The San Juan mines; a compendium of the mineral resources of southwestern Colorado, together with a description of its mountain scenery ... including the mining laws of Colorado and the acts of Congress relating thereto.
Kansas Pacific Railway Company.


Page  [unnumbered] TABLE OF CONTENTS. Mining Interests of the United States................................................. San Juan Silver Mines.................................................... 6 Animas District................................................... 7 Eureka District......................................................................................... 9 Uncompahre District.......................................................................... 9 Lake District............................ 11....................................... San Miguel Gold Mines................................................................................. 13 SummiLa Plata Gold Mi nestict......................................................................... 1 Climate and Water.............. d..........................d.................................... 15 How to Make Money and How to Lose it................................................................. 16 The San Juan Miner, who is he?........................... 18 Miner's Outfit, and Cost of Same...................................................................... 19 Hunting and Fishing........................... -................................... 20 How to Go to San Juan............................................21 Value of Gold and Silver.............................................................. 22 The Great New Route to San Juan......................2................................. 23 Future of San Juan................................................................ 25 Coal in San Juan................................................................................................. 27 Extracts from Mining Journals......................................................... 28 Important Lesson................................................................................... 31 Our Precious Metals........................................................................ 32 San Juan Country...........................................34 Diagram. Di........................................................................... 35 Table of Distances.............................................................................. 37 Table of Assays.................. -........................................ 38 What do Reported Assays of Mines Mlean?...................9..................................... 39 Smelting and Reduction Works... 40 Metals-Their Chemistry and Geology.......................................................... 41 Table of Altitudes........................................................... 49 Mining Laws of Colorado................................................................................ 51 Land Office Rules............................................................................................. 66 Important Mining Decision.. I...................................,................. 83


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Page  3 GEN'L PASSENGER OFFICE OF THE KANSAS PACIFIC RAILWAY, KANSAS CITY, May 5th, 1876. A. J. White, Esq., Kansas. City: DEAR SIrR-We are desirous of publishing a pamphlet showing the general features and mineral resources of San Juan, in Southwestern Colorado, and would like to have your assistance in the preparation of the same. Respectfully, BEVERLEY R. KEIM, General Passenger Agent. KANSAS CITY, May 10th, 1876. Beverley R. Keim, Esq., Gen'l Passenger Agent K. P. Ry., KIansas City, io. DEAR SIR-I am in receipt of your communication of the 5th inst., and am glad to know the Kansas Pacific Railway Company contemplates writing up the San Juan country; and believing all such publications help the country, in which I take the deepest interest, I hand you herewith such memoranda as I have, and which you are at liberty to use in your own way. Very Truly, A. J. WHITE.

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Page  5 THE MINING INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES, AND THEIR RELATION TO OTHER BRANCHES OF INDUSTRY. The wonderful placer deposits of But while the gold yield has been gold in California which gave a pro- on the decrease, silver mining is gainduct of $65,000,000 per annum in 1853 ing a sure and substantial footing, and filled the world with amazement, and we now have a silver yield about equal the pockets of many adventurers with to the gold product in the best days ot fortune. California. These deposits, extending 150 miles While perhaps the period has no; along the base of the Sierra Nevada arrived in the history of the America.ii mountains, were of a richness thatjus- people that mining is a passion wit-ih tified the thorough exploration that us as it was with Spain three or fbur followed their discovery. centuries ago, nor has it received that The gain to the country of this im- attention given it by the English or mense treasure had much to do with German people, yet the present indithe prosperous times which followed cations would seem to justify the hope all over the country, and has fixed that the development of our immuense upon the public mind a mania for new deposits of the precious metals will gold discoveries, and thousands go in speedily become one of the chief ir — earnest quest of the golden treasure dustries of the United States andi every year. afford a permanent and remunerative For twenty-three years the gold employment for capital and labor, product has been on the decline. There second only to agriculture in its imare none of those extensive sandbars portance. that yielded so richly as in California, Any new field of labor which would and tile limited deposits found of late not lessen the profits of agriculture years do not seem to justify exten- and manufacture is a clear gain to the sive efforts in gold placer mining. country, while at this time when nearAbout $18,000,000 gold was the pro- ly every branch of business is strugduct in the United States for the year gling to sustain its position and a large 1875, and that came mostly from the portion of our population is idle, the treatment of quartz gold which in the opportunity for the profitable employprosperous days of 1850-53 was but ment of capital and labor is partieulittle, if at all practiced. larly desirable. Wee are all going to )San Juan over the Kansas Pacific Railcay. The Shortest and Quickest.Route.

Page  6 ~~~6 ~THE SAN JUAN SILVER MINES. The entire product. of gold and sil- point of view to the rest of mankind, ver in the United States for the year he increases the demland and values 18S5 was about eighty-one million dol- of other commodities, except silver lars, and the yield for the present Cen- I and gold, and a greater general prostennial year will reach in round num- perity is realized. hers one hundred millions. If any part of our population are The effect of this production upon idle, or are producing that for which other industries is greatly advanta- there is no demand, and our deposits geous. Something is produced of cur- of the precious metals are ample to rent value to the world, and is a meas- give them employment at remuneraure of' the value of other commodities. tive wages, would not it be wise to The miner consumes that which he examine into the demands of this new does not produce, and bearing the sole field of industry and profit by the oprelation of a consumer in a business portunity offered for employment. THE SAN JUAN SILVER MINES. No better evidence attests t th thrift been located, and the work done thereand enterprise of a people than the on, as required by law, within the last quick growth and rapid development two years, and the total number of of the mining interests of San Juan, mines located in all San Juan may be in Southwestern Colorado. pjlaced at 4,500, and yet but a small Until Septenmber, 1872, thle country part of the country has been prospectknown as San Juan was held by the ed. It would be safe to say, that seven Ute Indians, when it was by treaty or eight thousand mines will be loreleased to the United States. It cated in San Juan within the next five had up to that time been subject to years. What portion of this great the usual explorations of those reso- number will priove to be paying mines lute spirits that people our western it is difficult to estimate, yet the presmnountains in search of the precious, entindicant ons are so flattering, that metals, but there was not much done it is thought by many that one-fourth by way of location and development of the mines located will become payof those wonderful deposits of silver, ing property. up to the spring of 1874, when work This certainly would be an extravabegan with great vigor. gant estimate for any other country Perhaps 3,000 silver mines have than the San Juan, but here be it rePullman Palace Cars are run over the.Khtnsas Pa~/fic Railway.

Page  7 THE SAN JUAN SILVER MINES-THE ANIMAS DISTRICT. 7 membered that no blind leads are by Greene & Co., at Silverton, was prospected, mineral being found in 8284, and their best run was about nearly every instance at or near the $800 per ton. surface. When it is remembered that the An eminent author on mining re- average of the Consolidated Virginia marks, that you find no two mining mine, in Nevada, for the year 1875, countries alike. Certainly no other was $98 per ton, and that it had a country has furnished such quantities bullion yield for that year of $16,731,of rich paying silver ores at the sur- 654.43, some idea may be formed as face. The average grade of the yield to the possible yield of the San Juan of last season is estimated at $220 per mines in the future, from proper deton, while the average of ores treated velopment. THE ANIMAS DISTRICT. This district, located in what was La haps between one and two thousand Plata, but now San Juan County, is leads already located and more being one of the oldest mining districts discovered daily, yet we might mennamed, and lies along the Animas river tion-which would be only a beginand its tributaries. ning of the list-the Highland Mary, Here a larger number of mines Mountaineer, North Star, Tiger, have been located and are being Thacher, Chepauqua, Comstoek, Pride worked than in any other mining dis- of the West, Philadelphia, Susquetricts in that country. Its ores are hana, Pelican, Grey Eagle, Shenanprincipally argentiferous, galena and doah, Bull of the Woods, Little Giant gray copper, and occasionally the (gold), Prospector, McGregor, Aspen, black sulphurets of silver are found, Seymore. Letter G, Empire, Sultana, and in a few mines chloride ot silver. Hawkeye, Ajax, Mollie Darling, SilThe Smelter run of the ores treated ver Cord, Althea, Last of the Line, from mines in the Animas district, Boss Boy, Crystal and King Hiram last season, varied between $150 and Abiff (gold). $2,000 per ton. BAKERSt PARK, It is impossible to give a definite idea of the number of first-class pay- in the Animas district, while it is the ing leads in a district which has per- center extensive mining region, All 1Trains from the East, South and North make close connection with the Kansas Pacific Railway at Kansas City or Leavenworth.

Page  8 8 THE ANIMAS DI)STRTCT. it is also one of the most lovely parkl. The chief business of the country i-n San Juan. being mining, nearly everybody lives In the sul-mer season, when foliage on the mountains where their propand flowers are at their best, with erty is located. those grand old mountains which bor- Last season Silverton had two der on the park lifting their heads smelters in operation beside one snmall almost erect from their base 13,000 feet affair, built on the Mexican plan, above the sea level, and the long lines which had a doubtful success. It also of shadow are nestling in the abrupt contained four or five supply stores, angles of the gulches and canons, the one drug store, four blacksmith shops, wild music of the water falls that leap two saw-mills, one bakery, two butchfrom the mountain sides, enhances the er shops, one barber shop, a number scene, and it reminds us more of some of boarding houses, a weekly newsfairy land of enchantment, than what paper-the La Plata Miner-and permust be at no distant day the greatest haps half a dozen saloons. depot of mineral supply on the conti- This being the county seat of the nent. county of San Juan, where all records SILVERTON, I of mining property within the county are kept, the town, at all times, prein Baker's Park, is one of the chief sents a lively appearance. towns west of Del Norte. jThe miners fromn the La Plata, AniIn 1874, there were perhaps halp f a mas, Adams and iUncompahgre disdozen rude buildings in Silverton, but tricts, buy the most of their supplies last season, as soon as saw-mills in at Silverton. R. C. Luesly keeps an the park were prepared to furnish extensive and complete assortment of lumber, a town sprung up like magic, everything the miner wants, both in about 200 houses being built dur- provisions and the necessary tools for ing the spring and summer of 1875, working the mines. Hiis stock will and the town had gained a population vary between twenty and thirty thouof about one thousand in August last. sand dollars. Greene & Co., who own It is safe to say that the population the largest smelter at Silverton, also will be doubled during the present carry an immense stock. Several season. new firms are taking goods in this But the importance of a mining season, and there will be an abundcountry should not be estimated by ance of everything in the supply line, the size of its towns. at reasonable prices. You shoulk take a look at Denver and Colorado iSprings before going into San Juan.

Page  9 THE EUREKA AND UNCOMPAtIGRE DISTRICTS. 9 THE EUREKA DISTRICT. This district joins the Animas on the viewed in the twilight, presents the north and lies along the Animtas river. appearance of a huge cathedral, its The character of the ores does not pillars and dome marking magnificent differ materially fiom those in the heights and presenting a very imposAnimas district, granite being the pre- ing appearance, and, in this, Nature's vailing character of the rock forma- Architect has furnished a model of tions in each. the grand and sublime, which the art Going into the Eureka district from of man can never imitate. From Silverton, you pass through the town Eureka you reach Animas Fork, four of Howardsville, at the confluence miles distant up the Animas River, of the Cunningham Gulch stream'with or you go into the Uncompahgre disthe Animas river. This is a town of trict by Eureka Gulch. Eureka has, about three hundred inhabitants perhaps, twenty rude buildings, and Here as you advance farther up the has a supply store and post office. No river the width between the moun- larger bodies of ore are found anytains begins to narrow, and by the where than in the Eureka district time you reach the town of Eureka, The MlcKinnie, Tidal Wave, Boomewhich is about nine miles from Silver- rang, Crispin, Sunnyside, Yellow Jackton, the mountains have crowded et, Golden Fleece, Venus, Emma Dean, close upon you on either side, and American, North Pole,Jackson, Grand you are in view of some grand moun- Central, Big Giant, Little Abbie, Beltain scenery. Just before you reach cher and Chieftain are among the Eureka, on the left bank of the Ani- principal mines. mas, there is a mountain, which, THE' UNCOMPAHGRE DISTRICT. In traveling through Satn Juan, All along up Cement Creek, everywhere you go, it is the common on either side, the mountains are remark of those with whom you decked with ribbons of silver, and folmeet, that "there seems to be no end lowing up to the head of Cement from to the number of rich mines." And Silverton, a distance of twelve miles, so it is; you find them everywhere. you reach the summit of the mounFor the Lowest Rates of Freight to Colorado apply to T. ]. OAKEJS, General Freight Agent, Kansas City.

Page  10 . 10 THE UNCOMPAlGERE DISTRICT. tains, in the famous mines of the Un- on till it reaches the broad fertile valeompahgre district. But what; a ride ley in the distance, where dwells the you have had in gaining these timid Ute. The summit of the Unheights! The trail lies close along Icompahgre mountains is the place of the margin of the creek, and it has a all places to view mountain scenery gradual elevation till you reach with- in its. greatest variety and most imin two miles of the summit, where a pressive grandeur. zig-zag trail, which runs across the Summer and winter, spring and face of the mountain which fills up autumn, are viewed in one glance, the canon at the head of Cement and stand out in bold contrast, encreek, brings you into the heart of hanced at times by those strange phethe Uncompahgre mines. nomena in nature, the mountain rirThe scenery here is grand in the age and extreme. Nature must have been in *.~, J. j ~ 1~ -~ _SUNRISE ABOVE THE CLOUDS. wild riot to have produced such a 4'wreck of matter " as is here found. Were you to encamp upon one of If the ruins of ancient cities impress those bold mountain ranges yon might the beholder with wonder and amaze- witness, on a misty morning, a scene ment, what must be the emotions in I that no pen can. describe. The parks viewing for the first time what one and passes below are filled with a might imagine to be an exploded dense fog that reaches half-way up the world, with its sharp, broken fiag- mountains. Along the surface of this ments piled in strange confusion four- foggy chasm, and farther up the teen thousand feet high. mountain, rest light, airy, broken colThe molten peaks are tinged with umns of clouds. The morning is breaka red and sulphurous hue, which tells ing, and the sun is stealing over the of a period at which the chemical summit from the east. He sends his properties of the earth are made to rays aslant upwards at first, and you gild each crest with rare, enduring mark his golden line along his misty colors. course.:le soon reaches the upper tier It presents a scene of abandoned na- of clouds, and when his rays play upon ture, with garbs of living green, cast the bosom of the immense misty mass recklessly below into the parks and below, the crowning glory of this valleys, two miles away, that her beautiful scene is before your eyes. charms might be made the subject of The reflection and refraction of color man's conquests to gain her golden from these vaporous masses have protreasures. (luced a scene of most wondrous beauThe eye lingers upon the scene, and ty, the like of' which can never be marks the line of contrast where the seen froml below. spruce and fir fringe the foot hills, Nearly all the water courses in the and the IUneompahgre river pours its northern portion of San Juan have glad song over cliff and through can- their source within the limits of the You will avoid delay by procuring your tickets via Kansas Pacific Railway.

Page  11 TIHE UNCOMPAHGRE AND LAKE DISTRICTS. 11 Uncompahgre district, or in that markable success. The belt seems to neighborhood, and the name, mean- run in a southwesterly direction,:g'"Valley of Fountains," has more across the head-waters of Cement of its true significance in the valley creek to Rled mountain. Mineral along the UIncompahgre river than in creek comes in its course also, and at the mining' district of that name. all of these points ores have been But we will not quarrel with the In- found resembling the Uncompahgre dian who gave it, if he will peaceably ores, and believed to be of' the same permit us to locate the mining prop-'mineral belt. Of those mines producertv in the mountains along the Un- ing so wonderfully we might mention eompaihgre river, which are within the Mother Clim, Alaska, Saxon, the Ute reservation. There is a large Tyrol, Poughkeepsie, Fisherman, Silscope of rich mining country along ver Coin, Our Pat, King Solomon, the Gunnison and Uncompahgre |Bonanza, Adelphi, Alpha, Scottish which last season, tempted the reck- Chief; Gipsy Queen, Seneca Chief and less adventurer, which will be, before Little Minnie. The ores of the Unma.rty months, joined to the borders of compahgre carry less galena and more that wonderful mineral country. ofthe sulphurets of silver than in any The richest mines in all San Juan other district named, and being of a are found in the Uncompahgre. There high grade and easily treated, are reis a nest of' mines on the summit of garded with great favor by smelters. those mountains, perhaps included There is great need of smelting within one and one-half miles square, works in this district. Austin and whose best grade ores will run from Greenell, owners of the famous Linfive hundred to one thousand dollars coln Boy mine and others, are erectto the ton at the smelter. A number ing works this season, but they exof mines furnish ores which will bring pect to furnish the supply of ore from from $1,500 to $1,800 per toli at the their own mines. Many of the ores smelter. Last season the extension of the Uncompahgre have been,(i this rich belt of mineral was ex- shipped to Denver for treatment. tensively prospected for, and with reLAKE DISTRICT.'early every mining district in metals, ample to guarantee its success. Southwestern Colorado has some (lis- At this time it is difficult to detertinctive characteristic from others, mine which is to be the most impor-,and posesses wealth in the precious tant. The Lake district, for the presFor Passenger Rates address BDI PERLEY R. KEIM1, Genteral Passenger Agent.

Page  12 12 LAKE DISTRICT. ent, is the most accessible by'good that sort, and it has two bakeries, t:wo roadways of any of the silver-bearing saw mills, three restaurants, two districts, and having mines, though blacksmith shops, one livery stablt-e not so numerous, are equally as rich as one millinery store, one weekly paperL those in the famous Animas district. i the Silver orldfive saloons and There are some four hundred and fifty two meat markets. mines located in Lake, and it has the A bank has been chartered the — only Tellurium lode of any note in Bank of Lake City-with a capital of the San Juan country. This is the $50,000, which will greatly facilitateHotchkiss, which carries tellutiumn business and assist materially in buildores rich in gold and silver and is ing up the mnining interests there. perhaps, the best developed mine Tin Already the good people of Lake have that region. an ambition to tmake it a great city Of the mines of note we mighlt and the distributing p-oint to the exmention the Cora, East Boston, Big tensive mining districts west ana Casino, Ouray, Little Chief, Mountain southwest. -Lyon, Belle of the East, Belle of the The scenery about Lake City is deWest, Lone Chief, Mayflower, Atlantic lightful; and is remarkable for its deep Plantation and California Lode. canons, picturesque waterfatlls and floral attractions. LAKE CITY, LAKRE GCITY, The Granite Falls, two miles is - is the chief town in the mining dis- itant, is seventy eight feet in height? trict, and has a population of seven and the Argentine Falls, four miles hundred inhabitants, and situated at above ILake, takes a tremendous leap the confluence of Lake Fork with the I of one hundred and sixty feet inrlto a Gunnison River. chasm below. Two toll roads have been con- Thus briefly have we noticed so-me structed, one from Del Norte and an- I of the leading features of the princiother from Saguache to Lake City, I pal silver mining districts in the 8-ara giving it two outlets to the East, and Juan country. New mining distriicts the road is extended west to the forks are occasionally being formed.and of the Animas, which will give a new mines daily discovered. We will stage route to Silverton, in San Juan now mention those districts:noted county. I principally for their gold-bearing The town is well provided with sup- qiuartz and placer gold. ply stores, there being five stores of If you want Rates of Freight on you.r Mining Outfits atddr'sss T. F. OA[KEi.Z General J reight Agent, Kansras City, Mo.

Page  13 SAN MI:GUEL AND LA PLATA GIOLD MINES. 13 SAN MIGUEL GOLD MINES. TwOenty-five miles west from Silver- lmen poured in from every quarter. ton the San Miguel gold mines are What wtas thought to be the best found. In the middle part of August portion of that country was staked las[ it was being talked around quietly I out, and a new milling district was att Silverton that rich placer diggings I formed. At the present writing the had been struck at that place, and in extent of the deposit is not know1n, three days thereafter three-fourths of yet a considerable amount of gold the people of that lively town were off was "1 panned out.' Old p]rospectors to the new gold "diggings." Every- think there is gold to be found beboddy wanted a mule or a horse, and tween San Miguel and the La Plata tilose who could not be thus provided, country, and we may look for new either rode a boro or went on foot. discoveries during the present season Thie rush continued for a week, and in that quarter. LA PLATA GOLD MINES. Sixty Imiles southbwest fromn Silver- furnish water to those who own ton is Parrott City, thle principal min- claims adtjacent thereto at a given i-g town of La Plata county, near price. During last season sluice minwhich are those rich placer and quartz ing was the method employed for segold mines, which perhaps have no curing the gold, but in October last equal in Colorado. The placers are parties interested in those minines went found along the La Plata river, and to California to engage aid in the conare, as prospected, about ten miles in struction of a perfect hydraulic sysextent along that streaml, and have an tern, by which a more effective treataverage width of about two miles. It ment could be employed, so that the is estimated that bed-rock is thirty or present season will undoubtedly be forty feet below "grass root," the yield one of greater activity in these new from the surface paying from five to gold fields of La Plata. Such rich ten dollars per man. A. company has placers satisfied the old miners that efiostructed a system of ditches along the source of these low-land deposits certain portions of this gold bar and were exceedingly rich, and prospectWYffu can buy Tickets anywhere in the East to all points in'Colorado via KZansas Pacific Railway.

Page  14 14 SAN MIGUEL GOLD MINES-SUMMIT DISTRICT. ing for quartz gold leads upon the ad- When, in October last, those operatiacent mountains was, during last sum- ing the Comstock lode struck a vein mer, pursued with vigor and great which run in bulk $120,000 per ton, a success, which not only led to the dis- large number of old miners who rencovery of rich gold quartz veins, dezvoused at Silverton, started fbor the but silver was found in abundance La Plata district with the intention and of a very hlgh grade. of permanently locating there, arguThe rock is of limestone formation ing that if they could not strike it principally, the ores carry but little rich in gold,. they could in silver, and galena, and in appearance resemhble seemed assured of success. the ores found on the Uncompahgre. The altitude is considerably lower Many beautiful specimens brought at Parrott City than in the silver disinto Silverton last season assayed be- tricts up the Animas, and the climate tween $1,500 and $2,000 per ton in more mild. Coal is found in abundsilver, with more or less gold. ance in that country, which, with its Silver has been found at different superior productiveness of soil, and points along the La Plata trail, be- being on the best line of approach tween Silverton and Parrott City, and I for a railroad to the mines up the one wonders as he sees specimens of Animas river, makes it a chosen spot, high grade silver ores come in for a and no portion of the entire San Juan hundred miles along this mineral belt country has a more assured success in if there really is an end to those rare the future than the La Plata gold and deposits. silver district. SUMMIT DISTRICT. The immense bodies of fine quartz The average run of the ores fron gold, found on South Mountain in the the Little Anna is variously estimated Summit district, has led to the loca- between $50 and $80 per' ton. tion of mining claims, covering nearly The owners claim to have taken out the entire mountain and to the organ- $50,000, in sixty days, the formation ization of mining companies and the of the vein matter is seamy in all erection of a number of reduction directions, no definite line of pay works, which makes it truly a great streak as in regular true fissure veins and important mining camp. of silver. The width of the vein is The Little Anna Lode has gained not fully determined, but the supposiperhaps the greatest reputation, owing tion is that it is seventy or eighty feet to its more thorough development. wide. This and a ten stamp mill The great Through Freight or Passenger Route is via the Kansas Pacific Railway.

Page  15 SUMMIT DISTRICT-CLIMATE AND WATER. 15 erected upon the mine is owned by a Standing upon the summit of South New York company, a small interest Mountain, 12,300 feet high, by the in said lode having recently been sold lines of timber in the distance to the by W. H. Van Gieson to parties in east and north, you can determine the New York City for $50,000. course of the Rio Grande river that Other lodes of great promise are lies along the borders of San Luis being worked, among which are the Park. The approach to South MounGolden Queen, Summit, Major, Golden tain from Del Norte is by wagon road Eagle, Mollie Bush, Yellow Jacket, up Francisco Creek, thirty miles from Caribou, Dexter, Golden Star, Del Del Norte, and by Pinos Creek twenNorte, Dora, Upper Annie and Ida. ty-eight miles. A mine of very singular appearance There are various theories concernis the Summit Lode. IHere was a ing the formation of South Mountain. butte of quartz matter standing eighty Quartz gold having been found in feet high, thirty feet wide and about nearly every portion of the mountain, fifty feet long, situated well up the it is claimed by some tobe a solid mass mountain, and standing erect. of quartz gold, while others believe Fifty feet farther up the mountain the "top dressing" to have been is the upper wall rock to the vein, poured over the surface from the while below it is shingled down about mouth of a volcano. There has been three hundred feet with a red-colored a large amount of gold taken from this quartz rock, and calcined granite, mountain, and must continue to be giving on the whole an ashy.appear- one of our best gold producing disance. Nearly all the best mines on tricts. South Mountain lie in and about a The Little Annie, Golden Queen and large basin formed in the mountain, Summit mines each has its stamp mill and might be termed a golden bowl. and others are being erected. CLIMATE AND WATER. The climate of Colorado is a subject in going out of this up into a lighter of universal remark by those visiting air, from 5,000 to 13,000 feet above sea for the first time the Rocky Moun- level, a heavy burden seems to be tains. The heavier gases, which are a lifted from the system. You breathe part of the atmosphere, seek the lower freer, but it requires more labor to levels, and there we have the air we take in enough air to "run the mabreath over-charged with the combus- chine." tible gases which sustain life, so that This gives an expansion of the The Kansas Pacific Railway runs a Fast Freight, in Sixty Hours, to Denver, where close connection is made with the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad for Cucharas, Veta and Fort Garland.

