Wisconsin gazetteer, containing the names, location and advantages of the counties, cities, towns, villages, post offices, and settlements,together with a description of the lakes, water courses, prairies, and public localities, in the state of Wisconsin, alphabetically arranged: by John Warren Hunt.
Hunt, John Warren, 1826-1859.

Page  1 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER, CONTAINING THE NAMES, LOCATION, AND ADVANTAGES, OF THE COUNTIES, CITIES, TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST OFFICES, AND SETTLEMENTS, TOGETHER WITH A DESCRIPTION OF TE LAKIES, WATER COURSES, PRAIRIES, AND PUBLIC LOCALITIES, IN THE STATE OF WISCONSIN. ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED. BY JOHN WARRENUNT. MADISON: BERIAH BROWN, PRINTER. 1853. I

Page  2 Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1853. BY JOHN WARREN HUNT, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the District of Wisconsin.

Page  3 PREFACE, The utility of a Works like the one now presented to the public, will not be questioned. The State of Wisconsin has grown into importance with unexampled rapidity, and is now so far advanced in settlement and improvement that some compilation of correct and authentic information, in relation to its natural features and advantages, seems to have become of the highest interest and necessity-to the citizen as a detailed description of his State-to the immigrant as a Guide Book in the selection of a home. As this is the first publication of the kind which has ever appeared in relation to Wisconsin, its preparation, from materials scattered and undigested, has necessarily been attended with many difficulties and great labor. No pains, however, have been spared to make it, as far as possible, a correct and complete description of the State, historical and geographical, and of the peculiar characteristics of its different districts. Through circulars, and otherwise, the author has consulted every Postmaster in the State, as well as a large number of other residents, known to be familiar with the portion in which they reside, and from them he has derived much of the information for his descriptions of cities, villages, and post offices. The notices of the legal history and situation of counties and towns, are the result of the most careful examination of the laws, journals, and records of the Territory and State. The description of lakes, rivers, &c., and of the face of the country, to a great extent has been compiled from maps and documents of the General Government and from other authentic publications, and from reliable sources furnished directly for this Work. Muich valuable information has also been received from conversation and correspondence with the members of the 9, 4 5L.

Page  4 PREFAICE. legislature, and others, firom evervy section of the State, for the past three years. By the method pursued a knowledge leas ben acquired of every portion of Wisconsin which it would not have been possible to have gained in any other maniner. Perfect accuracy in all cases is neither claimed or expected, but it is hoped that these means have insured as great a degree, as is possible, in a new State of which much remains unoccupied and undeveloped, and but little settled long enough to be described with that certainty and complete familiarity that would be expected in an older State. Notwithstanding great care has been taken in perfecting this Work, several mistakes have been discovered in the printed edition, a list of which will be found in the Errata. Many omissions were necessarily made in the body of the Work, which are inserted in the Appendix, but mostly prepared in such a manner as not to give that accuracy of description that is desirable. It is not supposed that it is free from other errors and omissions. Should such be discovered, the Author will consider it a great favor to have them pointed out to him, by letter or otherwise, as it is his wish to make any future editions, if called for, as full and exact as may be. With these introductory and explanatory remarks the W'ISCONSIN GAZETTEER is submitted to the public, confidently trusting that it mnay receive sufficient patronage to render a reasonable compensation for the labor and money expended in its compilation and publication. In conclusion, the Author desires to tender his sincere thanks to all who have aided him; and to extend his grateful acknowledgments to Governor Farwell, General Smith, Chancellor Lathrop, I. A. Lapham, and Lyman C. Draper, for their kindness and courtesy, and the valuable assistance he has received from each of them, in the prosecution of this undertaking. MiADISON, WIs., JTune 1st, 1,8513.

Page  5 WISCONSIN. Situation, Bounds, Extent and Area.- History of Territory and State.-Face of the Country, Soil, &c.-Antiquities.-Climate and Health.-Productions. -Manufac tures. —Trade, —Education. —Government. —Civil Divisions. —Improvements Public Lands.-Miscellaneous. SITUATION, EXTENT, BOIuNDS AND AREA.-The State of Wisconsin embraces all of that portion of the Northwestern Territory lying north of the parallel of latitude 42~ 30' and west of Lake Michigan, excepting a portion of said Territory north and east of the Menomonee River of Green Bay, belongiing to and forming the TUpper Peninsula of MAichigan; and another portion lying west of the River St. Croix, inceluded in and consttituting a portion of the Territory of Minnesota. Its greatest extent from north to south is two hundred and eighty-five miles, and from east to west two hundred and fifty-five miles. Wisconsin is bounded on the north by Minnesota and Michigan, on the northeast, and east in Lake Michigaii by AIichligan, on the south by Illinois, and on the west by Iowa and Minnesota; or according to the Constitution, as follows, to wit: "Beginning at the northeast corner of the State of Illinois, that is to say, at a point in the centre of Lake Michigan, where the line of forty-two degrees and thirty-nine minutes of north latitude crosses the same; thence running with the boundary line of the state of M!ichigan, through Lake Mlichig(an, Green Bay, to the mouth of the Mlenomonee river; thence up the channel of the said river to the Brule river; thence up said last mentioned river to Lake Brule; thence along the southern shore of Lake Brule, in a direct 2 it

Page  6 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. line to the centre of the channel between Middle and South Islands, in the Lake of the Desert; thence in a direct line to the head waters of the Montreal river, as marked upon the survey made by Captain Cram; thence down the main channel of the Miont,eal river to the middle of Lake Superior; thence through the centre of Lake Superior to the month of the St. Louis river; thence up the main channel of said river to the first rapids in the same, above the Indian village, according to N,icollet's map; thence due south to the main branch of the river St. Croix; thence down the main channel of said river to the Mississippi; thence down the centre of the main channel of that river to the northwest coiner of the state of Illinois; thence due east with the northern bmi,:iary of the state of Illinois, to the place of beginning, as established by'an act to enable the people of the Illinois territoiry to form a colistituti(-)n and state government, and for the admissicon of such state into the TUnion on an equal footing with the original states,' approved April 18th, 1818." The area of WisconsinL in land is 53,924: square miles, or 34,511,360 square acres. tHIsTORY.-Wisconsin was first visited by French Missionaries in 166o,, in October of which year Alesnard reached Chle-goi-megon, on Lake Superior. In 1672, Aloues and Dabl(o visited Green Bay, and the country between the Fox river and the south end of Lake Mlichig(an. In the year following, on the 13th of May, Marquette, a Jesuit Missionary, and Joliet, an agent of the government of France, with five other Frenchmen, embarked from their Mission, near Mackinac, and arrived at Green Bay, where they found an Indian village and procured guides to accompany them up Fox river to the Portage with the Wisconsin. They descended this river to its mouth, where they arrived on the 17th of June, 1673, and made the first discovery of the Upper Mississippi river. The Territory remained under the government of the French, who claimed it, until 1763, wheln, at the treaty of Paris, it was ceded to Great Britain, who retained it until the In 6

Page  7 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. dependence of the United States was acknowledged by that county in 1783, when it was claimed by Virginia, as a part of the Illinois country conquered by Col. George Rogers Clark. It however remained in the possession of Great Britain until 1796, when it was surrendered in accordance with Jay's treaty, ratified the previous year. On the first day of March, 1784, it was ceded by Virginia to the United States. By the celebrated ordinance passed the 13th of July, 1787, a government was provided for the Territory northwest of the Ohio river, which territory was divided into two separate governments, the western called Indiana, by an act passed May 7th, 1800. An act dividing the Indiana Territory and organizing Illinois, was passed and approved February 3d, 1809. By the act of Congress to enable the people of Illinois to form a State government, approved April S18th, 1818, all that portion of said territory north of the parallel of latitude 42~ 30' west of the middle of Lake Michigan, was attached to the Territory of Michigan, which had been set off from Indiana in 1805. In 1835, Michigan having assumed a State government, John S. Horner, Secretary and Acting Governor, convened a session of the legislature, at Green Bay, from the remainder of said Territory. INo business was transacted, except the passage of several Memorials to Congress, among which was one asking for the organization of the Territory of Wisconsin, with the seat of government at Cassville, on the Mississippi. An act establishing the Territorial government of Wisconsin, was passed and alproved April 20th, 1836, and the Territory fully organized July 4th, 1836. On the 12th day of June 1838, an act was passed dividing the Territory of Wisco(nsin, and establishing that portion on the west side of the Mississippi (which had been attached to Michigan in 1834,) into a separate government, under the'name of Iowa. In 1836, Governor Dodge, by proclamation dated September 9th, convened the legislature at Belmont, now in Lafayette county, on the 25th day of October in that year. The second session was held at Burlington, now in the State of Iowa, Nov. 7 v

Page  8 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. 6th, 1837, at which session the seat of government was located at Madison, where the first session of the 2d Legislative Assembly of Wisconsin was held Nov. 26th, 1838. A Convention was held at Madison, October 5th, 1846, for the purpose of drafting a State Constitution, which was adopted in Convention, December 16th, 1846, but rejected by the people at the election held on the first Tuesday in April, 1847. A second Convention was held December 16th, 1847, and a Constitution agreed to February 1st, 1848, which was approved of by the electors at the election held April, 1848, and Wisconsin was admitted into the Union, on an equal footing with the other States, on the 29th day of May, 1848. At the dates given below, the gentlemen named were appointed by the President of the United States, to the offices designated: GOVERNORS. ..................April appointed... March ty,........... September madge.... June ..................April SECRETARIES. John S. Horner.. William B. Slaughter Francis J. Dunn.. A. P. Field.... George R. C. Floyd. John Catlin... ..........February J E... February SUPREME COIJRT. s..... b.... Chief Justice. ......... Associate. Dvd J......... Associate. ..... Associate, in place of Frazier, deceased. 8 Henry Dodge. Henry Dodge, reJames Duane Do Nathaniel P. Tall 13th) 1836. 9th) 1839. 30thy 1841. 21st, 1841-. 8th) 1845. Henry Dodge. 1836. 16th) 183T. 1841. 1841. 1845. 24th) 1846. Charles Du-nn.. Frazier.. David Irwin, Jr.. Andrew G.'Aliller.

Page  9 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. 9 Tile following is a list of the several State Officers, from the organization of tbe State: GOvERNORS. Nelson Dewey May 8th, 1848. Nelson Dewey, re-elected Nov~mber, 1849. ~eonard ~. Farwell November 4th, 1851. LiEUTENANThGOvERNORS. John E. llolmes May 8th, 1848. Samuel V. Beall November, 1849. Timothy Burns November 4th, 1851. SECRETARIES OF STATE. Thomas Mellugh May 8th, 1848. Villiam A. Barstow November, 1849. Charles D. Robinson November 4th, 1851. STATE TREASURERS. Jairns C. Fairchild May 8th, 1848. Jairus C. Fairchild, re-elected November, 1849. Edward II. Jaussen November 4, 1851. ATTORNEYS-GENERAL. James S. Brown May 8tb, 1848. S. Park Coon November, 1849. Experience Estabrook November 4th, 1851. STATE SUPERINTENDENTS. Eleazer Root May 8th, 1848. Eleazer Root November, 1849. Azel P. Ladd November 4th, 1851. BANK COMPTROLLER. James S. Baker, appointed by Governor, November 20th, 1852.

Page  10 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. JUDGES OF THE SUPREME COURT. Edward V. Whiton, Judge of Levi Hubbell, " Charles H. Larrabee, " Alexander W. Stow, " M. M. Jackson, " I Wiram Knowlton, Timothy 0. Howe, " Levi Hlubbell, " M. M. Cothren, " SEPARATE, OR IN EW SUPREME COURT. Edward V. Whiton, Chief Justice... Abram D. Smith, Judge....... Samuel Crawford, "..... FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SOIL, AND GEOLOGICAL FEATURES.-The natural features peculiar to Wisconsin, is the uniformity of its elevation, and shape of its surface, which is neither mountainous, hilly or flat, but gently undulating. The country west of Sugar river and south cf the Wisconsin, is somewhat broken, principally by the dividing ridge upon which the road from Madison to Prairie du Chien passes. In this section, known as the Mines, are several peculiar elevations called Mounds. West of the Wisconsin river, are a range of high hills, being the only elevations in the State, either deserving or assuming the dignity of mountainrs. The southeastern portion of the State is marked by ravines at the streams but little depressed below the surrounding level. Its prominent features are the Prairie, destitute of tree or shrub, covered only by a luxuriant growth of grass, interspersed with flowers of every hue; the Oak Opening; the Lake; the woodland, on the border of streams, and the natural meadow. Proceeding north, to the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, and Green Bay, the timber increases, and the soil gradually changes from the vegetable mould of the prairie to a sandy loam. The sur 1.0 1 st Circuit 2 d 71 3 d l 4th 5) 5th 6th )5 4th 2d 5) 5th 31 1848. 1848. 1848. 1848. 1848. 1850. 1850. 1851. 1852. 6 1852. 1852. 1852.

Page  11 WISCONSIN GrAZETTrEER. face also becomes somewhat depressed and uneven! diversified with timber, rolling prairie, large marshes and extensive swamps, having an abundant growth of cranberries and wil(l rice. Still north, and -we-t, the sulrface becomes more uneven, and the streams rapid, affordin(- g an abundance of water power fo)r the manufacture of lumber fiom the immense forests of evergreen, scarcely surpassed on the western continent. The soil of the prairie consists of a dark brown vegetable mould, from one to two feet in depth, very mellow, and entirely destitute of stone or gravel, and for fertility and agricultural properties, cannot be surpassed. Thie sub-soil is a clayish loam, similar to the soil of the timbered lands, and is also suitable for cultivation. The soil of the timbered land is less rich than the prairie, not so deep, and contains less carbonate of lime, which enters into the composition of the latter in the proportion of from 20 to 40 per cent. The mining region, unlike that of any other mineral district, promises a liberal reward, as well to the farmer as to the miner. The soil of the evergreen district is mostly sandy, and not so rich as in other portions of the State. It is nevertheless, well adapted to agriculture and grazing. The prairies of Wisconsin are not so extensive as those of other states, and are so skirted and belted by timber, that they are well adapted to immediate and profitable occupation. The openings, which comprise a large portion of the finest land of the State, owe their present condition to the actionii of the an nual fires which have kept under all other f)rest growth, except those varieties of oak which can withstand the sweep of that element. This annual burning of an exuberant growth of grasses and of under-bruLLsh, has been adding, perhaps for ages, to the productive power of the soil, and preparing it for the plough-sltare. It is the great fact, nature has thus "cleared up" Wisconsin to the hand of the settler, and enriched it by yearlvy burnings, and has at the same time left sufficient timber on the ground f'or fence and firewood, that explains, in a great measure, the capacity it has 11

Page  12 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. exhibited, and is now exhibiting for rapid settlement and early muaturity. There is another fact important to be noticed in this connection. The low level prairie, or natural meadow, of moderate extent, is so generally distributed over the face of the country, that the settler on a fine section of arable land, finds on his own farm, or in his immediate neighborhood, abundant pasturage for his stock in summer, on the open range; and hay for the winter, for the cuLtting-the bounty of Nature supplying his need in this behalf, till the cultivated grasses may be introduced and become sufficient for his use. The limuestone, underlying the coal fields of Illinois, forms the immediate basis of the alluvion of Southern Wisconsin. This geological district, in addition to that portion of the State which lies southerly of the valley of the Wisconsin river, comprises the whole of the slope towards Lake Michigan. In many portions of this district, the lime rock disappears, and the out-cropping sand stone furnishes a fine material for building. The lead bearing rock of the mineral region, is a porous lime stone, prevailing throughout Grant, Lafayette and Iowa Counties, comprising four-fifths of the " Lead District" of the upper Mississippi; the remaining one-fifth being in the States of Illinois and Iowa. Deposites of iron ore, water lime stone, and beds of gypsum, together with other varieties of minerals, are found in localities more or less numerous, throughout the lime stone region. All of that section of the State, which lies between Lake Superior on tile North, and the falls of St. Anthony on the Mississippi, and the falls of the other rivers flowing southerly, is primitive in its prevailing geological character; and it is within this primitive region, that the copper mines of Lake Superior are found-probably the richest in the world, and apparently inexhaustible. In all that portion of the State, lying between the primitive region just described, and the lime stone formation of the South 12

Page  13 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. and East, the transition sand stone prevails; interspersed with lime stone, and more sparsely, with rock of a primitive character. This formation comprises that section of the country drained by the Wisconsin and other rivers tributary to the ipper Mississippi, and below the falls of those streams. Within this Geological District, are found quarries of white marble, which promise to be abundant and valuable. ANTIQUITIES.-The mounds and antiquities of this State are similar to those in other Western States. I. A. LAPH-AM, Esq., who has made this subject his study for several years, in speaking of them in his work oin the Geography and Topography of Wisconsin, savs "Wisconsin does not fall behind the other portions of the western country in the monuments it affords of the existence of an ancient people who once inhabited North America, but of whom nothing is known except what can be gathered from some of the results of their labors. The works at Aztalan, in Jefferson County, are most known and visited, but there are many other localities which are said to equal them in interest and importance. The substance called brick at this place, is evidently burned clay, showing marks of having been mixed with straw, but they were not moulded into regular forms. There is a class of ancient earth-works in Wisconsin, not before found in any other country, being made to represent quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, and even the human forml. These representations are rather rude, and it is often difficult to decide for what species of animal they are intended; but the effects of time may have modified their appearance very much since they were originally formed. Some have a resemblance to the buffalo, the eagle, or crane, or to the turtle or lizard. One representing the human form, near the Blue oIounds, is, according to R. C. TAYLOR, Esq., one hundred and twenty feet in length: it lies in an east and west direction, the head towards the west, with the arms and legs extended. The body or trunk is thirty feet in breadth, the head tweity-five, and its elevation is 6

Page  14 WISCONSIN (G AZETTEEIt. above the general surface of the prairie is about six feet. Its conformation is so distinct that there cal be no possibility of mistake in assigning it to tie human figure.* A mound at Prairieville, representing a turtle. is about five feet high,; the body is fifty-six feet in length; it represents tlhe animal with its legs extended, and its feet turned backwards. It is to be regretted that this interesting mound is now nearly destroyed. The ancient works are found in all parts of the Territory, but are most abundant at Aztalan, on Rock river, near the Blue Mounds, along the Wisconsin, the Neenah and the Pishtaka rivers, and near Lake Winnebago. "The mounds are generally scattered about without any apparent order or arrangement, bult are occasionally arranged in irregular rows, the animals appearing as if drawn up in a line of march. An instance of this kind is seen near the road seven miles east from the Blue Miounds, in Iowa County. At one place near the Four Lakes, it is said that one hundred tumiuli, of various shapes and dimensions, may be counted-those representing animals being among others that are round or oblong. "Fragments of ancient pottei,y of a very rude kind are often found in various localities. They were formed by hand, or mouldedl, as their appearance shows evidently that these vessels were not turned on a'potte,"'s vwheel.' Parts of the rim of vessels usually ornamented with small notches or figures, are most abundant. "A m)uld is said to have been discovered near Cassville, on the M~Iississip)pi, which is supposed to represent an animal having a trunk like the elephant, or the now extinct Miastodon. Should this prove true, it will show that the people who made these animal earthworks, were contemporaries with that huge monster whose bones are still oceasionally found; or that they had then ' The reader is referred to the "Notice of Indian Mounds, &c., in Wisconsin," in Silliman's Journal, vol. 34, p. 88, by R. C. Taylor; and to the "Description of Ancient Remains in Wisconsin," by S. Taylor, vol. 44, p. 21, of the same work, for more detailed descriptions and drawings of these interesting animal mounds. 14

Page  15 WISCONSIN GAZERTTEER. but recently emigrated from Asia, and had not lost their knowledge of the elephant." CLIMATE AND HEALTI.-The climate of Wisconsin is similar to that of the interior and western counties of Ne-wYork. The winters for the past four years have for the most been mild, and without much snow. The mean temperature of nine different localities in the State, in 1851, was 450 54'. Mr. Lapham, in the work above referred to, says: "The salubrity of the climate, the purity of the atmosphere, and of the water, which is usually obtained from copious living springs; the coolness and short duration of summer, and the dryness of the air during, winter, all conspire to render Wisconsin one of the most healthy portions of the UJnited States. The wet meadows, marshes and swamps, are constantly supplied with pure water from springs; and as —they are not exposed during summer to a burning heat, they do not send forth those noxious and deleterious qualities so much dreaded in more southern and less favored latitudes. Many of our most flourishing towns and settlements are in the imme,liate veciliity of large swamps, and partially overflown meadows, yet no injurious effects upon the general health are produced by them. It has usually been found, in making new settlements in the western wilderness, that as the fortests are cleared away and the surface thereby exposed to the dit'ect influence of the sun and winds, a deleterious effect is prodLce(d on the general health-the decayirlng vegetable matter being thus sudlenly made to send forth its malari6us qualities. But in Wisc)nsin no such result is apprehended, or cal be produced, for a large proportion of the country consists of oak opening and prairie, and may therefore be considered as already cleared. The removal of the few remaining "burr oaks" cannot have the same effect upon the soil as the cutting down of the dense forests of the other States. And besides this, the fires that have annually raged over the surface, often kindled purposely by the Indians, on their hunting 15

Page  16 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. excursions, have prevented that rapid accumulation of vegetable matter which is always found in deep shady woods where the fires do not so often penetrate. It is believed that the facts here stated will be sufficient to satisfy the reader of the truth of the opinion expressed by our most intelligent physicians, that Wisconsin is, and will continue to be, one of the most healthy places in the world." PRoDUcTIoNS.-The productions of Wisconsin may be divided into four classes, the Forest, Animal, Vegetable and Mineral. The comparative amount belonging to each will be shown by the statement given below, which is mainly compiled from the United States census of 1850: FOREST Bales furs and peltry-.....-.......-............... Feet sawed lumber, pine..................... —-------------------------------- Thousand shingles..................... —. —------------------ Cubic feet timber..................... Number staves....................... Cords tan bark-............................................. Tons ashes, pot and pearl.... —---------------------------------- Pounds maple sugar.................... Gallons molasses —----------------—............ Pounds wax and honey.................. Bushels cranberries.... —--------------------------------------- ANIIMAL Value of live stock, June, 1850................... Number of horses.............................. " milch cows and cattle. —-------------------------- " sheep..................... " swine ------------------------------------------ Pounds of cheese...................... " butter....................... wool... —------------------------------------------ " fishmlsluhee....................................... Dozen of eggs.............................................. Value of animals slaughtered................................. 16 800 150,000,000 30,000 20,000,000 10,000,000 2,000 25 610,976 9,874 131,000 2,000 $4,879,385 30,335 183,434 124,892 159,276 400,283 3,633,750 253,963 10,000 100,000 $920,178

Page  17 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. VEGETABLE Bushels wheat............................ rye.......... " corn......................... barley............ —---------------- 090 " oats ----------------------------------------------- " peas and beans..................... " potatoes, Irish —----------------------------------—, " " sweet................ —---------------------------------—.. Pounds flax. —----------------------------------------- Bushels flaxseed.....-.................... Pounds hops.......................... " tobacco.............................................. Bushels buckwheat.......................................... " grass seed —---------------------------------------— 3 Tonshay —-----------------------------------------------— 7 Value of orchard products...-................... " garden products, market.. —--------------------------- MINERAL Pounds lead................................................ 40,000,000 P1 opper la —-----------------------------------------— 4,0,0 " copper -------------------—. Tons of iron................................................5,000 The amount of lead shipped from Galena, during the last year was 40,000,000 pounds, nine-tenths of which was raised in Wisconsin. Considerable more than the remaining one-tenth of the amount above stated has been shipped from ports in this State, from which it will be seen that this estimate is small. To the practical miner, as capitalist or operative, the lead region of the Upper Mississippi offers the most substantial inducements to settlement. The exceeding abundance and richness of the mineral; the comparative ease with which it may be mined; and the high price it commands the moment it is broughlt to the surface, open to the industrious and prudent operator a highway to wealth. New leads of the richest promise, have been recently discovered in the mineral district, and an increasing emigration to that section of the State, promises to replace the California draft, and to meet thie growing demand for the mineral. 17 4,286,1I31 81,253 1,988,979 209,602 3,414,672 20,657 1,402,077 879 100,000 6,000 15,930 4,000 79,876 3,000 275,662 $8,000 $32,142 i

Page  18 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. The steady advance in the price of lead, which has prevailed for five years past, is indicative of a gradual but decided extension of its uses ill the arts. There is no ground for apprehension that the supply will outrun the demand, or be able to work a reduction of the wages of labor and profits of capital in this industrial occupation, for some years to come. The copper mines of Lake Superior are of established celebrity throughout the world, and open an inviting field for enterprise. The mining interest in that region is fast losing its character of adventure, and is attracting the attention of the prudent capitalist and the practical miner, as a remunerative branch of business. The iron mines of Wisconsin have not.yet been opened to any extent, but are worthy!he attention of the immigrant. There are rich localities of ore near thie head waters of the Rock, and on the Upper Mississippi and its branches. The following statement exhtibitl-s the shipment of lead fromn Galena from the year 18SIl to 1852 inclusive, and the value of the same at four dollars per hundred weight: Years. iVumber of Pounds. Value. 1841.......................29,7,19,909........................ $1,189,996 1842......................29,424,329......................... 1.176,973 1843 --------------------- 36,78797- -......... 1,475,151 1844......................41,036,293.........................1,641,451 1845......................51,i4,822 ------------------------— 2,045,792 1846 -----------------—.48,007-,938 —--.....1,920,317 1847 --------------------— 50,999,303....... 2,039,972 1848......................49,783,737......................... 1,991,349 1849...............45,985,839... ------------------------—.. 1,839,433 1850 --------------------— 41,485,900... —------------------------ 1,659,436 1851 ——. —--------------— 34,500,384 ------------------------— 1,380,015 1852......................40,000,000......................... 1,600,000 Total valuation of export .Port Washington, Sheboyg Total valuation of lead es a n, Manitowoc and Green Bay, for 1851 ------ 2,079,060 T ll ofa ported in 1851..........................1,380,015 Total exports-.- --........ —...-. ---- $3,459,075 i8

Page  19 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. There are also large quantities of lead shipped at different points along the Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers, the precise amount of which no data has been furnished upon which an intelligent estimate can be made. In reviewing the foregoing statement, it should be recollected that Wisconsinl is rapidly increasing, not only in population and wealth, but in the amount and quality of its resources, manufactures and products. MANUF._CTUtEVS. —- I'ihe richness of the soil of Wisconsin, and its ability to produce in abundance all kinds of grain, as well as the facility by whvlich the lands are brought under subjection, cr'eate a permanent demand for all kinds of agricllturial implemnents and mechanical labor. Architectural elegance in public and private buildings, and elaborate perfection inl complicated machinery, is not to be expected ill new settlements; but many of them in Wisconsin compare favorably with those of the older States. The rapid gr,wthl of towvns, anti the great intflux of fartmers with their families, create a necessity for temporary buildings, soon to be superseded by comfortable dwellings and outhouses; and give constant employ for the mason, the carpenter, and all other mechanics. The immense flouring mills of the State already in operation, as well as those in progress of erection, provide labor for the millwvright and machinist, and ful'llish not only their respective vicinities with all kinds of mill stuff, but more than 100,000 barrels of flour annually for exportation. To the lumberman, the pineries of Wisconsin present inducements for investment and settlement, which can be hardly overrated. That of the Upper Wisconsin and its tributaries is the most extensive; and distinguished still, lore for the fine quality, than the inexhaustible quantities of its timber. The other localities of the white pine and other evergreens, are mainly on the Wolf, the great northern affluent of the Fox, the tributaries of Green Bay, and onl the La Crosse, the Black, Chippewa, and the St. Croix, branches of the UJpper Mississippi. 19

Page  20 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. The rapids of these streams furnish abundant water power for the manufacture of lumber, and on the annual spring rise, and occasional freshets at other seasons of the year, the yield of the mills is floated from the Wolf into Lake Winnebago and the lower Fox; and from most of the other streams into the Mississippi. Scarcely ten years have elapsed since the Alleghany pine of Western New York and Pennsylvania, had undisputed possession of the market, not only of the Ohio Valley, but of the Mississippi and its tributaries, above New Orleans, at which point it competed with the lumber of Maine and Newv Brunswick. The course of the lumber trade may now be considered as permanently chlanged. The pineries of Wisconsiii now control, and will hold exclusive possession of the market of the valleys of the Mississippi and its great western afiluents. The amount of pine lumber estimated to be sawed in Wisconsin annually, is as follows: Black River ------------— 15,000,000 St. Croix................20,000,000 Chippewa --------------— 28,500,000 Wisconsin...... —----------—. 58,500,000 Green Bay.-. —..... ----. —— 21,000,000 Wolf.. -25,500,000 Manitowoc-..- ------—.24,500,000 Total number of feet................183,000,000 Aside from the manufacture of pine lumber, reaching as it does nearly 400,000,000 feet par year, saw mills driven by both steam and hydraulic power, are nlOwT ill operation in every section of the State where timber is fomtred, and large quantities of oak scantling and plank, and basswood siding and lath, are yearly manufactured. Considerable attention has of late been paid to the raising and culture of flax, and this has caused the necessity of oil mills, and machinery for breaking and manufacturing the straw into dressed flax. Scattered over the State in different localities, are manufactures of various kinds, which are rapidly increasing both in number and respectability. Woollen, flax and cotton mills will soon become fixed facts in Wisconsin. The raw material for the two 20

Page  21 WISCONSI GAZETrEER. former will be among the more profitable home productions of her agriculture, while the supply of cotton will, through the channel of the AIississippi, be more direct, safe, and easy, than by sea to towns on the Atla'ltic border. Severeal paper mills are now in operation, and more thian 300,000 pounds of paper was made in the State during thie year 1852. For all of these operations there are abundant water powers in suitable localities. The great number of railroads, in progress of construction in Wisconsin, have directed the attention of capitalists to the building of locomotives and other railroad fixtures. During the past year more than 100,000 pounds of shot have been made in this State. For the year ending June 1850, over 130,000 bushels of grain was manufactured into spirituous and malt liquors; of the former there was made 127,000 gallons, and of the latter 31,300 bbls. During the same period, 14,900 skins and 59,600 sides of leather were tanned The value of agricultural implements was estimated at $1,611,568; fuprteen hundred tons of iron cast and 1000 tons of pig iron made; 134,200 pounds of wool was manufactured into cloth. TRADEr.-Bordered on three sides by navigable waters, every portion of the State has easy access to the ocean, and a complete command of the eastern and southern markets, which command will be greatly increased by the completion of the several railroads in progress of construction in this State. The small sums for which these can be built, owing to the uniformity of the surface and easy grade, which will also permit their construction to any desired point, together with the rapidity of transit upon them and their superiority in every respect over water conveyance for passengers and light freight, must bring them in successful competition with the lake and river business, and ultimately supersede it. Trade, then, instead of following arbitrary lines will run where business requires. The location of important depots of trade and market towns will also confoim to the same necessity, and will consequently be built at the great central points of prodnction. 21 I I 3

Page  22 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. EDUcATION.-The bounty of congress has set apart the 16th section of every township in the State for the support and maintenance of common schools. From this source, nearly 1,000,000 acres will accrue to the State, the proceeds of the sales of which are to constitute a permanent fund, the income of which is to be annually devoted to the great purpose of the grant. This magnificent foundation has been widely enlarged by constitutional provisions, giving the same direction to the donation of five hundred thousand acres, under the act of 184S1, and the five per cent. reserved on all sales of Government lands within the State. The donations for educational purposes to the State have now reached 1,004,725 acres. A still larger addition will accrue from the grant of the swamp and overflowed lands, which the settlement of the country, the lapse of time, and easy processes of reclamation, will convert into the best meadow land in the world, and a large portion, ultimately, into arable. It is estimated that this grant will amount to 5,000,000 acres, of which the selection of 1,259,269 acres has already been approved. For the support of a State University, seventy-two sections of choice land, comprising 46,S080 acres, have been already granted, and it is not improbable that this provision may be also enlarged by subsequent grants. If these trusts are administered with ordinary wisdom, the educational funds of Wisconsin, cannot be less, ultimately, than $3,000,000, and may reach $5,000,000. - The University is already chartered and in successful operation. The school system has been wisely designed, and the progress of organization, under the law, keeps pace with the progress of settlement. There are already not far from 3,000 school districts in the State. The system contemplates, by the introduction of union schools, to extend academic instruction to each town in the State. In addition to this munificent public provision for common and liberal education, there are, in different parts of the State, educational incorporations, both academic and collegiate, founded on private subscriptions. The most promising of these are the 22

Page  23 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. College at Beloit, well endowed, and in successful operation: and similar Institutions at Milwaukee, Racine and Waukesha in Eastern Wisconsin, and at Appleton, in the North. Indeed, in none of the new States, even in the Northwest, will the means of education be more ample; and in none is there a more rational appreciation of the importance of this paramount public interest. In Wisconsin, as in the other States of the Union, there is, and ever will be, an entire freedom of ecclesiastical organization, and an equal protection of every religions institution and arrangement, conservative of good morals, and protective of the highest and most enduring interests of man. In consideration of all these elements of prosperity, economical and social, such as have never, till now, gathered around the opening career of a new political community, there is little ground for wonder that the early growth of Wisconsin has been without a parallel in the history of States; and it may be very safely assumed, that the advent of men and capital to that favored portion of the Northwest, will continue, in increasing volume, for many years to come. University lands.-The following statement shows the counties in which the lands granted by Congress to the University of the State of Wisconsin, comprising two townships, or seventytwo sections, are located: Coutnties where located. Acres. In Jefferson county, —-. —.-.... 2,720 In Dodge " -------—. 2,960 In Fond du Lac"..... 2,400 I3n Winnebago " --... —- 3,239 In Calumet "....-....- 1,920 In Manlitowoe "...-... 1,700 In Richland "............ 2,560 In Washington........... 640 In other couuties,........... 13,880 46,080 Counties where located. Acres. In Waushara county... —---------- 640 In Walworth "......... 1,280 In Racine "... —---------- 640 In Rock "....... 2,560 In Columbia ". ------------ 2,240 In Dane ". ------------ 4,320 In Green "............ 4.160 In Lafayette "........... 5,920 In Iowa "........... 2,320 23

Page  24 WISCONSIN GAZEEER. These lands are being offered for sale at their appraised value, at the office of the State Treasurer, in Madison; ten per cent. being required in advance, and the interest at seven per cent. in advance, annually, on the balance, upon which ten years time is given. School Iands.-The following table exhibits so much of the sixteenth sectionis as have been appraised, and are now for sale on the same terms and at the same place as tUniversity Lands: Counties where loceated. In Marquette county —--------—. ere located. Acres. .. —.... -... 24,320 . ------------— 26,640 In.." —------------ 3,.200 In.. Cue " -- - - 6,400 n... a.... -. 45,440 nCoui....-. 14,080 .In. Caf. -.. 8,960 In..Dane.. —-----. 21,760 .. —-------- 22,400 -------------- 13,440 In. G - - - - — 19,840 In.. Iw "- - -- 16,000 -------------- 10,240 ...... ------- 4,480 In_.... L9,600 In..La.. —----------— 73,600 I. —------------ 10,880 . Total ...l...................... 539,060 The grant of section 16, in each town, consin, for Common School purposes, estim miles, the one thirty-sixth part of which i 640 acres each, amounts, in acres, to...... Deduct amount already offered for sale. 4.aesahamn.ince.t................ 984,900 c... a.r. o.fr... K.......... 539,060 -----------------------— v.. 445,900 Nearly all of which is yet among the unsurveyed lands of the State. State Lands.-The following lands have been selected as a part of the 500,000 acres granted by Congress to the State of Wisconsin, and located in the following counties, to wit: 24 Counties wh In Adams county In Bad Ax In Brow-a In Calumet In Chippewa In Columbia In Crawford In Dane In Dodge In Fond dulac In Grant InIowa In Green In Kenosha In Lafayette In La Crosse In lanitowoe Acre,s. 9,960 In Marathon " ......- -.- - - 25,600 In Milwauliee In Outallimie In Port,-Age In Ra, ine ID Richland In Rock In Sauk In Sheboygan In Walwoi-th In W,-,shiiigton In Waukesha In Waushara In Waupacca In'Winnebago 11 11 11 11 I I 11 11 11 I I 11 ------------ 5,120 13,800 28,800 7,040 10,240 12,800 ------------ 17,280 9,600 10,249 ------------ 12,140 10 240 11.520 ------------ 13,440 9,960 Leaving. - -.. - - -.

Page  25 WISCONSIN' AZ?TEER. 5 ies where located. Acres. Counties wtere located. Acre. ounty...- --- 41,806S86 In La Crosse county -...- - 45,314,23 ...row "...10 773,35 In Lafayette "...... 15,475,02 ------------ 2O,1 In Mlanitowoc " - 2,321,92 -.- -----—.22,07 —,0-3 In Ootai awis "..... 6,267,83 In Crawfod -1 7,2 0 in1 RPichland " —------— l 17,538,76 n".De...........16,760,96o In Saul ".. —-------- 12,396,18 Lac"...... 320,00 In St. Croix ".]..-105,657,03 6. —---------- 6021,68 Roe!, River Canal grant, (Wau n"...........-. 7,075,87 kesha and Jefferson counties) 13,694,18 Total.............................. 375,994,99 and are offered by the State fotr sale, at the same place as school and University Lands, on a c'edit of tlir~ty years, at prices varying from $1 25 to $) 0O per acre, with interest at seven per cent per annun, to be p-aid annually in advance. