Latin hymns, with English notes.
March, Francis Andrew, ed. 1825-1911.

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Page  [unnumbered] NOTICE. IT is remarkable that no place has been given in the schools and colleges of England and America to the writings of the early Christians. For many centuries, and down to what is called the Pagan renaissance, they were the common linguistic study of educated Christians. The stern piety of those times thought it wrong to dally with the sensual fiivolities of heathen poets, and never imagined it possible that the best years of youth should be spent in mastering the refinements of a mythology and life which at first they feared and loathed, and which at last became as remote and unreal to them as the Veda is to us. Classical Philology, however, took its ideal of beauty from Pagan Greece, and it has filled our schools with those books which are its best representatives. The modern Science of Language has again changed the point of view. It gives the first place to truth; it seeks to know man, his thoughts, his growth; it looks on the literature of an age as a daguerreotype of the age; it values books according to their historical significance. The writings of the early Christians embody the history of the most important events known to man, in language not unworthy of the events; and the study of Latin and Greek as vehicles of Christian thought should be the most fiuitful study known to Philology, and have its place of honor in the University Course. The present Series owes its origin to an endowment

Page  IV iv NOTICE. by Mr. Benjamin Douglass for the study of these authors in Lafayette College. Each volume will be prepared with critical text, introduction, and notes, like the current approved text-books for college study. They will be edited by F. A. March, LL.D., Professor of Comparative Philology in Lafayette College, with such help as may be found desirable. Four volumes are now in press. LATIN. GREEK. LATIN HYMNS. EUSEBIUS. TERTULLIAN. ATHENAGORAS. In addition to the Latin Hymns, it is expected that Eusebius will be ready for the fall term of 1874, and the others will shortly follow. Should the Series be welcomed, it will be continued with volumes of Augustine, Cyprian, Lactantius, Justin Martyr, Chrysostom, and others, in number sufficient for a complete college course.


Page  [unnumbered] Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by HARPER & BROTHERS, In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

Page  [unnumbered] PREFACE. ALMOST all our elder scholars have favorite Latin hymns, just as they have favorite poems in German or Old English, but-they do not seem to have thought of them for college study; that was reserved in the old time for a handful of authors of the so-called classical periods of Latin and Greek. But since the modern Science of Language has widened the view, and we are welcoming text-books in German and English and Anglo-Saxon, and even in Sanskrit and Chinese, it will no longer be a fatal objection to the Iymns that they are not HIoratian or Ciceronian. The study of literature is useful mainly to develop character. It is the study of what the great and good have thought and felt and done. By a careful study of their words, we are enabled rapidly to think their thoughts, to repeat in our experience their aspirations and resolves, and to recognize and accept their ideals. Those books of literature are the highest educational powers which contain the most truthful delineation and expression of the noblest character. Chvristian is a better word than Augustan. For inspiring and elevating thought,

Page  VIII Viii PREFACE. and for vigor, harmony, and simplicity of language, the Hymns are better than any Augustan Odes. They are the true Latin folk poems; they have been called "the Bible of the people." They are a valuable study also from the biographical, historical, and literary matter that comes up in reading them. The authors are many of them the heroes of their generation, kings in the realms of thought or action. Interesting events are connected with their composition or history, and they are full of allusion to the great works of the older period, the Bible and the fathers of the Church. There is great variety in the suljects, the meters, and the style of the hymns. The works to which I have been most indebted for the materials of this collection are the following: H. A. DANIEL: Thesaurus Hymnologicus. Lipsiae, 18411856, 5 vols.-F. J. MONE: Lateinische Hymnen des Mittelalters. Freiburg, 1853-1855, 3 vols.- PHILIPP WACKERNAGEL: Das Deutsche Kirchenlied, etc., vol. i. (Latin Hymns). Leipzig, 1864.-R. C. TRENCH: Sacred Latin Poetry, chiefly Lyrical. 2d ed., London and Cambridge, 1864.-J. M. NEALE: Mediaeval Hymns and Sequences. London, 1867.-MRs. CHARLES: The Voice of Christian Life in Song. New York, 1867.PHILIP SCIHAFF, Christ in Song. New York, 1868.-G. A. KONIGSFELD: Lateinische Hymnen und Gesange, etc. Bonn, 1847-1865, 2 vols. I have consulted many other books of collections and translations, as well as

Page  IX PREFACE. ix the hymns to be found in the editions of the works of separate authors; and I wish to present my thanks to Dr. I. B. Smith, Professor and lately Librarian in Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York, and to Dr. R. D. Hitchcock, of the same seminary, for aid in finding the best works for my purpose, and for procuring me the use of rare old books from the library of the seminary. Almost all the hymns here given may, however, be found in Daniel, Mone, or Wackernagel, many of them in all three. The illustrations from the writings of the Christian fathers are mostly in Daniel or Mone; those from the Greek in Mone. I hope I have taken every thing good that there is in Trench, and pretty much all of Trench is good; I may say the same thing of Dr. Schaff's Christ in Song, and repeat it with more emphasis of Mrs. Charles's Christian Life in Song. There is hardly one of the many hymns translated by her which I have not chosen to put in this collection. Her book is also a storehouse of interesting general description and criticism, and of valuable illustrative anecdotes and extracts from the older authors. Among the thousands of Latin hymns, there are doubtless many which other students of them would have preferred to some of these. Sometimes a famous author, or a peculiar meter, or some historical association, has given a hymn a place it would not otherwise have obtained. It is likely that there are some omitA 2*

Page  X X PREFACE. ted which I should prefer, but which have not attracted my careful attention. I shall esteem it a kindness if any one will tell me of favorite hymns, or other matter, which he would like to see introduced if a new edition should be needed. In the grammatical notes, H. stands for Harkness's Latin Grammar; A. and G. for Allen and Greenough's; M. for March's Comparative Anglo-Saxon Grammar. F. A. M. LAFAYETTE COLLEGE, EASTON, PA., | August, 1874.

Page  [unnumbered] CONTENTS. HYMNS. Page I. Hilarius............................................................ 1 II. Damasus.............................................................. 6 III. Ambrosius.......................................................... 8 Ambrosiani..y....................................................... 20 IV. Augustiniani...................................................... 45 V. Prudentius......................................................... 51 VI. Sedulius.............................................................. 5 VII. Elpis................................................................... 62 VIII. Fortunatus............................................................ 64 IX. Eugenius.............................................................. 69 X. Auctor Incertus.................................................... 71 XI. Gregorius M agnus................................................. 74: XII. Beda Venerabilis.................................................. 79 XIII. Paulus Diaconus.................................................. 84 XIV. Alcuin................................................................. 86 XV. Theodulphus....................................................... 87 XVI. Notkerus Vetustior............................................... 88 XVII. Auctor Incertus................................................... 90 XVIII. Robertus, Galliae Rex........................................... 92 XIX. Petrus Damiani................................................... 94 XX. M arbod............................................................... 99 XXI. Hildebertus Turonensis........................................ 102 XXII. Abaelardus............................................... 110 XXIII. Bernardus Claravallensis....................................... 114 XXIV. Bernardus Cluniacensis...................1.................. 126 XXV. Petrus Venerabilis................................................ 130 XXVI. Adam de Sc.Victore............................................. 134 XXVII. Alanus Insulanus.................................................. 149

Page  XII Xii CONTENTS. Page XXVIII. Thomas a Celano............................................... 154 XXIX. Bonaventura..................................................... 157 XXX. Thomas Aquinas............................................... 164 XXXI. Iacoponus......................................................... 171 XXXII. Thomas a Kempis.............................................. 178 XXXIII. Iohannes Mauburnus........................................ 181 XXXIV. Auctores Incerti................................................. 183 XXXV. Maria, Scotiae Regina........................................ 210 XXXVI. Lutherus et Buttmann................................. 211 XXXVII. Toplady et Gladstone......................................... 213 NOTES AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. Page Page Hilarius........................... 217 Hildebert........................ 271 Damasus.......................... 221 Abelard........................... 274 Ambrosius........................ 223 Bernard of Clairvaux........ 276 Ambrosiani..................... 230 Bernard of Clugny............ 279 Prudentius...................... 244 Petrus Venerabilis............ 281 Sedulius........................... 248 Adam of St.Victor.......... 282 Elpis............................... 250 Alanus Insulanus.............. 290 Fortunatus...................... 251 Thomas of Celano............. 291 Eugenius.......................... 255 Bonaventura..................... 296 Apparebit repentina.......... 256 Thomas Aquinas............... 297 Gregory the Great............ 257 Iacoponus........................ 300 The Venerable Bede......... 261 Thomas a Kempis............. 303 Paulus Diaconus............... 262 John Mauburne................ 305 Alcuin............................. 263 Anonymous Hymns........... 305 Theodulphus.................... 264 Anselm of Lucca.............. 307 Notker the Elder.............. 265 Francis Xavier................. 308 Ave Maria....................... 267 Gotschalk........................ 312 Robert, King of France..... 268 Mary, Queen of Scots......... 313 Petrus Damiani................ 269 Luther and Buttmann....... 314 Marbod............................ 270 Toplady and Gladstone..... 315 The Rise and Growth of the Latin Hymns.......................... 317 The Language of the Hymns, 318. The Meters, 319. Table of Stanzas used........................................................ 321 Alphabetical Index by first lines of all the Hymns and their M eters........................................................................... 329

Page  [unnumbered] 1. H ILA RIU S. I. HYMNUS MATUTINUS. Lucis largitor splendide, Cuius sereno lumine Post lapsa noctis tempora Dies refusus panditur; Tu verus mundi Lucifer, 5 Non is, qui parvi sideris Venturae lucis nuntius Angusto fulget lumine, Sed toto sole clarior, Lux ipse totus et dies, 10 Interna nostri pectoris Illuminans praecordia.: Adesto, rerum conditor, Paternae lucis gloria, Cuius admota gratia 15 Nostra patescunt corpora. A

Page  2 2 HILARIUS. Tuoque plena spiritu, Secum Deum gestantia, Ne rapientis perfidi I0 Diris patescant fraudibus, Ut inter actus seculi Vitae quos usus exigit, Omni carentes crimine Tuis vivamus legibus.,5 Probrosas mentis castitas Carnis vincat libidines, Sanctumque puri corporis Delubrum servet Spiritus. Haec spes precantis animae, 30 Haec sunt votiva munera, Ut matutina nobis sit Lux in noctis custodiam. II. HYMNUS MATUTINUS. Deus, Pater ingenite, Et Fili unigenite, Quos Trinitatis unitas Sancto connectit Spiritu. 5 Te frustra nullus invocat, Nec cassis unquam vocibus Amator tui luminis Ad coelum vultus erigit.

Page  3 HILARIUS. 3 Et tu suspirantem Deus, Vel vota supplicantium, 10 Vel corda confitentium Semper benignus aspice. Nos lucis ortus admonet Grates deferre debitas, Tibique laudes dicere, 15 Quod nox obscura praeterit. Diem precamur bonum, Ut nostros, Salvator, actus Sinceritate perpeti Pius benigne instruas. 20 IIL DE LUCTU POENITENTIAE. Ad coeli clara non sum dignus sidera Levare meos infelices oculos, Gravi depressus peccatorum pondere: Parce, Redemptor! Bonum neglexi facere, quod debui, 5 Probrosa gessi sine fine cririna, Scelus patravi nullo clausum termino: Subveni, Christe! Lugere modo me permitte, Domine, Mala, quae gessi, reus ab infantia, 10 Lacrimas mihi tua donet gratia Cordis ab imo.

Page  4 4 HIIIARIUS. Meis, ut puto, vitiis Tartarea Tormenta multis non valent sufficere, 15 Nisi succurrat, Christe, tua pietas Misero mihi. Redemptor mundi, unica spes omnium, Aequalis Patri Sanctoque Spiritui, Trinus et unus Deus invisibilis, 20 Mihi succurre! Si me subtili pensas sub libramine, Spes in me nulla remanet fiduciae, Sed rogativa me salvet potentia Filius Dei. 25 Xriste, te semper recta fide labii3 Confessus, corde credidi orthodoxo, lHaereticorum dogma nefas respui Pectore puro. Ymnum fideli modulando gutture 30 Arrium sperno, latrantem Sabellium, Assensi nunquam grunnienti Simoni Fauce susurra. Zelum pro Christi sum zelatus nomine, Nam sancta mater lacte me catholico 35 Tempus per omne nutrivit Ecclesia Ubere sacro. Gloria Sanctae Trinitati unicae Sit Deo Patri, Genito, Paraclito, Laus meo sonet-in ore perpetuum 40 Domini semper.

Page  5 HILARIUS. 5 IV. HIYMNUS PENTECOSTALIS. Beata nobis gaudia Anni reduxit orbita, Cum Spiritus paraclitus Illapsus est discipulis. Ignis vibrante lumnine 5 Linguae figuram detulit, Verbis ut essent proflui, Et charitate fervidi. Linguis loquuntur omniunm; Turbae pavent gentilium: 10 Musto madere deputant, Quos Spiritus repleverat. Patrata sunt haec mystice, Paschae peracto tempore, Sacro dierum circulo, 15 Quo lege fit remissio. Te nunc, piissime Deus, Vultu precamur cernuo: Illapsa nobis coelitus Largire dona Spiritus! 20 Dudum sacrata pectora Tua replesti gratia, Dimitte nostra crimina, Et da quieta tempora!

Page  [unnumbered] II. DAMASUS. HYMNUS DE S. AGATHA. Martyris ecce dies Agathae Virginis emicat eximiae, Christus ear sibi qua sociat Et diadema duplex decorat. 5 Stirpe decens, elegans specie, Sed magis actibus atqne fide, Terrea prospera nil reputans, Iussa Dei sibi corde ligans, Fortior haec trucibusque viris 10 Exposuit sua membra flagris; Pectore quam fuerit valido Torta mamilla docet patulo. Deliciae cui career erat, Pastor ovem Petrus hanc recreat; 15 Inde gavisa magisque flagrans Cuncta flagella cucurrit ovans.

Page  7 DAMASUS. 7 Ethnica turba rogum fugiens Huius et ipsa meretur opem; Quos fidei titulus decorat, His Venerem magis ipsa premat. 20 Iam renitens quasi sponsa polo Pro miseris supplica Domino, Sic sua festa coli faciat Se celebrantibus ut faveat. Gloria cum Patre sit Genito, 25 Spirituique proinde sacro, Qui Deus unus et omnnipotens Hanc nostri faciat memorem.

Page  [unnumbered] III. A MBROSIU S. I. HYMNUS MATITTINUS. Aeterne rerum conditor, Noctem diemque qui regis, Et temporum das tempora, Ut alleves fastidium; 5 Praeco diei iam sonat, Noctis profindae pervigil, Nocturna lux viantibus, A nocte noctem segregans. Hoc excitatus lucifer 10 Solvit polum caligine, Hoc omnis errorum chorus Viam nocendi deserit. Hoc nauta vires colligit Pontique mitescunt freta, 15 Hoc ipsa petra ecelesiae Canente culpam diluit.

Page  9 AMBROSIUS. 9 Surgamus ergo strenue! Gallus iacentes excitat, Et somnolentos increpat, Gallus negantes arguit. 20 Gallo canente spes redit, Aegris salus refunditur, Mucro latronis conditur, Lapsis fides revertitur. Iesu, labentes respice, 25 Et nos videndo corrige, Si respicis, lapsus cadunt, Fletuque culpa solvitur. Tu lux refulge sensibus, Mentisque somnum discute, 30 Te nostra vox primum sonet Et ore psallamus tibi. II. HYMNUS VESPERTINUS. Deus creator omniurm Polique rector, vestiens Diem decoro lumine, Noctem soporis gratia, Artus solutos ut quies 5 Reddat laboris usui, Mentesque fessas allevet Luctusque solvat anxios. A 2

Page  10 10 AMBROSIUS. Grates peracto iam die 10 Et noctis exortu preces, Votis, reos ut adiuves, Hymnum canentes solvimus. Te cordis ima concinant, Te vox canora concrepet, 15 Te diligat castus amor, - Te mens adoret sobria. Ut cum profunda clauserit Diem caligo noctium, Fides tenebras nesciat 20 Et nox fide reluceat. Dormire mentem ne sinas, Dormire culpa noverit; Castos fides refrigerans Somni vaporem temperet. 25 Exuta sensu lubrico Te cordis alta somnient, Ne hostis invidi dolo Pavor quietos suscitet. Christum rogemus et Patrem 30 Christi Patrisque Spiritum, Unum potens per omnia Fove precantes Trinitas.

Page  11 AMBROSIUS. 11 m. HYMNUS AD MATUTINUM. Splendor paternae gloriae, De luce lucem proferens, Lux lucis et fons luminis, Diem dies illuminaus, Verusque sol illabere, 5 Micans nitore perpeti, Iubarque Sancti Spiritus Infunde nostris sensibus. Votis vocemus et Patrem, Patrem perennis gloriae, 10 Patrem potentis gratiae, Culpam releget lubricam. Informet actus strenuos, Dentes retundat invidi, Casus secundet asperos, 15 Donet gerendi gratiam. Mentem gubernet et regat Casto fideli corpore, Fides calore ferveat, Fraudis venena nesciat. 20 Christusque nobis sit cibus, Potusque noster sit fides, L Laeti bibamus sobriam Ebrietatem spiritus.

Page  12 12 AMBROSIUS. 25 Laetus dies hic transeat, Pudor sit ut diluculum, Fides velut meridies, Crepusculum mens nesciat. Aurora cursus provehit, 30 Aurora totus prodeat, In Patre totus Filius Et totus in Verbo Pater. IV. HYMNUS IN ADVENTU DOMINI. Veni, redemptor gentium, Ostende partum virginis, Miretur omne saeculum: Talis decet partus Deum." 5 Non ex virili semine, Sed mystico spiramine, Verbum Dei factum est caro.' Fructusque ventris floruit. Alvus tumescit virginis, 10 Claustra pudoris permanent, Vexilla virtutum micant, Versatur in templo Deus. Procedit e thalamo suo, Pudoris aula regia, 15 Geminae gigas snbstantiae, Alacris ut currat viam.

Page  13 AMBROSIUS. 13 Egressus eius a Patre, Regressus eius ad Patrem, Excursus usque ad inferos, Recursus ad sedem Dei. 20 Aequalis aeterno Patri Carnis tropaeo cingere, Infirma nostri corporis Virtute firmans perpetim. Praesepe iam fulget tuun, 25 Lumenque nox spirat novum, Quod nulla nox interpolet, Fideque iugi luceat. V. HYMNUS MATUTINUS. Fulgentis auctor aetheris, Qui lunam lumen noctibus, Solem dierum cursibus Certo fundasti tramite; Nox atra iam depellitur, 5 Mundi nitor renascitur, Novusque iam mentis vigor Dulces in actus erigit; Laudes sonare iam tuas Dies relatus admonet, 10 Vultusque coeli blandior Nostra serenat pectora.

Page  14 14 AMBROSIUS. Vitemus omne lubricum, Declinet prava spiritus, 15 Vitam facta non inquinent, Lingua in culpa non implicet. Sed sol diem dum conficit Fides profunda ferveat, Spes ad promissa provocet, 20 Christo coniungat caritas. VI. HYMNUS IN POSTULATIONE PLUVIAE. Squalent arva soli pulvere multo, Pallet siccus ager, terra fatiscit, Nullus ruris honos, nulla venustas, Quando nulla viret gratia florum. 5 Tellus dura sitit, nescia roris, Fons iam nescit aquas, flumina cursus, Herbamn nescit humus, nescit aratrum, Magno rupta patet turpis hiatu. Fervens sole dies, igneus ardor 10 Ipsas urit aves, frondea rami Fessis tecta negant, pulvis arenae Sicco dispuitur ore viantis. Ventis ora ferae, bestia ventis, Captantesque viri flamina ventis, 15 Ventis et volucres ora recludunt, Hac mulcere sitim fraude volentes. Foetus cerva suos, pignora cerva, Foetus cerva siti fessa recusat, Foetus cerva pios moesta relinquit, 20 Quaesitam quoniam non vehit herbam.

Page  15 AMBROSIUS. 15 Venerunt iuvenes pocula noti Quaerentes putei, lymphaque fugit, Et vasis vacuis tecta revisunt, Fletus, heu! proprios ore bibentes. Bos praesepe suum linquit inane, 25 Pratorumque volens carpere gramen Nudam versat humum: sic pecus ornne Fraudatum moriens labitur herbis. Radices nernorum rustica plebes Explorat misero curva labore, 30 Solarique famem cortice quaerit, Nec succos teneros arida praestat. Hanc peccata famem nostra merentur, Sed merce propria, Christe, faveto, Quo culpa gravior gratia maior 35 Iusti supplicii vincla resolvat. lam coelos reseres, arvaque laxes Fecundo placidus imbre rogamus; Heliae meritis impia saecla Donasti pluvia: nos quoque dones! 40 Aeterne Genitor, gloria Christo Semper cum Genito sit tibi Sancto Compar Spiritui, qui Deus unus Pollens perpetuis inclyte saeclis! VII. HYMNUS IN POSTULATIONE SERENITATIS. Obduxere polum nubila coeli Absconduntque diem sole fugato, Noctes continuas sidere nudas Et lunae viduas carpimus olim.

Page  16 16 AMBROSIUS. 5 Aether dira micat igne corusco, Concussoque tremit cardine mundus, Coeli porta tonat, ruptaque credas Axis aetherei vincla resolvi. Excrescunt pluviis aequora ponti 10 Nec fines proprios iam freta norunt, Terrarum medio fluctuat unda, Errabunda secat arva carina. Portus nauta suos, littora nauta, Secessusque snos nauta requirit, 15 IHospes nauta satis, vitibus hospes, Messes nauta supernavigat hospes. Flentes agricolae culta relinquunt, Spectant naufragium triste laboris, Messis laeta natat, semina census: 20 Nati, tecta, pecus arvaque migrant. Cernas alta domus culmina ferri, Mutatisque locis culmina poni, Moestas inter aves ludere pisces, Pisces in tremulis ludere tectis. 25 Eversa videas arbore nidos Pullis cum teneris per freta duci, Nec matrem exilio ponere curas, Maioresque metu cogere foetus. Spectat turba virum, turba fenestris, 30 Spectat feminei turba pudoris, Deploratque famem turba precantum, Victurn navigii nauta ministrat. Iesu, parce tua morte redemptis, Prior diluvium pertulit aetas, 35 Ut mundaret aqua crimina terrae, Sed mundata tuo sanguine terra est.

Page  17 AMBROSIUS. 17 Iam nunc missa ferens ore columba Ramum paciferae munus olivae Exutas liquido flumine terras Laeto significet lapsa volatu!- 40 Aeterne Genitor, gloria Christo Semper cum Genito sit tibi Sancto Coinpar Spiritui, qui Deus unus Pollens perpetuis inclyte saeclis! VII. HYMNUS TEMPORE PASCHALI. Hie est dies verus Dei, Sancto serenus lumine, Quo diluit sanguis sacer Probrosa mundi crimina, Fidern refundens perditis, 5 Caecosque visu illuminans: Quer non gravi solvit metu Latronis absolutio? Qui praemio inutans crucem Iesum brevi acquirit fide, 10 Iustusque praevio gradu Pervenit in regnum Dei. Opus stupent et angeli, Poenam videntes corporis, Christoque adhaerentem relum 15 Vitam beatam carpere.

Page  18 1 8 AMBROSIUS. Mysterium mirabile, Ut abluat mundi luem, Peccata tollit oinnium, 20 Carnis vitia mundans caro. Quid hoc potest sublimius, Ut culpa quaerat gratiam Metumque solvat caritas Reddatque mors vitam novam? 25 Hamum sibi mors devoret Suisque se nodis liget: Moriatur vita omnium Resurgat ut vita omnium. Cum mors per omnes transeat, 30 Omnes resurgant mortui: Consumpta mors ictu suo Perisse se solam gemit. IX. IN THEOPHANIA. Inluminans altissimus Micantium astrorum globos, Pax, vita, lumen, veritas, Iesu, fave precantibus; 5 Seu mystico baptismate Fluenta Iordanis retro Conversa quodam tempore Praesente sacraris die;

Page  19 AMBROSIUS. 19 Seu stella partum virginis Coelo micans signaverit, 10 Et hac adoratum die Praesepe magos duxerit; Vel hydriis plenis aqua Vini saporem fuderis, Hausit minister conscius, 15 Quod ipse non impleverat. Aquas colorari videns, Inebriare flumina, Elementa mutata stupet Transire in usus alteros. 20 Sic quinque millibus virum Dum quinque panes dividis, Edentium sub dentibus In ore crescebat cibus; Multiplicabatur magis 25 Dispendio panis suo, Quis haec videns mirabitur luges meatus faucium? Inter manus frangentiu.m Panis rigatur profluus, 30 Intacta, quae non fregerant, Fragmenta subrepunt vivis.

Page  [unnumbered] AMB ROSIAN I. I. TE, DEUM, LAUDAMUS! Te Deum laudamus, te Dominum confitemur. Te aeternum Patrem omnis terra veneratur. Tibi omnes Angeli, tibi coeli et universae Potestates, Tibi Cherubim et Seraphim incessabili voce proclamant: 5 Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth! Pleni sunt coeli et terra Maiestatis gloriae tuae. Te gloriosus Apostolorum chorus, te Prophetarum laudabilis numerus, Te Martyrum canditatus laudat exercitus; Te per orbem terrarum sancta confitetur Ecclesia, 10 Patrem immensae Maiestatis, venerandum tuum verum et unicum Filium, Sanctum quoque Paraclitum Spiritum. Tu Rex gloriae, Christe, Tu Patris sempiternus es Filius. Tu ad liberandum suscepturus hominem, 15 Non horruisti virginis uterum. Tu devicto mortis aculeo, Aperuisti credentibus regna coelorum. Tu ad dextramn Dei sedes in gloria Patris.

Page  21 AMBROSIANI. 21 Iudex crederis esse venturus! Te ergo quaesumus, tuis famulis subveni, 20 Quos pretioso sanguine redemisti. Aeterna fac cum Sanctis tuis in gloria numerari. Salvum fac populum tuum, Domine, et benedic hereditati tuae, Et rege eos, et extolle illos usque in aeternum. Per singulos dies benedicimus Te 25 Et laudamus nomen tuun in saeculum et in saeculum saeculi. Dignare, Domine, die isto sine peccato nos custodire. Miserere nostri, Domine, miserere nostri, Fiat misericordia tua, Doimine, super nos, Quemadmodum speravimus in Te. 30 In Te, Domine, speravi: non confundar in aeternum. II. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. Hymnum dicamus Domino, Laudes Deo cum cantico, Qui nos crucis patibulo Suo redemit sanguine. Die decursa ad vesperum, 5 Qua Christus morti traditur, Ad coenam venit irnpius Qui erat Christi proditor. Iesus futura nuntiat Coenantibus discipulis: 10 "Unus ex discumbentibus Ipse me traditurus est."

Page  22 22 AMBROSIANI. Iudas mercator pessimus Osculo petit Dominum, 15 Ille ut agnus innocens Non negat Iudae osculum. Denariorum numero Christus Iudaeis traditur Innocens et innoxius, 20 Quem Iudas tradit impius. Praeses Pilatus proclamat: "Nullam culpam invenio;" Ablutis aqua manibus Christum Iudaeis tradidit. 25 Fallaces Iudaei impii Latronem petunt vivere, Christum accusant graviter: "Crucifigatur, reus est." Tune Barabbas dimittitur 30 Qui reus mortis fuerat, Vita mundi suspenditur Per quam resurgunt mortui. III. DE SANCTIS MARTYRIBUS. Aeterna Christi mnnera Et martyrum victorias, Laudes ferentes debitas Laetis canamus mentibus.

Page  23 AMBROSIANI. 23 Ecclesiarum principes, 5 Belli triumphales duces, Coelestis aulae milites, Et vera mundi lumina; Terrore victo saeculi, Spretisque poenis corporis, 10 Mortis sacrae compendio Vitam beatam possident. Traduntur igni martyres Et bestiarum dentibus; Armata saevit ungulis 15 Tortoris insani manus. Nudata pendent viscera, Sanguis sacratus funditur, Sed permanent immobiles Vitae perennis gratia. 20 Devota sanctorum fides, Invicta spes credentium, Perfecta Christi caritas Mundi triumphat principeml. In his Paterna gloria, 25 In his voluntas Filii, Exultat in his Spiritus; Coelum repletur gaudiis. Te nunc, Redemtor, quaesumus, Ut ipsorurn consortio 30 Iungas precantes servulos In sempiterna saecula.

Page  24 24 AMBROSIANI. IV. HYMNUS DE ASCENSIONE DOMINI. Optatus votis omnium Sacratus illuxit dies Quo Christus, mundi spes, Deus, Conscendit coelos arduos. 5 Ascendens in altumn Dominus, Propriam ad sedem remeat, Gavisa sunt coeli regna Reditu unigeniti. Mlagni triumphum proelii 10 IlMundi perempto principe Patris praesentat vultibus Victricis carnis gloriam. Est elevatus nubibus Et spem fecit credentibus 15 Aperiens paradisum Qunem protoplastus clauserat. O grande cunctis gandium, Quod partus nostrae virginis Post sputa, flagra, post crucem 20 Paternae sedi iungitur. Agamus ergo gratias Nostrae salutis vindici, Nostrum quod corpus vexerit Sublirnem ad coeli regiam.

Page  25 AMBROSIANI. 25 Sit nobis cum coelestibus 25 Commune manens gaudium, Illis, quod se praesentavit, Nobis, quod se non abstulit. Nunc provocatis actibus Christum exspectare nos decet 30 Vitaque tali vivere Quae possit coelos scandere. Gloria tibi, Domine, Qui scandis super sidera, Cum Patre et Sancto Spiritu 35 In sempiterna saecula. V. HYMNUS DE ASCENSIONE DOMINI. Iesu, nostra redemptio, Amor et desiderium, Deus creator omnium, Homo in fine temporum; Quae te vicit cementia 5 Ut ferres nostra crimina, Crudelem mortem patiens Ut nos a morte tolleres, Inferni claustra penetrans, Tuos captivos redimens, o1 Victor triumpho nobili Ad de;tram patris residens? B

Page  26 26 AMBROSIANI. Ipsa te cogat pietas, Ut nala nostra superes 15 Parcendo, et voti compotes Nos tuo vultu saties. Tu esto nostrum gaudium, Qui es futurus praemium, Sit nostra in te gloria 20 Per cuncta semper saecula. VI. HYMNUS AD SEXTAM. Iam sexta sensim solvitur Ter binis hora cursibus, Diesque puncto aequabili Utramque noctem respicit. 5 Venite, servi supplices, Mente et ore extollite Dignis beatum laudibus Nomen Dei cum cantico. Hoc namque tempus illud est, 10 Quod saeculorum iudicein Iniustae morti tradidit Mortalium sententia. Cum sol repente territus Horrore tanti criminis 15 Mortem minatur saeculo, Diem refugit impium.

Page  27 AMBROSIANI. 27 Hoc et beatus tempore Abrahamus fideliter Peritus in mysterio Tres vidit, unum credidit. 20 Hanc ad precandum congruam Salvator horam tradidit, Cum diceret fidelibus Patrein rogandis servulis. Nec non et ille pertinax 25 Hostis fidei gratiarn, Quam praedicavit gentibus Hoc est adeptus tempore. At nos amore debito, Timore iusto, subditi 30 Adversus omnes impetus Quos saevis hostis incutit. Unum rogemus et Patrem Deum regemque Filiun Simnulque Sanctum Spiritum 35 In Trinitate Dominum, Ut quos redemit passio Isto peracta tempore, Posset sub ipso tempore Servare deprecatio. 40

Page  28 28 AMBROSIANI. vn. HYMNUS VESPERTINUS. O lux beata, Trinitas Et principalis Unitas, Iam sol recedit igneus: Infunde lumen cordibus. 5 Te mane laudum carmine, Te deprecemur vesperi, Te nostra supplex gloria Per cuncta laudet saecula. Deo patri sit gloria 10 Eiusque soli Filio Cum Spiritu paraclito Et nunc et in perpetuum. VIII. HYMNUS AD COMPLETORIUM. Christe, qui lux es et dies, Noctis tenebras detegis, Lucisque lumen crederis Lumen beatum praedicans. 5 Precamur, sancte Domine, Defende nos in hac nocte, Sit nobis in te requies, Quietam noctam tribue, Ne gravis somnus irruat, 10 Nec hostis nos surripiat, Nec caro illi consentiens Nos tibi reos statuat.

Page  29 AMBROSIANI. 29 Oculi somnum capiant, Cor ad te semper vigilet, Dextera tua protegat 15 Famulos qui te diligunt. Defensor noster, adspice, Insidiantes reprime, Guberna tuos famulos Quos sanguine mercatus es. 20 Memento nostri, Domine, In gravi isto corpore: Qui es defensor animae Adesto nobis, Domine. IX. HYMNUS AD NOCTURNUM. Mediae noctis tempus est, Prophetica vox admonet: Dicamus laudes Domino Patri semper ac Filio, Sancto quoque Spiritui: 5 Perfecta enim Trinitas Uniusque substantiae Laudanda nobis semper est. Terrorem tempus hoc habet, Quod, cum vastator angelus 10 Aegypto mortes intulit, Delevit primogenita.

Page  30 30 AMBROSIANI. Haec hora iustis salus est, Quod ibidem tune angelus 15 Ausus punire non erat Signum formidans salguinis. Aegyptus flebat fortiter Natorum dira funera, Solus gaudebat Israel 20 Agni protectus sanguine. Nos verus Israel sumus, Laetemur in te, Dormine, lostein spernentes et malum, Christi redempti sanguine. 25 Ipsum profecto tempus est Quo voce evangelica Venturus sponsus creditur, Regni coelestis conditor. Occurrunt sanctae virgines 30 Obviam tune adventui, Gestantes claras lampadas, Magno laetantes gaudio. Stultae vero remanent Quae exstinctas habent lampadas, 35 Frustra pulsantes ianuam, Clausa iam regni regia. Pervigilemus sobrie, Gestantes mentes splendidas, Adveniente ut Iesu 40 Digni occurramus obviam.

Page  31 AMBROSIANI. 31 Mediae noctis tempore Paulus quoque et Sileas Christum vincti in carcere Collaudantes soluti sunt. Nobis hic mundus career est, 45 Te laudamtis, Christe Deus, Solve vincla peccatornm In te, Christe, credentium. Dignos nos fac, rex hagie, Venturi regni gloria, 50 Aeternis ut mereamur Te laudibus concinere. X. DE DEDICATIONE ECCLESIAE. Christe, cunctorum dominator alme, Patris aeterni genitus ab ore, Supplicum vota pariter ac hymnum Cerne benignus. Cerne quod puro, Deus,in honore 5 Plebs tua supplex resonat in aula, Annua cuius revehunt colendum Tempora festum. Haec domus rite tibi dedicata Noscitur, in qua populus sacratum 10 Corpus assumit, bibit et beati Sanguinis haustum.

Page  32 32 AMBROSIANI. Hic sacrosancti latices veternas Diluunt culpas, perimuntque noxas 15 Chrismate vero, genus et creatur Christicolarum. Hic salus aegris, medicina fessis, Lumen orbatis, veniaque nostris Fertur offensis, timor atque moeror 20 Pellitur omnis. Daemonis saeva perit hic rapina, Pervicax mronstrum pavet, et retenta Corpora linquens fugit in remotas Ocyus umbras. 25 Hic locus nempe vocitatur aula Regis aeterni niveaque coeli Porta quae sanctos patriam petentes Accipit omnes. Turbo quam nullus quatit, aut vagantes 30 Diruunt venti penetrantque nimbi, Non tetris laedit piceus tenebris Tartarus horrens. Quaesumus ergo, Deus, ut sereno Annuas vultu, famulos gubernans 35 Qui tuo summo celebrant amore Gaudia templi. Nulla nos vitae crucient molesta, Sint dies laeti placidaeque noctes, Nullus ex nobis pereunte mundo 40 Sentiat ignes.

Page  33 AMBROSIANI. 33 Haec dies in qua tibi consecratam Corispicis aram, tribuat perenne Gaudium nobis vigeatque longo Temporis usu. Gloria summum resonet Parentem, 45 Gloria Natum, pariterque Sanctum Spiritum dulci modulemur hymno Omnne per aevum. XI. HYMNUS PASCHALIS. Ad regias agni dapes Stolis amicti candidis Post transitum maris rubri Christo canamus principi; Divina cuius caritas 5 Sacrurm propinat sanguinem, Alinique membra corporis Amor sacerdos immolat. Sparsum cruorem postibus Vastator horret angelus, 10 Fugitque divisuin mare, Merguntur hostes fluctibus. Iam Pascha nostrum Christus est, Paschalis idem victima, Et pura puris mentibus 15 Sinceritatis azyma. B2

Page  34 34 AMBROSIANI. O vera coeli victima, Subiecta cui sunt Tartara, Soluta rmortis vincula, 20 Recepta vitae praemia. Victor subactis inferis Tropaea Christus explicat, Coeloque aperte subditum Regem tenebiaruin tralit. 25 Ut sis perenne mentibus Paschale, Iesu, gaudium, A morte dira cririnum Vitae renatos libera. Deo patri sit gloria, 30 Et Filio qui a mortuis Surrexit, et Paraclito In sempiterna saecula. XII. HYMNUS PASCHALIS. Aurora lucis rutilat, Coelum laudibus inltonat, Mundus exultans iubilat, Gemens infernus ululat, 5 Cum rex ille fortissimus, Mortis confractis viribus, Pede conculcans Tartara Solvit a poena miseros!

Page  35 AMBROSIANI. 35 Ille, qui clausus lapide Custoditur sub milite, 10 Triumphans pompa nobili Victor surgit de funere. Solutis iam gemitibus Et inferni doloribus, "Quia surrexit Dominus!" 15 Resplendens clamat angelus. Tristes erant apostoli De nece sui Domini, Quem poena mortis crudeli Servi damnarant impii. 20 Sermone blando angelus Praedixit mulieribus; "In Galilaea Dominus Videndus est quantocius!" Illae dum pergunt concite 25 Apostolis hoc dicere, Videntes eum vivere Osculantur pedes Domini. Quo agnito discipuli In Galilaeam propere 30 Pergunt videre faciem Desideratam Domini. Claro paschali gaudio Sol mundo nitet radio, Cumr Christum iamn apostoli 35 Visu cernunt corporeo.

Page  36 36 AMBROSIANI. Ostensa sibi vulnera In Christi came fulgida Resurrexisse Dominum Voce fatentur publica. 40 Rex Christe clementissime, Tu corda nostra posside, Ut tibi laudes debitas Reddamus omni tempore! DE DIERUM CREATIONE HYMNI VI. XIII. DE OPERE DIEI PRIMAE. Lucis creator optime, Lucem dierum proferens, Primordiis lucis novae Mlundi parans originem. 5 Qui mane iunctum vesperi Diem vocari praecipis, Tetrum chaos illabitur: Audi preces cum fletibus! Ne mens gravata crimine 10 Vitae sit exsul munere, Dum nil perenne cogitat, Seseque culpis illigat. Coeleste pulset ostium, Vitale tollat premium, 15 Vitemus omne noxium, Purgemus omne pessimum.

Page  37 AMBROSIANI. 37 XIV. DE OPERE DIEI SECUNDAE. Immense coeli conditor, Qui, mixta ne confunderent, Aquae fluenta dividens Coelum dedisti limitem. Firmans locum coelestibus, 5 Simulque terrae rivulis, Ut unda flammas temperet, Terrae solum ne dissipent. Infunde nunc, piissime, Donum perennis gratiae, 10 Fraudis novae ne casibus Nos error atterat vetus. Lucem fides adaugeat, Sic luminis iubar ferat, Haec vana cuncta proterat, 15 Hanc falsa nulla comprimant. XV. DE OPERE DIEI TERTIAE. Telluris ingens conditor, Mundi solum qui separans Pulsis aquae molestiis Terram dedisti immobilem, Ut germen aptum proferens, 5 Fulvis decora floribus, Fecunda fructu sisteret, Pastumque gratum redderet.

Page  38 38 AMBROSIANI. Mentis perustae vulnera 10 Munda virore gratiae, Ut facta fletu diluat, Motusque pravos atterat. Iussis tuis obtemperet: Nullis malis approximet: 15 Bonis repleri gaudeat, Et mortis icturn nesciat. XVI. DE OPERE DIEI QUARTAE. Coeli Deus sanctissime, Qui lucidas poli plagas Candore pingis igneo, Augens decoro lumine, 5 Quarto die qui flammeam Dum solis accendis rotam, Lunae ministras ordinem, Vagosque cursus siderum; Ut noctibus vel lumini 10 Diremptionis terminlm, Primordiis et mensilnum Signum dares notissimum. Expelle noctem cordium, Absterge sordes mentium, 15 Resolve culpae vinculum, Everte moles criminum.

Page  39 AMBROSIANI. 39 XVII. DE OPERE DIEI QUINTAE. Magnae Deus potentiae, Qui fertili natos aqua Partim relinquis gurgiti, Partim levas in aera, Dernersa lymphis imprimens, 5 Subvecta coelis erigens, Ut stirpe ab una prodita Diversa repleant loca; Largire cunctis servulis, Quos mundat unda sanguinis, 10 Nescire lapsus criminum Nec ferre mortis taedium, Ut culpa nullum deprimat, Nullum efferat iactantia, Elisa mens ne concidat, 15 Elata meiis ne corruat. XVIII. DE OPERE DIEI SEXTAE. Hominis superne conditor, Qui cuncta solus ordinans Humum iubes producere Reptantis et ferae genus, Et magna rerum corpora, 5 Dicto iubentis vivida, Per temporum certas vices Obtemperare servulis;

Page  40 40 AMBROSIANI. Repelle quod cupidinis 10 Ciente vi nos impetit, Aut moribus se suggerit, Aut actibus se interserit. Da gaudiorum praemia, Da gratiarum munera, 15 Dissolve litis vincula, Adstringe pacis foedera! XIX. HYMNUS PASCHALIS AD NOCTURNUM. O Rex aeterne, Domine, Rerum creator omnium, Qui eras ante saecula Semper cum Patre Filius, 5 Qui mundi in primordio Adam plasmasti hominem, Cui tuae imagini Vultum dedisti similem, Quem diabolus deceperat 10 Hostis humani generis, Cuius tu formam corporis Assumere dignatus es, Ut hominem redimeres Quem ante iam plasmaveras, 15 Et nos Deo coniungeres Per carnis contubernium,

Page  41 AMBROSIANI. 41 Quem editum ex virgine Pavescit omnis anima, Per quem et nos resurgere Devota mente credimus, 20 Qui nobis per baptismata Donasti indulgentiam, Qui tenebamur vinculis Ligati conscientiae, Qui crucem propter hominem 25 Suscipere dignatus es, Dedisti tuum sanguinem Nostrae salutis pretiurn: Nam velum templi scissum est Et oinnis terra tremuit, 30 Tune multos dormientium Resuscitasti, Domine: Tu hostis antiqui vires Per crucem mortis conteris, Qua nos signati frontibus 35 Vexillum fidei ferimus; Tu illum a nobis semper Repellere dignaveris, Ne unquam possit laedere Redemptos tuo sanguine, 40 Qui propter nos ad inferos Descendere dignatus es, Ut mortis debitoribus Vitae donares munera:

Page  42 42 AMBROSIANI. 45 Tibi nocturno tempore Hymnum deflentes canlinus, Ignosce nobis, Domine, Ignosce confitentibus, Quia tu ipse testis et index, 50 Quem nemo potest fallere, Secreta conscientiae Nostrae videns vestigia. Tu nostrorum pectorum Solus investigator es, 55 Tu vulnerum latentium Bonus assistens medicus. Tn es qui certo tempore Daturus finem saeculi, Tu cunctorum meritis 60 Iustus remunerator es. Te ergo, Sancte, qnaesumus Ut nostra cures vulnera, Qui es cum Patre Filius Semper cum Sancto Spiritu. XX. HYMNUS DE NATIVITATE DOMINI. A solis ortus cardine Et usque terrae limitem Christum canamus principem, Naturm Mariae virginis.

Page  43 AMBROSIANI. 43 Gaudete, quicquid gentium, 5 Iudaea, Roma et Graecia, Aegypte, Thrax, Persa, Scytha, Rex unus omnes possidet. Laudate vestrum principem, Omnes beati ac perditi, 10 Vivi, imbecilli ac mortui, Iam nemo post haec mortuus. Fit porta Christi pervia Referta plena gratia, Transitque rex, et permanet 15 Clausa ut fuit per saecula. Genus superni numinis Processit aula virginis, Sponsus, redemptor, conditor, Suae gigas ecclesiae. 20 Honor matris et gaudium, Immensa spes credentium, Per atra mortis pocula Resolvit nostra crimina. Lapis de monte veniens 25 Mundumque replens gratia, Quem non praecisum manibus Vates vetusti nuntiant. Qui verbum caro factus est Praeconio angelico, 30 De claustris virginalibus Virginis virgo natus est. 0 0

Page  44 44 AMBROSIANI. Rorem dederunt aethera Nubesque instum fuderunt, 35 Patens excepit dominum Terra salutem generans. Mirabilis conceptio: Christum protulit sobolem Ut virgo partem funderet, 40 Post partum virgo sisteret. Exultet omnis anima, Nunc redemptorem gentium Mundi venisse dominum Redimere quos condidit. 45 Creator cuncti generis, -Orbis quem totus non capit, In tua, sancta genitrix, Sese reclusit viscera. Quem pater ante tempora 50 Deus Deumque genuit, Matris almae virginitas Cum tempore partum edidil;. Tollens cuncta facinora Et donans sancta munera, 55 Augmentum lucis afferens, Tenebris damnum inferens.

Page  [unnumbered] IV. AUGUSTINIANI. I. DE GAUDIIS PARADISI. Ad perennis vitae fontem mens sitivit arida; Claustra carnis praesto frangi clausa quaerit anima: Gliscit, ambit, eluctatur exul frui patria. Dum pressuris ac aerumnis se gemit obnoxiam, Quam amisit, dum deliquit, contemplatur gloriam, 5 Praesens malum auget boni perditi memoriam. Nam quis promat summae pacis quanta sit laetitia, Ubi vivis margaritis surgunt aedificia, Auro celsa micant tecta, radiant triclinia? Solis gemmis pretiosis haec structura nectitur; 10 Auro mundo, tanquam vitro, urbis via sternitur; Abest limus, deest fimus, lues nulla cernitur. Hiems horrens, aestas torrens illic nunquam saeviunt; Flos perpetuus rosarum ver agit perpetuum; Candent lilia, rubescit crocus, sudat balsamum. 15

Page  46 46 AUGUSTINIANI. Virent prata, vernant sata, rivi mellis influunt; Pigmentorum spirat odor, liquor et aromnatum; Pendent pora floridorum non lapsura nemorum. Non alternat luna vices, sol vel cursus siderum 20 Agnus est felicis urbis lumen inocciduum; Nox et tempus desunt ei, diem fert continuum. Nam et sancti quique velut sol praeclarus rutilant; Post triumphum coronati mutno coniubilant, Et prostrati pugnas hostis iam securi numerant. 25 Omni labe defaecati carnis bella nesciunt, Caro facta spiritalis et mens unum sentiunt; Pace multa perfruentes scandalum non perferunt. Mutabilibus exuti repetunt originem, Et praesentem veritatis contemplantur specien, 30 Iinc vitalem vivi fontis hauriunt dulcedinem. Inde statum semper idem existendi capiunt; Clari, vividi, iucundi nullis patent casibus: Absunt morbi semper sanis, senectus iuvenibus. Hinc perenne tenent esse, nam transire transiit; 35 Inde virent, vigent, florent: corruptela corruit, Immortalitatis vigor mortis ins absorbuit. Qui Scientem cuncta sciunt, quid nescire nequeunt? Nam et pectoris arcana penetrant alterutrum; Unum volunt, unum nolunt, unitas est mentium. 40 Licet cuiquam sit diversum pro labore meritnm, Caritas hoc facit suur, quod, dum amat alterum, Proprium sic singulorum fit commune omnium.

Page  47 AtUGUSTINIANI. 47 Ubi corpus illic jure congregantur aquilae; Quo cum angelis et sanctae recreantur animae, Uno pane vivunt cives utriusque patriae. 45 Avidi et semper pleni habent quod desiderant; Non satietas fastidit, neque fames cruciat: Inhiantes semper edunt, et edentes inhiant. Novas semper melodias vox meloda concrepat, Et in jubilum prolata mulcent aures organa, 50 Digna per quem sunt victores regi dant praeconia. Felix coeli quae praesentem regem cernit anima, Et sub sede spectat alta orbis volvi machinam: Solem, lunam et globosa cum planetis sidera! Christe, palma bellatorum, hoc in municipium 55 Introduc me post solutum militare cingulumn; Fac consortem donativi beatorum civium! Probes vires inexhausto laboranti proelio, Nec quietem post procinctum deneges emerito, Teque merear potiri sine fine praemio! 60 II. DE GAUDIIS PARADISI. O gens beata coelitum, Sanctorum phalanx principum, O quanta Dei gratia Inundat vos per omnia! Supremus vobis Dominus 5 Summum dat bonum cominus Quo frui licet omnibus.

Page  48 48 AUGUSTINIANI. 0 quanta super sidera Vibratis omnes lumina! 10 Splendore solem vincitis Et quidquid micat sideris; Et si qua stella clarius Fulgeret, quam sol aureus; Lux vestra major omnibus. 15 Corpus crystallo purius; Ut sol refulget animus; Venae corallo similes, Nec auri filo dispares; In venis sanguis gratius 20 Flagrabit, rosis suavius Et balsame jucundius. In paradiso vivitis, Florum corollas flectitis, Rosas miscetis liliis, 25 Ligustra cum narcissulis. Flos unus, hic cultissimus, Plus mille voluptatibus Puris redundat mentibus. Hie mensa semper epulis 80 Instructa manet coelicis; Cum Deo vos accumbitis, Ejus fruentes ferculis. Hie nulla desunt dulcia, Haud nectar, haud ambrosia: 35 Illis abundant omnia.