Page  16 16 CLIMATE AND WATERE — OW TO MAKE MONEY, ETC. lungs, and the air freed from the ma- San Juan to run a thousand stamp larious poison of the low-lands, gives mills the year round. (Engines will the lungs a healthy development, be used only in hoisting works at the The air is not "bracing," as many mines.) This will be an immense writers tell you; that is the character saving in the treatment of ores. And of sea breezes, but the mountain air the frequency of these mountain of Colorado is pure, and has a happy streams is another excellent feature; effect upon both mind and body. they are found on every mountain Young man, go to San Juan, get a and in nearly every gulch, so pure mine, and be happy. and sparkling that life gains a new inspiration with each draught. WATER POWER. There is sufficient water power in HOW TO MAKE MONEY, AND HOW TO LOSE IT. People are led to regard mining en-i for failure is almost certain if you do. terprises as hazardous more from habit Because a smelter on the Mexican plan than anything else, forgetting that can be built for $500, and a quantity many of those engaged in mercantile i of silver saved in the process thus empursuits fail at some period of their I ployed, it does not prove that a man business history. with $20,000 capital will not fail if he In mining undertakings more men undertakes the business of smelting. fail in the beginning, than in the. A Smelter that would cost $50,000 steady pursuit of that business. More should, to it a success, have $50,failures come from speculations in 000 besides, used in buying ores, and mining property, than in a legitimate $100,000 would be better. The profits of effort to produce the precious metals. smelting are so great that men are led Any one who will take the trouble to into the undertaking with too small read Raymond's reports of the min- a capital, and fail. It would be better ing industries of the different mineral if persons with from five to twenty producing States and Territories, will thousand dollars, who desired to enbe satisfied of this fact. gage in the treatment of silver ores, Smelting the ores of the San Juan were to find in the San Juan country a country may be made a success, by large body of low grade ore, where the observing the known conditions of gangue being so impregnated with silsuccess, but it will not do to adopt ver that it required separation, and put those cheap expedients in smelting, I up concentration works. Five to eight The Shortest iand Quickest Route to Colorado is via the Kansas Pacific Railway.

Page  17 HlOW TO MAKE MuNEY, AND HOW TO LOSE IT. 17 tons could be reduced to one, and ore be of a kind that they may be concenrunning $25 per ton, which would be tratedto make their treatment profitentirely useless as smelting ore, by able, and, as before stated, should be concentration could be made to run in large bodies. A two or three-foot $200 per ton with a cost of concentra- vein, running twenty-dollar milling tion of from one to three dollars per ores, could not be made profitable; ton. yet a thirty-foot vein, running that The maclinery for concentration amount per ton, might be made to pay is very simple and inexpensive, con- largely. sisting of: The sale of mining property is liable Crusher and Roller, 26 tons daily to great abuse, from the fact that so capacity, cost...... $.1,200 00 few purchasing property are acCost of Jig.................................. 600 00 quainted with the true value of a Total................................... $1,800 00 mine; yet, with due care, nothing promises a larger return for the A building costing' $1,000 would A buildin CO~ti D wouldamount of money required to purabout complete the expense. It would t of money reqired to purcost to operate this: I dchase than irst-class mining propcost to operate this erty in the San Juan country. There Three men, at $4 per day.................. $12 00 is so great a mining iteret there In connection with the concentration that the development of the country of ores a regular sampling business must be very rapid and extensive, and could be done, for there are many of everything is made thereby more marthe high grade ores in San Juan, which ketable. owing to the want of' smelting facili- There are many features of the ties, will be shipped out of the coun- country peculiarly encouraging to try by parties buying ores. The buy- prospectors; the great number of ing of ores necessitates the sampling mines daily discovered and the conof them, and a crusher is required in stant demand for them on the part of sampling, and that you have already capitalists, who are willing to buy in your concentration machinery. ~ them at nominal prices and take the The Blake Crusher, with Cornish risk of their ultimate value. This enrollers, and the Rouse or Parsons jig, courages prospectors to make public with a number of tubes, is the ma- many discoveries that otherwise might chinery usually employed. not be considered of sufficient imporThe Crusher, to a great extent, has tance to warrant any attention. taken the place of the Stamp Mill. With the large mining population There are a large number of mines in San Juan, and the rapid increase owned by parties in San Juan, prac- which is sure to follow, every branch tically valueless to their owners, of business peculiar to a miningcounwhich, if capital were employed in try must prosper. One thing is certheir development, might be made to tain, there is more silver deposited pay largely. All low-grade ores should I in the San Juan country than can be The quickest way to San Juan is via the Kansas Pacific Railway. 2

Page  18 s8 110W TO MIAKE MONEY-THE SAN JUAN MIINER. found in any other mining country those capable of properly developing yet discovered, and fortune awaits it. THE SAN JUAN MINER, WHO IS HE? Bret ilarte, Joaquinll.iller, and a season, and although differing in charnumber of other clever writers, cast- acter, the measure of pleasure and ing about for "a hero to adorn a tale," enjoyment is at least equal to that seem to find a field for all their found in the older States. enthusiasm and talent in the extreme Life and property are as secure in Western character, and many are led San Juan as in Massachusetts, and sointo the error of thinking that in the ciety is fiee from the error and hyWest, the knife and gun, the horse and pocrisy commnon to the polished circles spur, are the true symbols of all that of the East, its best tokens being an is remarkable in western life. independent manhood and a desire, It is true that human nature freed in the development of this new Eldofiom the restraints of society often rado, to give every man a chance. presents in the West many features No wonder the returned miner is that, in the East, would be regarded full of hope and good cheer, and speaks reckless and lawless, being a strange well of the country. mingling of strength, virtue, cupidity The rude cabin above the trail upon and disregail.d of human life; but these the mountain side, covered with poles are extreme cases, and we would not and gravel has an air of welcome in consequence have any of the many about it, and a true pleasure is expethousands who are gOing into the Sanl rienced in the quiet cordiality with Juan country, this season, believe that which you are received. "The man he is to mingle with a strange and in buckskin, with his hounds crouchprimitive civilization, where all the ing behind him, and a noble buck suscustoms of the country are ignored, pended from a spruce pole, one end of and law a fitful caprice of man's pas- which is thrust between the logs of sions. the cabin where the chinking has The habit which once existed with, fallen out, and the other supported by men, of leaving all the comforts of life two forked sticks describing a letter behind upon going West, is no longer'-A," which the romance writer has practieed, and is entirely unnecessary. given in such true fidelity, proves to All that is required to make life desir- be a very ordinary looking individual able may be found in San Juan this dressed in overalls and blouse and The Kansas Pacific Railway is the Best Road west of the Missouri River, in Ka nsas.

Page  19 THE SAN JUAN lIINER —OUTF.IT ANI COST OF SAIME. 19 slouch hat, who has just come from vada, Arizona, Utah or New Mexico, his mine, a few yards distant, to and you ask him to tell you all about sharpen some tools at the blacksmith mineral and mining, and you are reshop, which so many of these miners warded with a few careful observahave for their own convenience. He tions, for those old miners do not talk may be from Illinois, Ohio, Missouri much to strangers of the secrets of or Kansas, who having come to Colo- their success, and you depart, satisfied rado by the Kansas Pacific Railway, is that if you have not met a man who sure to be a sensible fellow, and you has given you information sufficient are shown some rich specimens of sil- upon which to write a work on minver ore, invited to stay to dinner, and ing, you have at least met a gentlemade generally welcome. Or he may man. be an old miner from California, NeOUTFIT AND COST OF SAME. Persons going into the San Juan shoes to wear about camp, a soft hat country to prospect, require firom 8300 and overalls and blouse, and you have to $500 cash,besidethefollowingoutfit. all that is necessary for comfort and Half-Gallon Coffee Pot.................. $0 60 convenience. Frying-pan..........o................... 60 Camp-kettle.............................. 1 00 Bake oven.................................... 1 00 Bread psn................................. 75 A man will eat about one pound of Three tin plates....................... 2 flour per day, one-half poundc of beef Knife and fork............................... 25 Coffee ill iron].............................. 50 or oe-ourth pound bacon. Dried Tin cup.......................................... 10 fruits, such as apples, currants and'Two teaspoons.................................. 10 Two tablespoons.......................... 10 prune, sould -used fee with - heavy diet, to insure perfect health. Total cost...................................... $5 40 TIl~E BEDDING, MULES AND BOROS THE BEDDING, consisting of three double blankets are a great assistance to the prospecand one poncho, would cost about $12. tor after he arrives in a mining country, as well as in going in. A good CLOTHING. mule will cost in San Juan from $100 One substantial suit of clothes, one to $150; a pony about $75, and a pair of heavy boots, the soles filled Boro about $30. But a person who with hob-nails, with perhaps a pair of does not choose to be to this expense Miners and Merchants should order their Freight shpped via.Kansas Pacific Railtway.

Page  20 20 OUTFIT AND COST OF SAM'E —HUNTING AND FISHING. may find facilities for getting in with out of seven-eighths or one-inch steel freighters who are daily starting into and three in number-four are somethe country. times used-No. 1, 18 inches long, No. While a tent is a very good thing, it 2, 26 inches long, and No. 3, 36 inches should only be taken when transpor- long. You also want one striking tation is ample; very few take them. hammer-a six pound cost about $4.50. as sleeping in the open air is attended Also, one breaking, eight with no suffering or inconvenience in pounds, cost about $6.00; one tracing that climate. pick, cost $2.00; one prospecting pole pick, cost $2.00; one lonig-handled MININIG TO),OLS.| shovel, cost $1.50; four gads made of The best steel for gads is Jessup & square one and one-fourth inch steel, Sons English steel. This can be sel- eight inches long; also powder and domn found except in the larger cities fuse. This gives a general idea of an in the States, but all the mining towns outfit as used in San Juan and it is in Colorado keep all varieties. It about all that is necessary for a season costs from 35cto 40c per pound. Drills of prospecting in the Rocky Mounfor prospecting work should be made tains. HUNTING AND FISHING. Game and fish are abundant in San or mountain trout, which weigh in Juan and along the routes leading some instances four and five pounds. into that country. But the most remarkable trout "deThe Rio Grande river and many of posit" in San Juan may be found west the smaller streams that are tributary from Silverton twenty-five miles, in to it are alive with trout. In the the San Miguel lake, which has an early part of the season, before the elevation of 9,720 feet, around which swell of the snow-waters subsides, is the San Miguel group of mountains, trout fishing is not attended with the the highest of which is about 14,000 success one can have later in the sea- feet high. The margin of the lake son, or in themonths of June, July almost describes a circle, and its and August and even as late as No- depths are beyond any efforts yet vember. The Rio Grande furnishes made to ascertain them. Two persons specimens of a larger species than caught with hooks, last season, three what are commonly known as brook hundred pounds of trout in one day Remember that the Kansas Pacific Railway is the only line to Denver without change.

Page  21 HUNTING AND FISHING —HOW TO GO TO SAN JUAN. 21 in this lake, and the supply seems in- the San Juan country. A wagon may exhaustable. be driven from Pueblo, Trinidad or Black-tail deer, mountain sheep, an- Ft. Garland to within twenty miles of telope, and cinnamon bear, are found the Animas district, along the valleys in great numbers along the Sangre de of the Rior Grande river, with as Christo range of mountains and the much ease as upon most of the public parks and passes that lie along the highways in the older states, so that routes into the mining regions. A the sportsman's lunch box and all the season of rare sport might be enjoyed necessary outfit for first-class sport by sportsmen by spending a season in may be taken along. HOW TO GO TO SAN JUAN. The Kansas Pacific Railway lias The main line-by Denver-has this Eastern connections at Kansas City, advantage to parties going into the Missoari, and at Ieavenworth, Kan- San Juan country, either for business sas. or pleasure: If for business, an opAt Kit Carson, Colorado, two lines portunity is offered to visit the mines are extended west, one to Denver and west of Denver, and witness the most the other to La Junta, Col., in the di- practical methods, both for the develrection of Trinidad, which will soon opmient of ores and their treatment, be reached by their southern branch. either by stamp mills, concentration From Denver, the Denver & Rio works, or smelting, and thus learn, by Grande Railroad is built south and practical examination, what it would west as far as Fort Garland, in the require months to learn in a new minborder of San Lan Luis Park, which ing country. is about 165 miles from Silverton, in If parties go to Colorado for pleasSan Juan county, the heart of the San ure, they would not be satisfied withJuan mines, and 65 miles from Del out visiting the capital and metropoNorte, a large mining town, 30 miles lis of the new Centennial State, and north of the Summrit gold district, and take in the magnificent scenery along 145 miles from Lake City, in ILake dis- the Rio Grande Railroad, en route to tri ct. Fort Garland, by which route Manitou The nearest point by rail to the min- and the famous "Garden of the (ods" ing regions is reached by the Kansas are reached, and also Colorado Springs, Pacific Railway and its connections. the chief watering place in the West. Address BETTERL.EY.R. KETMI, General Passenger Agent (tt Kansas City, Mo., for inform ition concerning San Juan and Routes of Travel to the Mines.

Page  22 22 HOW TO GO TO SIN JUAN-VALUE OF GOLD AND SILVER. La Junta, the present terminus of Canon City, which is another great the Kansas Pacific is southeast from watering place, where may be found Pueblo, but is on a direct line to the iron, soda and hot springs. Here is San Juan mines, though not as near as another starting point over-land for Fort Garland; yet it is regarded as the mines, and it is a very desirable the best freight route into the mining route to parties going into Lake disregions, as through shipments are trict by Saguache. A stage line conmade from Kansas City or Leaven- nects at Canon City and runs to nearly worth to this point, and a choice of all the principal mining towns. The wagon routes is given, either by the Rosita mineslie sGuth Irom Canon City Rio Grande, or by the great sonthern thirty miles, and have given to that route, by Costilla canon. The largest picturesque little city great activity. out-fitting establishments in Colorado The Kansas Pacific Railway reaches may be found at La Junta, and con- with its connections the following nections are made at this point, by points, which are the only starting Barlow & Sanderson's six-horse stage points into the mines at the terminus of linel, which runs to all the principal rail routes: Fort Garland, Cucharas, mining towns in San Juan. The Den- ILa Junta, Pueblo and Canon City, and ver & Rio Grande road also runs to El Moro (five miles fiom Trinidad). VALUE OF GOLD AND SILVER. The following statement is from silver in a ton of ore it contains 291.63 Prof. F. S. Schirmer, Superintendent ounces troy of either of these metals. of the Branch Mint at Denver: The average fineness of the ColoOne ton (2,000 pounds avoirdupois) rado gold is 781 in 1,000 and the natof gold and silver contains 29,163 troy ural alloy, gold is 781, silver 208, copounces, and therefore the value of a per 10, total 1,000. ton of pure gold is $602,799 21, and a The calculations at the mint are ton of' silver $37,704 40. made on the basis that forty-three A cubic foot of pure gold weighs ounces of' standard gold, or 900 fine 1,518.74 pounds of avoirdupois; a (coin), is worth $800, and eleven cubic foot of.pure silver weighs 556.25 ounces of silver 900 fine (coin) is pounds avoirdupois. worth $12 80, If there is one per cent. of gold or Freight Jor San Juan, Cheapest Rates, by the Ilansas Pacific Railway. Address T. F. OAKES, General Freight Agent, Kansas City, io.

Page  23 THE GREAT NEW ROUTE TO SAN JUAN. 23' THE GREAT NEW ROUTE TO SAN JUAN. THE KANSAS PACIFIC RAILWAY valleys equal in richness to the valleys of the Missouri, it has built and is the pioneer road into the Territory euipped a first-class, broad-gauge of Colorado, the building of which road from Kit Carson to La Junta, on has resulted in the development of a direct line to Trinidad, which ill Northern Colorado with its larg m- be eached ithin a few weeks. ing interests, and occasioned the The largest mining interests in growth of the immense cattle trade Southwestern Colorado are on the of Colorado and New Mexico. It has western water-hed of the Rockv done more thal this; it has made it Mountain range, and wagon routes as possible for the Denver & Rio Grandeay rotes to reah the R r C a o n c p well as railway routes to reach the Railroad Company to construct apay- lAnimas valley and the heart of the ing line south and southwest in aid of Sn Juan mines, must avoid the monthe development of Southern Colora- tai barriers that confront -s at the do, which has led to the discovery and head of the Rio Grande. development of the great mineral re- It is atter lon ince settled that gion of Southwestern Colorado, known the most practical wagon route to as San Jua.|n. as Sa~n SJ~uan1. reach the silver and gold regions of The first map ever lmade of the San San Juan on the Pacific slope, from Juan country was made by the Kan- the East is from Trinidad, via the sas Pacific Railway Company, in the Costilla canon, in the Raton mounyear 1872. tains, thence to Tierra Amarilla, ParThus early identified with the,.ma- rott City and I-Termosa, into the A niterial interests of the Territory, at a mas vailey, which gather in the waters time when its stockholders were on the western slope. By this route obliged to pay large sums beyond the the gold and silver mines of the La earnings of the road, to keep it in Plata district are reached, the coal on operation, it has, up to the present the lower Animas, the mines of the time, kept its faith with public expec- Animas, Adams, Uncompahgre and tation in making it the great and re- Eureka districts, and a portion of the liable route across the State of Kansas mines of Lake district, and encounterinto the best portions of Colorado. ing nowhere on the way any impassAt no time has it adopted temporary able grades, either for wagons or railexpedients in the routes chosen, but way. The importance of this route looking to the Southwest, with the is so well understood by the people of mines of San Juan, New Mexico, Ari- Trinidad and Las Animas county, that zona and Utah, and an agricultural the former have just voted $50,000, country in the San Juan and Animas and the latter $200,000, to aid in the Nothing like it-a ride in Palace.Cars over the Kansas Pacific to the Mines.

Page  24 24 THE GREAT NEW ROUTE TO SAN JUAN. construction of a railway upon this per pound, a distance of about twenty route. mliles. The new southern route passes The people of Las Animas county around the mountain ranges, and will and the miners in the districts named run through a rich, fertile and open may rest assured that the Kansas Pa- country, without increasing the discific Railway will, by proper encour- tance materially from the route across agement, at no distant day, extend its the mountains to the north. line upon the route indicated, the corn- This will give to routes by the pletion of which must aid materially Kansas Pacific Railway to the San in the growth of the entire San Juan Juln mines. One by Denver, which. country. connects there with the the Denver & A wagon road is nearly colmpleted Rio Grande road,now extended to Fort from Trinidad, through the Costilla G-arland, in the borders of San Luis Canon, to the open country beyond Park, about sixty-five miles from Del (heavy loaded teams are already pass Norte, and the other by the southern ing over this route), which, with the branch of te Kansas Pacific to Trinicompletion of the road from Cascade dad, which reaches the new wagon Creek to Silverton, a distance of 18 route mentioned. miles, which must speedily follow, will the present time the Kansas Pagive a road of even grade, and open cific with its connections, reaches El during all seasons of the year. There Moro-five miles from Trinidad-to is not to exceed fifty miles of moun- which point parties going by the tain road requiring any considerable soutlern route should ship their expense in grading in the entire route freight and procure transportation. from Trinidad to Silverton, and it is i TIf goi ng by the northern routes btuy estimated that fifty thousand dollarsickts to Cuchrs or ort Galand " tickets to Cutcharas or Fort GTarland would be sufficient to do the grading and go up the Rio Grande via Del at both ends of the line, where the t t i I^ -~Norte to thle mines; or if to liake City only gtrading on the entire route is reonl grading on theand the mines, procure transportation quired. ^~qui' ~red~. to C anon City via Kansas Pacific IRailBy this route. when completed, way. (See map.) freights from Trinidad to Silverton I ( will not cost in transportation to ex- - ceeed four cents per pound, whereas, IF you want information in regard by present route, the rate is fiom six to rates of freight on your mining to eight cents. outfits or supplies, from any place in Packing over the main range, from the East to the nearest railroad staJennison's ranch-near the head of tion within reach of' the San Juan the Rio Grandce-to Silverton, alone, mines, address T.. F. OAKES, General. costs one and one-half to two cents Freight Agent, Kansas City. No miner should think of buying a'icket by any other Route.

Page  25 THE EFUTURE OF' SAN JUAN. 25 THE FUTURE OF SAN JUAN. The population of the San Juan passed when there can any longer be country two years ago could not have anyt question as to the mineral wealth exceeded one thousand or fifteen hun- of Sail Juan.' When destily marks dred. out a course for mankind, thither tend In 1875 it was upwards of ten all forces in the slame direction." That thousand, and this immense increase course of destiny which shall enrich a was owing entirely to the increased people is easily followed, but the folknowledge of its superior mineral de- lowers in this case are men of strong posits, believed to extend over an area arms and brave hearts, who will bring of about fourteen thousand square about a glorious future to San Juan miles, and of which an area of over and the whole country. three thousand square miles has been The railroads are not behind in aidexplored. There has been no excite- ing the development of this country, ment attending this growth, but nuch and they have shown a sagacity in caution and business sagacity have the rapid extension of their lines in been shown, and this course has that direction only equaled by the desteadily advanced its interests and termined spirit of its early settlers. demonstrated its wealth. The first T[here was little work done in the rush into the country began in the mines in the winter of 1874-75, but spring and summler of 1874, and came during the past winter about twentyprincipally from the older mrining dis- five mines have been worked, which tricts of California, Noevada, Montana, have produced about $1,000,000, in Utah, New Mexico and Arizona. gold and silver. The experienced miners of those The present season will be an acStates and Territories declared their tive one in San Juan. Macthinery for convictions that San Juan had no smelting and reduction works of vaequal in the world in the extent and rious kinds is going into the country, richness of its gold and silver depeos_ and by autumn it is estimated that its. The results of that year and the the population will be double what it year following justified this declara- was last year. The growth will be tion, for never in the history of quartz one of permanent steady increase. mining in any country have mines The open country east of the minproduced such quantities of high grade ing region in Eastern and Central ores at the surface as this. People Colorado, though written up at times are justified in accepting with caution with flattering commendation, is not the statemlents made in regard to new an agricultural country. It produces mineral discoveries, but the time has very little of a.nything. The demands The Ka(nsas Pa7clic is the best equipped roctd in the /Test.

Page  26 26 THE FUTURE OF SAN JUAN. of the large mining population of San that lie along these valleys. The Juan must look to some other source value of this immense timber growth for a supply. Last year potatoes to the great silver regions farther up raised within a hundred miles from the Animas is incalculable. When we Silverton sold for fifteen cents per remember that the mines of Nevada pound, and turnips at ten cents, and have expeinded millions of dollars for butter seventy-five cents per pound. timber, and the scarcity which has This great demand and limited supply followed m.ining operations there, it of provisions from the adjacent coun- is a difficult problem to solve where try led many into the rich agricultural the timber to be used in the thirtydistricts on the Lower Animas River five hundred mines located on the and the San Juan Valley. The alti- western slope in the San Juan country tude here is much lower, the summer is to come from ten years hence. Alseason_ longer and the climate more ready the mountains about Silverton humid, and the country, of course, begin to show their bare bosoms, and more productive. The grasses west their crimson crests seem to blush for from Pueblo, and especially in San the rough ruin wrought. Luis Park, are thin and short, while It is impossible to make estimates on the Lower Animas and the broad at all satisfactory of the bullion yield open country along the San Juan for the coming years, yet we will take River, the growth of vegetation re- the liberty to use a statement from a minds one more of the best portions work published by C. A. Warner & Co., of the Mississippi Valley. J. P. Lamb, at Denver, upon this subject. The of the San Luis Park, will put in two writer says: hundred acres of wheat in the Animas "There never has been opened, in Valley, forty miles below Silverton, the'United States, a mining section, this season. IMuch better lands can that required to any degree, the be had further south than this, and a amount of transportation both to and railroad running into the Animas Val- from, that San Juan will need at a ley to the mines would take with it very early day. the product of the best agricultural "Commencing with July of the portion of Colorado. present year, it is not too much to That this will be acconmplished be- say that two hundred tons of base fore many years is as much a certain- bullion will be produced in twentyty as anything will be that is not four hours, and that early in 1877 already done. The profits of farming that amount will be doubled, while there will yet be nearly equal to the early in 1878 it is safe to say that the profits made in the history of Cali- total product of base bullion by the fornia. San Juan furnaces will exceed five Whi'e and yellow pine, spruce and hundred tons in every twenty-four cottonwood grow in abundance and hours. In addition to this wonderful great thrift upon the mountain ranges yield, the great value of the ore will Take the Kaaisa lPacific Railtcay fo)r (tll Minitity lowzns in Colorado.

