Iowa as it is in 1855;
Parker, Nathan Howe.

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Page  iv Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1855, by KEEN & LEE, in the Clerk's Office of the I)istrict Court for the Northern District of illinois. STEREOTYPrD iLY J. iAGAN. PIILADELPIIIA. PRINTED BY SbM1TII & PETERS, Franklin Bluildings, Sixth Street, below Arch, Philad(lelphia.

Page  v CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. Early history and accession of territory-organization boundaries, area, etc................................................. CHAPTER II. The climate................................................................. CHAPTER III. The soil.................................................................... CHAPTER IV. General appearance of the prairies.................................. CHAPTER V. Iowa scenery-the bluffs, etc.......................................... CHAPTER VI. Rivers and their tributaries............................................ CHAPTER VII. Timber-lands............................................................... CHAPTER VIII. Geology of Iowa........................................................... CHAPTER IX. Population-immense immigration of 1854........................ CHAPTER X. General remarks.......................................................... CHAPTER XI. Instructions to the new-comer respecting the selection, entry, or purchase and cultivation of prairie lands.................. CHAPTER XII. Sketches by travelling contributors -a stranger's impres sions, etc................................................................. CHAPTER XIII. Railroads.................................................................. 1* (v) 17 20 22 25 28 82 33 37 52 62 71 74 89 ,,,:,',I

Page  vi vi CONTENTS. CHAPTER XIV. Railroad distances on the various lines, connecting Chicago with the State of Iowa................................................ CHAPTER XV. Statistics.................................................................... CHAPTER XVI. Description of counties.................................................. CHAPTER XVII. Description of counties-continued.................................. CHAPTER XVIII. Description of counties-continued................................. CHAPTER XIX. Description of counties-continued.................................. CHAPTER XX. Description of counties-concluded.................................. CHAPTER XXI. Western Iowa and Nebraska........................................... CHAPTER XXII. New counties............................................................... CHAPTER XXIII. Unentered lands in the State.......................................... CHAPTER XXIV. Constitution of the State of Iowa..................................... CHAPTER XXV. State officers and Congressmen, from the admission into the Union to the present time........................................... CHAPTER XXVI. Policy of government..................................................... CHAPTER XXVILI. Education................................................................... CHAPTER XXVIII. Religious worship....................................................... CHAPTER XXIX. Benevolent societies...................................................... CHAPTER XXX. Banking-houses..................................... 97 104 107 135 150 163 174 186 199 202 206 234 238 241 253 259 262

Page  vii PREFACE. ArFTERa a careful arrangement of information compiled by piecemeal, during a twelvemonth passed in the editorial chair, and during that period subjected to constant revision and pruning-after the receipt from the several counties in our State, of the latest statistical intelligence relating to eachand as the general result of a year's attention and study-it is that the Author has been enabled to prepare his work for the public eye. Ite is aware that an occasional error may have crept into it, or that here and there a piece of informnation may have been omitted, but he trusts and believes that the pains he has taken to avoid these have not been in vain, and that if any are found, they will be as few as possible, and in no case, of great importance. It is the design and aim of the Author in presenting his book to the public, to supply a want that has long been felt, and which is being daily expressed, as well by the present resident in Iowa, as by the countless throng still pouring westward, and the thousands in the crowded East, whose thoughts and aspirations turn towards us. Iowa holds out to the emigrant inducements such as no other State in our Union can boast, nor is any other at this day being so largely flooded by the onward tide of immigration. Her resources are inexhaustible, her advantages are beyond the scope of calculation, and her claims upon the attention of every class and sex of the energetic, the industrious and the ambitious, are as peremptory as they are vast. Yet is there a deplorable scarcity of such published information as shall set forth these latent sources of wealth. (vii)

Page  viii PREFACE. The eastern traveller and emigrant; the western resident - whether he be but a new-comer, or whether he has risen to fortune in our midst - and the State itself, require such an exposition as the Author has attempted in the following pages. If he has succeeded in representing, according to its deserts, "Iowa, as it is in 1855" - if his task shall tend to throw a light over the immigrant's path, or to erect a guideboard upon his way-if his work will serve to eradicate or lessen whatever of misconception or of prejudice may have existed in the minds of strangers-if, as the fruit of his labors, he shall be able to induce others to join the mighty host that even now is swarming to Iowa's fertile fields- if, in fine, he has been able to place Iowa before the world, in its true light, and to assign to it that lofty rank among the States which it must attain and forever hold-bhe will feel that he has not fallen short of the elevated goal of his ambition, and, in the consciousness of a duty fulfilled will reap a golden reward. And here the Author feels called upon to express the gratitude he foels towards those to whom he has applied for information. With scarcely an exception, he has met with prompt and kindly answers, and an earnest co-operation. And while thus returning his thanks, he would ask of those who have aided him heretofore, as well as of any who may bestow their attention upon his book, to further assist him, and whenever they may detect aught that is erratic, or discover any omission, to inform him in the matter, that he may be able, in his next edition, to rectify the one and fill up the other. N. HI. P. DAVEr;PORT, IowA, g[ay, 1855. viii

Page  ix INTRODUCTION. STILL fresh in the memories of a few of her citizens, is the time when Iowa was one vast wilderness. Her land untilled, her groves unpeopled, and her mighty rivers flowing unimpeded - unadmired, by art or eye of man, she donned her verdant robes, and decked her fields with flowers on each returning spring, as if to woo the distant husbandman, and when chill autumn came, she shrank again into the sere and withered, waiting, patient still, and still with hope. She heard the Indian hunter's shot resound amid her solitude; she held the imprint of his step upon the yielding surface of her soil; she watched him crawl to his wigwam home, and lay him down to slothful rest, to dream of the ravage or the hunt. She saw him wake from sleep, and gird about his loins the savage tomahawk and scalping knife, while piercing war-whoops rang from dell to dell, and whistling balls and rolling thunders shook the air above, and bathed the blazing fields in gore. She heard the red man's cry of death - the white man's shout of victory. And then her streams and fields - her hills and waving woodlands-joined in one vast choral hymn, when banners were furled, and arms were lain to rest, and Peace snatched the sceptre from the wearied God of War. (ix) r ;i I' " 'I

Page  x I INTRODUC T I ON. Then, soon, throughout the land, a lamentation rose. The red man stretched his form upon the earth, and bathed the sod with tears. He bade a long farewell to hunting-ground and river-bank - to bluff and valley, where transcendent beauty held her court, or uttered a parting wail beside the graves of his fathers-the mounds of his nation's slumbering chiefs. IIere, from year to year, had successive generations learned to kneel- here had their voices risen annually, in strains of mourning and of homage, for the loved or the illustrious dead-here had been their refuge in times of sorrow or of trouble-and here had they found a retreat, sequestered from the world, and hedged round with a sacred-an unprofaned reverence. But although he lingered still-although to leave these solemn scenes occasioned him most poignant grief-called forth the wildest throes of anguish-yet, inexorable fate impelled the red man onward. Civilization required his departure; -the destiny of his outcast race bade him fly from before the coming white man's face, and take another step towards that extinction which yawns before the savage tribe. ie raised his voice, once more, in cries of anguish, then joined the mighty Ishmaelitish host, and, taking up the line of march, he pressed his farewell foot-print on his native soil, and left behind him on the spreading plains, the last Indian trail of Iowa. E'en yet the heavy tramp of the banished nation sounds along the western horizon-e'en yet that horizon is blackened by the forms of the retreating multitude-when lo! upon the east a long white line comes gleaming up, seemingly rising out of the distant ground. One by one, like sails at sea, the white-tented wagons of the immigrant well up into sight, and soon we shall see their occupants encamped near yonder grove, their tents gleaming in the moonlight, and the smoke of their camp-fires spreading like a protecting shelter, above their deep, untroubled slumbers. These hardy men, with x

Page  xi INTRODUCTION. their aged parents and adolescent families, moving onward in the wake of the expatriated Indian, are the pioneers of Iowan civilization - the vanguard of the mighty phalanx that is yet to come. The immigration to Iowa reminds one of the legendary days of the Crusaders. As did the venturous knights of old, the emigrants resign the endearments and luxuries of home, to build up for themselves a glorious destiny, amid the wilds of a strange land. They go to rescue from the desolation entailed upon it by savage hordes, a region stored with Nature's lavish gifts; and, as those misled champions of the cross, they sally forth in banded numbers, from every point of a civilized world, to meet in the brotherhood of a great cause, on the fertile plains where tower their mutual hopes. But here the resemblance ends. The valiant knight of old went forth arrayed in all the paraphernalia of war, to conquer-to subdue-to win, by fire and sword, a land rich in historic lore- a land whose interest mainly lay in the hereditary annals of the past. But the modern emigrant wends his way to territories, whose history is yet unknown, whose annals are yet unwritten, whose value and grandeur lie in the promises of the future.-The plough-share and the pruning-hook are his weapons, his companions are the loved ones of either sex. The Crusader went to tear down-to demolish -a dynasty; the emigrant, to build up a State. The former had history for his guide -the latter had a history to frame and write. And nobly has he written it. In the unexcelled prosperity of the land of his adoption -in the magic growth of her cities-upon her boundless prairies, as on a vast sheet-has he traced the records of Iowa's liberation from the darkness of the Indian ages. And these are records that posterity will read with pride, when the crumbling monument and xi I 14

Page  xii INTROD U CTION. mouldering legend of battle and of victory will be as "a tale of days forgotten." IOWA - once the freehold of the tawny savage - is now a civilized and settled State. Where once the wolf went bounding, now waves the yellow corn; and where the owlet hooted to the solitude, the cabin-smoke is floating on the air. Wherever the highway winds, the ever-recurring marks of cheerful industry-of progress- of prosperity-greet the traveller's eye, till one is disposed to rank this State as cotemporary with many of her elder sisters. The immigrant is no longer called on to endure the vicissitudes, the hardships, and the dangers of a frontier life. At every step he meets civilization - in many places, finds improvements in the art of farming, such as he dreamed not of in his Eastern home; and often an old familiar face -a friend who had been a neigbor in years gone by - greets his arrival. Yet, be it not supposed that Iowa is full. Far from it; still within her vast domain lie millions of untilled acres - unentered- untouched - unreclaimed from primeval wildness. They await the immigrant -they call to him and bid him come. Shall it be asked what inducements they hold forth to tempt him, or what resources they possess to repay his labor? We ask, on the other hand, what do they not hold forth? The fertility of the soil in Iowa is unsurpassed-not merely by that of her kindred States- not merely in our Union-but throughout the world! The black loam that overlies her prairies, and which varies in depth from eighteen to forty-eight inches, forms an inexhaustible storehouse of fecundity and agricultural wealth. It rests upon a deep subsoil of clay, well fitted to retain moisture; and, during the driest portions of the year, this moisture reascends through the surface-muck-thus, by a constant reaction, weakening, if not annulling the effects of the severest drought. This was fully proved during the excessive aridity of 1854, Iowa having xii

Page  xiii I N'1 RODU CTI O N. suffered less from its effects than any other State in the Union, and having, since then, been the granary of that Union, and supplied from her own stores the exhausted markets of the East and South. This may sound incredible -fabulous; and yet, Iowa, the youngest of the States, has actually accomplished it! Such are the inducements Iowa holds out to the farmer, coupled with a promise to return him, for immeasurably less labor than would be required in the East, an unsurpassable abundance of any and every article which the zone we live in is capable of producing. But again: to the manufacturer she also cries comne! She invites him to behold for himself her immense coal regions, and examine the qualities of the coal; to roam, hand in hand with the farmer, over the vast mineral tracts; and while he admires the richness of the mines, to let the farmer wonder at the phenomenon of an exceedingly fertile soil, spread out upon the immense beds of lead. Nor is this all. - The abundance of first-rate water-power, and the amount of building-stone everywhere to be found, offer such advantages to the energetic manufacturer as he may elsewhere seek in vain. These facts have but recently reached the East-and see with what avidity men of capital are hastening to test these boasted resources. And still the field is open-still the coffers of the earth are full, and he may help himself who will. The poor and the lowly came a few years since, but now the rich and the lofty flock to Iowa, as well as they. And, thanks to the enterprise of these, the colossal wheel of manufacture has already been set in motion in Iowa. It re volves as yet but slowly, and its reverberating strokes do but send forth, as yet, prophetic echoes throughout the State, that tell what may-what can antd will be done. When the Giant Spirit of Human Art shall have chained the flow of Iowa's 2 xiii

Page  xiv IN INTR O DUCTION. great central artery, and assumed the directing of its course -when the Mississippi's waves shall foam and lash in their impeded progress-when the Missouri's waters shall be darkened by the shadows and the smoke of mammoth factories -and when the tributary streams of this great trio shall be made to join in this work of grandeur and of usefulness - then will that Giant Spirit, as he listens to the ponder(ous humming of that colossal wheel, whose accelerated revolutions will then keep time with the pulsations of Iowa's ambitious heart, find a genial home in the young, and promising, and vigorous State. There is in this picture no fiction-no visionary anticipation: all that we have hinted at, and more, will be realized. It requires no gift of prophecy to trace out the future path of Iowa. An observing eye -aided by a spirit of discrimination-need but take the past for a precdent-the present for an earnest-to draw a vast panoram:L of prosperity, such as our Union has perhaps never witnessed, heretofore, and yet, which Iowa will not fail to excel. To the law-loving and the temperate-to the enterprising, the vigorous, the ambitious - she offers a home arid a fieldI worthy of their noblest efforts. Already has she placed the earlv adventurer on a throne of fortune, thus amply rewarding his courage. At this day she points to still loftier thrones and richer diadems, held in reserve as the prizes of fearless energy - or better still, throws open to the world her exha[u.tless stores of wealth, and seems to say, "Behold your reelrod!" And as the multitudinous throngs hasten toward these goals of promise-as they crowd with eager steps, and w,rk with untiring hands-they find that far from becoming drained, her resources deepen and increase in proportion as they take from them -not merely keeping pace with their accumulating wants, but ever exceeding them; it is even as the province of mind - the realns of intellect- whose xiv

Page  xv INTRODUCTION. boundaries still widen, and whose sophere continues to expand, t'e further they arv expll)red. There is an erigation that thins the old and crowded States on the Atlaniic seaboard; there is an inlmiugr;ttion that peoples a newa world, and darkens the mountLinr-slope of fortune; there is a journeying from the old into the new, of thie Pil:,grims of Industry and of Hlope. But there is a mightier emigration-a vaster pilgrimage-than these. It is the march, onward anl upward into the Future, of Iowa herself. As tihe inmmigrant mother leads her sons and daughters into the undeveloped paths of wealth-as civilization elevates a race out of the sloughs of semi-barbarism-as national prosperity exalts a land-or as science raises the human intellect from darkness into dazzling light-thus Iowa, with rapid strides, ascends the precipitous sides of prosperity's mountainrange, bearing her sons and daughters to loftier, and still loftier peaks, and revealing to their gaze still wider and richer vistas. And the summit of tbis range she will neere reach for her onward progress cannot be stayed, until her arterial streams are dry-until the agricultural life-blood in her veins has ceased to flow, until her great metallic heart has been emptied. Upon the topmost summit, then, Iowa will never stand, for through countless ages yet to come, her progressthat must be f)rever onward —must be upward also. xv

Page  xvi

Page  17 IOWA AS IT IS. CiIAPTER I. EARLY HISTORY AND ACCESSION OF TERRITORY-ORGAN IZATION - BOUNDARIES, AREA) ETC. FOR centuries past, until the year 1830, the North western Territory, embracing all lands west of the Mississippi, of which Iowa is now a part, was in the undisputed possession of various tribes of Indians; and the cultivated fields of the open prairie, the bluff-site of the magnificent residence, the ground upon which are now erected our halls of justice and houses of worship, was, but a few short years since, the battle-fields of numerous Indian tribes, contending for the possession of this beautiful and fertile soil, upon which each so freely shed the blood of their contending foes. The hills, valleys, rivers, and prairies of Iowa, have witnessed the most bloody conflicts ever fought by the savages of this continent, as the numerous bone-strewn battle-fields well testify. The territory cerbraced within the bounds of Iowa has been purchased by four different treaties. The first was ,,o *~~~~~ (17)

Page  18 0ORGAN I Z ATIO N. made in 1832 - commonly called "the Black-Hawk Purchase;" the second in 1836, the third in 1837, and the fourth and last in 1842. The oldest settlement in the State is Dubuque; which, as a trading-post, is identified with the Frenchman whose name it perpetuates. At about the same period, in 1832, Galena was a village, and Fort Madison and Bellevue military posts. Early in the spring of 1833, several companies of whites crossed from Illinois into Iowa in the vicinity of Burlington. From this period the progress and extension of settlements have been rapid, and the population has increased with greater rapidity than in the history of previous territories. In 1834, Congress attached this Territory to that of Michigan for temporary jurisdiction, and two large counties -Dubuque and Des Moines - were organized. Their aggregate population in 1836 was 1053; and during the same year Wisconsin was organized as a separate Territory, and exercised jurisdiction over "the District of Iowa." The "Territory of Iowa" was organized on the 4th of July, 1838. Robert Lucas, a former Governor of Ohio, was Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs of the new Territory. During that year, the State was subdivided into sixteen counties, and contained a population of 22,860. The first Legislature held in Iowa met at Burlington, in the fall of 1837, while our State was attached to Wisconsin, yet subject to Michigan in judicial matters. On the 4th of July, 1838, Iowa was separated from Wisconsin by Act of Congress, passed June 12tl, 1838. 18

Page  19 BOUNDARIES, AREAI ETC. In 1839, the General Assembly located the Seat of Government on the Iowa River, and called the place the "City of Iowa." In 1843, the Territorial Legislature petitioned Congress for authority to adopt a State Constitution; which was granted at the next session; and on the 7th of October, 1841, the Convention assembled and adopted a Constitution, which was not approved by Congress. A second Convention was held in 1846, the limits restricted, an amended Constitution adopted; this was submitted to Congress and approved; and in December, 1846, the "State of Iowa" was admitted and christened as one of the glorious Confederacy. The State of Iowa is situated between 40~ 30' and 43~ 30' north latitude, and between 9()~ 20' and 97~ 40' west longitude; is bounded on the north by Minnesota Territory, east by the MIississippi River (which separates it from Wisconsin and Illinois), south by Missouri, and west by the Missouri River (which separates it from Nebraska Territory). The State contains an area of 56,000 square miles; being upwards of 200 miles wide from north to south, and upwards of 300 long from east to west. The State is divided into one hundred counties; eighty-five of which have been surveyed, and seventy regularly organized. 19 P"

Page  20 THE CLIMATE. CHAPTER II. THE CLIMATE. WE have, generally, an unbroken winter from the middle of November till January, when we are almost invariably visited with a "January thaw;" after which the weather is generally mild, and gradually merges into spring. We are free from the sudden changes of New-England, and from the long drizzling rains and foggy weather of portions of the Middle States. Our storms are from the east; our showers from the west. This State is located in the healthiest latitude of our continent; reaching only to latitude 43~ 30' on its northern boundary. Its winters are comparatively mild and pleasant, and its summers free from the long scorching rays of a southern sun and the epidemics so common in such climates.* By the medical journals, Iowa is ranked as * Dr. Updegraff, a correspondent of the Ohio Farmer, thus alludes to our climate, &c.: "Of all other considerations respecting a new country, the most important is as to its healthiness. "In this respect, Iowa has the advantage of most new countries. An open prairie country, almost universally rolling, or even hilly, it is more favorable to health than flat prairie or level woodland. The streams are mostly fresh running water, with sandy or gravel beds. The scarcity of timber-land, and the annual fires that pass over the prairies, prevent, to a great degree, 20

Page  21 THE CL I M A T E. second only in point of health; and no doubt it will be first, when she has a settled and acclimated population, as free from toil, privations, and exposure as other states. One of the peculiarities of this climate is the dryness of its summers and autumns. A drought often commences in August, which, with the exception of a few showers towards the close of that month, continues, with little interruption, throughout the fall season. The autumnal months are almost invariably clear, warm, and dry. The immense mass of vegetation with which this fertile soil loads itself during the summer is suddenly withered, and the whole earth is covered with combustible materials. This is especially true of those portions where grass grows from two to ten feet high, and is exposed to sun and wind, becoming thoroughly dried. A single spark of fire, falling upon the prairie at such a time, instantly kindles a blaze that spreads on every side, and continues its destructive course as long as it finds fuel. These fires sweep along with great power and rapidity, and frequently extend across a wide prairie and advance in a long line. No sight can be more sublime than a stream of fire, beheld at night, several miles in the decomposition of vegetable matter; which is, in most new countries, the great source of disease. With some local exceptions, there does not seem to be any natural reason why this State, even in its early settlement, should not enjoy as high an avercage of healthiness as Ohio now does. Such I believe to be the fact, after making proper deductions for change of climate, mode of life, exposure, and unusual exertion. To observe the exertion and exposure, often reckless and unnecessary, to which most new settlers subject themselves, it becomes a matter of surprise that disease and mortality are not much more usual than they are." 21

Page  22 THIE SOIL. breadth, advancing across the plains, leaving behind it a background of dense black smoke, throwing before it a vivid glare, which lights up the whole landscape for miles with the brilliancy of noonday. The progress of the fire is so slow, and the heat so intense, that every combustible in its course is consumed. The roots of the prairie-grass, and several species of flowers, however, by some peculiar adaptation of nature, are spared. A narrow strip of bare ground, or a beaten road, the width of a common wagon-track, will prevent the fire from extending beyond it; yet careless, thoughtless farmers, sometimes suffer tall grass to connect their fields of corn and fences with the wild prairie, and forfeit their year's toil as a penalty for their slothfulness! CHAPTERP III. TIlE SOIL. IT is well known to the scientific farmer, that the land best suited to wheat and most small grains, and in which the earthy, saline, and organic matters are distributed in the proportion best adapted to impart fertility and durability, is generally a soil based on the calcareous and magnesio-calcareous rocks. This condition particularly characterizes the country bordering on the Mississippi and its tributaries, between the 41st and 45th degrees of latitude, which has an 22

Page  23 THlE SOIL. average width of 20 to 30 miles west of the line of that river. In this State, it includes the Dubuque District, the country watered by the Des Moines, and the two lowas. In Owetn's Geological Report, we find the following: "The prairie country, based on rocks belonging to the Devonian and carboniferous systems, extending up the valley of the Red Cedar, Iowa, and Des Moines, as high as latitude 42~ 31', presents a body of arable land which, taken as a whole, for richness and organic elements, for amount of saline matter, and due admixture of earthy silicates, affords a combination that belongs only to the most fertile upland plains. Throughout this district the general levelness of the surface, interrupted only by gentle swells and moderate undulations, offers facilities for the introduction of all those aids which machinery is daily adding to diminish the labor of cultivation, and render easy and expeditious the collection of an abundant harvest." Again, in speaking of the physical and agricultural character of the State, bordering on the Mississippi, near the foot of the lower rapids, Owen says: "The carboniferous rocks of Iowa occupy a region of country which, taken as a whole, is one of the most fertile in the United States. No country can present to the farmer greater facilities for subduing, in a short time, wild land. Its native prairies are fields, almost ready made to his hands. Its rich, black soil, scarcely less productive than that of the Cedar Valley, returns him reward for his labor a hundredfold. The only drawback to its productiveness is that, on some of the higher grounds, the soil, partaking 23

Page  24 THE SOIL. of the mixed character common to drift-soils, is occasionally gravelly, and that, here and there, when the upper members of the coal-measures prevail, it becomes somewhat too siliceous. "The future farms of Iowa, large, level, and unbroken by stump or other obstruction, will afford an excellent field for the introduction of mowing-machines, and other improved implements calculated to save the labor of the husbandman, and which, in new countries, reclaimed from the forest, can scarcely be employed until the first generation shall have passed away. "After passing latitude 42~ 30', and approaching the southern confines of the Couteau des Prairies, a desolate, barren, knobby country commences, where the higher grounds are covered with gravel and erratic masses, supporting a scanty vegetation, while the valleys are either wet and marshy, or filled with numerous pools, ponds, and lakes, the borders of which are inhabited by flocks of sandhill cranes, which fill the air with their doleful cries, and where the eye may often wander in every direction towards the horizon without discovering even a faint outline of distant timber. "This description of country prevails for about threequarters of a degree of latitude, and between three and four degrees of longitude embracing the watershed, where the northern branches of the Red Cedar and Iowa, and the eastern branches of the Des Moines, take their rise." "The drift-soils west of the Mississippi, except near the northern boundary of Iowa, are much superior to the drift 24

Page  25 APPEARANCE OF THiE PRAIRIES. soils of the interior of the Chippewa Land District, in Wisconsin; the materials that compose them being not only more comminuted, but more generally mixed with argillaceous, saline, and calcareous ingredients, and less encumbered by erratic blocks." More full and minute descriptions of the soil in various' localities in the State may be found in the series of articles upon " the Counties and Towns of Iowa." CHIAPTER IV. GENERAL APPEARANCE OF TIlE PRAIRIES. THiE novelty of the prairie country is striking, and never fails to cause an exclamation of surprise from those who have lived amid the forests of Ohio and Kentucky, or along the wooded shores of the Atlantic, or in sight of the rocky barriers of the Allegheny ridge. The extent of the prospect is exhilarating. The outline of the landscape is undulating and graceful. The verdure and the flowers are beautiful; and the absence of shade, and consequent appearance of a profusion of light, produces a gaiety whicl animates every beholder. These plains, although preserving a general level in respect to the whole country, are yet, in themselves, not flat, but exhibit a gracefully waving surface, swelling and sinking with easy, graceful slopes, and full, rounded outlines, 3 25

Page  26 of A I') rAN O' E OF T H E PR A I R I E S. eqiually avolding tht unmea,ning horizontal surLce, and the interrup1tion of abra,t or angular elevations. The attr.tion of the prairie consists in its extent, its carpet or veroure and flowers, its undulating surface, its groves, and the fringe of timber by which it is surrounded. Of all of thesle, the latter is the most expressive feature. It is that which gives character to the landscape, which imparts the shape, and marks the boundary of the plain. If the prairie be small, its greatest beauty consists in the vicinity of the surroundCing margin of woodland, which rescrabhles thI shore of a lake indented with deep vistas, like bays anl inlets and throwing out long points, like capes and headlands. In the spring of the year, when the young grass has just covered the ground with a carpet of delicate green, and especially if the sun is rising from behind a distant swell of the plain and glittering upon the dewdrops, no scene can be more lovely to the eye. The groves, or clusters of timber, are particularly attractive at this season of the year. The rich undergrowth is in full bloom. The rosewood, dogwood, crab-apple, wild plum, the cherry, and the wild rose are all abundant, and in many portions of the State the grape-vine abounds. The variety of wild fruit and flowering shrubs is so great, and such the profusion of the blossoms with which they are bowed down, that the eye is regaled almost to satiety. The gaiety of the prairie, its embellishments, and the absence of the gloom and savage wildness of the forest, all contribute to dispel the feeling of loneliness which usu

Page  27 APPEARANCE OF THE PRAIRIES. 27 ally creeps over the mind of the solitary traveller in the wilderness. Thou-gh he may not see a house or a human being, and is conscious that he is far from th,e habitations of men, the traveller upon the prairie can scarcely divest himself of the idea that he is travelling through scenes embellished by the hand of art. The flowers, so fragile, so delicate, and so ornamental, seem to have been tastefully disposed to adorn the scene. In the summer, the prairie is covered with long, coarse grass, which soon assumes a golden hue, and waves in the wind like a fully ripe harvest. The prairie-grass never attains its highest growth in the richest soil; bus in low, wet, or marshy land, where the substratum of clay lies near the surface, the centre or main stem of the grassthat which bears the seed-shoots up to the height of eight and ten feet, throwing out long, coarse leaves or blades. But on the rich, undulating prairies, the grass is finer, with less of stalk and a greater profusion of leaves. The roots spread and interweave, forming a compact, even sod, and the blades expand into a close, thick grass, which is seldom more than eighteen inches high, until late in the season, when the seed-bearing stem shoots up. The first coat is mingled with small flowers -the violet, the bloom of the wild strawberry, and various others, of the most minute and delicate texture. As the grass increases in height, these smaller flowers disappear, and others, taller and more gaudy, display their brilliant colors upon the green surfaee; and still later, a larger and coarser succession arises with the rising tide of verdure. It is impossible to conceive a

Page  28 IOWA SCENERY. more infinite diversity, or a richer profusion of hues, " from grave to gay," than graces the beautiful carpet of green throughout the entire season of summer. When the prairie is bare, it is easy to distinguish the r h from the poorer lands, by the small hillocks which are scattered over them, and which are most abundant where the soil is least productive. They are from a few inches to two or three feet in height, and only exist where the clay lies near the surface; as such mounds composed of rich mould would soon crumble and become level. These, by some, are said to be the work of the go])hor- a small quadruped; by others, are thought to be thrown up by craw-fish; which is doubtless true of wet situations; while those in drier portions are attributed to colonies of ants: each class belonging, however, to the clay party, and working only in poor soil. C lAPTEIR V. IOWA SCENERY- TIlE BLUFFS, ETC. RIESPECTING the scenery of Iowa, Owen, in his Geological Report to Congress, pp. C)4, 65, and 66, says: a The scenery on the I{hine, with its castellated heights, has furnished many of the most favorite subjects for the artist's pencil, and been the admiration of European travellers for centuries. Yet it is doubtful whether, in actual beauty of landscape, it is not equalled by that of some of 28

Page  29 IOWA SCENERY. the streams that water this region of thle Far WATest. It is certain "hat, though the rock formiations essentially differ, Na-ture has here fashioned, on an extensive scale, and in advance of all civilization, remarkable and curious counterparts to the artificial landscape which has given celebrity to that part of the European Continent. "The features of the scenery are not, indeed, of the loftiest and most impressive character - such as one might expect to witness on approaching the source of one of the two largest rivers on the globe. There are no elevated peaks, rising in majestic grandeur; no mountain torrents, shrouded in foam, and chafing in their rocky channels; no deep and narrow valleys, hemmed in on every side, and forming, as it were, a little world of their own; no narrow and precipitous passes, winding through circuitous defiles; no cavernous gorges, giving exit to pent-up waters; no contorted and twisted strata, affording evidence of gigantic and violent throes. But the features of the scene, though less grave and bold than those of mountainous regions, are yet impressive and strongly marked. We find the luxuriant sward, clothing the hill-slope even down to the water's edge. WVe have the steep cliff, shooting up through its mural escarpments. We have the stream, clear as crystal, now quiet, and smooth, and glassy, then ruffled by a temporary rapid; or, when a terrace of rock abruptly crosses it, broken up into a small, romantic cascade. We have clumps of trees, disposed with an effect that might baffle the landscape gardener; now crowning the grassy height, now dotting the green slope with partial and isolated shade. From the 3. 29

Page  30 IOWA SCENERY. hill-tops, the intervening valleys wear the aspect of culti vated meadows and rich pasture-grounds, irrigated by fre quent rivulets, that wend their way through fields of wild hay fringed with flourishing willows. Here and there, occupying its nook on the bank of the stream, at some favorable spot, occurs the solitary wigwam, with its scanty appurtenances. On the summit-level spreads the wide prairie, decked with flowers of the gayest hue; its long, undulating waves, stretching away till sky and meadow mingle in the distant horizon. The whole combination suggests the idea, not of an aboriginal wilderness (so re cently), inhabited by savage tribes, but of a country lately under a high state of cultivation, and suddenly deserted by its inhabitants -their dwellings, indeed, gone, but the castle-homes of their chieftains only partially destroyed, and showing, in ruins, on the rocky summits around. This latter feature, especially, aids the delusion; for the peculiar aspect of the exposed limestone, and its manner of wea thering, cause it to assume a semblance somewhat fantastic, indeed, but yet wonderfully close and faithful to the dila pidated wall, with its crowning parapet, and its projecting buttresses, and its flanking towers, and even the lesser details that mark the fortress of the olden time." " The rural beauty of this portion of Iowa can hardly be surpassed. Undulating prairies, interspersed with open groves of timber, and watered with pebbly or rocky-bedded streams, pure and transparent; hills of moderate height and gentle slope; here and there, especially towards the heads of streams, nsmall lakes, as clear as the rivers, some 30

Page  30A


Page  31 THE BLUFFS. skirted with timber, some with banks formed by the greensward of the open prairie. These are the ordinary features of the pastoral landscape." In a few instances, the hills or bluffs along the M1issisippi rise boldly from the water's edge, or push out their steep promontories, so as to change the direction of the river; but more generally, on either bank of the river, we see a series of graceful slopes, swelling and sinking as far as the eye can reach. The prairie, for the most part extending to the water's edge, renders the scenery truly beautiful. Imagine a stream a mile in width, whose waters are as transparent as those of the mountain spring, flowing over beds of rock and gravel; fancy the prairie commencing at the water's edge-a natural meadow of deep-green grass and beautiful and fragrant flowers, rising with a gentle slope for miles, so that, in the vast panorama, thousands of acres are exposed to the eye. The prospect is bounded by a range of low hills, which sometimes approach the river, and again recede, and whose summits, which are seen gently waving along the horizon, form the level of the adjacent country. Sometimes the woodland extends along this river for miles continuously; again, it stretches in a wide belt far off into the country, marking the course of some tributary streams; and sometimes, in vast groves, several miles in extent, standing alone, like islands in this wilderness of grass and flowers. 31

Page  32 32 RIVERS AND ThiEIR TRIIBUT ARIES. CHAPTER VI. RIVERS AND THEIR TRIBUTARIES. No State in the Union is more bountifully supplied with water than Iowa; being bounded on the east by one of the finest rivers in the world- the Mississippi, and on the west by the Missouri; the interior of the State being traversed in every direction by noble, and in many cases navigable, streams; many of them running parallel to eackh other, from twelve to twenty miles apart, skirted with timber of from one to five miles in width. Our rivers have not the rapidity of the New-England streams, nor the depth and sluggishness of those of the South; but are clear, fresh, and healthy, of gentle current, and capable of furnishing water-power for all purposes. The rivers that are directly tributary to the Mississippi are the Upper Iowa, Turkey, Maquoketa, Wapsipinnicon, Cedar, Iowa, Fox, Checaque (commonly called Skunk), and the Des Moines. Those running into the Missouri are Floyd's, Little Sioux, Inyan Yankee, Soldier, Boyer, Nishnabotna, Big Tarkeo, and Nodaway. Some of these streams are navigable for a great distance, and the day is drawing nigh when the quiet of their banks shall be broken, and the shrill whistle of the heavily-laden steamer reverberate from shore to shore -when many of these streams shall have become thoroughfares for the

Page  33 T I M B E R - L A N D S. transportation of the rich productions of this most fertile and most prosperous State. "The untold powers of some of these waters will soon be utilized for mechanical purposes; and but a short time will elapse ere the thunder and clatter of the ten thousand wheels of machinery will break upon that solitude which now echoes only to the harvest song or the notes of the sweet warblers of the forest. Extensive works are already commenced upon more than one of these rivers which will stamp our greatness and convince the world that' progress' is our watchword." Besides those mentioned, are their tributaries- the creeks, branches, or rivulets, penetrating every portion of the interior of the State; springs of clear, cold water, also abound in all parts of the State. [Particular reference is made to the sites for water-power in different locations, in the letters from county-seats, in another portion of this work.] CHAPTER VII. TIMBER-LANDS. To the farmer from the forests of any of the Middle or Eastern States, who has spent years of most laborious and painful drudgery in "clearing up" his land, and with whom the most desirable object has been the destruction of timber, the scarcity of it here seems an evil without a remedy. But we contend that that which appears to the superficial 33 0

Page  34 TIMXBER-LANDS. observer as a defect, is, in truth, one of the greatest sources of prosperity in our country. Let us contrast life in "the wooden country" with a life here upon the wide prairie. The labor of clearing woodland is the most arduous task to which the farmer is subjected; and frequently the new-comer from the East, who settles in the forests of Ohio and Kentucky, consumes years of painful toil, and wastes the prime of life, before he sees the fruits of his labor. Besides, the industry and trade of the country are not enhanced, because those who are clearing new land cannot for years produce anything for market. Again, the clearing of new lands suddenly exposes the vegetable deposits of ages to the glaring beams of the sun; which, with the thousands of fallen and rotting trees, fill the air with noxious exhalations, producing diseases of the most malignant character. Quite different is the case in our open prairie country. The settler may always select upon the prairie,land as fertile as the richest river-bottoms; and, by settling on the edge of the timber, combine every advantage afforded by the latter. The land being already cleared, he has only to enclose and break it. The sod (described in another section) is turned over with a heavy plow and strong team. The corn is dropped in the furrows, covered with a hoe, and thus left to be gathered. Several other modes of cornplanting may be worthy of mention; one of which is performed by striking an axe into the sod and dropping the corn into the crevice; another, by dropping the corn in every fourth row in plowing, which is covered by the I 34

Page  35 TIMBER-LANDS. plowing of the fifth. Thus, while the overturned sod is undergoing decomposition, and becoming mellow by expose ing the fibrous roots to the sun, it is also affording nourishment to the growing corn. Neither the yield nor the grain is very good the first season; but sufficient to reward amply the labor of planting and gathering. By the ensuing spring, the roots of the wild grass are completely rotted, and the rich, light mould, unencumbered with rocks and stumps, is fit for all the purposes of husbandry. The plow, running easily through the rich, loamy soil, can be as well managed by a half-grown boy as the strongest plowman. Thus, it is seen, the difference in the greater facility of working prairie-lands, the saving in the wear of farming utensils, the economy of time, and greater degree of certainty in the farmaer's calculations, and the enjoyment of health, more than outweigh any inconvenience which can possibly be experienced in this country from the want of timber, even under the most unfavorable circumstances. "According to the most reliable estimates, about onetenth of Iowa is timber-land. Of this a considerable portion is of inferior quality; and the supply of the finest growth of timber, such as we find in Ohio, is comparatively small. Yet along the streams there are thousands of acres covered with an excellent growth of oak, walnut, ash, linn maple, hickory, elm, and cotton-wood. These varieties differ in different localities. Along the Iowa and Cedar Rivers, there is a large amount of oak of all varieties; and the valleys of the Des Moines are abundantly supplied with walnut. Hlickory and walnut are abundant on the Iowa, 35 I i

Page  36 T I B E P - L A N D S. Skunk, Cedar, and other rivers. Besides the full-grown timber, there are thousands of acres of a vigorous young growth, that has at last conquered the prairie fires, and is now rapidly coming to maturity. In addition to these, there is a vast amount of locust being cultivated. This grows here with a rapidity that is seldom equalled elsewhere. I have seen trees at the age of ten years that would make eight posts of sufficient size for fencing. Thus there is an abundance of timber for present purposes, and it is believed by those best informed, that, notwithstanding the constant demand, the supply is every day increasing, both from natural and cultivated sources. "The unequal distribution of the wooded land is a greater objection than its actual quantity. Sometimes the prairies are from twenty to forty miles in width, thus making timber inconvenient. These, however, are rare cases, and, at the worst, are bearable, compared to the lifelong drudgery of woodland pioneering. "The large amount of coal that is now discovered in the various sections of the State obviate, to a great extent, the limited supply of timber-land. The rapidly-increasing facilities for inter-communication are also fast equalizing the advantages of different localities. It is not the economy of nature that any one spot should monopolize all natural advantages; but some portions of this appear to combine as many as are often found harmonizing." The portion of Iowa most deficient in timber is north of latitude 42~-especially on dividing ridges. North of this latitude, between the head-waters of Three and Grand 36

Page  37 GEOLOGY OF 10 WA. Rivers, there are distances of ten and fifteen miles without any timber; while between the waters of Grand River, the Nodaway, and the Nishnabotna, the open prairie is often twenty miles wide, without a bush to be seen higher than the wild indigo and the compass plant. CHAPTER VIII. GEOLOGY OF IOWA. IN preparing the following, we depend principally upon " Owen's Geological Report" of a survey made under his direction, of the Northwest Territory, by authority of Congress. Minerals. The principal minerals of Iowa are lead, iron, and copper. The shipment of lead from Dubuque, from the 21st of MIarch to the 1st of December, 1854, inclusive, amounted to 43,543 pigs, weighing 3,069,640 lbs.; valued, at the mines, $178,830,20. Lead has been found at various other places near the base of a bluff on the west side of the Mississippi, some ten or fifteen miles above Turkey River, near the French village. From seven to ten thousand pounds of lead ore were taken from openings in the rocks by Dr. Andrus. More or less "Galena" is found here in all the principal openings for the distance of a mile. Between the Yellow and Upper Iowa Rivers, excavations 4 37

Page  38 GEOLOGY OF IOWA. are visible where the Indians have dug for lead ore. On the Upper Iowa, also, ore has been discovered in several places in considerable quantities. In the Winnebago Reserve, not far from the Iowa River, and a few miles northwest of the town of Lansing, lead ore has been found in small quantities, chiefly in pockets and cavities. Copper ore has been discovered within the boundaries of the State, but not sufficiently productive to justify the sinking of shafts. Iron ore is found in various places in the Des Moines Valley; Owen thought, in some locations, of sufficient productiveness to justify smelting. There are, as yet, no works for working raw iron ore in the State. Coal-.fields of Iowa. Last summer, the following article appeared in the Des 3Ioi?es Valley Whig. Having compared it with other authority, we find it quite correct, and insert it entire, with additional data, gathered elsewhere, as a condensed view of Iowa coal measures, &c.: "The Des Moines River runs centrally and diagonally through what is geologically called the Carboniferous System of Iowa. This system is called carboniferous, because it is that particular division of rocks in which the'coal measures' are found, and because it contains that series of rocks, of a comparatively modern date, which, in their composition, are so largely carbon. "The physical and pastoral features of the Des Moines Valley are thus given in Owen's Geological Survey: " The carboniferous rocks of Iowa occupy a region of 38

Page  38A

Page  38B . Devoni imesne, 18 ft. C, C L. Devonian limetone, 11 ft. L. Devonian limestone, 18 ft. (:, 6'. Coal, 9 ft above creek. T. Talus. S. Shale. L. Devonian limestone, 11 ft. SECTION ON CREEK NEUIR IIOCKING HAM, SCOTT COUNTY, SHIOWING OUT-CROP OF COAL.