Page  49 AUGUSTINIANI. 49 O quanta hic sunt gaudia., Quam dulcis sonat musica, Quae vocum hic concordia, Quae fidum est harmonia. 0 quam miscentur dulciter, 40 Quam tinniunt suaviter: Nil est auditum taliter! Deum videtis principem De facie ad faciem, Ex quo vobis coelestia 45 Nascuntur tanta gaudia, Quanta nec videt oculus, Nec ullus cepit auribusHic mundus sordet omnibus. II. ANTIDOTUM CONTRA TYRANNIDEM PECCATI. Quid, tyranne! quid minaris? Quid usquain poenarum est, Quidquid tandem machinaris: Hoc amanti parum est. Dulce mihi cruciari, 5 Parva vis doloris est: "Malo mori quain foedari!" Major vis amoris est. Para rogos, quamvis truces, Et quiquid flagrorum est; 10 Adde ferrum, adde cruces: Nil adhuc amanti est. C

Page  50 50 AUGUSTINIANI. Dulce mihi cruciari, Parva vis doloris est: 15 "Malo mori quam foedari!" Major vis amoris est. Nimis blandus dolor ille! Una mors, quam brevis est! Cruciatus amo mille, 20 Omnis poena levis est. Dulce mihi sauciari, Parva vis doloris est: "'Malo mori quam foedai!" Major vis amoris est.

Page  [unnumbered] V. PRUDENTIU S. I. DE NATIVITATE DOMINI. Da, puer, plectrum, choreis Ut canam fidelibus Dulce carmen et melodum, Gesta Christi insignia. Hunc camena nostra solun 5 Pangat, hunc laudet lyra. Corde natus ex parentis Ante mundi exordiun, A et Q2 cognominatus, Ipse fons et clausula 10 Omnium, quae sunt, fuerunt, Quaeque post futura sunt, Corporis formam caduci, MIembra morti obnoxia Induit, ne gens periret 15 Protoplasti ex germine, Merserat quem lex profundo Noxialis Tartaro.

Page  52 52 PRUDENTIUS. O beatus ortus ille, 20 Virgo cum puerpera Edidit nostram salutem Foeta Sancto Spiritu, Et puer, redemptor orbis, Os sacratum protulit. 25 Psallat altitudo coeli; Psallat omnis angelus; Quidquid est virtutis usquam Psallat in laudern Dei: Nulla linguarmn silescat, 30 Vox et omnis consonet. Ecce! quem vates vetustis Concinebant seculis; Quem prophetarum fideles Paginae spoponderant, 35 Emicat protnissus olim: Cuncta collaudent eum! Te senes et te iuventus, Parvulorum te chorus, Turba matrum virginumqne, 40 Simplices puellulae Voce concordes pudicis Perstrepant concentibus. Fluminum lapsus et unda, Littorum crepidines, 45 Imber, aestus, nix, pruina, Aura, silva, nox, dies Omnibus te concelebrant Saeculorum saeculis!

Page  53 PRUDENTIUS. 53 II. IN EXSEQUIIS. Iam moesta quiesce querela, Lacrymas suspendite, matres! Nullus sua pignora plangat: Mors haec reparatio vitae est. Quidnam sibi saxa cavata, 5 Quid pulchra volunt monumenta? Res quod nisi creditur illis Non mortua, sed data somno. Nam quod requiescere corpus Vacuum sine mente videmus, 10 Spatium breve restat, ut alti Repetat collegia sensus. Venient cito saecula, quum iam Socius calor ossa revisat, Animataque sanguine vivo 15 Habitacula pristina gestet. Quae pigra cadavera prider Tumulis putrefacta iacebant, Volucres rapientur in auras, Animas comitata priores. 20 Sic semina sicca virescunt Iam mortna iamque sepulta, Quae reddita cespite ab imo Veteres meditantur. aristas.

Page  54 54 PRUDENTIUS. t5 Nunc suscipe, terra, fovendum, Gremioque hunc concipe molli! Hominis tibi membra sequestro, Generosa et fragmina credo. Animae fuit haec domus olini 30 Factoris ab ore creatae; Fervens habitavit in istis Sapientia principe Christo. Tu depositum tege corpus! Non immemor ille requiret 35 Sua munera fictor et auctor Propriique aenigmata vultus. Veniant modo tempora iusta, Quum spem Deus impleat omnem; Reddas patefacta necesse est, 40 Qualem tibi trado figuram. Non, si cariosa vetustas Dissolverit ossa favillis, Fueritque cinisculus arens Minimi mensura pugilli; 45 Nec, si vaga flamina et aurae, Vacuum per inane volantes, Tuleriut cum pulvere nervos, Hominem periisse licebit. Sed dum resolubile corpus 50 Revocas, Deus, atque reformas, Quanam regione jubebis Animam requiescere puraln?

Page  55 PRUDENTIUS. 55 Gremio senis addita sancti Recubabit, ut est Eleazar, Quem floribus undique septum 55 Dives procul aspicit ardens. Sequimur tua dicta, Redemptor, Quibus atra morte triumphans, Tua per vestigia mandas Socium crucis ire latronem. 60 Patet ecce fidelibus ampli Via lucida iam Paradisi, Licet et nemus illud adire, Homini quod ademerat anguis. Nos tecta fovebimus ossa 65 Violis et fronde frequente, Titulurnque et frigida saxa Liquido spargemus odore. I. AD GALLI CANTUM. Ales, diei nuntius, Lucern propinquam praecinit; Nos excitator mentium Iam Christus ad vitam vocat. "Auferte," clamat, "lectulos, 5 Aegros, soporos, desides, Castique recti ac sobrii Vigilate: iam sum proximus!"

Page  56 56 PRUDENTIUS. Iesum ciamus vocibus, 10 Flentes, precantes, sobrii: Intenta supplicatio Dormire cor mundum vetat. Tu, Christe, somnum disiice; Tu rumpe noctis vincula; 15 Tu solve peccatum vetus, Novumque lumen ingere! IV. DE SANCTIS INNOCENTIUS. Salvete, flores martyrum! In lucis ipso limine Quos saevus ensis messuit, Ceu turbo nascentes rosas. ~5 ~ Vos, prima Christi victima, Grex immolatorum tener, Aram sub ipsam simplices Palma et coronis luditis. Quid proficit tantum nefas; 10 Quid crimen Herodem juvat? Unus tot inter funera Impune Christus tollitur. Cunae redundant sanguine; Sed in Deumn frustra furit: 15 Unum petit tot mortibus, Mortes tot unus effugit.

Page  57 PRUDENTIUS. 57 Inter coaevi sanguinis Fluenta solus integer, Ferrum, quod orbabat nurus, Partus fefellit Virginis. 20 Sic dira Pharaonis mali Edicta quondam fugerat, Christi figuram praeferens, Moses, receptor civium. Matres, quaerelis parcite! 25 Quid rapta fletis pignora? Agnum, salutis obsidem, Denso sequuntur agmine. V. HYMNUS MATUTINUS. Lux ecce surgit aurea, Pallens facessat caecitas, Quae nosmet in praeceps diu Errore traxit devio. Haec lux serenum conferat, 5 Purosque nos praestet sibi, Nihil loquamur subdolum, Volvamus obscurum nihil. Sic tota decurrat dies, Ne lingua mendax, ne manus, 10 Occulive peccent lubrici, Ne noxa corpus inquinet. C2

Page  58 58 PRUDENTIUS. Speculator adstat desuper, Qui nos diebus omnibus 15 Actusque nostros prospicit, A luce prima in vesperam. VI. DE EPIPHANIA. O sola magnarum urbium, Maior Bethlem, cui contigit Ducem salutis coelitus Incorporatum gignere. 5 Haec stella, quae solis rotam Vincit decore ac lumine, Venisse terris nuntiat Cum came terrestri Deum. Videre postquam illum Magi 10 Eoa promunt munera, Stratique votis offerunt Thus, myrrham et aurum regium. Regem Deumque annuntiant Thesaurus et fragrans odor 15 Thuris Sabaei, ac myrrheus Pulvis sepulcrurn plaedocet. Iesu, tibi sit gloria, Qui apparuisti gentibus, Cum Patre et almo Spiritu, 20 In sempiterna saecula.

Page  [unnumbered] VI. S E D U L I U S. I. DE NATIVITATE DOMINI. A solis ortus cardine Ad usque terrae limitem Christum canamus principem, Natum Maria virgine. Beatus auctor saeculi 5 Servile corpus induit, Ut came carnem liberans Ne perderet quos condidit. Castae parentis viscera Coelestis intrat gratia: 10 Venter puellae baiulat Secreta, quae non noverat. Domus pudici pectoris Templum repente fit Dei: Intacta, nesciens virum, 15 Verbo concepit filium.

Page  60 60 SEDULIUS. Enixa iam puerpera est, Quem Gabriel praedixerat, Quem matris alvo gestiens 20 Clausus Ioannes senserat. Foeno iacere pertulit, Praesepe non abhorruit, Parvoque lacte pastus est, Per quem nec ales esurit. 25 Gaudet chorus coelestiumn Et angeli canunt Deo, Palamnque fit pastoribus Pastor, creator oinnium. II. DE EPIPHANIA DOMINI. Herodes, hostis impie, Christum venire quid times? Non eripit mortalia, Qui regna dat coelestia. 5 Ibant Magi, quam viderant Stellam sequentes praeviain: Lumen requirunt lmnine, Deum fatentur munere. Caterva matrum personat, 10 Collisa deflens pignora; Quorum tyrannus millia Christo sacravit victimarn.

Page  61 SEDULIUS. 61 Lavacra puri gurgitis Coelestis agnus attigit: Peccata, quae non detulit, 15 Nos abluendo sustulit. Miraculis dedit fidem, Habere se Deum patrem: Infirma sanans corpora, Resuscitans cadavera. 20 Novum genus potentiae: Aquae rubescunt hydriae, Vinumque iussa flrdere Mutavit unda originem. II. SALVE SANCTA PARENS. Salve sancta Parens, enixa puerpera Regem, Qui coelum terramque regit per saecula, cuius Numen et aeterna complectens omnia giro Imperium sine fine manet; quae ventre beato Gaudia matris habens cum virginitatis honore, 5 Nec prirnam similem visa est, nec habere sequentem; Sola sine exemplo placuisti femina Christo! Christe, fave votis, qui munduin in morte iacentern Vivificare volens quondam terrena petisti!

Page  [unnumbered] VII. E L P I S. HYMNUS DE PETRO ET PAULO. Aurea luce et decore roseo Lux lucis omne perfudisti saeculurn, Decorans coelos inclyto martyrio Hac sacra die, quae dat reis veniam. 5 Ianitor coeli, doctor orbis pariter, Indices saecli, vera mundi lumina, Per crucem alter, alter ense triumphans, Vitae senatum laureati possident. Iam, bone pastor Petre, clemens accipe 10 Vota precantum et peccati vincula Resolve tibi potestate tradita, Qui cunctis coelum verbo claudis, aperis. Doctor egregie Paule, mores instrue, Et mente polum nos transferre satage, 15 Donec perfectum largiatur plenius Evacuato, quod ex parte gerirpus.

Page  63 ELPIS. 63 Olivae binae pietatis unicae, Fide devotos, spe robustus, maxume Fonte repletos caritatis geminae Post mortem carnis impetrate vivere. 20 O Roma felix, quae duorum principum Es consecrata gloriosa sanguine, Horum cruore purpurata, ceteras Excellis orbis una pulchritudine. Sit Trinitati sempiterna gloria, 25 Honor, potestas atque iubilatio, In unitate, cui manet imperium Et tune et modo per aeterna saecula.

Page  [unnumbered] VIII. F O R T U N ATUS. I. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. Pange, lingua, gloriosi proelium certaminis, Et super crucis tropaeo die triumphum nobilem, Qualiter Redemptor orbis immolatus vicerit. De parentis protoplasti fraude factor condolens, 5 Quando pomi noxialis morsu in mortem corruit, Ipse lignum tune notavit, damna ligni ut solveret. Hoc opus nostrae salutis ordo depoposcerat, Multiformis proditoris ars ut artem falleret, Et medelam ferret inde hostis unde laeserat. 10Quando venit ergo sacri plenitudo temporis, Missus est ab arce Patris natus orbis conditor, Atque ventre virginali caro factus prodiit. Vagit infans inter arcta conditus praesepia, Membra pannis involuta virgo mater alligat, 15 Et pedes manusque crura stricta cingit fascia.

Page  65 FORTUNATUS. 65 Lustra sex qui iam peracta tempus implens corporis, Se volente natus ad hoc, passioni deditus Agnus in cruce levatur, immolandus stipite. Hic acetum, fel, arundo, sputa, clavi, lancea, Mite corpus perforatur, sanguis unda profluit, 20 Terra, pontus, astra, mundus, quo lavantur flumine. Crux fidelis inter omnes arbor una nobilis, Nulla talem silva profert, fronde, flore, germine, Dulce lignum dulci clavo dulce pondus sustinens. Flecte ramos, arbor alta, tensa laxa viscera, 25 Et rigor lentescat ille, quer dedit nativitas, Ut superni membra regis miti tendas stipite. Sola digna tu fuisti ferre pretium saeculi, Atque portum praeparare nauta mundo naufrago, Quern sacer cruor perunxit fusus agii corpore. 30 II. DE CRUCE CHRISTI. Crux benedicta nitet, Dominus qua came pependit, Atque cruore suo vulnera nostra lavit; Mitis amore pio pro nobis victirna factus, Traxit ab ore lupi qua sacer agnus oves; Transfixis palmis ubi mundum a clade redemit, 5 Atque suo clausit funere mortis iter. Hic manus illa fuit clavis confixa cruentis, Quae eripuit Paulum crimine, morte Petrum. Fertilitate potens, O dulce et nobile lignum, Quando tuis ramis tam nova poma geris; 10

Page  66 66 FORTUNATUS. Cuius odore novo defuncta cadavera surgunt, Et redeunt vitae qui caruere die; Nullum uret aestus sub frondibus arboris huius, Luna nec in nocte, sol neque meridie. 15 Tn plantata micas, secus est ubi cursus aquarum, Spargis et ornatas flore recente comas. Appensa est vitis inter tua brachia, de qua Dulcia sanguine vina rubore fluunt. III. DE PASSIONE CHRISTI. Vexilla regis prodeunt, Fulget crucis mysterium, Quo carne carnis conditor Suspensus est patibulo. 5 Qui vulneratus insuper Mucrone diro lanceae, Ut nos lavaret crimine Manavit unda et sanguine. Impleta sunt, quae concinit 10 David fideli carmine, Dicens: In nationibius Regnabit a ligno Deus! Arbor decora et fulgida, Ornata regis purpura, 15 Electa digno stipite Tamn sancta inembra tangere!

Page  67 FORTUNATUS. 67 Beata, cuius brachiis Pretium pependit seculi; Statera facta corporis Praedamque tulit tartari. 20 Aroma fundis cortice, Vincis saporem nectaris, Iucunda fructu fertili Plaudis triumpho nobili. Salve ara, salve victima, 25 De passionis gloria: Qua vita mortem pertulit, Et morte vitam reddidit! O crux, ave, spes unica, Hoc passionis tempore, 30 Piis adauge gratiam, Reisque dele crimina! IV. DE RESURRECTIONE DOMINI. Salve, festa dies, toto venerabilis aevo, Qua Deus infernum vicit, et astra tenet. Salve, festa dies, toto venerabilis aevo. Ecce renascentis testatur gratia mundi Omnia cum Domino dona redisse suo, 5 Qua Deus infernum vicit, et astra tenet. Namque triumphanti post tristia Tartara Christo Undique fronde nemus, gramina flore favent. Salve, festa dies, toto venerabilis aevo.

Page  68 68 FORTUNATUS. 10 Legibus inferni oppressis super astra meantem Laudant rite Deum lux, polus, arva, fretum, Qua Deus infernum vicit, et astra tenet. Qui crucifixus erat, Deus ecce per omnia regnat, Dantque Creatori cuncta creata precem. 15 Salve, festa dies, toto venerabilis aevo.

Page  [unnumbered] IX. EUGENIUS. Rex Deus, immensi quo constat machina mundi, Quod miser imploro per Christum, perfice clemens: Da vigilem sensum, rex regum cuncta gubernans, Da, precor, ingenium, da mentis lumen honestum. Sit mihi recta fides, et falsis obvia sectis, 5 Sit mihi praecipue morum correctio praesens. Sim earus, verax, humilis, cum tempore prudens, Secreti tacitus et linguae famine cautus. Da fidum socium, da fixium semper amicum. Da blandurm, sobrium, parcum, castumque ministrum. 10 Non me pauperies cruciet, ant languor obuncet. Sit comes alma salus, et sufficientia victus. Absint divitiae, fastus et iurgia, lites, Invidia et luxus et ventris pensio turpis. Crimine nec laedam queinquam, nec crimine laedar. 15 Sic bene velle queam, quo pravum velle recedat. Turpe nihil cupiam, faciam, vel proloquar unquam. Te mens desideret, sermo canat, actio promat. Da, Pater altitonans, undosum fletibus imbrem Quo valeam lacrymis culparum solvere moles. 20

Page  70 70 EUGENIUS. Da, precor, auxilium, possim quo vincere mundum, Et vitae stadium placido percurrere passu. Quumque suprema dies mortis patefecerit urnam, Concede veniam, cui tollit culpa coronam. 25 Gloria summa tibi, coelique terraeque Creator, Qui Deus es trinus, regnans super omnia solus.

Page  [unnumbered] X. AUCTOR INCERTUS. Apparebit repentina dies magna Domini, Fur obscura velut nocte improvisos occupans. Brevis totus tum parebit prisci luxus saeculi, Totum simul cum clarebit praeterisse saeculum. Clangor tubae per quaternas terrae plagas concinens, 5 Vivos una mortuosque Christo ciet obvian. De coelesti iudex arce, maiestate fulgidus, Claris angelorum choris comitatus aderit. Erubescet orbis lunae, sol et obscurabitur, Stellae cadent pallescentes, mundi tremet ambitus. 10 Flamma ignis anteibit iusti vultun iudicis, Coelos, terras et profundi fluctus ponti devorans. Gloriosus in sublimi Rex sedebit solio, Angelorum tremebunda circumstabunt agmina. Huius ornnes ad electi colligentur dexteram, 15 Pravi pavent a sinistris, hoedi velut foetidi.

Page  72 72 AUCTOR INCERTUS. Ite, dicit Rex ad dextros, regnum coeli sumite, Pater vobis quod paravit ante omne saeculum. Karitate qui fraterna me iuvistis pauperem, 20 Caritatis nunc mercedem reportate divites. Laeti dicent: Quando, Christe, pauperem te vidimus, Te, Rex magne, vel egentem miserati iuvimus? Magnus illis dicet index: cum iuvistis pauperes, Panem, domum, vestem dantes, me iuvistis humiles. 25.Nec tardabit et sinistris loqui iustus arbiter: In Gehennae, maledicti, flammas hinc discedite! Obsecrantem me audire despexistis mendicum, Nudo vestem non dedistis, neglexistis languidum. Peccatores dicent: Christe, quando te vel pauperem, 30 Te, Rex magne, vel infirmum contemnentes sprevimus? Quibus contra iudex altus: Mendicanti quamdiu Opem ferre despexistis, me sprevistis improbi. Retro ruent tum iniusti ignes in perpetuos, Vermis quorum non morietur, flamma nec restinguitur. 35 Satan atro cum ministris quo tenetur carcere, Fletus ubi mugitusque, strident omnes dentibus. Tune fideles ad coelestein sustollentur patriam, Choros inter angelorum regni petent gaudia.

Page  73 AUCTOR INCERTUS. 73 Urbis summae Hierusalem introibunt gloriam, Vera lucis atque pacis in qua fulget visio. 40 XPM regem iarn paterna claritate splendidum Ubi celsa beatorum contemplantur agmina. Ydri fraudes ergo cave, infirmantes subleva, Aurum temne, fuge luxus, si vis astra petere. Zona clara castitatis lumbos nunc praecingere, In occursum magni Regis fer ardentes lampades. 45 D

Page  [unnumbered] XI. GREGORIUS MAGNUS. I. HYMNUS AD LAUDES. Ecce iam noctis tenuatur umbra, Lucis aurora rutilans coruscat, Nisibus totis rogitemus omnes Cunctipotentem, E5 Ut Deus noster miseratus omnnem Pellat angorem, tribuat saluteln, Donet et nobis pietate patris Regna polorum. Praestet hoc nobis Deitas beata 10 Patris ac Nati pariterque Sancti Spiritus, cuius reboat per omnem Gloria mundum. II. IN CAENA DOMINI. Rex Christe, factor omnium, Redemptor et credentium, Placare votis supplicum, Te laudibus colentium!

Page  75 GREGORIUS MAGNUS. 75 Cuius benigna gratia 5 Crucis per alma vulnera Virtute solvit ardua Primi parentis vincula. Qui es creator siderum, Tegmen subisti carneum, 10 Dignatus hanc vilissimam Pati doloris formulam. Ligatus es, ut solveres -Mundi ruentis complices, Per probra tergens crimina, 15 Quae mundus auxit plurilna. Cruci, redemptor, figeris, Terram sed omnem concutis; Tradis potentem spiritum, Nigrescit atque seculum. 20 Mox in paternae gloriae Victor resplendens culmine Cum Spiritus munimine Defende nos, Rex optime! III. IN QUADRAGESIMA. Audi, benigne conditor, -Nostras preces cum fletibus, In hoc sacro ieiunio Fusas quadragenario.

Page  76 76 GREGORIUS MAGNUS. 5 Scrutator alme cordium Infirma tu scis virium, Ad te reversis exhibe Remissionis gratiam. Multum quidem peccavimus, 10 Sed parce confitentibus; Ad laudein tui nominis Confer medelam languidis. Sic corpus extra conteri Dona per abstinentiam, 15 Ieiunet ut mens sobria A labe prorsus criminum. IV. AD NOCTURNAM. Nocte surgentes vigilemus omnes, Semper in psalmis meditemur, atque Voce concordi Domino canamus Dulciter hymnos! 5 Ut pio regi pariter canentes Cum suis sanctis mereamur aulam Ingredi coeli simul et perennem Ducere vitam. Praestet hoc nobis Deitas beata 10 Patris ac Nati pariterque Sancti Spiritus, cuius resonat per omnem Gloria mundum!

Page  77 GREGORIUS MAGNUS. 77 V. DE EPIPHANIA, Nuntium vobis fero de supernis, Natus est Christus, dominator orbis, In Bethlem Iudae, veluti propheta Dixerat ante. Hunc canit laetus chorus angelorum, 5 Stella declarat, veniunt Eoi Principes dignum celebrare cultum, Mystica dona. Thus Deo, myrrham trocleten humando, Bracteas regi chryseas tulere, 10 Dum colunt unum, meminere trino Tres dare terna. VI. HYMNUS IN DIE PENTECOSTE. Veni creator Spiritus, Mentes tuorum visita, Imple superna gratia Quae tu creasti pectora. Qui paraclitus diceris, 5 Donumn Dei altissimi, Fons vivus, ignis, caritas, Et spiritalis unctio. Tu septiformis munere, Dextrae Dei tu digitus, 10 Tu rite promissum Patris Sermone ditans guttura.

Page  78 78 GREGORIUS MAGNUS. Accende lumen sensibus, Infunde amorem cordibus, 15 Infirma nostri corporis Virtute firmans perpetim. Hostem repellas longins, Pacemque dones protinus, Ductore sic te praevio 20 Vitemus omne noxium. Da gaudiorum praemia, Da gratiarum munera, Dissolve litis vincula, Adstringe pacis foedera. 25 Per te sciamus, da, Patrein, Noscamus atque Filium, Te utriusque Spiritum Credamus omni tempore. Sit laus Patri cum Filio, 30 Sancto simul Paraclito, Nobisque mittat Filius Charisma sancti Spiritus.

Page  [unnumbered] XII. BEDA VENERABILIS. I. DE NATALI INNOCENTIUM. Hymnum canentes martyrum Dicamus innocentium, Qnos terra flentes perdidit, Gaudens sed aethra suscipit. Vultum patris per saecula 5 Quorum tuentur angeli, Eiusque laudant gratiam, Hymnum canentes martyrum. Quos rex pereinit impius, Pius sed auctor colligit, 10 Secum beatos collocans, In luce regni perpetis. Qui mansiones singulis Largitus in domo patris, Donat supernis sedibus 15 Quos rex peremit impius. Vox in Rama percrebuit, Lamenta luctus maximi, Rachel suos cum lacrimis Perfusa flevit filios. 20

Page  80 80 BEDA VENERABILIS. Gaudent triumpho perpeti Tormenta quique vicerant, Quorum gemens ob verbera Vox in Rama.percrebuit. 25 Ne, grex pusille, formides Dentes leonis perfidos, Pastor bonus nam pascua Vobis dabit coelestia. Agnum Dei qui candidum 30 Mundo sequeris tramite, Manus latronis impias Ne, grex pusille, formides. Absterget omnem lacrymam, Vestris pater de vultibus, 35 Mors vobis ultra non nocet, Vitae receptis moenibus. Qui seminent in lacrymis Longo metent in gaudio, Genis lugentum conditor 40 Absterget omnem lacrymam. 0! quam beata civitas In qua redemptor venitur, Natoque primae martyrum In qua dicantur hostiae. 45 Nunquam vocaris parvula In civitatum millibus, Ex qua novus dux ortus est, 0! quam beata civitas!

Page  81 BEDA VENERABILIS. 81 Adstant nitentes fulgidis Eius throno nunc vestibus, 50 Stolas suas qui laverant Agni rubentes sanguine. Qui perpetis pro patriae Regno gementes fleverant, Laeti Deo cum laudibus 55 Adstant nitentes fulgidis. II. DE ASCENSIONE DOMINI. Hymnum canamus gloriae, Hymni novi nunc personent, Christus novo cum traiite Ad Patris ascendit thronum. Transit triumpho gloriae 5 Poli potenter culmina, Qui morte mortem absumserat, Derisus a mortalibus. Erant in admirabili Regis triumpho alti throni 10 Coetus simul coelestium Polum petentes agminum. Apostoli tum, mystico In monte stantes chrismatis, Cum matre claram virgine 15 Iesu videbant gloriarm. D 2

Page  82 82 BEDA VENERABILIS. Ac ipse cuncta transiens Coeli micantis culmina Ad dexteram patris sedit 20 Consempiternus filius: Venturus inde in gloria Vivos simul cum mortuis Diiudicare pro actibus, Iusto potens examine. 25 Quo nos precamur tempore, Iesu redemptor unice, Inter tuos in aethere Servos benignus adgrega. Nostris ibi tum cordibus, 30 Tuo repleto Spiritu, Ostende Patrem, et sufficit Haec nobis una visio. III. AD CRUCEM. Salve, tropaeum gloriae, Salve, sacrum victoriae Signum, Deus quo perditum Mundum redemit mortuus. 5 0 gloriosa fulgidis Crux emicas virtutibus, Quam Christus ipse proprii Membris dicavit corporis.

Page  83 BEDA VENERABILIS. 83 Quondam genus mortalium Mletu premebas pallido, 10 At nunc reples fidelium Amore laeto pectora. En! ludus est credentium Tuis frui complexibus, Quae tanta gignis gaudia, 15 Pandis polique januas; Quae conditoris suavia Post membra, nobis suavior Es melle facta, et omnibus Praelata. mundi honoribus. 20 Te nunc adire gratulor, Te caritatis brachiis Complector, ad coelestia Conscendo per te gaudia. Sic tu libens me suscipe, 25 Illius, alma, servulum, Qui me redemit per tuam Magister altus gloriam. Sic fatur Andreas, crucis Erecta cernens cornua, 30 Tradensque vestem militi, Levatur in vitae arborem.

Page  [unnumbered] XIII. PAULUS DIACONUS. Ut queant laxis Resonare fibris Mira gestorum Famuli tuorum; ~~5 ~ Solve polluti Labii reatum, Sancte Iohannes! Nuntius celso Veniens Olympo, 10 Te patri magnum Fore nasciturum, Nomen et vitae Seriem gerendae Ordine promit. 15 Ille promissi Dubius superni, Perdidit promtae Mlodulos loquelae, Sed reformasti 20 Genitus peremtae Organa vocis.

Page  85 PAULUS PIACONUS. 85 Ventris obtruso Recubans cubili, Senseras Regem Thalamo manentem, 25 Hine parens nati Meritis uterque Abdita pandit. Sit decus Patri, Genitaeque Proli, 30 Et tibi, compar Utriusque virtus, Spiritus semper, Deus unus, omni Temporis aevo! 35

Page  [unnumbered] XIV. ALCUIN. Te homo laudet, alme creator, Pectore, mente, pacis amore, Non modo parva pars quia mundi est, Sed tibi, Sancte, solus imago 5 Magna, creator, mentis in arce Pectore puro, dmn pie vivit. O Deus et lux, laus tua semper Pectora et ora compleat, ut te Semper amemus, sanctus ubique. 10 Haec pia verba, virgo fidelis, Ore caveto, ut tua mitis Tempora Christus tota gubernet. Te cui castum corpore, mente Dirige tenlplum, dulcis amica, 15 Et sine semper fine valeto. Qui tibi solus sit, rogo, semper Lux, amor atque forma salutis, Vita perennis, gloria perpes!

Page  [unnumbered] XV. THEODULPHUS. IN RAMIS PALMARUM. Gloria, laus et honor tibi sit, rex Christe redemptor, Cui puerile decus promsit Hosanna pium. Israel tu rex, Davidis et inclyta proles, Nomine qui in Domini, rex benedicte, venis. Coetus in excelsis te laudat coelicus omnis 5 Et mortalis homo, cuncta creata simul. Plebs Hebraea tibi cum palmis obvia venit: Cum prece, voto, hymnis adsumus ecce tibi. Hi tibi passuro solvebant munia laudis, Nos tibi regnanti pangimus ecce melos. 10 Hi placuere tibi; placeat devotio nostra, Rex pie, rex clemens, cui bona cuncta placent. Gloria, laus et honor tibi sit, rex Christe redemptor, Cui puerile decus promsit Hosanna pium.

Page  [unnumbered] XVI. NOTKERUS VETUSTIOR. 1. ANTIPHONA IN MORTE. Media vita In morte sumus; Quem querimus adjutorem, Nisi te, Domine, 5 Qui pro peccatis nostris luste irasceris! Sancte Deus, sancte fortis, Sancte et misericors Salvator, Amarae morti 10 Ne tradas nos! II. ANTIPHONA. GLORIA IN EXCELSIS. Grates nunc omnes reddamus Domino Deo, Qui sua nativitate nos liberavit De diabolica potestate. Huic oportet, ut canamus cum angelis semper: Gloria in excelsis

Page  89 NOTKERUS VETUSTIOR. 89 III. DE NATIVITATE DOMINI. Eia recolamus laudibus piis digna huius diei carmina, In qua lux nobis oritur gratissima. Noctis interit nebula, pereunt nostri criminis umbracula: Hodie seculo maris stella est enixa novae salutis gaudia, 5 Quem tremunt barathra, mors cruenta pavet (ipsa a quo peribit mortua). Gemit capta pestis antiqua, coluber lividus perdit spolia. Homo lapsus, ovis abducta, revocatur ad aeterna gaudia. Gaudent in hac die agmina angelorum coelestia, Quia erat drachma decima perdita et est inventa. 100 culpa nimium beata, qua redempta est natura. Deus, qui creavit omnia, nascitur ex foemina. Mirabilis natura, mirifice induta, Assumens quod non erat, manens quod erat. Induitur natura divinitas humana: quis audivit talia 15 Quaerere venerat pastor pius, quod perderat; Induit galeam, certat ut miles armatura: Prostratus in sua propria ruit hostis spicula; Auferuntur tela, in quibus fidebat; divisa sunt eius spolia; Capta praeda sunt. Christi pugna fortissima salus nostra est vera, 20 Qui nos suam ad patriam duxit post victorian, In qua sibi laus est aeterna.

Page  [unnumbered] XVII. AUCTOR INCERTUS. DE ANNUNCIATIONE B. MARIAE. Ave maris stella, Dei mater alma Atque semper virgo, Felix coeli porta. 5 Sumens illud Ave Gabrielis ore Funda nos in pace, Mutans nomen Evae. Solve vincla reis, 10 Profer lumen coecis, Mala nostra pelle, Bona cuncta posce. Monstra te esse matrem, Sumat per te preces, 15 Qni pro nobis natus Tulit esse tuus.

Page  91 AUCTOR INCERTUS. 91 Virgo singularis, Inter omnes mitis, Nos culpis solutos Mites fac et castos. 20 Vitam praesta puram, Iter para tutum, Ut videntes Iesum Semper collaetemur! Sit laus Deo Patri, 25 Summo Christo decus, Spiritui Sancto: Tribus honor unus!

Page  [unnumbered] XVIII. ROBERTUS, GALLIAE REX. AD SANCTUM SPIRITUS. Veni, Sancte Spiritus, Et emitte coelitus Lucis tuae radium. Veni, pater pauperum, 5 Veni, dator munerum, Veni, lumen cordium. Consolator optime, Dulcis hospes animae, Dulce refrigerium: 10 In labore requies, In aestu temperies, In fletu solatium. O lux beatissima, Reple cordis intima 15 Tuorum fideliumm! Sine tuo numine Nihil est in homine, Nihil est innoxium.

Page  93 ROBERTUS, GALLIAE REX. 93 Lava quod est sordidum, Riga quod est aridum, 20 Sana quod est saucium; Flecte quod est rigidum, Fove quod est frigidum, Rege quod est devium! Da tuis fidelibus 25 In te confitentibus Sacrum septenarium; Da virtutis meritum, Da salutis exitum, Da perenne gaudium! 30

Page  [unnumbered] XIX. PETRUS DAMIANI. I. DE DIE MORTIS. Gravi me terrore puilsas, vitae dies ultima; Moeret cor, solvuntur renes, laesa tremunt viscera, Tuam speciem dum sibi mens depinxit anxia. Quis enim pavendum illud explicet spectaculmn, 5 Cum, dimenso vitae cursu, carnis aegra nexibus Anima luctatur solvi, propinquans ad exitum Perit sensus, lingua riget, revolvuntur oculi, Pectus palpitat, anhelat raucum guttur hominis, Stupent membra, pallent ora, decor abit corporis: 10 Ecce! diversorum partes confluunt spirituum: Hinc angelicae virtutes, illic turba daemonum. Illi propius accedunt, quos invitat meritum. Praesto sunt et cogitatus, verba, cursus, opera; Et prae oculis nolentis glomerantur omnia: 15 Illuc tendat, hue se vertat, coram videt posita.

Page  95 PETRUS DAMIANI. 95 Torquet ipsa reum sinum mordax conscientia: Plorat apta defluxisse corrigendi tempora! Plena luctu caret fructu sera poenitentia. Falsa tune dulcedo carnis in ainarum vertitur, Quando brevem voluptatem perpes poena sequitur; 20 Iam quod magnum credebatur nil fuisse cernitur. Atque mens in summae lucis gloriam sustollitur, Aspernatur lutum carnis quo mersa pervolvitur, Et ut carcerati nexu laetabunda solvitur. Sed egressa durum iter experitur anima, 25 Qua incursant furiosa dirae pestis agmina, Et diversa suis locis instrlunt certfmina. Nam hic incentores gulae, illic avaritiae; Alibi fautores irae, alibi superbiae: Vitii cuiusque globus suas parat acies. 30 lam si cedat una turma mox insurgit altera; Omnis ars tentatur belli, omnis pugnae machina, Ne ab hostium pudore sic evadat anima. O quam torva bellatorum monstra sunt feralium! Tetri, truces, truculenti, flammas efflant naribus; 35 Dracontea tument colla; virus stillant faucibus. Serpentinis armant spiris manus doctas proeliis; Iis oppugnant adventantes telis velut ferreis; His quos attrahunt, aeternis mancipant incendiis.

Page  96 96 PETRUS DAMIANI. 40 Quaeso, Christe, Rex invicte, tu succurre misero! Sub extrema mortis hora cum iussus abiero, Nullum in me ius tyranno praebeatur impio! Cadat princeps tenebrarum, cadat pars tartarea! Pastor, ovem iam redemptam tune reduc ad patriam, 45 Ubi te vivendi causa perfruar in saecula! II. RHYTHMUS PASCHALIS. Paschalis festi gaudium Mundi replet ambitum; Coelum, tellus et maria Laeta promant carmina 5 Et Alleluia consonis Modulentur organis. Solus ululet Tartarus Rapta praeda vacuus, Fractos vectes et ferrea 10 Strata ploret moenia, Quae subruit rex gloriae Cum laude victoriae. Stupenda lex mysterii, Novum genus proelii: 15 Ligatus nexos liberat, Mortuus vivificat, Dumque vita perimnitur Mortis mors efficitur.

Page  97 PETRUS DAMIANI. 97 Cum auctor vitae moritur Orbis et commoritur, 20 Sol radios operuit, Lugens terra tremuit, Templi velum dividitur, Vis saxorum scinditur. Brevi sepuicro clauditur, 25 Qui coelo non capitur, Praeda vallatus divite, Victo mortis principe, Triumphali potentia Surgit die tertia. 30 Mox intonat angelicus Sermo mulieribus, Apostolis ut dulcia Haec deferrent nuntia: "In Galilaeam pergite 35 Ibi Christi cernite." lam regis Aegyptiaci Servitute liberi, Post maris rubri transitum Novum demus canticum: 40 Mortis soluti legibus Christo consurreximus. Totis, Christe, visceribus Tibi laudes reddimus, E

Page  98 98 PETRUS DAMIANI. 45 Qui resurgens a mortuis Ultra ianl non moreris; Sit Patri laus et parili Decus omne Flamini. III. PAULUS. Paule, doctor egregie, Tuba clangens ecclesiae, Nubes volans ac tonitrum Per amplum mundi circulum. 5 Nobis potenter intona, Ruraque eordis irriga, Coelestis imbre gratiae Mentes virescant aridae. O magnum Pauli meritum, 10 Coelum conscendit tertiurn, Audit verba mysterii, Quae nullis audet eloqui. Dum verbi spargit semina, Seges surgit uberrima, 15 Sic coeli replent horreum Bonorum fruges operum.

Page  [unnumbered] xx. MAR BO D. I. DE RESURRECTIONE MORTUORUM. Credere quid dubitem fieri quod posse probatur, Cuius et ipse typum naturae munere gesto? Quaque die somno, ceu mortis imagine pressus, Rursus et evigilans veluti de morte resurgo; Ipsa mihi sine voce loquens natura susurrat: 5 Post somnum vigilas, post mortis tempora vives. Clamat idem mundus, naturaque provida rerum, Quas Deus humanis sic condidit usibus aptas, Ut possint homini quaedam signare futura. Mutat luna vices, defunctaque lumine rursum 10 Nascitur, augmentum per menstrua tempora sumens; Sol quoque, per noctem quasi sub tellure sepultus, Surgens mane novus reditum de norte figurat: Signat idem gyros agitando volubile coelum, Aera distinguens tenebris et luce sequente. 15 Ipsa parens tellus quae corpora nostra receptat, Servat in arboribus vitae mortisque figuram, Et simileln formam redivivis servat in herbis. Nudatos foliis brumali tempore ramos,

Page  100 100 MARBOD. 20 Et velut arentes mortis sub imagine truncos In propriam speciem frondosa resuscitat aestas; Quaeque peremit hyems nova gramina vere resurgunt, Ut suus incipiat labor arridere colonis. Nos quoque spes eadem manet et reparatio vitae, 25 Qua revirescat idem, sed non resolubile corpus. An mihi subiectis data sit renovatio rebus, Totus et hanc speciem referens mihi serviat orbis, Me solum interea premat irreparabile damnum? Et quid erit causae modico cur tempore vivens, 30 Optima pars mundi, vitaeque Datoris imago, Post modicum peream, sublata spe redeundi, At pro me factus duret per saecula mundus? Nonne putas dignum magis inferiora perire Irreparabiliter, quam quae potiora probantur? 35 Sed tamen illa manent, ergo magis ista manebunt. II. ORATIO AD DOMINUM. Deus-homo, Rex coelorum, Miserere miserorumn; Ad peccandum proni sumus, Et ad humum redit humus; 5 Tu ruinam nostram fulci Pietate tua dulci. Quid est homo, proles Adae? Germen necis dignum clade. Quid est homo nisi vermis, 10 Res infirma, res inermis.

Page  101 MARBOD. 101 Ne digneris huic irasci, Qui non potest mundus nasci: Noli, Deus, hunc damnare, Qui non potest non peccare; Iudicare non est aequum 15 Creaturam, non est tecum: Non est miser homo tanti, Ut respondeat Tonanti. Sicut umbra, sicut fumas, Sicut foenum facti sumus: 20 Miserere, Rex coelorum, Miserere miserorum.

Page  [unnumbered] XXI. HILDEBERTUS TURONENSIS. I. CHRISTUS MARITUS. Turtur inane nescit amare, Nam, semel uni nupta marito Nocte dieque juncta manebit, Absque marito nemo videbit. 5 Sed viduata si caret ipso, Non tamen ultra nubet amico, Sola volabit, sola sedebit, Et quasi vivum semper tenebit. Sic est anima quaeque fidelis 10 Facta virili foedere felix: Namque est Christus sibi maritus, Quum sua de se pectora replet, Et, bene vivens, semper adhaeret, Non alienum quaerit amicum, 15 Quamlibet orcus sumpserit illuin, Quem superesse credit in aethre, Inde futurum spectat eundem, Ut microcosmum judicet omnem.

Page  103 HILDEBERTUS TURONENSIS. 103 II. AD TRES PERSONAS ST. TRINITATIS. AD PATREM. Alpha et Q, magne Dens, Heli, Heli, Deus meus; Cuius virtus totum posse, Cuius sensus totum nosse, Cuius esse summum bonum, 5 Cuius opus quidquid bonun; Super cuncta, subter cuncta, Extra cuncta, intra cuncta, Intra cuncta, nec inclusus, Extra cuncta, nec exclusus; 10 Super cuncta, nec elatus, Subter cuncta, nec substratus; Super totus, praesidendo, Subter totus, sustinendo; Extra totus, complectendo, 15 Intra totus es, implendo; Intra nunquam coarctaris, Extra nunquam dilataris, Super nullo sustentaris, Subter nullo fatigaris: 20 Mundum movens non moveris, Locum tenens non teneris; Tempus mutans non mutaris, Vaga firmans non vagaris; Vis externa vel necesse 25 Non alternat tuum esse. Heri nostrum, cras et pridem, Semper tibi nune et idem. Tuum, Deus, hodiernum, Indivisum sempiternum; 30

Page  104 104 HILDEBERTUS TURONENSIS. In hoc totum praevidisti, Totum simul perfecisti, Ad exemplar summae mentis, Formam praestans elementis. AD FILIUM. 35 Nate, Patri coaequalis, Patri consubstantialis, Patris splendor et figura, Factor factus creatura, Carnem nostram induisti, 40 Causam nostram suscepisti: Sempiternus, temporalis; Moriturus, immortalis; Verus homo, verus Deus; Impermixtus Homo-Deus. 45 Non conversus:hic in carnem; Nec minutus propter carnem: Hic assumptus est in Deun, Non consumptus propter Deum; Patri compar Deitate, 50 Minor carnis veritate: Deus pater tantum Dei, Virgo mater, sed est Dei: In tam nova ligatura Sic utraque stat natura, 55 Ut conservet quicquid erat, Facta quiddam quod non erat. Noster iste mediator, Iste noster legislator, Circumcisus, baptizatus, 60 Crucifixus, tumulatus,

Page  105 HILDEBERTUS TURONENSIS. 105 Obdormivit et descendit, Resurrexit et ascendit: Sic ad coelos elevatus Iudicabit iudicatus. AD SPIRITUM SANCTUM. Paraclitus increatus, 65 Neque factus, neque natus, Patri consors, Genitoque, Sic procedit ab utroque Ne sit minor potestate, Vel discretus qualitate. 70 Quanti illi, tantus iste, Quales illi, talis iste. Ex quo illi, ex tune iste; Quantum illi, tantum iste. Pater alter, sed gignendo; 75 Natus alter, sed nascendo; Flamen ab his procedendo; Tres sunt unum subsistendo. Quisque trium plenus Deus, Non tres tamen Di, sed Deus, 80 In hoc Deo, Deo vero, Tres et unum assevero, Dans Usiae unitatem, Et personis Trinitatem. In personis nulla prior, 85 Nulla minor, nulla maior; Unaquaeque semper ipsa, Sic est constans atque fixa, Ut nec in se varietur, Nec in ulla transmutetur. 90 E2

Page  106 106 HILDEBERTUS TURONENSIS. Haec est fides orthodoxa, Non hie error sine noxa; Sicut dico, sic et credo, Nec in pravamn partem cedo. 95 Inde venit, bone Deus, Ne desperenm quamvis reus: Reus mortis non despero, Sed in morte vitam quaero. Quo te placern nil praetendo, 100 Nisi fidem quam defendo: Fidern vides, hanc imploro; Leva fascem quo laboro; Per hoc sacrum cataplasma Convalescat aegrum plasma. 105 Extra portam iam delatum, lam foetentem, tumulatum, Vitta ligat, lapis urget; Sed si iubes, hic resurget; lube, lapis revolvetur, 110 lube, vitta dirumpetur: Exiturus nescit moras, Postquam clarnas: Exi foras. In hoc salo mea ratis Infestatur a piratis; 115 Hinc assultus, inde fluctus, Hinc et inde mors et luctus; Sed tu, bone Nauta, veni, Preme ventos, mare leni; Fac abscedant hi piratae, 120 Duc ad portum salva rate. Infecunda mea ficus, Cuius ramus ramus siccus,

Page  107 HILDEBERTUS TURONENSIS. 107 Incidetur, incendetur, Si promulgas quod meretur; Sed hoc anno dimittatur, 125 Stercoretur, fodiatur; Quod si needum respondebit, Flens hoc loquor, tunc ardebit. Vetus hostis in me furit, Aquis mersat, flammis urit: 130 Inde languens et afflictus Tibi soli sum relictus. Ut infirmus convalescat, Ut hic hostis evanescat, Tu virtutem ieiunandi 135 Des infirmo, des orandi: Per haec duo, Christo teste, Liberabor ab hac peste; Ab hac peste solve mentem, Fac devotuin, poenitentem; 140 Da timorem, quo proiecto, De salute nil coniecto; Da fidem, spem, caritatem; Da discretam pietatem; Da contemptum terrenorum, 145 Appetitum supernorum. Totum, Deus, in te spero; Deus, ex te totum quaero. Tu laus nea, meum bonum, Mea cuncta tuum donum; 150 Tu solamen in labore, Medicamen in languore; Tu in luctu mea lyra, Tu lenimen es in ira;

Page  108 108 HILDEBERTUS TURONENSIS. 155 Tu in arcto liberator, Tu in lapsu relevator; Moturn praestas in provectu, Spem conservas in defectu; Si quis laedit,tu rependis; 160 Si minatur, tu defendis: Quod est anceps tu dissolvis, Quod tegendum tu involvis. Tu intrare me non sinas Infernales officinas; 165 Ubi moeror, ubi metus, Ubi foetor, ubi fletus, Ubi probra deteguntur, Ubi rei confunduntur, Ubi tortor semper caedens, 170 Ubi vermis semper edens; Ubi totum hoc perenne, Quia perpes mors gehennae. Me receptet Syon illa, Syon, David urbs tranquilla, 175 Cuius faber auctor lucis, Cuius portae lignum crucis, Cuius muri lapis vivns, Cuius custos rex festivus. In hac urbe lux solennis, 180 Ver aeternum, pax perennis: In hac odor implens coelos, In hac semper festum melos; Non est ibi corruptela, Non defectus, non querela; 185 Non minuti, non deformes, Omnes Christo sunt conformes.

Page  109 HILDEBERTUS TURONENSIS. 109 Urbs coelestis, urbs beata, Super petram collocata, Urbs in portu satis tuto, De longinquo te saluto, 190 Te saluto, te suspiro, Te affecto, te requiro. Quantum tui gratulantur, Quam festive convivantur, Quis affectus eos stringat, 195 Aut quae gemma muros pingat, Quis chalcedon, quis iacinthus, Norunt illi qui sunt intus. In plateis huius urbis, Sociatus piis turbis, 200 Cum Moyse et Elia, Pium cantem Alleluya. Amen.

Page  [unnumbered] XXII. ABA ELARDU S. I. DIXIT AUTEM DEUS: FIANT LUJMINARIA IN FIRMAMENTO COELI. Gen. i. 14. Ornarunt terram germina, Nunc coelum luminaria; Sole, luna, stellis depingitur, Quorum multus usus cognoscitur. 5 Haec quaque parte condita Sursum, Homo, considera; Esse tuam et coeli regio Se fatetur horum servitio. Sole calet in hieme, 10 Qui caret ignis munere; Pro nocturnae lucernae gratia Pauper habet lunam et sidera. Stratis dives eburneis, Pauper jacet gramineis; 15 Hinc avium oblectant cantica, Inde florum spirat fragrantia.

Page  111 ABAELARDUS. 111 Impensis, Dives, nimiis Domum casuram construis; Falso sole pingis testudinlem, Falsis stellis in coeli speciem. 20 In vera coeli camera Pauper jacet pulcherrima; Vero sole, veris sideribus Istam illi depinxit Dominus. Opus magis eximium 25 Est naturae quam hominum; Quod nec labor nec sumptus praeparat, Nec vetustas solvendo dissipat. Ministrat homo diviti, Angelus autem pauperi, 30 Ut hinc quoque constet coelestia Quamr sint nobis a Deo subdita. II. IN ANNUNTIATIONE B. V. MARIAE. Mittit ad virginem Non quemvis angelum, Sed fortitudinem, Suum archangelum, Amator hominis. 5 Fortem expediat Pro nobis nuntium, Naturae faciat Ut praeiudicium In partu virginis. 10

Page  112 112 ABAELARDUS. Naturam superat Natus rex gloriae, Regnat et imperat Et zyma scoriae 15 Tollit de medio. Superbientium Terat fastigia, Colla sublimium Calcet vi propria, 20 Potens in proelio. Foras ejiciat Mundanum principein, Mlatremque faciat Secum participem 25 Patris imperii. Exi, qui mitteris, Haec dona dicere, Revela veteris Velainen literae 30 Virtute nuntii. Accede, nuntia, Dic "Ave" cominus, Die " plena gratia," Die " tecum Dominus," 35 Et dic "ne timeas!" Virgo suscipias Dei depositum, In quo perficias Casta propositum 40 Et votum teneas.

Page  113 ABAELARDUS. 113 Audit et suscipit Puella nuntium, Credit et concipit Et parit filium, Sed admirabilem. 45 Consiliarium Humani generis, Deum et hominem Et patrem posteris, In pace stabilem; 50 Qui nobis tribuat Peccati veniam, Reatus deleat, Donet et patriam In arce siderum. 55

Page  [unnumbered] XXIII. BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS. I. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. Salve, mundi salutare, Salve salve, Iesu care, Cruci tuae me aptare Vellem vere, tu scis quare, 5 Da mihi tui copiam. Ac si praesens sis, accedo, Immo te praesentein credo; O quam mundum hic te cerno! Ecce! tibi me prosterno, 10 Sis facilis ad veniam. Clavos pedum, plagas duras, Et tam graves impressuras Circumplector cum affectu, Tuo pavens in aspectu, 15 Meorum memor vulnerum. Grates tantae caritati Nos agamus vulnerati; O amator peccatorum, Reparator constratorum 20 0 dulcis pater pauperum!