Page  27 THE FUTURE OF SAN JUAN-COAL IN SAN JUAN. 27 be an inducement to owners to trans- upon the observer that, with the presport it to the East and Europe for re- ent condition of the country, which duction. The best advised persons demands some new field of action, the are of the opinion that the transpor- increase in wealth and population in tation of ore will equal in tons the San Juan must be rapid and unceasbullion." ing for a nunber of years to come. Thus writes every one who has vis- -..., _ -__ited that country and has undertaken PASSENGERS to the "San Juan to estimate its importance. And al- Mines" should travel by the Kansas though the hidden treasures of the Pacific, and enjoy the delightful ride Rocky Mfountains are hidden truths, through Central Kansas and across yet with the present amount of de- the great plains of Colorado. velopment the conviction is forceci COAL IN SAN JUAN. Naturally enough when the mineral coke of a superior quality. The vein character of' Sait Juan was deter- on the Mancos is much more desirmined the investigation of all that able, being fifty feet in thickness, and pertained to its development fol- equal for coke to the best Connellsville lowed. coal, with a much larger area than It was, however scarcely expected the first mentioned. The value of that coal, so necessary to the large these coal deposits is incalculable, besmelting interests that must soon ing far superior to the Anthracite coal grow up there, could be found at the of Pennsylvania or the soft coals of very doors of the furnaces, as it were; MTissouri and Kansas, which are not but in this the discovery of coal on suitable to make the coke used in the lower Animas river, near Elbert, smelting. Pittsburg furnishes Coloand the still larger bodies discovered rado smelters large quantities of coke on the Rio Mancos, about seventy- made from a coal found near Confive miles below Silverton, was a glad nellsville. surprise to everybody interested in - -- -- that country. The coal near Elbert PASSENGERS for the San Juan Mines has a vein about sixteen feet thick, who travel by the Kansas Pacific, enand resembling what is known as joy the advantage of seeing Denver cannel coal. It is found over a large and Colorado Springs, the two largest scope of country, and is said to make cities in the Centennial State. For the Lowest Rates of Freight to Colorado apply to T. F. OAKfES', General Flreight Agent, Kansas City.

Page  28 28 EXTRACTS FROM MINING JOURNALS. EXTRACTS FROM MINING JOURNALS. MANY of our people have been qulite ores. There is a feeling of general successful in raising trout. They use satisfaction among all classes. a hook and line. THE CONSOLIDATED VTRGINIA MINE. TaE Denver & Rio Grande Railroad -We condense the following items Company has filed the necessary at-ti- from the annual report of the Supereles for the increase of its capital stock intendent, Mr. James G. Fair: from $2,50(,000) to $5,00,000. Production of ore during year 1875..169,307 tons. Ore reduced during the year............ 169,094 " S1 6 lbs Vield in bullion............................. 16,731,653 43 THE trip from Denver to Del Norte A.verage yield per ton of 2000 lbs.... 98 00 v-ia.te k- o Ore in ore house and in mills........... 2,988 tons 194 lts via the Denver &c Rio Grande Ra ilroad Valued by assay at.......................... 8$478,080 and Barlow, Sanderson & Co.'s stage line, is not as unpleasant as onewould FaROM our correspondent in Utah, iminlai-e. we learn that the mineral shipments from that Territory during February A TRI-WEEKLY stage line will be ruln were as follows: between Silverton and Del Norte after Silver lead ore, 607,970 pounds....8 30,400 UO May 1st, by Barlow & Sanderson; it is Bas- bullion, 2,883,729 ".....36250 00 impossible to accommodate the travel Cpp r 604,025 "..... 75,500 00 to that section with the present ar- Salt 204,250 4,065 00 rangemen-ts. Silver bullion......................... 4,117 00 To l................................. 3516,352 00 ALL over Europ)e menl of' science andcl capital are making most extensive IT is marvelous that men will go on preparations for exploring the entire a wild-goose chase after somel fabulous mineral regions of the United States. rich chance of striking a big thing, In many instances parties are organ- while in Colorado there are mining izing in such numbers as to come in camps wlose reputation is established steamships chartered for their express by years of development, and tons of use. precious metals. Go to Colorado, ye fortune seekers. You cannot well miss THE prospects of the San Juan a good camp anywhere between Wycountry look better now than at any Ioming and New Mexico. time since its discovery. Men of cap- ital are finding their way there, and THE new State of Colorado promises the result is the introduction of ex- to outstrip all others in the produetensive machinery for the reduction of tion of the precious metals, and the Twao 1Main Trunk Lines, owned by the Kansas Pacific Railway, reach Northern and Southern Colorado.

Page  29 EXTRACTS FROM MINING JOURNALS. 2) San Juan country, the last to be open- "Colorado Mining and Land Compaed up, from the evidence before us, ny," in that city, with C. 1-1. Mcintyre furnishes the most satisfactory assur- as president. The field of' operation ances to be not only the richest por- of this company will be in TTncointion of Colorado, but contains the most pahgre district, where they have seextensive, in point of numbers, and cured five mines. Speaking editorially the richest gold and silver producing of this enterprise, the Leader says: mines in the world. " Its officers are composed of some of our most active, reliabie and trustworROSITA MINES. -Te production of thybusiness men, who have associated the camp during 1875, was as follows: with them as officers and stockholders i well known capitalists of other localiPocohontas ine..........................$165,000 well o cpitsts of oth Humbo'dt and S: uth Humboldt........ 62,500 ties. Other Mines.............................. 7,200 To.$234,200 SoiE of the Chicago patpeirs have Total........................... —$234,200 b, ^ t s a i been plea-sed to speak in most favora.About eight thousand feet of min- ble terms of San Juan, and informaing work, including shafts, levels and tion friom all parts of the UTnion shows tunnels, have been driven since open- that excitement relative to our mines ing the camp. Perhaps $100,000 has is growing and spreading. We have been expended in this development, heard of very many companies that which gives a niet profit, not includ- have been formed in various localities ing smelting, of $134,200. for the purpose of engaging in mining or working ores in this region. We A NEW way of turning silver to a shall not be surprised if the increase useful purpose has been discovered re- in San Juan population and the cently. Some Comstock friends of amount of capital invested lduring the Senator William Sharon gave him a present season far surpass the expecdinner in the Palace Hotel, before he tation of our enthusiastic prophets. left for Washington. In front of each guest lay a bright silver tablet as ALL kinds of mechanics are wanted thick as a half dollar piece, with an in San Juan mining camps, and at engraved list, in French, of the re- good wages. Capitalists with money cherche viands adapted to the remark- to assist in developing the country able occasion. On taking his leave of course are wanted. Young men each gentleman put this enduring for- with a few thousand dollars are ty dollar bill of fare into his pocket, wanted in every town in all branches and stowed it away among his pre- of mercantile pursuits. Sagauche, Del cious things at home. Norte, Lake City, Eureka, Silverton, Ouray and Animas Forks are all open THE Buffalo Sunday Leader of the to the business man. At all these the 5th ult., notes the formation of the points are postoffices, with a tri-weekly Miners and M1ill M3en ship by the Kansas Pacific Railwacy.

Page  30 30 EXTRACTS FROM MINING JOURNALS. mail. Coaches run as far as Lake City bogus mining speculations. Everyfrom Sagauche, and during the coming body has been warned against undue sunmmer the lines will be extended to haste. but one of the best interests Animas Fork, the Uncompahgre and th: t vwe have in the West to-day should Silverton. not sL ffer by too much timidity." [From the Rocky Mountain Presbyterian.] [o the L tiner, at Siiverton.] The eoceky Mlountain rtegion is the From all parts of the country comes great treasure-vault of the world. Itat the people a exited contains gold, platinum, silver, copper, over the news of the richness of' the tin, zinc, quicksilver, lead, iron, and Sa coutry, and parties are orother metals, together with coal limeother metals, together with coallime- ganizing to come and see our mines. stone, marble, gypsum and all the stone, marble, gypsumW and all the When they come they will be led to precious stones. exclaim, " the half hath not been told There have been found in the Rocky,u!' While the Centennial ExhibiM[ountains diamonds, emeralds, sap M~ountains dicianonds, emlleralcd, s, tion will call many off, and distract phire, ruby, onyx, spinel, chrysoberyl, attention from the mines, yet there agate, topaz, iolite, garnet, tourma- will be a great rusl il here in the line, chalcedony, amethyst, carnelion, spring. The reputation of this councacholong, sardonyx, jasper, and many ty has been well established not by others. Here, then, is a field for the w and fbnlo like the wild and fabulous rumors, like the researches of scientific men and indus- Blc ills excitement, but by the extrious laborers that no other part of perience of well skilled men who have the world cane present. the vworld can present. come in here, examined our mines, and then have returned to their homes in "ST. Louis should look after the all parts of the country, bearing the shipment of ores from the San Juan tidings of the great wealth of the country, since she is naturally a mines of Southwestern Colorado, and smelting point. The railroad connec- what wa.s better, carrying with them tions and routes are on a direct line specimens of the ore for unbelievers west; coal is in abundance; and iron, to see. so indispensable for flux, is at her very doors. [The Mining Review.] Capitalists understand this; the THE SAN JUAN MINES.-It has beonly question is as to the supply of come a recognized fact that what is minerals. Every one who has ever known as the San Juan District is visited the San Juan country tells the certainly to be at no distant day a risame story, that the supply is beyond val of any mining district in the West. computation, and of a grade that has Beyond a doubt the ores are there in no equal anywhere. It only remains great quantity, and the question of a for those who would know to examine large bullion out-put is only of time. for themselves. The day is past for Meanwhile, it has been discovered, by Take the Great iYew Route into San Juan by the Kansas Pacfic Railway.

Page  31 EXTRACTS FROM MINING JOURNALS-IMPORTANT LESSON. 31 the experience of last year, that but a For the present the importance of very small portion of the production the San Juan mines to the rest of the of the mines already opened can be territory cannot be disregarded. Plenshipped as far as Pueblo or Denver ty of Eastern capital is going in there with profit, and that there is a great this year, a vast amount of work will need of a large smnelting establishment be lone, and much ore taken out. The on the Animas, and of another on the Summit district alone will not fail to Gunnison or Uncompahgre. We produce $100,000 in gold. bullion, and know there are several smelters in the the production of the Animas, Unregion already, and that a company compahgre and Gunnison mines will has been organized to put up other doubtless treble that amount. Means works this spring, but unfortunately of reaching this new district should every one who is going into the smelt- therefore be discussed, for the rapid ing business in San Juan, or who has, growth of any one section of the appear to have the idea that there is mines means the improvement of busa great abundance of galena in the iness in every other. Whether we open district, and that lead smelting is the San Juan to the rest of the world proper system for that class of ores. through the South Park or Arkansas We feel quite sure this is a mistake Valley Railroad is a matter of imporbut it is now too late to change the tance to Denver or Pueblo; but that order of affairs. Even if this season's the railroad should be driven forward smelting operations should not prove as nearly as possible towards those wholly successful, the really valuable wonderful mines, is a matter of percharacter of the ore will prevent any sonal interest to every citizen of the discouragement, and ultimately the State. proper system will be adopted. IMPORTANT LESSON. There were seven thousand seven la.tter estimate does not take into achundred and forty failures in mercan- count the amounts expended in prostile business in the United States dur pecting for mineral, but in this the ing the year 1875, with liabilities of value of the discoveriCs would equal over two hundred millions of dollars. the expense of prospecting. The profits on mining operations The relative importance of this induring the same period was between terest may be further understood by twenty-nine and thirty per cent. The an examination of the following table, Buy your Tickets to Canon City, via Kansas Pacific Railway.

Page  32 32 IMPORTANT LESSON —OUR PRECIOUS METALS. showing the aggregate amount of ex- nent one for many years and furnishes ports for five years. a strong reason why an increased efAggregate exports of the United fort should be made in the developStates for the years: ment of our mineral resources to keep 1870...........$4.99073, 932 good the present supply, to meet this 187........................................ 562,518,.51 a~d ot~r emands o coin a 1.56251861 and other dlemands for our coin and 1872....................................... 649,132,563 bullion. 1874...................................... 704,463,120 That the product can and will be 1875........................................ 643,094,767 largely increased for the next five years there can be no doubt to him Total..............................$ 3,058,283,083 y a e a n e o t o c of ITotal.$3, 8 who has examined into the source of The exports of gold and silver is supply, and the growing interest maniincluded in this statement, and dur- fested in mining affairs. ing the five years they amounted to There is no good reason why, if the $345,747,581. This great export of same efforts were made in the business the precious metals has been the re- of mining as there are in other pursuit in a measure of the demand to suits, that the yield of the precious meet the interest on our bonds held metals should not reach, in five years, in Europe, and likely to be a perma- two hundred millions annually. OUR PRECIOUS METALS. The Immense Undeveloped Treasures of Colorado —Disinterested Testimony to the Value and Extent of Our Rich Mineral Interests. [FroIlm a Conmulllication by Josiah Copley to the Editors of the Pittsburgh Gazette of January 1st.] *- - Prosperity and business activity, to be the same is true of textile fabrics, and even of real and abiding, must be based upon the pro- the products of the soil. duction of something whi h he wor'd wants- What is there, then, the production of which something which is not already in excess. For may be increased to any practicable extent example: Prosperity could not be revived, or safely, and with no danger of plethora or stagbusiness made active, or confidence restored, nation? Gold and silver, theabsenceof which or the ability to redeem either greenbacks or in sufficient quantity, as you have so clearly bank bills in coin, brought about by doub'ing shown, renders the redemption of our paper the production of iron. And why not? Be- currency in coin simply an impossibility. Alcause the world does not want more iron than ready the production of these metals is an imis now produced, and hardly that much; and portant industry-wild, fitful and irregular, as Ship to Ft. Garland, the nearest Railroad Point to the JMines, by the Kansas Pacific Railway.

Page  33 OUR PRECIOUS METALS. 33 compared with iron, it is true-but still it tided Colorado fell into bad repute. True, the gold the country over upon which it would and silver were there, but operations characotherwise have stranded years ago. terized, as many were, by ignorance, inexperience, rascality and profligacy failed to bring CALIFORNIA IS NEARLY EXHAUSTED,. them out. so far as its gold product is concerned, and the While there is no difficult in thi busines, present prostration, is more attributable to that ordinary courage and eterat which men of ordinary courage and enterexhaustion than people generally imagine.prise need be appalled, still much cae and California produced a flood of placer gold, drift prudence ought to be observed onl the part of gold, without the investment of much capital;. and, theetigoitout'moe resmble ca xvl I those who go into it. If they wish to be their and the getting of it out more resembled a wild own miners they must be sure that they have a scramble than the steady and systematic pur — l good mine-not so much a mine that yields suit of a well established business. o a w ea wonderfully rich ore as one that has plenty of it. Bat in Colorado, especially in Southwestern oadthi Col do, i Southesern If their object be to put up reduction works, Colorado, the conditions are altogether differ- w.. whether by smelting or chlorination, let them ent. There, in thousands of well developed ent. There in thousands of well d d make sure that there are good mines in suffilodes of unknown depth, the Creator has de-r n t t f'^ ~., I cient number near them to furnish them with posited inexhaustible and incalculable stores, all the ore they are able to work up. of the ores of the precious metals; and now they have been brought to light and made easily THE BETTER AND SAFER WAY accessible just in time to replenish the depleted life-blood of the country. is to have at least one mine of their own, as a life-blood of the country. ~ sort of reserve, and at the same time purchase But these treasures are not to be gathered up s hase * from othe ores whch as those of Colorado were. Science, skill, cap- other miners, i prices, the ores which ital and well directed industry are required to they ay bing then Most of the ines in make them available. During the past sum- the n Ju country, as well as in mny other mer and autumn, which I spent in Colorado, I districts, yid ores which will give a generous looked calmly and carefully into this thing, o p t and the more I studied it the more I became Although I am no longer a resident of Pittssatisfied that there are burg, and never expect to be of Colorado, and, although I have reached a time of life when MORE GOLD AND SILVER IN THAT SECTION OF j treasure upon earth " has almost ceased to be THIE ROCKIY MOUNTAINS THAN IN ANY OTHIER' an object of personal desire, still I see how AREA OF EQUAL EXTENT ON THE GLOBE. much our deeply indebted country needs this They are there, but they are not to be gath- treasure; and, above everything else, I should ered as the gold of California was gathered. be gratified to see this city take a leading part The thing was attempted in the rush to Pike's in its development. Peak in 1859, which resulted in the sad failure - of nine out of ten of the eager but inconsiderate adventurers. The more bold andunscrup- THE Kansas Pacific Railway runs a ulous sought and found mines which they had fast fireight train from Kansas City to neither the skill nor the capital to work. They Denver in 60 hours, where close eonthen turned to credulous capitalists toaid them in what they had neither the- means nor the skill to do themselves. The result was that ver & io Grde, for Pueblo, the capital thus put in was, in many cases, Cucharas and Fort Garland Ship wasted, stolen or misdirected, and mining in your freight by this route. El iMoro, the nearest Railroad Point to San Juan, by Great Southern Route, is reached via Kansas Pacific Railway. 3

Page  34 34 THE SAN JUAN COUNTRY. THE SAN JUAN COUNTRY. [Letter from the Lawrence, Kansas, Journal, Sunday, June 4, 187).] Editor Journal: HIving spent several south of the town of Del Norte, and sheds its months in Southern Colorado last summer, I water into the R'o Grande, although some of endeavored to make myself as well acquainted th e waters of the San Juan are in \he neighwith the mineral resources of that remarkable borhood. region as I could. The San Juan country is subdivided into Colorado is divided on the east s'de of the four districts. continental watershed into two well defined First-The Animas D'strict, so called besections of about equal area The northern cause it is drained by the Animas, a branch of division is drained by the Platte; the southern the San Juen In this district there are thousby the Arkansas. Between these two divisions ands of well defined lodes, principally silver, a mountain spur runs eastward about a huu- some cold, and much copper and lead. On the dred miles across the Great Plains fifty miles Animas there are several mnining towns, the south of Denver. Its average altitude is about principal of which isSilvc-rton, wlich is rapidtwo thousand feet above the general level of ly becoming aplaceof importance. A spirited the pla:ns, and between seven and eight thous- weekly newvspspe is published there, and there and feet above tide. Denver is the natural are two or three reduction works. Afew mil s trade center of the northern division; Pueblo above Silverton the e is a miting property, that of the southern. Colorado Springs may called the "Silver Wing "-a score or so of compete with Pueblo for the trade of Southern claims consolidated-on which there is a clusColorado; but Pueb'o, which is the western ter of not less than forty distinct, vertical terminus of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe lodes, from lour to thirteen feet in thickness, Railway, seems to be the most natural trade very rich in silver ore, combined with copper, center at present and some of which have a large per centage Both the northern and southern divisions of of g ld. A tunnel of 1,000 feet in length will Colorado are rich in go'd and silver mines cu, the whole of them. There is an excellent Greater progress has been made in the north; mil site on the property and good water power. but the southern and southwestern mines are This property is for sale, in whole or in part, richer and more numerous, although less de- by the Colorado Spr ngs Mining Agency. veloped. There are numerous lodes equally rch scatWhat is known as the San Juan country tered through the'Animas district, but not (pronounced San Wan) is probably the richest such a cluster. mineral region on the continent. It is an ex- Second-Directly north of the Animas Distensive tract with no definite boundaries-as trict, and only separated from it by a mountain large, perhaps, as four or five of our counties. range-itself rich in mints-is the UncomIt lies west of the cont nental watershed, and pahgre District, less developed than the other, drains into the Pac'fic through the Great Colo- but perhaps equally rich. It is so called berado. The southern portion is drained by the cause it is on the upper branches of the UnSan Juan; the northern by the Gunnison. compahgre river, a tributary of the Gunnison. Strictly speaking, the Summit District- Its course is a little west of north; that of the small in area, but remarkably r;ch in gold- Animas is south. bearing quartz-is not a part of the San Juan Third-The Lake District, so named because country. That district lies some thirty miles it is on the upper branches of the Lake Fork Ft. Garland, sixty-five miles from Del Norte and one hundred and seventy from Silverton, reached by the Kansas Pacific Railwa,.

Page  35 THE SAN JUAN COUNTRY-DIAGRAM. 35 of the Gunnison. It is east of the Animas and lands to agriculture. A good wagon road has Uncompahgre. The people of Like City and just been completed across the watershed, so its surroundings strenuously contend that the:rs that transportation is now easy from Colorado is the best district in the San Juan country. through Ute Paiss and South Psrk tothe valley Be that as it may, they certainly have some of the Gunnison, from whence the entire San excellent mines, and many of them. Juan country can now be reached. And it is Fourth-The Elk Mountain Distr'ct, which believed that a rai'road is practicable by the is on a mountain of that name, a iittle to the same route. If so, it would be one of te emost north of the Gunnison, a few miles east or important and profitab'e roads in the United northeast of the mouth of the Lake Fork. It States. is spoken of as a very rich distri t, with mines The mountains around South Park are rich of both gold and silver, principal'y the latter. in gold and silver, and near-where the line of Having been until within four or five months the road strikes the Arkansas, far up in the very difficult of access, it has been less ex- mountains, is the Chalk Creek District, said to plored and developed than any of the othe rs. be rich in mines. Chalk Cre k is an affluent of In that district there are extensive deposits of the Arkansas, coming from the west. anthracite coal, and the val'ey of the Gunni- Very resp, ctfully, son for many miles is admirably adapted to JOSIAH COPLEY. the rearing of sto k, and some of the bottom Perry, May 31, 1876. DIAGRAM, SHOWING THE LOCATION OF POSTS OR MONUMENTS, GIVING SURFACE BOUNDARIES OF A LOPE, LOCATION STAKE AND DISCOVERY SHIAFT. Post. Post.. —-------------------------— 0 —------- --------------- -... —------------------- -----------------—.Q Post. I-ocatioan e SWe V E I N 0 Discovery Shalft. Post. 0 --—. —-----—.-. — —.. ------—...- - ~ — ----------------------— 0 —.................. —-...- - - - - Post. Post. There can be but one location made the lead can be opened to best advanwithin a mining claim, and the dis tage, taking into consideration the tance and direction claimed from the mineral outcrop, the approachability discovery shaft should be stated upon to the discovery shaft, the formation discovery stake. Suppose George about the vein and the facility by Legit and Nathaniel Prospect have which it may be opened, should be discovered a lead. The point where selected. When this has been decidRemember, the Denver and Rio Grande Railway is now completed to Ft. Garland.

Page  36 36:E)DIAGRAM. ed, Legi.c follows the vein up the the surface, or an adit level cut in and irtounitain a long distance, to satisfy along the vein a distance of at least'himself that no locations have been ten feet. At the end of the adit, a made which will come within the one perpendicular face of at least ten feet he proposes to make, and Prospect should be gained. (See text of law takes a look down the vein, and neither elsewhere.) discovering any prior locations, Within ninety days after location, George pulls his knife from his belt a location certificate must be filed in and commeences to whittle, as smooth- the office of the Recorder, in the ly as possible, one side of a stake, county in which the lode is situaled, upon which he writes: which should be in the followingform: NOTICE! TERRITORY OR STATE OF C0CL0 ADO, COUNTY OF........................... KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS, That.......the We hereby give notice that we have ndersigned, ha... this............... ay of............ A. D. th-is 4th day of July, A. D. 1876, loca- 187..., located and claimied, and by these presents do ed this, the C tenial lode. 1we locate and claim, by right of di.-covery and location, tod this, the Centennial lode. W'e in compliance with the Mining Acts of Congress, apciairm 1,500 feet in a.dc along the vein, proved May 1mth, A. D. 1872, and ALL subselqent acts, l[in-ear anctd horizOlntal mleaeS~Ulremll enlt. and with the local custoosS, laws and regulations, Ilnear and horizontal mneasuremnent.o............... feet, linear and horizontal measurement, on'We claim 1,200 feet along the vein, the.................. Lode, along the vein thereof, witl all iin a northwestts dips, angles and variations, together with.............. tainning n a northwest erly curse feet on each side of the middle of said vein at the suir fronm discovery shaft, and 300 feet, face; and all veins, lodes, ledges and surface ground runningo along the vein t southeas y within the lines of said claim...............feet, running ID to......... to................ from center of discovery shaft, and.............. from discovery shaft We also claim feet running................from center of discovery shaft. 150 feet on each side of the vein fromll Said discovery shlft being situate upon said lode, and within the lines of said claim in..................lMining center of crevice as surface ground. District, County of................ and Territory of ColoGEORGE IEGIT. riado, and further described as follows; N ATH ANIEL PR OSPECT,.................................................................................... L o c a to rs................................................................................... 11arties'locatinug, a lode are elltitled.................................................................................... Parties'locating a lode are entitled Said Lode was loeated on of......A. D. 187... to all the dips, spurs, angles, variations, and ledges of the lode, coming i.. A TTEST:'.......................................... within the surface ground, and may take. the unnecessary precaution to TST write it upon the stake giving notice..................................................... Date of Certificate..................A. D. 187... of discovery; it is useless to recite all e of Ceiite.. 1 the imninilg iighlts which follow loca- in the nutice given. IF you desire information in regard Within sixty days after discovery to passenger fares on trains by the and location, at least a ten-foot shaft great Kansas Pacific Railway, address maust be sunk, or an open cross-cut BEVERLEY R. I:EIM, General Passencutting the vein at least ten feet below ger Agent, Kansas City. Only sixty-five m1iles fronm Fort Garland to Del ANorte.