Page  39 GEOLOGY OF IOWA. country which, taken as a whole, is one of the most fertile in the United States. No country can present to the farmer greater facilities for subduing, in a short time, wild land. "'For centuries the succession of natural crops of grass, untouched by the scythe, and but very partially kept down by the pasturage of buffalo and other herbivorous animals, have accumulated organic matter on the surface.soil to such an extent that a large succession, even of exhausting crops, will not materially impoverish the land. "' The rural beauty of this portion of Iowa can hardly be surpassed. Undulating prairies, interspersed with open groves of timber, and watered by pebbly or rocky-bedded streams, pure and transparent; hills of moderate height and gentle slope; here and there, especially towards the heads of the streams, small lakes, as clear as the rivers, some skirted with timber, some with banks formed by the greensward of the open prairie; these are the ordinary features of the pastoral landscape.' (Report, p. 100.) " The principal minerals to be noticed in this paper are coal, hydraulic limestone, quartzite, clays, common or mountain limestone, marble, iron ore, and gypsum. " Coal. "The Iowa Coal-field embraces an area of about 25,000 square miles. A very good idea of its locality may be obtained by taking a map and drawing a line, commencing near the southwest corner of the State, proceeding up the Nishnabotna; thence to Lake Boyer; thence, by the heads 39

Page  40 GEOL OGY OF IOWA. of the Three Rivers, northeast, to the Des 3Ioines, crossinDg it six miles above Fort Dodge; thence southeast, through Tama and Iowa Counties, to the east part of Washington County; thence nearly south, through the west part of Henry and Lee Counties, to the Des 3Ioines River, near St. Francisville. It is nearly in the shape of a half ellipse, cut by the shortest diameter. The width of it east and west is nearly 200 miles; while in a north and south direction, the distance is 140 miles. The Des 3ioines River traverses, in a southeast direction, about 250 miles. " The accompanying table has, with much care and some labor, been compiled from Owen's Report, for the purpose of giving a view of the thickness of the coal veins as they show themselves in the Valley proper, and in the banks of creeks near by: "' Tabu7lar Tiew of the Coal Beds in the Des Jfo!nes T7all~ey. General elemarKs. Range. N. W. 66 9 67 8 68 8 68 8 68 8 69 8&9 69 9 70 11 70 12 72 13 73 15 74 15 74 17 74 17 Lee............... Clark, Mo....... Van Buren...... 11 11 c; 11 Davis............. ~iapello......... Mahaska........ g~ Quality poor. Quality good. Night's Bank, good. Regular 4 to 5 feet. Slaughter's Bank. On Bear Creek. Gillis's Bank. Near Portland. 2 seams, 2 feet each. 5 feet higher, 18 in. Not given. Quality tolerable. I I I 40 Counties. Section. Veins. Ft. In. 23 86 24 84 25-26 32 25 8 22 20 19-80 6 32 1 3 4 4 2 2 1 4 2 3 4 3 2 6 6 6

Page  41 GEOLOGY OF IOWA. Counties. R.&NGE. Section Veins. Genera Remarks. N. W. Ft. In. Marion.......... 74 18 2 2 Right bank Cedar. 74 18 12 3 " 74 18 16 5 74 18 30 Regular 4 to 6 feet. " 74 18 14 2 2' feet poor. 75 20 3 3 White br'st ex. " 76 19 14-23 4 c;,, " 76 19 11 Not given. Polk............. 78 23 23 ",' " 78 24 4 2 Regular 2 to 3 feet. Boone.......... 81 25 2 to 8 feet inferior. 83 26 5 Not given. NOTE.-Last bed mentioned in latitude 420 30' north.' "The foregoing table does not include the thinnest veins, nor half the localities where the thick ones crop out; bat one can get a very correct view of the thickness of the best seams up along the Valley. There are undoubtedly outcrops where the thickness is much greater than in any of the places mentioned. But these will be found to be the centre or side of a basin which, on being worked, will not extend far. A basin of 15 feet of thickness has been found in a bank opposite Farmington. Where the outcrops are more than four or five feet, they must be suspected as being basins, unless in the cut of a stream at some distance the vein is ascertained to have the same thickness. Owen says there is no vein of more than from four to five feet in Iowa. (Report, p. 20.) "The table shows outcrops are far more numerous in some localities than in others. In the immediate vicinity of the river, where the limestones, which lie below the coal, make their appearance, the coal strata are usually 4* 41

Page  42 GEOLOGY OF IOWA. wanting. This is the case at Bonaparte, Bentonsport, Ke osauqua and Ottumwa. But in these the coal strata may be, and actually are, found in creeks at no great distance from the river; sometimes, even upon the bluffs. " The southeast and northwest parts of Van Buren County, the northeast part of Davis, the central part of WNVapello, the southern part of MIahaska, and the southeastern and central parts of AMarion, are rich in coal. But other por tions of the same counties are not wanting. So far as can be learned from the table, and so far as the observation and knowledge of the writer extends, the heaviest beds are usu ally on the west side of the river. The best beds are also there. Some of these are also on the White Breast, Cedar, and Soap Creeks. The principal exception to this rule is in the southeast part of Van Buren County. Hlere it exists in great abundance on both sides of the river. It is equal in quality to any found below Marion County. Two veins are worked to considerable extent in connection; the two afford from 41 to 521 feet. On the west side of the river, it is said the two are separated by a vein of fire-clay, which thins out, and the coal veins converge as they recede from the river. These veins are shown in the cuts made by the creeks for miles in distance to the west. During the year ending with the current June, more than 100,000 bushels have been taken from three banks near Farming. ton, two of which are east of the river. Some of this has been conveyed by blacksmiths the distance of 75 miles into the State of Missouri. The greater part of it has been transported to different places by wagons. 42

Page  42A


Page  43 GEOLOGY OF IOWA. "The average value of it at the bank is 6} cents per bushel. The value at the Mississippi, a distance of 30 miles, is 18 to 20 cents per bushel. Whenever the banks shall be well opened, and there are ready and convenient means of carriage, so that colliers can find regular employment, coal can be delivered on the banks of the Mississippi at a cost of 6 or 7 cents per bushel, and afford a better profit than at present. This is upon the supposition that it can be conveyed upon a railroad car here as cheap as in Kentucky, where the cost of transportation is one cent per bushel per 100 miles. And as to the-amount of coal the Valley can supply, it is easy to ascertain it. Allowing a bushel to the cubic foot, one acre, with a two-feet vein, will give 87,120 bushels. With a four-feet vein, one acre will give 174,240 bushels. One hundred acres, with a four-feet vein, will yield 17,424,000 bushels. One square mile, with a four-feet vein, will yield 111,513,600 bushels. The transportation of this 100 miles, at one cent per bushel, would yield the snug purse of $1,115,136. And as the demand for coal would at once be increased to millions of bushels a year, if a railroad was constructed in the Valley, this mineral alone would afford quite an item of business and profit. " Hydrmatlic Limestone. "Of this kind of stone is formed a mortar which will set under water. It is essential for all masonry exposed to the water and to dampness. There are several varieties of it: one is called Septaria. This is found in'the form of round or flattened balls, of various sizes. This is the kind 43

Page  44 GEOLOGY OF IOWA. from which the English prepare the celebrated Roman Ce ment. (Hitchcock's Geology, p. 20.) Comstock speaks of it also as'Argillo-Ferruginous Limestone.' This, how ever, is another variety of cement-rock, and is, perhaps, the most common. It is called black calcareous rock, cement rock, and hydraulic limestone. In reference to the geolo gical formations in the Valley, Owen says,' The middle division of the Iowa Coal-field affords, at many localities, iron-stones of various qualities, associated frequently with hydraulic calcareous cement, which occurs either in the form of disconnected septaria, or regular beds.' (Report, p. 21.) " Cement rock is found both above and below the coal, but in the largest quantities above. The reader will find mention of it by consulting Owen's Report, pp. 112, 127; and more frequently still in that part of it which gives the geological structure between Fort Des Mioines and Fort Dodge. It is a very common rock in the Valley; probably in every county on the River below Fort Dodge. In many places contiguous to the river in Davis County, there are strata of it several feet in thickness. The geological structure of the southeast and central parts of Marion County are just the same as in Davis. But as the series of rocks above the coal show, themselves more extensively above Racoon Fork, we accordingly find more frequent mention of it in that region. In some places large quantities of it are wrought into cement, which is quite extensively used in the river improvement. The initials of it by analysis are: 412

Page  45 GEOLOGY OF IOWA. "Carbonate of lime.......................... 63.6 Silica............................................... 15'5 Alumina.......................................... 83 Protoxide of iron.............................. 7.4 Magnesia.......................................... 1-2 With a small portion of manganese, soda, and potash. "It will readily be seen that the demand for this is great, when it is said that $6000 worth, at the ordinary prices, will be wanted for every lock on the river, and when it is also said that in nearly every dwelling in the western country, cistern coated with this cement will be indispensable as the means of obtaining a supply of pure, soft water. The walls and floors of damp cellars must also be laid in cement. And the cement of this Valley will be wanted because it is more accessible; the present demand being supplied, in a great measure, from La Salle, Illinois, and from Louisville, Kentucky; and also because the Valley cement is probably fully equal to that from other places. That the reader may see how its constituents compare with other cement, we will give the analysis of that which is extensively used in the State of New York. Its composition, according to Professor Beck, is: "Carbonate of lime........................... 5070 Silica............................................. 15837 Alumina......................................... 9'18 Peroxide of iron............................... 2.25 Magnesia.......... 13................ 12.35 " Comparing this analysis with that of the Valley cement, it will be seen that they are substantially the same. We 45

Page  46 GEOLOGY OF IOWA. will here add a practical remark, which may be of much value to those who undertake to manufacture this cement, and to those who undertake to test specimens. Very much depends upon burning it. If care be not taken, the best ement may be easily spoiled. In St. John's Geology, p. 274, will be found the following: "' Greater caution is requisite in burning hydraulic lime, since it is fusible, and the heat applied to the common lime will vitrify this substance and render the process quite imperfect. Common lime will bear a white heat; but the calcination of hydraulic lime is not well effected above a red heat.' " When proper arrangements shall be made for working this limestone, it is said the cement can be afforded at the kiln for $1'25 per barrel. The carriage of it to the Mississippi by land is at most $1-00 per barrel per 100 miles; while cement from other places costs from $3'00 to $3-50 per barrel. " Common Limestone. "Though this is regarded as prevailing rock in the West, there are large sections in Iowa where the limestone is so largely magnesian as to be unfit for quick-lime and mortar The proper position of the common or mountain limestone in the carboniferous system is below the coal. Accordingly, it is found all along the Valley in the greatest abundance and of the best quality. Much of it contains 90 per cent. of carbonate of lime. This is among the most valuable of ,tones for quick-lime. "Closely allied to this stone, and still lower in the sys 46

Page  47 GEOLOGY OF IOWA. tern, is the blue lime-stone. Some of this is deep blue, and some, of a bluish gray. It is harder than common limestone, often highly crystalline, and fossiliferous. It usually lies in strata in the Valley, varying from a few inches to some feet in thickness. The stone is good for quick-lime, but is of superior quality for building material. It is as beautiful and durable as Quincy granite, while the cost of putting it into the wall is comparatively trifling. The principal places where it is accessible are Keokuk, in the bed of the river below Farmington, Keosauqua, and Outumwa. It will undoubtedly become an article of export as soon as it shall become known, when a demand for the best building material arises, and the proper means of transportation are provided. "Afarbte. "The writer claims that there is marble in the Des Moines Valley, of a good quality and in great quantity. 'Any limestone which is sufficiently hard to take a fine polish is called marble. Many of these are fossiliferous.' (Lyell's Elements of Geology, p. 12.) In the limestones beneath the coal there are several varieties which come under this definition. Among them may be classed some of those named under the previous head. The best quarry now known in the Valley is at Keokuk. Some of the strata there are highly crystalline-almost saccharine-and take a fine polish. St. Louis has already resorted to this place for building material; a fact which shows that this marble is superior to any other equally accessible to that 47

Page  48 GEOLOGY OF IOWAA. city. At the same locality are other varieties which polish well. They are crystalline, solid, but full of fossils, and either blue, or of a bluish-gray color. Of the latter varieties, enough can be had at Bonaparte, Bentonsport, and Keosauqua. And very probably, when these quarries shall be extensively worked, the white marble will be found. " Not far from Keosauqua there is a good variety of lightgray, compact, granular marble, of which tomb-stones are wrought by Deacon I31. B. Root. It effervesces slightly with acids, and takes a polish. Iowa sent a block from this quarry to the Washington 3Ionument. Ottumwa may expect to find as good varieties of marble as any place, because the lower limestones have the greatest uplift there. " Quartzite. "On RPeed's Creek, some distance from its mouth, not far from the line between the counties of Lee and Van Buren, are heavy beds of quartzite. The color of it is nearly white-sometimes, a light blue; and it is so slightly adhesive that it can easily be shaved off with a spade. Plasterers, when working in the neighborhood, are accustomed to obtain it for their'finishing-coat.' Those of them who have used this, and also that obtained at the Falls of St. Anthony, say that the two kinds are just alike. Examined with a magnifier, the sandstone on Reed's Creek is sharply angular, and appears to be very pure quartz. Thie slight coloring it has received has probably been obtained from the superincumnbent earth. For plastering purposes, it cements as well with lime as that of the Falls; and if it 48

Page  49 GEOLOGY OF IOWA. really be like it, these beds are a source whence can be obtained the best materials for the manufacture of crystal glass. "Passing by the kinds from which common brick are made, and those used for earthen and stone-ware, the coal measures abound in' fire-clay.' Fire-proof bricks are wrought of this for the use of foundries, furnaces, and in all cases and places where there is an exposure to intense heat. In the Eastern States, it has sometimes been necessary to import these bricks from England. The cost of them has been as high as $50 per thousand. It is desirable that fireplaces and ovens should be constructed of them; and where fire-clay is plenty, as in the Valley, there is no reason why they should not be. But bricks are heavy articles of transport; and until there are railroad facilities of carriage, that one item of cost will prevent extensive business in this kind of manufacture. With such facilities, there appears no good reason why this clay should not be worked. And as to quantity, the Valley can supply the United States, with Cuba and MIexico annexed! "Iron Ore. "Iron has been found in several places, though no beds are known in the Valley of so rich a character as those of the' Iron Mountain,' in Missouri. Owen found this ore in Marion County, in beds which he considered would hereafter be worked. Specimens taken from them and examined had a specific gravity of 3'45; that of pure iron being 5 I. l~s,......*. ~~ e ~ s a * 000e, e 49 (4 C7-ys. ,i', I I.

Page  50 GEOLOGY OF IOWA. 7.7. By analysis, they contained 35 per cent. of iron. Tl)is iron, as to richness and quality, is almost exactly like the ' Cairnhill Black Band,' of Scotland, which is extensively worked. Other and heavier beds have been discovered since Owen's Survey; but whether rich or not, is not certainly known; the ore not having been tested by comnpetent men. In such circum.stances, it is not possible to speak of this ore with great definiteness. "1 Gypsumn, oi Piaster of Paris. "This is chemically known as the sulphate of limne. The heaviest beds of it in the United Skates are to be found a few miles below Lizard Fork, in Yell County. They are from 20 to 30 feet thick, and show themselves on both sides of the river for miles; and they extend back each way an unknown distance. By analysis, this gypsum contains 70'8 per cent. of sulphate of line. " On one acre, with an average thickness of 20 feet, there will be 871'200 cubic feet; on one square mile, 557,568,000 cubic feet; and on three miles square, 5,018,112,000 cubic feet and 308,031,428 tons. " Before closing this paper on the minerals of the Valley, it is proper to say that the survey of Dr. Owen was made by order of the United States, and had for its more special object the discovery of mineral lands, such as the Govern ment might wish to reserve. The principal minerals sought were lead and copper. The coal-field was surveyed and mapped down, while the other minerals noticed in this paper received only incidental attention and secondary con sideration —some of them, no mention at all. Could there !-' te~ 50

Page  51 GEOLOGY OF IOWA. be a thorough geological survey by the authority of our own State, it is probable that valuable discoveries would be made in the Des Mioines Valley, as well as in other parts of the State.* The multitude of streams which debouch into the Des Mioines have not been explored to any considerable extent. 1' Collectively, the minerals of this Valley, as now known, are extensive and valuable They constitute one of the many items which render their locality so attractive. It is traversed by one of the most beautiful rivers on earth; 400 miles in length, a large portion of it 250 yards in breadth: capable of floating steamers a part of the year, and affording water-power to any desirable extent: with a landscape of great and charming variety, groves, and forests, and prairies, in constant alternation, and possessing a soil 'scarcely excelled for fertility, perhaps, in the world,' why should it not be thronged with inhabitants? It is the centre of the'M3esopotamia of the West,' in a more important sense than that of its position. Let but the iron horse traverse the whole length of the Valley, and its silver stream will be skirted with cities and villages in as great continuity as is the Bosphorus; meanwhile, its agricultural, and mineral, and manufactured exports, will amount to many millions of dollars annually." * By reference to the chapters on particular counties, in this work, it will be seen that discoveries of iron, copper, lead, and coal have been made in localities not specified in the foregoing paper. At its last session, the Legislature passed an act appropriating $2,500 per year, until the work is completed, for a thorough geological survey of the State; the work to be performed by a geologist and a chemist, to be appointed by the Governor. 61

Page  52 POPULATION. CHAPTER IX. POPULATION - IMMENSE IMMIGRATION OF 18 5 4. THIE population of the Territory in 1836, was 10,531; in 1840, it was 43,017; in 1850, 192,214. The census, as returned by the Secretary of State, taken in the spring of 1854, is as follows: -Iale, 170,302; females, 154,900; total population, 325,202. Voters, 59,984; militia, 50,284; aliens, 10,373; colored males, 258; colored females, 222; blind) 27; deaf and dumb, 28; insane, 47; idots, 7. There is one vote to every five and a half and a fraction of the population. According to this last census, the number of males exceeds that of the females some 16,000. Let the Yankee girls take the hint when they see these figures. The number of inhabitants in the State in January, 1855, has been estimated at upwards of 500,000. Those who have seen and can realize that Iowa is the mouth of the great Stream of HIumanity, whose tributaries extend far and wide, into every State and many nations- that stream which is daily and hourly pouring into this great, and fertile, and beautiful State, its hundreds and thousands, cannot but predict that in 1860 Iowa will be peopled by more than a million of hardy, energetic, and intelligent inhabitants. 52

Page  53 IMMIGRPAATION OF 1854. By some, this may be deemed a wild speculation; but we think we have good and sufficient reasons for placing our estimate thus. That the reader may have some idea of the immense influx into Iowa, we will annex a few extracts which appeared in the newspapers at different points in the State last summer and fall. OF THE IIM'ENSE IIMIGRATION Or 1854. The Iowa City RPeporter says: " SIr. Watts, of this city, has recently returned from a trip East. On his way home, he represents the immigration bound for Iowa as astonishing and unprecedented. For miles and miles, day after day, the prairies of Illinois are lined with cattle and wagons, pushing on towards our prosperous State. 'A point beyond Peoria, 3Ir. Watts remained over night; where he was informed that, during a single month, seventeen hundred and fortjy-three wagons had passed, and allfor Iowa. Allowing five persons to a wagon, which is a fair average, we have 8715 souls to add to our population. This being but the immigration of the month, and upon one route only out of many, it would not be an unreasonable assertion to say that 50,000 men, women, and children will hlave come into this State by the first of December, reckoning from the first of September." Remembering that those spoken of by Mr. Watts all came by wagons, please add this item, from the Chicago Piess: "Most of the passenger trains came in last week with 5* 5,1

Page  54 IMMIGRATION OF 1854. two locomotives; and the reason of this great increase of power will be understood when it is known that twelve thous p(ad passengers arrived from the East, by the Michigan Southern road, during the last week -a city in the short space of six days!" To the above, add the crowds who ascend the Mississippi and Missouri upon every boat, of whom as many as 600 have passed St. Louis in one day! The Oskaloosa Times says: "From early morning till night-fall, the covered wagons are passing through the place." " We learn from old citizens that the tide of immigration is this year greater than they have ever known before." "We should think at least a thousand persons pass through Oskaloosa every week, about these times, on their way westward." "Not an hour in the day but we see teams' hauling up' on the Square." The Dacve~,)ort Commtercial adds: " That's our case, precisely. Our ferry is busy all hours in passing over the large canvas-backed wagons, densely populated with becoming Iowaians. An army of mechan. ics have added 300 buildings to this city during the past season, yet every nook and corner of them are engaged before they are finished; but our hospitable citizens will not allow any to suffer for want of a shelter. In several instances the citizens have, like true aborigines, withdrawn to close quarters, and given their parlors to those who have come to make their homes among us and were unable to 54

Page  55 IMMIGRATION OF 1854. find dwellings. There is not a vacant dwelling or busines room in the city." The Busitg1gton Telegraph says: 20,000 immigrants have passed through the city within the last thirty days, and they are still crossing at the rate of 600 and 700 a day. We have these facts from the ferry folks, who keep a sort of running register. About one team in a hundred is labelled'Nebraska;' all the rest arc marked' Iowa.'" The Dubuque Tribune says: "Daily-yes, hourly- immigrants are arriving in this and neighboring counties from Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois. All are in raptures at the lovely sights which here greet their gaze; and they with one accord yield the palm to Western Iowa for lovely prairies, beautiful groves of timber, and meandering streams of water." The editor of the Dubuque Reporter thus speaks of the "'Prospects of Iowa": "Never before, in the history of this northwestern region of the United States, has there been a more gratifying spectacle than that now presented to those who take an interest in its progress and welfare. Viewing the almost countless throng of immigrants that crowd our streets, and learning that a similar scene is visible at every other point along the Mississippi border of Iowa, the spectator is naturally led to infer that a general exodus is taking place in the Eastern States of the Union, as well as in those that, but a few years ago, were denominated the West. ' Day by day the endless procession moves on-a mighty 55

Page  56 IMMIIGRATION OF 1854. army of invasion, which, were its objects other than peace; and a holy, fraternal, cordial league with its predecessors their joint aim to conquer this fair and alluring domain from the wild dominion of nature would strike terror into the boldest hearts. They come by hundreds and thousands from the hills and valleys of New England, bringing with them that same untiring, indomitable energy and perse verance, that have made their native States the admiration of the world, and whose influence is felt wherever enterprise has a votary or commerce spreads a sail; with intellects sharpened to the keenest edge, and brawny arms to execute the firm resolves of their iron will, and gathering fresh accessions, as they sweep across the intermediate country, from the no less thrifty and hardy population of New York, Ohio, and Indiana. Tarrying no longer amongst us than is necessary for them to select their future home, away they hie to the capacious and inviting plains, that spread themselves interminably, ready to yield, almost without preparation, their rich latent treasures. "Soon will be seen innumerable the farmer's comfortable abode, and the frequent thriving village, with its {people's college,' as its highest worldly pride, and close at hand the house of God, with spire pointing to heaven, as if to remind the worshippers of the source to which they; are indebted for all the store of blessings they enjoy. And soon, too, in the wake of such a mighty rush and all its soul-swelling consequences, will follow the laying out and construction of those great works that will link us to the wide-spread members of our confederacy, over which the 56

Page  57 IMMIGRATION OF 1854. iron horse, more terrible in the fierceness of his strength than the war-steed of Job, will snort his triumphant ha, ha! as he bounds along in his tireless race. Science, in turn, will rear her loftiest fanes, and plant deep in the hearts of her disciples the seeds of a deathless devotion to the institutions of our common country. "And to what, let us ask, is the high tide setting into Iowa fairly to be ascribed? " We take it on ourselves to answer that the unanimous consent of those who have investigated her claims accords her a climate of unequalled salubrity, a soil of the most generous fertility, and a geographical position unsurpassed by that of any other Western State; in a word, that naturally she contains within her limits all the elements which, properly availed of by man, will secure his highest temporal prosperity and happiness. During the past year, she has been peculiarly favored. Whilst the contiguous States, and many of those more remote, have yielded harvests diminished by drought in the ratio of from a fourth to a half, hers has been at least equal to an average one. She is thus able to supply not only her producers, but likewise all who have since come, and are yet to arrive this year. This has been of incalculable advantage to her. Inasmuch as every immigrant comes provided with the means for entering land and defraying expenses till he can make a crop, money has been in freer circulation here than in any other part of the country. A fact equally gratifying is, that the immigration hither numbers in its ranks many men of wealth, who consequently bring to us an accession 57. I, I

Page  58 IMMIGRATION OF 1854. of capital that must of course produce results which are usually unseen in new states for years after their settle ment. "We conclude our remarks on the prospects of Iowa by tendering our congratulations to her citizens on the proud and enviable position she occupies -a position obtained without effort, and which is but a foretaste of that she will attain as her strength is increased and her concentrated energies directed to the securing of a yet loftier elevation." The editor of the Keokuk Whig thus speaks, under the announcement of "' STILL THEY COME l' By railways and steamers, the flood of immigration continues pouring info the great West. The lake-shore roads are crowded to their utmost capacity; single trains of fourteen or fifteen cars, all full of men, women, and a large sprinkling of children, are almost daily arriving at Chicago. The Ohio River steamers are crowded in the same way. On Friday last, two steamers brought into St. Louis some 600 passengers; most of whom, being destined for the northwest, have already passed through this place. And' still they come,' from Pennsylvania, from Ohio, Indiana, and other States, until, by the side of this exodus, that of the Israelites becomes an insignificant item, and the greater migrations of later times are scarcely to be mentioned. Whether the older States are suffering by this rapid depletion, or how long they can endure it, is their own look-out. Certain it is that Iowa in particular, and the other Western and Northwestern States generally are rapidly filling up with a hardy, industrious 68

Page  59 IMMSIGRATION OF 1854. and wealth-producing population. Let them come! HIere is room, and to spare! Here is a theatre for human operations on the grandest scale! Here is the place for the young man, just starting out in life, for the old man, seeking to provide for his children, for'all sorts of men,' in search of fortune, fame, or wealth; for any one, also, who has an eye and a soul for Nature in her grandest forms of lavish profusion and splendid magnificence. "There is something in the' growing, glowing West,' with her limitless prairies, her mighty rivers, her mountains of iron, the lavish richness of her all-bountiful soil, that expands the soul of man, and elevates him above the narrow, cramped, and confined ideas of those who are accustomed only to the well-worn channels and small conventionalities of older hum-drum communities. There the 'new man' is apt to find himself an unwelcome jostler, his intrusion viewed askance, his elbow-room begrudged him, and his presence tolerated only upon condition of his accepting the procrustean standard of hoary and respectable 'use and wont;' unless, indeed, a position can be asserted and maintained by force of very superior talent, or unusual accidental advantages. But here all is new, and plastic, and vigorous. 3len are wanted here, and are welcomed. And here at once is found a boundless and untrammelled field of enterprise, adequate to the elastic energies of ingenious youth or mature manhood. It is curious to watch the development of a comer from the old-fogy settlements: to see his mind expand, his eye light up with the fire of a 59

Page  60 IMMIGRATION OF 1854. renewed energy, and his whole nature grow to the liberal standard of Nature's doings in the West. "Therefore, we repeat again, let them come -old and young, men and women, boys and girls, with or without 'plunder.' Let them flee from their tax-ridden and miserably governed Egypts in Ohio and Pennsylvania, to the Land of Promise, flowing with something better than milk and honey, and possessing capabilities such as they have hardly dreamed of. Here they shall find welcome homes; and, while they speedily help themselves to attain better fortunes, they shall also have a hand in the proud labor of building up the mighty Empire of the Mississippi Valley." The editor of the Keokuk D)ispatch, after returning from a two-.weeks' furlough, says: "No one can travel up and down the Mississippi without being astonished at the immigration constantly pouring into Iowa from all parts of the country; but especially from Indiana and Ohio. "Two gentlemen from Richmond County, Ohio, told us that from that County alone 1000 persons were coming to Iowa this fall; at every ferry on the river crowds are waiting to cross; and the land-offices all over the State are unable to meet the demands upon them by those who are eager to enter lands. "Our journey led us into Jackson and Jones Counties, where we met,in all directions, indications of rapid settlement, thrift, and energy. WVe spent some days in Jones County,on the prairie watered by Mineral Creek, and learned that but a year ago there were forty thousand acres of un 60

Page  61 IMMIGRATION OF 1854. entered land, while there is not now as much as amounts to a section to be had. Although the prairie is but a few miles in extent, there are already forty habitations upon it. "We left the river at Bellevue - the seat of Jackson County. It is beautifully situated, and ought to be a considerable town. Jackson County numbers about 11,000 in population. Maquoketa is a thriving place, and Sabula means to do a large business when the Air Line Railroad crosses at that point. "When we take into account the central position of Iowa in our confederacy, and the fact of the rapid development of her resources, we can easily believe that she is destined to become, at no distant day, all that the most sanguine hope for. Her salubrious climate, the abundance of water, and the favorable distribution of timber, all contribute to give Iowa pre-eminence among the Western States in the minds of those who are exchanging a residence in the East for one in the West." We could occupy pages more in giving like extracts from the press in various parts of the State; but the foregoing will suffice. 6 61

Page  62 GENERAL REMARKS. CHAPTER X. GENERAL REMARKS. [THIE following extracts from "Letters on the West,'" (contributed to the columns of the Davenport Commercial- published by the author - last year,) are herein inserted as containing much information respecting the country, and many practical hints to the new settler, not in print elsewhere. These letters are from the pen of Willard Barrows, Esq.; than whom, probably, no individual in the State possesses more thorough information on the topics he speaks of; he having spent some eighteen years as Government and General Surveyor.] "]ntroduction- The Rivers and Lakes of Iowa-Her Mi neral Resources -Onward March of Civilization. "Aware of the difficulty the immigrant from the Eastern States labors under in obtaining a correct knowledge of the West -of its vast resources, its immense fields for cultivation, spread out in untold beauty, inviting the husbandman to partake of the bounty which a beneficent Being has spread out before him, I hope to furnish your readers with some facts that will prove interesting and profitable to those intending to make their homes in Iowa. I would speak of our beautiful rivers, productive soil, and healthful climate; 62

Page  63 GENERAL REMARKS. of the glassy lakes, whose pebbled shores have for ages been the haunts of the elk, the buffalo, and the deer, and whose waters abound in the finest specimens of the finny tribe. These solitary places, that have slept in beauty so long, have been awakened into life. The woodman's axe now begins to echo on the banks of our streams, and the hum of voices resounds upon our lakes. Civilization, in her westward march, has aroused the deer from his lair; and where, but yesterday, the wolf held undisputed sway, the familiar bark of the farmer's faithful dog is heard. "Probably no State in the Union has ever been settled with greater rapidity, or in so short a period of time gained greater renown, than Iowa. "Bounded on the east by that noblest of rivers, the Mississippi, and on the west by the Missouri, cut up and intersected at the most important points by railroads, projected and under contract, possessing almost inexhaustible supplies of lead in the north, and of coal in the south, of lime, sand, and other building-stone in almost every portion of the State, she combines within her borders, resources that must render her, in point of position and wealth, one of the most important States in the Republic. "The Climate of Iowa may be compared with that of New Jersey and the vicinity of New York City; except that we have not here as much rain and foggy weather as they have. IHere it is, in general, an unbroken winter from the middle of November till January; when we are invariably visited with the January thaw; after which, the weather is generally mild, and gradually merges into spring. We 63 PI-%,

Page  64 GENERAL REMARKS. have but little snow- not enough to prepare for sleighing, and but few sleds or sleighs are manufactured. We are free from the sudden changes so common to New England; the weather is less variable. Our storms are from the east, our showers from the west. "Cultivation and yield of Wheat, Corn, Oats, Potatoes and Onions. "Our wheat is sown in March, and our corn planted the last of April and first of May. But little winter wheat is grown here; the light snows are insufficient to protect it from winter-killing. Spring wheat is raised in great abundance, and of a good quality. Corn is raised in large quantities; and all the products of the earth, congenial to this climate grow,with but little labor. Seldom is the hoe used in the corn or potatoe-field -the horse and plough do the work in general. Of the wheat crop, 40 bushels to the acre is considered a good crop; and of corn, 50, 60, and 75 bushels are raised to the acre; 400 and 500 bushels of potatoes and onions are common to the acre. I know of large crops being taken from the ground -such as 100 bushels of oats to the acre, and the same of corn; but they are not common, and such tales only serve to heighten the fancy of those who intend immigrating, and mislead them. "The Soil and Prospects of the Farmner East and West compared. "A man cannot come here and grow rich in idleness: he must work. Our soil is prolific, but must have care and 64

Page  65 GENERAL REMARKS. culture. It is true that man can live with less labor than in the older States; the soil is easier tilled. He can make himself a home much sooner, and far more easily, than those who purchase land in northern New York, Ohio, and Indiana. How many are there in those States who have toiled for years to cut away the timber and burn it; expending, on an average, $10 or $12 an acre before the plow can enter the land, and then be used with great difficulty among the stumps, roots, and rocks; and how many farmers are there now, in those States, going down to the grave in the meridian of life with a worn-out and broken constitution! Compare the new settlement of those States with a settlement in Iowa. Here, the immigrant enters upon his land, perhaps, at government price- $1'25 per acre; or, if he pays $5, or even $10, per acre, he finds it free from all obstacles in making a farm. For the sum of $2'50, the prairie is broken up, and often corn is planted the first year, by striking the axe into the turf and dropping the corn, which yields 15 to 25 bushels per acre. This is called sod-corn. The second year, the turf is rotten, the ground easily tilled, and the husbandman's labors are crowned with success. "Enclosing Farns -Osage Orange as a Substitute for Board, Wire, or Sod Fences. "To enclose the land, various kinds of fencing have been tried. Among the early settlers, the sod fence was made by those who had a scarcity of timber, but proved a perfect failure. The soil being too alluvial and loamy to sus 6* 65

Page  66 GENERAL REMARKS. tain itself, the common board fence was resorted to, till, more recently, the wire fence has been introduced, and suc ceeds well where it is properly made. In most parts of the State, hogs are not allowed to run at large, and of course less fencing is required. It is now sufficiently demonstrated, by trial of a few, that the Osage-orange hedge is to be the great remedy for lack of timber upon our prairies: it has been tested, and found that a hedge of this shrub will turn any kind of animal, from a horse to a sucking pig, in three or four years. This fence can be made for forty cents per rod, and warranted, or no pay. Upon the prairie, where there is not much range of cattle, the hedge can be planted and grown without fence to protect it; nothing will eat the plant, and the few that might be destroyed by being trod upon, can easily be replaced. In fencing, then, 100 acres square, the expense would be $250, for a fence that would last for ever. It will need training only, as it does not sprout from the roots. But, half of this fence will be for the accommodation of your neighbor; consequently, your cost will be but half this sum. In order to make this fence, the ground must be broken some eight or ten feet wide, upon the line of fence, one year before the planting of the hedge. I understand that a contract has been made recently, by the Illinois Central Railroad, to fence the entire road, some 300 miles, with the Osage orange. "For immediate use, those who have no timber must fence with lumber; which is $15 per thousand feet; and the white-cedar post can be had for $10 per hundred. It will take 1280 posts, eight feet apart, to fence 100 acres 66

Page  67 GENERAL REMARKS. with wire or boards; the amount of either of the latter will be regulated according to the number of strands; which may be three or five. There is but one great deficiency in our State- the scarcity of timber. But we hope for a substitute in the Osage orange, as far as fencing is concerned. "Rerntizg, building, Brick-making-No i- Vacant Lands near the Xississi.ppi River. " Tillable land is now rented at $1'75 to $2-00 per acre. The first tenement of the settler is generally of small dimensions; reared in haste, and ultimately to form the kitchen part of his future dwelling. Brick is made in all parts of the State; and in most parts, the limestone rock is abundant, and often used for entire dwellings for man and beast. The vacant land or lands, still owned by the Government, have now become very scarce in the settled portions of the State. No selections of good land can now be made within fifty or seventy-five miles of the Mississippi River. The immense immigration of the last two years has secured all choice lands in the vicinity of settlements and railroads; and the only chance of the immigrant for land at $1'25 per acre, is to go back into the interior of the State. Many prefer purchasing nearer market-nearer the Mississippi River; where unimproved land can be had at from $4 to $10 per acre, and improved farms at from $10 to $40, and even $50 per acre-according to the value of improvements. 67

Page  68 GENERAL REMARKS. "Iowa as it is, and as the Immigrant may expect to find it -Earnest Labor the Price of Success. "The immigrant must not come here as many do - expecting to find first rate land, with timber and water, all spread out before him, very near some city or town, for $1-25 per acre; it is not to be had. He must not come expecting to find Iowa a desolate, dreary, uncultivated waste, with here and there a green spot, inhabited by pioneers living in log cabins and just merging into civilization; neither must he come expecting to live at ease, enjoying the luxuries of life and health, rolling in upon him without any exertion. A home can be had by the poorest, with prudence and economy. No place in the wide world can offer greater ,inducements to the immigrant than Iowa; but he must look at it as it is. No fancied sketch must weave around his imagination sudden wealth or unreal beauties, seen only in the dreary picture before him. He may fancy Iowa a garden, and, roaming over its prairies, gather flowers from its rich soil, and exclaim with the Indian, in ecstasies of delight, 'I-o-wah!'-' I have found the beautiful land!' but it will never make him rich, nor create for him a happy home, without toil and labor. " Unentered Lands —Immense immtgration of 1854- Cen tral Iowa- -Best Portions of the State yet Unsettled The Destiny of Iowa. "There are yet large bodies of land subject to entry at the government price - $1 25 per acre. Early in the sea 68

