperet, speculatoresque Galli, ad ea exploranda quae vellet tutiores quia in 25 utrisque castris militabant, paratos pugnae esse Romanos rettulissent, locum insidiis circumspectare Poenus coepit. LIV. Erat in medio rivus praealtis utrimque clausus ripis, et circa obsitus palustribus herbis, et, 30 quibus inculta ferme vestiuntur, virgultis vepribusque. Quemn ubi equites quoque tegendo satis latebrosum locum circumvectus ipse oculis perlustravit, "hic erit locus," Magoni fratri ait, "que-m teneas. Delige centenos viros ex omni pedite atque equite, 35 cum quibus ad me vigilia prima venias; nunc corpora curare tempus est." Ita praetorium missum. MQX cum delectis Mago aderat. "Robora virorum cerno," inquiit Hannibal; "sed uti numero etiam,

Page  132 132 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA non animis modo valeatis, singulis vobis novenos ex turmis manipulisque vestri similes eligite. Mago locum monstrabit qutem insideatis; hosterm caecum ad has belli artes habetis." Ita mille equitibust Ma5 goni, mille peditibus dimnissis,_Hannibal prima luceNumidas equites transgressos Trebiam flumen obequi-' tare jubet hostium portis, jaculandoque in stationes elicere ad pugnaln hosteri, injecto deinde certamine, cedendo sensim citra flumen pertrahere. Haec man10 data Numidis; ceteris ducibus peditum equitumque praeceptum, ut prandere omnes juberent, armatos deinde instratisque equis signum expectare. Sempronius ad tumultuM Numidarum primum omnem equitatum, ferox ea parte virium, deinde sex 15 milia peditum, postremo omnes copias, a destinato jam ante consilio avidus certaminis, eduxit. Erat forte brumae tempus et nivalis dies in locis Alpibus Apenninoque interjectis, propjincitate etiam flurninum ac paludium praegelidis. A hoc raptir educ20 tis hominibus atque equis, non capto ante cibo, non ope ulla ad arcendumr frigus adhibita, nihil caloris inerat, et quidquid aurae fluminis adpropinquabant, adflabat acrior frigoris vis. Ut vero refugientes Numidas insequentes aquam ingressi sunt (et erat pec25 toribus tenus aucta nocturno imbri), turn utique egressis rigere omnibus corpora, ut vix armorum tenendorum potentia essent, et simul lassitudine et, procedente jam die, fame etiam deficere. LV. Hannibalis interim miles, ignibus ante ten30 toria factis, oleoque per manipulos, ut mollirent artus, misso, et cibo per otium capto, ubi transgressos flumen hostis nuntiatum est, alacer animis corporibusque arma capit atque in aciem procedit. Baliares locat ante signa,; levem armatluram, octo 35 ferme milia hominum, dein graviorem armis peditem, quod virium, quod roboris erat; in cornibus circumfudit decem milia equitum, et ab cornibus in utramque partem divisos elephantos statuit. Consul effuse sequentis equites, cum ab resistentibus subito Nu

Page  133 LIBER XI x, 55-56. 133 midis incauti exciperentur, signo receptui dato revocatos circumdedit peditibus. Duodeviginti milia Romana erant, sociim nominis Latini viginti, auxilia praeterea Cenomanorum; ea sola in fide manserat Gallica gens. Iis copiis concursum est. Proelium 5 a Baliaribus ortum est; quibus cum majore robore legiones obsisterent, diducta propere in cornua levis armatura est, quae res effecit ut equitatus Romanus extemplo urgeretur. Nam cum vix jam per se resisterent decem milibus equitum quattuor milia, et 10 fessi integris plerisque, obruti sunt insuper velut nube jaculorunm a Baliaribus conjecta. Ad hoc elephanti emitiente3 ab extremis cornibus, equis maxime non visu m')do, sed odore insolito territis, fugam late facieb:at. Pedestris pugna par animis magis quam 15 viribus erat, quas recentis Poenus, paulo ante curatis corporibus, in proelium attulerat; contra jejuna fessaque corpora Rvmanis et rigentia gelu torpebant. R,,stitissent tameen animns, si cum pedite solum foret punnaturn; sed et Baliares, pulso equite, jaculaban- 20 tur in latera, et elephanti jam in mediam pediturn aciemrn sese tulerant, et Mago Numidaeque, simul latebras eorum inprovida praeterlata acies est, exorti ab tergo ingentem tumultum ac terrorem fecere. Tamen in tot circumstantibus malis mansit aliquam- 25 diu inmota acies, maxime praeter spem omnium adversus elephantos. Eos velites ad id ipsum locati verutis conjectis et avertere'et insecuti aversos sub caiudis, qua maxume molli cute vulnera accipiunt, fodiebant. 30 LVI. Trepidantisque et prope jam in suos consternatos e media acie in extremam ad sinistrum cornu adversus Gallos auxiliares agi jussit Hannibal. Ibi -extemplo haut dubiam fecere fugam,;novusque terror additus Romanis ut fusa auxilia sta vide- 35 riunt. Itaque cum jam in orbem pugnarent,'decem mili a ferme hominum, cum alibi evadere nequissent, media Afroruml acie, qua Gallicis -auxiliis- firmata erat, curn inge'nti cae-de hostium perrupere, et, cum

Page  134 134 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA neque in casfra reditus esset flumine interclusis, neque prae iinbri satis decernere possent, qua suis opem ferrent, Placentiam recto itinere perrexere,. Plures deinde in omnes partes eruptiones factae; et 5 qui flumen petiere aut gurgitibus absurnpti sunt aut inter cunctationem ingrediendi ab hostibus oppressi; qui passim per agros fuga sparsi erant, vestigia cedentis sequentes agminis Placentiam contendere; aliis timor hostium audaciam ingrediendi flumen 10 fecit, transgressique in castra pervenerunt. Ilnber nive mixtus et intoleranda vis frigoris et homines multos et jumenta et elephantos prope omnis absumpsit. Finis insequendi hostis Poenis flumen Trebia fuit, et ita torpentes gelu in castra rediere, 15 ut vix laetitiam victoriae sentirent. Itaque nocte insequenti, cum praesidium castrorum et quod relicum sauciorum ex magna parte militum erat ratibus Trebiam traicerent, aut nihil sensere obstrepente pluvia, aut, quia jam moveri nequibant 20 prae lassitudine ac vulneribus, sentire sese dissimularunt, quietisque Poehuis tacito agmine ab Scipione consule exercitus Placentiam est perductus, inde Pado trajectus Cremonam, ne duorum exercituum hibernis una colonia premeretur. 25 LVII. Romam tantus terror ex hac clade perlatus est, ut jam ad urbem Romanam crederent infestis signis hostem venturum, nec quicquait spei aut auxilii esse, quo a portis moenibusque vim arcerent: iuno consule ad Ticinum victo, alterum ex Sicilia 30 revocatum; duobus consulibus, duobus consularibus exercitibus victis, quos alios duces, quas alias legiones esse, quae arcessantur?.L..f i I Ita territis Sempronius consul advenit, ingenti periculo per effusos passim ad praedandum hostium 35 equites audacia magis quam consilio aut spe fallendi resistendive, si non falleret, transgressus. Id quod unum maxime in praesentia desiderabatur, coritiis consularibus habitis, in hiberna rediit. Creati consules Cn. Servilius et C. Flaminius.

Page  135 LIBER XXI,' 57-58. 135 Ceterum ne hiberna quidem Romanis quiets erant, vagantibus passim Numidis equitibus et, ut quaeque.iis-impeditiora erant, Celtiberis Lusitanisque. Omnes igitur undique clausi commeatus erant, nisi quos Pado naves subveherent. Emporium prope Placen- 5 tiara fuit et opere magno munitum et valido firmaturn praesidio. Ejus castelli expugnandi spe cum equitibus ac levi armatura profectus HIannibal, cum plurimum in celando incepto ad effectum spei habuisset, nocte adortus non fefellit vigiles. Tantus re- 10 pente clamor est sublatus, ut Placentiae quoque audiretur. Itaque sub lucem cum equitatu consul aderat, jussis quadrato agmine legionibus sequi. Equestre interim proelium commissum; in quo, quia saucius Hannibal pugna excessit, pavore hostibus injecto, 15 defensum egregie praesidium est. Paucorum inde dierum quiete sumpta, et, vixdum satis percurato vulnere, ad Victumvias oppugnandas ire pergit. Id emporium Romanis Gallico bello fuerat; munitum inde locum frequentaverant adcolae mixti undique 20 ex finitimis populis, et turn terror populationum eo plerosque ex agrs conpulerat. Hujus generis multitudo, farna inpigre defensi ad Placentiam praesidi accensa, armis arreptis obviam Hannibali procedit.. - Magis agmina quam acies in via concurrerunt, et, 25 cum ex altera parte nihil praeter inconditam turbam esset, in altera et dux militi et duci miles fidens, ad triginta quinque milia hominurn a paucis fusa. Postero die deditione facta praesidium intra moenia accepere; jussique arma tradere cum dicto paruissent, 30 signurn repente victoribus datur, ut tamquam vi captamn urbem diriperent, neque ulla, quae in tali re menmorabilis scribentibus videri solet, praeternlissa clades est: adeo omnis libidinis crudelitatisque et inhumanae superbiae editurn in iniseros exemplum 35 est. Hae fuere hibernae expeditiones Hannibalis. LVIII. EHaud longi inde temporis, dum intolerabilia frigora erant, quies militi data est; et ad prima ac dubia signa veris profectus ex hibernis in Etruriam

Page  136 136 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA ducit, earn quoque gentem, sicut Gallos Liguresque, aut vi aut voluntate adjuncturus. Transeuntem Apenninum adeo atrox adorta tempestas est, ut Alpium prope foeditatem superaverit. Vento mixtus 5 irmher curn ferretur in ipsa ora, primo, quia aut arma omittenda erant aut contra enitentes vertice intorti adfligebantur, constitere; dein, cum jam spiritum includeret nec reciprocare animam sineret, aversi a vento parumper consedere. Turn vero ingenti sono 10 caelum strepere, et inter horrendos fragores micare ignes; capti auribus et oculis metu omnes torpere; tandem effuso imbre, cum eo magis accensa vis venti esset, ipso illo quo deprensi erant ]oco castra ponere necessarium visum est. Id vero laboris velut de in15 tegro initium fuit; nam nec explicare quicquam nec statuere poterant, nec quod statutum esset inanebat, omnia perscindente vento et rapiente, Et niox aqua levata vento, cum super gelida montium juga concreta esset, tanturn nivosae grandinis dejecit, ut om20 nibus omissis procumberent homnines, tegminibus suis magis obruti quam tecti; tantaque vis frigoris insecuta est, ut ex illa miserabili hoininum jumentorumque strage cum se quisque extol]ere ac levare vellet, diu nequiret, quia, torpentibus rigore nervis, 25 vix flectere artus poterant. Deinde, ut tandem agitando sese movere ac recipere animos et raris locis ignis fieri est coeptus, ad alienam opera quisque inops tendere. Biduum eo loco velut obsessi mansere; multi homines, multa jurnenta, elephanti quoque ex 30 iis, qui proelio ad Trebiam facto superfuerant, septem. absumpti. LIX. Degressus Apennino retro ad Placentinam castra movit, et ad decem milia progressus consedit. Postero die duodecim milia peditunl, quinque equi35 tuin adversus hostem ducit, nec Sempronius consul (jam enim redierat ab Roma) detrectavit certamen. Atque eo die tria milia pass'im inter bina castra fuere; postero die ingentibus animis, vario eventu, pugnaturn est. Primo concursu adeo res Romana

Page  137 LIBER xXI, 59 —60. 137 superior fuit, ut non acie vincerent solum, sed pulsos hostes in castra persequerentur, rmox castra quoque oppugnarent. Hannibal, paucis propugnatoribus in vallo portisque positis, ceteros coniertos in media castra recepit, intentosque signurn ad erumpendum 5 expectare jubet. Jam nona ferme- diei hora erat, cure Romanus, nequiquarn fatigato milite, postquam nulla spes erat potiundi castris, signum receptui dedit.: Quod ubi Hannibal accepit, Jaxatamque pugnam et recessum a castris vidit, extemplo equi- 10 tibus dextra laevaque emissis in hostem, ipse cum peditum robore mediis castris erupit. Pugna raro margis ulla saeva ault.utriusque partis pernicie clarior fuisset, si extendi earn dies in longurn spatiurm sivisset; nox accensum ingentibus animis proeliurn dire- 15 rmit. Itaque acrior concursus fuit quam caedes, et, sicut aequataferine pugna erat, ita clade pari discessum est. Ab neutra parte sescentis plus peditibus et dirnidium ejus equitum cecidit; sed major Romanis quam pro nurnero jactura fuit, quia equestris ordinis 20 aliquot et tribuni militum quinque et praefecti socioruin tres sunt interfecti. Secunduni eam pugham tIan nibal in Ligures, Sempronius Lucarn concessit. Venienti in Ligures Hannibali per insidias intercepti duo quaestores Romani, 25 CG Fulvius et L. Lucretius, cunr duobus tribunis militurn et quinque- equestris ordinis, senatorum ferme liberis, quo magis ratam fore cum is pacem societatemque crederet, traduntur. LX. Dumn haec in Italia geruntur, Cn. Cornelius 30 Scipio in Hispaniam cum classe et exercitu missus, cum ab ostio IRhodani profectus Pyrenaeosque montes circumvectus Emporls adpulisset classem, exposito ibi exercitu, orsus a Lacetanis omlnem oram usque ad Hiberum flumen, partima renovandis societatibus, 35 partim urovis instituendis, Loanaena dicionis fecit. Inde conciliata clementiae fama, non ad maritimos modo populos, sed in mediterraneis quoque ac montanis -ad ferociores jam gentes valuit; nec pax modo

Page  138 138 TITI LIVI AB -VRBE CONDITA aput eos, sed societas etiam armorum parta est, validaeque aliquot auxiliorum cohortes ex iis conscriptae sunt. Hannonis cis Hiberunl provincia erat; eumn reliquerat Hannibal ad regionis ejus praesidium. 5 Itaque, priusquam alienarentur omnia, obviam eundum ratus, castris in conspectu hostiuln positis, in aciem eduxit. Nec Romano differendum certarnen visum, quippe qui sciret cumn Hannone et Hasdrubale sibi diinicandum esse, malletque adversus sin10 gulos separatim quam adversus duos sirnul rem gerere. Nec magni certaminis ea dimicatio fuit. Sex milia hostiumr caesa, duo capta cum praesidio castrorum; narm et castra expugnata sunt, atque ipse dux cum aliquot principibus capiuntur, et Cissis, 15 propincum castris oppidum, expugnatur. Ceterum praeda oppidi parvi preti rerum fhit, supellex barbarica ac vilium mancipiorum; castra militem ditavere, non ejus modo exercitus qui victus erat, sed et ejus qui cum Hannibale in Italia militabat, omnibus 20 fere caris rebus, ne gravia inpedimenta ferentibus essent, citra Pyrenaeum relictis. LXI. Priusquam certa hujus cladis fama accideret, transgressus Hiberum Hasdrubal cum octo milibus peditum, mille equitum, tamquam ad pri25 mum adventurn Romanorum occursurus, postquam perditas res ad Cissim amissaque castra accepit, iter ad mare convertit. Haud procul Ttrracone classicos milites navalesque socios vagos palantisque per agros, quod ferme fit, ut secundae res neglegentiam creent, 30 equite passim dimisso, cum magna caede, majore fuga, ad naves conpellit; nec diutius circa ea loca morari ausus, ne ab Scipione opprimeretur, trans Hiberum sese recepit. Et Scipio raptimrr ad famam novoru-n hostium agmine acto, cum in paucos praefec35 tos navium animadvertisset, praesidio Tarracone modico relicto, Emporias cum classe rediit.)Vixdum digresso eo, Hasdrubal aderat, et Ilergetum populo, qui obsides Scipioni dederat, ad defectionem inpulso, cum eorum ipsorum juventute agros fidelium Ro

Page  139 LIBER XXI, 61-62. 139, manis sociorum vastat. Excito deinde Scipione hibernis, toto cis Hiberuni rursus cedit agro. Scipio relictam ab auctore defectionis Ilergetum gentemra cum infesto exercitu invasisset, conpulsis omnibus Atanagru m urbem, quae caput ejus populi erat, cir- 5 cumsedit, intraque dies paucos, pluribus quam ante obsidibus imperatis, Ilergetes pecunia etiam mlultatos in jus dicionemque recepit. Inde in Ausetanos prope Hib3rum, socios et ipsos Poenorum, procedit, atque urbe eorum obsessa, Lecetanos auxiliumn finitimris 10 ferentes nocte, haud procul jam urbe, cum intraret vellent, excepit insidiis. Caesa ad duodecim milia; exuti prope oinnes armis domos passim palantes per agros diffugere, nec obsessos alia ulla res quam iniqua oppugaantibus hiems tutabatur. Triginta dies ob- 15 sidio fait, per quos raro umrquam nix minus quattuor pedes alta jacuit, adeoque pluteos ac vineas Romanorumi operuerat, ut ea sola, ignibus aliquotiens conjectis ab hosle, etiam tutamentum fuerit. Postrelno, cuin Arnusicus princeps eorumn ad Hasdrubalem pro- 2-0 fugisset, viginti argeniti talentis pacti deduntur. Tarraconesm in hiberna reditum est. LX[I. Romae aut circa urbern mul:ta ea hieme prodigia facta, aut, quod evenire solet motis semel in religionem animis, multa nuntiata et temere credita 25 sunt, in quis, ingenuum infantemr semestrem in foro holitorio'triumphumrn' clamasse, - et in foro boario bovemi in tertiam contignationem sua sponte escendisse, atque inde, tumnultu habitatorumn territum, sesese dejecisse, - et navium speciem de caelo adfulsisse,- 30 et aedem Spei, quae est in foro holitorio, fulmine ictam, - et Lanuvi hastam se commovisse, et corvum in aedem Junonis devolasse atque in ipso pulvinari consedisse, —et in agro Amiternino multis locis homninum specie procul candida veste visos, nec cum 35 ullo congressos, -et in Piceno lapidibus pluvisse,et Caere sortes extenuatas,-et in Gallia lupum vigili gladium ex vagina raptum abstulisse. Ob cetera prodigia libros adire decem-viri jussi; quod

Page  140 140 TITI LIVI AB VR-BE CONDITA autem lapidibus pluvisset in Piceno, novemdiale sacrumi edictum, et subinde aliis procurandis prope tota civitas operata fuit. Jain prirnum omnium urbs lustrata est, lhostiaeqt1e majores quibus editurn est 5 diis caesae, et donum ex auri pondo quadraginta Lanuvium Junoni portatum est, et signum aeneum matronae Junoni in Aventino dedicaverunt, et lectisterniurm Caere, ubi sortes adtenuatae erant, irnperaturn, et supplicatio Fortunae in Algido; Romae quo10 que et lectisternium et supplicatio juventuti ad aedemi Herculis nominatimn, deinde universo populo circa omnia pulvinaria indicta; et Genio majores hostiae caesae quinque, et C. Atilius Serranus praetor vota suscipere juSsus, si in decem annos res publica 15 eodemn stetisset statu. Haec procurata votaque ex: libris Sibyllinis magna ex parte levaverant religione animos. LXIIII. Consulum designatorum alter Flaminius, cui eae legiones quae Placentiae hibernabant sorte 20 evenerant, edictum et litteras ad consulem misit, ut is exercitus idibus Martis Arimini adesset in castris. Hic in provincia consulatum inire consilium erat memori veterum certamilinu curn patribus, quae tribunus plebis et-quae postea consul prius de consulatu, 25 qui abrogabatur, dein de triumpho habuerat, invisus etiam patribus ob novam legem, quam Q. Claudius tribunus plebis, adverso senatu atque uno patruin adjuvante C. Flaminio, tulerat, ne quis senator, cuive senator pater fuisset, maritimam navem, quae plus 30 quam trecentarum amphorarum esset, haberet.- Id satis habitum ad fructus ex agris vectandos; quaestus omnis patribus indecorus visus.. Res per summam contentionern acta invidiam aput nobilitatem suasori legis Fiarn1inio, favorem aput plebem alterumtque inde 35 consulatum peperit. O( haec ratus auspiciis ementiendis Latinarunmque feriaru!n mora et consularibus aliis inpedimentis retenturos se in urbe, simulato itinere, privatus clam in provinciam abiit. Ea res ubi palam facta est, novam insuper iram infestis jam

Page  141 LIBER XXI, 63. 141 ante patribus movit:'non cum senatu modo, sed jam cumn diis inmnortalibus C. Flarninium bellum gerere. Consulem ante inauspicato f'actum revocantibus ex ipsa acie diis atque hominibus non paruisse; nune conscientia spretorum et Capitoliumr et sollenmnem 5 votorurn nuncupationem fugisse, ne die initi magistratus Jovis optimi maxinii temrplum adiret, ne senatum invisus ipse et sibi uni invisum videret consule-retque, ne Latinas indiceret Jovique Latiari sollemne sacrum in monte facerelt, ne auspicato profectus in 10 Capitolium ad vota nuncupanda, paludatus inde cum lictoribus in provinciam iret. Lixae modo sine insignibus, sine lictoribus profectum clam, furtim, haud aliter quam si exilii. causa solum vertisset. Magis pro majestate videlicet imnperii Arimini quam Romae 15 mnagistratum initurum, et in devers6rio hospitali quam aput penates suos praetextam sumpturum.' Revocandum universi retrahendumque censuerunt, et cogendum omnibus prius praesentem in deos horninesque fungi officiis quam ad exercitum et in 20 provinciamn iret. In earm legationein (legatos enim mitti placuit) Q. Terentius et M. Antistius profecti nihilo magis eum moyerunt, quam priore consulatu litterae moverant ab senatu missae. Paucos post dies ma.gistratum iniit, inmolantique ei vitulus jam 25 ictus e manibus sacrificantium sese cum proripuisset, multos circurnstantes cruore respersit; fuga procul etiam major aput ignaros quid. trepidaretur, et concursatio fuit. Id a plerisque in omen magni terroris acceptum. Legionibus inde duabus a Sem-30 pronio prioris anni consule, duabus a C. Atilio praetore acceptis, in Etrurianm per Apennini tramites exercitus duci est coeptus.

Page  142 [PERIOCHA LIBRI XXII.] [HANNIBAL per continuas vigilias in paludibus oculo amisso in Etruriam venit, per quas paludes qugdriduo et tribus noctibus sine ulla requie iter fecit. C. Flaminius consul, homo temerarius, contra auspicia profectus signis militaribus effossis, quae tolli non poterant, et ab equo quem conscenderat per caput devolutus, insidiis ab Hannibale circumventus ad Thrasymennum lacum cum exercitu caesus est. sex milia, quae eruperant, fide ab Atherbale data, perfidia Hannibalis vincta sunt. cum ad nuntium cladis Romae luctus esset, duae matres ex insperato receptis filiis gaudio mortuae sunt. ob hanc cladem ex Sibyllinis libris ver sacrum votum. cum deinde Q. Fabius Maximus dictator adversus Hannibalem missus nollet acie cum eo confligere, ne contra ferocemn tot victoriis hostera territos adversis proeliis milites pugnae committeret et opponendo se tantum conatus Hannibalis impediret, M. Minucius magister equitum, ferox et temerarius, criminando dictatorem tamiquam segnem et timidurm effecit, ut populi iussu aequaretur ei curn dictatore imperium; divisoque exercitu cum iniquo loco conflixisset et in maximo discrimine legiones eius essent, superveniente curm exercitu Fabio Maximo discrimine liberatus est. quo beneficio victus castra cumr eo iunxit et patrem eum salutavit idemque facere milites iussit. Hannibal vastata Campania inter Casilinum oppidum et Calliculam montem a Fabio clusus sarmentis ad cornua bouom alligatis et incensis praesidium Romanorum, quod Calliculam insidebat, fugavit et sic transgressus est saltum. idemque Fabi Maximi dictatoris, cum circiinposita ureret, agro p6percit, ut illum tamquam proditorem suspectum faceret. Aemilio deinde Paulo et Terentio Varrone consulibus [et] ducibus cum maxima clade adversus HIannibalem ad Cannas pugnatum est caesaque eo proelio Romanorum xlv cum Paulo consule et senatoribus xc et consularibus aut praetoriis aut aediliciis xxx. post quae cum a nobilibus adulescentibus propter desperationer consilium de relinquenda Italia iniretur, P. CorneliusScipio tribunus militum, qui Africanus postea vocatus est, stricto super capita deliberantium ferro iuravit, se pro hoste habiturum eum, qui in verba sua non iurasset, effecitque, ut omnes non relictum iri a se Italiam iure iurando adstringerentur. propter paucitatem militum viii servorum armata sunt.; captivi, cum potestas esset redimendi, redempti non sunt. praeterea trepidationem urbis et luctum et res in Hispania meliore eventu gestas continet. Opimia et Florentia Vestales virgines incesti damnatae sunt. Varroni obviam itum et gratiae actae, quod de re publica non desperasset.] i42

Page  143 T I.T I L I V I AB VRBE CONDITA LIBER VICESIMVS SECVNDVS. I. JAM ver adpetebat, atque Hannibal ex hibernis movit, et nequiquam ante conatus transcendere Apenninum intolerandis frigoribus, et cum ingenti periculo moratus ac metu. Galli, quos praedae populationumque conciverat spes, postquam pro co, 5 ut ipsi ex alieno agro raperent agerentque, suas terras sedem belli esse premique utriusque partis exercituum biberilis viderunt, verterunt retro in Hannibalem ab Romanis odia; petitusque saepe principum insidiis, ipsorum inter se fraude, eadem levitate, qua consen- 10. serant, consensum indicantium, servatus erat, et mnutando nunc vestem, nunc tegumenta capitis, errore etiam sese ab insidiis munierat. Ceterum hic quoque ei timor causa fuit mraturius movendi ex hibernis. Per idem tempus Cn. Servilius consul Romae idi- 15 bus Martis magistratum iniit. Ibi curn de re publica rettulisset, redintegrata in C. Flaminium invidia est:'duos se consules creasse, unum habere; quod enim illi justum imperium, quod auspicium esse? Magistratus id a domo, publicis privatisque penatibus, La- 20 tinis feriis actis, sacrificio in monte perfecto, votis rite in Capitolio nuncupatis, secum ferre; nec privaturn auspicia sequi, nec sine auspiciis profectum in externo ea solo nova atque integra concipere posse.' Augebant metum prodigia ex pluribus- simul locis 25 143

Page  144 144 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA nuntiata: in Sicilia militibus aliquot spicula, in Sardinia autem in niuro circurneunti vigilias equiti scipionem, quern imanu tenuerat, arsisse, et litora crebris ignibus fulsisse, et scuta duo sanguine sudasse, et 5 mlilites quosdam ictos fulluiniibus, et solis orberm mtinui visull, et Praeneste ardentes lapides caelo cecidisse, et Arpis parmas in caelo visas pugnantem-.que curn luna soleni, et Capenae duas interdiu lunas ortas, et aquas Caeretes sanguine mixtas fluxisse, 10 fontemque ipsum Herculis cruentis manasse sparsumn maculis, et in.Antiati metentibus cruentas in corbem spicas cecidisse, et Faleriis caelum findi velut magno hiatu visum, quaque patuerit ingens lumen effulsisse, sortes sua sponte adtenuatas, unanmque excidisse ita 15 scriptam "MAVORS TELVM SVVM CONCVTIT," et per ideni tempus Romae signum Martis Appia via ac simulacra luporum sudasse, et Capuae speciem caeli ardentis fuisse lunaeque inter imbrem cadentis. Inde minoribus etiam dictu prodigiis fides habita: capras 20 lanatas quibusdam factas, et gallinam in marem, gallurn in fteminam sese vertisse. His, sicut erant nuntiata, expositis, auctoribusque in curiam introductis, consul de religione patres consuluit. Decretum, ut ea prodigia partim majoribus hostiis, partim 25 lactentibus procurarentur, et' uti supplicatio per triduum ad omnia pulvinaria haberetur; cetera, cum decemviri libros inspexissent, ut ita fierent, quem ad modum cordi esse divis e carminibus profarentur. Decemvirorum monitu decretum est, Jovi primum 30 donum fulmen aureum pondo quinquaginta fieret, Junoni Minervaeque ex argento dona darentur, et Junoni reginae in Aventino Junonique Sospitae Lanuvii majoribus hostiis sacrificaretur, matronaeque pecunia conlata, quantum conferre cuique commno35 dum esset, donurn Junoni reginae in Aventinum ferrent, lectisterniumque fieret, et ut libertinae et ipsae, unde Feroniae donurn daretur, pecuniam pro facultatibus suis conferrent. Haec ubi facta, decenviri A rdeae in foro majoribus -hostiis sacrificarunt.t, Pos

Page  145 LIBER'XXII, 1'-2. 146 tremo Decembri jam mense ad aedem Saturni Romae ilnmolatum est, lectisterniumque imperatum ( [et] eum lectum senatores straverunt) et convivium publicum, ac per urbem Saturnalia diem ac noctem clarnata, populusque eum diem festum habere ac ser- 5 vare in perpetuum jussus. II. Dum consul placandis Romae dis habendo-que dilectu dat operam, Hannibal, profectus ex hibernis, quia jam Flaminium consulem Arretium pervenisse farna erat, curn-aliud longius, ceterum 10 -commodius ostenderetur iter, propiorem viam per paludem petit, qua fluvius Arnus per eos dies- solito mnagis inundaverat. Hispanos et Afros (id omne veterani erat robur exercitus), admixtis ipsorum inpedimentis, necubi consistere coactis necessaria ad 15 usus deessent, primos ire jussit; sequi Gallos, ut id agminis medium esset; novissimos ire equ-ites; Magonem inde cum expeditis Numidis cogere agmen, maxime Gallos, si taedio laboris longaeque viae, ut est mollis ad talia gens, dilaberentur aut subsisterent,' 20 cohibentem. Primni, qua modo praeirent duces, per praealtas fluvi ac profundas voragines, hausti paene limo inmergentesque se, tamren signa sequebantur.:Galli neque sustinere se neque prolapsiadsurg.ere ex voraginibus poterant, nec aut corpora animis aut.25 animos spe sustinebant, alii fessa aegre trahentes membra, al'ii, ubi semel victis taedio animis procubuissent, inter jumenta et ipsa jacentia passim morientes; maximeque omnium vigiliae conficiebant per quadriduumn jam et tres noctes toleratae. Cum, 30 omniia obtinentibus aquis, nihil ubi in sicco fessa sternerent corpora- inveniri posset, curnulatis in aqua sarcinis insuper incumbebant, aut jumentorum itinere toto prostratorum passim acervi tautum quod exstaret aqua quaerentibus ad quietem parvi-tem- 35 p(ris necessarium cubile dabant. Ipse Hannibal, aeger oculis ex verna primum intemperie variante calores f'rigoraque, elephanto, qui unus superfuerat, quo altius ab aqua exstaret,.vectus, vigiliis tamen et 10 — Livy.

Page  146 146 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA nocturno umore palustrique caelo gravante caput, et quia medendi nec locus nec tempus erat, altero oculo capitur. III. Multis hominibus jumentisque foede amissis 5 curm tandem de paludibus emersisset, ubi primum in sicco potuit, castra locat, certumque per praemissos exploratores habuit, exercitum Romanum -circa Arreti moenia esse. Consulis deinde consilia atque animum, et siturn regionum, itineraque, et copias ad 10 commeatus expediendos, et cetera quae cognosse in rem erat, summa omnia cum cura inquirendo-exequebatur. Regio erat in primis Italiae fertilis, Etrusci campi, qui Faesulas inter Arretiumque jacent, frumenti ac pecoris et.omnium copia rerum opulenti; 15 consul ferox ab consulatu priore, et non modo legumr aut patruinm majestatis, sed ne deorum quidem satis metuens; hanc insitamn ingenio ejus temeritatem fortuna prospero civilibus bellicisque rebus successu a]uerat. Itaque satis apparebat nec deos nec ho20 mines consulentem ferociter omnia ac praepropere acturum; quoq.ue pronior esset in vitia sua, agitare eum atque inritare.Poenus parat, et laeva relicto hoste Faesulas petens, medio Etruriae agro pra.edat'um profect'us, quantam maximam vastitatem potest 25 caedibus incendiisque consuli procul ostendit. -Flaminius, qui ne. quieto. quidem hoste ipse quieturus erat, tum vero, postquam res socioru.m ante oculos prope suos ferri agique vidit, suum id dedecus ratus, per mediam jam Italiam vagari Poenum, atque, 30 obsistente nullo, ad ipsa Romana moenia ire oppugnanlda, ceteris omnibus in consilio salutaria magis quam speciosa suadentibus:'collegam expectand-um, ut, conjunctis exercitibus, communi anino.consilioque rem gererent; interim equitatu auxiliis.que leviurn 35 armorum ab effusa praedandi licentia hostem cohibenduI:' iratus se ex consilio proripuit, signumque simul itineris pugnacque cum proposuisset'"immo Arreti ante moenia sedeamus," inquit, "hic enim patria et penates sunt. Hannibal emissus,e manibus P~~~~~~~.......

Page  147 LIBE'R XXIi, 3-4. 147 perpopuletur Italiam, vastandoque et urendo omnia ad Romana moenia perveniat; nec ante nos hinc moverimus quam, sicut olim Camillum ab Veiis, C. Flaniinium ab Arretio patres acciverint." Haec simul increpans, cumr ocius signa convelli juberet et 5 ipse inl ecum insiluisset, ecus repente conruit consuleinque lapsum super caput effudit. Territis omnibus qui circa erant velut foedo omine incipiendae rei, insuper nuntiatur, signum, omni vi moliente signifero, convelli nequire. Conversus ad nuntium "num lit- 10 teras quoque " inquit 6 ab senatu adfers, quae me rem gerere vetent? Abi, nuntia, effodiant signum, si ad convellendum manus prae metu obtorpuerunt." Incedere ilde agmen coepit, prirnoribus, super quam quod dissenserant ab consilio, territis etiam duplici 15 prodigio, milite in vulgus laeto ferocia ducis, cum spem magis ipsam quam causam spei intueretur. IV. Hannibal quod agri est inter Cortonam urbem Trasumennumque lacum omni clade belli pervastat, quo magis iramn hosti ad vindicandas 20 sociorum injurias acuat; et jam pervenerant ad loca nata insidiis, ubi maxime montes Cortonenses Trasumennus subit. Via tantum interest perangusta, velut ad id ipsum de industria relicto spatio; deinde paulo latior patescit campus; inde colles insurgunt. Ibi 25 castra in aperto locat, ubi ipse'cum Afris Inodo Hispanisque consideret;, Baliares ceteramque levem armaturam post montis circumducit; equites ad ipsas fauces saltus, tumulis apte tegentibus, locat, ut, ubi intrassent Romani, objecto equitatu clausa omnia 30 lacu'ac montibus essent. Flaminius cunm pridie solis occasu ad lacum pervenisset, inexplorato postero die vixdum satis certa luce angustiis superatis. postquam in patentiorem campum pandi agmen coepit, id tanturn hostium quod ex ad- S5 verso erat conspexit; ab tergo ac super caput decepere insidiae.'Poenus ubi, id quod petierat, clausumn l-acu ac montibus et circumfusum suis copiis habuit ihostein, signum omnibhs dat simul i.rvadendi. Qui

Page  148 148 TITI LIVI ARB' VRBE CONDITA ubi qua cuique proximum fuit decucurrerunt, eo magis Romanis subita atqueinprovisa res fuit, quod orta ex lacu nebula campo quam montibus densior sederat, agminaque hostiurn ex pluribus collibus ipsa 5 inter se satis conspecta eoque magis pariter decucurrerant. Romanus, clamore prius undique orto quam satis cerneret, se circumventum esse sensit; et ante in frontem lateraque pugnari coeptum est, quam satis instrueretur acies aut expediri arma stringique gladii 10 possent. V. Consul, perculsis omnibus,, ipse satis, ut in re trepida,-inpavidus, turbatos ordines, vertente se quoque ad dissonos clamores, instruit ut tempus locusque patitur; et, quacurnque adire audirique potest, ad1-5 hortatur ac stare ac pugnare jubet:'nec enim inde votis aut inploratione deum, sed vi ac virtute evadendumn esse; per medias acies ferro vianl fieri, et, quo tirnoris minus sit, eo minus ferme periculi esse.' Ceterum prae strepitu ac tuMnultu nec consilium nec 20 imperium accipi poterat, tantumque aberat ut sua signa atque ordines et locum noscerent, ut vix ad arma capienda. aptandaque pugnae conpeteret animus, opprimerenturque quidam onerati magis his quamn tecti. Et erat in tanta caligine major -usus 25 aurium quam oculorum. Ad gemitus vulnerum ictusque corporum aut armorum et mixtos strepentiurn: paventiumque clamores circumferebant ora oculosque. Alii fugientes pugnantium globo inlati haerebant; alios redeuntes in pugnam avertebat 30 fugientium agmen. Deinde, ubi in omnis partis nequiquamn impetus capti, et ab lateribus montes ac lacus, a fronte et ab tergo hostium acies claudebat, apparuitque.nullam nisi in dextera ferroque salutis spein esse, turn sibi quisque dux adhortatorque factus 35 ad rem gerendam, et. nova de integro exorta pugna est, non illa.ordinata per principes hastatosque ac triarios, nec ut pro signis antesignani, post signa alia pugnaret acies, nec ut in-sua legione miles. aut cohorte aut maniipulo esset-; fors conglobabat, et animus suus

Page  149 LIBER XXII, 5-6. 149 cuique ante ant post pugnandi ordinem dabat; tantusque fuit ardor [animorum], adeo intentus pugnae animus, ut eum motumn terrae, qui multarum urbium Italiae magnas partes prostravit avertitque cursu rapidos amnis, mare fluminibus invexit, montes lapsu 5 ingenti proruit, nemo pugnantium senserit. VI. Tris ferme horas pugnatum est, et ubique atrociter; circa consulem tamen acrior infestiorque pugna est. Eum et robora virorum sequebantur, et ipse, quacumque in parte premi ac laborare senseiat 10 suos, inpigre ferebat opem; insignemque armnis et hostes summa vi petebant et tuebantur cives, donec Insuber eques (Ducario nomen erat) facie quoque noscitans consulem, "en" inquit "hic est" popularibus suis, "qui legiones nostras cecidit agrosque et 15 urbem est depopulatus! Jam ego hane victimam manibus peremptorum foede civium dabo;" subditisque calcaribus equo, per confertissimam hostium turbam impetum facit, obtruncatoque prius armigero, qui se infesto venienti obviam objecerat, consulem 20 lancea transfixit; spoliare cupientem triarii objectis scutis arcuere. Magnae partis fuga inde primum coepit; et jam nec lacus nee montes pavori obstabant; per omnia arta praeruptaque velut caeci evadunt, armaque et viri super alium alii praecipitantur. 25 Pars magna, ubi locus fugae deest, per prima vada paludis in aquam progressi, quoad capitibus urnerisque extare possunt, sese inmergunt; Lucre quos inconsultus pavor nando etiam capessere fugam inpulerit; quae ubi inmensa ac sine spe erat, aut 30 deficientibus animis hauriebantur gurgitibus, aut nequiquarn fessi vada retro: aegerrime repetebant, atque ibi ab ingressis aquam hostium equitibus passim trucidabantur.- Sex milia ferme primi agminis, per adversos hostis eruptione inpigre facta, ignari 35 oniniurm quae post se agerentur, ex saltu evasere, et cum in tumulo quodam constitissent, clainorem modo ac sonurn armorurn audientes, quae fortuna pugnae esset neque scire nec perspicere prae caligine. pote

Page  150 150 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA rant., Inclinata denique re, cum incalescente: sole dispulsa nebula aperuisset diem, turnm liquida jam luce montes campique perditas res stratanmque ostendere foede Romanam aciem. Itaque, ne in conspec5 tos procul innmitteretur eques, sublatis raptim signis, quam citatissimo poterant agmine, sese abripuerunt. Postero die, cum super cetera extrema fames etiam instaret, fidem dante Maharbale, qui cum omnibus equestribus copiis nocte consecutus erat, si arma tra10 didissent abire cum singulis vestimentis passurum, sese dediderunt; quae Punica religione servata fides ab Hannibale est, atque in vincula omnes conjecti. VII. Haec est nobilis ad Trasumennurn pugna atque. inter paucas memorata populi Romani clades. 15 Quindecim milia Romanorum in acie caesa; decem milia sparsa fuga per omnem Etruriam aversis itineribus urbem petiere; duo milia quingenti hostium in acie, multi postea [utrimque] ex vulneribus periere. Multiplex caedes utrimque facta traditur ab aliis; 20 ego, praeterquam quod nihil auctum ex vano velim, quo nimis inclinant ferme scribentium animi, Fabium, aequalem temporibus hujusce belli, potissimum auctorem habui. Hannibal, captivorunl qui- Latini nominis essent sine pretio dimissis, Romanis- in vincula 25 datis, segregata ex hostium coacervatorum curnulis corpora suorum cum sepeliri jussisset, Flamini quoque corpus funeris causa magna cum cura inquisitum non invenit. Romae ad primum nuntium cladis ejus cum in30 genti terrore ac tumultu concursus in forum populi est factus. Matronae vagae per vias, quae repens clades adlata, quaeve fortuna exercitus esset, obvios percunctantur; et cum frequentis contionis modo turba in comi-tiumn et curiam versa magistratus 35 vocaret, tandem baud multo ante sol-is occasum-M. Pomponius praetor "pugna" inquit "magna victi sumus.8" Et quamquam nihil certius ex eo auditum est, tamen alius ab alio inpleti rumoribus domos referunt,'consulerm cum.. magna-::parte. copi'arium

Page  151 LIBER X-XII, 7-8. / i51 caesum; superesse paucos, aut fuga passim per Etruriam sparsos aut captos ab hoste.' Quot casus exercitus victi -fuerant, tot in curas dispertiti animi eorumn erant, quorum propinqui sub C. Flaminio consule. meruerant,- ignolantioum quae cujusque suorum "5 fortuna esset; nee quisquam satis certum habet, quid aut speret aut timeat. Postero ac deinceps aliquot diebus ad portas major prope mulierum quam virorum multitudo stetit, aut suorum aliquem aut nuntios de iis opperiens; circumfundebanturque obviis scis- 10 citantes, neque avelli, utique ab notis, priusquam ordine omnia inquisissent, poterant. Inde varios vultus digredientium ab nuntiis cerneres, ut cuique laeta aut -tristia nuntiabantur, gratulantisque aut consolantis redeuntibus domos circumfusos.- Femi- 15 narum praecipue et gaudia insignia erant et luctus. Unam in ipsa porta sospiti filio repente oblatam in conplexu ejus expirasse ferunt; alteram, cui mors fill falso nuntiata erat, maestam sedentem domi, ad primum conspectum redeuntis fili gaudio nimio 20 exanimatain. Senatum praetores per dies aliquot ab orto usque ad occidentem solem in curia retinent, consultantes, quonam duce aut quibus copiis resisti victoribus Poenis posset. VIII. Priusquam satis certa consilia essent, re- 25 pens alia nuntiatur clades, quattuor mlilia equitum cum C. Centenio propraetore missa ad conlegaua ab Servilio consule in Umbria, quo post pugnam ad Trasumennum- auditam averterant iter, ab Hannibale circumventa. Ejus rei fama ~varie homines ad- 30 fecit: pars, occupatis majore aegritudine animis, levem ex conparatione priorum ducere -recentem equitum jacturam; pars.non id quod acciderat per se' aestimare, sed; ut in adfecto corpore quamvis levis causa magis quam in valido gravior sentiretur, ita 35' tum aegrae et adfectae civitati- quodcumque adversi incideret, non rerum magnitudine, sed viribus extenuatis,- quae nihil quod adgravaret:pati possent, aestirandum:esse. I — taque -ad remedium jam diu

Page  152 152 TITI LIV.I AB-V:RBE- CONDITA neque desideratum nec.adhibitum, dictatoremn dicen. dum, civitas confugit;.et quia et consul aberat, a quo uno dici posse videbatur, nec per occupatam armis Punicis Italiam facile erat aut.nuntium aut 5 litteras mitti, nec dictatorem populus creare poterat, quod numquam ante earn diern factum erat, prodictatoremn populus creavit Q. Fabiumn Maxinlum et magistrum equitum M. Minucium Rufunm; bisque negotium ab senatu datum, ut muros turresque urbis 10 firmarent, et praesidia disponerent, quibus locis videretur, pontesque rescinderent fluminum: pro urbe ac. penatibus dimicandum esse, quando Italiam tuerit nequissent. IX. Hannibal recto itinere per Umbriam usque 15 ad Spoletium venit. Inde, cumr perpopulato agro urbem oppugnare adortus esset, cum magna caede suorum repulsus, conjectans ex unius coloniae haud nimis prospere temptatae viribus, quanta moles Romanae urbis esset, in agrum Picenum avertit iter,20 non copia solum omnis generis frugum abundantem, sed refertum praeda, quam effuse avidi atque egentes rapiebant. Ibi per dies aliquot stativa habita, refectusque miles hibernis itineribus ac palustri via proelioque magis ad eventum secundo quam levi aut 25 facili adfectus. Ubi satis quietis datum praeda ac populationibus magis quam otio aut requie gaudentibus, profectus Praetutianumn Hadrianumque agrum, Marsos inde Marrucinosque et Paelignos devastat circaque Arpos -et Luceriam proximam Apuliae re30,gionem. Cn. Servilius consul, levibus proeliis cum Gallis factis et uno oppido ignobili expugnato, post-. quam de collegae exercitusque caede audivit,- jam moenibus patriae metuens, ne abesset in discrimine extremo, ad urbern iter intendit. 35, Q. Fabius Maximus dictator iterum, quo die magistratum iniit, vocato senatu, ab diis orsus, cum edocuisset patres, plus neglegentia caerimoniarlum auspiciorumque quam temeritate:atque inscitia peccatum a C. Flaminio consule:esse, quRaeque pitaculwa

Page  153 jLIBER- XXII; 9-10. 153 ira-e deam essent ipsos deos consulendos esse, pervicit, ut, quod non ferme decernitur nisi cum taetrla prodigia nuntiata sunt, decemviri libros Sibyllinos adire juberentur. Qui inspectis fatalibus libris rettulerunt patribus,'quod ejus belli causa voturn Marti foret, 5 id non rite factum de integro atque amplius faciundumn esse; et Jovi ludos magnos et aedes Veneri Erucinae ac Menti vovendas esse, et supplicationem lectisterniumque habendum, et ver sacrum vovendum, si bellatum prospere esset resque publica in 10 eodem quo ante bellum fuisset statu permansisset,"' Senatus, quoniam Fabiumr belli cura occupatura esset, M. Aemilium praetorem ex collegii pontificumr sententia omnia ea ut mature fiant curare jubet. X. His senatus coinsultis perfectis, L. Cornelius 15 Lentulus pontifex maximus, consulente collegium praetore, omniurn primum populumr consulendum de vere sacro censet:- injussu populi voveri non posse. Rogatus in haec verba populus: "Velitis jubeatisne haec sic fieri? Si res publica populi Romnani Qui- 20 ritium ad quinquennium proximum, sicut velim voveamque, salva servata erit hisce duellis, quod duellum populo Romano curn Carthaginiensi est, quaeque duella cum Gallis sunt, qui cis Alpis sunt, turn donum duit populus Romanus Quiritium, quod 25 ver- attulerit ex suillo, ovillo, caprino, bovillo grege, quaeque profana erunt, Jovi fieri, ex qua die senatus populusque jusserit. Qui faciet, quando volet quaque lege volet, facito; quo modo faxit, probe factum esto. Si id moritur quod fieri oportebit, profanum 30 esto, neque scelus esto. Si quis rumpet occidetve insciens, ne fraus esto. Si. quis clepsit, ne populo scelus-esto, neve cui cleptum erit. Si atro die faxit insciens, probe factum esto. Si nocte sive luce, si servus sive liber faxit, probe factum esto. Si antidea 35 ac senatus populusquejusserit fieri faxitur, eo populus solutus liber esto." Ejusdem rei causa ludi magni voti' aeris trecentis triginta tribus milibus, trecentis triginita tribus triente, praeterea bubus Jovi trecentis,

Page  154 154 TITI LIVI AB. VR-BE:: CONDITA multis allis divjs bubus albis atque ceteris hostiis., Votis rite nuncupatis, supplicatio edicta; supplica-. tumque iere cumr conjugibus ac liberis non urbana multitudo tantum, sed agrestiumn etiam, quos in: 5 aliqua sua fortuna publica quoque contingebat cura. Tum lectisternium per triduum habitum, decemviris sacrorum curantibus. Sex pulvinaria in conspectu fuerunt: Jovi ac Junoni unum, alterum Neptuno ac Minervae, tertium Marti ac Veneri, quartum Apol-, 10 lini ac Dianae, quintum Vulcano ac Vestae, sextumMercurio et Cereri. Tum aedes votae, Veneri Erucinae aedem Q. Fabius Maximus dictator vovit, quia ita ex fitalibus libris editum erat, ut is voveret, cujus maximum imperiure in civitate esset; Menti 15 aedem T. Otacilius praetor vovit. XI. Ita rebus divinis peractis, tum de bello reque [de] publica dictator rettulit,-quibus quotque legionibus victori hosti obviam eundum esse patres censerent. Decretum, ut'ab Cn. Servilio consule 20 —exercitumn acciperet, scriberet praeterea ex civibus sociisque quantum equitum ac peditum videretur; cetera omnia ageret faceretque ut e re publica duceret.' Fabius duas legiones se adjecturum ad Servilianurn exercitum dixit. Iis per magistrum equi25tuirn scriptis Tibur diem -ad conveniendum edixit. Edictoque proposito, ut, quibus oppida castellaque inmunita essent, ut ii commigrarent in loca tuta, ex agris quoque demigrarent omnis regionis ejus qua iturus Hannibal esset, tectis prius incensis ac frugibus 30 corruptis, ne cujus rei copia esset, ipse via Flaminia profectus obviam consuli exercituque, cum ad Tiberimr circa Ocriculum prospexisset agmen. consulemque cumr equitibus ad se progredientem, viatorem misit qui -consuli nuntiaret, ut sine-lictoribus ad dictatorem 35veniret. Qui cure dicto paruisset, congressusque eorum ingentem speciem dictaturae aput.cives-sociosque vetustate jaim prope oblitos ejus: imperii fec-isset, litterae ab urbe adlatae sunt, naves onerarias comrmeatuim ab- Ostia-:in-: Hispaniam -ad:exercitum por

Page  155 LIBER XXII, 11-12, 155 tantes: a classe Punica circa porturn Cosanumn captas esse. Itaque extemplo consul Ostiam proficisci jus-, sus, navibusque, quae ad urbem Romanam aut Ostiae essent, conpletiS miiite ac navalibus sociis, persequi hostium classem ac litora Italiae tutari. Magna vis 5 horminurl:conscripta Romae erat; libertini etiam, quibus-liberi essent et aetas militaris, in verba jura-: verant. Ex hoc urbano exercitu, qui minores quin,-: que et triginta annis erant, in navis inpositi, aiii, ut urbi praesiderent, relicti.: 10 XII. Dictator, exercitu consulis accepto a Fulvio Flacco legato, per agrum Sabinum Tibur, quo diem ad conveniendumn edixerat novis, militibus, -venit. Inde Praeneste ac transversis linitibus in viam Latinam est egressus, unde, itineribus -sunima cum cura 151 exploratis, ad hostem ducit, n-ullo loco, nisi quantum necessitas cogeret, fortunae se commissurus. Quo prim um die haut procul Arpis in conspectu hostiumr posuit castra, nulla mora facta, quin Poenus educeretin aciem copiamque pugnandi faceret. Sed ubi quieta 20 omnia aput hostes nec castra ullo tumultu mota videt,. increpans quidem,'victos tandem' Martios animos Romanis, debellatumque et concessum propalam de virtute ac gloria esse,' in castra rediit; ceterum tacita cura animum incessit, quod cum ducelhaudquaquam 25, Flamrini Semproniique simili futura sibi res esset, ac tum denum, edocti malis, Romani parem Hannibali ducem quaesissent. Et prudentiam quidem novi dietatoris extemplo timuit; constantiam -hautdumi expertus, agitare ac temptare animum movendo cre- 30 bro castra populandoque in oculis ejus-agros sociorum, coepit; et modo citato agmine ex conspectu abibat, rnodo repente in aliquo flexu viae, si excipere degres, sum in aequum posset, occultus subsistebat. Fabius - per loca alta agmen ducebat, modico ab hoste inter-'35 vallo, ut neque ornitteret eum neque congrederetur. Castris, nisi quantum usus necessarii cogerentj tene-,. batur miniles; pabulum et lignarnec pauci petebant nec -passir-; equituim levisque -alrmat-turae statio,-con-;

Page  156 156 TITI LIV.I AB. VRB-E CONDITA posita instructaque in subitos tumultus,. et suo mniliti tuta omnia et infesta effusis hostium populatoribus praebebat; neque universo periculo suinIma rerum coinmittebatur, et parva momenta leviuln certami5 nurn ex tuto coeptorum, finitimo receptu, adsueftaciebant. territum pristinis cladibus militem minus jam tandem aut virtutis aut fortunae paenitere suae. Sed non Hannibalem magis infestum tam sanis consiliis habebat quam mnagistrum equitum, qui nihil aliud, 10 quam quod impar erat imperio, morae ad rem publicam praecipitandam habebat, ferox rapidusque in consiliis ac lingua inmodicus. Primo inter paucos, dein propalam in vulgus, pro cunctatore segnem, pro cauto timidum, adfingens vicina virtutibus vitia, con15 pellabat, premendoque superiorerm, quae pessima ars nimis prosperis multorum successibus crevit, sese extollebat.. XIII. Hannibal ex Hirpinis in Samnium transit, Beneventanum depopulatur agrum, Telesiam urbem 20 capit, inritat etiam de industria ducem, si forte accensumr tot indignitatibus ac cladibus sociorum detrahere. ad aecum certamen possit. Inter multitudinem sociorum Italici generis, qui ad Trasumennum capti ab Hannibale dimissique fuerant, tres Campani 25 equites erant, mn.ultis jam tum inlecti donis promissisque Hannibalis ad conciliandos popularium animnos. Hi nuntiantes, si in Campaniam exercituin admovisset, Capuae potiendae copiam fore, cum res major quam auctores esset, dubium Hannibalem alternis30 que fidenitem ac diffidentem tamen ut Campanos ex Samlnio peteret moverunt. Monitos etialn, atque etiam ut promissa rebus adfirmarent, jussosque cum pluribus et aliquibus principum redire ad se, dimisit. Ipse inlperat duci ut se in agrum Casinatem ducat, 35 edoctus a peritis regionurn, si eum saltum occupasset, exiturn Rornano ad opem ferendam sociis interclusurum; sed Punicurn abhorrens ab Latinorum nomrinum pro[nuntiatione os, Casilinurn] pro Casino dux ut acciperet fecit, averstsque ab suo itinere per

Page  157 L IBER' XXII, 13-14. 1:57 Allifanum Callifanumque et Calefium agrum in campum Stellatem descendit. Ubi cum montibus fluminibusque clausarm regionem circumspexisset; vocatum ducem percunctatur, ubi terrardm esset. Cum is Casilini eo die mansurum eum dixisset, turn demum 5 cognitus est error, et Casinum longe inde alia regione esse; virgisque caeso duce et ad reliquorurn terrorem in crucem sublato, castris communitis, Maharbalem' cum equitibus in agrum Falernum praedatum dimisit. Usque ad aquas Sinuessanas populatio ea per- 10 venit. Ingentem cladem, fugam tamen terroremque latius, Numidae fecerunt; nec tamen is terror, cum omnia bello flagrarent, fide socios dimovit, videlicet quia justo et moderato regebantur irnperio, nec abnuebant, quod unum vinculum fidei est, melioribus parere. 15 XIV. Ut vero, postquam ad Vulturnum flaunen castra sunt posita, exurebatur amoenissimus Italiae ager villaeque passim incendiis fumabant, per juga Massici montis Fabio ducente, turnm prope de integro seditio accensa; quieverant enim per paucos dies, 20 quia, curn celerius solito ductum agmen esset, festinar-i ad prohibendam populationibus Campaniarn crediderant. Ut vero in extrema juga Massici montis ventum, et hostes-sub oculis erant Falerni agri colonorumque Sinuessae tecta -urentes, nec ulla - erat 25 mentio pugnae, "spectatuln hue" inquit Minucius, "ut rern fruendam oculis, sociorum caedes et incendia venimus? nec, si nullius alterius, nos ne civiumn quidem borum pudet, quos Sinuessam colonos patres nostri miserunt, ut ab Samnite hoste tuta haec 30 ora esset, quamr nune non vicinus Samnis urit, sed Poenus advena, ab extrernis orbis terrarum terminis nostra cunctatione et socordia jam huc progressus? Tantum, pro! degeneramus a patribus nostris, ut praeter quam oram illi Punicas vagari classes.dede- 35 cus esse imperii sui duxerint, eam nune:plenam:hostium Numidarurque lac Maurorum jam — factamn vid-eamus? Qui-.modo, Saguntum oppuginari indignando, non h-omines.tantuin, sed:foedera et deos cie

Page  158 158 TITI LIVI A-B VR-BE CONDITA bamus, scan:dentem moenia Romanae coloniae Hannibaleml leIiti spectamus! Fumus ex incendiis villarum agrorumque in oculos atque ora venit; strepunt aures clamoribus plorantium sociorurn, saepius 5 nostram quam deorum invocantium opem; nos- hic pecorumn modo per aestivos saltus deviasque callis exercitum duciwnus, conditi nubibus silvisque. Si hoc modo peragrando cacumina-saltusque M. Furius recipere a Gallis urbem- voluisset, quo hic novus 10 Camillus, nobis dictator unicus in rebus adfectis quaesitus, Italiam ab Hannibale recuperare parat, Gallorum iRoma esset, quam. vereor ne, sic cunctantibus nobis, fEannibali ac Poehlis totiens servaverint majores nostri. Sed vir- ac vere Romanus, quo die 15 dictatorem eum ex auctoritate patrum jussuque populi dictum Veios allatumn est, cum esset satits altumn Janiculum, ubi sedens prospectaret hostem, descendit in aecum, atque illo ipso'die media, in urbe, qua nune busta Gallica sunt, et postero-die citra Gabios' cecidit 20 Gallorum legiones. Quid? post multos annos cum ad Furculas Caudinas ab Sarmnite hoste sub jugum missi sumus, utrum tandem L. Papirius Cursor juga Samnii perlustrando, an Luceriam premendo obsidendoque et lacessendo victorem hostein, depulsum 25 ab IRomanis cervicibus jugum superbo Samniti inposuit? Modo C. Lutatio quae alia res quam celeritas victoriam dedit? quod postero die quam hostem vidit, classem gravem commeatibus, inpeditam suomet' ipsam instrumento atque adparatu, oppressit. 30 Stultitia est sedendo aut votis debellari credere posse. Arma capias oportet et descendas in aecum et vir cum viro congrediaris. Audendo atque agendo res Romana crevit, non his segnibus consiliis, quae timidi cauta vocant." 385 Haec velut contionanti'Minucio circuifUindebatur tribunorum equitumque Romanorum multitudo,' et ad aures quoque milituri dictaferocia evolvebantur; ac, si mlilitaris suffragii res esset, baud dubie ferebant, Minucium Fabio ducem praelaturos.-...

Page  159 LIBER XXII, 14-15. 159 XV. Fabius pariter in suos hand minus quam in hiostis ifitentus, prius ab illis invictum animnum praestat. Quamquam probe scit, non in castris modo suis, sed jam etiam Romae infamem suam cunctationern esse, obstinatus tamen tenore eodem con- 5 siliorum aestatis reliquum extraxit, ut Hannibal, destitutus ab spe summa ope petiti certaminis, jam hibernis locum circumspectaret, quia ea regio.prae. sentis erat copiae, non perpetuae, arbusta.vineaeque et consita. omnia magis amoenis quam necessariis 10 fructibus. Haec per exploratores relata Fabio. Cum satis sciret, per easdem angustias, quibus intraverat Falernum agrum, rediturum, Calliculam montem et Casilinum occupat modicis praesidiis, quac urbs Vulturno flumine dirempta Falernum a 15 Campano agro dividit; ipse jugis isdem.exercitum reducit, misso exploratum. cum quadringentis equitibus sociorum L. Hostilio Mancino. Qui, ex turba juvenum audientium saepe ferociter contionantem magistrum equitum, progressus primo exploratoris 20 modo, ut ex tuto specularetur hostem, ubi vagos passim per vicos Numidas vidit, [et],per-occasionenm etiam paucos occidit, extemplo occupatus certamine est animus, excideruntque praecepta dictatoris, qui, quantum tuto;posset progressum, prius recipere sese 25 jusserat quamn in conspectum hostium veniret..Numidae alii atque alii occursantes refugientesque ad castra prope ipsa cum fatigatione equorum atque hominum pertraxere. Inde Carthalo, penes quem summa equestris imperil erat, concitatis. equis invec- 30 tus, cum, priusquam ad conjectum teli veniret, avertisset hostis, -quinque ferme milia continenti cursu secutus est fugieitis. Mancinus, postquam nec hostem desistere sequi nec spem vidit effugiendi esse, cohortatus suos in proelium rediit, omni parte virium 35 inpar. Itaque ipse et delecti equitum circumventi occiduntur; ceteri effuso rursus cursu Cales. primum, inde prope inviis callibus ad dictatorem perfugerunt. Eo iforte die Minucius se conjunxerat Fabio, missus

Page  160 .16'0 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA,ad firmandu.m praesidio salturn, qui super Tarracinam.in artas coactus fauces inminet mari, ne ab Sinuessa Poenus Appiae limite pervenire in agrum Romanurn posset. Conjunctis exercitibus dictator ac magister 5 equitum castra in viam deferunt, qua Hannibal du'cturus erat; duo inde milia hostes aberant. XVI. Postero die Poeni quod viae inter bina castra- erat agmine conplevere. Cum Romani sub ipso constitissent vallo, haut dubie aequiore loco, suc10 cessit tamen Poenus cumr expeditis equitibusque ad lacessenduni hostern. Carptimn Poeni et procursando recipiendoque sese pugnavere; restitit sueo loco Romana acies; lenta pugna et ex dictatoris magis quam Hannibalis fuit voluntate. Ducenti ab homanis, 15 octingenti hostium cecidere. In-clusus inde videri Hannibal, via ad Casilinum obsessa, curm Capua et Samnium et tantum ab tergo divitum sociorum Romanis conmeatus subveheret, Poenus inter Formniana saxa ac Literni harenas 20 stagnaque et perhorridas silvas hibernaturus esset; nec.Hannibalernm efellit, suis se artibus peti. Itaque curn per Casilinum evadere non posset, petendique montes et jugum Calliculae superandum esset, necubi Romanus ilnclusuliL vallibus agmen adgrederetur, 25 ludibrium oculorum specie terribile ad frustrandum hostem commentus, priicipio noctis furtim succedere ad montes statuit. Fall-acis consilii talis apparatus fuit: ifaces undique ex agris conlectae fascesque virgarum atque aridi sarmenti praeligantur corn ibus 30 boumrn, quos donmitos indomitosque multos inter ceteram agrestern praedam agebat. Ad duo niilia ferme boum effecta; Hasdrubalique ne'gotium datum, ut nocte id armentumr accensis cornibus ad montis ageret, nmaxime, si posset, super saltus ab hoste in35 sessos. XVII. Primis tenebris.. silentio mota castra; boves aliquanto ante signa acti. Ubi ad radices montium viasque angustas ventuin est, signum extemplo datur, ut accensis cornibus.-armenta in ad

Page  161 LIBER XXII, 16-18. 161 versos concitentur montis; et metus ipse relucentis flammae ex capite calor'que jam ad vivum ad iniaque cornuum adveniens velut stimulatos furore agebat boves. Quo repente discursu, haut secus quam silvis montibusque accensis, omnia circum virgulta [visa] 5 ardere; capitumque inrita quassatio, excitans flammain, homrinum passim discurrentium speciem praebebat. Qui ad transiturm saltus insidendunl locatl erant, ubi in summis montibus ac super se quosdam ignes conspexere, circumventos se esse rati, praesidio ex- 10 cessere. Qua minirne densae micabant flammae, velut tutissirmum iter petentes summa montium juga, tamen in quosdam boves palatos a suis gregibus in ciderunt. Et prirmo cum procul cernerent, veluti flammas spirantium miraculo adtoniti constiterunt; 15 deinde ut humana apparuit fraus, tum vero insidias rati esse, cum majore turnultu concitant se in fugam. Levi quoque armaturae hostium incurrere; ceterum nox aequato timore neutros pugnam incipientis ad lucem tenuit. Interea toto agmine Hannibal' trans- 20 ducto per saltum, et quibusdam in ipso saltu hostium 9ppressis, in agro Allifano posuit castra.'XVIII. Hunc turnultum sensit Fabius; ceterum et insidias- esse ratus et ab nocturno utique abhorrens certamine, suos munimentis tenuit. Luce prima sub 25 jugo moontis proelium fuit, quo interclusam ab suis levem armaturam facile (etenim numero aliquantum praestabant) Romani superassent, nisi Hispanorum cohors ad id ipsum remissa ab Hannibale superve, nisset. Ea adsuetior montibus, et ad concursandum 30 inter saxa rupesque aptior ac levior, cum velocitate corporum, turn armorurnm habitu, campestremr hostem, gravem armis statariumque; pugnae gernere facile elusit. Ita haudquaquaml pari certamine digressi, Hispani fere omnes incolumes, Romrani aliquot suis- 35 amissis in castra contenderunt.' Fabius quoque movit castra, transgressusque salturn super Allitas loco alto ac munito consedit. Tum per Saamniurn Romanm se petere simulans Hanniiba 11- Livy.