Page  37 TABLE OF DISTANCES. 37 TABLE OF DISTANCES. The following table gives the distances from principal railroad towns in Colorado to different points' in the San Juan mines, reached by wagon roads: FROM GARLAND, VIA CUNNINNGHAM GULCH, CANON CITY, VIA LAKE CITY. Between From Between. -rom Stations. Garlland. TO Stations.:.-land. Del Norte........................ 6 5 Saguache.......................... 10 110 Wagon Wheel Gap............ 30 95 Rock Cliff...................... 10 120 Antelope Springs............... 20 115 Toll Gate.......................... 10 130 San Juan City................... 5 120 Old Indian Agency............ 15 145 Antelope Park................... 3 123 Rock Creek....................... 10 155 Jennison's Ranche.............. 23 146 Beaver Creek.. 16 Summit of Range.............. 10 156 Cevolla............................. 7 7 Howardsville........9.... 165 Junction of Ouray Road..... 15 185 Silverton........................ 5 170 Bridge.............................. 12. 197 Lake City........................ 13 21( VIA LAKE C'ITY. Animas Forks................... 27 237 Del Norte.........................65 65 Silverton......................... 13 250.VAagon Wheel Gap............. 30 95 FROM EL MORO (FIVE, MILES FROMB TRI:IDAD) Antelope Springs............... 20 115 IA GARLAND. Mirror Lake.................... 4 119 Ft.Cle GarCreekland....................... 50 50 Clear Creek Falls............... 6 125I Del orte. 65 115 Cevolla............................ 6 ieo31......................... Hay Ranch;.. 8 139 Salverton.......... 105 220 Hay Ranch....................... 8 139 Lake City....................... 6 145 PUEBLO TO SILVERTON. Ainimas Forks.................. 27 17 Del Norte14 40 Eureka............................. 176 owrdville..................... 4 18 Silverton........................... 105 24 Iow ardsville..................... 14; 18 Silverton.......................... 185 Distance from Del Norte to Summit... 0 miles Del Norte to Decatur......30 " NOTE. —Cuchara is sixty miles farther to Del Norte to Alamosa 42'c the points given above than Fort Garland. L~ke Ciy to a... Lake City to Ouray.........................' CANON CITY, VIA DEL NORTE. Silverton to Parrott City..60 Silverton to San Miguel Gold Mines..15 G Saguache.......................... 110 110 Del Norte......................... 35 14 - Wagon Wheel Gap........... 30 175 REMEMBER that the Kansas Pacific Antelope Springs.............. 195 contemplates a broad gaule connecSan Juan City................... 5 o5.~0 San Juan City.......... 200- tion \with the San Juan mninies, by the Antelope Park................... 3 203 Jennison's Ranch............... 23 26 ra Summit of Range...........10 2306 thence by the Terra Amarilla and the Suimmit of Range......... 10 ~ 236 Howardsville..................... 9 245 Anim as Valley, into the heart of the Silverton.......................... 5 50 mining region. Cucharas reached via iKansras Pacific Raicwa/y.

Page  38 38 TABLE OF ASSAYS. TABLE OF ASSAYS. The following is a list of assays Name of Mine. Width Vein. Assay. made from mines in San Juan, as Golden Eagle................ 300 600 taken from published statements: Golden Fleece................ 12 600 Golden Star................... 300 10,000 lName of Mine. Width Vein. Assay. Golden Queen........... 50 4,000 Alaska.......................... 12 $10,000 Grand Central............... 100 800 American...................... 40 1.000 Green Mountain............. 7 5,000 Aspen..................... 5 2,000 Grey Eagle................... 300 00 Badger........................ 8 600 HIawkeye................... 4 1550 Belcher......................... 100 1,500 Highland Chief............. 6 700 Belle of the East............ 12 12,000 H ghland Lassie............ 6 800 Belle of the West........... 12 1,000 Highland Mary.............. 12 4,00 Big Cassino................... 12 1,000 Hotchkiss..................... 4 12,000 B;g G.ant.................... 100 1,000 Ida.............................. 300 10000 Brilliant....................... 300 600 Illinos........................ 10 1,280 Boomerang.................... 4 1,200 8 1,797 Bonanza........................ 15 15,000 Independent.................. 00 600 Boss Boy....................... 30 150 Itasca..................... 7 700 Burrows....................... 10 240 Jackson........................ 13 600 B. & G........................ 30 1,237 J. J. Crook................... 6 1,500 Cambria...................... 3 500 John Bradford............... 15 1,000 Carribou....................... 8 500 Last of the Line............ 30 600 CArrie................... 22 2,000 Little Abbie.................. 50 1,000 Centenn;al Pride............ 25 2 500 Little Annie.................. 50 37,000 Chieftain....................... 75 500 Lincoln Boy.................. 10 1,280 Crispin......................... 25 800 Litt'e Jessie.................. 300 1,00 Cora............................. 2 4,500 Little Chief.................. 1 1000 Croesus....................... 16 1,600 Lone Chief................... 12 4 000 Crystal.......................... 100 4,280 Lulu............................ 4 3,000 Dacota.......................... 25 281 Lyon........................... 20 600 Del Norte..................... 300 1,000 Mary Hayden................ 8 512 Denver........................ 15 400 Maid of the Mist............ 6 150 Deposit........................ 25 640 Mark Twain.................. 7 680 Duke of Edinburg......... 8 2,960 Mastodon..................... 40 3.000 East Boston.................. 6 500 M,jor...................50 5.000 Empire..................... 40 200 Mayflower20.................. 20 6,000 Empire State................. 70 2,000 McIntyre.................... 10 500 Emnma Dean.................. 16 6,000 McKinnies.................... 30 500 Esmond........................ 300 1,400 Meteor.......................... 100 900 Equator....................... 3 350 Mickey Breer............... 8 2,800 Eva.............................. 300 700 Mingo Chief.................. 3 250 Extension.................... 5 600 Missouri..................... 4 160 Florida............... 7 600 Mountaineer................. 4 250 Colorado Springs the delightful Watering Place-buy Ticket via the Kansas Pacific Railway.

Page  39 TABLE OF DISTANCES-WHAT DO REPORTED ASSAYS MEAN? 39 Hine.. W.i.__=._.A_-,, Namee of Mine. \Width Vein. Assay. Name of Mine. Width Vein. AssPv. Mountain Lion............... 2 1,500 Silver King.................... 20 600 Mortimer...................... 4 150 Sultana......................... 4 5(o Mother Cline................. 100 800 Sunnyside..................... 35 832 North Pol.................... 600 00 Summit....................... 50 500 North Star................... 1,500 Susquehanna................ 4 294 Occident........................ 6 1,000 Tanner Boy.................. 5 800 Oneida Chief.................. 1 1,200 Thacher........................ 6 250 Park Avenue......... 20 150 Tidal Wave................... 40 400 Pe'ican....................... 2 1,500 Tegna........................... 6 900 Phi!adelphii.................. 4 815 Torn Thumb.................. 4 900 Plantation................... 0 1,100 Tro t........................... 6 400 Poughkeepsie..... 25 2,900 Tylrol.......................... 4 1,200 Pride of the A'ps........... 300 Upper Annie.................. 300 1,600 Pride oo the West........... 25 1,500 Ute............................ 3 350 Prescott........................ 1 1,500 Venus........................... 2,000 R-d Cloud.................... 12 2,000 Vermillion................... 75 322 Revenue................. 12 500 Wheel of Fortune........... 12 2,500 Roving Ranger.............. 6 1500 icker......................... 25 50 Saxon........................... 40 3,000 Wr ght.. 20 1,800 Seven-thirty................. 12 2,o00 Yakton....................... 125 900 Silver Coi............... 3 7,000 Yellow Jacket............... 12 600 WHAT DO REPORTED ASSAYS OF MINES MEAN? rThe assays given in the foregoing times the mineral runs through the table have this significance ofly: they entire gague formation, but not oftshow the presence of rich mineral in en. Such ores are best treated by the mines from which the samples as- stamp mills or concentration works sayed are taken. Much mischief is before smelting, and are known as dlone by reporting assays and giving mlillilng ores. Now then, suppose you out the idea to the public that they find in some portion of the vein apiece are in grade about equal to the pay- of native silver or sulphuret of silver streak found in the vein. ~which usually runs high-you have The pay-streak is generallly a very an assay made, and it runs at the rate small part of the vein. A vein four of $2,000 per ton. feet wide may have na pay-st re ak ore There is no quartz or gague matter -fsur inches o01 two feiet thlickt The weighed with the piece the assayer rest of' tle matter in tle vein, called i has tested, and of course you can form gagt,'l (gr,1), is usually quartz.. Some- i io idea as to what a ton of the ore Th e Kcansas IPaciicl-i he Fravr?'rite.Roulte for Shippers of Cattle and Machinery.

Page  40 40 WHAT DO REPORTED ASSAYS MEAN?-SMELTING AND REDUCTION WORKS. would run at the smelter. It seems to-day. Why get an assay from such almost superfluous to make this state- ores, running $300 per ton, to induce ment, and yet miners as well as others capitalists to take hold of this proare continually talking about the high perty? There are a number of mines assays of different mines, as though in that country which will smelt over it was a matter of transcendent impor- $1,500 per ton. The owners are rich; tance. It is undoubtedly a good indi- it does not make another man rich cation to get a high assay. Old miners because he can get an assay of that will bear me out in the suggestion that value fiomn a four-inch pay streak. this continued harping on the hilgh The mines are good enough when assays of mines should be stopped, for we understand the bulk value per ton the good of the mining interests in and the width of the pay streak. San Juan. They have no equal in the world, so It is. not necessary that a mine far as known, and will receive a fair should be run high to be valuable. share of the attention of capitalists, Milling ores running 825 per ton can when the practicability of their being be made to pay largely in San Juan worked at a.profit is demonstrated. SMELTING AND REDUCTION WORKS. The following are amlcng the more Golden Smelting and Refinilng prominent operators in ores: Works, Golden, Col. Pennsylvania Lead Co., Mansfield. Talcott & Co., Brighton Course, Ill. Pa.. M. C. Kelley & Co., Smelting Works, St. Louis Smelting and Refining Chicago, Ill. Works, Howard Station, Mo. Lone Elm aining and Smelting Preston & Aerrill, Boston, Mass. Co., Joplin, Mo. Pope, Cole & Co., Baltimore, Md. J. J. Crook & Co., New York. E. J. SchwT.rtz, MAansfield, Pa. -SMELTING FURNACES IN SAN JUAN, Wyandiotte Smelting and Refining Works, Wyandotte, Mich. Greene & Co., Silverton Smelter; Morey & Sperry, New York. daily capacity twenty tons. Omaha Smelting and Refining Co., Rough and Ready Smelter; daily Omaha, Neb. capacity fifteen tons Denver Crushingand Smelting Mill, Mexican Smelter, Silverton; daily Denver, Col. capacity two tons. T. P. PHill, Black Hawk, Col. Edward Innis, Cunningham Gulch Mlinicrs goi.g or returning take the Jrznsas Pacific c Jil.a'ciy.

Page  41 SMELTING AND REDUCTION WORKS-METALS, ETC. 41 Smelter; daily capacity unknown. (A Henson Creek, Prof. N. A. Foss, new one in process qf construction.) Furnace; capacity, twenty tons. Eureka District, Duhem & Spencer, Hensen Creek, Col. J. Colt, Furreverberatory; daily capacity five tons. nace; capacity, twenty tons. Animas Forks, Dakota, and San Juan Reduction Works; daily capac- UNCOMPAHGRE. ity, twenty tons. ity, twenty tons. Austin and Greenelle Furnace; fifMineral City, Greenleaf's Concentra- tee tons daily capacity. tion Works; capacity, twenty tons. HINSDA LE COUNTY. AIARK and consi gn your goods "care Hlenson Creek, Green Brothers, K. P. R. W., Kansas City, Mo.," and Smelter; daily capacity of twenty insure prompt transportation and low tons. rates. METALS —THEIR CHEMISTRY AND GEOLOGY. General Properties.-A metal is a ing, stamping, washing, roasting, body which conducts electricity and smel~ng and refining. heat, which is opaque, and has a high Assaying.-This is the determinaand peculiar brilliancy, known as the tion of the quantity of metal conmetallic lustre. tained in any particular ore. The Extraction.-Metals are often found knowledge requisite for this is called naturally in their metallic form. the docimastic art. When they so occur, they are said to be in their native: state. Their char- acters are generally masked under This metal has hitherto been found some form of combination with oxy- only in the metallic state, either pure gen or sulphur,' and they are then or in combination with other metals. said to be in the state of ore. They It occurs in veins, and disseminated are met with, generally, in veins in primary and secondary rocks, and penetrating the strata, intermixed abundantly in alluvium or drifts, with various earthy substances. To which constitutes certain plains and separate the metal, after it is dug margins of rivers. The rocks in from the mine, the mass is broken up which it most often occurs are granand subjected to the operation of sort- ite, quartz, slate, hornstone, sandTinme and _Money Sav ed by.taking the Kansas Pacific Railway to the San Juan Min.e?.s.

Page  42 42 METAL) —THEIR CHEMISTRY AND GEOLOGY. stone, limestone, gneiss, mica-slate, with these pyrites and brass-filings. and especially in talcose slate, and This fraud may easily be detected by rarely in gravwacke and tertiary throwing the dust into aqua fortis, strata. It also occurs in veins of iron which dissolves the substances and ore, antimony, zinc, lead, barytes, etc. leaves the gold untouched. When the metal exists in the bosom of primary rocks, it is particularly in PLATINUM. schists. The gold which is found in Tlhis mletal occulrs only in the mealluvial deposits occurs in small p1artallic state, associated or cuomibined ticles or grains, called gold dust, niin- or cobined t.ies' gi with various metals, as iridium, rhogled with sand and debris. It some-'il l ~ sad ad dinmi, palladium, asmium, copper, iron times occurs in beds or layers, instead di, allam, asmiu, cper, irn, leacl, gold and silver. It is fiequently of veins, which conform to the regu-, ofv,, whc ofr. t tT r 4 T<~disseminated in rocks of igneous orilar structure of the slaty rocls. It is gin, as the primary. It is often found usually found alloyed with small peorin sienite, associated with gold. But tions of other metals, particularly sil- sieite, ssociated with gold. ut it occurs principally in alluvium or ver and copper. drift. External C/tharacters.-Color, golden' erl -, External Characters.-Color, very or orange yellow, passing into gray- i ish ellow in some varlight steel-gray, approaching to silver ish yellow; in some varieties, in- b 0; IDsoe white. Occurs in grains or rolled clines to brass yellow. Seldom occurs i, capillar pieces, seldom larger than a pea, and ma.ssive, often disseminated, capillary,','' 1 L 1' 1^ resemtblinig coarse ironi-filings. Roundamorphous dentritic, and crystalized re i. - ^ ^ -l'-^ i sh. Shhining and glistening. Streakl in cubes, octahedrons, rhomboidl and i 1 J ^ + 1i' T lunchanged. I-lardness nearly equal dodecahedrons and tetrahedrons. In-nchaged. aress nea equ ternally, s n, tening and me-. to that of iron. Malleable; ductile. ternally, shining,.lifstening and me_,,'- ~Structulre someti mles lamellar, but tallic. Fracture, hackly. Tissular. No cleavage. Soft, malleable, ductile, ofte not obvous Specific gravty, 20.9. tenacious. Specific gravity, 19.26 to 2l.98 19.5. 19.5.i-~~. ~Chemical Characters.-Infusible in Chemical Characters.- Inaltered by- the hlottest furnace, but melts before the compound blow-pipc. Unaltered exposure to air, moisture or acids. ompound bow-pi. nalt luble in aqua ia, Fusible with by exposure to air, moisture or acids. Soluble in aqua reyqia, Fusible with Dissolves in ocqua regia. the blow-pipe. Melts at 20160 F - issolves in ua regia. renheit. SILVER. Distinctive Characters.-Gold is the only metal which has a yellow color. Geognostic Situation.-This metal is Its malleability will distinguish it found mostly in primanry and secondfrom iron and copper pyrites, and ary states. It is found native, also as from yellow mica, for each of which ore, combined with sulphur, chlorine, it is often foolishly. mistaken. The copper, antimony, lead, arsenic and gold of Africa is often adulterated gold. The rocks richest in it are The future Great Route to New Mexico, Arizona and the San Juan Mines by the Kansas Pacific Railcway.

Page  43 METALS-THEIR CHEMISTRY AND GEOLOGY. 43 gneiss, mica-slate, clay-slate and gray- not giving a blue globule with borax, wacke. Composition. —Silver, 73; antimony, Native Silver.-Primitive and sec- 27. ondary rocks, with the ores of silver, SULPIHURcET OF SILVER —(SILVER. copper, cobalt, etc. It often occurs GLANCE.) penetrating crystals or amorphous a F'tind in primary and Secondalry pieces of comlmon quartz. w t o s rocks, asociated with the other ores External Chacracters. —-Color, silve- o It is a important ore for of slv-er. It isan important ore for white; often tarnishecd ray or red-etal. the extraction of' the noble imetal. dish. Occurs dentiform, capillary, xte l Characters —Color dark, ramose, reticulated, seldom massive, r o iisnt l. ad-ogray; often with an iridiscent more frequently disseminated; also in nore,,nta nlish. Occur8s in tubes and octaheplates and spangles, and crystallized ccur i tes ad In tbs thdon hm ia o cli drons also reticulated, romose, lain tubes, octahedrons, rhomboidal do- in plates. melliforl, amorphous and in pltates. cahedrons and tetrahedrons. Lustre,, Fracture, fat, Cleavage, iluperfct. Fr acturo, flat splendent to glimnering. Fracture, conchoialleable. Easily 9,171 and conbhoidal. Malleable. Easily fine, hackly. Specific gravity, 10 to r,0.5.~~~ sectile. Specific gravity, 7. C10. m. Cahemical Characters.-Fusible with Chemical Characters. —Fusibie into a. intumnescence and odor of sulphur, globule. Melts at 1873~, or a red heat. leving a lobule of silver. leavilng a globule of silver. Soluble in aqua fortis, forming the cti aracteray be,Distinctive Characters. —It may be well-known lun ar e.IUstic. well-known lunar caustic. distinguished from silver by its less Distinctive Characters.-Its color and its suphurous malleabilispifi gvity., and i ma~lleability. ^ odor underl the bloTw-plipe. Composition.-Silver, with a little odoi under the blowi-pip. Composition.-Silver, 85; sulphur, iron, antimony, copper or arsenic. ANTIMONIAL SILVER-(DIRASITE.) BRITTLE SULPHURET OF SILVER-(STEPHANITE.) In primary rocks, as granite and gray-slate, associated with the other Found in primary rock, with the ores of silver. other ores of silver. External Characters.-Color, silver External Characters. Color, dark or tin-white. Occurs massive, in lead-gray, or bluish-gray; passing into grains, and in cylinders, also in iron-black. Occurs massive and discurved laminm. Yields to the knife. seminated,.also in hexahedral prisms. Fracture, uneven. Specific Gravity, Lustre, metallic or dull. Structure, 9 to 10. foliated; crystals mostly intercept Chemical Characters.-Fuisible. wlit!h each other. Soft and brittle. Fracthe emlission of antimonial vapor, into L. 1re, conchoidal. Specific grat'ity, 7. a globule of silver. Chemical C/haracters. —F usible. with Distinctive Characters. - VWat of l.he evaporation of sulphur, arsenic ductility; and the antimonial vapor; and antionly, into a globule of silver All Railroad Totwn, s in Colorado racl/hed via Kansas Pacific Railrway.

Page  44 44 METALS-THEIR CHEMISTRY AND GEOLOGY. surrounded by a slag. Soluble in aqua Composition. —Silver, 60; antimony, fortis. 23.5; sulphur, 17.5. Distinctive Characters.- t differs URIATE OF SILVER -(HORN SILV from sulphuret of silver in its want of malleability, and from other ores Found in primary rocks, with the by its dark color and brittleness. other ores. It is a good ore for the Covmposition. — Silver, 66.5; anti- extraction of the precious metals. mony, 10; iron, 5; sulphur, 12; ar- _External Characters. —Color, pearlsenic, 5. gray greenish or yellowish, or greenish white, and brown. Occurs massive, SULPHURETED ANTIMONIAL SILVER- investing other minerals, reniforim, (PYRARGERYSE.) amorphous, and crystallized in tbibecs, octahedrons, and acicular prisms, Primary rocks, chiefly in granite) Lustreg d wavy. Soft; mica-slate and porphyry. It is a val- yields ni and pSo yields to the knite and to pressure. uableore. MiVtr.ClrIrofiatlleable. Feebly translucent. BeExternal Characc ters. —Color, red of comes brown by exposure S various shades, passing into lead-gray a, ecifi gr.avity,5.5. and grayish-black; powder, crimson.,, ~'~,~,' Chemical Characters.- -Fulsible in tbhe red. Occurs in masses and g'rains, h r- i -the red. Occurs in masses and gains, flame of a candle. Before the blowalso denitritic, membranous, capillaryi e'. "pipe it emits mluratic aciCl fumes. and crystallized in hexabedral prismns,,'..Pi and crystaized in hexahedral prisms, Rubbed on moistened zinc, it leaves a terminated by scalenohedrons; also f film of silver. in double six-sided pyramids. Lus-Distinctive Characteors. — Muriat e of tre, metallic adamnantine; crystals oft-. tre, metallic ad; c s mercury is entirely volatile before the en striated. Structure, imperfectly blow-pipe, and docs not leave a sinlver foliated, Yields to the knife. Opaque. olb gl obule. Specific gravity, 5.20 to 6(.68. Hard- "~~~~ness, 2-2.5. ~Composition.-Chllorine, 247, sivtr, ness, 2-2.5. 75.3. Chemical Characters.-F usible, with antimonial fumes. COPPER. Distinctive Characters. — It differs Occurs in beds, imbedded in varifrom sulphuret of arsenic in having ous primary rocks, and as high in the a greater specific gravity, and in leav- secondary series as the new red sanding a globule of silver. Sulphuret of stone; also in large blocks in alluvial mercury is entirely dissipated by the districts; very rarely in tertiary blow-pipe. The sulpuret of silver is ocks. The ores of copper p-reseni malleable. Specular oxyd of iron is the following varieties: magnetic after being submitted to the NATIVE COPPER. blow-pipe, and the red oxyd of copper is readily reduced to the metallic In the veins of primary and second-. state by the blow-pipe. ary rocks. Address T. F. OiAKES, General F reqht iAent [Kanasas Pacific RaiLtcay, at Kansas City, 3iisisola ri, a.s to Shipments of PFreight.

Page  45 IMETALS-THEIR CHEMISTRY AND GEOLCOY. 45 External Characters.-Color, copper- drons. Lustre, metallic. Structure, red, tarnished externally brownish- lameller. Crystals, small, and seldom black. Occurs dentritic, capilliary, perfect. Cleavage, tissular. Yields rcniform, and amorphous; also crys- to the knife. Fracture, commonly untallized in cubes and octahedrons. even, Specific gravity, 4.3. Malleable. Specific gravity, 8.5. Chemical Characters. —Tinges borax C(Aemtical Characters. —Fusible. Sol- green. Fusible. ubie in acids. Distinctive Characters.-Iron pyrites Composition. —N early pure copper. does not tinge borax green. Native bismuth is lamellated, and native gold SULPIHURET OF COPPER.. is malleable. Found in almost every kind of re- Composition.- Copper, 40 to 35.3; pository in all the great classes of iron, 40 to 33; sulphur, 20 to 35. rocks, particularly in beds and veins <.. T GRAXY COP'PE R. in primary and secondary rocks. ItY COPPER. is a valuable ore. accompanies the other ores of copper. Ebternal Characters. —Color, b!ack- External Characters. Color, steel-, ish steel-gray, sometimes iridescent; gray, passing into black; streak, internally lead gray. Occurs massive, brownish. Occurs amorphous, disand in pseudomorphous crystals; also seminated, and crystallized in. tetracr'ystallized in long, tubular, six-head- hedrons. Lustre, metallic; brittle. ed prisms, lamellar. Tissular. Cleav- Crystals, small. Specific gravity, 5. age easy, withbrillial faces. Easily Chemical Characters.-Fusible; but broken into grains. Fracture, con- not easily reduced. ehoidal. Specific gravity, 5. Distinctive Characters. - Specular Chemical Characters. —Soluble in hot oxyd of iron is magnetic; arsenical aqafortis. Fusible. iron is harder, and gives out the frumes Distinctive Characters.-Gray cop- of arsenic when heated. per decrepitates under the blow-pipe, Composition.-Copper, 52; Iron, 23; and is harder. This gives out only Sulphur, 14. the fumes of sulphur. C;?mposition -- Copper, 76.50; sul- RED OXYD O0 COPPER, ASSOCIATED WITH phur, 22; iron, 0.5.0 THE OTHER COPPER ORES. COPPER PYRITES. External C/haracters. - Color, red. Occurs amorphous and crystallized in Sa.nme as that of the preceding. It octahedrons and cubes. Structure, is. one of the most abundant and valu- lamlellar. Lustre, metallic, adamanable ores of copper. tine. Fracture, conchoidal and uneExternal Characters. —Color, brass- ven. Transluceht. Yieldstothe knife. yellow. Occurs dentritic, stulactical, Brittle. Specific gravity, 4 to 5, 9. amtorphous, concretious and crystal- Chemical Characters.-Fusible and ized in tetrahedrons and dodecahe- easily reduced. Dissolve in aquafdorConsign your Freight via Kansas Pacifiic Rail-cay.