Page  69 GENERAL REMARKS. son, there was much upon the line of the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad subject to sale; but I found none at this time within less than four miles of the railroad. The timber-lands of this section of country are all secured; nothing remains but prairie. The wood-lands must be purchased at second rates, from $5 to $10 per acre. These back counties, even to Council Bluffs, are better timbered than those within fifty miles of the Mississippi River, except in the northern part of the Iowa. There is yet most excellent prairie land in the tier of counties west of Johnson and Washington, as far back as Polk and Dallas Counties. But how long any portion of this beautiful country will remain subject to sale by the Government, is uncertain. The immense immigration to the interior of Iowa this season exceeds, by far, all former years. The roads are full of immigrant teams; the groves, creeks, and woodlands seem alive with men, women, and children, encamped in wagons, tents, and cabins, until houses can be erected. "There are upwards of one hundred counties of land in this State surveyed and in market; two-thirds of that number are organized, and contain a population of from 100 to 25,000 each; the river tier of counties being the first settled and most densely populated. Central Iowa is the best body of land in the State; and, in all probability, the State of Iowa is the best in the United States. The better portions of Iowa are not settled yet. The immigrant must not think that Iowa is all sold, or in the hands of speculators. Go where you may, westward or northward, and the boundless prairie is spread out before you, dotted here and 69

Page  70 GENERAL REMARKS. there with its groves and its gentle rivers, skirted with timber; and you find no diminution in beauty or richness of soil: the same deep, black loam is found northward to the St. Peter's River, and westward to the Missouri. The immiErant who is willing to penetrate unsettled portions, and endure the privations incident to a frontier life, can lay, for himself and his children, the foundations of a fortune and a home that will make glad the hearts of his children's children; for Iowa is destined to be the most densely populated State in the Union. " How often has the thought passed through my mind, while rambling over these fertile plains, of the thousands of human beings whose lot has been cast in more sterile lands, bound down by oppression and servitude! What happipess could be offered to the starving millions of the Old World, could the ill-gotten treasures of tyrants be converted to their use, and the uncultivated wastes, that now are only kept for the use of a few wandering tribes of Indians, were made the abodes of civilized men! The onward progress of the Anglo-Saxon race will soon open these vast resources for the benefit of man; and I believe that many of us now upon the stage of action, will see these fertile vales teeming with their ten thousand flocks, and hear from the happy cottages the general anthem of thanksgiving and praise, amid these beautiful glens and dales, until the prolonged note shall sigh upon the Rocky Mountain's top, and the echo be heard along the Shores of the Pacific Ocean." 70

Page  71 INSTRUCTIO N S TO NEW-COMERS. 71 CHAPTER XI. INSTRUCTIONS TO THIE NEW-COMER RESPECTING THE SE LECTION, ENTRY, OR PURCHASE AND CULTIVATION OF PRAIRIE LANDS. TiE purchaser from Government, if he be a stranger in the country, must first go to the Land-office of the District in which lie the lands that he intends to enter. There are in Iowa nine Land-offices, each of which represents several counties. ~At either of these the immigrant will be furnished with small township maps, showing all the vacant or unentered lands, up to the date of application. With these he repairs to the spot; but, without the aid of a surveyor, or some person who understands the mode of government surveys, he will be totally unprepared to make selections, as the "metes and bounds" upon the prairie, or marked trees of the forest, will be all Greek to him. He may gaze upon the goodly land, but for him to know what township, range, or section, or any parts thereof, he is on, will be found impossible. He cannot transcribe the hieroglyphics before him. The numbers must be carefully noted by one who knows, and who will accompany the immigrant to the Land-office; there he makes hi, application to the Registrer, receives a certificite of appli(cation, and then presents the same to the Receiver; pays in specie, or with his warrant, or Vir

Page  72 72 INSTRUCTIONS TO NEW-COMERS. ginia land-script, and receives a duplicate receipt as having paid for such a tract of land, and, in the course of one or two years, he presents his receipt to the same office, and receives a patent from government; his duplicate receipt, however, is a sufficient warrantee for him to sell and convey the land, and is valid in law. To enter upon and settle these lands, is the next thing for the immigrant. I-Ie first erects a small cabin of boards, or perhaps of logs, sufficient to shield himself and family from "the pitiless peltings of the storm," and, with eyes often beaming with gladness, enters with great alacrity upon the thousand and one little works of necessity and mercy for the comfort and security of man and beast; while the enormous prairie plow is set in motion by one whose business it is to "break prairie" at $2 25 per acre. This large machine is, to the new-comer, a curiosity: it is, in all respects, like other plows, but much larger in size; being 10 feet long, and cutting a furrow of some 22 to 24 inches in width. The fore-end of the beam rests upon an axle, with wheels, one of which runs in the furrow and guages the width, acting like the wheel of the locomotive upon the rail. A lever is attached to the fore-end of the beam, running back to the handles, which regulates the depth of furrow, and throws the plow out when desired. When the plow is once set in, it needs no further attention in good prairie, as it runs alone, and the driver has only to attend to his team, which consists of some five yoke of oxen. The roots of the wild grass are much longer and harder to break than the tame. It is considered best to

Page  73 INSTRUCTIONS TO NEW-COMERS. break the ground as shallow as possible, or only to cut a sufficient depth to turn over the roots of yrass; the soil under it being very loose, and the thinner the sod, the sooner it will rot. Often the farmer sends his boys to drop corn along every third or fourth furrow; and corn is thus produced, with no further care, yielding 30 bushels to the acre. The next season the sod is well rotted, and the ground in prime order for wheat. In the mneantlime, the immigrant encloses his fields, either with sawed lumber or rails, as circumstances will permit, erects his clwllng, and begins his "Life on the prairie green, A homle on the boundless waste!" The soil is ready to till, and but few weeds grow for the first two or three years. As I have before said, corn is planted and grown without using the hoe: the horse and plow do the cultivating. The Realities of a Pioneer L?fe -Obstacles to be Sur mounted - Te Rewardcl in Store. These are but faint outlines of opening a farm in the West. The immigrant will find trials and hardships spring up around, unlooked for in the old settlement. Iec wll find that his ability to labor is not as great in his new, unracclimated home, as where he came from: the scarcity of labor, the distance from towns, villages, and market, will throw obstacles in the way of his progress, and he may very naturally expect, in a change of climate, sickness in his family; and {' the ills that life is heir to," will, perhaps, 7 7'0'

Page  74 SKETCHES ON IO WA. tread closely upon his heels, and often make him sigh for "the leeks and the garlics" he left behind him. There is no fancy work in a frontier life, except to him who is weaned from the world at an early age, and assumes the life of a savage. It may do for the intelligent and enterprising of our eastern cities to build for themselves fancied cottages upon our western lands while they are gorged with the pleasures of a city life; but the stern reality of a frontier life will not be all sunshine and happiness; there is labor to be done to enjoy it; there is care and toil, privations and sufferings, universally attendant upon any one's settlement in the new portions of the West; and he who leaves the luxuries of the East and moves to the West, expecting to realize the fancied sketches of rural felicity, will be most sadly disappointed. But let him surmount these obstacles, and he can make himself a home that will yield him a rich and lasting harvest. CHAPTER XII. SKETCHES BY TRAVELLING CONTRIBUTORS-A STRANGER'S IMPRESSIONS, ETC. THE following graphic description of the interior of the State is fromn "Sketches on Iowa," contributed by Mrs. Frances D. Gage to the New York Tribune, in the summer of 1854: 74

Page  75 SKETCHES ON IOWA. "Tr'?p f-or.i Btuo 7-Jl tol to Os7oaloosa- i)t)pressions upon, ancz Ex])ressions by Explorers of Iowza. "I have just risen from the perusal of a long and interesting letter from' Our Own Reporter,' to The Tribune, dated St. Paul, June 8th, 1854, and have responded' True' to all the glowing descriptions of the beauty, fertility, and magnitude of the country bordering upon the Upper Mississippi; and feeling that the beauty, fertility, and excellence of the interior, are fully cqual, if not superior, to the borders, I am impelled to give you a few jottings by the way of a journey just ended, from Burlington to Oskaloosa, and thence back to Keokuk. We had no great party to give eclat to our goings or comings; no music nor dancing, no celebrations, no festivals nor feasting, to gild with rainbow hues the surrounding landscape; but of speechmaking we had plenty, and an endless variety; as good and sensible, too, perhaps, as if spoken by lips quivering with the excitement of pride, ambition, or sparkling Catawba, and falling upon ears as capable of appreciation, as those dulled by hurry, sensuality, bustle, and fatigue. My business was to lecture on Temperance and' Wioman's Rights' to the people, and of course I had time, in my few days of leisure at the towns by the way, to learn somewhat of the country; and changing my travelling companions every few miles of my journey brought me in contact with all classes and kinds of people, from the immovable Dutchman to the cute Yankee speculator; and from stage-coach speeches we will draw our ideas of the impression made 75

Page  76 SKET C TIES ON IOWA. upon the explorers by this interesting country. Well, this is e'en-a-jest the garden of Eden, anyhow!' broke out an old man from MIaine, who had been studying the landscape for some hours in silence. HIe was' hunting homes for his boys.' " Bless my stars, mother, look at that!' exclaimed a loquacious New-Yorker to his better-half, who seemed looking back, like Lot's wife, to the worn-out lands of Oswego. 'Don't that make your mouth water? These corn-fields look as if fifty years old; not a stump nor a stone. Look at that fellow plowing. HIis horse walks as if he had nothing behind himil. WIliat a furrow he rolls up! soft as a garden-plat, rich as a stable-yard.' "'I'll give it up,' says a stately Canadian.'I have been looking all the way fromn Paris, in Canada, through Ohio, Illinois, and Wisconsin for something better, and it has grown better all the way; but better than this is no use: I'll give it up. Come, w:If, let's get out and go back. You wanted clear streams, and here they are. I wanted timnber, stone, and prairie, and I've found them all Let's go back, gather up the ehicks, and come to Iowa.' "'They tell'd us this wus little the puttyest place this side o' sundown, but I thoughlt it half gas; but by shucks they didn't tell half on't. Uncle Nate told us we'd never want to go back to 3ionroe.' "' I reckon we won't neither,' says a stout young man to his cherry-cheeked wife; putting his hand, at the same time, near a side-pocket, where, probably, the treasure was secreted that was to purchase a new home. 76

Page  77 ,4 SKETCHES ON IOWA. "' I3Iagnificent-grand-beautiful!' ejaculated the gentleman in gloves, with the linen coat over his broadcloth; 'these lands will be worth ten dollars an acre in five years, every rood of them. Ten years will make this country equal to the most favored sections of New York, Pennsylvania, or Ohio. Look; is not that splendid? rolling prairie, just enough to drain it; vale, hill, woodland, park, lawn, grove, meadow, field, shrubbery, and garden, and all in luxuriant bloom and beauty from Nature's own hand; brooks, running over pebbly beds, gushing springs, or wells easily made, of clear and sparkling water. Is it not beautiful?' " Beautiful, beautiful, beautiful!' echo the ladies. "'Beau-ti-ful!' answers the quail from the topmost rail of that stake-and-rider fence around that magnificent field of rye. "' Beau-t-iful, beautiful!' whistles the whippoorwill at mid-day, in the dark grove of elms and oaks by the wayside. He had only changed his dolorous note to suit the sunshine. " Iowa for me!' says the young wife. 'Bright and beautiful as a fairy dream!' says the merry maiden. "'Now, ladies and gentlemen,' says an old strangerold-he had been ten years in Iowa-' if you are so taken with this, just hold on. Don't cry out till you get up about Oskaloosa, and round about there; up into Mehaska, Mlarion, AWarren, Lucas, Monroe, Madison, and so on, clear out to Council Bluffs,; such land for farming is not any 7 * 7 s'

Page  78 SKETCHES ON IOWA. where else on this Continent- not even in California -I have seen it all.' "'Can't beat Clark, Union, Adams, MIontgomery, and 3ills,' replies another voice. "'WVell, gentlemen, it is all good; and it is pretty hard to tell which is best.' " Such is the tone of conversation among the explorers of this new country on the steamers, which at this season navigate the Des 3Moines River, and in the coaches. On roads where, three years ago, a coach twice a week was ample, now, two lines a day are required, and six or seven coaches, frequently, to carry the passengers. "'lfount Plcasant, Fa[lrfie7d, O,tunwa, Oskaloosa, Knox ville, acnd Pella-Groves and Piarks-Fruit and Veye tables -Timber - Geology. "Mount Pleasant is a flourishing town, twenty-five miles from Burlington (reached by a plank road), contains 1200 inhabitants, and will have a railroad through it in less than a year-good churches and good people. "Fairfield, the seat of justice of Jefferson County, is twenty-five miles from Miount Pleasant. Ilere are 1500 people, and everything active, vigorous, and progressive. Twenty-five miles further on is Ottumwa, built upon a fine slope on the Des AIoines. It has been a little stagnant for a year or two, on account of the suspension of the Des Moines improvement, which is now about to be renewed by an eastern company, and will be speedily completed; for when any country demands a work that will pay as well 78

Page  79 SKETCIIES ON IOWA. as this will, there will always be foundc men- and capital to do it. Os,kaloosa, the countty-seat of Mahaska, is on the prairie; the Des i3'Ioines is four miles distant, upon one sidc, and the south fork of Skunk Riliver two miles, on the other. 'It is thus bordered on either side by living streams and heavy timber. Ten years since, it was made the seat of justice; then a place where a few settlers had reared their cabins, seeing, with prophetic eye, what must follow. Now, it has from 2000 to 2500 inhabitants, and 100 buildings, it is said, will be erected this season. Every house and room is full, and every day brings new accessions to their numnbers. The railroad will pass through this beautiful town in less than two years. Knoxville, the county-seat of Miarion, is a village of 1500 inhabitants. Pella, where a colony of iollanders located six or eight years ago, near the border of Marion, has now its 600 people. A convention was there held the last week in May, and arrangements made for erecting a College under the patronage of the Baptist denomination. At Oskaloosa, they have now a Normal School. At Fairfield and Mount Pleasant, Female Seminaries and Colleges are in process of erection. The dwellers in the East have, as yet, no conception of this beautiful State, its present improvements, its progress, or its resources. "The prairies are high and rolling, and bordered with timber. In many places Nature seems to have laid out the farm expressly for man's use, and cleared the meadow, corn-field, and orchard, leaving no stump, tree, or bush to interfere with the plow, covering it with deep and matted 79

Page  80 SKETCHES ON IOWA. roots of grass to preserve the soil and enrich it for future use. Groves and parks surround it; running streams and brooks, rippling merrily over pebbles and sand, refresh it; shrubbery and underbrush supply the new beginners with rich fruits- plums of fine quality, resembling the apricot, wild cherries, gooseberries, smooth and large, blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, grapes; all of superior quality to those growing wild in the middle States, and in quantities inexhaustible. Potatoes, both sweet and Irish, are very fine; corn, magnificent; and all agree in one thing - that one-half of the labor will produce a better crop than in the farming lands of Ohio. "Here, then, by the side or under the cover of one of those rare old groves, the farmer may make his home, break up his prairie land, and in three years have his farm under better cultivation than in hilly woodland countries in fifteen. Apple and peach trees come to maturity very soon, and good nurseries are now to be found in many places. At Pella there is a very fine one, as well as a garden, owned by the learned and gentlemanly Mr. Scottel, who takes great pleasure in giving information to travellers. Timber, such as oak, walnut, hickory, maple, elm, and ash, is abundant. There are few large prairies- five or six miles is the widest, oftener one or two, and still oftener less. Limestone, freestone, and stone-coal, without stint, and here and there quarries of a species of beautiful marble, made of marine deposits and shells, are found. Every necessary or comfort of life is here produced, or may be produced without difficulty or expense. 80

Page  81 SKETCHES ON IOWA. "The Des -ro/,)es River In?, ovenz,t-Nl,poleo, Farm i;yton., Kcosaquta-.The People of Jowa-ff-Zr Lawvs The most Proigressive and beet linzproved State in the tUnion-Advice to Eastern People -Iowva the Eden of America. " The Des HeIoines River improvement offers great facilities for mills and manufactories, and the towns already started, where dams have been erected, give evidence of a prosperous future. At Napoleon may be found a woolen factory, with men and women busily engaged in doing good work. Their machinery is very good, but they have but just begun. A flour-mill, too, gives out its cheerful hum. Farmington is a pleasant town, twenty-five miles from Keokuk. Here a fine bridge spans the Des 3Moines, leading the way to Keosauqua, the seat of justice of Van Buren County, also a flourishing village. But I might fill columns, and yet not get to the end of these flourishing new towns, springing up, as it were, by magic, between night and morning. "But the people -what of the people? exclaim your readers; what are they? Shall I say what I think? The people are the strong, earnest, energetic, right-thinking, and right-feeling people of the land. Its founders must have been wiser than most men, or they would not in the begin ning have recognised all grog-shops as nuisances, and have made the vender of ardent spirits liable for his own transgres sions. They must have been more just than common men, or they would not at first have secured the property rights 81

Page  82 SKETCHES ON IOWA. of the wife, and made her the joint guardian, with her husband, of her children. They must have been men more humane than common, or they would not have secured the homestead to the family. These good laws have led those of other States who wish to be wise, just, and humane, to become the dwellers of this fair land. Hence I hesitate not to say that it is the most moral and progressive, as well as the best-improved State, of its age, in all our country. The people of the East must cease to think of Iowa as 'way out West.' It is but half past one out here - not yet fashionable dinner-time; and the people who last year, or last week, or even day before yesterday, left New England, New York, Pennsylvania, or Ohio, with the last Harper or Putna(m in their pocket, the last Tribz>e in their hand, the last fashion on their heads and shoulders, and the last reform in their hearts, are very much the same people in Iowa that their neighbors found them at home, only that a new country, log cabins, and little deprivations call out all their latent powers, cultivate the fallow grounds of heart and feelings, make them more free, more earnest, more charitable; in fact, expand, enlarge, and fit them all the better for life and its duties. Why will people live pent up in cities, amid the dust, and smoke, and din, while there is here so much of beauty, freshness, and utility unappropriated.' There are millions of hands wanting acres, and millions of acres wanting hands.' True, Iowa may be said to be yet in its log-cabinage, but what of that? Ten years ago, the farmer of Marion went sixty miles to mill. What now? Steam mills are at their very doors. Then, 82

Page  83 SKETCHES ON IOWA. as my sister said, for weeks I saw not a woman's face. Now, from my door, I count the friendly, cheerful smoke of twenty home-fires. We ate and slept in these cabins. There was peace, plenty, and cheerfulness. "Not one - not one desponding wife or mother did we find; not one willing to go back and live in the old States. ' Look,' they would exclaim,' at our corn, our young orchard; our cows are so fine, our chickens are almost Shanghais, our gardens astonish us; we can afford to live cramped ourselves for houseroom when everything else expands so fast. We shall build in a year or two, when we get our plans laid." Fourth-rate lawyers, doctors, and ministers will do well to remember that the people of Iowa have not yet forgotten the sound of the voices of the good and great they have left behind. Merchants need not take old goods to Iowa, nor faded belles flatter themselves that last year's fashions will answer.'Anything' won't' do out West' any more. I went, with other ladies, to a political meeting at Oskaloosa to hear the free-soil Whig nominee for Governor talk to the dear people. The men looked just like men elsewhere, only they were a little more civil and genteel, and did not make quite so general a spittoon of the CourtIIouse; and I did not see one that leaned towards drunkenness, though the house was full. I went to church; fine astrals, polished walnut, and crimson velvet made the pulpit look like home; ladies rustled rich brocades, or flitted in lawns as natural as life. The only point of difference that struck me was, that their bonnets, with a few exceptions, did not hang so exactly upon nothing as at the East; pro 83

Page  84 SKETCIIES ON IOWVA. bably because there was less of nothing to hang on. Then rosy cheeks, sparkling eyes, and free, vigorous steps, were every-day affairs. Altogether, the women were very healthy; and the children, poor little vulgar things-taking after their mothers, as children always will - looked as though they had all the air and sunshine they needed, and would positively be so unfashionable as to live (nine-tenths of them) through the second summer, and be men and women, despite teething, chin-coughs, mumps, and measles. " Burlington and Keokuk are important towns, but too well known and understood in their infant prosperity to need comment. It would require a chapter to give them their due. I hope your reporter, who was at Keokuk while we were there, will do them justice. "To sum up all, this is the most beautiful country that I have ever seen; and when the hand of active industry and energy has overcome the difficulties necessarily attendant upon a new country, and art and wealth have embellished what nature has made so grand, it will be, as the old man said,'almost the garden of America.'" A STRANGER'S IMPRESSIONS OF IOWA. The following was communicated to the Proyressive Era by a former citizen of Illinois: "It is only within a few weeks that I became an unwilling resident of this State. I say unwilling, because the attachment I felt for my native State and its institutions was so strong, that the idea of severing the connection predisposed me to disparage the advantages of that State 8.1

Page  85 SKETCHES ON IOWA. which was to cause the separation. I had heard glowing accounts of Iowa, and, though interested in her success, was more selicitous for the welfare of Illinois, and somewhat inclined to exaggerate her natural advantages, when compared with those of other States. I knew that in many parts, as a farming country, Illinois was unexceptionable, and that the natural scenery was good; indeed, I often thought it impossible that her beautiful rolling prairies could be surpassed; but, to confess the truth, so far as I can judge of the natural advantages of a State from outward appearances, I must give Iowa the preference. Every step of my trip through the State has contributed something to the formation of this conclusion in spite of my resolve to be displeased. Even now a glance from my window discloses a scene I have rarely beheld equalled: just before me the high, rolling prairie, is stretching away for miles, and rising higher and higher in the distance, until the green of its bosom afar up grows dim, and seems almost lost in the blue of the sky. Flanking the prairie on either side, and cutting across in various directions, are large strips of timber, which, ten years ago, were the homes of wild deer and the hunting-grounds of the Indian. Still nearer, and passing through our beautiful and populous village, the Cedar River takes its way; as lovely and romantic a stream as any to which Burns, or Campbell, or Moore has ever given celebrity in verse, nor wanting in many of those thrilling legends which have heretofore furnished the foun dations of some of our best poetical effusions." The following is from a series of letters descriptive of a 8 85

Page  86 SKETCHES ON IOWA. journey from Council Bluffs to Keokuk, by Mr. Barcom, former editor of the Ohio State Journal: "Fort Des Moines- The Davenport Railroad- The Des 2loines River Improvement. Cc Before beginning my trip westward, I took the map of that region, and studied the geography of the country, and the locations of certain towns, with reference to their probable future. The result of this examination was, that from their natural positions, Fort Des Moines was destined to be the greaty city in central, and Council Bluffs the great city in western Iowa. The only remaining question in my mind was, whether they had a rich fertile country about them, that would back up and support a city. This is indispensable, and to this question I paid particular attention. In other letters I have expressed my opinion of the future of Council Bluffs. I am now ready to say what I think of Fort Des Moines. "The River Des Moines is the great river of Iowa. It is fully as large as the Muskingum, the largest river in Ohio, and in many striking particulars reminds me of that stream. Rising in the northwest part of the State, it traverses its territory to the extreme southeast corner. About half way up it, and where the Raccoon River intersects it from the west, the city of Fort Des Moines has its locality. Like Pittsburg, the town plat is on a beautiful tract of land, being the point or tongue between these two rivers. Several hundred acres of level, dry, bottom-land, afford a fine location for a town. The hills back are very beautiful, 86

Page  87 SKETCHES ON IOWA. and afford many most charming sites for residences. On one of them, a fine tract, commanding a most splendid view, has been set apart by the proprietor as a donation for the site of the State House when the people move the capital of the State there, as they will undoubtedly do in due time. The town is finely laid off. The lots are 66 feet by 132. The streets are generally 80 feet in width. There are not many prominent buildings yet, as the town is quite new. It has been but two or three years since it began to feel its importance, and to start in its career to a higher position. No part of the town is yet compactly built; and the question which are to be the business streets, appears to be quite as much an open one as it is at Council Bluffs. The Davenport Railroad passes through this place. It is to cross the Des MIoines on a substantial bridge, and continue a west course, through the north of the centre of the town, to its dep6t grounds, which have been procured, and which are ample for the purpose. Owners of property near the railroad and dep6t think that it is to be the seat of future business, while others, holding property elsewhere, are equally certain that it will be nearer the point. Time alone will settle the dispute. "Fort Des Moines was for many years a military post in the midst of the Indian country, and it is only within a short time that it has begun to improve. It has about the same population as Council Bluffs -from 1500 to 2000 - but the land-speculation fever rages there much more severely than at the Bluffs. City lots sell high, and there is quite a traffic going on in town property, out lots, &c. 87

Page  88 SKETCHES ON IOWA. Many persons go there to invest, but leave, thinking that real estate is entirely beyond its value. It is no doubt true, that persons who would otherwise settle and build there are sometimes driven off by the high price of lots. WVhen I presented this view of this subject to some of the citizens, the answer was,'How can we help it? People from abroad come here and offer us these high prices for our property. It is their fault; not ours.' I confess there was plausibility in the response, but it did not in the least remove the difficulty. " Fort Des Moines has an abundance of timber about it; also good building stone, of lime and sand formation. It has also an abundance of coal; and the soil of the entire country is exceedingly rich and productive. It has about it one of the richest farming sections of the State; and, with all these advantages, it must make a city of some importance. The railroads of the Des Moines Valley and the Davenport Road make it a point. It is at the head of navigation on the Des Moines. Steamboats ply between here and Keokuk during several months; and the great work of improving it by slack-water navigation is again about to be resumed. It requires twent+y-nine dams and locks; but the General Government has appropriated about a million acres of land, and a company of energy and high character have undertaken the work. I think Fort Des Moines is destined to be the most important inland town of the State." 88

Page  89 RAILROADS. CHIIAPTER XIII. RAILROADS. TIIERE are several very important railroad lines projected, some of which are partly under contract, and others of which may not be built for years. Three different lines have been explored and surveyed, commencing at Davenport, as follows: One from Davenport, through MIuscatine, thence through the northern part of Louisa County, and through Washington, Keokuk, MIahaska, Marion, Warren, Madison, Adair, Adams, and Montgomery Counties, to the Missouri River, near the mouth of the Platte. Another from Davenport, through Scott, Johnson, Iowa, Powesheik, Jasper, Polk, Dallas, Guthrie, Audubon, and Shelby Counties, to the Missouri River, in Pottawattamie County. A third line, from Muscatine, through Cedar and Lime Counties, to Cedar Rapids, with a view to the further continuation of the line northwestwardly, into the Territory of Minnesota. These explorations were made under the direction of Ilenry Farnam, Chief Engineer; and in December, 1852, an association was formed, under the general laws of Iowa. 8* 89

Page  90 RAILROADS. The routes embraced in the Articles of Association are, a line from Davenport, by way of Muscatine, to the southern or western boundary of Iowa; and northwardly, by way of Cedar Rapids, up the Cedar Valley to the north line of the State of Iowa; thus combining, in one organization, a system of railroads for central Iowa, whose eastern terminus shall be the bridge over the Mississippi River at Davenport. Those portions of these roads between Davenport and Iowa City, and between Muscatine and Oskaloosa, are under contract, and will be ready for the cars sometime during the coming summer. The line from Muscatine to Cedar Rapids has been permanently located, and that portion of it which forms a junction with the Davenport Road is nearly ready for the cars; so that Muscatine will be in connection with the main line to New York City as soon as the track is laid from Davenport to the junction. The Chief Engineer says of the country, "In November last, in company with John B. Jervis, Esq., Consulting Engineer, James Archibald, Esq., a distinguished engineer, General George B. Sargeant, of Davenport, and the Hon. N. B. Judd, of Chicago, I passed over the line from Iowa City to Fort Des Moines, and thence down the'divide' between the Des Moines and Skunk, to Oskaloosa, and from Oskaloosa, through Keokluk, Washington, and Louisa Counties, to Muscatine. The whole country on both routes is one of unsurpassed beauty and fertility. Since then, I have passed over the line from Muscatine to Cedar Rapids. No more beautiful or productive region of country can be 90

Page  90A


Page  91 RAILROADS. found in the Union. There is literally no waste land to be found, and the settlements are such that a railroad would be immediately productive. The entire land on each of the routes from Davenport to Fort Des Moines, from Muscatine to Oskaloosa, and from Muscatine to Cedar Rapids, has been all purchased of the Government, and the State of Iowa is settling with a rapidity unparalleled in the history of any State." The Mississippi Bridge, now being built at Davenport, connects the Chicago and Rock Island, and the Mississippi railroads; making one continuous line, without interruption or break of guage, from Chicago to the Missouri River. The people of Iowa, Western Minnesota, and those who are to cultivate the fertile soil of Nebraska, will never consent to be shut out from the Atlantic and the great Western lakes by any pretended obstruction which a bridge built on the plan proposed may offer. The bridge will span the Mississippi on the Rapids, where the current is compressed to a narrow space, so that boats, to strike the piers on either side, would first have to surmount rocks which Nature has had fixed as impediments to navigation for centuries, and of which the proposed improvement of the Rapids does not contemplate the removal. Simply a skeleton railroad bridge, the draw will always be up, save when the cars are actually crossing; which never can occur when a steamboat is passing, except by the grossest negligence. For the reasons thus concisely given, we argue that this bridge will prove no obstruction to the navigation of the river. 91

Page  92 RAILROADS. The estimated cost of the before-mentioned lines, for grading and bridging, track superstructure, equipments, station buildings, engineering and contingencies, are as follows: Average Division. Dist. Miles. Cost. per Mile. Davenport to Iowa City...... 54.92 $1,516,790.00 $27,618.00 IowaCity toFortDes Moines 119.00 3,554,870-00 29,873.00 Muscatine to Oskaloosa...... 95-27 2,557,500-00 26,845.00 Muscatine to Cedar Rapids.. 62-64 1,493,250-00 23,839.00 Making, in the aggregate, $9,122,410-00 Several other railroad lines are proposed, and in part under contract, which we will mention: The Burlington and Missouri River Railroad, being a continuation of the Chicago and Burlington Railroad, passes west, through the centres of Henry, Jefferson, Wapello, Monroe, Lucas, Clarke, Union, Adams, Montgomery, and Mills Counties, striking the Missouri opposite the mouth of the Big Platte, or Nebraska River, some twentyfive miles below Council Bluffs. This road is under contract to Wapello County, and the prospects of an early completion are good. Burlington has recently had railroad connection with Chicago, "through by daylight." The Lyons Central Railroad, a continuation of the Chicago Air Line Railroad, passes west from Lyons, through Clinton and Cedar Counties, to Iowa City, in Johnson County, where it connects with the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad. This road was all under contract, and considerable work done at different points; but its progress has been suspended for some months. We understand that 92

Page  93 RAILROADS. a new company has resumed the enterprise, and are hastening it to an early completion. The Northern Iowa Railroad, a continuation of the Illinois Central, is projected from Dubuque west, through the Counties of Dubuque, Delaware, Buchanan, Blackhawk, Grundy, Hardin, Webster, Calhoun, Sac, Ida, and Woodbury, striking the Missouri at Floyd's Bluffs, at the mouth of the Big Sioux River. A branch of this road is also projected to run from Delhi, in Delaware County, north, through Clayton, Fayette, and Winnesheik, to St. Paul, Minnesota. A line connecting with the Chicago and Mississippi Railroad (which reaches the Missouri in Carroll County, Illinois), is projected to pass through Jackson, Jones, Linn, Benton, Tama, Marshall, Story, Boone, Greene, Carroll, and Crawford, striking the Missouri in Mahona County. A line running as a continuation of the North Missouri Railroad enters the State in Davis County, passing through Appanoose, Lucas, and Warren, to Fort Des Moines, crossing the Burlington and Missouri Railroad at Chariton, the Muscatine and Platte Valley Railroad at Indianolo, and connecting with the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad at Fort Des Moines. A portion of this road is under contract, and we are informed will be pushed through as rapidly as circumstances will admit A branch of this line leaves Fort Madison, passing through Lee, Van Buren, and Davis, connecting with the Northern Missouri and Des Moines Railroad in Appanoose County. The Des Moines Valley Railroad is to leave the Missis 93

Page  94 RAILROADS. sippi at Keokuk, passing through Lee, Van Buren, Jefferson, Wapello, Mahaska, Marion, and Jasper, to Fort Des Moines, there connecting with two east and west lines. This is considered by many as being one of the most important routes, as the Des Moines Valley, in mineral and agricultural productions, is the richest valley in the State. Another line, as a continuation of the Philadelphia and Fort Wayne Air Line Railroad, to leave the Mississippi at the mouth of the Iowa River, passing through Louisa and Washington Counties, connecting at Washington with the Muscatine and Oskaloosa Railroad, has been proposed. A preliminary survey has been made of a railroad from Keokuk to Davenport, via Montrose, West Point, Mount Pleasant, Columbus City, and Muscatine; the entire distance being 703 miles. The estimated cost of this road, including furniture, dep6ots, fencing, &c., is $1,911,934. This is one of the many roads which will seek the bridge at Davenport as the Mississippi crossing. We doubt not that those railroad lines penetrating into the State, which are continuations of roads from the East and South, will be pushed forward to an early completion. The construction of the several roads reaching from Chicago towards the Mississippi River demonstrates that railroads may be constructed through a country of prairie on the line of emigration, and yield a profit as soon and as far as opened. The receipts of the Chicago and Rock Island Road from the 10th of July to the 10th of January were $710,688'86. Running expenses for the same time, 94

Page  95 RAILROADS. $440,764'86; leaving a balance of $270,894. The whole number of passengers passing over the road for the five months ending December 1st, amounted to 168,824; total amount of freight transported during the same time, 49,734 tons. We give the statistics of this road, because it was the first which reached the Mississippi, and reliable facts could be more easily obtained. Nor is this railroad an exception -each of the Chicago and Mississippi, and the Galena and Chicago lines, pay well as far as completed. The Mississipi Railroad Bridge. The great Railroad Bridge crossing the Mississippi at Davenport is steadily progressing, and the greater part of the masonry is completed. Its entire length will be 5832 feet, consisting of spans of 250 feet each, exclusive of bearings. The river is divided into two channels at this point by the beautiful isle, Rock Island. The main channel is on the Iowa side, the second channel upon the Illinois side of the river. That portion of the bridge over the main channel is 1583 feet in length. The circular-shaped draw-pier, which stands near the centre of this channel, is 40 feet in height, 46 feet in diameter at the foundation, and 37 at the top. On each side of the draw-pier is a draw of 120 feet, working on the rotary principle; making, in all, a clear space of 240 feet for the passage of river craft. These draws are open at all times, save when a train is due; and 95

Page  96 RAILROADS. even in that case, if a boat is in sight, it will have the preference. The average height of the bridge is 30 feet above low water. Besides the draw-pier, there are five others. These are oblong in shape, and measure, at their base, 57 feet by 16 to 18; at their top, 24 feet by 7 to 10. There are two abutments, one on the island and one on the Iowa shore, containing together about six thousand yards of masonry. This bridge connects with a huge embankment, built over the lower point of the island, which lies very low, containing 125,000 cubic yards of earth, and costing forty thousand dollars. At the west end, this embankment connects with another bridge, of less dimensions, over the Illinois channel of the Mississippi. This lesser bridge has two piers, and three spans, of 150 feet each, all constructed in the same style, and upon the same principle, as those of the bridge over the main channel. The entire length of the two bridges and the intervening embankment is 5,832 feet. The cost of the entire work will be $260,000. The bridges are being built for a single track. Their wooden work will be of pine and oak. Mr. John Warner has the contract for the masonry and grading, and Messrs. Stone and Boomer for the superstructure. The contractors are all energetic men, and are doing the work with the utmost fidelity. The bridges are built according to Howe's improved patent, and when completed will be models of strength and beauty. 96

Page  97 DISTANCES BY RAIL ROAD. This Great Bridge has naturally attracted attention from every part of the Union. The design is indeed a colossal one, and one which can only be accomplished by men of stout hearts and of iron nerve. For many long years the Mississippi has been considered an insuperable obstacle to the continuity of all great thoroughfares, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Happily for the best interests of the West, and indeed, the whole world of commerce, a rare combination of natural facilities at this point, of the resources of modern science, of eastern capital, and of western enterprise, has made the project practicable, and insured its completion within the present year. Its opening will mark a new era in the history of Commerce, and in the annals of the Great West. CHAPTER XIV. RAILROAD DISTANCES ON THIE VARIOUS LINES) CONNECT ING CHICAGO WITH THE STATE OF IOWA. CHICAGO AND ROCK ISLAND RAIL ROAD. From Chicago to Miles. Junction...................... 6 Blue Island.................. 9 Bremen....................... 8 Mokena....................... 6 Joliet................11.......... 11 Minooka.............. e........ 10 Morris................1......... 11 S eneca........................ Marseilles.................... Ottawa........................ Utica.......................... La Salle...................... (Ill. Central RR. crosses). Peru........................... Trenton....................... Bureau Junction........... Tiskilwa...................... 9 97 10 5 8 9 5 I 10 4 9

Page  98 98 DISTANCES BY RAIL ROAD. Pond Creek.................. Sheffield...................... Anawan....................... Geneseo....................... Colona........................ Moline........................ Rock Island................. MWoline.................... 10 Rock Island.................3 Total................. 181 Davenport opposite side of River. Nep r Kew Galo Wal Wat Gale Mon You Miss lii gton..................... 18 Total.................... 203 CHICAGO, BURLINGTON AND QUINCY RAIL ROAD. From Chicago to Miles. Oak Ridge................... 8 Cottage Hill................ 8 Babcock's Grove..........C Hl.. 4 Danby......................... 2 Wheaton....................... 3 Winfield...................... 2 Junction...................... 3 Batavia....................... 6 Aurora........................ 7 Montgomery................. 3 Oswego....................... 2 Bristol........................ 3 Piano.................. a........ 6 Newark....................... 5 Somonauk.................... 3 Waverly...................... 6 Earl................... i........ 7 Mendota...................... 11 (Crosses Illinois Central). Arlington.................... 9 Dover......................... 7 Princeton.................... 6 Wyanet....................... 6 French Grove................e 6 DISTANCES ON THE CHICAGO AND DIXON RAIL ROAD. From Chicago to Miles. Oak Ridge.............. 8 Cottage Hill............. 8 16 Babcock's Grove....... 4 20 Danby.................... 2 22 Wheaton................. 3 25 Winfield.................. 2 27 Junction..............,... 3 30 Geneva................... 5 35 Blackberry.............. 9 44 Lodi....................... 6 50 Courtland................ 5 55 De Kalb.................. 3 58 Dement.................. 8 66 Lane...................... 6 72 Ogle...................... 8 80 Franklin................. 7 87 Taylor.................... 4 91 Dixon..................... 4 95 A continuation of this line, called the Mississippi and Rock River Junction RR. is in progress of construction, 6 10 7 13 10 7 7 8 8 8 8 8? 8

Page  99 DISTANCES BY RAIL ROAD. Marengo............... 4 66 Garden Prairie........ 6 72 Belvidere............... 6 78 Cherry Valley......... 6 84 Rockford............... 8 92 Winnebago............. 7 99 Pecatonica............. 7 106 Nevada................. 8 114 Freeport................ 7 121 Eleroy.................. 8 129 Lena................... 5 134 Nora.................... 7 141 Warren................. 4 145 Apple River........... 6 151 Scales Mound........ 8 159 Council Hill........ 6 164 Galena...........................7 171 Dunleith................ 10 181 This road is intended to connect with the Northern Iowa RR. projected from Dubuque west towards the Missouri. Fulton............. 36 Making a distance of, say, 131 miles from Chicago to the Mississippi River by this route. DISTANCE ON THE GAL,ENA AND CHICAGO RAIL ROAD. From Chicago to MViles. Junction (See foregoing table)................ 30 Wayne............5 35 Clinton..................4 39 Elgin.................... 3 42 Gilbert's................ 8 50 Huntley's..............5 55 Union...................7 62 DISTANCES ON THE MISSISSIPPI AND MISSOURI RAIL ROAD. First General Division, from Davenport to Council Bluffs. From Davenport to Miles. Wolcott................................................. 12 Farnam................................. 17 Durant................................................20 Graded. Junction of Muscatine and Cedar Rapids...... 27 Moscow, on Cedar River........................... 30 West Liberty..................................... 39 Iowa City............................................... 55 Centre of Iowa County............................. 85 " Powesheik County......................111 Located. 1Newton, Jasper County............................. 141 Fort Des Moines...................................... 174 Proposed. Council Bluffs...................................... 310 99 and will probably be completed this season. The stations thereoia are: Steriiiig, Unionville, Fulton..............