Page  115 BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS. 115 Quidquid est in me confractum, Dissipatum aut distractum, Dulcis Iesu, totum sana, Tu restaura, tu complana Tam pio medicarine. 25 Te in tua cruce quaero, Prout queo, corde mero, Me sanabis hie, ut spero, Sana me et sanus ero In tuo lavans sanguine. 30 Plagas tuas rubicundas Et fixuras tarn profundas Cordi meo fac inscribi, Ut configar totus tibi Te modis arnans omnibus. 35 Quisquis hue ad te accessit Et hos pedes corde pressit Aeger, sanus hine abscessit, Hie relinquens, quidquid gessit, Dans osculum vulneribus. 40 Coram cruce procumbentem, Hosque pedes conplectentern, Iesu bone, non me spernas, Sed de cruce sancta cernas Compassionis gratia. 45 In hac cruce stans directe Vide me, O mi dilecte, Ad te totum me converte; Esto sanus, die aperte, Dimitto tibi omnia. 50

Page  116 116 BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS. II. AD FACIEM. Salve, caput cruentatum, Totum spinis coronatum, Conquassatum, vulneratum, Arundine sic verberatum, 5 Facie sputis illita. Salve, cuius dulcis vultus, Immutatus et incultus, Immutavit suum florem, Totus versus in pallorem, 10 Quern coeli tremit curia. Omnis vigor atque viror Hinc recessit, non admiror, Mors apparet in aspectu, Totus pendens in defectu, 15 Attritus aegra macie. Sic affectus, sic despectus, Propter me sic interfectus, Peccatori tam indigno Cuin amoris intersigno 20 Appare clara facie. In hac tua passione Me agnosce, pastor bone, Cuius sumpsi mel ex ore, Haustum lactis ex dulcore 25 Prae omnibus deliciis. Non me reum asperneris, Nec indignum dedigneris,

Page  117 BERNARDUS CLABAVALLENSIS. 117 Morte tibi iam vicina Tuum caput hic acclina, In meis pausa brachiis. 30 Tuae sanctae passioni Me gauderem interponi, In hac cruce tecum mori Praesta crucis amatori, Sub cruce tua moriar. 35 Morti tuae iam amarae Grates ago, Iesu care, Qui es clemens, pie Deus, Fac quod petit tuus reus, Ut absque te non finiar. 40 Dum me mori est necesse, Noli mihi tune deesse; In tremenda mortis hora Veni, Iesu, absque mora, Tuere me et libera. 45 Quum me iubes emigrare, Iesu care, tune appare; O arnator amplectende, Temetipsum tune ostende In cruce salutifera. 50 III. AD COR. Summi regis cor, aveto, Te saluto corde laeto, Te complecti me delectat Et hoc meum cor affectat, Ut ad te loquar, animes. 5

Page  118 118 BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS. Quo amore vincebaris, Quo dolore torquebaris, Cum te totum exhaurires, Ut te nobis impertires 10 Et nos a morte tolleres? O mors illa, quam amara, Quam immitis, quam avara, Quae per cellam introivit, In qua mundi vita vivit, 15 Te mordens, cor dulcissimum. Propter mortem, quam tulisti, Quando pro me defecisti, Cordis mei cor dilectum, In te meum fer affectum. 20 Hoc est quod opto plurimum. O cor dulce, praedilectum, Munda cor meum illectum Et in vanis induratum, Pium fac et timoratum, 25 Repulso tetro frigore. Per medullam cordis mei Peccatoris atque rei Tuus amor transferatur, Quo cor totum rapiatur 30 Languens amoris vulnere. Dilatare, aperire, Tanquam rosa fragrans mire, Cordi meo te coniunge, Unge illud et compunge, 35 Qui amat te quid patitur?

Page  119 BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS. 119 Quidnam agat, nescit vere, Nec se valet cohibere, Nullum modum dat amori, Multa morte vellet mori, Amore quisquis vincitur. 40 Viva cordis voce clamo Dulce cor, te namque amo, Ad cor meum incliliare, Ut se possit applicare Devoto tibi pectore. 45 Tuo vivat in amore, Nec dormitet in torpore, Ad te oret, ad te ploret, Te adoret, te honoret, Te fruens omni tempore. 50 IV. VANITAS MUNDI. Quum sit ornnis homo foenum, Et post foenum fiat coennm, Ut quid, hoino, extolleris? Cerne quid es et quid eris: Modo flos es, et verteris 5 In favillam cineris. Per aetatum incrementa, Immo magis detrimenta, Ad non-esse traheris. Velut umbra, quum declinat, 10 Vita surgit et festinat, Claudit meta funeris.

Page  120 120 BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS. Homo dictus es ab humno; Cito transis, quia fumo 15 Similis efficeris. Nunquam in eodem statu Permanes, dum sub rotatu Huius vitae volveris. O sors gravis, o sors dura, 20 O lex dira, quam natura Promulgavit miseris! Homo nascens cum moerore Vitam ducis cum labore Et cum metu moreris. 25 Ergo si scis qualitatem Tuae sortis, voluptatem Carnis quare sequeris? Memento, te moriturum Et post mortem id messurum, 30 Quod hic seminaveris. Terram teris, terram geris, Et in terram reverteris, Qui de terra sumreris. Cerne quid es et quid eris: 35 Modo flos es, et verteris In favillam cineris.

Page  121 BERNARDUS CLABAVALLENSIS. 121 V. CONTEMPTIO VANITATIS MUNDI. O miranda vanitas! O divitiarum Amor lamentabilis! O virus amarum! Cur tot viros inficis, 5 Faciendo carum, Quod pertransit citius, Quam flamma stupparum. Homo miser, cogita: Mors omnes compescit, 10 Quis est ab initio, Qui morti non cessit? Quando moriturus est, Omnis homo nescit, Hic, qui vivit hodie, 15 Cras forte putrescit. Dum de morte cogito, Constristor et ploro, Verum est, quod moriar Et tempus ignoro. 20 Ultimum, quod nescio, Cui iungar choro; Et cum sanctis merear Iungi, Deum oro! F

Page  122 122 BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS. VI. DE NOMINE IESU. Iesu dulcis memoria Dans vera cordis gaudia, Sed super mel et omnia Eius dulcis praesentia. 5 Nil canitur suavius, Auditur nil iucundius, Nil cogitatur dulcius, Quam Iesus, Dei filius. Iesu, spes poenitentibus, 10 Quam pius es petentibus, Qlam bonus te quaerentibus, Sed quid invenientibus? Iesu, dulcedo cordium, Fons vivus, lumen mentiuin, 15 Excedens omne gaudium, Et omne desiderium. Nec lingua valet dicere, Nec litera exprimere, Expertus potest credere, 20 Quid sit Iesum diligere. Cum Maria diluculo, Iesum quaeram in tumulo, Cordis clamore querulo Mente quaeram, non oculo.

Page  123 BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS. 123 Iesu, rex admirabilis 25 Et triumphator nobilis, Dulcedo ineffabilis, Totus desiderabilis. Quando cor nostrum visitas, Tune lucet ei veritas, 30 Mundi vilescit vanitas, Et intus fervet caritas. Mane nobiscum, Domine, Et nos illustra lumine, Pulsa noctis caligine 35 Mundum replens dulcedine. Hoc probat tua passio, Hoc sanguinis effusio, Per quam nobis redemptio Datur Deique visio. 40 Qui te gustant, esuriunt, Qui bibunt, adhuc sitiunt, Desiderare nesciunt Nisi Iesum, quem diligunt. Quem tuus amor ebriat, 45 Novit quid Iesus sapiat; Quam felix est quem satiat! Non est ultra quod cupiat. Iesu, decus angelicum, In aure dulce canticum, 50 In ore mel mirificmn, In corde nectar coelicumn.

Page  124 124 BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS. Iesu quaeram in lectulo, Clauso cordis cubiculo, 55 Privatim et in publico Quaeram amore sedulo. Quocunque loco fuero, Mecum Iesum desidero! Quam laetus, cum invenero, 60 Quam felix, cum tenuero! Desidero te millies, Mi Iesu, quando venies, Me laetum quando facies [Ut vultu tuo saties? 65 O Iesu, mi dulcissime, Spes suspirantis animae, Te quaerunt piae lacrimae, Te clamor mentis intimae. Veni, veni, Rex optime, 70 Pater immensae gloriae, Affulge menti clarius lam expectatus saepius. Tu fons misericordiae, Tu verae lumen patriae, 75 Pelle nubem tristitiae Dans nobis lucem gloriae. Dilecte mi, revertere Consors paternae dexterae, Hostem vicisti prospere, 80 Iam coeli regno fruere.

Page  125 BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS. 125 Te coeli chorus praedicat, Et tuas laudes replicat, Iesus orbem laetificat, Et nos Deo pacificat. Iesus ad patrem rediit, 85 Coeleste regnumn subiit, Cor meum a me transiit, Post Iesumn simul abiit. Iesum sequamur laudibus, Votis, hynnis et precibus, 90 Ut nos donet coelestibus Secum perfrui sedibus. Coeli cives! occurrite, Portas vestras attollite, Triumphatori dicite: 95 Iesu, salve rex inclyte!

Page  [unnumbered] XXIV. BERNARDUS CLUNIACENSIS. I. HORA NOVISSIMA. Hora novissima, tempora pessima. sunt, vigilemus. Ecce minaciter imminet arbiter ille supremus. Imminet, imminet et mala terminet, aequa coronet, Recta remuneret, anxia liberet, aethera donet, 5 Auferat aspera duraque pondera mentis onustae, Sobria muniat, improba puniat, utraque juste. II. LAUS PATRIAE COELESTIS. Hic breve vivitur, hic breve plangitur, hic breve fletur; Non breve vivere, non breve plangere retribuetur; O retributio! stat brevis actio, vita perennis; 0 retributio! coelica mansio stat lue plenis; 5 Quid datur et quibus? aether egentibus et cruce dignis, Sidera vermibus, optima sontibus, astra malignis. Sunt modo praelia, postmodo praemia; qualia? plena; Plena refectio, nullaque passio, nullaque poena.

Page  127 BERNARDUS CLUNIACENSIS. 127 Spe modo vivitur, et Syon angitur a Babylone; Nunc tribulatio; tune recreatio, sceptra, coronae; 10 Tune nova gloria pectora sobria clarificabit, Solvet enigmata, veraque sabbata continuabit. Liber et hostibus, et dominantibus ibit Hebraeus; Liber habebitur et celebrabitur hinc iubilaeus. Patria luminis, inscia turbinis, inscia litis, 15 Cive replebitur, amplificabitur Israelitis: Patria splendida, terraque florida, libera spinis, Danda fidelibus est ibi civibus, hic peregrinis. Tune erit omnibus inspicientibus ora tonantis Summa potentia, plena scientia, pax pia sanctis; 20 Pax sine crimine, pax sine turbine, pax sine rixa, Meta laboribus, atque tumultibus anchora fixa. Pars mea Rex meus, in proprio Deus ipse decore Visus amabitur, atque videbitur Auctor in ore. Tune Iacob Israel, et Lia tune Rachel efficietur, 25 Tune Syon atria pulcraque patria perficietur. O bona patria, lumina sobria te speculantur, Ad tua nomina sobria lumina collacrinantur: Est tua mentio pectoris unctio, cura doloris, Concipientibus aethera mentibus ignis amoris. 30 Tu locus unicus, illeque coelicus es paridisus, Non ibi lacrima, sed placidissima gaudia, risus. Est ibi consita laurus, et insita cedrus hysopo; Sunt radiantia iaspide moenia, clara pyropo: Hinc tibi sardius, inde topazius, hinc amethystus; 35 Est tua fabrica concio coelica, gemmaque Christus. Tu sine littore, tu sine tempore, fons, modo rivus, Dulce bonis sapis, estque tibi lapis undique vivus. Est tibi laurea, dos datur aurea, sponsa decora, Primaque Principis oscula suscipis, inspicis ora: 40

Page  128 128 BERNARDUS CLUNIACENSIS. Candida lilia, viva monilia sunt tibi, Sponsa, Agnus adest tibi, Sponsus adest tibi, lux speciosa: Tota negotia, cantica dulcia dulce tonare, Tam mala debita, quam bona praebita coniubilare. 45 Urbs Syon aurea, patria lactea, cive decora, Omne cor obruis, omnibus obstruis et cor et ora. Nescio, nescio, quae iubilatio, lux tibi qualis, Quam socialia gaudia, gloria quam specialis: Laude studens ea tollere, mens mea victa fatiscit: 50 O bona gloria, vincor; in omnia laus tua vicit. Sunt Syon atria coniubilantia, martyre plena, Cive micantia, Principe stantia, luce serena: Est ibi pascua, mitibus afflua, praestita sanctis, Regis ibi thronus, agminis et sonus est epulantis. 55 Gens duce splendida, concio candida vestibus albis Sunt sine fletibus in Syon aedibus, aedibus almis; Sunt sine crimine, sunt sine turbine, sunt sine lite In Syon aedibus editioribus Israelitae. Urbs Syon inclyta, gloria debita glorificandis, 60 Tu bona visibus interioribus intima pandis: Intima lumina, mentis acumina te speculantur, Pectora flammea spe modo, postea sorte lucrantur. IJrbs Syon unica, mansio mystica, condita coelo, Nunc tibi gaudeo, nunc mihi lugeo, tristor, anhelo: 65 Te quia corpore non queo, pectore saepe penetro, Sed caro terrea, terraque carnea, mox cado retro. Nemo retexere, nemoque promere sustinet ore, Quo tua moenia, quo capitalia plena decore; Opprimit omne cor ille tuus decor, O Syon, O pax, 70 Urbs sine tempore, nulla potest fore laus tibi mendax; 0 sine luxibus, 0 sine luctibus, 0 sine lite Splendida curia, florida patria, patria vitae!

Page  129 BERNARDUS CLUNIACENSIS. 129 Urbs Syon inclyta, turris et edita littore tuto, Te peto, te colo, te flagro, te volo, canto, saluto; Nec meritis peto, nam meritis meto morte perire, 75 Nec reticens tego, quod meritis ego filius irae: Vita quidem mea, vita nimis rea, mortua vita, Quippe reatibus exitialibus obruta, trita. Spe tamen ambulo, praemia postulo speque fideque, Illa perennia postulo praemia nocte dieque. 80 Me Pater optimus atque piissimus ille creavit; In lue pertulit, ex lue sustulit, a lue lavit. Gratia coelica sustinet unica totius orbis Parcere sordibus, interioribus unctio morbis; Diluit omnia coelica gratia, fons David undans 85 Omnia diluit, omnibus affluit, omnia mundans; O pia gratia, celsa palatia cernere praesta, Ut videam bona, festaque consona, coelica festa. O mea, spes mea, tu Syon aurea, clarior auro, Agmine splendida, stans duce, florida perpete lauro, 90 0 bona patria, num tua gaudia teque videbo? O bona patria, num tua praemia plena tenebo? Die mihi, flagito, verbaque reddito, dicque,Videbis: Spem solidam gero; remne tenens ero? die, Retinebis. 0 sacer, 0 pius, 0 ter et amplius ille beatus, 95 Cui sua pars Deus: O miser, O reus, hac viduatus. F2

Page  [unnumbered] XXV. PETRUS VENERABILIS. I. IN RESURRECTIONE DOMINI. Mortis portis fractis, fortis Fortior vim sustulit; Et per crucem regem trucem Infernorum perculit. 5 Lumen clarum tenebrarum Sedibus resplenduit; Dum salvare, recreare, Quod creavit, voluit. Hine Creator, ne peccator 10 Moreretur, moritur; Cuius morte nova sorte Vita nobis oritur. Inde Sathan victus gemit, Unde victor nos redemit; 15 Illud illi fit letale, Quod est homini vitale, Qui, dum captat, capitur, Et, dum mactat, moritur.

Page  131 PETRUS VENERABILIS. 131 Sic decenter, sic potenter Rex devincens inferos, 20 Linquens ima die prima, Rediit ad superos. Resurrexit, et revexit Secun Deus hominem, Reparando quam creando 25 Dederat originem. Per Auctoris passionem Ad amissam regionern Primus redit nunc colonus: Unde laetus fit hic sonus. 30 II. IN RESURRECTIONE DOMINI. Gaude, mortalitas, Redit aeternitas, Qua reparaberis; Quidquid de funere Soles metuere 5 Iam ne timueris. Dat certitudinem Vita per hominem Et Deum reddita, Quam in se pertulit 10 Ac tibi contulit Morte deposita. O nova dignitas! Dat locum Deitas

Page  132 132 PETRUS VENERABILIS. 15 Humano pulveri; Nullum se praeferet Opus vel conferet Huic tanto operi. Limus calcabilis, 20 Nunc adorabilis Super coelestia, Summis virtutibus Contremiscentibus Gubernat omnia. 25 Quod in principio Pravo consilio Perverse volnit, Nune per iustitiam, Non per superbiam 30 Adam obtinuit. Deus, dum tumuit, Esse non potuit, Quod concupierat, Factus et humilis, 35 Fit Deo similis Et coelis imperat. Hic umbris horrida, Hic flammis torrida Sedes, quem habuit, 40 Per Dei Filium Paternum solium Tenere meruit.

Page  133 PETRUS VENERABILIS. 133 Antiqui gemitus, Cessate funditus, INox est miseriae 45 lam locus penitus, Nam tempus coelitus Advenit gratiae.

Page  [unnumbered] XXVI. ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. I. IN NATIVITATE DOMNI. Potestate, non natura Fit Creator creatura, Reportetur ut factura Factoris in gloria. 5 Praedicatus per prophetas, Quem non capit locus, aetas, Nostrae sortis intrat metas, Non relinquens propria. Coelum terris inclinatur, 10 Homo-Deus adunatur, Adunato famulatur Coelestis familia. Rex sacerdos consecratur Generalis, quod monstratur 15 Cum pax terris nuntiatur Et in altis gloria. Causam quaeris, modum rei? Causa prius omnles rei, Modus iustum velle Dei, 20 Sed conditum gratia.

Page  135 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. 135 O quam dulce condimentum, Nobis mutans in pigmentum, Cum aceto fel cruentum Degustante Messia! 0 salubre sacramentum, 25 Quod nos ponit in iumentum, Plagis nostris dans unguentum, Ille de Samaria. Ille alter Elisaeus, Reputatus homo reus, 30 Suscitavit homo-Deus Sunamitis puerum. Hic est gigas currens fortis, Qui, destructa lege mortis, Ad amoena primae sortis 35 Ovem fert in humerum. Vivit, regnat Deus-homo, Trahens Orco lapsum pomo; Coelo tractus gaudet homo, Denum complens numerum. 40 II. DE RESURRECTIONE DOMINI. Mundi renovatio Nova parit gaudia, Resurgenti Domino Conresurgunt omnia. Elementa serviunt, 5 Et auctoris sentiunt Quanta sint solemnia.

Page  136 136 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. Ignis volat mobilis, Et aer volubilis, 10 Fluit aqua labilis, Terra manet stabilis, Alta petunt levia, Centrum tenent gravia, Renovantur omnia. 15 Coelum fit serenius, Et mare tranquillius, Spirat aura levius, Vallis nostra floruit; Revirescunt arida, 20 Revalescunt frigida, Quia ver intepuit. Gelu mortis solvitur, Princeps mundi tollitur, Et eius destruitur 25 In nobis imperium; Dum tenere voluit In quo nihil habuit, Ius amisit proprium. Vita mortera superat, 30 Homo iam recuperat Quod prius amiserat. Paridisi gaudium. Viam praebet facilem Cherubim, versatilem 35 Amovendo gladium.

Page  137 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. 137 III. DE SPIRITU SANCTO. Veni, Creator Spiritus, Spiritus recreator, Tu dans, tu datus coelitus, Tn donum, tu donator; Ta lex, tu digitus, 5 Alens et alitus, Spirans et spiritus, Spiratus et spirator. Tu septiformis gratiae Dans septiforme donumn, 10 Virtutis septifariae, Septem petitionum. Tu nix non defluens, Ignis non destruens, Pugil non metuens, 15 Propinator sermonum. Ergo accende sensibus, Tu, te, lumen et flamen, Tu te inspira cordibus, Qui es vitae spiramen. 20 Tu sol, tu radius, Mittens et nuncius, Persona tertius, Salva nos. Amen. Amen.

Page  138 138 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. IV. HYMNUS IN FESTE PENTECOSTE. Qui procedis ab utroque, Genitore Genitoque Pariter, Paraclite! Redde linguas eloquentes, 5 Fac ferventes in te mentes Flamma tua divite. Amor Patris Filiique, Par amborum, et utrique Compar et consimilis: 10 Cuncta reples, cuncta foves, Astra regis, coelum moves, Permanens immobilis. Lumen clarum, lumen carum, Internarum tenebrarum 15 Effugas caliginem. Per te mundi sunt mundati; Tu peccatum et peccati Destruis rubiginein. Veritatem notam facis, 20 Et ostendis viam pacis Et iter iustitiae; Perversorum corda vitas, Sed bonorum corda ditas Munere scientiae. 25 Te docente nil obscurum, Te praesente nil impurnm, Sub tua praesentia

Page  139 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. 139 Gloriatur mens iucunda, Per te laeta, per te munda Gaudet conscientia. 30 Quando venis, corda lenis, Quando subis, atrae nubis Effugit obscuritas; Sacer ignis, pectus ignis Non comburis, sed a curis 35 Purgas, quando visitas. Mentes prius imperitas Et sopitas et oblitas Erudis et excitas; Foves linguas, formas sonum, 40 Cor ad bonum facit pronum A te data caritas. 0 juvamen oppressornm, 0 solamen miserorum, Pauperum refugium, 45 Da contemptum terrenormn, Ad amorem supernorum Trahe desiderium. Consolator et fundator, Habitator et amator 50 Cordium humilium, Pelle nala, terge sordes, Et discordes fac concordes, Et affer praesidium.

Page  140 140 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. 55 Tu, qui quondam visitasti, Docuisti, confortasti Timentes discipulos, Visitare nos digneris, Nos, si placet, consoleris, 60 Et credentes populos! Par maiestas personarum, Par potestas est earum, Et communis Deitas. Tu procedens a duobus, 65 Coaequalis es ambobus, In nullo disparitas. Quia tantus es et talis Qurantus Pater est et qualis, Servorum humilitas 70 Deo Patri, Filioque Redemptori, tibi quoque Laudes reddat debitas. V. DE SS. EVANGELISTIS. Circa thronum maiestatis, Cum spiritibus beatis, Quatuor diversitatis Astant animalia. 5 Formam primun aquilinam, Et secundum leoninam, Sed humanam et bovinam Duo gerunt alia.

Page  141 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. 141 Formae formant figurarum Formas Evangelistarum, 10 Quorumi imber doctrinarum Stillat in Ecclesia; Hi sunt Marcus et Matthaeus, Lucas, et quem Zebedaeus Pater tibi misit, Deus, 15 Dum laxaret retia. Formam viri dant Matthaeo, Quia scripsit sic de Deo, Sicut descendit ab eo, Quem plasmavit, homine. 20 Lucas bos est in figura, Ut praemonstrat in Scriptura, Hostiarum tangens iura Legis sub velamine. Marcus, leo per desertum 25 Clamans, rugit in apertunm, Iter fiat Deo certum, Mundum cor a crimine. Sed Iohannes, ala bina Caritatis, aquilina 30 Forma fertur in divina Puriori lumnine. Quatuor describunt isti Quadriformes actus Christi, Et figurant, ut audisti, 35 Quisque sua formula,

Page  142 142 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. Natus homo declaratur, Vitulus sacrificatur, Leo mortem depraedatur, 40 Et ascendit aquila. Ecce forma bestialis, Quam scriptura prophetalis Notat; sed materialis Haec est impositio. 45 Currunt rotis, volant alis; Inest sensus spiritalis; Rota gressus est aequalis, Ala contemplatio. Paradisus his rigatur, 50 Viret, floret, foecundatur, His ablndat, his laetatur Quatuor fluminibus: Fons est Christus, hi sunt rivi, Fons est altus, hi proclivi, 55 Ut saporem fontis vivi Ministrent fidelibus. Horum rivo debriatis Sitis crescat caritatis, Ut de fonte pietatis 60 Satiemur plenius. Horum trahat nos doctrina Vitiorum de sentina, Sicque ducat ad divina Ab imo superius.

Page  143 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. 143 VI. DE S. STEPHANO. Heri mundus exultavit, Et exultans celebravit Christi natalitia: Heri chorus angeloruin Prosecutus est coelorum Regem cum laetitia. Protomartyr et Levita, Clarus fide, clarus vita, Clarus et miraculis, Sub hac luce triumphavit, 10 Et triumphans insultavit Stephanus incredulis. Fremunt ergo tanquam ferae, Quia victi defecere Lucis adversarii: 15 Falsos testes statuunt, Et linguas exacuunt Viperarum filii. Agonista, nulli cede; Certa certus de mercede, 20 Persevera, Stephane: Insta falsis testibus, Confuta sermonibus Synagogam Satanae. Testis tuus est in coelis, 25 Testis verax et fidelis, Testis innocentiae.

Page  144 144 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. Nomen habes Coronati, Te tormenta decet pati 30 Pro corona gloriae. Pro corona non marcenti Perfer brevis vim tormenti, Te manet victoria. Tibi fiet mors, natalis, 35 Tibi poena terminalis Dat vitae. primordia. Plenus Sancto Spiritu Penetrat intuitu Stephanus coelestia. 40 Videns Dei gloriam Crescit ad victoriam, Suspirat ad praemia. En a dextris Dei stantein Iesum, pro te dimicantem, 45 Stephane, considera. Tibi coelos reserari, Tibi Christum revelari Clama voce libera. Se commendat Salvatori, 50 Pro quo dulce ducit mori Sub ipsis lapidibus. Saulus servat omnium Vestes lapidantium, Lapidans in omnibus.

Page  145 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. 145 Ne peccatum statuatur 55 His, a quibus lapidatur, Genu ponit et precatur, Condolens insaniae: In Christo sic obdormivit, Qui Christo sic obedivit, 60 Et cum Christo semper vivit, Martyrum primitiae. VII. DE S. LAURENTIO. Sicut chorda musicorum Tandem sonuin dat sonorum Plectri ministerio, Sic in chely tormentorum Melos Christi confessorum 5 Martyris dat tensio. Parum sapis vim sinapis, Si non tangis, si non frangis; Et plus fragrat, quando flagrat, Tus iniectum ignibus: 10 Sic arctatus et assatus, Sub ardore, sub labore, Dat odoreni pleniorem Martyr de virtutibus. Hunc ardorem factum foris 15 Putat rorem vis amoris, Et zelus iustitiae: G

Page  146 146 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. Ignis urens, non comburens, Vincit prunas, quas adunas, 20 0 minister impie. VIII. IN DEDICATIONE ECCLESIAE. Quam dilecta tabernacla Domini et atria! Quam electi architecti, Tuta aedificia, 5 Quae non movent, imnmo fovent, Ventus, flumen, pluvia! Quarn decora fundamenta, Per concinna sacramenta Umbrae praecurrentia. 10 Latus Adae dormientis Evam fudit, in manentis Copulae primordia. Area ligno fabricata Noe servat, gubnernata 15 Per mundi diluvium. Prole sera tandem foeta, Anus Sara ridet laeta, Nostrum lactans Gaudium. Servus bibit qui legatur, 20 Et camelus adaquatur Ex Rebeccae hydria;

Page  147 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. 147 IIaec inaures et armillas Aptat sibi, ut per illas Viro fiat congrua. Synagoga supplantatur 25 A Iacob, dum divagatur, Nimis freta literae. Lippam Liam latent multa, Quibus videns Rachel fulta Pari nubit foedere. 30 In bivio tegens nuda, Geminos parit ex Iuda Thamar diu vidua. Hic Moyses a puella, Dum se lavat, in fiscella 35 Reperitur scirpea. Hic mas agnus immolatur, Quo Israel satiatur, Tinctus eius sanguine. Hic transitur rubens unda, 40 Aegyptios sub profunda Obruens voragine. Hie est urna manna plena, Hic mandata legis dena, Sed in area foederis; 45 Hic sunt aedis ornamenta, Hic Aaron indumenta, Quae praecedit poderis.

Page  148 148 ADAM DE SC. VICTORE. Hic Varias viduatur, 50 Barsabee subliratur, Sedis consors regiae: Haec Regi varietate Vestis astat deauratae, Sicut regum filiae. 55 Huc venit Austri regina, Salomonis quam divina Co'dit sapientia; Haec est nigra, sed formosa; Myrrhae et turis fumosa 60 Virga pigmentaria. Haec futura, quae figura Obumbravit, reseravit Nobis dies gratiae; Iam in lecto cumn dilecto 65 Quiescamus, et psallamus, Adsunt enim nuptiae: Quarum tonat initium In tubis epulantium, Et finis per psalterium. 70 Sponsum millena milia Una laudant melodia, Sine fine dicentia, Alleluia. Amen.

Page  [unnumbered] XXVII. ALANUS INSULANUS. I. DE NATURA HOMINIS. Omnis mundi creatura Quasi liber et pictura Nobis est, et speculum; Nostrae vitae, nostrae nortis, Nostri status, nostrae sortis 5 Fidele signaculurn. Nostrum statum pingit rosa, Nostri status decens glosa, Nostrae vitae lectio, Quae dum primo mane floret, 10 Defloratus flos effloret Vespertino senio. Ergo spirans flos expirat, In pallorem dum delirat, Oriendo moriens. 15 Simul vetus et novella, Simul senex et puella, Rosa marcet oriens.

Page  150 150 ALANUS INSULANUS. Sic aetatis ver humanae 20 Iuventutis primo mane Reflorescit paululum. Mane tamen hoc excludit Vitae vesper, dum concludit Vitale crepusculum. 25 Cuius decor dum perorat, Eius decus mox deflorat Aetas, in qua defluit. Fit flos foenum, gemma lutum, Homo cinis, dum tributum 30 Homo morti tribuit. Cuius vita, cuius esse Poena, labor, et necesse Vitamn morte claudere. Sic mors vitam, risum luctus, 35 Umbra diem, portun fluctus, Mane claudit vespere. In nos primum dat insultum Poena, mortis gerens vultum, Labor, mortis histrio: 40 Nos proponit in laborem, Nos assumit in dolorem, Mortis est conclusio. Ergo clausum sub hac lege Statum tuum, homo, lege, 45 Tuum esse respice!

Page  151 ALANUS INSULANUS. 151 Quid fuisti nasciturus, Quid sis praesens, quid futurus, Diligenter inspice. Luge poenam, culpam plange, Motus fraena, fastum frange, 50 Pone supercilia. Mentis rector et auriga Mentemn rege, fluxus riga, Ne fluant in devia. II. DE VITA HOMINIS. Vita nostra plena bellis: Inter hostes, inter arma More belli vivitur; Nulla lux it absque pugna, Nulla nox it absque luctu, 5 Et salutis alea. Sed timoris omnis expers, Stabo firmus inter arma, Nec timebo vulnera; Non morabor hostis iras, 10 Non timebo publicasve, Callidasve machinas. Ecce! coeli lapsus arcu Atque spissa nube tectus Rector ipse siderum: 15

Page  152 152 ALANUS INSULANUS. Contra saevos mentis hostes Proeliantem me tuetur, Bella pro me suscipit. Franget arcus et sagittas, 20 Ignibusque sempiternis Arma tradet hostium: Ergo stabo sine metn, Generose superabo Hostiuin saevitiain. m. DE NATIVITATE DOMINI. Hic est qui, carnis intrans ergastula nostrae, Se poenae vinxit, vinctos ut solveret; aeger Factus, ut aegrotos sanaret; pauper, ut ipsis Pauperibus conferret opem; defunctus, ut ipsa 5Vita donaret defunctos; exsulis omen Passus, ut exilio miseros subduceret exul. Sic livore perit livor, sic vulnere vulnus, Sic morbus damnat morbum, mors morte fugatur: Sic moritur vivens, ut vivat mortuus; haeres 10Exulat, ut servos haeredes reddat; egenus Fit dives, pauperque potens, ut ditet egenos. Sic liber servit, ut servos liberet; imum Summa petunt, ut sic ascendant infima summum; Ut nox splendescat, splendor tenebrescit; eclipsi 15 Sol verus languescit, ut astra reducat ad ortnm. Aegrotat medicus, ut sanet morbidus aegrum. Se coelum terrae conformat, cedrus hysopo,

Page  153 ALANUS INSULANUS. 153 Ipse gigas nano, fumo lux, dives egeno, Aegroto sanus, servo rex, purpura sacco. Hic est, qui nostram sortemn miseratus, ab aula 20 Aeterni Patris egrediens, fastidia nostrae Sustinuit sortis; sine crimine, criminis in se Defigens poenas, et nostri damna reatus. G2

Page  [unnumbered] XXVIII. THOMAS A CELANO. DIES IRAE. Dies irae, dies illa Solvet saeclum in favilla, Teste David cum Sybilla. Quantus tremor est futurus, 5 Qunando iudex est venturus, Cuncta stricte discussurus! Tuba, mirum spargens sonum Per sepulcra regionun, Coget omnes ante thronum. 10 Mors stupebit, et natura, Quum resurget creatlura, Iudicanti responsura. Liber scriptus proferetur, In quo totum continetur, 15 Unde mundus iudicetur.

Page  155 THOMAS A CELANO. 155 Iudex ergo cum sedebit, Quidquid latet, apparebit, Nil inultum remanebit. Quid sum miser tunc dicturus, Quem patronum rogaturus, 20 Cum vix iustus sit securus? Rex tremendae maiestatis, Qui salvandos salvas gratis, Salva me, fons pietatis! Recordare, Iesu pie, 25 Quod sum causa tuae viae; Ne mn perdas illa die! Quaerens- me sedisti lassus, Redemisti crucem passus: Tantus labor non sit cassus! 30 Iuste iudex ultionis, Donum fac remissionis Ante diem rati5nis! Ingemiscz tanquam reus, Culpa rubet vultus mens: 35 Supplicanti parce, Deus! Qui Mariam absolvisti, Et latronem exaudisti, Mihi quoque spem dedisti.

Page  156 156 THOMAS A CELANO. 40 Preces meae non sunt digna Sed tu bonus fac benigne Ne perenni cremer igne. Inter oves locum praesta, Et ab haedis me sequestra, 45 Statuens in parte dextra. Confutatis maledictis, Flammis acribus addicts, Voca me cum benedictis! Oro supplex et acclinis, 50 Cor contritum quasi cinis, Gere curam mei finis! Lacrymosa dies illa, Qua resurget ex favilla Iudicandus homo reus: 55 Huic ergo parce, Deus! iesu, pie domine, Dona eos reqnie! Amen.

Page  [unnumbered] XXIX. BONAVENTURA. I. DE SANCTA CRUCE. Recordare sanctae crucis, Qui perfectam viam ducis Delectare iugiter. Sanctae crucis recordare, Et in ipsa meditare 5 Insatiabiliter. Quum quiescas aut laboras, Quando rides, quando ploras, Doles sive gaudeas; Quando vadis, quando venis, 10 In solatiis, in poenis Crucem corde teneas. Crux in omnibus pressuris, Et in gravibus et duris Est totum reredium. 15 Crux in poenis et tormentis Est dulcedo piae mentis, Et verum refugium.

Page  158 158 BONAVENTURA. Crux est porta paradisi, 20 In qua sancti sunt confisi, Qui vicerunt omnia. Crux est mundi medicina, Per quam bonitas divina Facit mirabilia. 25 Crux est salus animarum, Verum lumen et praeclarum, Et dulcedo cordium. Crux est vita beatorum, Et thesaurus perfectorum, 30 Et decor et gaudium. Crux est speculum virtutis, Gloriosae dux salutis, Cuncta spes fidelium. Crux est decus salvandorum, 35 Et solatium eorum Atque desiderium. Crux est arbor decorata, Christi sanguine sacrata, Cunctis plena fructibus, 40 Quibus animae eruuntur, Cum supernis nutriuntur Cibis in coelestibus. Crucifixe! fac me fortem, Ut libenter tuam mortem 45 Plangam, donee vixero.

Page  159 BONAVENTURA. 159 Tecum volo vulnerari, Te libenter amplexari In cruce desidero. II. HORAE DE PASSIONE IESU CHRISTI. AD PRIMAM. Tn qui velatus facie Fuisti sol iustitiae, Flexis illusus genibus, Caesus quoque verberibus: Te petirnus attentius, 5 Ut sis nobis propitius, Ut per tuam clementiam Perducas nos ad gloriam. AD TERTIAM. Hora qui ductus tertia Fuisti ad supplicia, 10 Christe, ferendo humeris Crucem pro nobis miseris: Fac nos sic te diligere Sanctamque vitam ducere, Ut mereamur requie 15 Frui coelestis patriae. AD SEXTAM. Crucem pro nobis subiit Et stans in illa sitiit

Page  160 160 BONAVENTURA. Iesus sacratis manibus 20 Clavis fossus et pedibus: Honor et benedictio Sit crucifixo Domino, Qui suo nos supplicio Redemit ab exitio. AD NONAM. 25 Beata Christi passio Sit nostra liberatio, Ut per hanc nobis gandia Parata sint coelestia. Gloria Christo domino, 30 Qui pendens in patibulo Clamans emisit spirituin Mundumque salvans perditum. AD COMPLETORIUM. Qui iacuisti mortuns In pace rex innocuus, 35 Fac nos in te quiescere Semperque laudes canere. Succurre nobis, Domine, Quos redemisti sanguine, Et duc nos ad suavia 40 Aeternae pacis gaudia.

Page  161 BONAVENTURA. 161 III. HYMNUS DE PASSIONE DOMINI. Christum ducern, Qui per crucem Redernit nos ab hostibus, Laudet coetus Noster laetus, 5 Exultet coelum laudibus. Poena fortis Tuae mortis Et sanguinis effusio, Corda terant, 10 Ut te quaerant, Iesu, nostra redemptio. Per felices Cicatrices, Sputa, flagella, verbera, 15 Nobis grata Sunt collata Aeterna Christi munera. Nostrum tangat Cor, ut plangat 20 Tuorum sanguis vulnerum. In quo toti Simus loti, Conditor alme siderum.

Page  162 162 BONAVENTURA. 25 Passionis Tuae donis Salvator, nos inebria, Qua fidelis Dare velis 30 Aeterna nobis gaudia! IV. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. Quantum hamum caritas tibi praesentavit, Mori cum pro homine te solicitavit; Sed et esca placida hamum occupavit, Cum lucrari animas te per hoc monstravit. 5 Te quidem aculeus hami non latebat, Sed illius punctio te non deterrebat, Immo hunc impetere tibi complacebat, Quia desiderium escae attrahebat. Ergo pro me misero, quem tu dilexisti, 10 Mortis in aculeum sciens impegisti, Cum te Patri victimam sanctnam obtulisti, Et in tuo sanguine sordidum lavisti. Heu! cur beneficia Christi passionis Penes te memoriter, homo, non reponis? 15 Per hanc enim rupti sunt laquei praedonis, Per hanc Christus maximis te ditavit bonis.

Page  163 BONAVENTURA. 163 Suo.quippe corpore languidum te pavit, Quem in suo sanguine gratis balneavit, Demum suum dulce cor tibi denudavit, Ut sic innotesceret quantum te amavit. 20 Oh! quam dulce balneum, esca quam suavis, Quae sumenti digne fit paradisi clavis; Est ei quein reficis nullus labor gravis, Licet sis fastidio cordibus ignavis. Cor ignavi siquidem minime perpendit 25 Ad quid Christus optimum suum cor ostendit Super alas positum crucis, nec attendit Quod reclinatorii vices hoc praetendit. Hoc reclinatorium quoties monstratur Piae menti, toties ei glutinatur, 30 Sicut et accipiter totus inescatur Super carnem rubeam, per quam revocatur.

Page  [unnumbered] xxX. THOMAS AQUINAS. I. AD SACRAM EUCHARISTIAM. Adoro te devote, latens Deltas, Quae sub his figuris vere latitas. Tibi se cor meum totum subiicit, Quia te contemplans totum deficit. Visus, tactus, gustus, in te fallitur, Sed auditu solo tute creditnr: Credo quidquid dixit Dei filius; Nihil veritatis verbo verius. In cruce latebat sola Deitas, 10 At hic latet simul et humanitas, Ambo tamen credens atque confitens, Peto quod petivit latro poenitens. Plagas sicut Thomas non intueor, Deum tamen meum te confiteor, 15 Fac me tibi semper magis credere, In te spem habere, te diligere.

Page  165 THOMAS AQUINAS. 165 O memoriale mortis Domini, Panis verus, vitam praestans homini, Praesta meae menti de te vivere, Et te illi semper dulce sapere. 20 Pie pelicane, Iesu Domine, Me immundum munda tuo sanguine, Cuiiis una stilla salvum facere Totuni inundum quit ab omni scelere. Iesu, quem velatum nune aspicio, 25 Quando fiet illud quod tanu sitio, Ut te revelata cernens facie Visu sim beatus tuae gloriae. II. IN FESTO CORPORIS CHRISTI. Lauda, Sion, Salvatorem, Lauda ducem et pastorem In hymnis et canticis: Quantum potes, tantum aude, Quia maior omni laude, 5 Nec laudare sufficis. Laudis thema specialis, Panis vivus et vitalis Hodie proponitur; Quem in sacrae mensa coenae 10 Turbae fratrum duodenae Datum non ambigitur.

Page  166 166 THOMAS AQUINAS. Sit laus plena, sit sonora, Sit iucunda, sit decora 15 Mentis iubilatio: Namque dies est solennis Qua recolitur perennis Mensae institutio. In hac mensa novi Regis 20 Novum pascha novae legis Phase vetus terminat: Iam vetustas novitati, Umbra cedit veritati, Noctem lux eliminat. 25 Quod in coena Christus gessit, Faciendum hoc expressit In sui memoriam: Docti sacris institutis, Panem, vinum in salutis 30 Consecramus hostiam. Dogma datur Christianis, Quod in carnern transit panis, Et vinum in sanguinem: Quod non capis, quod non vides, 35 Animosa firmat fides, Praeter rerum ordinem. Sub diversis speciebus, Signis tamen et non rebus, Latent res eximiae:

Page  167 THOMAS AQUINAS. 167 Caro cibus, sanguis potus, 40 Manet tamen Christus totus Sub utraque specie. A sumente non concisus, Non confractus, non divisus, Integer accipitur: 45 Sumit unus, sumunt mille, Quantum isti, tantum ille, Nec sumptus consuinitur. Sumunt boni, sumunt mali, Sorte tamen inaequali 50 Vitae, vel interitus: Mors est malis, vita bonis: Vide, paris sumptionis Quam sit dispar exitus! Fracto demum Sacramento 55 Ne vacilles, sed memento: Tantum esse sub fragmento, Quantum toto tegitur; Nulla rei fit scissura, Signi tantum fit fractura, 60 Qua nec status, nec statura Signati minuitur. Ecce! panis angelorum! Factus cibus viatorum! Vere panis filiorum, 65 Non mittendus canibus!

Page  168 168 THOMAS AQUINAS. In figuris praesignatur, Cum Isaac immolatur, Agnus paschae deputatur, 70 Datur manna patribus. Bone pastor, panis vere, Iesu, nostri misere, Tu nos pasce, nos tuere, Tu nos bona fac videre 75 In1 terra viventium. Tu qui cuncta scis et vales, Qui nos pascis hie mortales, Tuos ibi commensales, Cohaeredes et sodales 80 Fac sanctorum civium.:II. IN FESTO CORPORIS CHRISTI, AD VESPERAS. Pange, lingua, gloriosi Corporis mysterium, Sanguinisque pretiosi, Quem in mundi pretium 5 Fructus ventris generosi Rex effudit gentiumn. Nobis datus, nobis natus, Ex intacta virgine, Et in mundo conversatus, 10 Sparso verbi semine, Sui moras incolatus Miro clausit ordine.

Page  169 THOMAS AQUINAS. 169 In supremae nocte coenae, Recumbens cum fratribus, Observata lege plene 15 Cibis in legalibus: Cibum turbae duodenae Se dat suis manibus. Verbum caro, panem verum Verbo carnem efficit, 20 Fitque sanguis Christi merum, Etsi sensus deficit: Ad firmnandum cor sincerum Sola fides sufficit. Tantum ergo Sacramentum 25 Venererur cernui: Et antiquum documentum Novo cedat ritui: Praestet fides supplementum Sensuum defectui! 30 Genitori, Genitoque Laus et iubilatio! Salus, honor, virtus quoque Sit et benedictio! Procedenti ab utroque 35 Compar sit laudatio! H

Page  170 170 TIOMAS AQUINAS. IV. DE CORPORE CHRISTI, O esca viatorum! O panis angelorum! O manna coelitum! Esurientes ciba, 5 Dulcedine non priva Corda quaerentium. O lympha, fons amoris! Qui puro Salvatoris E corde profluis: 10 Te sitientes pota! Haec sola nostra vota, His una sufficis! 0 Iesu, tuum vultum, Quem colimus occulturn 15 Sub panis specie: Fac, ut, remoto velo, Aperta nos in coelo Cernamus acie!

Page  [unnumbered] XXXI. IACOPONUS. I. SEQUENTIA DE PASSIONE B. VIRGINIS. Stabat mater dolorosa Iuxta crucern lacrym6sa, Dum pendebat filius, Cuius anirnam gementem, Contristantern et dolenten 5 Pertransivit gladius. O quam tristis et afflicta Fuit illa benedicta Mater unigeniti, Quae moerebat et dolebat 10 Et tremebat, dum videbat Nati poenas inclyti. Quis est homo, qui non fleret, Matrem Christi si videret, In tanto supplicio? 15 Quis non posset contristari, Piam matrem contemplari Dolenten cum filio!

Page  172 172 IACOPONUS. Pro peccatis suae gentis 20 Vidit Iesum in tormentis Et flagellis subditum; Vidit suum dulcem natum Morientem, desolatum, Dum emisit spiriturm. 25 Eia mater, fons amoris! Me sentire vim doloris Fac, ut tecum lugeam; Fac, ut ardeat cor meum In amando Christum Deum, 30 Ut sibi complaceam. Sancta mater, istud agas, Crucifixi fige plagas Cordi meo valide; Tui nati vulnerati, 35 Tam dignati pro me pati, Poenas mecum divide. Fac me vere tecum flere, Crucifixo condolere, Donec ego vixero; 40 Iuxta crucem tecum stare, Te libenter sociare In planctu desidero. Virgo virginum praeclara, Mihi iam non sis amara, 45 Fac me tecum plangere;

Page  173 IACOPONUS. 173 Fac, ut portem Christi mortem, Passionis fac consortem Et plagas recolere. Fac me plagis vulnerari, Cruce hac inebriari, 50 Et cruore filii; Inflammatus et accensus, Per te, virgo, sim defensus In die iudicii. Fac me cruce custodiri, 55 Morte Christi praenuniri, Confoveri gratia. Quando corpus morietur, Fac, ut animae donetur Paradisi gloria. 60 I. PARAPHRASIS SEQUENTIAE ANTECEDENTIS. Stabat mater speciosa Iuxta foenum gaudiosa, Dum iacebat parvulus; Cuius animam gaudentem, Laetabundam et ferventem 5 Pertransivit iubilus. O quam laeta et beata Fuit illa immaculata Mater unigeniti.

Page  174 174 IACOPONUS. 10 Quae gaudebat et ridebat, Exultabat, cum videbat Nati partum inclyti. Quisquam est, qui non galderet, Christi matrem si videret 15 In tanto solatio? Quis non possit collaetari, Christi matrem contemplari Ludentem cum filio Pro peccatis suae gentis 20 Christum vidit cum inmentis Et algori subditum; Vidit suum dulcem naturn Vagientem, adoratum Vili diversorio. 25 Nato Christo in praesepe Coeli cives canunt laete Cum immenso gandio; Stabat senex cum puella Non cum verbo nec loquela 30 Stupescentes cordibus. Eia, mater, fons amoris, Me sentire vim ardoris Fac, ut tecum sentiam; Fac, ut ardeat cor meum 35 In amatum Christum Deum, Ut sibi complaceam.

Page  175 IACOPONUS. 175 Sancta mater, istud agas, Prone introducas plagas Cordi fixas valide; Tui nati coelo lapsi, 40 Iam dignati foeno nasci, Poenas mecum divide. Fac me vere congaudere, Iesulino cohaerere, Donec ego vixero; 45 In me sistat ardor tui, Puerino fac me frui, Dum sum in exilio. Virgo virginum praeclara, MIihi iam non sis amara, 50 Fac me parvum rapere; Fac, ut pulchrum infantern portem, Qui nascendo vicit mortem, Volens vitam tradere. Fac me tecum satiari, 55 Nato me inebriari, Stantem in tripudio; Inflammatus et accensus Obstupescit omnis sensus Tali me commercio. 60 Fac me nato custodiri, Verbo Dei praemuniri, Conservari gratia;

Page  176 176 IACOPONUS. Quando corpus morietur 65 Fac, ut animae donetur Tui nati gloria! I. MUNDI VANITAS. Cur mundus militat sub vana gloria, Cuius prosperitas est transitoria? Tam cito labitur eius potentia, Quam vasa figuli, quae sunt fragilia. 5 Plus crede litteris scriptis in glacie, Quam mundi fragilis vanae fallaciae, Fallax in praemiis, virtutis specie, Qui nunquam habuit tempus fiduciae. Credendum magis est vitris fallacibus, 10 Quam mundi miseris prosperitatibus, Falsis insaniis et vanitatibus, Falsisque studiis et voluptatibus. Die, ubi Salomon, olim tam nobilis, Vel ubi Samson est, dux invincibilis, 15 Vel pulcher Absalon, vultu mirabilis, Vel dulcis Ionathan, multum amabilisa Quo Caesar abiit, celsus imperio, Vel Dives splendidus, totus in prandio? Die, ubi Tullius, clarus eloquio, 20 Vel Aristoteles, summus ingenio?

Page  177 IACOPONUI. 177 Tot clari proceres, tot rerum spatia, Tot ora praesulum, tot regna fortia, Tot mundi principes, tanta potentia, In ictu oculi claudentur omnia! Quam breve festum est baec mundi gloria, 25 Et umbra hominis sunt eius gaudia! Quae semper subtrahunt aeterna praemia, Et ducunt hominem ad dura devia. O esca vermium, O massa pulveris, O ros, 0 vanitas, cur sic extolleris' 30 Ignorans penitus, utrum cras vixeris, Fac bonum omnibus, quamdiu poteris! Haec carnis gloria, quae tanti penditur, Sacris in litteris flos foeni dicitur. Ut leve folium, quod vento rapitur, 35 Sic vita hominis luci subtrahitur. Nil tuum dixeris quod potes perdere, Quod mundus tribuit, intendit rapere: Superna cogita, cor sit in aethere, Felix, qui potuit mnndum contemnere. 40 H2

Page  [unnumbered] XXXII. THOMAS A KEMPIS. I. DE PATIENTIA. Adversa mundi tolera, Pro Christi nomine, Plus nocent saepe prospera Cum levi flamine! Qnum a malis molestaris Nihil perdis, sed lucraris, Patiendo promereris, Multa bona consequeris! Nam Deum honorificas 10 Et angelos laetificas, Coronam tuam duplicas, Et proximos aedificas! Labor parvus est Et brevis vita, 15 Merces grandis est, Quies infinita.

Page  179 THOMAS A KEMPIS. 179 Toties martyr Dei Efficeris, Quoties pro Deo Poenam patieris. 20 Patiendo fit homo melior Auro pulchrior, Vitro clarior, Laude dignior, Gradu altior, 25 A vitiis purgatior, Virtutibus perfectior, lesu Christo acceptior, Sanctis quoque similior, Hostibus suis fortior,. 30 Amicis amabilior. In Domino semper spera, Age recta, profer vera, Coram Deo te humilia, Et gratiam invenies; 35 Ama pauca et simplicia, Et pacem bonam reperies! II. DE GAUDIIS COELESTIBUS. Astant angelorum chori, Laudes cantant creatori; Regem cernunt in decore, Amant corde, laudant ore,

Page  180 180 THOMAS A KEMPIS. 5 Tympanizant, citharizant, Volant alis, stant in scalis, Sonant nolis, fulgent stolis Coram summa Trinitate, Clamant: Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus; 10 Fugit dolor, cessat planctus In superna civitate. Concors vox est omnium, Deum collaudantium; Fervet amor mentium, 15 Clare contuentium Beatam Trinitatem in una Deitate; Quam adorant Seraphim Ferventi in amore, Venerantur Cherubim 20 Ingenti sub honore; Mirantur nimis throni de tanta maiestate. 0 quam praeclara regio, Et quam decora legio Ex angelis et hominibus! 25 O gloriosa civitas, In qua summa tranquillitas, Lux et pax in cunctis finibus! Cives huius civitatis Veste nitent castitatis, 30 Legem tenent caritatis, Firmum pactum unitatis. Non laborant, nil ignorant; Non tentantur, nec vexantur; Semper sani, semper laeti, 35 Cunctis bonis sunt repleti.

Page  [unnumbered] XXXIII. IOHANNES MAUBURNUS. I. DE NATIVITATE DOMNI. Hen, quid iaces stabulo Omnium creator, Vagiens cunabulo, Mundi reparatora Si rex, ubi purpura 5 Vel clientum murmura? Ubi aula regis? Hic omnis penuria, Paupertatis curia, Forma novae legis. 10 "Istuc amor generis Me traxit humani, Quod se noxa sceleris Occidit profani. His meis inopiis 15 Gratiarum copiis Te pergo ditare, Hocce natalitio Vero sacrificio Te volens beare." 20

Page  182 182 lOHANNES MAUBURNUS. 0, te laudum millibus Laudo, laudo, laudo, Tantis mirabilibus Plaudo, plaudo, plaudo! 25 Gloria, sit gloria, Alnauti memoria Domino in altis! Cui testimonia Dantur et praeconia 30 Coelicis a psaltis!

Page  [unnumbered] XXXIV. AUCTORES INCERTI. I. DE NATIVITATE DOMINI. Puer natus in Bethlehem, Unde gaudet Ierusalem. Hic iacet in praesepio, Qui regnat sine termino. Cognovit bos et asinus 5 Quod puer erat Dominus. Reges de Saba veniunt, Aurum, thus, myrrham offerunt. Intrantes domum invicem Novum salutant Principeln. 10 De matre natus virgine Sine virili semine; Sine serpentis vulnere De nostro venit sanguine;

Page  184 184 AUCTOIES INCERTI. 15 In came nobis similis, Peccato sed dissimilis; Ut redderet nos homines Deo et sibi similes. In hoc natali gaudio 20 Benedicamus Domino. Laudetur sancta Trinitas Deo dicamus gratias. II. DE RESURRECTIONE DOMINI. Surrexit Christus hodie Humano pro solamine, Mortem qui passus pridie Miserrimo pro homine. 5 Mulieres ad tumulum Dona ferunt aromatum, Quaerentes Iesum dominum Qui est salvator hominum, Album cernentes angelum 10 Annunciantem gaudium: Mulieres 0 tremulae, In Galilaeam pergite,

Page  185 AUCTORES INCERTI. 185 Discipulis hoc dicite, Quod surrexit rex gloriae. Petro dehinc et caeteris 15 Apparuit apostolis. In hoc pascali gaudio Benedicamus. Domino. Gloria tibi, Domine, Qui surrexisti e morte. 20 Laudetur sancta Trinitas Deo dicamus gratias. III. DE APOSTOLIS. Qui sunt isti, Qui volant ut nubes per aera? Portant Christi Pei Sanctum Spiriturn mysteria? Hi sunt terrae principes 5 Et electi lapides, Quorum sonus Exauditus est per terrae climata. Petrus Antiochiam, Panlus Alexandriam 10 Et Andreas Convertit ad Dominum Achaiam.

Page  186 186 AUCTORES INCERTI. lohannes in dolio Ex ferventi oleo 15 Senatum devicerat. Philippus Azoticum Destinavit populum Ad matrem ecclesiam. Adhuc sunt in numero 20 Iacobus cum Iacobo, Simon Cananaeus Et Iudas Thaddaeus. Vocatus a Domine Sedens in telonio 25 Sequitur Matthaeus Et Bartholomaeus. Thomas non postponitur, Matthiasque tollitur Vocatus a Domino 30 Sorte apostolica. Ergo vos apostoli Et amici Domini Nostrorum absolvite Peccatorum vincula 35 Iuvando per saecula. IV. MEDITATIONES. Desere iam, anima, lectulum soporis, Languor, torpor, vanitas excludatur foris, Intus cor efferveat facibus amoris, Recolens mirifica gesta Salvatoris.

Page  187 AUCTORES INCERTI. 187 Mens, affectus, ratio, simul convenite, 5 Occupari frivolis ultra iam nolite; Discursus, vagatio, cum curis abite, Dum pertractat animus sacramenta vitae. Iesu mi dulcissime, domine coelorum, Conditor omnipotens, rex universorum, 10 Quis iam actus sufficit mirari gestorum, Quae te ferre compulit salus miserorum? Te de coelis caritas traxit animarum, Pro quibus palatium desereus praeclarum, Miseram ingrediens vallem lacrymarum, 15 Opus durum suscipis, et iter amarum. Tristatur laetitia, salus infirmatur, Panis vivus esurit, virtus sustentatur; Sitit fons perpetuus, quo coelum potatur; Et ista quis intuens mira, non miratur? 20 Oh mira dignatio pii Salvatoris, Oh vere mirifica pietas amoris; Expers culpae nosceris, Iesu, flos decoris, Ego tui, proh dolor! causa sum doloris. Ego heu! superbio, tu humiliaris; 25 Ego culpas perpetro, tu poena mulctaris; Ego fruor dulcibus, tu felle potaris; Ego peto mollia, tu dure tractaris.

Page  188 188 AUCTORES INCERTI. V. DE NATIVITATE DOMINI. O ter foecundas, O ter iucundas Beatae noctis delicias, Quae suspiratas, 5 E coelo datas In terris paris delicias. Gravem primaevae Ob lapsum Evae Dum iamiam mundus emoritur, 10 In carne meus, Ut vivat, Deus, Sol vitae, mundo suboritur. Aeternum lumen, Immensum numen 15 Pannorum vinculis stringitur; In vili caula, Exclusus aula, Rex coeli bestiis cingitur. In cunis iacet, 20 Et infans tacet Verbum, quod loquitur omnia; Sol mundi friget Et flamma riget: Quid sibi volunt haec omnia? 25 Quod in spelaeum Depressit Deum? O hoc amoris telum est!

Page  189 AUCTORES INCERTI. 189 Astra, valete, Antra, salvete, Iam mihi stabulum coelum est! 30 VI. IESUS ET MATER. Parvum quando cerno Deum Matris inter brachia, Colliquescit pectus meum Inter mille gaudia. Gestit puer, gestit, videns 5 Tua, mater, ubera: Puer ille, dum subridens Mille figit oscula. Qualis puro in lucenti Sol renitet aethere, 10 Talis puer in lactanti Matris haeret ubere. Talis mater speciosa Pulchra est cum filio, Qualis est cum molli rosa 15 Viola cum lilio Inter sese tot amores, Tot alternant spicula, Quot in pratis fulgent flores, Quot in coelo sidela. 20

Page  190 190 AUCTORES INCERTI. O si una ex sagittis, Dulcis o puerule, Quas in matris pectus mittis, In me cadat, Iesule! VII. SUSPIRIUM AMORIS. O Deus, ego amo te, Nec arno te, ut salves me, Aut quia non amnantes te Aeterno punis igne. 5 Tu, tu, mi Iesu, totum me Amplexus es in cruce, Tulisti clavos, lanceam, Multanque ignominiam, Innumeros dolores, 10 Sudores et angores, Ac mortem, et haec propter me, Ah, pro me peccatore! Cur igitur non amem te, O Iesu amantissime, 15 Non, ut in coelo salves me, Aut ne aeternum damnes me; Nec praemii ullius spe, Sed sicut tu amasti me? Sic amo et amabo te 20 Solum quia rex mens es.

Page  191 AUCTORES INCERTI. 191 VIII. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. Ecquis binas columbinas Alas dabit animae Ut ad almam crucis palnman Evolet citissime, In qua Iesus totus laesus, 5 Orbis desiderium, Et immensus est suspensus, Factus improperium! 0 cor, scande; Iesu, pande Caritatis viscera, 10 Et profunde me reconde Intra sacra vulnera; In superna me caverna Colloca maceriae; Hic viventi, quiescenti 15 Finis est miseriae! O mi Deus, amor mens! Tune pro me pateris? Proque indigno, crucis ligno, Iesu mi, suffigeris 20 Pro latrone, Iesu bone, Tu in crucem tolleris? Pro peccatis meis gratis, Vita mea, moreris? Non sum tanti, Iesu, quanti 25 Amor tuus aestimat; Heu! cur ego vitam dego, Si cor te non redamnat?

Page  192 192 AUCTORES INCERTI. Benedictus sit invictus 30 Amor vincens omnia; Amor fortis, tela mortis Reputans ut somnia. Iste fecit, et refecit Amor, Iesu, perditum; 35 0 insignis, Amor, ignis, Cor accende frigidum! O fac vere cor ardere, Fac me te diligere, Da coniungi, da defungi 40 Tecum, Iesu, et vivere. IX. IN RESURRECTIONE DOMINI. Pone luctum, Magdalena! Et serena lacrymas: Non est iam Simonis coena, Non, cur fletum exprimas: 5 Causae mille sunt laetandi, Causae mille exultandi: Halleluia! Sume risum, Magdalena! Frons nitescat lucida; 10 Demigravit omnis poena, Lux coruscat fulgida: Christus mundum liberavit, Et de morte triumphavit! Halleluia!

Page  193 AUCTORES INCERTI. 193 Gaude, plaude, Magdalena! 15 Tumba Christus exiit! Tristis est peracta scena, Victor mortis rediit; Quem deflebas morientem, Nunc arride resurgentem! 20 Halleluia! Tolle vultum, Magdalena! iRedivivum aspice: Vide, frons quam sit amoena, Quinque plagas inspice: 25 Fulgent, sic ut margaritae, Ornamenta novae vitae. Halleluia! Vive, vive, Magdalena! Tua lux reversa est, 30 Gaudiis turgescat vena, Mortis vis abstersa est; Moesti procul sunt dolores, Laeti redeant amores! Halleluia! 35 X. PHOENIX EXSPIRANS. Tandem audite me, Sionis filiae! Aegram respicite, Dilecto dicite: I

Page  194 194 AUCTORES INCERTI. 5 Amore vulneror, Amore funeror. Fulcite floribus Fessam languoribus: Stipate citreis 10 Et malis aureis: Nimis edacibus Liquesco facibus. Hue odoriferos, Hue soporiferos 15 Ramos depromite: Rogos componite: Ut phoenix moriar, In flammis oriar! An amor dolor sit, 20 An dolor amor sit, Utrumque nescio! Hoe unum sentio: Iucundus dolor est, Si dolor amor est. 25 Quid, amor, crucias? Aufer inducias! Suavis tyrannus es: Momentum annus est: Tam tarda funera 30 Tua sunt vulnera! Iam vitae stamina Rumpe, 0 anima!

Page  195 AUCTORES INCERTI. 195 Ignis ascendere Gestit, et tendere Ad coeli atria: 35 Haec mea patria! XI. DE CRUCE. Crux ave benedicta, Per te mors est devicta, In te dependit Deus, Rex et Salvator meus. Tu arborum regina, 5 Salutis medicina, Pressorum es levanen, Et tristium solamen. O sacrosanctum lignum, Tu vitae nostrae signum, 10 Tulisti fructum Iesum, Humani cordis esum. Duin crucis inimicos Vocabis et amicos, O Iesu, fili Dei, 15 Sis, oro, memor mei!

Page  196 196 AUCTORES INmERTI. XII. DE RESURRECTIONE. Plaudite coeli, Rideat aether, Summus et imus Gaudeat orbis! 5 Transivit atrae Turba procellae: Subiit almae Gloria palmae! Surgite verni, 10 Surgite flores, Germina pictis Surgite campis, Teneris mixtae Violis rosae, 15 Candida sparsis Lilia calthis! Currite plenis Carmina venis! Fundite laetum, 20 Barbytha, metruin: Namque revixit, Sicuti dixit, Pius illaesus Funere Iesus! 25 Plaudite montes, Ludite fontes;

Page  197 AUCTORES INCERTI. 197 Resonent valles, Repetunt colles: " Io revixit, Sicuti dixit, 30 Pius illaesus Funere Iesus." XIII. DE S. IOANNE EVANGELISTA. Verbum Dei, Deo natum, Quod nec factum, nec creattm, Venit de coelestibus, Hoc vidit, hoc attrectavit, Hoc de coelo reseravit 5 Ioannes hominibus. Inter illo primitivos Veros veri fontis rivos Ioannes exsiliit; Toti mundo propinare 10 Nectar illud salutare, Quod de throno prodiit. Coelum transit, veri rotam Solis vidit, ibi totam Mentis figens aciem; 15 Speculator spiritalis Quasi Seraphim sub alis Dei vidit facien.

Page  198 198 AUCTORES INCERTI. Audiit in gyro sedis 20 Quid psallant cum citharoedis Quater seni proceres: De sigillo Trinitatis Nostrae nummo civitatis Impressit characteres. 25 Volat avis sine meta Quo nec vates nec propheta Evolavit altius: Tam implenda, quam impleta, Nunquanm vidit tot secreta 30 Purus homo purius. Sponsus rubra veste tectus, Visus, sed non intellectus, Redit ad palatium: Aquilam Ezechielis 35 Sponsae misit, quae de coclis Referret mysterium. Die, dilecte, de Dilecto, Qualis adsit, et de lecto Sponsi sponsae nuncia: 40 Die quis cibus angelorum, Quae sint festa superorumn De sponsi praesentia. Veri panem intellectus, Coenam Christi super pectus 45 Christi sumptam resera:

Page  199 AUCTORES INCERTI. 199 Ut cantemus de Patrono, Coram Agno, coram throno, Laudes super aethera. XIV. DE INCARNATIONE DOMINI. Arte mira, miro consilio Quaerens ovem suam summus opilio, Ut nos revocaret ab exilio Locutus est nobis in filio; Qui nostrae sortis unicam 5 Sine sorde tunicam Pugnaturus induit, Quam puellae texuit Thalamo Paraclitus. XV. DE PASSIONE. Dulcis Iesu, spes pauperis, Qui semper ades miseris, Ad te miser confugio, Queln tota mente sitio, Ad te Deum, quem diligo, 5 Vocem gementem dirigo, Te vox requiret flebilis, Te mens adoret humilis. Dulcis Iesu, nil dulcius, Nil est vere iocundius, 10

Page  200 200 AUCTORES INCERTI. Quam frequenter revolvere, Poenas tuas recurrere. Mortis tuae memoria Pignenta vincit omnia, 15 Myrrham et thus, cinnamonum, Nardum, crocum et balsamum. Dulcis Iesu, quid feceras? Nunquam crucemn merueras, Quod tu luis, nos feciinus, 20 Quod tu bibis, nos meruimus: Nos ex Adam propagine, Tu te pudica virgine, Ortu reatum traximus, Ortu manes purissimus. 25 Dulcis Iesu, quod pateris, Totum fuit pro miseris, Quos in tyranni carcere Poenas videbas luere, Te non poenae necessitas, 30 Sed gratiarum largitas Fecit pati patibulum, Gustare mortis poculum. Dulcis Iesu, me respice, Votum rei non despice, 35 Qui totus es poenis datus. Clavis manus, plaga latus Foedis sputis est illitum, Spinis caput est obsitum, Vultus dulcis conspuitur, 40 Collum colaphis caeditur.

Page  201 AUCTORES INCERTI. 201 Dnulcis Iesu, doctor pie, Sanctus liquor, ros gratiae Fluxit de tuo latere, Fluxit de tuo vulnere, Remissionis pretium, 45 Salvationis praemium Fluxit de tuis manibus, Fluxit de tuis pedibus. Dulcis Iesu, qui proditus, Qui tractus es, qui venditus, 50 Qui per zelus gentis trucis Es affixus ligno crucis: Qui vulneratus cuspide, Qui clausus es sub lapide, Qui victor adis aethera, 55 Salvare nos accelera. Dulcis Iesu, parcens reo, Infer iubar cordi meo, Qui me cruore roseo Loturn redemisti Deo, 60 Virtus Patri, laus Genito, Sancto decus Paraclito, Sit solis tribus gloria Per secla metae nescia. XVI. IN ASCENSIONE DOMINI. Coelos ascendit hodie Iesus Christus, rex gloriae. 12

Page  202 202 AUCTORES INCERTI. Sedet ad Patris dexteralm, Gubernat coelum et terrain. 5 Iam finem habeut omnia Patris Davidis carmina. Iam Dominus cum Domino Sedet in Dei solio. Ascensionis Domino 10 Benedicamus Domino. Laudetur Sancta Trinitas, Deo dicamus gratias. XVII. IN SEPTUAGESIMA. Alleluia piis edite laudibus, Gives aetherei, psallite suaviter Alleluia perenne. Hinc vos perpetui luminis accolas 5 Assumet resonans hymniferis choris Alleluia perenne. Vos nrbs eximia suscipiet Dei, Quae laetis resonans cantibus excitat Alleluia perenne. 10 Felici reditu gaudia sumite, Reddentes Domino glorificum melos Alleluia perenne.

Page  203 AUCTORES INCERTI. 203 Almum sidereae iam patriae decus Victores capitis, quo canor est iugis Alleluia perenne. 15 Illinc regis honor vocibus inclytis Iocundo reboat laetoque carmine Alleluia perenne. Ioc fessis requies, hoc cibus et potus, Oblectans reduces, haustibus affluens, 20 Alleluia perenne. Nos te suavisonis conditor affatim Rerum carminibus laudeque pangimus Alleluia perenne. Te Christe celebrat gloria vocibus 25 Nostris omnipotens ac tibi dicimus Alleluia perenne. XVIII. IN SEPTUAGESIMA. Cantemus cuncti melodum Nunc alleluia. In laudibus aeterni regis Haec plebs resultet alleluia. Hoc denique coelestes chori 5 Cantant in altum alleluia.

Page  204 204 AUCTORES INCERTI. Hoc beatorum Per prata paradisiaca Psallat concentus alleluia. 10 Quin et astrorum Micantia luminaria Iubilant altum alleluia. Nubium cursus, ventorum volatus, Fulgurum coruscatio, et tonitruum sonitus 15 Dulce consonant sirnul alleluia. Fluctus et undae, imber et procellae, Tempestas, et serenitas, cauma, gelu, nix, pruinai Saltus, nemora pangant alleluia. Hinc variae volucres creatorem 20 Laudibus concinite curm alleluia. Ast illiuc respondeant voces altae Diversarum bestiarum alleluia. Istinc montium celsi vertices Sonent alleluia. 25 Illiuc vallium profunditates Saltent alleluia. Tu quoque maris Iubilans abysse dic alleluia. Nec non terrarum 30 Molis immensitates alleluia.

Page  205 AUICTORES INCERTI. 205 Nunc omne genus humanum laudans Exultet alleluia. Et creatori grates frequentans Consonet alleluia. Hoc denique nomen audire iugiter 35 Delectatur alleluia. Hoc etiam carmen coeleste comprobat Ipse Christus alleluia. Nunc vos, O socii, cantate laetantes Alleluia. 40 Et vos, pueruli, respondete semper Alleluia. Nunc omnes canite simul Alleluia Domino, Alleluia Christo, 45 Pneumatique alleluia. Laus Trinitati aeternae, alleluia, alleluia, Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. XIX. ALLELUIA. Alleluia, dulce carmen, Vox perennis gaudii, Alleluia, vox suavis

Page  206 206 AUCTORES INCERTI. Est choris coelestibus, 5 Quam canunt Dei manentes.In domo per saecula. Alleluia, laeta mater Concivis Hierusalem, Alleluia, vox tuorum 10 Civium gaudentium, Exsules nos flere cogunt Babylonis flurnina. Alleluia non meremur Nunc perenne psallere, 15 Alleluia nos reatos Cogit intermittere; Tempus instat, quo peracta Lugeamus crimina. Unde laudando precamur 20 Te, beata Trinitas, Ut tuum nobis videre Pascha des in aethere, Quo tibi laeti canainus Alleluia iugiter! XX. HYMNUS PASCHALIS. 0 filii et filiae, Rex coelestis, rex gloriae Morte surrexit hodie. Alleluia.

Page  207 AUCTORES INCERTI. 207 Et mane prima Sabbati Ad ostium monumenti 5 Accesserunt discipuli. Alleluia. Et Maria Magdalene, Et Iacobi, et Salome Venerunt corpus ungere. Alleluia. In albis sedens angelus 10 Praedixit mulieribus: In Galilea est Dominus. Alleluia. Et Ioannes apostolus Cucurrit Petro citius, Monumento venit prius. Alleluia. 15 Discipulis astantibus, In medio stetit Christus, Dicens: Pax vobis omnibus. Alleluia. Ut intellexit Didymus Quia surrexerat Iesus, 20 Remansit fere dubius. Alleluia. Vide, Thoma, vide latus, Vide pedes, vide manus, Noli esse incredulus. Alleluia. Quando Thomas vidit Christum, 25 Pedes, manus, latus suum, Dixit: Tu es Deus meus. Alleluia.

Page  208 208 AUCTORES INCERTI. Beati qui non viderunt Et firmiter crediderunt; 30 Vitam aeternam habebunt. Alleluia. In hoc festo sanctissimo Sit laus et iubilatio: Benedicamus Domino. Alleluia. Ex quibus nos humillimas 35 Devotas atque debitasDeo dicamus gratias. Alleluia. XXI. IN DEDICATIONE ECCLESIAE. Urbs beata Ierusalem dicta pacis visio, Quae construitur in coelis vivis ex lapidibus, Et angelis coronata, velut sponsa nobilis. Nova veniens a coelo, nuptiali thalamo 5 Praeparata, ut sponsata copuletur Domino; Plateae et muri eius ex auro purissimo. Portae nitent margaritis, adytis patentibus; Et virtute meritorum illuc introducitur Omnis, qui ob Christi nomen hoc in mundo premitur. 10 Tunsionibus, pressuris expoliti lapides Suis coaptantur locis per manum artificis, Disponuntur permansuri sacris aedificiis.

Page  209 AUCTORES INCERTI. 209 Angulare fundamentum lapis Christus missus est, Qui compage parietum in utroque nectitur, Quem Sion sancta suscepit, in quo credens perma-15 net. Omnis illa Deo sacra et dilecta civitas, Plena modulis et laude et canore jubilo, Trinum Deum unicunque cum favore praedicat. Hoc in templo, summe Deus, exoratus adveni, Et clementi bonitate precum vota suscipe; 20 Largam benedictionem hic infunde jugiter. Hie promereantur omnes petita accipere, Et adepta possidere, cum sanctis perenniter Paradisum introire, translati in requiem.

Page  [unnumbered] XXXV. MARIA, SCOTIAE REGINA. 0 Domine Deus! Speravi in te; 0 care mi Iesu! Nunc libera me: 5 In dura catena, In misera poena Desidero te; Languendo, gemendo, Et genuflectendo 10 Adoro, imploro, Ut liberes me!

Page  [unnumbered] XXXVI. MARTINUS LUTHERUS ET PHILIPPUS C. BUTTMANN. PSALMUS, DEUS NOSTER REFUGIUM ET VIRTUS. (EIN FESTE BURG IST UNSER GOTT.) Arx firma Deus noster est, Is telum, quo nitamur; Is explicat ex omnibus Queis malis implicamur. Nam cui semper mos, 5 Iam ter terret nos; Per astum, per vim, Saevam levat sitim; Nil par in terris illi. In nobis nihil situm est, 10 Quo minus pereamus: Quem Deus ducem posuit, Is facit ut vivamus.

Page  212 212 MARTINUS LUTHERUS ET PHILIPPUS C. BUTTMANN. Scin quis hoc potest? 15 Iesus Christus est, Qui, dux coelitum, Non habet aemulum; Is vicerit profecto. Sit mundus plenus daemonum, 20 Nos cupiant vorare; Non timor est; victoria Nil potest nos frustrare. Hem dux saeculi! Invitus abi! 25 In nos nil potes, lam iudicatus es; Vel vocula te sternat. Hoc verbum non pessumdabunt, Nec gratiam merebunt; 30 In nobis Christi spiritus Et munera vigebunt: Tollant corpus, rem, Mundique omnem sper: Tollant! iubilent! 35 Non lucrum hinc ferent; Manebit regnum nobis.

Page  [unnumbered] XXXVII. AUGUSTUS M. TOPLADY ET W. E. GLADSTONE. ROCK OF AGES, CLEFT FOR ME. Iesus, pro me perforatus, Condar intra tuum latus, Tu per lympham profluentern, Tu per sanguinem tepentem, In peccata mi redunda, 5 Tolle culpam, sordes munda. Coram te, nec iustus forem, Quamvis tota vi laborem, Nec si fide nunquam cesso, Fletu stillans indefesso: 10 Tibi soli tantum munus; Salva me, Salvator unus!

Page  214 214 AUGUSTUS M. TOPLADY ET W. E. GLADSTONE. Nil in manu mecum fero, Sed me versus crucem gero; 15 Vestimenta nudus oro, Opem debilis imploro; Fontem Christi quaero immundus, Nisi laves, moribundus. Dum hos artus vita regit; 20 Quando nox sepulchro tegit; Mortuos cuin stare iubes, Sedens index inter nubes; Iesus, pro me perforatus, Condar intra tuum latus.

Page  [unnumbered] NOTES.

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Page  [unnumbered] NOTES. I. HILARIUS PICTAVIENSIS. Life.-Hilarius, or Hilary, was born at Pictavium, now Poictiers, in France. The date of his birth is not known. He was of heathen family, but was early converted, and became bishop of Poictiers in 353. He was one of the foremost men of his age, both in personal and literary influence. He was a zealous champion of the Athanasian view of the Trinity, and his Arian opponents prevailed on the Emperor Constantius to banish him to Phrygia, 356. He remained four years, and then returned to his see, and continued in active labor till his death in 368. While in the East, he observed the influence of the hymns sung in the Arian churches, and when he returned he introduced similar singing to the churches of the West.'He has been called the father of Western hymnology. He made a collection of spiritual songs, with the title Liber Mysteriorum, mentioned by Jerome (Catal. vir. illustr., c. 100), but now lost. He is named with Ambrose by the Council of Toledo (iv., 13) as one who had composed songs for the Church in praise of God and to the honor of the apostles and martyrs. The Gloria in excelsis was ascribed to him by Alcuin and others, and he may have translated and introduced it. His biographer, Fortunatus, distinctly specifies as his the morning hymn with which our collection begins. His claim to others which are ascribed to him is less clear. HYMN I. This hymn is mentioned by Fortunatus, the biographer of Hilarius. In the Benedictine edition of the works of Hilarius, Veronae, 1730, fol. ii., p. 530, it is given as the hymn referred to in a letter to his daughter Abra, about the end of the year 358, in which he says, "Interim tibi hymnum matutinum et serotinum misi, ut K

Page  218 218 NOTES. memor mei semper sis." It is in many old collections, and in Daniel's Thesaurus, 1, 1; Wackernagel, 1, 11. There are several translations into German: Konigsfeld, 1, 2, Bienengraber; and in English: Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 91. The Theme is Erat vera lux, quae illuminat omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum, John i., 9. Ego sum lux mundi; qui sequitur me, non ambulat in tenebris, sed habebit lumen vitae, John viii., 12. Line 1. Splendide: Many copies read optime, which has crept in from the hymn of Ambrose, p. 8.-2. Sereno: Some read sermonis, referring to Genesis i., 3.-4. Refusus: Some read refulsus, losing the suggestion of an inundation poured forth and overspreading the world.-5. Lucifer: God-Christ is here addressed as the true light-bringer, in distinction from the planet Venus. Such etymological turns are common in the hymns. Lucifer is a familiar epithet of John the Baptist in the early Church, as well as of the " Son of the morning," mentioned in Isaiah xiv., 12, 13, who sought to usurp the place of the true Sun, rather than to go before him. This description of the King of Babylon was applied by Tertullian and others to Satan, and the mistake has led to the present meanings of Lucifer. See Webster's Dictionary.6. Sideris: the sun, governed by lucis. Some editors have changed parvi sideris to parvus oritur, and fulget tofulgens. —10. Ipse: thyself light and perfect day.-13. Rerum Conditor: John i., 3.-14. Paternae gloria: John i., 14; Heb. i., 2.-15. Gratia: ablative absolute to denote the time of patescunt. Some read ad nutum gratiae; others amota and pavescunt, which Mrs. Charles translates: "The fears of whose removed grace Our hearts with direst dread appal." A German manuscript has as the fifth stanza: "Tuaqua sancta dextera Tuere nos per saecula Post huius vitae terminum Vitam perennem tribue." 19. Rapientis: Satan. Lupis rapit oves, John x., 12.-20. Ne patescant: optative subjunctive, A. and G., 57, 4; H., 488, 3.

Page  219 HILARIUS8 2-3. 219 It has corpora understood for its subject, with which plena and gestantia agree: fraudibus is the dative after patescant; compare that after cedo, H., 384, 1; A. and G., 51, 1, 2. Some read for tuoque, tu quoque, and for patescant, patescat.-21. Seculi: i. e., seculares, secular employments.-24. Legibus: in accordance with, H., 414, 2; A. and G., 54, 9.-27. 1 Corinthians iii., 16; vi., 19.31. Ut sit: subjunctive in a subject clause, appositive with haec; H., 495, 3; A. and G., 70, 4, f.-32. Into the care of night, through the day. Worthy to be coupled with Hilary's hymn are these rhythms of Bacon: "The first creature of God in the works of the days was the light of the sense; the last was the light of reason; and his Sabbath work ever since is the illumination of his Spirit. First he breatheth light upon the face of matter, or chaos; then he breatheth light into the face of man; and still he breatheth and inspireth light into the face of his chosen." Essay on Truth. HYMN II. This hymn is in Daniel's Thesaurus, 1, 2; K6nigsfeld, 2, 2. Theme. Thou that hearest prayer, in the morning will we direct our prayers unto thee. Lines 1-4. The doctrine of the Trinity is emphasized in this stanza.-17. The meter needs another syllable. Supply Et before Diem. HYMN III. From an abecedary of twenty-four stanzas: Mone, 1, 387; Wackernagel, 1, 12. It is mentioned in the edition of Hilarius referred to in the first note on Hymn I., as perhaps the evening hymn —hymnus serotinus-sent with Hymn I. to his daughter Abra. It is also interesting for its meter. Theme. 1-4, I am not worthy to lift up mine eyes unto heaven. 4-8, I have left undone that which I ought to have done, I have done that which I ought not to have done, 9-16, and there is no help in me. 17-24, Lord, I believe, help thou mine unbelief. 25-32, I hate them that hate thee.

Page  220 220 NOTES. Line 15. Pietas: See piissime, note on Hymn IV., line 17.23. Rogativa, prayed for; not in Andrews's Latin Dictionary, but regularly formed on the supine rogatum with the passive sense; H., 328, 5.-30. Arrium: a variation of Argus ('Apeoc). This verse and the one before it are characteristic of the polemic side of the times of Hilary. Arrus was to him the arch-heretic. He was born at Cyrene, Africa, shortly after the middle of the third century. He denied that the Son is coeternal and coessential with the Father.-Sabellius, also a native of Africa, a teacher at Ptolemais, and cotemporary with Arnus, considered the Son and Holy Ghost to be different manifestations of God, but not separate persons.-Ymnum for hymnum ("TYlVoc), to bring in.y; so Xriste for Christe (XputrOS), line 25.-31. Simoni, Simon Magus; Acts viii. See Simony, in Webster. Sabellius is a dog, Simon a swine.-33. Zelatus sum, deponent, I have loved zeal; so zelatus est Dominus terram suam, Joel ii., 18.-34. Paraclito Paracleto (HapaicX:kroS), Greek e beginning to sound like Latin i. HYMN IV. This is in Stephenson's Latin Hymns of the Anglo-Saxon Church, 93; Daniel's Thesaurus, 1, 6; Mone, 1, 241; Wackernagel, 1, 55. It is attributed to Hilarius by Daniel and older editors. The rhymes and the accentual feet bespeak a much later date for the form here given. Theme, Acts ii., the Pentecost. See the note on circulo, line 15. Line 1. Beata gaudia, times of blessed joy. Mone would read tempera for gaudia; beata tempera occurs in a similar Pentecostal hymn attributed to Ambrose.-4. Illapsus: Old copies read effulsit in discipulos.-6. Figuram: the object of vibrante. -7. Ut essent: This clause is the direct object of detulit, H., 558, 1, 6. The accusative with the infinitive would be the more common construction; but here future time is involved in essent. Compare the English: signified that the disciples should be; and the Anglo-Saxon: M., 425, a.-9. Linguis loquuntur omnium: This line is in the hymn of Ambrose referred to above, line 1.13. Mystice according to the holy sign, or figure of the old Jewish jubilee.-14. Paschae, Easter; Eastre was a heathen goddess. Her feasts were celebrated in April, which was called from

Page  221 DAMASUS, 6. 221 her Edstermonad. The name is akin to east, Lat. aurora. The festival commemorating the resurrection of Christ has in English and German received this name, but other kindred nations use Pascha. M., A.-Sax. Reader, p. 78.-15. Circulo: Some read numero. Fifty was the sacred circle of years from jubilee to jubilee, when freedom or remission of debts and slavery came; so the Pentecostal outpouring of the Holy Spirit was ifty days after the passover.-17. Piissime, kindest, gentlest. Pius, used at first for love to parents, as in Pius Aeneas, later passed to the corresponding love and solicitude of parents. It was used as an epithet of the Roman emperors after M. Antoninus. It carries with it, when applied to God, something of its associations with imperial clemency. It is a favorite word in the hymns. "Mothers are kind because Thou art. "-GEORGE HERBERT. 18. Cernuo: Some put a comma after cernuo, and read largirn as an infinitive.-23. Dimitte, forgive, as a debt.-24. Quieta, full of rest from sin. Insuper et caro mea requiescet in spe. Acts ii., 26. II. DAMASUS. Life.-Damasus, pope, was of a Spanish family, but appears to have been born in Rome, 306. His father was a priest of the Church of St. Lawrence in Rome, and Damasus served during his early life in the same church. He was chosen bishop of Rome in 366. Jerome was for a time his secretary. He calls him an incomparable person, learned in the Scriptures. Theodoret places him at the head of the famous doctors of the Latin Church. He adorned the cemeteries of the saints with epitaphs in verse, of which about forty are extant. His divine poems are often celebrated along with his singular learning and piety. He has been called the inventor of rhyme, but without satisfactory evidence. He died December 10, 384. HYMN I. This hymn is in Daniel's Thesaurus, 1, 9, and it is found in the editions of the works of Damasus, and in collections of hymns.

Page  222 222 NOTES. It is here given partly for its meter, which is unusual, though very graceful. It is used by Prudentius, for whom see page 51, and by an unknown author of much skill in versification, from whom Mone gives two hymns (1, 135, 31). The rhyme is now believed to indicate a later date than that of Damasus, but the adherence to classical quantity and other tests of age indicate a time not much later. Theme. St. Agatha, Virgin and Martyr. Line 1. Martyris... Agathae: Palermo and Catana, in Sicily, claim to have been her birthplace. It is agreed that her martyrdom was at Catana, in the persecution of Decius, A.D. 251. She holds an honored place in all the martyrologies of the Latins and Greeks. Her day is February 5.-3. Qua die.-4. Duplex: of virgin and of martyr.-5. Stirpe: supply erat. " She was of a rich and illustrious family." Her beauty and wealth attracted Quintianus, a man of consular dignity, and he tried to gain her person and estate by means of the edict against Christians.-6. Actibus... " She had been consecrated to God from her tender years." In the hands of her persecutor she made this prayer: "Jesus Christ, Lord of all, you see my heart, you know my desire. Possess alone all that I am. I am your sheep."-9. Viris ablative after fortior; que connects the verses. After a month of temptation in the house of Aphrodisia, a most wicked woman, Quintianus ordered her to be stretched on the rack, with stripes, tearing her sides with iron hooks, and burning them with torches.11. Pectore: The governor, enraged to see her bear all with cheerfulness, commanded her breast to be tortured and afterward to be cut off, at which she said: Impie, crudelis et dire tyranne, non es confusus amputare in femina, quod ipse in matre suxisti.-12. Patulo, plainly; quam valido pectore fuerit, of how stout a heart she was.-13. She was remanded to prison, and there the apostle Peter appeared to her in vision, comforted her, healed all her wounds, and filled her dungeon with a heavenly light.-15. Fla. grans, Ardent, for martyrdom. —16. Flagella currere, to run a gauntlet; German, spitzruthen laufen; here figurative, passed through all torments. She was rolled over live coals mixed with potsherds, then thanking God who had given her patience to suffer, "she sweetly gave up the ghost."-17. Ethnica, heathen.

Page  223 AMBROSIUS, 8. 223 It has been thought a mistake for /Etnaea, belonging to Mount.Etna. The Romish authors relate the turning aside of the torrent of fire from 2Etna and the saving of Catana by the aid of St. Agatha's veil; rogumfugiens, fleeing death.-18. Huius, Agatha; ipsa, turba.-19. Quos, his, Christians, the faithful, contrasted with the heathen crowd.-20. Ipsa, Agatha; Venerem premat, extinguish lust, whose flames are worse than those of AEtna; optative subjunctive.-21. Renitens, struggling, wrestling;-others read renidens, "radiant as a bride of heaven."-22. For Domino, some read Damaso; and for supplica, rogita.-24. Se: as he, Christ, may favor those worshiping himself, like Agatha.-25. The last stanza has perhaps been added in later times.-28. Hanc, Agatha. III. AMBROSIUS ET AMBROSIANI. Life.-St. Ambrose was born about 340, probably at Treves in Gaul. His father was prefect of Gaul. He began his career as an advocate at Milan, and rose to be consular prefect of Liguria, 370. On the death of the bishop Auxentius there was a fierce contest between the Arians and Catholics. While Ambrose was trying to repress the tumult, a child cried out in the assembly, " Let Ambrose be bishop." He was a layman, but finally accepted the office, 374. He vigorously opposed the Arians. He refused to yield up churches for their use. The imperial troops besieged the people in the church at Milan. Then, it is said, was first introduced into the Western Church the responsive chanting of hymns. Doctrinal hymns of Ambrose resounded through the city. He died in 397, after a life of great controversial influence, and an authority which he used against the emperors themselves. See the account of his treatment of Theodosius in the classical dictionaries. There is a large body of hymns current under the name of Ambrosian, but only a few of them are known to be his. The name was freely given to all hymns thought to be in his manner. Twelve are pointed out with some confidence as his. They are almost all the simplest thoughts in the simplest forms of meter,

Page  224 224 NOTES. the voice of the whole Church. For further interesting particulars, see Mrs. Charles's Christian Life in Song, chap. v. HYMN I. In Daniel, 1, 15; Wackernagel, 1, 16; Trench, 243. There are many translations; Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 90; Hymns of the Ages, p. 6. Augustine, the contemporary of Ambrose, distinctly ascribes this hymn to him. Retract., 1, 21; Trench, 243. Theme. Thoughts at cock-crowing. Similar thoughts are expressed in prose by Ambrose. Hexaem., xxiv., 88. Galli cantus... et dormientem excitat, et sollicitum admonet, et viantem solatur, processurm noctis canora significatione protestans. Hoc canente latro suas relinquit insidias; hoc ipse lucifer excitatus oritur, coelumque illuminat; hoc canente moestitiam trepidus nauta deponit; omnisque crebro vespertinis flatibus excitata tempestas et procella mitescit;... hoc postremo canente ipsa Ecclesiae Petra culpam suam diluit, etc. Trench, 243. Line 1. Conditor, a frequent word for Creator, especially in Gregory the Great. It suggests plan and framing.-3. "With ordered times dividing times."-7. His crowing marks the hours for travelers in the night, as the sun does in the day.-8. Noctem a noete, separating the night into parts.-9. Lucifer: this the lovers of allegory interpreted of Christ, making John the Baptist the praeco.-11. Errorum: Trench reads erronum, and compares a stanza of Prudentius: "Ferunt vagantes daemones Laetos tenebris noctium, Gallo canente exterritos Sparsim timere et cedere." Compare Hamlet, 1, i.-15. Matthew xxvi., 75; xvi., 18; yet Ambrose says: Fides ergo est Ecclesiae fundamentum: non enim de came Petri, sed de fide dictum est, quia portae mortis ci non praevalebunt. Incarn. Dom., 5; Trench, 244.-17. Surgamus: the cock became in the Middle Ages the standing emblem of a preacher. As the lion was said to be unable to withstand the crowing of the cock, so Satan, the roaring lion, fled preaching. Ambrose, Hexaem vi., 4. As the cock rouses himself by clapping

Page  225 AMBROSIUS, 9-11. 225 his wings on his own sides before he rouses others, so the preacher. Gregory; Trench, 245.-20. In allusion to Peter.-26. In allusion to Luke xxii., 61: And the Lord turned and looked upon Peter.-28. Luke xxii., 62.-32. Et ore, some read: Et vota solvamus tibi. HYMN II. In Daniel, 1, 17; Mone, 1, 381; Wackernagel, 1, 15; it is referred to by Augustine, Confess., ix., 12. See Mrs. Charles's Christian Life in Song, page 85, where the affecting passage from Augustine is given, describing the remembrance of the verses as he was alone in his bed on the morning after his mother's burial. The translation of the whole hymn, which is there promised, I do not find in my edition-New York, Carter & Brothers, 1867. Theme. Thanks and prayer to the giver and guardian of sleep. Line 2. Vestiens gratia soporis, a felicitous expression not easily imitated. "Blessed be he that invented sleep. It wraps a man up like a blanket," said Sancho Panza. "Maker of all, the Lord And Ruler of the height, Who, robing day in light, hast poured Soft slumbers o'er the night; That to our limbs the power Of toil may be renewed, And hearts be raised that sink and cower, And sorrows be subdued."- PARKER'S Aug. Conf. 11. Votis, ablative of accompaniment. Others read voti reos, those bound by vow.-26. Alta, depths, subject of somnient.31-32. Unum, adv.; some read unus; potens Trinitas, vocative. HYMN III. Daniel, 1, 24; Mone, 1, 373; Wackernagel, 1, 13; Grimm, iii.; and elsewhere. Theme. God-Christ the light of the world. Line 1. Compare Hilary, page 1, line 14, and so other passages.-5. Illabere, imperat.; Hilary, page 5, line 4.-18. Casto, Castam (Mone). Others read: "Sit pura nobis castitas." K2

Page  226 226 NOTES. 23. Sobriam ebrietatem: the expression is in Augustine, Sermo 34, 2. Deus de vino invisibili inebriet nos (Augustine in evang. John i., 8, ~ 3). Christ is the vine and wine as well as the bread: bonus hospes vos esurientes invenit, pascit vos; sitientes invenit, inebriatvos (Augustine). Qui laetatur in domino et cantatlaudes domino magna exsultatione, nonne ebrio similis est? probo istam ebrietatem. August., Serm. 225, 4; Mone, 1, 112.-30. Aurora: ablative after prodeat, H., 422, 2; A. and G., 54, 1, b. Totus, the whole Godhead, the whole sun. Let the whole come forth from the dawn. The language is colored by the figurative meaning of Aurora familiar to the fathers, i. e., the Virgin Mary. HYMN IV. Daniel, 1, 12; Mone, 1, 42; Wackernagel, 1,16; Trench,p.87. In one of Augustine's sermons (372, 3) he quotes a stanza as having just been sung in the church: Hunc nostri Gigantis excursum brevissime ac pulcherrime cecinit beatus Ambrosius in hymno quem paulo ante cantastis (Trench, p. 89). It has been called the best of the Hymns of Ambrose by Dr. Schaff, "full of faith, rugged vigor, austere simplicity, and bold contrasts." It has been imitated or translated often in many languages: in German by Luther (Nu komm der Heiden Heiland), John Frank (Komm, Heidenheiland, Losegeld), whose version Trench calls one of the choicest treasures of the German hymn-book, and Bunsen (Noch tiefer und lieblicher als das Lateinische). There are several English translations. Schaff, p. 9; Mrs. Charles, Christ. Life in Song, p. 97. Theme. The advent of Christ. Line 1. In a few manuscripts the hymn begins with the following stanza: "Intende, qui regis Israhel, Super cherubim qui sedes, Appare Ephrem, coram excita Potentiam tuam et veni!" This is nearly in the words of Psalm lxxix., 1-3: Qui regis Israel, intende! qui sedes super cherubim, manifestare coram Ephrem, Benjamin, et Manasse! Excita potentiam tuam et veni. This Psalm is used on the first Advent Sunday, and the passage was understood to refer to Christ by Athanasius (Mone, 1, 44). For the

Page  227 AMBROSIUS, 13. 227 fitness of beginning with his being a Savior for the Jews, compare Matthew x., 5, 6; Acts xiii., 46. —6. Mystico, of the Holy Spirit; symbolized and holy. Compare Genesis ii., 7: Inspiravit spiraculum vitae.-10. Claustrum: see note on Hymn IX., lines 13,15. Others read claustra, like the Greek, of which it is an imitation, 7rapaeviac ra ickepa.-11. Virtutum: others virtutis, an appositive genitive. H., 396, v.; A. and G., 50,1, f. The virtues of the Virgin are the banners of God, as of an emperor, present with her: "Casta, Tacens, Residens, Operans. Humilis, Pia, Prudens, Hoc septiformi munere virgo micat." Hugo Cardinalis, DANIEL, 1, 13. 12. Templo: Castus alvus beatae Mariae.-13. Psalm xix., 5. Tanquam sponsus procedens de thalamo suo, exultavit ut gigas ad currendam viam.-15. Gigas: associated by Ambrose with Genesis vi., 4, which the early Church interpreted as meaning that the Giants were geminae substantiae, born of angels and women. They thus became types of Christ. Ambrose enlarges on the thought. De. Incarn. Dom., c. 5; Trench, p. 88.-17. This stanza follows the suggestion of the 19th Psalm; compare also John xvi., 28.-19. Inferos: The descent of Christ to Hades was made the starting-point of a cycle of tales. 1 Peter iii., 19 was thought to refer to this descent.-22. Tropaeo: the fathers are fond of calling the risen body of Christ the trophy of his victory over Satan and death. Cingere, passive, thou art clothed.-24. Perpetim: others perpeti, strengthening with everlasting strength the'eeaknesses of our body.-25. Praesepe: Thus in the Evangel. Infant., ch. 3, some enter the cave where the new-born child is laid -et ecce repleta erat illa luminibus, lucernarum et candelarum fulgoribus excedentibus, et solari luce majoribus. Trench, p. 90.26. Night represents Judaism, in which appears a new light, which no night shall interrupt. The second nox has its common patristic reference to Satan. Ambrose elsewhere says: Sine interpolatione noctium dies perpetuus ille (Mone, 1, 45). Jugi, an adjective. HYMN V. In Daniel, 1, 43; Wackernagel, 1, 13; Grimm, v.; and in the most ancient manuscripts and collections. Wackernagel puts it

Page  228 228 NOTES. first among the hymns of Ambrose, but on no very strong evidence. It is remarkable for its perfect simplicity. HYMN VI. In Daniel, 1, 29; Wackernagel, 1, 22; Beda, De Metris, has 1-24, 33-40, Beda says they are by Ambrose, and he has been followed by the other authorities. Gervinus, in his history of German literature (3, 18), says that more beautiful songs than this and the following have hardly ever been made. Theme. A drouth; a prayer for rain. Line 1. Soli, genitive.-3. Ruris: Beda reads roris. Supply est.-9. Dies: supply est.-11. Fessis, the birds, especially.13. Ventis: supply recludent from 15: open their mouths to the oinds.-17. Repeat recusat; Pignora foetus.- 18. Siti, cause after fessa. Recusat, she has no food for them.-24. Fletus, object of bibentes.-27. Versat, mumbles.-28. Herbis, ablative of separation after fraudatum. H., 425, 3, 4; A. and G., 54, 1.-39. Heliae, bad spelling for Eliae. See 1 Kings xviii.; meritis, the cause or reason; pluvid, the means. A. and G., 51, 1, c.-42. Qui: supply es... gloria sit semper tibi cum Genito Christo compar Sancto Spiritui. HYMN VII. See Hymn VI. Beda has verses 1-8, 33-40. Theme. A tempest and flood; a prayer for fair weather. Line 1. Coeli, limits nubila.-2. Sole, absolute.-4. Carpimus, so it is sometimes said in English: we are enjoying a long spell of bad weather.-5. Aether dira, a poetic feminine, as Gr. airnp often is. The expressions are drawn from heathen poets: micat ignibus aether, Virgil, AEn., 1, 94; igni corusco, Horace, Carm., 1, 34, 6.-6. Cardine for pole, Ovid, Pont., 2, 10, 45.-7. Porta tonat coeli, Virgil, Georg., 3, 261. —8. Axis aethereus, Ovid, Met., 6, 175. -9-24. Compare a similar description in Ovid, Met., 1, 262+.13-16. For the style, compare lines 13-16, 17-20, in the former hymn; satis, vitibus, dative after hospes, a word of remoteness, like an adjective. A. and G., 51, 6; H., 391,2, 3.-24. Piscium et summa genus haesit in ulmo, Nota quae sedesfuerat columbis. Horat., Od., ii., 2, 9, 10.-27-28. Still as she is borne away, the mother-bird cares for her nest, and fearfully gathers the older of her young.

Page  229 AMBROSIUS, 16-18. 229 29. Fenestris: supply spectat.-30. Feminei pudoris-=feminarum pudicarum.-34. Aetas, of Noah.-37. Genesis viii., 11. HYMN VIII. In Daniel, 1, 49; Mone, 1, 222; Wackernagel, 1, 17; translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 102. Theme. The events of the day of Crucifixion as seen on Easter. Paschali, originally the Passover, then the festival commemorating the resurrection of Christ. Called Easter in England and Germany, from the heathen goddess Edstre, whose festival was displaced by the Pascha. —Line 5. Perditis: Mone reads perfidis, referring it to the Jews. —8. Luke xxiii., 43.-9. Qui, latro.-11. lustus: others read iustos, and in the next line praevenit, " goes to heaven before the just," i. e., the patriarchs, who being in purgatory, and released by Christ after his crucifixion, did not enter heaven so soon as the thief —praevio gradu, by an ascent before Christ, or, in the other reading, before the patriarchs.-15. Ad. haerentem: union with Christ is the source of all blessedness. Participatione Deifit anima beata. Augustine, Div. Quaest., 35, 2. -25. Mors, death temporal, then death spiritual, and Satan; et nomen illi Mors, Apocal., vi., 8, interpreted of Satan by Gregory and others.-Hamum: the language is drawn from Job xli., 1. The fathers, somehow, made Leviathan the devil. The verse refers to the belief of the fathers that Satan, ignorant of the divinity of Christ, instigated the Jewish priests to put him to death, and was therein completely deceived, since this death was the life of men. He swallowed the hook and bound himself with cords. Christus hamo suae divinitatis perforavit maxillam ipsius diabolic, cum diabolus volebat capere escam carnis Christi. Mone, 1, 195.-29. When death has passed upon all, and destroyed the carnal nature, spiritual death itself can no longer exist, since it can not affect the new life which comes from Christ. HYMN IX. Daniel, 1, 19; Mone, 1, 75; Wackernagel, 1, 17. It is by all attributed to Ambrose. Theme. The manifestation of the divine power in Christ; the theophany.

Page  230 230 NOTES. The ancient Christians celebrated the Epiphany-the day of Christ's appearance to the wise men of the East, or of the appearance of his star-as the birth-day of his divine energies. Line 1. The resemblance between natural light and spiritual strikes all mankind, and pervades all these hymns, and is eminently Biblical. See notes on Hilary, p. 218; Hebrews vi., 4; and elsewhere.-5. Mystico, connected with holy types and prophecies. It may be translated mystic. The stanza alludes to the belief that at the baptism of Christ the waters of the Jordan retreated in awe. This belief is often referred to by the fathers, and associated with Psalm cxiii., 5: Mare vidit, etfugit; Jordanis conve;sus est retrorsum; from the first part of which a comparison with the passage of the Red Sea grew up, and the evil nature, or Satan, like Pharaoh, was said to be drowned by the waters of the baptism of Christ. Compare Hymn XI., 3, 12, on page 33.11. Hac die, the Epiphany, celebrated on the 12th day after Christmas. Matt. ii., 2. Adoratum, supine, to adore the manger, i. e., Christ in the manger. Others read ad oratum, to the manger to pray or worship.-13-16. John ii., 1-11. Minister conscius. John ii., 9.-17. Supply minister.-18. Inebriare: see note on Hymn III. of Ambrosius, line 23.-21. John vi., 9-13.-28. Most old.copies read fontium, the constant flowings of fountains. Mone and some others say this is meaningless, and readfaucium; but the wonder where the supply of water comes from to a spring is quite like that about the supply of bread to the breakers of the loaves, and more poetical than the continued wagging of jaws.30. Profluus, flowing forth into existence.-31. Fragments which they had never broken, glide untouched to (the hands of) the men. AMBROSIANI. Hymns ascribed to Ambrose were called Ambrosiani, and many hymns not written by him have received the name by mistake. But it was also often used to denote a kind of hymns, like the hymns of Ambrose, in meter, style, and ancient use. In this way large collections of hymns, many of which no one supposed were written by Ambrose, were known as Ambrosiani. A strong sci

Page  231 AMBROSIANI, 20, 21. 231 ontific method would reject the word altogether. But it has a certain historical interest, and is used here for a class of early hymns which have been associated with Ambrose, but are now regarded as the work of unknown authors. They are mostly of the fifth or sixth century. HYMN I. In Wackernagel, 1, 24; Mrs. Charles's Christian Life in Song, p. 20, and every where. There is a legend of early origin that Ambrose composed and sang the Te Deum by sudden inspiration as he baptized Augustine. It is also told that they sang it in responses from a common inspiration. It is generally believed to have been a gradual growth from Greek morning hymns and the Bible. It is rhythmical prose. There is.a metrical version of it, which is translated by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 96. Theme. The universe praising God. Line 2. Aeternum Patrem: compare Isaiah ix., 6. This is the name whereby he shall be called: Almighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace (Mrs. Charles, p. 20); but the Latin reads for Everlasting Father, Paterfuturi saeculi.-3. Coeli Potestates, Coloss. i., 16; Romans viii., 38.-5. Isaiah vi., 3; Rev. iv., 4-8.-12. Candidatus, Rev. vii., 13, 14.-14, 15. Suscepturus, non: others read suscepisti, nec.-16, 17. 1 Cor. xv., 55-57.-19. Crederis, passive; thou art stated in our creed.-22. In gloria numerari: others read gloria munerari. Supply famulos.-23. Benedic, Psalm xxviii., 9.-29, 30. Psalm cxix., 41, 42: veniat super me misericordia tua, Domine... quia speravi in sermonibus tuis. Compare verse 76 of the same Psalm: Fiat misericordia, etc.-31. Psalm cxix., 46, non confundebar. HYMN II. In Daniel's Thesaurus, 1, 81; Mone, 1, 99; Wackernagel, 1, 53. It is early, but there is no special evidence which connects it with Ambrose. It is probably of'the fifth century. Translated by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 99. It is a narrative hymn, suggesting old ballads, and made up mostly of Scripture expressions.

Page  232 232 NOTES. Theme. The Passion of Christ. Line 3. Crucis patibulo, genitive of appositive, H., 396, v; ablative of instrument. —5 6. Others read decurso, quo.-15. Ut, as. -13. Pessimus mercator: In the ancient German hymns pity is mingled with their execration of Judas: " du armer Iudas, was hastu getan, Dass du unsern herrn also verraten hast? Des mustu in der helle Immer leiden pein, Lucifers geselle Mustu ewig sein." l)as ludaslied, DANIEL'S Thesaurus, 1, 82. 32. Quam, Christ's life, which is the life not only of the world in a general sense, but of those who are quickened from spiritual death. Others read quem, Christ. HYMN III. Daniel, 1, 27; Wackernagel, 1, 57; Trench, p. 210. It is given by the Benedictine edition of Ambrose, and by Beda, De re metrica, 174, and reckoned among the hymns of Ambrose, or at least the Ambrosiani. In the Roman Breviary, stanzas 1, 2, 6, 7 are extracted for a hymn to the Apostles. Mone, 3,143. Theme. The martyrs. Line 11. Compendio: quia mors illafuerit via compendiaria ad assequendam vitam beatam.-13. Heb. xi., 33-38.-15. Ungulis: See note on Damasus, line 9, p. 222.-24. John xiv., 30. HYMN IV. Daniel, 1, 62; Mone, 1, 232; Stephenson, Latin Hymns, p. 89; translated by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 104. It has often been confidently ascribed to Ambrose (Gallandus Bibl. Patr., 7, 772), but critical judgment assigns it to the sixth or seventh century. Theme. The Ascension of Christ. Acts i., 9. Line 5. Ascendens, etc., Ephesians iv., 8.-10. Mundi principe, John xiv., 30.-12. Gloriam: "Christus per carnem assumptam debellato diabolo victor evasit, ipsamque glorificatam carnem tandem coelo intulit."-Clichtoveus. Compare Carnis tropaeo,

Page  233 AMBROSIANI, 24, 25. 233 page 13, Hymn IV., line 22, and the note, as also the lines quoted below, line 23.-13. Acts i., 9: Redemtor noster non curru, non angelis sublevatus legitur, quia is, qui fecerat omnia, nimirum super omnia sua virtute ferebatur. Gregory, Horn. in Evang., 2, 29, 5; Mone, 1, 232.-16. Protoplastus, Adam; others protoplasti.19. Sputa, etc., frequent combination in the hymns and elsewhere. Mark xv., 19, 20.-23-25. Compare -"resultant Coelestes in laudes chori, cum rector Olympi Evehit excelsis, quicquid suscepit ab imis Ingrediensque polum carmis comitante tropaeo: Exuvias atri raptas de fauce profundi Lucis in arce locat terrenosque erigit artus." ARATOR, Hist. Ap., 1, 36. 31,32. Tali quae possit, H., 500, 2; A. and G., 65, 1: "Ascendamus cum Christo corde, cum dies eius promissus advenerit, sequemur et corpore. Scire tamen debemus, quia cum Christo non ascendit superbia, non avaritia, non luxuria, nullum vitium nostrum ascendit cum medico nostro." Augustine de Ascens., 2; Daniel, 1, 63. HYMN V. Daniel, 1, 63; Mone, 1, 230; Wackernagel, 1, 55; Stephenson, LatinHymns, p. 83; and elsewhere. Translated by Mrs. Charles, p. 105. It has been often confidently attributed to Ambrose (Gallandus, Bibl. Patr., 7, 772). It is called suavissimus hymnus, and in a somewhat modified form it is still intoned with special solemnity and reverence in the Roman service on Ascension day. Theme. The Ascension of Christ. Line 4. In fine temporum, Hebrews ix., 26.-9. The descent to Hades is referred to. See Hymn IV. of Ambrose, line 19, on page 13, and the note.-13. Pietas, the love of a father or elder brother.-15. Parcendo, by sparing, i. e., by thy mercy.-compotes voti, possessed of our prayer, i. e., having our sins subdued.-16. Saties: compare ego satiabor cum apparuerit gloria tua. Psalm xvi., 15.

Page  234 234 NOTES. HYMN VI. In Daniel, 1, 40; in some of the oldest manuscripts, and in many old collections; translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 93. Theme. The sixth hour and the crucifixion. Luke xxiii., 44. Lines 1.4. Mrs. Charles translates: "With silent step we see to-day The noontide hour before us glide; Day, poised upon her course midway, Looks to the night on either side." 18. Hoc tempore, Genesis xviii., 1.-20. Genesis xviii., 2, 3.21. John iv., 6, 23. —25. Paul, Acts xxii., 6.-30. Supply sunt.38. Peracta, others peracto. HYMN VII. Daniel, 1, 36; Wackernagel, 1, 52. Often attributed to Ambrose, and sometimes referred to as the earliest poem fully rhymed. The rhymes lead the later critics to give it a later datethe fifth century. The last stanza is later still-an added doxology. The translation by Luther is a favorite: Der du bist drei in einigkeit. Theme. The sun leaves us, be Thou our light. Line 7. Nostra supplex gloria, i. e., nos supplices inter coelices, our glorified spirits in suppliance praise. HYMN VIII. Grimm, xvi.; Daniel, 1, 33; Mone, 1, 92; Wackernagel, 1, 83. Translated by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 92. There are very ancient German versions, as well as modern. It is probably of the seventh century. Theme. Christ, who art the true light, keep thy servant through the night. Completorium, an adjective noun, the completing service. See Webster: completory, compline. It is for the last service of the day during Lent. Line 1. Compare Hilary's morning hymn, page 1.-3, 4. Mone reads from a manuscript of the eighth century:

Page  235 AMBROSIANI, 29-33. 235 "Lucifer lucem proferens, Vitam beatam tribue." For the use of Lucifer for Christ, see Hilary's hymn, as above.Crederis, passive. —4. Lumen, the radiance of lux. —11. Illi, Satan.-14. Ego dormio et cor meum vigilat. Canticles v., 2.-22. Gravis est sarcina corruptionis. Gregorius, Mor., 12, 17; Mone, 1, 93. HYMN IX. Daniel, 1, 42; translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 94. It is found in one of the very old manuscripts, that of the Queen of Sweden, and is put among the Ambrosiani by Daniel, but is late. Theme. Midnight in the Bible history. Exodus xi. Line 9, 10. Quod, subject of delevit.-21. Nos verns Israel. Romans ix., 6, 25.-40. Matthew xxv.-41. Acts xvi., 25.-49. Hagie: Greek, aiioS, holy. HYMN X. Daniel, 1, 107; Wackernagel, 1, 84; and many old editors. It is put by Daniel among the Ambrosiani, by Wackernagel in the seventh century. The meter, three Sapphics and an Adonic, is familiar to the readers of Horace, and the style is colored by imitation of the heathen writers. Theme. The dedication of a church. Line 2. Ab ore, from the source, or, as the Word,from the mouth. -9. Rite, in due form.-II. Corpus assumit, partake the consecrated body (of Christ).-16. Christicolarum, a word of Prudentius, for whom see page 51, which helps to fix the age of the hymn. - 25. Aula, porta. Genesis xxviii., 17. 39. Pereunte mnundo. 2 Peter iii., 10. HYMN XI. Daniel, 1, 88; Mone, 1, 217; Wackernagel, 1, 81; and in the Breviaries generally. It appears to be of the sixth century. Daniel suggests that it was used in the ancient Church, when the catechumens, in baptismal robes, first partook of the sacrament, Dominica in albis, next after Easter Sunday. The text used here is that of the Roman Breviary. The older texts begin:

Page  236 236 NOTES. "Ad coenam agni providi. " There are many translations: Mrs. Charles's Christian Life in Song, p. 103; Dr. Schaff's Christ in Song, two translations, p. 237, 238. Theme. Christ the Paschal Lamb. Line 1. Beati qui ad coenam nuptiarum agni vocati sunt. Apocal. xix., 9.-2. All were clothed at baptism in a white garment. Apocal. vii., 13, 14. The best robe of the returning Prodigal. Luke xv., 22. "Infantes niveos corpore, corde, habitu." Paulinus, in Daniel, 1, 89.-3. The passage of the Israelites through the Red Sea was a type of baptism. 1 Cor. x., 1. Compare note on Hymn IX., line 5, page 18.-4. This stanza reads in the old text: "Cuius corpus sanctissimum In ara crucis torridum, Cruore eius roseo Gustando vivimus Deo." These realistic expressions of roasting and eating Christ, drawn from the paschal supper, were wonderfully attractive to the early Christians: "Assatum et arefactum in cruce igne irae Dei." So Luther: Hie ist das rechte Osterlamm Davon Gott hat geboten, Das ist an des Kreuzes Stamm In heisser Lieb' gebroten." Compare the Hymn to St. Lawrence, page 145.-9. Exod. xi. Compare Hymn IX., line 16, page 30.-13. Pascha nostrum immolatus est Christus. Itaque epulemur... in azymis sinceritatis et veritatis. 1 Cor. v., 7, 8.-17. The old text reads: "O vere digna hostia, Per quam fracta sunt Tartara, Redempta plebs captivata, Reddita vitae praemia;" where Christ's descent into Hell, or Hades, his release of the spirits bound there, and his taking them to heaven, are distinctly stated.-21. Compare, on page 24, Hymn IV., lines 9-16; page 25, Hymn V., lines 9-12.

Page  237 AMBROSIANI, 34-36. 237 HYMN XII. Grimm, xix.; Daniel's Thesaurus, 1, 83; Mone, 1,190; Wackernagel, 1, 80. It is perhaps of the sixth century. Translations many: Mrs. Charles's Christian Life in Song, p. 100; Dr. Schaff's Christ in Song, two versions, p. 245, 246. The Roman Breviary divides it-a second hymn beginning with the fifth stanza. It is for the same Sunday as Hymn XI. Theme. The rejoicings of resurrection morning. Line 7. Pede conculcans: Romans xvi., 20.-8. A poena: others catena. For the descent to Hades, see Hymn IV. of Ambrose, line 19 on page 13, and the note.-9. Clausus, custoditur, Matthew xxvii., 66, and the next chapter.-13, 14. Solutis doloribus inferni is from Acts ii., 24.-25. Illae: Because by woman man fell, by woman he is restored; a woman bore the Saviour, a woman announced his resurrection: Per feminam mors, per feminam vita. Quia in paradiso mulier viro propinavit mortem, a sepulcro mulier viris annuntiat vitam. Augustine, Gregory, as quoted in Mone, 1, 191.-34. Nitet radio: others mittit radios.38. John xx., 27; fulgida: Mone marks itfulgidd, radiant body of Christ; but the Roman Breviary and others make it agree with vulnera: "In carne Christi vulnera Micare tanquam sidere." Compare page 193, lines 25, 26. HYMN XIII. The six following hymns on the Works of the Days have been a favorite set of Ambrosiani. See Daniel, 1, 57-61; Konigsfeld, 12, 8-16; but it will be seen that they are later than Ambrose, and some of them attributed with confidence to Gregory. In Stephenson's Latin Hymns, p. 13; Daniel's Thesaurus, 1, 57; Mone, 1, 82; Wackernagel, 1, 52. It is somewhat later than Ambrose. The rhyming vowels are observed. Theme. Genesis i, 1-5. Line 7. Tetrum Chaos: both words are common epithets of Satan among the fathers. Mone, 1, 83.-10. Psalm cxli., 6.11. Perenne, spiritual, eternal.-13. Coeleste: the text is from

Page  238 238 NOTES. the Roman Breviary, and agrees with the expression in Matt. vii., 7; Luc. xi., 5-8. The old copies read Coelorum pulset intimum. The subject is mens.-14. Vitale: i. e. vitae, of spiritual life. HYMN XIV. Daniel, 1, 58; Mone, 1, 375; Wackernagel, 1, 70; Stephenson's Latin Hymns; and elsewhere. Mone thinks Gregory the Great wrote it. Theme. Genesis i., 6-8. Line 11. Milleformes daemonum incursus, Augustine. Mone, 1, 376.-12. Error vetus, original sin. HYMN XV. Daniel, 1, 59; Mone, 1, 376; Wackernagel, 1, 70; Stephenson, p. 19. This also, Mone thinks, is Gregory's. Theme. Genesis i., 9-13. Line 2. Separans, so the Roman Breviary. Old texts have eruens.-6. Decora: agrees with terra understood. —1., Vita lota lacrymis renovatur, Gregory. Mone, 1, 376. HYMN XVI. Daniel, 1, 60; Mone, 1, 378; Wackernagel, 1, 71; Stephenson, 22. Wackernagel thinks it Gregory's. Theme. Genesis i., 14-19. Line 2. So the Roman Breviary. Old texts read: Qui lucidum centrum poli. HYMN XVII. In Daniel, 1, 61; Wackernagel, 1, 56, 342; and elsewhere. One of the older Ambrosiani; probably of the fifth century. Theme. Genesis i., 20-23. Line 2. Natos, offspring of the teeming water, both fishes and birds.-7. Prodita: supply animalia. Some omit ab.-8. Reple. ant: so the Roman Breviary. Old copies have rapiant. — 9. Largire, imperative, with nescire for its direct object.-10. Unda sanguinis, an allusion to the blood of Christ and to baptism. Kehrein thinks it means unda et sanguis, "the water and the blood."

Page  239 ABmROSIANI) 39-42. 239 HYMN XVIII. In Daniel, 1, 61; Mone, 1, 380; Wackernagel, 1, 343, 82; Stephenson; and elsewhere. It is one of the later Ambrosiani, neglecting elision, and sometimes quantity; probably of the seventh century. Theme. Genesis i., 24, 31. Line 1. So in the Roman Breviary. The older copies read: "Plasmator honinis, Deus." -5. Corpora: subject of obtemperare. Older copies read Qui for Et, and for lines 7, 8, " Ut serviant per ordinem Subdens dedisti homini." Corpora is then the object of dedisti.-13. The last stanza is thought by Mone to be unconnected with the rest, and spurious. HYMN XIX. Grimm, xxiv.; Daniel, 1, 85; Wackernagel, 1, 54. Of the fifth century. "Plerumque casu quodam invenies etiam rationem in rhythmo, non artificis modo ratione servata, sed sono et ipsa modulatione ducente. Quomodo instar iambici metri pulcherrime factus est hymnus ille praeclarus: Rex aeterne Domine." Beda, De Rhythmo. Theme. The Creator, the Redeemer, the Good Physician, the final Judge. Line 1. Many copies begin like Beda: Rex aeterne, the Rex making a tonic. M., A.-Sax. Gram., 222.-4. Cui: two syllables, as often, or a tonic.-9. Quem diab-, an accentual anapaest.-49. Quia tu ip-, an accentual spondee; quia one syllable, as often. -53. Tun a tonic.-59. Tun a tonic. HYMN XX. Daniel's Thesaurus, 1, 21; Wackernagel, 1, 47; Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 40. It had been early attributed to Ambrose; but the theory has later found favor that it was an old abecedary, made up from several poems. Attempts have been made by Daniel and Wackernagel to restore the verses which remain to alpha

Page  240 240 NOTES. betic order. Of the stanzas, 1 is from Sedulius, page 59; 2, 3 are from a poem of Prudentius, not given in this book; 4, 5, 6 are a separate hymn used in the church on the day of the purification of the Virgin, and perhaps by Ambrose; the others have not been found. Theme. The birth of Christ. Line 1. Psalm cxii., 3. A solis ortu usque ad occasum laudabile nomen.-2. Et usque: in Sedulius, see page 59, ad usque, the more common idiom, is found.-5. Quicquid: supply est, which is expressed after gentium in Prudentius.-12. Post haec: in Prudentius posthac, No one is to die who is in Christ.-13. Ezek. xliv., 1-3. Porta haec clausa erit: non aperietur et vir non transibit per earn, quoniam Deus Dominus Israel ingressus est per earn. This passage was understood of the womb of the Virgin Mary.14. Luke i., 28. Ave gratia plena.-15. Compare Hymn IV., line 10, page 12: " His beauteous portal, full of grace, Is hallowed for the King to pass. The King doth pass; the folded door Abideth folded as before."-SCHAFF. — 18. Processit aula: so procedit aula, on page 12, IV., 13, 14.20. Gigas: see note on Hymn IV., 15, p. 227.-25. Dan. ii., 34; Isaiah xxviii., 16; Eph. ii., 20; 1 Cor. iii., 11; 1 Peter ii., 4, 6, 7. -33. Isaiah xlv., 8. Rorata, coeli, desuper, et nubes pluant justum; aperiatur terra et germinet salvatorem.-39. Utt in such a manner that.-42. Compare Hymn IV., 1, p. 12.-43. Compare Sedulius, page 59, lines 7, 8: "Ut carne carnem liberans Ne perderet quos condidit." -45. Similar expressions are in Damasus, Fortunatus, and elsewhere.-50. Deumque: genuit ante tempora, Deumque genuit.53. Supply venit. IV. AUGUSTINIANI. Life.-ST. AfGUSTINE, Aurelius Augustinus, was born at Tagasta, Numidia, November 13, 354. His mother, Monica, gave

Page  241 AUGUSTINIANI, 45. 241 him most careful Christian nurture. In 384 he became professor of rhetoric and philosophy at Milan. He was leading a wild life when arrested by the sermons of Ambrose and captivated by the views of Paul, 386. He was made bishop of Hippo, Africa, in 396, and there he died, August 28, 430, then and ever since the most illustrious Latin father of the Church. His exposition against Pelagius of Paul on justification by faith, showing that God's free grace is all in all, has approved itself to most thinkers of the same class, and been a controlling power in creeds and over human thought. Passion, imagination, and reason were all at their best in him; but the painters' symbol for him is a flaming heart. Of his many works, "The Confessions "-his autobiography-is most read, "The City of God " most praised. He was profoundly moved by the hymns of Ambrose, and has recorded his feelings and reflections on them in several places: "Quantum flevi in hymnis et canticis tuis, suave sonantis ecclesiae tuae vocibus commotus acriter! Voces illae influebant auribus meis, et eliquabatur veritas tua in cor meum, et exaestuabat ihde adfectus pietatis; et currebant lacrimae, et bene mihi erat cum eis."-Confessiones, ix., 6. Reference has been made in the Notes, on page 225, to his recalling verses of Ambrose on the morning after his mother's burial. Confessiones, ix., 12. His delight in the music of the hymns is so intense that he fears that it is sinful: " Verum tamen cum reminiscor lacrimas meas, quas fudi ad cantus ecclesiae tuae in primordiis recuperatae fidei meae, et nunc ipso quod moveor non cantu, sed rebus quae cantantur, cum liquida voce et convenientissima modulatione cantantur, magnam instituti huius utilitatem rursus agnosco."-Confessiones, x., 33. He had made Latin verses in his youth. Mention has been made of the tradition connecting him with the Te Deum (page 231). A number of hymns have borne his name, but it is now believed that none were composed by him. Three are here given as Augustiniani, from Daniel's Thesaurus and elsewhere, which are based on passages from him, and have been long associated with him. L

Page  242 242 NOTES. HYMN I. In Daniel's Thesaurus, 1, 116; Mone, 1, 422; Trench, Sacred Latin Poetry, p. 315; Augustini Opera, Bened. ed., vi., 117 (Appendix); Translations by Sylvester, p. 1114; Mrs. Charles's Christian Life in Song, p. 191. It was long confidently ascribed to Augustine, chiefly from its being in a book called "Meditationes," a large part of which was known to be his, and all of it thought to be. It is now known to be made up of extracts from Anselm, Gregory, and others. Trench says, " The hymn is Damiani's, and quite the noblest he has left us." Mone thinks the writer unknown, about 100 years later than Augustine. Theme. The glory and joys of Paradise. Line 1. Sitivit anima mea ad Deum fortem vivum. Psalm xli., 3. Apud te est fons vitae. Psalm xxxv., 10. Fons aquae salientis in vitam aeternam. John iv., 14. Compare Rev. xxi., 6; Psalm cxlii., 6.-2. Clausa, "Here in the body pent." Romans vii., 23, 24.-3. Exul frui patria. Hebrews xi., 13, 14.-5. Dum deliquit, when it (the soul) sinned.-6. Conversely: "Infelicissimum genus est infortunii fuisse felicem." BOETHIUS, De Con., II. "Nessum maggior dolore Che ricordarsi del tempo felice Nella miseria. "-I)ANTE, Inferno, V., 121. " That a sorrow's crown of sorrow is remembering happier things." TENNYSON, Locksley Hall. -7-9. Rev. xxi., 21.-10, 11. Rev. xxi., 19-21.-12. Lues, soiled snow-water. Kehrein, Daniel, Trench, Lexicons. Rev. xxi., 27.13. Aestas. Rev. vii., 16; Psalm cxx., 6; and elsewhere. The absence of cold is not so much mentioned. It has pleasant associations in Palestine.-13-21. This is the poet's expansion of the beauty of the perpetual spring which he finds implied in Rev. xxi., 23; xxii., 5: "Civitas non eget sole neque luna,.. lucerna eius est Agnus." "Et nox non erit." This dwelling on the beauties of nature is characteristic of Christian authors. The

Page  243 AUGUSTINIANI, 47-49. 243 heathen show no sense of it. Humboldt, Cosmos, II., i.-22. Velit sol: Matthew xiii., 43.-28-31. Mutabilibus: some read mortalibus his; ablative of separation after exuti. A. and G., 54, 1: " Putting off their mortal vesture, in the Source their souls they steepTruth by actual vision learning, on its forms their gaze they keepDrinking fiom the living Fountain draughts of living waters deep." Mrs. CHARLES. -33. Sanis: a general description, not a partitive; not from those among them who are well, but from them all, the well.-34. Esse, object of tenent. Illa civitas sempiterna est, ibi nullus oritur, quia nullus moritur. Augustine, De Civit. Dei, v., 16.-36. 1 Cor. xv., 54; 2 Cor. v., 4.-37. Scientem cuncta: Illam sanctam civitatem de visione omnipotentis Dei plena scientia perficit. Gregory, Horn. in Ev., ii., 34, 8.-Nescire nequeunt: two negatives strengthen the negation, as frequently in late Latin.-41. Caritas, etc. Love makes this his (characteristic) that, when he loves another, the peculiarity of each thus becomes a common possession of all. Others read more simply: Caritas hocfacit suum quod amat in altero.-43. Ubi corpus: the language is drawn from Matthew xxiv., 28, which the author and the early fathers understand to mean, Where Christ is, there his servants will gather as certainly as the eagles gather to their prey.-45. Utriusque patriae, heaven and earth. Coelestis Ierusalem cives sunt omnes sanctificati homines, qui fuerunt et qui sunt et qui futuri sunt, et omnes sanctificati spiritus etiam, quicumque in excelsis coelorum partibus pia devotione obtemperant Deo. Augustine, De Catech. Rud., p. 36.51. Quem has regi for its antecedent.-58. Probes: others praebe. HYMN II. From Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 1, 32. It may pass as a companion-piece of the former hymn, a treatment of the same subject by a later and weaker and more fanciful poet. It presents no difficulties. HYMN III. From Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 1, 36. Like Hymn II., it is late, and Augustinian only by turning on a thought of Augustine, and catching some fire from " the flaming heart."

Page  244 244 NOTES. V. PRUDENTIUS. Life.-AURELIUS CLEMENS PRUDENTIUS was born in Spain, 348, perhaps in Saragossa. He received a liberal education, practiced as a pleader, filled important judicial posts in two cities not named, and received a high military appointment at court, when, in his fifty-seventh year, he determined to dedicate what remained of his life to the earnest service of God. Thus much we learn fiom an autobiography in verse prefixed to his poems. It contains also a catalogue of his poems, and this is about all we know of his life. His fame is great. Barth speaks of him as " Poeta eximius-eruditissimus et sanctissimus scriptor-nemo divinius de rebus Christianis unquam scripsit." Bentley calls him "the Horace and Virgil of the Christians " (Trench, p. 119, 120). He speaks out freely in the living Latin of the time. Most of his hymns are taken from the poems called "Cathemerinon," i. e., " Diurnorum," "of daily acts and seasons." There are twelve of them: 1. For cock-crow; 2. For morning; 3. Before meat; 4. After meat; 5. At the lighting of lamps; 6. Before sleep; 7. Fasting; 8. After fast; 9. Every hour; 10. At burial; 11. January; 12. The Epiphany. Other poems are his " Apotheosis," " Hamartigenia," "Psychomachia," and "Peristephanon." An excellent edition is that of A. Dressel, Lipsie, 1860. HYMN I. Daniel, 1, 122; Wackernagel, 1, 34, 36. Translations: Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 43; The Hymnal Noted, No. 32; Hymns, Ancient and Modern, No. 46. Three ancient German versions are given in Wackernagel. It is compiled from the ninth hymn of the Cathemerinon, entitled "Hymnus ad omnes horas," and celebrating the birth, passion, resurrection, and glorification of Christ. These verses on the nativity are used as a separate hymn. The first stanza of the original poem is here prefixed to the hymn. Aur. Prud. Clem. Carmina, ed. Dressel, p. 52.' Theme. The birth of Christ. Line 1. Puer, the servant, who should bring the lyre.-Choreis, chorees, or trochees, the feet in which the poem is written.-5, 6.

Page  245 PRUDENTIUS, 53. 245 Camoena pangat, let our muse frame, i. e., sing, him alone. This introduction is like the older Greek lyric poets. To each stanza is added in the hymn as used " Saeculorum saeculis," taken from the last stanza.-7. Psalm xliv., 2, eructavit cor meum Verbumn bonum, was with the fathers a palmary passage on the eternal generation of the Son.-9. Rev. xxi., 6.-16. Protoplasti: othersprimoplasti, Adam; genitive after germine.-25.27. Altitudo, angelus, vertutis, are all in Romans viii., 38, 39, height, angels, powers; for powers, see also Coloss. i., 16.-31. Vates concinebant, Acts x., 43. -Quem, has for its antecedent the subject of emicat.-36-48. Psalm cxlviii. A doxology not by Prudentius is added to the hymn, and translated in Schaff and elsewhere: " Tibi Christe sit cum Patre Hagioque Pneumate Hymnus, melos, laus perennis, gratiarum actio, Honor, virtus, victoria, regnum aeternaliter Saeculorum saeculis." HYMN II. Daniel, 1, 137; Wackernagel, 1, 40; Trench (a different selection of stanzas), p. 281. Translations by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 110; Schaff, Christ in Song, two translations, p. 635, 638; Miss Catharine Winkworth in Bunsen's Gesangbuch, No. 288; and many in German. It is made up from the tenth Cathemerinon, which is a noble hymn of forty-four stanzas, ad exequias defuncti (Prud. Carmina, ed. Dressel, p. 58). The common stanzas are the 31, 15, 10, 11, 12-36; to which are here added 37-42, 44. Barth calls this poem "plane divinum;" Trench calls it "the crowning glory of the poetry of Prudentius;" it reminds Dr. Schaff "of the worship in the catacombs, whose gloom was lit up with the hope of a glorious resurrection in Christ." It became in the sixteenth century a favorite funeral hymn in Protestant Germany: " Hort auf mit Trauern und Klagen." Theme. The resurrection of those who die in Christ. Line 5. Quid sibi saxa volunt, what do the rocks wish for themselves=what do they mean? 9. Corpus, subject of restat. —11. Ut, etc., that it may regain combinations of exalted sense, i. e., be again united to the. body, and with improved organs of sense.

Page  246 246 NOTES. 16. Gestet, will move. Verses 9-20 are omitted by Trench, and are commented on by Schaff as rather materialistic. "Paul teaches the resurrection of the body, not of the flesh (1 Cor. xv., 50). Lazarus was raised in the flesh, but to die again; the resurrection body will be immortal." Schaff, p. 635.-27. Sequestro: so Tertullian de Resurrect.: corpora... mausoleis et monumentis sequestrantur.-28. Generosa, of a noble kind.-31. Istis, these ruins.-32. Christo: ablative of source, preposition omitted.34. Ille fctor et auctor, Christ.-36. Propriique aenigmata vultus: Videmus nunc per speculum in aenigmate, 1 Cor. xiii., 12: " Man is God's image; but a poor man is Christ's stamp to boot."-GEORGE HERBERT. Aenigmata, as hints of the invisible and unknown.-39. Patefacta agrees with tu, terra; it is necessary that you, opened, restore the form, etc. With lines 33-48 compare the last chapters of Tertullian, De Resurrectione Carnis.-41. Cariosa vetustas. Ovid, Amor., 1, 12, 29. —53. Senis sancti, Abraham.-54. Eleazar, Lazarus: so Tertullian calls the Lazarus of Luke Eleazar, taking the two names to be the same, as they probably were. Luke xvi., 22.-60. Luke xxiii., 43.-65. It was a heathen custom to grace the dead with flowers and odors: " Manibus date lilia plenis." iEn., vi., 884. The earlier Christians did not do it (Justin Martyr, Apol., II.), but in the time of Jerome the custom was common. Hieron., Ep., xxvi., ad Pammach.: Ceteri mariti super tumulos coniugum spargunt violas, rosas, lilia. HYMN III. Daniel, 1, 119; Wackernagel, 1, 26; Breviarium Romanum. Translation in Hymns of the Ages, p. 14. It is made up of stanzas 1, 2, 21, 25 of the first hymn of the Cathemerinon, which consists of twenty-five stanzas Ad gallicantum. Prud. Carmina, ed. Dressel, p. 4. Theme. Cock-crow. Compare the first hymn of Ambrose, p.8. Line 1. Diei nuntins, praeco diei. Ambrose, p. 8, I., 5, and see notes on p. 224. A lively canticle, telling all about the bird of dawn, is to be found in Neale's Mediaeval Hymns, p. 194: "Multi sunt presbyteri," etc.

Page  247 PRUDENTIUS, 56-58. 247 Cock-crow was the fourth or last watch of the night, three hours, by the Roman reckoning; but the Christians reckoned it from dawn to sunrise.-6. The beds are called aegros, soporos, desides, as producers of sickness, sleepiness, sloth.-10. Flentes, crying, groaning:' All Solomon's sea of brass and world of stone Is not so dear to thee as one good groan." GEORGE HERBERT. HYMN IV. Daniel, 1, 124; Wackernagel, 1, 43; Trench, p, 121. Translations: Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 107; J. M. Neale, and others. It is put together from the twelfth hymn of the Cathemerinon on the Epiphany, but has been long current in the Church, though with varying verses. The version used by Trench is much patched. Prud. Carmina, ed. Dressel, p. 71. Theme. The infant martyrs of Bethlehem. Matt. ii., 16. Line 1. Flores Martyrum: " lure dicuntur martyrumflores, quos in medio frigore infidelitatis exortos, velut primas erumpentis Ecclesiae gemmas, quaedam persecutionis pruina decoxit." Augustine, Serm. 220; (Appendix), Trench, p. 121. —18. Solus inte. ger agree with partus.-19. Nurus: ace. plural.-24. Receptor civium, liberator, as taking them to himself from servitude. A doxology not by Prudentius is added and translated in Schaff. HYMN V. Daniel, 1, 121; Wackernagel, 1, 28; the Breviaries; and elsewhere. Translation in Hymns of the Ages, p. 16. It is made up of parts of the second hymn of the Cathemerinon, the first stanza pieced from 7, 1+24, 1, 2, 4, the others are 25, 26, 27. Prud. Carmina, ed. Dressel, p. 9. Theme. The Christian to walk honestly as in the day. Romans xiii., 12,13. HYMN VI. Daniel, 1, 127; Wackernagel, 1, 43. Translations in Mrs. Charles's Christian Life in Song, p. 98; Schaff's Christ in Song, p. 113. It is made up from stanzas 20, 2, 16, 18 of the twelfth of the Cathemerinon. Prud. Carmina, ed. Dressel, p. 71.

Page  248 248 NOTES. Theme. The Epiphany. Compare Hymn IX. of Ambrose, and notes on p. 229, 230. Line 1. Sola maior Bethlem, sole greater city of great cities, i. e., greater beyond compare than any of the great cities. Bethlem for Bethlehem, Bethleem (Bn2XeEst), is common in the hymns.-2. Contigit has gignere for its subject.-3. Coelitus, the Saviour (sent) from heaven.-5, 6. This description of the brightness of the star is found in other ancient'writers:'Aoarp iv oipav' i'Xata4ev vrEip 7ravrac rove aarETpas... Ta ie XostTra 7rara raraarpa, iaLa riXi Kai aeXrjvr), opbo Y ievero Tr aarspt atbrbc ie )v v7rep/3aXXov rio p&C avrov i7rep 7racvra. Epist. Ignatii ad Eph., 19.-9. Videre: perfect tense. —1. Votis: ablative of accompaniment.-12. Thus, etc.: " Chaldaea gens dat munera, regi divitias, thura Deo, myrrhamque sepulcro." Hieron., Ad., Matt. i., 2. So Augustine: Aurum solvitur, quasi regi magno; thus immolatur, ut Deo; myrrha praebitur tanquam pro salute omnium miorituro.-17. The doxology is not by Prudentius. VI. SEDULIUS. Life.-Probably a Scot from Ireland, who left his native country for love of learning, Sedulius was a priest in Italy, in the fifth century, under Theodosius the Great. Exact dates are wanting. He is described as an eminent poet, orator, and divine -perhaps a bishop. He has left a paschal poem on the miracles of Christ, and other pious compositions. The Latin Church uses several of his hymns in their public service. HYMN I. Daniel, 1, 143; Wackernagel, 1, 46; in the Breviaries, and elsewhere. Beda ascribes it to Sedulius. There are many ancient German versions, one by Luther. An English translation is found in Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 45. It is the first part of an abecedary of twenty-three verses, totam vitam Christi continens. Theme. The birth of Christ. Lines 1.4. Borrowed for the last of the Ambrosiani. See page 42, and the note. —5. Auctor saeculi: Hebrews i., 2; filio per quem fecit et saeculum.-6. " Corporis formam caduci membra

Page  249 SEDULIUS, 60, 61. 249 morti obnoxia induit ne gens periret primoplasti ex germine." Prud., Cathemerinon, ix., 16.-9. Luke i., 34.-16. "Deus per angelum loquebatur et virgo auribus impraegnabatur." Augustine. Compare Hymn IV. of Ambrose, p. 12.-20. Luke i., 44.-21. Foeno iacere: the hay and the manger greatly move the early Christians. Daniel quotes from several, and as follows from I. Neunhertzius: " Ach allzuhartes Nest! liegt Iesus in der Krippen? ach, war' ich da gewest, das wuenschen Herz und Lippen: Wie hatt' es mich geschmerzt, das man dich so veracht; ich hitte dich geherzt und dir mein Bett gebracht." —4. Nec ales, not a sparrow. Luke xii., 6.-28. John x., 14; 1 Peter v., 4; Heb. xiii., 20. HYMN II. Daniel, 1, 147; Wackernagel, 1, 46; J. H. Newman, Hymni Ecclesiae, p. 252; Breviaries; and elsewhere. There are ancient German translations-one by Luther: " Was fiirchst du Feind Herodes sehr;" an English translation in Mant's Ancient Hymns, p. 77. It is a continuation of the former hymn. Theme. The Epiphany. Matthew ii. Line 1. Herodes: The Roman Breviary, followed by many editors, has Crudelis Herodes, not caring for the H. of the abecedary.-3. John xviii., 36.-4. Luke xxii., 29, 30.-7. Lumen, Christ; lumrine, the star.-8. See p. 58, VI., 13, and note.-9. Caterva is Katerva in the abecedary. This stanza is not used in the Church service. Personat, cries aloud. Matt. ii., 18. 13. Lavaera puri gurgitis: Matt. iii., 16.-17-20. This stanza is not in the Roman Breviary. Sanans. Matt. iv., 23. Resuscitans. Luke vii., 12; John xi., 43.-21. John ii., 6-11. Chrysostom says that many draw water on the night of the Epiphany and keep it to use through the year. The Egyptians and Ethiopians say the Nile water has a flavor of wine on this night; and such beliefs are widespread about other rivers and springs. For the German fountains of this kind, see Grimm's " Deutsche Mythologie," p. 328. HYMN III. Sedulii Opera, 2, 63; KSnigsfeld, Lateinische Hymnen und Gesange, 2, 62. It is a common introduction (introit) on the L2

Page  250 250 NOTES. days of special services in honor of the Virgin Mary. The meter is not common in the hymns. Theme. Salutation of the Mother of Christ. Line 1. Enixa puerpera: compare the first line on page 60.4. Quae (parens), the subject of visa est.-6. Primam similem: object of habere.-9. Terrena: object ofpetisti. VII. ELPIS. Life.-ELPIS, a Sicilian, was born about 460, and was early married to Boethius, one of the most illustrious Romans of his age-470-525. She was a woman of great learning, wit, and beauty, and the author of the hymns used by the Church on the festival of St. Peter and St. Paul. She bore her husband two sons, eminent Romans. After her death Boethius married Rusticiana, the most accomplished of all the Roman ladies. Such was the current account of Elpis, but it is now pronounced baseless. See under Boethius in Smith's Classical Dictionary. Of the author of the hymns, therefore, we know nothing. HYMN I. Daniel, 1, 156; Mone, 3, 90; Wackernagel, 1, 59. It is ascribed to Elpis by all the old editors. Mone doubts whether she would write accentual meter, since her husband uses only the quantitative verse of the old poetry. Theme. The feast-day of the apostles Peter and Paul. Line 1. Note the uniform caesura after the fifth syllable, which gives to the first half line an iambic, to the second a trochaic cadence. The hemistichs are sometimes printed as separate lines. Lux lucis: genitive of eminence. M., 312, e. Lux (vocative), God.-3. Martyrio: ablative of cause.-5. lanitor coeli: Matt. xvi., 19; Peter is called claviger later.-Doctor, Paul.-6. Note the difference between saeculum and mundus. —7. o,iv Tr arravpt 7rpoarXw\eI)rC rpbc opavov rr)v 7ropEiav STrou'paro, 6o e Trq it & aTrorarjSei C 7rpOb rbOv Aitwrpa [rpsJtac aa acape7'ral, Greek service for June 29; Eusebius, Ec. Hist., ii., 25. Paul was a Roman citizen, not to be crucified.-S. Vitae senatum possidere is to have a seat in the senate of life. The Greek expression for it is, become citizens of the

Page  251 ELPIS —FORTUNATUS, 62-64. 251 new Jerusalem, the kingdom of life.-12. Qui: others qua. Claudis, aperis; conjunction omitted, as so often in English.-13. So in the Greek service Paul is called TIavXe 2eT7rEcrLst, r&v ayiwv lCCX\otcLv 6 pnTwp.- 14. Polum: supply ad, to bear us to heaven in mind, i. e., give us heaven by faith.-15. Till that which is perfect shall be bestowed. Note the unusual passive sense of largiatur. The passage is based on cum autem venerit quod perfectum est, evacuabitur quod ex parte est. 1 Cor. xiii., 10.-17. Binae olivae: Rev. xi., 4, often elsewhere applied to these apostles. Charity, love, is denoted by the fruit of the olive. Augustine on John vi., 20. So is interpreted the pouring in oil by the Good Samaritan. Luke x., 34. For the value of the olive, remember the story of the naming of Athens. Compare Psalm lii., 8: Ego autem sicut oliva fructifera in domo Dei. The orange, bearing fruit and flowers at once, has displaced the olive in our associations: " Oh, that I were an orange-tree, That busy plant! Then should I ever laden be, And never want Some fruit for him that dressed me." GEORGE HERBERT. -18. Devotos, the subject of vivere.-21-24. This stanza was added in the Roman Breviary by order of Pius V. VIII. FORTUNATUS. Life.-VENANTIUS HONORIUS CLEMENTIANUS FORTUNATUS was born in the district of Treviso, Italy, 530. He spent his early life in literary idleness, and much of his later life in the same way, " among the last of the Latin verse-writers, or among the first of the troubadours." On the invasion of the Lombards he left Italy, and wandered from castle to cloister in Gaul. Queen Rhadegunda induced him to settle at Poictiers, and here he was consecrated a priest, and became bishop (595?); and here he died (609?). What we know of his outer life is in strong contrast with the hymns here given. Mrs. Charles suggests a com

Page  252 252 NOTES. parison with Cowper. See Christian Life in Song, p. 129. Editions of his works are Opera Omnia, Romae, 1786; Carminum, epistolarum, expositionum libri XI., etc.; Notis variis a R. P. Christophoro Browero, Moguntiae, 1617. HYMN I. Daniel, 1, 163; Wackernagel, 1, 61, 62. Translations into old German; into English by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 133; Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 155; Neale, Mediaeval Hymns, p. 1. Daniel ranks it in numero pulcherrimorum. Schaff agrees. Fortunatus introduced stanzas of trochaic tetrameter, afterward a favorite measure in the hymns. Copies often begin with line 22, " Crux fidelis," etc. Theme. The Passion. Line 1. Pange proelium, frame, i. e., sing the battle; the theme is put for the song, as often elsewhere. See p. 51, line 6. This opening has been imitated in other hymns, notably in the famous eucharistic hymn of Thomas Aquinas: "Pange, lingua, gloriosi corporis mysterium. "-(See p. 168.) Certaninis: conflict between Christ and Satan, of glorious issue. Gen. iii., 15.-2. Super governs the ablative of the theme of discourse. H., 435, 2; A. and G., 56, 1, d.-4. Factor, the Maker, Christ.-5. In mortem corruit: the subject is parens understood. 6. The legend here alluded to is thus related by Mrs. Charles: "When Adam died, Seth obtained from the guardian cherubim of Paradise a branch of the tree from which Eve ate the forbidden fruit. This he planted on Golgotha, called the place of a skull, because Adam was buried there. From this tree, as the ages rolled on, were made the ark of the testimony, the pole on which the brazen serpent was lifted up, and other instruments; and from its wood, at length, then growing old and hard, was made the cross."-8. Ars, the art of Christ: artemproditoris.-9. Medelam ferret agrees with ars: EveXw igt rbo vXov iaa2E&r, Service for September 14. The language is drawn from surgical superstitions, every where common among the unscientific.-l0. "Ubi venit plenitudo temporis, misit Deus Filium suum factum ex muliere." Galat., iv., 4.-11. Aree, heaven; compare Ari

Page  253 FORTUNATUS, 65, 66. 253 firma Deus noster est, p. 211.-12. Caro factus, John i., 14.-13. Conditus for positus, which some copies have: conditus is suggested by conditor: the poet plays with the sound and sense, like Shakespeare. Praesepia, the manger.-15. Fascia: subject; pedes manusque crura, feet, hands, and legs.-16. Lustra sex, Luke iii., 23, ace. of time how long; the time necessary for the growth of the body.- -19. Supply sunt.-24. Dulci clavo: others dulces clavos.-25. Viscera, fibres.-28. Pretium saeculi, the ransom of the world.-30. Quem, mundus. Some see an allusion to Noah's ark in this verse, but Augustine gives it another turn: "Mare transeundum est, et lignum contemnis? quia lignum humilitatis eius tibi necessarium erat; superbia enim tumueras et longe ab illa patria rejectus eras, et fluctibus huius saeculi interrupta est via, et qua transeatur ad patriam non est, nisi ligno porteris." In Evang., John ii., 4. HYMN II. In Daniel, 1, 168; Wackernagel, 1, 60; Trench, p. 130. Translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 130. This is part of a longer poem. Theme. The holy Cross. Line 1. Mitet, gleams, a beautiful beacon.-4. Qua, where, introduces the whole clause beginning with the third line. John x., 12.-8. Paulum: Acts ix., 5.-Petrum: Acts xii., 7.-10. Nova poma: an allusion to the noxiale pomum, "whose mortal taste brought death into the world." See line 5 of the last hymn.-11, 12. Sicut malus inter ligna silvarum, etc.; StipaTe me malis, etc. Canticles ii., 3, 5.-13, 14. Per diem sol non uret te, neque luna per noctem. Psalm cxxi., 6.-15. Et erit tanquam lignum, quod plantatum est secus decursus aquarum, quod fructum suum dabit in tempore suo. Psalm i., 3.-17. The cross is represented by artists as wreathed in a vine, and the figure is truly Biblical, both for the vine and the wine. John xv., 1; Luke xxii., 20. HYMN III. In Daniel, 1, 160; Wackernagel, 1, 63; Breviarium Romanum, and elsewhere often. Translations are found in many languages, several in old German; in English by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 131; J. M. Neale, Mediaeval Hymns, p. 6; and in Schaff,

Page  254 254 NOTES. Christ in Song, p. 159; Edward Caswell, and others. Neale calls it "one of the grandest in the treasury of the Latin Church." It has a place in Randolph's " Seven Great Hymns of the Mediaeval Church," p. 140. It is said to have been composed on the reception by Queen Rhadegunda of a bit of the True Cross, sent to her by the Emperor Justin. Theme. The Cross and Passion. Line 1. Vexillaregis prodeunt: "Passio Domini venit, et, quia venit, debemus de ipsa aliquid dicere. Dicamus quod vexilla regis Christi prodeunt." Ambrosius. "The banners are the sacrainents," say some. Others say, " the emblems of the passion " " ut flagella, corona spinea, clavi, lancea, quibus antiquum debellavit hostem." Daniel, 1, 62.-2. Mysterium: a holy prophetic emblem. See page 230, line 7, note on mystico.-8. Unda et sanguine: John xix., 34. Many read unda sanguine, the same in sense as sanguis unda profluit. Hymn I., 20, p. 65.-11. In nationibus, etc. Psalm xcvi., 10.-12. A ligno: not in our versions or our Hebrew texts. Tertullian (Adv. Marcionem, III.), and elsewhere, refers to it, and Justin Martyr (Contra Tryphoneml) accuses the Jews of having erased it from the Hebrew. Daniel, 1, 162.-12. Purpura, purpurd, sanguine Christi.-18. Pretium saeculi: so in line 28, Hymn I. See note.-19. Statera corporis, the payment of the body having been made; others read facta est; many read statera saeculi, the price of the world.-20. Tartari: others Tartaris. —22. Saporem nectaris; others sapore nectare for the consonance with cortice; construing in flavor by your nectar.-26. Gloria: the theme of the salutation.-27. Qua, where life endured death.-29, 32. This verse and a doxology used by the Latin Church are not of the time of Fortunatus, but of the later age which began to worship the cross. HYMN IV. In Daniel, 1, 169; Wackernagel, 1, 66; Trench, p. 152. Translations, many in oldest German; in English by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 135; Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 235; and others. It is made up by picking lines from a poem of fifty-six verses, addressed " Ad Felicem episcopum, de paschate resurrectionis Domini." Daniel says: "Ex hoc suavissimo po

Page  255 EUGENIUS, 69. 255 emate ecclesia decem versus sibi vindicavit." He means ten lines; but some copies of the hymn continue the chant for ten stanzas. Theme. The resurrection of Christ. Line 1. Festa dies, Easter. Toto aevo, through all time, i. e., at any time, during all time. H., 426; A. and G., 55, 1: "Salve, laeta dies, meliorque revertere semper, A populo rerum digna potente coli." OvID, Fast., i., 87, 88. -2. Qua, on which.-4. Renascentis, in spring.-5. Omnia dona: He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things. Romans viii., 32.-10. Legibus oppressis, the laws of death having been put down, i. e., overcome, done away.-12. Qua (die), when. IX. EUGENIUS. Life.-EUGENIUS, called also TOLETANUS, died in 657, having been twelve years archbishop of Toledo. He presided in the ninth and tenth councils of Toledo. Besides his piety and learning, he is known for his poetical talent. He wrote several pious epigrams, and a poem on the Works of the Six Days —"The Hexaimeron." THE HYMN. In Daniel, 1, 190; Kinigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, ii., 90; and in the older collections of Cassander, Thomasius, Rambachius, and others. I know of no English translation, and have selected it partly for its meter. It is well worth study for its substantial merits as a simple and terse expression of the wishes and the ideal of a Christian scholar and gentleman of the old time. Theme. Wishes. Line 1. Quo: ablative of author and imminent agent.-Con. stat: note the aptness of the word, stands together.-Machina mundi: an expression of Lucretius (v., 96, 97); but an empty figure to that beautifier of the sect of atheists. " This goodly frame, the earth." Hamlet, ii., 2. So Milton, Par. Lost, viii., 15: "When I behold this goodly frame, this world, Of heaven and earth consisting."