Page  46 46 METALS-TItEIR CIHEMISTRY AND GEOLOGY. tis with eff,3rvessence; in muriatic E.ternal Characters.-Color, brown, acid, without. yellowish, or blackish brown; on the Distinctive Characters.-lts chemical outside resembling black glazed earthcharacters. enware. Occurs stalactical, tuberous, Compositioi..-Copper, from 88.5 to nodular, and amosphous. Structure, 91, oxygen, from 11.5 to 9. fibrous. Lustre, silky and resinous; yields to the knife. In a variety of BLUE CARBONATE OF COPPER I this ore the structure is compact; lusis found in primary and secondary tre, none; streak, yellowish brown; mountains. fracture, conchoidal or earthy. External Characters. - Color, blue. Occurs massive, stalactical, incrusting, RED HEATITE. dissemainted, and crystallized. Fracdissoeminatecd, a~n~d lcrystallized. FYre- Chiefly in the primary, often in lead turc, imperfectly foliated, usually pre- ines. It yields the bst of iron for senting broad fibres. drawing and rolling. Chemnical Characters. -Infusible with-.xterncal Chalra cteers.~Col Or3, blood - out-a flux; with borax gives a green Eterna Characters.Colors, bloo is. red and dark steel-gray. Occurs masglass. Dissolves in aquafortis with s sive, and in plates; also, reniform, effervesen ce. globul1ar, and pulverulent. IFraeture Distinctive Characters.-Insoluble in globular, an., uneven and earthy. Yields easily to water; does not become magnetic un- the knife. Adheres to the tongue. the knife. Adheres to the tongue. der the blowpipe. -**- the blo. ~ Specific gravity, 4.75. Comlposition.-Oxyd of Copper, 70; pecific gravity, 4 carbonic acid. 24; water, 6. Chemical Characters. —Infusible, but Tests for Copper.-To a solution of' becomes magnetic. this metal present a plate of iron-re- Composition.- Oxyd of iron, 90; silsuit, metallic copper; potash-result, ver, 2; lime, 1; water, 3. green precipitate; ammonia (harts-,^~ i SPECULAR OXYD OF IRON —(IRON horn,)-result, blue color. Copper smelts at 1996~; it is ductile, GLANCE.) malleable, and tenacious; it is hard, Occurs chiefly in primary mounelastic, and sonorous. tains, associated with magnetic iron, red hematite, quartz, etc.; also in secIRON. ondary rocks. Affords good malleaIs found in primary and second- ble iron. ary rocks. The ores from which the External Characters.-Color, steeliron of commerce is extracted are: gray, with a highly polished surface; often tarnished. Streak, cherry-red. BROWN HEMATITE. Occurs crystallized in pyramidal doOccurs abundantly in primary dis- decahedrons, hexahedral tables; also tricts, and sometimes in secondary. massive, disseminated, in concretions. It yields the finest kind of iron. Structure, lamellar. Lustre, brilliant, The Kansas Pacific Railway has no rival in speed and equipments.

Page  47 ME'TALS-THEIR CHEMISTRY AND GEOLOGY. 47 slightly attracted by the magnet. ing-the black variety affording the Specific gravity, 5.52. best. Chemical Characters. —Infusible; in- External Characters. - Colors, yelsoluble in acids. low, white, brown, and black. Occurs Distinctive Characters.-Yields a red massive, disseminated, with pyramipowder when heated, and becomes dal impressions; also in granular dismagnetic. tinct concretions-nodula, and crysComposition.-Iron, 69; oxygen, 31. tallized. Structure, foliated or lameller. Lustre, shining vitreous. Streak, MAGNETICGOXYD OF IRON-(IRON SAND.) white or yellowish brown. Yields to the knife; easily broken. Crystals Occurs imbedded in trap rocks, and.ta, usually small, and found in groups. called mountain ore. Furnishes best i Specific gravity, about 4. bar iron, and yields fifty to ninety per cent of the metal. Chemical Characters.-Are infusible, blackens, and becomes magnetic. EfExternal Characters.- Color iron-. terna haracters C, fervesces with muriatic acid. IHeated black. Occurs in minute grains; also with borax, it makes an olive-green in octahedral crystals. Fracture, con- choidal. Strongly magnetic. Pow- gl ass. iDistinctive Characters. From the der, black. der, black earthy minerals it is distinguished by Chemical Character. -Infusible by its weihty bloxwpipe. its weight. From other iron ores, by blowpipe. omposito d of iro, 80 crystalline, foliated cleavagee; and Composition.-~Oxyd of iron, S5.50; oxy d,-,, ^ ^ blende, by its yielding magnetic iron. oxyd of titanium, 14; oxyd of man- ganese,.O~0. ~Composition.-Oxyd of iron, 58; carganese, 0.50. bonic acid, 35; oxyd of manganese, SPATHIC IRON —(CLAY IRON ORE.) 4.25; magnesia, 0.75; lime, 0.5. Tests for Iron.-Infasion of galls, It occurs in veins in granite, gneiss, when added to iron dissolved in an mica slate, clay-slate, and graywacke, acid, gives a black precipitate, (black and in these it is associated with ores ink;) prussiate of potash gives a blue of lead, cobalt, silver; but seldom with precipitate, (blue ink.) nickel and bismuth; more frequently with galena, copper ore, iron pyrites, LEAD. and antimony ore. In other veins it The ore which is generally wrought, is accompanied with brown, red, and blackomanoe c rreou, and and from which nearly all the lead of black iron ore, calcareous spear, and,,r~ ^ ^ ^ ^. J commerce is procured, is the quartz. But the most extensive for- i mations of this ore is in carbonifer- SULPURET OF LEAD-(GALENA.) ous limestone, in which it is arranged in thick beds. It is also found filling It occurs in veins, beds, and imbedup amygdaloidal cavities in trap rocks, ded masses, in primary and secondary It is excellently adapted for steel-mak- mountains, but most frequently in the The Finest Scenery on the continent is seen by a trip over the Kansas Pacific Railway.

Page  48 418 METALS —THEIR CHEMISTRY AND GEOL,.OY. latter, and particularly in limestone. Lustre, shining and adamantine. It is commonly associated with the Yields to the knife. Brittle. Strueores of zinc, copper and iron, and often ture, foliated. Specific gravity, 3, 7, with those of silver. When it is found to 4. in the primary rocks, it is generally in Chemical Characters.-When heated, granite. It is also found in alluvial decrepitates. When thrown into the deposits. oil of vitroil, it gives the smell of rotExternal Characters.-Colors, bluish- ten eggs. gray, lead-gray, and on the outside,,Distinctive Characters. - Infusible. blackish-gray. Occurs amorphous, Does not tinge borax green. reticulated, and crystallized in cubes Composition. Zinc, sulphur, iron, and octahedrons. Structure, lamella- and silex. ted. Lustre, metallic. Perfectly see- CALAMINE. tile; soft. Very brittle. Opaque. le s. ery btle. O aqe. Occurs in beds, nests, filling up or Chemical Characters. —When heated, lininig Ihollow s, in secondary limestone first decrepitates, then emits the smell nd coi i.'~ov^. ^, and eong-lomerate rock; also in veins, of sulphur, melting into a globule of,l on. -i-ead. ^ usually along with oxyd of iron, and lead. l ea. sometimes with galena. Distinctive Chara cters.-Bien de, mo-rnl haracter.-Colors ray.\ eternlal Characters.-Colors, gray, lybdena. and graphite are infusible.n-yell, Comsuphur, l greenish, or brown-yellowish, and o;ptosition. —Led, su lphu r, lime, sometimes nearly white. Occurs crysancd silver. an~d~ silveri. tallized, compact, amorphous, pseudoTests for Lead.-Glauber's salts, and ields to. morphous, and cupriferous. Yieldsto an infusion of galls, give to a solution the fe. Specif gavit, 3, 35 to.'.. the knife. Specific grravityl, 3, 35 to of this mltal a white precipitate. 4, 41. ZINC Chemical Characters.-Infusible; dissolves with effervescence in muriatic is found in primary and secondary acid or warm aquafortis. Bn'-(ock Lead, Fals aComposition.-Oxyd of zinc and carBlende.-(Mock Lead, False Galena, boni acid. bonic acid. Black Jack.) Occurs in veins in primary and sec- RED ORE O ZINC. ondary rocks, generally associated. Found in Iron mines; also in limewith galena, with iron and copper. stone. This ore is commonly too widely dis- EJxternal, Characters. - Color, red. seminated in its gangue to make it Occurs massive and dissemlinated. profitable. It is, however, used after Lustre, shining, by exposure becomes roasting in the preparation of brass. dull. Structure, foliated. Yields to External Characters. - Colors, yel- the knife. Brittle. Specific gravity, low, brown, and black. Occurs mas- 6, 22. sive, lamelliform, disseminated, in Chemical Characters.-Infusible; solglanuiar concretions, and crystallized, uble with effervescence in acids. El llioro, two hundred and twenty miles from'l Silverton, reached via Kansas Pacific Rail way.

Page  49 M ETALS —TLItI[R CHEMISTRY ANI) (EOLOG Y-TABLE OF ALTITUDES. -49' Di.stinctive Characters. — InfLsibility metallic. Softer than copper. Tarand weight. -nishes. Melts at 476~. Specific gravCom7position.-(Oxyd of ma:tnganese ity, 9. annd oxyd of zinc. PRECIOUS STONES. Nearly all of them, as the sapphire, G-eoqnostic Situation —Pri avy rocks, el erald, spinel, chrysoberyl, chrysoand particularly in quartz, gneiss, and prase, topaz, iolite, garnet, tourmaline, mica.slate, generally associated with chalcedony, amethyst, etc., are always cobalt, arsenic, silver, iron pyrites and in the primary rocks. Qua'rts, in the galena. When found native and alone formn of rock-crystal, cornelian cachothe metal is fit for use immediately. long, sardonyx, jasper, etc., is found External Characters.-Color, silver- often in secondary strata, especially white, inclining to red. Occurs amor- in the trap rocks. The diaimond is phous, plumose, reticulated and crys- generally found in (drift. tallized.'Str ucture, la1lmll ar. justre, TABLE OF ALTITUDES. The altitudes of different portions COLORADO. Feet. of the country is an interesting stud, Mount Lizard, San Juan.................... 13,160 ti " Wilson ".................... 14,280 as it has much to do with climate, " i' i 14,280.,: 1 Sneflels, ".................... 14,258 health, vegetation, physiological char- no nlpah re Pk.................. 4,25 Uncomipahgre.Pk....................14,235 acter and habits of the people, and in- Mount Engineer,............ 2,974 dicates, more or less. the location of Mount Canby,.................... 1:3,274 the precious metals. Pass east of Mount Sultan, San Juan... 10,460 Pass west of "... 11,570 ALTITUDES OF AMOU;NTAIN 3SUMMIbTwTS ANI) Mj A Mineral Creek Pass, San Juan........... 11,098 PLACES, AS GIVEN BY PROF. HAYDEN'S 1600 Bear Creek Pass, "............ 00 REPOR.TS, SHOW'T N HEIGHTT'l S ABOVE SE A lLake Fork Pass, "........... 12,540.L>X7EVELT. > |Cunningham Pass, "............12,500 (ICOIORtADI)O. l'eet. Silverton (Baker's Park) San Juan...... 9,400 Denver......................................... 5,196 Howardsville, San Juan.................... 9,00 Pike's Peak..................................... 14,149 La Plata City (Animas Forks) San Juan 1.1,200 Mount Linco'n.............................. 14 296 Mineral City, San Juan.................... 11,500 Sultan, San Juan.................... 13,66 Del Norte.................................... 7,900 " endal,.................... 13,380 Saguache......................................... 7,747 " Gelena, "...................13,292 Los Pinos Agency............................. 9,280 Sanders'Peak. "....................13,9941 Animas City (Elbert)........................ 6,850 ~No acc'idcit.s or,- delaya by the Kansa.s Pacific Railway. 4

Page  50 1'.o~7~0Q TABLE OF ALTITUDES. COLORADO. Feet. COLORADO. Feet.:San Cr:stoval Lake................ 9,000 Tarryall Creek, at Hamilton.............. 9,43 Ante'ope Park................................ 9,000 Arkansas River, at Tennessee Pass...... 10,176) Eureka, San Juan...................... 9,000 Gunnison River, at bead.................... 11,176 IOaray, San Juan........................ 6,000 Roaring Fork, at head..................... 11,676 Hot Springs, Middle Park................. 7,725 Frying-Pan Cree, at head............... 11.012 Sierra Blanca Peak.......................... 14,400 Jennison's Ranche (Carr's Cabin)........ 9,600 ELEVATION OF TIMBER-LINE. Broad Mit., San Juan........................ 13,897 Pike's Peak, east face....................... 11,721 Bear Creek Peak............................ 3, t. Guyot nrth face11,811 Mount Babcock.............................. 14,000norheast face11,549'Upper Twin Lakes........................... 9,357 Mt. i, eastface Gray's Peak 1................................... 14,345 o Head of Buckskin Gulch.................. 11,537 Argentine Pass, highest wagon road in..Park ang 11,656 Park Range................................ 11,656 the United States.................... 1,100 Mt...... 17 Ceorgetown...................... 8,412 LaPa ta east f.............. 12,080 Sand dumps near Mosco Pass, in San ~~~~~~~~~ 51412 i ILa Plata east face............................ 12,080 Sand dumps near Mosco Pass, in San........Iean elevation of timber-line............ 11694 Louis Park; height above Park...... 500 Mlount King Solomon...................... 13,600 ALTTUDES OF VARIOUS POINTS IN THE ColoTado Springs............................. 0,984 UNITED STATES AND CANADA. UNITED STATES AND CANADA. Colorado City................................. 6049 Manitou......................................... 6,357 Lake Ontario................................ 449 Fairplay....................................... 10,048 Erie Canal, at Buffalo, N. Y............... 568 Hamilton, South Park....................... 9,743 Lake Erie, at Buffalo...................... 73 Oro, Arkansas Valley....................... 10,704 Harrisburgh, Pa............................ 31 Dayton, Arkansas Valley................. 9,441 Pittsburg, Pa.............................. Mining camp in Elk Mountains......... 11,404 Cleveland, Ohio............................. Cameron Cone, (Colorado Range)...... 11,460 Buffalo, N. Y................................. 578 Quandary Peak (Park Range)........... 14,269 Lake Huron.................................. 590 Horse Shoe Mt. "........... 13,842. Lake Michigan................................ 588 Sheep Mounta: n "........... 13,292 Toronto, Canada.............................. 239 Holy Cross (Saguache Range)......... 14,176 Detroit, Mich.................................. 340 Massive Mt......... 14,368 Memphis, Tenn................................ 259 Mt. Elbert, 14,,326 It5 t. Elbert, ~"......... 14, 326 Chicago, il1.................................... 590 La Plata Mt.,......... 14,02 Columbus,.............................. 320 MAt. Harvard, "........ 14,302 Cairo, Ill..................................... 291 Mt. Yale, "......... 14,151 Columbus, Ohio.............................. 743 Maroon Mt., (Elk Range)............... 14,100 Indianapolis, Ind...................... 720 Castle Peak, "...............14,106 St. Louis, Mo................................. 423 Hayden's Summit Pass................... 8 882 Terre Haute, Ind............................. 50 Tarryal Pass.............................. 12,176 Sioux City, Iowa......................... Tennessee Pass (:ead of Ark. river)..... 10,418 Omaha, Neb............................. 987 Main divide at Frying-Pan Creek...... 12,017 Council Bluffs, Iowa......................... 1,001 St. Joseph, Mo......................... 820 EV TIO OF STR S. Kansas City, Mo.............................. 770 Hannibal, Mo................................. 485 South Platte River, at Montgomery,... 11,176 Cincinnati, Ohio.............................. 493 Your Freight sent via the KCansas Pacific Pailway will be on time.

Page  51 MIINING LAWS. 51 MINING LAWS. CHAPTER 6, ENTITLED L:MINING LANDS AND MINERAAL RESOURCES, RESERVED FROM SALE: UNDER THE PlRE-EMPTION ACTS. [From Revised Statutes of the United States and the Statutes of Colorado, being a full text of all the laws now in force concerning miining rights.] SEC. 2318. In all cases land valu- or lode by the customs, regulations able for minerals shall be reserved and laws in force at the date of their from sale except as otherwise express- location. A mining claim located ly directed by law. —Se. 5, July 4, after the. tenth day of May, eighteen 1866. hundred and seventy two, whether SEC, 2319. All valuable mineral de- located by one or more persons, may posits in lands belongingto the United equal, but shall not exceed one thousStates, both rveyed ndunsurveyed, and five hundred feet in length along are hereby declared to be free and the vein or lode; but no location of a open to exploration and purchase, and mining claim shall be made until the the lands in which they are found to discovery of the vein or lode within occupation and purchase, by citizens the limits of the claim located. No of the United States and those, who claim shall extend more than three have declared their intention to become hundred feet on each side of the midsuch, under regulations prescribed by die of the vein at the surface, nor shall law, and according to the local cus- any claim be limited by any mining toems or rules of miners in the several regulation to less than twenty-five mining districts, so far as the same are feet on each side of the middle of the applicable and not inconsistent with vein at the surface, except where adthe laws of the United States.-Sec. 1, verse rights existing on the tenth day ia-?y 10, 1872. of May, eighteen hundred and seventytwo, render such limitation necessary. LENGTH AND WIDTH. OF CLAIM;. The end-lines of each claim shall be SEC. 2320. Mining claims upon parallel to each other.-Sec. 2, 1iMay veins or lodes of quartz or other rock 10, 1872. in place bearing gold, silver, cinnabar. PROOF OF CITIZENSHIP. lead, tin, copper, or other valuable deposits heretofore located, shall be SEC. 2321..Proof of Citizenship governed as to length along the vein under this chapter may consist, in the The Ka-.nsas Pacific load offers superior inducements to Sh/ippers of 3Aachinery, Cattle or Bullion.

Page  52 52 M~ tNININ( LAWS. case of an individual, of his own.ffi- vertical planes drawn downward, as davit; in the case of an association of above described, through the end lines persons unincorporated, of the affida- of their locations, so contlnllcd in vit of their authorized agent, made on their own direction that suih planes his own knowledge or upon informa- will intersect such exterior parts of tion and belief, and in the case of a such veins or ledges; and nothing in corporation organized under the laws this section shall atuthorize the locator of the United States, or of any State or possessor of a vein or lode which'orTerritory thereof, by the filing of a extends in its downward course becertified copy of their charter or cer- yond the vertical lines of his claim to tificate of incorporation. —Sec. 7, 3iay enter upon the surface of a claim 10, 1872. owned or possessed by anotler.-Se c. 3, Maty 10l 187?2. SURFACE, DIP AND SIDE VEINS. Tr _UN NN E L S. SEC. 2322. The locators of all mining locations heretofore made, or which SEC. 2323. Where a tunnl el is r1un shall hereafter be made, on any min- for the development of a vein or lode, oral vein, lode or ledge situated on the or for the discovery of mines, the public domain, their heirs and assigns owners of such tunnel shall have the where no adverse claim exists, on the right of possession of all veins or tenth day of May, eighteen hundred lodes within three thousand feet from and seventy-two, so long as they com- the face of such tunnel on the line ply with the laws of the United States, thereof not previously known to exist, and with State, Territorial, and local discovered in such tunnel, to the same regulations not in conflict with the extent as if discovered from the surlaws of the United States governing face; and locations on the line of such their possessory title, shall have the tunnel of veins or lodes not appearing exclusive right of possession and en- on the surface. made by other parties joyment of all the surface included after the commenecemient.of the tunnel, within the lines of their locations, and and while the same is being proseof all veins, lodes, and ledges through- cuted with reasonable diligence, shall out their entire depth, the top or apex be invalid; but failure to ]rosecute of which lies inside of such surface the work on the tunnel for six months lines extended downward vertically, shall be considered as an abandonalthough such veins, lodes, or ledges ment of the right to all undiscovered may so far depart from a perpendicu- veins on the line of such tunnel —-Sec. lar in their course downward as to eX- 4, iMay 10, 1872. tend outside the vertical lines of such.DISTR.TCT RUnLES, LOCATION AND ANsurface locations; but their right of \. UAL LABOR. possession to such outside parts ofAL L R. such veins or ledges shall be confined SEC. 2324. The miners of each minto such portions thereof as lie between ing district may make regulations not The Kansas Pacific Railway makes close connections with the Den.?er and Rio Grande fRoad to a:ll points in the A'fotuntains.

Page  53 1Mi iN(NI LAWS. 53 in conflict with the laws of the United heirs, assigns, or legal representatives, States, or with the laws of the State have not resumed work upon the claim or Territory in which the district is after failure and before such location. situated, governing the location man- Upon the failure of any one of several ner of recording, amount of work co-owners to contribute his propornecessary to hold possession of a min- tion of the expenditures required hereing claim, subject to the following by, the co-owners who have performed requirements: The location must be the labor or made the improvements distinctly marked on the ground, so may, at the expiration of the year, that its boundaries can be readily give such delinquent co-owner pertraced. All records of mining claims sonal notice in writing or notice by hereafter made shall contain the name publication in the newspaper published or names of the locators, the date of nearest the claim, for at least once a the location, and such a description of week for ninety days, and if, at the the claim or claims located by refer- expiration of ninety days after such ence to some natural object or perma- notice in writing or by publication, nent monument as will identify the such delinquent should fail or refuse claim. On each claim located after tocontribute its proportion of the exthe tenth of May, eighteen hundred penditure required by this section, and seventy-two, and until a patent his interest in the claim shall become has been issued therefor, not less than the property of his co-owners who one hundred dollars' worth of labor have made the required expenditures. shall be performed or improvements -Sec. 5, Miliay 10, 1872. made during each year. On all claims APPLICATION FOR PATENT. located prior to the tenth day of Mtay, eighteen hundred and seventy-two, SEC; 2325. A patent for any land ten dollars' worth of labor shall be claimed and located for valuable deperformed or improvements made by posits may be obtained in the followthe tenth day of June, eighteen hun- ing manner: Any person, association dred and seventy-four, and each year or corporation authorized to locate a thereafter, for each one hundred feet claim under this chapter, having in length along the vein until a patent claimed and located a piece of land has been issued therefor; but where for such purposes, who has, or have, such claims are held in common, such complied with the terms of this chapexpenditure may be made upon any ter, may file in the proper land office one claim, and upon a failure to com- an application for a patent, under ply with these conditions, the claiml oatlh showing such compliance, toor mine upon which such failure oc gether with a plat and field notes of. curred shall be open to re-location, in the claim or claims in common, made the same manner as if no location of by or under the direction of the United the same had ever been made; Pro- States Surveyor General, showing vided, That the original locators, their accurately the boundaries of the claim For Fort Garland, Cucharas, Trinidad, El Moro, Pueblo, Canon City and the San Juan MriLes, take the Kansas Pacific Railway.

Page  54 54 MIMING LAWS. or claims, which shall be distinctly the claim during such period of pubmarked by monuments on the ground, lication. If no adverse claim shall and shall post a copy of such plat, have been filed with the Register and. together with a notice of such appli- the Receiver of the proper land office cation for a patent, in a conspicuous at the expiration of the sixty days of place on the land embraced in such publicatior, it shall be assumed that plat previous to the filing of the ap- the applicant is entitled toa patent, plication for a patent, and shall file upon the payment to the proper officer an affidavit of at least two persons of five dollars per acre; and that no that such notice has been duly posted adverse claim exists, and thereafter and shall file a copy of the notice in no objection from third parties to the such land office, and shall thereupon issuance of a patent shall be heard, be entitled to a patent for the land in except it be shown that the applicant the manner following: The Register has failed to comply with the terms of the Land Office, upon the filing; of of this chapter.Sec. 6, Mlty 10, 1872. such application, plat, field notes, notices and affidavits, shall publish a notice that such application has been Sine. 2329. Claims usually called made, for the period of sixty days, in "placers," including all forms of dea newspaper to be by him designated posit, excepting veins of quartz or as published nearest to such claim; other rock in place, shall be subject and he shall also post such notice in to entry and patent under like circurmhis office for the same period. The stances and conditions, and upon simclaimant, at the time of filing this ilar proceedings as are provided for application, or at anytime thereafter, vein or lode claims; but where the within the sixty days of publication, lands have been previously surveyed shall file,vith the Register a certifi- by the United States, the entry in its cate of the United States Surveyor exterior limits shall conform to the leGeneral that five hundred dollars' gal subdivision of the public lands.worth of labor has been expended on Sec. 12, Ju7y 9, 1870. improvements made upon the claim SEc. 2330. Legal subdivisions of by himself or grantors; that the plat forty acres may be subdivided into is correct, with such further descrip- ten-acre tracts, and two or more pertion by such reference to natural sons or associations of persons, having objects or permanent monuments as contiguous claims of any size, alshall identify the claim, and furnish though such claims may be less than an accurate description, to be incor- ten acres each, may make joint entry porated in the patent. At the expi- thereof; but no location of a placer ration of sixty days of publication claim made after the ninth day of July, the claimant shall file his affidavit, eighteen hundred and seventy, shall showing that the plat and notice have exceed one hundred and sixty acres been posted in a. conspicuous place on for any one person or association of The Denver (&e Ri;o G-/rande Railway is now in operation to Teta, beut m')netythree mile.s from Del No'e.