Page  100 100 DISTANCES BY STAGE ROUTES. Second Gener From Muscatine to Under Contract. Fredonia, or Iowa River.................... -Columbus City.................................. o Washington...................................... Oskaloosa..................................... Mouth of Platte (21 miles below Council Bluffs).......................................... Third General Division, from Muscatine to Cedar Rapids. From Muscatine to Junction with 1st General Division....... 5 Tipton............................................. Cedar Rapids........................... DISTANCES ON THE VARIOUS STAGE PROUTES THROUGII OT THIE STATE. Keg Creek............ 6 317 COUNCIL BLUFFrS.... 10 327 BURLINGTON TO COUNCIL BLUFtFS. From Burlington to Miles. London................ 20 MT. PLEASANT...... 10 30 Rome.........................8 38 FAIRFIELD............ 15 53 Libertyville.......... 7 60 Agency City......... 15 75 OTTUMWA............. 4 79 EDDYVILLE........... 15 94 OSKALOOSA........... 10 104 PELLA.................. 18 122 FT. DEs MOINES..... 46 168 See preceding table for intermediate distance. Council Bluffs....... 139 307 From Davenport to MtUSCATINE.......... IOWA CITY............ Mal rengo.............. Sugar Grove......... NEWTON.............. Keith's................ FT. DES MOINES..... Adel................... Panther Creek....... Bear Grove........... Indian Grove......... Nishnabottanny..... Pleasant Spring..... Indiantown........... Walnut Creek....... West Nishnabottany Silver Creek......... Aliles. 20 22 39 95 280 -Located. Surveyed. Miles. 12 27 63 Located. DAVENPOP-T TO COU-NCIL BLUFFS. Miles. 80 83 26 46 20 19 14 24 5 22 11 15 9 4 5 15 13 63 89 185 15.5 174 188 212 217 2!,' 9 2.50 265 274 278 283 298 811

Page  101 DISTANCES BY STAGE ROUTES. 101 BURLINGTON TO CENTREVILLE, DUBUQUE TO IOWA CIT From Dubuque to Cascade................ Monticello............. Anamosa............... Fairview............... Marion.................. Cedar Rapids......... Iowa City.............. From Burlingto n to Lowell................... Salem.................... Hillsborough........... Utica.................... Keosauqua............. Troy..................... Bloomfield.............. Centreville.............. CEDAR RAPIDS TO CEDAR FALLS. From Cedar Rapids to Miles. Vlinton.................. 25 Waterloo.............. 30 65 Cedar Falls............ 7 72 BURLINGTON TO KEOKI From Burlington to Ft. Madison........... Montrose............... Keokuk................. DAVENPORT TO CEDAR RAPIDS. KEOKUK TO IOWA CIT~ From KReokuk to Charleston............. Primrose............... Birmingham.......... Fairfield................ Brighton............... Washington........... Iowa City.............. DAVENPORT TO DUBUQUE. From Davenport to Miles. Dewitt.................. 21 Maquoketa............ 19 40 Andrew................. 8 48 La Motte............... 10 58 Dubuque............... 16 74 KEOsICU TO KEOSAUQU From Keokuk to Charleston............. Warren................. Bonaparte............. Keosauqua............ LUBUQUE TO CEDAR FA From Dubuque to Delhi................... Independence......... Cedar Falls............ 9* BONAPARTE TO BIRMINOGIAM. From Bonaparte to Miles. Winchester............ 12 Birmingham........... 8 ] 5 I APPA-.,-ooSEL'EO. Miles. 26 12 38 13 51 4 55 15 70 6 75 25 100 Miles. 19 12 I 1 6 37 7 44 12 66 15 71 10 81 26 107 M.Ues. 20 12 32 12 44 Miles. is 12 80 24 54 9 63 12 75 15 90 35 125 From Da-venport to Tipton,................. Alt. Vernon............ Marion.................. Cedar Rapids......... m5jes. 40 20 13 5 60 73 78 Miles, is 6 24 12 86 12 48 Miles. 36 36 72 25 97

Page  102 DI STANCES BY RIVER. OTTUIIWA TO CHARITON. From Ottumwa to Miles. All)in.................. 25 Chariton.............. 25 50 OSKALOOSA TO COUNCIL BLUroF s. From Oskaloosa to Miles. Knoxville............. 25 Indianola............. 25 50 Wintersett............ 26 75 MIUSCATINE TO BURLINGTON. From Muscatine to Miles. Grandview........... 14 Wapello............... 10 24 Linton................. 9 33 Burlington........... 19 52 RIVER DISTANCES. Montrose................... Nauvoo...................... Fort Madison............. Pontoosuc.................. Burlington................ Oquawka.................... Keithsburg................. New Boston................ Bloomington.............. Drury........................ Salem........................ Buffalo and Andalusia... Rockingham............... R. Island and Davenport Hampton................... Fort Byron................. Cordova.................... Camanche.................. New Albany............... Fulton and city of Lyons Sabula...................... Savannah................... Belleview................... Galena...................... Dubuque................... 102 Lewis.................. 70 145 Council Bluffs....... 60 205 FAIRFIELD TO KEOSAQUA, 20 202 .204 214 220 235 250 262 269 299 304 309 321 329 334 346 353 358 364 867 377 395 397 412 428 453 ,IIISSISSIPPI PIVEP,. From It. Louis to Alton........................ Gr,,.tfton..................... 'Nlilan........................ Wiota........................ Worthington............... Westport.................... Ilamburg................... Clarksville................. Louisiana................... Scott's Landing........... Cincinnati.................. Saverton.................... Hannibal................... 'Nlarion City....... Quirey..................... La Gran,e............ ,,moot's Landing.......... Canton...................... Tully....................... Gregory's Landing....... Alexandria................. Keokuk..................... Nashville................... lliles. 22 18 24 42 52 57 62 80 82 97 105 115 123 133 143 155 159 161 163 175 185 190 198

Page  103 DISTANCES BY RIVER. Mouth of Osage........... Jefferson City............. Claysville................. Marion...................... Nashville................... Providence................. Rocheport................. Boonville................... Arrow Rock................ Glasgow..................... Cambridge................. Keytesville Landing..... Brunswick.................. Dewitt....................... Miami...................... Hill's Landing............. Waverly..................... Dover Landing............ Lexington.................. Wellington.................. C a mden..................... Napoleon....................3 Sibley....................... Richfield.................... Blue Mills Landing...... Liberty...................... Wayne City................ Randolph................... Kansas...................... Parkville................... Narrows Landing......... Fort Leavenworth........ Weston..................... Columbus Landing....... St. Joseph.................. Savannah.................. Iowa Point................. MISSoUmlI RIVER. From Alton to Mlouth of Missouri....... St. Charles................. M~t. Auburn................ Augusta..................... South Point Washington Pinckney................... Hermann................... Portla nd.................... St. Aubert................. Bennett's Landirng.......... 149 I 103 152 162 169 1 i4 187 189 201 211 226 241 249 256 275 287 293 313 819 331 343 c'54 364 372 879 394 404 414 420 428 433 448 459 468 475 504 5.3 7 559 585 Peru (Towa)............... Cassville.................... Gutteiiburg................ Clayton City............... Wvoming................... river........... McGregor's LandiDg..... Fort Crawford............. Prairie du Chien........ Lansing..................... Winnisnick................. Warner's Landing........ Prairie Lacross........... Mouth of Black river.... Reed's Landing........... Wabashaw.................. Lake Pepin................. Red Wing................... Mouth of Lake St. Croix Red Rock................... Little Crow Village...... St. Paul..................... Mendotah................... St. Peter................... 461 484 498 508 513 517 521 523 524 559 579 589 617 629 637 705 708 736 786 803 805 809 819 823 Miles. 7 84 64 69 76 85 94 109 119 11,19 Council Bluffs............: 789

Page  104 S STATISTICS. g~~~ --- ---- 8 SS - 0 * w-I ').5 I 0 500 .5 104 9. or2 o'2

Page  105 0 16,546 4 34,403 1,375 1,810 3 1,436,607 243,574 71,937 19,21 6 3 519,111 6,,174 7,200 1,150 2 1,535,8141 196,702 57,520 6.9 31S 2 1,606.626 47,8,910 67,442 10 988 9 757,225 31,615 15 651 1,747 0 661,969 469,301 1 2,250 9,"00 JcS. san, 1,770 256,606 Oat 55'I,0751350 6 9,5,37 35,59 44,375 6 67 1,179,557 3:3,794 4 015 10,4084 0 2,191,721 1,487 345 374,322 34,191 1,720,529 335,038 83,225 19, 00 1,267,C167 95 070 47.59 3 12,775 5,3 381 34,300 13,850 a1,137,011 15,312 59,6,13 21,094 1 1,029,S 16 10,741 692. 506 16.105 169,310 14,279 32 8S6 2,430 2 469,4 0 25,633 16918 1,735 , 363 90 2 26S,84 1 1,008,5a5 15 270 1,768,060 877,530 154,560 23',007 39,303 565 4,952 1,500 934,913 129,180 43,84.5 15,150 i 131,396 121,413 233 626 614,12 8,718 2,600 2,533.853 129,73 22,619 i'96,876 727 00 1,390 218,883 1,018 682 1,606, 520 67,468 36,669 7,233 1,262,143 95,482 45,605 18,439 89,081 3,259 864, 124 149,692 52,504 8,673 58,748 720 670,27,7 20,631 17,200 3,630 $40,772,532 $6,564,45 $2,359 504 $ 1,639,411 I 0 2 9 27,527,106 3, 1 C02 1,231704 253,464 $13,245,426 83 456,456 $1, 127,00 $385,947 Greene, Hardin Harrison, tternry, l,wa, Jackson, &ohnson~ Joles, Jasper, JeH'. rson~ Linn, Lucas. I ou {sa, M]a ison, Mahaska, }M'ar ion! M~ills, Monrroe, M~lm tg,,mery, Marshall, i Muscatine, Page Pok, Pottawatamie, P'owashiek, Scott, Storv ShefWy, Tama, Taylor, Van Buren, U~nion, Washington, Wayne Wapello, Warren, Webrster W inrtesl'jiek Woodbxury, In 1853, Increase in I yr. 1 61 3;5 184 313S 99 G4 136 ]09 281 20)6 ]32 45 1-9 136 35 64 1, 25. 144. 17. 64 37 20, 051 19, 12, 184 60, 19, 132, 7, 32, $4,164, 3,218, $946, 1 7,70( 169 19,844 1,850 259,96' 346 1 33, 45 2.162 36Y,80' 1,44, 347,95. 968 237,i98 563 192.51( 1,778 26,606 1,1135 304,696 3,753 318,50C 1.628 332,726 1,007 219, 1.6 487 163 115 1,691 237, 089 1,687 229,391 366 55,575 728 130,3,12 26 3,127 24 272 64,172 !,384 247,190 171 15 855 916 198 092 507 48,565 350 147,278 1,616 307.'200 146 3S,236 59 720 174 73,993 2,471 310,645 3,012 1,498 274,134 41 990 1,502 216,5S4 1 8 567 663 152,099 4s,675 9, 175,097 27,60 6,977,192 21,055 2,197,905 68 186 3,320 638 i 3, 189 2,474 1 1,808 ) I,202 3,655 2,186 5, 372 3,414 2,439 878 3,177 2,650 697 1,282 45 25 471 2,611 412 1,595 620 588 2,84 1 196 69 266 4,207 11 2,709 374 3,054 143 500 82 586 73,558 9,0'28

Page  106 FINANCES OF IOWA. The following items are omitted in the preceding Table, but included in the "Total Value" column: No. of Mules in the State...................................... 2,232 Value " " "....................................... 116,955 No. of Sheep " ".............................169,542 Value," " " 240............................204,061 No. of Hogs "....................................... 611,923 Value " "....................................... 873,103 The increase in value of property in any county for the past year, can be ascertained by comparing the items of the counties, in the two total columns, for 1853 and 1854. Financial. State Revenue on hand, Nov. 1, 1852................. Receipts from above date up to Oct. 31, 1854...... Proceeds from Sale of Saline Lands up to Oct. 31, 1854........................................................ Total amount of Receipts.................... During the same period there has been paid out on Auditor's Warrants..................................... Leaving a balance in Treasury of...................... An estimate of the necessary expenditures for th commenciey Nov. lst, 1854, and ending 1856:Agricultural Societies.................................... Governor, Superintendent, Secretary, Auditor, Attorney-General, Treasurer, and Librarian's salaries..................................................... Blind Asylum................................................ Deaf and Dumb............................................. Carried over.......................................... 106 $8,602 88 114,946 87 10,515 70 $134,065 45 118,542 90 $15,522 55 9,300 00 6,000 00 4,000 00 $924,300 00

Page  107 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Brought over.......................................... Funded debt-bonds now due.......................... General contingent fund................................. Interest account............................................ Judges' salary.............................................. Miscellaneous disbursements............................ Penitentiary................................................. Supreme Court expenses................................. State printing.............................................. State officers' contingent fund......................... State House................................................. Stationery.................................................... Legislative expenses and other special appropria tions....................................................... $24,300 00 16,442 00 2,000 00 13,000 00 24,000 00 6,000 00 6,000 00 2,000 00 7,000 00 8,000 00 6,000 00 5,000 00 25,000 00 $139,742 00 CHAPTER XVI. DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. To describe minutely and separately counties that possess so nearly the same qualities as do those situated adjacent to each other, in any portion of this State, would be a useless task; hence, where a full description is given of the soil, productions, climate, &c., of one county, and those adjoining are very similar, the description is not repeated. For instance, the general description of Winneshiek County, answers for every adjoining county in the northeast, Henry or Jefferson for the south-east, Pottawattamie for the west, Scott and Jackson for the east, and so on. 107

Page  108 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. ADAMS COUNTY Was settled in 1851, by Messrs. Walter, Bowman and Toar, from Nodaway Co., Mo. The first election held, was in April, 1853, at which twelve votes were cast. Quincy, the county-seat of Adams, was located in April, 1853, by Commissioners appointed by the Legislature. The first sale of lots took place in September, 1853. The present population of the County, (Feb. 1855), is about 700; the number of votes 150. The last State census showed a population of 342, making an increase of over one hundred per cent. during the past eight months, and the gain will far exceed that the coming twelve months. But one church-the Methodist Episcopal-has a substantial frame meeting-house, 24 by 30. Other societies will organize during the season. The district schools, (under the common school law), are the only educational institutions yet in the County. These are susceptible of improvement. Probably no county in Iowa possesses more motive power for machinery than Adams. Two saw-mills already in operation, and two others being built, and yet not one-twentieth of the demand is supplied. One or two grist or flouring-mills are very much needed -also a carding and fulling-mill. There are plenty of good mill-seats on the Nodaway to be had for Congress price, ($1 25 per acre). The very nature of the soil and climate -the high rolling prairies, interspersed with streams of pure water, as well as the experience of those already en gaged in the business, points out this as one of the best 108

Page  109 DESCRIPTION OP COUNTIES. sheep-growing countries in the world. The day is not far distant when that business will be carried on largely in Western Iowa. The richness, fertility, and depth of the soil in Adams County, will compare favourably with any county in West ern Iowa, and as to timber, it is better supplied than those surrounding it. The principal streams are the West, Mid dle, and East Nodaway rivers. The heads of the One-hun dred-and-two, one branch of the Little Platte, and the East and Main, or Middle Nodaways, extend from north to south across the County. Veins of stone-coal 2- to 3~ feet thick have been found along the Middle Nodaway. The climate of Western Iowa is peculiar; the winters are very dry, no rain falling usually from October till March and April. There is not generally much snow, and the ground in the winter is frozen to a great depth, owing to the loose nature of the soil. Three winters' experience in Iowa, and I have never seen the frost leave the ground after winter sets in, until spring. Our streets and roads are dry and dusty. The months of August and September are usually very dry, most of our rains coming during the earlier part of the season. It has been frequently remarked, that no soil in the world would stand as much dry weather as this, and there is none that is less injured by continued wet weather. Owing to these peculiarities of the climate, no section of country can compare with this for stock raising, the cold but dry winters being just the thing for cattle and sheep. 10 109

Page  110 110 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. ALAMAKEE COUNTY Is bounded on the east by the Mississippi River. It is the extreme N. E. county of the State. The first settlements made by whites were in 1850. The present population of the county numbers some 5000. One church, erected by the Congregationalists in Wawkon, and one in Lansing, are the only houses of worship we hear of in the county. The several Christian denominations have organized societies, and many of them are preparing to build this year. One newspaper-the "Lansing Intelligencer." The county boasts some forty well-attended, ably-taught public schools, and several prospering private schools. In the county are two flouring and five or six saw-mills. These kinds of mills are badly needed in different parts of the county, although admirably provided for by nature. Manufactories of farming utensils, cooperage, &c., are also needed. The facilities for getting pine lumber are good, and oak, lynn, and black walnut are plenty. "Large farms, and lots of them," are being opened and cultivated, and they will remain without a good market for the grain, until more mills are established. This county is well watered, well timbered, fertile and productive; adapted to all kinds of grain, fruit and grazing. APPANOOSE COUNTY Is bounded on the east by Davis, on the west by Wayne, on the north by Monroe, and on the south by the Missouri line. Centreville, the county-seat, is the principal town in

Page  111 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. the county, and is situated on the Southern Iowa R. R., projected to run west from Fort Madison. The Chariton river passes in a south-easterly direction through the State, and upon its banks are numerous excellent mill-sites. Beside this, Shoal and Walnut Creeks, and the tributaries of the Chariton furnish water to every portion of the county. The soil is of an excellent quality, and the county tolerably well timbered. The climate is mild and pleasant, less subject to high winds than the middle and northern portion of the State. The principal towns in the county are Centreville, (the county seat), Sharon, Hlibbsville, Unionville, and Iconium; beside which are post-offices, named Moravia, Mount Gilead, New Plain, Cincinnati, Millard, Johns' and Pleasant View. BENTON COUNTY Was first settled by S. M. Lockhart, in the spring of 1841; soon after, other families followed. In August, 1851, C. C. Charles's was the only family that resided in what is now Vinton. The reports of the assessors in regard to this, as well as many other sections, are very incorrect. Last year they gave Vinton 307-now there are 509. The county was censused at 2623, but at that time there were at least 3000, and the population of Benton is now nearly 4000. The O. S. and N. S. Presbyterians have established so cieties, and are preparing to erect churches. One school, well conducted, with 90 scholars. ill

Page  112 112 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. One steam saw-mill, cutting 4000 feet of lumber every 24 hours. A fiouring-mill is very much needed. This county is well watered, with a due proportion of prairie and timnber. The settlements of the county are at Burk's P. O., Marysville, Beutah P. O., Taylor's Creek P. O., and Prairie Creek P.O. BLACK HAWK COUNTY. This county, bearing the name of the illustrious chief, possesses some of the finest soil and timber land in Northern Iowa. It is in the same range with, and the third county from, Dubuque. The Cedar fork of the Iowa river passes diagonally in a south-easterly direction across the county. Cedar Falls is a town of considerable importance, and will become a large manufacturing place. At this, as well as several other points in the county, the best of water-power and eligible sites for mills and manufacturing establishments hold out inducements to capitalists, while the immense quantity of unentered land in the county calls loudly to the immigrating farmer. BOONE COUNTY Was first settled at Pea's Point, (now called Flat-rock,) in Mlay, 1846, by John Pea, a pioneer of the old stock, a Pennsylvanian by birth, who has lived in every State that intervenes between his native State and Iowa, when they were wild and primitive forests. iHe was also an early settler in Missouri. This old man still resides in Boone

Page  113 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. County, and with the gray hairs of some seventy years upon his head, such are his erect form and comparatively robust constitution, that Time seems to have broken its billows over his manly form only as the ocean rends its fury over the immovable rock of its shores. The old gen tleman is still full of adventure and enterprise, and may ere long be one of the freemen of Nebraska. M3ontgomery M3cCall settled near where Boonsboro now stands, in the month of February, 1847, and for about a year his family lived nearer the source of the Des Moines river than any other white family. During the winter of 1846 and 1847, seven hundred Pottawattamie Indians were encamped in the vicinity of these families. The town of Boonsboro was located on the 7th day of July, 1851, as the county-seat, by commissioners appointed for that purpose by the State Legislature, and is likely ever to remain the seat of justice for the county. The present population of Boonsboro is about 300. The population of the county over 2000. Immigration is rapidly pouring in. The present school system of the State is in admirable effect in all the settled parts of the county. In Boonsboro a public school is continually in session, under the superintendence of an able teacher. A Baptist church is in course of erection, and a MIethodist, and a United Brethren church of small dimensions. The respective congregations are in better condition than their church buildings, owing to the difficulty of getting lumber to build with. 10* 113

Page  114 114 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. No newspaper published in the county; the publication of one will probably commence next May. No manufactories of any note in the county. The mill at the Rapids, fifteen miles below Boonsboro, is situated at one of the best mill sites in the county, (it is probably the best mill site in the State). But the present owners are pecuniarily unable to improve it as it should be. They make good flour at said mill, but fall far short of supplying the wants of those who naturally depend upon it. In able hands this mill site would be a fortune to its owner. A steam saw and flouring mill is needed in Boonsboro; no enterprise would pay better. None of the present citizens are able to erect a suitable one, and the rich field is open to a stranger. It would be the only mill within fifteen miles. Lumber is in high demand. Boonsboro might have been three times its present size, only for the want of lumber. Boone County is 24 miles square. The river Des Moines runs through the centre of it from north to south. The bed of the river is deep, and the bluffs on either side of the rich bottoms are high, and in many places abrupt. The wildest scenery on the whole course of this river this county. The bottoms are large, and clothed with the best of timber. The average width of the Des Moines timber ,through the county is six miles. The country, after leaving the timber on each side of the Des Moines, is level, rich, alluvial prairie. Beaver Creek, in the western part of the county is skirted with a plentiful supply of fine timber, and its prairie bottoms cannot be surpassed. Montgomery's Creek, a tributary of the Skunk, runs through the north

Page  115 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. east corner of the county, and a fine settlement of Indianians is springing up along its banks. Stone-coal of a fine quality is plenty everywhere in this county; but timber is so plenty, that as yet not much use is made of the coal for fuel. Everywhere water is plenty. Wells on the prairie are dug from fifteen to thirty feet deep. Stock water is abundant, and this is as fine a grazing region as any in the State. BREMER COUNTY Was settled first in 1848-9. In the spring of 1853, the town of Janesville, six miles below Waverly, was laid out by John T. Barrie. This town is situated on the east bank of the Cedar River, some three miles above the junction of the Cedar and the Shellrock. The place contains some 150 inhabitants, with two stores, saw-mill, &c. A fiouring-mill is much needed, and the water-power along these streams is sufficient to furnish sites for all the machinery needed. A great abundance of building-stone and the best of timber admirably fit this for a manufacturing place. But one school in Janesville-a fine stone school-house is now being erected, 24 by 36 feet. The M. E. Church are making arrangements to build a house of worship this season. There are one stationary and two local itinerant ministers; the churches are well attended and prosperous. In June, 1853, the county-seat was located six miles above Janesville, on the east bank of the Cedar River, and the town of Waverly established, which has now a popula 115

Page  116 116 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. tion of some 200. A good saw and flouring mill near Waverly. The population of Bremer County is about 2000. Public schools in every settlement through the county. A body of timber, known as "the lower big woods," embracing some 40 sections, lies in the vicinity of these towns, which, in a prairie country, is a consideration of no minor importance. This is a healthy and productive region of country, possessing beautifnl scenery, and excellent agricultural and manufacturing advantages. BUCHANAN COUNTY Was first settled by Ezra G. Allen and Wm. Bennett, in 1842. Independence, the county-seat, was located and settled in the winter of 1846, by Rufus Blelark. Present population of the town, 500- of the county, 3000. No church buildings erected. One is being erected at Independence, and one at Quasqueton. No newspaper in the county. Two flouring-mills (two burrs each), and two saw-mills, are in operation in the county. Woollen manufactories most needed, there being none within 40 miles. Oak timber plenty along the streams, and deep-soiled rolling lrairies between the water-courses. The streams are rather rapid, with gravelly or rocky beds. Limestone abundant. Soil generally rich sandy loam.

Page  117 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. CARPROLL COUNTY '"as to have been organized in Miarch of the present year. The present population of the county is but about 150. WVater-power, timber lands, and the best of prairie soil, with inexhaustible beds of building-stone, coal, and iron, are some of the inducements Carroll County holds out to new-comers. As yet no towns are laid out, not even the county-seat, and the active, intelligent, and ambitious immigrant will find inducements for settling in recentlyorganized counties which do not exist in older ones. Though water-power is afforded by several streams in various parts of the county, there is not a mill or manufactory yet erected, and the nearest mill is at Panora, Guthrie County, 27 miles distant. Wvhat an opening for a saw and grist-mill! Wheat, corn, and rye in abundance. Of churches and schools in Carroll we could obtain no information, and presume that they, like the county, are unorganized. CASS COUNTY Joins Pottawattamie on the east, and, like those adjoining on the west and south, was settled by Mormons in 1846-7, who, however, left in the spring of 1852, when W. L. Townsend, P. Hedges, J. Bradshaw, C. E. Woodward, George Reeves, and J. W. Benedict took their places, and became permanent settlers. Lewis, the county-seat, was first settled by R. C. Lambert. The population of the county is now a little rising 117

Page  118 118 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. of 700. A fine court-house is to be built in Lewis this season. There is but one church in Lewis -occupied by the Congregationalists and Methodists. No newspaper, but one needed. Two good common schools in Lewis, in very good condition. Two saw-mills and one grist-mill. A woollen factory would do well, also mechanics of every kind-blacksmiths, plough and wagon makers, cabinet-makers, and day laborers. Cass County is unsurpassed, in point of fertility and water, in the State,- is well supplied with timber and stone. The soil gently undulating and dry. There is yet considerable unentered land in this county. CEDAR COUNTY Was organized and settled in 1836. The county-seat, Tipton, was laid out in 1839. Present population of the town 583, and of the county 7605. The towns and settlements in the county are Tipton, Woodridge, Cedar Bluffs, Pioneer P. O., Cedar P. O., Massillon P. O., Yankee Grove P. O., Red Oak P. O., Gower's P. O., Inland P. O., Springdale P. O., Padee P. O., Lacton P. O., and Rochester. Three churches in Tipton-Presbyterian, Congregational, and Methodist,-society very good. Churches of different denominations throughout the county, but the precise number of church edifices or members not ascertained.

Page  119 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Four schools in Tipton-2 public, 2 private. Average number of pupils in each, 30. One steam grist-mill-doing but little business, owing to lack of water. The Lyons R. R. is projected through the centre of this county, and mostly graded as far as Tipton, and we understand the suspended work on the line will be resumed energetically by the new company this season. The county is made up of very excellent soil, adapted to all kinds of farming purposes, and well watered generally. Timber is less abundant in Cedar than in many other counties. Yet taken as a whole, Cedar holds out strong inducements to the farmer and mechanic, to locate within her borders. CHICKASAW COUNTY. Three years ago Chickasaw County had not a single white resident-now the population of the county exceeds 1000. In 1853, Rufus Clark, a famous trapper and hunter, a native of Ohio, settled in the vicinity of the present Bradford P. O., which is in the neighbourhood of the junction of the Little and the Big Cedar Rivers. The population of Bradford now is O00. One district school with an average attendance of 70 scholars. Preaching every Sabbath-principally Methodist. No churches organized yet. Two saw-mills in full operation, and a steam saw-mill being erected. Capitalists and traders would find this a wide and inviting field for their operations. 119

Page  120 120 DDESCRIPTION O' COUNTIES. Flouring-mill much needed. Flour is now brought 45 miles, and grain taken the same distance to mill. With any amount of water-power all over the county, and the best of grain soil, we hope some capitalist will consult his interest by contributing to the wants of the people of Chickasaw. CLARKE COUNTY Was first settled in 1849. In 1850, according to the census, it contained 79 inhabitants. The population of the county now, (February, 1855), numbers upwards of 2000. The county-seat, Osceola, was settled in 1852-present population, 150. There are no church buildings erected in the county as yet; but the Methodists, Campbellites, and United Brethren have each an organization. No public schools. Two private schools in Osceola, in a flourishing condition. Several schools in the county, exact number unknown. Of manufactories there is one steam saw-mill. Steam fiouring and saw-mills much needed. Lumber is worth two to two and a half dollars per hundred for all kinds, and scarce at that. Timber of the first quality skirtsthe numerous streams which have their sources in this county. Climate healthy. Soil rather broken in parts of the county, but fertile and arable. CLAYTON COUNTY Is the most northern river county in the State, except Alamakee. It is bounded on the east by the Mississippi,

Page  121 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. on the west by Fayette, on the south by Delaware and Dubuque. The principal water-courses in the county are Yellow and Turkey Rivers, Volga and Buck Creeks, and Bloody Run. Turkey River is among the most beautiful and placid streams in the State, and is celebrated for its numerous geological specimens, and the picturesque scenery of its banks and dells. Turkey River affords most excellent waterpower for mills and machinery, and is navigable the greater part of the year, as far up as the forks. The soil is about the same as in those counties adjoining, already described. The principal towns in the county are Garnaville, the countyseat, Brookville, Kilroy, Clayton, Guttenrburg, Mlelville, Buena Vista, Elkport, Elkador, Farmersburg, and Brookville, besides several settlements, at each of which is a Post Office. CLINTON C0OUNTY. De Witt, the county seat of Clinton, was settled in ] 841-some portions of the county in 1836. The present population of the county is 7500-of De Witt, 500. Four churches-iMethodist, Congregational, Roman Catholic, and one union of the Baptists and Disciples. Three newspapers printed in the county, at Lyons, Camanche, and Fulton City. One needed in De Witt. Good public and select schools in every town of the county, and in good condition. In De W'itt are two saw-mills and one grist-mill. Being the centre of a very excellent grain market, which will soon have an outlet by the Lyons R. R., it becomes capitalists to erect a large flouring-mill at or near De Witt. 11 121

Page  122 122 DDESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Clinton consists of beautiful, rich, rolling prairie, interspersed with groves of timber. "Second-hand lands can be bought on better termns in Clinton than any county in the State, according to their true value." DALLAS COUNTY T7as first settled by Samuel Miller and family, in 1846. The population of the county according to the last census, was 2565. The present population of Adel, the countyseat, is 126. The town is beautifully located on the west side of the North Raccoon River, and is directly on the great route between the East and California, Oregon and Utah. Five public schools in the county, all in a prosperous condition. No private schools. Dallas has five water, and one steam, saw-mills. Gristmills and manufactories greatly needed. The many fine streams that afford water-power in this county, and the fertile soil, producing abundant crops, call loudly to the capitalists and farmers to make investments in Dallas. Considerable of the land of Dallas can be had at government price, if applied for before it is entered. The country lies high, rolling, and healthy, but is comparatively sparsely settled, as the number of inhabitants indicates. DAVIS COUNTY Is the second county from the Mississippi, on the Missouri State line, and is settled to a great extent by immigrants from Missouri and Illinois. The principal streams

Page  123 DESCRIPTIO N OF COUNTIES. watering the county are the north and south branches of the Waukindaun, and the Fox River, which, with several smaller streams, have their rise in the county, passing through Missouri to the MIississippi. The Des Mioines River runs diagonally across the north-east corner of the county, several of whose tributaries traverse the county. The principal towns in Davis County are Bloomfield,(the county-seat,) Troy, Drakesville, Nottingham, and Miount Calvary, and small settlements, the post-offices of which are named Oak Spring, Soap Creek, Salt Creek, Pleasant View, Taylor, Troy, Dover, Pulaski, Stringtown, M3onterey, Savannah, Roscoe, and Del Norte. There are 14,320 acres of unentered land in Davis County. For a description of the soil see Monroe-the soil in the two counties being similar. DES MOINES COUNTY Was first settled in 1832, by David Tothers, who settled three miles south-west of what is now Burlington. The next settlement was made by S. S. White and Amzi Doolittle, who were the proprietors of the original town. Additions were laid out in the order in which they are named: in 1836, by David Rorer, Amos Ladd, Enoch Wade, Isaac Leffler, G. W. Kelley, and others since. Population between 8 and 9000. There are eleven houses of worship, viz.: two Roman Catholic, one Episcopal, two Methodist Episcopal, one German Methodist, one German Lutheran, one Congrega I 1-1,I)

Page  124 124 DDESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. tional, one Baptist, and one Presbyterian. There are also three congregations who intend erecting houses of worship soon, viz.: Second Presbyterian, Cumberland Presbyterian, and Christian. "Iowa State Gazette," weekly and tri-weekly; "llawkeye," same; " Telegraph," daily and weekly; "Iowa Farmer," monthly, are published in this county. Two large public school-houses, costing over $4000 each, in which eight schools are taught. There are also quite a number of private schools, all in a flourishing condition; and the Baptist University, of which an account is published on another page. They have two machine and engine manufactories, two foundries, one planing mill, two steam flouring-mills, four sash, door and blind factories, three steam saw-mills, one shingle factory, one steam match factory, two furniture manufactories; two coach, five wagon, two plough, one brush, one candle, and one starch factory; two large pork packing establishments, three banking houses, six hotels, three plank roads. Railroad connection with Chicago. Burling,ton and MIissouri River railroad will be finished to 3It. Pleasant this summner-almost entirely graded to Ottumnwa now. They have several large bakleries. An oil and paper mill no doubt would do well thlere. The opening of the railroad between Chicago and Burlington has given a new impetus to the latter city, and the population and business of the place will increase more during the present year than it has in any three years heretofore.

Page  125 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. The people of Burlington are industrious and energetic, and their intelligence and literary taste may be judged of from the fact that the most extensive, if not the only His torical and Geological Society of the State, is located at this place. We are indebted to one of its gentlemanly members for a brief history of this institution, which fol lows: " The IoLwa Historical and Geological Institute was or ganized December 18th, 1843, and incorporated December 31st, 1850. Its effects were destroyed by fire, January 16th, 1853. Its object is to collect and preserve, and to open to the public, historical matter of all kinds, more especially that relating to Iowa, a general library, maps, charts, drawings, pictures, statuary, and a cabinet of natural history, also-to sustain public lectures. When the cabinet and library were destroyed by fire, the Institute was in a flourishing condition, having about 800 volumes in the library, 2000 pamphlets, files of newspapers since the organization of the Territory and State, and a great many papers pertaining to the early history and settlement of the State, about 4000 specimens illustrative of the geology of this State, an herbarium containing the greater portion of the plants found in the State, also a number of specimens illustrative of the zoology of the State; and a large collection of Indian relics, numbering about 400, among which were included nearly all the paraphernalia of Black Hawk. The loss sustained was irreparable, and for some time it was difficult to keep the Institute alive. For the last year, the Institute has been in a very flourishing condition; 11* 125

Page  126 126 DDESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. much so that a thorough re-organization was The present officers are "Pi~esiclcet, DAVID RORER. T'ice-Presi(lent, WITILLIAM THIOMPSON. Coedesponidi?g Secretary, JOHN IH. RAUCH Recording Secretary, A. D. GREEN. Treasturer, LUKE PALMER. Librarian, C. C. CLOUTMAN." DUBUQUE COUNTY. Dubuque is one of the oldest counties in the State, being one of the two original Districts, from which the principal eastern counties of the State were formed. It embraces the most noted portions of the mineral region, and, singular as it may appear, though in the very heart of the mineral region, the soil is generally of the most productive character, yielding large crops of grain. Few countries in the world possess the combined advantages of a soil rich in fertility, and at the same time underlaid with inexhaustible veins of lead ore. Lead is the great staple of export, as will be seen by the annexed statistics. Copper and zinc have also been discovered, but not in sufficient quantities to induce capitalists to enlist in the work of developing them. Several valuable lodes or veins of lead were discovered during the past winter. The country west of Dubuque City is strikingly beautiful, and well watered. It is a rolling prairie, interspersed with groves of timber, while along the small streams run in fact, so necessary.