Page  256 256 NOTES. "Thine this universal frame, Thus wondrous fair; thyself how wondrous then." Par. Lost, v., 154. And see p. 224, note on line 1 of Hymn I. of Ambrose.-2. Other texts read: " Quod miser Eugenius posco, tu perfice clemens." -3, 4, 5, 6. Note the order: sensum, ingenium, lumen; and then fides, rnorum correctio. The prayer for light of universal manhood, the Christian beatitude: " The pure in heart shall see God." -8. Secreti: genitive, 399; A. and G., 50, 3, c.-Famine, from famen, gen.faminis, n., speaking, utterance (Diet. Med. Latin), late Latin formed onfor,fari, to speak. It is in the ablative of specification after cantus. A. and G., 54, 9. Some read fulmine.11. Obuncet: not found in our dictionaries or explained elsewhere. The word unco, -are, occurs as an onomatope for the roaring of the bear, " Ursus ferus uncat." Auct. Carm. Philom., 51. And that might possibly go with languor in its general sense of disease. Perhaps the word was suggested by cruciet-cruciatus: cruciet:: obuncatus: obuncet:: tormented: torment:: bent: bend; let not disease crook me up.-13. Iurgia, lites: others, iurgia litis.-14. Others, invidiae luxus.-Pensio, tax.-21, 22. Vincere et stadium percurrere: language of the race-course. 1 Cor. ix., 24; Heb. xii., 1.-Placido passu: a step placid, in the sense of freefrom worry.-24. Cui, dative of separation; 385,4; A. and G., 51, 2, e. g.; partly an attraction of the unexpressed antecedent after concede. X. AUCTOR INCERTUS. This hymn is as old as the seventh century, since it is quoted by Beda (De Metris). Of the author nothing is known, except that he was probably also author of another hymn of the same rhythm and style-a matin hymn quoted by Beda, beginning: "Hymnum dicat turba fratrum, hymnum cantus personet," which has sometimes been attributed to Hilarius. In Daniel, 1, 194; Trench, p. 290. Translations by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 142; in Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 369. Neale calls it "rugged but grand." Daniel says: " Iuvat carmen

Page  257 AUCTOR INCERTUS-GREGORIUS MAGNUS, 71-74. 257. fere totum e scriptura sacra depromptum, comparare cum celebratissimo illo extremi iudicii praeconio' Dies irae, dies illa,' quo maiestate et terroribus, non sancta simplicitate et fide superatur." Neale and Trench also compare it in similar terms with the "Dies Irae," for which see p. 154. It is an abecedary, like Psalm cxix. and Jeremiah. Theme. The day of Judgment. Line 1-4. 1 Thess. v., 2; 2 Peter iii., 10.-5, 6. Zech. ix., 14; 1 Cor. xv., 52; Matt. xxiv., 31; John v., 25; 1 Thess. iv., 16.7, 8. Matt. xxv., 31.-9, 10. Matt. xxiv., 29; Rev. vi., 12-14.11, 12. Dan. vii., 10; Rev. xxi., 1.-13-33. Matt. xxv., 31-46.34. Mark ix., 44.-Morietur: three syllables.-35, 36. Matt. xxv., 30.-37-40. Heb. xi., 16; xii., 22.-41. XPM —Christum. P is Greek for R. x, Greek for Ch, is wanted for the abecedary. Christum is the object of contemplantur. Matt. xvi., 27; Rev. xxi., 23; xxii., 4.-43. Ydri, i. e., Hydri (iap6s), the serpent, Satan. Rev. xii., 9; Gen. iii., 1.-44, 45. Matt. xxv., 1-13. XI. GREGORIUS MAGNUS. Life.-GREGORY, the first pope of that name, known also as Gregory the Great, was born about 550, of an illustrious family of Rome. He was from childhood devoted to learning and religion. He became prefect of Rome in 573. Upon the death of his father he devoted his immense wealth to the founding of monasteries, and he withdrew from secular life to become head of one of them. He became interested in England by seeing some captives exposed for sale, and induced Pope Pelagius II. to send missionaries to them. On the death of Pelagius, he was made pope, and he governed the Church thirteen years, dying in 604. "Neander speaks of him as the last of the classical doctors of the Church, as forming a point of transition between the old Roman civilization and the new Teutonic literature and civilization." He was a man of action, a vigorous and sagacious organizer of the suffering and distracted Christians, and no less a vehement' aggressor for the truth. He wrote much and well. His " Pastorale," setting forth the dangers, duties, and obligations of the

Page  258 258 NOTES. pastoral charge-" the art of arts and the science of sciences "has always been regarded as an "incomparable" book. Popes and councils have commanded it to be frequently read. It was translated by King Alfred into Anglo-Saxon. He reformed the ritual of the Church. His selection and distribution of the Church music, still called the Gregorian, makes his name familiar. There is a growing disposition to attribute to him many of the best of the old Church hymns. For his life and the story of his relations to England, see Aelfric's homily in March's AngloSaxon Reader, p. 35. HYMN I. In Daniel, 1, 177; Wackernagel, 1, 75; Hymni Ecclesiae, 222; Breviarium Romanum; and elsewhere. Translations in Hymns of the Ages, p. 11; Mant's Ancient Hymns, p. 39. Theme, Morning Prayer. It is used at the lauds, or daybreak prayers, between matins and prime. Line 2. Lucis: some read Lux et.-3. Nisibus: others viribus. -4. Cuncti potentem: others omnipotentem.-6. Angorem: the older text reads languorem. —7 8. The Breviarium Rom. reads: "Donet et nobis bona sempiternae Munera pacis." HYMN II. In Daniel, 1,180; Wackernagel, 1, 74. Translation in Schaff's Christ in Song, p. 696. There are several German versions. Luther held it to be the best of all hymns, but never made a German version. It is to be used at the Lord's Supper. Theme. The Passion. Line 3. Placare: passive.-15. Per probra: others peiprobra, infamous, a word not in our dictionaries.-19, 20. Tradis spiritum, you give up the ghost; a mighty (potentem) ghost, or spirit, as shown by the accompanying events. Luke xxiii., 44-46. HYMN III. In'Daniel, 1, 178; Mone, 1, 95; Wackernagel, 1, 73; Stephenson's Latin Hymns, p. 62; Hymni Ecclesiae, p. 66. Translations in Hymns of the Ages, p. 54; Mant, Ancient Hymns, p. 84.

Page  259 GREGORIUS MAGNUS, 76-78. 259 Theme. Prayer in Lent. Line 4. Quadragenario, forty days before Easter. Matt. iv., 2. -13. Conteri: the Latin texts read contere, which the AngloSaxon translation (Stephenson, p. 62), beon t6-bryt, enables us to recognize as a slip of the pen.-14. Dona: a verb. HYMN IV. In Daniel, 1, 176; Wackernagel, 1, 71; the Breviaries. Translations in Hymns of the Ages, p. 9; Mant, Ancient Hymns, p. 39. Theme. Night-watch. HYMN V. In Daniel, 1, 235 (one stanza); Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 1, 76. It may not be Gregory's. Theme. The Epiphany. Matt. ii., 1-12. Line S. Dona: appositive with cultum. They come to offer festivelyfit reverence, mystic gifts; the things given for the act of giving. For mystic, see p. 230, note on line 5. The Greek service for December 25 has "Elcaarov rw)v v7r5 aroi yevo oiEvwv Icr KTiawv T'Yv EvxapLtartv Coi 7rpoafyEt' o'i ayyEXov rOv iv5vov, oi obpavoi rov acTarpa, oi /Layol rCa Spa, oi 7TOtlPEVe rO SavEa, T yT 7Tr a(T7rlXaov, i'poO Tojv piaTvrlv, ErvEl Si frlTpa T7rap'2vov.-9. Trocleten (rpwyX\Trrv), i. e., Troglodytidem.-9, 10. See p. 58, Hymn VI., lines 9-12, and the notes.-Bracteas: here not specially thin plates, as the dictionary says.-12. Tres, the three magi; their bodies are said to have been brought to Constantinople by the Empress Helena, thence transferred to Milan, thence to Cologne. They are known as " The three kings of Cologne." See Cologne in Vocabulary of Names of Fiction, Webster's Dictionary, and p. 183,1. 7, and note. HYMN VI. In Daniel, 1, 213; Mone, 1, 241; Wackernagel, 1, 75; and in all collections. Translations in old German, by Luther; and in English by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 126; and by Dryden, given also in " The Seven Great Hymns;" and others. It has been commonly attributed to Charlemagne, but is plainly older, and is confidently assigned to Gregory by Mone and others. Imitation of Ambrose is found in verses 1 (Ambrose, p. 12), 15,

Page  260 260 NOTES. 16 (Ambrose, p. 13, lines 23, 24). This hymn has always been invested with eminent worth and dignity. It was habitually used in solemn and important ceremonies, the coronation of kings, the celebration of synods, the creation of popes, the translation of relics. It was also thought to have the power of a spell to keep off fiends, and to call good spirits. The Church of England, though it has dismissed other hymns, uses this in the ordering of priests and the consecration of bishops. Daniel, p. 214; Trench, p. 184. Theme. The descent of the Holy Spirit. It is for the day of Pentecost. Line 5. Paraclitus: Note the metrical accent on the penult, showing scholarly pronunciation; compare line 30 in the added doxology. " Nostis plurimi, quod Graeca locutione paraclitus Latina advocatus dicitur, quia pro errore deliquentium apud iustitiam Patris intervenit." Greg., Hom. in Ev., ii., 30, 3. For the Biblical uses, see John xiv., 16.-6. Donum Dei: Acts ii., 38.-7. Fons vivus: John vii., 38, 39; iv., 14.-Ignis: Luke xii., 49.Caritas: Rom. v., 5; unctio, 1 John ii., 20, 27. "A sancto spiritu unguendis mentibus auditorum ea, quae in libris veteribus de Christo dicta sunt, explanatur. Filius olei (Isaiah v., 1) fidelis populus dicitur, qui ad fideml Dei interna Sancti Spiritus unctione generatur." Gregory, Moral., 19, 24.-9. Gregory (Hom. in Ezech., ii., 6, 7) mentions the seven gifts of the spirit, according to Isaiah xi., 2, 3: sapientia, intellectus, consilium, fortitudo, scientia,pietas, timor Domini; hence the old memorial verse: " Sap., intel., con., for., sci., pi., ti., collige dona." -10. Digitus: si in digito Dei ejicio daemonia, Luke xi., 20, was compared with in Spiritu Dei ejicio daemonia, Matt. xii., 28; and hence Spiritus and digitus thought equivalent. Augustine suggests an allusion to the finger of God recording the law for Moses. -11. Promissum: substantive in the vocative, i. e., promissio Patris. Acts i., 4. Others read promissus, and most promisso, according to the promise.-12. Acts ii., 4.-15, 16. Ambrose, p. 13; some read perpeti.-27. Te: object of credamus, there is no connective; some read teque, others change te to et without manuscript authority, and without necessity.

Page  261 BEDA, 79-81. 261 XII. BEDA. Life.-BEDA, "the Venerable Bede," was born near Wearmouth and Yarrow, 673. He went to the abbey when seven years old, and studied there till he died, May 26, 735. He was made deacon at 19, priest at 30, and declined to be abbot, lest he might be hindered in pursuit of learning. He wrote commentaries on the Bible, biographies, history, treatises on natural science, grammar, versification. He was fond of the poetry of his native tongue, and composed verses both in Anglo-Saxon and Latin. His ecclesiastical history abounds in picturesque and lively scenes, some of which have been often rendered into English verse. It was translated into Anglo-Saxon by King Alfred. He was the greatest of Anglo-Saxon scholars, and is one of the great authors of the world. See March's Anglo-Saxon Reader, p. 75. HYMN I. In Daniel, 1, 207 (one stanza); Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 2, 112; Beda's Works, ed. Giles, 1, 81. Translations by Dr. Neale, Mediaeval Hymns, p. 15; Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 142, one stanza. The Biblical expressions are skillfully woven together. Theme. The Slaughter of the Innocents. Matt. ii., 16-18. Line 6. Quorum angeli, whose angels, i. e., glorified spirits. Compare Rev. vii., 11.-8. Observe the first and last line of each stanza. The Elegy of Sedulius has the same arrangement, and so have Damiani, Eugenius Toletanus, and others later.-9-16. John xiv., 2.-15. Donat sedibus (eos), presents with seats (those), etc., a frequent construction with dono, of which an example should be in the grammars. H., 419, 3; A. and G., 54, 6.-16-24. Matt. ii., 18.-25-32. Luke xii., 32; John x., 1.-33-40. Rev. vii., 17; Psalm cxxvi., 5; Isaiah xxv., 8.-41-48. Compare Hymn VI. of Prudentius, on p. 58.-43. Nato, Christ.-49-56. Rev. vii., 14. HYMN II. In Daniel, 1, 206; K6nigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 1, 84; Beda's Works, ed. Giles, 1, 83. Translations by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 141; in Schaff, Christ in Song, p..305.

Page  262 262 NOTES. Theme. The Ascension of Christ. Line 14. Monte chrismatis: Matt. xxviii., 16; Acts x., 38; Heb. i., 9. Let the student search up the other Biblical expressions. HYMN III. In Daniel, 1, 208 (one stanza); Trench, p. 217; Beda's Works, ed. Giles, 1, 97. Theme. The Cross. Line 15. Quae: thou who; the antecedent is implied in tuis; so quae in line 17.-21. Gratulor: the subject is Saint Andrew, the Protoclete, as the Greek Church calls him (John i., 40). See line 29. He is said to have been crucified at Patrae, in Achaia. When he saw his cross at a distance, he cried out: " Hail, precious cross! that hast been consecrated by the body of my Lord, and adorned with his limbs as with rich jewels. I come to thee exulting and glad; receive me with joy into thy arms. O good cross, that hast received beauty from our Lord's limbs, I have ardently loved thee; long have I desired and sought thee; now thou art found by me, and art made ready for my longing soul; receive me into thy arms, taking me from among men, and present me to my Master; that he who redeemed me on thee, may receive me by thee." Acts of St. Andrew; Lives of the Saints, iv., 422. These " ardent breathings," by whomsoever written, kindled a like fervor in St. Bernard and other kindred souls, and the hymn above is but a versification of them. XIII. PAULUS DIACONUS. Life.-PAUL, also called WARNEFRID, was born at Friuli, i. e., Forum lulii, about 735. He was educated in the court of the Lombard kings at Pavia. He retired to a monastery, and is sometimes called Paulus Monachus, often Diaconus. He wrote a valuable history of the Lombards of his own time, and Latin verses. He died about 798. THE HYMN. In Daniel, 1, 209; Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesainge, 1, 86. The hymn is famous, as having afforded to Guido Aretinus

Page  263 PAULUS DIACONUS — ALCUIN, 84-86. 263 the names of the notes in his musical scale-ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la; the first letters in each verse. The si is a later addition, perhaps from the first letters of Sancte Iohannes. Bi, taken from labii, was earlier used, and ut has lately been changed to do, for mouthing. Weitzius, as given in Daniel, complains of the idolatrous use of the hymn as a charm for recovering the voice, the singers thinking John their God-" tutelaris Deus." Theme. John the Baptist the giver of utterance. Line 1, 2. Queant: the subject is famuli, thy servants; the clause is subordinate, denoting purpose after solve.-Laxis fibris is intended to express a good condition of voice. —5 6. Solve rea. tumn quash the indictment, relieve the condition. The stanza is usually printed in four lines, three Sapphics and an Adonic.8. Nuntius, ayyfXoc, Luke i., 11; it goes with Olympo, as angeius with Sion.-10. Patri, Zacharias.-13. Seriem gerendae vitae: the angel announced (promit) three things: the birth (te nasciturum), the name (nomen), and the course of life to be led, in order.-15-18. Luke i., 20.-19-21. Luke i., 64.-22-25. Luke i., 41.-Obtruso, hidden, lit., stopped up.-Thalamo: see p. 12, Hymn IV. of Ambrose, line 13.-26, 27. Uterque parens: Zacharias and Elizabeth. One was enabled, meritis nati, to tell the name of John, the other to recognize Christ. XIV. ALCUIN. Life.-ALCUIN, A.-Sax. Alepine, was born at York about 735; was noble, a monk, deacon, teacher, author; is best known as the friend of Charlemagne, and the founder of organized learning in France; died 804. He was called Albinus for Alcwinus (unpronounceable in France); and in the Royal Academy, where the members used fanciful names, he called himself Flaccus, from Horace, the king being David, Angilbert Homerus, and so on. His name is often given FLACCUS ALBINUS ALCUINUS. He left many theological works, poems, and letters. THE HYMN. Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 2, 122. It is given partly for its meter, in which alliteration plays a prominent part,

Page  264 264 NOTES. as in the folk poetry of the Anglo-Saxons. See March's AngloSaxon Grammar, p. 223-227. But it is a noble hymn; the highest truth, in the tenderest relations, simply and sweetly expressed. Theme. Man the image of God, the body his temple. Line 1. Homo alliterates with alme, the h being silent, as was frequent in France, occasional in Anglo-Saxon. March, 503, 2, b. 2. Pectore alliterates with pacis, mente with amore, a double alliter- ation in pairs. March, 504, c.-3. Modo: mundi, parva pars, irregularly arranged pairs.-4. Sed: Sancte:: Solus, a perfect line in its alliteration. March, 504. —Supply quia est, but because he alone, Holy One, is a mighty image of thee, Creator. The starry heavens and the idea of right are the most sublime objects, according to Kant. Of the first, the mundus, man is but parva pars; in the second, magna pars, solus. —6. Pectore appositive with arce, a repetition of the idea in different words, a most marked trait of Anglo-Saxon style. March, 287, definitive.-8. Ora: utque alliterate.-10. Virgo, Eulalia, i. e. Gundrada, cousin of Charlemagne, lily of his court. —I. Caveto, keep in mouth these pious words.-12. Tua tempora tota, all thy times, i.e., thee at all times.-13. Cui, for Christ. —Te dirige, dress thyself, keep thyself in order.-15. Sine:fine, the rhyme answers for alliteration.-16. Qui, Christ.-17. Forma salutis, form, in its old sense; formal cause; shaping and completing energy. XV. THEODULPHUS. Life.-THEODULPH was probably of German blood, but is said to have been born in Italy or Spain. He was bishop of Orleans, in France, and died there, 821. Of his works, which include many poems, only one hymn has attained fame. THE HYMN. In Daniel, 1, 215; Wackernagel, 1, 88; the Breviaries. Translations by Neale, Mediaeval Hymns, p. 23-25. It is said to have been composed at Metz, others say Angers, in prison, and sung from the dungeon window, as the Emperor Louis was passing to the cathedral, on Palm-Sunday. The good bishop was at once

Page  265 THEODULPHUS-NOTKERUS VETUSTIOR, 87, 88. 265 set free. It was used in the Protestant Church in the sixteenth century, and it is called celeber et praeclarus. Theme. "They took branches of palm-trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried, Hosanna: blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord."-John xii., 13; Matt. xxi., 8. Line 2. Puerile decus, youthful beauty, i. e., the most comely youths. Matt. xxi., 15.-3. Isriael undeclined; some supply es. Other verses were added, unequal to Theodulf's, e. g.: "Sis pius ascensor tu, nos quoque simus asellus, Tecum nos capiat urbs veneranda Dei." "Be Thou, O Lord, the Rider, And we the little ass; That to God's Holy City Together we may pass." XVI. NOTKERUS VETUSTIOR. Life.-NOTKER, surnamed Babulus, the stammerer, was a learned Benedictine monk of the Monastery of St. Gall, in Switzerland, who died in 912. He is to be distinguished from the younger Notker, also a monk of St. Gall, whose version of the Psalms is so important a monument of Old German. In the old Church service, between the Epistle and the Gospel an alleluia was sung, and the last syllable, -ia, was prolonged 40, 50, or even 100 notes, to give time for the deacon to go from the altar to the rood-loft, where he sang the Gospel. Notker first put words in place of the prolonged alleluia. These were called Sequences and Proses, because written in rhythmical prose without proper meter. HYMN I. In Daniel, 2, 328; Mone, 1, 397; Wackernagel, 1, 94; and elsewhere. This world-famous hymn is said to have been composed while watching the samphire-gatherers on the precipices around St. Gall; perhaps it was in the mind of Shakespeare when he wrote, in his description of the cliffs of Dover: M

Page  266 266 NOTES. " Half-way down Hangs one that gathers samphire; dreadful trade!" King Lear, iv., 5. Theme. Death. Line 1, 2. Media vita in morte snmus, in the midst of life we are in death-in the realm of death, temporal and spiritual. "Unicuique mortalium sub quotidianis vitae huius casibus innumerabiles mortes quodammodo comminantur. "-AUGUSTINE, De Civ. Dei, 1, 9; MONE, 1, 398. "Thy root is ever in its grave, And thou must die." GEORGE HERBERT. "Men look on death as lightning, always far Off or in heaven. They know not it is in Themselves, a strong and inward tendency, The soul of every atom, every hair." FESTUS. -9, 10. Amarae morti: the sting of death is sin. 1 Cor. xv., 56; see also the note on Mors, p. 229, VIII., 25. "But, above all, believe it, the sweetest canticle is,'Nunc dimittis,' when a man hath obtained worthy ends and expectations."-BACON, Essay on Death. HYMN II. In Daniel, 2, 5; Wackernagel, 1, 69. Translation, or version, by Luther, " Gelobet seist Du, Jesu Christ;" in English, by Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 53. It is used as a sequence after the hymn at cock-crow on Christmas. Wackernagel attributes it to Gregory. HYMN III. In Daniel, 2, 3; Wackernagel,, 195. It is used as a sequence at the same place in the service as Hymn II. Theme. Christmas. Line 4. Maris stella, Star of the sea, i. e., the Virgin Mary. This is the earliest use of this name known. It took strong hold of the imagination of the Christian world; see the next hymn.Gandia, Christ, used like the English Joy, for the person who gives joy; see examples in the Lexicon.-5. Quem, Christ: the antecedent is gaudia, by synesis. H., 445, 5; A. and G., 48, 2, b.

Page  267 AUCTOR INCERTUS, 90, 91. 267 6. Coluber: Rev. xii., 9.-7. Ovis: Luke xv., 4; Matt. xviii., 12. -9. Drachma: Luke xv., 8.-15. Pastor pius: John x., 11.Galeam: Eph. vi., 17. XVII. AUCTOR INCERTUS. The following hymn is ascribed to Fortunatus, (see page 64) by Wackernagel, after Thomasius; Daniel places it in the 6th-9th century, Mone later still. THE HYMN. In Daniel, 1, 204; Mone, 2, 216; Wackernagel, 1, 67; all the Breviaries. Hymns unnumbered have been made in Latin, German, and other languages, in imitation of it, or on its suggestion. In English, the Evening Hymn of Mrs. Hemans is most familiar. Mrs. Charles gives a prose translation in Christ. Life in Song, p. 207. Theme. The Virgin Mary. Line 1. Maris stella: There was a great fondness for making proper names significant in the early Church, and as they knew no Hebrew, they sought the meanings in Latin. They took Maria to be from mare, the sea. The two leading texts were " congregationes aquarum appellavit Maria. Et vidit Deus quod esset bonum," Gen. i., 10; "super maria fundavit eum," Psalm xxiii., 2. The Virgin Mary is accordingly the sea with many early poets: " Omnes rivi cursim fluunt, Et in sinum maris ruunt, Mare hinc non effluit; Ad Mariam, tanquam mare, Peccatores currunt, quare? Quia nullum respuit, 0, Maria! Semper dulcis, semper pia. " AUCT. INCERT., xiv. Cent. She is also often spoken of as a star, the sun, the moon. The two figures are fused in stella maris. "Sicut stella praestat ducatum nautis ut veniant ad portum, ita ducatu virginis Mariae venimus ad portum, i. e., ad Christum." Hilarius, in Daniel, 1, 205.-4-8. The comparison of Eve with the Virgin is

Page  268 268 NOTES. very common from the time of Irenaeus. Then it was suggested that the name Eva was a mystical forerunner of the salutation of Gabriel, by which the virgin was made to conceive. See note on p. 249, line 2: "Deus per angelum," etc. And finally the word of salutation ave was interpreted as from a, ab, and vae, woe. The stanza means, " Conceiving Christ by the Ave from the mouth of Gabriel, give us firm peace with God, changing the word Eva to Ave, the wholesome token of Christ."-12. Pray for us.-13. Matrem, mother of us all, as of John. John xix., 26, 27. -14. Sumat agrees with the antecedent of qui, Christ. XVIII. ROBERTUS, REX. Life.-RoBERT II., son of Hugh Capet, born 971, succeeded his father on the throne of France, 997. His life is at hand in histories and dictionaries. "Sismondi (Hist. des Frangais, iv., 98) brings him very vividly before us in all the beauty of his character, and also in all his evident unfitness, a man of gentleness and peace, for contending with the men of iron by whom he was surrounded." Trench, p. 195. He got himself excommunicated by the pope by marrying his second cousin, and had many sore troubles, both domestic and public. He was a composer of music as well as of hymns. He died in 1031. THE HYMN. In Daniel, 2, 35; Mone, 1, 244; Wackernagel, 1, 105; Trench, p. 196; and in most modern Breviaries and collections. There are also many translations in many languages: in English, by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 185; Hymns of the Ages, p. 51; the Seven Great Hymns, p. 126. It is often mentioned as next in rank among hymns to the " Dies Irae "-first in " loveliness," as that is first in terror. Theme. The Holy Spirit, the Comforter. Line 3. Lucis. See notes on Hymn I., p. 218, 219.-4. Pater pauperum: Matt. v., 3.-8, 9. Duleis: "Gustemus saltem, quam suavis est Dominus, quia dedit nobis pignus Spiritum, in quo sentiamus eius dulcedinem et desideremus ipsum vitae fontem,

Page  269 PETRUS DAMIANI, 94-96. 269 ubi sobria ebrietate inundemur et irrigemur." Augustine, De Agone Christi, 10; Mone, 1, 245.-17. Nihil: Trench suggests quicquid. —19. Lava, riga: John iii., 5; Isaiah xliv., 3; xxxv., 6, 7. -24. Sana: Luke x., 33, 34.-25. Da septenarium. See (p. 77, VI., line 9) Septiformis, and the note upon it, p. 260. XIX. PETRUS DAMIANI. Life.-PETER (PIETRO) DAMIANI was born at Ravenna, 1002. He was the intimate friend of Hildebrand, afterward Pope Gregory VII., and was made by him cardinal-bishop of Ostia, 1057. He was a zealous helper in the reformation of the Church by Hildebrand, whom yet he called Sanctus Satanas. He laid down the cardinal's hat, and spent some years of retirement as abbot of Santa Croce d'Abellano before he died, 1072. He wrote much Latin verse, of which the hymn " De Gaudiis Paradisi," given on p. 45, is best known. HYMN I. In Daniel, 1, 224; K6nigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 1, 112; Trench, p. 278. Translations by Dr. Neale, Mediaeval Hymns, p. 52; E. C. Benedict, in Schaff's Christ in Song, p. 640. Neale speaks of it as " This awful hymn, the' Dies Irae' of individual life." Theme. The Day of Death. Line 10. Partes, parties, companies.-11. Virtutes: Romans viii., 38; Coloss. i., 16; a use frequent in the hymns.-12. Propius, nearer than the other party to the dying man. —leritum, his desert.-23. Lutum: "Lord, who hast formed me out of mud."-GEORGE HERBERT. -Pervolvitur, it welters.-24. Ut carcerati: supply solvuntur laetabundi, i. e., rejoice when freed.-26. Dirae Pestis, Satan.Incursant, makce raids, beset the road.-27. Et diversa, etc.= Vitii cuiusque, etc., line 30.-33. Ab pudore, from, i. e., by reason of the disgrace of the enemy.-36. Dracontea: adjective formed from draco, and meaning of or belonging to a dragon. It is in the last edition of White and Riddle's Latin Dict.-38, 39. His (spiris).-42. Ins, right, power.-43. Pars. See line 10.-45. Where

Page  270 270 NOTES. I may enjoy the condition of living with thee for ages. Others read videndi for vivendi: Where by reason of seeing thee, I may enjoy (thee or life) for ages. HYMN II. In Daniel, 1, 223; K6nigsfeld, 2, 150; the Breviarium Romanum. It may interest the student to see how much of this hymn he can find in former hymns. Compare especially the Paschal hymns of Ambrose, XI., XII., p. 33, 34. Theme. Easter. Line 37-39. See p. 236, note on line 3 of Hymn XI. —48. Fla mini, the Spirit. Flamen:fo:: Spiritus: spiro. HYMN III. In Daniel, 1, 225; K6nigsfeld, 2, 154. Theme. Paul. Line 1. Doctor egregie. See p. 250, 251, notes on the hymn of Elpis, lines 5,13.-2. The Greek service for February 15 has liavXoc ai\7rLy OEa. Chrysostom, De Terrae motu, 9, calls him Avpa 7ro TvEVwjaTroc. Konrad of Gaming calls Peter and Paul Binae tubae argenteae. Mone, 3, 93. " Tuba Domini, Paule, maxima, De coelestibus dans tonitrua, Hostes dissipans, cives aggrega." ABELARD, in Trench, p. 207. The trumpets of silver were used for calling the assembly (Num. x., 2), and for the heartening of the people against their enemies (Num. x., 9; xxxi., 6).-3. Nubes: Qui sunt isti qui ut nubes volant? Isaiah lxx., 8. A passage often applied to the apostles. See p. 185, III., 2, and note.-10. 2 Cor. xii., 2-4.-13. Luke viii., 11. XX. MARBOD. Life.-MARBOD, born in 1035, of an illustrious family in Anjou, was chosen bishop of Rennes in 1095, and having governed his diocese with admirable prudence for thirty years, died in 1125. He left a large amount of Latin poetry, in great part versi

Page  271 MARBOD-HILDEBERTUS TURONENSIS, 99-102. 271 fied legends of saints. His poem "De Gemmis" was a great favorite in the Middle Ages. It contains the whole rich mythology of the period in regard to precious stones and their virtues. His poems are mostly written in leonine verse, i. e., with a middle rhyme to the end, like Hymn II., but he has some good hexameters. Trench, p. 275. POEM I. Hildeberti et Marbodi Opera, p. 1615; Trench, Sacred Latin Poetry, p. 284. Theme. The resurrection of the dead. Marbod follows closely Tertullian, De Res. Carnis, 12; De Anima, 43; Trench, p. 284. The poem presents no difficulties. It has been selected partly for its meter. POEM II. Hildeberti et Marbodi Opera, p. 1557; Trench, Sacred Latin Poetry, p. 275. Leonine trochaic tetrameters are often printed in two lines, as here. Theme. A prayer to God-man for pity. Line 16. Non est tecum, is not with you, not in accordance with your character. Note the rhyme, aequum: tecum; qu=c, i. e., k; ae=e. XXI. HILDEBERTUS TURONENSIS. Life.-HILDEBERT was born at Lavardin, in France, in 1057; was a scholar of Berengarius; teacher of theology at Mans; bishop of Mans, 1097; archbishop of Tours (hence called Turonensis), 1125; died in 1134. He was one of the most eminent men of his time for learning and piety, and left many writings, among them more than ten thousand verses. Dr. Neale and Archbishop Trench express the liveliest admiration for a few passages of his poetry. HYMN I. Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 2, 174, where also is a translation into German. Theme. The Christian's love of Christ. Line 1. Turtur: usually masculine, is here feminine.-Inane,

Page  272 272 NOTES. idly, in contrast with the effects of love mentioned in verses 3, 4. -8. Tenebit (maritumn in memoria). Many poets have celebrated the turtle. Compare: "I heard a stock-dove sing or say His homely tale, this very day; His voice was buried among trees Yet to be come at by the breeze; He did not cease; but cooed-and cooed; And somewhat pensively he wooed; He sang of love with quiet blending, Slow to begin and never ending; Of serious faith and inward glee; That was the song-the song for me!" WORDSWORTH. -12. Se, Christo.-(Anima) replet.-17. Inde futurum, will come thence.-18. Microcosmum, mankind, the little world, in distinction from the macrocosm. HYMN II. In Trench, Sacred Latin Poetry, p. 323; Hildeberti et Marbodi Opera, p. 1337; Mone, 1, 14 (90 lines); Neale's Hymns on the Joys and Glories of Paradise, p. 27, an extract with a translation; Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesinge, 2, 176, an extract with translation. Hugh of St. Victor quotes from it and praises it. Trench reserves it as a "grand close" to his book. "It rises," he says, "in poetical animation, until towards the end it equals the very best productions which Latin Christian poetry any where can boast." Theme. The Father, the Son, the Holy Ghost, the Trinity, the New Jerusalem. Line 1. Read Q by its sound, as we read the letter 0 in English-not by its name, omega. Compare p. 51, line 9: "A et Q cognominatus." Rev. i., 8.-2. Heli, i. e., Eli. Mark xv., 34; Matt. xxvii., 46. The confusion'of H's in foreign proper names is great. The letter was slightly sounded or silent in France.3. Totum posse, to be able to do all. Supply est.-7. Supply qui es.-25. Necesse: used substantively-necessity does not change thy being.-27. Nostrum heri, our yesterday is always now to thee.

Page  273 HILDEBERTUS TURONENSIS, 104-109. 273 -31. Hoc, i. e., sempiturno hodierno.-34. Giving form to the elements of the world.-37. Heb. i., 3.-47, 48. Assumptus, consumptus: " Homo assumptus est a Deo, non in homine consumptus est Deus." Augustine, Ep., 170, 9; Mone, 1, 19.-50. Carnis veritate corresponds in construction to Deitate.-55, 56. "Non potes dicere, si Christus natus fuisset et hominem vere induisset, Deus esse desisset, amittens quod erat, dum assumit quod non erat; periculum enim status sui Deo nullum est." Tertull., De Came Christi, 3. "AcAessit illi homo, non amissus est Deus." Augustine, in Ev. John, 1, 8, 3.-85. Usiae, substance (oVaia); unitatem usiae is an imitation of ioboovala, and classes Hildebert among the orthodox Homoousians, in distinction from the heretic Homoiousians.-92. Here error is not without harm.-99. Nil praetendo, "nothing in my hand I bring."-103. Cataplasma: "Ex Deo et homine factum est cataplasma, quod sanaret omnes infirmitates nostras, Spiritu Sancto tanquam pistillo hasce species suaviter in utero Mariae commiscente." Bernard, in Trench, p. 329.105. Extra portum: Luke vii., 12. With this allusion to the story of the Widow of Nain, Dr. Neale's extract begins.-106-112. John xi., 39-44. —113-120. Matt. viii., 26; xiv., 32. Trench thinks that the winds and waves are called piratae by a bold personification; he is very anxious to avoid introducing new material in the Scriptural account of Christ's stilling the storm.121-128. Ficus: Luke xiii., 6-9.-129-138. Allusion to the lunatic child: Matt. xvii., 14; Mark ix., 22.-132. Tibi soli: Matt. xvii., 16. The disciples can not help me.-137, 188. Matt. xvii., 21.-141, 142. Timorem, etc. He asks for the fear which is the beginning of wisdom, and yet remembers that perfect love casts out fear. 1 John iv., 18. Fear is the needle which introduces the thread of love, suggests Augustine, commenting on this passage of John: projecto, absolute; conjecto is indic. present.-157. Motum, progress in advancement. Neale reads metum: "Wholesome fear in wealth Thou sendest." -161, 162. "What I need to know, Thou solvest; What I need not, Thou involvest." M 2 ^NEALE. lg2

Page  274 274 NOTES. — 176. Lignum crucis: a use of the wood of the cross to be added to those mentioned on p. 252, note to Hymn I., line 6. Trench has omitted two lines: "Cuius claves lingua Petri, Cuius cives semper laeti." -177. Lapis vivus: 1 Peter ii., 4, 6.-178. Matt. xxii., 2.-179. Rev. xxi., 23.-188. Matt. xvi., 18.-190-192. " O civitas sancta, civitas speciosa, de longinquo te saluto, ad te clamo, te requiro." Augustine, De Spir. et Anim., Trench, p. 332.-196, 197. Rev. xxi., 19, 20. XXII. PETRUS ABAELARDUS. Life.-PETER (PIERRE) ABELARD was born near Nantes, 1079. He distinguished himself early in the schools of Paris by his mastery of languages and logic. About 1101 he set up a school at Melun, but soon after returned to Paris, and won unrivaled popularity as a teacher and disputant. In 1113 he went to Laon to study divinity with Anselm. He became involved in bitter disputes on questions of philosophy and theology, and had to go back to Paris. There he was more popular than ever. His amour with his pupil H6loise ruined him. After a period of persecutions he died, 1142. He was the most brilliant man of his times-bold, rationalistic, imaginative, conceited, and pugnacious. His poetry, as well as his other writings, was greatly admired; but it is the common judgment of late students of his times that "his life was the shipwreck of genius," and "unserviceable to posterity." It is mainly from his connection with HIloise, a " far nobler and deeper character than he," that he is now known. Hallam, Middle Ages, iv., 377; Trench, p. 206. HYMN I. In Ed6lestand du M6ril, Poesies Popul. Lat., 1847, p. 444; Trench, p. 251. It is one of a series on the Works of the Days, like that in the Ambrosiani, p. 36-39. It contains an impressive and practical thought, and the expression is clear and vigorous. There is excellent taste shown in the selection of the me

Page  275 PETRUS ABAELARDUS, 110, 111. 275 ter, and the arrangement of the stanza, with its lengthened final lines, is forcible and pleasing. But, after all, true musical flow is wanting to the rhythm. Theme. The sky the dome of the poor man's palace. Line 1. Germina ornarunt: Gen. i., 11, 12.-2. Luminaria (ornarunt): Gen. i., 14.-3. (Coelum) depingitur: Gen. i., 16.-4. Multus usus, many (a) use; so in Anglo-Saxon, manig man, in German, and elsewhere; the article a appears in the latest AngloSaxon, Layamon. March's Anglo-Saxon Grammar, 395, 2.-7. Tuam agrees with se.-15, 16. Hine, inde, on one side and on the other side of the poor man's grassy bed: " The stars have us to bed: Night draws the curtain; which the sun withdraws. Music and light attend our head." -29, 30. "For us the winds do blow, The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains flow." "More servants wait on man Than he'll take notice of. In every path He treads down that which doth befriend him, When sickness makes him pale and wan. Oh, mighty love! Man is one world, and hath Another to attend him." GEORGE HERBERT. " Plus est pauperi videre coelum stellatum quam diviti tectum inauratum. "-AUGUSTINE, in Trench, p. 252. HYMN II. In Daniel, 2, 59; Mone, 2, 31; Wackernagel, 1, 116; Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 2, 170. Translations in the oldest German, and so on down to Konigsfeld. Theme. The Annunciation. Luke i., 26. Line 2.4. "Ad Mariam Virginer non quilibet angelus, sed GabrielArchangelus mittitur." Gregory, Hom. in Evang., 2, 34, 8. "Non arbitror, hunc angelum de minoribus esse... quod ex eius nomine palam intelligi datur, quod interpretatum fortitudo IDei dicitur." Bernard, Horn., 1, 2; Mone, 2, 32. For the interpreta

Page  276 276 NOTES. tion of Gabri-el as the strength of God, see the dictionaries in Cruden's Concordance, Webster, Gesenius's Hebrew Diet., p. 177, 173.-4. Suum: others read suam, his own fortitude, an archangel. Fortitudo must be used as a sort of proper name.-6. Ex. pediat, he (amator hominis) dispatched. —9. Praejudicium, that he may do injury to nature, or possibly make an exception to nature.-14. Zynma, plur. ace. from Zymum, leaven; not in the dictionaries. Or sing. undecl. Zv~/. 1 Cor. v., 8. Prudentius uses azymon for unleavened bread, and aZv4ia as a neuter plural of the adjective acvi'og, probably gave rise to this zyma.-22. Munda. nnm principem: John xii., 31. —28-30. The words of the angel to Mary are taken from the Old Testament. He makes their meaning plain.-32. Dan. ix., 23. —33. Dan. x., 11.-34. Judges vi., 12.-36. Isaiah vii., 14. Some texts read: "Virgo, concipies Magnum Emanuel, In quo conficiet Cuncta bonus Pater, Ut oves liberet." -46-50. Isaiah ix., 6. XXIII. BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS. Life.-ST. BERNARD was born 1091, at Fontaine, a castle and lordship of his father, near Dijon, in Burgundy. He was educated for the Church, and became in 1113 a monk of Citeaux, and in 1115 first abbot of Clairvaux. He founded it in a wretched' region called the Valley of Wormwood, but it came to be known as Clara Vallis, whence Clarval, and also CLAIRVAUX. He refused further preferment, but was one of the most influential men in Europe. He prevailed on the French and English kings to recognize Innocent II. as pope, preached the crusade of 1146, put down heresies (notably those of Abelard), and wrote many sermons, epistles, religious treatises, and poems. In eloquence and personal influence he was one of the first of men. He was called Doctor Mellifluous. He died in 1153, and was canonized in 1174.

Page  277 BERNARDUS CLARAVALLENSIS, 116-119. 277 HYMN I. In Daniel, 2, 359; Mlone, 1, 162; Wackernagel, 1, 120; Trench, p. 137. Translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 161. This and the two next pieces are taken from a poem of seven parts, containing nearly four hundred lines, addressed to the members of Christ on the Cross: " Omnia quae omnes divini amoris spirant aestus atque incendia, ut nil possit suavius dulcinsque excogitari." Daniel. Theme. Christ on the Cross; His Feet. Line 8. Mundum: others, nudum.-15. Meorum: others, tuorum.-32. Flxuras: the wounds of nails. HYMN II. In Daniel, 1, 232; Wackernagel, 1, 124; Trench, p. 139. Translations: a famed version in German, by Paul Gerhardt: " Haupt voll Blut und Wunden." In English, by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 159; Schaff's Christ in Song, p. 162; Alexander, and others. It is the best of the seven passion hymns mentioned at Hymn I. Theme. The Face of Christ on the Cross. Line 7. Immutatus: Isaiah lii., 14.-23. Judges xiv., 8, 9.31, 32. I should rejoice that I am associated with thy holy passion.-46. Emigrare: "Emigravit is the inscription on the tombstone where he lies; Dead he is not, but departed." LONGFELLOW. HYMN III. Another of the seven passion hymns described at Hymn 1. It is in Daniel, 4, 227; Wackernagel, 1, 143. A translation in Schaff's Christ in Song, p. 410. Theme. The Heart of Christ. Line 5. Animes: optative; may you inspire me that I may speak to you.-21. Praedilectum, much loved; praediligo appears in the dictionaries of late Latin with this meaning, and predilection is in the modern Romanic languages.-22. Illectum, beguiled.35. Quid patitur: pregnant with a negative; he suffers nothing.

Page  278 278 NOTES. HymN IV. Bernardi Opera, ed. Ben., ii., 915; Trench, p. 255. Theme. The Vanity of the World. Line 1. Omnis homo foenum: Isaiah xl., 6.-3. Ut quid extoleris, how as to any thing are you raised up? why are you proud?-5. Psalm ciii., 15.-6. Eccles. iii., 20.-8. Detrimenta: playing with the resemblance in sound to inerementa.-10. Job xiv., 2.-13. Sound etymology.-14, James iv., 14.-29. Galatians vi., 7. HYMN V. Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 2, 202, with a German translation. A companion-piece to Hymn IV. Theme. Vanity of Vanities. Line 8. Judges xv., 14; Nahum i., 10. HYMN VI. In Daniel, 1, 227; Mone, 1, 329; Wackernagel, 1, 117; Trench, p. 246; and elsewhere. The original has in Daniel 200 lines; Trench gives 60, picking and arranging, as do others. The Roman Breviary takes from it three separate hymns, the second beginning with "Iesu, Rex admirabilis," line 25; the third with "Iesu, decus angelicum," line 49. Translations many, beginning with the old German. In English, Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 163; Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 405; Neale, R. Palmer, J. W. Alexander, and others. Schaff describes it as "the sweetest and most evangelical (as the Dies Irae is the grandest and the Stabat Mater the most pathetic) hymn of the Middle Ages." The stanzas here given are those translated by Mrs. Charles, arranged in her order, with two or three additional stanzas. That the hymn can be made over in so many ways shows a certain fond lingering around the subject, and no steady flight of the imagination. Theme. Jesus. Line 1. Supply est.-3, 4. Supply est.-12. Quid: a pregnant question. Thou art unutterable.-13. Duleedo: Canticles v., 1316.-14. Fons vivus: Jeremiah ii., 13; Zach. xiii., 1; John iv., 10; vii., 38.-Lumen: John i., 9.-21. Cum Maria: John xx., 1.