Page  55 MINING LAWS. 55 persons, which location shall conform such possession and working of the to the United States surveys; and claims for such period shall be sufficnothing in this section contained shall lient to establish a right to a patent defeat or impair any bona fide pre- thereto under this chapter in the abemption or homestead claim upon ag- sence of any adverse claim; but nothricultural lands, or authorize the sale ing in this chapter shall be deemed of the improvements of any bona fide to impair any lien which may have settler to any purchaser.- Sec. 12, July attached in any way whatever to any 9, 1870. mining claim or property thereto atSEC. 2331. Where placer claims are tached prior to the issuance of a patupon surveyed lands, and conform to ent.-Sec. 13, July 9, 1870. legal subdivisions, no further survey or plat shall be required, and all placer mining claims located after the tenth SEC. 2333. Where the same person, (lay of May, eighteen hundred and association or corporation, is in posseventy-two, shall conform as near as session of a placer claim, and also I, practicable with the United States vein or lode included within the system of public land surveys and the boundaries thereof, application shall rectangular subdivisions of such sur- be made for a patent for the placer veys, and no such location shall in- claim, with the statement that it include more than twenty acres for each eludes such vein or lode, and in such individual claimant, but where placer case a patent shall issue for the placer claims cannot be conformed to legal claim, subject to the provisions of this subdivisions, survey and plat shall be chapter, including such vein or lode, made as on unsurveyed lands; and upon the payment of five dollars per where by the segregation of mineral acre for such vein or lode claim, and land in any legal subdivision a quan- twenty-five feet of surface on each tity of agricultural land less than forty side thereof. The remainder of the acres remains, such fractional portion placer claim, or any placer claim not of agricultural land may be entered embracing any vein or lode claim, by any party qualified by law, for shall be paid for at the rate of two homestead or pre-emption prposes. — dollars and fifty cents per acre, toSec. 10, Mlaly 10, 1872. jgether with all costs of proceedings; LIENS AND LIM N and ^where a vein or lode, such as is D described in section 2320 of this Act, SEC. 2332. Where such person or is known to exist within the boundassociation, they and their grantors, aries of a placer claim, an application have held and worked their claims for for a patent for such placer claim a period equal to the time prescribed which does not include an application by the statute of limitations formining for the vein or lode claim, shall be claims of the State or Territory where construed as a conclusive declaration the same may be situated, evidence of that the claimant of the placer claim Ask the timid Ute which is the best route, and he will tell you t o go ia the Kansas Pacific and Denver & _Rio Grande Railcays.

Page  56 56 MTINING LAWS. has no rioht of possession of the vein applicant for publication and surveys, or lode claim; but where the existence together with all fees and money paid of a vein or lode in a placer claim is the register and the receiver of the not known, a patent for the placer land office, which statement shall be claim shall convey all valuable min- transmitted, with the other papers in eral and other deposits within the the case, to the commissioner of the boundaries thereof.-Sec. 11, fay 10, general land office.-Sec. 12. May 10, 1872. 1872. DEPUTY SURVEYORS AN) FEES. AFFIDAVITS AND PROOFS. SEC. 234. e Surveyor-. 2334. S eyor-eneal 2. All affidavits required to of the United States may appoint in be made under this chapter may be each land district containing mineral verified before any officer authorized lands as many competent surveyors as to administ'er oaths within the land shall apply for appointment to survey district where the claim may be situmining claims. The expenses of the ated, and all testimony and proofs may survey of vein or lode claims, and the be taken before any such officer, and, survey and subdivision of placer I when duly certified by the officer takclaims into smaller quantities than one ing the same, shall have the same hundred and sixty acres, together with force and effect as if taken before the the cost of publication of notices, shall register and receiver of the land office. be paid by the applicants, and they In cases of contest as to the mineral shall be at liberty to obtain the same or agricnltural character of land, the at the most reasonable rates, and they testimony and proofs may be taken as shlall also be at liberty to employ any herein provided, on personal notice of United States deputy surveyor to atleast ten days to the opposing party; make the survey. The conmmissioner or if such party cannot be found, then of the general land office shall also by publication of at least once a week have power to establish the maximum for thirty days in a news pap6r, to be charges for surveys aMnid publication designated by the register of the land of notices under this chapter, and in office as published nearest to the locacase of excessive charges for publica- Ition of such land, and tlie register tion, he may designate any newspaper, shall require proof that such notice published in a land district where has been given.-Sec. 13, May 10, mines are situated, for the publication 1872. of mining notices in such district. a nd Cn CROSS VTE^'INS fix the rates to be charged by such paper; and, to the end that tlhe corn- SFC. 2836. Where two or moro missioners may be fully informced on veins intersect or cross each other, the subject, each applicant shall file priority, of title shall govern, and such with the register a sworn statemenrt prior location shall be entitled to all of all charges and fees paid by such ore or mineral contained within the 2The futurl tte'million/aires of Sazn Juahn all go via the -Kt.ansas Paciic Raillway.

Page  57 MIIN [NS: _LAW' S. 57 space of intersection; but the subse- ment, and those conditions slall be quent location shall have the right ofi fully expressed in the patent.- Sec. 5, way through the space of intersection, July 26, 18G;. for the purposes of the convenient RIGT working of the mine; and, where two or more veins unite,the oldest or prior I S:C. 233 Wihenever, by priority location shall take the vein below the of poiession, righlt to the use of point of union, including all the space Yt fr mining agricultural, manuof intersection. -Sc. 14, iay 10, 1872. fEaturing or other purposes, have vested and accrued, and the same are MILLT SITES. recognized and acknowledged by the SEc. 23::7. Where non-mineralland local customs, laws and decisions of not contiguous to the vein or lode is courts, the possessors and owners of used or occupied by the proprietor of such vested rights shall be maintained such vein or lode for mining or mill- and protected in the same; and the ing purposes, such non-adiacent sur- right of ay for the construction of face grounl may be embraced and ditches and canals for the purposes included in an application for a patent herei speified, is aclnowledged and for such vein or lode, and the same confirmed; but whenever any person in the construction of anv ditch or. may be patented therewith, subject to constrtion of y dith o the same preliminary requirements as canal, injures or damages the possesto survey and notice as are applicable f ay settler o te public oto veins or lodes; but no location main, the party committing such into veins or lodes; but no location. Irafter ma such non-adjacent jury or damage shall be liable to the Hereafter made of sch no-adjacentarty injred for such inury or damland shall exceed five acres, and pay- p inj fo su ijury or damiment for the same must be made at age. —ec. 9, July 26, 1866. the same rate as fixed by this chapter40. All patents grat, o f)r the superficies of the lode. The pre-emption or homesteads allowed. owner of a quartz mill or reduction shall be suject to any vested and acworks, not owning a mine in connec- cuecl water rigts or rights to ditches ion therewith ay also reand reservoirs used in connection with tion therewith, may also recieve a patent for his mill site as provided in such ae rights as y ave been this section.-Sec. 15, zay 10, 1872. acquired under or recognized by the preceding section.- Sec. 17, July 9, EASEMENTS. 1870. SEC. 2338. As a condition of sale HIMESTEADS. in the absence of necessary legislation SEc. 2:341. Wherever, upon the by Congress, the local legislature of' lands heretofore designated as minerany State or Territory may provide al lands, which have been excluded rules for workinlg mines involving l rom survey and sale; there have been easements, drainage, and other neces- h lomesteads made by citizens of the sary means to their complete develop- I United States, or persons who have TleereC is m7)illions in i —a trip to San t Juan via the Kt:asts P.cific Road.

Page  58 58 MNINGO LAWS. declared their intentions to become mining property acquired under existcitizens, which homesteads have been ing laws. Sec. 17, July 9, 1870. See. made, improved, and used for agricul- 16, May 10, 1872. tural purposes, and upon which there SEc. 2316. No act passed at the first have been no valuable mines of gold, session of the Thirty-eighth Congress silver, cinnabar or copper discovered, granting lands to States or corporaand which are properly agricultural tions, to aid in the construction of'lands, the settlers or owners of such roads or for other purposes, or to ex — homesteads shall have a right of pre- tend the time of grants made prior to emption thereto, and shall be entitled the thirtieth (lay of January, eighteen to purchase the same at the price of hundred and. sixty-five, shall be so one dollar and twenty-five cents per construed as to embrace mineral lands acre, and in quantity not to exceed which in all cases are reserved excluone hundred and sixty acres, or they sively to -the United States, unless may avail themselves of the provis- otherwise specially provided in the act ions of chapter five of this title, relat- or' acts lmaking the )grant. —Jis. o. 10, ing-to homesteads.-Sec. 10, July 26, January 30, 1865. 1866. SEC. 2.:42. Upon the survey of the C A T, LANDS. lands described in the preceding see- SEC. 23-47. Every person above the tion, the Secretary of the Interior of twenty one years, who is a citmay designate and set apart such por- izen of the United States, or who has tions of the same as are clearly agri- declared his intention to become such, cultural lands, which lands shall there- or any association of persons severally after be subject to pre-emption and qualified as above, shall upon applica. sale as other public lands, and be sub- tion to the iegrister of the proper land ject to all the laws and regulations office, have the right to enter by legal applicable to the same. Sec. 11, July subdivisions, any quantity of vacant 26, 1866. coal lands of the United States not otherwise appropriated or reserved bMISCE r, LLANTEOUJS. by competent authority, not exceeding SEC. 2343. The President is author- one hundred and sixty acres to such ized to establish additional land dis- individual person, or three hundred tricts, and to appoint the necessary and twenty acres to such association, officers under existing laws wherever upon payment to the Receiver of not he may deem the same necessary for less than ten dollars per acre for such the public convenience in executing lands, where the same shall be situthe provisions of this chapter.-Sec. 7, ated iore than fifteen miles froin a-ly July 26, 1866. completed railroad, and not less than SEC. 2344. Nothing contained in twenty dollars per acre for such lands this chapter shall be construed to im- as shall be -within fifteen miles of such pair in any way rights or interests in road.-Sec., Ifarch 3, 1873. Buy your tickets viia Kansas Pacfic Railway to'Veta, Colorado, and'y miles of sta ging.

Page  59 MINiNG LAWS. 59 SEC. 2348. Any person or associa- day of March, eighteen hundred and tion of persons severally qualified as seventy-three.-Sec. 3 Ibid. above provided, who have opened and SEC. 2350. The three preceding improved, or shall hereafter open and sectioins shall be held to authorize only improve, any coal mine or mines upon one entry by the same person or assothe public lands, and shall be in actual ciation of persons; and no association possession of the same, shall be enti- of persons, any member of which shall have taken the benefit of such tied to a preference right of entry, d t pre ceit of t sections, either as an individual or as under the preceding section, of the I (- l D. Ia member of any other association, mines so opened and improved: Proshall enter or hold any other lands ided, That when association of not te provisions; and all perless than four persons, severally quali- sons claiming under section twentyfied as above provided, shall have ex- three hundred and forty-eight shall pended not less than five thousand be required to prove their respective dollars in working and improving any rights and pay for the lands filed upon such mine or mines, such association within one year from the time premay enter not exceeding six hundred scribed for filing their respective and forty acres including such min- claims; and upon failure to file the ing improvements.-~Sec. 2 Ibic. proper notice, or to pay for the land SEc. 2349. All claims under the within the required period, the same preceding section must be presented shall be subject to entry by any other to the register of the proper land dis- qualified applicant. —Sec. 4 Ibid. trict within sixty days after date of SEC. 2351. In case of conflicting actual possession and the commence- claims upon coal lands where the imment of improvements on the land by provement shall be commenced after the filing of a declaratory statement the third day of March, eighteen huntherefor; but when the township plat dred and seventy-three, priority of is not on file at the date of such im- possession and improvement followed provement, filing must be made with- by proper filing and continued good in sixty days from the receipt of such faith, shall determine the preference plat at the district office; and where right to purchase. And also when the improvements shall have been improvements have already been made prior to the expiration of three made prior to the third day of March, months fiom the third day of Mlarch, eighteen hundred and seventy-threet eighteen hundred and seventy-three, division of the land claimed may be sixty days from the expiration of such made by legal subdivisions, to include three months shall be allowed for the as near as may be the, valuable imfiling of a declaratory statement, and provements of the respective parties. no sale under the provisions of this The Commissioner of the general land section shall be allowed until the ex- office is authorized to issue all needful piration of six months firom the third rules and regulations for carrying into The newr route to San,Juan, open the entire season, via the Ka.nsas Pacific I1la iha t l.

Page  60 60:.iMNE LAWS. effect the provisions of this and tlhe States of Ame'rica in Congress ass-mfour preceding sections. —Sec. 5, lZi d. bled. SEC. 2352. Nothing in the five p-ne- That section 2324 of the Revised ceding sections shall be construed to 3Statutes be, and the sane is hereby, destroy or impair any rights which amended so that where a person or may have attached prior to the th ir d compamiy has or may run a tunnel for day of March, eighteen hundred and the purpose of developing a lode or seventy-three, or to authorize the lodes, oned by saic person or comsale of lands valuable for mines (f pany, the money so expended in said gold, silver or copper.-Sec. 6, Ibid. tunnel shall te taken and considered AN ACT to. amend the Act entitled as expeded on said lode or lodes "An Act to promote the develop- whether located prior to or since the ent of the mining resources of the passage of said Act; and such person nited States," passed May 10,'72. or company shall not be required to perform work on the surface of said Be it enacted by the Senate and louse lode or lodes in order to hold the same of Representatives of the United as required by said Act. -Approved States of Aeirica in( Congress assen- February 11, 1875. bled: 11^~,.. t, ^TERPRI'~ORIAL STATIU TES. That the provisions of the fifth sec-RITORIAL S tion of the Act, entitled "An Act to An Act Concernini Mines. promote the development of the mining resources of the ITnited States, e t cte by the Cozcil and ouse passed Mayaa 10, 1877aT which requires rof Representatives of Colorado Terexpenditures of labor and impove- nients on claims located prior to the LENGTHr, 1,500:FEET. passage of said Act, are hereby so.. The length of y d amended that the time for the first claim hereafter located may equal bt annual expenditure on claims locatd ot eed fifteen I undrec feet along prior to the passage of said Act, shall the vein. be extended to the first day of Janu- ary, eighteen hundred and seventy- I IDTH OF 150 OR 300 FEET. five.-&Se p. 31. Approved June 6,'74.. 2. The idth of lode claims SEc. 2. Ths width of' lode claimros AN ACT to amend Section Two Thou- h ter located inGilpin, Clear sand Three HIundred eand Twenty- (:reek, Boulder and Summit counties, Four of the Revised Statutes relat- shall be seventy-five feet on each side ing to the deve0lopment of thle Inn of the center of the vein or crevice; ing resources of the'Tluited St-.tes. and in all other counties, the width of' thle sarne shall be one hundred and Be it enacted by the -Senctte and House and fifty feet on each side of the cenof Representatives of the United ter of the vein or crevice. Priovidid,'xTe p'ioitneer road] inlto Colorado, and the only route w'.ith first class,

Page  61 iMiNINI tLAW\S. 61 That hereafter any county may, at any defined crevice. ASecontd, by posting general election, determine upon a at the point of discovery on the surgreater width, not exceeding three face, a plain sign or noticecontaining hundred feet on each side of the cen- the name of the lode, the name of the ter of the vein or lode, by a majority locator and the da.te of discovery. of the legal votes cast at said election, Third, by marking the surface bounand any county, by such vote at such daries of the claim. election may determine upon a less SEC. 6. Such surface boundarieswidth than above specified. shall be marked by six substantial O TONcERTIATE. posts, hewed or marked on the side or sides which are in toward the claim, SEC. 3. The discoverer of' a lode and sunk in the ground, to-wit: One shall, within three months fron the at each corner and one at the center date of discovery, record his claim in of each side line. Where it is practithe office of the recorder of the county eally impossible on account of bedin which such lode is situated by a rock or precipitous ground to sink location certificate; which shall con- such posts, they may be placed in a tain: 1st, the name of the lode; 2d, pile of stones. the name of the locator; 3d, the date SEc. 7. Any open cut, cross-cut or of location; 4th, the number of feet tunnel which shall cut a lode at the in length claimed on each side of the depth of ten feet below the surface, center of the discovered shaft; 5th, shall hold such lode the same as if a the general course of the lode as. near discovery shaft were sunk thereon, or as may be. an adit of at least ten feet in along SEC. 4. Any location certificate of the lode, from the point where the a lode claim which shall not contain lode may be in any manner discovered, the name of the lode, the name of the shall be equivalent to a discovery locator, the date of location, the nul- shaft. ber of lineal feet claimed on each side SEc. 8. The discoverer shall have of the discovery shaft, the general sixty days from the time of uncovercourse of the lode, and such descrip- ing or disclosing a lode to sin a distion as shall identify the claim with covery shaft thereon. reasonable certainty, shall be void. CLAIM DEFINED BY THE SURFACE LINES. DISCOVERY SHAFT AND STAKING. SEC. 9. The location, or location SEC. 5. Before filing such location certificate ofiany lode claim shall be certificate the discoverer shall locate construed to include allsurface ground his claim by first sinking a discovery within the surface lines thereof and shaft upon the lode to the depth of at all lodes and ledges throughout their least tell feet from the lowest part of entire depth, the top or apex of which the rim of such shaft at the surface, lie insideof such lines extended downor deeper, if necessary to show a well ward, vertically, with such parts of all Go to the San TJean country via the Kansas Pacific and Denver,& _Rio Grande'Rout e.

Page  62 62 MINING LAWS. lodes or ledges as continue to dip be- jure vested righlts by flooding or otheryond the side lines of the claim, but wise. shall not include any portion of such SSE. 12. When the right to mine lodes or ledges beyond the end lines of is in any case separate from the ownthe claim or at the end lines continued, ership or right of occupancy to the whether by dip or otherwise, or be- surface, the owner" or rightful ocyond the side lines in any other man- cupant of the surface may dener than by the dip of the lode. mand satisfactory security from the SEC. 10. If the top or apex of a miner, and if it be refused, may enlode in its longitudinal course extends join such miner from working until beyond the exterior lines of the claim such security is given. The order for -at any point on the surface, or as ex- injunction shll fix th amount of tended vertically downward, such lode bond. may not be followed in its longitudi- RELOCAIt:O O'F llS OWN CLAIM BY THE nal course beyond the point where it OWNER. is intersected by the exterior lines. SEc. 13. If at any time the locator ZRIGHT OF WAY AND BIGIT O' SURFACE. t any mining claim heretofore or hereafter located, or his assigns, shall SEc. 11. All mining claims now lo. apprehend that his original certificate cated, or which may hereafter be lo- was defective, erroneous, or that the cated, shall be subject to the right of requirements of the law had not been way of any ditch or flume for mining complied with before filing; or shall purposes, or of any tramway or pack be desirous of changing his surface trail, whether now in use or which boundaries; or of taking in any part may be hereafter laid out across any of an overlapping claim which has such location. Provided, always, That been abandoned; or in case the origsuch right of way shall not be exercised inal certificate was made prior to the against any location duly made and passage of this law, and he shall be recorded and not abandoned prior to desirous of securing the benefits of the establishment of the ditch, flume, this act, such locator or his assigns tramway or pack trail, without con- may file an additional certificate subsent of the owner, except by condem- ject to the provisions of this act. nation, as in case of land taken for Provided, That such relocation does public highways. Parol consent to not interfere with the existing rights the location of any sulh easement of others, at the time of such relocaaccompanied by the completion of the tion, and no such relocation or the same over the claim,shall-be sufficient record thereof, shall preclude the without writings. And, provided fur- claimant or claimants from proving ther, That such ditch or flume shall any such title or titles as he or they be so constructed that the water may have held under previous locafrom such ditch or flume shall not in- tion. One thousan.d and one miles of broad gauge road built by the Kansas ~Pacific Railwcay.

Page  63 M3INING LAWS. 63 LABOR AND PROOF OF LABOR. whole or any part of the new location is located as abandoned property. S.:c. 14. The aniount of work done, or im.provements made during each ONE RECORD FOR EACI CLAIM. year, shall be that prescribed by the SEc. 17. No location certificate shall laws of the United States. claim more than one location, whether SEC. 15. Within six months after the location be made by one or several any set time, or annual period herein locators. And if it purport to claim allowed for the performance of labor more than one location, it shall be or making improvements upon any absolutely void, except as to the first lode claim, the person on whose behalf location therein described. And if such outlay was made, orsome person they are described together, orso that for him, shall make and record an it cannot be told which location is first affidavit, in substance as follows: described, the certificate shall be void TERRITORY OF COLORADO, as to all. COUNTY OF.........SEC. 18. All acts or lar't of acts Before me, the subscriber, personally appeared in c t wh t a a...... who, being duly sworn, sith that at least......- onflctw ths at by Lars' worth of work or improvements were pelformed repealed. or made upon [here describe claim or part of claim] EC 1 This act shl be il force situate in......... mining district, county of........, Territory of Colorado. Such expenditure was made by or from and after June 15, 1874. at the expense of.......... owners of said claim, for the Approved February 13, 1874. puipose of said elaiim. [Jourat.] Signature. An Act Concerning Mines. And such signature shall be prima Be it enacted by the Coun'cil and louse of facie evidence of the performance of Representatives of Colorado Territory: such labor. RIGHT OF SULRVEY AND INSPECTION. RE-LOCATION 01 ABANDONED CLAIMS. SEC. 1. In all actions pending in SEC. 16. The relocation of aban- any district court of this Territory, doned lode claims shall be by sinking wherein the title or right of possesa new discovery shaft and fixing new sion to any mining claim shall be in boundaries in the same manner as if dispute, the said court, or the judge it were the location of a new claim; thereof, may, upon application of any or the relocator may sink the original of the parties to such suit, enter an discovery shaft ten feet deeper than order for the underground as well as it was at the time of abandonllent, surface survey of such part of tie and erect new, or adopt the old boun- property in dispute, as may be necesdaries, renewing the posts, if removed sary to a just determination of the or destroyed. In either case a new question involved. Such order shall location stake shall be erected. In any designate some competent surveyor, case, whether the whole or part of an not related to any of the parties to abandoned claim in taken, the loca- such suit, or in anywise interested in tion certificate may state that the the result of the same; and upoi the Mifore money has been exrpended by the Kansas Pacific Railway in ex-tending its lines to Co1orado than by any other comq;pany.

Page  64 .64 M ININGa LAWS. application of the party adverse to this Territory, or any judge thereof, such application, the court lmay also sitting in chancery, shall have, in adappoint some competent surveyor, to dition to the power already possessed, be selected by such adverse applicant, power to issue writs of injunction for whose duty it shall be to attend upon affirmative relief, having the force and such survey, and observe the method effect of a writ of restitution, restorof making the same; said second sur- ing any person or persons to the posveyor to be at the cost of the party session of any mining property frona asking therefor. It shall also be law- which he or they may have been oustfil in such order to specify the names ed', by force an d violence, or by fra.ud, of witnesess named by either party, or fiomn which they are kept out of not exceeding three on each side, to possession by threats, or whenever examine such property, who shall such possession was taken from him hereupon be allowed to enter into or them, by entry of the adverse party such property and examine the; on Sunday, or a legal holiday, or while said court or the judge thereof may the Plrty in possession was temporaralso cause the removal of any rock, ily absent tlerefrom. The granting debris, or other obstacle in a.ny of the of such writ to extend only to the the drifts or shafts of said property, when right of possession under the facts of such removal is shown to be necessary the case in respect to the ma-nner in to a just determin.iation of the ques- which the possession was obtained, tions involved; Provided, however, leaving the parties to their legal rights that no such order shall be made for on all other questions as though no survey and inspection, except in open such writ had issued. court or in ehalmbers, upon notice of application for such order of at least PENAL, s:'C'IONS A(-AINST.'rNLA\\W': CEN'RaY. six days, and not then exceptby agree- N. ment of pa.rties or upon the affidavil SEc. 3. In all cases where rtwo or of two or more persons that such sur- more persons shall associate themvey and inspection is necessary to the selves together for the purpose of objust determination of the suit, which taining the possession of any lode, affidavits shall state the facts in such gulch or placer claim, then in the accase, and wherein the necessity for tual possession of another, by force survey esists; nor shall such order and violence, or threats of violence, or be made unless it appears that the by stealth, and shall proceed to carry party asking therefor had been re- out such purpose by making threats fused the privilege of survey and in- against the party or parties in posspection by the adverse party. session, or who shall enter upon such lode or mining claim for the purpose MIAND1A1'ORY WRIT OF' INJUNCTION RIENaforesaid, or who shall enter upon or STORING I'POSSESSION.. e a into any lode, gulch, placer claim, SEC. 2. The said district courts of quartz mill, or other mining property, lNearly all the iSril'er Bullion comes by the ( & Rio Gria.lnde an'ld TKansl..-as 1Pacifie Ra ilw Pays.