Page  162 162 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA usque in Paelignos populabundus rediit; Fabius medius inter hostium agmen urbemque Romam jugis ducebat, nec absistens nec congrediens. Ex Paelignis Poenus flexit iter, retroque Apuliam repetens 5 Gereonium pervenit, urbem metu, quia conlapsa ruinis pars moenium erat, ab suis desertam; dictator in Larinate agro castra communiit. Inde sacrorum causa Romam revocatus, non imperio modo, sed consilio etiam ac prope precibus agens cum magistro 10 equitum, ut'plus consilio quam fortunae confidat, et se potius ducem quam Semlpronium Flaminiumque imitetur: ne nihil actum censeret, extracta prope aestate per ludificationem hostis; medicos quoque plus interdum quiete quam movendo atque agendo 15 proficere; haut parvain rem esse ab totiens victore hoste vinci desisse et ab continuis cladibus respirasse' -haec nequiquam praemonito magistro equitum, Romam est profectus. XIX. Principio aestatis, qua haec gerebantur, in 20 Hispania quoque terra marique coeptum bellum est. Hasdrubal ad eum navium numerum, quem a fratre instructum paratumque acceperat, decem adjecit; quadraginta navium classem Himilconi tradit, atque ita Carthagine profectus naves prope terrainm, exer25 citum in litore ducebat, paratus confligere, quacun-,que parte copiarum hostis occurrisset. Cn. Scipio postquam movisse ex hibernis hostem audivit, primio idem consilii fuit; deinde minus terra propter ingentem famam novorum auxiliorum concurrere, au30 sus, delecto milite ad naves inposito, quinque et triginta navium classe ire obviain hosti pergit. Altero ab Tarracone die ad stationem decem imilia passuum distantem ab ostio Hiberi amnis pervenit. Inde duae Massiliensium speculatoriae praemissae rettulere, clas35 sem Punicam stare in ostio fluminis castraque in ripa posita. Itaque ut inprovidos incautosque universo simul effuso terrore opprimeret, sublatis ancoris ad hostem:vadit. -Multa et locis altis positas turris Hispania habet,

Page  163 LIBER XXIi, 19-20. 163 quibus et speculis-et propugnaculis adversus latrones utuntur. Inde primo conspectis hostium navibus, datum signium Hasdrubali est, tumultusque prius in terra et castris quam ad mare et ad naves est ortus, nonduml aut pulsu remorum strepituque alio nautico 5 exaudito aut aperientibus classem promunturiis, cum repente eques alius super alium ab Hasdrubale missus ragos in litore quietosqnle in tentoriis suis, nihil minus quam hostem aut proelium eo die expectantis, conscendere naves propere atque arma capere jublet: 10 classem Romanam jam haud procul portu esse. Haec equites diinissi passim imperabant; mox Hasdrubal ipse cuin omni exercitu aderat, varioque omnia turnultu strepunt, ruentibus in naves simul remigibus militibusque, f'ugientium - magis e terra quam in pug- 15 nam -euntium modo. - Vixdum omnis conscenderant, cum alii resolutis oris in ancoras evehuntur, alii, ne quid teneat, ancoralia incidunt; raptimque omnia ac praepropere agendo, militum apparatu nautica ministeria inpediuntur, trepidatione nautarum capere 20 et aptare arma miles prohibetur. Et jam Romanus non appropinquabat modo, sed derexerat etiam' in pugnam naves. Itaque nont ab hoste et proelio magis Poeni quam suomet ipsi tumultu turbati, temptata verius pugna quam inita, in fugam averterunt clas- 25 sern, et curn adversi amnis os lato agmini et tam multis simul venientibus haud sane intrabile esset,' in litus passim naves egerunt, atque alii vadis alii sicco litore excepti, partim armati partim inermes, ad instructam per litus aciem suorurn perfugere; duae 30 tamen primo' concursu captae erant Punicae naves, quattuor suppressae. XX. Roinani, quamquam terra hostium erat armnatamqlue aciem toto praetentam [in] litore cernebant, haud cunctanter insecuti trepidam hostium 35 classem, navis omnis, quae non aut perfregerant proras litori inlisas aut carinas fixerant vadis, religatas. puppibus in altum extraxere; ad cquinque et xigin:i ti:niar.ve~s"equadraginta- cepere.,.

Page  164 164 TITI LIVI AB VRB'E CONDITA Neque id pulcherrimum ejus victoriae fuit, sed quod una levi pugna toto ejus orae marl potiti erant. ItaqUe ad Onusam classe profecti; escensio ab navibus in terram facta. Cum urbem vi cepissent cap5 tamque diripuissent, Carthaginem inde -petunt; atque omnem agrum circa depopulati, postremo tecta quoque injuncta muro portisque incenderunt. Inde jam praeda gravis ad Longunticam pervenit classis, ubi vis magna sparti erat ad remn nauticam congesta ab 10 Hasdrubale. Quod satis in usurn fuit sublato, ceterum omne incensum est. Nec continentis modo praelectast ora, set in Ebusum insulam transmissum. Ibi urbe, quae caput insulae est, biduum nequiquarn summo labore oppugnata, ubi in spem inritam frustra.15 teri tempus animadversurn est, ad populationem agri versi, direptis aliquot incensisque vicis, majore quaml ex continenti praeda parta curn in naves se recepissent, ex Baliaribus insulis legati- pacem petentes ad 2 Scipionem venerunt. Inde flexa retro classis redi20 tumque in citeriora provinciae, quo omnium populorum, qui Hiberum adcolunt, multorum et-ultimae Hispaniae legati concurrerunt; sed qui vere dicionis imperiique Romani facti sint obsidibus- datis, po-puli amplius fuerunt centum viginti. Igitur terrestribus'25 quoque copiis satis fidens Romanus usque ad saltum Castulonensem est progressus; Hasdrubal in Lusitaniam ac propius Oceanum concessit. XXI. Quietum inde fore videbatur reliquum aestatis tempus, fuissetque per Poenum hostem 7-sed 30 praeterquam quod ipsorum Hispanorum inquieta avidaque in novas res sunt ingenia, Mandonius Indebilisque, qui antea Ilergetum regulus fierat, postquam Romani ab saltu recessere ad maritimam oramr, concitis popularibus, in agru'm pacatum sociorum 35 Romanorum ad populandum venerunt, Adversus eos tribuni rnmilitum cur expeditis auxiliis a Scipione missi levi certamine, ut tumultuariam manum, fudere in omnis partis, occisis quibusdam.captisque magnaque parte armis exuta, HIic tawmen tum.uItus

Page  165 LIBER XXII, 21-22. 165 cedentemr ad Oceanum Hasdrubalem cis Hiberum ad asocios tutandos retraxit. Castra Punica in agro Ilergavonensium, castra Romana ad Novam Classem crant, culr farna repens alio avertit bellum. Celtiberi, qui principes regionis.suae legatos miserant 5 obsidesque dederant Romanis, nuntio misso a Scipione exciti arma capiunt, provinciamqtie Carthaginiensium valido exercitu invadunt. Tria oppida vi expugnant; inde cum ipso Hasdrubale duobus proeliis egregie pugnant; ad quindecim milia hostium 10 occiderunt, quattuor milia cum multis militaribus signis capiunt. XXII. Hoc statu rerum in. Hispania' P. Scipio in provinciam venit, prorogato post consulatum imperio ab senatu missus, cum triginta longis navibus 15 et octo milibus militum, magnoque commeatu advecto. Ea classis ingens agmine onerariarum procul visa cum magna laetitia eivium sociorumque portum Tarraconis ex alto tenuit. Ibi milite exposito, profectus Scipio fratri se conjungit; ac deinde communi 20 animo consilioque gerebant bellurm. Occupatis igitur Carthaginiensibus Celtiberico bello, haud cunctanter Hiberurn transgrediuntur, nec ullo viso hoste, Saguntum.rn pergunt ire, quod ibi obsides totius. Hispaniae traditos ab Hannibale fama erat modico in 25 arce custodiri praesidio. Id unum pignus inclinatos ad Romanam societatem omnium Hispaniae populorum animos morabatur, ne sanguine liberufm s-uor-um culpa defectionis lueretur...Eo vinc.ulo Hispaniam vir unus sollerti magis 30 quam fideli consilio exsolvit. Abelux erat Sagunti nobilis Hispanus, fidus ante Poenis; turm, qualia pleruinque sunt barbarorum ingenia, cum fortuna mutaverat fiden.,'Ceterum transfugam:sine magnae rei proditione venientem ad hostis nihil aliud quam 35 unum vile atque infarne corpus esse ratus, id. agebat, ut.quam maxumurn emolumentumrn novis sociis esset. Circumspectis igitur omnibus, quae fortuna potesiatis ejis poqterat. facere, obsidibus potissimum tradendis

Page  166 166 TITI LIVI. AB VRBE CONDITA animurn adjecit, eam unam rem maxime ratus conciliaturam Romnanis principum Hispaniae amicitiam. Sed cum injussu Bostaris praefecti satis sciret nihil obsidum custodes facturos esse, Bostarem ipsum arte 5 adgreditur. Castra extra urbem in ipso litore habebat Bostar, ut aditum ea parte intercluderet Roranis. Ibi eumr in secretum abducturn, velut ignorantem, monet, quo statu sit res-:'meturn continuisse ad eam diem Hispanorum animos, quia procul: Romani abes10 sent; nunc cis Hiberum castra Romana esse, arcern tutarm perfugiumque novas volentibus res; itaque, quos metus non teneat, beneficio et gratia devinciendos esse.' Miranti- Bostari percunctantique, quodnam id subitum tantae rei donum posset esse, "ob15 sides" inquit "in civitates remitte.. Id et privatim parentibus, quorum maxumum momentum- in civitatibus est suis, et publice populis gratum erit.. Volt sibi quisque credi, et habita fides ipsam. plerumque obligat fidem. Ministerium restituendorum domos 220 obsidum mihimet deposco ipse, ut opera quoque inpensa consilium adjuvem meum, et rei suapte natura gratae quantam insuper gratiam possim adiciam." Iomini non ad cetera Punica ingenia callido ut persuasit, nocte clam progressus ad hostium stationes, 25 conventis quibusdam auxiliaribus Hispanis et ab his ad Scipionem perductus, quid adferret, expromit, et, fide accepta dataque, ac loco et tempore constituto ad obsides tradendos, Saguntum redit. Diem insequentem absumpsit cum Bostare mandatis ad rem agen-:30 dam..accipiendis. Dimissus, cum -se.nocte iturum,. ut custodias hostium falleret, constituisset, ad conpositarn cum iis horam excitatis custodibus puerorum profectus, veluti ignarus in praeparatas sua fraude i.nsidias ducit. In castra Romana perducti; cetera 35 omnia de reddendis obsidibus, sicut cum Bostare constitutum erat,-acta per eundem ordinem, quo si Carthaginiensium nomine sic ageretur. Major aliquanto Romanorum. gratia fuit in re pari, quam.quanta futura Carthaginiensiurm fuerat. Illos enim gravis

Page  167 LIBER XXII, 22-23. 167 superbosque in rebus secundis expertos fortuna et tiinor mitigasse videri poterat; Romanus primo adventu, inceognitus ante,'ab re clementi liberalique initium fecerat; et Abelux, vir prudens, haud frustra videbatur socios mutasse. Itaque ingenti consensu 5 defectionem omnes spectare; armaque extemplo mota forent, ni hiems, quae Rornanos quoque et Carthaginienses concedere in tecta coegit, intervenissbt. XXIII. Haec in iHispania [quoque] secunda aestate Punici'belli gesta, cum in Italia paulum in- i0 tervalli cladibus Romanis'sollers cunctatio Fabii fecisset; quae ut Hannibalem non mediocri sollicitum cura habebat, tandem eum militiae magistrum delegisse Romtanos cernentem, qui bellurn ratione, non- frtuna gereret, ita contempta erat inter civis 15 armatos pariter togatosque, utique postquam absente eo temneritate magistri equitum, laeto verius dixerim quam prospero eventu, pugnatum fuerat. Accesserant duae res ad augendam invidiam dictatoris, una fraude ac dolo Hannibalis, quod, cum a perfugis ei 20 monstratus ager dictatoris esset, omnibus circa solo aequatis, ab uno eo ferrum ignemque et vim.omnem hostium abstineri jussit, ut occulti alicujus pacti ea merces videri posset, altera ipsius facto, primo forsitan dubio, quia non expectata in eo senatus auc- 25 toritas est, ad extremum haud ambigue in maximam laudem verso. In permutandis captivis, quod sic primo Punico bello factum erat, convenerat inter dutes Romanum Poenumque, ut, quae pars plus reciperet quam daret, argenti pondo bina et selibras in 30 militem praestaret. Ducentis quadraginta septem cum plures Romanus quani Poenus recepisset, argentumque pro eis debitum, saepe jactata in senatu re, quoniam non consuluisset patres, tardius erogaretur, inviolatum ab hoste agrum, misso Romain Quinto 35 filio, vendidit, fidemque publicam- inpendio privato exsolvit. Hannibal pro Gereoni moenibus, cujus urbis captae atque incensae ab se-in usum horreorum pauca re

Page  168 168 TITI -LI-VI AB VRBEE CONDITA liquerat tecta, in stativis. erat. Inde frumentatum duas exercitus partes mittebat; cum tertia ipse expedita in statione erat, simul castris praesidio, et circumspectans necunde impetus in frumentatores 5 fieret. XXIV. Romanus tune exercitus in agro Larinati erat; praeerat Minucius magister equitum, profecto, sicut ante dictum est, ad urbem dictatore. Ceterum castra,'quae in monte alto ac tuto loco 10 posita fuerant, jam in planum deferuntur; agitabanturque pro ingenio ducis consilia calidiora, ut impetus aut in frumentatores palatos aut in castra relicta cum levi praesidio fieret. Nec Hannibalem fefellit cum duce mutatam esse belli rationem, et 15 ferocius quam consultius rem hostes gesturos. Ipse autem, quod minime quis erederet, cum hostis propius esset, tertiam partem militum frumentatum, duabus in castris retentis, dimisit; dein castra ipsa propius hostem movitj duo ferme a Gereonio milia, in tumu20 lum hosti conspectum, ut intentum sciret esse ad frumentatores, si qua vis fieret, tutandos. Propior inde ei atque ipsis innminens Romanorum castris tumnulus apparuit; ad quem capiendum si luce palam iretur, quia haud dubie hostis breviore via praeventurus 25 erat, nocte clam missi Numidae ceperunt. Quos tenentis locum contempta paucitate Romiani postero die cum dejecissent, ipsi eo transferunt castra. [Tumn ut] itaque exiguum spatii vallum a vallo aberat, et: id ipsum toturn prope conpleverat Romana acies.30-Simul et per aversa a castris Hannibalis equitatus cum levi armatura emnissus in frumentatores late caedem fugamque hostiurn palatorum fecit. Nec acie certare Hannibal ausus, quia. tanta paucitate. vix castra, si oppugnarentur,.tutari poterat; jamque 35-artibus Fabii [pars exercitus aberat jam fame]_ sedendo et cunctando bellum gerebat, receperatque suos in priora castra, quae pro Gereoni moenibus erant...: Justa quoque acie et conlatis signis dimicatu.m

Page  169 LIBER X XI, 24-25. 169 quidam auctores sunt: pri-mo concursu Poenum usque ad castra fusurn; inde eruptione facta repente versum terroremr ill Romanos; Nutneri Decimi Samnitis' deinde interventu proeliunm restitutumn. Hune principem genere ac divitiis non Boviani modo, unde 5 erat, sed toto Samnio, jussu dictatoris octo milia peditum et equites -quingentos ducentem in castra, ab tergo cum apparuisset Hannibali, speciem parti utrique praebuisse novi praesidii cum Q. Fabio ab Roma venientis. Hannibalem, insidiarumn quoque 10 aliquid timentem, recepisse suos; Romanum insecutum adjuvante Samnite duo castella eo die expugnasse.. Sex milia hostiunm caesa, quinque admodum Romanorum; tamen, in tam pari prope clade, famam egregiae victoriae cum.vanioribus litteris 15 magistri equitum Romamn perlatam.:XXV. De his rebus perstaepe et in senatu et incontione -.actum est. Cum, laeta civitate, dictator utnus nihil nec famae nec litteris crederet, et, ut vera oinnia essent, secunda se magis quam adversa timere 20 diceret, tum M. Metilius tribunus plebis'id enimvero ferendum. esse' negat:'non praesentem solum dictatoreln obstitisse rei bene- gerendae, sed absentem etiam gestae.obstare, et.in - ducendo bello sedulo tempus terere,. quo diutius in magistratu sit, solusque 25 et Romae et in exercitu imperium habeat. Quippe consulum alterumin in acie cecidisse, alterum specie classis Punicae persequendae procul ab Italia ablegatum; duos praetores Sicilia atque Sardinia occupatos, quarum neutra hoc tempore provincia praetore 30 egeat;. M. Minucium magistrum equitum, ne hostem videret, ne quid rei bellicae gereret, prope in custodia habituirn. Itaque hercule non Samnium modo, quo jam tamquam trans -Hiberum agro Poenis concessum sit, set Campanum Calenumque et Falernum agruml 35 pervastatos esse, sedente Casilini dictatore et legionibus- populi Romani agrum suum tutante. Exercitum cupientem pugnare et magistrum equitum clausos prope intra vallum retentos; tamquam hostibus

Page  170 170 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA captivis arma adempta. Tandem, ut abscesserit inde dictator, ut obsidione liberatos, extra vallum egressos fudisse ac fugasse -hostis. Quas ob res, si antiquus animus plebei Romanae esset, audaciter se laturum 5 fuisse de abrogando Q. Fabi imperio; nunc modicam rogationem promulgatururn de aequando magistri equitum et dictatoris jure. Nec tamen ne ita quidern prius mittendum ad exercitum Q. Fabium, quain consulem in locum C. Flamini suffecisset.' 10 Dictator contionibus se abstinuit in actione minime populari. Ne in senatu quidem, satis aequis auribus audiebatur, cum hostem verbis extolleret biennique clades per temeritatem atque inscientiam ducum acceptas referret, [et]'magistro equitum, quod contra 15 dictum suum pugnasset, rationem' diceret'reddendam esse. Si penes se summa imperii consiliique sit, prope diem effecturum, ut sciant homines, bolio imperatore haut magni fortunam momenti esse, mentem rationemque dorninari, et in tempore et sine igno20 minia servasse exercitum, quam multa milia hostium. occidisse, majorem gloriam esse.' Hujus generis orationibus frustra habitis, et consule creato M. Atilio Regulo, ne praesens de jure imperii dimicaret, pridie quam rogationis ferendae dies adesset, nocte ad-exer25 citumn abiit. Luce orta; cum plebis conciliurn esset, magis tacita invidia dictatoris favorque magistri equitum animos versabat, quam satis audebant homines ad- suadendum quod vulgo placebat prodire, et, favore superante, auctoritas tamen rogationi 30 deerat. Unus inventus est suasor legis C. Terentius Varro, qui priore anno praetor fuerat, loco non humili solum, sed etiam sordido, ortus. Patremn lanium fuisse ferunt, ipsum institorein mercis, filioque hoc ipso in servilia ejus artis ministeria usum. 35. XXVI. Is juvenis, ut primurn ex eo genere quaestus pecunia a patre relicta animos ad spem liberalioris fortunae fecit, togaque et forum placuere, proclamando pro sordidis hominibus causisque adversus rem et famam bonorum primum in notitiam populi,

Page  171 LIBER XXII, 26-27. 171 deinde ad honores pervenit; quaesturaque et duabus aedilitatibus, plebeia et curuli, postremo et praetura perfunctus, jam ad consulatus spem curm adtolleret animos, haud parum callide auram favoris popularis ex dictatoris invidia petiit, scitique plebis unus gra — 5 tiam tulit. Omnes earn -rogationemn, quique Romae quique in exercitu erant, aequi -atque iniqui, praeter ipsum djctatorem, -in contumeliam ejus latam acceperunt. Ipse, qua gravitate animi criminantes se ad multitu- 10 dinemr inimicos tulerat, eadem et populi in se saevientis injuriam tulit; acceptisque in ipso itinere litteris senatus de aequato imperio, satis fidens hautquaquamr cum imperil jure artem imperandi aequatam, cum aeque invicto a civibus hostibusque animo, 15 ad exercitum rediit. XXVII. Minucius vero, cum jam ante vix tolerabilis fuisset secundis rebus ac f:aivore volgi, turn utique inmodice inmodesteque non Hannibale magis victo ab se quam Q. Fabio gloriari.' Illum in re- 20 bus asperis unicum ducem ac parern quaesitum Hannibali, majorem minori, dictatorera magistro equitum, quod nulla memoria habeat annalium, jussu populi aequatum in eadem civitate, in qua magistri equitum virgas ac secures dictatoris tremere atqlue horrere 25 soliti sint; tantum suam felicitatem virtutemque enituisse.- Ergo secuturum se fortunam suam, si dictator in cunctatione ac segnitie, deorum horninumque judicio damnata, perstaret.' Itaque, quo die primum congressus est cum Q. Fabio,'statuendum omnium 30 primum' ait' esse, querm ad modum imperio aequato utantur: se optumumn ducere, aut diebus alternis, aut, si majora intervalla placerent, partitis temporibus, alterius summnum jus imperiumque esse, ut par hosti non solum consilio, sed viribus etiam esset, si 35 quam occasionem rei- gerendae habuisset.' Q. Fabio haudquaquarn id placere:'omnia fortunam eam habitura, quamcumque temeritas conlegae habuisset; sibi communicatum cum illo, non fademptum, im

Page  172 172 TITI LI:YI AB VRBE CONDITA perium.esse. Itaque se numquam volentem parte qua posset rerum consilio gerencidarum cessuruin; nec se tempoia aut dies iInperii cum eo, exercitun divisurum, suisque consiliis, quoniam oinnia non liceret,.5 quae posset servaturum.' Ita optinuit lit legiones, sicut:consulibus mos esset, inter se dividerent: prima et quarta Minucio, secunda et tertia Fabio evenerunt; item equites pari nunero, sociuimque et Latini nominis auxilia, diviserunt: castris quoque se separari 10 nlagister equitum voluit. XXVILI. Duplex inde Hannibali gaudium fuit (neque enim quicquam eorum, quae aput hostes agerentur, eum fallebat, et perfiugis multa indicantibus et per suos explorantem): nam et liberamr Minuci 15 temleritatem se. suo modo captaturum, et sollertiae Fabii dimidium virium decessisse. Tunlulus'erat inter castra Minueci et Poenorum, quemi qui occupasset, haud dubie iniquiorem erat hosti locum- facturus. Eumn non tarnm capere sine eertamine volebat 20Q Hannibal, quarnquam id operae pretium erat, quam eausarm certaininis cum Minucio, quem procursurumn ad obsistendurn satis sciebat, contrahere. Ager omnis medius erat primna specie inutilis insidiatori, quia non modo silvestre quicquam, sed ne vepribus quidem 25 vestiturn habebat, re ipsa natus tegendis insidiis, eo magis quod in nuda valle nulla talis fraus timeri poterat; et erant in anfractibus cavae rupes, ut quaedam earuni ducenos armatos possent capere! In has latebras, quot quemque locum apte insidere pote30 rant, quinque milia conduntur peditum equitumque.' Necubi.tainen aut motus alicujus temere egressi aut. fulgor arrnorum fraudern in valle tanm aperta detegeret, miissis paucis prima luce.ad capiendum quem. ante diximus turmulum, avertit oculos hostium. 35 Primo statim conspectu contempta paucitas, ac sibi quisque deposcere pellendos inde hostis ac locum capiendum; dux ipse inter stolidissimos ferocissimnosque ad arma vocat, et vanis minis increpat hostemn. Principioi levenm arnaturamn [dimittti], deinde con

Page  173 LIBER XXIt, 28-29. 173 ferto agmine mittit equites; postremo, cum hostibus quoque subsidia mitti videret, instructis' legionibus procedit. Et Hannibal, laborantibus suis alia atque alia, crescente certamine, mittens auxilia pedituil equitumque, jam justam expleverat aciem,- ac totis 5 utrilique viribus certatur. Prima levis armatura Romanorum, praeoccupatum ex inferiore loco succedens tumulum, pulsa detrusaque terroremr in subsequentem intulit equitemn et ad signa legionum refugit. Peditum acies inter perculsos inpavida sola erat, 10 videbaturque, si justa ac directa pugna esset, hautquaquam -inpar futura; tantum animorum' fecerat prospere ante paucos dies res gesta; set exorti repente insidiatores eum tumultum terroremque, in latera utrimque ab tergoque incursantes, fecerunt, ut neque 15 ~animus ad pugnam neque ad fugam spes cuiquam superesset. XXIX. Turn Fabius, primno clamore paventium audito, dein conspecta procul turbata acie, "ita est," inquit, "non celerius quain timui, deprendit fortuna 20: temieritatem. Fabio aequatus imperio Hannibalemr et virtute et fortuna superiorena videt. Sed aliud jurgandi suscensendique tempus erit: nunc signaextra vallum'proferte; victoriam hosti extorqueamus, confessionerm erroris civibus." Jam inagna 25 ex parte caesis allis, aliis circumspectantibus fugam, Fabiana se acies repente, velut caelo demissa adauxilium, ostendit: itaque, priusquam ad conjectumj teli' veniret aut manum consereret, et suos a fuga eff'usa et ab nimis feroci pugna hostes continuit. — Qui solutis ordinibus vage dissipati erant, undique confugerunt ad integram aciem; qui plures simnul terga dederant, conversi in hostem volventesque orbem, nunc sensim referre pedem, nunc conglobati restare: ac jam prope una acies facta erat victi atque 35 integri exereitus, inferebantque signa in hostem, cumn Poenus receptui cecinit, palam ferente Hannibale; ab se Minticium, se ab Fabio victum. hIta per variam fortuna' diei majore parte ex-;athi,

Page  174 174 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA cum in castra reditum esset, Minucius, convocatis militibus, "saepe ego" inquit "audivi, milites, eum primum esse virum, qui ipse consulat quid in rem sit; secundum eurn, qui belle ionenti- oboediat; qui 5 nec ipse consulere nec alteri parere sciat, eum extremi ingenii esse. Nobis quoniam prima animi ingeniique negata sors est, secundam ac mlediam teneamus, et, dum imperare discimus, parere prudenti in animum inducamus. Castra cum Fabhio jungamus. 10 Ad praetorium ejus signa cum tulerimus, ubi ego eum'parentem' appellavero, quod beneficio ejus erga.nos ac majestate ejus dignum est, vos, milites, eos, quorum vos modo arma ac dexterae texerunt,'patronos' salutabitis, et, si nihil aliud, gratorum 15 certe nobis animorum gloriam dies hic dederit." XXX. Signo dato, conclamatur inde, ut colligantur vasa. Profecti et agmine incedentes ad dictatoris -castra in admirationem et ipsum et omnes qui circa erant converterunt. Ut constituta sunt 20 ante tribunal signa, progressus ante alios magister equitum, cum'patrem' Fabium appellasset, circumnfusosque militum ejus totum agmen'patronos:' consalutasset, "' parentibus" inquit "meis, dictator, quibus te modo nornine, quod fando possum, aequavi, 25 vitam tantum debeo, tibi cum meam salutem, turn omnium horum. Itaque plebei scitum,- quo oneratus sum magis quam honoratus, primus antiquo abrogoque, ec (quod tibi mihique [quod] exercitibusque his tuis, servato ac conservatori, sit felix!) sub im30 perium auspiciumque tuum redeo, et. signa haec legionisque restituo. Tu, quaeso, placatus me magisterium equitum, hos ordines suos quemque tenere jubeas." Turn dextrae interjunctae, militesque, contione dimissa, ab notis ignotisque benigne atque hospi35 taliter invitati, laetusque dies ex admodum tristi paulo ante ac prope execrabili factus. Romae, ut est perlata fama rei gestae, dein litteris non magis ipsorum imperatorum quam volgo militum e.sxutroquae exerpitu.ladfirrmata,prQ. se quisque-Maxi-.

Page  175 LIBER XXIi, 30-31. 175 mum laudibus ad caelumr ferre. Par gloria apud Hannibalem hostisque Poenos erat;- ac turn demum sentire cum Romanis atque in Italia bellum esse; nam biennio ante adeo et duces Romanos et milites spreverant, ut vix cum eadem gente bellum esse 5 crederent, cujus terribilem famamr a patribus accepissent. Hannibalem quoque ex acie redeuntem dixisse ferunt, tandem eam nubem, quae sedere in jugis montium solita sit, curn procella imbrem dedisse. - 10 XXXI. Dum haec geruntur in Italia, Cn. Servilius Geminus consul, cum classe [centuln viginti] navium circumvectus Sardiniae et Corsicae oram, et obsidibus utrimque acceptis, in Africam transmisit; et, priusquam in continentem escensionem faceret, 15 Menige insula vastata, et ab incolentibus Cercinamn, ne et ipsorum ureretur diripereturque ager, decem talentis argenti acceptis, ad litora Africae accessit copiasque exposuit. Inde ad populandum agrum ducti rnilites, navalesque socii juxta effusi, ac si [in] 20 insulis cultorum egentibus praedarentur. Itaque in insidias temere inlati, cum a frequentibus palantes ac locoruin ignari a gnarls circumvenirentur, cum multa caede ac foeda fuga retro ad naves conpulsi sunt. Ad mille hominum, cum iis Sempronio Blaeso 25 quaestore amisso, classis, ab litoribus hostium plenis trepide. soluta, in Siciliam cursum tenuit, traditaque Lilybaei T. Otacilio praetori, ut ab legato ejus P.: Cincio Rornam reduceretur. Ipse, per Siciliam pedibus profectus, freto in Italiam trajecit, litteris Q. 30 Fabii accitus et ipse et conlega ejus M. Atilius, ut exercitus- ab se, exacto jam prope semestri imperio,acciperent..Omniurn prope annales Fabium dictatorem adversus Hannibalemn rem gessisse tradunt; Coelius- etiam 35' eum primum a populo creatum dictatorem scribit.' Sed et.Coelium et coteros -fugit, uni consuli Cn. Servilio, qui tum procul in Gallia. provincia aberat, jus faisse:.dicendi dictatoris; -quam:moram quia:expe;e':

Page  176 176 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA tare territa jam clade civitas non poterat, eo decursum esse, ut a populo crearetur qui pro dictatore esset; res inde gestas gloriamque insignem ducis et augentis titulum imaginis posteros, ut, qui pro dicta5 tore fiisset, dictator crederetur, facile obtinuisse. XXXII. Consules, Atilius Fabiano Gerninus Servilius Minuciano exercitu accepto, hibernaculis mature communitis, (medium autumnii erat,) Fabi artibus cum summa inter se concordia bellurn gesserunt.. 10 Frumentatum exeunti Hannibali diversis locis opportuni aderant, carpentes agmen palatosque excipientes; in casum universae dimicationis, quam omnibus artibus petebat hostis, non veniebant; eoque inopiae est redactus Hannibal, ut, nisi cum fugae 15 specie abeundurn ei fuisset, Galliam repetiturus fuerit, nulla relicta spe alendi exercitus in eis locis, si insequentes consules eisdem artibus bellum gererent. Cum ad Gereonium jam hieme inpediente consti20 tisset belluim, Neapolitani legati Romam venere. Ab iis quadraginta paterae aureae magni ponderis in curiam inlatae, atque ita verba facta, ut dicerent,'scire sese populi Romani aerarium bello exhauriri; et, cum juxta pro urbibus agrisque sociorum 25 ac pro capite atque arce Italiae, urbe Romana atque imperio, geratur, aequum censuisse Neapolitanos,. quod auri sibi cum ad templorum ornatum tum ad subsidiurn fortunae a majoribus relictum foret, eo juvare populum Romanum. Si quam opem in sese 30 crederent, eodem studio fuisse oblaturos. Gratum sibi patres Romanos populumque facturum, si omnes res Neapolitanorum suas duxissent, dignosque judicaverint, ab quibus donum, animo ac voluntate eorum qui libentes darent quam re majus ampliusque, 35 acciperent.' Legatis gratiae actae pro munificentia curaque; patera, quae ponderis minimi fuit, accepta. XXXIII. Per eosdem dies speculator Carthaginiensis, qui per biennium fefellerat, Romae depren-sus -praecisisque manibus diimissus, et ervi quin:

Page  177 L'IBER XXII, 32-34. 177 que et viginiti in crucem acti, quod in campo- Martio conjurassent; indici data libertas et aeris gravis viginti milia. Legati et ad Philippum Macedonun regem missi ad deposcendum Demetrium Pharium, qui bello victus ad eum fugisset, et alii in Ligures ad 5 expostulandum, quod Poehum opibus auxiliisque suis juvissent,-simul ad visendum ex propinquo, quae in Bois atque Insubribus gererentur. Ad Pineum quoque regem in Illyrios legati missi ad stipendium, cujus dies exierat, poscendum, aut, si diem proferri 10 vellet, obsides accipiendos. Adeo, etsi bellum ingens in cervicibus erat,:nullius usquatn terrarum rei cura Romlanos, ne longinquae quidem, effugiebat. In religionem etiam venit, aedem Concordiae, quam per seditionem militarem biennio ante L. Manlius praetor 1i5 in Gallia vovisset, locatamn ad id tempus non esse. Itaque duumviri ad earn rein creati a M. Aemilio praetore urbano, C. Pupius et Caeso Quinctius Flamininus, aedem in arce faciendam locaverunt. Ab eodem praetore ex senatus consulto litterae ad 20 consules missae, ut, si iis videretur, alter eorum ad consules creandos Rornam veniret; se in eam diem quam jussissent comitia edicturum. Ad haec a consulibus rescriptumn,'sine detrimento rei publicae abscedi non posse ab hoste; itaque per interregem 25 comitia habenda esse potius quam consul alter a bello avocaretur.' Patribus rectius visum est dictatorenr a consule dici comitiorum habendorum causa. Dictus L. Veturius Philo M.' Pomponium -Mathonem magistrum equitum dixit. Iis vitio creatis jussisque die 30 quarto decimo se magistratu abdicare, ad interregnum res rediit. XXXIV. Consulibus prorogatum in annum imperium. Interreges proditi a-patribus C. Claudius Appi -filius Centho, inde P. Cornelius Asina. In 35 ejus interregnb comitia habita magno certamine patrum ac plebis. C. Terentio Varroni, quem sui generis hoiinem, plebi insectatione principum popularibusque artibus conciliatum, ab Q.' Fabi opibus Aet 12 — Livy.

Page  178 178 TITI LIVI AB YRBE (CONDITA dictatorio imperio concusso aliena invidia splendentem, volgus extrahere ad consulatum nitebatur, patres summa ope obstabant, ne se insectando sibi aequari adsuescerent hoinines. Q. Baebius Heren5 nius tribunus plebis, cognatus C. Terenti, criminando non senatum modo, sed etiam augures, quod dictatorem prohibuissent comitia perficere, per invidiam eorum favorem candidato suo conciliabat:'ab hominibus nobilibus, per multos annos bellum quae10 rentibus, Hannibalem in Italiam adductum; ab isdem, cumr debellari possit, fraude bellum trahi. Curn quattuor legionibus universis pugnari posse apparuisset eo, quod M. Minucius absente Fabio prospere pugnasset, duas legiones hosti ad caedemn 15 objectas, deinde ex ipsa caede ereptas, ut pater patronusque appellaretur, qui prius vincere prohibuisset Rornanos quam vinci. Consules deinde Fabianis artibus, cum debellare possent, bellurn traxisse. Id foedus inter omnes nobilis ictum, nec finem ante 20 belli habituros, quam consulem vere plebeium, id est hominein novum, fecissent; nam plebeios nobiles jam eisdem initiatos esse sacris et contemnere plebem, ex quo contemnii a patribus desierint, coepisse. Cui non apparere, id actum et quaesitum esse,- ut inter25 regnum iniretur, ut in patrumn potestate Comitia essent? Id consules ambos ad exercitum morando quaesisse; id' postea, quia invitis iis dictator esset dictus comitiorum causa, expugnatum esse, ut vitiosus dictator per augures fieret. Habere igitur inter30 regnum eos; consulatum unum certe plebis Romanae esse; populum liberum habiturum ac daturum ei, qui mature vincere quam diu imperare malit.' XXXV. Cum his orationibus accensa plebs esset, tribus patriciis petentibus, P. Cornelio Merenda, L. 35 Manlio Volsone, M. Aemilio Lepido, duobus nobilibus jai familiarum plebei, C. Atilio:Serrano et Q. Aeli Paeto, quorum alter pontifex, alter augur erat, Terentius consul unus creatur, ut in- manu ejus Isent comitia rogand6 conlegae.' Tum' experta

Page  179 LIBER XXII, 35-36. 179 nobilitas, parum fuisse virium in conpetitoribus ejus, L. Aemiliumn Paulurn, qui cum M. Livio consul fuerat et damnatione conlegae et sua prope ambustus evaserat, infestum plebei, diu ac muItum recusantemr ad petitionem conpellit. Is proximo comitiali die, 5 concedentibus omnibus, qui cuin Varrone certaverant, par magis in adversandum quam conlega datur consuli. Inde praetorum comitia habita. Creati M'. Pomponius Matho et P. Furius Philus; Philo Romae juri dicundo urbana sors, Pomponio inter 10 civis Romanos et peregrinos evenit; additi duo praetores, M. Claudius Marcellus in'Siciliam, L. Postumius Albinus in Galliam. Omnes absentes creati sunt, nec cuiquam eorum, praeter Terentium consulem, mandatus honos quem non jam antea gessisset, 15 praeteritis aliquot fortibus ac strenuis viris, quia in tali tempore nulli novus magistratus videbatur mlandandus. XXXVI. Exercitus quoque multiplicati sunt; quantae autem copiae peditum equitumque additae 20 sint, adeo et numero et genere copiarum variant auctores, ut vix quicquaml satis certum adfirrnare ausus sim. Decem milia novorum militum alii scripta in supplementum, alii novas quattuor legiones, ut octo legionibus rem gererent; numero quoque pedituin 25 equitumque legiones auctas, milibus peditum et centenis equitibus in singulas adjectis, ut quina milia peditum, treceni equites essent, socii duplicem numerum equitum darent, peditis aequarent, septem et octoginta milia armatorum et ducentos in castris Ro- 30 manis fiisse, cum pugnatum ad Cannas est, quidam auctores sunt. Illud haudquaquam discrepat, inajore conatu atque impetu rem actam quam prioribus annis, quia spem posse vinci hostem dictator praebuerat. 35 Ceterum priusquar signa ab urbe novae legiones'moverent, decemviri libros adire atque inspicere jussi propter territos volgo homines novis prodigiis. Nam et IRomae in Aventino et Aricia'e nuntiatum erat sub ~.:.......

Page  180 180 TITI LIVI AB VRBE,CONDITA - idem tempus lapidibus pluvisse, et multo cruore signa in Sabinis [sudasse, et] aquas fonte calido [gelida]s manasse; (id quidemr etiam, quod saepius acciderat, magis terrebat;) et in via Fornicata, quae ad Cam5 pum erat, aliquot homines de caelo tacti exanimatique fuerant. Ea prodigia ex libris procurata. Legati a Paesto pateras aureas Romam adtulerunt. Iis, sicut Neapolitanis, gratiae actae, aurum non acceptum. 10- XXXVII. Per eosdem dies ab Hierone.classis Ostia cum magno commeatu accessit. Legati in senatum introducti nuntiarunt'caedern C. Flamini consulis exercitusque adlataml adeo aegre tulisse regem Hieronemn, ut nulla sua propria regnique sui 15 clade moveri magis potuerit. Itaque, quamquam probe sciat magnitudinem populi Romani admirabiliorem. prope adversis rebus quam secundis esse, tamen se omnia, quibus a bonis.fidelibusque sociis bella juvari soleant, misisse; quae ne accipere ab20 nuant, magno opere se patres conscriptos orare. Jam omnium primumn ominis causa Victoriam auream pondo ducentum ac viginti adferre sese: acciperent eam tenerentque et haberent propriam et perpetuam. Advexisse etiam trecenta milia modium tritici, du25 centa hordei, ne commeatus deessent, et quantum praeterea opus esset, quo jussissent, subvecturos. Milite atque equite scire nisi Romano Latinique nominis non uti populum Romanum; levium armorum auxilia etiam externa vidisse in castris Romanis: 30 itaque misisse mille sagittariorum ac funditorum, aptam manuMn adversus.Baliares ac Mauros pugnacesque alias missili telo gentes.' Ad ea dona consilium quoque addebant, ut'praetor, cui provincia Sicilia evenisset, classem in Africam traiceret, ut et 35 hostes in terra sua bellum baberent, minusque laxamenti daretur iis ad auxilia Hannibali submittenda.'.Ab senatu ita responsum regi est,'virum bonum egregiumque socium Hieron.em esse, atque.uno tenore, ex quo in amicitiarn populi Romani venerit, fidem

Page  181 LIBER XXII, 37-38. 181 coluisse, ac rem Romanam omni tempore ac loco munifice adjuvisse. Id perinde ac-deberet gratum populo Romano esse. Aurum et a civitatibus quibusdamr adlatum, gratia rei accepta, non accepisse populum Romanurn; Victoriam omenque accipere, 5 sedemque ei se divae dare dicare Capitolium, templum Jovis optimi maximi. In ea arce urbis Romanae sacratam volentem propitiamque, firmam ac stabilem fore populo Romano.' Funditores sagittariique et frumentum traditum 10 consulibus. Quinqueremes ad [centurn viginti]- navium. classem, quae cum T. Otacilio propraetore. in Sicilia erat, quinque et viginti additae, permissumque est, ut, si e re publica censeret esse, in Africam traiceret. 15 XXXVIII. Dilectu perfecto consules paucos morati dies, dutn socii ab nomine Latino venirent. Tum, quod numquam antea factum erat, jure jurando ab tribunis milituin adacti milites; nam ad eam diem nihil praeter sacramentum fuerat,'jussu consulurn 20 conventuros neque injussu abituros,' et ubi ad decuriandum aut centuriandum convenissent, sua voluntate ipsi inter sese decuriati equites, centuriati pedites conjurabant,'sese fugae atque formidiinis ergo non abituros, neque ex ordine recessuros nisi teli 25 sumendi aut [re]petendi [et] ant hostis feriendi aunt civis servandi causa.' Id ex voluntario inter ipsos foedere ad tribunos ac legitimam juris jurandi adactionem translatum. Contiones, priusquam ab urbe signa moverentur, 30 consulis Varronis multae ac feroces fuere, denun — tiantis,'bellum arcessitum in Italiam ab nobilibus mnansururnque in visceribus rei publicae, si plures Fabios imperatores haberet, se, quo die hostem vidisset; perfecturum.' Conlegae ejus Pauli una, pridie 35 quam ab urbe proficisceretur, contio fuit, verior quam gratior populo, qua nihil inclementer in Varronem dictum nisi id modo,'mirari se, quod denique' dux, priusquam aut suuMn ant -hostium exercitum,

Page  182 182 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA locorum situm, naturam regionis, nosset, jam lunc togatus in urbe sciret, quae sibi agenda armato forent, et diem quoque praedicere posset, qua cum hoste signis conlatis esset dimnicaturus: se, quae con5 silia magis res dent hominibus quam homines rebus, ea ante tempus inmatura non praecepturum; optare, ut, quae caute ac consulte gesta essent, satis prospere evenirent; temeritatem, praeterquam. quod stulta sit; infelicem etiam ad id locorum fuisse.' Et sua sponte 10 apparebat tuta celeribus consiliis praepositurum, et, quo id constantius perseveraret, Q. Fabius Maximus sic eum proficiscentem adlocutus fertur: XXXIX. "Si aut conlegam, id quod mallem, tui - similemr, L. Aemili, haberes, aut tu collegae tui esses 15 similis, supervacanea esset oratio mea; nam et duo boni consules, etiam me indicente, oinnia e re publica fideque vestra faceretis, et mali nec mea verba auribus vestris nec consilia animis acciperetis. Nune et, conlegam tuum et te talem virum intuenti mihi 20 tecum ornnis oratio est, quem video nequiquam et virum bonum et civem fore, si, altera parte claudente re publica, malis consiliis idem ac bonis juris et potestatis erit. Erras enirm, L. Paule, si tibi minus certaminis cum C. Terentio quam cum Hannibale 25 futurum censes; nescio an infestior hic adversarius quam ille hostis maneat te. Cum illo in acie tantum, cum hoc omnibus locis ac temporibus certaturus es; adversus Hannibalem legionesque ejus tuis equitibus ac peditibus pugnandum tibi erit, Varro dux tuis 30 militibus te est oppugnaturus. Ominis etiam tibi causa absit C. Flamini memoria. Tamen ille consul demum et in provincia et ad exercitum coepit furere; hic, priusquam peteret consulatum, deinde in petendo [consulatu], nunc quoque consul, priusquam castra 35. videat aut hostem, insanit. Et qui tantas jam nunc procellas proelia atque acies jactando inter togatos ciet, quid inter armatam juventutem censes facturum;et ubi extemplo res verba sequitur? Atqui si hic, quod facturum se denuntiat, extemplo pugnaverit,

Page  183 LIBER XXII, 39. 183 aut ego rem militarem, belli hoc genus, hostem hunc ignoro, aut nobilior alius Trasurneno locus nostris cladibus erit. Nec gloriandi tempus adversus unum est, et ego contemnendo potius quamn adpetendo gloriam modurn excesserim; sed ita res se habet: una 5 ratio belli gerendi adversus Hannibalem est, qua ego gessi. Nec eventus modo hoc docet (stultorum iste hagister est), sed eaderni ratio, quae fuit futuraque, donec res eaedem manebunt, inmutabilis est. In Italia bellum gerimus, in sede ac solo nostro; omnia 10 circa plena civium ac sociorum sunt; armis, viris, equis, commeatibus juvant juvabuntque: id jam fidei documenturn in adversis rebus nostris dederunt: meliores, prudentiores, constantiores nos tempus diesque facit. Hannibal contra in aliena, in hostili 15 est terra, inter omnia inimica infestaque, procul ab domo, ab patria; neque illi terra neque mari est pax; nullae eum urbes accipiunt, nulla moenia; nihil usquam sui videt; in diem rapto vivit; partem vix tertiam exercitus ejus habet, quemn Hiberum amnem 20 trajecit; plures fame quam ferro absumpti; nec his paucis jam victus suppeditat. Dubitas ergo, quin sedendo superaturi simus eum, qui senescat in dies, non commeatus, non supplementum, non pecuniam habeat? Quam diu pro Gereonii, castelli Apuliae 25 inopis, tamquam pro Carthaginis moenibus sedet! Sed ne adversus te quidem de me gloriabor. Cn. Servilius atque Atilius, proximi consules, vide, quem ad mrodumr eum ludificati sint. Haec una salutis est via, L. Paule, quam difficilem infestamque cives tibi 30 magis quam hostes facient. Idem enim tui quod hostium milites volent; idem Varro consul Romanus quod Hannibal Poenus imperator cupiet. Duobus ducibus unus resistas oportet. Resistes autem, si adversus famam rumoresque hominum satis firmus 35 steteris, si te neque collegae vana gloria neque tua falsa infamia moverit. Veritatem laborare nimis saepe aiunt, extitlgui numquam. Gloriam qui spreverit, veram habebit. Sine, timidum pro cauto, tar

Page  184 184 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA dum pro considerato, inbellem pro perito belli vocent. Malo te sapiens hostis metuat, quam stulti cives laudent. Omnia audentem contemnet Hannibal, nihil temere agentem metuet. Nec ego, ut nihil agatur, 5 suadeo, sed ut agentem te ratio ducat, non fortuna; tuae potestatis semper tu tuaque omnia sint; armatus intentusque sis; neque occasioni tuae desis, neque suam occasionemr hosti des. Omnia non properanti clara certaque erunt; festinatio inprovida est et 10 caeca." XL. Adversus ea oratio consulis haud sane laeta fuit, magis fatehtis ea quae diceret vera quatm facilia factu esse.'Dictatori magistrum equitumn intolerabilem fuisse; quid consuli adversus conlegam.'sedi15 tiosum ac temerarium virium atque auctoritatis fore? Se populare incendium priore consulatu semustum effugisse; optare, ut omnia prospere evenirent; set si quid adversi caderet, hostiurm se telis potius quam suffragiis iratorum civium caput objecturum.' 20 Ab hoc. serrnone profectum Paulum tradunt, prosequentibus primoribus patrum; plebeium consulem sua plebes prosecuta, turba conspectior, cum dignitates deessent. Ut in castra venerunt, permixto novo. exercitu ac 25 vetere, castris bifariam factis, ut nova minora essent propius Hannibalem, in veteribus major pars et omne robur virium esset, consulumn anni prioris MI. Atilium, aetatem excusantem, Romamn miserunt, Geminum Servilium in minoribus castris legioni Romanae et 30 sociuim peditum equitumque duobus milibus praeficiunt. Hannibal quamquam parte dimidia auctas hostium copias cernebat, tamen adventu consulum mire gaudere. Non solurn enim nihil ex raptis in diem com35 meatibus superabat, sed ne unde raperet quidem quicquam reliqui erat, omni undique frumento, postquam ager parum tutus erat, in urbes munitas convect'o, ut vix decem dierum, quod conpertum postea est, frumentum superesset, Hlispanorumque ob inopiaMr

Page  185 LIBER XXII, 40-42. 185 transitio parata fuerit, si maturitas temporum expctata foret. XLI. Ceterum temeritati consulis ac praepropero ingenio materiam etiam fortuna dedit, quod in prohibendis praedatoribus tumnultuario proelio ac pro- 5 cursu magis militum quanl ex praeparato autjussu imperatorum orto haudquaquam par Poenis dimicatio fuit. Ad mille et septingenti caesi, non plus centum Romanorum sociorumque occisis. Ceterurn victoribus, effuse sequentibus metu insidiarum, ob- 10 stitit Paulus consul, cujus eo die (nam alternis imperitabant) imperium erat, Varrone indignante ac vociferante,' emissunl hosterm e manibus debellarique, ni cessatum foret, potuisse.' Hannibal -id damnuin baud aegerrirne pati; quin potius credere velut in- 15 escatam temeritateln ferocioris consulis ac novorum maxime militum esse. Et onmnia ei hostium baud secus quam sua nota eralit: dissimiles discordesque imperitare, duas.prope partes tironum militum in exercitu esse. Itaque locum et teinpus insidiis aptum 20 se habere ratus, nocte proxima, nihil praeter arma ferente secumn mili.te, castra plena omnis fortunae publicae privataeque relinquit, transque proximos montis laeva pedites instructos condit, dextra equites, impedimenta per convallerm mediam traducit, ut diri- 25 piendis velut desertis fuga dominorum castris occupatum inpeditumque hostemn opprimeret. Crebri relicti in castris ignes, ut fides fieret, dum ipse longius spatium fuga praeciperet, falsa imagine castroruin, sicut Fabium priore anno frustratus esset, tenere in 30 locis consules voluisse. XLII. Ubi inluxit, subductae primo stationes, deinde propius adeuntibus insolitum silentium admirationemr fecit. Jam satis conperta solitudine in castris, concursus fit ad praetoria consulum nuntiantiuma 35 fugam hostium adeo trepidam, ut tabernaculis stantibus castra reliquerint, quoque fuga obscurior esset, crebros etiam relictos ignis. Clamor inde ortus, ut sigila proferri juberent ducerentque ad persequenidos

Page  186 1:86 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA hostis ac protinus castra diripienda. Et consul alter velut unus turbae nlilitaris erat; Paulus etiam atque etiam dicere, providendum praecavendumque esse; postremo,, cum aliter neque seditionem neque ducem 5 seditionis sustinere posset, Marium Statilium praefectum cum turma Lucana exploratum mittit. Qui ubi adequitavit portis, subsistere extra munimenta ceteris jussis, ipse curn duobus equitibus vallum intravit, speculatusque oinia cum cura renuntiat, in10 sidias profecto esse; ignes in parte castrorum, quae vergat ad hostem, relictos; tabernacula aperta et omnia cara in promptu relicta; argentuin quibusdarn locis temere per vias velut objectum ad praedam vidisse. Quae ad deterrendos a cupiditate animos 15 nuntiata erant, ea accenderunt, et clamore orto a militibus, ni signum detur, sine ducibus ituros, haudquaquam dux defuit; nam extemplo Varro signum dedit proficiscendi. Paulus, curm ei sua sponte cunctanti pulli quoque auspicio non addixissent, nuntiari 20 jam efferenti porta signa conlegae jussit. Quod quarnquam Varro aegre est passus, Flamini tamen recens casus Claudique consulis primo Punico bello memoratanavalis clades religionem animo incussit, Di prope ipsi eo die magis distulere quam prohibuere 25 inminentem pestem Romanis; nam forte ita evenit, ut, cum referri signa in castra jubenti consuli milites non parerent, servi duo, Formiani unus, alter Sidicini equitis, qui Servilio atque Atilio consulibus inter pabulatores excepti a Numidis fuerant, profugerent 30 eo die ad dominos; deductique ad consules nuntiant, omnnern exercitum Hannibalis trans proximos montes sedere in insidiis. Horum opportunus adventus consules imperi potentes fecit, cum ambitio alterius suam- primum aput eos prava indulgentia majes35 taterm solvisset. XLIII. Hannibal postquam motos magis inconsulte. Romanos quam ad ultimum temere evectos vidit, nequiquam detecta.fraude in castra rediit. Ibi plures dies propter inopiam frumenti manere nequit,

Page  187 LIBER XxII, 43-44. 18T7 novaque consilia in dies, non apud milites solum mixtos ex conluvione omnium gentiunm -sed etiam apud ducem ipsun, -oriebantur. Nam cum initio fremitus, deinde aperta vociferatio fuisset exposcentium stipendium debitum querentiumque annonam 5 primo, postremo fainern, et mercennarios milites, maxime Hispani generis, de transitione cepisse consilium fama esset, ipse etiamn interdum Hannibal de fuga in Galliam dicitur agitasse, ita ut relicto peditatu omnni cum equitibus se proriperet. Cumr haec 10 consilia atque hic habitus animorum esset in castris, movere inde statuit in calidiora atque eo maturiora messibus Apuliae loca, simul ut, quo longius ab hoste recessisset, transfugia inpeditiora levibus ingeniis essent, Profectus est nocte, ignibus similiter 15 factis tabernaculisque paucis in speciem relictis, ut insidiarum par priori metus contineret Romanos. Sed'per eundem Lucanum Statilium oninibus ultra castra transque tmontis exploratis; cum relatum esset, visum procul hostium agmen, turn de insequendo eo 20 consilia agitari coepta. Curn utriusque consulis eadern quae ante semper fuisset sententia, ceterum Varroni fere omiles, Paulo nemno praeter Serviliumn, prioris'anni consulem, adsentiretur, majoris partis sententia ad nobilitandas 25 clade Romana Cannas urgente fato profecti sunt. Prope eum vicum Hannibal castra posuerat'aversa a Volturno vento, qui campis torridis siccitate nubes pulveris vehit. Id curm ipsis castris percommoduni fuit, turnm salutare praecipue futurum erat, curn aciem 30 dirigerent, ipsi aversi, terga tantum adflante vento, in occaecatum pulvere offuso hostem pugnaturi. XLIV. Consules, satis'exploratis itineribus, sequentis Poenunm, ut ventum -ad Cannas est et in. conspectu Poenumn habebatt, bina castra comrnuniunt, 35 eodem ferme intervallo quo ad Gereonium,sicut ante, copiis divisis. Aufidus amrnis, utrisque castris adfluens, aditum aquatoribus ex sua cujusque opportunitate haud -sine certanmine dabat;- e.x "minioribus

Page  188 188 TITI LIVI AB VRBE C ONDITA tamen castris, quae posita trans Aufidum erant, liberius aquabantur Romani, quia ripa ulterior nullum habebat hostiumr praesidium. Hannibal spem nanctus, locis natis ad equestrem pugnam, qua parte 5 virium invictus erat, facturos copiam pugnandi consules, derigit aciem lacessitque Numidaruin procursatione hostis. Inde rursus sollicitari seditione militari ac discordia consulum Romana castra, cumr Paulus Semproniique et Flamini temeritatem Var10 roni, Varro speciosum tirnidis ac segnibus ducibus exemplum Fabium obiceret, testareturque deos hominesque hic,'nullam penes se culpam esse, quod Hannibal jam velut usu cepisset Italiam; se constrictum a conlega teneri; ferrum atque arma iratis et pugnare 1-5 cupientibus adimi militibus;' ille,'si quid projectis ac proditis ad inconsultam atque inprovidam pugnam legionibus accideret, se omnis culpae exsortem, omnis eventus participem fore,' diceret;'videret ut, quibus lingua tam prompta ac temeraria, aeque in pugna 20 vigerent manus.' XLV. Dum altercationibus magis quam consiliis temnpus teritur, Hannibal ex acie, quam ad multum diei tenuerat instructam, cum in castra ceteras reciperet copias, Numidas ad invadendos ex minoribus 25 castris Romanorum aquatores trans flumen mittit. Quam inconditam turbam cum vixdum in ripain egressi clamore ac tumultu fugassent, in stationem quoque pro vallo locatam atque ipsas prope portas evecti sunt. Id vero indignum visum, ab tumul30 tuario auxilio jam etiam castra Romana terreri, ut ea modo una causa, ne extemplo transirent flumenx derigerentque aciem, tenuerit Romanos, quod summa imperii eo die penes Paulum fuerit. Itaque postero die Varro, cui sors ejus diei imperii erat, nihil con35 sulto conlega signum proposuit instructasque copias flumen traduxit, sequente Paulo, quia magis non probare quam non adjuvare consiliumn poterat. Transgressi flumen eas quoque, quas in castris minoribus habuerant, copias suis-adjungunt atque ia instruunt

Page  189 LIBER xxii, 45-47. 189 aciem: in dextro cornu (id erat flumini propius) Romlanos equites locant, deinde pedites; laevum cornu extremi equites sociorum, intra pedites, ad medium juncti legionibus Romanis, tenuerunt; jaculatores cume ceteris levium armorum auxiliis prima acies 5 facta. Consules cornua tenuerunt, Terentius laevum, Aemilius dextrumn, Gemino Servilio media pugna tuenda data. XLVI. Hannibal luce prima, Baliaribus levique alia armatura praemissa, transgressus flumen, ut 10 quosque traduxerat, ita in acie locabat, Gallos Hispanosque equites prope ripam laevo in cornu adversus iRomanum equitatum; dextrum cornu Numidis equitibus datum, media acie peditibus firmata, ita ut Afrorum utraque cornua essent, interponerentur his 15 medii Galli atque Hispani. Afros Romanam magna ex parte crederes aciem; ita armati erant, armis et ad Trebiam ceterum magna ex: parte ad Trasumenum captis. Gallis Hispanisque scuta ejusdem formae fere erant, dispares ac dissimiles gladii, Gallis prae- 20 longi ac sine mucronibus, Hispano, punctim magis quam caesim adsueto petere hostem, brevitate habiles et cum inucronibus. Ante alios habitus gentium harumrn cumn magnitudine corporum tumrn specie terribilis erat: Galli super umbilicum erant nudi; 25 Hispani linteis praetextis purpura tunicis, candore miro fulgentibus, constiterant. Numerus omnium peditum, qui tumrn steterunt in acie, nilium fuit quadraginta, decem equitum. Duces cornibus praeerant: sinistro Hasdrubal, dextro Maharbal; mediarn aciem 30. Hannibal ipse cum fratre Magone tenuit. Sol, seu de industria ita locatis, seu quod forte ita stetere, peropportune utrique parti obliquus erat, Romanis in meridiem, Poenis in septemtrionem versis; ventus (Voiturnum regionis incolae vocant) adversus Ro- 35 manis coortus multo pulvere in ipsa ora volvendo prospecturn ademit. XLVII. Clarnore sublato, procursum ab auxiliis, et -pugna levibus primumn armis commissa; deinde,

Page  190 190 TITI LIVI — AB VRBE — CONDITA -equitum Gallorum Hispanorumque laevum: cornu cum dextro Romano concurrit, ininitne equestris more pugnae; frontibus enimn adversis concurrendum. erat, quia, nullo circa ad evagandumn relicto spatio, 5 hinc amnis, hinc peditum acies claudebant. In derectum utrimque. nitentes, stantibus ac confertis postremo turba equis, vir virum amplexus detrahebat equo. Pedestre magna jam ex parte certamen factum erat; acrius tamen quam diutius pugnatum 10 est, pulsique Rornani equites terga vertunt. Sub equestris finem certaminis coorta est peditum pugna, primo et viribus et animis par, dum constabant 6rdines Gallis Hispanisque; tandem Romani, diu ac saepe conisi, obliqua fronte acieque densa inpulere 15 hostium cuneum nimis tenuem eoque parurn validum, a cetera prominentem acie. Inpulsis deinde ac trepide referentibus pedern institere, ac tenore uno per praeceps pavore fugientium agmen in mediamn primum aciem inlati, postremo. nullo resistente ad 20 subsidia Afrorum pervenerunt, qui utrimque reductis alis constiterant, media, qua Galli Hispanique steterant, aliquantum prominente acie. Qui cuneus ut pulsus aequavit fr'ontemn primum, dein cedendo etiam sinum in medio dedit, Afri circa jam cornua fecerant, 25 inruentibusque incaute in medium Romanis circumdedere alas; mrox cornua extendendo clausere et ab tergo hostis. Hinc Romani, defuncti nequiquam proelio uno, omissis Gallis Hispanisque, quorum terga ceciderant, adversus Afros integram pugnam 30 ineunt, non tantum eo iniquam, quod inclusi adversus circumfusos, sed etiam quod fessi cum recentibus ac vegetis pugnabant. XLVIII. Jam et sinistro cornu- Romano, ubi sociorum equites adversus Numidas steterant, conser-35 tum proelium erat, segne primo et a Punica coeptum fraude. Quingenti ferme Numidae, praeter solita arma telaque gladios occultos sub -loricis habentes, specie transfugarum curm ab suis parmas post terga habentes adequitassent, repente ex- equis desiliunt,

Page  191 LIBER XXII, 48-49. 1.91 parmisque et jaculis ante pedes hostium projectis, in mediam aciem accepti ductique ad ultimos considere ab tergo jubentur.. Ac dum proelium ab omni parte conseritur, quieti manserunt; postquam omnium animos oculosque occupaverat certamen, turn arreptis 5 scutis, quae passim inter acervos caesorum corporum strata- erant, aversam adoriuntur Romnanam aciem, tergaque ferientes ac poplites caedentes stragem ingentem ac majorem aliquanto pavorem ac turnultum.fecerunt. Cumn alibi terror ac fuga, alibi pertinax in 1'0 mala jam spe proelium esset, Hasdrubal, qui ea parte praeerat, subductos' ex media acie Numidas, quia segnis eorum cum adversis pugna erat, ad persequendos passim fugientis mittit, Hispanos et Gallos.equites Afris prope jam fessis caede magis quam pugna'15.adjungit. XLIX. Parte altera pugnae Paulus, quamquam *primo; statim proelio funda graviter ictus fuerat,'tamen et occurrit. saepe cum confertis Hannibali et;aliquot locis proelium. restituit, protegentibus eum 20.equitibus Romanis, omissis postremo equis, quia consuleln et ad regend'um equum vires deficiebant. Tumrn renuntianti cuidam, jussisse consulem ad pedes descendere equites, dixisse Hannibalerm ferunt "quam mallem, vinctos mihi traderet!" Equitum pedestre 25 proelium, quale jam haud dubia hostium victoria, fuit, cum victi mori in vestigio mallent quam fugere, victores, morantibus victoriam irati, trucidarent quos pellere non- poterant. Pepulerunt tamen jam paucos *superantis et labore ac vulneribus fessos. Inde dis- 30 sipati omnes sunt, equosque ad fugam qui poterant repetebant. Cn. Lentulus tribunus militum cum *praetervehens equo sedentem in saxo criuore oppletum consulemvidisset, "L. Aemili," inquit, "quem unum insontem culpae cladis hodiernae dei respicere'35 debent, cape hunc equum! dum et tibi virium aliquid,superest, et comnes ego te tollere possum ac protegere. Ne funestam hane pugnam morte consulis.feceris; etiam- sine hoc lacrimarum: satis luctusque

Page  192 192 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA est." Ad ea consul: "tu quidem, Cn. Corneli, macte virtute esto! sed cave frustra miserando exiguum tempus e manibus hostium evadendi absumas. A;bi, nuntia publice patribus, urbem Romanam muniant, 5 ac, priusquam hostis victor advenit, praesidiis firment; privatim Q. Fabio, L. Aemilium praeceptorum ejus memoremr et vixisse adhuc et mori. Me in hac strage militum meorum patere expirare, ne aut reus iterum e consulatu simr aut accusator con10 legae existam, ut alieno crimine innocentiam meam protegam." Haec eos agentis prius turba fugientium civium, deinde hostes oppressere; consulem, ignorantes quis esset, obruerunt telis, Lentulum inter tumultum abripuit equus. 15 Turn undique effuse fugiunt. Septem mnilia hominumi in minora castra, decem in majora, duo ferme in vicum ipsum Cannas perfugerunt, qui extemplo a Carthalone atque equitibus, nullo munimento tegente vicum, circumventi sunt. Consul alter, seu forte seu 20 consilio, nulli fugientium insertus agmini, cumr quinquaginta fere equitibus Venusiain perfugit. Quadraginta quinque milia quingenti pedites, duo milia septingenti equites, et tanta prope civium quanta socioruin pars, caesi dicuntur; in his ambo consulum 25 quaestores, L. Atilius et L. Furius Bibaculus, et undetriginta tribuni militum, consulares quidamn praetoriique et aedilicii (inter eos Cn, Servilium Geminum et M. Minucium nunlerant, qui magister equiitum priore anno, aliquot annis ante consul 30 fuerat), octoginta praeterea aut senatores aut qui eos magistratus gessissent unde in. senatum legi deberent, cum sua voluntate milites in legionibus facti essent. Capta eo proelio tria milia peditum et equites Imille et quingenti dicuntur. 35 L. Haec est pugna Cannensis, Aliensi cladi nobilitate par, ceterum ut illis, quae post pugnam accidere, levior, quia ab hoste est cessatum, sic strage exercitus gravior foediorque. Fuga namque ad Aliam sicut urbem prodidit, ita exercitum servavit:;

Page  193 LIBER XXII, 49-50. 193 ad Cannas fugientem consulem vix quinquaginta ~secuti sunt, alterius inorientis prope totus exercitus fuit. Binis in castris cum multitudo serniermis sine ducibus esset, nuntium qui in mtajoribus erant mit- 5 tunt,'dum proelio, deinde ex laetitia epulis fatigatos quies nocturna hostes premeret, ut ad se transirent: uno agmine Canusium abituros esse.' Eamrn sententiarm alii totam aspernari:'cur enim illos, qui se arcessant, ipsos non venire, cum aeque conjungi pos- 10 sent? quia'videlicet plena hostium omnia in medio essent, et aliorumn quam sua corpora tanto periculo mallent obicere.' Aliis non tam sententia displicere quam animus deesse. P. Sempronius Tuditanus tribunus militum "capi 15 ergo mavultis"' inquit " ab avarissimo et crudelissimo hoste, aestimarique capita vestra et exquiri pretia ab interrogantibus, Romanus civis sis all Latinus socius, ut ex- tua contumuelia et miseria alteri honos quaeratur? Noi tu, si quidem L. Aemili consulis, qui 20 se bene mori quam turpiter vivere maluit, et tot fortissirnorumr virorumrn, qui circa eum cumulati jacent, cives estis. Sed antequam opprimit lux majoraque hostiumr agmina obsaepiunt iter, per hos, qui inordinati atque inconpositi obstrepunt portis, erum- 25 pamus. Ferro atque audacia via fit quamvisI per confertos hostis. Cuneo quidem hoc laxum atque solutum agmen, ut si nihil obstet, disicias. Itaque ite mecum, qui et vosmet ipsos et rem publicam salvam vultis.' 30 Haec ubi dicta dedit, stringit gladium, cuneoque facto per medios vadit hostis; et cumn in latus dextrum, quod patebat, Numridae jacularentur, translatis in dextrum scutis, in majora castra ad sexcentos'evaserunt, atque inde protinus, alio magno agmine 35 adjuncto, Canusium incolurnes perveniunt. Haec apud victos magis irnpetu'animorum, quem ingeniumrn suum cuique aut fors dabat, quam ex consilio ipsorumaut imperio cujusquam agebantur.,13 - Livy.