Page  127 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. ning from north to south there are large bodies of good timber, and extensive water-power. Several adjoining counties, as well as Dubuque, are well settled-the land arl entered by actual settlers. Mineral lots are laid off in almost ,very conceivable shape, and contain about ten acres each. The city of Dubuque, one of the largest and most densely populated in the State, is handsomely situated upon a na tural terrace. The streets run parallel to each other, and owing to the peculiar soil at this location, are never muddy. This city is more compactly built, and contains a greater proportion of fine buildings than any other place in the State. Among these the Catholic Cathedral, court-house, and hotels stand prominent. The city is bounded on the west by a range of high cliffs, from which the prospect of the city and county is entrancingly beautiful. Three daily newspapers are published in Dubuque: the "Express and Herald,"' the "Tribune," and the "Observer," each issuing, beside, a weekly edition. We have not the name of the weekly German paper. The population of Dubuque County, according to the census of 1854, is 16,513; and of the city, according to West's Statisties, 10,000. The number of buildings erected in the city last year was 332. Of the society in Dubuque we need not remark farther than to state, that this population of 10,000 ably support eleven churches, one female seminary, one college, five select and common schools, twenty-four lawyers, and fourteen physicians. This city being the present terminus of two important 127

Page  128 198 D I ESCRIPTION OF COU I N T I ES. railroads, must necessarily become a place of great commer cial importance. Good investments can be made in the establishing, at Dubuque, of manufactories of Red and White Lead, Lead Pipe, Shot, and Sheet Lead. Capitalists should investigate this matter. From the following statistics, the reader may judge of the commercial importance of the City of Dubuque: Total Tonnage. Imports to Dubuque in 1853....... 32,007 "1 " 1 1854....... 97,633 Increase..................... 65,626 Exports from Dubuque, in 1853... " " 1854... $1,006,710 1,573,408 30 $566,698 05 Increase..................... Lead exported in 1854............... Iron, Steel, and Nails exp. in 1854 Flour exported in 1854.............. Wheat exported in 1854............. Corn exported in 1854............... We invite the reader's particular attention to the following comparative table of immigration, for the past two years: Crossed the Dubuque Ferry MIen, women, and children........................ Wagons.................................................. Carriages............................................... Cattle.................................................... Sheep...................................,................. Hogs.................................................... Talue. $2,497,123 30 4,933,208 65 $2,436,085 35 7,482 11,736 4,254 $526,200 192,000 1,200 48,000 5,555 4,385 1,200 180 880 385 I in 1853. .. 6,200 .. 2,404 .. 3,110 . 5,506 300 520 in 1854. 38,400 4,300 2,100 9,518 2,708 6,630

Page  129 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. The immigration to Iowa, in 1854, at this point, as well as others, was very large. The amount of the public domain sold at the Dubuque Land Office, during the year, is: cash sales, 1,120,000 acres; located with Military Warrants, 250,000. The snug sum of $3,961,736 in specie was exported to St. Louis from this Land Office, during the year; this exceeds the like expoits of ten previous years. DELAWARE COUNTY Was first settled in 1843, by people from the northeastern states. The present population of the county is 6000-that of Delhi, the county-seat, 400. No newspapers in the county. The number and condition of public and private sechools compare favorably with those of other counties in the state, of the same population. No manufactories, yet some in contemplation. The county and its towns are filling up rapidly with an industrious, enterprising, and wealthy population. Great inducements are held out to capitalists to erect manufactories of different kinds. There is an abundance of water-power 1i miles from Delhi, and a large body of timber on the 3[aquoketa, thus affording ample opportunity for the erection of machinery, whether propelled by steam or waterpower. This county is peculiarly adapted to wool-growing; and all that is wanted to make the citizens of Clinton a great manufacturing people, is to make their advantages known to Eastern capitalists. 129

Page  130 130 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Chair-making, cabinet-making, wagon, carriage and buggy making, woollen factories, in short, everything, except distiling alco1tolic liquors, is needed in this vicinity. This county is conveniently interspersed with groves of timber, and drained by the Mlaquoketa, Plumb, Elk, Bear, Buffalo, Buck, Little Turkey, and Honey Creekls, all of which afford some fine mill-sites. The prairie is gently undulating, soil good, composed of a happy admixture of vegetable mould and sand, based upon a porous clay subsoil. We have an abundance of fine lime-stone, for building and fencing purposes. Near Delhi we have excellent clay for the manufacturing of brick, of the best quality. Within a few rods of this village plat, we have a fine sheet of pure "soft water," covering about 160 acres of land, containing small fish in abundance, and affording a fine opportunity for bathing during the hot months. Taking Delaware County as a whole, it affords as fine a chance for the wealthy, enterprising immigrant, as any countyin Northern Iowa. DECATUR COUNTY Was first settled by some seven or eight families, who immigrated from Missouri, and located upon the then disputed territory between Missouri and Iowa, anticipating an extensive trade with the Indians, who at that time were quite numerous here. This was the only settlement in the county until 1846, when a company of Mormons settled near the N.E. corner of the county, calling their village

Page  131 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Garden Grove. But few immigrants located in this county, however, before 1850, since when the increase has been rapid, and of the best of citizens. The population of Decatur County is 4020. The seve ral denominations, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists and Christians, have each organizations, and have meetings ins turn in the Court House in Leon, which is a respectablesized two-story brick building. No buildings for public worship yet erected. No newspaper in Decatur or any adjoining county. In the county are some twenty-five public schools, well conducted, supported principally by the school fund. In the county are three steam, saw, and grist mills, and two others in process of erection. Those who may wish to locate, will find in Decatur good openings for saw and grist mills, brick-makers, wheelwrights, cabinet-makers, wagon-makers, house-builders, blacksmiths, tinners, and shoemakers. The northern part of the county is principally prairies, while the southern is supplied with a large and beautiful growth of timber. Though the county is more broken than many north and east of it, the soil is all susceptible of cultivation, and more than half the county heavily timbered. Thompson's Fork of Grand River and tributaries spreads over the western part of the county, affording an abundance of clear, soft water, and plenty of timber, for all purposes. These streams are backed by extensive beds of lime and sand-stone, suitable for building purposes, and supply water sufficient to run flouring or saw-mills, the year through. 131

Page  132 132 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Wildon's Fork of Grand River, traversing the eastern portion of the county, is better timbered, but not so good a mill stream. Along the banks of several of these streams thin veins of coal have been discovered, and it is thought that exten sive beds would be found by proper search, but no labor has yet been expended upon them. Leon, the county-seat, is situated two miles due east of the centre of the county, within half a mile of an extensive body of excellent timber. The town was located in 1853, present population 250. The last session of the Legislature changed the name of this town to "Leon"; the Post Office yet bears the original name, " South Independence." Decatur is pleasantly situated on a high, rolling prairie, 21 miles west of the centre of the county, and 3 miles from Thompson's Fork of Grand River. Population between 150 and 200. Pleasant Plain is on the 3Iissouri line, eleven miles south of Leon. Surrounded by a splendid agricultural country, settled by energetic, industrious people, this will ever be a brisk business place. Population upwards of 100. Garden Grove, in the N.E. corner of the county, on one of the main roads from the Mississippi to the Miissouri, and surrounded by a rich and fertile county, will become a place of some importance. FAYETTE COUNTY Is bounded on the east by Clayton County, which separates it from the Mississippi, on the north by Winnesheik,

Page  133 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. on the west by Chickasaw and Bremer, and on the south by Buchanan. The county is well watered by Turkey River, and its north and south forks, and various other tributaries. The soil is admirably adapted for all agricultural purposes. The scenery along Turkey River and its north and south forks is beautiful, and timber abundant. The Minnesota Railroad, projected to run north-west from Dubuque, passes diagonally through this county, and when built will add greatly to its wealth and importance. The principal towns in the county are West Union, the countyseat, Lima, and Taylorsville, besides post offices named Eldorado, Eden, Clermont, Douglas, Windsor, Louisville, Gamble Grove, Illyria, Fayetteville and Mill Grove. FREMONT COUNTY Is the extreme south-western county of the State. The first settlement was at Sidney, the county-seat, where the first sale of lots was made June 30th, 1851. James H. Cowles was the first resident. The present population of the county-seat is 300-that of the county 3200. Of churches it has a Congregational, which will compare with any other in any county of like age. The Methodist Church numbers more members than any other; the Baptist next; the Christians or Campbellites are also quite numerous. The O. S. Presbyterians are preparing to organize a Church, and to erect a seminary-not, however, as a religious institution-peculiar to that body. Of public schools there are in the county some twenty, with ample room for improvement in a majority of them. 12 133

Page  134 134 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Here are a carding-machine and two grist-mills, one steam saw-mill, and four water-power saw-mills, all doing an excellent business. Also two portable, six-horse-power sawmills, four stores, one saddler, one shoemaker, two tailors, four blacksmiths, one gunsmith —no newspaper, but a reading, intelligent people. We are in great need of more manufactories and mechanics. A steam fiouring-mill would do a first-rate business. The surrounding country is well adapted to all kinds of agricultural pursuits, possessing a rich and productive soil, well supplied with water and timber, and rapidly settling up with worthy, industrious and intelligent people. GUTHRIE COUNTY Is not as large nor as old as many other counties of the State, but possesses advantages which, when developed, will place her in the advance. The soil of Guthrie is second to none in the State, for the farmer, grazier, and fruit-grower. The numerous streams of running water afford eligible and profitable sites for the erection of the much-needed manufactories, while the banks are big with inexhaustible quarries of lime, free-stone, and stone-coal, and in the northwest corner large quantities of iron ore have been discovered. The first settlements in the county were made in 1850, and the present population is 2000. The principal church denominations are Methodists, United Brethren, O. S. Baptists, and Friends, each of whom are making arrangements for the erection of church buildings for their respective denominations. At present all meetings are held in school

Page  135 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. houses, of which the county can boast several very good ones. The district school-house in Panora, is the best in Western Iowa, and a public school is kept up in it all the year. Considerable of the land in this county is yet unentered; though timber-lands are all taken up. The countyseat, Panora, was settled in 1853; it now contains a population of 160. 3lore saw-mills, a planing-mill, lath-machine, carding and fulling-mill, brick-makers, carpenters, masons, and plasterers, are all much needed in Guthrie. CHAPTER XVII. DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES-CONTINUED. HARDIN COUNTY Was first settled in 1851, and contains a population of some 2000. The largest town in the county is Eldora, which is inhabited by some 15 families. No churches erected yet-preaching by Cumberland Presbyterians and Methodists. Well supplied with public schools in a good condition. Coal abundant-timber more than an average. Red sandstone, and fine white limestone in abundance. Good prairie land-no better. Ilardin, (in the language of the pioneer from whom we gleaned the statistics), "is a little out o' the way, but it's a mighty fine spot when you get to it." 135 O'

Page  136 136 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Flouring and saw-mills much needed. But acomparatively small portion of the land in Hardin is entered. HARRISON COUNTY, Situated on the Missouri River, is but sparsely settled yet, less than one-fourth of the land in the county being entered. This county is well watered by the Boyer River, the Little Sioux, and various smaller streams, tributary to these and the Missouri. Magnolia is the county-seat, beside which there is no other settlement of importance. For a description of the soil see the chapter on Western Iowa, or Pott4vattamie County. HENRY COUNTY. Mount Pleasant, the county-seat, was laid out in the year 1836, by Presley Saunders; at that time the lands on which it was located were not in market, nor had it ever been surveyed, but the beauty of the location, taken in connection with the great abundance of superior building-stone, and the large body of timber that lay contiguous to the site, to say nothing of the never-failing springs of water that gush from the shores of the branch that runs through the suburbs of the town, induced the proprietor to believe that a town might be built up that would be a credit to the State. Nor in this has he been disappointed. This town now contains a population of about 1500 inhabitants, and is at present in a more prosperous condition, and is imnproving faster than at any former period. The population of the county in February last, was 11,i180. Beside the county-seat, there are other towns in

Page  137 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. the county of considerable size and importance. Salem, in the south-west part of the county, is a thriving young place, containing 650 souls. New London, on the eastern edge of the county has some 400 inhabitants. Trenton, in the northern portion, some 300; beside these are Winfield, Lowell, Hillsborough, Rome, East Grove P. O., Marshall P. O., Wayne P. O., &c. There are six church edifices in Mount Pleasant; Congregational, Presbyterian, Methodist, Christian, O. S. Baptist, and Missionary Baptist. Other towns and villages are proportionally well supplied with churches, all of which are well attended, and in a healthy condition. In point of morality and sobriety, the community of Mount Pleasant are unsurpassed in the State. Henry County supports two newspapers: "The Iowa Observer," Whig, and the "Iowa True Democrat," FreeSoil-both published at the county-seat. Mount Pleasant has been named and known heretofore, as the point possessing and offering greater educational advantages than any other place in the State, and she has yet no rival in this respect except Davenport. The "'Iowa Wesleyan University," under the control of the M. E. Church, is a Collegiate Institute of the first grade, has 150 students, and is in full and successful operation under the management of Prof. James Harlan, with competant assistants. The "Mt. Pleasant High School and Female Academy," under the management of Prof. S. L. Howe, a teacher of acknowledged ability and experience has an average attendance of 100 pupils. The well-merited reputation of this 12* 137

Page  138 138 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. school at home and abroad is attested by the patronage it receives. A Select School for Young Ladies, under the superintendance of Rev. B. Wall, and taught by Mrs. Wall and Miss McHarg, has recently been opened, which bids fair to become a Female Seminary of usefulness and extensive patronage. The town and county is well supplied with well-attended and ably-conducted common schools. There are at present no manufactories of importance in Henry County. Steam flouring and saw-mills, a foundry, and a carding and fulling-mill are much needed, and would prove good investments. Coal, in considerable quantities, has been found on both sides of the Skunk river, also inexhaustible quarries of the very best building stone near Mt. Pleasant. The Burlington and Wisconsin River railroad will be finished to Mt. Pleasant during the present year. The Muscatine and Keokuk railroad also touches Mt. Pleasant. At the late session of the Legislature, the Iowa Insane Asylum was located at Mt. Pleasant, and fifty thousand dollars appropriated for the erection of the building. The soil of Henry is second in quality to that of no other county in the State. The land is well watered, all entered, and rapidly filling up with a highly intellectual and industrious class of citizens. IOWA COUNTY, North of Keokuk, and west of Johnson, is well sup. plied with timber along the Iowa River, which stream, with the north fork of English River, Old Man's Creek, Beaver

Page  139 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. and Richmond Creeks, affords an abundance of water for all purposes. The soil is admirably adapted for farming and grazing. The county seat, Marengo, is situated upon the Iowa River, in the northern part of the county. There are settlements at Kozta, I-Homestead, Downard, Millersburg and North English Post Offices. The Mississippi and Missouri railroad passes through almost the centre of the county. JACKSON COUNTY Comprises in area fourteen full and six fractional townships of land. The principal towns in the county are Andrew, Bellevue, Wickliffe, Fulton, Maquoketa, Bridgeport, and some seventeen P.O. settlements beside. The character of the soil is rich and fertile, and the ranging heights and diversified scenery on the banks of its numerous water-courses present an abundance of beautiful building-sites. A railroad is in contemplation, and partly graded from Galena to a point directly opposite Bellevue, but it is uncertain when it will be completed. Flouring and saw-mills are in active and profitable operation in different parts of the county, but it is impossible to obtain from their proprietors even an approximate estimate of their profits. At Bellevue, are excellent openings and good sites for two more steam saw-mills and a planing-mill. Lumber for building finds very ready sale as fast as manufactured, and lumber for sawing is easily obtained. A small iron 139

Page  140 140 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. foundry, an extensive wagon-making establishment, and a cooper's establishment, would all do well in Jackson. Jackson is one of the best watered counties in the State, and is well supplied with timber, principally white oak, black walnut, ash, hickory, elm, maple, white walnut, and bass wood. Water-power, unsurpassed for manufacturing pur poses: upon several of the streams are already erected flouring and saw-mills, and others are in progress of erection. The county is also one of the best for agricultural purposes,in the State, and second to none for stock raising. The soil in the valleys is a first rate black sandy loam (several feet in depth), and yields heavy crops of corn; the ridges are generally second and third rate soil, with a subsoil of clay, or in some instances ferruginous sand, and produce fine crops of wheat. Potatoes and other root crops, as well as vegetables and vines, all flourish luxuriantly. The rocks of the county are what belong to the "Upper 3Iagnesian Limestone" formation; are well adapted for building purposes, and make a superior quality of lime. Iron ore is found in various parts of the county, lying loosely on the surface, and no doubt, from present indications, it exists in large masses. "Galena" (lead ore) is also frequently picked up in different parts of the county, and some mines have been successfully worked in the northwest part of the county-there is a rich "lode" of "Galena" only three miles above Bellevue, dipping into the river, which can be seen at any time at a low stage of water in the Mississippi. It is the opinion of old miners,

Page  141 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. that when the mineral resources of this county are properly developed, it will prove rich in both lead and iron ores, as indications of its existence manifest themselves in almost every hill and ravine. Bellevue, the seat of justice of Jackson county, is situated on the Mississippi river, twelve miles due south of the city of Galena; the town site is upon an elevated plateau of land about fifteen feet above high water mark; it is surrounded by an amphitheatre of hills, mostly covered with timber, which break off the severe cold winds of winter, and prevent the temperature from falling as low by several degrees, as a few miles distant upon the ridges. This town was first settled in 1836, by J. D. Bell. In that year this site was selected (by authorised Commissioners, one of whom was the late Captain John Atcheson) for the Capitol of the then Territory of Wisconsin; and but for some difficulty between the proprietors of the land and said Commissioners, this would have then been made the Capitol of Wisconsin Territory, which at that time included both sides of the river. This spot had always been a favorite one with the Indians, and its beautiful location caused said Commissioners to select it as a commanding situation for the Capitol. The population of our town is about 1000. The population of the county is fully 15,000, and emigrants daily arriving. There are five organized churches in the town, viz., Congregationalist, Episcopalian, Methodist, Baptist, and Catholic-one of each. 141

Page  142 142 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. JEFFERSON COUNTY. The first sale of town lots took place in 1839. The present population of Jefferson County is about 13,000. Population of Fairfield, the county-seat, 1500. A large proportion of the population is from Ohio and Pennsylvania. In the eastern portion of the county is a settlement of Swedes, consisting at present of about 100 families. Their first settlement in that part of the county was made in 1847. There is also in the north-east a settlement of Germans. In Fairfield there are three churches: Presbyterian, Congregational, and Methodist. Two newspapers in Fairfield, the "Fairfield Ledger," (Whig), and the "Iowa Sentinel," (Democrat). Jefferson County contains 88 schools, and 65 schoolhouses, 59 of which are frame, the remaining 6 brick. Total amount paid teachers during the year, ending Oct. 31, 1854, $5,538 12. The average compensation of male teachers for the same time, was $20 35-that of females, $9 97! Number of pupils in schools, 3622. A branch of the State University is located at Fairfield. A commodious building has been erected for the accommodation of pupils; and is now leased to a company of citizens, who have established a flourishing school for young men and boys, under the charge of Mr. Anderson, a teacher of experience and ability. There is also a Female Seminary in this place, which is b

Page  143 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. in a prosperous condition, conducted by Rev. L. B. Crittenden. Of manufactories the principal are a steam saw-mill, an iron foundry, a sash and door factory, and numerous minor establishments. We need a steam flouring-mill. A United States Land Office is located in this place, which has been, and is still doing an extensive business. There are several thriving villages located in the different sections of the county, among which are Libertyville, seven miles south-west from Fairfield; Brookville and Abingdon, the former six, and the latter twelve miles west; Pleasant Plain, twelve miles north; and Glasgow in the southern part of the county. There are three extensive nurseries in the county. A county agricultural society was organised three years ago. The eastern part is well timbered. On the borders of Skunk River and its tributaries, are fine groves of various kinds of timber, suitable for building and fencing purposes. The most common are the white and burr oak, walnut, elm, cottonwood, and linn; sugar maple is found in some places on Skunk River. The western portion of the county is principally prairie, interspersed with some groves of timber, and is well adapted to cultivation, as no portion of that land is too broken, and none too flat, for cultivation. There is no land of any consequence in this county that is not already taken up. Much good land is owned by non-residents. 143

Page  144 144 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. F,rmns in the hands of residents are beginning to assume all lthe appearances of extensive and tasteful cultivation. There are extensive beds of coal in different sections of the county. Also lime-stone is found along the borders of some creeks. JOHNSON COUNTY. Iowa City is the county-seat of Johnson County, and until the last session of the legislature, was the capital of the state. At that session a bill was passed, removing the seat of government to Fort Des Moines, in Polk County, some hundred and twenty miles further west; and providing for the erection of temporary public buildings, to be approved by the governor, before a session of the General Assembly will be holden there. The present State House is not entirely finished, but is an elegant edifice of stone; capacious, well adapted to legislative and other public purposes, and an ornament to the city. This building, with its extensive grounds, is a grant to the State University, and will be appropriated to its use immediately upon the removal of the State offices and legislative sessions. The University has an ample fund, and is now in operation in this city; well provided with competent professors, and temporarily occupying what is known as the Mechanics' Academy. The number of students is at present but about forty, as the first session was opened only on the first Monday of March last. Besides this infant institution, strong in resources and

Page  145 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. promises, there is the Female Collegiate Institute, in suc cessful operation. This institution has been reared to its present prosperity, principally under the auspices of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, in this city and other portions of the State. The building designed for this semi nary, will be completed, probably, during the present year, and no expense will be spared to render it equal in archi tectural beauty and finish to any in Iowa. There is, also, the City Union School, with a principal and three assistants, besides numerous private schools, all thriving finely. There is no town in the state better sup plied with educational advantages, considering its population. There are two newspapers published in this city, the Repvblican, a Whig, and the Cavital Reporter, a Democratic journal; connected with both of which are flourishing job-printing offices. By an act of the last Legislature, also, the State Printer will hold his office here, until the final removal of the seat of government. A steam grist-mill is now operating successfully in this city; amount of business not known, as it has just commenced operations. Another is to be erected on the west side of the Iowa River the present season. About three miles west of town, or north-west, are Clarke's flouringmills, clearing their owners at least $10,000 per annum. The manufactories most needed here are a paper-mill, plow and wagon factory, wool-carding machines. A good foundry and brick-yard would also pay well. The city is well stocked with churches, there being no less than seven church edifices, and eight religious 13 145

Page  146 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. societies. Of these, there are one Baptist, built of brick in superior style; an Old School Presbyterian, Methodist,Protestant Methodist, Catholic, and Universalist, also of brick, and very creditable structures; and the New School Presbyterian, a neat stone edifice. The Episcopal Society worships in the basement of the Methodist Church. According to the census of 1854, the population of the city was 3083; which is probably nearer four than three thousand at the present time. It is situated at the conjunction of two great contemplated railroad routes: the one from Davenport, of which the present year will doubtless witness the completion to this point - and the Lyons road, in which the city is also deeply interested, which will probably be finished in at least fifteen months. The county is one of the finest agricultural counties in the State-well adapted for stock raising; also wheat, corn, and potatoes. A flourishing Agricultural Society of two years' standing is organized, and an immense interest is awakened in its behalf. The population at the last census was 8446, which is increasing at an astonishing rate. JASPER COUNTY Is bounded on the east by Poweshiek, west by Polk, north by Marshall, and south by Marion and a portion of Mahaska Counties. In no county in the State, perhaps, is there better soil for all purposes than in Jasper. The following description of this section of country we insert, from a communication to the "Iowa City Reporter": 146

Page  147 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. "Probably no portion of our State surpasses Central Iowa in point of beauty, fertility, healthfulness of climate, and the thriftiness of its inhabitants. " The eye is pleased with the alternation of oak openings, timber land, and the crystal streams that murmur along their channels, guttered out of the prairies. A few years have elapsed since this portion of our State was marked by the Red man's track and the simple wigwam. Then the rich agricultural resources of Central Iowa were unknown to thousands who have since found homes in the "Prairie Land." Here the spirit of American enterprise has found a wide field for action, and, by its magic power, the hidden wealth that lies in the fat hill-sides is beginning to flow into the lap of Western industry. The wigwam has given place to the pioneer's home, and the sound of the Indian rifle has died away, and nought is heard but the sound of busy industry. Yes, a new people, possessing a new spirit, are now on the prairies of Central Iowa, grappling with the "strong-holds" of Nature, and building up towns and cities on the ground where a few short years ago was seen a collection of wigwams. The contemplated line of railroad from Davenport to the MIissouri River runs through this portion of our State, and truly a great artery of trade will be demanded by the rapid growth of Western Iowa. Nowhere in the West has the hand of Wrestern industry effected greater changes than in Jasper County, from which I now write. "In 1846, the Senatorial Legislature formed it out of a portion of LIahaska County; and, in 1847, Newton, the 147

Page  148 148 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. county-seat of Jasper, was laid out by Thomas Henderson and Jacob Fisher. At that time but few pioneers had pushed their way to Central Iowa, but the way had been "blazed" by the founders of the newly laid-off town, and in 1848 a few log-cabins were erected in Newton. A more favorable location could not be obtained. It is on the boundary between the North and South Skunk Rivers. The country around the town-site is rolling enough to render it entirely free from marshes, or anything that would give rise to deleterious miasmas. Many have been attracted to the place by the healthfulness of its position, and the country around. The log-cabin has been removed, and the stately frame-dwelling erected in its stead; the "old cabin" store-house no longer greets the eye, but on the site it occupied stands a store-house that would do credit to towns of more pretensions. The prospect of securing a railroad has infused a new zeal into the citizens of the place, and they have determined to erect a new court-house on the square which will reflect credit upon the enterprising spirit of Newton. The Methodists are taking steps to build a new church. Mercantile houses are being erected as fast as possible, while those now operating are driving a heavy business. The mechanic and farmer are also keeping pace with the prosperity of town and county. " Large quantities of fine stone-coal are found in the immediate vicinity of the place, and the traveller often finds it upon the surface of the ground. When we consider that this article seems almost inexhaustible, there can scarcely be a question as to the profitableness of almost any branch

Page  149 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. of mechanical and manufacturing industry which may be established in this portion of our State. Lime-stone, suitable for building purposes, is found on the banks of Elk Creek and Skunk River; this one article greatly facilitates the operations of our citizens in erecting buildings, and in many other ways. One grist-mill and two saw-mills are now in successful operation; but the demand for mills is constantly increasing. Men of capital, and true Western spirit, are making arrangements to erect forges and workshops, which, when completed, will render Newton quite a point for manufacturing." JONES COUNTY Was first settled in 1836, organized in 1839, and the county-seat located at Anamosa in MIay, 1847. The population of the county in October, 1854, was 6300- being about eleven to the square mile. In this county will be found a due proportion of timber land and prairie land; while the mill-sites upon the Wabsipinnicon are numerous, and building-stone abundant. Beside the Wapsie', are the North and South Forks of the MIaquoketa, Bear, and Mineral Creeks, and numerous first-rate springs of good water. The towns in the county are Anamosa, Rome, Bowen's Prairie, Fairview, and Monticello. In Anamosa is published one newspaper, "The News." There are also one Congregational and one United Brethren church edifices, and organizations each, of Methodists, Christians, and Universalists. The MIasons and Odd Fellows each have 13* 149

Page  150 150 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Lodges there. The Iowa Central Air-Line Railroad passes through the county, touching at Anamosa. This line is located and under contract as far as Marion, Linn County. CHAPTER XVIII. DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES-CONTINUED. KEOKUK COUNTY Is the third county from the Mississippi River and the Missouri State-line; situated west of Washington, and north-west of Jefferson Counties. The land is of an excellent quality, well watered by the Checauque and its tributaries, which are skirted with a good supply of timber. Lancaster, the county-seat, has increased very rapidly during the past two years, as has the entire county. The Muscatine and Oskaloosa Railroad, which is under contract, passes through the county, touching the countyseat. Sigourney, Wraugh's Point, and Richland are each centres of large settlements of intelligent and industrious people; the latter place is settled principally by Friends, or Quakers. LEE COUNTY Is situated at the junction of the Mississippi and the Des lIoines Rivers, and is the most southern county in the

Page  151 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. state; it is bounded on the south-east by the Mississippi, which separates it from Illinois; on the south-west by the Des BIoines, separating it from Missouri; on the west by Van Buren; and on the north by Henry and Des MIoines Counties. The county is well watered by the Des Moines and Mississippi and their tributaries. The principal towns are Keokuk, Montrose, Fort Madison, West Point, Franklin, Nashville, &c. The bottom-lands of Lee are well adapted to the wants of the agriculturist, and its prairies are elevated, dry and rolling. The business of stock-raising has been entered into in Lee more extensively perhaps than in any other county. The city of Keokuk, the largest place in the county, is situated at the foot of the Des Moines or Lower Rapids, at the extreme south-east corner of the state. By the usual routes of travel it is 230 miles from Chicago; 210 from St. Louis; 400 from the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi; 1000 from New York; and 1400 from New Orleans. Its position as a central commercial point is scarcely equalled by that of any other city west of Chicago, and endows it with business advantages and facilities of the highest importance. These advantages are three-fold, and may be treated of under the three following heads, viz: First, those derived from the navigation of the Mississippi. The Lower Rapids, formed by a rocky stratum in the river, commencing about 200 yards above the city, and running northward a distance of 12 miles, with a fall of 24 feet, render Keokuk the head of navigation during a great portion of the year, until the work of improving the Rapids 151

Page  152 152 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. is completed. At present, in time of low water, steamers are obliged to unload their cargoes into "lighters," which are towed up the Rapids, above which the freight is again loaded into the boats; and thus this city is rendered a wholesale dep6t, and place of transhipment. The second point lies in the trade of the Des Moines Valley which Keokuk must inevitably command, situated but 2 miles above the confluence of the Des Moines and Mississippi Rivers. This valley, for a width of sixty miles on either side of the Des Moines River, is unsurpassed probably in the world for agricultural wealth. It also abounds in timber, coal, gypsum, and many other articles of trade, and these will be transmitted down the Des MIoines to its mouth at Keokuk, thence re-shipped to other markets. Of the improvement of the Des Moines we speak at length in another Chapter. The third source of business advantages which Keokuk can claim, lies in its railroads. The Keokuk and Fort Des Moines, the Keokuk, Mt. Pleasant and Muscatine, and the Eastern railroads will soon be built, and will afford this city numerous connections of the highest importance. Keokuk is situated upon a bluff 150 feet above highwater mark in the Mississippi, is laid out one mile square, and contains a population of nearly 7000. Its streets are wide and regular, and are being graded and McAdamized with rapidity. Main Street, 100 feet in width, is McAdamized through the city for a distance of one mile. The city contains six brick-yards, two lumber-yards, one flouring and grist-mill, two foundries, one machine shop, five hotels, &c.

Page  153 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Its public school is held in the largest and handsomest building, which, throughout the State, is devoted to the cause of education. The edifice, when fully completed, will have cost $13,500. This city also contains the Iowa Medical College, a State institution, and a Female Seminary, besides two other female institutes, and a number of private schools. Six church edifices, O. and N. S. Presby. terian, Baptist, Methodist, Episcopalian and Catholic. One weekly and two daily newspapers. The bluff on which the city stands contains the finest of lime-stone, for building and other purposes, and commands a landscape view, of wild and picturesque beauty. LINN COUNTY Is a large and comparatively populous tract. The towns in the county are, Marion, (the county-seat), Mt. Vernon, Spring Grove P. O., Boulder P. O., Central Point, Cedar P. O., Oak P.O., Palo P. O, Lafayette, Cedar Rapids, Newark, St. Julien, Ivanhoe, and Hoosier Grove. The present population of the county is 10,075. Newspapers are published at MIarion and Cedar Rapids. The number of churches and schools in the county, or even of towns, other than Mt. Vernon, we are unable to state, but are informed that no county in the State, of the same population, has more of either, in better condition. The "Iowa Conference Seminary," is located at Mount Vernon-has a brick edifice 40 by 72 feet, 3 stories high. It is in a very prosperous condition, under the superintendence of Rev. S. M. Fellows, A. M., assisted by three regu 153

Page  154 154 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. lar teachers, besides music teacher, and teacher of painting and embroidery. Number of students now in attendance about 150. Most of them young ladies and gentlemen from abroad. The situation is unsurpassed for beauty. There is a good district school in the village, with a good chool-house. Mills are very much needed, and would do well. There is a large amount of timber in the neighbourhood, for sawing. The surrounding country is one of the finest agricultural regions in the State. The farmers have already erected pretty good buildings, and every year improvements are going forward. Linn County is considered one of the best, if not the best in the State; and the country around Mt. Vernon is acknowledged equal to any portion of the county. The location of the Seminary at this place, in connection with the real excellence of the country, makes this one of the most desirable situations for a family residence that can be found in the West. We are about 70 miles from Dubuque, 55 from Daven port; 45 from Muscatine; 20 from Iowa City; 12 from Marion (the county-seat); and 14 from Cedar Rapids. LOUISA COUNTY. This is a rich and fertile county, bordering on the Mississippi; bounded on the west by Washington and Henry Counties, on the north by Muscatine, and on the south by

Page  155 D)ESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Des )Ioines Counties. The county is well watered by the Iowa iliver, which passes diagonally through it. J. B. Newhall, Esq., in his "Glimpses of Iowa," thus describes Louisa County: " Wapello Prairie, on the south side of the Iowa River, is unrivalled in picturesque beauty. It commences near the village of Florenee, the site of the old Sac village, and, crossing a small rivulet skirted with woods, it breaks forth upon the eye of the traveller in picturesque grandeur, terminating in the north-west with the town of Wapello, the county-seat of Louisa. "This county embraces a principal portion of the Keokuk Reserve, purchased by the Government in 1836. It is a remarkable fact, that almost the whole tribe of Sacs and Foxes were congregated here until after the first or Black Hawk purchase of 1832; notwithstanding they had almost a boundless region from which to select their villages and hunting-grounds. "Wapello, the seat of justice, is handsomely located on the old site of'Wapello's Village.' Wapello was a Fox chief, who resided there until the summer of 1836, as chief of his band. There are several small villages in Louisa, among which are Toolsboro', Columbus City, Harrison, Florence, Fredonia, &c. Toolsboro'-formerly Black hawk, -is situated upon the north side of the Iowa, about three miles from the Mississippi, has an extensive country trade, and is somewhat celebrated for its ancient mounds and fortifications. "Florence derives its principal notorietv from its having 155

Page  156 156 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. been the residence of Black Hawk until the Indian hostilities in 1832. Here repose the bones of his ancestors, where they have rested for centuries. It was here that he sounded the war-whoop, and rallied his countrymen to the last deadly conflict, in defence of the homes and the graves "'Where sleep their warriors; where rival chieftains lay, And mighty tribes, swept from the face of day." " But they were conquered, and this illustrious warrior was doomed to wander, a stranger in the land of his forefathers. His lodge was still standing at the time the country was surveyed." MAIIASKA COUNTY, Of which Oskaloosa is the county-seat, is a thriving and populous county for its age. The first settlements in the county were made in 1842, on the public land, and in June, 1843, the county-seat was organized by commissioners appointed by the Legislature. The present population of Oskaloosa is nearly 3000. The county is well supplied with churches and schools. Of the former are Methodist, Christian, Seceder, O. S. Presbyterian, and Cumberland Presbyterian. The "Times" and the " Herald," are both published in Oskaloosa. Two public and two private schools at the county-seat, in good condition. Of manufactories, two steam saw-mills, and one steam fiouring-mill, a carding and spinning-machine, with smaller

Page  157 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. establishments, comprise the assortment. Manufactories of any kind will do well here. The county is unsurpassed for fertility of soil, abundance and quality of water, &c. The county-seat is reported to be the largest inland town in the State, and with the splendid country that surrounds it, and the railroad connections that are hastening to link that place with the rest of mankind, the prospects are that it will soon be a large and important business point. MARION COUNTY Was settled in October, 1845, by Wilson Stanley, L. G. Terry, L. WV. Babbitt, Dr. R. Mathews, E. & T. Jenkins, J. D. Bedell, and E. G. Stanfield. The present population of the county is 11,065-of Knoxville, the countyseat, 600. In the county-seat are one Methodist, and one Congregational, edifices. The different denominations are Methodist, Lutheran, Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist, Missionary Baptist, Associate Reformed, and United Brethren. The number of public schools is stated to be sixty-six. Two high schools-one in Knoxville, another in Pella-all in a prosperous condition. A college is being erected in Pella by the Mlissionary Baptists. Several steam saw and fiouring-mills in operation, but threefold more needed. Also manufactories of all kinds wanted. Soil good for farming purposes, timber plenty, water abundant and excellent. Prairie unsurpassed by any in the Union. Climate good. Winters admirably adapted for 14 157

Page  158 158 I DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. stock, owing to their dryness and evenness. Stone-coal, of excellent quality, abounds in veins eight feet thick. Splendid lime and sandstone, for building purposes, abundant. The towns in the county are, Knoxville, Pella, Divide, Bennington, Paran City, Wheeling P. O., Rousseau, Pleasantville, Red Rock, Amsterdam, Pt. English, English P. O., Bellefontaine, Attica P. O., Red Cedar P. O., Newtown, Newburn, Marysville P. O., and Hamilton P.O. A newspaper is now published at- Pella, and another is about to be established in Knoxville. MONROE COUNTY Was organized in 1843, and the county-seat "laid off" in 1844. Present population of the county 4200-of Albia, the county-seat, 400. The )Iethodists have a good frame meeting-house. The Presbyterians are just building a good brick edifice, which will be finished this summer. The society of Christians will build next season. Here are one steam mill, one plough manufactory, a carding machine, and a full supply of stores and of professional men. The only newspaper in the county is the "Albia Free Press." One public and one private school in Albia, each in a flourishing condition. Steam flouring-mills, saw-mills, coopering establishments, cabinet-ware manufactories, and any number of industrious

Page  159 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. mechanics are greatly needed here. At present the cooperage for pork, lard and flour, is obtained from a great distance, at decided disadvantage. This county is as well watered as any portion of the State. The principal streams which have their rise in, or pass through the county, are Cedar Creek, Whippoorwill Creek, WThite's Creek, and Coal Creek; the three latter, with numerous smaller streams, emptying into Cedar Creek, render it of proper size and power for mill-sites, and there are now five mills erected on this stream, doing business more than half the year. Bluff's, Gray's, Miller's, Avery's, and Soap Creeks, are each, streams of some size, and skirted with timber averaging nearly a mile in width. Throughout the county the soil is very good; the prairies are small, high, and fertile. An abundance of timber, coal, and limestone may be found in most parts of the county. The best land is entered, but claims to some of the very best can be bought at from five to ten dollars per acre. The county is increasing in numbers very rapidly, and offers great inducements to manufacturers, mechanics, farmers, and citizens of all classes. MILLS COUNTY. Glenwood, the county-seat, was first settled by the Mormons, in 1847, and this was about the first settlement in the county; but that population has long since been almost entirely supplanted by people from Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Missouri. The present population of the town is about seven hundred - that of the county about five thousand. 159

Page  160 160 DESCRIPTION OF COUIJNTIES. There are three churches in the place, viz.: Methodist, Congregationalist, and Presbyterian (Old School); in the county, ten churches, same denominations. Two newspapers published in the county: the "Glenwood Times," and the " St. MIary's Gazette." There are a large Union School and two District Schools in the town, and about twenty common schools in the county, all in a flourishing condition, and supplied with good teachers. There is still a great demand for teachers. They have one flouring and two saw-mills- the two latter driven by steam. There are fifteen mills in the county, one carding-machine, and a shingle mill. All of the above-named are over-stocked with business, and there is abundance of room for others. Cabinet-makers, weavers, cloth-fullers, tanners, house-builders, and every class of mechanics, are much needed. Mills County is composed of the most fertile prairie, interspersed with magnificent groves of timber, with here and there an hundred little streams spread out and interlaced over the face of the whole country, like the veins and arteries in a mighty living giant. The river bottom here is about eight miles wide, as level as a floor, yet dry and subject to no dangers from overflows. Cattle live in these bottoms all winter without feeding No county in the State possesses a more munificent supply of water and timber than Mills. Owing to its geographical position, immediately opposite the mouth of the great Platte River, it may safely be said that the county, in interest and importance, is

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Page  161 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. inferior to none in the State. It has not its equal in any State for perfect adaptation to agricultural purposes. It possesses a most salubrious climate. There is plenty of limle and sand-stone in all parts of the county, perfectly adapted to building purposes. There has also been some stone-coal discovered recently. There are four other towns in the county beside Glenwood, viz.: St. ]Iary's, Bethlehem, Platteville, and Lafayette -all flourishing villages. There is still considerable good land unentered in the county. MUSCATINE COUNTY Is situated next below Scott County, on the Mississippi River, and contains an area of 432 square miles. The name of this county was derived from a tribe of Indians known as the Iuscoutins. The county-town was originally called Bloomington, which name it still holds on a few old-fogy maps and tables of distances. In 1845 the name was changed to that of the county-Muscatine. In 1853 it was incorporated as a city, since which time it has been called the "Cityof Museatine." The present population of Muscatine City is about 4600; of the county, including the city, 12,100. The city contains nine churches, with a total number of nearly one thousand members; two steam flouring-mills, two steam saw-mills, one stave and three shingle machines (all driven by steam); seven hotels, two public school-houses, (one erected in 1850, at a cost of $4000; the other more 14* 161

Page  162 162 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. recently, costing $5000). Upwards of 300 children are in daily attendance at these schools. Situated on a bend or arm of the river. Miuscatine is fa vorably located to command the trade of a large section of I country. From the following statistics for the year 1854, some idea may be gained of the amount of business done i n that city: Produce received in I[uscatine in 1854. Wheat......... bushels, 393,570 I Timothy Seed, bushels, Rye............. " 3,176 Flaxseed...... " Corn............" 121,902 Beeswax...... pounds, Oats........... " 28,242 Dry hides..... " Barley......... 2 0 Wool............ " Beans.........." 8,550 Hog s, cu t.................. Potatoes....... " 11,317 The average weight of hogs was 220 pounds. Manufactured in Muscatine in 1854. Flour, barrels...................................................... 29,515 Cooperaye -Pork barrels....................................... 9,800 Flour barrels...................................... 56,300 Whiskey barrels.................................. 550 Staves ready for setting up, and shipp ed.................. 1,000,000 Bedsteads (from the l og)....................................... 2,900 Plastering laths................................................... 1,433,100 Broom handles................................................... 50,000 Window sash, No. of lights................................... 100,000 Pine lumber, feet................................................ 2,261,900 Shingles............................................................ 1,126,500 The city of Muscatine is located upon uncommonly broken ground, and a majority of the lots, either for business or residences, require grading; the citizens, however, are of that class, who, appreciating the superiority of their location in other respects, have by art made smooth Nature's 160 716 1,050 57,380 2,228 13,000

Page  163 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. rough places, and tasteful and stately residences now grace bluffs, which, but a few months ago, were almost inaccessible. Two newspapers are published in MIuscatine: a Whig, weekly and tri-weekly; and a Democratic, weekly. The inhabitants have the character of being second to none in the State in point of intelligence and industry. CHAPTER XIX. DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES-CONTINUED. POLK COUNTY Was opened for settlement in May, 1846. The garrison was removed in July of that year, and in the same month and year,the town of Fort Des Moines was laid out. The population of Polk County is upwards of 6000; that of Fort Des Moines, 1100. In the county are Episcopal, Presbyterian (Old and New School), Baptist, Methodist, and Catholic churchesthe latter but recently established. But one newspaper in the county-the "Fort Des Moines Star." Two private schools and one public school in Fort Des Mloines; the former in good condition, affording a respectable academic course for young ladies and gentlemen. A 163