Page  65 MtINTN LAWS. 65or not being upon such property, but SEC. 4. If any person or persons within hearing of the same, shall make shall associate and agree to enter or' any threats, or mahke use of any lan- attempt to enter by force of nLumbers, guage, signs, or gestures. calculated and the terror such numbers is calcuto intimidate any person or persons lated to inspire; or by force and vioat work on said property, from con- lence, or by threats of violence against tinuing to workl thereon or therein, arny person or persons in the actual or *to intimida te othiers fromt englaging possession of any lode, gulch or placer to work thereon or therein, every claim, and upon such entry or atsuch person so offendinlg shall, on con- tempted entry, any person or persons viction thereof, be fined in a sunm not shall be killed, said persons, and all to exceed two hund-red and fifty dol — and each of them so entering or atlars, and be im.prisoned in the county tempting to enter, shall be deemed jail not less thlan thirty days nor more guilty of murder in the first degree, than six months; such fine to be dis- and punished accordingly. Upon the charged either by payment or by' con- trials of such cases any person or finement in said jail until such fine is parties cognizant of such entry, or discharged at the rate of two dollars -attempted entry, who shall be presand fifty cents (82.50) per day. On ent, aiding, assisting, or in anywise trials under tlis section, prof of' a encouraging such entry, or attempted common purpose of two or more per- entry, shall be deemed a principal in sons to obtain possession of property,' the commission of said offense. as aforesaid, or to intimidate laborers SEC. 5. This act shall take effect as above set forth, accolmplanied or and be in force from and after its pasfollowed by any of the acts above sage. specified by any of them, shall be suf- Approved February 13, 1874.'' ficient evidence to conVict any one e NOTE.-The only other acts of 1874, one concerncommitting such acts, although the ilg "or1e salting" and one concerning the records of par"ties may not be associated togethe3r sthe now distrects in La Plata county, containing each,2'~tie *'maS~'..not~~~~ bbut a single section except the enacting clause, have at the time of committino the same. Ibeen inserted under previous headings. For in~'ort~ti)ton ie regard to rates ojf ireiqht, etc., Ca(plyt to T. F. O.A KE, Gen-ceral Fr'eiht Agent, AKansas Ciity, l/Jo. 5

Page  66 ~~~~66 rLAND OFFICE RULES. LAND OFFICE RULES UNDER TIE ACT OF CONGI-RESS MAY 10TT, 1874, AND NOW IN FORCE. 1. It will be perceived that the first so long as they comply with the laws section of said act leaves the mineral of Congress and with State, Territo. lands in the public domain, surveyed rial, or local regulations, not in conor unsurveyed, open to exploration, flict therewith, governing mining occupation, and purchase by ail citi- claims, are invested by said act with zcns of the United States and allthose the exclusive possessory right of all wMio have declared their intention to the surface included within the lines become such. of their locations, and of all veins, lodes, or ledges throughout their entire STATUS OF LODE CLAIMS PREvIOcUSL LO- depth, the top or apex of which lies CATsrED. inside of such surface lines extended 2. By an examination of the sev- downward vertically, although such oral sections of the foregoing act it veins, lodes or ledges may so far dewill be seen that the status of lode part f'om a perpendicular in their claims located previous to the date course downward as to extend outside thereof is not changed with regard to the vertical side lines of such locatheir extent along the lode or width of tions at the surface, it being expressly surface, such claims being restricted provided, however, that the right of and governed both as to their lateral possession to such outside parts of said and linear extent by the State, Terri- veins or ledges shall be confined to torial or local laws, customs, or reg- such portions thereof as lie between ulations which were in force in the vertical planes drawn downward as respective districts at the date of such aforesaid, through the end-lines of locations, in so far as the same did not their locations so continued in their conflict with the limitations fixed by own direction that such planes will the mining statute of July 26, 1866.- intersect such exterior parts of such 14 Stat. 251. veins, lodes or ledges; no right being 3. Mining rig/hts acquired under granted, however, to the claimant of such previous locations are, however, such outside portion of a vein or ledge enlarged by said act of May 10, 1872, to enter upon the surface location of in the following respect, viz: The another claimant. locators of all such previously taken 4. It is to be distinctly understood, veins or lode, their heirs and assigns, however, that the law limits the posQuisckest Route to San Juan is via Knnsas Pacific Railway.

Page  67 LAND OFFICE RULE. 67 sessory rights to veins, lodes or ledges formed the labor, or made theimproveother than the one named in the origi- ments as required by said act, may, at nal location, to such as were not ad- the expiration of the year, give such versely claimed at the date of said Act of delinquent co-owner personal notice May 10, 1872, and that where such in writing, or notice by publication in other vein or ledge was so adversely the newspaper published nearest the claimed at that date, the right of the claim, for at least once a week for party so adversely claiming is in no ninety days; and if upon the expiraway impaired by said act. tion of ninety days after such notice 5. From and after the date of said in writing, or upon the expiration of act of Congress, in order to hold the one hundred and eighty days after the possessory title to a mining claim pre- first newspaper publication of notice, viously located and for which a patent the delinquent co-owner shall have had not been issued, the law requires failed to contribute his proportion to that ten dollars shall be expended an- meet such expenditure cr improvenually in labor or improvements on ments, his interest in the claim, by each claim of one hundred feet on the law, passes to his co-owners who have course of the vein or lode until a patent made the expenditures or improveshall have been issued therefor; but ments as aforesaid. where a number of such claims are held in common upon tie same vein PATENTS FOR VEINS OR LODES HERETOor lode the aggregate expenditure that onE ISS ED. would be necessary to hold all the 7. Rights under patents for veins claims, at the rate of ten dollars per or lodes heretofore granted under prehundred feet, may be made upon any i vious legislation of Congress, are enone claim; a failure to comply with larged by this act, so as to invest the this requirement in any one year sub- patentee, his heirs or assigns, With jecting the claim upon which such fail- title to all veins, lodes, or ledges ure occurred to relocation by other throughout their entire depth, the top parties, the same as if no previous or apex of which lies within the end. location thereof had ever been made, i and side boundary lines of his claim unless the claimants under the origi- on the surface, as patented, extended' nal location shall have resumed work downward vertically, although such thereon after such failure and before veins, lodes, or ledges may so far desuch re-location. part from a perpendicular in their 6. Upon the failure of any one of course downward as to extend outside several co-ownlers of a vein, lode, or the vertical side lines of the claim at ledge, which has not been patented, to the surface. The right to possession contribute his proportion of the ex- to such outside parts of such veins or penditures necessary to hold the claim ledges to be confined to such portions or claims so held in ownership in theeeof as lie between vertical planes common, the co-owners who have per- drawn downward through the endVeta, the highest raillrad point in the world, is reached via Kansas Pacific Railwa-.

Page  68 63 ThLAND OFFICE RU;LES. lines of the claim at the surface, so lode, and claimed for the convenient continued in their own direction that workling thereof, the act provides that such planes will intersect such exter- the lateral extent of locations of veins ior parts of such veins or ledges, it or lodes made after its passage shall in being expressly provided, however, no case exceed three hunXdred feet on each thlat all veins, lodes, or ledges, the top side of the middle of the rein at the suror apex of which lies inside such sur- face, and that no such surface rights face locations, other than the one shall be limited by any mining regunamed in the patent, which were ad- lations to less than twenty-five feet on tersely claimed at the date of said act, each side of the middle of the vein at are excluded from such conveyance the surface, except where adverse by patent. rights existing at the date of said act 8. Applications for patents for may render such limitation necessary, mining claims pending at the date of the end lines of such claims to be in the act of May 10, 1872, may be pros- all cases parallel to each other. ecuted to final decision in the General 11. By the foregoing it will be perland office, and where no adverse ceived that no lode claim located afte rights are effected thereby, patents the date of said act can exceeed a parwill be issued, in pursuance of the pro- allelogram fifteen hundred feet in visions of said act.. length by six hundred feet in width, but whether surface-ground of that MANNER OF LOCAT'INOC CLAIMS ON VEINS width can be taken, depends upon the OR LODES AFTER TIHE ]PASAGE O T HE ACT OFE MAY 1M 0 1872. local regulations or State or Territorial laws in force in the several mining dis9. From and after the date of said tricts; and that no such local regulaact, any person who is a citizen of the tions or State or Territorial laws shall ITnited States, or who has declared limit a vein or lode claim to less than his intention to become a citizen, may fifteen hundred feet along the course locate, record, and hold a mining claim thereof, whether the location is made of fifteen hundred linear feet along the or more persons, nor can the course of any mineral vein or lode surface rights be limited to less than subjectto location; or an association fifty feet in width, unless adverse of persons, severally qualified as above, claims existing on the 10th day of may make joint location of such claim May, 1872, render such lateral limitaof fifteen hundred feet, but in no event tions necessary. can a location of a vein or lode made 12. It is provided in said act that subsequent to the act exceed fifteen the miners of each district may make hundred feet along the course there- rules and regulations not in conflict of, whatever may be the number of with the laws of the TUnited States, or persons composing the association. of the State or Territory in which 10. With regard to the extent of such districts are respectively situated, surface ground adjoining a vein or governinig the location, manner of refve'rbodcy goes by the Ka'nsas Pacific Railway to Stan Juan.

Page  69 LAND OF''ICE trULE:S. 69 cording, and amount of work neces- from the discovery shaft on the claim sary to hold possession of a claim. It to some permanent, well knowVn points likewise requires that the location or objects, such, for instance, as stone must be so distinctly marked on thel monuments, blazed trees, the conground that its boundaries may be fluence of streams, point of interseereadily traced. This is a very impor- tion of well known gulches, ravines or tant matter, and locators cannot exer- roads, prominent buttes, hills, etc., cise too much care in defining their which may be in the immediate vicinlocations at the outset, inasmuch as ity, and which will serve to perpetuate the law requires that all records of and fix the locus of the claim and renmining locations made subsequent to der it susceptible of identification its passage shall contain the name or from the description thereof given in names of the locators, the date of the the record of locations in the district. location, and such a description of the 15. In addition to the foregoing claim or claims located, by reference data, the claimant should state the to some natural object or permanent names of adjoining claims, or if none monurment, as will identify the claim. adjoin, the relative positions of the 13. The said act requires that no nearest claims; should drive a post or lode claim can be recorded until after erect a monument of stones at each the discovery of a vein or lode within corner of his surface ground, and at the limits of the ground claimed; the the point of discovery, or discovery object of which provision is evidently shaft, should fix a post, stake or board, to prevent the encumbering of the dis- upon which should be designated the trict mining record with useless loca- name of the lode, the name or names tions before sufficient work has been of the locators, the number of feet done thereon to determine whether a claimed, and in which direction from vein or lode has been really discovered the point of discovery, it being essenor not. tial thatthe location notice filed for 14. The claimantshould, therefore, record, in addition to the foregoing prior to recording his claim, unless description, should state whether the the vein can be traced upon the sur- entire claim of fifteen hundred feet is face, sink a shaft, or run a tunnel or taken on one side of the point of disdrift to a sufficient depth therein to covery, or whether it is partly upon discover and develop a mineral-bear- one and partly upon the other side ing vein, lode, or crevice, should de- thereof, and in the la.tter case, how termine, if possible, the general course many feet are claimed upon each side of such vein in either direction from of such discovery point. the point of discovery, by which di-, 16. Within a reasonable time, say rection he will be governed in mark- twenty days after the location shall ing the boundaries of his claim on the have been marked on the ground, nosurface, and should give the course tice thereof,. accurately describing the and distance as nearly as practicable claim, in the manner aforesaid, should The Cheapest Route, by the Kansas Pacific Railiway, to the great mines of ASa n JAuIn,

Page  70 70 LAND OFFICE RULES. be filed for record with the proper re- ing on the surface, made by other parcorder of the district, who will, there- ties after the commencement of the upon, issue the usual certificate of lo- tunnel and while the same is being cation. prosecuted with reasonable diligence, 17. In order to hold the possessory shall be invalid, but failure to proseright to a claim of fifteen hundred cute the work on the tunnel for six feet of a vein or lode located as afore- months shall be considered as an said, the act requires that until a pa- abandonment of the right to all untent shall have been issued therefor, discovered veins or lodes on the line not less than one hundred dollars' of said tunnel. worth of labor shall be performed or 20. The effect of this section is improvements made thereon during simply to give the proprietors of a each year, in default of which the mining tunnel, run in good faith, the claim shall be subject to relocation by possessory right to fifteen hundred any other party having the necessary feet of any blind lodes cut, discovered qualifications, unless the original loca- or intersected by such tunnel, which tor; his heirs, assigns, or legal repre- were not previously known to exist, sentatives, have resumed work there- within three thousand feet from the on, after such failure and before such face or point of commencement of relocation. such tunnel, and to prohibit other par18. The importance of attending ties, after the commencement of the to these details in the matter of loca- tunnel, from prospecting for and tion, labor and expenditure, will be making locations of lodes on the line more readily perceived when it is un- thereof and within said distance of derstood that a failure to give the sub- three thousand feet, unless such lodes ject proper attention, may invalidate appear upon the surface, or were prethe claim. viously known to exist. 21. The term " face," as used in TUNNEL RIGHTS. said section, is construed and held to 19.. The fourth section of the act mean the first working face formed in provides that where a tunnel is run the tunnel, and to signify the point at for the development of a vein or lode which the tunnel actually enters cover, or for the discovery of mines, the it being from this point that the three owners of such tunnel shall have the thousand feet are to be counted, upon right of possession of all veins or which prospecting is prohibited as lodes within three thousand feet from aforesaid. the face of such tunnel on the line 22. To avail themselves of the benthereof, not previously known to exist, efits of this provision of law, the prodiscovered in such tunnel, to the same prietors of a mining tunnel will be reextent as if discovered from the sur- quired, at the time they enter cover, as face; and locations on the line of such aforesaid, to give proper notice of their tunnel of veins or lodes not appear- tunnel location, by erecting a substanThe great Stock Roate is by the Kansas Pacific Railway.

Page  71 LAND OFFICE RULES. 71 tial post, board or monument, at the pended by themselvesand their preface or point of commencement there- decessors in interest in prosecuting of, upon which should be posted a good work thereon; the extent of the work and sufficient notice, giving the names performed, and that itis bona fide their of the parties or company claiming intention to prosecute work on the the tunnel right; the actual or pro- tunnel so located and described with posed course or direction of the tun- reasonable diligence for the developnel; the height and width thereof, and ment of a vein or lode, or for the disthe course and distance from such face covery of mines, or both, as the case or point of commencement to some may be. permanent well knowvn objects in the 24. This notice of location must be vicinity by which to fix and determine duly recorded, and, wit the said the locus in manner heretofore set sworn stateen attached keptonthe forth applicable to locations of veins recorders files for future reference. or lodes, and at the time of posting such notice they shall, in order that 2. By a compliancewith the foreminers or prospectors may be enabled going much needless difficulty will be to determine whether or not they are avoided, and the way for the adjustwithin the lines of the tunnel, estab- ment of legal rights acquired in virtue lish the boundary lines thereof by of said fourth section of the act will stakes or monuments placed along be made mch nore easy and certain. such lines at proper intervals, to the 26. This office will take particular terminus of three thousand feet from care that no improper advantage is the face or point of commencement of taken of this provision of law by parthe tunnel, and the lines so marked ties making or professing to make will define and govern as to the speci- tunnel locations, ostensibly for the fic boundaries within which prospect- purpose named in the statute, but ing for lodes not previously known to really for the purpose of monopolizing exist is prohibited while work on the the land lying in front of their tuntunnel is being prosecuted with reas- nels to the detriment of the mining enable diligence. interests and to the exclusion of bona 23. At /the time of posting notice fide prospectors or miners; but will and marking the lines of the tunnel, hold such tunnel claimants to a strict as aforesaid, a full and correct copy of compliance with the terms of the act; sucli notice of location defining the and as reasonable diligence on their tunnel claim must be filed for record part in prosecuting the work is one with the mining recorder of the dis- of the essential conditions of their trict, to which notice must be attach- implied contract, negligence or want ed the sworn statement or declaration of due diligence will be construed as of the owners, claimants, or projectors working a forfeiture of their right to of such tunnel, setting forth the facts all undiscovered veins on the line of in the case; stating the'amount ex- such tunnel. The only route to San Juan. is via.Kan.7sas. Pacific Railray.

Page  72 72 %iLAIND OFFICEl RULES, MANNEER O_.' PROCEEDING- TO OBTAIN GOV- 30. After posting the said plat and ERNMENT TITLE TO VEIN OR LODE 1 notice upon the premises, the claimant CLAI:MS. will file with the proper register and receiver, a copy of such plat, and the 27. By the sixth section of said act, field notes of survey of the claim, acauthority is given for granting titleidvit of at ast comipanied by the affi-davit of at least for mines by patent from the govern- o cedible witnesses, that such plat ment, to any person, association, or a nnd notice are posted conspicuously corporation having the necessary qual- upon the claim, giving the date andl ifications as to citizenship, and holding place of such posting; a copy of the the right of possession to a claim in notice so posted to be attached to and compliance with law. fori a part of said affidavit. 28. The claimant is required in the 31. Attachdd to the field notes so first place to have a correct survey of' filed, must be the sworn statement of his claim made under authority of the the claimant that he hais the possessurveyor general of the State or Tel- sory right to thle prelnises therein deritory in which the claimlies; such scribed, in virtue of a comlpliance, by survey to show with accuracy the ex- himself (ma.nd b1 his griantoars, if he terior surface boundaries of the claim, claeims by purcase,) with the mining which boundaries are required to be rules, regulations, and customs, of the distinctly marked by mon-uments on mining district, State, or Territory, in the ground. which the claimn lies, and with the 29. The claimant is tihen required mining laws of Congrress; such sworn to post a copy of the plat of' such sur. statement to nartrate briefly, but as vey in a conspicuous place upon the clearly as possible, the fa. cts constitutaclaim, together with the notice of his itg such compliance, the origin of his intention to epply for a patent there- possession, and the basis of his claim for, which notice will give the date of to a. patent. posting, the name of the claimant, the 32. This affidavit should be supname of the claim, mine, or lode, the ported by appropriate evidence from mining district or county; whether the rining recorder's office, as to his the location is of record, and if so, possessory right, as follows, viz: where the record may be found; the Where he claims to be a locator,a full, number of feet claimed along the vein, true, and correct copy of such locaand the presumed direction thereof; tion should be furnished, as the same the number of feet claimed on the lode appears upon the mining records; in each direction from the point of such copy to be attested by the seal of discovery, or other well defined place the recorder, or, if he has no seal, on the claim, the name or namles of then he should make oath to the same adjoining claimants on the same or being correct, as shown by his records; other lodes, or if none adjoin, the where the applicant claims as a locanames of the nearest claims, etc. tor, in company with others, who have BEITI'RLE Y R. KE I3, General Passenger Agent of the tKansas Pacific Railway can tell you all about routes into Sant Jutt an.

Page  73 LAND OF)FICE RUiFS. 73 since conveyed their iltterests in the 35. The notices so published and lode to him, a copy of the original re- posted must be as full and complete cord of location should be filed, to- as possible, and embrace all the data gether with an abstract of title from given in the notice posted upon the the proper recorder, under seal or oath claim. as aforesaid. tracing the co-locator's 36. Too much care cannot be exerpossessory rights in the claim, to such cised in the preparation of these noapplicant for patent; where the ap- tices, inasmuch as upon their accuracy plicant claims only as a purchaser for and completeness will depend, in a valuable consideration; a copy of the great measure, the regularity and valocation record must be filed, under lidity of the whole proceeding. seal or upon oath as aforesaid, with 37. The claimant, either at the an abstract of title certified as above, time of filing these papers with the by the proper recorder, tracing the register, or at any time during the right of possession by a continuous sixty days' publication, is required to chain of conveyances, from the origi- file a certificate of the surveyor gennal locators to the applicant. eral that not less than five hundred 33. In the event of the mining re- dollars' worth of labor has been excords in any case having been de- pended or improveiments made upon stroyed by fire, or otherwise lost, the claim by the applicant or his granaffidavit of the fiact should be made, tors that the p!at filed by the claimand secondary evidence of posses- ant; is correct; that the field notes of sory title will be received, which the survey, as filed, furnish such an may consist of the affidavit of accurate description of the claim, as the claimant, supported by those will, if incorporated into a patent, of any other parties cognizant of serve to fully identify the premises, the facts relative to his location, oc- and that such reference is made therecupancy, possession, inmprovements, in to natural objects'or permanent etc.; and in such case of lost records, monuments as will perpetluate and fix any deeds, certificates of location or the locus thereof purchase, or other evidence which may 38. It will be the more convenient be in the claimant's possession, and way to have this certificate endorsed tend to establish his claim, should be by the surveyor general, both upon filed. the plat and field notes of the survey 34. Upon the receipt of these pa- filed by the claimant as aforesaid. pers the register will, at the expense 39. After the period of sixty days' of the claimant, publish a notice of of' newspaper publication has expired, such application for the period of'six- the claimant will file his affidavit, ty days, in a newspaper published showing that the plat and notice aforenearest to the claim, and will post a said remained conspicuously posted copy of such notice in his office for'upon the claim sought to be patented, the same period. during said sixty days' publication. Address BE VERLE Y R. KElIJJ, G(-eeral Passeqnger Agent Kanmsas Pacific Railway, anld learn of the great" reci.tsoarces of the San Junn couI'ntrtl.

Page  74 74 LAND OFFICE RULES. 40. Upon the filing of this affidavit the nearest public corner of the Unithe register will, if no adverse claim ted States surveys, unless such claim was filed in his office during the period be on unsurveyed lands at a remote of publication, permit the claimant to distance from such public corner; in pay for the land according to the area which latter case the reference by given in the plat and field notes of course and distance to permanent obsurvey aforesaid, at the rate of five jects in the neighborhood will be a dollars for each acre and five dollars sufficient designation by which to fix for each fractional part of an acre, the the locus until theo public surveys shall receiver issuing the usual duplicate have been closed upon its boundaries. receipt therefor; after which, the whole matter will be forwarded to the ADVIUSE CLAIMS. commissioner of the general land of- 44. The seventh section of the act fice and a patent issued thereon, if" provides for adverse claims; fixes the found regular. time within which they shall be filed 41. In sending up the papers in the to have legal effect, and prescribes the case, the register must not omit cer- manner of their adjustment. tifying to the fact that the notice was 45. Said section requires that the posted in his office for the full period adverse claim shall be filed during the of sixty days, such certificate to state period of publication of notice; that distinctly when such posting was done it must be on the oath of the adverse and how long continued, claimant; and that it must show the 42. The consecutive series of num- nature, the boundaries, and the exbers of mineral entries must be con- tent of the adverse claim. tinned, whether the same are of lode 46. In order that this section of or placer claims. law may be properly carried into ef43. The surveyor general must feet, the following is communicated continue to designate all surveyed for the information of all concerned: mineral claims, as heretofore, by a 47. An adverse mining claim mast progressive series of numbers, begin- be filed with the register of the same ning with lot No. 37 in each township; land office with whom the application the claim to be so designated at date for patent was filed, or, in his absence, of filing the plat, field notes, etc., in with the receiver, and within the sixaddition to the local designation of ty days' period of newspaper publicathe claim; it being required in all tion of notice. cases that the plat and field notes of 48. The adverse notice must be the survey of a claim must, in addition duly sworn to before an officer authorto the reference to permanent objects ized to administer oaths within the in the neighborhood, describe the land-district, or before the register or locus of the claim with reference to receiver; it will folly set forth the the lines of public surveys, by a line nature and extent of the interference connecting a corner of the claim with or conflict; whether the adverse party The Kansas Pacific Railway gires this book free-it is irnvaluable to the miner.

Page  75 LAND OFFICE RULES. 75 claims as a purchaser for a valuable claim has been filed, informing them consideration or as a locator; if the that the party who filed the adverse former, the original conveyance, or a claim will be required within thirty duly certified copy thereof, should be days from the date of such filing, to furnished, or if the transaction was a commence proceedings in a court of mere verbal one he will narrate the competent jurisdiction, to determine circumstances attending the purchase, the question of right of possession; the date thereof and the amount paid, and to prosecute the same with reaswhich facts should be supported by onable diligence to final judgment, and the affidavit of one or more witnesses, that should such adverse claimant fail if any were present at the time, and to do so, his adverse claim will be conif he claims as a locator, he must file sidered waived, and the application a duly certified copy of the location, for the patent be allowed to proceed from the office of tle proper recorder. upon its merits. 49. In order that the "boundaries" 51. When an adverse claim is filed and' extent" of the claim may be as aforesaid, the register or receiverl shown, it will be incumbent upon the will indorse upon the same the preadverse claimant tofile a plat showing cise date of filing, and preserve a rehis claim and its relative situation and cord of the date of notifications issued position with the one against which thereon; and thereafter all proceedhe claims, so that the extent of the con- ings on the application for patent will flict may be the better understood. be suspended, with the exception of This plan must be made from an ac- the completion of the publication and tual survey by a United States deputy posting of notices and plat, and the surveyor, who will officially certify filing of the necessary proof thereof, thereon to its correctness; and in ad- until the controversy shall have been dition there must be attached to such adjudicated in court, or the adverse plat of survey a certificate or sworn claim waived or withdrawn. statement by the surveyor as to the 52. Theproceedings after rendition approximate value of the labor per- of judgment by the court in such case formed or improvements made upon are so clearly defined by the act itself the claim of the adverse party, and as to render it unnecessary to enlarge the plat must indicate the position of thereon in this place. any shafts, tunnels, or other improvePLACER CLAIMS. ments, if any such exist, upon the claim of the party opposing the ap- 53. The tenth section of the act plication. under consideration provides "that the 50. Upon the foregoing being filed act entitled'An act to amend an act within the sixty days as aforesaid, the granting the right of way to ditch and register, or in his absence the receiv- canal owners over the public lands, er, will give notice in writing to both and for other purposes,' approved July parties to the contest that such adverse 9, 1870, shall be and remain in full The information this pamphlet contains is worth more than a ticket over any other route.

Page  76 76 LA.ND OFFICE RUtLEtS. force, except as to the proceedings to to legal subdivisions, is repealed by obtain a patent, which shall be similar the present statute with regard to to the proceedings prescribed by sec- claims heretofore located, but that tion six and seven of this act for ob- where such claims are located previtaining patents for vein or lode clai ns, ous to the survey and do not conform but where said placer claims shall be to legal subdivisions, survey, plat, and upon surveyed lands and conformn to entry thereof may be made according legal subdivisions, no further survey to the boundaries fixed by local rules, or plat shall be required, and all but that where such claims do conform placer mining claims hereafter located to legal subdivisions, the entry may shall conform, as nearly as practica- be effected according to such legal ble, with the United States system of subdivisions without the necessity of public land surveys and the rect.ngu- further survey or plat. lar subdivisions of such surveys, and 57. In the second proviso to said no such locations shall include mnore twelfth section, authority is given for than twenty acres for each individual the subdivision of forty-acre legal claimant; but where placer claims subdivisions into ten acre lots, which cannot be conformed to legal subdi- is intended for the greater convevisions, survey and plat sha.ll be made nience of miners in segregating their as on unsurveyed lands," etc. claims both fiom one another and 54. The proceedings for obtaining from intervening agricultural land. patents for veins or lodes having al- 58. It is held, therefore, that under ready been fully given, it will not be a proper construction of the law, these necessary to repeat theli here; it ten-acre lots in mining districts should being thought that careful attention be considered and dealt with, to all thereto by applicants and the local intents and purposes, as legal subdiofficers will enable them to act under- visions, and that an applicant having standingl the mtte, nd ke a legal claim which conforms to one such slight modifications in the notice, or more of these ten-acre lots, either or otherwise, as may be necessary in adjoining or cornering, may make view of the different nature of the entry thereof, after the usual proceedtwo classes or claims, placer claims ings, without further survey or plat. being fixed, however, at two dollars 59. In cases of this kind, however, and fifty cents per acre, or fractional the notice given of the application part of an acre. must be very specific and accurate in 55. The twelfth and thirteenth sec- description, and as the forty-acri tions of said Act of July 9, 1870, read tracts may be subdivided into ten1as follows: * * acre lots, either in the form of ten by 56. It will be observed that that tenl chains, or of parallelograms, five portion of the first proviso to said by twenty chains, so long as the lines twelfth section, which requires placer are parallel and at right angles with claims upon surveyed lands to conform the lines of the public surveys, it will The Kansas Pacific Railway is the Pioneer Line into the great San Juan country.

Page  77 LAND OFFICE RU LES. 77i'T be necessary that the notice and a.p- ciaation of p on plication state specifically what ten- shall conform to the United States acre lots are sought to be patented, in surveys," etc. addition to the other data required in 64. The tenth section of the Act of the notice. May 10, 1872, provides that'"all placer 60. Where the ten-acre sub-divis- mining claimrs hereafter located shall ion is in the form of a square it may conform, as near as practicable, with be described, for instance, as the "S. the United States system of public E. - of the S. W. 4- of N. W. 1, or, if' land surveys, and the rectangular subin the form of a parallelogram as divisions of such surveys, and no such aforesaid, it may be described as the locations shall include more than "W.V of the W. -, of the S. W. - of twenty acres for each ilndividual the NT. W., (or, the N. I of the S. 1 claimant." of the N. E.. of the S.. ) of see- 65. The foregoing provisions of tion —, township-, range,' latv are construed to rean that after as the case may- be; but, in addition the ninth day of July. 1870, no locato this description of the land, the tion of a placer claim can be imade to notice must give all the other data exceed one hundred and sixty acres, that is required in a miineral applica- whatever mnay bb the number of location, by which parties may be pit on tors associated together, or whatever inquiry a.s to the p-lreisies sought to the local regulations of the district be patented. may allow; and that from and- after 61. The proceedings necessary fol the passage of said act of May 10l. the adjustment of rights where a 1187, no location made by an indiknown vein or lode is eHmbraced by a 1 vidual can exceed twenty acres, and placer claim, are so clearly defined in no location made by an asasociation the eleventh section of the Act as to' of individuals can exceed one hunrender any particular instructions up- dred and sixty acres, which locations on that point at this time unnecessary. of one hundred and sixty acres can62. When an adverse claim is filed n ot be made by a less number th'an to a placer application, the proceed- eight bona fide locators, but that ings are the same as in the case of whether as miuch as twenty acres can vein or lode claims already described. be located by an individual, or one QUANTITY OF PLACER GROUND SUBJECCT' hundred and sixty acres by an asso-'rO LOCATION, eiation, depends entirely upon the mining regulations in force in the, 63. By the twelfth section of the respective districts at the (late of the said amendatory Act of July 9, 1870, location; it being held that sucl (third proviso), it is declared "that mining regulations are in no way enno location of a placer claim hereafter larged by said Acts of Congress, but made shall exceed one hundred and remain intact and in full force with sixty acres for any one person or asso- regard to the size of locations, in so Buiy your- tickets'tia the Kansa.s Pacific.Rtwaiy if youe rat to go to S-n Juran

Page  78 78 LAND O'FICE RULES. far as they do not permit locations in which all controversy or litigation has excess of the limits fixed by Congress, long been settled. but that where such regulations per- 69. When an applicant desires to mit locations in excess of the maxi- make proof of possessory right, in mums fixed by Congress as aforesaid, accordance with this provision of law, they are restricted accordingly. you will not require him to produce 66. The regulations hereinbefore evidence of location, copies of conveygiven as to the manner of making ance, or abstracts of title, as in other locations on the ground, and placing cases, bnt will require him to furnish the same on record, must be observed a duly certified copy of the statute of in the case of placer locations, so far limitations for mining claims for the as the same are applicable; the law State or Territory, together with his requiring, however, that where placer sworn statement, giving a clear and claims are upon surveyed public lands, succinct narration of the facts as to the locations must hereafter be maude the origin of his title, and likewise as to conform to legal subdivisions to the continuation of his possession thereof. of the mining ground covered by this 67. With regard to the proofs nec- application; the area thereof, the essary to establish the possessory right nature and extent of the mining that to a placer claim, the said thirteenth has been done thereon; whether there section of the Act of July 9, 1870, has been any opposition to his possesprovides that "'where said person or sion or litigation with regard to his association, they and their grantors, claim; and if so, when the same shall have held and worked their said ceased; whether such cessation was claims for a period equal to the time caused by compromise or by judicial prescribed by the statute of limita- decree, and any additional facts, withtions for mining claims for the State in the claimant's knowledge having a or Territory where the same may be direct bearing upon his possession and Situated, evidence of such possession bona fides which he may desire to subarid working of the claims for such mit in support of his claim. period shall be sufficient to establish a 70. There should likewise be filed right to a patent thereto under this a certificate under seal of the court Act in the absence of any adverse having jurisdiction of mining cases claim." within the judicial district embracing 68. This provision of law will the claim, that no suit or action of any greatly lessen the burden of proof; character whatever, involving the more especially in the case of old right of possession to any portion of claims located many years since, the the claim applied for is pending, and records of which, in many cases have that there has been no litigation bebeen destroyed by fire, or lost in other fore said court affecting the title to ways during the lapse of time, but said claim or any part thereof, for a concerning the possessory right to period equal to the time fixed by the Go to San Juan via Denver and Ft. Garland.

Page  79 LAND OFFICE RUL:.ES. 79 statute of limitations for mining United States; the system of making claims in the State or Territory as deposits for mineral surveys, as reaforesaid, other than that which has quired by previous instructions, being been finally decided in favor of the hereby revoked as regards field work; claimant. the claimant having the option of em71. The claimant should support ploying any deputy surveyor within his narrative of facts relative to his such district to do his work in the possession, occupancy, and improve- field. ments, by corroborative testimony of 75. With regard to the platting any disinterested person or persons of of the claim and other oliice work in credibility, who nmy be cognizant of the surveyor-general's office, that offithe facts in the case, and are capable cer will make an estimate of the cost of testifying understandingly in the thereof, which amount the claimant premises. will deposit with any assistant United 72. It will be to the advantage of States treasurer, or designated deposclaimants to make their proofs as full itory, in favor of the United States and complete as practicable. treasurer, to be passed to the credit of the fund created by "individual deA.PPOINTTIENT OF DEPUTY SURVEYORS positors for surveys of the public OF M1INING CLAIMS- CIARG(ES FOR lands," and file with the surveyorSURVEYS AND PUBLICATIONS-FEES general duplicate certificates of such OF REGISTERS AND RECEIVERS, ETC. REGISERS AND RECEIERSETC. deposit, in the usual manner. 73. The twelfth section of the said 76. The surveyors-general will enAct of May 10, 1862, provides for the deavor to appoint mineral deputy surappointment of surveyors of mineral veyors, as rapidly as possible, so that claims, authorizes the commissioner one or more may be located in each of the General Land Office to establish mining district for the greater convethe rates to be charged for surveys nience of miners. and for newspaper publications, pre- 77.' The usual oaths will be rescribes the fees allowed to the local quired of these deputies and their officers for receiving and acting upon assistants as to the correctness of each applications for mining patents and survey executed by them. for adverse claims thereto, etc. 78. The law requires that each ap74. The surveyors-general of the plicant shall file with the register and several districts, will, in pursuance of receiver a sworn statement of all said law, appoint in each land district charges and fees paid by him for pubas many competent deputies for the lication of notice and for survey, survey of mining claims as may seek together with all fees and moneys paid such appointment; it being distinctly the register and receiver, which sworn understood that all expense of these statement is required to be transmitnotices and surveys are to be borne by ted to this office, for the information the mining claimants and not by the of the commissioner. For Machinery, Bullion or Ore Shipments, address T. F. OAKE'S, General Freight Ageit CKansas Pacific Rail-way, Kansas City, MAo.

Page  80 80 LAND: OFE:LCEr R.ULES. 79. Shouldi it appear that excessive be situated, in which case they will or exorbitant charges have been made have the same force and effect as if by any surveyor or any publisher, taken before the register or receiver, prompt action will be taken with the and that in cases of contest as to the view of correcting the abuse. mineral or agricultural. character of 80. The fees payable to the regis- land, the testimony and proofs may be ter alnd receiver, for filing and acting taken before any such officer on perupon applications for mineral land sonal notice of at least ten days to patents, made under said act of Maly' the opposing party, or, if said patrty 10, 1872, are five dollars to each offi- cannot be found, then, after publicacer, to be paid by the applicant for tion of notice for at least once a week patent at the time of filing, and the for thirty days, in a newspaper, to be like sum of five is payable to deosignated by the register as pubeach officer by an adverse claimant at I hished nearest to the locationl of such the time of filing his adverse claim. land, proof of such notice must be 81. All fees or charges under this a made to the register. aet,-or the acts of which it is amenda-' 85. The instructions heretofore istory, may be paid in United States, sued with regacrd to disproving the currency. m lineral character of' lands,,are ac82. The register aind receiver will, I cordingly modified so as to allow a.t the close of each month, forward p lroof upon that point to be taken beto this office an abstract of mining ap- fore an.y officer authorized to adminisplications filed, and a register of re- ter oaths within the land district, and ceipts, accompanied w-ith an abstract 1 that where the residence of the parof mineral lands sold. ties who claim the land to he mineral 83. The fees and purchase montey is known, such evidence may be taken received by registers and receivers without publication, ten days after iust be placed to the credit of the the mineral claimantsor affiants shall United States in the receiver's month- i have been personally notified of the ly and quarterly account, charging up time and place of such hearing; but in the disbursing account the sums to in cases where such affiants or claimwhich the register and receiver may ants cannot be served with personal be respectively entitled as fees and notice, or where the land applied for commissions, with limitations in re- is returned as mineral upon thetowngard to the legal maximutm, ship plat, or where the same is now or 84. The thirteenth section of the -may hereafter be suspended for nonsaid act of May 10, 1872, provides that miineral1 proof, by order of this office. all affidavits required under said act, then the party who claimn.s the right or the act of which it is amendatory, to enter the land as agricultural will may be verified before any officer be required, at his own expense, to pbauthorized to administer oaths within lish a notice once each week for five the land district where the claims may consecutive weeks in the newslaper Folr (Lay info'rmTation as to Freight on the'way, a:lddlrss'I: F. OA IEiS, General Freight Age1nt, Kt.zansas City, M;o.

Page  81 LAND OFFICE RULES. 81 of largest circulation published in the for his mill site as provided in this county in which said land is situated; section. or, if no newspaper is published with- 87. To avail themselves of this in such county, then in a newspaper provision of law, parties holding the published in an adjoining county, the possessory right to a vein or lode, and newspaper in either case to be desig- to a piece of land not contiguous nated by the register, which notice thereto, for mining or milling purposmust be clear and specific, embracing es, not exceeding the quantity allowed the points required in notices under for such purposes by the local rules, instructions from this office of March regulations or customs, the proprietors 20, 1872, and must name a day after of' such vein or lode may file in the the last day of publication of said no- proper Land Office their application tice, when testimony as to the charac- for a patent, under oath, in manner ter of the land will be taken, stating already set forth herein, which applibefore what magistrate or other officer cation, together with the plat and field such hearing will be had, and the notes, may include, embrace and deplace of such hearing. scribe in addition to the vein or lode, such non-contiguous mill site, and MIlLL SITES. after due proceedings as to notice, etc., a patent will be issued conveying the 86. The fifteenth section of said act same as one claim. provides, "That where non-mineral 88. In nmaking the surveyin a case land, not contiguous to the vein or of this kind, the lode claim should be lode, is used or occupied by the pro- described in the plat and field notes, as prietor of such vein or lode, for min- " Lot No. -37, A,' and the mill site as ing or milling purposes, such non-ad- " Lot No. 37, B'" or wlatever may be jacent surface ground maybe embraced its appropriate numerical designation: and included in an application for a the course and distance fi'om a corner patent for such vein or lode, and the of the mill site to a corner ofthe lode same may be patented therewith, sub- claim to be invariably given in such ject to the same preliminary require- plat and field notes, and a copy of the ments as to survey and notice as are plat and notice of application for applicable under this act to veins or patent must be conspicuously posted lodes; Provided, That no location upon the mill site as well as upon the hereafter made of such,non-adjacent vein or lode for the statutory period land shall exceed five acres, and pay- of sixty days. In making the entry, ment for the same must bemade at the no separate receipt or certificate need same rate as fixed by this act for the be issued for the mill site, but the superficies of the lode. The owner of iwhole area of both lode and mill site the quartz mill or reduction works, will be embraced in one entry, the not owning a mine in connection price being five dollars for each acre therewith, may also receive a patent and fractional part of an acre emThe Officers and Conductors on the Kansas Pacific Railway are always ready to give any information required. 6

Page  82 82 LAND OFFICE RULES. braced by such lode and mill site tion of the act under consideration, claim. may consist, in the case of an individ89. In case the owner of a quartz ual claimant,of his own affidavit of mill or reduction works is not the the fact; in the case as an association owner or claimant of a vein or lode, of persons not incorporated, of the the law permits him to make applica- affidavit of their authorized agent, tion therefor in the same mannerpre- made on his own knowledge or upon scribed herein for mining claims, and information and belief that the severafter due notice and proceedings, in al members of such association are the absence of a valid adverse filing, citizens; and in the case of an incorto enter and receive a patent for the porated company, organized under the mill site at said price per acre. laws of the United States, or the laws 90. In every case there must be of any State or Territory of the Unisatisfactory proof that the land ted States, by the filing of a certified claimed as a mill site is not mineral in copy of their charter or certificate of character, which proof may, where incorporation. the matter is unquestioned, consist of 94. These affidavits of citizenship the sworn statement of the claimant, may be taken before the register or supported by that of one or more dis- receiver, or any other officer, authorinterested persons capable from ac- ized to administer oaths within the quaintance with the land to testify district. undestandingly. 95. Copies of the previous mining 91. The law expressly limits mill statutes of Congress, dated respectivesite locations made from and after its ly July 26, 1866, and July 9, 1870, are passage to five acres, but whether so hereto attached. Sections one, two, much as that can be located depends three, four and six, of the former, beupon the local customs, rules or reg- ing expressly repealed by the ninth ulations. section of the act of May 10, 1872, 92. The registers andreceivers will aforesaid, which in its sixteenth seepreserve an unbroken consecutive tion also repeals all acts and parts of series of numbers for all mineral en- acts inconsistent with its provisions. tries. 96. The foregoing will be followed in due time by such further instrucPROOF OF CITIZENSHIP OF MIINING PROOF OF CITIZENSHIP OF INING tions as actual experience in the adCLAIMANTS. ministration of the statute may ren93. The proof necessary to estab- der iecessary. lish the citizenship of applicants for Very respectfully, mining patents, whether under the Your obedient servant, present or past enactments, it will be WILLIS DRUMMOND, seen by reference to the seventh sec- Commissioner. Ho, for the San Juan Mines-the Kansas Pacific Railway is the only reliable route.

Page  83 IMPORTANT MINING DECISION. 83 IMPORTANT MINING DECISION. At the last term of the District Court of pose of the convenient working of the said Boulder county an ejectment suit came on to mine." be heard. The owner of the American mine The construction which has been given to had applied for a patent. The owner of the this part of the law is that a party has a right Bull of the Woods, which was a cross-lode, to a patent for the number of feet along his filed an adverse. On the trial, Judge Belford lode or vein to which he has the local title, claimed that when two lodes crossed each upon fuil compliance with the law and inother, all that the prior locator could take siructions; provided, however, that where anwas the ore at the point of intersection of the other lode crosses, the ore at the space of intertwo veins, and not all the vein which was section of the two lodes belongs to the party who found inside of the side lines of the location, owns the prior location of the two. The court refused to adopt this view. A short The law clearly refers to cross-lodes, and time since Judge Belford addressed a note to provides that the ore at the crossing of the two the Commissioner of the General Land Office, lodes shall belong to the first valid location, asking for a construction of section 14 of the and hence where a patent issues for a mining Mining Act of 1872, and has received the fol- claim which crosses one already patented, the lowing reply, which is in accordance with the surface ground in conflict is excepted from the construction which he asked the court to give: second patent, but the subsequent patentee has the rght under his patent to his lode for the DEPARTMIENT OF THE INTERIOR, A GENERALLANOFFIC, vT distance patented, with the proviso hereinbeGENERAL LAND OFFICE,. pa tI WASHINGTON D. C., Fe. 2 1876. I fore referred to, viz: that the ore at the space WASHIINGTON, D. C., Feb. 25, 1876. ) of intersection of the cross-lodes shall belong James B. Belford, Esq., Central City, Col.: to the prior location. SIR:-Referring to your letter of the 15th Very respectfully, your obedient servant, inst., I have to state that the 14th section of L. K. LTPPINcOTT, the Mining Act of May 10, 1872, provides Acting Commissioner.'that where two or more veins cross or inter- ------ sect each other, priority of title shall govern, PATRONIZE the railroad line most and each prior location shall be entitled to all likely to afford yoou a broad gauge ore or mineral contained within the space of intersection: Provided, however, that thesub- conn t t of the sequent location shall have the right of way country-the great Kansas Pacific through said space of intersection for the pur- Railway. The Kansas Pacific Rcailway is the Pioneer Road of the West.

Page  84 -^~-i l~prCU! i i-. i y^ Junction City & Ft. Kearney Ratilroad, Arkansas Valley Railway, Denver Paeific Railway, Denvter andn Boulder Valley Railroad, GENERAL FREIGHT OFFICE, Kansas City Mo., June 15th, 1876. CI RGC T ULAR. R Official notice has been received fiom the Denver and Rio Grande Railway, (narrow gauge) of the opening of its line to a point twenty-three miles southwest from Cucharas, in the general direction of Fort Garland and Del Norte, being ninety-two miles from. the latter place. This point is called VETA, and it is the nearest railroad station accessible to the San Juan country, and shippers to Del Norte, Ou1ray, Sagnache, Silverton, Lake, and other points, will save sixty miles in w:ag'on transportation afnd ten days time by shipping to this point. All goods should be imarkled and consigned as follows: "VETA COLORADO, via K. P. R'y and Kansas City, (or Leavenworth.)" This will insure shippers quick dispatch by the "Kansas Pacific Fast Freight train," running from the Missouri River to Denver in sixty hours, making close connection with the through freight train of the Denver and Rio Grande road, and reaching Veta in advance of freight by any other route. The annexed rates are established subject to the Revised Western Classification in force out of Chicago and St. Louis. FROM MERCHANDISE.-In Cents per 100 Lbs. bblp. In Dollars per Car Load.' KANSAS CITY; s - - 1 I -,1 0 Q Q o Co S s ^ 6 ~ s TO Co Z 5 & P 0 d d VRTA..................262 28 1 218 190 218 00 163 00272 00 68 T, F. FOAK:ES, General Freight Agent,

Page  85 Kansas PaciR: Railway Company Junc tion City & Ft. Kearney Railroad, Arkansas Valley Railway, Denver Pacific Ratilway, Denver (t Boulder Valley IRailroad. GENERAL FREIGHT OFFICE, Kansas City. Mo., June 16th, 1876. The following Commission and Forwarding Merchants are now fully established at EL MORO, Colorado, the present southern terminus of the Denver and Rio Grande Railway, and as will appear by the annexed tariff, a considerable reduction in rates of freight has been made. This, in connection with a saving in wagon transportation of some eighty miles, the excellent facilities provided by the commission houses referred to, and the well-known desire of New Mexico and Arizona merchants to encourage the advance of railroads in the direction of their country, justifies the belief that E1 Moro will soon become the favorite shipping point for their freight. The Commission Houses are (Chick, Browne & Co., and Bartels Bros, The annexed rates are established subject to the Revised Western Classification: MEOR AND1tIE-In Oents per 100 1b5. Cs. pe In Dollars per Car Load. KANSAS CITY U'I (011 LEAVENWORTH). V < 0 - I V A Fast Freight Train is now run daily by the Kansas Pacific from Kansas City and Leavenworth to Denver in sixty hours, where close connection is made with the Denver and Rio Grande line, making this the quickest eight route to E1 MIoroc and all points south. ~~GTO 03Q egh 0et0 For further advice as to rates or other information, address G. D. Root, Agent, El Moro; D. C. DODGE, General Freight Agent Denver and Rio Grande Railway, or the undersigned. rr. i1-. (D General Freight Agent.

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Page  89 COMPLETED TO EL MORO ANDVETA, ALONG TIE BASE OF TIlE TD COY:6<OUTAIN Forming, in connection with the KANSAS PACIFIC RAILWAY, the Direct and only Route from the East, via COLORADO SPRINGS, MANITOU, PUEBLO, CANON CITY, CUCHARAS, VETA, and EL MORO THE OINLY lINE MIAKING DIRECT STAGE CONNECTIONS FOR FA IRP PLA Y, FORT UNIOYN CIM IAR R 0 SAGA UFCIIE, R OSTA, SANTA.FE, LAKE CITY, DEL NORTE, -33_D.ALLJ SQOUTHE3:EBRiN POI:NTTS All Passenger Trains equipped with the WESTINGHOUSE AIR BRAKE and MILLER'S SAFETY PLATFORM. For inforlation in regard to F'reight and Passenger business, apply at office, 249 Sixteelltli Street. McClintock Blocks or address -.o C,:S3 CO Gris. D en'l Freight and Pass'r Agent, -~-.-_-_.I. DE1NVE-EI,, COl.I 1o i EC TN CO S AT IDENVEilEK. with lansas Pacific and Denver Pacific Rail wa)s for all points East and West. AT CO1.OLfRAI0O SPRI-NxS. with daily line of stages for Manitou; tri-weekly line, leaving lMon days, Wednesdays and Fridays, for Fairplay and vicinity. FA KY. IIT,s S. DENVER TO MANITOU AND RETURN................................ 12 00 80 " FAIRPLAY....................................... 12 00 ~ 160 AT NCA %OX CITY, wvith Barlow & Sanderson's daily line of stagps for Rosita; and tri-weekly line, l'etaving Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, for South Arkansas, Sagauche, Lake City and Del Norte. FARIKE, lILES. DENVER TO ROSITA...................................................... 14 00 191 " " SA(GAUCHI AND DEL NOR'TE................3....... 30 00 260. LAKE CITY...............................6........................ 46 00 303 AT V~ETA. with Barlow & Sanderson's coaches for Fort Carland, Del Norte and Lake City. Coaches leave Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Fare to DEL NORTE and LAKE CITY same as via Canon City, AT EL 1IOT5O, with Southern Overland Mail and Express Company's daily line of coachles for Cimarron, Fort Union, Las Vegas, Santa Fe, and all points in New Mexico. FARE. MILES. DENVER TO CIM.ARRON...........................................8 00 271 " ORT UNION................................... 38 00 806 " LAS VEGAS.............................................. 43 00 341' "' "SANTA FE......................... 55 00 411 Stages leave Santa Fe every Monday and Friday afternoon for Albuquerque, Las Cruces, El Paso, Silver City, and Tucson, making connections;or all points in Southern Mexico and Arizona. FARE. MILES. SANTA FE TO ALBUQUERQUE............................................... 15 00 72 " LAS CRUCES................................................... 70 00 303 " EL PASO........................................................... 80 00 363 " " SILVER CITY................................................... 90 00 421' TUCSON.................................................... 140 00 606

Page  90 FREIGHT! FREIGHT! FREIGHT! The attention of Mliners and Farmers who go to tie San Juan country is invited to the annexed Table of Rates on their household goods, farm implements, wagons, live stock, etc. (groceries and provisions not included) by the Kansas Pacific Railway FROMI i LESS LEAVENWORTH AND KANSAS CITY CAR LOADS. I THAN CAR LOAD). TO. Per 100 lbs. LAS ANIMIAS....................... 90 $.90 L A JU N TA.........................................................95.95 DEN V ER............................................................ 100 1.00 PU EBLO....................................................... 100 1.00 CANON CITY.................................................... 130 1.30 CUCHA AS........................................................ 130 1.30 V ETA................................................................. 130 1.30 EL M ORO................................................ 130 1.30 One man will be passed free in charge of each Car containing Live Stock. For information in regard to Rates to CUCHARAS, VETA, FORT GARLAND or EL MORO (five miles From Trinidad), address the undersigned. G(en'l 1Freight Agent, Kansas City, NMo. In order to obtain the advantage of the above low rates, all goods should be marked and consigned, "Care KANSAS PACIFIC RAILWAY, Kansas City, Mo." (or Leavenworth, Kas). ~' ell your friends who go the San Juan country to travel by the KANSAS PACIFIC, by the way of Denver, Veta and Fort Garland, and to mark and consign their freight as follows: "Care K. P. RAILWAY, via Kansas City, Mo. "RATES LOWER AND TIME BETTER THANI BY ANY OTHER ROUTE."