Page  194 :194 TITI LIV~I AB V-RBE CONDITA LI. Hannibali victori cum ceteri circumfusi gratularentur' suaderentque, ut, tanto perfunctus bello, diei quod relicurn esset noctisque insequenitis quietem et ipse sibi sumeret et fessis daret militibus, 5 Maharbal, praefectus equitum, minime cessandum ratus, "immo, ut, quid hac pugna sit acturn, scias, die quinto" inquit "victor in Capitolio epulaberis. Sequere; cum equite, ut prius venisse quam venturum sciant, praecedam." Hannibali nimis laeta 10 res est visa majorque quam ut earn statim capere animo posset. Itaque voluntatem se laudare Maharbalis ait; ad consilium pensandum temporis opus esse. Tum Maharbal: "non omnia nimirum eidera adii tdedere. Vincere scis, Hannibal;:victoria uti'15 nescis." Mora ejus diei satis creditur saluti fuisse urbi atque imperio. Postero die, ubi primurn inluxit, ad spolia legenda foedamque etiam hostibus spectandam stragem exeunt. Jacebant tot Romanorum milia, pedites pas-;20 sim equitesque, ut quem cuique fors aut pugna junxerat aut fuga; adsurgentis quidam ex strage media-cruenti, quos stricta matutino frigore excitaverant vulnera, ab hoste oppressi sunt; quosdam et jacentis vivos succisis'feminibus poplitibusque inv'5 venerunt, nudantis cervicem jugulumque et reliquum sanguinein jubentes haurire; inventi quidam sunt mnersis in effossam terramin capitibus, quos sibi ipsos fecisse foveas obruentisque ora superjecta humo in-'terclusisse spiritum apparebat. Praecipue convertit _'30 ormnes subtractus -Numida mortuo -superincubanti Romano viVus, naso auribusque laceratis, cume, manibus ad capiendum telum inutilibus, in rabiem ira versa, laniando dentibus hostem expirasset. LII. Spoliis ad multum diei lectis, Hannibal ad 35 minora ducit castra oppugnanda, et omnium primum brachio objecto flumine.eos excludit; ceterum'- ab omnibus' labore, vigiliis,; vulneribus' etiam fessis maturior ipsius spe deditio est facta.:Pacti Ut arma -atque equos trader:ent,' in' ca pita':-Romana -treqenis

Page  195 LIBER XXII, 51-53. 1,95 nummis quadrigatis, in socios ducenis, in servos centenis, et ut eo pretio. persoluto cum singulis abirent vestimentis, in castra hostis acceperunt; traditique in custodiam omnes sunt, seorsum cives sociique. I)um ibi tempus teritur, interea cum ex majoribus 5 castris, quibus satis viriumn et animi fuit, ad quattuor milia homninum et ducenti equites, alii agmine, allii palati passim per agros, quod haud minus tutum erat, Canusium perfugissent, castra ipsa ab sauciis timidisque eadem condicione qua altera tradita hosti. 10 Praeda ingens parta est; et praeter equos virosque et si quid argenti (quod plurimum in phaleris equorum erat; nam ad vescendum facto perexiguo, utique.militantes, utebantur) omnis cetera praeda diripienda data est. Turn sepeliendi causa conferri in unum 15 corpora suorum jussit; ad octo milia. fuisse dicuntur fortissimorum virorum. Consulem quoque Romanum conquisitumn sepultumque quidam auctores sunt. Eos, qui Canusium perfugerant, mulier Apula no- 20 mine Busa, genere clara ac divitiis, moenibus tantum tectisque a Canusinis acceptos, frumento, veste; viatico etiam juvit; pro qua ei munificentia postea, bello perfecto, ab senatu honores habiti sunt. LIII. Ceterum cum ibi tribuni nmilitum quattuor 25 essent, Fabius Maximus de legione prima, cujus pater priore anno dictator fuerat, et de legione secunda L. Publicius Bibulus et P. Cornelius Scipio, et de legione tertia Ap. Claudius Pulcher, qui proxime aedilis fuerat, omnium consensu ad P. Scipionem admodum 30 adulescentem et ad Ap. Claudium summa imperi delata est. Quibus consultantibus inter paucos de summa rerum nuntiat P. Furius Philus, consularis viri filius,'niequiquam eos perditam spem fovere; desperatamrn 35 conploratamque rem esse publicam: nobiles juvenes qu.osdam, quorum principem L. Caeciliurn Metellum, mare. ac naves spectare, ut deserta Italia ad.regum Odiquem transfugiant.' Quod malum, praeterquam

Page  196 196 TITI LIVI AB VRBE COND-ITA atrox, super tot clades etiam novum, cum stupore ac miraculo torpidos defixisset qui aderant, et consiliumr advocandum de eo censerent, negat consili rem esse Scipio juvenis, fatalis dux huijusce belli.'Auden5 dum atque- agendum, non consultanduin' ait'in.tanto malo esse. Irent secumr extemplo armati, qui rem publicam salvam vellent; nulla verius, quam ubi ea cogitentur, hostiuml castra esse.' Pergit ire sequentibus paucis in hospitium Metelli, et, cum con10 cilium ibi juvenum, de quibus adlatum erat, invenisset, stricto super capita consultantium gladio, "ex mei animi sententia" inquit "ut ego rem publicam populi Romani non deseram, neque alium civem Romanum deserere patiar; si sciens fallo, tumrn me Jup15 piter optime maxime, domum, familiam, remque meam pessimo leto adficias. In haec verba, L. Caecili, jures postulo, ceterique qui adestis. Qui non juraverit, in se hunc gladium strictum esse sciat." Haud secus pavidi, quam si victorem Hannibalem 20 cernerent, jurant omnes, custodiendosque semet ipsos Scipioni tradunt. LIV. Eo tempore quo haec Canusii agebantur, Venusiam ad consulem ad quattuor milia et quingenti pedites equitesque, qui sparsi fuga per agros 25 fuerant, pervenere. Eos omnes Venusini per familias benigne accipiendos curandosque cum divisissent, in singulos equites togas et tunicas et quadrigatos nummos quinos vicenos, et pediti denos, et arma, quibus deerant, dederunt, ceteraque publice ac privatim 30 hospitaliter facta, certatumque, ne a muliere Canusina populus Venusinus officiis vinceretur. Sed gravius onus Busae multitudo faciebat; et jam ad decem milia horninum erant, Appiusque et Scipio, postquam incolumem esse'alterum consulem acceperunt, nun35 tium extemplo mittunt, quantae secum peditum equitumque copiae essent, sciscitatumque siinul, utrum Venusiam adduci exercitum an rnanere juberet Canusi. Varro ipse Canusium copias traduxit; et jam aliqua species consularis exercitus erat, moenibusquie

Page  197 LIBER XXII, 54-55. 197 se certe, si non armis, ab hoste videbantur defensuri. Romam ne has quidem reliquias superesse civium sociorumque, sed occidione occisum cum duobus consulibus exercitum deletasque omnes copias adlatum 5 fuerat. Numquam salva urbe tantum pavoris tumultusque intra moenia Romana fuit. Itaque succumbam oneri, neque adgrediar narrare quae edissertando minora vero faciam. Consule exercituque ad Trasumennurn priore anno aniisso, non vulnus super vul- 10 nus, sed multiplex clades, cum duobus consulibus duo consulares exercitus amissi nuntiabantur, nec ulla jam castra Romana nec ducem nec militem esse; Hannibalis Apuliarm, Samnium, ac jam prope totam Italiam factam. Nulla profecto alia gens tanta imole 15 cladis non obruta esset. Compares clademr ad Aegatis insulas Carthaginiensium proelio navali acceptam, qua fracti Sicilia ac Sardinia cessere et vectigalis ac stipendiarios fieri se passi sunt, aut pugnam adversam in Africa, cui postea hic ipse Hannibal suc- 20 cubuit: nulla ex parte conparandae sunt, nisi quod minore animo latae sunt. LV. P. Furius Philus et M. Pomponius praetores senatum in curiaIn Hostiliam vocaverunt, ut de urbis custodia consulerent; neque enim dubitabant, deletis 25 exercitibus, hostem ad oppugnandam Romam, quod unum opus belli restaret, venturum. Cum in malis sicuti ingentibus, ita ignotis, ne consilium quidem' satis expedirent, obstreperetque clamor lamentantiummulierum, et, nondum palam facto, vivi mortuique 30' per omnes paene domos promiscue conplorarentur, tum Q. Fabius Maximus censuit'equites expeditos et Appia et Latina via'mittendos, qui obvios percunctando (aliquos profecto ex fuga passim dissipatos fore) referant, quae fortuna consulunm atque exer- 35 cituum sit, et, si quid dii inmortales, niiseriti imrperi, reliquum Rqomani nominis fecerint, ubi eae copiae sint.; quo. se Hannibal post proelium contulerit, qui'dparet, quid agat acturusque-sit. -..Haec exploraand'a

Page  198 198 TITI LIVI AB V'RBE CONDITA noscendaque per' inpigros juvenes esse; illud per patres ipsos agendum, quoniam magistratuum parum sit, ut tumultum ac trepidationem in urbe tollant, matronas publico arceant continerique intra suum 5 quamque litnen cogant, conploratus familiarum coerceant,.silentiurm per urbem faciant, nuntios rerum omnium ad praetores deducendos curent, suae quisque fortunae domi auctorem expectent, custodesque praeterea ad portas ponant, qui prohibeant 10 quemquam egredi urbem, cogantque homines nullam nisi urbe ac moenibus salvis salutem sperare. Ubi conticuerit turnultus, tum in curiam patres revocandos consulendumque de urbis custodia esse.' *LVI. Cum in hanc sententiam pedibus omnes 15 issent, summotaque foro per magistratus turba, patres diversi ad sedandos tumultus discessissent, turn demum litterae a C. Terentio consule allatae sunt:.'L. Aemilium consulem exercitumque caesumr; sese Canusii esse, reliquias tantae cladis velut ex 20 naufragio colligentem; ad decem milia militum ferme esse inconpositorum inordinatorumque; Poenumn sedere ad Cannas, in captivorum pretiis praedaqne alia nec victoris animo nec magni ducis more nundinantem.' Tum privatae quoque per domos 25 clades vulgatae sunt, adeoque totam urbem opplevit luctus, ut sacrum anniversarium Cereris intermissum sit, quia nec lugentibus id facere est fas nec ulla in illatempestate matrona.expers luctus fuerat.'Itaque ne ob eandem causam alia quoque sacra publica a:ut 30 privata desererentur, senatus consulto diebus triginta luctus est finitus. Ceterum cum, sedato urbis tumultu, revocati in curiam.patres essent, aliae insuper ex Sicilia litterae adlatae sunt ab T. Otacilio'propraetore,'regnum 35 Hieronis classe Punica vastari; cui cum opem inploranti ferre vellet, nuntiatum sibi esse aliam classem ad Aegatis insulas stare paratam instructamque, ut, ubi se versum ad tuendam Syracusanam oram Poeni sensissent, Lilybaeum extemplo provinciamque aliam

Page  199 LIBER XXII, 56-57. 199 Romanam adgrederentur; itaque classe opus esse, si regem socium Siciliamque tueri vellent.' LVII. Litteris consulis praetorisque lectis, censuerunt praetorem M. Claudium, qui classi ad Ostiam stanti praeesset, Canusium ad exercitum mit- 5 tendum, scribendumque consuli, ut, cum praetori exercitum tradidisset, primo quoque temnpore, quantum per commodum rei publicae fieri posset, Romnam veniret. Territi etiam super tantas clades cum ceteris prodigiis, tumrn quod duae Vestales eo anno, 10 Opimia atque Floronia, stupri conpertae, et altera sub terra, uti mos est, ad portam Collinam necata fuerat, altera sibimet ipsa mortemn consciverat; L. Cantilius scriba pontificius, quos nunc minores pontifices adpellant, qui cum Floronia stuprum fecerat, a 15 pontifice maximo eo usque virgis in comitio caesus erat, ut inter verbera expiraret. Hoc nefas cum inter tot, ut fit, clades in prodigium versum esset, deceinviri libros adire jussi sunt, et Q. Fabius Pictor Delphos ad oraculum missus est sciscitatum, quibus 2Q precibus suppliciisque deos possent placare, et quaenam futura finis tantis cladibus foret. In'terim ex fatalibus libris sacrificia aliquot extraordinaria facta; inter quae Gallus et Galla, Graecus et Graeca in foro bovario sub terram vivi demissi sunt in locum saxo 25 consaeptum, jam ante hostiis humanis, minime Romano sacro, inb.utum. Placatis satis, ut rebantur, deis, M. Claudius Marcellus ab Ostia mille et quingentos milites, quos in classem scriptos habebat, Romam, ut urbi praesidio 30 essent, mittit; ipse, legione classica (ea legio tertia erat) cum tribunis militum Teanumn Sidicinum praemissa, classe tradita P. Furio Philo conlegae, paucos post dies' Canusium magnis itineribus contendit. Inde dictator ex auctoritate patrum dictus M. 35 Junius et Ti. Sempronius magister equitum, dilectu edicto, junioris ab annis septemdecim et quosdam praetextatos scribunt; quattuor ex his legiones et mille'equites effecti. Item ad socios Latinuinque

Page  200 200 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CON1DITA nomen ad milites ex formula accipiendos mittunt. Arma, tela, alia parari jubent et vetera spolia hostium detrahunt templis porticibusque. Et aliam formam novi dilectus inopia liberorum capitum ac 5 necessitas dedit-; octo milia juvenum validorum ex servitiis prius sciscitantes singulos, vellentne militare, empta publice armaverunt. Hic miles magis placuit, cum pretio minore redimendi captivos copia fieret. 10 LVIII. Namque Hannibal secundum tam prosperam ad Cannas pugnam victoris magis quamn bellum gerentis;intentus curis, cum, captivis productis segregatisque, socios, sicut ante ad Trebiam Trasumenumque lacum, benigne adlocutus sine pretio dimi15 sisset, Romanos quoque vocatos, quod numquam alias antea, satis miti sermone adloquitur:'non intelnecivum sibi esse cum Romanis bellum; de dignitate atque imperio certare. Et patres virtuti Romanae cessisse et se id.adniti, ut suae in vicem simul felici20 tati et virtuti cedatur. Itaque redimendi se captivis copiam facere; pretium fore in capita equiti quingenos quadrigatos nummos, trecenos pediti, servo centenos.' QOuamquam aliquantum adiciebatur equitibus ad id pretium, quo pepigerant dedentes se, laeti 25 tamen quamcumque condicionem paciscendi acceperunt. Placuit suffragio ipsorum decem -deligi, qui Romam ad senatum irent, nec pignus aliud fidei quam ut jurarent se redituros acceptum. Missus cum his Carthalo, nobilis Carthaginiensis, qui, si 30 forte ad pacem inclinaret animus, condiciones ferret. Cum egressi castris essent, unus ex iis, minime Romani ingeni homo, veluti aliquid oblitus, juris jurandi solvendi causa cum in castra redisset, ante noctern comites adsequitur. Ubi Romam venire eos nun35 tiatumr est, Carthaloni obviam lictor missus, qui dictatoris verbis nuntiaret, ut ante noctemn excederet finibus Romanis. -LIX. Legatis captivorum senatus ab dictatore datus est, quorum princeps M. Junius "patres con

Page  201 LIBER XXII, 58-59. 201 scripti," inquit, "nemo nostrum ignorat, nulli -umquam civitati viliores fuisse captivos quam nostrae; ceterum, nisi nobis plus justo nostra placet causa, non alii umquam minus neglegendi vobis quam nos in hostium potestatem venerunt. Non enim in acie 5 per timorem arma tradidimus, -sed, cum prope ad noctem superstantes cumulis caesorum corporum proelium extraxissemus, in castra recepimus nos; diei reliquum ac noctem insequentem, fessi labore ac vulneribus, vallurn sumus tutati; postero die, cum 10 circumsessi ab exercitu victore aqua arceremur, nec ulla jam per confertos hostis erumpendi spes esset, nec esse nefas duceremus, quinquaginta inilibus hominum ex acie nostra trucidatis, aliquem ex Cannensi pugna Romanum militem restare, tunc demum pacti 15 sunius pretium quo redempti dimitterernur, arma, in quibus nihil jam auxili erat, hosti tradidimus. Majores quoque acceperamus se a Gallis auro redemisse, et patres- vestros, asperrimos illos ad condiciones I)acis, legatos tamen captivorum redimendoruin gratia 20 Tarenturn misisse. Atqui et a4 Aliam cum Grallis et ad Heracleam cum Pyrrho utraque non tam clade infamis quam pavore et fuga pugna fuit. Cannensis campos acervi iRomanorum corporum tegunt, nec supersumus pugnae nisi in quibus trucidandis et fer- 25 rum et vires hostem defecerunt. Sunt etiani de nostris quidam, qui ne in acie quidem fuerunt, sed praesidio castris relicti, cum castra traderentur, in potestatem hostium venerunt. Haud equidem ullius civis et commilitonis fortunae aut condicioni invideo, 30 nec.preinendo alium me extulisse velim: ne ili quidem, nisi pernicitatis pedum et cursus aliquod praemium est, qui plerique inermes ex acie fugientes non prius quam Venusiae aut Canusi constiterunt, se nobis merito praetulerint gloriatique sint, in se plus 35 quani in nobismet praesidii rei publicae esse. Sed et illis bonis ac fortibus militibus utemini-et nobis etiam promptioribus pro patria, quod beneficio vestro redempti atque in patriam restituti fuerimus. Dilec-;

Page  202 202 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA tumrn ex omni: aetate et fortuna habetis; oeto milia servorum audio armari. Non minor numerus noster est, nec majore pretio redimi possumus quam ii emuntur.; nam si conferam nos cum illis, injuriam nomini 5 Romano. faciamr. Illud etiam in tali consilio animadvertendum vobis censeam, patres conscripti, si jam duriores esse.velitis, quod nullo nostro merito fiaciatis, cui nos hosti relicturi sitis. Pyrrho videlicet, qui hospitum numero captivos habuit? An 10 barbaro ac Poeno, qui utrum avarior an crudelior sit, vix existimari potest? Si videatis catenas, squalorem, deformitatem civium vestrorum, non minus profecto -vos ea species moveat, quam si ex altera parte cernatis stratas Cannensibus campis legiones *.15 vestras. Intueri. potestis sollicitudinem et lacrirnas in vestibulo curiae stantium cognatorumn nostrorum exspectantiumque responsum vestrum. Cum. ii pro nobis proque iis qui absunt ita suspensi ac solliciti.sint, quem. censetis animum ipsorum esse, quorum in t20 discrimine vita libertasque est? Si, me dius fidius,.ipse in nos. mitis HaInnibal contra naturam suam esse -velit, nihil tamen nobis vita opus esse censeamus, m:cum indigni ut redimeremur [a] vobis visi simus. -Rediere Romam quondam remissi a Pyrrho sine 25-pretio capti; sed rediere cum legatis, primoribus civitatis, ad redimendos sese missis. Redeam ego in patriam trecentis nummis non aestimatus civis? Suum quisque habet animum, patres conscripti. Scio in discrimine esse vitam corpusque meum; 30 magis me farnae periculum movet, ne a vobis damnati ac repulsi abeamus; neque enim vos pretio pepercisse homines..credent." LX. Ubi is finem fecit, extemplo ab ea turba, quae in comitio erat, clamor flebilis est sublatus, 35 manusque ad curiam tendebant orantes, ut sibi liberos, fratres, cognatos redderent. Feminas quoque.metus ac necessitas in foro turbae. virorum inmiscue-.rat. Senatus submotis arbitris consuli coeptus. Ibi cum sententiis variaretur, et alii redimendos de pu

Page  203 LIBER XXII, 59-60. 203 blico, alii nullam publice inpensam faciendam nec prohibendos ex privato redimi; si quibus argentum in praesentia deesset, dandam ex aerario pecuniam mutuam praedibusque ac praediis cavendum populo censerent, turn T. Manlius Torquatus, priscae ac 5 nimis durae, ut plerisque videbatur, severitatis, interrogatus sententiam ita locutus fertur: "Si tantummodo postulassent legati pro iis, qui in hostium potestate sunt, ut redimerentur, sine ullius insectatione eorum brevi sententiam peregissem; quid 10 enim aliud quam- admonendi essetis, ut morem traditum a patribus necessario ad rem militarem exemplo servaretis? Nunc autem, cum prope gloriati sint, quod se hostibus dediderint, praeferrique non captis modo in acie ab hostibus, sed etiam iis, qui 15 Venusiam Canusiumique pervenerunt, atque ipsi C. Terentio consuli aecum censuerint, nihil:vos eorum, patres conscripti; quae illic acta sunt, ignorare patiar. Atque utinam haec, quae aput vos acturus sum, Canusi aput ipsum exercitum agerem, optimum 20 testem ignaviae cujusque et virtutis, aut unus hice saltem adesset P. Sempronius, quem si isti ducem secuti essent, milites hodie. in castris Romanis, non captivi in hostium potestate essent. Set cum, fessis pugnando hostibus, tumrn victoria laetis et ipsis ple- 25 risque regressis in castra sua, noctem ad erumpendumn liberam habuissent, et septem milia armatorum hominum erumpere etiam per confertos hostes possent, -neque per se ipsi id facere conati sunt neque alium sequi voluerunt. Nocte prope tota P.. Sem- 30 pronius Tuditanus non destitit monere, adhortari eos, dum paucitas hostium circa castra, dum quies ac silentiure esset, dum nox inceptum tegere posset, se ducem sequerentur: ante lucem pervenire in tuta loca, in sociorum urbes posse. Si, ut avorum me- 35 moria P. Decius tribunus militurm in Samnio, si, ut nobis adulescentibus priore Punico bello Calpurnius Flanima trecentis voluntariis, ceuih ad tumulum eos capiendum situm inter medios duceret hostis, dixit "moriamur, milites, et morte nostra eripiamus ex 40.

Page  204 204 TITI LIVI AB VRBE "CONDITA obsidione circumventas legiones," si hoc P. Sempronius diceret, nec viros quisquat nec Romanos vos duceret, si nemo tantae virtutis extitisset comes. Viam non ad gloriam magis quam ad salutem feren5 tern demionstrat; reduces in patriam, ad parentis, ad conjuges ac liberos facit. Ut servemilni, deest vobis animus: quid, si moriendum pro patria esset, faceretis? Quinquaginta milia civium sociorumque circa vos eo ipso die caesa jacent. Si tot exempla virtutis 10 non movent, nihil umquamn movebit; si tanta clades vilem vitam non fecit, nulla faciet. Liberi atque incolumes desiderate patriam! immo desiderate, duin patria est, dumn cives ejus estis! sero nunc desideratis, deminuti capite, abalienato jure civium, servi Cartha15 giniensiumi facti. Pretio redituri estis eo, unde ignavia ac nequitia abistis? P. Sempronium civem vestrum non audistis armna capere ac sequi se jubentem; Hannibalern post paulo audistis castra prodi et arma tradi jubentem. Quamquam ego. ignaviam 20 istorumr accuso, cum scelus possim accusare. Non modo enim sequi recusarunt bene monenterm, sed obsistere ac retinere conati sunt, ni strictis gladiis viri fortissimi inertis submovissent. Prius, inquam, P. Sempronio per civium agmen quam per hostium 25' filit erumpendum. Hos cives patria desideret? quorum si ceteri similes fuissent, neminemn hodie ex iis qui ad Cannas pugnaverunt civemr haberet..Ex milibus septem armatorum sescenti extiterunt, qui erumpele auderent, qui in patriam liberi atque 30 armati redirent, ileque his sescentis hostes obstitere.; quam tuturn iter duarunl prope legionum agmini futurum censetis fuisse? Haberetis hodie viginti milia armatorum Canusi fortia, fidelia, patres conscripti. Nunc autemn quern ad modumrn hi boni fide35 lesque (nam " fortes" ne ipsi quidem dixerint) cives esse possunt? Nisi quis credere potest, aut favisse eruimpentibus, qui, ne erumperent, obsistere conati sunt, aut non iividere eos curm incolumitati tumn gloriae illorum per virtutem partae, cum:sibi timorem 40' ignaviamque servitutis ignominiosae causami esse

Page  205 LIBER XXII, 60-61. 205 sciant. Maluerunt in tentoriis latentes simul lucem atque hostemn expectare, cum silentio noctis erumpendi occasio esset. At ad erumpendum e- castris defuit animus, ad tutanda fortiter castra animum habuerunt; dies noctesque aliquot obsessi vallum 5 armis, se ipsi tutati vallo sunt; tandem ultima ausi passique, cum omnia subsidia vitae deessent adfectisque fame viribus arma jalr sustinere nequirent, necessitatibus magis humanis quarn armis victi sunt. Orto sole hostis ad vallum accessit; ante. secundam 10 horam, nullam fortunam certaminis experti, tradiderunt arma ac se ipsos. Haec vobis istorum per biduum militia fuit. Cum in acie stare ac pugnare decuerat, tum in castra refugerunt; cum pro vallo pugnandum erat, castra tradiderunt, neque in acie 15 neque in castris utiles. Et vos redimam? Cum erumpere e castris oportet, cunctamini ac manetis; cum manere et'castra tutari armis necesse est, et castra et arma et vos ipsos traditis hosti. Ego non magis istos redimendos, patres conscripti, censeo, 20 quamn illos dedendos Hannibali, qui per medios hostis e castris eruperunt ac per summam virtutem se patriae restituerunt." LXI. Postquam Manlius dixit, quamquam patrumn quoque plerosque captivi cognatione attinge- 25 ~bant, praeter exempllum civitatis mlinirne in captivos jamn inde antiquitus indulgentis, pecuniae quoque sunirna homines mnovit, quia nee aerarium exhaurire, magila jam. summna erogata in servos ad militiam emendos armnandosque, nec Hannibalem, maxime 30 hujusce rei (ut fama erat) egentem, locupletari volebant. Cum triste responsum,'non redimi captivos,'' redditum esset, novusque super veterem luctus tot jactura civium adjectus esset, cum magnis fletibus questibusque legatos ad portam prosecuti sunt. 35 Unus ex iis domum abiit, quod fallaci.reditu in castra jure jurando se exsolvisset. Quod ubi innotuit relatumque ad senatull est, omnes.censuerunt con prelheidendum et custo(dibus publice datis deducendum ad Hannibalem esse. 40

Page  206 206 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA. Est et alia de captivis fama: decem primos venisse; de eis cum dubitatum in senatu esset, admitterentur in urbem necne, ita adn-issos esse, ne tamen iis senatus daretur; morantibus deinde longius omniumn spe, 5 alios tris insuper legatos venisse, L. Scribonium et C. Calpurnium et L. Manlium; turn demum ab cognato Scribonii tribuno plebis de redimendis captivis relatum esse, nec censuisse redimendos senatum; et novos legatos tris ad Hannibalem revertisse, decem 10 veteres remansisse, quod per causam recognoscendi nomina captivorum ad Hannibalem ex itinere- regressi religione sese exsolvissent; de iis dedendis magna contentione actum in senatu esse, victosque paucis sententiis qui' dedendos censuerint; ceterum 15 proxumis censoribus adeo omnibus notis ignominisque confectos esse, ut quidam eorum mortem sibi ipsi extemplo consciverint, ceteri non foro solum omni deinde vita, sed prope luce ac publico caruerint. Mirari magis adeo discrepare inter auctores, quam 20 quid veri sit discernere, queas. Q uanto autem major ea clades superioribus cladibus fuerit, vel ea res indicio est, quod fides sociorum, quae ad earn diem firma steterat, tumrn labare coepit, nulla profecto alia de re quam quod desperaverant 25 de imperio. Defecere autem ad Poenos hi populi: Atellani, Calatini, Hirpini, Apulorum pars, Samnites praeter Pentros, Bruttii omnes, Lucani; praeter hos:Uzentini, et Graecorum omnis ferme ora, Tarentini, Metapontini, Crotonienses Locrique, et Cisalpini om30 nes Galli. Nec tamen eae clades defectionesque sociorum moverunt, ut pacis usquam mentio aput Romanos fieret, neque ante consulis Romam ad:ventum::nec postquam is rediit renoyavitque memoriam acceptae cladis; quo in tempore ipso adeo magno 35-animo civitas fuit, ut consuli ex tanta clade, cujus ipse causa maxima fuisset, redeunti et obviam itum frequenter ab omnibus ordinibus sit et gratiae actae, tuod de re publica non desperasset; qui si Carthaginiensium- ductor fuisset, nihil reousandum supplicii ~'40 bforet.:

Page  207 EXCERPTA EX TI-TI L IVI H I S TOR I IS. Ix, 17-19.-ALEXANDRI MAGNI ET ROMANORVM! CONLATIO. XVII. NIHIL minus quaesitum a principio hujus operis'videri potest, quainm ut plus j usto ab rerum ordine declinarem, varietatibusque distinguendo opere et legentibus velut deverticula amoena et requiem animo meo quaererem; tamen tanti regis ac dltcis 5 mentio, quibus saepe tacitis cogitationibus volutavi animum, eas evocat in medium, ut quaerere libeat, quinam eventus Romanis rebus, si cum Alexandro" foret bellatum,'futurus fuerit. Plurimumn in bello pollere videntur militum copia et virtus, ingenia 10 imlperatorum, fortuna, per omnia humana, maxime in res bellicas potens; ea et' singula intuenti et universa, sicut ab aliis regibus gentibusque, ita ab hoe quoque" facile praestant invi'ctum Romanum imperium. Jam primum, ut ordiar' ab du'cibus comparandis, haud 15 equidem abnuo, egregium ducemn fuisse Alexandrum; sed clariorem "tamen eum Tfacit, quod unus fuit, quod adulesens in' incremento rerum, nondum alteram'fortunam expertus, decessit.' Ut alios reges claros ~'dudesque omittam', magna exempla casuum humano- 20 -rumr,'Cyrum, quem maxitme Graeci la'udibus celebrant, -quid nis'i longa vita, sicut MAagnum modo Pompeium,. 207

Page  208 208 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA vertenti praebuit fortunae? Recenseam duces Romanos, nec omnes omnium aetatium, sed ipsos eos, cum quibus consulibus aut dictatoribus Alexandro fuit bellandum, M. Valerium Corvum, C. Marciurn 5 Rutilum, C. Sulpicium, T. Manliumn Torquatum, Q. Publilium Philonem, L. Papiriurn Cursorem, Q. Fabium Maximum, duos Decios, L. Voluruniurn, M'. Curium? Deinceps ingentes secuntur viri, si Punicum Romano praevertisset bellum seniorque in Ita10.liam trajecisset. Horum in quolibet cum indoles eadem:, quae in Alexandro, erat animi ingeniique, tum disciplina militaris, jamn inde ab initiis urbis tradita per manus, in artis perpetuis praeceptis ordinatae modurn venerat. Ita reges gesserant bella, ita 15 deinde exactores regum Junii Valeriique, ita deinceps Fabii, Quinctii, Cornelii, ita Furius Camilffus, quem juvenes ii, quibus cum Alexandro dimicandum erat, senem viderant. Militaria opera pugnando obeunti Aiexandro (nam ea quoque haud minus clarum. eum 20 faciunt) cessisset videlicet in acie oblatus par Manlius Torquatus aut Valerius Corvus, insigues ante milites quam duces, cessissent Decii, devotis corporibus in hostem ruentes, cessisset Papirius Cursor illo corporis robore, illo animi! victus esset consiliis juve25 nis unius, ne singulos nominem, senatus ille, quem qui ex regibus constare dixit unus veram speciem Romani senatus cepit! Id vero erat periculum, ne sollertius quam quilibet unus ex his, quos nominavi, castris locum caperet, commeatus expediret, ab insi30 diis praecaveret, tempus pugnae deligeret,-aciern instrueret, subsidiis firmaret. Non cum Dareo rem esse dixisset, quem mulierum ac spadonum agmen trahentem, inter purpuram atque aurum, oneratum fortunae apparatibus suae, praedam verius quarn hostem, 35 nihil aliud quam bene ausus vana contemnere, incruentus devicit. Longe alius Italiae quam. Indiae, per quam temulento agmine comisabundus incessit, visus illi habitus esset, saltus Apuliae'ac montes Lucanos cernenti et vestigia recentia' domesticae cladis, ubi

Page  209 LIBER' IX, 17-18. 209 avunculus ejus nuper, Epiri rex -Alexander, absunZptus erat. XVIII. Et loquimur de Alexandro nondum merso secundis rebus, quarum nemo intolerantior fuit. Qui si ex habitu novae fortunae novique, ut ita dicam, 5 ingenii, quod sibi victor induerat, spectetur, Dareo magis similis quam Alexandro in Italiam venisset, et exercitum Macedoniae oblitum degenerantemque jam in Persarum mores adduxisset. Referre in tanto rege piget superbam mutationem vestis, et desideratas 10 hurni jacentium adulationes, etiam victis Macedonibus graves, nedumrn victoribus, et foeda supplicia, et inter vinumn et epulas caedes amnicorum, et vanitatem einentiendae stirpis. Quid si vini anmor in dies fieret acrior?quid si trux ac praefervida ira? (nec quic- 15 quanl dubium inter scriptores refero) nullane haec damna imperatoriis virtutibus du-cimus? Id vero periculum erat, quod levissimi ex Graecis, qui Parthorum quoque contra nomen Romanum gloriae favent, dictitare solent, ne majestatem nominis Alex- 20 andri, quem ne fama quidem illis notum arbitror fuisse, sustinere non potuerit populus Romanus, et, adversus quem Athenis. in civitate fracta Macedonum armis, cernentes tumrn maxime prope fumantes Thebarum ruinas, contionari libere ausi sint homines, id 25 quod ex monumrentis orationumn patet, adversus eum nemo ex tot proceribus Romanis vocem liberam missurus fuerit? Quantalibet magnitudo hominis concipiatur animo; unius tamen ea magnitudo hominis erit, collecta paulo plus decem annorum felici- 30 tate; quam qui eo extollunt, quod populus Romnanus, etsi nullo bello, multis tamen proeliis victus sit, Alexandro nullius pugnae non secunda fortuna fuerit, non intellegunt, sehominis res gestas, etejus juvenis, cum populi jam octingentesiium bellantis annum rebus con- 35 ferre. Miremnur, si, cum ex hac parte saecula plura numerentur quam ex illa anni, plus'in tam longo spatio quam in aetate tredecim annorum fortuna variaverit? Quin'tuo hominis cum homine et ducis cum duce for14 - Livy.

Page  210 210 TITI LIVI AB VRBE. CONDITA tunam [cum fortuna]- confers? Quot.Romanos duces nominem, quibus numquam adversa fortuna pugnae fuit! Paginas in annalibus magistratuum fastisque percurrere licet consulum dictatorumque, quorum nec.vir5 tutis nec fortunae ullo die populum.Romanum paenituit. JEt quo sint mirabiliores quam Alexander aut quisquam. rex, denos vicenosque dies quidam dictaturam, nemo plus quam annum consulatum gessit; ab tribunis plebis dilectus. inpediti sunt; post tempus ad 10 bella ierunt, ante tempus comitiorum causa revocati sunt; in ipso conatu rerum circumegit se annus; collegae nunc temeritas, nune pravitas inpedimento aut damno fuit:; male gestis rebus alterius successum est.; tironem aut mala disciplina institutum exercitumn accepe15 runt. At hercule reges non liberi solumn inpedimentis omnibus, sed domini rerum temporumque trahunt consiliis cuncta, non secuntur. Invictus ergo Alexander - cum invictis ducibus bella gessisset, et -eadem fortunae pignera in discrimen detulisset; immo 20 etiam eo plus periculi subisset, quod Macedones unum Alexandrum habuissent, multis casibus non solum obnoxium, sed etiam offerentem se, Roinani multi fuissent Alexandro vel gloria vel rerum mnagnitudine pares, quorum suo quisque fato, sine publico discri25 mine, viveret morereturque. XIX. Restat, ut copiae. copiis conparentur vel numero vel militum genere.vel multitudine auxiliorum. Censebantur ejus aetatis lustris ducena quinquagena milia capitum. Itaque in omni defectione 30 sociorum Latini nominis urbano prope dilectu decem scribebantur legiones; quaterni quinique exercitus saepe per eos annos in Etruria, in Umbria, Gallis hostibus adjunctis, in Samnio, in Lucanis -gerebant bellumrn: Latium deinde ornne cum Sabinis et Volscis 35 et Aequis et ornni Campania et parte Umbriae Etruriaeque et Picentibus et Marsis Paelignisque ac Vestinis atque Apulis, adjuncta omni ora Graecorum in.feri. maris -a Thuriis Neapolin et Cumas et inde Antio. atque Ostiis tenus, aut socios validos Romanis

Page  211 LIBER IX, 18-19'. - -2'aut fractos bello invenisset hostes. Ipse trajecisset mare cum veteranis Macedonibus, non plus triginta milibus hominum, et quattuor imilibus equitum, maxime Thessalorum; hoc enim roboris erat. -Persas,'Indos, aliasque Si adjunxisset gentes, inpedimentum 5 majus quam auxilium traheret. Adde, quod Romanis ad manum domi supplementum esset, Alexandro, quod postea Hannibali accidit, alieno in agro bellanti exercitus consenuisset. Arma, clupei sarisaeque illis; Romano scutum, majus corpori tegurmentum, et pilum, 10 haud' paulo quam hasta vehementius ictu missuque telum.' Statarius uterque miles, ordines servans; sed illa phalanx immobilis et unius generis, Romana acies distinctior, ex pluribus partibus constans, facilis partienti, quacumque opus esset, facilis jungenti. 15 Jam in opere quis par Romano miles? quis ad tolerandurn laborem melior? Uno proelio victus Alexander bello victus esset; Romanum, quem Caudium, quiern Cannae non; fi'egerunt, quae fregisset acies? Ne ille saepe, etiam si prima prospere evenissent, 20 Persas et iIndos' et inbellem Asiarn quaesisset, et cum feminis sibi bellum fuisse dixisset, quod Epiri regem Alexandrum, mortifero vulnere ictum, dixisse fer-unt, sortem bellorum in Asia gestorum ab hoc ipso juvene cum sua conferentem. Equidem, cum per annos;25 quattuor et viginti primo Punico bello classibus certaturn! cum, Poenis recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad -unum bellum. Et forsitan, cum et foederibus vetustis juncta res Punica Romanae esset, et timor par adversus communem hostem duas 30 potentissimas armis virisque urbes armaret, simul Punico Roinanoque obrutus bello esset. Non quidem Alexandro'duce nec integris Macedonum rebus, sed experti'tarnen'sunt: Romani Macedonem- hostem' adversus -Antiochum, - Philippum, Persen, non modo 35 cur- cliade- ulla, sed ne cumn periculo quidemn suo. Absit irrvidia verbo et civilia- bella sileant;- [numquam ab:e~uite hoste;] numnquam a pedite, numquami apertaaecie,:uinmquam- aequis, utique numquamr nostris

Page  212 -212 TITI LIVI AB -V:RBE CONDITA locis laboravimus; equitem,. sagittas, saltus inpeditos, avia commeatibus loca gravis armis miles timere potest. Mille acies graviores quam Macedonum a.'que Alexandri avertit avertetque, modo sit perpe5 tuus hujus, qua vivimus, pacis amor et civilis cura concordiae. xxvi, 18-19. -DE P. CORNELIO SCIPIONE AFRICANO. XVIII. INTER haec Hispaniae populi nec qui post cladem acceptam defecerant redibant ad Romanos, nec ulli novi deficiebant; et Romae senatui pop10 uloque post receptam Capuam non Italiae jam major quam Hispaniae cura erat. Et exercitum augeri et imperatorem mitti placebat; necetam, quem mitterent, satis constabat, quam illud, ubi duo summi imperatores intra dies triginta cecidissent, qui in 15 locum duorum succederet, extraordinaria cura deligendum esse. Cum alii alium nominarent, postremum. eo decursum est, ut proconsuli creando in Hispaniam. comitia haberentur;. diemque cornitis consules edixerunt. Primo expectaverant, ut qui se 20 tanto imperio dignos crederent nomina profiterentur;' quae ut destituta expectatio est, redintegratus luctus acceptae cladis desideriumque imperatorum amisso- rum. Maesta itaque civitas, prope inops consilii, comitiorum die tamen in campum descendit; atque 25 in magistratus versi circumspectant ora principum aliorum alios intuentium, fremuntque, adeo perditas res desperatumque de re publica esse, ut nemo audeat: in Hispaniam imperiurn accipere, cum subito P. Cor-. nelius, P. Cornelii, qui in Hispania ceciderat, filius, 30 quattuor et viginti ferme annos: natus, professus se petere, in superiore, unde conspici posset,.loco colstitit. -In quem.postquam omnium ora conversa sunt,,

Page  213 LIBER XXVI, 18-19. 213clamore ac favore ominati extemplo sunt felix faustulique imperium. Jussi deinde inire suffragium ad unum omnes non centuriae modo, sed etiam homines P. Scipioni imperiumr esse in Hispania jusserunt. Ceterum post rem actam, ut jam resederat impetus 5 animorum ardorque, silentium subito ortum et tacita cogitatio, quidnam egissent? Nonne favor plus valuisset quam ratio? Aefatis maxime paenitebat; quidamr fortunam etiam domus horrebant nomenque ex funestis duabus familiis in eas provincias, ubi inter 10 sepulcra patris patruique res gerendae essent, proficiscentis. XIX. Quam.ubi ab re tanto impetu acta sollicitudinem curagmque hominumn animadvertit, advocata contione, ita de aetate sua imperioque mandato et 15 hello, quod gerundum esset, magno elatoque animo disseruit, ut ardoreni eum, qui resederat, excitaret rursus novaretque, et impleret homines certioris spei,. quamn quantam fides promissi humani aut ratio ex fiducia rerum subicere solet. Fuit enim Scipio non 20 veris tantum virtutibus mirahilis, sed arte quoque quadam ab juventa in ostentationem earumr compositus, pleraque aput multitudinem aut ut per nocturnas visa species aut velut divinitus mente monita agens, sive et ipse capti quadam superstitione animi, sive ut 25 imperia consiliaque velut sorte oraculi missa sine cunctatione exsequerentur. Ad hoc jam inde ab initio praeparans animos, ex quo togam virilem sumpsit, nullo die prius ullam publicam privatamque rem egit quam in Capitolium'iret ingressusque aedem conside- 30 ret.et plerumque solus in secreto ibi tempus tereret. Hic mos, per omnem vitam servatus, seu consulto seu temere vulgatae opinioni fidem aput quosdam fecit, stirpis eum divinae virum esse, rettulitque famam in Alexandro magno prius vulgatam, et vani- 35 tate et fabula parem, anguis iminanis concubi tu conceptum, et in cubiculo matris ejus visam persaepe prodigii ejus specienl interventuque hominum evolutam repente atque ex oculis elapsam. Hujus miraculi

Page  214 214: TITI LIVI AB VRBE CO-NDITA numquam ab ipso elusa fides est, quin potius aucta arte quadam nec abnuendi tale quicquam nec palam adfirmandi. Multa alia ejusdem generis, alia vera, alia adsimnulata, admirationis humanae in eo juvene 5 excesserant modum; quibus freta tune civitas aetati haudquaquam maturae tantam rerum molem tantumque imperium permisit. xxxv, 14.- CONLOQVIVM SCIPIONIS CVM HANNIBALE. XIV. CLAUDIUS, secutus Graecos Acilianos libros, P. Africanuin in ea fuisse legatione tradit, eum10 que Ephesi conlocutum cum Hannibale; et sermonem unum etiam refert, quo quaerenti Africano'quem fuisse maximum imperatorem Hannibal crederet?' respondisse,'Alexandrumn Macedonum regem, quod parva manu innumerabiles exercitus fudisset, [et] 15 qauod ultimas oras, quas visere supra spem humanam esset, peragrasset.' Quaerenti deinde,'quem secundum poneret?''Pyrrhum' dixisse:'castra metari.- primum docuisse; ad hoc neminem elegantius loca cepisse, praesidia disposuisse; artem etiam con20 ciliandi sibi homines earn habuisse, ut Italicae gentes regis externi quam populi Romani -tam diu principis in ea terra imperium esse mallent.' Exequenti,'quem tertium duceret?' haud dubie'semet ipsum' dixisse. Tum risum obortum Scipioni, et subjecisse "quidnam 25 tu diceres, si me vicisses?" " Tum vero:me" inquit " et ante Alexandrum et ante Pyrrhum et ante alios omnis imperatores esse." Et perplexum Punico astu responsunm.et inprovisum adsentationis genus Scipionem movisse, quod, e grege se nimperatorum; velut 30 inaestimabilem secrevisset..

Page  215 LIBER xxxVIII, 50-51. 215 XXXVIII, 50-53, 56, 57.-P. SCIPIO AFRICANVS ACCVSATVR. EIVS ORATIO AD POPVLVM, MORS, LAVDES. L. OBPRESSIT deinde mentionem memoriamque omnema contentionis hujus majus et cum majore et clariore viro certamen ortum. P. Scipioni Africano, ut Valerius Antias auctor est, duo Q. Petillii diem dixerunt. Id, prout cujusque ingenium erat, inter- 5 pretabantur. Alii non tribunos plebis, sed universam civitatem, quae id. pati posset, incusabant:'duas maximas orbis terrarum urbes ingratas uno prope tempore in principes inventas, Romnam ingratiorem, si quidem victa Carthago victum Hannibalem in 10 exsilium expulisset, Roma victrix victorem Africanum expellat.' Alii,'neminem lnum civem tantum eminere debere, ut legibus interrogari non possit; nihil tam aequandae libertatis esse, quam potentissimum quemque posse dicere causam.- Quid autem 15 tuto cuiquam, nedum summam rem publicam, permitti, si ratio non sit reddenda? Qui jus aequum pati non possit, in eum vim haud injustam esse.' Haec agitata sermonibus, donec dies causae dicendae venit. Nec alius antea quisquam nec ille ipse Scipio 20 consul censorve majore omnis generis hominum frequentia quam reus illo die in forum est deductus. Jussus:dicere causam, sine ulla criminum mentione orationem adeo magnificam de rebuis ab se gestis est exorsus, ut satis constaret, neminem umquam neque 25 melius neque verius laudaturn esse. Dicebantur enim ab [eo] eodem animo ingenioque, quo gesta erant; et auriumn fastidium aberat, quia pro periculo, non in gloriam referebantur. LI. Tribunli vetera luxuriae crimina Syracusano- 30 rum hibernorum et Locris Pleminianum tumultum cum ad fidera praesentiuln critninum rettulissent, suspicionibus magis quam argumentis pecuniae cap

Page  216 216 TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA tae reum accusarunt: filium captum sine pretio redditum, omnibusque aliis rebus Scipionem, tamquam in ejus unius manu pax Romana bellumque esset, ab Antiocho cultumn; dictatorem eum consuli, 5 non' legatumr in provincia fuisse; nee ad aliam rem eo profectum quam ut, id quod Hispaniae, Galliae, Siciliae, Africae jainm pridem persuasum esset, -hoc Graeciae Asiaeque et omnibus ad orientem versis regibus gentibusque' adpareret, unum hominem caput.10 columenque imperii Romani esse, sub umbra Scipionis civitatem dorninam orbis terrarum latere, nutum ejus pro decretis patrum, pro populi jussis esse. In-'famia intactumn invidia, qua possunt, urgent. Orationibus in noctem perductis, prodicta dies est. Ubi 15 ea venit, tribuni in rostris prima luce consederunt. Citatus reus magno agmine amicorum clientiumque per mediam contionem ad rostra subiit, silentioque facto, "hoc" inquit "die, tribuui plebis vosque Quirites, cum Hannibale et Carthaginiensibus signis.con20 latis'in Africa: bene ac feliciter pugnavi. Itaque cum hodie litibus et jurgiis supersederi aequum sit, ego hine extemplo in Capitolium ad Jovem optimum maximum, Junonemque et Minervam ceterosque deos, qui Capitolio'atque arci praesident, salutandos 25 ibo, iisque gratias agam, quod,mihi et hoce ipso die et saepe alias egregie gerendae rei publicae. mentem facultatemque dederunt. Vestruim qtuoque quibus commodum est,.. Quirites, ite mecum, et orate, deos, ut mei similes principes habeatis, ita, si ab annis 30 septemdecim ad senectutem semper vos-. aetatem meam honoribus vestris. anteistis,- ego vestros honores rebus' gerendis praecessi.". Ab rostris in Capitoliumescendit. Simul se universa, contio avertit et: secuta Scipionem est, adeo ut postremo scribae viatoresque 35 tribunos' relinquerent, nee cum. iis.praeter servilem comitatum et praeconem, qui reum ex rostris citabat; quisquam esset. S(cipio non in Capitolio modo,.sed per totam'urbem omnia templa deim cum-populo, Romanio circumiit. Celebr.atior is proPe dies favore

Page  217 LIBER XXXVIII, 51-52. 217 homninum et aestiliatione verae magnitudinis ejus fuit, quam quo triumphans de Syphace rege et Carthaginiensibus urbemn est invectus. LII. Hic speciosus ultirnus dies P. Scipioni inluxit; post quem cumr invidiam et certamina cum 5 tribunis prospiceret, die longiore prodicta, in Literninum concessit certo consilio, ne ad causam dicendamr adesset. Major animus et natura erat ac majori fortunae adsuetus, quam ut reus esse sciret et submittere se in humilitatemn causam dicentium. Ubi dies venit 10 citarique absens est coeptus, L. Scipio morbum causae esse, cur abesset, excusabat. Quam, excusationemn cum tribuni, qui diem dixerant, non acciperent, et ab eadem superbia -non venire ad causam dicendam arguerent, qua judicium et tribunos plebis et contionem 15 reliquisset, et, quibus jus senteintiae de se dicendae et libertatem ademisset, his conlitatus, velut captos trahens, triumphurn de populo Romano egisset, secessionemque eo die in Capitoliurn a tribunis plebis fecisset — "habetis ergo temneritatis illius mercedem. Quo 20 duce et auctore nos reliquistis, ab eo ipsi relicti estis, et tantum animorum in dies nobis decrescit, ut, ad quem ante annos septemndecim, exercitum et classem habenterm, tribunos plebis aedilenque mittere in Siciliam ausi sumus, qui prenderent eum et Romain 25 reducerent, ad eum privaturn ex villa sua extrahendum- ad causarn dicendamn mnittere non audeamus" -, tribuni plebis adpellati ab L. Scipione ita decreverunt, -si morbi causa excusaretur, sibi placere accipi earn causam diermque ab collegis prodici. Tribunus 30 plebis eo tempore Ti. Sempronius Gracchus erat, cui ilimicitiae cum -P. Scipione intercedebant. Is cum vetuisset nomen suumn decreto collegarurn adscribi, tristioremnque orunes -sententiam exspectarent, ita decrevit, culin L.- Scipio excusasset morbumn esse'causae 35 fratri, satis id sibi videri:'se P. Scipionem, priusquam Romarn redisset, accusari non passurum; tum quoque, si, se adpellet, auxilio: ei futurum, ne causam dicat;ad id -fastigimn rebus gestis, honoribus populi Roimalii

Page  218 21.8 TITI; LIVI AB VRBE C'ON'DITA P. Scipionem deorum:horninumque- consensu pervenisse, ut sub rostris reum stare et praebere aures adolescentiurn conviciis populo Romano magis deforme quam.ipsi sit. 5 LIII. Adjecit decreto indignationem. "Sub pedibus vestris stabit, tribuni,. domitor ille Africae Scipio?. Ideo quattuor nobilissimos duces Poenorum in. Iispania, quattuor exercitus fudit fugavitque; ideo Syphacem cepit, Hannibalem devicit, Carthagi10 nemr vectigalem nobis fecit, Antiochum (recepit enim fratremr consortem hujus gloriae L. Scipio) ultra juga Tauri emovit, ut duobus Petilliis subcumberet? — Vos de P. Africano palmamn peti feretis? Nullisne meritis suis, nullis vestris honoribus umquam in arcem 15 tutam et velut sanctam.clari viri pervenient, ubi, si non venerabilis, inviolata salterm senectus eorum considat?" Movit et decretum et adjecta oratio non ceteros modo, sed ipsos etiam accusatores, et deliberaturos se, quid sui juris et officii esset, dixerunt. Se20 natus deinde, concilio plebis dimisso, haberi est coeptus. Ibi gratiae ingentes ab universo ordine, praecipue a consularibus- senioribusque, Ti. Graccho actae sunt, quod remin publicam privatis simultatibus potiorem: ha.buisset; et Petillii vexati sunt probris, 25 quod splendere aliena invidia voluissent:et spolia ex Africani triumpho peterent. - Silentium:deinde de Africano fuit. Vitam:Literni' egit sine- desiderio urbis. Morientem-rure eo ipso loco sepeliri se jussisse ferunt monumentumque ibi aedificari, ne funus 30 sibi in ingrata patria fieret.. Vir memorabilis; bellicis tamen quam pacis artibus memorabilior, et inlustrior prima pars vitae qu-am postrema fuit, quia in juventa bella adsidue gesta, cum senecta res quoque defloruerenec praebita est materia ingenio. Quid 35 ad primum consulatum secundus, etiam.si censuram adicias,? quid Asiatica legatio, et valetudine adversa inutilis et: filii casu deformata et post reditui necessitate aut subeundi judicii aut simul curm patria deserendi? - Punici tamen -belli perpetrati, quo: nullum

Page  219 LIBER XXXVIII, 53, 56.' 219' neque majus neque- periculosius Romani gessere,-unus. praecipuam gloriam tulit. L:VI.' Multa alia in Scipionis exitu maxime vitae dieque dicta, morte, funere, sepulcro, in diversum trahunt, ut, cui famae, quibus scriptis adsentiar, non 5 habeam. Non de accusatore convenit (alii M. Naevium, alii Petillios diein dixisse scribunt), non de tempore, quo dicta dies sit, non de anno, quo mortuus sit, non ubi nlortuus- aut elatus sit; alii -Romae, alii Literni et mortuum et sepultum. Utrobique monu- 10 menta'ostenduntur et statuae;: nam- et Literni monumentum- monumentoque statua:superinposita fuit, quam tempesate dejectam nuper.vidimus ipsi, et Romae extra:ortam Capenam in: Scipionum monumento tres statuae sunt, quarum. duae P. et L. Scipi- 1-5 onum dicuntur esse, tertia poetae Q. Ennii. Nec inter scriptores rerum discrepat solum, sed oratiolles quoque, si modo ipsorum sunt, quae feruntur, P. Scipionis et-Ti. Gracchi, abhorrent inter se. Index orationis P. Scipionis nomen M. Naevii tribuni plebis 20. habet, ipsa oratio sine nomine est accusatoris; modo nebulonem, modo nugatorem adpellat. Ne Gracchi quidem oratio aut Petilliorum accusatorum Africani ault diei dictae Africano' ullam mentionem habet. Alia.tota. serenda fabula:est Gracchi orationi conve- 25 niens, et illi auctores sequendi sunt, qui, cum L. Scipio et. accusatus et damnatus sit pecuniae captae ab rege, legatum in Etruria fuisse Africanumr tradunt,. quo post farnmam de casu fratris adlatam, relicta legatione, cucurrisse eum Romam, et, cum a porta recta 30 ad forum se contulisset, quod in vincula duci fratrem dictum erat, reppulisse.a corpore ejus viatorem et tribunis retinentibus magis pie quam civiliter vim fecisse. Hinc enim ipse Ti. Gracchus queritur,-dissolutam. esse a — privato tribuniciam potestatein, et ad 35 postremum,- curnm auxilium.L. Scipioni pollicetur,-adicit, tolerabilioris exempli esse a tribuno plebis potius quam a privato( victarm videri.et tribuniciam potesta-, tem et rem.-publicam esse..Sed it-a:hanc-unam inpo

Page  220 220 TITI LIVI AB VRBE'CONDITA tentemra ejus injuriamn invidia onerat, ut increpando. quod degenerarit tantum a se ipse, cumulatas ei veteres laudes moderationis et ternperantiae pro reprehensione praesenti reddat; castigatum enim quondam 5 ab eo populum ait, quod eum perpetuum consulem et dictatorem vellet facere; prohibuisse statuas sibi in comitio, in rostris, in curia, in Capitolio, in cella Jovis poni; prohibuisse, ne decerneretur, ut imago sua triumphali ornatu e templo Jovis optimi maximi. 10 exiret.' LVII. Haec vel in laudatione posita ingentem magnitudinem animi moderantis ad civilem habitum honoribus significarent, quae exprobranIdo inimicus fatetur. Huic Graccho: minorem ex: duabus- filiis: 15 (ham -major P. Cornelio Nasicae haud dubie a patre conlocata erat) nuptam fuisse convenit; illud parumconstat, utrum post mortem patris et desponsa sit et nupserit, an verae illae opiniones sint, Gracchum, cum L. Scipio in vincula duceretur nec quisquami 20 collegarum auxilio esset, jurasse, sibi -inimicitias cum Scipionibus, quae fuissent, manere, nec se gratiae quaerendae causa quicquam facere, sed, in quem carcerem reges et imperatores hostium ducentem vidisset P. Africanum, in eum se fratrem ejus duci 25 non passurum: senatum eo die forte in Capitolio cenantem consurrexisse et petisse, ut inter epulasGraccho filiam Africanus desponderet: quibus ita inter publicum sollemne sponsalibus rite factis, cum se domum recepisset, Scipionem Aemiliae uxori 30 dixisse filiam se minorern despondisse: cum illa muliebriter indignabunda nihil de communi filia secum consultatum', adjecisset, non, si Ti. Graccho daret, expertem consilii debuisse matrem esse, laetum Scipionem tam concordi judicio ei ipsi desponsam 35 respondisse. Haec de tanto viro, quamquamn et opinionibus et monumentis litterarum variarent, proponenda erant.

Page  221 LIBER X=X I X, 40. 2221 XXXIX, 40. -—. PORCI CATONIS VIGENS ET VERSATILE INGENIVM. XL. CENSURAM summa contentione petebant L. Valerius Flaccus, P. et L. Scipiones, Cn. Manlius Volso, L. Furius Purpurio _patricii, plebeii autem M. Porcius Cato, M. Fulvius Nobilior, Ti. et M. Sempronii, Longus et Tuditanus; sed oinnes patricios plebei- 5 osque nobilissimarum familiarum M. Porcius longe anteibat. In hoc viro tanta vis animi ingeniique fuit, ut, quocumque loco natus esset, fortunam sibi ipse facturus-fuisse videretur. Nulla ars neque privatae neque publicae rei gerendae ei defuit. Urbanas 10 rusticasque res pariter callebat. Ad summos honores alios- scientia juris, alios eloquentia, alios- gloria militaris provexit; huic versatile ingenium sic pariter ad omnia fuit, ut natum ad id unum diceres quodcumque ageret. In bello manu fortissimus mul- 15 tisque insignibus clarus pugiis; idem, postquanm ad magnos honores pervenit, summus imperator; ideml in pace, si jus consuleres, peritissimus, si causa oranda esset, eloquentissimus; nec is tantum cujus lingua vivo eo viguerit, monumentum eloquentiae nullum 20 exstet, —vivit immo vigetque eloquentia ejus sacrata scriptis omnis generis. Orationes et prose multae et pro allis et in alios; nam non solum accusando, sed etiam causam dicendo fatigavit inimicos. Simultates nimio plures et exercuerunt eum et ipse exercuit eas; 25 nec facile dixeris, utrum magis presserit eum'nobilitas an ille agitaverit nobilitatem. Asperi procul dubio animi' et linguae acerbae et immodice liberae fuit, sed invicti a cupiditatibus animi, rigidae innocentiae, contemptor gratiae [et] divitiaruim. In parsimonia, 30 in patientia laboris periculique, ferrei prope corpodris animnique, quem ne senectus quidema, quae solvit omnia, fregerit; qui sextum et octogesimum annum agens causam [dixerit,] ipse pro se oraverit scripseritque, nonagesimo anno Ser. Galbam ad populi adduxerit 35 judicium.

Page  222 222 TITI LIVI AD -VRBE CONDITA XLV, 7-9. —PERSEA VICTVM BENIGNE EXCIPIT L. AEMILIVS PAYLVS. VII' SECIUNDAM earn Paulus, sicut erat, victoriam ratus, victimas cecidit eo nuntio; et, consilio advocato, [litteras] praetoris cum recitasset, Q. Aelium Tuberonem obviam regi misit, ceteros manere in 5 praetoria frequentis -jussit. Non alias ad ullum spectaculum tanta multitudo occurrit. Patrum aetate Syphax-rex captus in castra Romana adductus erat; praeterquam quod nec sua nec gentis fama comparandus, tunc accessio Punici belli fuerat, sicut 10 Gentius Macedonici. Perseus caput belli erat; nec ipsius:tantum, patris avique [ceterorurnque], quos sanguine ac genere contingebat, fama conspectum eum efficiebat, sed effulgebant Philippus ac Magnus Alexander, qui summum inperium in orbe terrarum 15 Macedonum fecerant. Pullo amictu [cum] filio Perseus ingressus est castra, nullo suorum alio comjte, [quam] qui socius calamitatis miserabiliorem eum faceret. Progredi prae turba occurrentium ad spectaculum non poterat, donec a' consule lictores missi 20 sunt, qui summoto iter ad praetorium facerent. Consurrexit consul, et, jussis sedere-aliis progressusque paulurn, introeunti regi dextram porrexit,'summittentemque se ad pedes sustulit, nec attingere genua passus, introductum-in tabernaculum adversus advo25 catos in consilium considere jussit. -- VIII. Prima percontatio fuit,-qua subactus injuria- contra "populurn Roman=um bellum- tam- infesto: animo suscepisset, quo se regnuinque'su2im ad ultimum discriinen adduceret? Cum, responsum ex30 pectantibus cunctis, terram-intuens diu tacitus fleret, ~ rursum consul:'" si juvenis regnum accepisses, minus equidem mirarer, i'norasse te, quam gravis aut-amicus aut inimicus esset populus - Romanus; nunc vero,cum et; bello patris tui, quod:nobiscum gessit, inter35 fuisses, et pacis postea, quarn cm m summa fide ad:

Page  223 LIBER XLV, 7-9.. 223 versus eum coluimus, meminisses, [quod fuit] consilium, quorum et vim [in] bello et fidem in pace expertus esses, cum is tibi bellum esse quam pacem malle?" Nec interrogatus nec accusatus curn responderet: "utcumque tamen haec, sive errore hu- 5 mano seu casu seu necessitate, inciderunt, bonum animurn habe; multorum regum. [et] populorum casibus cognita populi Romani clementia non modo spem tibi, sed prope certam fiduciam salutis praebet." Haec Graeco sermone Persei; Latine deinde suis 10 "exemplum insigne cernitis" inquit "mutationis rerum hurnanarum. Vobis hoc praecipue dico, juvenes. Ideo in secundis rebus nihil in quemquam superbe ac violenter consulere decet, nec praesenti credere fortunae, cum, quid vesper ferat, incertum sit. Is demum 15 vir erit, cujus animum neque prospera flatu suo efferent nec adversa infringent." Consilio dimisso tuendi cura regis Q. Aelio mandatur. Eo die et;invitatus ad consulern Perseus, et alius omnis ei honos habitus est, qui haberi in tali fortuna poterat. 20 IX. Hic finis belli, cum quadriennium continuum bellatum esset, inter Rolnanos ac Persea fuit, idemque finis inclyti per Europae plerumque atque Asiam omnem regni. Vicensimum ab Carano, qui primus regnabat, Persea numerabant. Perseus Q. Fulvio,.25 [L.] Manlio consulibus regnum accepit; a senatu rex est appellatus M. Junio, A. Manlio consulibus; regnavit undecim annos. Macedonum [gens] obscura admodum fama usque ad Philippum Amyntae filium fuit; inde ac per eum crescere cum coepisset, Europae 30 se tamen finibus continuit, Graeciam omnem et partem Threciae adque Illyrici amplexa. Superfudit deinde se in Asiain, et tredecim annis, quibus Alexander regnavit, primum omnia, qua Persarum. prope immenso spatio imperium fuerat, suae dicionis fecit. 35 Arabas hinc Indiamque, qua terrarum ultumos finis Rubrum mare amplectitur, peragravit. Tum maxi-. mum in terris Macedonum regnum. nomenque; inde morte Alexandri distractum [in] multa regna, dum

Page  224 -224 TITI LIVI'AB.VRB.E CONDITA ad se.quisque opes rapiunt, laceratis viribus; a summo culmine fortunae. ad ultimum finem centum quinquaginta annos stetit. XLV, 40-42. —L. AEMILI PAVLI DE REBVS GESTIS ET CALAMITATE SVA CONTIO. SED non Perseus tantum per illos dies documentum 5 humanorum casfirn fuit, in catenis ante currum victoris ducis per urbem hostium ductus, sed etiann victor Paulus, aur.o purpuraque fulgens. Nam duobus e filiis, quos, duobus datis in adoptionem, solos nominis, sacrorum.familiaeque heredes retinuerat domi, minor, 10 ferrine [duodecim] annos natus,quinque diebus ante triumphum, major, quattuordecim alnorum, triduo post triumphum decessit; quos praetextatos curru vehi cur patre, sibi ipsos simrilis praedestinantis. triumlphos, oportuerat. Paucis post diebus, data a AM. 15 Antoni6 tribuno plebis contione,.cum de suis rebus gestis more ceterorum imperatorum dissereret, memorabilis ejus oratio et digna Romano principe fuit. XLI. " Q'uamquam, et qua felicitate rem publicarn administraverim, et [quae] duo fulmina domum 20 meam per hos dies perculerint, non ignorare vos, Quirites, arbitror, cum spectaculo vobis nune triumphus meus, nunc funera liberorum meorum fuerint, tamen paucis, quaeso, sinatis me. cum publica felicitate comparare eo, quo debeo,-anirnmo privatam 25 meanl.. fortunam. Profectus.ex Italia classern a Brundisio sole orto solvi; nona diei hora.cumn..omnibus meis navibus Corcyram tenui. Inde quinto.die Delphis. Apollini pro ne. exercitibusque et.classibus vestris. sacrificavi. A.Delphis. quinto die 30 in castra perveni; ubi exercitu accepto, mutatis quibusdam, quae magna impedimenta victoriae erant, progressus, quia inexpugnabilia [castra] hostium

Page  225 LIBER XLV, 40-42. 225 erant, neque cogi pugnare poterat rex, inter praesidia ejus saltum ad Petrarn evasi et ad Pydnam regem acie vici, Macedoniam in potestatem populi Romani redegi, et, quod bellum per quadriennium quattuor ante me consules ita gesserunt, ut semper 5 successori traderent gravius, id ego quindecim diebus perfeci. Aliarum deinde secundarum rerum velut proventus secutus. Divitates omnes Macedoniae se dediderunt; gaza regia in potestatem venit; rex ipse, tradentibus prope ipsis dis, in templo Samothracum 10 cum liberis est captus. Mihi quoque ipsi nimia jam fortuna videri eoque suspecta esse. IMaris pericula timere coepi in tanta pecunia regia in Italiam traicienda et victore exercitu transportando. Postquam omnia secundo navium cursu in Italiam pervenerunt, 15 neque erat quod ultra precarer, illud optavi, ut, cum ex summo retro volvi fortuna consuesset, mutationem ejus domus mea potius quam res publica sentiret. Itaque defunctam esse fortunam publicam mea tam insigni calamitate spero, quod triumphus imeus, velut 20 ad ludibrium casuum humanoruin, duobus funeribus liberorum meorum est interpositus. Et cum ego et Perseus nunc nobilia maxime sortis mortalium exempla spectemur, ille, qui ante se, captivos ipse, duci liberos vidit, incolumes tamen eos habet; ego, qui de 25 illo triumphavi, ab alterius funere filii curru in [Capitolium vectus sum, ad alterum] ex Capitolio prope jam expirantern veni; neque ex tanta stirpe liberum superest, qui' L. Aemilii Pauli nomen ferat. Duos enim, tamiquam ex magna progenie liberorum, in 30 adoptionem datos Cornelia et Fabia gens habent; Paulus in domo praeter inme nemo superest. Sed hane cladem domus meae vestra felicitas et secunda fortuna publica consolatur." XLII. Haec tanto dicta animo magis confudere audientium animos, quam si 35 miserabiliter orbitatem suam deflendo locutus esset. 15- Livy.