Page  164 164 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. large District school-house, on the "Union" plan, is in course of erection, to be completed this fall, costing some $6000. The Des Moines River passes diagonally through Polk County, entering at the north-west and passing out at the south-east corner. Raccoon River empties into this river at Fort Des Moines. Both of these stieams afford numerous sites for manufactories and mills. There are several grist and saw-mills in the county, but not a tithe of the number that are needed. Our correspondent writes: "We need more shops of all descriptions, and, above all, manufactories. We want flouring-mills and saw-mills-more of them, and on a larger scale. We want brick-makers, carpenters, cabinet-makers, brick and stone masons, plasterers, and, in short, mechanics of all kinds. We want waterwheels and steam-engines, farmers, machinists, and day laborers." Polk County, as well as those adjoining, and those farther north and west, is high, rolling prairie, with a due proportion of timber, and is well watered with rivers and creeks, the banks of which abound in coal, lime, sandstone, and gypsum in great quantities. The last session of the Legislature located the Capital of the State at Fort Des Moines, since which time that place has been almost besieged by lawyers, doctors, agents, and land speculators. Fort Des Moines is destined to be one of, if not the, largest interior city in the State. Of other towns and villages in the county, we would

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Page  165 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. mention Polk City, Corydon, Taylorsville, West Liberty, Circleville, Union, Adelphi, Harvey, Rising Sun, and Jericho. SCOTT COUNTY Is situated on the Mississippi (which bounds it on the east and south), and is the lower one of the trio which occupy a front and centralsrank among the counties bordering on the river. The first permanent settlement in the county was made by Antoine Le Claire, in the spring of 1833. During the next year several families and companies of whites crossed over as "squatters," settling upon such "claims" as might suit their fancy. Mr. Le Claire was for many years intimately and responsibly identified with our government in its intercourse with the Indians of the north-west, being in government service, as interpreter and Indian agent, from 1813 to 1843-30 years; and in some ten or twelve important treaties, he was the principal or only interpreter, and as such attended the government officers on the occasion. His familiarity with some fourteen Indian dialects, as well as with the English and Fretch languages, and his being the great-grand-son of a chief, and his wife the descendant of another, gave him an influence with, and a knowledge of the Indian tribes, such as no other individual of his day possessed. The marquee of Gen. Scott, in which was held the treaty with the Sac and Fox Indians, was erected upon the identical spot, which has, since 1833, been occupied by Mr. Le Claire as a residence. On the preceding page is 165

Page  166 DESORIPTION OF OOUNTIES presented a view of the Le Claire ilomestead, which was occupied as a residence by Mr. Le Claire from 1813 to 1854. In the spring of 1854 it was given up to the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad Company, as a location for their passenger dep6t. At the period of the treaty made by Gen. Scott, the cholera was prevailing among the soldiers in the Fort, and the meeting, instead of being held on the Island, was, from prudential considerations, transferred to the main shore, though not outside of the range of the guns of the Fort. It was in this marquee that the chief of the Sacs made a present of a mile square of land to Mrs. Le Claire, and, striking his foot upon the turf, told Mr. Le Claire that the only condition he asked was that he should build his house upon that spot-a condition that was speedily complied with. The treaty was held in the fall of 1832, and ratified by Congress the following winter. In the spring of 1833, Mr. Le Claire erected a small building, or "shanty," in the then Fox village, " Morgan," which had occupied this ground for years previous. Of the tribe having this as their head-quarters, Maguopom was the head warrior, and Powesheik head chief. In the fall of 1834, the Sac and Fox Indians left here for the Cedar River. In the spring of 1836 the town of Davenport was laid out. Of the climate and scenery of Scott County, Mr. Newhall, in his Glinopse of Iowa, thus speaks:-" Ever since the earliest settlement of Iowa, this portion has been justly esteemed among the most desirable and fascinating regions of the boundless West. Being entirely free from low 166

Page  167 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. bottom-lands, (the usual cause of disease), it was early selected by the sagacious pioneers, as one of the favored spots of the Upper Mississippi Valley. Perhaps no country in the world presents so happy a combination of picturesque beauties, blended with excellence of soil, and salubrity of climate, as the vicinity of Rock Island. All whop have ever visited this charming region, concur in expressing their admiration of the surpassing beauties of Nature's inimitable works." For some ten miles on the river, above and below Davenport, the bluffs are very wide, varying from one to two miles, leaving a large amount of bottom land for cultivation. By the word blu.f,t we do not mean here an abrupt, perpendicular precipice of rocks; the bluffs of the Mississippi at this point, and for twenty miles up and down the river, are generally a gentle slope from the top to the banks of the river, and their elevation is about 100 feet above lowwater-mark. From the top of these bluffs, one beholds Davenport spread out upon a gently sloping plain nearly two miles long, and one-half to three-fourths of a mile wide, fronting on the river, which runs, at this point, nearly west; and the streets range parallel to the four cardinal points of the compass. For miles below, the mighty Mississippi rolls on its placid waters, curling amid its many islands in picturesque grandeur, until lost in the distance; while to the east, for ten miles, a most beautiful panoramic view is presented of the river, its islands and bluffs. In the distance are the towns of Hampton and Moline, upon the Illinois shore; in front of you, and 167

Page  168 168 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. beyond the town of Rock Island, away in the distance, are seen the windings of Rock River, one of the most beautiful streams in the west. The tower of Black Hawk is also in !full view, overlooking the great valley at the junction of Rock River with the Mississippi. It was in this valleyat the forks of Rock River and the Mississippi -that the village of Black Hawk was situated. Here, it was said, he lived in peace and plenty, with his immense fields of corn, and supplied with game and fish, that abounded in the neighbourhood. It is said to have been one of the greatest trials of Black Hawk's life to give up this country, and not only leave the graves of his people to the ruthless encroachments of the white man, but to part with his favorite fishing and hunting-grounds. Is it a wonder, then, that, after a treaty had been signed by Keokuk, the civil chiefof the tribe, contrary to the wishes and design of Black Hawk, he refused to leave this lovely spot, the scenes of his childhood, the sports of his manhood, and the last resting-place of his ancestors? Rock Island is about three miles in length, with an aver age width of half a mile, and contains therefore nearly one thousand acres. The rapids commence some twelve miles above it and terminate at its foot. Moline and the city of Rock Island, on the Illinois shore, are opposite its extreme endings, and the city of Davenport and East Davenport occupy nearly the same relation to it on the Iowa side. At the foot of the Island stands old Fort Armstrong, built in 1816 by Col. Mason, U.S. A. Half a mile distant, on the north side of the Island, is the residence of the late Col.

Page  169 D E S C R I P T I O N OF CO U N T I ES. Davenport, who was for more than 30 years a partner in the American Fur Company, and an Indian trader. On the 4th of July, 1845, a band of robbers entered his beautiful residence in the middle of the day, in the absence of his family, and in robbing him accidentally shot him; he died the same night. After having lived a frontier life for so many years, and having passed through a long and bloody Indian war, he was doomed to die by the hands of desperadoes. All the murderers were taken; three were hung at Rock Island, the same year-but two escaped, and are yet at large. From 1837 to'40, and up to'45, Iowa and northern Illinois were infested by the most daring set of outlaws that have ever visited the western world. But the supremacy of the laws has banished them from our midst, and Iowa is again comparatively free from crime. The Island is now covered with a dense growth of young timber, of every variety, that flourishes in this climate. Forty years ago, 3Ir. Le Claire states, this ground was covered by a very dense forest, but the soldiers stationed in the Fort and the early settlers of the country, destroyed much of it for fuel and other purposes, and finally fire was communicated to the bed of leaves which had accumulated there for ages, and swept the Island of its crowning glory. The present growth of timber dates its origin subsequent to this fire. " The Island, with the exception of a fractional quarter section of about one hundred and Eifty-five acres, which was G,ven to Col. Davenport, belongs to the government. The motives which led to withholding it firom sale, so long as 15 16

Page  170 170 DES C R I P T IO0 N OF CO U NTIES. S Fort Arm:strong was occupied, and there remained a necessity of keeping an armed force in this vicinity, are evident enough. But the Fort was really abandoned in 1835, and the policy which has induced the government to retain its hold upon the Island since that period, is not so apparent. Numerous efforts have been made to obtain an order for its sale, and it is to be feared, in too many instances, with the view of securing the possession of it to a few favored individuals. Twice have such orders been issued by the proper departments, but on both occasions the sale was not permitted to proceed. Under the circumstances it was well that it did not. This magnificent body of land, lying here in the midst of so much beauty, and surrounded by towns which bid fair to become the seat of an immense conmmerce, should not be permitted to fall into the hands of mere speculators. But the Island should unquestionably pass from public to private ownership. As it is, it answers no useful end to the government or to individuals, and its being retained by the former retards in many ways the prosperity of the neighboring towns and country." The city of Davenport, since the completion of the Chicago and Rock Island Railroad, has moved forward with rapid strides. The present population of the city is about 80S00. The following from the correspondence of the St. Louis Repubiicagt gives a concise and correct statement: " We have two flouring-mills, six saw-mills, two planing mills, one plow factory, two sash and blind factories, and two foundries, all operated by steam-engines, and doing a thriving business.

Page  171 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. " The stores, numbering over one hundred, have passed through the transition state, from general country groceries to distinct and well appointed establishments, representing separately each prominent branch of commercial enterprise. The various churches and public edifices have emerged from their temporary chrysalis to large, commodious buildings. Farms of unsurpassed fertility, stretch their broad acres from our suburbs many mIiles into the interior, over the prairies, are creditable to the enterprise of our agriculturists, and supplying our city with every luxury, and a commerce commensurate with the importance of our locality. Our streets swarm with immigrants, our hotels, six in number, are insufficient for the accommodation of strangers. Our banking-houses, of which there are three, are sound and healthy. Our real estate offices, which are too numerous to enumerate, are converting money into property, and property into money, daily, at prices which, although comparatively high, make both buyer and seller rich. All kinds of business, and classes of business men, thrive and prosper. Two abutments, and three piers of the great MIississippi bridge are completed. "Preparations for gas light on an extensive scale, form a new feature in the city's privileges. Our suburbs spring up with distinctive appellations, and North, Wrest, and East Davenport, and HIamburg, would pass for respectable villages, apart from the nucleus. "Davenport is becoming an important lumber depot. Besides the six saw-mills in operation here, cutting some fifteen or twenty millions of feet per annum, it is supplied 171

Page  172 172 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. by rafts from the pineries, which, on account of the spacious eddy at East Davenport, are induced to touch here before seeking another market. " East Davenport contains 300 inhabitants, and has one flour and one saw-mill. It presents inducements for the extension of the lumber business beyond any other point on the Mississippi river above St. Louis. The main avenues penetrating the interior of the State, concentrate at this point, and the i'Iississippi and Missouri Railroad depot is contiguous to the village between it and Davenport proper, and doubtless a branch railroad will be extended to the eddy nest season. Here, also, the supplies of lime and building-stone are derived, and the brick manufacture is extensively carried on." Five large new churches, dedicated last fall, rear their turrets towards heaven; a new collegiate building, an extensiv,e building for a female school, two market houses, and several stores, of architectural proportions, are among the edifices of last year's growth. Local.vamz,facluces.-Five saw-mills have turned out 7,000,000 feet of lumber; two planing-mills and sash factories have worked 2,000,000 feet of lumber; one plow factory manufactured 1500 plows; two foundries and machine shops; two flouring-mills manufactured 50,000 barrels of flour; four cooper shops manufactured 30,000 flour barrels, and 1000 pork barrels. Population of Davenport 8000; increase 2200 over 1853. Scott County, 17,000. From the returns of the Assessor, in 1854, we see that the total amount of property assessed the past year was

Page  173 DESC RIPTION OF COUNTIES. valued at $4,560,459, showing an increase over 1853, of $, 2,7',546. By comparing the returns of the several coun ties, it will be seen that Scott is the third county in the State, in point of wealth. WAe have devoted more space to the description of Scott County, the Island, &c., than to any other county in the State, but probably no more than they deserve. At no point in the whole MIississippi Valley is presented a more beau tiful location for a city than here, and nowhere else in the WIest can be found two cities of the size of Rock Island and Davenport, opposite each other, together concentrating a population of nearly 15,000 inhabitants;-individually cities of great importance to the West-together, forming one of the most attractive points on the Upper Mississippi. The purlieus of these two cities have also been the scenes of a number of incidents, which tend to imbue with a deep and thrilling interest, the early history of Iowa. A relation of these would occupy a greater space than it is in our power at present to devote to them; but we shall endeavor to compile them, together with an accurate and compendious history of the primitive days of the entire State, for publication at an early period. Since our chapter on Geology was completed, and in print, an extensive bed of Cannel coal has been penetrated, "I Scott County, which promises to be of great value to its possessors. The area underlaid by this bank, embraces several acres. Specimens of this coal which have been furnished us, burn well, are very light and brittle, and susceptible of a polish, though inferior to the Cannel coal of 15* 1 7 I'D

Page  174 174 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Pennsylvania. It is thought by colliers that the better qualities are farther in the banks. In our next edition we shall be able to give a chemical analysis of the properties of this coal. CHAPTER XX. DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES -CONCLUDED. TAMA COUNTY. TIE county-seat of Tama was but one year old last November. In February, 1855, it contained 150-the county upwards of 300. In 1550, the county contained but 8 inhabitants-5 males and 3 females-something of an increase! Two churches-a Methodist and a Baptist-are in contemplation, and will probably be built this season. No newspaper-good opening for one-we read. Public Schools in most flourishing condition. Hlydraulic privileges excellent in the county, on the Iowa River-also, an abundance of water-power on Deer, Wolfe, Hloney and Otter Creeks. We have 4 saw-mills-2 water, 2 steam. One flouring-mill, with two runs of stones. Excellent opening for Lumber, Flour, or Woollen Manufactories. Tama County is of rich, alluvial soil. The prairie and timber lands are exceedingly well proportioned to each other. Both upland and river-bottom timber in abundance

Page  175 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. for all the wants of the county, for fencing, building, and fuel purposes. It is confidently asserted that there is an abundance of coal in the county, but no banks have as yet been opened. I The face of the county is greatly undulating, with a good proportion of river bottom, two to four miles in width-well watered. The soil yields wheat, hemp, oats, corn, rye, barley, beans, peas, potatoes, and tobacco, each in great abundance, and with but little care as to culture. Native fruits grow in great variety, such as the grape, crab-apple, plum, gooseberry, strawberry, and raspberry, each growing in abundance.* The Mineral resources, although but partially developed, are known to be valuable and extensive. An abundance of the best lime-stone and stone-coal -the latter not so plenty as the former. Every acre of Tama County is arable land, and it is therefore susceptible of as dense a population as any county in the State. To the Farmer, Stock-raiser, Mechanic, and ilanufacturer, Tama holds out extra inducements. The locality is one of the most healthy, and the population one of the most thriving and energetic in the State. VAN BUREN COUNTY. The earliest settlements in this county were begun in 1834-5. Keosauqua, the county-seat, was laid out and settled in 1837. The proprietors were 3Iessrs. James * All that is said of the productions of the soil of Tama, will apply to most counties of the State.-ED. 175

Page  176 176 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Hlall, John Fairman, John Carns, M. Sigler, and E. Manning. The population of Keosauqua is about 1000; of the county, by last census, 13,843. There are two thriving churches, Congregationalist and Methodist, and several other religious societies. There is one newspaper, the "Democratic Union," published in Keosauqua. No other in the county. One public school, having from 100 to 120 scholars in attendance. There are also one private school for young ladies, and two high schools, all well patronized and supported; in addition to which, the citizens of Keosauqua contemplate the building of a seminary during the present year. There are three grist-mills in the town and vicinity, (one water-power and two steam,) and also two saw-mills. The water-power that is now about to be furnished, by the completion of the lock and dam at this place, will not be surpassed in the State. A woollen manufactory, paper mill, and manufactories of shingles, plows, wagons, and agricultural implements, and also a good merchant flouring-mill, are very much needed. The inducements are readily seen and understood by practical men. The character of the country may be described as being well divided between prairie and timber. There is a large supply of good timber along the Des Moines River, on both sides. The soil is rich, and produces all the crops congenial to the climate, in the greatest abundance.

Page  177 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. The Des AIoines improvement, when finished, will afford an uninterrupted navigation to St. Louis and New Orleans; and at present, even without the improvement, we have steamboat navigation from two to four months, during the spring and summer. There are several towns on the river about one mile below, viz.: Iowvaville, where are two mills and one distillery; Pittsburg, where there is now in progress a steammill; Bentonsport and Vernon, where there are now in successful operation two good flouring-mills, two saw-mills, two carding-machines, one woollen-factory, one lath-mill, and one paper-mill. Bonaparte also contains a good flouring-mill, two sawmills, and an extensive brick woollen-factory. Farmington, below Bonaparte, is also a considerable town, andc contains nearly 1000 inhabitants, two or three grist and saw-mills, one foundry, and one engine establishment. There are also several smaller towns in the county, off from the river, some of which are prominent, and rapidly improving. WAPELLO COUNTY Was opened to settlement on the 1st of May, 1843, and organized in April, 1844. It is claimed by residents to be one of the best tracts of land in the State. The Des Moines River passes diagonally through the county. The water-power, as furnished by that river and Cedar Creek, is abundant, the banks of the streams also being rich in limestone of the best quality, and excellent sand, which, 177

Page  178 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. together with the extensive tracts of timber, render it one of the most desirable counties in the interior of the State. The population of WVapello was 8,466, since which time the county has settled more rapidly than at any previous period. The number of votes polled at the general election in 1854 was 1502. Ottumwa, the county-seat, is situated at what are called the Appanoose Rapids, on the Des Moines River, distant twenty-five miles from Fairfield, and seven from Agency City, (the old Sac and Fox Agency). Respecting the Rapids at this place, MIr. Newhall writes: "In August, 1845, a survey of the Appanoose Rapids at this place was made by David Armstrong, Esq., when it was ascertained that there passed at the Rapids, every minute, 42,000 cubic feet of water; a sufficient quantity to fill a lock 42 feet wide, and 150 feet long; being enough to run 28 pair of burrs, 4 feet in diameter, under a head of 6 feet water. There is a fall of 4 feet at these Rapids, in one mile; and a dam, 5 feet high, would give 6 feet 10 inches rise and fall." Several mills and other manufactories have already been erected at Ottumwa, which place will become one of the most flourishing cities in the interior of the State, when her water-power and other capabilities are fairly developed. Agency City is situated some seven miles from the centre of the county, and in beauty of locality, and natural scenery, will compare favorably with any point in the interior. The late Indian Agency was here located by 178

Page  179 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Gen. Street, who considered it a favorable situation in all respects. Eddyville is situated on the Des MIoines River, in the extreme north-west corner of the county, upon the site of an old Indian trading-post. The society in Eddysville is as good as in any place of its size in the State. Churches and schools are well supported, and the edifices and buildings are of a size and character that would do honor to places of greater pretensions. WAYNE COUNTY WVas organized in 1851, - the first settlements were made in 1848. Corydon, the county-seat, was located in 1852. This section is very sparsely settled, there being but about 500 voters in the county, and less than 100 citizens in Corydon. Several churches are scattered over the county: Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, and Campbellite denominationstwo of them Miethodist-making a total of five. The county is well supplied with schools. No newspapers. WVith an abundance of excellent water-power, Vayne County invites machinists, capitalists, and manufacturers. No machinery in the county. Timber is not so plenty as in some other counties, but the quality of the land is second to none. Considerable land unentered. WINNESHEIK COUNTY Is bounded on the north by Minnesota, on the east by Alamakee County, on the south by Fayette, and on the 179

Page  180 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. west by Chickasaw and Howard Counties. It was occupied by Winnebago Indians until the year 1848, when they were removed by Government. Previous to that time there were no settlers in the county. Fort Atkinson was built about the year 1843, for the protection of the settlements against the incursions of the Indians. The Old Mission, as it is familiarly called, was formerly a missionary-station, under the patronage of Government. Both the Fort and Mission have been abandoned, and, although in the charge of keepers, are rapidly going to decay. The land about both, comprising 5 square miles, is still reserved from sale, and is exceedingly fertile. Among the first settlers may be mentioned Francis Rogers, David Reed, George Ream, William Day, and Wm. Painter. The first settlement was made soon after the removal of the Indians in 1848. The population of the county is estimated at about 5000. The climate of Winnesheik County resembles that of New York City, although the winters are much shorter, and the autumns very long, mild, and beautiful. The spring generally opens about the 15th of March. The summer is never excessively warm, except where the wind is shut out by the bluffs or timber. In soil, this county is not excelled. It is a rich black loam, and has a depth of from one to six feet. It has a very slight mixture of sand. Of course, the deepest soil is to be found upon the bottoms. The county is well timbered; about one-fourth of it is heavily timbered, one-third ISO

Page  181 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. is prairie, and the balance is burr-oak openings, affording plenty of firewood and rails. The county is well watered by the Upper Iowa, Turkey, and Canoe Rivers, and numerous smaller streams. The Upper Iowa is a beautiful stream, with rock and gravel bed, good banks, swift current, and pure water. The Turkey River, which runs through the south-west part of the county, is also a beautiful stream. The Canoe, which is a branch of the Iowa River, is a fine stream, somewhat smaller than the other two, but all of them afford abundance t)f mill-power. Trout Creek is worthy of note. This stream, which is in size about one-third as large as the Upper Iowa, breaks forth in one large spring from the foot of a perpendicular bluff, about two and a half miles from its mouth. It abounds in speckled trout, and is a favorite resort for sportsmen. It rises about two and a half miles south from Decorah, and empties into the Upper Iowa River two miles south-east from that town, at the southernmost bend of the river. In general, the surface of the country is gently rolling; near the large streams it is bluffy, but the high lands are easily accessible by means of the many ravines running in all directions. The prairies are small, well watered, and agreeably diversified with groves and thickets. Washington, Franklin, and Looking-Glass Prairies are noted for their excellent adaptation to farming purposes. This county cannot be excelled for stock raising. Sheep 16 181

Page  182 182 DESCRIPTION OF COUN TIES. do remarkably well; already there are many flocks of fine blooded ones in the county. The prevailing rock is lime-stone, which, near the surface, is soft and shelly, but below it is hard and solid. It is always found in layers of a good thickness for building purposes. Coal is said to have been found in the western part of the county. There are a number of religious societies formed in the county, among which are Congregationalists, Presbyterians, 3lethodists, Quakers, and Lutherans. There are a number of saw-mills, and, although on a small scale, they do a good business. The Decorah sawmill has one saw which cuts 3000 feet of lumber in twentyfour hours. There are also a number of grist-mills in the county, doing a thriving business. Decorah grist-mill has two run of stones, which grind 680 bushels of wheat in twenty-four hours. Dunning's grist-mill, near I)ecorah, is situated under a large spring, with fifty feet fall of water. An extensive plow factory has recently been erected in Decorah. The manufactories most needed at present are: woollen factories, chair factories, sash and door factories, grist-mills, lath-mills, iron foundries, and factories for the manufacture of agricultural implements. The inducements for their erection are the abundance of water-power and materials, and the great demand for their products.

Page  183 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. Farmers are much needed -the inducements for them being plenty of vacant land and excellent markets. MIechanics are very much needed, especially carpenters, masons, millwrights, coopers, saddlers, watchmakers, tinners, cabinet-makers, and painters. The inducements for them are plenty of work and good pay. Decorah, the county-seat of Winneshiek County, is a thriving village, 21 miles east from the geographical centre of the county. It is pleasantly situated on the Upper Iowa River, twenty-nine miles from the Mississippi, and fourteen miles from the southern boundary of Minnesota. The great thoroughfare between Iowa and Minnesota, and the Dubuque and St. Paul mail-route, pass through this place. Stages run regularly to St. Paul, Brownsville, Lansing, Dubuque, and the intermediate points. Decorah was first settled in the spring of 1849, by Wm. Day, who was followed in June by Wm. Painter. These men for some time were obliged to grind their flour in a coffee-mill, and bolt it through a sieve. They lived comparatively alone until the year 1851, when the first saw-mill and store were commenced. The same year a survey was made of a few lots, and the place was called Decorah, after a celebrated Winnebago chief, whose grave is still to be seen at the foot of the beautiful eminence upon which the public buildings of the county are about to be erected. The town was re-surveyed, enlarged, and recorded in 1853, since which it has rapidly improved, and now contains about 350 inhabitants. It commands an extensive trade with 183

Page  184 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES WVinnesheik, Howard, and Mitchell Counties, and also with a large portion of Minnesota. The business of the place for the past year is estimated at $80,000. A substantial bridge across the Upper Iowa River, at this place, affords an excellent crossing at all seasons of the year. Decorah is on the direct air-line, and on the contemplated and most feasible route for the St. Paul and Dubuque Railroad. An excellent school is constantly maintained. Regular services are held every Sabbath by the MIethodist and Congregationalist denominations. The village is well supplied with water by numerous beautiful springs within its limits. A newspaper is needed, and would be well patronized. Excellent inducements for a woollen factory are held out at this place. Frankville, situated on the east line of the county, twelve miles south-east from Decorah, and directly on the Dubuque and St. Paul stage-road, is a pleasant and thriving village. It commands a good trade with the surrounding country, and is destined to become a place of considerable note. It wMas settled in 1851 by Francis Teabout, a liberal-minded man, under whose untiring energies it is rapidly improving. The place is regularly and tastefully built, and contains one hotel, two stores, a blacksmith shop, physician's office, a number of dwellings, and a church erected by the proprietor, and donated, with extensive grounds, to the Presbyterian Society. 184

Page  185 DESCRIPTION OF COUNTIES. 3Ioneek is situated three miles south from Frankville, and fifteen miles south-east from Decorah. It is located on the north branch of Yellow River, in the midst of a heavy body of timber. It contains a saw-mill, hotel, several stores, &c. It was laid out in 1852, and was at that time the largest place in the county. The inhabitants are principally Canadians. Calmar, eight miles south-west from Decorah is a Norwegian village of four or five houses and one store. It was laid out in 1854, and already makes a business appearance. It is situated on the old military road to Fort Atkinson. Freeport, two miles east from Deorah, on the Upper Iowa River, contains a grist-mill, saw-mill, grocery, and several dwellings of rather primitive architecture. It was settled in 1850 by Daniel K. Kendall, and was recorded in 1854. It contains a population of about fifty, principally Pennsylvania Dutch. Owing to several large sloughs, it has rather an unhealthy situation. Clifton and Bluffton, in the north-west part of the county, are just commenced. They have excellent water-power, and good grist and saw-mills. 185

Page  186 186 WESTERN IOWA AND NEBRASKA. CIIAPTER XXI. WESTERN IOWA AND NEBRASKA. [WE are indebted to the editor of the "Council Bluffs Eag,le," for most of the matter under this head. The reader will therefore understand which portions of the articles refer to Pottawattamie County, in particular.] Geography.-That portion of Western Iowa lying west of the Des Moines River, is the most rolling, uneven and picturesque, of the choice lands, in the United States. Although this region is almost entirely composed of hills, swells, ridges, valleys, and bottom lands, thrown together in the most grand and poetic manner, there is scarcely an acre of waste land in the whole region; even the highest points and peaks abound with luxurious grass and vegetation, or timber and copsewood, whilst the slopes, valleys, and bottom lands, together with the upland prairies, are the most rich and fertile ever inhabited. The soil is a rich, black, light, sandy loam, extremely easy of cultivation, and of a depth of from one to ten feet. Although the soil is naturally extremely light and loose, it resists to a wonderful degree the evil effects of drought upon vegetation. The last season, when the countries east and south were parched, and crops destroyed for want of rain,

Page  187 WESTERN IOWA AND NEBRASKA. 187 ours were remarkably heavy, and seemed uninjured, although we had little or no more rain than our neighbours. Ti2)mber.-There are heavy bodies of hard wood timber on the margin of, and adjacent to, the Des Moines River, and a reasonable quantity interspersed through the counties northwest; yet upon the route directly west to this place, timber is extremely scarce for an hundred miles, being found only in detached groves upon streams: but as one approaches the slope of the Missouri River, the groves and clusters of timber become more frequent, and in this immediate vicinity there is sufficient for all reasonable demands. In several of the counties north, timber is still more abundant, and in Shelby County there is one grove alone that contains nearly thirty square miles of good timber. Through this region generally, there are an abundance of young groves of timber, which, if the fires do not destroy it, will increase quite as fast as the older and more mature portions are used up. The most valuable varieties are oak, (three or four varieties), black walnut, hickory, linn, elm, cottonwood, hackberry, black locust, and coffee bean. Upon the bottom lands, the cottonwood, black walnut, and elm are found, and in the higher lands, the other varieties. BMinerals.-There is no doubt but that an abundance of coal exists in this region; few beds have, however, yet been opened, but those prove to be of an excellent quality. There are fine quarries of lime-rock, sand and slate-stone. Climate.-Our climate is similar to that of Northern Ohio, but we have less snow and probably a little mnore

Page  188 188 WESTERN IOWA AND NEBRASKA. wind. It produces about the same varieties of crops, fruits, and vegetables. The roads are extremely hard and smooth during all the year, except the season of Spring. The evening twilights are long, soft and pleasant, in the Sum mer season, usually continuing for nearly two hours after sunset. The evenings, even after the hottest days, are usually cool and pleasant. A refreshing breeze is almost constantly blowing from off the prairies. Wild Fruits and Veyetation.-The wild prairies are co vered with a rich, luxurious growth of grass, varying in height from twenty inches to five feet, which makes the finest of grazing, or hay, and which only requires cutting and stacking, not being as liable to injury as the tame grasses. For late feed, the pea-vines and rushes in the low lands, make feed that frequently will keep stock in good order all winter. There are various bulbous roots that grow wild, such as in years past the Indians have gathered for food. Among the best is the wild potatoe, the bean, and artichoke. Hogs eat these voraciously. Among the best of our wild fruits may be reckoned plums, gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries. There are crab apples, and haws, which grow in abundance, and the finest we ever saw. Grapes are of spontaneous growth, and are also fine. The plums are almost as fine as the cultivated varieties-large, delicious and abundant. Strawberries grow around the edges of timber and brushwood, and in the bottoms, along the streams. P'oductions. - Corn produces heavily and naturally, yielding from fifty to one hundred bushels to the acre, with

Page  189 WESTERN IOWA AND NEBRASKA. 189 little trouble. Winter wheat is not a certain crop, on account of there being so little snow throughout the winter. Spring wheat produces heavily, and of an excellent quality. Oats yield from fifty to seventy-five bushels per acre. Rye, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, turnips, melons, and other vegetables and grains do well. There are few or no orchards in this region, but there is no doubt that most of the cultivated varieties of fruit will succeed and do well here. Gamze, &c.-Elk and deer are abundant in the counties north, and even near here they may be seen every day; there are also abundance of fowls; swan, geese, pelicans, turkeys, ducks, prairie chickens, and quails, abound in their peculiar localities, and fish, of the choicest kinds, fill our lakes and streams. Wild bees are common. Coigress, or Uitentered Land.-The most choice lands in this region are entered, but there are within a few miles of the city considerable un-entered lands, which, though without timber, have a good, rich soil. In the country east and north, the chances are better, and good claims may often be had for a small price. Timber lands may also be purchased to suit those who enter prairie lands. AIills.-A-We have within this county about twelve saw and grist-mills, but not half enough to supply the demand for lumber and flour. The county above has some four in operation, and the next below, six, and Cass County, one. In Pottawattamie County we are in extreme need of a good flouring-mill-such as we have in the country will only make from twenty to thirty pounds of flour to the

Page  190 190 WESTERN IOWA AND NEBRASKA. bushel. HIow strange! wheat $1 25 per bushel, and flour $5 50 to $6 00 per hundred pounds. Who couldn't make money out of a good mill? ]IechTaeiics.-We are in great want of many and various nechanics, but more especially at this time we have no wvagon-makers in the place, and it seems almost impossible to get a wagon or carriage mended. If, however, one is so unlucky as to succeed, he will be charged an enormous price, and that by bungling pretenders. Let the mechanics of the east, who are out of employment, (and will soon be out of funds), come here, where they may be serviceable to the community, and get rich. Carpenters, millwrights, brickmakers, masons, engineers, architects, and day labourers, are in special demand. There are large and small streams at intervals all over the county, the principal of which are the Nishnabotna, Keg Creek, Boyer River, and Musquito and Gopher Creeks. There are a number of lakes in the bottoms, in which, as well as the streams, are stores of excellent fish. Upon these streams are numerous mill sites, only a small proportion of which are occupied. Although there are about one dozen mills already in operation, there is yet a great demand for more, and fortunes might be made by investing money in their erection. For grazing, stock-growing, or dairy business, there is no legion of country better adapted. Stock requires little or sometimes no feed, and upon the prairie grass will fatten in an incredibly short space of time. The poor mechanic and labourer soon become landholders, and the capitalist is not

Page  191 WESTERN IOWA AND NEBRASKA. 191 satisfied with less than forty per cent. well secured, which he readily obtains. 'ovow to get here.-Boats run regularly from St. Louis to this place, all through the season of navigation. Freight up usually averages about seventy-five cents per hundred, and passengers (cabin) $15, deck, $5. The railroad from the east is completed to 300 miles from this place. Teams can be purchased in and about Davenport at fair prices. Pi-ices of grain and produce.-Flour selling at $5 00 per hundred. Corn 30 cents, wheat $1 25, oats 30 cents, potatoes usually 25 cents, (now 75), pork 84 00 per hundred. Butter and eggs 25, (in the summer 10 cents,) groceries and dry goods at the usual western prices. Laborers get from $1 00 to $2 50 per day, (including mechanics). Stock of all kinds bears a good price, from the fact of this place being the great outfitting emporium for immigrants westward. Toitws.-The largest and most important town west of the Des Moines Valley, is Council Bluffs City, which is located some 3 miles from the MIissouri, (directly opposite Omaha City, in Nebraska), is the county-seat of Pottawattamie County, and now contains about 2500 inhabitants. It is a sparsely built incorporated city, contains 2 churches, M1ethodist and Congregational; 3 schools, 10 stores, 6 doetors, 12 lawyers and mechanics, and artists to match. Lots in the city rate from $100 to $1000, each, and improved farms in the neighborhood from $5 to $10 per acre, including timber. Au ever flowing stream, called Indian

Page  192 192 WESTERN IOWA AND NEBRASKA. Creek, runs through the town, and upon the high points of the adjacent bluffs the country for miles around may be seen, including a broad scope of the beautiful and varied lands of Nebraska. A part of the city is laid out with little regularity, it having been settled before the survey of the country; consequently, the lots are of various shape, and the streets of such angles as will suit the position of the ground. Miany excellent buildings already have been, and are now being reared, and good improvements are rapidly progressing. The Land Office for the "Missouri River District," embracing nearly thirty counties, is located here. Four distinct railroads have been surveyed to this place from the MIississippi River, from different points, some of which are now actually under course of construction: and it is though that here will be the great Missouri crossing for the Pacific Railroad. In 1846, the Mormon Pioneer Train, numbering many thousands, first opened a road across the State from Nauvoo, in Illinois, to Council Bluffs, in this county. As the season was too far advanced to admit of a further prosecution of their journey that fall, they halted here. Soon after, the largest number crossed the river and built a large village about ten miles above, and called it Winter Quarters, (now called Florence). Early in the spring, a pioneer company of 100 men started westward, whilst those remaining, opened farms, and built houses on both sides of the river. The next spring, 1848, about two-thirds of the whole company started westward for the Salt Lake Valley, and those remaining removed to the Iowa side of the Mis

Page  193 W E S T E r N IO W A A N D N E rR A S K A. 19 souri, and commaneed a small town, called 3Iiller's IHollow, on the present site of Council Bluffs. - Iessrs. Stutsman, Voorhis, and enlry IWilliams, each opened a little store here at that timie, and were all that there were in the country, in 1849. The county was organized in 1851. Pottawattamie C(ounty is situated on the 3Iissoari River, and is about LI mliles in length on its north line, 3G on its south, and 24 mIiles wide north and south. It is bounded by HIarrison and Shelby Counties on the north, Cass on the east, Mills and a portion of c1ontgnmery on the south, and the MIissouri on the west. It contains about 930) square miles, has a population of about 5000, being a trifle less than five and a half to the square mile. Fit,tre Pio.l?cct(s.-Council Bluffs is situated almost in the geographical centre of the T qpited States, upon the longest stream on the globe, and dir-ectly in route west from the great metropolis of ithe east to the South Pass, and at the entrance to the Great and only natural high way to the Pacifie, the valley of the Platte. The fact that hundreds of thousands of pioneer immigrants have taken this as the only practicable route to California, where one has taken any other, is evidence suflienit of its import ance. There are now four railroads from the East pointing directly to this place, some of which are fast progressing to completion, and the chain is already perfect from the Atlantic to the capital (entering the State at Davenport), and still they hasten towards us. We shall without doubt, within three years, hear the shrill whistle of the iron horse, making our hills and valleys re-echo with its rattle. 17

Page  194 9194 E T EST RN I O W A AN) bNEPuA S K A. Clenwood, the county-scat of Mills County, is 24 miles south of Council Bluffs, has a population of about 800, is surrounded by an excellent agricultural district, and inhabited by a thrifty, energetic people. Sidney, the seat of justice of Fremont, is 24 miles farther south, is beautifully located, has a population of some 500, and has a brisk trade with the country-rapidly increasing. St. Mary's, opposite Bellevue, 2 miles below Council Bluffs, is a brisk young place, and promises to be a town of importance. Iranistan, in Cass County, is 40 miles east of Council Bluffs, on the Ft. Des Mloines stage road. It is situated upon one of the Nishnabotnas, has one good water-mill, and several creditable buildings. There is excellent timber in the region, good water, stone mill-sites, and a fine farming district of land. Cabinet manufactories are much needed in Western Iowa, as very many there fit out for the borders and Nebraska, and manufactories are searce, and furniture extravagantly high. NEBRASKA. What is said in the foregoing pages of Western Iowa is true, in a great measure, respecting Eastern Ncbraska, particularly as to the soil, climate, fruit and vegetation. The western portion of Iowa, and the eastern and southern por. tions of Nebraska, are not very unlike in these particulars. The interior or western parts are more mountainous and

Page  195 WESTERN IOWA AND NEBRASKA. 195 barren, alnost entirely destitute of timber, and really of little or no value except for grazing. A number of important towns are springing up on the Missouri River, the most noted of which, Omaha City (the capitol), Bellevue, Plattsmouth, MIount Vernon, Nebraska City, Florence, Fort Calhoun, Desoto, Tekama, and Fontenelle, all occupy a country on the river, north and south, near a hundred miles in extent, and are surrounded with good, fertile, and choice lands. Lime, stone-coal, and other minerals have been found in many places, and this country, though now but little known, offers great inducements to settlers. The capitol being permanently located at Omaha City (opposite Council Bluffs), will make it, eventually, the most important city in the Territory or State. The place is beautifully situated on a high bluff, but the strip of low land intervening between the city and river is almost impassable at times, during high water. Bellevue, nine miles below, is the point at which the Indian Agency for the several tribes in Nebraska Territory is located. The Presbyterian Mission for the Omaha Indians is also located here. Farther than this, the place is at present of not much importance, and not improving as rapidly as some others. The first newspaper ever printed in the Territory, was the "Nebraska Palladium," at Bellevue, in the fall of 1854. MIt. Vernon, at the mouth of the Weeping Water, is one of the most beautiful sites for a town, in the Territory. With an abundance of good building-stone, timber, and stone-coal, surrounded by an excellent farming country, it must eventually become one of the most important towns.