Page  279 BERNARDUS CLUNIACENSIS, 123-126. 279 -33. Intus fervet: Luke xxiv., 32.-37. Hoc, this, i. e., the statement in the stanza before, not included in this selection, that the love of Jesus is most sweet and most tender: "Amor Iesu dulcissimus Et vere suavissimus." -42. Bibunt: "Bibe Christum quia vitis est; bibe Christum, quia petra est quae vomit aquam; bibe Christum, quia fons vitae est; bibe Christum, quia flumen est cuius impetus laetificat civitatem Dei; bibe Christum, quia pax est; bibe Christum, quia flumina de ventre eius fluent aquae vitae; bibe Christum, ut bibas sanguinem quo redemtus es; bibe Christum, ut bibas sermones eius." Ambrose, in Psalm i., ~ 33; Mone, 1, 332.-45. Ebriat: of this sobria ebrietas, see note on p. 226, line 1.-73. Rev. xxii., 1. -74. Rev. xxi., 23.-78. Luke xxii., 69. —8184. Rev. v., 9, 10. -93. Psalm xxiv., 7. XXIV. BERNARDUS CLUNIACENSIS. Life.-BERNARD OF CLUGNY, sometimes called Bernard of Morlaix, was a contemporary of St. Bernard, but exact dates are wanting for the events of his life. He was born at Morlaix, in Brittany, of English parents, and was a monk of Clugny under Peter the Venerable (1122-1156). He is known chiefly as the author of the poem from which the following hymn was made. THE HYMN. In Trench, p. 304. The original poem, " De contemptu Mundi," contains nearly 3000 lines, mostly of bitter satire on the corruptions of the age, but opening with a description of the heavenly land. From this Trench made the poem here presented, by freely canceling and transposing. It was translated freely by Dr. Neale, "The rhythm of Bernard de Morlaix on the Celestial Country," and again in Mediaeval Hymns, p. 68. Some verses of this have gone home to the imagination and affections of Christians, and been introduced into many collections of hymns. In Schaff's Christ in Song there are three hymns from it, p. 642, 645, 647. He says, " This glowing description is the sweetest of

Page  280 280 NOTES. all the New Jerusalem hymns of heavenly homesickness which have taken their inspiration from the last two chapters of Revelation." Dr. Neale says that it is " the most lovely, in the same way that the Dies Irae is the most sublime, and the Stabat Mater the most pathetic, of mediaeval poems." The meter is made very difficult by its rhymes, and regular division of the hexameter into three parts, and the author was enabled to master it only, as he believed, by special inspiration. Part I. The last time. These are the first lines of the poem. They are given, with a translation imitating the rhythm of the original, in The Seven Great Hymns, p. 2, and in Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 643 —two translations by Dr. A. Coles and S. W. Duffield: " These are the latter times, these are not better times; Let us stand waiting; Lo! how, with awfulness, He, first in lawfulness, Comes arbitrating." Line 3. Terminet: optative subjunctive. Part II. The heavenly land. Line 1. Vivitur: impersonal, the subject implied in the verbsita vivitur.-2. Non-breve-vivere: the subject of retribuetur.4. Plenis: dative for whom.-9. Syon, the Church.-Babylon, the world.-13. Hebraeus, a Jew in deed, one having faith.18. Ibi, in heaven; hic, on earth.-25. Tune Iacob Israel: Israel= Videns Deum (Augustine); Lia (Aelav), Leah, a laboring Christian; Rachel, a contemplative Christian: "Lia, quae interpretatur laboriosa, significat vitam activam, quae est foecunda in fructu boni operis, sed parum videt in luce contemplationis. Rachel, quae interpretatur visum principium, designat vitam contemplativam, quae est sterilis foris in opere, sed perspicax in contemplatione. Contendunt ergo contemplatio et actio pro amplexu sapientiae," id est, Christi, sui sponsi.-HUGH OF ST. VICTOR: Trench, p. 306. -27. 0 bona patria, etc. Here begins the second hymn in Schaff.-Lumina sobria, sad eyes.-36. Concio coelica: 1 Peter ii., 5.-Gemma, lapis pretiosus. 1 Peter ii., 6. Neale translates: "Thy saints build up its fabric, And the Corner-stone is Christ." -37. Tn, thou (sea) without shore, thou (day) without measure

Page  281 PETRUS VENERABILIS, 128-130. 281 of time, i. e., boundless one in space and time. —Rivus: Psalm xlvi., 4; Rev. xxii., 1.-38. Lapis vivus: 1 Peter ii., 4.-43. Tota negotia (sunt) tonare, (et) conjubilare mala debita (absent), etc. -45. Urbs Syon aurea. Here begins the third hymn in Schaff, the prime favorite in Neale's rendering:' Jerusalem the golden, With milk and honey blest, Beneath thy contemplation Sink heart and voice opprest." -51. Syon: undeclined.-53. Affiua, from affluus, abounding, or, as every body now says of every thing, replete with tender (grasses). It is in the last edition of White and Riddle's Dictionary. -59. Debita gloriflcandis, to be bestowed on those to be glorified, " the accessory of our glorification."-62. Sorte, by condition, by possession.-67. Nemo sustinet retexere (to build up in imagination), nemoque promere (to express) ore, quo decore tua moenia (sunt) plena.-74. Flagro love. —75. Meto: I reap to perish, death is my harvest, I deserve to die.-76. Quod: conjunction; supply sum.-84. Unctio: appositive with gratia.-85. David: undeclined.-87. Praesta, grant.-90. Agmine: see line 54. XXV. PETRUS VENERABILIS. Life.-PETER THE VENERABLE was born about 1092, of a noble family of Auvergne, and was in 1122 elected abbot of Clugny, in Burgundy, which made him chief of a reformed branch of the Benedictine order, the "black monks." He caused the Koran to be translated into Latin, that Mohammedanism might be understood and refuted. He received Abelard into his monastery, and brought about a reconciliation between him and St. Bernard. He was probably second only to St. Bernard in general influence. He died in 1156. He left a few poems of some merit and ingenuity. Trench, p. 99. HYMN I. In Bibliotheca Cluniacensis, p. 1349; Trench, p. 157. A translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 181. Ingenious

Page  282 282 NOTES. rhyming seems to have been a favorite occupation at Clugny. Compare the last hymn of Bernard. Theme. The Resurrection. Line 1, 2. Fortior (Christ) sustulit vim fortis (Death). —5. For the descent of Christ to Hades, see p. 227, note on Hymn IV., line 19, inferos. -15. Illi, Satan.-17. Qui, Satan. For the thought that Satan destroyed himself in destroying Christ, see p. 229, note on Hymn VIII., line 25.-21. Die prima, on the first day of the week. John xx., 1. HYMN II. In Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 2, 166, with a German translation. Theme. The Resurrection. Line 8, 9. Reddita, restored by man-and-God, i. e., Christ. —10. Quam (vitam) he bore in himself and conferred on thee.-12. Deposita,' set aside, conquered.-14, 15. Dat locum, gives place, yields the throne to human dust, i.e., to Christ.-16, 17. Se praeferet vel conferet, prefers or compares itself, is to be thought greater than or equal to this.-19-24. Limus gubernat omnia.22, 23. Summis virtutibus contremescentibus. Compare lines 13, 14, on p. 71.- 25-30. Genesis iii., 5.-32. Potuit: Adam is the subject. This stanza explains the former.-37. " Hic, quem horrida sedes habuit, meruit tenere paternum solium per Dei Filium," He, whom Hades held, deserves heaven. — 46. Penitus, remote. -47. Coelitus: adv.from heaven. For the ending -tus, see March's Comparative Anglo-Saxon Grammar, p. 36. This word is common (post classic), though not in Andrews's Lexicon. XXVI. ADAM DE ST. VICTORE. Life.-ADAM OF ST. VICTOR was born in Britannia, whether Great Britain or Bretagne is not known, nor is the date of his birth. He studied in Paris, and there entered the religious foundation of St. Victor, and died there between 1172 and 1192. Several of his hymns were in early use, but only thirty-seven or thirty-eight were known till M. Gautier examined the manuscripts

Page  283 ADAM DE ST. VICTORE, 134. 283 of the abbey and published 106 hymns ((Euvres Po6tiques d'Adam de St. Victor. Paris, 1858). Trench says: "His profound acquaintance with the whole circle of the theology of his time, and eminently with its exposition of Scripture; the abundant and admirable use, with indeed the drawback already mentioned (too free and curious use), which he makes of it, delivering, as he thus does, his poems fiom the merely subjective cast of those, beautiful as they are, of St. Bernard; the exquisite art and variety with which for the most part his verse is managed and his rhymes disposed; their rich melody, multiplying and ever deepening at the close; the strength which he often concentrates into a single line; his skill in conducting a story; and, most of all, the evident nearness of the things which he celebrates to his own heart of hearts-all these and other excellences render him, as far as my judgment goes, the foremost among the sacred Latin poets of the Middle Ages."-P. 57, 58. Neale thinks, "if this estimate have a'fault, it hardly does this wonderful poet justice." Rambach calls him "the Schiller of the Middle Ages." It needs a good deal of peculiar familiarity with poetical pietistic ingenuities to rise to these heights of enthusiasm about him, but, remembering George Herbert, it becomes intelligible. Inexpressible love makes all dallying dear. HYMN I. In Mone, 2, 85; Gautier, 1, 10; Trench, p. 111; Neale, Sequentiae, p. 80. " The richest and fullest of the Nativity hymns."' Trench. Theme. The Nativity. Line 1. " Christus natus non est per conditionem, sed per potestatem." Augustine, De Trin., 3, 26; Mone, 2, 86.-3. Fac. tura, the thing made, man. So Factor factus creatura, p. 104, line 38. —6. Locus, aetas, space, time.-7.'o0 awXproc XwpErat. Mone, 2, 87.-S. Compare Hildebert, p. 104, lines 45-50. —1, 12. Luke ii., 10-13; Matt. iv., 11; Luke xxii., 43; Matt. xxviii., 2.-13-16. Luke ii., 14.-17. Causa, the material cause, the explanation from nature.-Modus, the modal or jfal cause, the shaping reason. Guilty men are the visible, material cause of the incarnation, the real reason is the will of God, just and kind. " Si veritatem quaeris natura, humanam cognosce materiam, si rationem scruta

Page  284 284 NOTES. ris originis, virtutem confitere divinam." Leo, Serm. 22, 2.17, 18. Note the playing with rei, and in 21, 22, with conditur, condimentur.- 22. Pigmentum, unguentum.-23, 24. Matt. xxvii., 34; Psalm lxix., 21.-26-28. Luke x., 34.-29-32. 2 Kings iv., 7-37. See St. Bernard on Elisha as a type of Christ, in Cant. Serm., 15, 16; Mone.-33. Gigas: see p. 12, Hymn IV. of Ambrose, line 15, and the note, p. 227.-35, 36. Matt. xviii., 13; Luke xv., 3-7.-38. Orco: abl. of separation.-Lapsum pomo, man. Genesis iii.-39, 40. The parable of the ten pieces of silver was interpreted to relate to the nine ranks of angels who were not lost, and the one race of men who were. Luke xv., 7-9. HYMN II. In Daniel, 2, 68; Gautier, 1, 82; Trench, p. 153; Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 1, 134, with translation into German. Translation into English by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 183. Theme. The Resurrection of Christ. The coincidence of the natural and spiritual spring. Nvv E"ap RoaClrcbv,'ap rvEvTaOv acv' tap #vxalcX, Eap a pacwv' ap OppJtvov,'ap aoparov. - Gregory of Nazianzum, Easter Sermon: Trench, p. 153. Line 7. Sollemnia, festivities of spring at Easter.-12. Alta, heights, upper regions.-14. Renovantur, are renewed so as to freely exhibit their qualities.-23. Princeps mundi, Satan. John xiv., 30.-27. Quo, Christ. John xiv., 30.-33. Praebet: cherubim is sometimes incorrectly used as a singular. Perhaps we should read praebent; or the punctuation may be changed so as to read (Vita, Christ) " praebet viam facilem amovendo versatilem gladium cherubim." Cherubim: undeclined, genitive plural.34. Versatilem: Genesis iii., 24. HYMN III. In Trench, p. 175. A translation in Mrs. Charles's Christian Life in Song, p. 187, where it is given, I know not on what grounds of external evidence, to Adam of St. Victor. Theme. The Holy Ghost. Line 3. Coelitus, from heaven. See note on line 47 of Hymn

Page  285 ADAM DE ST. VICTORE, 138-140. 285 II. of Petrus Venerabilis, p. 282.-4. Donum was used as a proper name of the Holy Ghost, the gift by eminence. So Augustine (Enchir., 12), Aquinas (Sum. Theol., 1, 38), and elsewhere. -5. Digitus, the finger, that wrote the law. See line 10 of Hymn VI. of Gregory, on p. 77, and the note, p. 260. Other copies read Rex for lex. —9 10. Septiforme donum septiformis gratiae. Isaiah xi., 2. See, on p. 260, note on line 9 of Gregory's Hymn. —11. Virtutis septifariae, the seven beatitudes. Matt. v., 3-10.-12. The seven petitions of the Lord's Prayer. Matt. vi., 9; Luke xi., 2-4. "Septem ergo petitiones in Dominica Oratione, ut septem dona mereamur Spiritus Sancti, quibus recipiamus septem virtutes, per quas, a septem vitiis liberati, ad septem perveniamus beatitudines." Hugh of St.Victor.-13. Nix: Isaiah i., 18. Compare note on lues, p. 242, line 12 of Hymn I.-14. Ignis: Exod. iii., 2.-15. Pugil, wrestler. Genesis xxxii., 24.-16. Propinator,.is, m., giver of drink first, then giver of other things, from propino, which is in the dictionaries. Luke xxi., 15.-18. Flamen, Spiritus, common in the Hymns. HYMN IV. In Daniel, 2, 73; Gautier, 1, 115; Trench, p. 187. It is simple as need be except in its rhyming. Theme. The Holy Ghost. Line 25. Supply est.-66. Disparitas, -tatis, f., inequality, late Latin. See disparity in Webster's Dictionary. Supply est. HYMN V. In Daniel, 2, 84; Gautier, 2, 425; Wackernagel, 1, 128; Trench, p. 62; and elsewhere. It usually begins with a stanza here omitted:: Iucundare, plebs fidelis," etc. Translation in Neale's Mediaeval Hymns, p. 107. Theme. The Holy Evangelists, as seen in Rev. iv., 6-8; Ezek. i., 4-28; x., 9-22. Line 1.4. Animalia (uia), living creatures, rather than "beasts." Rev. iv., 6.-5-8. Rev. iv., 7. —9-16. The distribution of the living creatures to the evangelists here made is that of Jerome (Comm. in Ezek. i.; Prol. in Matt.; Ep. 50), Ambrose (Prol. in

Page  286 286 NOTES. Luc. 7, 8), Gregory the Great (Horn. 4 in Ezek.; Mor. xxxi., 47), and prevailed through the Middle Ages. Earlier there was much fluctuation. Augustine and Beda, for example, make the lion, Matthew; the man, Mark; the calf, Luke; the eagle, John. Irenaeus makes the lion, John; the eagle, Mark; and see further, Trench, p. 63.-14.16. Matt. iv., 21.-17-20. Matt. i., 1-16.21-24. It is not so much the character of the evangelists that is seen in these figures as the character of Christ as presented in each Gospel. In Luke he appears as the Victim (Bos), interpreting and superseding the rites with victims under the old law. In another hymn Adam says, or sings: " Ritus bovis Lucae datur, In qua forma figuratur Nova Christus hostia: Ara crucis mansuetus Hic mactatur, sicque vetus Transit observantia." -25-28. In Mark the resurrection of Christ is specially set forth. It was an early belief that the lion's whelps were born dead, and roused to life on the third day by the roaring of their sire. This was taken as a type of the resurrection; so Adam says in another hymn: "Est leonis rugientis Marco vultus, resurgentis Quo claret potentia: Voce Patris excitatus Surgit Christus, laureatus Immortali gloria." 29. Ala bina: compare "Columba sancta ecclesia est, quae duas alas habet per dilectionem Dei et proximi [our neighbor]; a dextris dilectionem Dei, a sinistris dilectionem proximi." Hugh of St. Victor, Serm. 97. John represents Christ as ascending to glory.-37-40. Matthew, the nativity; Luke, the passion; Mark, the resurrection; John, the ascension.-45-48. For the movements of the wheels and the wings, see Ezekiel i., 15 —25; x., 822. As applied to the evangelists, the movement of the wheels is the earthly life of Christ; of the vings, the heavenly, and they go on together (aequalis).-49-51. " Quemadmodum unus fluvius

Page  287 ADAM DE ST. VICTORE, 143. 287 erat Paradisi, qui in quatuor capita dividitur; ita unica Christi evangelica doctrina per quatuor ministros ad irrigandum et foecundandum ecclesiae hortum est distributa." Jerome, Ep. ad Eusebium. In ancient art we often find a hill surmounted by a cross, and four streams flowing from it. In the cupola of St. Mark's, at Venice, the evangelists appear as four old men, each with an urn, from which a stream flows. Trench, p. 66. Matthew is Gihon; Mark, Tigris; Luke, Euphrates; John, Pison. Neale.-53. Fons: see p. 127, lines 37, 38, and note.-57. Debriatis (late Latin, frequent), inebriatus, drunken, orfilled. " Spiritus Sancti debriatus et perfusus gratia." Lamb. Ard., in Diet. Med. Lat. The exchange of in- and de- in compounds is not infrequent: going into any place is also a going from some other; drinking in is drinking out. HYMN VI. In Daniel, 2, 64; Gautier, 1, 212; Trench, p. 212. A translation in Mrs. Charles's Christian Life in Song, p. 195; in Neale's Mediaeval Hymns, p. 134. Trench calls it "a sublime composition;" others have called it the masterpiece of the author. Theme. The Martyrdom of Stephen. Line 1. Heri: Christmas is the day before St. Stephen's day. -7. Protomartyr: called also in the Greek Church apX),/aprvpwv, daX\7riv Tpootiftov, irpWraaXoc, a&Xnrdrv arpoaivtov.-Levita in the early'Church meant diaconus. Trench.-11. Insultavit: Acts vii., 51-53. —18. Matt. iii., 7; xii., 34.-24. Rev. iii., 9.26. Rev. iii., 14.-28. Stephanus (ore-avoc) = Corona. Such play with the meaning of proper names is very common with the fathers. See examples in Trench, p. 214, and in his Study of Words, p. 32, 33.-37. Acts vii., 55-60.-43. Stantem: in other places Christ is spoken of as sitting. " Sedere judicantis est, stare vero pugnantis vel adjuvantis. Stephanus stantem vidit, quem adjutorem habuit." Greg., Mag. Hom., 19. So the Episcopal collect for St. Stephen's day: " Who standest at the right hand of God to succor all those that suffer for thee." Trench, p. 215. -52. From Augustine (Serm. 315): "Vestimenta lapidantium servabat, ut omnium manibus lapidaret." —55.62. Acts vii., 59.

Page  288 288 NOTES. HYMN VII. In Trench, p. 219. A translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 197. Theme. The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence. He was archdeacon of Rome in the third century, and died in the persecution of Valerian. Line 1.6. "As the harp-strings only render All their treasures of sweet sound, All their music, glad or tender, Firmly struck and tightly bound: " So the hearts of Christians owe Each its deepest, sweetest strain, To the pressure firm of woe, And the tension tight of pain." Mrs. CHARLES. -4. Chely (XEXvc) tormentorum: appositive genitive. —6.14. "Certainly virtue is like precious odors, most fragrant where they are incensed or crushed." Bacon on Adversity. —l. Assatus: St. Lawrence is said to have been broiled to death on a gridiron.-15, 16. Vis amoris putat ardorem factum foris [the fire under the gridiron] esse rorem. Compare "Et fecit medium fornacis quasi ventum roris flantem." Dan. iii., 50. Not in our Hebr., Gr., or English.-18. Ignis urens, non comburens, i. e., the Holy Spirit. Exod. iii., 2. See Hymn III., line 14, p. 137. HYMN VIII. In Daniel, 5, 102; Mone, 1, 316; Wackernagel, 1, 127; Trench, p. 227; Gautier, 1, 155. A translation in Neale's Mediaeval Hymns, p. 146. Theme. The Dedication of a Church. The Church whose builder is God. Line 1, 2. " Quam dilecta tabernacula tua, Domine virtutum. Concupiscit, et deficit anima mea in atria Domini." Psalm lxxxiii., 2, 3.-3-6. Matt. vii., 24, 25; Eph. ii., 20; Rev. xxi., 14.7, 8. Supply sunt.-8. Sacramenta praecurrentia, precursory holy

Page  289 ADAM DE ST. VICTORE, 146-148. 289 types.-Umbrae: the Old Testament.-Concinna: agreeing with the facts of the New Testament. Such types he proceeds to enumerate.-10-12. Adam and Eve a type of Christ and the Church. "Parentes qui nos genuerunt ad vitam, Christus est et ecclesia. Secundus Adam in cruce dormivit, ut inde formaretur conjux, quod de latere dormientis effluxit" (the blood being the life of the Church). Augustine, in Mone, 1, 318, where see much more.-11, 12. In primordia, etc.: at the beginning of the enduring marriage.-13. The ark, as a type of the Church, is simple; there are quotations about it in Mone from Augustine, Jerome, and others.-16-19. Isaac means laughter, and so Christ, who is our joy, nostrum Gaudium. Gen. xxi., 6. See also p. 266, note on Hymn III., 4. Hugh of St.Victor.-19-24. Eliezer represents the apostles, Rebecca the Gentile Church. Gen. xxiv.-Aptat sibi: Gen. xxiv., 22.-25-27. Gen. xxvii. "Esau foris venationi deserviens, benedictionem amittens, populum Israel significat, qui foris in litera iustitiam quaerit, et benedictionem coelestis haereditatis dimittit.' Hugh of St. Victor, Alleg., ii., 11. Jacob is the Gentile Church.-28-30. Liam lippam: Leah, the synagogue, unable to see Christ.-Rachel: the Church. —31-33. Genesis xxxviii., 14. "Habitus meretricius confessio peccatorum est. Typum quippe iam ecclesiae ex gentibus evocatae gerit Thamar. A non agnoscente foetatur, quia de illa praedictum est, Populus quem non cognovi, servivit mihi." Augustine, Con. Faust., xxii., 86.-34. Hie: in the Church.-35, 36. Fiscella scirpea is the Latin in Exod. ii., 3, for "ark of bulrushes." "Moyses juxta flumen significat quemlibet hominem juxta fluvium praesentis saeculi positum; filia regis Gratiam designat, quae quemlibet ad vitam praedestinatum de fluxu saeculi liberat, et in filium adoptat, ut prius fuerat filius irae, deinceps existat filius gratiae." Hugh of St. Victor, Alleg., iii., 1.-37-39. Exod. xii., 5; 1 Cor. v., 7.-40-42. "In Mari Rubro submersus est Pharao, et principes eius; et in baptismo liberamur a potestate diaboli et principum eius." Hugh of St. Victor: in Trench, p. 230.-43. Hebr. ix., 4. -44, 45. Deut. x., 5; Hebr. ix., 4. - 46. Hebr. ix. —47, 48. Exod. xxviii. Poderis (7rojrpnrc), Latin talaris, is the word in Exod. xxviii., 4, there translated by tunica in the Latin, robe in English. This garment is the chief (praecedit). N

Page  290 290 NOTES. These garments have always excited the imagination of the mystics:' Holiness on the head; Light and perfections on the breast; Harmonious bells below, raising the dead, To lead them unto life and restThus are true Aarons drest." GEORGE HERBERT. -49. Varias, Uriah. — Barsabee, Bathsheba: 2 Sam. xi., 2-27, which is a type for Rom. vii., 1-6.-52-54. " Astitit regina a dextris tuis in vestitu deaurato, circumdata varietate." Psalm xliv., 10.-55. 1 Kings x.; Matt. xii., 42. —58. Canticles i., 5: black to the world, beautiful to Christ.-59, 60. Canticles iii., 6. —Fumosa virga: " a pillar of smoke perfumed (pigmentaria) with myrrh and frankincense."-66. The Lord's Supper.-68. Trumpets belong to the Old Testament feasts. Numb. x., 10; the psaltery or decachordon to the New, as David says: "Deus, canticumn novumr cantabo tibi; in psalterio decachordo psallam tibi." Psalm cxliii., 9.-70-73. Rev. v., 11; xix., 6-9. XXVII. ALANUS INSULANUS. Life.-ALANJS OF LILLE, in Flanders (Latin, De Insulis or Insulanus), was, according to some, born in 1114. His learning and abilities were such as to give him the title Doctor Universalis. He has been called the leader of the poets of his age, and a scholar's judgment and taste certainly appear in many of his poems. Whether he is the same person who is known to us as the friend of Bernard and bishop of Auxerre, and who has the same name, has been a most puzzling question to biographers, and leaves the career of the poet and universal doctor uncertain. He died, perhaps, in 1203. HYMN I. In Konigsfeld, with a German translation, Lat. Hymnen und Gesinge, 1, 160; Trench, p. 257.. Theme. The transitory Nature of Man.

Page  291 THOMAS OF CELANO, 149-154. 291 Line 8. Glosa, -ae, f., from glossa (yXioaaa), tongue, language, word, whence easily expression, image, type-late Latin. Med. Lat. Diet. -13-18. "Sweet rose! whose hue, angry and brave, Bids the rash gazer wipe his eye Thy root is ever in its graveAnd thou must die." GEORGE HERBERT. -32. Cuins esse, whose being; supply est. -36. Mane claudit vespere: " Sweet day! so cool, so calm, so bright; The bridal of the earth and sky: The dew shall weep thy fall to-nightFor thou must die." GEORGE HERBERT. -40. Supply Mors: he puts us to labor, he to pain, the end is his. They represent him.-52. Rector et auriga, i. e., God. HYMN II. KRnigsfeld, with a German translation, in Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 1, 164. It is hesitatingly ascribed to Alanus. Theme. The Life of Man. Line 1. Supply est. HYMN III. Alani Opera, p. 377; Trench, p. 104. A bundle of paradoxes. Compare a similar bundle in Bacon's Works. Theme. The Birth of Christ. Line 5. Donaret: see p. 261, note on Hymn I., line 15.-Omen, the condition.-23. Reatus: the genitive. XXVIII. THOMAS OF CELANO. Life.-The THOMAS who is believed to have written the " Dies Irae " is called A CELANO from a small town near Lake Fucino, in the further Abruzzo. He was one of the earliest members of the order of Minorites, founded by St. Francis of Assisi in 1208. He wrote a life of his friend St. Francis, and two hymns in his

Page  292 292 NOTES. honor, which still survive. St. Francis died in 1226. But dates and biographical incidents are wanting for Thomas, and not even his name is to be found in many of our best dictionaries of biography. THE HYMN. In Daniel, 2, 103; Wackernagel, 1, 137; Trench, p. 297; The Seven Great Hymns, p. 56; and in all breviaries and collections. Translations are to be found in many languages. In English, seven translations are given in The Seven Great Hymns, besides the well-known stanzas of Sir Walter Scott; Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 188; Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 373. The literature of this hymn is considerable. Its external history is told. It appears in Church services in Italy in the thirteenth century, and spreads into France and Germany, the first complete copies found in Germany being of the latter half of the fifteenth century; it became more highly and widely esteemed from century to century, and since the rendering of it in Mozart's requiem it is used through all Christendom. Then the translations. A German author, Liseo, in his Dies Irae, Hymnus auf das Weltgerichte, Berlin, 1840, gives 87 versions, nearly all German; Dr. Schaff, in the Hours at Home, has given specimens of about 100 translations; and there are many more. The earliest in English is that of Sylvester, 1621; then Crashaw, 1648; Drummond, Roscommon, Scott, Alford, Irons, Trench, Macauley, Dix, Mrs. Charles, Dr. A. Coles (thirteen original versions), and others. In German, Herder, Fichte, and A. Schlegel may be mentioned. Then there is the history of criticism upon it, and the use made of it by students and artists. Mozart, Haydn, Goethe, Schlegel, Johnson, Dryden, Scott, Milman, and Jeremy Taylor are mentioned in The Seven Great Hymns as among the great who have avowed a supreme admiration for it; while the attempts by the less famous critics to find and set forth the secret of its power are innumerable. Goethe's use of it in Faust, and Scott's in the Lay of the Last Minstrel, are known to all. Then there is the question of authorship. Attempts have been made to give it to Matthaeus of Aquasparta, A.D. 1302; Latinus Frangipani, 1294; Malabranca, bishop of Ostia, 1275; Bonaventura, 1274; Bernard of Clairvaux, 1153; Gregory the Great, 630; and

Page  293 THOMAS OF CELANO, 154. 293 others. A leading essay on this subject is in Mohnike's Hymnologische Forschungen, 1, 1-24. Then there is its internal history. It had been treated as a creation of its writer out of nothing; but Mone, 1, 408, 409, undertakes to show that it is a condensation of the old hymns on the judgment-day. He points out some of the most striking expressions, and even whole lines in these older and ruder and longer hymns. They are not enough, however, in number or kind to lessen the originality of this hymn. It is strange there are not more of them. Nothing is born of nothing. " This marvelous hymn is the acknowledged masterpiece of Latin poetry, and the most sublime of all uninspired hymns.... The secret of its irresistible power lies in the awful grandeur of the theme, the intense earnestness and pathos of the poet, the simple majesty and solemn music of its language, the stately meter, the triple rhyme, and the vowel assonances, chosen in striking adaptation to the sense —all combining to produce an overwhelming effect, as if we heard the final crash of the universe, the commotion of the opening graves, the trumpet of the archangel summoning the quick and the dead, and saw the'king of tremendous majesty' seated on the throne of justice and mercy, and ready to dispense everlasting life or everlasting woe."-ScHAFF, p. 373. Theme. The Last Judgment. "Dies irae dies illa, dies tribulationis et angustiae, dies calamitatis et miseriae, dies tenebrarum et caliginis, dies nebulae et turbinis, dies tubae et clangoris, super civitates munitas et super angulos excelsos." Zephaniah i., 15, 16; Matt. xxv.; 2 Peter iii., 10-12. Line 1. Dies irae, dies illa: These are the words of Zephaniah i., 15. They are current expressions in the older hymns, and in the fathers. Mone, 1, 403-409. lila, the day by emphasis, the day of the Lord, of Zeph. i., 14. Many read these clauses as exclamatory, and solvet as intransitive: "That day of wrath, that dreadful day! When heaven and earth shall pass away." SCOTT. -2. Solvet, resolve, cause to crumble. Elementa vero calore solventur. 2 Peter iii., 10.-Saeclum, i. e., seculum, first a generation of men like Ang.-Sax. weor-old (weor=Lat. vir), when applied

Page  294 294 NOTES. by Christian authors to the material universe, still retains something of its early sense; it is the world in relation to man, rather than the cosmos, or God's beautiful oider.-In favilla in glowing ashes, not into dead dust. The line shows the conflagration still at white heat. In igne zeli eius devorabitur omnis terra. Zeph. i., 18.-3. Teste David, absolute. H., 430; A. and G., 54, 10, b, note; M., 304, d; Psalm cii., 27; interpreted by Isaiah li., 6; 2 Peter iii., 10. Some read teste Petro. Trench calls attention to Psalm xcvi., 13; xcvii., 3; xi., 6.-Sybilla, i. e., Sibylla, spelled for its rhyme. For the Sibyl, and her oracles and books, see Classical Dictionaries, Webster's Diet., and elsewhere. Milton mingles freely Bible and heathen mythology, believing the heathen gods to be real devils. Emerson says: "Out of the heart of Nature rolled The burdens of the Bible old "and it is all one to him whether they come through the mouth of David or Sibylla. Schaff has a note pointing out the " truth underlying this use made of the Sibylline oracles," inasmuch as, he says, heathenism was groping in the dark after " the unknown God," and bore indirect testimony to Christ. But the pious frauds by which the Sibylline oracles were made to bear direct testimony to Christ are the explanation of this passage, and of the general credit given by early Christians to the Sibyl; and the remembrance of them makes the line a blemish in the poem. The Church generally, following the old Paris missal, read for this line: " Crucis expandens vexilla." Matt. xxiv., 30. " Libera me, Domine, de morte aeterne, quando coeli movendi sunt et terra, dum veneris iudicare saeculum per ignem." From the Service for the Dead, Mone, 1, 402. For the rhythm, also compare from another Service for the Dead: "Lacrimosa dies illa, Qua resurgens ex favilla Homo reus iudicandus, Iustus autem coronandus." Compare p. 71, lines 11, 12, Flamma ignis, etc.-4-6. Rev. vi., 1517; xx., 11-13; p. 71, lines 13, 14.-7-9. Zach. ix., 14; 1 Cor. xv., 52; Matt. xxiv., 31; John v., 25; 1 Thess.iv., 16.-Spargens, not concinens, as on p. 71, 5; this trumpet blares.-Sepul

Page  295 THOMAS OF CELANO, 154-156. 295 era regionum, the graves of regions, of all regions-not political divisions, but natural expanses marked by the hills, the vales, the venerable woods, "old ocean's gray and melancholy waste;" sepulchres of earth, " the great tomb of man." Compare with the simpler per regiones sepulcrorum; and the whole stanza with lines 5, 6, on p. 71, as perfect lines as these in their way, but wanting the terrible compulsive energy (sLvor6c).-10-12. Rev. xx., 13. See note on Mors, p. 229, VIII., 25.-Natura: supply stupebit. The resurrection is unnatural.-13-15. Liber: Rev. xx., 12; Dan. vii., 10.-17. Apparebit: Matt.x., 26; Mark iv., 22; Luke viii., 17; xii., 2, 3.-19-21. Patronum: 1 John ii., 1.-Cum vix iustus: 1 Peter iv., 18.-21. Tremendae is one of the recurring epithets in the old judgment hymns marked by Mone, but I do not see it coupled with maiestatis.- Tremendae maiestatis: Job xxxvii., 22 (not in the Vulgate).-22, 23. Rev. xxi., 6.-Fons pi. etatis: see the hymn of Bernard, p. 127, line 37; 129, 85, and notes: " From thee all pity flows. "-GEORGE HERBERT. -25. Recordare: Psalm xxv., 7; Luke xxiii., 42.- 26. Sum causa: 1 Timothy i., 15; Matt. ix., 13; Mark ii., 17; Rom. v., 8.27. Perdas: John xvii., 12; xviii., 9.-28. Sedisti: by the well. John iv., 6.-29, 30. Heb. xii., 2. It is said that Dr. Samuel Johnson would repeat this stanza in Latin, and burst into floods of tears.-31-33. Matt. xxv., 19-30. "Post multum temporis venit dominus servorum illorum et posuit rationem cum eis."34. Ingemisco: Rom. viii., 23.-35. Vultus rubet: Ezra ix., 6.37. Mariam Magdalene: Mark xvi., 9.-Latronem: Luke xxiii., 43.-42. Ne cremer, an object clause after fac. Matt. xxv., 41. -43.48. Matt. xxv., 33.-46. Maledictis, the accursed ones, absolute with confutatis and addictis.-50. Cor, appositive with the subject of oro. Psalm li., 19.-Cinis: Job xlii., 6. The Earl of Roscommon, " at the moment in which he expired, uttered with an energy of voice that expressed the most fervent devotion, two lines of his own version of Dies Irae:'My God, my Father, and my Friend, Do not forsake me in my end!'" Dr. JOHNSON.

Page  296 296 NOTES. Scott was heard to repeat parts of the original hymn on his death-bed.-52-58. These lines are believed to have been added to adapt the close of the hymn to the service. They are found in older hymns. Mone, 1, 406.-57. Requie, oftener requiem, but the rhyme and the common construction of dona favor requie. See note on dono, p. 261, I., 15. XXIX. BONAVENTURA. Life. —JoN of Fidanza was born at Bagnarca in Tuscany, 1221. He was educated at Paris, and there entered the order of Franciscans, under the name of Bonaventura, said to have been given by an exclamation of St. Francis, by whose prayers he had recovered from illness, and who greeted him with buona ventura, i. e., good luck. He was made professor of theology at Paris, 1245; in 1256, general of his order; 1273, cardinal of Alba. He died, 1274, at Lyons, attending a council with Pope Gregory X. He was called "Doctor Seraphicus," and regarded as the greatest scholar among the Franciscans. Among his works are a life of St. Francis, " The Progress of the Mind towards God," and much poetry. Dante gives him a place in his Paradise. HYMN I. In Daniel, 2, 101; KInigsfeld, 1, 151. Translations in Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 165; by Dr. J. W. Alexander; by Dr. Harbaugh. Schaff pronounces it the best of the hymns of Bonaventura. Theme. The Holy Cross, and Dying. Line 1. Crucis: H., 406, 11; A. and G., 50, 4, a; M., 315-3. Delectare iugiter, continual delight, obj. of ducis; viam is a factitive object.-40. Eruuntur, are drawn forth, or led out of wretchedness. HYMN II. In Mone, 1, 4 114, 5; Wackernagel, 1, 140. Translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 176. Theme. The Hours of the Passion. Primam (horam), the first canonical hour, following the lauds,

Page  297 THOMAS AQUINAS, 159-1G4. 297 which follow matins. Mark xv., 1.-Line 1. Velatus: "Christus velamine corporis splendorem maiestatis suae, quem visus hominum non ferebat, obtexit." Leon., M., Serm. 25, 2.-2. Sol: Malachi iv., 2.-3. Illusus: Mark xv., 19.-4. Caesus: Luke xxii., 64.-Tertiam: 9 o'clock. Mark xv., 25.-Sextam: 12 o'clock. Mark xv., 33. —onam: Mark xv., 34.-Completorium: the last service of the day. See p. 234, note on Hymn VIII. HYMN III. In Daniel, 1, 340 (the beginning); Mone, 1, 113; Konigsfeld, 2, 208, with German translation. The last line of each stanza is taken from one of the Ambrosian hymns-a common artifice. Theme. The Passion. Line 6. This is from a hymn in Daniel, 1, 247.-12. Hymn V. of Ambrosiani, p. 25.-18. Hymn III. of Ambrosiani, p. 22. —24. In Daniel, 1, 74.-30. Hymn IV. of Hilarius, p. 5. HYMN IV. Bonaventurae Opera, vi., 424; Trench, p. 146. Theme. The Passion. Line 1. Hamum: the use of this figure in regard to Satan, as in Hymn VIII. of Ambrose (see note on p. 229), is more common, and more pleasing than in regard to Christ.-17. Pavit, he fed. -26. Ad quid, to why, to the reason why.-27. Alas crucis.27, 28. Nec (ignavus) attendit quod (Christus) praetendit hoc (cor) vices reclinatorii.-Reclinatorium, i, n, a little table on which the sacred vessels are placed at sacrament; here, the food set on a table, a repast. Lex. Med. Latin. XXX. THOMAS AQUINAS. Life.-THOMAS AQUINAS was born at Aquino, Naples, about 1225, of noble family. At sixteen he became the pupil of Albertus Magnus and joined the Dominicans. He taught and preached at Paris and Rome, and his fame filled Europe, but he steadily refused preferment. He died in 1274. He left many works on theology, morals, and metaphysics. He is called the N2

Page  298 298 NOTES. Angelic Doctor, and is the most eminent of the Dominicans, and the ablest of all the schoolmen. HYMN I. In Daniel, 1, 255; Mone, 1, 275; Wackernagel, 1, 145. A translation by Neale, Mediaeval Hymns, p. 176. Theme. The Eucharist. Line 1. Deitas: Mone reads veritas. -3 4. "Haec est laus fidei, si, quod creditur, non videtur." Augustine in Ev. John, 79, 1. —12 Domuine, memento mei, cum veneris in regnum tuum. Luke xxiii., 42.-13. John xx., 24-29.-18. John vi., 35-48.20. Illi (menti).-21. Pelicane: it was believed that the pelican, when other food fails, gives its own blood to its young for food. Hence Christ is often compared to the pelican, and the figure of it was often used in the decoration of churches.-26. Quando fiet: when shall come to pass. Others read oro: fiat. HYMN II. In Daniel, 2, 97; Mone, 1, 276; Wackernagel, 1, 143. Extracts translated in Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 586, where see other translations mentioned, p. 584. Theme. The Body of Christ. Line 5. Supply est.-11. Fratrum, fJaternitas are common words for Christians among the early fathers, as with us.-21. Phase (Sept. Gr., faasx; 2 Chron. xxxv., 1, from Hebrew for pascha)-indeclinable, neuter-the passover, the Lord's Supper. Phasis, in the same sense, is given in the Med. Lat. Dict.-23. Umbra: compare line 9, Hymn VIII., p. 146, and the note.25-27. Luke xxii., 19; 1 Cor. xi., 25.-29, 30. In hostiam salutis: " Offerimus hostiam puram, hostiam sanctam, hostiam immaculatam, panem sanctum vitae aeternae et calicem salutis perpetuae." The Latin service. For the English word host, from hostia, see Webster's Dict.-31. Dogma: transubstantiation.-36. Praeter, etc., outside of the natural order.-40-48. An application to the wafer of the scholastic statement of the omnipresence of God: "All in the whole and all in every part."-52. Mors est malis: 1 Cor. xi., 29.-57-62. Transubstantiation, as in 46-48. The words tegitur, scissura, are perhaps suggested by the seamless coat of

Page  299 THOMAS AQUINAS, 167-170. 299 Christ (John xix., 23, 24), but there is no distinct use of that figure.-59. Rei, the substance, Christ. —60. Signi, the phenomenal appearance of the bread.-62. Signati: Christ. —63. Panis ange. lorum: Psalm lxxviii., 25; John vi., 32.-64. Luke xi., 3. See eiaticum, in Webster.-65, 66. Matt. xv., 26.-68. Gen. xxii.69. Exod. xii.-70. Exod. xvi.; Rev. ii., 17.-78. Commensales (con and mensalis), table conpanions, communicants. Med. Lat. Diet. For tuos others read tu nos. HYMN III. In Daniel, 1, 251; Wackernagel, 1, 145. Translations in Neale's Mediaeval Hymns, p. 178; Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 584, where other translations are mentioned. Neale says: "This hymn contests the second place among those of the Western Church, with the' Vexilla Regis,' the' Stabat Mater,' the'Jesu dulcis Memoria,' the' Ad Regias Agni Dapes,' the' Ad Supernam,' and one or two others, leaving the' Dies Irae' in its unapproachable glory." Theme. The Body and Blood of Christ. Line 1. Pange, frame in song. See Hymn I. of Fortunatus, p. 64, from which this opening is imitated.-4. Quem (sanguinem). -In pretium, for the ransom.-5. Fructus: appositive with Rex. -9. Conversatus: deponent. —10. Matt. xiii., 37.-11, 12. He closed in a wonderful method (ordine) the protracted periods of his sojourn.-13. Luke xxii., 20.-15. Legalibus: prescribed by the law of Moses.-17, 18. See lines 10, 11 of Hymn II., p. 165. -Cibum, appositive with se.-19, 20. Verbum caro (the Word made flesh) efficit verbo panem (esse) verum carnem.-21. Me. rum (pure wine), fit sanguis.-22. Though our senses fail to discern the change.-26. Cernui, bowed we revere.-27. Documen. turn, showing, shadow, the Passov er. HYMN IV. In Daniel, 2, 369; Konigsfeld, 1, 148. Translations in Schaff's Christ in Song, p. 589; in the Andover Sabbath Hymn-book, No. 105, by Ray Palmer; in Shipley's Lyra Eucharistica, p. 174. It is ascribed to Aquinas by K6nigsfeld and Palmer. It will by seen to be a happy echo of the former hymns.

Page  300 300 NOTES. Theme. The Body of Christ. Line 1. Line 64 of Hymn II.-2. Line 63, Hymn II.-3. Line 70, Hymn II.-4. Line 73, Hymn II.-5. Dulcedine: H., 419, 2; A. and G., 54, 1. —10. Pota, give drink, refresh. Diet. Med. Lat.17, 18. Aperta acie, with open vision. XXXI. IACOPONUS. Life.-JACOPONE DA TODI, sometimes called Benedetto and JACOBUS de Benedictis, was born at Todi, in Umbria, of a noble family, in the early part of the thirteenth century. The date is unknown. He became a Franciscan upon the death of his wife,. though only a lay brother. He wrote much, and many spiritual songs and satires in Italian have been preserved. The freedom with which he satirized the abuses and vices of the priests drew on him long imprisonments from Boniface VIII. " An earnest humorist, he carried the being a fool for Christ into every-day life." His extravagances and buffoonery "often leave one in doubt whether he was indeed perfectly sound in his mind, or only a Christian Brutus, feigning folly, that he might impress his wisdom the more deeply, and utter it with more freedom." Of his Latin poems, only the three here printed are preserved. He died in 1306. His epitaph (1596) reads: " Ossa B. Jacoponi de Benedictis, Tudertini, qui, stultus propter Christum, nova munduln arte delusit, et coelum rapuit." Trench. HYMN I. In Daniel, 2, 131-154; Mone, 2, 147-154; Wackernagel, 1,136, 161; the Breviaries and collections. Translations are numerous in many languages. Lisco (Stabat Mater, Berlin, 1843) gives fifty-three German versions. In English, a translation of part of it is in Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 169; a prose translation in Mrs. Charles's Christian Life in Song, p. 208; and there are versions by Lord Lindsay, Caswall, Coles, Benedict, and others. " It is the most pathetic, as the Dies Irae is the most sublime hymn of the Middle Ages, and occupies the second rank in Latin hymnology." Schaff. It has furnished the text for many renowned

Page  301 IACOPONUS, 171-173. 301 musical compositions, among which the best known are those of Palestrina, Pergolesi, and Haydn. There is a literature of essays and critical discussions of the history, authorship, and merits of the poem. It is ascribed by Benedict XIV., De Festis Jesu Christi, 2, c. 4, ~ 5, to Pope Innocent III., who died in 1216-the pope to whom the English King John submitted, the most learned and able man of his age, and under whom the papal power reached its height. Mone and Wackernagel both accept the statement, and select stanzas 1, 4, 3, 5, 7, 9, somewhat modified, as the original hymn, which they think was supplemented and brought to its later form by Jacopone. Mone complains that so little critical study has been given to the hymn itself; but, aside from the questions of original text, which include those on a large number of various readings, there seems little difficulty or remote suggestion, or even subtle Biblical allusion in it. It is simple Mariolatry, most of it. It is familiarly known as the " Stabat Mater " and the " Mater Dolorosa." Theme. The Mother of Christ at his Cross. Line 1, 2. Stabat mater juxta crucem: John xix., 25. "Stabat ante crucem mater, et, fugientibus viris, stabat intrepida; spectabat piis oculis filii vulnera." Ambrose, De Inst. Virg., c. 7, ~ 49.-Dolorosa, lacrymosa: "Stantem illam lego, flentem non lego." Ambrose, De Ob. Valent., 39; Mone, 2, 149. The Greek service often speaks of her as weeping: 7rapiaTaro rql vXt 1) rapSevoC KcXaiovaa, Oct. 17. So pnv)aov~aa, Jan. 22, Oct. 6. —4. Cuins (matris).-10, 11. Note the effect of the repeated rhymes.-16. Non-contristari.-19-24. Mark xv., 15-34.-Suae, his. Matt. i., 21.-30. Sibi, to Christ.-Complaceam: con-, i. e., cum te.-32. Crucifixi, the crucified. —34-37. Divide poenas nati.-Dignati, deigning.-40-42. Desidero stare. For line 41, others read "Meque tibi sociare."-46. Portem, bear about. 2 Cor. iv., 10.-47. Fac (me), consortem passionis, et (also) recolere (to experience) pla gas. For plagas some read poenam. —50. Inebriari. See note on line 23, Hymn III., p. 226.-52. Inflammatus, kindled by the love of Christ. —5-57. In place of these lines, other copies read: Christe, cum sit hinc transire, Da per matrem me venire Ad palmam victoriae."