Page  226

Page  227 NOTES. 227

Page  228 ABBREVIATIONS. Manuscripts. Fr.... Fey. BooK I. Gr., Gron., or J.. G. J.'. Gronov, often M, codex Mediceus, at Flor- cited with ence. Of the elev- his Latinenth century. ized name P, " Parisiensis, (No. Gr'oovits. 5725.) Hpt.,. Hmeipt. B, " Bam1berqensis. liz. H -ertz. E, " Einlsiedleisis. IIwg., Heerw.. Heeriwagen. Harl. 1. " Harleianus prior, at Ing... I....gerslev. Oxford. Kr.....Krey8sig. Led. 1 " Leidensis prior. L... Licoln. F, " Florentinus, in St. Mg.. Ma avig.: Mark's Library. MIur. M1iret. Of the twelfth cen- Periz.,.. er- zonius. tury. S........ Seeley. St.....St'roth. (BOOKS XXI. AND XXII.) Uss..... Us88siig. P, codex Puteanss, (wbi3h ce- W. -. WEalch. longed to Dl Pu,) Wsb... Weissenborn. in Paris. Of the Wx.. Wex. eighth century. Z..... Zunpt. MP C" lediceus, at Florence, (not the same Grammars, Etc. as that?vhiuh con- M..advig. tains the first do-. Zlnnpt. cad.) Of the elev- A... Alle or Allen ald enth century. Greenoitgh.* C, " Colbertlihtzs, in the A. & S.. Andrews aend Stod. Paris Library, No. dard. 5731. Of the B u Btdllions ad Jlorris. twelfth century. G.... Gildersleeve. Editors, Critics, and Commentators.... Alsch..... AlseheJf ki. codd... codices. Bkr.....Bekker. conj. conjectulre of. Cr., Crev.... Crevier. e coni.. e coniecturaa. Dr., Drak,. Drakenborch. em... ernends; enesdation,f. Dr.-Kr...Drakenborch, Ng... Ndigelsbach's Stilistik. edited by. Nieb. Niebuhhr. Kreyssig. Pr., Prel. Preller's Rnmi8che lyDuk.. Diker. thologie. T. Bub.... Tuneaqil Fcc-. ber. - *:The numbering of the sections in these two-Grammars is -identical;. 228

Page  229 NOTES. THE HISTORIES OF LIVY. BOOKS I, XXI, XXII. PRELIMINARY NOTE ON ORTHOGRAPHY. —The orthography of the best manuscripts and editions of Livy differs in some respects from that of the later Roman grammarians which prevails in our dictionaries and grammars. Although these differences are not likely to present to students any serious difficulty, a statement of the most important of them is subjoined for the benefit of those who may not have become familiar with them in their previous reading. 1. The final consonant of prepositions in compound words is generally retained, and not assimilated to the following consonant; thus adfero, rather than affero; adlatulm, not ailatum; adlicio, not allicio; adpendicibus, not appen.dicibls; adseltio, not assentio; so also con, in, ob, sub, often remain unchanged, as conlrtrum (collatum), conprehensis (comprehensis), inlatuan (illatum), inminels (imminens), inpune (impune), inritus (irritus), obpressit (oppressit), subeedo (succedo), etc. - 2. The accus9ative plural of the third declension ends often in is instead of es, and sometimes (though rarely) the nominative plural; thus omnis (omnes), finis (fines). —3. The superlative termination un.us is found for inmus; as optum.ss (optimus), maxum.us (maximus).4. The letterj is omitted before i; as deicio (dejicio), reicio (rejicio), traicio (trajicio).- 5. Vo is found instead of vu; as volt (vult), voltws (vultus). -6. The letters.d and t are sometimes interchanged; thus haut (haud), set (sed), adque (atque), aput (apud). - 7. C in place of qu before u; as ecus (equus). -A few other peculiarities are noticed an they occur. PREFACE. ARGUM ENT.-Whether the success of my work will justify my labor in its preparation, I know not; but it is a pleasing task to seek to perpetuate the-fame of the foremost people in the world, and;if I Lm outshone by other writers, I shall console myself by the brilliancy of 229

Page  230 230 NOTE-S. their renown. It is a difficult undertaking to trace back the annals of our city for more than seven hundred years, and most readers will turn more readily from the story of those early d;tys to the exciting incidents of our recent civil strife. For me, however, the withdrawal of my thoughts from our present evils is a part of my reward. The mythical stories with which the origin of Rome has been invested, I neither accept nor deny. If any people-be allowed to claim the god of war as their founder, it should be the Romans. But I would call attention to the ways of life, the men, the manners, and the institutions, by which our empire was built up; and to the sad effects of declining discipline and increasing luxury, until we have come to times when we can neither bear our vices nor their remedies. This is the important lesson of history, teaching us by examples what we should pursue, and what we should avoid. If I am not mistaken, no state was ever richer than ours in good examples, nor ever retained longer the frugality and the purity of its best days. Though luxury of late has made fearful inroads, I would begin without ill-omened lamentation, and with prayers for a successful issue of my work. Page 13 1. Facturusne.. sim, Whether I shall do anything worth the while. A dependent interrogative clause ("indirect question"), following scio. The first four words can be scanned as the beginning of a dactylic hexameter verse, - an arrangement generally avoided in prose. But Tacitus begins his Annals with a complete hexameter: Urbem Romam a principio reges habuere. — 1, 2. Si persoripserim, if I shall write, or, in the ordinary English idiom, If I write. Perfect subjunctive, in a subordinate proposition, representing a subjunctive future-perfect. M. 379.-2. Res, the history. -3. Nec, si sciam, dicere ausim, noIr, f Iwere to know, should Iventure to tell. Notice, both' in thie protasis and the' apodosis, the lively use of primary tenses of -the subjunctive, where we might have expected the imperfect, as the condition is contrary to the fact just stated (neo scio). W-ith rhetorical vivacity (and Livy was nothing if not a lively rhetorician), this knowledge is spoken of'as something that may still be gained: almost as if- we were to say (in English) nor if f shall'know, shall I ven-' tuie, ete. See M. 347, b, and Obs. 1; H. 504, 1; A. - S. 261, 2., I Rein 3.- B. i265, 1266; A; 59, IV;-1;. 381, 382. — Quipope qai

Page  231 PREFACE. 231 Page videam, certainly [not], for I see. Quippe adds emphasis to the 13 assigning of the reason of the principal proposition by the relative clause. - 3, 4. Cum - tumrn, both - and. - 4. Rem, i. e. this expectation (of doing something worth one's pains). - Dum, inasmuch as. The idea of contemporaneous time (while), which dam conveys, passes into that of cause. -5. In rebus, in the facts, in the matter (stated). —7. Utcumque erit, however it shall be, i. e. whatever my success. - Juvabit, sc. me (ipsum consuluisse). The omission of me, however, leaves the statement general.- 8. Memoriae, dative after consuluisse. - Pro virili parte, i. e. whatt iul me lies.- 10, 11 Sit, consoler. Translate these present subjunctives with shall; - shall be, I shall console myself. —Nobilitate, with the renown..-11. Res, my subject. "In this sentence there is a sort of confusion between the history" (quae - repetatur) " and the subject of. the history, i. e. the Roman Empire " (qlae - creverit, etc.). S. - Est with the genitive (inmensi operis), demands. - 12. Et, both. The corresponding and follows at the beginning of line 15. - Ut quae, as one which. Ut strengthens the relative clause with the subjunctive assigning the reason.- Septingentensimum annum from the founding of the city. Livy wrote this Preface sometime in the years 27-25 B. C. The traditional date of the founding of Rome is B. C. 753. - 14.- Jam laboret, begins to be overburdened. S. -17. Nova, sc. tenmpora. The time of the civil wars. Haeo is properly used here of times present or near to the historian. - Quibus, in which. - 17, 18. " Jam pridem. To be taken with conficiunt. He considers the whole period of the civil war, that is, from the passage of the Rubicon (B. C. 49) to the battle of Actium (B. C. 31), together." S. - 19. Contra, here adverb, not preposition. - 21. Illa tota, Hz., following the MSS., reads tota illa; but Mg., as had the older editors generally, sees that the sense requires the reverse order. 2. Posset. Mg. reads possit. I follow the MSS. instead of his 14 emendation, considering posset as the apodosis of an implied supposition contrary to fact, such as si intercederet. That the implied supposition is contrary to the fact, is shown by the words omnis erper-s crle. - 3. Ante conditam condendamve urbem, before the city was founded or intended to befounded; or, before the foiusdig..of the city or the design of jts foundisg. The translation- given In Madfig's G-ramaa r -(414; b, Qba.) aspd abdopted. b

Page  232 232.:.N- OT E. Page 14 Seeley, " before the city was built or in building," seems inadequate. See Niigelsbach, Stilistik, 31. - 4; Decora, suited for, followed by the datives fabulis and monumentis. -5. Adfirmare -affirmare. —8. Cui, any. Indefinite pronoun. —9. Ad deos referre. auctores, to trace it (their early history, origines suas) back'to the gods as their; foutnders. Auctores is appositive to deos. -10. Potissimum, in preference to all others. - 14. Haeo et his similia, these and similar stories. Z. - 15. Haut - hand. Construed with magno. -16. Ad illa, to this other point. S. - Mihi, ethical dative, showing the interest the author feels in the advice he is about to give. - Intendat, subjunctive of exhortation, advice. -17. Vita, mores, se. Romanorum. - 19. Discipli-na, the tone of morality. S. -20. Desidentis = desidentes.: Accusative plural..H. 88, III. 1; A.-& S. 85, Exc. 1.; B. 114; A. 1i, 2; G. p. 22, Obs, 1. - 19-22. Labente —praecipites, then let him fiollow in his 1incl the public-morals (mores), as the tone-of-morality by. degrees. declines, at jist so-to-say wavering, next how. they more and. more -gave way (or inclined to theirfall), theta began to tumble headlong. Ut -praecipites is an objective-. clause, following sequatur animo.- 23. Remedia, etc. Probably, as S. suggests, an allusion, to the opposition offered to the. reforming measures of Augustus, particularly to his laws discouraging celibacy. See Merivale, Hist. vol. iv., pp. 36 sqq., Am. ed. - 24. Hoo illud est, this is that (which is) praecipue salubre, etc. -25, 26. Omnis - intueri, that you should behold ilstructiveinstances (documenta) of every " way-of-acting" (.S.) placed in -a co0nspicuous memorial (or record). Monumentum is:anything that preserves the remembrance of a person or thing; here history. To "with the infinitive to denote an indefinite and assunmed individual subject," like our indefinite-pronoun one. So tibi anU tuae. M. 370, Obs. 2.-27. Capias. Potential subjunctive; or, if one prefer so to take it, subjunctive of permission. Its connection both with quod imitere and with quod vites is an instance of zeugma; with. the first it means to choose or adopt, with the second to understand, to learn. —27 28.. Imitere, vites. Subjunctive of propriety, fitness, duty.x15 2. Major, greater (than Rome). - 3. Nec in quam civitatem Nec civitas (ullh umquam fuit) in quam. Attraction of the antecedent into the relative blause. - 4.. Serae. Livy often uses gdjeQtivps whoerQ -srler.writer3 use adverbs. - 4, 6.,Inmigra4

Page  233 PR.EFAGJE. 233' Page verint, fuerit. Subjunctives in- relative clauses after the gen- 15 eral negative assertion, that there is'no (other) state to which the assertions in these relative clauses apply. M. 365. - 5. What ~ is the difference of meaning between paupertas and parsimoniaj and the English words poleerty and parsimoy? - 6. Adeo, so trute is it that. - Quanto, tanto, ablatives of the measure of the difference. - Nuper. Livy (Book xxxix. 6,) speaks of the army. of Cn. Manlius:Volso returning from Asia, B. C. 187, as first introducing foreign luxury into Rome; but adds vix tamed illa, qulae turnt conspiciebaintur, sern ia erant futurae luxuriae. Sallust (Cat. 11, 12,) places the beginning of the greatest corruption and luxury at the time of Sulla. Fr. - 8. Luxum.." Luxuria (4) is.. the disposition to excessive indulgence; luxus, the excessive indulgence itself."-.8, 9. Desiderium pereundi, the eager desire of ruining themselves. - An oxymoron, expressing emphatically the eager pursuit of pleasures which they know will inevitably destroy them. -10. Forsitan, limiting simply the adjective necessariae, has:no influence on the mood of the verb. —11. Initio ordiendae. -A pleonasm common inLivy with verbs of beginning. -12. Potius contrasts -bonis ominibus.with querellae (querelae) which: are. of ill omen. - Que et connect votis and precationibus closely together as appositives in common to boais ominibus. - 13. Poetis. The ancient epic poets, as is well known, begin with in-.. vocations to the:.gods or muses. -Nobis, i. e. -historians. -14, Tantum is the reading of the best MSS., adopted by Mg. andHLz.- Weissenborn, after other. MSS., reads tanti, thus making orsis a noun instead of~ a- participle, as in our reading. BOOK FIRST. I.-III. INTIIODCTION. - I. After the taking of Troy (Mythical date, B. C. 1184), two Trojans, Antenor and Aen6as, come into Italy. Founding of Lavinium. II. Wars of the Latins with the Rutulians and Etruscans. III. Ascanius founds Alba Longa, (Mythical date, B. C. 1053). Reign of the Silvii. Page.I, 1, 2. Troja - Trojanos, that, on the taking of Toy, the 1rest.:17 of the Trojans were massacred. Saevitum esse, a passive imper-. sinal.; literally, rage was v-ented, crueltyi waa sed, (:in) upon the:

Page  234 234 NOTES. -Page 17 rest, etc. -Duobus, dative of advantage, in favor of two. This dative is more elegant than the simple ablative of separation would have been. Livy also uses absti.ere sometimes with an accusative and ablative without a preposition, sometimes with an accusative and ablative with a. - 3. Jure, ablative of cause. - Vetusti hospitii. Antenor entertained Ulyjsses and Menelaus when they came on an embassy to Troy to demand the restoration of Helen. (Iliad iii. 207.) Antenor advised the return of HIelen, (Iliad vii. 350 sq.). " Nothing of the kind," (says Seeley,) "is said about Aeneas in Homer, but in II. ii. 822 he is very closely connected with Antenor." Wsb. cites II. xx. 298 and xiii. 460; and remarks that Livy's birthplace, Patavium, is connected with Troy by the legends of Antenor (Tac. Ann. 16, 21), as is Rome, the city of his nationality, by those of Aeneas. — 4. Fuerunt. So the best MSS., and Wsb., IIz., Fr. - Cr., D.-Kr., Z., Mg., S. read futeraat. The perfect is aoristic, and states the fact simply, without reference to the time of abstinuisse. -4, 5. Omne - abstinuisse, refrained from the exercise of crny of the rights of war. The jns belli authorized the murder, mutilation, or sale into slavery, of all captives. - Casibus deinde variis, their fortunes diverying fi on this point. S. -6. Antenorem, subject - accusative of venisse, the ace. and inf. following constat. - Enetum EJnetorumn. - 7. Pylaemenes, king of the Eneti, a people of Paphlagonia, fought on the side of the Trojans, and was slain by Menelaus. Iliad v. 576 sqq. - 8, 9. Venisse, etc. Cf. Verg. Aen. i. 242-249. -11. Et, and in fact. Frey. gives another example of this corroborative force of et from Livy vi. 11, 9. Madvig- substitutes here ei; but there is a certain want of ease in the reading thus changed, nor is there need of an emendation. - In quem locum - locus, in quem. Attraction of the antecedent into the relative'clause. - 12. Trojano. Predicate, attracted into the case of pago, according to the common usage with names. The name of a district is T'-ojan. - 13. Gens appellati. Livy, unlike Cicero, frequently connects collective nouns in the singular with a predicate in the plural. — Ab, in consequence of, after. - 13-15. Aeneam venisse. This accusative-and-infinitive, also, depends on constat (line 1). Vergil was writing his len6id at the same time as Livy was writing his first decad (B. C. 27-20). 14. Ad majora rerum initia. An hypallage (of which Livy is fond) for ad majorum rerum initia, to tdhe ftslnding of a Vretqr state.-.. J.- F. G.

Page  235 BOOK I, CHAP I. 235 Page emends: mnjorum; —but unnecessarily. Cf. c. ix,: iolati hospitii 17 foeds; —15, 16. In Macedoniam....in Siciliam. That is, first to Aenea, on the bay of Salonichi, then to Eryx (possibly) and to Segesta. - 16. Delatum (esse). - 17. Tenuisse, so. cursuml. It would have been a more common construction to have said Laureten agr'um tenunisse without the preposition. - Troja. The unusualness of the nominative case, as well as the position of the word, makes T7'ioja emphatic. Madvig unnecessarily changes the case and reads Trojae. -18-20. Ut quibus - superesset, inasmuch as nothing taes left them, etc. This relative clause, expressing the reason of the fact stated in the proposition Curn Trojani, ibi egressi, praedam ex agris agerent, is strengthened by ut. H. 519; 519, 3, 1); A. & S. 264, 8, (1.) and (2.); B. 1253; A. 63, II.; G. 427. - 19. Inmenso prope errore. " Immensus is* literally iJfiite, not, like the English'immense,' merely'very large;' it therefore requires prope. Cf. Milton's'Of amplitude almost immense."' (An excellent note of. Seeley's). — 21. Tum. Still more anciently, the Sicili were said to have inhabited the country. - 21, 22. Ad arcendam vim. Ad with the accusative of the gerundive denoting the purpose. - 24. Inde, fr)o,) that poit. -Alii, etc. This first story is the one which Vergil follows. 1. Alii. sc. tradunt. —4, 10. Percunctatum and admiratum 18 are participles, (not peirfect-infinitives,) and agree with emln understood, the subject of sanxisse (line 12). -4. Qui mortales essent, etc. Cf. Verg. Aen. i. 369 sq.: Sed vos qli tandem, quibus anut venistis ab oris, Quove tenetis iter? 5, 6. Unde - exissent. Three questions are compressed into this clause: ulnde (venissent), quo cast profecti (e8sent) dono, and quid qulerentes in agrumn Laurentem- exissent. As in the passage from Vergil above cited, the disjunctives aut and ve are used, where we should use the copulative conjunction and. -Essent, exissent. Subjunctives in dependent (or indirect) questions. — 6. Postquam audierit. Subjunctive in a subordinate clause in oratio obliqua, where in direct discourse the indicative would have been used. The perfect tense is used a fter postquam where we should expect the pluperfect. -8. remata patria... Abln.tive absolute of both time and cause. —9. Condendae urbis locum. P and Mg. read urbi. The genitive expresses more close, intimate, and definite relations than

Page  236 236 NOT E S. Page 18 the dative. Our reading means the sitefor the city which (according to thedecrees of the fates) was to be built;' condendae urbi locus' would mean a site for building a city. Aeneas and his. followers had several times. already sought the destined site in other lands. -10, 11. Vel bello vel paci, whetIher for peace or war. Vel - vel ('please you,' from oslo), in distinctions, imply indifference as to which is chosen: equally for peace and war. -11. Dextra data, by gicing his right hand. —12, 13. Ietum (esse), factam (esse). The accusatives-and-infinitives in lines 12-15 depend upon tradunt supplied with alii in line 1. — 12. What is the origin of the expressions, icere foedus, ferire foedus? (See Lexicons under ferio and ico). — 14. Penates deos. The Penates were the,good guardian deities of the house. The hearth was sacred to them, as the centre of the house and family. -15. Publico, sc. foederi. -Aeuaae, dative.-17. Adfirmatsaffirmat. -Spem finiendi erroris. -18. Lavinium was the seat of the Lares and the religious centre of the Latin confederation. For, like the family, every state and every city had its Lares and Penates. Even in later times, the Roman consuls and praetors were obliged to sacrifice to Vesta and the P.enates at Lavinium on their entrance to office and on their abdication. Frey. — 19. Brevi, in a short time. - Stirps. M, P, Es B, all have stirpis; which form of the nominative was probably used by Livy in this passage and in xxvi. 13. - 20. Ascanium, accusative in apposition to nomen. II. 22. Turnus, " a Latin form of the G0reek word Tv~nv6S, an Etruscan." The legendary war of Turnus and the Latins may represent the successful rising of the Latins against the Etruscans, who in prehistoric times had extended their dominion from Etruria southward as far as Vesuvius. -28. Rebus, their own strength; their prospects, their cause. - Florentes, renowned, brilliant, celebrated. See Nag. p. 361.-29. Caere, locative ablative. From the-omission of the preposition in before opulento oppido, and from the fact that imperitans naturally takes a dative, Seeley infers that Caere is here the dative, although he grants that this form does not occur elsewhere in that case. But there are other instances in good authors of the omission of the preposition before oppido after such locatives; and such omissions are among Livy's characteristic deviations from ordinary rus. —- 31. Nimio, ablative of measure with the comparative plus, very mtch more. Literally, tiore by too much: a free- olloquiial expression.-85. Neo: —:et

Page  237 BOOK 1i CHAP. II, III. 237 Page.:te; with the- subjunctive, denoting a negative purpose. -36. 18 Etiam (sub eodem) nomine. -37.. Nec. - Corroborative, (like et on page 17 line 11); and it fact.. not.-Deinde, from that-time forth. — 38. Studio ac fide. Ablative of specification or respect in which. - 39. Que (after fretus) may be translated And 80o then or Acnd so; ("the result was that."). - In dies- every day. 1. Opibus. Abl. of the respect in which. -4. Cum, although. -19 5. Moenibus. Instrumental ablative. -6. Secundum, favorable. -7. Hze situs est, is a common inscription on Roman gravestones. -8. In religious ceremonies, the priests were accustomed to-add, after calling the- name of the god, sive quo alo nomine fes8 est appellare. Cf. Horace's Ma[tutine pater seu Jane libentiins audis. Here, moreover, there is an evident impropriety in applying the human name Aeneas to the'tutelary deity.- Super, ons; on the banks of. - Notice the quantity, Numicus. -9. Jovem Indigetem. Jupiter is here used, not as the sovereign of the Ol01n. pians but as Divus Patter. According to Dionysius (i. 64),'the inscription:on the heroum of Aeneas was IIaripc e0oV X5oviou ae 7roru!ov NostlKiOv'eDca 6wire in which the first three words are equivalent to Divi Patris IiJdiyetis. Indiges is derived from indu ( in) and the root gen. *The Indigetes were the legendary heroes, who, after their death, were regarded as the tutelary genii or patron deities of their native land. "The only well-known eultus of the, kind is that of the Pater or De'us Indiges) called also Jtlajpiter Indiges on-the Numicius (or Numicus), who was subsequently identified with Aeneas." III. 12. Tutela muliebri, by the protection (or under the guardianship) of a woman. - 15. Quis adfirmet (affirmet). Sub. junetive of possibility or propriety, in a question of appeal. — Certo. An adjective in the neuter gender used substantively, - as often in -Livy after prepositions. - 15-18.- Hicine - eundem, whether it was thi8s. Asecanius, or anE elder (major sc. natu) than he, born of Grert8a (.s his mother, when Troy was unharmed, and the companion of his father's flight (thence, i. e.) from that city, whoom (as called) also Ifilus the Julian gens, etc. Eundem, M. 488; Z. 127, 697; H. 451, 3; A. & S. 207, Rem. 27 (a); B. 1034; G. 97.While Livy does not answer the question, his narrative assumes that the founder of Alba Longa was -Lavinia's son. - 21. Lavini (Lavinii), locative genitive. - Multitudine. The- regular'Latin for population. S. -24, 25. Longa Alba. The regular order of the two words is inverted to make longa emphatic.

Page  238 23:8 NOTES. Page 19 26. Laviniurm, sc. conditum, (the founding of) Lavinium.Albam Longam. Terminal accusative. —28. Opes, sc. Latinorum. - Morte, on, the death. Ablative of date. "Some words which do not in themselves denote time, but an event, are used in the ablative without a preposition to intimate the tinme when a thing takes place;" e. g. adventlt (Cesaris, occist so8lis. M. 276, Obs. 2.- 29. Inter, during. - 29, 30. Muliebrem, puerilis. Adjectives are often used where, in accordance with our English idiom, we should expect the genitive of the corresponding noun: mnUlieris, pueri. - 31, 32. Ansi sint. Subjunctive of result with unt, following Tantum creverant. The perfect subjunctive here (as distinguished from the imperfect, which is ordinarily found when the leading proposition belongs to past time,) makes the statement emphatically and distinctly, as not confined to the immediate time of the principal verb: they dared oss no one single.:occasion. See M. 332, Obs. 1, (Obs. 3, Am. ed.); G. 304; Haase's Reisig's Vorlesungen,. 480, pp. 550 sq.; Fabri on Livy xxi. 2, 6. -35. sqq. This list of the Alban kings is undoubtedly mythical. The older traditions represented Romulus as the grandson of Aeneas; but later investigators saw that the supposed time of the destruction of Troy was separated from that of the building of Rome by 432 years, (according to Cato and Dionysius: Vergil (Aen. i. 265-274) and Livy make it 3 + 30 + 300 to the birth of Romulus and Remus): these kings were inserted to fill the gap. The names of Ascanius and Capys are taken from the Trojan legends; other names are eponyms of the great Roman houses or gentes, and some are geographical eponyms. - 38. Silviis cognomen, the name Silvius. Silviis is dative by attraction to omnibus. Cognomen here nomeun; for Silvius was the gentile. name, and not the "cognmnen " in its proper sense. 20 3 Ad posteros, doo,,w to posterity.. Z. The preposition denotes tendency, direction. -6. Sepultus, "in other words, worshipped, as above" (page 19 line 7 sq.).-7. Romanae is emphatic, because Aventinus is king of Alba, not of Rome. S. - 8. Livy prefers the Latin'form Proca to the Greek Procas. -10. Maximus (natu), eldest. -12. Verecundia aetatis, respect finr (superior) -age.14. Filiae, a dative of reference, in the special form of disadvantage, with spem - adimit: more delicate and significant than the simple ablative of separation, —like which, however, we are sometimes obliged to translate it. - Reae Silviae. Silvia is. her

Page  239 BOOK I, CHAP. III, IV. 239 Page gentile name. Rean voti'sea (Cf. Verg. Aen. v. 237), i. e. the 20 consecrated, the Vestal. (Preller.) IV.-VII., ~ 3. The Founding of Rome. IV. The daughter of Numitor becomes the mother of Romulus and Remus. Exposure of the twins by order of Amulius; their deliverance and education. V. Murder of Amulius. VI. - VII., 3. Founding of Rome (Mythical date, B. C. 753). Strife of the Brothers. IV. 17. Debebatur, etc. "The world had to thank the fates for" tantae origo urbis, etc. Z. —18. Secundum, ufter, next after. -23. Regia = regis. Cf. muliebrem, puleilis, chap. iii. -. 25. Jubet, sc. Xrex, implied in regia. - 26. Forte quadam divinitus, by soame providettial chance, ziEq Tv rTeXp. The adverb divinitus, as Seeley remarks, is used in Livy's manner with the noun, as " nullo publice emolumento," vi. 39. " It is the opposite of' forte ternere,''by mere haphazard."' Gruter's and Merula's defence of their conjecture, an divinitus, was well answered by J. F. Gronovius, and Madvig's argument for the same conjecture by. Seeley. - 26-29. Tiberis - dabat. There is a little confusion here of two subjects: Tiberis as subject of nee adiri poterat, and Tiberis effusus as subject of spem dabat: the Tiber, having overflowed its banks, was not accessible at its regular channel: and the overflow of the Tiber gave hope that the outlying water wa~ deep enough for the purpose required. Effusus, with the first verb, is simply a circumstantial participle denoting the cause; with dabat it forms an actual part of the subject, being used like a verbal noun. Yet its closer connection with the noun in the second clause than in the first is easier in the Latin than in English translation, and the carelessness of construction is not unnatural. - Lenibus stagnis. Ablative of mode or way. - Nec - et, while not-... yet. —Amnis, genitive. —Justi cursum' amnis. Hypallage for juattuin cursum amni.i. - 30. In proxima eluvie, "at the nearest poilnt of the overflow."- Picus Ruminalis. The Ruminal fig-tree stood on the west slope of the Palatine near the Lupercal grotto. It was probably sacred to Rumina, the goddess of suckling, whose name is derived from ruma, the breast. The derivation of the name from Romulus is a falser conjecture of later antiquarians. - 32. Vastae, wild. - His locis, i. e. the region between the Palatine, Capitoline, and Aventine.- 33. Quo. Instrumental ablative; although in Eng

Page  240 240 NOTES. Page 20 lish we say in wshich. See Gildersleeve's excellent rule, ~ 186.37. Lambentem, sc. earn. —38. Faustulo. Dative by attraction to the case of the pronoun ei understood, which limits nomen fuisse. "Faustulus, who takes the children from the wolf, is none other than Faunus himself, whose name appears as Faunus, Faustus, or Faustulus." S. The word is derived from fav-eo and the root tIl in te-tul i, as in opi-tul-ari, and means the helpbringer, the bringer of blessings, the rescuer. (Wsb.) 21 1. (Eos) datos (esse). —1, 2. Qui putent. A relative clause defining or characterizing the indefinite general subject of the verb unt.- Vulgato corpore. Ablative absolute of the cause. This rationalizing interpretation of the myth proceeds on an entire misunderstanding of its origin. Larentia is the legendary Acen Larentia, which means the mother of the Lares, who, under the name of Luperca or Lupa, nursed Picus and Faunus, the guardian Lares of the Roman state considered as a family..(Wsb.) The same legend was applied to Romulus and Remus, themselves the Lares or "original ancestors and divine guardians" of the Roman state. - 5. Nec segnes, etc., while not slack to work, they delighted especially in hunting. See Nag. # 84, 2. -- 6-10. Peragrare, subsistere, facere, celebrare. Historical infinitive. This infinitive " takes the place of the imperfect, and gives the outline of the thought and not the details." Gildersleeve, 438, Rem. - Jam subsistere. Jam marks the beginning of an action.'They began not to confine themselves to lying in wait for wild beasts.' S. Subsistere is here transitive. - Sed (after non tantum) = sed etiam. - 10. Seria, i. e. conflicts with robbers, and the like; jocos, sports, like those described in the next chapter. V. 11. In bracketing monte, I follow Madvig, who says that the words Palatium amons are not found united as appositives, and that monte was brought up here from Palatium montem (line 13). - Lupercal. This is the name, first; of a cave (near the Ruminal fig-tree), which was the sanctuary of Lupercus, a name of Fannus as keeping the wolves from the flock (lupus, arceo), then (as here) of the Lupercalia, a shepherd's festival held on the 15th of February. -Hoc, the present, of our day, this our festival. Hic denotes that which is near in place, time, or thought. -14. Ex eo genere, so. oriundus: sprung from that tribe'of Arcadians who dwelt at PallantEum. —15. Tenmpestatibus, ages. Temrn

Page  241 BOOK I, CHAP. V, VI. 241, Page: pestas is an archaic word for tempus, and appropriately used 21 here of those old prehistoric ages. -Tenuerit. Subjunctive in a subordinate relative clause in oratio obliqua. - 16, 17. The substantive clause ut currerent is appositive to sollemne. - Quem, i. e. Pana. - 20 sq. Construction: Latrones,... insidiatos (iis) huic ludicro deditis,... Remum cepisse. - 22. Ultro, implldently. From its original local meaning, ultro derives the signification "beyond what one might have expected," and is hence used of any gratuitous or extravagant action. - 23. Impetum. Frey suggests that perhaps we ought to have the reading impetus, - 29. Quo.. sustulisset. This relative clause, defining the subject of the sentence tempus... congruere, which has its verb in the infinitive, is an essential, constituent part of the proposition, and accordingly has its verb in the subjunctive, the mood of such conjoined clauses. The principle is the same as in Oratio Obliqua, Hi. 527, 3; A. & S. 266; B. 1291, 1292; A. 66, I.; G. 424. -30. Ad id ipsum congruere, corresponded exactly /with that.(time); i. e. with the time when the children were exposed. -33. Et, also, - Numitori. This is a frequent and elegant use of the dative, limiting not a single word alone (as animum), but the whole sentenee, - all that follows being referred to Numitor, as of interest to him. The translation in Numitor's case or in Numitor's.turnr expresses the idea in part; but it is almost impossible to do full justice to the delicate construction in English. Translate animum, (his) mind. This dative is a dative of reference, with the collateral idea of interest, and often of advantage or disadvantage. See my notes on Vergil's Aeneid i. 92 and 102. - 37 Eodem, to the same point,'to the same result (as Faustulus).-' Haut -= haud. - Esset is impersonal. 1. Juvenes is often used for wa?rriors, soldiers, from its denoting 22 persons of military age. Yet we should generally retain the lively translation youths or young men, understanding however that the term includes what we call middle-aged men as well as youths. -2. Aliis pastoribus alio itinere, some by one way, some by another. - 3. Ad regem. So ad hostem ire or dulcere; incursu ad navem; Prisc. 14, 21: ad illunm mini pugna est. But in is more usual. Wsb. - 4. Construction: eomparata a domo, VI. 6-13. Numitor - ostendit. An admirable example of a skilfully constructed periodic sentence. The position of the subject acd.the leading verb at the beginning' and the end, tie 16- Livy.

Page  242 ~242 NOT ES. Page 22 variety of verb-constructions referred to the subject (dictitans I cum avocasset I postquam vidit- I advocato consilio I ostendit) and with a subordinate subject (perpetrata caedel pergere- I gratulantes), and the recurrence of similar successions of words (cum pubem Albanam... obtinendam avocasset I postquam juvenes... gratulantes vidit i scelus... fratris I originem nepotum I ut. I ut. I ut.. ), are noteworthy. -6. Hostis. Accusative plural. -8. In arcem obtinendam, into the citadel, to hold it, etc. On the pretence that the palace is already attacked, Numitor calls the troops away (avocasset) from the palace to the citadel as the most important point to be defended Ad arcem obtinendam would have been used if the meaning had been simply to hold the citadel. - Praesidio armisque =praesidio arnmato. Hendiadys. -11-12. Ut is here interrogative, and hence takes the subjunctive of indirect question. -14. Agmine. Ablative of mode. —19. Et, and (in fact); as in chap. i. Et in quem, etc. - Supererat, was excessive, was too great for their towns. - 20. Pastores. Cf. Cic. Orat. i. 9, 37: Romuluspastores et convenas congregavit. Liv. ii. 1, 4: illa pastorum convenarumque plebs. - 21, Qui, (with the subjunctive facerent denoting the result,) so that they. - Omnes, all (together). - 26, 27. Essent and posset give the reason as conceived by the twins themselves: hence the subjunctive. —27. Tutelae. This possessive genitive in the predicate after essent, mnay be translated under whose protection. - 28. Qui = uter. So chap. 24: cujus populi. There is a careless ease in saying who instead of saying, precisely, which of the twco. - Daret, shoutld give, was to give. The subjunctive in this indirect question corresponds to the future indicative in direct discourse. " In dependent questions" (says Madvig, 356, Obs. 2), " about a thing which is to happen" [pres. subj., or was to happen, imperf. subj.], "the notion is to " [or was to] "' is frequently not expressed by a separate word," but is implied (he might have added) in the mood itself. The idea is not that of futurity simply, but of propriety as well: who was the one to give. - 30. See Lexicon for the meaning of templum in the language of augury. VII. 34. Tempore praecepto, from the precedence in time. - 35. Trahebant, so. ad se, claimed.- 36. Certamine irarum, in their passionate contest. The force of this genitive is best given by an adjective. The plural of abstract nouns occurs in Latin much more frequently than in English. M. 50, Obs. 3; G. 3, Rem. 5. - Ibi, thereupon.

Page  243 BOOK I, CHAP. VII. 243 Page 1.; Sic deinde, sc. pereat, or, more generally, so80 may'he fare; 23 The sanctity of city walls was strenuously asserted' in the Roman law. That kinship was no bar to the infliction of' penalty, Frey illustrates by the cases of Brutus and Manlius Torquatus. -3, 4.' Condita - appellata. So the myth; but in truth the name Romulus is probably derived from Roma, in accordance with the ancient fashion of devising eponymous heroes. VII. Q 3 -XVI. Romulus, first King. (Mythical date of his reign B. C. 753-717.) VII. Religious Institutions. Episode of Hercules and Evander. VIII. Political Institutions. Formation of the Senate. IX.-XIII. Rape of the Sabine women. Union of the Romans and Sabines. Division; of the people into curiae. XIV.-XV.. 5.- Death of T. Tatius. War with Fidenae and Veii. ~ XV. ~.. 5-XVI. End of the life of Romulus (B., C. 717.), and his Deification. 5. The fortification of the Palatine, Schwegler remarks, was easy on account of its'isolated situation, and might well consist chiefly in- cutting off perpendicularly the si4es of'the' hill. -6.'Aliis here' like ceteris, the other. - Graeco. The ritual in the worship of-Hercuiles was, Greek throughout. Graeco ritsu sacrifices' were offered with. the priest's head bare, Ronano ritu with the head' covered. Cf. Verg. Aen. iii. 405 sqq. -8. Hercules came from Hesperia (Spain) with the cattle of the giant Geryon, who reigned at Erythea near Gadcs (the modern Cadiz). - Mira specie. The well-known ablative of -quality, characteristic, or description. H. 428; A.' & S. 211, Rem. 6; B. 888; A. 54, II.; G. 198. - 11. Laetiore, richer, more abundant; yet with the original idea of glad, here actively, making glad. This reading is adopted by Hertz, from the fragmentum Havercampiannml (Drak.), a MS. of good authority; the Medicean reads laetiores efficeret. " Editors generally laeto. - 13. Sopor (as distinguished Srom "somnus"), a deep, heavy sleep. - 13-19. Notice the periodic structure: pastor - traxit. -14. The robber Cacus lived in a cave on the Aventine over the -Tiber. "Cacus is I Caecus,' and represents a-power of darkness." —Ferox viribus, confiding in his sttrength. S. Viribus is abl. of cause. -15. Eam praedam, themt as booty. The pronoun attracted to the following explanatory substantive. Fr. - 17. Deductura erant. Although in the apo'dosis of a past condition not fulfilled (si — compulisset), we have the indicative erat with the future active participle to denote what must-have happened, was actually ready to happen, if the condition had happened.

Page  244 244.- NOT ES, Page 23See M. 348, a. - Aversos, backwards. Perhaps Madvig's suggestion should be adopted, and the text emended so as to read: aversas boves, eximiam quamque. Cf. relictarum, line 27. - Eximium — pulchritudine, all those conspicuous for their beauty. Quisque with the adjective limits and particularizes the unlimited whole (boves) to which it is appositive. - 23. Foras. The accusative form of this adverb denotes direction, tendency, answering the question whither. The ablative foris denotes the place where. -25. Animi. M. (296, b, Obs. 3) regards this as a locative genitive, in mind. It is more generally taken as a genitive of specification, or of the respect in which, after adjectives denoting an affection of the mind. - 26. Ut fit, as is natural, as usually happens in such cases. - 30. Fidem, the protection. -32. Evaader. Faunus (the favorable or propitious deity) was worshipped at the cave called the Lupercal, "the original germ of Rome." When the Romans began to resolve their gods into heroes, the name of Faunus "had to be explained as meaning the good or benevolent man. Hence, perhaps, the name of Evander," (Ti &alvp,) as that of the original settler on the Palatine. S. and Pr.- 34. Litterarum, i. e. written characters. Having once acquired a Greek wanderer settled in Rome, the Romans might naturally refer to him anything in their.institutions which appeared borrowed from the Greeks. The alphabet actually did come to the Latins frbm Greece. S. - 35. Carmenta, (from ca.sere (canere), whence also, -Carmeuae,' Camenae, carmnen,) a nymph of song and of prophecy, - the helpful mother and fate-singing companion of Evander (the historic Faunus), and a goddess of birth. Some even made her the wife (and not the mother) of Evander, placing her by him exactly as Fauna by Faunus. - 36. Sibyllae. The Cumean Sibyl. —38. Trepidantium, hurrying in alarm. This verb implies agitated motion, as in chapters xii. and xiv.: trepidante equo, trepidante equitatu. 24 1. Habitum, the bearing. —2. Aliquantum. This adverbial accusative, instead of the ablative aliquxnto, is found in poets and later prose writers. - 3. Rogitat. Frequentatives occur very often in Livy's first decad, more seldom afterwards. Fr. - Qui. Notice thde interrogative adjective pronoun. -4. Jove nate. Rule for the ablative? What part of speech is nate 1 -5. Interpires deem, one speaking for or in the name of. the gods. It answers to rpooqrqs and 6rosfrVr. Seeley.- Dem;. - Livy often

Page  245 BOOK I, CHA'P. VII, VIII. "245 Page uses the contracted form of the genitive plural in the second de- 24 clension. - 6. Cecinit, foretold. - 8. Vooet, colat. The future meaning, so often characteristic of the subjunctive, appears in these verbs. - Tuo ritu. Either "in accordance with the ritual established by thee," i. e. the Greek rite (Fr.); or "with a rite peculiar to thee" (S.). —9. Accoipere omen. Pliny (xxviii. 2, 4) says: " Omens and potens are in the power of men, and have power according as they are in each instance received." It was believed that one was able omina improbare as well as accipere. An important principle: "for man is man, and master of his fate." —Fata (from fatri), the predictions, the prophecy. -10. Ara - dicata, by building and dedicating the altar. - Ibi, on this occasion. - 16. Ceteram dapem, the rest of the feast, i. e. thesacrificial banquet, to which the eating the exta by the priests and attendants was preliminary.- 17. The name Pinarius is connected with this prohibition to eat of the sacrifice. Hercules is said to have pronounced the sentence igr 3 c 7recudaEre. (Servius ad Aen. v. 269..) Seeley. - 22. Peregrina, i. e. not derived from Alba. VIII. 28, 29. Ita- si, (only) in this way, —if. The two words may be translated together, in the second clause, only on the condition that. " Only " is frequently not expressed in Latin, especially with ita and sic. -31. Alii, sonme, is here followed by eorum (and not aliorusm), as a definite pronoun is needed. - 33. Secutum (esse), etc., that (Ae) adopted that number from the number of the birds, etc. - 33, 35. Me - esse, I am content (or I am not disinclined) to be of the opinion of those, etc. - Hoc genus -h4juls generis. Accusative of specification. M. 238. I adopt, with Madrig, the emendation of James Gronovius (son of the great John Frederic) in omitting et before these words, and Hermann's emendation in inserting et before numerum in line 36. -Etruscis. It is probable that Roman antiquarians attached too great importance to the influence of Etruria upon Rome in her first years: " it can be shown that many institutions which they derive from Etruria were common to all the Italians." -37. Ductum (esse). Predicate verb of apparitores as well as numerum. - 38. Communiter creato rege. Ablative absolute of time: wohen a king was appointed in conmmon. Each of the twelve states of Etruria had its own king or Lucumo, but in times of danger, a supreme king was chosen to unite the forces of the country for war, If there had beon only one king always, we should havte

Page  246 246 - NOTES. Page 24 had here the dative regi instead of rege. - 39. Dederint. Subjunctive in indirect narration. 25 2. Adpetendo = appetendo. - In spem, with reference to their hope. - 3. Ad id - erat, il accordance with that number of inhabitants which they then had. —5. Adliciendae (alliciendae). Thus edited by Madvig, after the Ascensian -edition of 1513. The MSS. generally have adiciendae; Palat. pr., adlicendae.8, 9. Qui - est, which is now enclosed, as you go down (i. e. from the citadel, one of the peaks of the Capitoline hill) to "Between the Two Groves;" (as one might say in. Berlin, "Let us go to Under the Lindens.") The depression~ between the two peaks of the Capitoline was called Inter Duos Lucos, although the original groves had disappeared in later times. Descendentibus,'for those descending,' is a, dative of reference. M. 241, Obs. 6. - 9. Asylum, (as) an asylum. Those who took refuge here, after gaining the sacred protection of the asylum, were supposed to find homes in the city. - 10 Omnis, of every description; a prQomi8scuous crowd. - 11, 12.' Idque - fuit, and this was the first strength proportioned to the magnitude of the undertaking. -13. Poeniteret, so. eum. Frey, however, thinks that the omission of the pronoun implies a general subject. - 15, 16. Soli qui possent. Qui (after soli) = tales nt. - 16. Livy's explanation of the patrician order as originating with the descendants of senators is rejected* by the best modern scholars. On the contrary, " a body of nobility existed before the senate was instituted, and from this the senate was appointed" (W. F. Allen). These nobles are the patricians; their name only being possibly derived from the senators. In Sceley's opinion, "probably the'senatorswere first called'patres' either as being predominantly'heads of families, or as being elderly men (senatus, of. yspovuaa, Zlj/oyipovrts), and afterwards the patrician body took their name from the assembly which best represented them." But it is not impossible that'patres' was in the earliest times the general appellation of the heads of patrician houses, and that the sen'ators were originally'patres' only as belonging to a wider class who possessed that title. IX. 20. Hominis aetatem. In translation, supply only. - 21, 22. Quippe' quibus essent, inasmulch as they had. The relative clause expressing'a reason is strengthened by quippe. -21. Domi. Locative case.- 22. Conubia — connubia. -23, 24. Qui- peterent, A relative clause of purpose. - 24-29. Urbes

Page  247 BOOK I, CHAP; VIII, IX. 247 Page miscere. A good example of Oratio Obliqua: accusative and in- 25 finitive in principal clauses, subjunctive in inserted relative clause, and subjunctive (ne gravarentur) where the imperative would be used in direct discourse. - 27. Eas (urbes), antecedent of quas (25), may be understood as the subject of facere. - 27. Satis scire, se. se, that they knew well. —Romanae. Adjective where we should use the noun: of Rome. - 28. Proinde introduces the conclusion finally drawn from a number of arguments. In Greek, srpas rara. S. - 29. Homines, as men, as human beings. - 34. Id demum, lit. that at last, — othing short of that.35. Pubes. Cicero and Caesar would say juventus or juvenes. - 37. Cui refers to vim. -39. Sollemnis, accusative plural. - The god of the sea, in his contest with Athene, made the first horse; hence Equester. - The Consualia were games celebrated on the 21st of August, in honor of the god Consus, whose worship was among the oldest in Rome. He was a god of the Under World, who granted and denied fertility. His altar was in the Circus Maximus, in which the Romans supposed the rape of the Sabines to have taken place.: He has no connection with Neptunus; "' but the Greeks honored their Poseidon with horse-races, and in the Circus Flaminius there was an altar of Neptunus, as there was an altar of Consus in the Circus Maximus." 2, 3. Concelebrat (he makes preparation for the festival), 26 faceret. Emendations of Madvig. The MSS.: concelebrant, facereat. -6. Etiam. Mg. and Hz., after Scheibius. Yet the reading of the MSS. jam (in the sense of moreoer) may be defended. -11. Eo, to it. - Composito. Participle used substantively. - 13, 14, Magna pars raptae (sunt). A construction to the sense: collective noun with plural verb.-Forte, without choice, just as it happened. - 18. Globo, the band, servants or clients.20. Supply eam twice: as the object of violaret, and as the sub. ject of ferri. "The omission of the subject-accusative te, se, elm, eos is frequent in Livy." - 21. Hanc, this our; this of our day. When a Roman bride was conducted from her father's house to her husband's, her companions kept shouting "Ta. lassiol" The origin of this word is uncertain. (See Preller, 584.) The story of the seizure of the Sabine maidens was probably invented in part to account for the.marriage ceremonies of the Romans. - 22, 23. Violati hospitii foedus - violatum hospiti'i foede. -- 24. Per fas ac fidem deeepti, betrayed (by their

Page  248 248 NOTES. Page 26 colfidence in) sacred right (i. e. the rights of hospitality) and plighted faith. A pledge of good faith on the part of their entertainers was implied when they were invitati hospitaliter per domos. — Venissent. The subjunctive means'they had come, as they said.' -27-36. Patrum - desiderium. Oratio Obliqua. See note on lines 24-29 of page 25. - Patrum, of (their) fathers.30. Humano generi, to human.nature. S. - 31. Liberum liberoriun. Contracted genitive plural. -- 33, 34. Eoque - quod, anld that they would fJild their husbands 80 much the kinder, because. - 35. Cum - sit, when he had done his duty in his own place (i. e. as a husband). Suam vicem. Accusative of specification: adverbial accusative. 27 X. 2. Sordida veste. In token of mourning. —13. Nomen, tribe. S.- 16. Vanam sine viribus iram; The end of an hexameter verse (into which a maxim or the expression of a general truth easily falls), but modified by the following esse. Fr.- 17. Regem. Propertius (5. 10, 7), calls this king Acron. S. —24. Queroum. Trees were held in great veneration among the-ancient Italians (as well as among many other pagans in the East, in Greece, and in Northern Europe), but the oak above all others: especially the old oak on the -Capitoline, sacred to Jupiter. - Pastoribus sacram, to the shepherds a sacred object: where we should say, held sacred by the shepherds. -25. Finis. Accusative plural. - 26. The name Feretrius is derived from feretrumn, a frome built of trunks of trees, upon which the pieces of armor taken as spoils from the enemy were borne and set up. Cf. Verg. Aen. xi. 83, Prel. p. 177. - 27. Romulus rex regia. Alliteration is especially frequent in solemn formulas. - 27, 28. His regionibus, within these bounds. - 29. Opima spolia, the spoils of honor, were gained by the king or general who slew the general of the enemy. - 35. Doni, honor: but with reference to the gift of the spoils to the god.-.Bina is used instead of duo because spolia has no singular. The two occasions were B. C. 437, when A. Cornelius Cossus slew Tolumnius, king of Veili, and B. C. 222, when M. Claudius Marcellus killed Viridomarus, a king of the Gaesatae, a Gallic tribe. - 36, 37. Ejus fortuna decoris, the good Jortune to gain this distinction, Z. XI. 38. Ibi, ea parte, in this direction, i. ae. with the Caeninenses.- 39. Solitudinem explains occasionera. (ITendiadys.) As the Ro6mans had gone out to war, tliir fields were unoccupied.

Page  249 BOOK I, CHAP. X, XI. 249 Page 1. Et, also. —Ad, against. —2. Legio, army. "This seems 28 the original meaning of the word. Cf. Verg. Aen. vii. 68." S. - Wsb. says "the later designation is transferred to the earliest times; the legion was said to have consisted of 3,000 men, 1,000 from each tribe, therefore rail it-es." - 3. Clamore, battle-cry. - 4. Ovantem, exulting. - Hersilia, the wife of Romulus, was the only married woman carried off by the Romans in the rape of the Sabine maidens. After her death she was deified as Hora Quirini, - the name probably of some older deity of love and marriage, and applied to her after Romulus had been identified with Quirinus. -- Conjunx. Livy generally makes this word end in n.x.7. Rem coalescere posse, the state could grow strong (or stable). Oratio Obllqua. - 9. Profectus (est Romulus). - 11. Utroque: i. e. both to Antemnae and Crustumeria. —13. Crustuminum. Livy often uses the neuter singular of adjectives derived from the names of towns or nations, as substantives. — In Crustuminum nomina darent, gave in, their names (as colonists) for COrnstunmeeria. - Et, and also. - 14. Frequenter, i, large numvbers. 16. Ab Sabinis. Ab with the ablative of source.- 17. Per iram, in, a passionate sway. - 19. Consilio, to deliberation. - 20. The citadel proper was on the northern peak of the Capitoline, (if we may believe the German antiquarians; the Italians place it on the southern;) but arx is used here for the whole hill (Wsb.). Tarpeius was the old name of the Capitoline. - 22, 23. English order: Forte ea tum ierat extra moenia petitum aquam sacris (for the sacred rites). Tarpeia, the daughter of Sp. Tarpeius, as Vestal virgin, brought water from the fountain of the Camenae near the pvorta Capelna. - 23. Accepti obrutam armis necavere, having been admitted, they overwhelmned her with their shielhds and slew her; (or, killed her by overwhelming her with their shields. S.) Arma are defensive weapons in general; here shields. - 25. Ne quid fidumr esset, that no faith should be kept. - 26. Fabula. Mg., after Glareanus. The MSS. fabllae. - Quod, inasmuch as, becase. - 28, 29. Anulos - -annulos. - Habuerint, haberent. Subjunctive in oratio obliqua. - Pepigisse eam, that she bargained for. - Eo0 thereqfore. Ablative of cause. - Illi. Dative of disadvantage. - 31. Derecto, out.righ.t.- 32. Fraude visam agere, being suspected of nct;i,, treoche'solsiy. -- There is still a popular belief in Rome that Tarpeia sits enchanted in the heart of the hill decked with gold and jeweis. Vfeb.

Page  250 250 -- NOTES. Page 28 XII. 34. Tamen, however; at any'ate; whichever story be true. - 35, 36. Quod campi est, i. e. the whole plain. This was. afterwards the site of the Roman Forum.- 39. In adversum subiere, marched straight,up the hill (in front of them). - Principes - ciebant. Their l'chamlpions on both sides urged on the battle. So Wsb. —Fr. and S. translate'principes' at the Aead, advancing before the rest, and make Mettius Curtius and Hostius Hostilius subjects of the verb, instead of appositives to principes. 29 1. Ab, on the side of. -2. Hostius Hostilius was the grandfather of king Tullus Hostilius. - 5, The punctuation is Madvig's. Most editors read: fusaque est ad veterem portam Palatii. - Ad, at. - The ancient gate is the porta Mugionis, one of the three gatesof the old town on the Palatine hill, and still standing in Livy's time. -6. Actus, used as a pr)esent participle, " in the act of being hurried along." See Nag. pp. 259 sqq. -10. Huc, hither, i. e. to the Palatine, whither the Romans had been driven. — Media, the intervening. The Sabines had crossed the valley between the Capitoline and the Palatine. -12. Romanis. Dative of advantage, instead of using the ablative of separation. - 13. Statori Jovi. The inversion of the usual order of the words emphasizes stator (the stayer of flight, from sistere), as being here the prominent notion. The temple of Juppiter Stator (which however was not built till 294 B. C.), was in the immediate neighborhood of the Porta Mugionis. - Quod sit, to be. - Monumento. Mg. after P. The other reading is montumentum. 15. Auditas, Ec. esse. -.17. Resistere, to halt, to stand your ground. - 20. Prineeps, advancing before the rest, at the head. - 26. Ferocissimorum juvenum, the nos8t valianlt troops.- 28. Persecuntur -persequunttr. - Alia -- acies, the rest of the Roman line. Alia in. the sense of cetera. - 30. Trepidante denotes agitated motion caused by fright. -31. Averterat, sc. a pugna. Seeley thinks the pluperfect should here be translated'diverted fob aI moment.' - 32. Periculo. Ablative of cause, occasion. - 33, 3EL. Addito animo, new courage being given him. XIII. 37. Quarum. Objective genitive. —39. Ausae, ventu-ring. 30 1, 2. Dirimere, (1) to part, (2) to break off. Historical infinitive. - Iras where we might expect iratos. "The circumstances or condition of a person often stand for the person himself."4. Parricidium is used generally for the murder of a relation.

Page  251 BOOK I, C-HAP.-XII, XIII. 251 Page 5. Nepotum, liberftm, Defining or explanatory genitive, appos- 30 itive to the generic word progeniem: their offspring (consisting) of grandchildren, etc. - 6. Conubii - connubii. - 8. Melius peribimus, (better shall we perish,) better were it that we be slain, than live, etc. - Sine alteris vestrum,'without one or the other of you.' (S.) We might have expected another sine alteris, in place of ant. -9. Orbae, herefatherless. - 10, 11. Silentium is the silence of attention,' they paused to listen' (S.), quies is the rest or cessation from any labor or occupation, -here from fighting. The meaning of the last word Seeley hardly under. stands aright. — 13. Imperium, the s6pren7e powver. -14. Romam. Terminal accusative. —15. Tamen aliquid, Somtething at least. Besides this derivation of Quirites as equivalent to Curites (Curenses), even in antiquity what is more probably the correct etymology was given, from quir'is, in the Sabine language at lance or Rpear, " the lancemen," " the warriors." -16. Appellati (sunt eires). All -the citizens of the united state received this name. — Monumentum, (as) a memorial. —Jbi, (the place) where. - 17. In vado, on firmn grotnd; "quo vadere poterat." — 18, Curtium lacum. In the valley at the foot of- the Palatine, there was for a long time a bog known as-the lacus Citrtius, whichwas afterwards filled up. Two stories were devised to account for this name; both of which Livy gives: the first is told' here; the second (Book vii. 6) recounts the devotion of M. Curtius, who, mounting his horse, leaped into the gulf which had opened in the forum, because the gods had declared that it could not be closed up until that which Rome held most valuable ("And what more valuable," said he, "than arms and valor?") were thrown in. There was perhaps a puteal on the site in Livy's time. - 21. The curiae were composed of associated gentes, with common sacrifices, rites, and privileges. (Lange, i. 199, 245.) In each, its peculiar sacred rites were presided over by a priest called curio. The number Livy gives would involve the previous threefold division into the three Romulian tribes. — 23. Few of the names of the thirty curiae are known to us. The occurrence among them of lapta, and their feminine terminations, may have led to their attempted identification with the names of the Sabine women. Some of them are evidently of topographical origin.- 23. Hoc, thann this (number of the curiae). - 24. Dignitatibus, etc., by the distilction (such as birth, social position, etc.) of thentselves or' their

Page  252 252 NOTESi. Page.30 huban.ds. —25. Lectae sint. Indirect question.- 26. Cen. turiae -- centumvii-iae, the troops of a hundred men. There were one hundred from each tribe, ten from each curia. - 27, 28. The names of the tribes were Ramnes, Tities, ani Luceres. Ramllenses is the adjective of Ramnes, as is Titielsses of Tities: equites Ramn,enses, equites Titienses. So the third century consisted of the equites Lucerenses, for which Livy uses here the substantive Lucer-es. Fr. — "This threefold division is the ultimate fact of Roman history, and no explanation of the names of the tribes has been given that has any probability." S. XIV. 32. The Laurentes were the people of the district of which Lavinium was the capital. - Pulsant, maltreat, beat. Plutarch (Rom. 23) says "killed." —32, 33. Jure gentium agerent, demanded satisfaction in accordance with the Law of Nations (which in all ages has declared the sacredness of the persons of.ambassadors). Agere is a legal term, of entering a complaint. - 34. Igitur; the result was that. - 35. Lavini (Lavinii). Locative case. "The Romans always performed an annual sacrifice at Lavinium," the city of the Penates of Latium. See A. W. Zumpt De Lacinio. —38. Ohb infidam societatem regni, from the w-ant-of-good-faith which belongs to partnerships in, kingly powe)r. The principal idea lies in the adjective, which we must translate as a noun. - Haut - hanud. 31 7, 8. Quantum futurum apparebat, as ws manifestly about to arise. - Occupant. For the peculiar meaning of this word (like that of the Greek qcrivrv), see Lexicon. —17, 18. Locis —obscuris, in dark places here and ther)e about the thick overgrowna brushwood. With Madvig, I follow the reading of the MSS. in this difficult passage. Weissenborn substitutes (e co?l.ect:lfa) inter for obsita; Hertz reads locis circa densis obsitis virgultis obscuris; Frey adopts iIz.'s reading, but brackets obscuris. Gronovius emends: partem militum locis circa denso obsitis virgulto obscuram. - 24. Trepidante, owavering; (almost in the original sense of that English word, moving back and forth like a wave.) - 26. Inpulsa Romana adie, breaking the Roman line. S.$0. Praesidio, the camnp.- 31, 32. Quique cum eo visi erant. E, adopted by Mg. and S. Wsb. (Tealbner,') quique cum eo equites erant; ( Weidrnann) quique cum eo abire visi orant (which Frey adopts, changing the order of the last three words to visi erant abire). Koch conjectures qique uccum co fugere visi crant.. The

Page  253 BOOK I, C-HAP. -XIV-XVI. 253 Page MSS.. differ and their readings are confused. P, B, adopted by 31 Hertz, quique cum eo equis ierant. With our reading visi erant had been seen. - 33. Vera fuga. Ablative. - 34. Simulantes (sc. fugam). Accusative.- 35. Haerens in tergo, clinging to their rear. - 38. Romanus. The singular of a national name instead of the plural is frequent in Livy. - Obicerentur = objicerentur. - 37. Inrumpit (irrumpit). Fidenae became a colony, to which Romulus sent 1500 citizens. Plutarch, Roun. 2;3, 12. XV. 38. Inritati (irritati), sc. sUnt. -39 sqq. Et (both) con- 32 sanguinitate, et quod, etc. The first reason is expressed by an ablative of cause, the second by a clause introduced by the causal conjunction quod.- 4. Justi, regtlar. — 5. How does exspectare differ in meaning from the English word expect? -8. Dimica. tioni - intentusque, prepared cad eirqer fi' a decisive (ultimae) battle. Although dimioationi shows the purpose of instructus, yet the latter word is not construed with the dative; intentus, however, takes this case, and helps the double reference — 11. De,.for. - 13. Arte, stratagem. - Veterani robore exercitus. A phrase, as Seeley says, "more applicable to the standing armies of Livy's own time than to the ancient militia." Livy is constantly carrying the terms and usages of his own day into the early annals of Rome. -18. Oratores, ambassadors. Derived from what verb? - 21. Haea ferme, etc. These are the principi transactions in the reign of Romnlmi, etc. - 26. Valuit, sc. urbs. - In quadraginta annos, i. e. during the reign of Numa. - 27. Multitudini. Livy thinks of the plebs of a later date.- 30. Celeres, from eel-er, eel-lo, KdXiq. This, the most ancient name of the three hundred cavalry (c. xiii.), is wrongly applied by Livy to the body-guard of the king. When tradition began to assimilate Romulus to a Greek rsVpavno;, it gave him also a bodyguard or &oifGopot. XVI. 32. Inmortalibus. Immortal, in the sense of worthy of immortality. Crevier proposes the reading mortalibt.s. - 33. Campo, se. Jfartio. -- 34. The site of the Goa(t's Mnallsh is now unknown. The Circus Flaminius is supposed to have been built near it. - 37-4. Romana -obtinuit. On this periodic sentence, see A. & S. 281, 5. - 383 Ex, after. 1. Proxumi -proxhini. — 2. Raptum, se. esse Romulum. - 33 4-6. Salvere -jubent, etc., they all (hail, or) invoice Roululs as a god, etc.; i. e. they. all cry, " Salve Romule, deus deo nate, rex

Page  254 254 - - NOTES. Page 33 parensque urbis Romanae "-6. Pacem, -his favor. -6, 7. Notice the alliteration, common in solemn and formal expressions. - Volens propitius. Often used together as here without a conjunction. - 8, 9. The accusation in these lines does not belong to the oldest traditions, but arose probably in later times from the hatred against the patricians. - 13. Fides, cause of belief, confirmation. -14. Gravis, weighty, trustworthy. -15. Auctor, authority. -18. Horrore, with awe. -19. Adstitissem, stood rapt. S. - Ut esset. An object-clause. - Contra, i. e. face to face. - 24, 25. Mirum, so. est. -Fidei, genitive with quantum. So Mg. after E. The ordinary-reading is fides. XVII. The Interregnum. (Mythical date 716 B. C.) On the death of the king, the supreme power falls to the Senate. 29. Ad singulos. A conjecture of Gr., adopted by Mg., Hz., Fr., S. The MSS. and-Wsb., a singalis. Ad singulos pervenerat. The striving for the government had not yet gone so far as to sing(/le pers.ons. — 31. Ordines, i. e. the two tribes, Ramnes and Tities. - 34 sq. Volebant, aspernabantur. "It is somewhat difficult to render the delicacy of these imperfects. Translate,' It was the' wish of- the Sabine families... while the Romans could ill brook a foreign king.' Aspernari expresses'rejection,' not necessarily'contempt."' S. -35. Romani, i. e. the Ramnes. - 36. Voluntatibus, political viewos. S., (who refers to Cic. pro Sext. 45-47.) - Regnari. Used impersonally: that there should be a king. "All were for monarchy." —37. Experta. Used as passive. - 39. Circa civitatium, surrounding states. - Inritatis animis, in the excited feeling. Ablative absolute of attendant circumstances. 34 2. Alteri, to another, to any other.-83. Inducebat, etc.,'could make up his mind.' S. -4. Rem, the regency. - Centum patres. Livy forgets the added 100 Sabine senators.-65. Singulisque -creatis, and one being chosen for each decuria. - 6-10. Imperitabant - fuit. The imperfects denote the Uiniform practice during an interregnum, the perfect the length of the particular interregnum in question. S.. —9. In orbem, in a circle. In Latin the accusative of the effect is used: 80o as to smake a circle. - 10. Quod -nomen, a name which even nosw (continues, or) is isn use. During the republic an interrex was sometimes named by the senate, when by any chance there was no ordinary curule magistrate-in the state; when, e. g., the elections were obstructed, I

Page  255 BOOK I, CHAP. XVI-XVIII. 255 Page and the time of one magistrate expired- before a successor was 34 appointed. Such an interrex held office for five days. Z. -— 12. Fremere. Historical infinitive. —14. Et, alnd (m8oreover).-12, 17. Plebs, populo. Seeley calls attention here to " Livy's entire ignorance of the distinction which Niebuhr tried to establish between populus and plebs." -16, 17. Ita modifies permissa.19. Autores fierent, should ratify (or confirm) the appointment. -21. Vi adempta, its force (or efficacy) being taken away. The ratification by the senate has become a mere form, being given before the enactment of a law or the election of a magistrate. (Lex Publilia, (Liv. viii. 12, 15,) and Lex Maenia.) — 22. In, like old English against, in anticipation of. - 24. Contione. — "Public meetings at Rome could only be called by a magistrate. They were either' comitia,' where there was voting, or' contiones,' where there was only speaking. Here, the interrex summons a coltio as introductory to the comitia. (Contio is derived from conventio. Varro, L. L. 6, 88.)" S. - 24, 25. Quod - sit. The subjunctive here is of wish and prayer. An introductory formula, like those in our own language, with which wills and some other legal documents used to begin. -27. Qui numeretur. Relative clause after dignus. H. 501, iii.; A. & S. 264, 9; B. 1226; A. 65, iv. 1; G. 348. -29. Scisco is used strictly of the decisions of the comitia tributa, jubeo of those of the comitia centuriata. Cie. pro Flacco 7. 15: quae scisceret plebes ant quae populus juberet. XVIII.-XXI. Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome (Mythical date 715-672 B. C.). XVIII. Numa's Election and Inaugu, ration. XIX.-XXI. Numa cultivates peace, and builds the Janus. Divides the year into twelve months. Appoints priests, and founds religious institutions. XVIII. 31. Religio, piety. - 32. The name Numa is thought to be connected with vwpoo, num-erus. - 33. Ut, as far as. - 35. Extat = exstat. - 37. Centum amplius, etc., more than a hundred years afterwards. On the use of amplius without quanl, see H. 417, 3; A. & S. 256, Rem. 6; B. 900; A. 54, V.; G. 111, Remn. 4. - 39. Aemulantium — habuisse, formed clubs of youths who eagerly pursued his studies. 1. Aetatis. Pythagoras is said to have been born in 608 or 35 in 570 B. C. - Quae fama in Sabinos, sc. pervenisset. So the MSS. Sigonius, followed by Mge, Z., S., qua fama in Sabinos (by

Page  256 256 -NOTES. Page 35 what Sabine reputation), nut, etc. -3. Excivisset. English subject it (i. e, fama), not he.-4, 5. Unus pervenisset, could a man (referring to Numa) have made his lwaly (alone, through. etc. - 5. Ingenio, inborn qualities, natural disposition. 8. Quo genere, th,,n which stock, or, as Seeley says, type. - 10. Patres Romani, the senate as a body. —14. Ad unum omnes, all to a man, all without exception. —16. Augurato urbe condenda, by founding the city after con.s.ulting the auguries (or in accordance with the auguries). Augurato is a perfect passive participle standing by itself in the ablative absolute.-18. Honoris ergo honoris causa. -19. Deductus, conducted solemnly. -20. In lapide. This stone is the auguraculumn; on the arx, whether that were, as the German students of Roman topography generally contend, the north-eastern point of the Capitoline hill, or the south-western, as the Italians argue. -Versus. Participle. - 25. Dextras, etc. As the augur -had his face turned to the east, when he drew the line on the heavens over his head from east to west, the south side of the sky was on his right, the north on his left. The left side was, with the Romans, the lucky one, and therefore sinistru!m, as an augural term, was equivalent to fantszum. On this account the Latin etymologists derived sinister from the verb sinzere, because an omen on the left hand'permitted' (silneret) something to be done. Zumpt. -26, 27. Signum contra animo finivit, heftxed in his minid a signal (some object on the earth, as, for example, a tree, to mark the boundary between the northern and southern hemispheres) directly in front of hinm. -30. Fas, i. e. thy will. —31, 32. Uti adolarassis, do thou showe forth. Adolarassis =adclaraveris. Subjunctive of prayer, after uti (= ut). Certa, surle, uine'ring. - 33. Peregit verbis, he specified in words. -34. Declaratus rex, manifenested to be king. XIX. 36. Eam, referring to urbem, is "merely introduced for clearness," and to emphasize the distinction between war and the institutions of peace. - 37 sq. Adsueseere posse. A general subject-accusative may be supplied: that meln could not adapt themselves: or we may consider the subject as implied in ferocem populum. - 39. -Mitiigandum, se. esse. 36 1. The Janus of Numa was a covered arched gateway, with two doors. A statue of Janus bifrons stood within it in a niche. The Argiletum was a district northeast of the Forum, between the southern point of the Quirinal and the Capitoline. —4

Page  257 BOOK I, CHAP. XVIII-XX. 257 Page Clausus fuit, it has been in a closed state. S..- 5. T. Manlio cos. 36 235 B. C., six years after the close of the first Punic war. -7. The battle of Actium was fought B. C. 31; the temple of Janus was closed B. C. 29. This first book of Livy, it is evident, cannot have been published before that date. - 15. Iniciendum = injiciendum. -Qui refers to metum. - 17. Egeria. A fountainnymph and, one of the Camenae. The gods of streams and fountains could give inspiration, and also produce insanity. - 20. Ad, in accordance with. - 23: Solido, ftll. - Solstitiali orbe, through the solar orbit. "Ablative of the way along which. M. 274."25. Vicesimo anno, i. e.. at the end of the cycle of nineteen years. - Metam -'solis, the sameposition of the sun. - 27. Nefastos dies fastosque, "holidays:and btsiness days." L. For the derivation and exact meaning of the words, see Lexicon. XX. 31. A flamen was the peculiar priest of a single deity. - 32. Romuli, Numae. Grammars still continue to convey the wrong impression that similis mnust take the genitive when it denotes internal resemblance, and the dative of external resemblance. The genitive being a case expressing closer and more intimate relations than the dative, was preferred by the older writers when (l.s in this passage) resemblance of internal qualities was implied;!tit sometimes the genitive, even in the names of living beings, was. used to. denote merely externacl resemblance: e. g. Cic. Tuse. I. xxxiii. 81: facie vel patrir, vita omnium perditorum ita similis, etc.: where, although the two kinds of resemblance are contrasted, the adjective is construed with the same case in both instances. In Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 59, 149, we find it followed by the two cases in the same sentence, although the same kind of resemblance is meant. I cited both of these passages in 1851, in my note on Cicero's Tuse. Disp. I. xv. 34, q. v. - 35. Adsiduum sacerdotem, as a perpetual-and-resident priest. The Jfamen Dialis was'forbidden:. to spend a night outside of the city. - Insigni veste. I. e. th:.toga praetexta (Div. xxvii. 8, 8), and the apex or peaked cap, (Viv. vi. 41, 9.) "But Servius ad Aen. iv. 262 says that the dress was a double toga called laena." —39. Conditoris. Rea Silvia, the mother of Romulus, was a Vestal. *Adsiduae. The Vestals were obliged to be in constant attendance on.the goddess, and to watch- and maintain the sacred fire. 1. Stipendium de publico. The Vestals received the revenues 37 from, a part. of- the ager publicls. and from lwsds-from timo to. time 17- Livy.