Page  196 196 WESTERN I O WA AND NE BRASK A. It is the nearest point on the 5!issouri to the great Salt Springs, in the interior of Nebraska. Nebraska City, eight mriles below Mit. Vernon, is a place of some importance, affords a fine view fiom the river, is sur rounded by a fine agricultural country, and froin the character of its newspapers, we infer is a place of thrift, energy, and intelligence. This was the site of Old Fort Kearney. The following is the conclusion of a good-natured letter from one of a conrany whlio immigrated to Nebraskla, and, firndingt it wnti, r -eturned to Iowa. Of Nebraska, he '" lIost of thals t Lrr;tory Los -a very fneO soil, and water suficient in places to mnke it equal to lows, but the almost total absence of timber may keep it back for a, great while. On the whole, we are all perfectly convinced that Iowa is the place for us, and hence return well satisfied to stay hlre fye thiik that the Eholo territorly put together ca not hao,no-half tlhe timber that Iowa has.We l;so think that th-)e Ace thiosnds of acres of unoccupied lands in Iowa-, better situated and worth double what many persons are claiming and aski::g, wlich, by many, are considercd ex-orbitant pies, and in many cases effct stales. - conclude uloD the whole, that Nebraska is miuch better suited for thie elk and bu.ffalo, than either for Iandian or white man. But the Indcians have driven all the former away, and wisely sold it to Uncle Samn being of no further use to thema. Ite have our fears lest Uncle San is hits,'ut if you believe all the newspaper

Page  197 WESTERN IOWA AND NEBRASKA. 197 stories of that region it is certainly a paradise, but Iowa for mie forever. WM. CURLESS." Extract fro2nt a letter givi'g a description of the county between Councci Blufs and Sagents' Blffs. "From Council Bluffs I started north, up the bottoms of the Missouri River; about ten miles on my route I came to Pigeon Creek, a good mill stream, and improved by two saw mills, and one grist-mill, near the road. From that, twenty miles, I came to Williams' Creek, a fine stream for mills, and improved by two saw-mills. The soil and timber is good on these creeks, and the same may be said of the borders of the Soldier, Boyer, Little Sioux, and many other streams I crossed. In passing from Council Bluffs, the first fifty miles, after passing the Little Sioux, I came to a fine dividing ridge bottom, fifty miles long, bordered on the east by the Little Sioux, on the west by the Missouri, and these streams are bordered by almost a continual forest from one end to the other of this prairie. This bottom is dotted over by small and handsome groves.-The soil is of the finest quality, and of a great variety. You find the highlands producing the blue-joint grass, almost equal to timothy for hay, and alongside you see the lowland producing the broad-leaf saver grass, elegant for early pasturage and good for cattle-hay, and yielding an abundance of it to the acre. -Next you will find large tracts of good land, having all the appearance of old fallow fields, and next, but in small portions, you will see near the lakes tracts of land producing a kind of grass, resembling kam, of the blades of which 17 *

Page  198 198 MEWESTERN IO WA AND NEBRA S K A. the cattle are very fond; the lowlands are covered over as 'liicL as blue grass with large Leds of rushes, on which cattle will keep as fat asi sals all winter; and to increase the beauty X f this bottom, the Great Creator has interspersed it with several handsome lakes, filled with fine fish, of almost every variety of fresh water kind. CC Sargent's Bluff City is a handsomely located place on high lands, on the bank of the river at the foot of the bluff. The bottom is one mile wide at the north of the town, and on the south it widens out to several miles. " The bluffs near the town are filled with good buildingstone. The citv is laid off into wards or districts, thirteen hundred feet square, by streets running at right angles, one hundred feet wide. In the centre of these large districts are parks, two hundred and eighty feet wide, by four hundred long, and the districts are divided (by streets eighty feet wide, running at right angles) into blocks of twelve lots each, C6 feet wide by 132 long. On the site coutininlg 30O acres, there are eight of those parks, and twelve market squares, with a number of other lots selected and set apart for churches, lodges, and school-houses, as l-arks of liberality mranifested by the proprietors of this lhandsome place. Let no one think that all the chances are talen in these parts. There is plenty of tinmber and prairie to be taken up, of the best quality. Improved lands can be had at a fair price, and the proprietors of those rival cities offer large inducements to purehasers, and the demand for all kings of melchanics and labor is very great. Wagfes

Page  199 NEW COUNTIES. high, and other inducements flattering. Every thing that is necessary for improving lots can be purchased here at a fair price. "Yours, &c., " S. E. PECK." CIIAPTEPR XXII. NEW COUNTIES. BY the last Congress, three new land districts were formed, which are marked on Henn, Williams & Co.'s Mlap of Iowa for 1855. The Land Offices for these new districts are located at Decorah, in Winniesheik County, Sioux City, (Sargent's Bluffs), in Woodbury County, and at Fort Dodge, in Webster County. The six Land Offices before located were at Dubuque, Iowa City, Fairfield, Chariton, Ft. Des 3Moines, and Council Bluffs. In the north-western part of the State lies a district of territory unsurveyed, and not yet in the market. This district is 190 miles long from east to west along the 3Minnesota line, and 80 miles in width, divided from Nebraska Territory by the Big Sioux River; including the counties of Worth, Cerro Gordo, Franklin, Winnebago, Haneock, Kossuth, Emnmett, Palo Alto, Pocahontas, Dickinson, Clay, Buena Vista, Osceola, O'Brien, Cherokee, Buncombe, Sioux, and Plymouth. Of the soil in this section, Owen says, in his G4C,oll iical Report to Congress, made in 1852, l9

Page  200 NEW COUNTIES. p. 25, "North of latitude 42~, between the head waters of Three and Grand Rivers, there are distances of ten or fif teen miles without any timber; while between the waters of the Grand River, the Nodaway, and the Nishnabotna, the open prairie is often twenty miles wide, without a bush to be seen higher than the wild indigo or compass plant. The soil, too, in this region, is generally of inferior quality to that south of latitude, 41~ 30'." These counties are very sparsely settled, and some of them, we are informed, do not contain a single dwelling. HIence it is impossible to procure information respecting this portion of the State, without travelling over it in person. Several older and more central counties are not mentioned in our list, because we could not visit them in time for this edition, and those whom we addressed failed to return us information, as requested, of their towns and counties. The undescribed counties are, Lucas, Madison, Miontgomery, Monona, Marshall, Page, Powesheik, Story, Shelby, Taylor, Union, and Woodbury. As will be seen by reference to the map, these counties are comparatively thinly settled. The amount of unentered land in each county will be seen by reference to the proper Chapter. "Public Lands, Syjstem of Surveys, Land Offices, &c. "In all the new States and Territories, the lands which are owned by the General Government are surveyed and sold under one general system. The government price of land is $1 25 per acre. The system of surveys is one of great accuracy and beauty. Mleridian lines are established and 200

Page  201 NEW COUNTIES. surveyed in a line due north fronm some given point-gcnerally from some important water-course. These are intersected at right angles with a base line. On the meridians, the "'townships" are numbered north and south from the !ase lines; and, on the base lines, " ranges" east or west of the meridian. Township lines are then run, at a distance of six miles, parallel to the meridian and base lines. Each township contains an area of 36 square miles; each square mile is termed a section, and contains 640 acres. The sections are numbered from 1 to 36, beginning at the north-east corner of the township, as the following diagram will illustrate: 6 51 4 3 2 8 9 10 11 I{-_ 17 16* 15 14 20 21 22 23 29 28 27 26 32 o3 34 35 3 I13 12,1 13 24 25 36 1 1'W\hcn surveyed, the lands are offered for sale at public auction, but cannot be disposed of at a less price than one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre. That portion not sold at public auction is subject to private entry at any time, or the above price, ptayable in cash at tile time of entry. * The I Cth section in each townsliip is appropriated for schools. 201 (3 I II — 1 18 19 30 i 8 11

Page  202 UNENTERED LANDS. "Pre-emption rights give the improver or possessor the privilege of purchasing at the minimum price. "I have thus endeavored briefly to elucidate, in the preceding diagram, the system of the surveys of public lands; which, to strangers unacquainted with the sections and subdivisions, appears perplexing and intricate."-.ew,whall's Glimpse at Iowa. CIHAPTER XXIII. UNENTERED LANDS IN THE STATE. BY the following reports from Land-Offices, the amount of unentered or vacant land in the several Districts is represented. By reference to the map, the Land Districts will be easily recognised, being bounded or marked by pink lines. In the Fort Des Jloines District. Jasper County, half entered-say 230,000 acres vacant. MIahaska, mostly entered. Marion, probably three-fourths entered. Marshall contains 368,000 acres- three-fourths vacant. I-ardin, the same-also three-fourths vacant. Grundy, Butler, and Floyd, each three-fourths vacant. Mlitchell is fully nine-tenths vacant. Each county, with the exception of Jasper, Webster, 202

Page  203 UNENTERED LANDS. Guthrie, and those directly on the State line, have the same area, containing about 368,000 acres. Worth, Cerro Gordo, Hancock, Winnebago, Bancroft, Kossuth, Emmett, Palo Alto, Pocahontas, Humboldt, Wright, Franklin, and Calhoun are almost entirely vacant. Emmett, Bancroft, Winnebago, Hancock, Kossuth, Palo~ Alto, Pocahontas, and Calhoun are not in the market, but probably will be next fall. Webster County is nine.tenths vacant. Greene, Boone, Story, and Guthrie, each three-fourths vacant. Polk has, perhaps, 20,000 acres of prairie vacant. Adair and Dallas half vacant. Mladison one-fourth, Warren one-eighth, and Marion one-tenth vacant. All the counties in this District are well watered, and, on the streams, generally possess good timber. In such counties as are in market, but little timber-land remains to be entered, though it can be purchased from present holders at from $2 50 to $20 per acre, according to quality and location. The receipts at the Fort Des Moines Land-Office, in seven months previous to the 1st of March, 1855, were $962,373 97. In the Council Blz.ffs (Kanesville,) District. This District contains about 9,584,640 acres. The counties composing the District average about 368,640 acres each. More than three-fourths of this immense body of land remains vacant, and subject to entry at $1 25 per acre. About one-half of the land in Fremont, Mills, and Pot 203

Page  204 UNENTESR ED LANDS. tawattamie Counties is purchased; less than one-fourth in Ilarrison, Adams, and Taylor Counties; less than oneeighth in Page, Cass, 3Ionona, Shelby, and Woodbury Counties; less than one-twentieth in Audubon, Carroll, Crawford, Sac, and Ida Counties. The rest of the counties in the District are entirely vacant. This Land-Office was opened fer pre-emption entries on the 12th of NIarch, 1853, and the first public land sale was made on the 6th of June following. Since the opening of the office, 485,841 acres have been sold, amounting to $611051 26. It the FC,i7,cd D;strict. Vacant Landas. Acres. A ppanoose Co. contains, 14,680 Washington Co. contains, 1,440 Monroe " " 16,140 Lee " " 200 Mlahaska " " 2,734 Henry " " 332 Davis " " 14,320 Louisa " " 44:0 WVapello " " 2,120 Des Moines " 440 Keokuk " 5,332 Van Buren " " 3,080 Total, 61,708 Jefferson " " 450 I th7e CI(haiitoh Dsti,sct, The amount of unentered land in the several counties, as near as can be estimated, is as follows: V'acant Lands. Vacant Lands. Acres. Acres. Appanoose Co. contains, 20,000 Ringgold Co. contains, 300,000 MIonroe " " 46,000 Clark 50,000 Marion " " 12,000 Madison " 80,000 Wayne " " 136,000 Union " " 230,000 Lucas " " 70,000 Adair " " 80,000 Warren " " 70,000 Decatur " " 110,000 Total, 1,204,000 204 V,,te-tnt Lan(l,-,. Acres. tain,-,, 1,440 11 200 11 332 11 4IIO 11 440 61,708

Page  205 UNENTERED LANDS. Thle Iowa Cit Land District Consists of the Counties of Clinton, Scott, Muscatine, Johnson, Cedar, Iowa, and Powasheik; the four southern townships of Jones; eight southern townships of Linn; eight of Benton, and eight of Tama Counties; four in the northeast corner of Mahaska, six in the north of Keokuk, six in the north of Washington, and one township of Louisa County. Nearly all the lands in this District are now entered, and I suppose not over 200,000 acres are vacant; much of it lying in small, scattered tracts, so that it would hardly be worth while to enter into statistics. Most of the vacant lands, however, are in Tama County. An enumeration would be fully as much trouble as if there were more, and the business of the office has so diminished, that the undertaking would not be necessary at all to the usefulness of our work. [NOTE.-The foregoing lists of unentered lands were procured in March. Since then heavy entries have been made, especially in the Fort Des Moines and Kanesville (Council Bluffs) Districts. On the 1st of September, 1855, the land-office at Fort Dodge will be opened, and some thirteen counties of land brought into market. The author made a tour through this district in June, inst. and can assure those wishing desirable locations, that the north-western portion of the State is rich in eligible mill-sites, heavy timbered lands, running streams of pure and lasting water, the best of prairie soil, and extensive beds of iron ore, coal, gtpsum, red and yellow ochre, &c.] 18 205

Page  206 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. CHAPTER XXIV. CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF IOWA. (Adopted in Convention, May 18,1846.) Preamble and Boundaries.-WE, the People of the Terri tory of Iowa, grateful to the Supreme Being for the bless ings hitherto enjoyed, and feeling our dependence on IIim for a continuation of those blessings, do ordain and esta blish a free and independent government, by the name of the State of Iowa, the boundaries whereof shall be as follows: Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River, at a point due east of the middle of the mouth of the main channel of the Des Moines River, thence up the middle of the main channel of the said Des Moines River, to a point on said river where the northern boundary line of the State of Missouri, as established by the Constitution of that State, adopted June 12th, 1820, crosses the said middle of the main channel of the said Des Moines River; thence westwardly, along the said northern boundary line of the State of Missouri, as established at the time aforesaid, until an extension of said line intersect the middie of the main channel of the Missouri River; thence up 206

Page  207 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. the middle of the main channel of the said Missouri River, to a point opposite the middle of the main channel of the Big Sioux River, according to Nicollett's map; thence up the main channel of the said Big Sioux River, according to said map, until it is intersected by the parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes north latitude; thence east, along said parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes, until said parallel intersect the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River; thence down the middle of the main channel of said Mississippi River, to the place of beginning. ARTICLE I. Bill of Rfys. —]. All men are, by nature, free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness. 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people; and they have the right at all times to alter or reform the same, whenever the public good may require it. 3. The General Assembly shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, nor shall any person be compelled to attend any place of worship, pay tithes, taxes, or other rates, for building or repairing places of worship, or for the maintenance of any minister or ministry. 4. No religious test shall be required as a qualification for any office or public trust, and no person shall be de 207

Page  208 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. prived of any of his rights, privileges or capacities, or disqualified from the performance of any of his public or private duties, or rendered incompetent to give evidence in any court of law or equity, in consequence of his opinions on the subject of religion. 5. Any citizen of this State, who may hereafter be en gaged, either directly or indirectly, in a duel, either as prin cipal or accessory before the fact, shall forever be disquali fied from holding any office under the Constitution and laws of this State. 6. All laws of a general nature shall have a uniform operation. 7. Every person may speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right. No law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all prosecutions or indictments for libel, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury, and if it appear to the jury that the matter charged as libellous was true, and was published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted. 8. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, lhouses, papers and effects, against unreasonable seizures and searches, shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue, but on probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searched, and the papers and things to be seized. 9. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate; but the General Assembly may authorize trial by a jury of a less number than twelve men in inferior courts. 208

Page  209 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. 10. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have a right to a speedy trial, by an impartial jury; to be informed of the accusation against him; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for his own witnesses, and to have the assistance of counsel. 11. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal of fence, unless on presentment or indictment by a grand jury, except in cases cognizable by justices of the peace, or arising in the army and navy, or in the militia when in actual ser vice, in time of war, or public danger. 12. No person shall, after acquittal, be tried for the same offence. All persons shall, before conviction, be bailable, by sufficient sureties, except for capital offences, where the proof is evident, or the presumption great. 13. The writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety requires it. 14. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power. No standing army shall be kept up by the State in time of peace, and in time of war no appropriation for a standing army shall be for a longer time than two years. 15. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, except in the manner prescribed by law. 16. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, adhering to its enemies, or giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on evidence of two witnesses to the same overt act, or confession in open court 18* 209

Page  210 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. 17. Excessive bail shall not be required. Excessive fines shall not be imposed; and cruel and unusual punishments shall not be inflicted. 18. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. 19. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any civil action on mesne, or final process, unless in cases of fraud; and no person shall be imprisoned for a militia fine in time of peace. 20. The people have the right freely to assemble together to consult for the common good, to make known their opinions to their representatives, and to petition for redress of grievances. 21. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall ever be passed. 22. Foreigners who are, or who may hereafter become residents of this State, shall enjoy the same rights, in respect to the possession, enjoyment, and descent of property, as native born citizens. 23. Neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crimes, shall ever be tolerated in this State. 24. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others, retained by the people. ARTICLE II. Right of Stffrage.-1. Every white male citizen of the United States, of the age of twenty-one years, who shall have been a resident of the State six months next preceding 210

Page  211 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. the election, and the county in which he claims his vote twenty days, shall be entitled to vote at all elections which are now, or hereafter may be authorized by law. 2. Electors shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest on the days of election, during their attendance at such election, going to, and returning therefrom. 3. No elector shall be obliged to perform militia duty on the day of election, except in time of war, or public danger. 4. No person in the military, naval, or marine service of the United States, shall be considered a resident of this State by being stationed in any garrison, barrack, or military or naval place or station within this State. 5. No idiot or insane person, or persons convicted of any infamous crime, shall be entitled to the privileges of an elector. 6. All elections by the people, shall be by ballot. ARTICLE III. Of the Distributtin of Power.-1. The powers of the government of Iowa shall be divided into three separate departments; the legislative, the executive, and judicial; and no person charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one of these departments, shall exercise any function appertaining to either of the others, except in cases hereinafter expressly directed or permitted. Leyislative Department.-1. The Legislative authority of this State shall be vested in a Senate and House of Representatives, which shall be designated the General Assem 211

Page  212 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. bly of the State of Iowa, and the style of their laws shall commence in the following manner: "Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Iowa." 2. The sessions of the General Assembly shall be biennial, and shall commence on the first Monday of December next ensuing the election of its members; unless the Governor of the State shall, in the interim, convene the General Assembly by proclamation. 3. The members of the House of Representatives shall be chosen every second year, by the qualified electors of their respective districts, on the first Monday in August, whose term of office shall continue two years from the day of the general election. 4. No person shall be a member of the House of Representatives who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years; be a free white male citizen of the United States, and have been an inhabitant of this State or Territory one year next preceding his election; and at the time of his election, have an actual residence of thirty days in the county or district he may be chosen to represent. 5. Senators shall be chosen for the term of four years, at the same time and place as Representatives; they shall be twenty-five years of age, and possess the qualifications of Representatives as to residence and citizenship. 6. The number of Senators shall not be less than onethird, nor more than one-half of the Representative body; and at the first session of the General Assembly after this Constitution takes effect, the Senators shall be divided by lot, as equally as may be, into two classes; the seats of the 212

Page  213 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, so that one half shall be chosen every two years. 7. When the number of Senators is increased, they shall be annexed by lot to one of the two classes, so as to keep them as nearly equal in number as practicable. 8. Each House shall choose its own officers, and judge of the qualification, election, and return of its own members. A contested election shall be determined in such manner as shall be directed by law. 9. A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide. 10. Each House shall sit upon its own adjournments, keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same; determine its rules of proceedings, punish members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the consent of two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same offence; and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the General Assembly of a free and independent State. 11. Every member of the General Assembly shall have the liberty to dissent from, or protest against, any act or resolution which he may think injurious to the public, or an individual, and have the reasons for his dissent entered on the journals; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House, on any question, shall, at the desire of any two members present, be entered on the journals. 213

Page  214 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. 12. Senators and Representatives, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, shall be privileged from arrest during the session of the General Assembly, and in going to, and returning from the same. 13. When vacancies occur in either House, the Governor, )r the person exercising the functions of Governor, shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 14. The doors of each House shall be open, except on such occasion as, in the opinion of the House, may require secrecy. 15. Neither House shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they may be sitting. 16. Bills may originate in either House, except bills for revenue, which shall always originate in the House of Representatives, and may be amended, altered, or rejected by the other; and every bill, having passed both Houses, shall be signed by the Speaker and President of their respective Houses. 17. Every bill which shall have passed the General Assembly shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor. If he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to the House in which it originated, which shall enter the same upon the journal, and proceed to reconsider it: if, after such reconsideration, it again pass both'Houses, by yeas and nays, by a majority of two-thirds of the members of each House present, it shall become a law, notwithstanding the Governor's objections. If any bill shall not be returned within three days after it 214

Page  215 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. shall have been presented to him, Sundays excepted, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it; unless the General Assembly, by adjournment, prevent such return. 18. An accurate statement of the receipts and expendi. tures of the public money shall be attached to, and published with the laws, at every regular session of the General Assembly. 19. The IHouse of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment, and all impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When sitting for that purpose, the Senators shall be upon oath or affirmation, and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. 20. The Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, and Judges of the Supreme and District Courts shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment in such cases shall extend only to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit under this State; but the party convicted or acquitted, shall, nevertheless, be liable to indictment, trial, and punishment, according to law. All other civil officers shall be tried for misdemeanors in office in such manner as the General Assembly may provide. 21. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, 215

Page  216 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. during such term, except such offices as may be filled by elections by the people. 22. No person holding any lucrative office under the United States, or this State, or any other power, shall be eligible to the General Assembly: Provided, That offices in the militia, to which there is attached no annual salary, or the office of justice of the peace, or postmasters whose compensation does not exceed one hundred dollars per annum, shall not be deemed lucrative. 23. No person who may hereafter be a collector or holder of public monies, shall have a seat in either house of the General Assembly, or be eligible to any office of trust or profit under this State, until he shall have accounted for, and paid into the treasury, all sums for which he may be liable. 24. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law. 25. Each member of the General Assembly shall receive a compensation, to be fixed by law, for his services, to be paid out of the treasury of the State. Such compensation shall not exceed two dollars per day, for the period of fifty days from the commencement of the session, and shall not exceed the sum of one dollar per day for the remainder of the session. When convened in extra session by the Governor, they shall receive such sum as shall be fixed for the first fifty days of the ordinary session. They shall also receive two dollars for every twenty miles they travel, in going to, and returning from their place of meeting, on the most usual route: Provided, however, That the members 216

Page  217 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. of the first General Assembly under this Constitution shall receive two dollars per day for their services during the entire session. 26. Every law shall embrace but one object, which shall be expressed in the title. 27. No law of the General Assembly, of a public nature, shall takle effect until the same shall be published and circulated in the several counties of this State, by authority. If the General Assembly shall deem any law of immediate importance, they may provide that the sare shall take effect by publication in newspapers in the State. 28. No divorce shall be granted by the General Assem bly. 29. No.lottery sLall be authorized by this State, nor shall the sale of lottery tickets be allowed. 30. 3Iembers of the General Assemnbly sha'l, before they enter upon the duties of their respective ofices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmnation: "I do solemnly swear, or affirm, (as the case may be,) that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of the State of Iowa, and that I will f;tfully discharge the duties of Senator, (or Representati-ve, as the case may be,) according to the best of my ability." And members of the General Assembly are hereby empowered to administer to each other the said oath or affirmation. 31. Within one year after the ratification of this Constitution, and within every subsequvent term of two years, for the term of eight years, an enuimeration of all the white inhabitants of this State shall bo made in such manner as 19 217

Page  218 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. shall be directed by law. The number of Senators and Representatives shall, at the first regular session of the General Assembly, after such enumeration, be fixed by law, and apportioned among the several counties, according to the number of white inhabitants in each, and shall also, at every subsequent regular session, apportion the House of Representatives, and every other regular session the Senate, for eight years; and the House of Representatives shall never be less than twenty-six, nor greater than thirty-nine, until the number of white inhabitants shall be one hundred and seventy-five thousand; and after that event, at such ratio that the whole number of Representatives shall never be less than thirty-nine, nor exceeding seventy-two. 32. I,hen a Congressional, Senatorial, or Representative district shall be composed of two or more counties, it shall not be entirely separated by any county belonging to another district; and no county shall be divided in forming a Congressional, Senatorial, or Representative district. 33. In all elections by the General Assembly, the members thereof shall vote viva voce, and the votes shall be entered on the journal. 34. For the first ten years after the organization of the government, the annual salary of the Governor shall not exceed one thousand dollars; Secretary of State, five hundred dollars; Treasurer, four hundred dollars; Auditor, six hundred dollars; Judges of the Supreme and District Courts, each one thousand dollars. 218

Page  219 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. ARITICLE. IV. Executive Department.-1. The Supreme Executive power of this State shall be vested in a Chief MIagistrate, who shall be styled the Governor of the State of Iowa. 2. The Governor shall be elected by the qualified electors, at the time and place of voting for members of the General Assembly, and shall hold his office four years from the time of his installation, and until his successor shall be qualified. 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor, who has not been a citizen of the United States, and a resident of the State next preceding the election, and attained the age of thirty years at the time of said election. 4. The returns of every election for Governor shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of Government, directed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, who shall, during the first week of the session, open and publish them in presence of both Houses of the General Assembly. The person having the highest number of votes, shall be Governor; but in case any two or more have an equal and the highest number of votes, the General Assembly shall, by joint ballot, choose one of said persons so having an equal and highest number of votes, for Governor. 5. The Governor shall be Commander-in-Chief of the militia, the army and navy of this State. 6. He shall transact all executive business, with the officers of Government, civil and military, and may require information in writing from the officers of the executive 219

Page  220 CONSTITU TION OF IOWA. department upon any subject renating to the duties of their respective offices. 7. He shall see that the laws are faithfully executed. 8. W",hen any office shall from any cause become vacant, and no mode is provided by the Constitution and laws for fillicg such vacancy, the Governor shall have power to fill such vacancy, by granting a commission, which shall expire at the end of the next session of the General Assembly, or at the next election by the peorple. 9. Hie rmay, on extraordinary occasions, convene the General Assembly by proclamation, and shall state to both Houses, when assembled, the purposes for which they shall have been convened. 10. lie shall communicate by mnessage to the General Assembly, at every session, the condition of the State, and recommend such matters as he shall deem expedient. 11. In case of disagreement between the two Houses, with respect to the time of adjournment, thie Governor shall have power to adjourn the General Assembly to such time as he may thinlk proper, provided it be not beyond the time fixed for the oeeing of the next General Assembly. 12. h'o person shall, wvhile holding any other office ndeler the Unlted States, or this state, execute the office of Governor, except as hereinafter expressly provided. 13. The Governor shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, and commute punishments after conviction, except in case of imyeaehment. 14. The Governor shall, at stated times, receive for his services a conmpcnsat,c n which shall neither be increased 220

Page  221 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. nor diminished during the time for which he shall have been elected. 15. There shall be a seal of this State, which shall be kept by the Governor, and used by him officially, and shall be called the Great Seal of the State of Iowa. 16. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the people of the State of Iowa, sealed with the great seal of this State, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of State. 17. A Secretary of State, Auditor of Public Accounts, and Treasurer, shall be elected by the qualified electors, who shall continue in office two years. The Secretary of State shall keep a fair register of all the official acts of the Governor, and shall, when required, lay the same, together with all papers, minutes, and vouchers, relative thereto, before either branch of the General Assembly, and shall perform such other duties as shall be assigned him by law. 18. In case of impeachment of the Governor, his removal from office, death, resignation, or absence from the State, the powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the Secretary of State, until such disability shall cease, or the vacancy be filled. 19. If, during the vacancy of the office of Governor, the Secretary of State shall be impeached, displaced, resign, die, or be absent from the State, the powers and duties of the office of Governor shall devolve upon the President of the Senate; and should a vacancy occur by impeachment, death, resignation, or absence from the State, of the President of the 19* 221

Page  222 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall act as Governor till the vacancy be filled. ARTICLE V. J:dicicel Deparlmert.-1. The Judicial power shall be vested in the Supreme Court, District Courts, and such inferior Courts, as the General Assembly may from time to time establish. 2. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice, and two Associates, two of whom shall be a quorum to hold a Court. 3. The Judges of tl.e Suptreme Court shall be elected by joint vote of.,oth branches of the General Assembly, and shall hol,l their Courts at such time and place as the General Assembly may direct, and hold their offices for six years, and until their successors are elected and qualified, and shall be ineligible to any other office during the term for which they may be elected. The Supremie Court shall have appellate jurisdiction only in all eases in chancery, and shall constitute a Court for the correction of errors at law, under such restrictions as the General Assembly may by law preseribe.-The Supreme Court shall have power to issue all writs and process necessary to do justice to parties, and execise a supervisory control over all inferior judicial tribunals, and the Judges of the Supreme Court shall be conservators of the peace throughout the State. 4. The District Court shall consist of a Judge, who shall be elected by the qualified voters of the district in which he resides, at the township election, and hold his office for the 222

Page  223 C ONSTITUTION OF IOWA. term of five years, and until his successor is duly elected and qualified, and shall be ineligible to any other office during the term for which he may be elected. The District Court shall be a court of law and equity, and have 'jurisdiction in all civil and criminal matters arising in their respective districts, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law. The Judges of the District Court shall be conservators of the peace in their respective districts. The first session of the General Assembly shall divide the State into four districts, which may be increased as the exigencies require. 5. The qualified voters of each county shall, at the general election, elect one Prosecuting Attorney, and one Clerk of the District Court, -who shall be residents therein, and who shall hold their several offices for the term of two years, and until their successors are elected and qualified. 6. The style of all process shall be " The State of Iowa," and all prosecutions shall be conducted in the name, and by authority of the same. ARTICLE VI, jIiltia. -1. The militia of this State shall be composed of all able-bodied white male citizens, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, except such as are, or may hereafter be exempt by the laws of the United States, or of this State, and shall be armed, equipped, and trained as the General Assembly may provide by law. 2. No person or persons, conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms, shall be compelled to do militia duty, in time 223

Page  224 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. of peace, provided, that such person or persons shall pay an equivalent for such exemption in the same manner as other citizens. 3. All commissioned officers of the militia, (staff officers excepted,) shall be elected by the persons liable to perform military duty, and shall be commissioned by the Governor. ARTICLE VII. State Debts.-1. The General Assembly shall not, in any manner create any debt or debts, liability or liabilities, which shall, singly, or in the aggregate, with any previous debts or liabilities, exceed the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, except in case of war, to repel invasion, or suppress insurrection, unless the same shall be authorized by some law for some single object, or work, to be distinctly specified therein, which law shall provide ways and means, exclusive of loans, for the payment of the interest of such debt or liability, as it falls due, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt or liability within twenty years from the time of contracting thereof, and shall be irrepealable until the principal and the interest thereon shall be paid and discharged; but no such law shall take effect, until, at a general election, it shall have been submitted to the people, and have received a majority of all the votes cast for and against it, at such election, and all money raised by authority of such law, shall be applied only to the specific object therein stated, or to the payment of the debt thereby created, and such law shall be published in at least one newspaper in each judicial district, if one is pub 22-1

Page  225 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. lished therein, throughout the State, for three months preceding the elections at which it is submitted to the people. ARTICLE VIII. Lio2:or;atfo),s.-I. No corporate body shall hereafter be created, renewed, or extended, with the privilege of making, issuing, or putting into circulation, any bill, check, ticket, certificate, promissory note, or other paper, or the paper of any bank, to circulate as money. The General Assembly of this State shall prohibit, by law, any person or persons, association, company, or corporation, from exercising the privileges of banking, or creating paper to circulate as money. 2. Corporations shall not be created in this State by special laws, except for political or municipal purposes; but the General Assembly shall provide, by general laws, for the organization of all other corporations, except corporations with banking privileges, the creation of which is prohibited. The stockholders shall be subject to such liabilities and restrictions as shall be provided by law. The State shall not, directly or indirectly, become a stockholder in any corporation. ARTICLE IX. Education and School Land. - 1. The General Assenmbly shall provide for the election, by the people, of a Superintendent of Public Instruction, who shall hold his office for three years, and whose duties shall be prescribed 225

Page  226 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. by law, and who shall receive such compensation as the General Assembly may direct. 2. The General Assembly shall encourage, by all suitable means, the promotion of intellectual, scientific, moral, and agricultural improvement. The proceeds of all lands that have been, or hereafter may be granted by the United States to this State, for the support of schools, which shall hereafter be sold or disposed of, and the five hundred thousand acres of land granted to the new States, under an act of Congress, distributing the proceeds of the public lands among the several States of the Union, approved A. D. 1841, and all estates of deceased persons, who may have died without leaving a will or heir; and also such per cent. as may be granted by Congress on the sale of lands in this State, shall be, and remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which, together with all the rents of the unsold lands, and such other means as the General Assembly may provide, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of common schools throughout the State. 3. The General Assembly shall provide for a system of common schools, by which a school shall be kept up, and supported, in each school district, at least three months in every year; and any school district neglecting to keep up, and support such a school, may be deprived of its proportion of the interest of the public fund during such neglect. 4. The money which shall be paid by persons as an equivalent for exemption fromn military duty, and the clear proceeds of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal laws, shall be exclusively applied, 226

Page  227 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. in the several counties in which such money is paid, or fine collected, among the several school districts of said counties, in proportion to the number of inhabitants in such districts, to the support of common schools, or the establishment of libraries, as the General Assembly shall, from time to time, provide by law. 5. The General Assembly shall take measures for the protection, improvement, or other disposition of such lands as have been, or may hereafter be reserved or granted by the United States, or any person or persons, to the State for the use of a University; and the funds accruing from the rents or sale of such lands, or from any other source, for the purpose aforesaid, shall be, and remain a permanent fund, the interest of which shall be applied to the support of said University, with such branches as the public convenience may hereafter demand for the promotion of literature, the arts and sciences, as may be authorized by the terms of such grant. And it shall be the duty of the General Assembly, as soon as may be, to provide effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the funds of said University. ARTICLE X. Amendments of the Constitution. - 1. If at any time the General Assembly shall think it necessary to revise or amend this Constitution, they shall provide by law for a vote of the people for or against a Convention, at the next ensuing election for members of the General Assembly: in case a majority of the people vote in favor of a Convention, 227

Page  228 228 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. said General Assembly shall provide for an election of Delegates to a Convention, to be held within six months after the vote of the people in favor thereof. ARTICLE XI. ,Iisce7a~neous.- 1. The jurisdiction of Justices of the Peace shall extend to all civil cases, (except cases in Chancery, and cases where the question of title to any real estate may arise,) where the amount in controversy does not exceed one hundred dollars, and by the consent of parties may be extended to any amount not exceeding five hundred dollars. 2. No new county shall be laid off hereafter, nor old county reduced, to less contents than four hundred and thirty-two square miles. 3. The General Assembly shall not locate any of the public lands, which have been, or may be granted by Congress to this State; and the location of which may be given to the General Assembly, upon lands actually settled, without the consent of the occupant. The extent of the claim of such occupant, so exempted, shall not exceed three hundred and twenty acres. ARTICLE XII. Schedut7e. - 1. That no inconvenience may arise from the change of a Territorial government to a permanent State Government, it is declared that all writs, actions, prosecutions, contracts, claims and rights, shall continue as if no change had taken place in this government; and all process which may, before the organization of the judicial

Page  229 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. department under this Constitution, be issued under the authority of the Territory of Iowa, shall be as valid as if issued in the name of the State. 2. All the laws now in force in this Territory, which are not repugnant to this Constitution, shall remain in force until they expire by their own limitations, or be altered or repealed by the General Assembly of this State. 3. All fines, penalties, and forfeitures, accruing to the Territory of Iowa, shall accrue to the use of the State. 4. All recognizances heretofore taken, or which may hereafter be taken, before the organization of the judicial department under this Constitution, shall remain valid, and shall pass to, and may be prosecuted in the name of the State. And all bonds executed to the Governor of this Territory, or to any other officer in his official capacity, shall pass over to the Governor of this State, or other proper State authority, and to their successors in office, for the uses therein respectively expressed, and may be sued for, and recovered accordingly. All criminal prosecutions and penal actions, which have arisen, or may arise, before the organization of the judicial department, under this Constitution, and which shall then be pending, may be prosecuted to judgment and execution in the name of the State. 5. All officers, civil and military, now holding their offices and appointments in this Territory, under the authority of the United States, or under the authority of this Territory, shall continue to hold and execute their respective offices and appointments until superseded under this Constitution. 6. The first general election under this Constitution, 20 229

Page  230 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. shall be held at such time as the Governor of the Territory, by proclamation, may appoint, within three months after its adoption, for the election of a Governor, two Representatives in the Congress of the United States, (unless Congress shall provide for the election of one Representative), members of the General Assembly, and one Auditor, Treasurer, and Secretary of State. Said election shall be conducted in accordance with the existing election laws of this Territory, and said Governor, Representatives in the Congress of the United States, Auditor, Treasurer, and Secretary of State, duly elected at said election, shall continue to discharge the duties of their respective offices for the time prescribed by this Constitution, and until their successors are elected and qualified. The returns of said election shall be made in conformity to the existing laws of this Territory. 7. Until the first enumeration of the inhabitants of this State, as directed by this Constitution, the following shall be the appointment of the General Assembly: The County of Lee shall be entitled to two Senators, and five Representatives; the County of Van Buren, two Senators, and four Representatives; the Counties of Davis and Appanoose, one Senator, and one Representative, jointly; the Counties of Wapello and Monroe, one Senator, jointly, and one Representative, each; the Counties of Marion, Polk, Dallas, and Jasper, one Senator, and two Representatives, jointly; the County of Des 5Ioines, two Senators, and four Representatives; the County of Jefferson, one Senator, and three Representatives; the County of Hlenry, one Senator, and three Representatives; the Counties of 230

Page  231 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. Louisa and Washington, one Senator, jointly, and one IRepresentive, each; the Counties of Keokuk and Mahaska, one Senator, jointly, and one Representative, each; the Counties of MIuscatine, Johnson, and Iowa, one Senator, and one Representative, jointly; Museatine, one Representative, and Johnson and Iowa, one Representative, jointly; the Counties of Scott and Clinton, one Senator, jointly, and one Representative, each; the Counties of Cedar, Linn, and Benton, one Senator, jointly; the County of Cedar, one Representative, and the Counties of Linn and Benton, one Representative, jointly; the Counties of Jackson, and Jones, one Senator, and two Representatives; the Counties of Dubuque, Delaware, Clayton, Fayette, Buchanan, and Black Hawk, two Senators, and two Representatives, jointly; and any county attached to any county for judicial purposes, shall, unless otherwise provided for, be considered as forming part of such county for election purposes. 8. The first meeting of the General Assembly, under this Constitution, shall be at such time as the Governor of the Territory may, by proclamation, appoint, within four months after its ratification by the people, at Iowa City, in Johnson County, which place shall be the seat of Govern. ment of the State of Iowa, until removed by Iaw. Done in Convention, at Iowa City, this 18th day of MIay, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-six, and of the Independence of the United States the seventieth. 231

Page  232 CONSTITUTION OF IOWA. In Testimony Whereof, Wre have hereunto subscribed our names: ENOS LOWE, President. Attest, WVI. TTiiOIPSON, Sec. Thomas Dibble, Erastus HIoskin, David Galland, Sulifand S. Ross, Shepherd Leffler, Curtis Bates, Wm. G. Coop, John Ronalds, Samuel A. Bissell, Socrates II. Tryon, Wareham G. Clark, William Iubbel, John J. Selman, George Berry, John Conrey, Josiah Kent, Joseph H. Hedrick, Sylvester G. Miatson, S. B. Shelledy, James Grant, George HIobson, H. P. I-Haun, Stewart Goodrell, Sanford Ilarned, David Olmstead, G. W. Bowie, Alvin Saunders, William Steele, T. MIcCraney, F. K. O'Ferrall, J. Scott Richman. ORDINANCE. Be it ordained by the Convention assembled to form a Constitution for the State of Iowa, in behalf of the people of said State, that the following propositions shall be made to the Congress of the United States, which, if assented to by that body, shall be obligatory on this State. 1. Section number sixteen in every surveyed township of public lands, and where such section has been disposed of, other lands, equivalent thereto, and as contiguous as may be, shall be granted to the State for the use of Com. mon Schools. 2. Seventy-two sections of land set apart and reserved for the use and support of a University, by an act of Congress approved on the twentieth of July, one thousand eight hundred and forty, entitled " An act granting two 232

Page  233 CONSTITUIJTION OF IOWA. townships of land for the use of a University in the Territory of Iowa," shall be applied solely for the use and support of such University, in such manner as the General Assembly may direct. 3. That one quarter section of land in each township be granted to the State for the purpose of purchasing a Common School library for the use of such township. 4. That five per cent. of the nett proceeds of the sales of all public lands lying within this State, which shall be sold by Congress after the admission of the State into the Union, shall be granted to the State, for the use of Common Schools. That, in consideration of the grants specified in the four foregoing propositions, it is declared, that this State will never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil within the same, by the United States, nor with any regulations Congress may find necessary, for securing the title in such soil to the bona fide purchaser thereof; and that no tax shall be imposed on ]ands, the property of the United States, and that in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than resident. 20* 233

Page  234 STATE OFFICERS, ETC. CHIAPTER XXV. STATE OFFICERS AND CONGRESSMEN~ FROM THE ADMIS SION INTO TIHE UNION TO THE PRESENT TIME. GOVERNoR.-Term, 4 Years. Beginning of Term. 1. Ansel Briggs.......................... November 30, 1846. 2. Stephen Hempstead.......................... December 2, 1850. 3. James W. Grimes................................ " 3, 1854. SECRETARY OF STATE.-Termn, 2 Years. 1. Elisha Cutler, Jr......................... November 30, 1846. 2. Josiah H. Bonney...............................December 2, 1848. 3. George W. McCleary (3 terms,)............. " 2, 1850. AUDITOR OF STATE.-Term, 2 Years. 1. Joseph T. Fales (2 terms,)....................November 30, 1846. 2. William Pattee (2 terms,).....................December 2, 1850. 3. A. J. Stevens..................................... 3, 1854. TREASURER OF STATE.-Term, 2 Years. 1. Morgan Reno (2 terms,)........................November 30, 1846. 2. Israel Kister.....................................December 2, 1850. 3. M. L. lorris (2 terms,)......................... 2, 1852. SUPERI%NTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.-Term, 3 Years. Elected. 1. James Harlan, (election declared illegal,).......... April, 1847. 2. Thomas H. Benton, Jr., (2 terms,)...................." 1848. 3. James D. Eads........................................ " 1854. 234

Page  235 STATE OFFICERS, ETC. BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKs.-Term, 2 Years. Elected. 1. Hugh W. Sample, President,........................ August 2, 1847. 1. Charles Corkery, Secretary,........................ " " 1. Paul Bratton, Treasurer............................. " " 2. William Patterson, President,......................... " 6, 1849. 2. Jesse Williams, Secretary,.......................... 3. George Gillaspy, Treasurer......................... " " The second Board was legislated out of office on the 1st of February, 1851. CO0IMISSIONER AND REGISTER or THE DES MOINES RIVER IIPROVEMENT.-Term, 2 Years. 1. V. P. Antwerp, Commissioner,... appointed from Feb. 1, 1858. 2. Josiah H. Bonney, "............elected, April 4, 1853. 1. George Gillaspy, Register..........appointed, February 1, 1851. 2. Paul Jeffers, "......... " " 1852. 3. George Gillaspy, "......... elected, April 4, 1853. ATTORNEY-GENERAL.-Term, 2 Years. 1. D.C. Cloud.............................................August 1, 1853. 2. ".............................................August 7, 1854. THE EXECUTIVE, IN 1855. JAMES W. GRIMiEs, of Burlington, Governor. George W. McCleary, Iowa City, Secretary of State. A. J. Stevens, Fort Des Moines, Auditor. M. L. Morris, Iowa City, Treasurer. James D. Eads, Iowa City, Superintendent of Public Instruction. D. C. Cloud, Muscatine, Attorney-General. Wm. McKay, Commissioner of the Des Moines River Improvement. 'John C. Lockwood, Register of the Des Moines River Improvement. Anson Hart, Register of the Land Office. THE LEGISLATURE. MIaturin L. Fisher, President of the Senate. Reuben Noble, Speaker of the Ilouse of Representatives. 235

Page  236 STATE OFFICERS) ETC. CONGRESSIONAL DELEGATION. George W. Jones, of Dubuque, Senator,....... Term expires, 1859. James HIarlan, of Mt. Pleasant, "....... " " 1861. Augustus Hall, of Keosauqua, Representative. James Thorington, of Davenport, " THE JUDICIARY Supreme Court. George G. Wright, Keosauqua, Chief Justice. W. G. Woodward, Muscatine, Associate Justice. N. W. Isbell, Marion, " " George S. Hampton, Iowa City, Clerk. District Court for Iowa. J. J. Dyer, of Dubuque, Judge. J. C. Knapp, of Keosauqua, District Attorney. Laurel Summers, of Le Claire, A3lrshal. Warner Lewis, of Dubuque, Surveyor-General. ATote.-The election for Governor, State Officers, and Board of Public Works is held on the first Monday in August. The term of service of the Governor and State Officers commences on the first Monday in December following the election. Times of rolding Eections. 1. General Election -Is held 1st Monday in August, every two years. Time of holding next General Election will be August, 1856. Officers elected: A Governor, once in four years; a State Senator, once in four years; a Secretary, Treasurer, and Auditor of State, Prosecuting Attorney, Clerk of the District Court, Representatives to the General Assembly, and Representatives to Congress, every two years. 236

Page  237 STATE OFFICERS, ETC. 2. Avgzst ~Eection -Is held 1st Monday in August, every two years, alternate with the years of the General Election. Officers elected: County Judge, once in four years; Sheriff, Coroner, Recerder, and Surveyor, every two years. 3. April Electiho-Is held annually, 1st Monday in April. Officers elected: Judge of District Court, once in five years; Superintendent of Public Instruction, once in three years; School Fund Commissioner, once in two years; three Township Trustees, a Clerk, two Constables, and an Assessor, every year; two Justices of the Peace (or as many as the Trustees of each township may direct,) every two years (one being elected each year). 4. Presidential Election -Is holden 1st Tuesday after the 1st MIonday in November, 1856, and every four years thereafter, for the election of Electors of President and VicePresident of the United States, the number of whom is equal to the number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which this State may be entitled. 5. City Elections - Held at such times as fixed by the charter, or as regulated by ordinance; electing Mayor, Mar.hal, Clerk, Treasurer, and Aldermen. 237

Page  238 POLICY OF GOVERNMENT. CHAPTER XXVI. POLICY OF GOVERNMENT. Ex-GOVERNOR HIIEMPSTEAD, in his Message to the Legislature last winter, remarked: " In concluding this communication to the General Assembly of Iowa, I may be permitted to refer to the policy of government, under which we have increased in population and wealth, unsurpassed in the history and settlement of Western States; and, it must be conceded, that for the high position which we now occupy, as a sovereign State of the American Republic, we are principally indebted to the Constitution and laws for that prosperity. "Of the Constitution of this State, it may with justice be said that it is republican in its character, and designed to protect the people against abuses and evils which have crept into the government of other and elder States. It prohibits any association or corporation from exercising the privilege of creating paper to circulate as money. It dedclares that corporations shall not be established by special laws, except for political or municipal purposes; and for all others, that general laws shall be passed for their organization, reserving to every one the privilege of forming companies for the transaction of all lawful business, and limiting State indebtedness in such a manner as to prevent great 238

Page  239 POLICY OF GOVERNMENT. loss or repudiation. These restrictions, it is believed, have done much to build up this State, and to assure citizens that they are not to be oppressed by monopolies, bankruptcy, or extraordinary taxation." The stand Iowa has taken on the subject of Slavery, may be inferred from the following extract from Gov. GRIMES'S Inaugural Address last session: "' The removal of that great landmark of freedom, the MIissouri Compromise line, when it had been sacredly observed until slavery had acquired every inch of soil south of it, has presented the aggressive character of that system broadly before the country. It has shown that all compromnises with slavery, that were designed to favor freedom, are mere ropes of sand, to be broken by the first wave of passion or interest that may roll from the South. "It has forced upon the country an issue between free labor, political equality, and manhood on the one hand; and, on the other, slave labor, political degradation, and wrong. It becomes the people of the free States to meet that issue resolutely, calmly, and with a sense of the momentous consequences that will flow from its decision. To every elector, in view of that issue, might appropriately be applied the injunction anciently addressed to the Jewish King:'Be strong, and show thyself a man.' "It becomes the State of Iowa,- the only free child of the Missouri Compromise,-to let the world know that she values the blessings that compromise has secured to her, and that she will never consent to become a party to the nationalization of slavery." 239

Page  240 POLICY OF GOVERNMENT. The following returns (as far as heard from up to the date we write,) will exhibit the present politics of Iowa: Apri El~ection. Anti- Prohibitory law. Counties. Lee.............................. Des Moines.......................... Muscatine............................ Scott.................................. Clinton................................ Cedar.................................. Jackson............................... Mlahaska.............................. Clayton *.............................. Linn.................................... Davis................................. Johnson.............................. Dubuque.............................. Henry................................. Van Buren.......................... Jefferson.............................. Jones *................................ VWashington.......................... Louisa................................. WIapello............................... Alonroe............................... Warren............................... M'Ctdison.............................. Jasper................................. Black IHawk......................... Delaware............................. Powasheik........................... Story.................................. Tama.................................. WVinnesheik.......................... Lucas................................. Marion............................... IMajority so far for K. N. State Ticket.................. 5207. ,,,, " ProhibitoryLaw..................... 3310. * Those counties marked with an asterisk are reported, tho remainder are official. t i 240 AntiK. N. Prohi'bit For. 644 498 392 630 206 363 o,y L,,w. K. N. o'27 419 108 846 45 464 152 266 400 352 337 323 874 181 50 277 318 29 1 504 i 178 231 28 145 95 79 73 9 88 100 300 724 225 316 399 448 788 660 171 250 339 230 210 136 22 66 175 130 285 37 57 112 35 8 19 32 285 1189 143 446 2789 6896 6049

Page  241 EDUCATION. CHAPTER XXVII. EDUCATION. School S'ystemn.-A very liberal provision is made for the permanent support of common and academic institutions in this State. By an act of Congress, 500,000 acres of land have been set apart for the promotion of the cause of education. Some of these lands have been sold, and the proceeds safely invested for the benefit of schools. Much, however, remains still in the market, and will be disposed of as the wants and interests of these nurseries of knowledge demand. There is to-day about one million of dollars in the hands of the School Fund Commissioners, within the State, which is loaned at ten per cent., yielding an income of nearly one hundred thousand dollars. This amount, distributed among the schools of the Commonwealth, places them upon a footing not surpassed by any new State in the north-west. State Uhtiversity of Iowa. This institution opened in some of its departments recently. It has been permanently located at Iowa City, the site of the Capitol, and is to have the use of the public buildings, together with ten acres of land, on which the same are situated. Two townships of land, granted by act of Congress, July 2Oth, 1840, for the support of a uni 21 241

Page  242 EDUCATION. versity, have been donated by the State to this institution, and constitute a permanent and munificent fund, upon whose interest to lean for support. 2;'a:~Tees of tle State t h'iversit. Tire ]Jefeical Dela)rti?e,2, of the State University, is the College of Physicians and Surgeons, located at Keokuk, in Lee County. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction says:' The best interests of the State University demand that the law making the College of Physicians and Surgeons the medical department of the State University of Iowa, should be repealed, and that the entire University Fund be concentrated upon one object, and the building up of one institution, and not have it squandered by dividing it on different schools in various parts of the State, as by sueh means we will not be able to sustain a respectable instituti,n in the State. One institution of learning, well susta;.ined, is of more advantage to the people at large, than twenty only in name, as many of our colleges are in this Stlate. One university, with an able corps of professors, and properly managed, will be sufficient for the accommodation of all the students who will attend a State University, and besides that, will1 be a credit to the State." -T);c,nc' at f(ifiyjc,l>.-One branch of the State Univers'ty is established at Fairfield, Jefferson County, and is put upon the same footing with respect to funds and other details, as the present Seminary. Briach7 at Dubeulte.-Another branch of the State Universitv is to be established at Dubuque. The trustees have 2 4''

Page  243 EDUTJCATION. been appointedl, the site selected, and most of the measures necessary to the enterprise taken. .'Avo~mal 2ScItoo7s.-The State is divided into three districts, in each of which there was to be established a Nornmal School, for the education of teachers for our conmmon schools. The law establishing these schools, located them at OsLkaloosa,?ic.unt Pleasant, and Andrew. Disti~'ct oo0.S-Of these, Jas. D. Eadt, Esq., late State Superintendent, says: " In many of the older counties that I have travelled through, the citizens have gone to work with a liberal and praiseworthy spirit, in erecting large and commodious buildings for educational purposes. The city of Keokuk takes the lead in having the finest building in the State, in the erection of which the citizens have expended nearly ten thousand dollars; and with a liberal spirit, they pay the Superintendent of the school eight hundred dollars per annum. "' Fort MIadison, Burlington, 3Iuseatine, Davenport, Lyons, Anamosa, Colesburgh, iMarion, Roehester, Tipton, Denmark, Primrose, VWest Point, Centreville, Oskaloosa, Cedar Falls, and many other towns, have erected buildings which will stand as lasting monuments of the liberality of those eng,aged in so glorious an enterprise, and an honour to cur young State. " Iowa, young as she is, already commands a prominent posi;tion, not only in referencee to the magnitude of her Schlool Fund, but in the progress she has made in the organization of her districts, and the general establishment of free schools. 243

Page  244 EDUCATION. "According to the returns of the County Commissioners, there are twenty-three hundred and fifty-five organized school districts in Iowa, and over one hundred and eleven thousand children between the ages of five and twenty-one years. When we consider, in connection with these facts, that our population is increasing with a rapidity almost unparalleled in the history of any country, and that in a very few years we shall equal in numbers the most populous of the Eastern States, it becomes apparent that we cannot be too active and vigilant in all that pertains to the education of the youth of our State, who are so soon to control the destiny of a great Commonwealth. "While we congratulate ourselves upon the possession of so magnificent a school fund, as has been secured to us by the action of the General Government, and our State Legislature, we must not forget that much remains to be done on the part of the people themselves, before we shall fully enjoy the advantages of a universal system of free schools, of a c.,haracter commensurate with the object of their erganization, viz.: to give to every son and daughter of Iowa a thorough knowledge of all the essential elements of a good practical education. "I have had the pleasure, during the past season, of visiting a laorge number of union or graded schools, in the larger towns of th e State, and have been very highly gratified in witnessing tlheo many advantages they possess, when properly conducted, over those schools which maintain separate organizations. "As appears froni the returns of the County Commis c) — t 4

Page  245 EDUCATION. sioners, the average sumn paid to the district school teacher is less than twenty dollars to the male, and less than ten dollars per month to female teachers." In all the thickly settled counties, common schools are convenient, and should the tide of immigration continue to flow as it has done, in five years not one county in ten will be destitute of the facilities for a sound education. The number and condition of public schools are given more par ticularly in the sketches of the counties, in another portion of this work. Blind Asyum. —An institution for the instruction of the blind was organized and put into operation in Iowa City, in the spring of 1853. It has been impossible, thus far, to procure suitable buildings for the accommodation of those wishing to attend, and an appropriation of $6000 has been made for the erection of appropriate buildings. The number of pupils at present in attendance is twenty-three. .DI)eaf and.Dutib As.y7um.-An institution for the instruction of the deaf and dumb, has recently been opened in Iowa City, which bids fair to do great service, even the present year, in extending to this unfortunate class, the light and knowledge which, but for education, they must be deprived of. .Acaldemies and Co7Tceyes.-TThis State is well supplied with acadamies and colleges, some of which will compare favorably with those in the Atlantic States, while all reflect credit upon the patriotism and enterprise of the HIawkeye State. W~e give herein a skletch of the condition of those 21* ".) 4 5

Page  246 EDU I)CATION. of the principal schools of this class, concerning which we have been able to gain satisfactory data: Tihe,lio,t ozive,crsit,?.-This is a literary institution of the Baptist denomination, located at Burlington, in April, 1852. The college edifice was erected in 1853-4, and dedicated on the 4th of July, 1854. This building is 44 by 65 feet, three stories high, and its style of architecture and economic arrangement reflect great credit upon its founders and architects. The first annual catalogue of the institution was issued on the first of January, 1855, which reports 167 pupils, and a faculty of eight different teachers, with Geo. b. Gunnison, A. M., as principal. The school is now in a flourishing condition. The institution possesses available property to the amount of $20,000, and is nearly free from debt, besides $5000 secured and drawing interest, as the commencement towards a fund for enlarging their buildings. The plan of the institution provides for preparatory and collegiate departments, with courses of study for gentlemen and ladies. The gentlemen's course embraces 7 years-3 preparatory, and 4 collegiate; the ladies' 5 years -1 primary, and 4 advanced. Those desiring further information of the institution, may address the Principal, at Burlington, or Rev. Jas. A. Nash, President of the Board of Trustees, at Ft. Des Moines. Dave~nort Fenale Universitjy. FeCmale Ec7ectic lnstitute. -This institution, still in the first year of its history, is the only female seminary in the United States which, in the character and extent 246

Page  247 EDUCATION. of its instruction, is founded upon the broad basis of a university. By the scheme of its organization, provision is made for 1st, Twelve professorships in the sciences and letters, viz: ,)ne each in Mathematical Sciences, Experimental Sciences, Natural Sciences, Ancient Languages, Modern Languages, English Language and Literature, Historical and Political Sciences, Logical and AEsthetical Sciences, Moral and Mental Sciences, Vocal and Instrumental Miusic, Drawing and Painting, Chirography and Book-Keeping. 2d. Two professorships upon the professions of the sex, viz: one upon the Principles of Study in general and in particular; one upon the Principles of Teaching in general and in particular. 3d. One professorship upon Conversation and the Proprieties. 4th. One professorship upon the Trades taught in the University. 5th. One professorship upon Domestic Economy and Domestic Duties. By the scheme of its organization provision is also made for granting e.yAzhteen species of diploma. WVe cannot better exhibit the leading features of the Davenport Female University, than by an extract from a letter addressed by the talented and accomplished principal, 3Mrs. Caroline P. Lindsley, A. M., to the editor of the "Rock Islander." In her communication she states that the University "is designed to supply not only the great wants in the female educational systems of the times, but the wants 247

Page  248 ED U CATION. of divers c7lasses of our countrywomen, the wealthy as well as the indigent, genius as well as mediocrity. To this end it will furnish an extensive and thorough training: "1st. For those who aim chiefly at distinction in the field of science and letters "2d. For those who aim chiefly at distinction in the professions permitted to woman; "3d. For those who aim chiefly at distinction in the trades taught in the institution; "4th. For those who aim chiefly at superior knowledge of the duties of domestic life; " 5th. For those who aim at commendable eminence in each of these general divisions of female effort and enterprise." Three departments of the University are already opened, and if demanded by the proficiency of applicants, eight will admit pupils by the first Wednesday of September next, the commencement of the collegiate year. The character and extent of the instructions, unapproached as they are by any female institute in the country, do not constitute, however, the only evidence of superiority. The University, while it takes the title of a great school of industry and learning, does not overlook the interests of those who have claims upon its beneficence. Accordingly it opens its halls, with scarcely the shadow of tribute, to those who seek its groves, to lessen the expenses of instruction by the pursuit of some trade, or to enjoy its advantages at reduced consideration. Hence 1. Employment at the trades taught in the University is 248

Page  248A

Page  248B I ii liii - I ill Ij;! i \;HLII FE3IALE COLLEGE, UNDE R TIIE AUIC ES OF TIlE I. 0. 0. F, OF IOWA,

Page  249 EDUCATION. invariably given at 7[v;i,'g rates to young ladies who may desire to support themselves, in part at least, while prosecuting their studies. 2. The daughters of the clergy, without regard to faith, are entitled to tuition at ha7f the established prices, and, upon the opening of the fall term, will receive their tuition free, in every branch except painting and instrumental music, provided they board with the Principal. Iowa Fema7e Collegiate Institute, at Iowa Cit, under the auspices of the 1 O. of 0. F. "Articles of incorporation were adopted and recorded on the 29th of July, 1853, which place the institution under the particular auspices of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows of Iowa, and secures in the instruction and government of the school the same broad and liberal basis, and the same freedom from every species of sectarianism, which distinguishes that Order. "It also offers to all Lodges and Encampments, contributing one hundred dollars to the funds of the institution, a perpetual scholarship; and to each individual contributor of the same amount, a scholarship for twenty years, or during his natural life. By this arrangement we hope to be able, at some future day, to offer free i?struction to all poor orphan daughters of the Order in the State. This, indeed, is a primary object had in view by the Board in the establishment of their institution, and will not be lost sight of in their future plans and labor for the permanent organization of their school. 249

Page  250 EDUCATION. "During the past year the attention of thle Board has been directed chiefly towards the collection of funds, and to the preparations for the erection of a suitable College eclifice for the use of thle institution. " In this effort, very gratifying success has rewarded their labor. Notwithstanding thle protracted illness of their agent has deprived the Board of his services for nearly one-half of the past year, yet they are happy to report the collection of about $8000 in cash, notes, valid subscriptions, and other property, as the result of their efforts. " The City Council at Iowa City, at their regular meeting in September, 1853, donated to the Board an eligible site for their College edifice; and the Grand Lodge of the I. O. of O. F. of the State of Iowa laid the corner-stone of the College, October 27th, 1853, with the usual ceremonies of the Order." The edifice will be completed and ready for occupation by the first of July, 1855. For further particulars, address F. I-. Lee, Secretary, Iowa City. See particulars of "Iowa Conference Seminary," of 5[t. 'Vernon, and of the "' Iowa WVesleyan University," " 5t. Pleasant Hio-l School, and Female Academy," in the sketches of Linn and iHenry Counties. [&wt a C,7vhc,t. This College is located in the city of Davenport, and occupies grounds of great natural beauty, overlooking a wide 250

Page  250A


Page  251 EDUCATION. expanse of prairie on the north, and commanding on the south a fine view of the AIississippi River, and the adjacent cities. It was founded in 1848, and is sharing in the general prosperity attending every enterprise in this attractive State. The institution, under the care of well-qualified instructors, is furnished with a chemical and philosophical apparatus, and has a library of some 2000 volumes. WTith the new building soon to be erected, and a commodious boardinghouse already in use, the College will be prepared to offer facilities for a thorough education, both in the preparatory and college departments. 'Lac7ies' Coll,ye." The above is the name of an institution soon to be opened in the city of Davenport, (we write under date of April lIst,) under the direction of T. H. Codding, Esq., who is also its proprietor. The building, when completed, at a cost of $20,000, will present a front of 120 feet, and four stories in hei.ght, with a depth of 80 feet. The main building will be ready for the reception of scholars on the 1st of May. Upon the selection of the site for the "Ladies' College," too much praise can scarcely be bestowed. Standing upon a lofty bluff, it commands a sweep of landscape scarce excelled throughout the region of the Upper M3ississippi, while the broad summit of the hill, whose centre it decks, affords ample room for extensive promenades, and the gentle 251

Page  252 ED U CATION. slopes which decline towards the lowlands, render it easy of access to pedestrians and carriages. The aim of the "Ladies' College" is to pr( pare young ladies for the active practical duties of life, which aimrn it is proposed to effect by a judicious combination of mental, moral, and physical training. Its proprietor says: " The course of instruction will be thorough and cornplete, and at the same time very discriminating and select, avoiding everything of an entirely useless character, and substituting those branches whose tendency is to give vigor and elasticity to the youthful mind. "The manner of teaching will be the most approved( and inproved known in our country or in Europe, giving the pupil the full understanding of her subject, while it is presented by the teacher in a style entirely new and fascinating." To insure to pupils a thorough English and classical education, and familiarity with the languages, a large corps of experienced and accomplished teachers have been engaged as assistants to Mr. T. HII. Codding and MIrs. O. Codding, the Principals and Superintendents of the Institute. 252

Page  253 RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. CHAPTER XXVIII. RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. Congregational Churc7tes.-The State of Iowa is divided into five associations. The latest reports are from the proceedings of the annual Association, in June, 1854, as follows: No. of Memnbers. Council Bluffs Association, 40 No. of Ministers in the State, 57 Davenport " 471 " Churches " " 72 Denmark " 7o9 Meeting Houses built 39 Des Moines River " 862'" It building 6 Dubuque " 604 Estimated addition in 9 2236 months..................... 250 2486 Congregational churches are thus located: Council Blttffs Association.-Civil Bend, Council Bluffs, Tabor, (Florence, N. T.). Davenport Association.-Anamosa, Copper Creek, Davenport, Deep Creek, De Witt, Le Claire, Lyons, Marion, Muscatine, Sabula, Sterling, Sugar Creek, Summit, Tipton, Toledo. Dennmark Association.-Brighton, Burlington, Clay, Columbus, Crawfordsville, Danville, Denmark, Flint, Hillsboro', Long Creek, Mount Pleasant, North Marion, Old Man's Creek, Salem, Trenton, Wapello, Warren, Wayne. Des Jloines River Association.-Ben. 22 F, n" 253

Page  254 RELIGIOUS WORSIIIP. tonsport, Chariton, Edcyville, Elk Creek, Fairfield, Farm ington, Keosauqua, Ki(,xsville, 3Iarysville, Oskaloosa, Ot tuniwa, Pleasantville, Fed Roek. Dubufue Association. -Bellcavue, Bowen's Prairie, Cascade, Centre, Colesburg, Cottonville, Deeorah, Dubuque, Durango, Farmersburgh, French Settlemuent, Garnaville, Lansing, NIanona, MIaquo keta, Quasqueton, Sherold's Mound, Teroli, WAVest Union, Yankee Settlement. Stt(tist&cal Tail)le of Bal)tists in Iotca. | ~Ass~oviatioo~s. St~ ~ =..h,$ F Date of Report. Associations. Des oine s............. 21 11 247 1159 Aug. 25, 1854. Datvenport............... 24 17 73 1078 Sept. 15, 1854. Oskaloosa............16 5 32 502 Aug. 30, 1854. Central Iowa........... 14 6 98 384 Sept. 29, 1854. Fox River............... 17 7 69 628 Sept. 8, 1854. Ed en...................... 10 3 300 6 Associations........102 49 519 4051 Not included in above 3 11 49 A low estimate. 105 60 519 4100 Statistical ]Hstory of t7te Iowa Baptist Convention. l~ nniser'v Mnnrratnr.. In. Preacher. iev. It. Johnson. " A. Sherwtood. C.E. Brown. W. B. Morey. J. N. Seely. " 1t. Burnett. D". P. Smith. C. E. Brown. T. H. Archibald. ". G. Johnson. W.A..Wells. J. A. Nash. G. J. Johnson. W. Elliott. l3th-ISM. '54:

Page  255 RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. Presb~terican g(,ttrches.-The Synod of Iowa is divided into three Presbyteries. According to the statistical reports for 1854, this Synod consists of the following: oNo. Churches. 24 47 100 171 No. Members. 1. Presbytery of Iowa.................... 247 2. Presbytery of Ced,r.................. 7'9 3. Presbytery of D)es Mloines............ 787 In Synod of Iowa...................... 1833 Location of Presjyteeician Churches. First Presh terj. —Keokuklc, West Point, Mliddletown, Morning Sun, Mount Pleasant, Charleston, Burlington, Lowell, Spring Creek, Fort i1adison, and Kossuth. Secon(d PIresbysery.- - Iuscatine, West Liberty, Farmer's Creek, Tipton, Scotch Grove, Cascade, Grandview, Miarion, Lime Grove, Dubuque, Davenport, Iowa City, Le Claire, Solon, Blue Grass, MIaquoketa, Postville, Franckville, Colesburg, Lybrand, Pleasant Grove, Vinton, Independence, Hopkinton, Lisbon, Princeton. Thi;rd Presbytes. -Fairfield, Libertyville, Sigourney, Birmingham, Winchester, Oskalocosa, Washington, Brighton, Albia, Crawfordsville, Troy, Keosauqua, Bentonsport, Kirkville, Indianolo, Ottumwa, Knoxville, and Ft. Des 3Moines. Protestanit ~p)scopal Church7.-The territorial limits of the diocese embrace the entire State. The Right Rev. 11. W. Lee, D. D., is the bishop of the same. It was organized into a diocese, August lSth, 1853, under the provisionary charge of the 11t. 1ev. J. Kemper, D. D. The present bishop was elected June ist, 1854. 255

Page  256 RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. There are organized parishes in the following places: Dubuque, Bellevue, Davenport, Mluscatine, Burlington, Ft. 3Iadison, Keokuk, Ft. Des Moines, WTashington, Iowa City, and Cedar Rapids. Churches are built in the following places:-Dubuque, Davenport, M3uscatine, Burlington, and Keokuk, and one is in progress at Cedar Rapids. The number of clergy in the diocese is 11; number of communicants, about 300. Immigration is adding to families and communicants every month. Number of Sunday Schools not ascertained as yet. The second annual conven tion meets at Burlington, on the 29th of May next. et7ltodist (churches. In the following table we give a full history of the con dition of the Methodist Churches in Iowa, as rendered at the Eleventh Annual Conference, held September 27th, 18S54: MI. E. CIIUIRCIIES. DISTRICTS 4171 2830 1518 1332 1374 Iowa City...... Ft. De s M0oil1es Council Bluffs Total......... DIiSTRICTS. Keokuk......... Burlington.... Dulbuque....... I Upper Iowa... i -It. V'ernon.... Mc. vernon.... al........50 AI. E. SABBATII SCHOOLS. DISTrICTS. DITRICTS. KeokL........ 52 2650 6263 112 Ft. Des 3loines 4]. Burlington....9 2496 5615 94 Council Bluffs 11 Bubuque....... 8 1163 465 9 9 Scatteri ng 4.... 4 Upper Iowa... 42 1851 4595 38] MIt. vernon.....3L 1146 4229 48 Total.......271 Iowa City...... 39 1215 3715 35 I I I I 256 11 0I R 7 10 5 4 4 t I PI 49 35 21 21 30 I 9 ;z 11 PI 14 6 7 9 3 0 80 41. I I PI I 33 1948 41 2882 13 408 222 15131 22 23 8 15 4 , 4 E I,'e,., 16r,C, 4151 3 417 850 3 430 100 6 --- I — - 13,2'54 i 35,1,- 3398

Page  257 RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. Ca7holic ChuurchIes aid Clerlyy. The diocess of Dubuque, comprises the State of Iowa, and is administered by the Rt. Rev. Mlathias Loras, D. D. The principal buildings at Dubuque embrace the "Cathedral of St. Raphael," now nearly completed, the " Holy Trinity," (German), and a new and spacious church in the upper part of the city, "under the patronage of St. Patricek." Also the "'1iount St. Bernard Theological Seminary," situated four miles friom Dubuque, with ten seminaries and three professors; the " Cistercian Monastery of Our Blessed Lady of La Trappe," New inelleray, near Dubuque; "Brothers of Christian Instruction," at New Paradise Grove, four miles from Dubu(jue, and " St. Joseph's Femnale Academty," situated eight m1iles from D)ubunqie. Besidle the above, the Catholics have the " Convent and Academy of the Visitation," at Keokuk, and churches and stations at the follow ing named places: .D.L]) qqe Co..~'y, at Dubuque, Cascade, Green Oak, New Vienna, St. JoseLh's, S hellsniound, St. Nicholas, and Tetede-Mi,rt; Jl,C,7.?.' o ~,' at Girry Owen, St. Lawrence, Cascade, Belleview, and Sabila; Jones 6botii, at Castle Grove, and St. Thomas; Dean it g ie C1l., at Buffalo Grove; C[.yso1l (0'I,/~, at Carnovillo, and Guttenberg; Cl:'.toi C~Il!y, at Lyons, and Camanche; o)o, 257

Page  258 RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. Scott County, at Davenport,* and Le Claire; JIlt.scatiLie Cootly, at MuIscatine; Joheson Chovzty, at Iowa City, English River, and Old .Ian's Creek; )es Jloires County, at Burlington, Dodgeville, and Augusta; Lee County, at West Point, Fort Madison, Keokuk, and Farmington; l;it7estheik County, at Big Springs, and Old Mission; at Ottumwa, WVapello County; Ft. Des MIoines, Polk County; Council Bluffs, Pottawattamie County, and New Paradise Grove, near Mount St. Bernard. Recapitulation.-Churches, 35; stations, 17; clergymen, 29; religious communities, 5; Catholic academies, 4; Catholic population, 20,000. * The Catholic is the largest church in Davenport, covering an area 44 by 84 feet. The cost of the edifice was about $10,000. Number of members, 3000, (many of them residing in the country.) Connected with the church is a youths' school, conducted by Rev. J. A. M. Pelamourgues, and three assistant teachers. The entire square upon which these buildings are located, was donated to the church, by Antoine Le Claire. 258

Page  259 BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. CHAPTER XXIX. BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. Free and Accepted Masons. Location No. of MIembers. Burlington...............50........ 50 Aluscatine...............63......... 63 Dubuque................44.......... 44 Iowa City............... 28........ 28 Wapello............................... 23 Mlarion................................. 49 Augusta.................18......... 18 Mount Pleasant...........35....... 5 Keosauqua...............46........ 46 Tipton.................................. 26 Keokuk................. 29.......... 29 Fort Madison.................... 18 Bloomfield...............................33 Fairfield.................35......... 5 Ottumwa................25..........25 Salem................................. 49 Oskaloosa................47........ 47 Lyons............................. - Burlington...............23........ 23 Agency City..................... 34 Ft. Des Moines..........18.......18 Grandview...............17........ 17 Rochester........................ 17 Cedar Rapids.................... 28 NOTE.-This table is taken from the Report made to the Grand Annual Communication, June 6th, 1854. Other lodges have been 259 Locaf,ion. No. of Members. Washington...................... 30 Farmington...................... 1 6 New London..................... 32 Keokuk........................... 23 Muscatine........................ 37 Iowa City........................ 20 Sigourney........................ 80 Winchester....................... 21 De Witt........................... 23 Kirkville.......;.................. 24 Maquoketa....................... 16 Davenport........................ 28 P,ichland.......................... 11 Sabula............................ 20 Troy............................... 16 Libertyville...................... 23 Centreville....................... 14 Wintersett........................ 15 Le Claire......................... 13 Crawfordville.................... 1.3 Anamosa......................... 11 Bentonsport..................... 7 Cedar Falls...................... - r,:, " -I

Page  260 BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. organized since, and numerous members added to the Order, but this is the latest reliable data accessible. In this list the lodges are arranged according to their age and No., except that one (No. 9), "revoked," is omitted; so that Mount Pleasant is No. 8, Keosauqua, 10, Tipton, 11, &c. The next session of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, will be held in Keosauqua, Van Buren County, the first Tuesday in June, 1856. Icdepecnc7eit Orc7er of 0(OdZ i-eFlos. There are of the I. O. of 0. F. in this State, sixty-one lodges, which are located in the following counties: Appanoose, Buchanan, Black ttawk, 13renmer, Clayton, Cedlar, Clinton, Delaware, Dubuquce, Des Maoines, D)avis, J eahaska, Madison, M,uscatinle, Pottawattamie, Polk, Sott, Van Buren, Wappello, Washington, Winnesheik, Warren. Sons of Tegn?pega2?ce. The number of divisions of Sons of Temperance in the State, as near as we can ascertain, is not far from one hundred and fifty, most of which are located as follows: Counties. Appanoose............................ Black Hawk,.......................... Cedar,................................ Clinton,................................. Davis.................................. Del awar e..,.......................... 260 Fa,yette, Ileiir.y, Jackson, Jefferson, Johnson, Jones, Keokuk, Le,-, Loui.,a, Li-na, l,larioii, Towi,is. Centreville. IVaterloo. P,,-,cl-iester, Spririgdale. De'il,itt, Cai,,iancl-ie. Bloonl,le'id. Dellil, llol)"-inton, Uniontown.

Page  261 BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. Counties. Des MAloines......................... Dubuque,............................. Ieenry,............................... Jack soa.n,........................... Towns. Burlington. Dubuque, Hogansville. Mount Pleasant, Salem. Andrew, Bellevue, S. Fork, Sa bula, Lamotte. New ton. Fairfield, Glasgow. Iowa City. Sigourney. Keokuk. Toolsboro'. Chariton. Hopewell, Oskaloosa. Knoxville. Albia. Silver Creek, Glenwood. Ft. Des Moines. Davenport, Le Claire, Blue Grass. Keosauqua, Famington, Pitts burg. Ottumwa, Dahlonega, Agency City, Eddyville, Bentonsport, Bonaparte, Birmingham. Washington, Richmond. Indianola. Jasper,................................ Jefferson,............................. Johnson,.............................. Keokuk,............................... Lee,.................................... Louisa,................................. Lucas................................. Mlahaska............................... o MIarion,................................ MAonroe............................... Mills,....................................... Polk.................................. Scott,............................... Van Buren,........................ Washington,.......................... Warren,................................ James Thorington, of Davenport, is G. WV. P. of Iowa. 261 IV, apello............................

Page  262 BAN K ING-IIO 110 USES. CHAPTER XXX. BANKING-IHOUSES. IN Iowa, the issue of bank-notes is prohibited by law, consequently we have no home currency, and depend entirely upon other States for a circulating medium. Although we occasionally receive the refuse of the East, yet large quantities of notes of the safest banks are continually sent west for circulation. Henee, every State, from iIaine to Georgia, and from the Lakes to the Gulf of 31exico contributes to the assortment, while at the same time the proportion of coin is greater here than at the East. This is in a nmeasure owing to the immigration from the Eastern States and Europe. There are banking houses at most of the important towns in the State, where banking, exchange, and lawns agency business is transacted, and to them we refer the reader, a; every way worthy of confidence and patr:r.aGe. Of these, we would mention At BBur7linyton.-Green, Thomas & Co., successors to I;. W. Clark, Bros., & Co., bankers, dealers in exchange, and land agents; At Cedar Rapids.-Green & Weare, bankers, colleot~cf and general land agents; Ward & Bryan, bankers vnd land agents; 262

Page  263 BANKI NG-IIOU SES. At Cou),cil BI~iFs.-Green, Weare & Benton, bankers, collectors, and general land agents; At Dabztge.-3I. 3Iobley, exchange and banking house; F. S. Jessup & Co., bankers, dealers in eastern and southern exchange, land warrants, &e.; WI. J. Barney & Co., bankers, dealers in exchange, and general land agents; At Da ucn1)ort.-Cook & Sargent, bankers, dealers in eastern and southern exchange, and general land agents; 3IeGregor, Lawes & Blakemore, bankers, exchange and real estate brokers; ilaclot and Corbin, bankers and dealers in exlchange; Yerby & Barrow, bankers and dealers in domestic and foreign exchange, and land agents; At Fort Des _/Voines.-Cook, Sargent & Cook, bankers, dealers in exchange, and land agents; Green, Weare & PRice bankers, collectors, and general land agents; Miaclot, Corbin & White, bankers, exchange brokers, and land agents; Hoyt Sherman, banker and dealer in exchange and land warrants; At i11'7fizc7. -Henn, Williams & Co., dealers in land warrants and exchange; At Ioica CLty.-Cook, Sargent &I Downey, bankers and general land agents; At Til)to,.-W. IH. Tuthill, banker, and dealer in exchange and land warrants. At each of these banking-houses, interest is paid on special deposits; bills of exchange on all the principal cities of the United States and Europe are bought and sold; gold and silver are bought and sold, loans effected, and all other 263

Page  264 BANKING-HIOUSES. banking business transacted, save the issue of bills. As land agencies, they buy and sell warrants, select and enter vacant lands, examine titles, &c. One species of coin is not current in this State; we allude to the cent and half-cent, while even the three-cent piece is barely tolerated, and is seldom seen except in churchplates, and at the post-office. THE END. ~ I.. I,, Ii i, X,. 264