Page  302 302 NOTES. HYMN II. In K6nigsfeld, with a German translation, Lat. Hymnen und Gesiange, 2, 242; Seven Great Hymns, p. 118, with Neale's translation into English; Christ in Song, p. 97, two verses. The hymn was first made known by Ozanam, Les Poetes Franciscains en Italie au troisibme sibcle, Paris, 1852. It is spoken of as " the Mater Speciosa," a " companion-hymn," a "twin sister of Mater Dolorosa," " the product of the same genius," and the like. It is really a rather servile parody, which a great author would hardly make of a great poem of his own. Theme. The Mother of Christ at.the Manger of Bethlehem. Line 1. Luke ii., 7.-24. Diversorio, the word in Luke for inn. -25-30. There is no corresponding stanza in Mater Dolorosa.28. Senex, Joseph. -Puella, Mary.-30. Stupescentes agrees with senex cum puella, as though cum were et. H., 438, 6; A. and G., 47, 1; M., 403, b.-44. Iesuline, a double diminutive from lesus, Iesulus; see puerino, line 47. -inus was not a diminutive in the old Latin; it meant formed from, descended from; but we pass easily from younger to smaller. Diminutives in -inus occur as early as the eighth century, and are common in Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese. See Diez. Rom. Gram., III., 314, 315.-54. Tradere vitam, to give life to men.-56. Nato: Christ.-57. Tripudio, from tripudium, joy, delight. Diet. Med. Latin.-Stantem: others, stans. HYMN III. In Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 1,128; Trench, p. 264; Bernardi, Op., 2, 913; Mohnike, Hymnol. Forschungen, 2, 173. Translations in Hymns to the Virgin and to Christ, Early English Text Society's publication, p. 36; The Paradise of Dainty Devices, poem I.; and Tusser. Theme. The Vanity of the World. Line 1. Sub, over, concerning. Diet. Med. Lat.-5. Fide: imperative.-6. Plus quam fallaciae.-9. Vitris: others, viris veracibus.-13. Dice ubi Salomon, etc., will remind the Anglo-Saxon student of Alfred's meters:

Page  303 THOMAS A KEMPIS, 178. 303 Hp-er sind nfi pes pisan Velandes ban, paes gold-smi-es, pe paes geo mser6st? Hp Xr is nfi se rica Romana pita... mid psem burhparum Brftus nemned? Hpser is eac se pisa and se peor-georna, cene and crueftig, poem paes Caton nama? MARCH'S Anglo-Saxon Reader, p. 65. -13. Salomon, the common spelling in Latin, Greek, and other languages. 1 Kings iv., 34 (=v., 14).-14. Judges xiii.-xvi.15. Absalon, a common corruption of Absalom, the spelling in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew of the Bible. 2 Samuel xiii.-xviii.16. 1 Samuel xviii.-xxiii. -18. Dives: Luke xvi. The Latin word for rich man, erroneously taken as a proper name.-20. Trench compares the following lines from a funeral hymn of John of Damascus: " irov iFrTiv Trov ICO'tLov'rpoFTrasELa; 7roZV Eriv ) rTW2 7rpoaicatipwv bavraLia;.ro iTariv o Xpvffoc cai 6 apyvpoc; rov iCTiv TrV OiTr, CETV) 7 rrhAflfvpa Kai o Sopv[3oc; 7racVT KOVLc, 7ravra T'0pa, TravTa taKa." -24. Claudentur: others, clauduntur.-26. Eins: the world's. -27. Quae (gaudia).-30. Ros: Hos. vi., 4; xiii., 3.-Extolleris: passive.-33. Tanti: price.-34. Flos: Job xiv., 2; Psalm ciii., 15; Isaiah xxviii., 1-4; 1 Peter i., 24.-35, 36. Luci subtrahitur, is taken from the light into the dark grave. Similar was the heathen Anglo-Saxon's comparison of life to the flight of a sparrow through a banqueting-hall on a stormy winter night-a glance, and he is gone into the night-a comparison better suited to a heathen than a Christian. Beda, Hist. Ec., 2, 13; March's Ang.-Sax. Reader, p. 39. XXXII. THOMAS A KEMPIS. Life.-THOMAS HAMERKEN was born in 1380, in the diocese of Cologne, at Kempen, or Kampen, and is hence called A KEMPIS. He became an inmate of the monastery of Mount St. Agnes, and spent much time in copying-fifteen years, it is said, on one copy

Page  304 304 NOTES. of the Bible. He wrote various ascetic and devotional treatises, and among them, as is generally believed, The Imitation of Christ, "next to the Bible the most widely diffused and oftenest reprinted book in the world." Trench, p. 321. He wrote a few poems. He died in 1471. HYMN I. Wackernagel, 1, 225; Konigsfeld, with German translation, 2, 254. Theme. Patience. Line 1-8. "Prosperity is the blessing of the Old Testament, adversity is the blessing of the New, which carrieth the greater benediction, and the clearer revelation of God's favor." Bacon, Essay on Adversity.-3, 4. "Satan wiser than of yore, And tempts by making rich, not making poor." POPE. -12. Proximos, neighbors. —24. Laude: ablative of cause. H., 419, iv.; A. and G., 54, 3, a.-25. Gradu: specification. H., 429; A. and G., 54, 9.-30. Hostibus: dative. A. and G., 51, 6; H., 391. HYMN II. In Wackernagel, 1, 224; Trench, p. 321. Trench says the poems of " Thomas of Kempen" will not yield a second extract at all to be compared in beauty with the very beautiful fragment which follows. Theme. The Joys of Heaven. Line 1. Wackernagel begins with "0, qualis quantaque laeticia Resonat in coelesti patria Ubi Iesus gaudet cum Maria Laeto vultu, dulci melodia." Rev. v., 14; vii., 11.-6. Tympanizant (rvytravi[w) is of course the verb, of which the participle tympanizans only is given in the Latin Lexicons.-17. Seraphim. In the poem from which the extract is made, the choirs of angels are spoken of in orderCherubim, Throni, Dominationes, Principatus, Potestates, and the

Page  305 IOHANNES MAUBURNUS-AUCTORES INCERTI, 181-183. 305 Arehangeli; a full description of which may be found in Greg., M. Hom. in Evang., 2, 34, 10; Mone, 1, 442, 443. XXXIII. IOHANNES MAUBURNUS. Life.-MAUBURNE, or MOMBOIR (JEAN), was born at Brussels in 1460; was a friend and correspondent of Erasmus, and the author of several ascetic treatises, from one of which, the Rosetum Spirituale, the following hymn is taken. He died abbot of the cloister of Livry, near Paris, in 1502. THE HYMN. In Daniel, 1, 335; Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 2, 252; Trench, p. 114. A translation by Mrs. Charles in Christian Life in Song, p. 174. It is from a poem of thirteen stanzas, and was early used in this form as a Christmas Hymn. It continued to be a great favorite in the Protestant churches as long as they sang Latin hymns. An old translation is still used in Germany: "Warum liegt in Krippelein." Theme. The Nativity. Line 11-20., an answer to the first stanza.-13. Quod (genus), occidit se noxa sceleris profani.-15. Inopiis, i. e., stabulo, penuria, etc.-17. Pergo ditare: I am going to enrich thee. Note the idiom, like the English; the French, Je vais lire; the AngloSaxon, Ic ga rtedan, and the like. March's Anglo-Saxon Grammar, 415, 4. XXXIV. AUCTORES INCERTI. The approximate date, and any suggested authorship, will be mentioned with each hymn. HYMN I. In Daniel, 1, 334; Wackernagel, 1, 198-201, gives ten forms; Trench, p. 97. There are many old German forms; in English there is a translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song,

Page  306 306 NOTES. p. 173. It belongs to the fourteenth century. It was a great favorite in the Lutheran churches, and has remained in use almost or quite to the present day. Theme. The Birth of Christ. Matthew ii. Line 5, 6. The ox and ass were every where accepted as occupants of the stable with Christ. Proof is in Habakkuk iii., 2, where, for "in the midst of the years," the Septuagint strangely reads Ev EiCtp i vw ^wwv yv/,oa'ap, and the old Latin version, "in medio duorum animalium innotesceris." This was interpreted by Isaiah i., 3: "The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib." The bos also represented the Jews, the shepherds, and asinus the heathen, the wise men.-7. Reges. That the wise men from the East were kings was universally believed, the proof resting on Isaiah lx., 3; Psalm lxxii., 10-15. -Saba: Psalm lxxii., 10. HYMN II. In Daniel, 1, 341; Mone, 1, 195; Wackernagel, 1, 175-177, five forms. In manuscript of the fourteenth century. The corresponding German, " Christ ist erstanden," is known in the twelfth century, and may possibly be the original. Compare Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 253, where is a translation into English. Theme. The Resurrection of Christ. Mark xvi. Line 15, 16. John xxi. HYMN III. In Mone, 3, 65; Wackernagel, 1, 157. Of the thirteenth century. Theme. The Apostles. Line 2. Nubes: Isaiah lx., 8. It is applied to the apostles often: w6arep vE)Xat 7TrX1pELc SEtov (oWTr6C, rrTatLv Erop4pipovatv viSwp 4WOorOLOV ot adTr6roXot. Greek service for June 30. So Gregory, M. Hom. in Ev., 1, 5, 4; Athanasius. " Showers of truth fall from their dark sayings." Augustine, in Mone, 3, 65.-5. Principes: Matt. xix., 28.-6. Lapides: 1 Peter ii., 5, 6.- 7, 8. Psalms xix., 4. —13-15. In the year 95, says the legend, St. John was sent to Rome by the proconsul of Asia, and there miraculously preserved from death when thrown into a caldron of boiling oil.

Page  307 AUCTORES INCERTI, 186-190. 307 HYMN IV. Trench, p. 134. Translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 175. It is part of a long poem, sometimes ascribed to Anselm of Lucca, who died 1086. The meter is a favorite one, much used for narrative poems in the Middle Ages. Theme. Our Lord's Life and Death. Line 15. Vallem lacrymarum, "vale of tears."-17. Tristatur: Isaiah liii., 3. "' The Joy of all is plunged in grief, the Light of all is waning, The Bread of Life needs nourishing, the Strength of all sustaining; The Fount at which all heaven is filled, the Fount of life is thirstingWhat heart such wonders can behold, and not be nigh to bursting?" Mrs. CHARLES. HYMN V. In Daniel, 2, 339; Trench, p. 116; Konigsfeld, with German translation, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 2, 306. Fifteenth century. Theme. The Nativity. Line 4-6. Quae (nox) paris in terris delicias suspiratas, (et) datas e coelo.-10-12. Meus Deus, sol vitae, in carne suboritur mundo, ut (mundus) vivat.-16. Caula, stable, singular of the caulae given in the dictionaries.-24. Quid sibi volunt, what woishfor themselves, purpose, mean. HYMN VI. In Daniel, 2, 342; Konigsfeld, 1, 208. Translation into English in Schaff's Christ in Song,.p. 100, by E. A. Washburn. Fourteenth to sixteenth century. Theme. The Infant Christ in the arms of his Mother. Line 18. Spicula, darts, beamings of love and light; frequently, darts of Cupid-a play on the two meanings is intended.-21. One struck by such a dart was inflamed with love.-24. Iesule, diminutive of lesus. H., 315; A. and G., 44, 1, 3. Diminutives of affection abound in the Romanic tongues. See p. 175, line 44. HYMN VII. In Daniel, 2, 335; Konigsfeld, with a German translation, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 2, 280; Mrs. Charles, with an English

Page  308 308 NOTES. translation, Christian Life in Song, p. 293; Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 602. Longfellow also has translated it: " O God! my spirit loves but Thee." It is a late hymn, and is known as Xavier's hymn, having been often ascribed to Francis Xavier, the friend and companion of Loyola, "the Apostle of the Indies." 1506-1552. Theme. Love of Christ. Line 12. Ah: others, ac.-20. Others add "Et solum quia Deus es." HYMN VIII. In Daniel, 2, 345; Konigsfeld, with a German translation, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 1, 222; Trench, p. 150. Fourteenth to sixteenth century. Theme. The Love of the Suffering Christ. Line 1, 2. Psalm lv., 6.-8. Improperium: Rom. xv., 3; Heb. xi., 26.-13 14. " Columba mea in foraminibus petrae, in caverna maceriae, ostende mihi faciem tuam." The Latin-of the Song of Solomon, ii., 14. "Foramina petrae, vulnera Christi. In his passer invenit sibi domum et turtur nidum, ubi reponat pullos suos; in his se columba tutatur, et circumvolitantem intuetur accepitrem." St. Bernard, in Cant. Serin. 61; Trench, p. 151. HYMN IX. In Daniel, 2, 365; Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 1, 230; Trench, p. 159. Translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 182; Schaff, Christ in Song, two versions, p. 256, 257. Schaff calls it " this sweet and cheering Easter hymn." Theme. The Resurrection of Christ. John xix., 11-18. Line 1. Mary Magdalene is here identified with "the woman that was a sinner" of Luke vii., 37, as she usually is in the Middle Ages. Compare Dies Irae, line 37, p. 155.-3. Simonis: the Pharisee. Luke vii., 40.-4. Supply est.-25. Quinque, etc. John xx., 24 —29; Luke xxiv., 40.

Page  309 AUCTORES INCERTI, 193-197. 309 HYMN X. In Konigsfeld, Lat. Hymnen und Gesainge, 1, 238, with a German translation; also a second translation by A. W. Schlegel, p. 273; Trench, p. 249. Fourteenth to sixteenth century. Theme. Love of Christ. Line 1, 2. The forms of speech are drawn from Solomon's Song, Sionis filiae, Cant. i., 5; ii., 7.-3. Cant. ii., 5.-10. Cant. ii., 5.10-18, The phoenix builds its own funeral-pile of myrrh and cassia, and burns itself, and rises from its ashes with renewed youth. The rest of the poem is the death-song of the phoenix: "Fire ascending seeks the sun; So a soul that's born of God Upward tends to his abode." HYMN XI. In Daniel, 2, 349; Konigsfeld, Lat.Hymnen und Gesange, 2, 324; Trench, p. 302. Trench calls it " perfect in its kind." Fourteenth to sixteenth century. Theme. The Cross. HYMN XII. In Konigsfeld, with a German translation, Lat. Hymnen und Gesange, 1, 226. An English translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 184. Fourteenth to sixteenth century. Theme. The Resurrection of Christ. Line 3, 4. Summus et imus orbis, the highest and lowest part of the world, the world above and below.-7, 8. The beauty of the tender palm is a representative of spring.-20. Barbytha, bad spelling for barbita (f3api/3rov), lutes. HYMN XIII. In Daniel, 2, 166; Mone, 3, 118; Trench, p. 75. "This sublime hymn, though not Adam of St. Victor's, proceeds from one formed in his school and on his model, and is altogether worthy of him. It is, indeed, to my mind, grander than his own" on the same theme. Trench. Thirteenth century. Theme. John the Evangelist. line 1-6. 1 John i., 1.-7-9. See note on line 49 of Hymn V.

Page  310 310 NOTES. of Adam of St. Victor, p. 142.-12. De throno: Rev. xxii., 1.13. Coelum transit: "Transcendit nubes, transcendit virtutes coelorum, transcendit angelos, et Verbum in principio reperit, et Verbum apud Deum vidit." Ambrose, Prol. in Exp. in Luc., c. 3, in Trench, p. 76: "He passed the flaming bounds of space and time; The living throne, the sapphire blaze, Where angels tremble when they gaze, He saw.. " GRAY, of Milton. -15. John is an eagle, tried by the light of God as the young eagle which its parents try by the sun; if it look steadily, well: " Si acie palpitaverit, tanquam adulterinus ab ungue dimittitur." Augustine of John, Tract. 36.-17, 18. Isaiah vi., X, is translated in the Vulgate: "Duabus velabant faciem ejus," i. e., Domini. This was coupled with Exodus xxxiii., 20, and the wings of the seraphim were taken as a veil, hiding God even from the prophets. John looked sub alis and saw God.-19-21. Rev. iv., 10; v., 8.-22-24. Nummo: some say men; Trench, language. He has put the stamp of heaven on our words, e. g., on Logos, giving them a different use.-25-30. Olshausen has taken this stanza as the motto of his Commentary on John. Trench says sacred Latin poetry has not a grander stanza.-28. Implenda: the Apocalypse. -Impleta: the Gospel.-31. Isaiah lxiii., 1-3; Rev.xix., 11.32. Isaiah liii., 2-4.-34. Ezek. i., 10; Rev. iv., 7.-37. Dilecte (Iohannes).-Dilecto (Christo),-38, 39. De lecto sponsi: a figure much used by the mystics of the Middle Ages for the highest enjoyment of the divine love. Canticles i., 16; iii., 1; and elsewhere. -40. Cibus angelorum: Christ was their food. Psalm lxxviii., 25. So Augustine, Hildebert, and others quoted in Trench.-44, 45. John xiii., 23.-46. Patrono: Christ. Rev. v., 9. HYMN XIV. In Mone, 1, 30; in Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 429, the three first lines are quoted as a heading for Bonar's hymn: "I was a wandering sheep, I did not love the fold." It is as early as the eleventh century.

Page  311 AUCTORES INCERTI, 199-202. 311 Theme. The Incarnation. Line 2. Sumnmus opilio: Hebrews xiii., 20.-7. Pugnaturus induit: Ephesians vi., 16, 17.-Tunicam, the garment of the flesh.-8, 9. Thalamo puellae: see Hymn IV. of Ambrose, line 13, p. 12, and note. HYMN XV. In Mone, 1, 118; a translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 178. There are three more stanzas in Mone. The hymn has been ascribed to St. Bernard, and Mone thinks it good enough to be his. Theme. The Suffering of Christ. Line 1. Dulcis: Psalm xxxiv., 8. "Amemus Iesum, quia dulcis est." Augustine, Serm. 130, 3; and so, abundantly with the fathers. Mrs. Charles omits " the epithet' dulcis,' as not precisely rendered by any corresponding English adjective."-Spes paupe. ris: Matt.xi., 5.-14. Pigmenta, spices, a common meaning in late Latin. Med. Lat. Diet.-21. Supply sumus. —22. Tu te, usually printed as one word, tute; supply es ex.-27. Tyranni: atlyovwv rvpavvig. Chrysostom, De S. Romano, 2. HYMN XVI. In Daniel, 1, 343; Wackernagel, 1, 243, two forms. Translation in Schaff's Christ in Song, p. 309; from Neale's Mediaeval Hymns, p. 173; Shipley's Lyra Messianica, p. 419; version by J. W. Hewett. Some copies have Alleluia after each line. Fifteenth century. Theme. The Ascension. Line 9. Daniel reads, and Neale translates: "In hoc triumpho maximo." "In this great triumph of our King." HYMN XVII. In Mone, 1, 86. Of the fifth century. Theme. Alleluia. From Septuagesima, i. e., the seventieth day before Easter, to Easter Sunday, the Alleluia is not sung. Special Alleluia hymns are therefore sung on the evening before this intermission.

Page  312 312 NOTES. Line 2. Aetherei: " Aliud est coelum aereum, aliud aethereum." Gregory, M. Hom. in Ev., 2, 29, 5.-3. Perenne, in contrast with the alleluias of earth. —13 14. (Vos) victores capitis almum decus.-19. Supply est. HYMN XVIII. In Daniel, 2, 53; Mone, 1, 88; The Seven Great Hymns, p. 148; Neale's Mediaeval Hymns, p. 43, a translation. It is attributed by Neale and his followers to Godeschalcus, or Gotschalk, a German monk, who died about 950. He is to be carefully distinguished, says Neale, from Godeschalcus, who was condemned as a heretic on predestination. The Proses given as his by Wackernagel and Daniel are much like this. Theme. Glory to God. Psalm cxlviii. Line 7-9. Rev. xiv., 3.-17. Cauma, -atis, n. (Kcava), heat, in the Vulgate, Job xxx., 30, last ed. of White and Riddle.-33. Frequentans: agrees with genus"humanum, line 31.-39. Socii: the choir of priests.-41. Pueruli: a special choir of boys.'-43. Omnes: the people. HYMN XIX. In Daniel, 1, 261. A translation by Mrs. Charles, Christian Life in Song, p. 198; Neale, Mediaeval Hymns, p. 182. The thirteenth century. Theme. Alleluia. Line 8. Hierusalem, i. e., lerusalem; note the accent on the penult. For the use of H in such words, see p. 272, Hymn II., line 2, note on Heli.-11, 12. Psalm cxxxvii., 1.-15, 16. See remark on theme, Hymn XVII., p. 311. HYMN XX. Neale's Mediaeval Hymns, p. 163; Schaff's Christ in Song, translation by Prof. T. C. Porter, of Lafayette College, p. 254. Thirteenth century. Theme. The Resurrection of Christ. Mark xvi. Line 3. Morte: abl. of separation. H., 425; A. and G., 54, 1, b. 8. Iacobi (Mary the mother) of James.-15. Monumento: dative for ad monumentum (John xx., 4), as we use to in English for indirect object and end of motion.-20. Quia, that. John xx., 24-29.

Page  313 AUCTORES INCERTI-MARIA, SCOTIAE REGINA, 208-210. 313 HYMN XXI. In Daniel, 1, 239; Mone, 1, 319; Wackernagel, 1, 84; Trench, p. 311; and the Breviaries. Translation in Neale's Mediaeval Hymns, p. 18. It is of the seventh or eighth century. The later versions, as in the Breviarium Romanum, polish it up a good deal. It is also used in parts, making three different hymns. It has been one of the most fertile sources of happy hymns. Trench speaks of two of these German hymns as "lovely" and "glorious." " Jerusalem, my happy home," and " O mother dear, Jerusalem," are known as universal favorites with our English people, and have a venerable antiquity and interesting history. See Neale's Hynmns on the Joys and Glories of Paradise, p. 18; The New Jerusalem, Edinburgh, 1852; Prime's " O Mother Dear Jerusalem,' New York, 1865. Theme. The New Jerusalem. The Dedication ofka Church. Line 1. Dicta pacis vision a translation of the Hebrew word Jerusalem, current as early as Origen. Hom., ix., 2.-2. 1 Peter ii., 5.-3. Rev. xxi., 2-angelis coronata. Some read co-ornata; some, plausibly, angelico ornatu; Trench, ab angelis ornata.-4, 5. (Urbs) veniens, praeparata, copuletur Domino ut sponsata.-6. Supply sunt. For the description, see Rev. xxi., 19, 21.-10. Tunsionibus, from tunsio, -nis, pounding; a late derivative from tundo. Not in the dictionaries. Said by Mone tO be French.13, 14. Ephes. ii., 20. The Church militant is. distinctively Syon, i. e., speculatio, looking to the far off; the Church triumphant is Jerusalem, i. e., isio pacis. So says Trench after Durandus.-17. Ganore; Mone, canoro. A. and G., 47, 3, c.-'18. Favore: Mone, fervore. Whether the two last stanzas are part of the original poem is eagerly disputed. -XXXV. MARIA, SCOTIAE REGINA. In Konigsfeld, 1, 256; Schaff, p. 449. From the Prayer-book of Queen Mary, and generally believed to be her composition. 0

Page  314 314 NOTES. XXXVI. MARTIN LUTHER AND PHILIP C. BUTTMANN. Life.-MARTIN LUTHER was born at Eisleben, Nov. 10, 1483, and died there, Feb. 18, 1546. This hymn is first known as printed in Augsburg, 1529. It has been generally believed to have been composed there during the sitting of the Diet. The translation into Latin by Buttmann was first published in 1830, at a jubilee to celebrate the publication of the Confession of Augsburg. BUTTMANN, the great grammarian and philologist, was born in 1764, and died in 1829, shortly before the publication of this translation. The hymn, besides its great merits as a lyric of Christian heroism, is of national importance as part of the history of Germany. There are earlier translations into Latin, some of them very good. The text of the hymn, as first printed in High-German, is as follows. Wackernagel, 3, 20: "Ein feste burg ist unser Gott, Ein gute wehr und waffen, Er hilfft unns frey aus aller not Die uns ytzt hat betroffen. 5 Der alt b6se feind Mit ernst ers ytzt meint, Gros macht und viel list Sein grausam riistung ist, Auff erd ist nicht seins gleichen. 10 "Mit unser macht ist nichts gethan, Wir sind gar bald verloren: Es streit fur uns der rechte man. Den Gott hat selbs erkoren. Fragstu, wer der ist? 15 Er heist Jhesu Christ, Der Herr Zebaoth, Und ist kein ander Gott, Das felt mus er behalten. "Und wenn die welt vol Teuffel wehr 20 Unnd wolt uns gar vorschlingen,

Page  315 TOPLADY AND GLADSTONE, 213. 315 So fiirchten wir unns nicht zu sehr, Es sol uns doch gelingen. Der Fiirst dieser welt, Wie sawr er sich stellt, 25 Thut er unns doch nicht, Das macht, er ist gericht, Ein w6rtlin kan yhn fellen. "Das wort sie sollen lassen stahn Und kein danck dazu haben, 30 Er ist bey unns wol auff dem plan Mit seinem geist und gaben. Nemen sie den leib, Gut, eher, kindt und weib: Las faren dahin, 35 Sie habens kein gewin, Das reich mus uns doch bleiben." Theme. God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble. Psalm xxxv. Line 5, 6. (Is, i. e., diabolus), cui (est) mos (terrere), iam ter terret nos.-8. 1 Peter v., 8.-9. Illi (diaboli, leoni).-23. Dux saeculi, prince of this world. John xvi., 11.-24. Matt. iv., 10. XXXVII. TOPLADY AND GLADSTONE. Life.-AUGUSTUS MONTAGUE TOPLADY was born in Surrey, 1740; studied at Trinity College, Dublin; was vicar of Broadhembury, Devonshire; and wrote some polemic tracts for Calvinism, and some good hymns, of which the best and most eminent is the one here given. He died in 1778. WILLIAM EWART GLADSTONE was born in Liverpool, Dec. 29, 1809; graduated as a double first-class at Oxford, 1831; was in Parliament, 1832; Lord of the Treasury, 1834; married, July 25, 1839, to a daughter of Sir Stephen R. Glynne, Lord Lyttleton at the same time marrying her sister. In commemoration of this double marriage was published, in 1861, "Translations by Lord Lyttleton and the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone," in which the

Page  316 316 NOTES. following is contained, written in 1848. The author's long and useful career as Prime Minister and author may be studied in dictionaries of biography or histories of our times. THE HYM N. In Schaff, Christ in Song, p. 461, the original with valuable comment, and the translation. Theme. Christ our Refuge. Line 1, 2. Isaiah xxvi., 4; Psalms xviii., 3; xix., 14; Cant. ii., 14; 1 Cor. x., 4.-3, 4. John xix., 34.-5, 6. Rev. i., 5.-17, 18. Fontem: Zech. xiii., 1.-21, 22. Romans xiv., 16.

Page  [unnumbered] THE RISE AND GROWTH OF THE CHRISTIAN HYMNS. THE Jews, and the heathen Greeks and Romans, used psalms, odes, hymns, as part of their religious services. Jesus used them with his disciples. They are mentioned by the apostles, and by them commended as part of the worship of early Christians. Frequent mention of the singing of the Christians is found in early writers; and it is evident that, besides the psalms of the Old Testament, original hymns were sung from the earliest times giving divine honors to Christ. The special attention of the Church was called to them in the middle of the fourth century, by the fact that several sects of heretics were using them to propagate their doctrines. The Arians especially had composed hymns which had taken strong hold of the people of Constantinople and the East. The Synod of Laodicea, A.D. 344-346, tried to cure this evil by forbidding the use of all hymns or psalms not found in the Bible. The most eminent Christians of the West, Hilary, Ambrose, and Augustine, thought it better to use similar songs of orthodox substance. The Latin Church was ready for the new hymns. Those of Ambrose, especially, suited them, and came into universal use, first among his people in Milan, and then throughout Italy. Similar hymns sprang up, it was hardly known how, and became current every where with those who spoke Latin. In the seventh century, at the Council of Toledo, they were formally approved. Each generation made its additions to the common stock, often by its most eminent men; and the accumulation continued as long as Latin was spoken. Afterward, when the Reformation called for intelligible hymns of the people, translations of the older hymns into the Germanic languages

Page  318 318 RISE AND GROWTH OF THE CHRISTIAN HYMNS. continued in use among Protestants. These hymns were the first original poetry of the people in the Latin language, unless, perhaps, those critics may be right who think they find in Livy a prose rendering of earlier ballads. The so-called classic poetry was an echo of Greece, both in substance and form, the matter and meters were both imitated, and the poems were composed for the lovers of Grecian art in the Roman court. It did not spring from the people, and it never moved the people. But the Christian hymns were proper folk poetry, the " Bible of the people" —their Homeric poems. Their making was not so much speech as action. Legends described some of the best of them as the inspired acts of Christian heroes. They were in substance festive prayers, the simplest rhythmic offering of thanks and praise to the giver of light and of rest, both natural and spiritual, at morning and evening, and at other seasons suited to the remembrance and rhythmical rehearsal of the truths of the Bible. Afterward they came to commemorate acts of martyrs and other Christian heroes; and then they became the utterance of the brooding love and faith of contemplative piety; and finally the elaborate ingenuity of monastic scholarship dressed up any thing and every thing religious in these poetical forms. In these later times the same scholars rewrote the rude old hymns into correct and polished meters for the use of the Latin Church. The singing was at first by the whole congregation, but in later times the music has become too difficult, and trained choirs and accompanying instruments are necessary for the service. THE LANGUAGE. The language of the early hymns is the common speech of the day, deeply colored by Bible idiom. It has very much the same relation to that of the Augustan books which Bunyan has to Bacon or Milton. It does not differ from that of the odes of Horace more than the household talk did in the family of Horace's father; and the differences are generally gains. A few new words appear which are needed for new thoughts; old words are ennobled by being applied to Christian uses; the main difference is a greater simplicity of structure and idiom, which is a return to the real speech of Rome, and is better than the artificial

Page  319 RISE AND GROWTH OF THE CHRISTIAN HYMNS. 319 complexity of the old book speech, just as Bunyan is better than Bolingbroke, or Homer better than Pindar. In the later hymns an artificial elaboration of the language appears. THE METERS. During the time of the writing of the hymns an essential change took place in the pronunciation of Latin. Quantity and pitch were used for accent and emphasis in the early Latin; stress or loudness of sound gradually took their place, and the meters changed at the same time. In studying the prosody of the hymns, a change is needed in the common definitions of the metrical feet. They should be defined simply by the order and make of the arsis and thesis: An IAMBUS is a monosyllabic thesis followed by a monosyllabic arsis. A TROCHEE is a monosyllabic arsis followed by a monosyllabic thesis. A DACTYL is a monosyllabic arsis followed by a dissyllabic thesis. An ANAPAEST is a dissyllabic thesis followed by a monosyllabic arsis. In the Augustan poetry the arsis is laid on long syllables, in the later Latin poetry it is laid on accented syllables; an iambus in the old poetry is therefore a short syllable followed by a long, while in the later poetry it is an unaccented followed by an accented syllable. In the hymns the change from one system to the other is gradual. The earliest are measured regularly by long and short quantity. Then writers who mean to write quantitative verses become careless about their quantities, especially in the syllables of the thesis. As we go on, the prose accent and the arsis more and more often coincide, until finally it is enough to make good verses that the accented syllables of prose pronunciation shall fall in the arsis and the unaccented in the thesis of the feet in sufficient numbers to keep up the rhythmical movement in the natural reading of the verses. This is accentual meter. For a more careful study of it, take March's Anglo-Saxon Grammar, page 222 and after.

Page  320 320 RISE AND GROWTH OF THE CHRISTIAN HYMNS. RIME. Nations who unite prose accent and arsis need to mark off their verses plainly. They do it by rime, the rhythmical repetition of letters. When the riming letters begin their words, it is called alliteration; when they end their words, it is called rime. Rime seems to have grown naturally into use in the later Latin poetry. It will be seen to appear first as an occasional ornament in the hymns, and become regular in form and place by slow degrees. The old Teutonic poetry used alliteration as an essential part of their metrical system, and German and AngloSaxon poets often use it freely in their Latin verses. Study of the alliterative meters as well as the quantitative is desirable for the full appreciation of the hymns. The stanzas which are found in the hymns of this book are described in the following table. The use of the names of compound meters has been avoided, and the scanning given as far as possible in simple feet. In the careful study of the verse, attention should be given both to the ancient quantities and the prose accents of the syllables in each foot.

Page  [unnumbered] THE STANZAS. DACTYLIC. I. HEXAMETERS.-Pages 61, 69, 87, 99, 152. Salve I sancta Pa[rens, [1 elnixa piuerpera I Regem. II. HEXAMETERS RHYMED.-The second foot rhymes with the fourth in each line, and the ends of the adjacent lines rhyme in pairs. Pages 126, 127. Hic brev v[zvtur, I| hie breve plangltur, ] hic breve ] FLETUR: Non breve | vzvere, | non breve Iplangeri || retribulETuR. III. ELEGIACS. —1 Hexameter+1 Pentameter. Page 65. Crux beneldicta njltet, | Domilnfis qua ] carne pelpendit, Atque cruiior siilo I vulhlera nostra lalvit. IV. 1 HEXAMETER+ 1 Pentameter+1 Hexameter. Page 67. V. 1 HEXAMETER + 2 Pentameters. Page 67. VI. TETRAMETERS, 4 accentual dactyls; the caesura after the second foot; the ends of adjacent lines rhyming in pairs or fours. Page 176. Cur miindus i militat I sub vana ( gldria, Cuius prblsperitas II est trhnsiltdria? VII. TETRAMETERS.-2 Adonics in a verse, with alliteration or irregular rhyme. Pages 86, 102. (Allit.) Sed tibi, ) Sanete, 11 Solus ilmago. (Rhyme.) Nocte dileque 11 iuncta maInebit, A'bsque malrit nhem6 I vildebit. VIII. TETRAMETER catalectic. — dactyls and a catalectic syllable, the adjacent lines rhyming in pairs. Page 6. 02

Page  322 322 THE STANZAS. Martyris j ecce diles A'gajthae Virginis I emicat I eximilae. IX. DIMETER.-TWO accentual dactyls, with varying rhymes. Pages 111, 131,193. Mittit ad I virginem Non quemvis I angelum. These hymns may also be scanned as iambic dimeter brachycatalectic, No. XXIX. X. ADONIc.-Dactyl+spondee. Page 196. Plaudite I coeli. XI. Stanza of six verses. —1, 2, 4, 5, Adonics, rhyming in pairs; 3, 6, dactylic trimeters, rhyming. Page 188. IAMBIC. XII. TRIMETER.-6 iambics. Page 62. XIII. Stanza of four lines.-1, 2, 3, iambic trimeters; 4, an Adonic. Page 3. XIV. TRIMETER BRACHYCATALECTIC.-5 iambics. Page 199, irregular verses. XV. DIMETER.-4 iambics with the interchangeable feet. Pages 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28 (2), 29, 33, 34, 36, 37 (2), 38, 39 (2), 40, 42, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 66, 74, 75, 77, 79, 81, 82. XVI. Stanzas of dimeters (2 or 4), rhyming in pairs of adjacent lines. Pages 183,184, 98,159,160,190. XVII. Stanzas of dimeters, rhyming in triplets. Page 206, and last stanza, page 148. 0 fillii I et filliae Rex coellestis, I rex gl6rliae Morte I surrexlit h6dlie. XVIII. Stanza of dimeters, rhyming in fours. Page 122. XIX. Stanza of seven dimeters, verses 1, 2 and 3, 4 and 5, 6, 7 rhyming. Page 47. XX. Stanza of eight dimeters, rhyming in pairs of adjacent lines. Page 199.

Page  323 THE STANZAS. 323 XXI. Stanza of eight dimeters, irregularly rhymed; verse 8 repeating verse 1. Page 79. XXII. Stanza of four verses. 1, 2, dimeter, rhyming; 3, 4, trimeter brachycatalectic (see XIV.), rhyming. Page 110. XXIII. Stanza of eight verses. 1, 3, dimeter, rhyming; 2, 4, 8, dimeter catalectic (see XXVII.), rhyming; 5, 6, 7, dimeter brachycatalectic, rhyming. Veni, I Creaitor Spirlitzs, Spiriltus rj creA TOR, Tu dans, I tu daltus coeljitus, Tu d6o num ti I don 1 TOR; Tui lex, I tu digjitUs, A'lens I et a1Jitus, Spirans I et spirlitis, Spirajtus et I spirAiTOR. XXIV. Stanza of nine verses. 1, 3, dimeters; 2, 4, dimeter catalectic, rhyming; 5, 6, 7, acephalous dimeter brachycatalectic, 5 rhyming with 6; 8, dimeter brachycatalectic, rhyming with 7; 9, a dimeter catalectic, without rhyme. Page 211. Arx firmla Delus n6slter dst, Is telium, qu6 I nitadmur; Is dxlplicat I ex 6mlnibius Queis mallis imlplicdlmur. Nam I cui semlper m6s, Iam I ter terlret n6s; Per I astim I per vim, Saevam I levat I sitim; Nil par i in tderris illli. XXV. Stanza of four verses. 1, 3, dimeter, rhyming; 2, 4, dimeter brachycatalectic, rhyming. Page 178. XXVI. Stanza of six verses. 1, 3, 5, dimeter; 2, 4, 6, dimeter acephalous; 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6 rhyming. Page 96. Paschallis fesiti gafildiu'm Mundli rejplet dmlbituim; etc.

Page  324 324 THE STANZAS. XXVII. DIMETER CATALECTIC.-4 iambics, less the final syllable. Page 195. Crux aive benledictla, Per telmors est I devictia. XXVIII. Stanza of six verses. 1, 2, 4, 5, dimeter catalectic, rhyming in pairs; 3, 6, dimeter brachycatalectic (3 iambics), rhyming. Page 170. O 6esca vilat6orum! O palnis anlgelolrum! O manina coellitdm! etc. XXIX. DIMETER BRACHYCATALECTIC. —3 iambics. Pages 193, 111,131. Tand6m I audilte me Si6nlis filliae! These hymns may be read as dactylic dimeters. No. IX. TROCHAIC. XXX. TETRAMETER CATALECTIC.-8 trochees, less one syllable. The caesura follows the fourth foot. Pages 45, 64, 71, 208. Pange, [ lingua, I gloril[se 11 proelilum cerItamilnis. XXXI. Same meter arranged in a stanza of two verses, the first a dimeter, the second a dimeter catalectic. Page 168, etc. See XXXVI., XXXVII., XXXVIII. XXXII. TRIMETER CATALECTIC.-6 trochees, less one syllable. Page 164. Qua6 sub I his figturis 11 v6re I latiltas. The first verse of this hymn has a syllable of anacrusis before beginning the regular meter. Ad6ro I te delv6te, 11 latens I Deiltas. XXXIII. DIMETER.-4 trochees, rhymes in pairs of adjacent verses. Pages 100, 103, 104, 105, 156, 178, 179. XXXIV. Stanza of six dimeters, rhymed in pairs. Page 213.

Page  325 THE STANZAS. 325 XXXV. Stanza of three dimeters, rhymed in triplets. Page 154. Dies I irae, I dies illa S6lvet I saeclum j in falvilla, Teste I David I cim Sylbilla. XXXVI. Stanza of four verses. 1, 3, dimeters, rhyming; 2, 4, dimeters catalectic, rhyming. Page 189. XXXVII. Stanza of six verses. 1, 3, 5, dimeters; 2, 4, 6, dimeter catalectic. Pages 51, 205. With alternate rhymes. Page 168. XXXVIII. Stanza of eight verses. Two of No. XXXVI. united. Page 49. XXXIX. Stanza of six verses. 1, 2 and 4, 5, dimeters, rhyming in pairs; 3, 6, dimeters catalectic, rhyming. Pages 119, 138, 143, 145, 146, 149, 151, 157, 165, 171, 173, 197. Stabat I mater j d6lolrdsa fixta I cricem I Iacrylmdsa Dum pen I debat II fililus Cuius I anilmam ge mgntem C6ntrisltantem [ et dolegntem Pertranslivit I gladijus. XL. Stanza of eight verses. 1, 2, 3 and 5, 6, 7, dimeters, rhyming in triplets; 4, 8, dimeters catalectic, rhyming. Pages 134, 140, and two stanzas, pages 167, 168, where also is a single stanza of ten verses, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6, 7, 8, 9 rhyming in fours. XLI. Dimeters of two rhyming monometers, with alternate dimeters catalectic, rhyming. Pages 130, 146. Lumen I clarum [ tenelbrarum Sedijbus relsplendulit; Dum sallvdre, [1 recreldre Qu6d crelavit, I v6lujit. XLII. Stanza of eight verses. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, dimeters of two rhyming monometers; 4, 8, dimeters catalectic, rhyming. Page 145, Hymn VII., in which see other arrangements of rhymes in similar meters.

Page  326 326 THE STANZAS. XLIII. Stanza of seven verses. 1, 3 and 5, 6, dimeters, rhyming in pairs; 2, 4, dimeters catalectic, rhyming; 7, a monometer. Page 192. XLIV. Stanza of ten verses. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6, 7, 8, 9, dimeters, rhyming in pairs or fours; 5, 10, iambic dimeters, rhyming. Pages 114, 116, 117. XLV. DIMETER CATALECTIC.-4 trochees, less the final syllable, adjacent rhymes in pairs. Page 156, lines 56, 57; 199, Hymn XIV., 6-9. Iesu, I pie d6milne, Dona I eos ] requile! XLVI. Stanza of six verses. Dimeters catalectic, 1, 2 and 3, 6 and 4, 5 rhyming in pairs. Page 92. XLVII. Stanza of seven verses. Dimeters catalectic, 1, 3 and 2, 4, 7 and 5, 6 rhyming; or 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, 6, 7; or 1, 2, 3 and 4, 7 and 5, 6. Pages 135, 136. XLVIII. Stanza of eight verses. 1, 3, 5, 7, dimeters catalectic; 2, 4, 6, 8, dimeters brachycatalectic, rhyming all four. Page 121. The same stanza printed as four verses. Pages 162, 186. Quantum I hamum ] cariltas I] tibi I pra6senltavit, M6ri I cum pro I h6milne II te sollici i tavit; etc. XLIX. Stanza of ten verses. 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, dimeter catalectic; 2, 4, 6, 10, dimeter brachycatalectic; 1, 3 and 2, 4 and 5, 6 and 7, 10 and 8, 9 rhyme; and 5, 6 rhyme either with 1, 3 or 8, 9. Page 181. L. DIMETER BRACHYCATALECTIC.-3 trochees. Stanza of four verses. Page 90. A've I maris I stella, Dei I mater I alma At'que I sdmper I virgo, Felix i coeli I porta. LI. MONOMETER.-2 trochees. Stanza of six verses. 1, 2 and 4, 5, monometers, rhyming in pairs; 3, 6, iambic dimeters, rhyming. Page 161.

Page  327 THE STANZAS. 327 Christum I dicem, Qui per I crucem Redejmit n6s I ab h6sjtibus, Laudet I coetus Noster I laetus, Exulltet co6llum laud!ibus. LII. Stanza of four verses. 1, 2, 3, Sapphics; 4, an Adonic. Pages 31, 74, 76, 77. Same stanza printed as seven verses, page 84. The simplest analysis of the Sapphic is: trochee- +spondee + dactyl + trochee +trochee; the Adonic: dactyl + trochee. Christe I cunctolrum II d6omjnat6r alme, Cerne belnignus. LIII. CHORIAMBIC TETRAMETER (Asclepiadean).-A spondee + 2 choriambi + an iambus. Stanza of three verses. 1, 2, Asclepiadean; 3, a Pherecratean: spondee + choriambus + a syllable. Page 202. A'lleilua pits I edite laudlibuls, Cives I aetherei, I psallte suavliter A1 llelluia perelnni6e. LIV. CHORIAMBIC TETRAMETER CATALECTIC.-A spondee + 2 choriambi+ a syllable. Pages 14, 15. Squalent | arva soli ] pulvere mul]to. ANAPAESTIC. LV. DIMETER CATALECTIC.-A spondee+ 2 anapaests-+ a syllable; spondees and anapaests interchange. Page 53. Iam moeslta quies]ce querella Lacrymas I suspenldite maltres. LVI. MONOMETER HYPERMETER, and monometer irregularly rhymed. Page 210. O D6mline D6lus! Speralvi in te; O calre mi IMlu! Nunc liblera me.

Page  328 328 THE STANZAS. Reading the last syllable of each hypermetric line with the first two of the next line makes continuous anapaests. RHYTHMIC PROSES. LVII. Unrhymed. Pages 20, 88 (2), 89. LVIII. Rhymed. Pages 178, 179, 185, 203.

Page  [unnumbered] TABLE OF FIRST LINES. Meter. Author. Page. A solis ortus cardine................. XV. Ambrosiani. 42 A solis ortus cardine................. XV. Sedulius. 59 Ad coeli clara non sum dignus sidera.. XIII. Hilarius. 3 Ad coenam Agni providi............. XV. Ambrosiani. 33 Ad perennis vitae fon-.. temmess itivit arida) — - ~ XXX. Augustiniani. 45 tern mens sitivit arida Ad regias Agni dapes................ XV. Ambrosiani. 33 Adoro te devote, latens Deitas....... XXXII. Thomas Aquinas. 164 Adversa mundi tolera................ XXV. Thomas a Kempis. 178 Aeterna Christi munera.............. XV. Ambrosiani. 22 Aeterne rerum conditor............. XV. Ambrose. 8 Ales, diei nuntius................... XV. Prudentius. 55 Alleluia, dulce carmen................ XXXVII. Incertus. 205 Alleluia piis edite laudibus........... LIII. Incertus. 202 Alpha et Q, magne Deus............. XXXIII. Hildebert. 103 Apparebit repentina dies magna Domini XXX. Incertus. 71 Arte mira, miro consilio.............. XIV. Incertus. 199 Arx firma Deus noster est............ XXIV. Luther, Buttmann. 211 Astant angelorum chori.............. XXXIII. Thomas a Kempis. 179 Audi, benigne conditor............... XV. Gregory. 75 Aurea luce et decore roseo............ XII. Elpis. 62 Aurora lucis ratilat.................. XV. Ambrosiani. 34 Ave maris stella..................... L. Incertus. 90 Beata Christi passio................. XVI. Bonaventura. 160 Beata nobis gaudia.................. XV. Hilarius. 5 Cantemus cuncti melodum........... LVI. Incertus. 203 Christe, cunctorum dominator alme.... LII. Ambrosiani. 31 Christe, qui lux es, et dies............ XV. Ambrosiani. 28 Christum ducem.................... LI. Bonaventura. 161 Circa thronum maiestatis........... XL. Adam of St. Victor. 140 Coeli Deus, sanctissime.............. XV. Ambrosiani. 38 0Coelos ascendit hodie............... XVI. Incertus. 201

Page  330 330 TABLE OF FIRST LINES. Meter. Author. Page. Corde natus ex parentis............. XXXVII. Prudentius. 51 Credere quid dubitem fieri quod posse probatur. Marbod. 99 Crucem pro nobis subiit.............. XVI. Bonaventura. 159 Crux ave benedicta.................. XXVII. Incertus. 195 Crux benedicta nitet, Domi-. III Fortunatus. 65 nus qua came pependit F Cur mundus militat................. VI. Jacoponus. 176 Da, puer, plectrum choreis............ XXXVII. Prudentius. 51 Desere iam, anima, lectulum soporis... XLVIII. Incertus. 186 Deus, creator omnium................ XV. Ambrose. 9 Deus-homo, rex coelorum............ XXXIII. Marbod. 100 Deus, pater ingenite................. XV. Hilarius. 2 Dies irae, dies illa................... XXXV. Thomas of Celano. 154 Dulcis Iesu, spes pauperis............ XX. Incertus. 199 Ecce, iam noctis tenuatur umbra...... LII. Gregory. 74 Ecquis binas columbinas............. XXXI. Incertus. 191 Eia recolamus laudibus.............. LVI. Notker. 89 Fulgentis auctor aetheris............. XV. Ambrose. 13 Gaude, mortalitas................... IX. Petrus Venerabilis. 131 Gloria, laus et honor tibi sit. Theodulph 87 rex Christe redemptor ) Grates nunc omnes red- LVI. otker. damus Domino Deo L ker. Gravi me terrore pulsas........... XXX Damiani 94 vitae dies ultima Heri mundus exultavit............... XXXIX. Adam of St. Victor. 143 Herodes, hostis impie................ XV. Sedulius. 60 Heu quid iaces stabulo............... XLIX. Mauburne. 181 Hic breve vivitur, hic breve plangitur. II. Bernard of Clugny. 126 Hic est dies verus Dei............... XV. Ambrose. 17 Hic est qui carnis intrans) ergastula nostrae I Alanus. 152 Hominis superne conditor............ XV. Ambrosiani. 39 Hora novissima, tempora pessima..... II Bernard of Clugny. 126 Hora qui ductus tertia............... XVI. Bonaventura. 159 Hymnum canamus gloriae........... XV. Beda. 81 Hymnum canentes martyrum......... XXI. Beda. 79

Page  331 TABLE OF FIRST LINES. 331 Meter. Author. Page. Hymnum dicamus Domino........... XV. Ambrosiani. 21 Immense coeli conditor............... XV. Ambrosiani. 37 In Domino semper spera............. LVII. Thomas a Kempis. 179 Inluminans altissimus................ XV. Ambrose. 18 Iam moesta quiesce querela........... LV. Prudentius. 53 Iam sexta sensim solvitur............ XV. Ambrosiani. 26 Iesu dulcis memoria................. XVIII. St. Bernard. 122 Iesu nostra redemptio................ XV. Ambrosiani. 25 Iesus pro me perforatus.............. XXXIV. Toplady, Gladstone. 213 Labor parvus est................... LVIII. Thomas a Kempis. 178 Lauda, Sion, salvatorem.............. XXXIX. Thomas Aquinas. 165 Lucis creator optime................ XV. Ambrosiani. 36 Lucis largitor splendide.............. XV. Hilarius. 1 Lux ecce surgit aurea................ XV. Prudentius. 57 Magnae Deus potentiae.............. XV. Ambrosiani. 39 Martyris ecce dies Agathae........... VIII. Damasus. 6 Media vita in morte sumus........... LVII. Notker. 88 Mediae noctis tempus est............. XV. Ambrosiani. 29 Mittit ad virginen................. IX. Abelard. 111 Mortis portis fractis fortis............ XLI. Petrus Venerabilis. 130 Mundi renovatio................. XLVII. Adam of St.Victor. 135 Nate,Patri coaequalis................ XXXIII. Hildebert. 104 Nocte surgentes vigilemus omnes..... LII. Gregory. 76 Nuntium vobis fero de supernis....... LII. Gregory. 77 O Deus, ego amo te................. XVI. Incertus. 190 O Domine Deus.................... LVI. Mary of Scotland. 210 O esca viatorum..................... XXVIII. Thomas Aquinas. 170 O filii et filiae...................... XVII. Incertus. 206 O gens beata coelitum............... XVIII. Augustiniani. 47 O lux beata Trinitas................. XV. Ambrosiani. 28 O miranda vanitas.................. XLVIII. St. Bernard. 121 O, Rex aeterne, Domine.............. XV. Ambrosiani. 40 O sola magnarum urbium............ XV. Prudentius. 58 O ter foecundas.................... XI. Incertus. 188 Obduxere polum nubila coeli......... I. Ambrose. 15 Omnis mundi creatura.............. XXXIX. Alanus. 149 Optatus votis omnium............... XV. Ambrosiani. 24 Ornarunt terram germina............ XXII. Abelard. 110

Page  332 332 TABLE OF FIRST LINES. Meter. Author. Page. Pange, lingua, gloriosi....... XXXVII. Thomas Aquinas. 168 corporis mysterium f... Pange, lingua, gloriosi) proelium certaminis X Fortu Paraclitus increatus.................. XXXIII. Hildebert. 105 Parvum quando cerno Deum........ XXXVI. Incertus. 189 Paschalis festi gaudium.............. XXVI. Damiani.' 96 Patiendo fit homo melior............. LVIII. Thomas h Kempis. 179 Paule, doctor egregie................ XVI. Damiani. 98 Plaudite, coeli....................... X. Incertus. 196 Pone luctum, Magdalena............. XLIII. Incertus. 192 Potestate, non natura................ XL. Adam of St.Victor. 134 Puer natus in Bethlehem............. XVI. Incertus. 183 Quam dilecta tabernacla....... XXXIX. + XLI. Adam of St.Victor. 146 Quantum hamum cari-) uam hamum cari-t........... XLVIII. Bonaventura. 162 tas tibi praesentavitXLVIII. Qui iacuisti mortuus................. XVI. Bonaventura. 160 Qui procedis ab utroque.............. XXXIX. Adam of St. Victor. 138 Qui sunt isti...................... LVII. Incertus. 185 Quid, tyranne, quid minaris.......... XXXVII. Augustiniani. 49 Quum a malis molestaris....... XXXIII. + XVI. Thomas a Kempis. 178 Quum sit omnis homo foenum....... XXXIX. St. Bernard. 119 Recordare sanctae crucis............. XXXIX. Bonaventura. 157 Rex Christe, factor omnium.......... XV. Gregory. 74 Rex Deus, immensi quo con-. Eugeiu. 69 stat machina mundi Salve, caput cruentatum............ XLIV. St. Bernard. 116 Salve, festa dies, totoV. V. Fortunatus 67 ^.i.'............ >IV. +-V. Fortunatus. 67 venerabilis aevo. Salve, mundi salutare............... XLIV. St. Bernard. 114 Salve, sancta Parens, enixa I. Sedulius. 61 puerpera Regem Salve, tropaeum gloriae.............. XV. Beda. 82 Salvete, flores martyrm............. XV. Prudentius. 56 Sicut chorda musicorum.............. XXXIX. Adam of St.Victor. 145 Splendor paternae gloriae............ XV. Ambrose. 11 Squalent arva soli pulvere multo...... LIV. Ambrose. 14 Stabat mater dolorosa................ XXXIX. Iacoponus. 171 Stabat mater speciosa................ XXXIX. lacoponus. 173 Summi regis cor, aveto............... XLIV. St. Bernard. 117,Surrexit Christus hodie.............. XVI. Incertus. 184

Page  333 TABLE OF FIRST LINES. 333 Meter. Author. Page. Tandem audite me................. IX. Incertus. 193 Te Deum laudamus.................. LVII. Ambrosiani. 20 Te homo laudet, alme Creator......... VII. Alcuin. 86 Telluris ingens conditor.............. XV. Ambrosiani. 37 Tu qui velatus facie................. XVI. Bonaventura. 159 Turtur inane nescit amare............ VII. Hildebert. 102 Urbs beata Ierusalem dicta pacis visio. XXX. Incertus. 208 Ut queant laxis resonare fibris........ LII. Paulus Diaconus. 84 Veni, creator Spiritus (mentes)...... XV. Gregory. 77 Veni, creator Spiritus (spiritus)....... XXIII. Adam of St.Victor. 137 Veni, redemptor gentium............. XV. Ambrose. 12 Veni, Sancte Spiritus................ XLVI. Robert. 92 Verbum Dei, Deo natum............. XXXIX. Incertus. 197 Vexilla regis prodeunt............... XV. Fortunatus. 66 Vita nostra plena bellis.............. XXXIX. Alanus. 151 THE END.

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