Page  258 258 NOTES. Page 37 bequeathed to them as a corporation. -2. Caerimoniis, shcred distinctions. -4, 5. Tunicae pictae. Genitive of definition, appositive to insigne. —6. Caelestia arma. It was said, that in the reign of Numa, a shield fell from heaven, and a voice proclaimed that it would be a pledge of the future greatness of Rome.'To prevent its being stolen, eleven others were made exactly like it. The twelve were borne by the Salii on the feast of Mars. The name ancile is from their shape, as they were cut in on both sides (am(b), cidere), so that they were wider at the top and bottom than in the middle. -7. Carmina. These hymns were considered as the oldest monuments of the Latin language, and-were in later times unintelligible even to the priests.- 9. Numa Marcius was a son-in-law of Numa, and father of the fourth king of Rome. - 10. Ex patribus. Until A. U. C. 454, the pontifices'could be chosen only from the patricians. - 15. Consultum, to ask advice. -15 sqq. Ne quid divini juris turbaretur, neglegendo (=-negligendo) patrios ritus adsciscendoque peregrinos (ritus). —17. Caelestes, relating to the gods of heaven as distinguished from the Manes. -20. Susciperentur atque curarentur, shoutld'be accepted (as manifestations of the divine will or anger) and attended to (with the proper religious ceremonies: expiated). XXI. 29, 30. Proximo -metu, the fear of laws and penalties standing next, i. e. being secondary. In a worse state of society, the fear of laws and penalties stands first as the guarantee of order; and no human society is so'perfect that this fear is without value as re-enforcing higher motives. The expression is not above criticism, but there seems to be no necessity of departing from the reading'of the MSS. Seeley properly objects to the citation of tu secundo C'aesare retgnes as justifying this reading; but it does justify the ablative absolute, which is Weisseiibokn's purpose in citing it. I suggest that another passage in Horace, nec viget quicquanm simile antt secndedund-: proximos illi tamen' occapavit Pallas honores, proves that proximus may be applied to things which, while nearest, are inferior' and' stand on -a lower plane. Madvig substitutes e coniectrla "pro obnoxio,"-taking obiloxiuas in its: sense of slavish. Other conjectures are pro summo; pro timnore; procul. — 30. Cum, while.- Ipsi homine, -i. e. Romani.- 37. Quem medium, the tsidst of' which. —,]Ex, (flowing) from. - 39. Deae, i. e.* Egeriae.-C. Oamenae: or Casmenae were nymphs of brpoks ad f{Quntiins.a Tihe bestkniiowi are J:tum.na ad Egeri*.

Page  259 BOOK I, CHAP. Xx-XXII. -259'......-~ Page — 1,-2. Quod essent. Subjunctive because the proposition is 3-8 given as the statement of Numa. - Soli, alone, by herself. This word: is regarded by many editors as a false reading, or as betray-ing- a lacutna. Seeley very ingeniously suggests solus, founding himself upon the parallel passage in Dionysius 2, 75: rp6iro; dvSp,7rwv lEpav p6ip6aaro.liarEow; &t1psoiag K.T.X. —3. Id sacrarium, the chapel (on the, Capitoline) for this worship. - Curru arcuato, a carriage arched overhead, with a cloth covering; used also by the Vestal virgins. -4. Manu involuta. The band with which -the hand was wrapped was white; " the color of light and of pure truth." Fides herself was represented in a white robe. (Hor. Od. i. 35, 21.) -5. Tutandam, should be ca'efully guarded. - 6. Sedemque, etc., and that her'seatalso it, (nmen's) right h'nsnds. wa-ssacred (i. e. should be kept pure and holy). -8. Argeos. There were twenty-seven chapels called Argei, distributed in different parts of the city, (six in each of the four regions and three additional,) perhaps marking ancient districts which were afterwards superseded by the city tribes. The origin of-the name is unknown.XXII.-XXXI. Tullus Hostilius, third'king (Mythical date 672-640 B. C.). XXII.-XXV. War with Alba. The combat of the Horatii and the Curiatii. XXVI. Horatius slays his sister. His trial and acquittal. XXVII, XXVIII. Faithlessness and punishment of Mettius Fufetius. XXIX, XXX. Destruction of Alba. The -Albans are incorporated with the Roman state.- War with the Sabines. -.XXXI. Prodigies. Death of Tullus. XXII. 16. Morte. Ablative of date, as on page 19, line 28.-:17. Hostili. See chapter xii. - 19. Jussit - cereavit. - 20. Regi. See note on Ronmuli, page 36, line 32..- 25. Agrestes, peasants. - 28. Ad res repetendas, to demand satisfacetion. The expression is capdable also of.the special meaning, to demand back their property. -29. Mandata ea quae mntldata essent, the business on which they were sent. -33. -Tantisper, meanwhile. —38. Omnium, of all things. The genitive, dative,-and ablative of omnia are often used in Livy..-39. Purgando (in -lmaking the excucse.) governs the object-clause in the oratio obliqua se invites -jussOS. 66. Ut in eum expetent, se. dii, that. they (i..e. the gods) may 39,:isit uponhim. omnes clades, etc. This seems better than to take iexpetant asi intransitive (mayl fl) with blades as its subject.

Page  260 260 - NOTES. -Page 39 XXIII. 8. Domum. Terminal accusative. -11. Utramque, each of them. —15. Tectis dirutis. See chapter xxix.- Duo, the two. -18. Ingenti exercitu. The modal ablative (of a noun and adjective) is often used for the force with which anything is.done in war. So infesto exercitu (27).-28. Ducit (se. Mettius). Used absolutely, like a'ystv. —31. Satis scire, sc. se, that 7he was confident.- 34. Adferri rebatur. Tanaquil Faber, Madvig. - Codd., adferrebantur. Wsb. e coni. 1. H. Vossii, tamei, si vans adferantur. - 36. Instructi. Mg. —Codd. structi. —Z3 sqq. -Et ego regem n. C. audisse videor (dicentem) injurias et n. r. r. ex f. q. r. s. causam hujusce esse belli, nee dubito, etc. 40- 4. Recte, sc. idfiat. -5. Fuerit, may have been, was perhaps. - 7, Illud monitum, advised of this. - Velim.. The subjunctive softens the expression. - 8, 9. Quo, hoc. Ablatives of measure of the difference implied in the comparative degree. -Tuscis, Stroth's. correction. Codd. Vvlscis. - 10. Esto. Notice that this future imperative stands with cum dabis.-Jam cum, when once.11. Speotaculo fore, se. Etruscis.- 12. Adgrediantur, sc. Etrutsci. — 19. Quaerentibus. The so-called dative of the agent. - 20. Materiam, the opportunity, the means. XXIV. 25. Error, a confusion, a discrepancy. - 30. Ibi, with:that people. —:'3. Legibus, conditions, terms. - 39. Pater patratus-seems to mean'one who is made father.' The pater patratus seems not a president of the College of Fetials, but a president of a particular deputation from it electedfor the occasion, (hence'patratus.') Some passages suggest that the title is connected with the doctrine of'patria potestas.' S., Fr. 41 1. Sagmina, a tuft of grass plucked from the summit of the Capitoline. (Plin. H. N. 22, 2, 5.) - 2. Puram, sc. herbarm. The word is bracketed by UssIng and Frey. "Perhaps we should have pura." -5, 6. Vasa and comites are (like me) governed by facis, and 5regios (or regia) populi Romani Quiritium is to be supplied as a factitive-object. Regium, royal, i. e. authorized to represent the king. Among the vasa are the sagmina and silex (line 22).- 6, 7. Quod fiat, so far as it can be done. Quod with the subjunctive in a restrictive clause. —Fraude mea, etc., injury (or prejudice) to me and to the Roman people, etc. Populi is objective genitive. A 10, 11. The pater patratus (fit) is appointed to pronounce: the. oath, -etc. - 12. Carmine, formula. - Operae, so. pretium.. See the first line of -Livgy's prefaoe,. —.14,:Populus, A

Page  261 BOOK 1, CH:AP. X XIII-XXV. 261 Page nominative in apposition to a vocative. M. 299, Obs. 1. —15. Ut, 41 as. -Prima postrema, from first to last. Such asyndeta are common with opposites; e. g. bona mnal, dcigla idigya, velim nolim. - 13. Tabulis cerave, upon tablets (of stone) or- (thin tablets of wood covered over with) wax. - Utique, and as. - 18. Prior non deficiet, will not be the first to (be wanting or) prove ftithless to those stipulations. - Defexit for defecerit.- 19. Illo die. A suggestion of Madvig, who reads however lle dies, as the MSS. except M, in which Iup is crossed out and ille altered to illo. Wsb. ille Diespiter. Seeley, illo die, Diespiter: in itself an admirable reading.-23. Porcum. A pig was the usual offering at the ratification of a treaty.-22. Silice. This flint was kept in the temple of Juppiter Feretrius, and seems to have been a symbol of Jove himself. It is conjectured that a meteoric stone-was taken, as the symbol of the power of the Thunderer. Cf. Verg. Aen. xii. 200. Cf. also the expression Jovenr lapidemjurare. S. XXV. 33. Feroces - pleni, ardent both from their natural disposition and as inspired by, etc. S. - 34. Quippe, for. - 36. Suspensi, nervous. S. - 37. Intenduntur. Mg., Hz., after Harl. 1., instead of incenditntur. - 38. Why terni and not tres I - 39. "Animus is the heart; animi, conrage," spirit. 4. Arma, i. e. shields.- 5. Spectantis. Accusative plural.-42 8. Agitatio anceps, movement from both sides. -10. Alium alius for alterlln alter. —14. Vice. Ablative of cause. Mg. reads vicem, which is more commonly used in this sense. -16. Ut.-. sic, though (or i, deed)... yet. -17. Ferox, spirited, conlfident. S. - Eorum, with them. - 21, 22. Sequentes... unum abesse. The accusative with the infinitive states a fact with more special emnphasis and greater particularity than the participle. - 28. Faventium. The appropriate word for encouraging combatants with shouting. S. - Solet, sc. esse, which Mg. supplies after qualii. Livy refers to the *plause given at gladiatorial shows (for instance) when a combatant who had seemed overborne again gains the upper hand. - 28. Nec, indeed not. - 34. Ante se, before his eyes. - 35. Obicitur -_ objicitur. -. Nec, also not. - Not a praelium; but a truc idatio. - 36, 37. Fratrum manibus, to (appease) the 8hadees of nimy brothers. - 33. Arma, i. e. shield. 5. Dicionis alienae facti; brought under a foreign jurisdiction. 43'Dicionia possessive genitive in the predicate after fio. M.-281, ohs. -13. Princeps, at the head.

Page  262 262 NOTES. Page 43 XXVI. 15, 16. The porta Capena, which was a gate in the wall of Servius Tullius,'was not then in existence. Livy uses the word to designate the site. - Umeros = humeros. — 19. Feroci juveni, the triulmphant soldier. Seeley. On the dative, see note on Numitori, page 21, line 33. Our English idiom almost compels us here to translate this dative as genitive, to the lossof the delicate meaning of the Latin case.-22. Inmaturo, unseassonable.-24. Sic eat, so m,,ay she faere.-26. Meritum, sevice. —Facto obstabat, shielded his deed, " Was8a set-off against the deed." - 27. Ad regem, to the king (as the supreme judgey.-28.- Ac - supplicii, avdfor a punishnme,t inr accordad,,ce with' the judgment. - Auotor esset, " might be respons8ible for." - 30. Qui judicent. Relative with the subjunctive denoting purpose. Translate by the English infinitive.Perduellio, properly used of treason, here a crime against the satfe. We should expect parricidium'; but the murder could be called perduellio, as a usurpation of the' power of the state to punish the guilty. - 32. Carminis, strain, f7rmul7a. - 33. Proyocarit, sc. seus.- 34. Vincent, sc. dunmveiri. - Obnubito (and the two following verbs), so. lictor. - 34, 35. Infelici arbori, on a. barren tree. A true locative, like domi, husmi, Carihagii, C. orinthi, etc. It is not strange that we should meet this old case in an ancient formula. - Infelici. "Unfruitfulness, and darkness of color, were qualities of things'dedicated to the infernal gods." —37. Non - ne quidem.'Ne'quidem' can' follow a general negative without destroying the negation. 44 1. Iniciebat (=injiciebat). Imperfect of an action merely begun or attempted. - 2.. Auctore Tullo, by the permissionl of Tullus.-3. Ita-que, and thus. T. Faber, Mg. The MSS. ita de. —7. Patrio jure. The' patria 2potestas gave the father the right over the life and death of his chil'dren. - 11. Pila Horatia. "A pillar at the corner of one of the arcades containing shops was called the Pita Horatia, in #emory'of the battle of the Horatii and Curiatii. Upon it, acc6rding to Dionysius, had been -fixed the armor'taken by the surviving Horatius from the vanquished Curiatii. The word pila may mean either the column or the weapons themselves; the Latin writers seem to understand it as referring to the;weapons," thus line 20 inter illa pilla, "while Dionysius translates it by arvuir." Burn, p. 104.-12. Modo,justn oo. -13. Decoratum ovantemque victoria,.with the ornaments aud in the exultation of victory. - 15, 16. Spectaculum tam' deforme

Page  263 BOOK I, CHAP. XXVI, XXVII. 263 Page quod (= ut id) vix Albanorum oculi ferre possent. - 19. Arbore. 44 Here we have the ablative (and not the antiquated locative of the formula on page 43) as the ordinary mode of expression. -20, 21. Modo, if only, provided it be. - Pila, the lances on which the spoils hung. —27. Admiratione. Ablative of cause. -Jure. The ablative means in accordance with. - 31. Deinde, thenceforwaerd. - 33. Publice, at the public expense. - Semper, frorm time' to time. The Sister's Beam is mentioned as still in existence in the fourth century of the Christian era. It was a plank or beam laid from one house to another in a lane Which led fromn the Carinae to the Vicus Cyprius. Near it was an altar of Juno S&roria, at which sacrifices were offered by the gens Horatia, and an altar of Janus C'urititts was also in the neighborhood. The legend may have been invented to account for these names. XXVII. 37. Nec, bitt not. - 39. Vanum ingenium, the:weak character. S. 5. Ex edicto, with a forvmal declaration. -7. Livy spoke of 45 the conquest of Fidenae in chap. xiv., but did not mention the fact that a colony was sent thither. - 8, 9. Pacto - Albanorum, by the assurance that the Albans would desert (to their party). - 11. Ab Alba. -In the names of towns in reply to thedquestion, whither? Livy uses almost always the preposition a with the ablative, not the ablative alone; with the names of countries the preposition ex. Ellendt. —12. Confluentis (accusative plural). Anienem et Tiberima. - 17. Legionem, army. - 18. Animi, co'lurage. - Fidei, good faith. - 22. Consilium erat - decrevit, and hence takes the infinitive and not the genitive of the gerund. M. 417, Obs. 2; Z. 659, note. -22, 23. Qua, on wthich side; ea, on that side. We might have had quo —eo. — Rem, i. e. the victory. - 23, 24. Miraculo - Romanis, the'astonishment of the Romans was fi8'st excited. Esse (historical infinitive) with two ~datives. — Ut, when. - 25, 26. Citato equo, yalloping up. - 28. Increpans. Used absolutely, and not governing equitem. -31. Item. Wsb., Mg.-Codd. iden, Gronovius eidem.-32. Id factum, the doing of this, i. e. the carrying out of this command. —34. Id, Sc. esse, that was going on which had been heard from the king: i. e. that the apparent desertion of the Albans was a movement to attack the Fidenates in the rear. - 37. Ut qui with the subjunctive, inasmuch as they. - Coloni, etc. A Roman colony having been- sent to Fidenae, the former Etruscan inhabitants were

Page  264 264 NOT ES. Page 45 allowed to, join with them. Cf. Liv. viii. 14, 8: Antium novacolo)iia missa cum eo, ut Alltiatibus perrnitteretur, 8i et ipsi ads8cribi coloani vellent. 46 1. Oppido, i. e. Fidenae. XXVIII. 12. Quod bene vertat, with a prayer that it would turn out well. Vertat for ve'teret, attracted to the formal time of the historical presentjubet. - 16. Ab extreme orsi, etc. "As the heralds began at the further part of the camp, where the Albans were, the Albans were summoned first. They stood n~earest both for this reason and also (etiam) from curiosity to hear a Roman king harangue." — 18, (15). Contionantem, contio. Sometimes wrongly written with c for t.-19. Ex conposito (composito), by agreement. - 23. Fuit, quod, there was reason, that. — 30. Consilium, a stratagem. - Nee, both not; followed by et in line 32.31. Vos deseri. Ace. with inf.-33. Fuga, a disposition to flee.Iniceretur = ihjiceretnr. -37. Audeat,,,ay pe7ihapls ddare to do.38. Documentum, a lesson. 47 5. Civitatem, citizenship. - Patres here refers to the'senators. See chapter 30. - "Urbem.. rein publicam, 6'iru... *r6)Iv." - 6,. Ex uno, etc. Refers to Romulus's having founded Rome from Alba.-7. R, es, state. —12. Disciplina, instruction. —14. At, yet or at least. Z. 756. - 21. Concitati, se. stnt. - Qa, as.24. Supplicium.... exempli. One rather expects exempltn.... Upplicii. S. - 25. Legun humanarum, of the laws,,f humnanity. XXIX. The student will hardly need to have his attention called to the vividness and brilliancy with which the scene in this chapter is described. Among the various.beauties of constru.tion and expression, observe the skilful use of the imperfect and pluperfect tenses. -30. S. takes ille to mean " Whatfollowed was not indeed tumult and panic, such as," etc. W. translates, " There arose not indeed that tumult and panic, wvhich is wont," etc.31. Captarum urbium, in captured cities. - 35. Defixit, petri,fied. S. —38, 39. Ultimum illud, then for the last timte. So hoc primum mea.ns now.for thefirst time. 48 I1, 2. Jam instabat, began to press. —5. Quibus —elatis. Attraction for ii8, quae quisque efferrepoterat, elatis. - 13. Urbem. Livy construes egredior both with the accusative, as here, and with the ablative, ats xxi. 12, 5, (page 93, line 35.) -14. Quadringentorum. According to this reckoning, Alba was founded 300 years before Rome.... XXX. 21. Habitavit. The preceding historical presents give & lively narration of events; this perfect states a rebilt of them. -

Page  265 BOOK I, CHAP. XXVIII-2XXXI. 265 Page 22. In patres. Livy means, into the senate, as appears from tern- 48 plumqlite ordinwi below; but the authors who are his' sources " must have meantpatLicians.-23. Tiulios. Instead of this clai, Dionys:us puts Julii in the list; and Tacitus makes the emperor Claudius say that the Julii came from Al ba. But Livy introduces the.ulii earlier (chapter xvi.). - 24. Templum, etc., he built the Curia as a temrle, etc.; templum meaning generally any consecrated place, where, with the approval of the gods (auspicato), religious or state business might be transacted.- Thus, the stone platform called the rostra{ was a ternplumn (Livy viii.: 14 and 35). - 25, 26. The Curia Hostilia (which stood on the north side of the forum) was burned with the corpse of P. Clodius A. U. C. 702. Augustus afterwards caused a new senate-house to be built in the neighborhood, called Curia Julia. - 27. Adioeretur - adjiceretlr.7- 28. Turmas. Each turntn, contained thirty men. - 29. Eodem.. e. from the Albans. - 30. Hac fiducia virium, through his confdence in this sltength. Attraction for harum, etc. S. translates,' impelled by the confidence in his strength which these measures inspired.' I. 255, (256, Am. ed.) - 33. Feronia was a goddess of flowers. This market, near her temple, was at Trebula Mutuesca, according to Preller. Others have placed it at the lucats Ferosnie, at the foot of Soracte. - 35. Servos suos, Mg. The MSS. suos. - 36. Lucum. This is supposed to refer to the asylum opened by Rolonulus, althouguh its Latin name was " inter duos lucos." - 38. Haut paruim (not too little) =:sttjs. 1, 2. Circumspioere. Historical infinitive. - 3. Proximi, sc. 49 Sabilis.-Residuas-iras, the hatred left behind from their wars (chapters xv. and xxvii.). —4. Defeotionem, a breach of the peace; not here' revolt.' 10, 11.- Verti in eo, to hinge upon this point, utri prius, etc.- 13, 14. Et quidem. ceterum is nearly equivalent to cem... trnm praecipue. XXXI. 23. Nlissis. Ablative absolute with a foun understood. -24. Crevier gives the rational explanation that these stones oeere hail. - 25. Caslo. We should find de ctelo in the purest prose of the golden- age; but LiViy is fond of poetical usages. - 25. Visi sibi visi sunt, they thought also th(ait they h.e,,rd. - 23. Vocem, etc., (moncntem) ut.-27 sq. Velut with the ablative absolute, as if their gods had been abludoiied, etc. - 31.- Ab, in consequence of. 32. Publice, at the public expense. -- 33. Aruspicum (haruspicum), soothsayers. - 34. Quandoque = quaidocumique. -

Page  266 '266 NOTES. Page 49 37. Ita, very; as we say colloquially, not so very. - 38. Oreretur. In the imperfect subjunctive o.i orhas the forms both of the fourth and of the third conjugations. - 39. Salubriora, more healthy. 50 1. We have again juvenes, as men of military age, used in the sense of soldliers rather than youths. - 6. Superstitionibus, " religioua terro,'s." -.7. Degeret, sc. vitam. " Agere vitam " is more commonly found in prose. - Religionibus, "religions ceremonies." -14. Operatum iis sacris, busied with these observances. Operari takes a dative of the services or beings to which the mind is directed. — 16. Ira. Ablative of cause. - 17. Fulmine. Ablative of instrument. - Conflagrasse, so. euns (supplied from ei). -18. Magna gloria. Modal ablative. XXXII.-XXXIV. Ancus Marcius, fourth king. (Mythical date 640-616. B. C.) XXXII, Choice and character of the king. He revives the institutions of Nauma, and completes the institution of the jus. fetiale. XXXIII. Conquest of the Latins, and their incorporation into the Roman state. The AVentine assigned to them. Building of a wooden bridge across the Tiber, and addition of the Janiculum to the city. Foundation of Ostia. XXXIV. Lucrmo, a son of the Corinthian Demarhtus, migrates to Rome from Tarquinii. He wins the friendship of Ancus, assumes the name of Tarquinius Priscus, and is appointed guardian of the king's sons. XXXII. 26. Cetera. Accusative of specification. — 28. Longe. Gron., Mg. (Codd. longeque.) - Antiquissimum, the nmost important, most desiratble (thing to be done). —30. Pontificem, sc. ma xinlm. - 31. Album, a whitened tablet that was set up in a public place. - 37. Desidem belongs in the predicate. 51 1. Et - memor,'with a touch of Romulus as well as of Numa.' The emphasis is all on.,lomuli. S. - 5. Otium sine injuria. Mg.'s punctuation. The common reading places a comma after ptinm, and none after iijtriar. - 6. Temptari = tentari. - 11. Aequiculis. " The treatise on names attributed to Valerius Maximus, by going too far, betrays the imposture. He says that the original inventor of the fetial law was a king of the Acquiculi named Sertor Resius. It is evident that this name is nothing but a disguised form of' assertor rerum,' the function of the fetial being'res repetere' or' asserere;' and following this clue we discover that the Aequicoli are only the people' qui aequom colunt."' Seeley.- 13. Legatus, i. e. the pater patratus.

Page  267 BOOK I, CHATP. XXXII-XXXIII.:267 Page Unde a q,,ibus -- 14. Filo, a woollen thread or fillet wound 51 ar..und the priest's'cap. - 16. Audiat fas, let divine justice hemr.17. What is the distinction between juste and pie - -20. Dedier. An antique form of dedi, the present infinitive passive. - 21. Siris contracted from siveris. Subjunctive as imperative or in imprecation. - 24. Concipiendique juris jurandi, and in the expreatsion of the oath. - 26. Sollemnes, 8sua(l. - 28. Janus is called Quirinus (from quir-is, a spear), with reference to his function as i;ndex belli. Macrob. 1, 9, 16.- 33. His, sc. verbis. - 34. Rex patres consulebat, etc. "Here we have a picture of the monarchical senate, consisting of the majores natu, thence called patres, and consulted, man by man, in a fixed order by the king, as under the republic by the consul." S. - 35. Quarum —causarum. The genitive in this old legal formula is a genitive of reference, for which we should have de with the ablative- in classical style. Madvig unnecessarily substitutes cautsa for cmu8(s)ar11?m, omitting the comemn after litiunz. Quarum rerum for earum rerum, etc., quarum; of which the antecedent is constructed:with quid censes (page 52), and the relative with condixit. Rerum refers to the stolen pr}operty, litium to the points in dispute, causarum to the legal, questions and claims arisiig from them. — Coadixit, hs rn made a claimn; with the dative of the persons (patri patrato, hominibusque Priscis Latinis) Ipon whom the claim is made.- 38, 39. Nec - fecerunt, t7eey have neither givenl bchk nor m',ade inidenmnity fo7r nor attended to. 2. Puro (a scelere). - 3. Itaque-et ita.-7. Aut sangui- 52 neam praeustam, or one 2with a burnt poinlt dipped i. blood. I see no necessity of bracketing sangninea with Madvig. Seeley, who follows Marivig, himself cites Amm. Marc. 19, 2, 6, 7astmnt infectanm sonluie rifit patrio, and Dio Cassius 71, 33. - 9. Quod, ohereas: - 17. Ubi dixisset. Subjunctive because ubi is here genieral, not ptarticular-, and means whenever, as often as;'l'he imperfect indicative, he woould hurl, properly follows in the principal clause. XXXIII. 21. Demandatacura. (Forthe time of his absence.) - 28 Multitudinem omnem, t/e mwhole populItfioni. - 27. Circa. Here, on two sidles of. - 29. Aventinum. MAls Al entis is the more common" name.' —33. Vacuum. The adjective gives the reason: (because it tvas) uininhabited. -35. Receptaculum, reyfuge. - -

Page  268 1268 NOTES. Page 53 2. Conisus -- eonnit8.- - 3. After vincit we should expect deinrde a.bent clapjit et dirn'it, but Livy passes directly to the res8lt of the conquest, ingenti praeda potens, p,,oceefl thronu/h his vast pl,(ler. - 6. Murciae, sc. ara,,. There was an altar'of Venus Murcia between the Aventine and Pailatine near the lower end of the Circus Maximus. Preller suggests that the Latins to whom homes were given in this neighborhood may have brought her worship with them. /He considers her name as connected with nle/cere, to soften, whence also Mulciber. Subsequently,.it was generally written Myrtea, whence perhaps the myrtle was regarded as sacred to Venus.-8. Ea arx, stch (l strong positions. S.-9. Sublicio,-madle with wooden piles. From the place where the walls of the Jaliculum came down fo the river, a wooden bridge was built, connecting the Janiculum with the Aventine. It was a religious law that this bridge was not to be of stone, nay, that not even iron nails or fastenings were to be used in its construction. - 12. A- locis, on. the side of (thjose) places (or that region of the city) which wvere (more level and therefore) more easy of access. -14. Rlecte an perperam facti =,utrum quid recte an perperam.ftetctun esset. - 15. Career. The Mamertine prison. — 19. Silva Messia adempta. Ablative absolute. Hertz adopts lessia from the best MSS. of Pliny and a few of Livy. Other readings Mesia, (]csiea. - 22. Aedis = aedes. XXXIV. 23. Lucumo is the title of the city kings of Etruria, but Livy takes it as a proper name. -24. Divitiis. Ablative of means. —:27 sqq. The genealogy according to Livy is as follows: Demaratus. I ~ I Lucumo (L. Tarquniniuls Priscns). Arruns. I.I I Tarquinia. L. Tarquinius Superbus. Arruns. Egerius. Brutus. Titus. Arruns. Sextus. Collatinus. 28. Ob seditiones. Demaratus belonged to the noble house of the Bacchiadae, who were expelled by Kypselos when he made himself tyrait (657-B. C.). - 32. Uxorie elicta, leavinsg his wife,

Page  269 BOOK I, CHAP. XXXIII-XXXV. 269 Page etc. Relicta is a prewsent participle in meaning. Nhlg. pp. 259 53 sq. -36. Egerio. Dative by attraction to puer'o after niomele izndittun. -.Lucumoni. On the dattive, see note on Numitori, page 21, line 33. - 38. Auxit, sc. aniimo.. -- Ducta — Tanaquil, his taking Tlnaquil in marlriage, (a woman) born sunm0no loco, etc. Perfect passive participles are often to be translated like verbal nouns. - 39. Quae, oe who; taking the subjunctive in the sense of tatis ut. Iis, the position. 1. Quo = il quae, into which. -4. Virum, her husband. -6. 54 Ad id (sc. exsequendum), for this pzupoe. - Potissima. So Gronovius and Madvig, instead of p2otissgimlunm, the usual reading. Translate most desirable, most feasible,.: best cadapted. - 8. Sit, Subjunctive of Tanaquil's thought. Futurum, sc. esse. - 10. Et, even. - 11. Una imagine. Ancus's only claim to nobility was as the grandson (on his mother's side) of Numa; and Numa's was the only ancestral imnago in his hall. The imagines were figures, with painted masks of wax resembling the person represented, kept in the atrium. The right of having isnayiines was a distinction of the nobles. In after-times a plebeian who, first of his name, held a curule office, gained nobility for his family, and his image was set up in the atrium as first of his line. Persuadet, sc. viro. - 12, 13. Cui esset. Relative and slubjunctive of the reason. - 15. Carpento. It is more usual in the best prose to say in carpento. "Carpentum is a covered cart. The word is used because the travellers have all their property with them."-16. Demissa. Middle; letting itself down, descending. - Pilleum =pileLni. - 17. Clangore, cry. - 18. Ministerio. Dative of the purpose. —21. Excelsa, majestic things. S.- 22, 23. Eam, ea, ejus. The demonstrative here is emphatic: that very, thatparticuilar, just that, that and no other. - 23. Ejus dei, i. e. Jovis. - 24. Humano. To answer better to divinitus, S. proposes humane, Wex hlmaca asnll. - 23. The antiquarians traced the name Lucius to Lucltumo, as Tarquinius to Tarqu'inii. - 31. The ablatives (of means) in this line are construed with conciliando. - 34. Dextre, adroitly - 36. Bello. We should have expected belli or ina bello. - 37. Expertus. Used passively. XXXV.-XL. Tarquinius Priscus, fifth king. (Mythical date 616-578 B. C.) -XXXV.-XXXVI. His election. He creates a hundred new senators, subdues the Latins, marks out- the Circus.'aximus, and. celebratea;the ":inoman ames." Ie

Page  270 270 NOTES. ~page 5-4doubles the number of knights. Resistance of Attus Navius. XXXVII.-XXXVIII. Successful wars with the Sabines and Latins. The king builds walls and sewers. Lays the foundations of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. XXXIX. A flame plays about the bead of Servius Tullius. His origin. XL. The two sons of Ancus procure the assassination'of Tarquinius. 55 XXXV. 5. Sub, a little before. - Tempus, the (oappoilnted) time. - 6. Petisse ambitiose = canlvassed. Petisse (for petlisse) is a poetical form. - 7. Plebis. Livy thinks of the plebs as having a share in the election, although the vote must have been in the coinlitia curiata.-8. Cum, etc. Supply diceret, suggested both by orationemn habntise above and by memlorantenz below. - 9. Non primus, etc., iaaes not the firstforeigner,... but the third, to aspire to the kingdom., etc. - Quod, a thing which. - Quispiam, Mg.'s reading. The MSS. quisq,,ini. Madvig also corrects posset to possit.-13. Ex quo "has almost become a particle in Livy," meaning from the time when, ever since, or as soont as. - Sui potens, his oton mnaster. -15. Qua, in which. -26. Centum — legit.. "Livy does not say that Tarquin created new patrician gentes, which were then represented in the senate, but that he created new senators, whose families in consequence became patrician." Seeley.-26, 27.l Minorum gentium, of the younger houses (or clans).-30, 31. lajore-fuerat, greate'r booty than accordedwith-what had been the report of the svar..- 31. Revecta, brought back (in vehicles). S.-32. The Circus Maximus was between the Palatine and the Aventine.- 34. Ubi. A relative adverb with the subjunctive of purpose. - Spectacula, stantlds, platforms whence they could see the games. - 35. Fori, benches. S. —35, 36. Order =furcis sustinentibus spectacula duodenos pedes alta ab terra. - The wooden prop8s (furcae) were shaped like the letter Y. - Furcis sustinentibus. Ablative absolute of attendant circumstances. - Duodenos. Why is the distributive numeral- used? 5 1. Aedificanda loca, lots for building on. S.. XXXVI. 12. Ramnis. Accusative plural. -15. Inauguratoe Ablative absolute of the neuter perfect passive participle standing by itself; as aiglrtrato (chap. 18); and auspicato (line 31). —Negare (historical infinitive)' is' followed by neque, sieque, without dlistroying the negative. —17. Addixissent. Addicere (as an auogural term) — assentiri. 13. Eludens, laugrhing to sco,. -- 19. Divine yates, seer, reader of the -bitvine will. Said ironi

Page  271 BOOK I, CHAP. XXXV-XXXVII. 271 Page cally, as is aves tuae below.- 21. Futuram, se. rem esse. - 22. 56 Atqui, and yet, but. - 23. Haec, i. e. ovaciulam- et cotem. - 23. The comitium was the northwestern part of the Forum, where the comitia curiata were held. - In gradibus ipsis, on the very steps to the left of the Curia. (The steps led up from the comitium to the senate-house.)- 28. Sitam, buried. -32. Exercitus vocati, i. e. the comitia centuriata, which assembly was called exercitus urbanus8 or simply exercitus, inasmuch as the people, who assembled in their centuries, were armed. - 32, 33. Summa rerum, matters of the highest importance. - 35. Alterum tantum (both neuter), another equal amount. lie doubled the number of knights in each of the three centuries. -36 sqq. Qui additi eraat posteriores modo appellati sunt (were silzply called secondary) sub isdem nominibus (under the same namnes, i.-6. under the original names of the centuries, Ramnes, Tities, and Luceres). The old knights were called priores or primi, the new knights posteriores or'secundi. XXXVII. 3. Ex occulto, in secret. These words are unneces- 57 sary. - 4.. Missis, sc. iis, or some general word meaning men, soldiers, agents.- 5. Conicerent = conjicerent. Qui conicerent, relative with subjunctive, denoting purpose, may be translated by the infinitive in English. - 6, 7. Et - haererent, and when nmost of then,,being oan rafts, drove againist the piles and stuck there (lit. having been-driven, stuck, etc.). I am almost inclined to adopt Gronovius's conjecture. pleraque ratibus inpacta sublicisque, especially as his supposition that the bridge was partly of boats, partly supported on piles, is:(as Seeley has noticed) expfressly confirmed by Dionysius. As for the question, what bridge is meant here, " Dionysius tells us that the Sabines and Etruscans were in alliance, and that they pitched two camps with the river between them. The -bridge was built to connect them,- and Tarquin burnt it to divide them." S. - 8. Ea quoque, this incident als-o, i. e. as well-as the great force of the Ro!nans, referring back to " praeterquam quod viribus," etc. S. -9. Fusis. Dative. - 11. -Fluitantia, borin-e down by the current. - 12. Insignem, plpable.(S.); easily known by this mark.-319, 20. Petebant, tenuere. Notice -the difference of tense.-23. The less important booty, which was burnt on, the battle-field, was offered to Vulcan. - 23. Gesturosi sc. se ess. - 28.- Ttimultuario milite, seithisOldier8 hactilqy drawn:togeether as distingitished from regular trops. -i Z..

Page  272 272.. NOTES. Page 57 XXXVIII. 31. Egerius. See chap. xxxiv.- Fratris - regis, he was nlephewv to the king. - 32 sq. Deditos. Used in the sense of the middle voice: (that the people of Collatia) surrenwdered. — 37. In sua potestate, i. e. independent. 58 5. Priscis Latinis. Dative. - Ubi, in which. -6. Universae rei dimicationem, i. e. a single decisive battle. -10. Aut qui ant de ii8 qui. - 12, 13. Majore animo quam quanta mole, swith spirit greater thant the energy with which, etc. - 19. Fastigio, along a regular slope, at aln angle. It is a modal ablative. Seeley observes that' this passage is wrongly explained in Andrews's Dictionary.". The mistake (which is copied from Freund) is in accepting Drakenborch's reuding, e fastigio. Crevier, while he did not remove the preposition from his text, saw that it should be omitted, as is done by recent editors generally.- 20. Areamr ad, the site for. XXXIX. 23, 24. Visu - mirabile, marvellous in the appearance and ~in the event..-27. Reges, the king antd queenl.-28. Familiarium -- servorun. -- 29. -Eam. Most of the MSS. have jam; but eam is rightly adopted by J. F. G., Mg., Wsb., Fr., S. - Viden' videsne. - 33. Cultu, style, mode of life. - 35. Regiae, our royal houese, (i. e. line, family.) - 38. Liberim. Genitive plural. - Coeptum, sc. esse ferunt. - 39 sq. Magnae fortunae oultum, the imode of life (or the culture and demeanor) which hiqh ranZk requires. So commentators generally. Seeley says cultum seems to mean pursuit, but cites no instances of the use of the word in that meaning elsewhere. 59 1. Evvnit. Present tense. —Est. A good emendation of Madvig's for esset.- 8 sqq. The older tradition represented Servius as the son of the Lar familiaris of the royal house (Faunus), or of Vulcan. Apother story assigns him an Etrusce.n origin.11. Cognita, known for what she was, recognized (as the wife of the prince). — Prohibitam servitio, beig preserved from slavery. - 13. Domo. The simple ablative of place without a preposition is sometimes-found in prose writers who imitate the usage of poets. It is true that the simple ablative is often used in designations of place because they "may be regarded in the light of cause, manner, or instrument,". (G. 186,) but there are cases in which it denotes place alone. That which first meant a, then: a + b, at last means simply b. The locative domi would have been regular, and Madvig is inelined to: read it; but it,. strikes..-me as very

Page  273 BOOK I, CHA.P. XXXVIII-XLI. 273 Page natural that Livy should have avoided the repetition of the same 59 sound, Prisci Tarquini domi. In line 15 the preposition could hardly have been omitted, in domo meaning not at the house, but in the horuse, in the faily. - 14. Xulieres. I. e. the queen and the mother of Servius..-16, 17. Capta patria. Ablative absolute. XL. 21. Maximo honore. Ablative of quality or description. In a similar predicate after the verb ease in lines 15, 16, there being no,fdjective with the noun, the preposition in is necessarily expressed: in caritate, etc. - 24, 25. Non modo = I do not say. Wsb. —26. Indignitas, indiglnation.- 28. Servitia= servos, Abstract for concrete. - 29,' 30.: Id regnum, quod Romulus.. tenuerit.- 30. Servus. So Madvig,: for Servius. If the old-reading is retained, it should be translated "a Servius."- 33. Set sed. - 37. Gronovius and Madvig would omit quia. 3, 4. (Iis) ferramentis, quibus consueti erant. — 5. Quam 60 potuere strengthen the superlative. - Tumultuosissimae. Madvig's emendation for tu2Ult1tosiss8i8ie. -12. Dum.; Weissenborn well renqarks that "the use of the subjunctive was gradually extended after the analogy of constructions already prevalent," and thus dtnd, imitates Cenu. -13. Dejecit, brought heavily down.14. Eiciunt = ejiciunt. XLI.-XLVIII. Servius Tullius, sixth king (Mythical date 578-534. B. C.). XLI. Servius gains the throne through the artful aid of Tanaquil. XLII.-XLIII. He- routs the Veientes and Etruscans. He appoints a census, and divides the people into classes and centuries. XLIV. He adds the Quirinal, Viminal, and Esquiline hills to the city, which is fortified by a wall, a mound, and a ditch. The pomerium is extended. XLV. The Temple of Diana is built on the Aventine as a federal sanctuary of the Romans and Latins. XLVI.-XLVIII. Conspiracy of Lucius Tarquinius and Tullia, and murder of Servius. XLI. 17. Clamor, se. oritur; or, as Wsb., clanmor is a nominative absolute, directing our attention to the object or fact named, — Mirantium. Plural to correspond to the collective idea in. p!opli. - 19. Eicit. The MSS. eiecit, which however should be taken as present, the two forms eicio and eiecio being used.- 27. Hoc. We should have expected istutd, as the demonstrative of the seeond person. -.30. Qui,. what sort of a man: the interrogative. 18- Livy.

Page  274 274 NOTES. Page 60 adjective pronoun, = qualis. — 32. Torpent, are palsied. - 34. The Nova via, beginning at the porta Milgionis, stretched along the north and west sides of the Palatine. - 35. Ad Jovis Statoris, neear (the temple) of Jupiter Stator. So near St. Peter's. - 37. Sopitum, stunned. - 39. Confidere, sc. se; she trusted. 61 2. Jubere, so. regent. - 4. Trabea. The royal trabea was a white toga ornamented with purple horizontal stripes. —7, 8. Alienae. vicis, of performing another man's tduty. -9. Palam factum est exspirasse Tarquinium. - Conploratione. The conclanlatio, or calling upon the departed by name, followed by wailing or a dirge.- 10. Voluntate, "' passive acquiescence." S. XLII. 16, 18. Liberum. Genitive plural.- 20. Quin with the subjunctive follows neo rupit... necessitaten, inasmuch as that phrase contains the idea of hindering or preventing: (fate's necessity that envy of the royal power should make everything faithless and hostile even among members of the same family.) - 23. Ad with the accusative has here nearly the signification which would be denoted by adding colservandarn to qlietemn. A people engaged in war have no leisure for criticizing the home government. - 28. Que, and so, and aeccordingly. The conjunction, as Seeley remarks, seems " to mark the intimate connection between Servius' undertaking a great reform, which is stated in this sentence, and his feeling secure in the sovereignty which is stated in the last." - 31. Ordinumque, acd ranks. The allusion is not simply to the distinction between the senators and the knights, but to the whole classification of the people according to their service, privileges, position, age, etc. -31, 32. quibus aliquid interlueet, by which some clear distinction is drawn. - 33, Censum. Notice (in your Lexicon) the fuller meaning of this word than that ordinarily implied by the English word census. - 35. Habitu, the scale, the proportion. Wsb. But Forc. considers it as meaning in this passage one's having,,one's possessions (in respect of money). - 36. Classis. Accusative plural.- Huno, the following.- 37. Ordinem, distribution (of them). - 37. Decorum, as in the Preface, means suited, adapted. XLIII. 39. Aeris, so. assinm. - The division of the people described in this chapter appears more clearly in a tabular form: I. Horsemen or Knights. 1. Six old centuries, called sex suffragia. Census, none. 2. Twelve new centuries...,

Page  275 BOOK I, CH`AP.P X-LI-XLIII. 275: 1age' II. Foot. 61 1st Class, 80 Centuries (40 of Seniors, 40 of Juniors), Census, 100,000 asses. 2d " 20 " (10 " 10 " ) " 75,000' 3d "20 " (10 10 " 10 " ) " 50,00 4th " 20 " (10 " 10 " ) " 25,000 " 5th'" 30 " (15 " 15 " 11,090 " 1 century of proletarii Census under,11,000, 5 cent. of accensi, musicians, and workmen " none Thus Livy makes' 194'centuries, while Dionysius gives 193. But "neither of these figures is of any importance for historical times'; we are utterly ignorant how many centuries there'were at the time when the Centuriat Comitia were the most important legislative body in-the world." (N.'A. Rev., vol. 114, p. 421.) 2. Why quadragenas'and not qradrayinta?- Seniorum ac 62 juniorum. Janilires from 17 to the end of their 45th year; sensioes from that period' to the age of 60. - Primae classis. Those who belonged to the first class were called classi' par cxcellence;'the otlier classes were called'?fra classern. This is the origin of the'terms classies, classical, as denoting works and authors of thie first' class. -4, 6. What is' the difference between arma and tela. - 5. The word imperata is used, because each had to provide his own arms.- The clipeum (more often cl ipeus) was a round shield of bronze, protecting especially the'abdomen, and requiring the lorica for the protection of'the breast. —7. This gladius was probably'a short dag'er-like weapon. 8. Fabram. I. e.,the fabri tigiai'i,. carpenters, and the fabri aerarii et ferrarii, smiths.- 9. Machinas ferre denotes perhaps both transporting and serving the engines of war. Wsb. - 13. The scutum being a long oblong shield and protecting the whole body, the lorica was no longer necessary. - 14, 15. In is probably a false reading, and should be omitted in translation. English order: Voluit censum tertiae classis esse quinquaginta, milium (assium). - 18. Census,' sc. fuit. -19. Arma is here used in its widest sense, comprehending tela.-22. In his accensi, seith these (i. e. attached to the fifth class) twere the reserves. - 23. Tres. Sigonius' conjecture, dulas is approved by Lange and G. C. Lewis, as making Livy's number of the centuries correspond with that given by Dionysius. Bekker and Wsb. suggest that as the accensi formed no separate centuria in the comitia, Livy, too, makes only 193 voting centuries. -24. Hoc. Ablative.-26. Militia. Ablative.

Page  276 276 NOTES. Page 62 29, 30. Sex - fecit, int the same way he made s'ix other centuries, although (only) three had been formed by Ronults, under the same names under which they were itingurlated. Tribus institutis, ablative absolute used adversatively. Isdem nominibus, i. e. R]amnes, Titienses, and Luceres, primi (or priores), and secutndi (or posteriores) respectively. As the names were given inaugutrato, they were unalterable. According to Mommsen, the sex 8uffragia (at least in the last century of the republic) were open to the plebeians, and were lower in rank than the other centuries of knights. - 31. Ad equos emendos. This money was called. the aes equestre. - 32. The antecedent of quibus (with which, in order that with it) is binta mnilia aeris. This is the aes ho)rdeariunm, and was paid annually, while the aes equestre was paid once for all. — Viduae attributae, sintgle wonmen were desi.(nated. Un-. married heiresses and widows made contributions, out of which 2,000 asses were given to each knight yearly for the keep of his horse. Bina milia, 2,000 to each (kn,ight), not' from each lady.' -35. Hoos00, privileges, as contrasted with onera (34), burdens. 63 1. The knights were unsmoned fi-rst to give their vote. -2, 3. The words primum peditum vocabantur are probably not genuine, and should be omitted in translation. Soine take primum as a contracted genitive plural. Zumpt pronounces the words not faulty, and translates "(the centuries of the first class) swere called )first of the, infantry." - 3. Ibi si variaret, if there was a dcifference (in vote) among them.- Ut depends on the general sense, it was so arranged that. — 4. Secundae classis (genitive), sc. centuriae. — 5. Desoenderent. Understand a general subject, they, i. e. the Romans, the magistrates, or " the superintendents of the election." The passive impersonal might have been used, descenderetur. - It will be seen that while the principle of universal suffrage was to some extent recognized, a great advantage was given to the aristocracy of birth and wealth. The vote was by centuries, not by heads, each century counting. one. Whenever the centuries of the knights: and of the first class or wealthiest of the foot were unanimously in favor of any measure, tleir vote was already a majority of the whole, and the lower classes were not called to vote. Age, also, had the advantage over youth, inasmuch as there was an equal number of centuries of seniors and of juniors, although the number of persons must have been much greater in the latter than in the former. —

Page  277 BOOK I, CHAP. XLIII, XLIV. 277 Page 6. Hune ordinem, the pre8ent arragewenet, the arrangement exist- 63 ing in Livy's tiine. —7. The number thirty-five was made up 241 B. C., when the Velina and Quirina were added to the tribes previously existing.- 7, 8. Duplicato - seniorumque, their number (i. e. the number of the tribes) being doubled by the centuries of juniors and seniors. In the new arrangement, each of the thirtyfive tribes furnished two centuries (one of seniors and one of juniors) to each of the five classes, so that each class had seventy centuries and each tribe ten centuries. -9. Summam, the total. - 10, 11. Regionibus collibusque qui habitabantur, according to the districts and hills which were (then) inhabited (S.) The ablatives specify the, principle of the classification, or "that in accordance with which " anything is done. - The names of thecIvur city tribes were Palatina,.Collina, Suburana, Exquilinia. —12. The tributum was a war-tax, paid not yearly, but when (and in such amount as) the occasion required. -Aequaliter, at an equal rate. -13-15. Neque, etc. The tribes of Servius had iothing to do with the distribution and number of the centuries, as did the tribes in the reformed constitution as above described, hunc ordinens qui nunLc est, etc. XLIV. 16. Maturaverat, etc., he had quickly completed, through the fear inspired by the lex de incelsis, or the law threatening imprisonment and death to those who did not give in a census of their fortune. —19. In campo Martio. They met outside the city proper, inasmuch as the people appeared in their centuries in the form of an army, and as such could not enter the city. In the time of the kings there was already an altar to Mars in the Campus Martius.- 21. Conditum, completed. —23. Adicit adjicit. - 24. Fabius Pictor, the oldest Roman historian, lived about the time of the second Punic war, and was sent as ambassador to the oracle at Delphi after the battle at Cannae. His Annals, which were written in Greek, treated of the history of Rome, from the founding of the city to his own times. - 26. Ad, to accord with. - 28. Auget Esquilias, he enlarges the Esqiliae.' Esquiliae' or'exquiliae' is explained, by comparison with inqtlilinus, as the seat of the outtside duvellers, or a suburb. The southwestern part, the Carinare, already belonged to the city; Servius added further points of the range of hills called the Esquiline, and thus anget Esqailias. Gron. followed by Mg., EsqtWiliis - 8-1; Vim, i. e. the etymtolbgy. - Postmoerium, on the

Page  278 '278 N-OT ES.,age 63 further side of the wall. - 32. Circamoerium...Circa, on both sides. So in line 34. —36. Continuarentur, shouIld be brought tup to the city walls. Conjunguut, a stronger expression, (they even unite,) implies that they even used the city-wall as the back or'side wall of their houses. "Dionysius, too, remarks of this wall of Servius, that in later times it was entirely built in, so as to be traced with difficulty." - 37 sq. Aliquid soli purl ab humano cultu. - 39. Quod, because. So in the next line. 64- XLV. 6.0mnibus. Neuter.-9. The temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus, one of the wonders of the world, was the federal sanctuary of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia Minor. - 20. Fors, an opportuLity. - 22. Patri familiae. I. e. a man of property. -Livy always.uses the form familae in this expression, although famnilias had been more usual. - 34. Quin, (qul non), why not? It is used often where we should say, without a question, Go and (as here, bathe before (the sacrifice), etc.).-Vivo, i. e. running, (as opposed to- stagnant.) Cf. Verg. Aen. ii. 719. - 35. Infima, at the bottom of. - 36. Religione, religiols fear, a religiowls scriple. — Qui - cuperet, iwniszluch as he desisred, -" desiring as he did." 65 XLVI. 1. Usu, pre8cription, possession.- 4, 5. Agro... diviso, by dividing the land conqueredfrotn the enemny (the " agerpublicus") among the citizens mat by man. -5. Ferre, sc. legeam or rogationen. - 6. Vellent juberentne. The formula of proposing a law in the Cornitia Curiata began with the words "Velitis jubeatis" and ended with the words "ita vos Quirites rogo." The two words expressing one idea, (the first in the internrl sphere, the second in. the outward manifestation,) the interrogative particle is placed after the second, as if they formed one compound word. The subjunctive is that of indirect question, after the.idea of asking the people's decision implied in ferre ad popdulnt. - 8. Adfectandi, of ma, oking his iway to. S. - 11. In curia, i. e. with the senators. — 14. Et, also;: as well as those of Thebes and Mycenae. - Sceleris tragici, tragic guilt, or rather (with a stronger meaning than we usually give to "tragic " in English,) such guilt as fornmed the argument of many of the great Greek tragedies, guilt of tragic horror. - 15- sq. (Id)que pegnum esset ultimlum, q'uod, etc. - 18, 19. Pluribus -- ediderimi after "(or with) the larger numiber' of authorities, I should 8say he 7as18 the so,. Pluribus auctoribus, ablative absolute. - 22, 23. Forts ita inciderat, neo. As we. have Ie and: not..ut non, the meaning seems

Page  279 BOOK I, CHAP. XLV-XLVII. Q279 ~ Page -to be: Fate had so ordained, (i. e. that the women themselves 65 should be of different characters,) in order that the two violent natures should not be united, etc., so that Servius's reign should last the longer, etc. - 26. Ferox Tullia. As a rule, proper names in Latin do not take epithets, but the adjective is attached to some appositive noun, as vir or mulier. Here, however, the adjective distingulishes which of the two Tulliae is meant —the high-spirited Tullia, as opposed to the Tullia mitis ingenii. - 27. Cupiditatem, ambition, ambitious enlterprise. - 28. Mirari. Historical infinitive. - Virum, really a man. - 29. Regio, truly royal. -30. Virum. Again used in a full emphatic sense. — Muliebri cessaret audacia, she was wanting in the daring. which became her as a wonian. - 31, 32. Ut - aptissimum, as generally one evil fits close in, to another. -- 34, 35.. Viro, (her) husband, fratrem, (his) brother; sorore (her) sister, virum, (her sister'8) husband. — Viduam, unmarried. - 37. Jungi. The present implies, to live united. Ut - esset. The best MSS. esse. Madvig boldly emends: jungi; nunc elanguescendum aliena ignavia esse. 1. Videat. Livy often introduces a present in the oratio ob- 66 liqua, in connection with historical tenses, for variety and vivacity. -2. Implet, infects. S. It takes a genitive, after the analogy of plen7u8.-2. Ita Lucius, etc. So Wsb. The MSS. Arruns, which Mg. edits, although he says it is an undoubted slip on Livy's part, and that the reading Lucius is required by-the facts. If one is morally certain that a writer has accidentally said one thing when he meant to say another, ought he not to print what he is sure the author would print himself, if he could revise the proofs? of course informing the reader of the discrepancy of the MS. At the same time, the MSS. ought not to be: departed from too easily. Following them, and placing no -comma after minor, we may make Arruns T. et T. m. the. subject of fecissent, and supply L. -Torqlinits et Tullia nmajor as the subject of jiugrtntlr. This is harsh, but perhaps possible, Another difficulty, however, remains, which Seeley thus states and meets. "Dionysius tells us expressly that the wicked Tullia was the. yol(unger. We have- to suppose, therefore, either that Livy differs from Dionysius, which is nothing. new, or that he has made a slip, not in writing' Arruns Tarquinius,' but in writing' Tullia minor.' " Altogether, this is a locus lrbricus. XLVII. 6, 7. Infestior, infestiui, snore insecure,'more subject

Page  280 280 NOTES. Page 66 to attack. The adjective is used passively. —9. Gratuita, in vain, luseless.-10. Non sibi, etc. Tullia's words in oratio obliqua, changing (lines 14 sqq.) to oratiao recta. Cui nupta diceretur, i. e. "a nominal husband." - 16. Istic - in te. - 17, 18. Ab Corintho, ab Tarquiniis. I. e. as a Corinthian or a Tarquinian.18, Peregrina regna, a foreign, throne. - 19. Moliri, to gain with diffeidtty, to build laboriously. —20. Imago, the bust with a wa xen mask, in the atrium. — 21. Tarquinium. An adjective. Translate, of Tarqnin. - 22. Frustraris civitatem, excite f(,lse hopes in the state, raise hopes destined to be disappointed.- 23. Regium juvenem, a prince. - 27. Cum, while. The subjunctive -here follows cume in a clause contrasting a case referred to with the case in hand. See M. 358, Obs. 3. - Tantum moliri, to acconmplish so great a task. - 30. Momentum, in;fi2ence, power. -32. Muliebribus furiis, madness (or blind parssion) of his swife. - 33. Why did he solicit the minortln gentiunm patres especially? Because they owed their admission to the senate to his father.- 36. Regis. Objective genitive. - Omnibus locis, anionsg all ranks. S. - Crescere. I. e. he gained adherents. - 39. Pro curia, in the senate-house, in a position promiently forward. "Pro significat in, ut pro rostris, pro aede, pro tribunali." Festus. 87 4. Fraudi (sibi), iljur'ionuS to themselves. —4, 5. De Servio actum (esse), that Servius had had his day; familiarly, that it was all over with Servius. - 6. Ab stirpe ultima orsus, begin. ning as far back as his birth.- 12. Alienae honestatis, of the noble birth (or rank) of others. - 13. Ereptum primoribus agrum, i. e. practically taken from the nobles, because they would otherwise have enjoyed it alone. S. XLVIII. 19. The vestibule is the irp6vaos, or space between the door of the temple and the columns in front of the building. — 25. Per licentiam eludentem, "playing his insolent game." Per licentiam, in a wanton (or insolent) manner. This use of the preposition pelr is not infrequent. Eludentem is used absolutely. - 26. Dominis, masters of slaves. An insulting allusion (as servnum, in line 24) to Servius's alleged servile. origin. - 27, 28. (Eum) qui vicisset regnaturum (esse).-29. Mg. omits etiam, thinking it to have come from a repetition of the jam. But. Wsb. (while he retains the MSS. reading) makes the still better suggestion that the syllable mm Falone may have arisen from repctition, and that we should read jae et ips,. - 3. In inferiorern partbmi to the' fbtis,t; that is; to the ooinitium

Page  281 BOOK I, CHAP. X LVII-XLIX. 7281 Page below. - Deicit. The MSS. reading here of this present tense is 67 deiecit. In this verb, as well as in eicio, two forms were used: deicio, deiecio, eicio, eieio. -32. In curiam defines redit. - 36. Admonitu, at the sllugyestion. 2. Summum -vicum, the highest point' of the C(yprian street. 68 According to Varro, "cyprus" in the Sabine language meant good. The vicus C'yprius ran along under the Carinae, probably ascending as it went, and from its highest point the Urbilts (or Orbiis) Clivs18 led up the Esquiline. - 3. Flectenti, so. Talliae. Another dative of reference depending upon the whole clause res- titit - agebat. Literally, "to her as she turned her chariot to the right hand into'the Urbian street, the driver (is qui j, men ta agebat) stopped-" etc. - 7. Inde, literally, from that point. We should say, here, or hereupon. —8. They call it the street of Crime.- 9. Furiis, the avenging furies. - 13. Quibus iratis, so that through their anger. -14. Prope diem, soon. The intervening time was twenty-five years. - 22. Liberandae, sc. from royal rule. XLIX.-LX. L. Tarquinius Superbus, seventh king. (Mythical date 534-510 B. C.) XLIX. Tarquin puts to death the leading men of the state, surrounds himself with a body-guard, and forms connections with the Latins. L. He calls an assembly of Latins at the grove of Ferentina. Turnus Herdonius inveighs against him. LI. Tarquinius makes a false accusation against Turnus and procures his death. LII. The league with the Latins is renewed. LIII, LIV. War with the Volscians and with Gabii, which is taken by treachery. LV, LVI. Building of the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline, and other public works. Prodigies. Embassy to Delphi. Response of the oracle. LVII. War with the Rutu. lians. The lust of Sextus Tarquinius. LVIII. The outrage on Lucretia. Her suicide. LIX, LX. Under the leadership of Brutus, royal government is overthrown and the Tarquinii expelled. The republic is established 510 B. C. XLIX. 25. Superbo, virepvqvo; (Dion. 4, 41), haughty, tyrannical. - 27. Primnores patrum. i.L e. thepatres najorin gentium. -31. (Neque) adjus regni quicquam, nothing towards a claim to royalty, nothing by way of a Mi.slit to the throne. S. - 32. Ut qui, intasmich as he, or, inasmuch as he wvas one who. - 34. Reponenti, sc. 7'arqlinio. - 36. Sine consiliis, withoutt as.ociate-juldges, "without hearing the opinions of wise men." - 37. Pbr enaM cauiisami, under this pretenc6. — 3. Unb a qULibe.

Page  282 282 NOTES. Page 69 2. Quo =ut eo, in order that thus.- -5. Domesticis, private; of his nearest friends and adherents.-15. Ab is used with oriundus of remote origin. - Circa. The Latin termination a instead of the Greek (Ci'rce). —16. Nuptum. Supine. L. 19. The use of in is unusual. We should expect either diem, or an accusative like conciliumn in place of the object-clause aut... convenianlt. —20. The fountain anld grove of Ferentina, in the valley of Marino, north of the Alban lake, was the place of assembly of the representatives of the Latin Confederacy. - 23. T-he assembly, like the meetings of the Roman senate, was closed at sunset. - 24. Toto die. The ablative to express duration of time is rare in the best writers. M. 235, Obs. 3.-25. Ab Aricia =Aricinas.-27. Inditum, so. ei (of which there are some indications in- MSS.). Hz. reads ei ivditum cognomnen. —29. An quicquam esse. Rhetorical questions of this kind, not asked for an ~answer, take the accusative and infinitive in oratio obliqua. — Superbius, more the act of a tyrant. S.-33. Obnoxios premat, hte mfry oppress them (i. e. the Latins) as his subjects. -34 Quod, so. imperihm. —35. Bene, with good results: if: they had done well' to entrust, etc.- Crediderint, se. ei (Tarquinio). - Aut, or rather, or still more.-37. Ne sic quidem, not even it, this case, not even if this were so. 70 6. His artibus. Explained by the preceding adjectives, seditiosus8 fac0-inors8sqle. - Opes domi nactus. Livy is thinking of a tribune of later times. Wsb.-Cum maxime, at- the very moment sohei. -8. Orationi. Dative, not genitive, because is refers to something which did not belong to the speech itself. Wshb.- 9. Silentio facto, i. e. by the lictor. - 10. Id temporis - eo tempore. Id, adverbial accusative. —14. Ne —tacitum, i. e. that here also he did not come off without a comment from Turnus. Literally, he did not carry even this away (tacitum, passive participle) passed over in silence by Turnus. - 15. Dixisse, sc. Turnne.. — 17. (Filium), ni pareat patri, habiturum infortanium esse, will have the worst of it: it will go hard with-him: i. e. he will have a good beating. The Latin expression is a col-loquial and somewhat inelegant one: "he will get into a scrape." Through the patria potestas the father could compel unconditional obedience. LI. 23. Pro imperio, by virtule of his-o2ficial power: the power lhe possessed at Romey but not yet over:the Latins. —24 Crimaine,

Page  283 BO300 I, -CHAP. L-LIV. 283 Page accusrte;on. -.25. Adversae factionis. I. e. those won:over by 70 Ta.,quinius to advocate the union-with Rome. - 23. Ut in, etc. Ut is not found in the MSS., but is required by the sense.- 32. Ab Turno is taken with parari. -34. Adgressurum faisse, that he hd intendled to execute his plot. 8. Caedis= caedes. Nominative case. 71 LII. 22. Qui, because they. -25. In should probably be. omitted. — 26. Ab Tullo, from the time of. Tullus.- 38. Docummentum, warnzilng. 5. Secretum, separate. —6, 7. Ut —singulis. Each Latin 72 and each Roman maniple was divided by Tarquinius. into two halves (binos faceret ex sin.gquEs), then two of those halves (one Roman and one Latin) were united to -form a new maniple, until they were all thus combined, (ex binis sigulos faceret). Livy's order of statement:is the reverse of the order in fact. - 8. Centu. riones. Livy assumes that this was the beginning of the arrangement by which each maniple consisted of two centuries with two. centurions, but a single'standard. LIII. 11. Degeneratum, his degeneracy. The neuter of a perfect passive participle used as a noun.-12. Is primus, he (it 1VaS that)'first. —In, etc., (thatt should last) for more than two -hundred years, etc. Of course there were interruptions ih this long period of warfare. —15. Divendenda. So Mg. from P, which reads dividenda. Others, divendita. - 21. Lentius spe, "diuturnius quam speraverat." - 22. Nequiquam = pqlicqlam. - 23. Pulso, sc. ei.-25. Posito, laid rside.-26. Jaciendis. So Mg. in place of faciendis.- 27. Minimus, sc. natu. The two elder brothers were Titus and Arruns. - 80, Vertisse, sc. eunt, i. e. patrem. - 33. Quam, quem, any. Indefinite pronoun. -36. Manere iis, was kept in store for them, awaited them. 7. Si nihil morarentur, sc.'eum, if they should not detain him, 73 i. e. if they should disniss him. At the dismission of the senate, the presiding magistrate said, Nihil namplius vos moramur. —10. Esset, sc. Tarquinius. -10, 11. In se ipsum saeviturum, he would vent:his -rage,,pon himself. — 12. Ejus, i. e. Sexti Tarquinii. - Futurumque oredere (sc. se) brevi, and they believed it would soon come to pasrs. LIV. 18. Esse. Historical infinitive. Alschefski's emendation. The MSS. esset.-19, 20. Nosset with an accusative, but sciret with an object-clause, which nosse cannot take after it...., Seeley

Page  284 284 NOTES. Page 73 compares the French contnastre and savoir. -20. Profecto is here equivalent to a fortiori. S. —22. Ad reballandum, to renew the war. - 32. Verto conveys that his popularity with the soldiers was far greater than with the people.' The people thought him a heaven-sent general: but as for the soldiers!'" S. — 33. Pariter, equally (with them), i. e. with the soldiers. 74 1. Unus Gabiis. So Mg. After unus M has p Gabiis, and P has p. Gabinis. Wsb. reads [prae]. Various conjectures have been made as to the meaning of this "p," as praetor, praeter (Grabinos), praec;ple, publice, ipsis; to which I will add pro, in the sense of in behalf of, as the representative of,- perhaps- better followed by Gtbiniie than by Gabiis. This meaning of the preposition is similar to that in pro consule. With Mg.'s reading, Gabiis is locative ablative. -.4. Sequenti. Ablative case; although it is the general rule that in ablatives absolute the present participle singular ends in e. —6. Baculo decussisse. A similar story is told of Thrasybulus in Herodotus 5, 92. —11, 12. Tacitis ambagibus, by his silent indirect emblem (or way of indicating his meaning). — 3. Alios - opportunos, others as thrown in his way by the odium which they themselves had incurred (i. e. among the people, by their deeds). —17. Juxta atque - aeque ac. - 18 Divihi. This dative of destination, end, or result, is used like the dative in odio, usn1i, derisuti ease. - 23. Orba consilio. Inasmuch as the primores had been put out of the way. LV. 28. Tarpeius is the old name of the Capitoline hill. - 29. Esset tota with the genitive, mi(ght belong. wholly to. - 3. Exaugurare, to deprive of their sanctity, to unhallow, to annul the consecration of. - 3-36. Movisse numen deos, that the gods exhibited (lit. set in motion) their Divie power. 75 1, 2. Non motam — finibus, that the immovability of Termins, and thefact that he alone of the gods could not be called out of his consecrated bounds, portended, etc. Dionysius, and Livy himself in another passage (V. 54, 7), state that the altar of Juventas also could not be exaugurated, — a promise of eternal youth to the city and state. -5. Caput humanum. This attempt to explain the word Capitoliim. was afterwards improved by the addition that the head was that of a King Olus (caput Ol regis Serv. ad Aen. viii. 347). S.-7. Eamil that it, i. e. the temple. Attracted to the gender of arcem, the first noun of the predicate.- 9. Quique, quosquei - Que - quel bodth ad. ue. que belongd

Page  285 BOOK I, CHAP. LIV-LVI. - 285 Page specially to double relative clauses. M. 435, Obs. 1; Z. 338.-10. Ad 75 inpensas, sc.faciendas.-11. Pomptinae, PoInetian. So Campanus, C"puan, Sabellus, Samnnite. Mg. -The manubize (according to Pseudo-Asconius ad Cic. Verr. p. 199) is the general's portion of the plunder from a captured city. - 14. Crediderim, I am inclined to trust Fabius when he says, etc. II. 486, III. 3 and 6; A. & S. 260, Rem. 4; B. 1178, 1179; A. 60, 2; G. 54.-15. Pisoni. L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, consul 133 B. C., censor 120 I. C., and hence Censorius, wrote Annales treating of the history of Rome from its beginning to his own times. The political constitution, the manners and customs of the people, and their religious observances, received his attention. - 13, Pondo. This indeclinable noun is here used as accusative plural. -19, 23. Et nullius - exsuperaturam, atnd hsichi w ould be more than sufficiet for the foundsations of any even. of outr p)esenlt bttildi;,gs. -19. Horum, of these (works) of our day. -Magaifientiae. We make better sense by omitting this word, with Ussing. " The word seems to have come hither from 56, 2," (p. 75, line 31). F. V. Reiz pro. poses nullloum. ne hujus qtuidem mcltnifticentie operumt; but here, says Ussing, he would more correctly say, 1ull;/ls and operis. - 20. Exsuperaturam. "On this hypothetical and adjectival use of the future participle, unknown, except in the case of flturn.s, to Cicero, Caesar, and Sallust, see MI. 425, Obs. 5;" Z. 639, note; A. & S. 274, Rein. 6 (b); B. 1355; G. 79. LVI. 23. Quam. Bekker. The M3S. quae. —28. Tarquinius Priscus had already caused or allowed fori to be built (chap. 35); t(hey appear now, says Weissenborn, to be built in a more permanent form, and:;t the public expense. - The cloaca maxima is called the receptaculuh onnniulm purgsmnentor1uns l.urbis inasmuch as the other sewers all emptied into it. Its first purpose was to drain the valley between the Aventine, Capitoline, and Palatine. This admirable structure is still in existence, almost uninjured by time.-29. Terra. P, Mg. - others, terran. - 32, 33. Urbi oneri esse. M. 249; II. 390, I.; A. & S. 227; B. 848, 849 adlfinem; A. 51, VII.; G. 148. -37. Anguis. A snake is the symbol of the Genius-of the household god. Cf. Liv. xxv-i. 19, 7, (iifna p. 213, lifne 36.) 11. Alius ing3fnii. Genitive of. quality. Madvig's enends- 76 tion, for alits inenleio.- 11 12. Quam-inaduerat, fron (that) of owhich he had put on''7the assu!nled alspea rance.-13. In quibus — et in iis, ctand among them. —13, 14. Interfectos. So Madvig. The

Page  286 286. NOTERS. Page 76 MSS: in.te)fectunz. -17. EX industria factus, having intentionallty~ formed himself: Fio in a reflexive sense. —19. Bruti. The story evidently arises from the meaning dull, ltumpish, stupid, "the Dullaird," which belongs to the word Brutus. - 20. Ille ani.:lus liberator populi Romani. Liberator is here used nearly in the sense of the future participle liberattrus (populurn, etc.). The nown is very properly used to denote the ever-metnorable character in which Brutus afterwards appeared. - 23. Corneo, of coralelwoood.-Ad id, for that plir0ose.-24, 25. Per ambages effigiem, a symbolical representation. -'S. - 31, 32. Tarquinii, ut Sextus. So Madvig. The MSS. T'arquinius Sextus, q. R. r. f., ut ignarns, etc. 77 LVII. 3, 4. Ea regione. The country is (at least at:present): swampy and sandy. Ardea, however, had a seaport near the modern St. Ariastasio, and derived wealth from commerce. Wsb. In ea aetate. Cicero would have used'tbelablative without a preposition. Z. 475, note ad fJi.; H. 426, 2, 1); A. & S. 253, note 1;: B. 953; A. 55, 1. 1; G. 192. -109. Temptata = tentata. - 12. Coepti, sc. s3nt. - 15. Regii juvenes, the young prilces. - 16. Cornisationibus -- comnisstionibus. -Inter se, at each other's quarters. —18. L. Tarquinius Collatinus had his cognomen from Collatia, where he dwelt. See the genealogical table, in the notes on chap. 34, (p. 268.)- 22 sq. Quin conscendimus equos I why do we not mount our horses? Such' questions are equivalent to exhortations (Z. 542): Come, let us mount onr horses. - 25. Praesentes, in 1person. —25 sq. Id cuique spectatissimum sit, let that be the best test ofeach, i. e. of each of our wives. This translation I gave to my classes at Harvard twenty years ago, as I find by my old manuscript notes. It is substantially the same as Seeley has just proposed. -33. In medio aedium, i. e. in the atrium. In earlier prose we should have in mediis aedibus.- 34. Muliebris. This adjective is used like an objective genitive' mulierum,' in regard to the wome,. 78 LVIII. Circa, i. e. omnia circa. The adjective is supplied from omnnes. —14. Versare, he worked upon. -In omnes partes, in every direction; by all possible means. —17. Servum, the slave; (cosnite uno, p. 78, line'4.) —(Se) positurum (esse).- 18. Sordido =cim sordido homnine (a slave) corimisso. —19. Quo= ceujus rei.- 19. Velut victrix. The -lust was not really the conqueror, but-only apparently. Z. The reading, however, is proba

Page  287 BOOK I, CHAP. LVII-LIX. 287 Page bly false. Mg. substitutes vel vi. Other conjectures; have been 78 made, but none is satisfactory. Seeley suggests violatrix in place of the two words. - 23. Cum singulis, each with onle,(or a). -24. Facto. Ablative of the perfect passive participle, after opuus eat. 1. 419, V. 3, 1); A. & S. 243, Rem. 1; B. 926; A. 54, VII.; G. 190; 3, Rem. 2.- 26. Sp. Lucretius Tricipitinus was the father of Lucretia.- Publius Valerius was afterwards called Publicola.31. Satin -- satisne. Salve, se. agia, or res.shebabent. 1. Animi. A locative case; sick at heart. M. 296, b, Obs. 3. 79 Less subtilely, it. be considered as a genitive of specification. -4. Vos videritis, do you see. Subjunct. of permission. — 9. Con. clamat. Referring to the custom of calling a person loudly by name just after death. LIX. 11. Volnere =vsllere.-16. Denique. So Madvig. The MSS. dehiplc. -Exacturum: Wsb., Mg., Hz. The MSS. exsecutuartm. - 19. -In Bruti pectore. "This of course sounded more forcible to a Roman than it can to us, to whom Brutus is a mere. proper name.' In the breast of the dullard.'" S. - 20.. Ingenium, se. esset. -22. Secuntur =-seqnultur. - 28. Auctor, i. e., who exhorted them, called upon them (to take up arms). - Quod deceret, as became. A thing which, as he said, was becoming to: hence the subjunctive. —29. Adversus hostilia ausos. I. e. against those who had dared to do what usually only an enemy in open war attempts. Z. -31. Parte. Mg., Wsb.-M pari, P paris, whence J. F. G. pars pars praesidio reli(ti. - Praesidio. Dative.Praesidium seems to. be used here in the sense of guards, not garrison, unless, with Heerwagen, we change the order of words, and read parte praesidio relicta C6ollrtiae cuatoli'bilsque datis ad portas. -38. Primores. I. e. Collatinus and Brutus. 3. Tribunum Celerum. The commander of the Celeres (chap. 80 xv.) was next in command in the whole army to the king. Seeley remarks, on "the supposed improbability that Brutus, being a dullard, should have held this magistracy," that " Tarquin is represented as devoted to family government, and of such governments the appointment of notoriously unfit men to office is the most characteristic fault." The improbable story is that Brutus wfasf a dullhard. -14. Caedis =ceedas. Nominative singular.16, 17. Rerum indignitas, indi;nrt;ion at the facts. Indignitas, the sense of the indignnm. - Rerum, objective genitive. —18. Subicit (-subjicit), suggests (to the speaker). - 24. The prae

Page  288 288 NOTES. Page 80 fectus urbis (Livy. More commonly elbi) was, according to Tacitus (Ann. 6, l1l), an officer appointed in the absence of the king, and afterwards of the magistrates, to administer justice and attend to any unexpected business which might arise. - 27. Furias, the vuenging fiuries. - 29. Pergeret, proceeded. - 30. Flexit viam, ch/anyed his rbtd. — 36. The name of the town, Caere, stands in the terminal accusative without a preposition; but with the name of the people, Etruscos, (as with the name of a country,) the preposition is used. Cf. Ardeart itt castra est prof.,etils, lines 22, 23. 81 4 Regnatum (est), kings- ruled; royal government continued. - 6. Consules. This name was introduced at a later period. The original name of the chief magistrates was praetor. - 6. A praefecto Urbis. " According to Dion. 4, 84, Lucretius was named interrlea by Brutus to conduct the elections. The question has been much discussed whether the tribuus ceelerum and the p.ae. s t urbis had the powers which they are here described as exercising. Bitt these proceedigs ivere avowedly revolutionary." Seeley. -7. Ex conmentariis Servi Tulli. To be taken with cmi,,itli:._clnt,rliatis as well as with consules creati; it being alleoed that Servius Tullius had drawn up a constitution prescribing the di''isions of centuries and classes, as well as the manner of electing consuls. BOOK TWENTY-FIRST. I. The Second Punic War -(B. C. 218-201), the most memorable ever waged. Hannibal's oath. The causes of the war. Page 83 I. 1. Parte, a portion, division, section. -2. Summae totius, of the whole connected-work.-Professi sunt, etc. Thus Thucydides declares, at the beginning of his history, that the Peloponnesian war was more worthy of-account than any that had preceded it. - a. Rerum, of hi.sto,y. -4. Quae gesta sint. Attracted subjunctive in a relative clause which is co,nnected as a constitluettp, rt to a clause itself subordinate (having its subject in the accusative and its verb in the infinitive). IH. 527, 3; A. & S. 266, 1; B. 1291; G. 424. The relative clause which follows, quod - gessere, takes the indicative, as being an added statement of a particular

Page  289 BOOK XXI, CHAP. I. 289 Page fact, (namely, that which,) and not incorporated as an essential 83 part with the preceding dependent general proposition.- 6. Gessere. The occasional use of the termination -re instead of -runt, in the third person plural of the perfect, is one of the points in which Livy differs from Cicero and the older prose writers.5. Livy says which the Carthaginians (not simply Hannibal) waged, to bring out the fact that the war was fought with the consent of Carthage; although, after its unfortunate issue, all the blame was thrown on Hannibal. -6. Opibus, in (their) resources. Ablative of specification, defining the application of validiores. H. 429, 1; A. & S. 250; B. 889; G..194; A. 54, I. - Inter se, with each other. -8. Tantum virium, so large forces. - Roboris, (80 great) strength, vigor.-9. Inter sese, says Weissenborn, is better referred to the subject of colserebant, (so as to mean together, with each other,) than to haud ignotas (not unknown to each other). I should rather say the contrary. But, while for English translation it must be taken with one-r the other, it may really modify both. Such double constructions are frequent in Horace. -Expertas. Passive.-10. Conserebant is used with belli artes after the analogy of manus, pugnam conserere. It has a fuller meaning than haud ignotis artibnL bellum gerebant, and is a more striking expression. The impe'fect indicates the beginning and the continuance of the struggle, on which the reader's attention is to linger.-11. The adverb propius, like pi ope and proxime, isregularly construed with the accusative in Livy; the adjective more commonly with the dative, but also with the accusative. Wsb. - The first Punic war began B. C. 264, and ended B. C. 241, with the defeat of the Carthaginians in the naval battle off the Aegates islands. -12. Qui vicerunt. This relative clause is certainly an essential definition of the subject of the subjunctive fuerint, and yet the indicative is used for emphasis and vividness. Wsb. translates, who remained victorious, who were left victors. Cf. Sil. Ital. i. 13-14: propiubque fuere periclo Quis superare datum. Certarunt = certaveritint. -14, 15. Quod inferrent, quod crederent. The subjunctive is used after the causal conjunction because the reason is stated according to.the views of the parties referred to (the Romans and Carthagini - Imperitatum esse. A passive impersonal.- The Romaus. showed their haughtiness and greed, when Carthage was occupied in subduing the insurrection of the mercenaries and Libyans, by taking 19 — Livy.

Page  290 290 N OTE S. Page 83 Sardinia, and demanding a ransom of 1200 talents as the condition of their not renewing the war. See 11. 22-25. - 16. Annorum novem. Genitive of description, quality, characteristic. H. 396, IV.; A. & S. 211, Rem. 6; B. 757; G. 161; A. 50, I. 2. -17. Hamilcar, surnamed Barca (lightning, Hebrew pan, Barak), the energetic general of the Carthaginians in Sicily in the latter part of the first Punic war, the suppressor of the insurrection of the mercenaries and Libyans, (Africo bello, i. 18, 24,) and the conqueror of Spain, was the father of Hannibal, Hasdrubal, and Mago, "f.the lion's brood,' as he called them." -Du. ceretur, he shoutld be taken with hitm.- 19. Altaria, the high altar in the inner part of a temple, is commonly used as a plurale tantum, because such an altar is a compound object, consisting of several constituent parts. -19, 20. Tactis sacris. " Those who took oaths used to lay their hands upon the victims, or on the altar, or some other sacred thing, as if by so doing they brought before them the deity by whom the oath was sworn, and made him witness of the ceremony." Dict. Arntiqq. p. 660.- 22. Spiritus. Genitive. - Sicilia Sardiniaque amissae, the loss of Sicily and Sardinia. M. 426; H. 580; A. & S. 274, Rem. 5; B. 1357; A. 72, 2.- 23. Rerum, of their cause. - 23, 25. Siciliani concessam (esse), Sardiniam interceptam (esse). Sc. putabat, or querebatur. - 25. Stipendio, a war contribution. See note on line 15. 84 II. Hamilcar founds a Carthaginian kingdom in Spain by his generalship (B. C. 236-228), which is confirmed by the adroit statesmanship of his son-in-law Hasdrubal (B. C. 227-220). The Romans make an agreement with Hasdrubal that the Ebro shall be the boundary of the two empires, and that the independence of Saguntum shall be respected by both parties. II. 1. Africo bello. The war with the Libyans and mercenaries. —Quinque annos. According to Polybius (1, 88), only three years and four months (B. C. 241-238), and Hamilear did not take the command till 239: but Livy takes in the whole time which Hamilcar spent in Africa after the peace with Rome (241 B. C.) till he went to Spain. Wsb. - 6. Inlaturos (illaturos) fuisse. The apodosis being dependent upon appareret takes this periphrastic infinitive. In an independent sentence we should have had the pluperfect subjunctive. -7. Quae. So Mg., after the Basel-editioij of 1535; the MSS. and Wsb. qiti; Hz. (conj. Hwg.)

Page  291 BOOK XXI) CH-AP. I-III. 291 Page cui.- 8. Mors Hamiloaris. Hamilcar fell in battle in Spain 84 B. C. 228 (Mommsen). -:10. Obtinuit, held. -11, 12. Having been at first recommended to Hcimilcar, as they say, by his youthfsl beauty, and afterwards received as his son-in-law ifl consequence, certainly, of the lofly char)acter qf his mind. It is hard to decide between the readings altam and alia.' Altam' is adopted by Sig., J. F. G., J.G.,Cr., Dr., ed. Bipont., Kr., Bkr., Hz., and many others;'aliam' has the best MS. authority, and is read by Alsch., Mg.,Wsb. With it,ob aliam i. p.aninmi is translated,on account of another nativequality, certainly, (I mean or that is) of the mind. This reading would be easier if we could take profecto to mean' that is,''to wit,' instead of having to supply that meaning after it. With either reading,- the conjecture of Lipsius, provecto anitis, is unnecessary. 13. The Barcine party, which seems to have derived its name from the cognomen of Hamilcar, favored a renewal of the war against Rome, and was supported by the army and the common people. The aristocratic party, led by Hanno, was in favor of peace. - Opibus, by the itfqluence. - 15. Principum. I. e. the oligarchical leaders of the conservative party. - Imperio, the supreme command. - 19. Nihilo. Ablative of measure of difference, with the comparative tutior. - 20. Interfecti - domini, ~ at the slayin.q of his master by him (i. o. by Hasdrubal). Objective genitive, defining irant.- 22, 23. Haud alio vultu, and eo habitu. Descriptive ablative. M. 272; H. 428; A. & S. 211, Rem. 6; B. 888; G. 198; A. 54, II. -27. Ut, (with the additional stipulation) that. - Utriusque imperii. But the Romans at that time possessed nothing in Spain. Polybius (3, 27) says, more accurately than Livy, " with the stipulation that the Carthaginians should not cross the river Iberus to make war." III, IV. Hannibal is chosen commander (B. C. 220, Aloanmsen). His character. III. 32. Praerogativa, the vote, the choice. As the vote of the centuriapraeroyativa was considered to some extent as betokening the will of the gods, and was generally followed by the other centuries, praerogativa came to mean " vote" in general, "choice."Some predicate for this subject-nominative, like dum praeforern cr)earet, has probably fallen out, and should be supplied where the asterisks are placed in the 34th line. This is the reading of the best MSS., except that M and C have gluam instead of gua.-.

Page  292 292 NOTES. Page 84 35. Favor plebis (of the commons) sequebatur. At this time it was the custom for the army (or rather the Carthatginians in the army, and especially the officers) to choose the general, and this choice was ratified by the commons in a popular assembly summoned by the senate. - 36. Acoersierat =- arcessierat. - 37. Senatu. The Council of the Elders, composed of the two kings and the twenty-eight senators. - Barcinis. See note on line 13. - 39. Opes, power, influence, command. - Hanno, called the Great, was the leader of the conservative party. 85 3. Omnis. Accusative plural. H. 88, III. 1; A. & S. 85, Exe. 1; B. 114; A. 11, 2; G. p. 22, Ob6. 1. -4-6. Florem - censet, Hasdreubal thinks that that bloom of youth, which he himself offered to the service of the father of Hannllibal, is justly demanded in tern from the son.-7. Pro militari rudimento, instead of learning the art of war. Z. - 9. Hamilcaris filius, the son of a Hamilcar. Wsb. - Inmodica. " The Barcidae had founded in Spain an almost independent empire, and regarded the army, while they held it, as their own." " Cato the Elder, who,4a generation after Hamilcar's death, beheld in Spain the still fresh traces of his working, exclaimed, notwithstanding all his hatred of the Carthaginians, that no king was worthy to be named by the side of Hamilcar Barca: "-a testimony to his ability no less than to his power. -10. Speciem, the splendor, the kingly state and show. - 12. Istum juvenem, that young man of yours: speaking to the Barcine party, contemptuously. IV. 21. CredePe. Historical infinitive. - 23. Pater in se, his jfather in him, i. e. the resemblance he had to his father, the thoughts of his father he called up.- Minimum momentum, etc., the least efficient influence in gaining affection (or popularity). - 26. Haut = haud. - Discerneres. M. 350 a, 370; H. 486, III. 4; A. & S. 260, Rem. 2; B. 1278; A. 60, 1; G. 54.- 28, 30. Malle, confidere, audere. Historical infinitive. - 29. Quid. Indefinite pronoun. —Ubi esset. Imperfect subjunctive of frequent general cases: whenever, so often as. - 34 sq. Modus cibi potionisque finitus (est), etc.-37. Id quod gerendis rebus (dative case) superesset, that which was left after transacting business. - 38. Accersita - arcessita. - 39. Opertum, so. ernm. 86 1. Custodias, guards, (sentries, etc.) - Stationes, (larger bodies of men than custodiae,) outposts. —3. Conspiciebantur, were what:distinguished him; were conspicuous for their beauty;

Page  293 BOOK XXI, CHAP. III-v. 293 Page attracted notice.-Idem, at the same time. M. 488; Z. 127; H. 451, 86 3; A. & S. 207, Rem. 27, (a); B. 1034; A. 20 in flle; G. 97.-4. Princeps, foremost, at the head of his troops. - 6 sqq. These charges against Hannibal are most unjust; the first is the only one that can be said to have any foundation; but it may be doubted whether even that is applicable, if he be judged by the standard of the times and the examples of Roman commanders. An army that is soundly beaten generally thinks the victorious enemy cruel. " Though anger and envy and meanness," says Mommsen (Book iii. chap. iii.), " have -written Hannibal's history, they have not been able to mar the pure and noble image which it presents." - 7. A Carthaginian had probably as good a right to talk of perfidia Ro-nmana as a Roman of perfidia Punica.- 8. Nihil veri. The neuter adjective used substantively, in the genitive after nihil: no truth, i. e. no sense of truth.-Nihil sancti, no sense of holiness, no purity and blamelessness of life. —9. Nulla religio, "no feeling of dependence on the gods." But see chap. 21, and book xlv. chap. 8, for proof of the contrary. - Videnda. \ He strove to learn to see and know everything with his own eyes. Z. -12. Futuro, one destined to be, or purposing to be. V) VI. Aiming at Saguntum, Hannibal makes war upon some Spanish tribes (B. 0. 220). The Romans send ambassadors to:him. V. 14. Provincia, as his province (in the Roman sense: explained -by belluntque Romanum mansdttum esset). -19 Movebantur, were (we should say woulld be) set~ in -motion, aroused. The indicative expresses the certainty with which Hannibal felt that this result would follow. - 21. Parte, the territory, the district assigned to the Carthaginians.- 23. Jungendo, and by annexing thenz. The use- of jfn/qere without an object is rare. Wsb. cites Plin. Ep. 3, 19, 2: praedia agris meis vicina venalia sant: in his me mnlta so01icitant; solicitat ipsa pulchr'itudo j'ungendi.-26 Quo metu - cljyue rei mlett. - Stipendio, a war contribution. - 29. Stipendio, the soldiers' pay (for the past campaign). -31. In Vaccaeos. The preposition, which would be used with the name of the country, is used with the name of the people standing for that of their country. - 37.- Haut = haud. 1. Ab, on the part of.- 2. Ita, to such an extent: only so far 87 towards the river. -5. Impeditum. Heerwagen's emendation in place of peditum. - 7. Adpendicibus = appendicibus. -8, 9. In.

Page  294 294 NOTES. Page 87 victa = quae vintci nont pottit. -10, 12. -The causal conjunction quod, because, takes the indicative (credebant) of a fact stated by the historian himself, the subjunctive (interesset) of a fact stated as a part of the thought of the Carpetani. - 14. Ex parte altera, i. e. from Hannibal's side of the river.-15. Inmissa, sc. est,-16. Concursum, sc. est. -16-20. Quippe ubi (inasmnlch as there)-posset-gereret. A relative clause (after the relative adverb ubi), with the subjunctive denoting a reason, strengthened by quippe. The contest was uneven, because the infantry of the Spaniards could be thrown down even by unarmed horsemen, but the Carthaginian horsemen could make free use of their weapons. - 17. Vix vado fidens, hardly trlSting to the ford; "hardly stepping surely even in shallow places, hence ilstabilis. The opposite to vada is gurgites (19) and verticoso amni (21)." - 18. Corpore armisque. Ablative of specification or respect, with liber. - 19. Etymology of comminus and eminus 1-20. Rem gereret, waged the fight. - 21. In hostis (accusative plural), to the enemy drawn up on the opposite bank. - 25. Agmine quadrato, here in close array, in complete battle order. VI. 31, 32. Certamina serebantur, qularrels wvere excited, between the Saguntines and their neighbors, by Hannibal's means. -32 sq. Hannibal, who had himself stirred up the strife, assisted the Turdetani and advocated their cause. —33. Juris, in regard'to right. Genitive of respect. - 35. Missi, se. sunt. - Hant haud.-36. Orantes. Notice this use of the present participle.38. Qui cum, and wohen they. - 39. De re publica retulissent, had laid before that body (i. e. the senate) a proposition in regard to this matter-of plublic interest. 88 2. Quibus si videretur, etc., et denuntiarent, etc., who, if the occasion seemed to them to demand it, should both'give.warning to Hannibal, etc. The relative pronoun, instead of being made the subject of denuntiarent, is placed in the protasis, where we should use the demonstrative.- 4, 5. Traicerent- trajicerent. -7. Spe, e.xpectation. - 10. Censebant, gave thei'r vote. - 11. Intendebant.: So Mg. and old editors. The MSS. intenderant. -12. Movendam, set in motion, unsdertakesn. VII.-XV. SAGUNTUL. VII, VIII. Hannibal begins the siege of Saguntum, (spring of 219 B. C.) IX.-XI. ~ 3. The Roman ambassadors, refused an audience by Hannibal, proceed to Car-,thage., Speech of Hanno in the Carthaginian senate. Answer

Page  295 BOOK XXI, CHAP. VI-VII. 295 Page of the Carthaginian senate to the Romans. XI. % 3-XV. Siege of 88 Saguntum continued. Attempts at mediation made by Alco and Alorcus. The city taken by storm after an eight months' siege, and sacked (B. C. 219). VII. 24. Brevi, so. tenmpore. - 26. Disciplinae, of their public morals, their tone of morality. - Qua, inl consequence of which. -:Socialem, -with their allies. - 28. Finis. Accusative plural. — 31. Circa quae. circa erant. - Vineae were portable shelters for -soldiers engagged in besieging operations, named from their re-semblance to a grape-arbor. The roof was protected with wicker-work and raw hides. Several of them were frequently joined -together. When the vineae had been carried:close to the walls, the soldiers under their shelter undermined the walls or drove the battering-ram against them. —32. Per quas =ut per eas. A relative clause of purpose with the subjunctive. The aries or battering-ramns was a large beam to one end of which was fastened a mass of bronze or iron which resembled in its form the head of a ram. It was sometimes suspended by ropes or chains, so that the soldiers could with ease give it a rapid and forcible motion backwards and forwards. It was used to shake, perforate, and batter down the walls of besieged cities. Dict. Antiqq. - 33, 34. Ut... ita, although... still.-35. Effectum operis, the execution (or carrying out) of thie work. - Coeptis succedebat = coepta succedebant. The verb is impersonal, with the dative. —37. Emunitus erat, had been built uop. 1 sqq. Submovere, pati, micare. Historical infinitive. The 89 subject of the first two is the Saguntines (understood); of micare, tela - 2. lunientibus, those erecting batteries, or engaged in any other work of military engineering. - Pro, forth fron. - 5. NBrme, generally, as a rule. -7, 8. Adversum, in the front, in the part turned towards the enemy.-Femur. Accusative of speci-:*:ttion after ictus.-Tragula, a spear with a barbed head, used also by the Gauls and Helvetians. It was hurled by the aid of an almeuntcn or leathernuthong tied to the middle of the shaft. - 10. Opera, military engines, as catapultae and ballistae (chap. xi). VIII. 12. Dum with the subjunctive, in order that mean ihUie.13. Ut... ita, althou.gh (or hile)... yet. - 21. Non sufficiebant itaque. Madvig's punctuation. -23. Una (pars muri). —24. Tris - tres.-Turris. Nominative plural. —26. Qua, sc. rluila, by vwhich breach. Ablative of the route, as porta Collina urbem

Page  296 296 NOTES. Page 89 intrare. - 30. Occasionem partis alterius, a favorable opportunity for one party or the other. 90 2. Hastili abiegno. Descriptive ablative: with a shaft of firwood. - Cetera. Accusative of specification. - Tereti, r.ound, cylindrical.- 3. Id, i. e. the end (extremum). - 5. Habebat, sc. phalarica. -6. Armis, the shield. So line 10. The subject of posset is ferrum.- 8. Medium accensum mitteretur, it was thrown set on fire in tfhe middle. IX. 13, 14. Quia - resisterent, quia non vicisset. Subjunctive of the reasons as presented to the mind of the Saguntines. - 16. Inde, i. e. ex ruinis. -19. Missi, (messengers) were sent.19, 20. Qui dicerent, to say. Relative clause denoting purpose.22. Operae esse, was it worth while.' He had not time.' - 26. Pars altera, the opposite party, (the conservatives.) X. 28. Inrita —irrita. -32. Testis. Accusative plural. -33. Xonuisse, praedixisse. (He, said) he had warned them, he had told them beforehand.-$7. Quietura Romana foedera, would the treatfy'with Rome be left in peace: " nicht unangefochten bleibe." Nag. p. 288.-37 sqq. Juvenem, etc. Livy passes from the ora-. tio obliqtua to the oratio recta. 91 6. Sunt ulti, sC. Roinani. - 9. Bonus. Of course ironical.11. Res —repetuntur, satisfaction is demanded, in accordance wvith the treaty. -15. Aegatis = Aegates. Hanno refers to the defeat of the Carthaginian fleet by the Romans near the.Egatian islands in March B. C. 241, which caused Hamilcar, in obedience to the commands of the home government, to leave Eryx, the stronghold on Mount Eryx from which it had been impossible to dislodge him, and make peace: thus ending the first Punic war, which begpan B. C. 264.-18. Alter, ac second.-lUt isti volunt, as these'zen (the Barcine party) will have it, represent, assert. - 19. Tarento. At the end of the war between the Romans and King Pyrrhus, when the Romans were besieging Tarentum after'the departure of the king, a Carthaginian fleet entered the harbor, and offered assistance to the Tarentines. The citizens were on the point of giving up the city to the Carthaginians, when Milo handed over the citadel to the Romans. Polybius (3, 26) expressly denies the statement of Phalinus, (which statement accords with Livy's view,) that the Carthaginians had bound themselves to keep away front Italy.-21. Vicerunt, etc. I. e. in the first Punic war.-23.1 Unde jus stabat, on whose side the'right was.

Page  297 BOOK XXI, CHHAP. IX-XII. 297 Page -24. Turres. Movable towers, generally made of beams and 91 planks and covered (at least on the three exposed sides) with iron, were used in storming a fortified place. They were also covered with raw hides and quilts, moistened. They were divided into stories (tabulata), and overtopped the fortifications of the besieged place. In the lowest story was a battering-ram; in the other stories, tormenta or engines which hurled missiles (as catapultae and ballistae). Slingers and archers were stationed in the different stories, and on the top. Dict. Ant qq. - 30. In eo, in his (i. e. Hannibal's) case. - Paternas inimicitias, my ennmity against his father. - 31. Eo, for this reason; followed by qlod.37. Accidere, to reach. IXI. 7. Hannibalis. Possessive genitive; in Hannibal's interest. 92 -8. Flaccum Valerium.' The family name is put before the gentile sometimes (as here) by Livy, and often by later writers.- 19. Hostis. Accusative plural. - 20. Pro nearly =-in. He spoke before:the assembly of the soldiers. - 23. In repairing the wall they buil:t a new one. Novum is proleptic. -31. Mobilis. The towers (see note on p. 91, line 24) were placed on wheels, and pushed up to the, walls by men stationed inside of and behind them. —33. Catapultae, cataplts, projected lances, darts, and other tela horizontally against the enemy. Ballistae threw stones archwise against the battlements. - 35. Occasionem, a favorable;.opportunity.-39. Ruebat, sc. tnurus. 1. Patentia ruinis, the opening nmade by the fall. Patentia is 93 the neuter participle used substantively; or we may supply loca. - 9. Omnium. The genitive, dative, and ablative of omnia are often used substantively in Livy. —12. Adfectos (affectos) -animos, their weakened courage. Z. XII. 19. Cives, his fellow-citizens: the Carthaginian army.-:2. Temptata.- tentata. - 28. Aliquid moturum, sc. se, theat he -:!dould effect sonmething. Wsb. says that aliqtidl is adverbial, and that:motrurmi is used absolutely without an object. - 29 sq. Postquam often takes the imperfect, especially when the action of the verb or verbs it introduces continues or is still in progress when the action described in the principal clause begins.-3S. Condiciones. Perhaps spelled conditionee in the Lexicons.-31. Oratore, an envoy. - 32. Sub condicionibus iis. The use of the preposition is exceptional. It means,'under the weight of those conditions. - 38. Vinci -vincantur, that souds:Care conqtuered tohen other things (as wails and towers) are conquered.

Page  298 298 NOTES. Page 94 1. Publice. He was the guest-friend of the state of the Saguntines.- 5. Omnis generis. Genitive of quality limiting hominum. -6, 7. Senatus datus est, an audience of the senate was granted. -A special meeting of the senate was probably called to hear Alorcus. XIII. 12. Veni; sed. So Madvig admirably, in place of venissen. - 14 sq. Vestra - referentibus, by your fault, if those who tell the truth incur danger with you. Z. - 19. Vel ea fides sit, let this, for example, be proof; be my credential. - 21. Postquam = ex quo, since. Z. - 25. Cujus, sc. pacis. -- Ita, on this conldition. - 25-28. Si — habituri:estis, if in the same way as Hannibal offers it as conqueror, you will so receive it as conquered, and will not consider that which is given up as lost, (since all things belong to the conqueror,) but will regard whatever is left you as a gift. Habituri estis, more strictly, are ntot inclined to consider.'- 34. Inviolata. " I. e. they shall neither be slain nor sold as slaves." — Binis. Wsb. says this is probably an error of the copyist, since we have sizgulis in chap. xii. Diring attempts to reconcile the two statements by supposing that Hannibal meant to allow each person to take one suit in addition to the one which he wore. - 38. Cam, when, denotes here both time and condition. - Omnium. Neuter.- 39. Remissurum (esse), se. enun. 95 XIV. 8. Conicientes - conjicientes. -16. Signo, an order, a short watch-word. Z. - 18. Crudele, sc. fuit. —20. Super se ipsos, "over their hleade." XV.' 27. Aliquantum, a considerable sum. - 28. Pretiosam qualifies ve8tenm as well as supellectilein.-29. Vestem. Not only robes, but also spreads, tapestry, etc.- 30. Quam =postquam. - Coeptum, se. sit. (Oratio Obliqua.) —Captum, se. esse. —35. Fuerint, and not esseubt, follows ut here, because the meaning is not esse non potuerunt, but futisse non possunt. Wsb. -39. Breviora, shorter (than thirteen months). 96- 5. Arimini. Locative genitive. —6. Creatos. The president at the comitia in which a consul is elected is said creare consgulein. -The ch ronologic,al difieulty raised in this chapter is removed by correctilng Livy's statement in chap. vi., that the embassy was sent from Saguntum to Rome in the consulship of Scipio and Sempronius. The true date is B. C. 219, in the consulship of M. Livius Salinator and L. 2Emilius Paulus. XVI.-XX. RosrE PREPARES FOR WAR. XVI, XVII. Alarm at

Page  299 BOOK XXI, CHAP. XIII-XVIII. 299 Page Rome. Troops raised, and bther arrangements made. XVIII.- 96 XX. Roman ambassadors go to Carthage. War formally de. ~clared (B. C. 218). The Roman ambassadors attempt to gain the alliance of the, tribes in Spain and Gaul, or alienate them from the Carthaginians, but with little success. XVI. 14, 15. Non lati auxilii, of not having given aid.-15, 16. Summa rerum. I. e. the safety (and indeed the very- existence) of their state.-18-31. Hostem congressum (esse), etc. Oratio obliqua. - 21-23. All the wars are mentioned (except the Ligurian) which the Romans waged between the first and second Punic wars. —23. Tumultuatum (est). Impersonal passive. The'wars with the Gauls on the Po were called tlLnsltnus, "to indicate the suddenness of the attacks made by these warlike tribes,.and the constant state of watchfulness in which the Romans had to be."-24. Twenty-three years is the period between the first and second Punic wars (241-218). The war in Spain.had not occupied the whole of that time. XVII. 32, 33. The senate had already determined what *countries should be assigned to the two consuls as theirprovinciae, or spheres of action, without deciding which' district should, be -given to each. The division was now made by lot.-35. Socium 80socioru. - 36. Videretur, so. consuliibus. 2. Vellen; juberent. See note on i. 46, (page 65, line 6.)-5. 97 Eveniret. Either the whole clause quod -jussisset is the subject of this verb, or the subject bellnn, has been attracted into the subordinate relative clause. - 8. The pronoun ea takes here the gender of the predicate mnilii instead of that of its antecedent legionle. - 10. Naves longae. Ships of war; qlinquerenmes (p. 97, line 1). - 19. Ea parte belli, swith that ki-nd of tvanfare (i. e. naval war).-20. Justo equitatu, regular cavalry (three hundred each). - 24. Gallia. The province recently conquered between the Po and the Alps. - 24, 25. Eodem - bellum, turnled in the samg direction (i. e. as Scipio) towards the Panic sar. Versa agrees with the preceding accusatives in the sentence, which are of three different genders. XVIII. 27. Q. Fabius (Maximus, Cunctator). —37. Praeceps. 98 The predicate is made emphatic by being stated first. - Et, also. 1. Adhuc, as yet, so far as you have yet spoken. Z. -6. Censeam. The subjunctive softens the assertion here for sarcasm rather than- from modesty.- 9. Una, the only. - 12. The logical

Page  300 '300 NOTES. Page a98 podosis of the-clause quoniam... faciant would be something meaning (e. g.)" let me tell you," introducing the rest of the sentence, nobis... cautunl est. The omission of it (as is generally the case in what is called ellipsis) increases the energy of the sentence, and is a beauty, not a defect. - Foedus - ictum. At the end of the first Punic war, 241 B. C. - 13. Caveretur nttroraunque socii8, the s8(fety of the allies of both parties was provided for (or guaranteed). H. 385, 3; A. & S. 223, Rein. 2. (c); B. 836; 841; A. 51, III., IV.; G. 145; 143, 3.- 14 sq. Nihil cautum est, no provi8iOi was8 ma(de.-15. At introduces a supposed answer or objection: but, you woill say. - Enim, (that is of no' consequence,) for. Wsb. Enim, like yap, often suggqets something not expressed. If a single word is desired for its translation here, we may say nevertheless.'But nevertheless, you. say.'-18-20. Quod... foedus...eo eo-foedere (teneri, etc.), quod (Lutatius icit, etc.). Attraction of the noun into the relative clause. - 16. Saguntini excipiuntur. So Livy states at the end of chap. iii., and so App. Ib. 7. But Polybius denies that there was any such provision. - 23. Ne... quidem, also.., not. As little can the treaty of Hannibal have bound us. - 28. Sinu facto. I. e. gathering up the folds of his toga; -" placing his hands under his toga, and bending them back " (Dio Cass). - 30. Sub, up0on1; immediately after. - 32. Sinu effaso. I.'e. letting the folds fall, (while spreading out -his arms.) XIX. 35. Dereota. Lex. directa.- 38. Sagunto. Here from a feminine nominative, Saguntus. 99 2. Diserte, expr'essly. —3. Scivisset. I have adopted this reading, suggested by Weissenborn, in place of censisset. —4. Tot annorum. It was about eight years. - 7. Si-staretur, if the former treaty weere adhered to. - 13. Tantum ne, (provided) only that.. not. - 23 Celebre, well known, widely known. - 27, 28. Qui id fecerunt, Saguntinos, the Sagmnitines, who have done this, i. e. have pref'lred your friendship to that of the Carthaginians. - 28. Saguntino3. Object of p2rodideritis. This is the reading of Drakeuborch. Mg., Wsb., Hz. Stgutntini, after the best MSS. — 390. Censeo is sometimes used ironically, in the tense of suadeo, I advise, etc. Hence, it may take the subjunctive'iwithout net, like verbs of wishing, advising, requesting, etc.-35. Nequiquam -- nequicquam' or nequidquam. XX. 37. Iis, i. e. Gallis; the name of the people is implied, as

Page  301 BOOK XXI, CHAP. XVIII-XXI. 301 Page often, in that of their country, Gallia (36). But Mg. and Wsb. _99 think that some specification of a particular tribe or place has fallen out of the text. —38. Mos gentis. Cf. Caes. B. G. V. 56. 6. Ne, inl order that... not. - 7. Ipsos, se. Gallos. - Avertere, 100 sc. a Romanis. -8. Alienis, those of others, those belonging to another nation.-Obicere = o*bjicere.-9, 10. Neque - injuriam, ob quae. I. e. that neither the Romans had conferred any benefits upon them (i.e. the Gaulsj, nor. had the Carthaginians done them any injury, in return for which, etc. - 12. Contra ea, on the other hand. - Gentis suae hominess " The Galli Senones were expelled from their territory on the Adriatic, in consequence of an agrarian law passed by the tribune Flaminius in 225 B. C." See also chap, xxv.- 14. Cetera indigna, the other- indignities (of that kind); the other.wrongs and contumelies of slavery. - 17. Massilia. had long, been an ally of. Rome. -20. Illi ipsi. I. e. Hannibali.,Dative.-17, 18. Omniia cognita (sunt), inquisita, (wohich had been) ascertaited, etc. 22. Est. The indicative, as the remark is thrown in by Livy himself. -26. Expect tatione. So Mg. after Heerw. Drak. in exspectationem. -27. Tramisisse = tra-nmisisse. XXI.-XXIV. HANNIBAL ADVANCES (in the spring of 218 B. C.). XXI, XXII. Hannibal gives his Spanish troops. a furlough till spring. He pays vows to Hercules at Gades. Provides for the safety of Africa and Spain during.his absence. He-sees a good omen. XXII.-XXIV. Crossing the Iberus, he subdues some Spanish tribes. He passes the Pyrenees. Sends home a portion of his troops. Persuades the Gauls not to oppose his march. XXI. 29. Auditis, se. iis, the antecedent of quae. —37. Ita, (only) in this way. 5. Adsitis. H. 493, 2; A..& S. 262, Rem. 4; B. 1203; A. 64, 101 IV.; G. 331, 3.-.Ingentis gloriae praedaeque. The descriptive genitive of a substantive with an adjective, connected with its subject (bellure) by fututerum, a participle of the verb sum. - 9. Desiderium, longing, painful sense of absence, homesickness. - 15. Gadis. Terminal accusative. -- Herculi. I. e. to Melkart, the Tyrian -Hercules.- 17. In is not in the MSS., but is inserted by Mg. as required by the sense.-20. Ab, etc. To the Romans setting out from Sicily:.- 21. Pro eo, in its place; i. e. in place of the:troop.s which he sent to Sicily. -22; -Levium armis. Abla

Page  302 302 NOTES. Page 101 tive of respect; that in regard to which the signification of leves applies.-23, 24. Procul ab domo. Modern despots pursue this same policy in the distribution of their troops in different parts of their empire. - Futurus, likely to be; expected to be. - 26. Cetratos, targeteerls. The cetra was a small round shield, made of the hide of a quadruped, and resembling the target of the Scottish Highlanders. - 27. Funditores. "The inhabitants of the Balearic isles were famed for their skill in throwing with accuracy stones or leaden balls a distance of six hundred paces with a sling (funda) manufactured from a kind of rush. For -this reason they were in later times favorite auxiliaries in the Roman armies." —29. Carthagini praesidio. H. 390, I.; A. & S. 227; Rem. 3, (a); B. 848; 849; A, 51, VII.; G. 148.- 32. Eosdem. I. e. at the same time. XXII. 34. Neglegendam = negligendam. - 35. Atque id eo minus quod, and that so much the less, because-; id referring to Hispanianm neglegendam. But if in translation we put the negative in neque with these two words (H. n.), And thinking that Spain,.too,. should not be left Incared.for, rendering id as if it referred to ratus, it is smoother English to say, and this so miuch the more, because, etc. -- Ciroumitam, so. esse. - Ad sollicitandos animos. Ad with the accusative of the gerundive denoting the purpose. 102 5. Ad, used with numerals as an adverb, about.-7. Quod, any. This adjective form of the indefinite pronoun is rightly adopted by Madvig, after the old editors, in place of quid. - 8. Maritumam = maritimam. -9. Parte belli, kind of warfare; as in chap. xvii. - Vicerant. I. e. in the first Punic war. -12. Aptae, fitted.out.-Remigio=remigibus.-Triginta et duae, only thirtytwo. "Only" is often- left implied. -15. Praeter, by; along by. -Omissam. So Mg. and the MSS. Various emendations have been attempted, as Etovissam, Oiiussam. —17. Visum (esse). — Qui diceret. Subjunctive in Oratio obliqua. —19. Sequeretur, deflecteret. Subjunctive where the imperative would be used in the Oratio recta. - 21. Cura, curiosity; especially anxious curiosity.-24. Serpentem. According to Cicero, (who tells the same story with additional embellishments, Div. 1, 24,) beluam? vastam, immanem, circumplicatam serpentibus.-25. Ferri, rolled along. — 26, 27. Order.. quaerentem, quae m. e. q. p. esset, audisqe, etc.28, 29. The three subjunctives in these lines represent the imperative of direct discourse.

Page  303 BOOK XXI, CHAP. XXII-XXV. 303 Page XXIII. 31. Praemissis. Ablative absolute with the under- 102 stood antecedent of qui.-it is a favorite practice in Latin to omit the demonstratives if they can be supplied from the relatives. Z. 765j n. - Qui-conciliarent. Relative clause denoting purpose. Qua, where; in the places through which. - 33. Transitus, the passes. —37. Orae. I. e. the southern part of this conquered territory.-39 sq. Obtinendae, to be held, kept, defended. 2. Pyrenaeum saltum. The southern pass of the Pyrenees) 103 near Juncaria (now Junquera). Mela (2, 6) speaks of scalas Hannibalis on mons Jovis in that neighborhood. Wsb. —4, 5. Iter- averterunt, turned away their march, i. e. deserted. Z. — Anceps, questionable policy. Z.-1O. Ipsos. Mg. after Mur. and Gron. The MSS. and Wsb. ipse. XXIV. 14. Iliberri. Here indeclinable. Another form is used in lines 22 and 30.-18. Consternati -=tumultuose exciti. - Aliquot populi. Appositive to Galli, for more precise definition. Z. - 21-28. Conloqui- venisset. Indirect discourse. — 22. Vel... vel, (and not att... ait,)'to indicate the freedom of their choice.-25. Laetum, gladly. Adjective like adverb.-29. Haeo, so. egit. - 32. Finis. Accusative plural. XXV, XXVI.'. 2. REVOLT IN GALLIA CISALPINA (spring of 218 B. C.). XXV. 37. Sollicitatis Insubribus, 7rapaKaXiEavre; robs "Ivao/flpa; 104 (Polyb.); having stirred up and gained over the Insubres. - 39. Circa, oa both sides of. —Placentiam Cremonamque. Terminal accusative after deductas. -5. Triumviri. The commission of three, tresviri coloniae deducendae, appointed by the Roman people to assign the portions of land to the colonists, and superintend the building and fortifying of the town- and the regulation of internal arrangements. —7. C. Lutatius. He who gained the decisive victory at the AEgatian islands in 241 B. C.- 11, 12. Legati, as ambassadors; triumviros, as triumviri. The two words refer to the same persons. -14. Mutinae. Locative genitive. - 21. The object of dimissuros is eos (i. e. the Romans); the subject is se understood. - 24. Effusum, straggli;ng, not in close order. - Ducit. Probably from Ariminum. — 25. Plerisque, sc. locis. Descriptive ablative absolute. - 26. Praecipitat. Mg., in place of praecipitatus. - Wsb. praecipitatur. - 35. Ademere. Perfect indicative. - 38. Propincum p=propilquum. - 39. Fluminis., I. e.-brought down byathe river.

Page  304 304'NOTES. Page 104 XXVI, ~ 3-XXXII, ~ 5. To THE ALPS (218 B.,C.). XXVI, I 3-XXVIII. P. Cornelius Scipio is sent to the south of Gaul to oppose Hannibal's march. Hannibal crosses the Rhone. XXIX. First engagement with the.Romans. The Boii advise Hannibal to proceed directly to Italy. XXX, XXXI. Hannibal encourages his troops. He advances to the foot of the Alps. XXXII. The Roman consul returns to his ships. 105 XXVI. 10. Et, on the other hand..-Ejus, sc. legionis. —13. Montis. Accusative plural. - Pervenit Massiliam. Probably in August or September (B. C. 218). Mommsen says "about the end of June." -16. Vixdum, scarcely yet. Dum in compounds,'at that time,'' yet.'- 20. These -Galli were auxiliaries in the pay of Massilia.-26,28. By the words citerior and ulterior,' the nearer,''the farther,' or' on this side,''on the farther side,' Livy indicates here positions in relation to Hannibal.-27. Suis, their (possessions), goods, movables. - 29, 30. Et eorum - tenuerant, and (those) of these (people) thenmselves (i. e. the Volcae) whom their (dear) homes had held back (i. e. had retained on their native bank). — 32. Traici trajici. -35. Temere, carelessly.-39 sq. Nihil curantes, dummodo, etc. -Hannibal probably crossed the Rhone above the mouth of the. Durance, not far north of Avignon, near Roquemaure. Wsb. 106 - XXVII. 5. Equites virique, cavalry and infantry..More often Livy says eqnli virique.-11. Ad id, for that purpose. —Duces, guides.-i11, 14. Inde —ostendere, that about twventy-five nmiles fiom that point, up the stream, the river', flowing around a small island, offered aford in a broader chann.el, where' it was divided, and therefore in a shallower one. -17. Mole, trouble.- 18. Alius, the other.- 23. Ex loco edito, from a high place. Edito, Mg. - 27. Naves. IHeerw., Mg., Wsb. The MS*. nantes. Supply with naves habebat. paratas. - 28. Adversi impetum fluminis, the force of the current. - Transmittens, so. Hannibal. - Superiore, higher up the stream. XXVIII. 38. Militumque. Mg. after C, manu secunda. Others militum., 107 2. Adverso, in.front.-10. Tumultus. Noisy and threatening butbrief-risings in arms. Z.-13. Variat. So Mg. after Mehler instead of variata. — 15. Refugientem, sc. eumr (i. e. the keeper). * —16. Mg. brackets nantem. Wsb. retains it, inserting inde before it. - 17, 18. The very. force of the current, as. the ground

Page  305 BOOK XXI, CHAP. XXVI-XXX. 305 Page (vadum, quo vadere poterant) failed each one, (though) fearing the 107 deep swater, hurrying (them) to the other bank. Destitueret is a subjunctive implying the occurrence of the same fact in ealch single case. Livy generally uses this subjunctive after particles of time (curm, ubi, ut, etc.), or indefinite relative words (quicumque, etc.), where the older writers, as Cicero, Caesar, and Sallust, commonly use the indicative. Cf. chap. 42: ubi dimicareat; i. 32: id ubi dixisset.-19. Trajectos, sc. esse elephantos.-Ut, as.-23. Secunda aqua, i. e. down the stream. - 28. Tumrn. Mg., in place of ut can,. - Acti per stabilem ratem. — 31. The preposition ab calls attention to the men in the boats who attended to the drawing of the raft. —33. Repetiti. The re- means repeatedly, again and again.- 34 sq. Donec agerentur. Subjunctive because not only the time (so long as) is expressed, but also the reason. The subjunctive may also denote the view the elephants took of the case at the time.- 37. Trepidationis. This word implies motion as well as terror.-38. Quietem. See note on line. 11 of page 30, XXIX. 7-9. Trecenti equites, etc., missi ab ostio, etc., occur- 108 runt huic alae. Cavalry of the allies were called alae.- 9. Pro, accorded with; might be expected from. —16. Ut.. ita, although... yet; or indeed... but. - 20. Nec - poterat, neither could Scipio come to any settled resolution. The neecorresponds with the following et: Hannlibalem... avertit. Z. - 23 sq. Cum eo, etc. -- cum eo Ronmano exercitu qui primtas se obtusi8set. The noun, as often, is put in the subordinate clause. XXX. 34. Castigando, by chiding. - 36, 37. Vincentis, as conquerors. Accusative plural.- 38, 39. Duo maria. The Atlantic and Mediterranean. 1. Indignatos. Sc. eos (i. e. Carthaginienses), the subject of 109 trajecisse. -12. Italiae sit, belongs to Italy, is in Italy. Subjunctive in Oratio obliqua. - Subsistere. The subject of this infinitive also is eos (i. e. Hannibal's soldiers) understood. -13. Credentes Alpis (ace. plueral) esse quid aliud quam, etc.- 14. Fingerent, granting that they imagined them. - 17, 18. Pervias fauces esse exercitibus. Mg. after Heerw. and Forehh. The MSS. pervias pauncis esse exercitibus. - 20. Majores eorum, their ancestore. Eorum refers to the Gauls in Italy generally. - Indigenas, so. esse or ftisse. - 20, 21. Sed - cultores, but as alieninhabitants of italy, they had often crossed, etc. - 28. Quod = ut 20- Livy.

Page  306 306 NOTES. Page 109 id. -29. Ea. I. e. Rolhe and all that belongs to it.-32. Campum. I. e. the Campus Martius. 110 XXXI. 36. Adversa ripa, up the batik. -38. Minus. Fully, tanto mlilnus. Z. 1, 2. Quartis castris. I. e. in the fourth day's march.- 3. Diversis. ex Alpibus, from different parts of the Alps.-5. Prope, in the nieighborhood. -6. Jam inde, already, and from that time forward; then and afterwards.- 8. Major, sc. natu.- 10. The antecedent of qui is minore fratre. -Pellebatur. Imperfect, because the matter is not yet. finally decided.-27. Vada (fords) and gurgites (deep places), as well as nihil stabile nec tutum, are objects of the verb praebet. - Ad, in addition to. - 32. Incertis. I. e. of unknown cause or origin. XXXII. 36, 39. The future participle in line 36 denotes intentionl, in line 39, expectation. 11 7. Eo, qui... exercitus - eo exercitu, qui. XXXII, ~ 6-XXXVII. THE IARCH ACROSS THE ALPS (in the early autumn of 218 B. C* 11. Fama. Ablative.- 12. Fere. Mg., instead of vero.- 23. Ea, (so. regione, parte,) there, in that place. —24. Confragosa omnia praeruptaque, nothing but (lit. all) rugged ravines and }precipices.- 28. Obsideri, was held. - 29, 30. Ut vim facturus, as if he meant to force a paesage.-30. Ex aperto, openly, without stratagem.-34. Laxatas,; placed far apart; become fewer. 112 XXXIII. 2. Relioum reliquum.- 4. Arce, their stronghold, i. e. a height, which served as a castle or place of defence. - 5. Via. I. e. the low road, at the foot of the hill. - 9, 10. Quidquid -rati, thinking that any alarm which theyj themselves might add would be sufficient for the destruction of the rest of the arnmy. Z. — 10 sq. Transversis - decurrunt, they r'un down across the rocks, alike through no paths and winding paths, being accustemed to such clambering. This is Madvig's reading. The MSS. per-'versis rupibus andjuxta invia ac devia (withoutper, conj. Ingersl.). -14. As every onle strove for himself that he mnight escape fromn the danger before (others). — 16. Infestim, insectre. - 17. Reper' cussae, echoing. - 22. In inmensum altitudinis, into the sInfathomable abyss. The genitive after the neuter of an adjective with a preposition is not found in writers before Livy. - 23. Ruinae maxime modo, just as when great buildings fall; or, very nearly like the fall of an avalanche. Literally, very much in the

Page  307 -BOOK XXI, CHA-P. XXX-XXXVI. 307 Page manner of a rushing-down or downfall.- 28. Exutum _ si exutule 112 esset. The participle is used hypothetically. -.34. Castellum. Near Brigantio. Wsb. —37. A montanis. So Bauer. Others omit a. XXXIV. 2. Ut restrictive; considered as, for.- 3. Suis, his 113 owai. One of- Livy's slurs at Hannibal. —6. Supply se with doctos as the subject of malle.- 9. Ad fidem promissorum, as security fo) their promises.-13, 14. Nequaquam ut inter pacatos, sed composito agmine. -16. Circumspectans sollioitus omnia, looking around upon all things with anxiety. So Mg., after the old editors, instead of 8ollicitusque. -17. Parte altera, on one side. - 23. Nisi - fuissent, zf the rear had not been well, supported. XXXV. 38, 39. Darent, feoissent. Subjunctive of repeated action. — Progressi morative, sc. Carthaginienses. 3. Insuetis, sc. iis (i. e. hostibus). -5. Jugum Alpium. The 114 Alpis Cottia, Mont GenBvre. As Polybius describes the journey, and as modern investigatorg generally believe, the Little St. Bernard.-7, 8. Temere —iter, the rash entrance of valleys when they were guessing the way. -13. Vergiliae is the Latin name of the Pleiades. Pliny places the setting of Vergiliae at III. Idus Novembres, the 26th of October in our present calendar. But occidente jam may imply only that this time was near. Polybius brings Hannibal to the Little St. Bernard about the end of September. -15. Pigritia, disaffection. —17. Promunturio (promontorio), a projecting height.- 22. Summum, at most. — 25. Eurta, stealthy attacks. —27. Ab Italia, on the Italian side. — 30, 31. Nec —suo, nor could those woho had staggered a little, wahen thrown down, hold fast in their tracks. —32. Succiderent (Mg.), they fell dowon (the precipice)., XXXVI. 34. Rectis, steep. —35. Temptabundus, feeling his way. - Retinens, grasping firmly. - 37, 38. In altitudinem, to a depth, etc. Polybius's account is more plausible. He represents the slide as having taken away the road for a length of three halfstadia (a little more than 930 Roman feet). 5. Ea via. I. e. the way a round the mountain, in the valleys 115 over the glaciers. - 6. Intactam- integrain, unmelted, untouched: the snow of former years.-7. Molli nec praealtae, sc. nsivi.-10. Tabem, slulsh.-11. Via. A conjecture of H. Sauppe. Mg. retains the MSS. reading ut a, but brackets it. — Glacie. Ablative of the cause of the slipperiness. -12. In prone, onl a

Page  308 308 NOTES. Page 115 declivity.-Citius, the sootier; i. e. more quickly or easily than it would on level ground. — Pedes fallente, betraying the feet, causing their feet to slip (and them to fall). -14. Adminiculis. I. e. their hands and knees. - 15. Ad quas, by supporting themselves upon which. -16, 17. Levi tantum glacie, nothing but smooth ice. - 18. Etiam infimam nivem, even the lowest snow (the veterem nivem intactam, line 6). —Ingredientia, as they trod upon it. The time is present with reference to that of the predicate verb secabant. -19. Conitendo =connitendo; in their struggle to rise. - 20. Ut, so that. With a subjunctive of result. XXXVII. 25. Ad rupem muniendam, to makce a road over the cliff. Munire is a general term for engineering operations. Nligelsbach (p. 282) says that it means here "to make passable." - 31. Aceto. Polybius is silent on this point; and the story is not generally credited. - 32. Clivos, the grades. - 37. Inferiora, sc. Ioca.-Apricosque. Wsb., Mg. The conjunction is necessary. But Madvig's insertion of et before prope silvas (line 38) seems uncalled for. XXXVIII. The time occupied in Hannibal's march from New Carthage; the number of his troops; and the place where he crossed the Alps. 116 4. Maxime, is the main; in general.- 6. Quinto decimo die. So Polybius. But Livy himself represents the ascent as taking nine days (c. 35); then follow two days of rest; then a day's march through the snow; then fourdays at the cliff (c. 37); and three days for the descent. — 10. Qui minimum. As Polybius (3, 56, 4).-11. L. Cincius Alimentus was praetor 211 B. C., then propraetor in Sicily till 208; after which time he was a prisoner of Hannibal. He wrote a history of his own time in Greek, with a short introduction upon the more ancient Roman history. -12. Me. Mg. after Drak. -13. Nisi - additis, did he not make the number confused by counting in the Gauls and Ligurians. Cincius's mistake (if Livy understands him rightly) is in speaking of the Gauls and Ligurians as accompanyingHannibal in his march over the Alps, instead of' joining him near the river Po. —15. In Italia —est, it is more probable that they joined him in Italy. - 17. Audisse, sc. se. - 19. Amisisse, sc. eum; that he (i. e. Hannibal), after he crossed the Rhone,, lost, etc. "Of the 50,000 veteran infantry and the 9,000 cavalry, which the army bad numbered at the crossing of the Pyrenees, more than half had been

Page  309 BOOK XXI, CHAP. XXXVII-XXXIX. 309 Page sacrificed in the conflicts, the marches, and the passages of the 116 rivers. Hannibal now, according to his own statement, numbered not more than 20,000 infantry (of whom 12,000 were Libyans and 8,000 were Spaniards) and 6,000 cavalry, part of whom were dismounted." Mommsen, after Polybius iii. 35 and 56.-19, 20. Taurini Semigalli. Em. Mg. M, taurinisnegalli. Wsb. Taurini Galliae. - In Italiam. Here and in line 4 Livy uses the designation of his own time. In the Punic war Italy did not include Gallia Cisalpina. - Degresso, sc. ei (i. e. Hannibali). - 22. Quanam, at what point. - Vulgo credere, that people (especially historians) generally believe. Livy rejects both the general belief (as he says) of his day, that Hannibal crossed the Alpis Poenina or Great St. Bernard, an"d the opinion now generally entertained that he crossed per C6roeonis jugum or over the Little St. Bernard.23. -Inde, i. e. from the passage of the Poeni. —24. C. Coelius Antipater lived at the end of the 6th and the beginning of the 7th century of the city, and wrote a history of the Punic war, which Livy uses especially (yet with caution) for this period. Wsb. -28. Utique, at all events; certainly; at least. -- 32, 33. Sed —appellant, "but from him whom, under the name of Poeninus, the mountaineers worship on the top; " i. e. from a local divinity who is called Poeninus. Z. - Sacratum, having a sanetuary or shrine. XXXIX.-XLVIII. FRoNf THE ALPS TO THE TREBIA..(218 B. C.) XXXIX. Hannibal recruits his troops. Scipio, hastening to meet him before his soldiers are refreshed, crosses the Po and advances to the Ticinus. XL, XLI. Scipio's speech to his soldiers. XLII. Device of Hannibal for the encouragement of his army. XLIII, XLIV. Hannibal's speech to his troops. XLV. Hannibal offers rewards for valor. XLVI. Conflict on the Ticinus. Scipio worsted and wounded. XLVII. The Romans cross the Po and retreat to their stronghold Placentia. Hannibal also crosses the river and advances towards Placentia. XLVIII; Mutiny of the Gauls in the Roman camp. Scipio takes up a stronger position on the west bank of the Trebia, on the hills which form the last spurs of the Apennines running northward towards the Po. To Hannibal, who pitches his camp opposite, Clastidium is betrayed. XXXIX. 34. Ad principia rerum. I. e. for the first operations (in Italy). — Taurinis. The so-called dative of the agent. - 38.Ex, rafter. -39. Caltas, care of their bodies, comnfort.

Page  310 310 NOTES. Page 17 1. Varie movebat, affected variously; i. e. favorably in some cases, unfavorably in others.- 4. In novis ignominiis, on account of its recent disgraceful losses (incurred on the march from Ariminum to the Po. See c. 25). Z.-8. Volentis - volentes. Nominative plural.-10. Ciroumspeotantis. Accusative plural. -13. Quae pars, which side or party; (the Carthaginian or the Roman.) —Praesentum, so. se.-15, 16. Sicuti... ita, indeed.. yet; or although..yet. - 21. Auxerant inter se opinionem, each had raised the other's opinion of him. — 25. Occupavit Padum traicere, hastened to cross the Po before (Hannibal). XL. 34, 35. Confessionem - habui, I held his confession in fleeing and in refusing battle Pas (equivalent to) a victory. -36. Hispaniae scriptus, levied for the proviince of Spain. - 37. Meis auspiciis, i. e. under my supreme command. A Roman commander-in-chief alone had the jus anuspicandi, i. e. the right of consulting the gods by the flight of birds to see whether any proposed step met with their approval. His lieutenants had only his auspicia. 118 6. Viginti annos. So according to the first agreement with the consul Lutatius at the close of the first Punic war: viz., Carthage agreed to pay an indemnity of 2,200 talents in twenty years, by annual instalments. But in the treaty as finally adopted, the war-contribution was raised to 3,200 talents, a third of which was to be paid down at once, and the remainder in ten annual instalments. -14. At introduces an objection which the orator supposes to arise in the mind of some one of his hearers: " But, some one may say." See note on at enim, p. 98, line 15.-16. Possit. Subjunctive after quorum equivalent to tales let eorusm. The relative clause completes the description of the qualities attributed to the Carthaginians, and states a result of them. -17. Effigies immo. The punctuation is Madvig's. Other editors Effigies, imnmo umnbra, etc. Immo (nay; nay rather,) is corrective, as it is alwroys, more or less evidently. See Prof. Lane's trucidatio of Riley's translation of Plautus, in the Bibliotheca Sacra for April, 1853, and my note on Cic. Tusc. Disp. I., vii. 13. -27. Secundum, next to, next after. XLI. 30. Vestri adhortandi. H. 563., 4; A. & S. 275, III. Rem. 1, (4); B. 101?; A. 73, II.; G. 219, Rem. 1; Z. 660; M. 417; 297, b. -38. Ad, at; adc famaln, upon hearing.

Page  311 BOOK XXI, CHAP. XXXIX-XLIII. 311'Page 1. Qua parte copiarum, with which part of my forces, i. e. 119 cavalry; as if equestri had been equitum. — 7. Timendo. Ironical.-7, 8. Utrum - an. Do I seem to have fallen in with him unexpectedly, whilst I was avoiding a eontest, or (do I seem), etc. Incidisse, so. in e.lum; ocourrere, sc. ei. -13. Duodevicenis de. nariis, at eighteen denarii apiece; (three dollars, but worth much more than the same amount of silver at present,) — 15. Vectigalis stipendariusque et servus. This exaggeration is sufficiently ludicrous, yet perhaps not greater than occurs often among the most civilized nations of modern times when they are at war.16, 17. Quem - agitaret, and if his crime at Saguntum did nlot drive him mad. - 28. Humanorum, sc. suppliciorunm. -30. Traicere = trajicere. - 33. Tutelae nostrae duximus, we regarded them as under our protection. Genitive of quality.- Africo bello. See note on chap. i. -34. Pro his inpertitis, inl return for these benefits. —36. Tantum, only, alone. - 37. Esset. Why is a secondary tense of the subjunctive used in this wish after utinamn 6, 7. The verbs are in the subjunctive of exhortation: let -.- 120 9. Fuerit. Perfect subjunctive, where the future perfect would be used in direct discourse. M. 379. XLII. 12. Aput -apud. - 14. Ad spectaculum. I. e. to see the combatants. —18. Victor, if victorious.-19. Dejecta, etc. A lot for each of the men was cast into an urn, and those fought whose names were drawn. Z. - 20. In id, for this purpose, to this end.- 23, 24. Ubi dimicarent. Ubi takes the subjunctive because it means in each instance when, the spectacle being frequently repeated. - Habitus animorum, state of feeling. - 26. Vulgo, unliversally. - 27. Bene, bravely, nobly. XLIII. 28. Sic limits adfectos (affectos). - Paribus, pairs of combatants. — 32. Habueritis. Future perfect. - Vicimus, we are already victors. —33. Spectaculum, a gladiatorial show.Modo, only. -34 sq. Nescio an = perhaps. - 37. Claudunt, sc. vos8.-38. Habentes. Madvig, after Gronov, instead of habenltibus. -Circa. The Carthagininans, in the position they then occupied, had the Po in front and on at least one side. Z. 11. In, for. -12. Dum. Mg., Wsb. The MSS. cm diis. - 13. 121'Satis, long enolygh. -17. Mereri, to earn, win, gain. - 20i Emeritis stipendiis, when your service shall be ended (by the conquest of the Romans). -20, 22. Nee - existifilaritis et #olite existinctae. - 27. Illa, that well-known, that conspicuous. —

Page  312 312 NOTES. Page 121 33. Ignoranti. Ablative. M. 42, Obs. 2, b. - 37. Semenstri. I. e. since the Ides of March, when Scipio (hoc duce) entered on his consulship. - 38. Desertore. Scipio had sent his consular army into Spain, and placed himself at the head of another. Perverting this fact, Hannibal calls him a deserter of his army.- Signis. Livy is thinking of the Roman eagles of a later time. Wsb. 122 1. Certum habeo, I hold for certain, i. e. I am persuaded, I believe. -4. Facinus, brave deed, exploit; militare facinus, feat of arms. -5. 6. Sua decora, his own glorious exploits. XLIV. 13. Infrenatos. The Numidian cavalry used no bridles, and guided their horses with a riding-stick alone. (Herodian. 7, 9.) -14. Pro is not in the MSS., but is required by the sense. - 23, 24. Sua and sui arbitrii are both predicated after facit omnia. - 25. Aecum = aequum. - 27. Quos non excedamus, which we are not to pass: may not, or must not pass.- 29. At non ad, etc. Answer. of the Carthaginian to the arrogant command of the Roman. Non ad, Mg.'s conjecture. Wsb. cis. The MSS. ad. -32, 33. Etiam in Hispanias. Mg., who adds in to the MSS. reading. Wsb. Adimis etiarn Hispanias I - Si. Mg. i/ nserts.- 34. Transeendes —dico. Mg. The MSS. transcendisse autem dico. Wsb., in Africam transcendes. Translcendes autem dico - 37. Timidis et ignavis. Predicate after esse. — 38. Respectum, something to look back to, a place of refuge. 123 5. Omit destinatum in translation. Wsb. does not bracket-the word, but inserts si before it. —7. Contemptu mortis telum. Mg. after Stroth. The MSS. have conltemptunL, and without the two following words. Wsb. (after Haupt), vitae telum. XLV 18. Ictumulis. Mg., from Strabo 5, 12, in place of Vicotumulis. —26. Inmunem. Free from land-tax and other regular imposts. —28. (Iis) sociorum, qui vellent, etc., (se) facturum (esse) potestatem. -30-32. Daturum - vellent, that he would take care that they should not be'willing to exchange the lot of any ole of their countrymen with their own (lit. with themselves). — 33. Bina. Notice the distributive numeral. —35. Si falleret, if he did not keep his pronzise.- 37. Secundum, immediartely after. -39. Auctoribus, as securities, guarantees. -Quisque, a ppositive to omunes. Then in truth they all, as if they had each ole received'the gods as guaranteeing-the fulfilment of their hopes. 124 1, 2. Id morae - rati, thinking that the fact that they were not yetfightilng was the (only) hindrance to their obtaining their desires: more literally, that'there was this hindrance (id morae) only, etc.

Page  313 BOOK XXI, CHAP. XLIV —XLIX. 313 Page XL~VI. 8. Proeuratis, attended to, -"expiated, averted, by 124 means of sacrifices." -10, 14. Que. This conjunction seems to be required in both these cases. — 19. Numidis. " Terms which designate soldiers or classes of soldiers are frequently put in the simple ablative when they serve as meanis; for soldiers'are in reality little better than mere machines." Z. — 24. Ubi vidissent. Subjunctive'of repeated action, - whenever, etc. - 25. Ad pedes pugna venerat, it had become a battle on foot. -Venerat, Gronov. P, iverat.- 31. Erat. C, Mg. The reading erit (P) is widely adopted. -Perfeoti-belli, of having ended this war.-35. Alius equitatus, another band of men, namely, cavalry. XLVII. 13. Moratorum, loiterers. Polybius says they had been 125 left to guard the bridge. - 15. Ut extrema, wthen both ends. - Tota rate, the whole raft, i. e. the whole bridge. The bridge was made of several rafts (ratibts, line 9)' joined together, but when they were unfastened at both ends they floated off as one.- 16. In secundam aquam, dowtn the stream. —19. In ordinem, in a krow. The elephants were so placed that the violence of the current was broken on their colossal bodies. Z. -21. Peritis. Dative. - 23. Ut,'even if; even supposing that. - Omnis. - Accusative plural. - 25. Fuerunt. Mg. after cod. Gud. Others, fuerint. — 28. Ea, by this way; i. e. by the bridge of boats (rate). XLVIII. 11. Minus fefellit. He was less successful in escaping 126 the notice of Hannibal. —21. Collegam. I. e. Ti. Sempronius Longus, who had at first received commission to cross with his army from Sicily to Africa. - 26, 27. Quae... euntem... major in dies excipiebat, swhich (want), greater every day, met him as he marched, etc. - 29. Mittit. Used absolutely. Understand rilites. -31. A nummus aureus was about $5.00.-32. Praesidi -=praesidii. XLIX.-LI. SICILY. XLIX, L. The Romans and Carthaginians have a sea-fight off Sicily. L. The consul Sempronius, having provided for the safety of Sicily, joins his colleague at the Trebia. XLIX. 4. Tenuerunt, se. cursau?,.-Fretum. The straits of 127 Messina, (fretum Siculum.) — 10. Cujus ipsi classis essent, of the fleet (i. e. constituting the fleet) to which they themselves (i. e. the captives) belonged. - Essent. Subjunctive in Oratio obliqua. -11. Missas agrees with naves in line 10. -13. (The captives said) credere (se). - 15. Dejectam (esse), was driven, down,. -18.

Page  314 314 NOTES. Page 127 Circa civitates. I. e. to the different cities on the coast in the Roman province of Sicily. -19. Sues. I. e. the Roman soldiers of the garrisons. — 20, 21. Lilybaeum teneri (sc. a praetore). Nominative case, with the historical infinitive.- 23. Ut ne quid, that nothinlg (faceret, etc.). - 23-25. (Iis)que missis per omnem oram, qui, etc. —26. Missis. So Mg. The MSS. simili; Heerw. dimissi; Wsb. missi.-29. Sublatis armamentis, with their sails up. Armamenta here means sails and sail-yards, but it often includes cables, anchors, and all the rigging and tackling of a ship. -33. Erant, were quickly, were at once. The tense implies the rapidity with which the command was obeyed. -35. Demendis armamentis, in taking down their sails.- 36. Ad pugnam, for action. 28 1. The allusion is to the naval battle off the Aegatian islands. L. 5. Eludere, avoided the enemy by various manceuvres. A gladiatorial term. The historical (descriptive) infinitive is very well suited, as Zumpt says, for depicting a state which continued for some time. — 8. Habebant, sc. Poesi, understood from the collective singular Poensts. —Sicubi, "wherever," "if in any place," takes the subjunctive. - 12. Illis. I. e. Carthaginiensibus. - 13 sq. As of these 1700 some 350 (see p. 127, lines 1 and 2) were mnilites or marines, only 1350 are left for nautae, —193 for each vessel; whereas, generally from 300 to 375 rowers and more than 40 sailors were found on each quinquereme (Polyb. 1, 26, 7). We must suppose some loss in the naval engagement; but not enough to make the number of seamen seem otherwise than scanty. —16. Perforata. In consequence of the Roman superiority in numbers, the Carthaginians tried to avoid being boarded, and endeavored to disable and sink the hostile vessels by piercing through them with their beaks. —19. Gnaris. Ablative absolute with ii8 understood, the antecedent of qei. - Ejus refers to pugnam.-20. Armatam. Alsch., to fill the lacuna indicated by the -que after ornatam. - 22. Regia, sc. srave.- 30 sq. Quibusdam volentibus novas res fore, to some a revolution would be agreeable (lit. would be to them wishing it; like the Greek fBovAospivy poi urtl). M. 246, Obs. 3; Z. 420, note; H. 387, 3; A. & S. 226, Rem. 3; B. 823; G. 152. 129 LI. 2. Traditur. Passive as middle. —5. Sub corona venierunt. Veneo is used as the passive of vendo. Prisoners of war were.brought to the market crowned with garlands, and were

Page  315 BOOK XXI, CHAP. XLIX-LII. 315 Page hence said to be sold su8b corona —10. Urbem. Vibo (or Hippo), 129 on the west coast of Bruttium. -16. Ariminum. Terminal accusative.- Mari supero. The Adriatic. - Explevit. By leaving behind some vessels of his own fleet, the consul made up the praetor's fleet to the number of fifty ships of war. Z. - Legens,i coasting aloug. - 23. Conjungitur. Passive as middle. - 15-23. Polybius (3, 61) states that the soldiers of Sempronius proceeded all the way to Cisalpine Gaul by land, the consul leaving each one free to find his way as best he could, and only binding them by oath to sleep at Ariminum at an appointed date. We may partially reconcile the statements of Polybius and Livy by assuming, with Ihne (ii. 185), that "the consul's ships did not suffice to carry all the men, and a portion of them were obliged to march on foot through the whole length of Italy." LII.-LVII. 4. THE BATTLE ON THE TREBIA (December, 218 B. C.). LII. Sempronius eager to fight, Scipio counsels delay. In a cavalry engagement, the Romans have slightly the advantage. LIII. Sempronius, elated, resolves to give battle. LIV. Hannibal sets an ambush, under the command of his spirited young brother XIago. The Romans, without breakfast, ford the Trebia, and are almost frozen. LV, LVI. The battle. The Romans defeated. Under cover of a tempest, Soipio retreats to Placentia, in which town and in Cremona the shattered remains of the four legions pass the rest of the winter. LVII. Alarm at Rome. LII. 26-28. Oppositum belongs both to consules and to quid, quid virium, but is attracted in number to quidquid as the most important. The same is true of the verb declarabat. The statement (qeidquid Romanarum virium erat, spem nullam. aliam) is exaggerated, for there was an army in Spain, and more troops could easily be raised. (Wsb.)- 29. Admonitus. A sugge8tion of Madvig's, which I do not hesitate to adopt. P, et minsuteus.33-35. Per —spectantes, with wavering favor undoubtedly aiming at gaining the friendship of the victorious party. In English, a relative construction is more usual: speotantes, who aimed at. — 35. Modo ne quid moverent, provided only that they (i. e. the Gauls) made no istarrection. Quid is accusative of the indefinite pronoun. - Aequo,.s8ti.fied, contentedl. 1. Deinceps, contillltotsly, in succession. Here a local adverb, 130 not temporal. - 3. Ad. id (8c. temporis), till thlen. - 6.- In, to,

Page  316 316 NOTES. Page 130 towards.- 9. Ut, even granting that, even if. - Recentem, etc. See chap. 25. -10-12. Continendis - censebat, gave it as his opinion (in a council of war) that the defence of thefirst who had needed aid was the strongest bond for keeping the allies faithfil. - 11, 12. Primos qui eguissent. Gronov. P, C, M, primosque qui coissent. -13. Mille belongs to jaouiatoribus, andis limited by ferme (ES IX tovS, Polyb. 3, 69, 8). Peditum= ex peditibus. - 15. Sparsos. Sc. Numidas. - Ad, in addition to.- 16. Gravis. Accusative plural.-18. Hostium. I. e. the Carthaginians.- 19. Subsidio. Ablative of means.-20. Sequentes cedentesque. C. Heusinger, Mg., Wsb. P, sequentesque cumque. —22. I follow Mg. in filling the lacunae. LIII. 24. Major, se. Victoria. - 25. Efferri. "According to his usual practice, Livy gives himself full swing in the description of the consul's state of mind; and for this the historical infinitive is most suitable." Z. - 27-37. Qratio obliqua. - 27. Militibus. The dative is more lively than the genitive would have been, and marks the soldiers more emphatically as the logical subjects of whom the increased spirit is predicated, and to whose advantage it exists. - 30. Memoria. Ablative of cause. - 32. Tempus is the subject of differri as well as of teri. - 36. Set = sed.-38. How would our fathers groan, if they sawe. The present, instead of the imperfect, for liveliness' sake. 131 3. Dicionis. See note on I. 25 (p. 43, line 5).-5. The praetorium here is not the general's tent, but the open place before it, which, embracing also a part- of the via principalis, served as a place of assembly. - Prope contionabundus (in some Lexicons wrongly " concionabundus "), almost (like an orator) addressing a popular assembly. -6. Propinoum =popinqnuum. The new consuls entered on their office on the Ides of March; it was now, according to their date, the end of January, - by the corrected calendar, the middle of December. - 13. Cum, but when. Supply in thought an adversative conjunction.- 24. Facere, to bring one about; to make a battle himself. - Si cessaretur (a Romanis).25. Quae vellet, se. explorari.- 27. Insidiis. Dative of the end in' view. LIV. 29. In medio, L. e. between the Trebia and the Carthaginian camp. - Rivus. Perhaps the Trebiola (now Rifiato).32. Equites tegendo, for concealing cavalry. The gerundive construction, equitibus tegendis, is much more -common. Mg.

Page  317 BOOK XXI, CHAP. LII-LVI, 317. Page knows "no undoubted instance in pr'ose where the dative of the 131 gerund governs the accusative;" and is inclined to read eqriti tegendo. - 35. Centenos, one hundred from each class of sold'iers, foot and horse.-37. Praetorium missum, the council was dismissed: i. e. the informal council of his staff-officers who accompanied him when he chose the place for an ambush. - 39. Uti = lt. 2. Turmae are the troops of cavalry; manipuli, the companies 132 of foot. - 4. Magoni must be taken as a dative of advantage: to aid Mago; for Mago to put in ambush. Wsb. cuem Mllagone. Mg. suggests, ita cum mille eq. Maogone, mille peditibus dimisso. — Mago is described by Polyb. (iii. 71) as a young man full of dash, and well instructed from childhood in the military art. - 8. Injeoto certamine, having brought about a battle.-15. A destinato. Mg. em., in place of ad destinatunm.- 22. Quidquid - adpropinquabant, with every step that they drew nearer the air of the river (Niig., p. 109). Quidquid is the accusative of a neuter pronoun after an intransitive verb, agreeing with the substantive idea which that verb contains: whatever approach they made. Aurae, "der Atmosphiare" (Nag.). - 23. Refugientes. Accusative agreeing with Yumida&s. - 2, 27. Ut - essent, that they were sca.rcely able to hold their acrss. Wsb. esset. LV. 30, 31. "Hannibal gave his soldiers warm and plentiful food, and made them rub their bodies with oil at the fires, so that they became quite brisk and warm." Nieb. Lect. II. 96. —34. Levem. We should read levenmq'e (Sig.) or ac leven (Glar., Heus.), as it is not to be supposed that the Baleares amounted to 8,000 men (Polyb. 3, 72, TroUs Auyxo06)poae Kai BaAtapoeZ). 2. Circumdedit peditibus, placed them on the flancs of the in- 133 fantry.L. L. "Locavit a dextra laevaque peditum." Crev.- 2, 3. Eightecn thousand Romans (infantry); lit. eighteen Roman thousands (Polyb. 3, 72, sixteen thousand): twoenty thousand allies. Besides these, and the Cenomanian auxiliaries, there were 4,000 horse (line 10). - Socidm nominis Latini, allies of' the class of Latins. " The Latin name" means the whole body of citizens possessing the jus Latinusrn, whether real Latin towns, (as. for example, Tibur, Praeneste,) or coloniae Laitiune, (as Placentia, Cremona, Arirninum, Brundisium.) Z. — 11. Plerisque, for the most part; all of them but the Numidians. -29. Molli cute. Ablative absolute of cause. LVI. 31. Trepidantis, sc. eleph7atos. Accusative plurl. -Et.

Page  318 .318 NOT-ES. Page 133 Mg. (Rost.) -In suos. I. e. in Poenos. —32. E. Gr., Mg.34. Fecere, sc. elephanti. - Novusque, Mg. Wsb., eoqlue novues. P, quoque novus. Gr., addittusque novlas terror. - 36. In orbem, on all sides; against attacks from all quarters. - 38. Afrorum. I. e. the Carthaginians. — Acie. Ablative of the way by or through which the motion proceeds; ablative of route. Cf. porta Collina intravere. - Qua, where. Mg. em., in place of quae. 134 2. Decernere, judge, determine. - Qua, in what place, by what path. See note on acie, a few lines above. —4. Partes, directio1ns.- 6. Inter cunotationem ingrediendi, whilst they were hesitating to enter (the river). —8. Cedentis agminis. Described p. 133,1.36.-p. 134, 1. 3. - 9. Hostium. Objective genitive.-11. Homines. Sc. Poenos.- 15 sqq. Scipio crosses the Trebia in the night, with those who had been left in the camp When Sempronius marched out, and those who had gained it in flight. The raging storm, and the fatigue of the victors, prevent his being observed or (at least) molested. - 16. Relicum = reliquum.- 17. Sauciorum. Mg. and Wsb. follow Heerw. in inserting this word.-18. Traicerent=trajicerent.-Sensere, sc. Poeni. - 23. Pado trajeotus, having crossed the Po. Pado is ablative of the route. (See note on acie, p. 133, 1. 38.) The more common construction is Pado trajecto.-Peter and Ihne are'probably right in contending, against Mommsen, that the battle was fought on the right or eastern bank of the Trebia, on which side of the river Placentia also lay. The Roman camp was on the left side of the Trebia. LVII.-LIX. WINTER OF 218-217 B. C. Cn. Cervilius and C. Flaminius are elected consuls. Hannibal makes an unsuccessful attempt upon the river-port of Placentia. He storms Victumviae,. and treats its defenders with all the severity admitted by the laws of war. Attempting to cross the Apennines (217 B. C.), he is thwarted by a hurricane and by the severe cold.'Skirmish between Hannibal and Sempronius. IThe Ligurians join Hannibal. 135 LVII. 2. Ut. Fabri, Mg., Wsb. —2, 3. Ut —erant, wherever the country was too much obstructed for them. - Quaeque, sc. loca.-5. Emporium, a port, on the Po, perhaps near the mouth of the Trebia. - 7. Castelli, post. - 8-10. Cum - habuisset, as he had placed most of his hope of success (ad effectum, lit. for the acccomplishment of his purpose) upon the concealment of the tunder

Page  319 BOOK XXI, CHAP. LVI-LX. 319 Page taking.-12. Consul. I. e. Scipio.-16. Praesidium, the post.- 135 19. Emporium, cc magazine of arms, provisions, clothing, etc. - 20. Frequentaverant, had settled, occupied, in large numbers. - Mixti. Chiefly Ligurians, but also Gauls. - 25.:Agmen (agimen from ago), an army or detachment on the march; acies, an army drawn out in battle-array. Z. -33. Scribentibus. I. e. to historians. —34. Adeo, to such an extent; so fully. 6, 7. Aut-adfligebantur, or, if they styrove agcainst it, they were 136 caught (whirled round, set spinning) by the whirlwid, and dashed to the ground.- 7, 8. Spiritum - sineret, (the wind) stopped (lit. shut up) the breath, asnd did not allow respiration. Reciprocare animam, lit. to exchange breath, i. e. to breathe in and out. — 11. Capti auribus et oeulis, i. e. "deafened and blinded." Captus, deplrived of the use of (for the time), as Liv. ii. 36, 8: captus omnibus mensbris.-15. Explicare, to unfold, unfurl, sc. the tent-covers, canvas and skins. -16. Statuere, to set up (the tent-poles). — 17. Aqua, the rain or mist. - 23. Strage, an overthrosw, a prostration. - 26. Movere and recipere, sc. coepere. - 27, 28. Ad - tendere; every one, helpless (hinmself), looked for the aid of others. LIX. 32. Ad, to the neighborhood of. -- 37. Passum -=pas10. Recessum, se. esse, (that a retiring had been made,) that 137 the enemy had retired from the camp. Passive impersonal. -11. Dextra laevaque. Through theporta princlptlis dextra and the portaprincipalis sinistra. The camp is to be thought of as having four gates through its ramparts, one on each side, like the Roman camps. —15. Accensum, hotly begun; lit. kindled, set on fire.-19. Dimidium ejus, the half of that niumber; ejus being the genitive of id used substantively. Z. - 21. Praefecti sociorum had the same functions among the allies as tlribuni mnilitum in the Roman legions. - 27. Ferme, mostly. LX, LXI. CN. SCIPIO IN SPAIN (218 B. C.). LX. Cneius Scipio gains most of the tribes between the Pyrenees and theEbro as allies of Rome, and defeats Hanno and takes him prisoner. LXI. Hasdrubal lays waste the fields of the allies of Rome, but retires behind the Ebro before Scipio. Scipio subjects the Ilergetes, marches against the Ausitani, lies in wait for and routs the Laoetani coming to their -aid, and receives the surrender of the Ausitani. He takes up his winter-quarters at Tarraoo.

Page  320 320 NOTES. Page 137 LX. 30. Cn. Cornelius Scipio. The brother of the consul. His affability and kindness attracted the Spaniards to him. - 33 sqq. Polybius (iii. 76), whose story is more probable, says that Scipio, coasting along from Emporiae, made landings from point to point, and subdued the different tribes on the sea-shore, or received their allegiance; afterwards, leaving garrisons at these points on the coast, he marched into the interior. - 36. Dicionis fecit. See note (p. 261) on i. 25 (p. 43, 1. 5).- 37, 39. Ad apud, amonsg, woith. 138 2. Auxiliorum. Auxiliary troops other than those furnished by the Italian socii. -5. Obviam eundum, that he otught to meet (the foe). —8. Quippe qui sciret. II. 519; 519, 3, 1;A. & S. 264, 8, (1) and (2); B. 1253; A. 63, II.; G. 427.-11. Magni certaminis. Genitive of quality. -14. Dux cum aliquot principibus capiuntur. The same construction after ctem and the ablative as we should have had after et and the nominative (et prinscipes). The singular (copitur) is also frequent. —Principibus. Probably Carthaginian Gerousiasts who accompanied the general. Wsb. - 16. Rerum fuit, consisted of ar'ticles. - 16, 17. Supellex is appositive topraeda, and mancipiorum is, so to speak, an appositive genitive, or, more strictly, a constituent genitive eonsisting of slaves. -18. Modo, onrly.- 21. Citra. I. e. on the Spanish side. The word is to be taken as it would be used by the Rooman army in Spain. LXI. 27, 28. Classicos — socios, marlines and seaeien, from the Roman fleet. Tarraco was held by the Romans. —29. Neglegentiam negligentiam. - 34. Paucos, a few. — Praefectos, captl, is.n 139 4. Cum, owhen. - 10. Urbe. Ausa, their capital. - 17. Plutei were semicircular roofs of hurdle-wood covered with raw hide, and moved on wheels, for the protection of soldiers assailing walls or working under them. — 18. Sola, i. e. of itself, by itself alone. - 21. Talentis. The ablative of the sum agreed upon as a warcontribution, like the ablative of price. LXII, LXIII. PATRCIA.N HATRED OF THE NEW CONSUL FLAISINInIS. LXII. Prodigies at Rome. LXIII. Flaminius enters upon his consulship (217 B. C.) at Ariminum, in order to avoid the chicanery of his aristocratic opponents. The senate sends in vain an embassy to insist on his return. Signs of warning meet him even in the camp.

Page  321 BOOK XXI, CHAP. LX-LXII. 321 Page LXII. 26. Quis = quibues. -27. Holitorio olitorio. The 139 forum olitorium, or vegetable market, was S. W. of the Capitoline, between that hill and the Tiber; the forum boariunz, or cattle market, was near the Tiber and W. of the Palatine. -Triumphum, etc., i. e. shouted "Io Triumphe!" —32. Hastam, sc. Julonis. The lance, in the worship of Juno, as well as in that of Mars and Quirinus, like the Jupiter Lapis, points back to a time in ancient Italy when the gods were represented only by such symbols. When these lances moved of themselves, it was a most portentous prodigy. See Preller, pp. 103, 300.-33. Pulvinari. Lov. 3, Mg. em. Others, pulvinario.. "Pulvinar or pulvinarium is a couch provided with carpets and: cushions placed beside the image of a divinity. On this the consecrated image was laid at solemn feasts, the feast itself being spread on a small table before it. The solemn festivity itself was called lectisternium, because the lecti (sofas for reclining on) were spread or covered (sternebanrtur) with cushions and cloths." -35. Visos, (beings) in human form were seen, etc. From religious -awe, Livy does not express the subject of visds (esse). - 37. Sortes extenuatas, that the lots shrunk. The lots were little tablets of oak-wood, inscribed with prophetic signs, letters, or words. Lots were also made of bronze. Their shrinking was an omen of public misfortune.-39. Libros, so. Sibyllinos. 2. Subinde, from time to time.-Aliis procurandis, in attending 140 to (i. e. properly expiating) other (prodigies). Dative. -4. Lustrata est. Sc. by sacrifices, and solemn processions around the city.-Xajores, as distinguished from lactantes.-Quibus editum est, to whom it i8 appointed (by the prophetical books, etc.), that they should be offered. -5. Pondo. Properly. an ablative of pondus,or pondum,. meaning in weight; but used as an indeclinable plural, (here in the ablative,).pounds. Forty pounds in gold about $8,100. Of course, the curlrent value of this amount of gold was very much greater in those days than now. - 6. Junoni. Mg. after old editors. MSS. et Junoni. - 7.. In Aventino. I. e. to Juno Regina, who had a temple on the Aventine containing her statue brought from Veii (Liv. 5,.23).- 10. Lectisternium. See note on pulvinari, p. 139, 1. 33.-Juventuti. Mg. after newer MSS. The other reading is Juventati. - 12. Genie, to the Genius (of the Roman people). As every man was supposed to have his own peculiar guardian-deity or genius, so the whole land and people. 21 - Livy.

Page  322 322 NOT-ES. Page 140 LXIII. 20. Consulem. I. e. Sempronium.-21. MartisMartiis.- 22. Hic. I. e. at Ariminum. -23. Memori, sc. ei. - Certaminum, etc. " Flaminius in his tribuneship, 228 B. C., had, contrary to the will of the senate, carried a law, by a vote of the comitia tributa, for the division of the ager Gallicns and Picenus among the Roman citizens. In his first consulship, 223 B. C., he was commanded by the senate to return instantly, and without fighting, from the war against the Insubrian Gauls, because the auspices at his election had been unfavorable; but he disobeyed the order, and the senate attempted, although without success, to withhold from him the honor of a triumph." Z. - 26. Novam. I. e. introducing a new rule. - 27. Adverso senatu. Gronov. MSS. adversus senatum. - Uno patrum, alone anmong the senators. -30. The tonnage of a Roman ship was estimated in amphorae., An amphora was a cubic foot; a ton in the measurement of a ship is forty cubic feet. - 31. Quaestus, traffic for the sake of gain; " speculation." -35. Auspiciis ementiendis. Flaminius had reason to fear that bad omens would be falsely alleged by the nobles to compel him to resign. When, in one of the years succeeding his triumph, he was made master of the horse by the dictator Minucius, "he was obliged to resign this command because at his nomination a mouse had been heard to squeak. The nobility marshalled heavenly signs and auspices on their side, and carried on against this champion of the people a sort of holy war." Ihne. - 36. The Latin festival was an ancient solemnity commemorative of the league between Rome and the unomen Latinutm. It was annually celebrated on the Alban Mount near the temple of Jupiter Latiaris, and (at this period) lasted several day. The consul was not to start for his province before the end of this. festival. See also note on p. 141, 11. 5 sqq.-Consularibus. I. e. that could be employed against (or in the case of) consuls. - 38. Privatus, as a private citizen: without formally entering upon his office at Rome. 141 3. Ante. See note on certamlinum, p. 140, 1. 23. -5 sqq. It was customary that the newly-elected consul, on the day of entering on his office, should dress himself in his house in his official robe (thepraetexta or purple-bordered toga), ascend the Capitol in solemn procession, to perform a sacrifice and make solemn vows, for the state in the temple of Jupiter, and then hold a session of the'sen0te' iq-which' (among other business) the time was fixed for

Page  323 BOOK X:XII, CHAP. I. 323 Page holding' the feriae Latinae.- 10. Monte, so. Albano. - 10-12. 141 Auspicato-iret. Before his departure for his province, it was the custom for the consul to go agai,, accompanied by a solemn procession, to the Capitol, after taking the auspices, and to make a vow to Jupiter Capitolinus, promising, if success were granted to his arms, to consecrate to the god certain gifts which he mentioned (vota, qulae nuncapantur). Then, wearing thepaludacmentum, or purple war-cloak of a commander, he marched out of the city with all military pomp. Wsb., Z.-13. Furtim, like a thief.-15. Videlicet, forsooth; to be sure. Here ironical.- 17. Aput, before the altar of.- 27. Procul, at a distance, i. e. among those standing at a'distance. - 29. In. Bracketed by Gronov. —32. Pertramites, by cross and by-roads over the Apennines. Perhaps by Sarsina, or by Pisaurum, Urbinum, and Tifernum, to Arretium. Ihne reconciles Polybius (iii. 77) with Livy by suggesting that it was the two new legions which had been directed to march into northern Etruria from Rome. BOOK TWENTY-SECOND. I, II. HANNIBAL CROSSES THE APENNINES (217 B. C.). I. 143 Hannibal leaves his winter-quarters. Servilius enters on his consulship at Rome. Prodigies are reported, to keep Flaminius from taking the field. II. Hannibal sets out for Etruria, and, during fatiguing marches through a flooded country, loses one of his eyes by inflammation. I. 1. Ex hibernis. From his winter-quarters in the valley of the Po, whither he seems to have returned from his expedition into Liguria (xxi. 59). -2. Et, both.-Nequiquam =nequicquam. — Conatus. Participle. -5, 6. Pro —agerentque, instead of seizing plunder and driving away booty themselves, from the lands of others. Literally, instead of this, (niamelyj) that they should themselves seize, etc. —7, 8. English order: premique hibernis exercituum utriusque partis (side, party).-8. Viderunt. C, m. 2, Mg. em. Common reading, viderent. - 9. Principum, sc. Gal-. lorumn.-10. Ipsorum inter se fraude,, by their own treachery to each other.-12. Tegumenta capitis. Polybius (3, 78) says that Hannibal'wore false hair, hating prepared wigs differing from, each -other, and suited to'different periods of life. - Ihne suggests

Page  324 324 NOTES. Page 143 that his object in wearing disguises was rather to act as his own spy than to secure his personal safety. - Errore etiam, by their very uncertainty, i. e. by the uncertainty of the Gauls in regard to his personal identity. Cf. i. 24. -16. Marts - MJartiis.- De re publica retulisset, he had laid proposals before the senate relating to the commonwealth (or to the interest of the state).- 18, 19. Quod. The interrogative adjective pronoun. - Magistratus, that (only) magistrates. Contrasted with privatum, -line 22. —20 sqq. See notes on p. 141, lines 5 sqq. and 10-12. - 20. Id refers to auspicium, the right of taking the auspices.-A- domo, etc. It was the rule that the consul should take the first auspices (to place his magistracy under the protection of the gods) in Rome itself, before daybreak on the day of his entrance upon office, and also that he should take the auspices at his own house before offering his vows at the Capitol on the day of his departure for his province. iN'eglecting these ceremonies at home, he could not take valid auspices on other soil. -21. Monte, sc. Albano. 144 1. Militibus, se. Romanis. —5. Solis, etc. A partial eclipse.6. Ardentes lapides. I. e. meteors. —9. The baths at Caere were much frequented. - 10. The very fountain of Hercules, in or near Caere.-11. Antiati, sc. agro. —Metentibus, reapers. From mento.-14. Sortes adtenuatas. See note on xxi. 62, (p. 139, 1. 37.) -Excidisse. I. e. fell from the row of others with which it was strung and hung up.- 15. Telum concutit. See note on xxi. 62, (p. 139,]. 32.) -16 sq. This statue of Mars was probably the one in the temple about a mile from the Porta Capena and just outside the present Porta S. Sebastiano, which stood between two images of wolves. —19. Minoribus diotua, too trifling even to be mentioned. -22. Expositis. Sc. by the consul, after the temporal business.- 25. Uti = — ut. —27. Libros, Sc. Sibyllinos.- 28. E. Inserted by Periz.,'Mg., Wsb. - Profarentur (Gr., Mg. - The MSS. praefarentur), they (i. e. the decemviri) should declare, report. - 34. Quantum, sc. pecuniae. - 36. Lectisternium. See note on xxi. 62, (p. 139, l. 33.) - Et ipsae, themselves also, i. e. as well as the matrons. - 37. Feronia, in addition to her other attributes, was a patron deity of freedmen. Preller, p. 377. 145 II. 2. Gronov. and Mg. would omit et. - 8. Dilectu, Dative.21. Qua - duces, by any path, if only the guides led the eway., 22. Fluvi =fluvii.-25. NeG. Periz, Mg., Wsb.? 27, Ubi meaning whenever, takes the subjunctive. -Aiinimis their speirit, their..~. -. -.. -... ~........

Page  325 BOOK XXII, CHAP. I-III. 325 Page courage. —33. Aut. Inserted by Walch., Mg., Wsb. -34 sq. 145 Tantlm - quaerentibus, seeking only something that stood out of the ewater. Tantum quod, just so much as would. 1. Umore = hunto.we. - 2. Altero oculo capitur, loses the sight 146 o.f one eye; (it was his right eye.) III.-VII. BATTLE ON THE TRASIMENE LAKE (April, 217 B. C.). III. Flaminius, contrary to the advice of his officers, and with bad omens, commences the march against Hannibal. IV.-VI. The battle "in the defiles fatal to Roman rashness." VII. The effect at Rome of the announcement of the defeat. III. 10, 11. In rem erat, it was expedient, desirable, useful.13. Faesulas inter = inte2r Faesulas, etc. An anastrophe more common in Tacitus than in Livy. -15. Ferox, confident, sanguine. - Non modo, followed by sed ae... quidemn, where both classes have a common predicate (as here sati8 mnetuens), = not only not. We might expect non modo nzon; but the logical ground on which non can be omitted is that by the coalescing of ne - quidem with 8atis metuens the predicate itself becomes negative, and the negative ne belongs conjointly to both clauses.-17. Metuens, being used here rather as an adjective than as a participle, governs the genitive.18. Allusion is made to the success of Flaminius as tribune in effecting the allotment of the land in Picenum to Roman settlers against the opposition of the nobility (232 B. C.), and to his victory over the Insubrians (223 B. C.).-20. Ferociter, with self-will; arrogantly. —28. Ferri agique, Ofipet Kal a&ywv. The former term refers to the carrying off of valuables, furniture, and the like; the latter to the driving away of cattle. Z. - 30. Nullo. Rightly used. "From nemo let me never see Neminis or nemine." - 31. Consilio, the council of war. - 36, 37. The signal for breaking camp was given by the trumpet; the signal for battle by a purple flag set up on the general's tent. - Proposuisset. So Mg. fills the lacuna. Mg. dedisset.- Immo, Nay, (let us not. do- so - that were too brave- but rather) let us go back, and sit down before the walls of Arretium, etc. 6. Ecum =eqiunn. -10. Num litteras, etc. An allusion 147 to the sealed letter sent by the senate in the former consulship of Flaminius, ordering him to lay down his office and return to Rome, which he left unopened until he had gained his victory over theInsubrians.-13. Obtorpuerunt. Mg. Other readings, obtorpluerit, obtorplzerint. -16. In vulgus, generally, for the most part.

Page  326 :326 NOTES. Page 147 IV. 21. Pervenerant, so. Hannibal and his army. - Loca nata insidiis. On the northern side of the lake (now Lago di Perugia), where it is skirted by the road from Cortona to Perusia, a steep range of hills approaches near to the water's edge, so that the road passes through a defile, formed by the lake on the right and the mountains on the left. In one spot only the hills recede to some distance, and leave a small expanse of level ground, bordered on the south by the lake, and everywhere else by steep heights. On these heights Hannibal drew up his army. With the best portion of his infantry, the Libyans and Spaniards, he occupied a hill jutting out into the middle of the plain. On his left or eastern side he placed the slingers and other light troops; on his right he drew up the Gauls, and beyond them his cavalry, on the gentle slopes as far as the point where the defile begins and where he expected the advance of the Romans. Probably the ground near the lake was marshy, and consequently the road wound along the foot of the hills,. where they receded from the water. - Ihne, after Nissen. —35. Ex adverso, in front of him.- 36. Decepere, (-fefellere,) esccaped his notice. So Horat. Sat. i. 3, 39. The.reading is uncertain. The MSS. deceptae. Mg. suggests acceptae or receptae. 148 5. Pariter, at the same time, simultaneously. V. 11. Ut, so far as it was possible.-21. Signa indicate the maniple, ordines the century, locum each man's particular place in the ranks. —~22. Vix conpeteret animus, i. e. they had scarcely the presence of mind; vix animu.s sui coipos erat, Crev. "'They had scarcely their wits about them sufficiently to," etc. Z. - 25. Vulnerum, i. e. ob vulnera. A free use of the genitive. -:29. In pugnam, in order to fight. -30. Omnis.partis. Accusative plural. —31. Capti, sc. stuOt. —36. In -that age the hastati fought in the first line, the principes in. the second. Both however. might stand before. the signa, and thus rincipes hastatique may be spoken of as one body (antesignani). 149 " 1-6. "And such the storm of battle on this day, And'such the frenzy, whose convulsion blinds To all save carnage, that,-beneath the fray, An earthquake reeled unheededly away."- ClhildeIHarold. VI. 7. Tris -— tres. - 13. Ducario. Dative by attraction to ei understood. —17. Manibus, to the shades. — 27. Umeris

Page  327 BOOK XXII, CHAP. IV-IXL. 27 Page hlne,ie)s. - 31. Animis, their strength or breath.- 34. Primi 149 agminis, in the head of the line of march. - 35. Hostis. Accusative plural. - 36. Ex saltu, out of the defile near Passignano, where the Baleares were thinly posted (Pol. 3, 83). VII. 14. Inter paucas -- especially, like few. - Memorata, 150 (often) mentioned, memorable. Z. 328 middle. —16. Aversis itineribus, by by-roads. - 19. Multiplex, many times greater. - 20. Auctum. Walch.,- Mg. - P, B, austum. Vulgo haustum. - 21. Fabium. Fabius Pictor. See note on i. 44. Livy alludes here not to his Annals, but to his Greek work,'Arroypvnpovpuara, an account of the memorable events in his own lifetime. Z. - 28. Non invenit. " A hostile fate, which exposed Flaminius to the reviling tongue of his political opponents and blackened his memory, deprived him also of the respect which a generous enemy was ready to bestow." Ihne, ii. 209. "Flaminius died bravely, sword in hand, having committed no greater military error than many an impetuous soldier whose death in his country's cause has been felt to throw a veil over his rashness, and whose memory Is pitied and honored. The party feelings which have so colored the language of the ancient writers respecting him need not be shared by a modern historian." Arnold, Hist. of Rome, iii. 110.-38. Domos, home. Lit., to their houses; the plural being used because referring to a number of persons who had separate homes. 11. Utique, patr)ticularly.- 14, 15. Gratulantis, consolantis. 151 Accusative plural. - 19. Fili =-flii. VIII. Four thousand men taken by the Carthaginians in Umbria. - Q. Fabius Maximus elected prodictator, and M. Minucius Rufus master of the horse. VIII. 31-34. Pars ducere, pars aestimare. Historical infinitive.-34. Sed. Supply puture, but thought, to govern aestimaludum esse (39).- 35. I do not hesitate to insert in, after Drakenborch. -37. Incideret. Madvig's emendation for i7iciderit. -39. Jam diu, etc. " Thirty-two years had passed since, in the darkest period of the first Punic war, after the great defeat at Drepana, a dictator [rei gereldae causea, i. e. to act as supreme military leader] had been chosen." 6. Prodictatorem. The MSS., Mg., Wsb., dictatoreru. But 152 see chap. xxxi. - 7. Populus creavit. Probably in the comitia celturi(ata.- 11. Fluminum, e. g. the Tiber, Liris, Nar. IX.-XI. HANNIBAL IN LOWER ITALY. IX. The Sibylline

Page  328 328 NOTES. Page 152 books consulted. X. A ver sacrum decreed. XI. Two new legions are raised. The people in the districts threatened by the Punic army are enjoined to take refuge in the nearest fortresses, to set fire to their farm-houses and villages, and lay waste their fields. The Carthaginians capture a fleet of Roman transports on the Etrurian coast. Freedmen enrolled. IX. 21. Praeda. I. e. with things which the army might take away with them, a soldier not looking upon provisions as booty. Z. -241 Levi, i. e. without great loss on the part of the victors.-25. Facili, easily won. — Datum, sc. est.- 27. Hadrianumque. The que is judiciously added by Madvig, after one or two recent MSS. - Agrum, as well as the proper names in line 28 and regionem, is object of devastat. - 35. Iterum. Fabius had been named dictator four years before, in order to hold the consular comitia, the consuls having resigned on the discovery of an informality in their election. - 38. Inscitia, inexperience. 153 1. Pervicit, prevailed, carried his proposition.- 5 sq. Quod - factum, that that vow which had been made to Mars on account of this war, not having been rightly periformed, etc. - Erucinae. The older orthography of Erycinae. Venus Erycina was an AssyrioGreek goddess, named from the promontory of Eryx in Sicily, where she had a splendid temple whose foundation was attributed to Aeneas. Verg. Aen., V. 759 sq. Wsb. —8. "To the goddess Mens, the personification of intelligent reflection, there was certainly good reason to commend the Roman state." — 9. Lectisternium. See note on xxi. 62 (pulvinari). X. 19. Velitis jubeatisne. See note on i. 46, (p..278.)- 21 sq. Sicut- erit. Mg.'s reading. —22. The ancient antique word duellum is used in old formulae. - 25. Turn. Mg. admirably in place of datum.-Duit = det. Present subjunctive: let the Roman people of the Quirites offer as a gift, etc. - 25-27. (Id) quod-fieri, that whatever the spring shall have brought forth, etc., " at least what thereof is unconsecrated" (quaeque profana erunt) shall be sacrificed to Jupiter. The clause is in apposition to donum.. So Zunmpt; and I see no objection to this construction in an ancient formula. - 28. Faciet, shall make an offering, shall sacrifice. - 29. Faxit — ecerit. Future perfect. -- 30, 31. Profanum esto, it shall be considered as not consecrated, and the failure to offer it shall not be a sin. While the proclamation of a ver sacrusm was calculated to impress the minds of the people

Page  329 BOOK XXII, CHAP. IX-XII. 329 Page deeply, wise provision was made to relieve them from supersti- 153 tious distress in case of accidental irregularities or unavoidable losses. —31. Rumpet, shall wound, mar. "Rupisse eum utique accipiemus, qui vulneraverit, vel virgis vel loris vel pugnis ceciderit, vel telo vel quo alio, ut scinderet alicui corpus, vel tumorem fecerit." Digest. ix. 2, 27, 17. - 32. Clepsit = clepserit. Future perfect. —33. Cui. Dative of disadvantage, loss. —Atro die. "Atri dies were days marked with black in the Roman calendar, on account of some disastrous event in Roman annals, or for religious reasons. On such days it was improper to offer a sacrifice." - 35. Antidea - antea. -36. Ac -_ quam, as after aeque, juxta, etc. - Faxitur, passive of faxit, =-factum erit. - 38. Aeris, se. assiumn. The ablative that follows denotes the expense of the games, (means, price). - 39. Jovi, sc. fieri votum est. 5. In —fortuna, in regard to (or, in their concern for) any 154 prosperity of their own. - Publica cura, anx;iety for the state. XI. 17. Madvig follows old editors in bracketing de. —22. E re publica, for the inlterest of the state. -- 25. Tibur. Terminal accusative after convenietdum. - 27. Ut is repeated, as sometimes happens, although already expressed in the preceding line. - 28. Omnis. Accusative plural. —30. The via Flaminia was built by C. Flaminius (who fell at lake Trasimenus) when censor. It led through Etruria, by way of Ocriculum, and through Umbria, to Ariminum. - 31. Exercitu. Dative. - 34. Sine lictoribus. Because he was under the imperium of the dictator. —Dicta. torem, not se, because it is the dignity of the office, not the person merely, that is in point. -Vetustate. See note on jam diet, p. 151, line 39. 7. The libertini who had children had a stake in the state, as 155 their children were ingenui. They probably served on the fleet. - In verba juraverant, had taken the oath; lit., had sworn according to the words (of the oath read over to them). XII.-XVIII. TiE FABIAN POLICY (217 B. C.). XII. Fabius baffles Hannibal by avoiding battle. XIII. Hannibal is led out of his way by a mistake of his guide. XIV. Manucius, the master of the horse, inveighs against the inactivity of Fabius. XV. Mancinus, a young officer sent out by Fabius with four hundred horsemen to reconnoitre, is attacked by a party of Hannibal's cavairy, and slain with the best of his followers. XVI, XVII; Hannibal is shut in by Fabius in -a place unsuited for

Page  330 330 N-OTE-S. Page 155 wintering, but escapes by a stratagem. XVIII. Fabius follows Hannibal about the country, always -keeping near him, but never engaging with him. He is recalled to Rome to perform some religious duties, and leaves Minucius in command, conjuring him to continue the cautious mode of operation. Z. XII. 14. "The via Latina leads from Rome, southwards by Ferentinum, Frusino, and Fregellae, to Campania."- 22. I do not hesitate to omit the quos of the MSS. between tandem and Martios, as making no sense. Various emendations have been proposed, as aliquado, suos, illos. - Increpans, etc., with the taunting words, indeed, that the mtartial spirit of the Romans was at last subdued, and that the wtar teas brought to an end, and' they had publicly renounced their claim to valor and glory. - Martios, strictly, of M11ars: such as befitted his descendants. —28. Novi. Gr., Mg., in place of non vim. - 34. Subsistebat, lay in wait. So i. 4, ix. 23. -36. Ut, etc., so that he neither lost sight of him nor engaged with him. - 37. Cogerent, se. egredi. - 39. Equitum - statio, an outpost of cavalry and light infantry. 156 3. Universo periculo. I. e. a general battle on which everything was staked. —4, 5. Parva —receptu, "slight successes gained in skirmishes, which were begun from a point of safety, with a place of retreat near at hand." -10. Impar, sc. dictatori. -11. Ferox, self-confident. - 14. Conpellabat (Fabium). XIII. 22. Ad aecum (aequum) certamen. I. e. to battle in the plain.-25. Jam tum, at that very time (when they were released), immediately; for Hannibal knew the importance of gaining Capua. - 28. Major, of greater weight. - 29. Alternis; sc. vicibus, by turns, alternately. - 34. Duci, his guide. - 38. Pronlnltiatione os0, asilinum. Haupt., Wsb., Mg. —Punicum os. It is supposed that Hannibal pronounced the s in Casinume thick, like a Phoenician shin (sh), jo. But the whole story, says Ihne, " looks like a camp anecdote, and is in every respect improbable." 157 3. Circumspexisset, he had seen around himself, i. e. he found that he had come into. - 13. Socios, the allies (of Rome). XIV. 17. Castra, sc. Hacnibalis. - 26, 27. Venimus hue, spectatum caedes? etc. - Ut rem fruendam oculis, tamquam rem jucundam visu. Gron., from whom I adopt ut in place of ad. -- 28, 29. Nullius, civium. Translate, after nos pudet, before no one else, etc.; in regard to. What will they say? what will they think? - 38. Modo, of late, just now. - Indignando, in our in

Page  331 BOOK XXII, CHAP. XII-XVI. 331 Page digination at.-39. Ciebamus, called aloud upon, invoked. First 157 meaning, set in motion, stirred up. 2. Lenti. Ed. Mogunt., Mg. The MSS. laeti. —6. Aestivos 158 saltus. The mountains where the Romans were posted were called "summer hills;" woody heights where flocks and herds were pastured in summer.-8. M. Furius (Camillus). —10. Unicus. Ironical. —13. Hannibali, only for Hannibal, etc. - Servaverint. Perfect subjunctive after vereor, of a future result, like the future perfect: I fear it will prove that our ancestors have so often preserved Rome, only that it should fall into the hands of the Phoenicians (Poeni). -14. Vir, (that true) man; deserving the name of man. I. e. Camillus. -17. Ubi - ut ibi. - 26. Modo, recently, (as compared with the Samnite war.) It was twenty-five years before this time. Z. 287, isnit. —28.. Classem, sc. Punicant.-30. Debellari posse, that the war can be brought to a close. - 38. Ferebant, they (the soldiers) declared. - 39. Ducem. Gr. The MSS. duci. —(Se) praelaturos (esse). XV. 1. Pariter, at the same time; haud minus, int no less de- 159 gree. —3. Scit. The historical present, rare in subordinate clauses. -8, 9. Praesentis - perpetuae, was able to supply subsistence for the present, not for a long-continued period-: for the summer, not for the whole year. - Arbusta, etc. A somewhat free appositive to regio. Wsb.-11. Haec. I. e. Hannibal's position and plans. —13. (Hannibalem) rediturum (esse).-15. Dirempta is used because the city as a wohole is parted asunder by the river; dividit denotes a natural division, and" severs only an external relation." -16. Jugis lsdem, along the same hills on which he had followed Hannibal. — 22. Et. Inserted by Madvig. - 23. Occupatus certamine est, wasfilled with (thoughts of) battle. - 25. Quantum - progressum, after having advanced as far as he could with safety. —29. Pertraxere, sc. eum. - Carthalo. The Carthaginian commander -of the cavalry in the army of Hannibal. - 32. Hostis. Accusative plural. - 35. Omni - impar, in every respect unequal in strenlgth. 3. Appiae limite, by the high-way of the Appianl road. The 160 limes here is the agger (Cf. Verg. Aen. 5, 273) or carriage-way in the middle, on both sides of which were paths for foot-passengers. XVI. 9. Aequiore, more favorable. — 10. Expeditis, lightarmed (foot-soldiers). —14. Ab, on the side of. —16. Videri'historical infinitive) Hannibal, Hannibal thought himself, per

Page  332 332 NOTES. Page 60 ceived that he was (inclusus). - 17, 18. Tantum divitum sociorum, so mawy rich- allies. - 19. Harenas -= trenas. 161 XVII. 1. In adversos montis, Up the mounta;is (on the side of the pass). -2. Ad vivum, to the quick. -5. Visa. Added by A. Perizon., approved by Mg. - 6. Inrita, in vain, fruitless: its object being to shake off the lighted fagots and extinguish the flames, but its result being only to increase the evil. —9, 10. English order: ubi conspexere ignes in summis montibus, ac super se quosdam, (and some straight above themn.) -11. Minime, least; (not, here,'by no means.') —15. Flammas spirantium, (of beings) or (of apparitions) breathing flames. The omission of the substantive indicates the mysterious nature of the spectacle. - 18. Incurrere (historical infinitive) with the dative (levi armaturae); more commonly with in and the accusative.-19. Neutros, etc., i. e. eos tennit ad lucem ut neutri puggnam inciperent, etc. XVIII. 26, 27. Interclusam —armaturam, some light-arnmed troops; (of the Carthaginians) shult off from their (nmrades). - 29. Ad id ipsum, for this very purpose. - Supervenisset. Gr., Mg. The MSS. venisset or venissent. Wsb. pervenisset. - 32. Campestrem, accustomed to fight in the plain. - 33. Statarius, ordines servans (Liv. ix. 19), fighting in regular line of battle. - Pugnae genere, " by their mode of fightig." - 34. Elusit, bafled. 162 1 sq. Hannibal crosses the Apennines for the fourth time in this one year. —2. Jugis. Ablative of the route. —8. Revocatus. So. by the senate. -12. Ne nihil actum censeret, "he was not to think that nothing had been done," or, do not think, said he, that nothing has been accomplished. Subjunctive in oratio obliqua, for imperative of direct discourse. -14. Quiete, by inaction, by doing nothing. Niig., p. 288. -16. Ab, after. XIX.-XXII. THE CAMPAIGN OF 217 B. C. IN SPAIN. XIX, XX. Cn. Scipio, sailing from Tarraco with a fleet of thirty-five vessels, defeats a Carthaginian fleet of forty ships at the mouth of the Ebro, causing them a loss of twenty-five ships. Scipio makes a successful excursion with his fleet. More than one hundred and twenty states of Spain give hostages and accept the Roman rule. XXI. Further movements. The Celtiberi invade the Carthaginian province, and defeat Hasdrubal in two battles. XXII. Publius Scipio, the consul of the former year, is sent to Spain with a reinforcement of thirty vessels and eight thousand

Page  333 BOOK XXII, CHAP. XVII-XXII. 333 Page men. Through the treason of Abelux, a Spanish chief, the 162 Spanish hostages detained by the Carthaginians in Saguntum are set free by the Scipios. XIX. 24. Carthagine, so. Nova. - 28. Idem - fuit, sc. ei, he had the samle intention, i. e. of fighting quaceumqe parte copiarurm hostis occurrisset. - 30. Delecto -imposito, having put on board the soldiers chosen for the ships. - 34. Speculatoriae, sc. naves. 6. Aperientibus, admitting a view of. -17 sq. Vessels were 163 generally anchored with their sterns to the shore and their prows to the sea. The orae (hawsers) passed from the sterns to the fastening-places on the shore or in the harbor; while the prow was fastened to the anchors by ancoralia or cables. When the ropes were untied which fastened the vessels to the shore, the ships swung out to sea, and were held only by their anchors. - 26. Adversi. I. e. with its current running against the ship, with its o0pposintg current.-28, 29. Vadis, litore. The ablative is instrumental, (received by shallow-places, by the shore,) not simply locative. XX. 37, 38. Religatas puppibus, having fastened them to the sterns of their own vessels. 2. Ejus orae. On the east side of Spain.-5. Carthaginem, 164 se. Novam.- 6, 7. Tecta injuncta, etc., the suburbs.- 9. Sparti, a Spanish rush, stipa tenacissima, Linn. "Its thread-like leaves are used in the same way as hemp, for making mats and cords; and the indestructibility of these, particularly their remaining uninjured by wet, is famed." Cf. Plin...19, 2, 30: conplectatur animo qui volet miraculum aestimare, quanto sit in usu (spartum) omnibus terris navium armamentis, maohinis aedificationum, aliisque desideriis vitae. Ad hos omnis usus quae sufficiant minus triginta milia passuum in latitudinem a litore Carthaginis novae minusque C. in longitudinem esse reperientur. Wsb. -10. Sublato. Ablative absolute with eo, the understood antecedent of qtod.-12. Praelectast -praeteota est. — Set= sed.- 22. Qui, such as. Hence the subjunctive, - 27. Concessit. Concedebat would better express the fact. Wsb. - 36. Auxiliis. Perhaps Spanish. Wsb. XXI. 29. Per, (" for,") so far as depended on; so far as lay with. - 38, Partis (accusative plural) is supplied by Madvig. 5. Principes. Accusative. - Miseraat. Supplied by Gron. 165 XXII 17 Ingens - eae.rariarum, large in coansequence of the. ~.............-...........

Page  334 334 NOTES. Page 165 train of vessels of burden. - 23. Nec ullo= et nullo.-25. Tradito3, sc. custodiendos.-36. Corpus, creature.- Id agebat, he was aiming at this, he kept this object in view. - 38, 39. Potestatisfacere, could put in his power. 166 8. Metum, fear (of the Carthaginians). - Continuisse, sc. in fide. —14. Tantae rei, i. e. of so great efficacy. — 18. Ipsam. I. e. true, genuine, not compelled.- 22. Adiciam = adjicianl.- 23. Ad, in comparison with. - Ut, when. - 39. Futura fuerat. The lively periphrastic indicative instead offuisset. - Illos. So. Carthaginienses. - Gravis. Accusative plural. XXIII.-XXXI. REMAINDER OF THE DICTATORSHIP OF FABIUS. XXIII. The character of Fabius. XXIV. In the absence of the dictator, Minucius, the master of the horse, engages with the Carthaginians with some success. XXV. A storm in Rome against Fabius. An absurd law is passed conferring the dictatorship on Minucius equally with Fabius. XXVI. The rise of C. Terentius Varro. Fabius bears with dignity the slight put upon him. XXVII. The exultation of Minucius. Fabius and he divide the legions and occupy separate camps. XXVIII, XXIX. Minucius makes a hasty attack on the Carthaginians, on a field which Hannibal himself'had chosen, and where five thousand Carthaginian troops were concealed in ambush. He is worsted, and is saved from annihilation only by the interposition of Fabius. XXX. Minucius returns thanks to Fabius, and voluntarily resumes his subordinate station. XXXI. Cn. Servilius, the consul, not being able to find' the Carthaginian fleet in pursuit of which he had been sent from Ostia (chap. xi.), sails to Africa. He plunders the island of Meninx, and exacts ten silver talents as a war-contribution from the island of Cercina. Venturing -toi land in Africa, he is repulsed with great loss. He returns to Italy, in order to assume the command of the army with his colleague at the expiration of the dictatorship of Fabius. 167 XXIII. 9. Quoque probably found its way here into the MSS. from the second'line above. -12, 15. Ut, wohile or although; ita, yet. - 13. Eum =- talent. - 23 sq. Ut ea - posset,' that this might appear the reward. — 25. Dubio, variously judged.- In eo, in the matter; therein. - Non expectata, etc. A dictator was not allowed to expend any of the: public moneys without a special aut!orizktion of the senate. -30. The sum here' given a

Page  335 BOOK XXII, CHAP. XXIII-XXV. 335 Page thousand sesterces or a sestertium. Crev. - 34. Tardius eroga- 167 retur, was rather sloswly voted. XXIV. 2. Duas partes, two-thirds. —9. Monte. Calene, 168 between the Tifernus and Frento. - 15. Ferocius quam consultius, with more daring (or self-confidence) than prudence. —22. Tumulus. Probably Monte Secco. —26. Tenentis. Accusative plural. -27 sq. It is Ussing's suggestion to omit turnm ut. Wsb. reads turn utique instead of turn ut itaque of the MSS. - 28. Ex. iguum - aberat, (the) rampart (of one canmp) was (but) a little way distant from (the) rampart (of the other camp). -30. Supply loca before aversa.-33. Paucitate. So many soldiers had been sent out by Hannibal to forage that he had few in camp. -35.; Mg. can satisfy himself with no emendation. of this passage. Perhaps cogente should be supplied with fame, and the clause explains paucitate (Wsb.). Crevier changes the position of the words, placing pars exercitus aberat after paucitate.-39. Conlatis signis - in full line of battle; for the signa were carried in the main body of the army, not in the advanced guard nor among the light skirmishers. 7. These troops were socii Italici, called out as auxiliaries.- 169 13. Quinque, sc. milia. - Admodum, fully, at least. Wsb. XXV. 19. Ut, even if; granting that. —21, 22. Id - negat, cries, " Why! this is really not to be borne!" The elliptical force of enim (like y6p) may be represented by our exclamatory wshy! -24. Gestae obstare. Sc. by refusing his belief and depreciating the value of the victory. —27. Consulem alterum, Flaminium; alterum, Cn. Servilium. - 29. Praetores. T. Otacilius Crassus and A. Cornelius Mammula. 1. Ut, when, as soon as. -2. Ut, as if. - 7. Sure, the authority: 170 - Ne ita quidem, no, not even on these conditions. -10. Actione, a cause, a case.- 11. Populari. So Gron., followed by Mg. and many editors. The MSS. popularis. -14. Et. Inserted by Mg. - 17. Bono imperatore. Ablative absolute of the condition. With a good general; if the general is a good one. - 19. In tempore, in a critical time. -22. Consule. (In place of FIaminius, who was slain at the Trasimene lake.)- 25. Plebis concilium. The comitia tributa. —29. Auctoritas, the influence and support of men of character and distinction. -30. Unus, only one; alone..- 33. Ipsum- mercis, i. e. he kept a stall at which he sold his meat.

Page  336 336 NOTES. Page 170 xxvI. 35. Quaestus. Genitive. -36 sq. Animos fecit, raised his spirits, gave hime cour age. - Ad, for. - Toga et forum. The toga distinguished men of leisure or public distinction; the lower class of people wore only the tunic.: The forum was the centre of political life, where the assemblies and courts were held. -37, 38. Proclamando is used contemptuously. Dicendo would be the respectful expression. — Bonorum. In an aristocratic sense. 171 1. Honores. The qlaestorship was the- first step to the curule honors. Wsb. thinks that Varro must have begun his career with the minor offices, as those of the tresviri capitales, tresviri monetales, and the decemviri litibus judicandis. —5. Dictatoris (objective genitive). Mg. afterrecent MSS. Vulgo, dictatoria. — 13. Senatus. Mg., with some MSS. authority. A vastly better reading than the vulgate senatus consulti or even Gronov's senatusque consulto.-15. Cum aeque. The best MSS. cumque; many editors simply cum. I adopt gladly a suggestion of Bauer. Perhaps aeque alone would be still better, as the preposition is unnecessary. XXVII. 20. Illum. Sc. Fabium. 28. Deorum, (who gave the victory to Minucius;) hominum, (who associated Minucius with him in power.) 172 1, 2. Se-cessurum, that he would never agree to retirefrom the function, in which it was in his power to refuise to yield, of carrying on the war by wise deliberation. Partes munere. - Qua posset,: so. non cedere; (others, consilio res gerere.) 3. (Sed) exercitum. -4. Non liceret, sc. servare.- 5., Optinuit = obtinuit.- 6. Esset. The subjunctive represents this as a statement of Fabius, appealing to the example of consuls. Z. XXVIII. 12. Quae agerentur, which happened to be doing.14. Nam, sc. cogitabat. - 15. Sollertiae. Dative. - 17. Quem qui occupasset, and whoever should take (lit. with the strict accuracy of the Latin idiom, should have taken) possession of it first.-23, 24. Non modo silvestre quicquam, not only no ground that was wooded. On non modo before nle quidem, see- note on chap. iii. (p. 146, 1. 15.) 39. Dimittit. Bracketed by CGr. and Mg. 173 4. Most editors ut oresQente. Mg., after some recent MSS., omits ut. -7, 8, Praeoocupatum- tumulum, advancing, from lower ground, up the hill alreaedy ocoupied (by the: eueay). -Mg.

Page  337 BOOK XXII, CHAP. XXVI-XXXI. 337 Page:inserts the ex. - 11. Justa ae directa pugna, a regular and 173 straightforward battle. Directa. Mg.'s emendation of si recta. XXIX. 21. Imperio. Ablative specifying the respect in which. - 22. Videt, so. Minucius. — 27 sq. Ad auxilium defines demissa. - 29. Sueos, their comrades; (Minucius's army.) - 33. Volventes orbem, forming a circle. -35 sq. Acies victi atque integri exercitus (genitive case) facta erat prope una.- 39. Variam, changing. 3. Primum, the best: 174 oZvrog p4EV ravaiporo;, 8; abr, 7rdivra "vo"h (Hes.'Epy. 293). In rem, useful, advantageous, expedient.-8. Dum imperare discimus, so long as we are only learning how to commantd. This noble self-denial of Minucius more than balances his former presumption. Z.-13. Ac. Inserted by Mg.-14. Patronos, as patrons. XXX. 16. Ut colligantur vasa, to pack up. -17. Ad. Wsb., Mg., from old editors. - 24. Modo, just not. - Quod fando possum, (all) that I can do in speech. Quod, J. H. Voss, Mg. Vulgo, quo. - 26, 27. Oneratus, honoratus. A good play upon words; "beschwert... geehrt." Sum (a necessary addition), Wsb., Mg. -Antiquo abrogoque. "Two public formulae of throwing out a bill; antiquo being used in the rejection of a new law that had been proposed, and meaning'I stand by the old way;' and abrogo being'I support the repeal of an existing law.' "- 28. The quod in brackets is better omitted. - 32. Ordines suos. I. e. as centurions or as milites gregarii, hastati, principes, or triarii. - 38. Volgo = vulgo. - 39. Maximus. The people, in praising the dictator, would naturally make use of this cognonzen (or family name) rather than either the praenomen, Quintus, or the nonlen (or gentile name), Fabius: " Greatest is he truly, and worthy of his name." 3. Sentire, se. Poe)nos. Historical infinitive.- Bellum esse 175 cum Romanis. XXXI. 12. Classe. See chap. xi.- Centum viginti. The number (wanting in the MSS.) is supplied from Polybius. -14. Utrimque. I. e. ab utraque iins8la.-20. Juxta:ac si, in the same manner as if; just as if. —In. Adlded by Wsb. and Mg. - 29. Amisso. In sense, the partieiple belongs to ad mzille hominam as well as quaestore, but it is accommodated in form to the nearer,word..- 29. Pedibus - terrestri itinere.- 35. Coelius. See note.on xxi. 38. 22- Livy.

Page  338 338 NOTES. Page 176 4. Augentis (accusative plural) —posteros. As by writing under his'imago' dictator bis, as in the Elogium of Fabius, or II dictator, as in the Fasti. - 5. The lacuna is thus filled by Wsb., followed by Mg. P, pro dictatore caederetur. XXXII, XXXIII. THE CONSULS CONTINUE THE FABIAN POLICY. (Autumn of 217 B. C. and onward.) The Neapolitans send golden vessels from their temples to Rome, as a voluntary contribution towards the expenses of the war. The senate accepts only the smallest vessel, to honor the intention of the allies. A spy's hands are cut off. Twenty-five rebellious slaves are crucified. Ambassadors are sent to the king of Macedonia, to demand the surrender of Demetrius of Pharos, who had taken refuge with him;'to the Ligurians, to warn them against aiding the Carthaginians; and to the king of the Illyrians, reminding him to pay the tribute due to Rome. A chapel, previously vowed, is built to Concord. A dictator is named to hold the comitia for the election of new consuls. XXXII. 8. Fabi artibus, in. accordance with the plans (or system) of Fabis8. —12. In-dimicationis, to the hazard (or to the uncertain issue) of a general engagement. - 13. Non veniebant, they were not willing to come. Presents and imperfects sometimes denote readiness, purpose, desire.-Eo, to such a degree. -14, 15. Nisi-fuisset, were it not that his departure would have nzecessarily had the appearance of a flight (lit. he would have had to depart with the appearance, etc.). —Ei fuisset is Made ig's admirable emendation of timuisset.-23. Exhauriri. The present implies the constant drain upon the resources of Rome. - 29. In sese, i. e. in their own persons, as soldiers. By the terms of their alliance, the Neapolitans were bound only to furnish ships and sailors. (Liv. 8, 26.) Wsb. —30. Oblaturos, sc. eah..- 32. Dignos. Sc. the Neapolitans.- Judicaverint. The perfect subjunctive (representing the future perfect of direct discourse) gives the time from the standpoint of the speaker; the pluperfect (duxissent) from the standpoint of the narrator. —33. sq. Animo, voluntate, re. Ablative of specification. 177: XXXIII. 1. Quod —oonjurassent. Zonaras, 9, 1: gal' rivr dAovo, avvtowpotav inr? t'Ppp IrEcorloK6rte nooKoartfirlqaav. Zonaras certainly represents the affair as a rebellion or servile insurrection; and if'Livy had meant anything else, would he not have expressed himself more plainly? Ussing, however, with the approbation of Madvig,

Page  339 BOOK XXI'iCOHAP. XXXII —XXXIV. 339 Page Understands that the slaves mixed themselves with the soldiers 177 who were taking the military oath, for the sake of fraudulently obtaining their liberty. (Cf. Plin. Ep. x. 29, 38 sqq.) -2, 3. Aeris - milia. About $830. (It should always be remembered that gold and silver were worth much more in ancient times than now.)4. Demetrius, born in Pharos or Pharia, an island on the Illyrian coast, received from the Romans a great part of the dominions of Queen Teuta on the islands and coasts of Dalmatia, in return for aiding them against her. Venturing afterwards upon acts of piratical hostility, the Romans sent the consul L. Aemilius Paulus against him,'who took his strongholds (219 B. C.), and obliged him to fly for refuge to the king of Macedonia. -5. Ligures. Cf. xxi. 59.-8. Pineum. Pineus, stepson and ward of Queen Teuta, inherited from her the obligation to pay tribute to Rome. -13, 14. In religionem venit, it came upon, or it camne home to their consciences (or their sense of religious obligation). -Per, on occasion of; during. - 15. Praetor. 218 B. C. - 16. Locatam, let out by contract to be built. - 30. Vitio, with a fault (in the auspices). XXXIV.-XLII. ON TO CANNAE! XXXIV, XXXV. Election of new consuls. Opposition to the nobility. C. Terentius Varro is chosen consul for the year 216 B. C., whilst of three patrician candidates none received a sufficient number of votes. Varro holding -the,comitia for the election of a colleague, L. lEmilius Paulus is elected. XXXVI. New troops are levied. Religious excitement at Rome. Ambassadors from Paestum, offering gifts, are thanked, but their gold is not received. XXXVII. King Hiero of Syracuse sends to Rome a golden image of Victory, three hundred thousand modii of wheat, two hundred thousand of barley, and one thousand archers and slingers. The Victory is accepted as a good omen, and placed in the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter; the grain and the troops are delivered to the consuls. XXXVIII. Varro boasts that he will finish the war on the day that he shall first meet the enemy; Paulus is less sanguine. XXXIX. Q. Fabius Maximus, addressing Paulus, cautions him against the rashness of his colleague, and counsels prudence and deliberation. XL. The consuls proceed to the seat of war. Hannibal is delighted at their approach. XLI, XLII. A successful skirmish among the outposts has the effect, perhaps intended by Hannibal, of raising the courage of

Page  340 3840 NOTES. Page 177 the Romans. A stratagem of Hannibal, to draw the Romans into an ambuscade, fails through the prudence of Paulus and the final disclosure of the plot. XXXIV. 37. Patrum. The nobility; the patricians. -37 sqq. Quem, sui generis hominem (as a man of their own class),... volgus extrahere ad consulatum nitebatur. 178 39-1. Ab - splendentem, conspicuous, after he had shaken the ifluence and the dictatorial power of Fabius'in consequence of the hatred he had excited against another (i. e. against Fabius). -3. Se and sibi refer to patres. -12. Cum, while; although. - Uni. versis, if kept together. - Pugnari posse; they could have fought ditccessfully.-13. Eo,ffrom this fact. -15. Objectas, had been thrown to the enemy. —16. Appellaretur, se. Fabius. -18, 19. Id foedus, an alliance, or agreement, to this end.- 20. Nee habituros, nor would they (i. e. the people) have, etc. - 21. A homeo novus is a plebeian, who is the first of his family to obtain a curule office. He has no imagines of his ancestors; but his own imago is set up in the atrium after he is dead, and his descendants are plebeii nobiles. - 23. A. Inserted by Mg., after recent MSS. - Patrfbus, the patricians. - 24. Actum, aimed at. - 25. The interreyes were always chosen from the patricians. - 26. Ambos - morando, by remaining both of them with the arnmy. - 28. Vitiosus, chosen against the (or with faulty) auspices; his election, consequently,.being null and void. -29. Fieret, should be declared. -30 sq. Plebis - esse, belonged to the Romean plebs. -31. Populum-habiturum, thaet the'people ewould dispose of it freely (i. e. in accordance with their-own will). XXXV. 35, 36. Duobus - plebei, two already noble, belongi~ng to families of the plebs. 179 2, 3.'Emilius Paulus and Livius were engaged, as consuls, in the Illyrian war, 219 B. C. "They were afterwards accused of fraud in the division of the booty. Livius was condemned, and Paulus with great difficulty obtained an acquittal; coming off aenmbiustus or 8emiustus, "scorched,"'half-burnt." - 7. Par- adversandum, more as anl equal to oppose him. -10. Juri dicundo (dicendo). Dative defining sors. XXXVI. 26. Milibus. For the distributive numeral, which is not in use. -29. Peditis, sc. numerum. -31. Fuisse. Added by Mg. after Perizon. 32-35. Although Livy afterwards endieavors to throw all the blame of the defeat at Cannae upon the rashness

Page  341 BOOK XXII, CHAP.- XXXIV-XXXVIII. 341 -Page of the plebeian Varro, this sentence (so far as it goes) accords 179 rather with the statement of Polybius (3, 107, 108), that the senate, placing great hopes in'the skill and experience-of JEmilius, gave the new consuls positive orders to offer a battle. In preparing this great force, (larger than any that Rome had ever sent against an enemy,) their object was to make victory certain. -37. Libros. Sc. Sibylli5os8. 1. Signa, statues of the gods.-2. I follow a suggestion of 180 Mg. in the emendation of this' line. —Gelidas, icy-cold. -4 The Via Fornicata or Via Tecta, a colonnade closed in on both sides, led from the city to the Campus' Martius, not far from the subsequent site of the Mausoleum of Augustus. XXXVII. 13. Adlatam, the tidings of. -14. Ut, so that (he could not have been more moved by any, etc.). -18.'Se refers to Hiero, whose ambassadors speak as though he himself were speaking. They use the plural, however, (subvecturos'"(esse), Sc. se, line, 26,) when they speak of an action in which they themselves are to be agents.- 26. Quo, etc.' I. e. to the Roma'n magazines. —27. Scire, sc. se, as in 1.' 18.- 30. Mille as a substanbtive, as. in chap. xxxi..... 4. Gratia rei accepta, while taking in good part the kind feel- 181 ing of the offer.- 11-13. Quinque et viginti quinqueremes additae (sunt) ad classem, etc. XXXVIII. 16. Paucos, but a few; few days only.-18 Sq'q. "The general military oath, sacramenltum, contained only' a promise of implicit obedience.' Besides taking it, however, the soldiers had been in the habit of'swearing among themselves not to leave their ranks in face of an enemy, etc. This latter'oath was'now, by the agency of the'staff-officers (tribuni;niliturm), maude a public one, and administered more formally than before." — 21, 22. The.avalry were divided into decisriae, of which' three made a turma, while ten turmae formed an ala. The infantry were'divided into centuriae, of which two made a manlipulus, while three maniples formed a cohort, and ten cohorts a legion.' Decuriandum aut centuriandum. Mg.'s emendation of decu-.riatum aut centuriatllm. -26. Repetendi. Crevier's emendation of petendi. - 28. Ac. Wsb., Mg., Hz. The MSS. generally ad. -36, 37. Verior quam gratior. A well-known Latin idiom. In English, the second adjective would be in the positive degree. — 38. Quod denique. Mg.'s conjecture. P, quod ne qui.

Page  342 342... NOTES. Page 182 5. Res, occasions, circumstances. —9. Ad id locorum, up to this time. - Et. A good conjecture of Gronov, in place of id. —11. Id. Perseverare generally takes the infinitive, or in with the ablative. But intransitive verbs often take a neuter pronoun in the accusative, denoting the thing in reference to. which the action is performed. XXXIX. 15-17. Et duo boni... et mali. Hypothetical. For if both of you were good consuls... and if bad.- 16. Indicente non dicente.- E, in accordance with.- Re, interests, advantage. -17. Fideque. Qu6 added by Perizon, Wsb., Mg. —21, 22. Altera - publica, while the state limps on the other side. Claudente, em. Ussing. Vulgo, clbudet res publica. - 22. Ac, as.26-29. Cum-erit. I adopt Mg.'s emendations.- 31, 32. Consul demum, not until he was consul. - 34. Consulatu. Rightly bracketed by Gron. and Mg. 183 3. Adversus, in the presence of. Crev. - Unum, as distin. guished from the senate or the people. -6. Excesserim. Subjunctive of choice or preference. -14. MIeliores, so. bello. - 14, 15. Tempus diesque, time and (infact each) day. Wsb. renders,:' circumstances and time.' -19. In diem rapto, upon what he has plunderedfor the day (or for each day). -26, 27. Sedet. Sed. A. Perizon, Mg. The MSS. simply sed. Gronov makes it an instance of aposiopesis: moenibus -! Sed, etc. — 29. Ludificati sint, have bafled him. - 37. Falsa; undeserved. - 38. Gloriam. Muretus would add vanam. 184 5. Suadeo. Inserted by Mg. —6. Tuae- sint, be master always of yourself and of all your circulmstances; literally, let yourself and all your affairs be always in your (own) power.-7. Occasioni, favorable opportunity. XL. 16. Populare incendium... semustum. (semiustum). Cf. ambutstus, chap. xxxv., and note. - 20. Ab, forth from, inmmediately after.-22. Sua, of his party, his own friends. —Dignitates, like "dignities " in old English writers, men of rank. - 25. Bifariam, in two places. - 37. Convecto. By order,-(,f the consuls. -38, 39. The statement that Hannibal was hard pressed for want of provisions is probably an invention of the aristocratic writers, who wished to condemn the strategy of the plebeian Varro. Polybius knows nothing of it. Before the arrival of the newconsuls, Hannibal had seized the citadel of Cannae, where the Romans had established a magazine for the supply of their army.

Page  343 BOOK XXII, CHAP. XXXIX-XLIII. 343 Page It was the Romans themselves, whom the scarcity of supplies for 184 an army of ninety thousand men in a country which, almost for a whole year, had been made to support the armies of two nations, forced to give battle. XLI. 5. Procursu is causal ablative after orto. -8, 9. Non 185 plus - occisis, while not more than a hundred of the allies and Romans fell.- 11. Alternis, sc. diebus. -15. Inescatam, allured with the bait.-25. Mediam. An excellent emendation of Madvig's. Vulgo, medium agmen. P, medium amnem. —30, 31. In locis, in their place8; where they stood. XLII. 32. Subduotae - stationes, thefact that the (Carthaginian) outposts were withdrawn. This clause, as well as silentium, is a subject of the verb fecit. 35. Concursus (militum) nuntiantium. 19. The auspices from the feeding of chickens were especially 186 employed on military expeditions. When the auspices were to be,* taken, the pullarius opened the cage and threw to the chickens pulse or a kind of soft cake. If they. refused to-come out or to eat, or uttered a cry, or beat their wings, or flew away, the signs were considered as unfavorable. - Auspicio = in auspicio, at the auspices; while he was taking the auspices. - Addicere; as an augural term, = assentiri. - 22. Casus, fate. - P. Claudius Pulcher sustained the memorable naval defeat at Drepana, in the first Punic war, 249 B. C. It was afterwards alleged that he had despised the augury of the sacred fowls: ordering them, when he was informed that they would not eat, to be cast into the sea, that at least they might drink. - 33. Imperi potentis, masters of their commandd; "able to keep the soldiers to their duty, obedient to their commands." Crev.- Cumr —solvisset, although the efforts of:one consul to gain the favor of his soldiers- (this is the meaning of.ambitio) —had, by wrong indulgence, first undermined their respect for himself (and afterwards injured the influence of his colleague also). C'rev., Z. XLIII.-LII. THE BATTLE AT CANNAE (June, 216 B. C.). XLIII. Hannibal proceeds to Cannae. The Romans follow. XLIV.-XLIX. The battle. Slaughter of the Romans. Flight. L.-LII. The fugitives. Advice of Maharbal to Hannibal. Appearance of the field. Terms of surrender. XLIII. 5. Annonam, the high. price Yof grain. -13. Ut. Ed. 187 Ascens. 1513, Mg., Wsb. P, simtul uod longius.- 28. The S. E. wind.

Page  344 344.'. NOTES. Page i87 xLIV. 34. Sequentis. Nominative plural. 37. The broad bed of the Aufidus is filled only in winter and spring; and -the river was -now so narrow and shallow that it could.. be crossed everywhere without any serious difficulty. The-battle-field selected by Varro was on the left or northern bank. Ihne. 18 13. velut usu cepisset, had as it were acquired a title to the country by prescription, having so long had undisputed-possession. -18. Videret, (Varro) should see to it; Varro ought to. take care. XLV. 29, 30. Tumultuario auxilio, by:irregular. auxiliaries, troops adapted only'for irregular fighting, i. e. the Numidians. - 33. Fuerit,' not esset, on account of its close connection with tennterit. 189 3.' Extremi, at the ends. —Intra, farther in, (towards the centre.) Here almost substantively: the space within, Wsb. - 7. Pugna acies.. The centre or media acies was- composed of tlhe legi6ns; of'infantry. 8. Tuenda, to lead, tb take charge of. XLVI. 14. Peditibus.- Instrumental ablative. -19... These scuta, protecting the whole body, were long but narrow. — 26.'The Spanish'sdldiers wore white': linen coats: with, red borders. 1u'rpura, ablative. - 35. Adversus, unfavorable. 190' XLVII 4. Ad evagandum, for wheeling to the right or left.-'5.'Deeotum directum. 6, 7. Stantibus - equis, the horses'at last standintg still and crowded together in. a mbss. - 13. Gallis'ispanisque -Gallorlum:Hispanorumqtle.-Obliqua. Mg. Vulgo, aequa. 14.' Conisi;=connisi. - Densa = colfertis ordinibus. -'16. A: cetera prominentem- aoie. "Hannibal arranged his;infantry in the form of a crescent (purvostde; 7ro&Jv T5 KtpTcw#a, Polyb. ~3, 113), placing the column of Gauls and -Spaniards in the middle, so that it stood;out a considerable way beyond the Africans. The'Rorman centre -troops, driving in —these Spaniards and Gauls, advanced like a wedge against the retiring centre; but they were immnediately outflanked, surrounded, and annihilated by. the still'fresh Africans" - 23. Aequavit frontem, made the line in front straight, the proijecting centre having been driven in. —25. Romanis, dative. The Romans must have advanced with all of'the battle-lines at once, -the hastati, principes, and triarii. Wsb. - 26. Cornua:. The extreme outer files of the alae. -27. Hostis. Acc. plural. -28. Proelio uno, curn Gallis Hispanisque. - 29. The best MSS. et adversuas - but Crev. and Mg. rightly o mit the conjunction.

Page  345 BOOK XXII,.CHAP. XLIV —XLIX. 345 Page XLVIII. 11. Ea parte. I. e. on the Carthaginian right wing. 191 Hasdrubal had been stationed, with the Gallic and Spanish horse, -on the left wing; but; after routing the Roman cavalry there op*posed -to him, he passed.round from. the left wing to the right, where he attacked the allied cavalry in. the rear: the front being at- the. same time attacked by. the Numidians. —12. Ex- media acie, from the middle of the fight;.' media' referring more to the ~time than' to the -position. Z. -— 14. Equites. Gr., Wsb., Mg., iHz. The MSS. pedites. —15. Afris, etc. Hasdrubal now fell awith all his heavy Spanish and Gallic cavalry upon the rear of the. Roman infantry, where the young inexperienced troops were placed- at the same time that the African infantry upon the. right and left fell upon the Roman flanks (chap. 47). "Thus the huge, -unwieldy masses of the. Roman infantry were crowded upon one another in helpless confusion, and surrounded on all sides, Whilst the outer ranks were falling fast, thousands stood idle in the centre pressed'close' against. each other, unable to strike. a blow, penned in like sheep, and doomed towait patiently. until it should be their turn.to,be slaughtered. Never before had.the god of battle gorged himself -so greedily With the blood of,his.children.. It seems beyond comprehension that in a, close combat, man. to man, the conquerors could strike down with cold steel more than their own numbers The physical exertion alone must have been almost superhuman. The carnage lasted nearly the whole day. Two hours before the sun went down, -(the sun. had been two hours risen when the battle began), - the Roman army was annihilated, and more than one-half lay dead on, the field of battle. The victory, which surpassed his boldest expectations, had cost Hannibal: not quite -six thousand men, (4000 Gauls, 1500 Spaniards and Africans, and 200 knights, Polyb. 3, 117,) and among them only two hundred of the brave horsemen to whom it was principally due." Ihne, ii. 236 sqq. XLIX. 17. Parte altera pugnae. The right Roman wing was already annihilated, and.Paulus (as, in: Livy's silence, we know from Polybius,) had passed over to. the main battlein the centre of the army.. The right wing gone, the centre is now the only other part of the fight when. we have been speaking of the left wing. -24 sq. Quam mallem, how I should prefer that he delivered them'to me in chains! Sportively or ironically spoken, meaning haw little I should prefer: how little.better would.it be

Page  346 346'' NOT ES. Page 191 for me, etc.; for if they have dismounted, they are as good as my captives already. 192 7. Et vixisse adhuc (both has lived up to this time). Alsch., Mg., Wsb.' The MSS. et vixisse et adhuc. —10. Alieno crimine, by accusig another.. —11. Haec eos agentis. Mg. em. P, haec exagentis. - 21 sqq. Polybius (3, 117,) makes the losses of the Romans still greater: viz., 72,000 killed and 20,000 taken, while no more than 4000' escaped. Mommsen follows Polybius, Ihne Livy. 193 L. 2, 3. Alterius - fuit, almost the whole army was the other consul's who died: a lively way of saying'almost the whole army shared the fate of the other consul who. died.' -9, 10. Cur illos non venire. A question expressed by the accusative and infinitive in Oratio obliqua, which in direct speech would have its verb in the indicative. - 19. Tua, i. e. Romani civis. - Alteri. I. e. socio Latino, "who might hope that Hannibal would either let him free, as after the battle of Lake Trasimenus (vii.), or would fix -a lower ransom for him, as really happened (lii.)." — 23. Gives, the fellow-citizens. The transition to the plural is natural, because tlt above (20) stands for the whole class. —26 sq. Quamvis — hostis, through enemies crowded never 8o thickly. - 31. This line is an hexameter. 194 LI. 3. Diei —quieteii, what remained of the day, and the repose of the following night. -- Relicum - reliquum. - 12. Temporis. The genitive of the- thing needed after opus is found here and Liv. xxiii. 21. - 20, 21. Aut pugna aut- fuga, either in the battle or in the flight. — 21. Adsurgentis. Nominative plural. — 24, 25. Jacentis, nudantis. Accusative plural. - LII. 36. Brachio, a fortified wall, a line of intrenchments. Flumine eos (sc. Romanos) excludit. Hannibal wished to cause a water-famine in the camp. 195 l.Nummis quadrigatis. These were Roman silver denarii, of the value of sixteen and two-thirds cents each, named from the stamp they bore. — 13. Ad vescendum facto. I. e. argentumm melesarium, services of plate.- 16. As before stated, Polybius (3,. 117,) makes the Carthaginian loss only 5700. LIII.-LXI. AFTER THE BATTLE (216 B. C.). LIII. Soume Roman knights, in their despair, form a plan of escaping to the sea-shore, and. seeking shelter with some foreign king. The youthful P. Cornelius Scipio, forcing his way into their council, and drawing his sword, terrifies them as if Hannibal himself had

Page  347 BOO K X XII, CH:AP. L-LV. 374T Page appeared before them, and forces them to swear never to abandon 195 their country. LIV. Roman fugitives join the consul Varro at Venusia; he leads them to Canusium. The consternation at Rome. LV. The senate meets. At the advice of Q. Fabius Maximus, measures are taken to calm the tumult, to obtain surer news of the posture of affairs, and to defend the city. LVI. An official account of the battle is received from Varro. Disquieting news from Sicily. LVII. M. Claudius Marcellus, in command of the fleet at Ostia, is ordered to march through Campania to Apulia to collect the scattered remains of theRoman army. Prodigies and sacrifices. A levy is held, in which even boys are enrolled, and " the pride of the Romans stoops to the arming, of slaves." LVIII. Hannibal sends Carthalo to Rome, with.ten. of the foremost prisoners, to treat with the senate for the ransom of the captives, and to open negotiations for peace. The prisoners arriving in the city, Hannibal's messenger is warned to: depart from the Roman boundaries. LIX. The speech of M..unius, the leader of the deputation of prisoners, asking. the senate that the money should be granted for their.release. LX. The speech of T. Manlius Torquatus, in opposition to the grant. LXI. The application of the captives is refused. Another account. Defection of some of the Roman allies. LIII. 28. P. Cornelius Scipio. The son of the consul whol fought at Ticinus and the preserver of his life (xxi. 46), and the future conqueror of Carthage. He was now nineteen (admodium adldescens). - 37. Principem Metellum, sc. esse. - 39 sq. Praeterquam atrox =praeterquam quod atrox erat. 4. Fatalis, the destined. —7. Nulla, sc. castra. -8, Ea, ssUch 196 plans. —11, 12. Ex mei animi sententia, se. juro. "-A-common formula of asseveration, equivalent to'on my honor and conscience.' "-Ut, (I swear) that.-13. Neque patiar, and that I wilslot siffer (permit). Others translate ut, as, and supply ita before sneque patiar,' so also I will not permit.' LIV. 31. Venusia was a Latin colony, while Canusium was merely a city of the allies (Apulians). 15 sq. Nulla —esset. This is no exaggeration. Ihne repeats 197 the statement, "The overthrow at Cannye was so complete that: every other nation but the Romans would at once have given up the idea of further resistance.": - LV. 28 sq. Ne- expediret, they could not eveln come to anly

Page  348 348 NOT-ES. Page. 197 stcienttly prompt determination. -30. Nondum palam facto, no information having been given as yet, (sc. qui vivi, qui mo'rtui essent.) - 37. Romani nominis = (civium or) nmilitrnm Rom anorun. 198 8. Auctorem, the omessenger, the bearer of tidings. LVI. 14, 15. Cum —issent, when all had agreed in this opinion. "The voting in the Roman senate was bgy the members favorable to a proposal going to one side of the house, and those unfavorable to the other."- Submovere is the technical word for the lictor's putting aside the people, or clearing the way before the magistrates. - Per. Wanting in the MSS., but rightly inserted in the Ascensian edition, and many. following. 16. Diversi, in various directions. -39. Provinciamque aliam Romanam, and other parts of the Roman province, (which was the western and largest part of the island.) 99 1. Classe. Z. understands nova. But Wsb. says that it is only. a reinforcement of the fleet which Otacilius already has that is meant. LVII. 3, 4. Lectis - praetorem. These words have been supplied by the editors. - 11. Conpertae, proved guilty. -14. Pontificius. Vaasen. The MSS. pontificis. Vaasen rests on Priscian, 7, 3, 11, p. 733, who. cites from Cassius Hemina, scriba pontificius, qui cune eabus stuprumn fecerat. - 19. Libros, sc. Sibyllin1os. - Q. Fabius. Piotor. The historian (chap..vii. and I. xliv.), and a relative of the dictator. - 21. Supplicia (in archaic style) = supplicationes. The word literally means, a kneeling down, either (1) in supplication or (2) to receive punishment. Stuart on Sall. Cat. 9.- 23. Fatalibus libris. These were the Roman national prophecies, not to be confounded with the Sibylline books. -24 sqq. Preller regards these sacrifices as a form of devotio, the two pairs of foreign birth standing as representatives of the Romap state. -Jam ante. Ten years before, in the Gallic war. Zon. 8, 19.27. Inbutum, " made fanzmiliar with." - 37. Junioris. Accusative plural. -Ab, etc., from seventeen upwards. - 38. Praetextatos, v.iz., under seventeen. The,arming of children and slaves, and even (Liv. xxiii. 14) of criminals and debtor-serfs, was necessary, says Ihne (ii. 247-9), " to fill up the gaps which bloody battles had made in the Roman ranks. Since the engagement on the Ticinus, the Romans must have lost in Italy alone 120,000 men, actually slain ofr taken prisoners, without reckoning those who succumbed- to disease and the fatigues and privations of the prolonged campaigns."

Page  349 BOOK XXII, CHAP. LVI-LX. 349.Pagp_ 1. Formula, the -roll, or list of men capable of bearing arms. - 200 8.' Redimendi (depending upon copia).* Ed. Ascens., Mg. The other reading is-redimere. LVIII. 18. Certare, sc. se. Patres, his fathers. -24. Quo (ablative of price) pepigerant, on which they had agreed. - 29. Carthalo. Perhaps the same who is mentioned in chap. xv. LIX. 17. Majores, se. nostros. -19. Ad, in regard to.- 21. 201 The head-quarters of King Pyrrhus were at Tarentum in the winter of 280 B. C., after he had conquered the Romans on the Lirie, near Heraclea. - 23. Cannensis.'Accusative plural. - 25. Nisi, sc. ii. - 31 sqq. Ne illi quidem, etc. (But I will say this: that) theiy too, most of them (qui plerique)fleeing unarmed, etc., cannot justly prefer themselves to us (line 35), etc. - 37. Utemini, you will find. 4. Nam' si. I speak only of our number and the price: -for if 202 I were to compare ourselves with those slaves, etc. - 6, 7. Si jam - faciatis, if you really are willing to be somewhat harsh,- a thing ivhich you zaould do iwith (i. e. when there has been) nofault of ours. Si jam, if you go so far as to, etc.-15.: Intueri, etc. During a session of the senate, the doors of the senatehouse were kept open. - 21. Contra naturam suam. The charge of detestable cruelty was one of the Roman slanders against Hannibal. - 23. A is bracketed by Mg., who takes vobis as in the dative after visi simus. - 26. Redeam, etc. A question of appeal. -27. Non aestimatus, not thought worth. - 28. Habet. A necessary addition to the text of the MSS. —Animum, feeling, disposition, opinion. LX. 38.: Arbitris. Sc. the messengers.- Consuli. The'senators were called upon singly to give their opinion.- 39. De publico, from the public treasury. 1. Nec, and yet not. - 4. Praedibus, by securities. Ablative of 203 means, though living agents are spoken of. - Praediis, pledged estates; estates handed over as security. —5. T. Manlius Torquatus. He had been consul 235 and 224 B. C., and censor 231 B. C. -Priscae severitatis. The descriptive genitive and ablative are both generally subjoined to an in-definite appellative noun, as viri; the omission of which, as in this' instance, is exceptional. M.'287, Obs. 3.-10,' 11. Quid-essetis, for what else (should be done) than- (that) you should be reminded: i. e. I should have needed only to remind you. M. 444, b, Obs. 1; Z.

Page  350 360' NTOTES.:'Page 203-771. -14. Praeferri (sc. se) depends upon aecum'(= aequum) censuerint (17). -28. Per. Inserted by Alsch., Mg., Wsb.; Hz. - Possent, could (at any time). A general assertion. Wsb. - 36. P. Decius Mus served as tribune of the soldiers in the Samnite war, 343 -B. C. In the mountain passes of Samnium the Roman consul had allowed his army to be surrounded in a valley by the enemy. Destruction seemed inevitable; when Decius offered,'with the hastati' and principes of the legion, to seize a height which commanded the way by which the Samnites were hastening down to attack the Roman army. Here he maintained himself gallantly, while' the Roman army gained the'summit of the mountain. In the ensuing night he persuaded his soldiers to follow him and break through the Samnites who were encamped around him. Succeeding in this brave attempt, he joined the consul, and induced him to make an immediate attack upon the enemy, which' resulted in a brilliant victory. See Liv. vii. 34. This Decius is the same who gave his life, with heroic devotio, as the price of Roman victory in the great Latin war, B. C. 340. — 37. Calpurnius Flamma was a tribune of the soldiers in the first -Punic -war. A'Roman consular army in Sicily having been led into a defile where it found itself beset by the Carthaginians on the surrounding heights, Calpurnius offered to draw the fire of the enemy by occupying a hill in the pass, with the prospect of certasin death foi' himself and the soldiers who should follow him.While the Carthaginians were fighting with him, the Roman army escaped. Cato, Orig., (in Gell. Noctes Atticae, iii. 7,) a different name, however, being given to the tribune. 204- 2.- Vos. In his earnestness, the speaker addresses the captives as though they were present. —12. Immo, lay, rather. " As you have now lost your country by your cowardice, it is idle to speak of longing for it." —14. Capite. "One who lost his liberty, or his right' of citizenship, or his position in his tribe, or the right of'voting according to the census, underwent, according to Roman notions, a loss of Caput', that is, civil existence." The capitis demiinutio maxi2ma is here meant, the two most important points of which are mentioned, -- the loss of the rights of citizenship and the loss of freedom. -19. Quamquam. The MSS. only qua.m. - 35. Dixe:. rint, so. se. - 36, 38-. Eos is the subject of favisse, as well as of invidere.' I give Madvig's excellent emendation of this vexed.passage.

Page  351 BOOK XXII, CHAP. LX, LXI. 351 Page 3. At (supplied by Wex) is necessary to mark what follows 205 (3-9. Ad-victi sunt) as the supposed ansiwer of a defender of the prisoners: But, you say. - 6. Armis. Gr., Wsb., Mg., Hiz. The MSS. arma. —12. Vobis. Ethical dative. Compare with the argument of this speech the 5th Ode of the 3d Book of Horace, lines 12 sqq. " In this war Rome wanted men who rated their lives as nothing, and were determined rather to die than to flee or surrender. In order to impress this necessity upon all Roman soldiers, the unfortunate prisoners of Cannae were sacrificed. At the very time when Rome armed slaves in her defence, she handed over thousands of freeborn citizens to be sold in the slavemarkets of Utica and Carthage, and to be kept to field-labor under the burning sun of Africa. We may admire the grandeur of the Roman spirit, but-we are bound to express our horror and detestation of. the idol of national greatness to which the Romans sacrificed their own children in cold blood." Ihne, ii. 250 sq. LXI. 28. Homines. Sc. the senators. —31. Hujusce rei, sc. pectnia.e.-35. Que. C manu secunda, Mg., Wsb. - 39. Publice, by direction of the state. 1. Alia fama. It is not improbable that the account which 206 follows is the true story. - 3. Ita... ne, with this restriction... that...?not. Cicero generally says itac.. u.t ne. M. 456, Obs. 4. -Tamen, notwithstanding (their admission into the city). -5. Tris = tres. -12. Religione. I. e. from the obligation of their oath by which they had bound themselves to return. —15. Ignominis= ifY1nominiis.-17. Foro. I. e. all participation in public life, in the assemblies of the people, or in business in general. - 22. Est - socio. Supplied by Alschefski. - 25. De imperio. I. e. that Rome could maintain her supremacy. - Defecere, etc. Some- of the colonies here named did not leave the Roman alliance until several years afterwards. - 28. Graecorum ora. Magna Graecia, but only on the east coast. -31. Usquam. Neither in the senate nor in the assembly of the people. - 35. Cujus (with the subjunctive in an adversative clause), although.of it. If it had been true that Varro forced on the battle against the instructions of the senate and the advice of his colleague, the senators could hardly have met him in this conciliatory spirit. But at all events the senate deserves honor for the generous concessions by which it sought to conciliate the people, and remove the distrust between the government and the governed. Ihue, ii. 243; Mommsen, Book III., chap. 5.

Page  352 GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. Aborigines. A name applied to early inhabitants of Latium. Actium. A. promontory. in Acarnania near which Octavius conquered Antonius, 31 B. C. Adjective, Actiacus. Adriaticum mare. The Adriatic sea, east of Italy, now Gulf of Venice. lgates insulae. Three islands on the western coast of Sicily, near which- the Carthaginian fleet was defeated by C. Lutatius Catulus, 241 B. C.,-thus ending the first Punic war. ~Equi. A people in north-eastern Latium.,Equic'li. A portion of the ancient Equians, dwelling north of the Aqui' proper, in the Sabine country..Esis. A river between Picenum and Umbria. - Alba or Alba Longa, a town in Latium, south-east of Rome, of which it was the mother-city. Albanus mons, the Alban mount, now Monte Cavo, on a ridge of which Alba was built. Albila. An ancient name of the Tiber. Algidus. A mountain range in Latium, north or north-east from the Alban mount, forming a part of the outer extinct crater of the same volcanic group. From it the AEqui made incursions into the Roman territory. Alia. A small river which rises in the Crustuminian hills, and flows into the Tiber. It is memorable by the defeat of the Gauls on its banks, July 16, B. C. 390. Adjective, Aliensis. Allifae or Allifa, a town in Samnium, on the Vulturnus, in a fertile country north of Capua. Adjective, Allifanus. Allobr6ges, (nominative singular, All6brox.) A people of Gaul dwelling in the modern Dauphin6 and Savoy, between the Rhone and the Isere, and extending to the lake of Geneva. Their chief town was Vienna on the Rhone, now Vienne. Ameribla. An old Latin town in the region between the Tiber, Anio, and Mount Lucretilis. Its exact site is not known. Amiternum. A town of the Sabines, on the Aternus. 352

Page  353 GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 353 Anio,. gen. Anienis. The most celebrated tributary of the Tiber, into which it flows three miles above Rome. Antemnae. A Sabine town at the junction of the Anio and Tiber. Adjective, Antemnas, intis. Antiunm. A town of Latium on a rocky promontory south of Rome. Adjective, Antias, Atis. Api6lae. A town of Latium, destroyed by Tarquinius Priscus. Apulia. A large country in the south-east of Italy. Arbocila. The chief town of the Vaceei in Hispania Tarraconensis, taken by Hannibal after a long resistance. Ard~a. The chief town of the Rutuli in Latium, a little to the left of the river Numicus, three miles from the sea. Argiletum. The district in Rbme behind the buildings on the north-eastern side of the Forum, extending to the southern extiemity of the Quirinal. Varro derives its name from argilla, as clay for the manufacture of pottery was found there. The origin of the name is thus similar to that of the Tuileries and the Cerameious. The popular derivation, however, was Argi lettn, from a person called Argus, said to have been killed there while plotting against the life of his host Evander. Aricia; A town in Latium, on the Appian way, at the foot of the Alban mount. Ariminum. A town on the Adriatic, on the coast of Umbria, inow RIimini. Arnus. The Arno,'the chief river of Etruria. Arpi. An inland town in the Daunian Apulia, which rerolted: to Hannibal after the battle of Cannee. Arretium. One of the most important cities of Etruria, possessing a fertile country near the sources -of the Arnus and the Tiber. Now Araezzo. Atanagrum. The chief town of the Ilerggtes, probably in the neighborhood of Ilerda. Atella. A town in Campania between Capua and Neap6lis. Adjective, Atellanus. Aufidus, now Ofalto, the principal river of Apulia. It rises in Samnium, and flows into the Adriatiec Ausetani. A people in north-eastern Spain, near the sea. Aventinus (mons), Aventinum. The southern and highest of the seven hills of Rome. Baliares or Baleares. Two islands in the Mediterranean off the coast of Spain, distinguished as MIajor'and Mzinor, whence their modern. 23- Livy.

Page  354 354 GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. names Majorea and Mfinorca. Their inhabitants, also called Baliares or Baleares, were celebrated as slingers. Bargusii. A people in the N. E. of Spain, near Ilerda. Beneventum. A town in Samnium, on the Appia via. Adjective, Beneventanus. Boii. A powerful tribe in Cisalpine Gaul, between the Po and the Apennines. Bovirinum. The chief town of the Pentri in Samnium. Brixiani. The people of Brixia, now Brescia, a town in Gallia Cisalpina, near the Alps. Brundisium. A town in Calabria, in the S. E. of Italy, with an excellent harbor on the Adriatic. Now Brindisi. Bruttii. The people of Bruttium, in the S.W. extremity of Italy. Caelius (mons). The south-eastern of the seven hills of Rome. Caenina. A town of the Sabines in Latium, N. E. of Rome. Adjectives, Caeninensis, Caeninus. COere. A city in Etruria, N. W. of Rome. Near it were warm baths, aquae Cmretes. Adjective, Caeres, itis and Rtis. Calatia. A town in Campania on the Appia via between Capua and Beneventum. Adjective, Calatinus. Cilas. A town in Campania, N. W. of Capua, famed for its excellent wine. Adjective, Calenus. Callioiila. A mountain in Campania, stretching from Cales eastward. Calllfw. A town in Samnium, in the valley of the Vulturnus, S. E. of Allifie. Adjective, Calliflnus. Cameria. A Sahine town in Latium, near Mons Lucretilis. Campania. A rich and fruitful district south of Latium. Cannwe. A village in Apulia, in an extensive plain E. of the Aufidus and N. of the small river Vergellus. Canusium. A town in Apulia, on the Aufidus, S. W. of Cannee. Adjective, Canusinus. Capena. A town of Etruria, N. of Veil. Capena, Porta. A gate of Rome, on the south, in the wall of Servius Tullius. Capitolinus (mons). One of the hills of Rome, near the Tiber, north of the Aventine and north-west of the Palatine. Capua. *The capital of Campania. Carpetini. Apowerful people in the centre of Hispania Tarraconensis. Cartala. Capital of the Olcades. Carth&go Nova. A town founded by the Carthaginians on the south coast of Hispania Tarraconensis, now Carthage~ia.

Page  355 GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 355 Casilinum. A town in Campania on the Vulturnus, on the site of the modern Capu.. Adjective, Casilinas, atis. Casinum. A town in Latium near Samnium, on the river Casinus. Adjective, Casinas, atis. Castiilo. A town of the Oretani in Spain, on the Boetis. Caudinae Furcflae. The Caudine Fork s, narrow passes in the mountains near Caudium, where the Roman army surrendered to the Samnites and was sent under the yoke, B. C. 321. Caudium. A town in Samnium on the road from Capua to Beneventum. Celtiberia. A mountainous country in the central part of Spain. Inhabitants, Celtib6ri. Cenomani. A powerful tribe in Gallia Cisalpina, north of the Po, near Brescia., Verona, and Mantua. Cercina. An island and town off the north coast of Africa, in the mouth of the Lesser Syrtis. Circeii. A town of Latium on the promontory Circeium. Cissis. A town in Spain near Tarraco. Clastidium. A town in Liguria south of the Po, on the road from Dertona to Placentia. Collatia. A Sabine town in Latium, near the right bank of the Anio. Corcyra. An island in the Ionian sea, now Colfy. Cornicilum. A town in Latium in the mountains north of Tibur. Corsi. The people of the island of Corsica. Cortuna. A city in Etruria north-west of the Trasimene lake. Adjective, Cortonensis. Cozanus portus. The harbor of Cosa in Etruria, called also porttts Le,.cuU;s. Cremona. A city in Cisalpine Gaul on the northern bank ofthe Po. Cremonis jugum. The modern Little St. Bernard. Croton. or Crotona. A Greek city'on the east coast of Bruttium. Adjective, Crotoniensis. Crastumerium or Crustumeria. A town of the Sabines in the mountains near the sources of the Alia. Adjective, Crustuminus. Cures. A Sabine town on the Via Salaria, N.E. of Rome. Delphi. A town in Phocis, north of the Corinthian gulf, seat of the celebrated oracle of Apollo. Druentia. A large and rapid river of Gallia Narbonensis, which flows into the Rhone, near Avenio (Aviwgon). Now the Durence. Ebusus. The largest of the Pityusae insulae, off the east coast of Spain.

Page  356 356 G-EOG'RAPHICAL INDEX. Emporiae. A town of the Indigetes in HIispania Tarraconensis near the Pyrenees. i Eneti. A people of Paphlagonia on the north side of Asia Minor. Eryx. A mountain and town on the N. W. coast of Sicily. Adjective, Erycinus, Erucinus. Esquiliae (Exquiliae). The eastern and the largest of the seven hills of Rome. Adjective, Esquilinus,.Esquiliarius. Etruria. A country in Italy north of Latium. Adjective, EtrusBus, Tuscus. Euganei. A people said to have been driven by the Eneti or Veneti towards the Alps and the Lacus Benacus (Lago dcliGarda) from Venetia. Faesilae. A city in Etruria, now F;esole, near Florence. Falerii. A town in Etruria on a lofty height near Mt. Soracte. Falernus ager. A district in the north of Campania, famed for its choice wine. Ferentinum. An ancient town of the Hernici in Latium. Near it was the grove and the source.of the sacred brook Ferentina, at which the Latins used to hold their meetings. Ficana. A town in Latium on the Via Ostiensis eleven miles from Rome. iFiculea, An -ancient town of the Sabines ea-st of Fidenae. Fidenae. A Sabine town five miles N. E. of Rome. Adjective, Fidena$, Utis. Formiae. A town in: Latium, on the Appia Via, in the innermost corner.of tlhe Sinus. Caietanus, near Jfola di Gteta. FrentAni. A Samnite people between Apulia and Picenum, on the Adriatic. Gabii. A town in;Latium between Rome and Praeneste. Adj., Gabinus. Gades. A town. in. Hispania Baetica, now Cadiz. Adj., Gaditanus. Galliae. This plural is often used, with reference to the different divisions both of Gallia:Transalpina and of Gallia Cisalpina. Genua. A town in Liguria, on the Ligurian gulf, the modern Ge'oa. Gereonium (Geronium). A town -in the southern part of the country of the Frentani, N. W. of Apulia.. Hadrianus ager. The territory of Hadria, in the south-eastern part of Picenum. Heraclea. A town in Lucania, on the Gulf of Tarentum, near which Pyrrhus routed the Roman army under M. Valerius Laevinus, B.- C. -280. rciis olumnae. The..Pill o ere alpe.Gibraltar) Herc~lis Columnae. The Pillars of Her-cules, Galpe (Gibraltar)

Page  357 GEOGRA-PHICAL INDEX6 357 and Abyla, mountains opposite each other on the coasts of Spain and Africa. Hermandica. A city of the Vaccaei in Spain. Hernici. A brave people in the eastern part of central Latium in the Apennines. Hiberus (Iberus). The Ebro; the principal river in the N. E. of Spain. Hirpini. A Samnite people between Apulia, Lucania, and Campania. Hispaniae. This plural is often used by Livy, in reference to Hispania citerior and Hispania ulterior. Histri (Istri). A warlike Illyrian race, at the northern extremity of the Adriatic, who carried on several wars with the Romans, till their final subjugation, B. C. 177. Ictumuli. A town of the:Insubres. Ilergavonenses. A people in Hispania Tarraconensis, mostly south of the Ebro. Ilergetes. A people in Hispania Tarraconensis between the Ebro and the Pyrenees. Iliberri or Iliberris. A town in the S. W. of Gaul, at the foot of the Pyrenees. Now Elne.Illyrii. The people of Illyricum or Illyria, a large country east of the Adriatic. Insubres. A Gallic people north of the Po, next to the Boii- the most powerful and warlike of the Gallio tribes in Cisalpine Gaul. Their chief town was Mediolanum (Milan). Singular, InsAber. Isara. The Isgre, a river in Gallia Narbonensis; descending from the Graian Alps (the Little St. Bernard), flowing westward with a rapid stream, and emptying into the Rhone north of Valentia. Janiculiim, Mons Janicillus. A high hill on the right'bank of the Tiber at Rome. Lacetania. - A district in Hispania Tarraconensis at the foot of the Pyrenees. Adjective, Lacetanus. Lanuvium. A city in Latium on a southern hill of the outer range of the Alban Mount. Adjective, Lanuvlnus. Larinum. A town of the Frentani on the river Tifernus, ndar the borders' of Apulia. Adjective, Larlnas, Atis. Latini. The people of Latium, a district of Italy south of Etruria and north of Campania. Laurens ager. The country around Laurentumn, a town of Latium between Ostia and Lavinium, near the sea

Page  358 358: GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. Lavinium. A town of Latium, S. of Rome, three miles from the sea. Libui Galli. A tribe in Gallia Cispadana in the neighborhood of.Brescia; but afterwards, perhaps, living near Vercellae. Liby-phoenices. The Liby-phoenicians; the smaller settlements sent forth from Carthage along the whole north and part of the north-west coast of Africa; and the old Phoenician settlements also, which were numerous along the coast of the present province of Constantine and beylik of Tunis. There was equality of law between them and the Carthaginians, but they paid tribute and furnished contingents to Carthage. Liguires. The people of Liguria, the country around G6noa. Lilybeum. A town at the western extremity of Sicily on a promontory of the same name. Lipirae insulae. The Lipari isies north of Sicily; called also Eoliae and Vulcaniae or Vulcani insulae. Liternum (Linternum). A town on the coast of Campania, S. W. of Capua. Locri, Locrenses Epizephyrii, inhabitants of Locri, an ancient Greek city in the S. E. of Bruttium. Longuntica. A city on the cast coast of Spain. Luca. A Ligurian city at the foot of the Apennines, now Lucca. Lucani. The people of Lucania, a country in Italy south of Samnium and Campania and north of 13ruttium. Luceria. A town in Apulia near Samnium, S. W. of Arpi. Lusitania. A country in the western part of IIispania, corresponding nearly to the modern Portugal. Nbarrucnli. A people in the eastern part of central Italy, east of the Paeligni and north of the Frentani. WIarsi. A warlike people in the centre of Italy east of Rome. Hassicus mons. A mountain range between Campania and Latium, celebrated for its wine. Massilia. A city on the Mediterranean, in Gallia Narbonensis, now Marseilles. Adjective, Massiliensis. Nauri. The people of Mauretania in Africa between Numidia and the Atlantic (in Fez and Morocco). Medullia. A colony of Alba in the land of the Sabines, between the Tiber and the Anio. Melita. The island of Malta. Meninx (Menix). An island at the S. E. extremity of the Syrtis Minor, off the coast of Africa.

Page  359 GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 359 Messana. A town on the N. E. coast of Sicily, now 2lessirn. Meszia silva (Mesia, Maesia). An elevated range of woodland on the right bank of. the Tiber west of Rome. Metapontum. A Greek city on the east coast of Lucania on the Gulf of Tarentum. Mutina. The modern l~16dena, a town in Gallia Cispadana. Neap6lis. A city in Campania, the modern Naples. Nomentum. Originally a Latin town founded.by Aiba. but subsequently a Sabine town, 14 Roman miles N. E. of Rome. Nova Classis. A town in Spain. Numicus (Numicius). A small river in Latium flowing into the Tyrrhene sea near Ardea. Numidae. The people of Numidia, a country of north Africa west of Carthage. Ocriculium. A town in southern Umbria on the Tiber near its con-. fluence with the Nar. Ol1cdes. A people in tIispania Tarraconensis north of Carthago Nova. Omissa (t). A town. between Carthago Nova and the Ebro. Onusa. A town on the east coast of Spain. Oretani. A powerful people in the S. W. of Hispania Tarraconensis. Ostia. A town in Latium at the mouth of the river Tiber. Padus. The Po, the chief river of Italy, in Cisalpine Gaul. Paeligni. A brave and warlike people of Sabine origin in central Italy, bounded S. W. by the Marsi, N. W. by the Marrucini, S. by Samnium, and E. by-the Frentani. Paestum or Posidonia. A city of Lucania. Pallanteum (Pallantium). A town in the southern part of Arcadia in the Peloponnesus. Paphlagonia. A country in the northern part of Asia Minor, south of the Euxine. Pentri. One of the most important tribes in Samnium. Their chief town was Bovianum. Petra. A town in Pieria in south-eastern Macedonia. Picanum. A country in central Italy along the Adriatic. Adjective, Picens, entis. Pisae. A town in northern Etruria on the Arnus about six miles from the sea. Now Pise. Adjective, Pisfinus. Placentia. A Roman colony in Cisalpine Gaul, on the right bank of the Po. not far from the mouth of the Trebia. Now Piaceena.

Page  360 360 GEOGRAPH I CAL IN NDEX. Poeninus (Penninus) mons. The modern Great St. B ernaid. Politorium. A town in Latium south of Rome. Pomietia. See Suessa. Adjective, Pomptinus. Praeneste. A town in Latium about 20 miles S. E. of Rome. Now Palest ri2 a. Praetutianus ager. The territory of the Praetutii, on the south of Picenum. Prisci Latini. The ancient Latins, as distinguished from the Latin communities beyond the bounds of Latium. Pydna. A town in Pieria in south-eastern Macedonia, near the Thermaic gulf. Rhodenus. The Rh.one, a river in Gallia. Rusclno. A town in the S. E. part of Gallia Narbonensis at the foot of the Pyrenees. Ruttili. An ancient Umbro-Sabellian people on the coast of Latium, a little south of the Tiber. Their capital was Ardcea. Sabini, One of the most ancient and powerful of the peoples of central Italy, over which their tribes were widely spread. The Sabini proper inhabited the country between the Nar, the Anqio, and the Tiber, between Latiumn, Etruria, Umbria, and Picenum._ Saguntum and Sagsuntus. A town of the Edetani in Hispania Tarraconensis, about three miles from the coast. Salyes.. A powerful tribe inhabiting the south coast of Gaul from the' Rhone to the Maritime Alps. Samniam. A mountainous country east of Latium and Campania, inhabited by the Frenta.ni, the Pentri, the Caudini, and the Hirpini. Its inhabitants, Samnites, are of the same stock as the Sabines. Samothrice. A small island in the north of the AEgean sea opposite the mouth of the Hebrus in Thrace. Sardi. The people of the island of Sardinia. Seddni. An Alpine people in Gallia Belgica, east of the lake of Geneva, in the valley of the Rhone. Sen6nes. A powerful people, in Gallia Lugdunensis, a portion of whom crossed the Alps about 400 B. C., and settled on the coast of the Adriatic in Umbria. Sidicini. An Ausonian, people, in the N. W. of Casmpania and on'the borders of Samniamt. Chief town, Teanuin. Signia. A town in Latium south-east, of Rome. Sinuessa. A town in Latium on the confines of Campania. Near it were celebrated warm bahs, Aquae SinUessanae,. Spojetium or Spoletum, A town.in Umbria on the Via-Flalninia, now' Spoleoe.

Page  361 GFEOGI RAP~tDCAL INDEX. 361 GaE'0"G R A P H I'C iQ N D E'X. 36 1 Stellas campus. A fertile plain in Campania, south of the'nger Urbanus and Falernus, between the Via Appia and thle Vulturnus. Suessa Pometia. A town of the Volsci in Latium. Sulci. A town in Sardinia founded by the Carthaginians. Surrentum. A town of Campania on the promontory of Minerva Oppo'site thesisland of Capreae. Now Sdrrento.' Adjective, Surrenif flU8. Syracasae. A city -on the south part of the east coast of Sicily. Tagus. One of the chief rivers of Spain, rising in the land of the Celtiberians, and flowing westerly into the Atlantic. Tannetum. A town of the Boii in Gallia Cispadana between Mutina and Parma. Tarentum. An important city of southern Italy, on the west coast of the peninsula of Calabria, on a harbor of the Gulf of Tarentum. Now T'ranto. Tarquinii. A city of Etruria on the river Marta, N. W. of Rome. Tarracina. A town of Latium, on' the coast, 58 miles S. E. of Rome. Now Terr'acina. Tarriico. A town on the east coast of Spain, between Ebro and thd -Pyrenees. Now T(hrragona. Taurini. A "semi-Gallic" tribe in the western part of Liguria. Their chief town, Augusta Taurinorum, is now Turi'n. Taurus. A chain of mountains in the south of Asia Minor and Armenia. Teanum Sidicinum. A town of Campania, on the north slope of Mt. Massicus, commanding the road from Capua to Rome. Telesia. A town in Samnium on the road from Allifae to Beneventum. Tellenae. A town in Latium south or south-east of Rome. Thurii. A Greek city in Lucania, near the Gulf of Tarentum. Tibur. A town of Latium 16' miles N. E. of Rome. Now Tivoli. Tioinus. An important river of Gallia Cisalpina, which, after flowing through Lacus Verbanus (,ctago Maggiore), falls into the Po, near the town of Ticinum (now Pavia). The modern name of the river is Tes.si,,o. Trasumeninus lacus (Trasumenus, Trasimerus). A lake in the eastern part of the central portion of Etruria, between Clusium and Perusia, now Lago di Perugia. Trebia. A small river in Gallia Cisalpina, south of the Po, into which it falls near Placentia.'Tricastini. A people in Gallia Narbonensis between the Cavares and the V-opontii, south of the Isbre arid north of the Dtrome.

Page  362 362: GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX. Tricorii. A people in Gallia Narbonensis east of the Tricastini. Turdetani. The most numerous people in Hispania Baetica, in the south of Spain, on both banks of the Baetis. They were regarded as the most civilized people in Spain. Livy speaks of a people of the same name as living near Saguntum. Tusoulum. A town of Latium on a lofty hill connected with the Alban mount, about ten miles S. E. of Rome. Adjective, Tusoulanus. Umbria. A district -of Italy, S. of Gallia Cisalpina, W. of the Adriatic, N. of Picenumn and the country of the Sabines, and E. of Etruria. Its inhabitants were connected with the Sabines and Samnites. Uzentini. The people of Uzentum (now Ugei.to), a town on the east side of the gulf of Tarentum. Vaccaei. A people in Hispania Tarraconensis, N. of the Carpetani. Veii. An old city of Etruria, about twelve miles northwesterly of Rome. Inhabitants, Veientes. Vengti. The people of Venetia, in the N. E. of Italy. Venusia. A town in Apulia, S. of the river Aufidus, and near Mt. Vultur. Adjective, Venusinus. Veregri. A people of Gallia Belgica, on the Pennine Alps, near the confluence of the Dranse and the Rhone. - Vestini. A Sabellian people in the eastern part of central Italy, south of Picenum. Viboniensis ager. The country around Vibo, a town on the S. W. coast of Bruttium. - Victumviae. A town in Cisalpine Gaul, near Placentia. Viminalis (collis). One of the seven hills of Rome, between the Quirinal and the Esquiline. Vocontii. A people in Gallia Narbonensis, between (and southward from) the Tricastini and Tricorii. Volcae. A Celtic people in Gallia Narbonensis, in two tribes, extending from the Pyrenees along the coast as far as the Rhone. Volciani. A tribe in Spain, near the Bargutsii. Volsci. A people in southern Latium, both sides of' the Liris. Vulcani insula. The most southerly of the Lipari islands. Vulturnus (Volturnus). The chief river in Campnia, rising in the Apennines and falling into the Tyrrhene sea. Now VIoltlurno. Zacynthus. An island in'the Ionian sea., west of Elis. Now Zante.

Page  363 SUMMARY OF AN HISTORICAL EXAMINATION OF THE FIRST BOOK OF LIVY. BY J. R. SEELEY, M. A. I HE result of our whole examination is a very meagre outline,! but one in every way probable, of the earliest condition of Rome. We see a number of'gentes' or clans living apparently on local districts or'pagi' side by side. They. bear for the most part the names afterwards conspicuous in Roman history as the names of the great patrician houses. They are divided into three great tribes. They regard themselves as connected both with the Latins and with the Sabines. Where several. sacred places are near together — the Ara Maxima of Hercules the sacred place of Faunus Lupercus on the Palatine, the temple of Quirinus on the Quirinal - a town springs up. To this the clans resort for festivals, markets, and for common deliberation. The clans are an exclusive body, and are in possession of various priesthoods and religious privileges. Though we are told of a great Sabine clan - the Claudian - being admitted among theni, they do not as a rule admit strangers into their bodv. They have a king, chosen, from their own body, who rules for life. lie summons round him a council of chiefs or elders, called'senatus.' This body, whatever deference may be paid to it, has no unction beyond that of advising. He commands the army, presides in the senate, and performs certain sacrifices. HIe has the power of appointing two law-officers called' quaestors.' There is a general assembly of the clans called' comitia curiata.' 863'

Page  364 "344 SUMMARY. At this, among other things, family questions, such as adoptions from one clan into another, are decided. The community has a religious ritual of an extremely complicated yet inexpensive kind, to which it is much devoted. It has religious rites proper to the family and also to the gens; it has also several private religious guilds, which existito perform certain rites at intervals; sometimes these guilds are connected with particular clans. It has priests connected with particular temples and some highly venerated priests, but no organized priesthood; a priest is not necessary to a sacrifice. It has three guilds of persons skilled in theology - the pontiffs, the augurs, and the fetiales. The king appears to have the supreme religious as well as civil power. The army consists principally of cavalry, which is chosen in equal numbers from the three tribes. In this primitive constitution a great reform takes place. Irfcons equence of a great population having grown up outside the clans, an army is formed from the whole community, each citizen being ranked according to his property, and required to provide himself with corresponding arms. This army consists mainly of infantry arrayed in phalanx. The army so constituted is regarded as a national assembly, and when the will of the nation is to be expressed, a single vote is given to each century of the army. In order to make the property-register, a new local classification is required. Four local city tribes are established. At some unknown time, but possibly at the same time, the outside population is admitted into the clans, into the three tribes, and into the comitia curiata. But the original clans continue to regard themselves as being the only true clans. A national temple of unprecedented magnificence is built on the Capitoline hill. A foreign sacread book is acquired; which introduces a Greek. element into the religion of;the country. Finally, a revolution takes place, and the king for life is superseded by two magistrates holding power only for a year. THE END.

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Page  12 THE MODEL DEFINER. An Elementary Book for Beginners, containing Definitions, Etymology, and Sentences as Models, exhibiting the correct use of Words. By A. C. WEBB. Price by mail, postpaid, 25 cents. THE MODEL ETYMOLOGY. Giving not only the Definition, Etymology, and Analysis, but also that which can be obtained only from an intimate acquaintance with the best authors, viz.: the correct use of Words. By A. C. WEBB. Price by mail, postpaid, 60 cents. The plan adopted in the Model Definer and Model Etymology is not new. All good Dictionaries illustrate the meaning by a Model. To quote from a good author, a sentence containing the word, as proof of its correct use, is the only authority allowed. A simple trial of the work, either by requiring the child to form sentences similar to those given, or by memorizing the sentences as models for future use, will convince any one of the following advantages to be derived from the Model Word-Book Series. x. Saving of time. 2. Increased knowledge of words. 3. Ease to teacher and scholar.. 4. A knowledge of the correct use of words.' Descriptive Circular sent on application. MARTINDALE'S HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. From the Discovery of America to the close of the late Rebellion. By JOSEPH C. MARTINDALE, M.D., Principal of the Madison Grammar School, Philadelphia. Price by mail, postpaid, 6o cents.

Page  13 13 With this book in his hand, the scholar can in a single schoolterm obtain as complete a knowledge of the History of the United'States as has heretofore required double the time and effort. Descriptive circular sent on application. THE YOUNG STUDENT'S COMPANION; or, Elementary Lessons and Exercises in Translating from English into French. By M. A. LONGSTRETH, Principal of a Seminary for Young Ladies, Philadelphia. Price by mail, postpaid, $i.oo. TABLES OF LATIN SUFFIXES. Designed as an Aid to the Study of the Latin Grammar. By AMos N. CURRIER, A.M., Professor of Latin in the University of Iowa. Price, 50 cents. A FRENCH VERB BOOK; or, the New Expositor of Verbs in French. By ERNEST LAGARDE, A. M., Professor of Modern Languages in Mount St. Mary's College. Price, $ I. oo. Lagarde's French Verb Book embraces a comprehensive analysis of the conjugations, a new method for the formation and use of the tenses, and a complete paradigm of all the verbs, the whole explained and exemplified by full illustrations. It is believed that the book will be found a valuable aid to the study of the French language. COMPENDIUM OF FRENCH RULES. A Compendium of the Grammatical Rules of the French Language. By F. A. BREGY, A.M., Professor of French in the University of Pennsylvania.

Page  14 IN THREE.PARTS. PART FIRST. Price by mail, postpaid, 75 cents. PART SECOND. " " 50 " PART THIRD. In Preparation. These hand-books can be advantageously used in connection with any system. They lead the student from the first elements'of the language to and through the principal rules of the French Syntax, enabling him, in a short time, to master intelligently what otherwise would prove a tedious and difficult task.'.. - - - — ~o ~ = ~ SELECTIONS FOR LITTLE FOLKS. A-Book of Poetical Selections for Children. Price by mail, postpaid, 50 cents.'That sympathy which: loves to link the present with the past, -has prompted the preparation of this volume. Simply to make a child glad, is a worthy motive for storing its mind with poetic utterances, especially when the remembrance of such happiness, becomes a well-spring of delight for a lifetime. This little book is intended for children not more than nine or ten years of age, and the compiler would feel it a good excuse for adding another book to those already extant, should the little ones find pleasure in it. IN THE SCHOOL-ROOM; or, CHAPTERS IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION. By JOHN S. HART, LL.D., Principal of New Jersey State Normal School. Price by mail, postpaid, $i.25. This work gives the results of the experience and observation of the author "In the School-room" for a period of years extending over more than one-third of a.century. No teacher can afford to be without it. It is a teacher's library in a single book. Descriptive circular sent on application.

Page  15 '5 THE MODEL ROLL-BOOK, No. I. For the Use of Schools. Containing a Record of Attendance, Punctuality, Deportment, Orthography, Reading, Penmanship, Intellectual Arithmetic, Practical Arithmetic, Geography, Grammar, Parsing and History, and several blanks for special studies not enumerated. Price by mail, postpaid, $5.00. THE MODEL ROLL-BOOK, No. 2. For the use of High Schools, Academies, and Seminaries. Containing a Record of all the studies mentioned in Roll-Book No. I, together with Declamation, Elocution, Algebra, Geometry, Composition, Rhetoric, French, Latin, Philosophy, Physiology, and several blanks for special studies not enumerated. Price by mail, postpaid, $5.00. THE MODEL POCKET REGISTER & GRADEBOOK. A Roll-Book, Record, and Grade-Book combined. Adapted to all grades of classes, whether in College, Academy, Seminary, High or Primary School. Bound in fine English cloth, crimson edges. Price by mail, postpaid, 65 cents. THE MODEL SCHOOL DIARY. Designedasan aid in securing the co-operation of parents. It consists of a Record of the Attendance, Deportment, Recitations, &c., of the Scholar, for every day in the week. At the close of the week it is to be sent to the parent or guardian for examination. Price per dozen, by mail, postpaid, $I.oS.

Page  16 HE MODEL MONTHLY REPORT. The general character of the Monthly Report is the same as that of the Model School Diary, excepting that it is intended for a Mont/hly instead of a Weekly Report of the Attendance, Recitations, &c., of the Pupil. Price per dozen, by mail, postpaid, $.0o5. BOOK- KEEPING BLANKS. Consisting of six blank books, as follows: Day Book, Cash Book, Ledger, Journal, Bill Book, and Book for Miscellaneous Exercises. Price for each book by mail, postpaid, I5 cents; or the entire set of six books by mail, postpaid, 90 cents. These books have been prepared as a matter of. practical convenience for students in Book-keeping. They can be used with any treatise, and will be sold singly or in sets, as may be desired. Teachers corresponding with us are requested to supply us with a copy of the circular or catalogue of the school of which they are the Principal, or with which they are connected. Descriptive circulars of all our publications will be sent to any address on application. Please address, ELDREDGE & BROTHER, No. 17 North Seventh Street, - P HIL.AD iLPHIA.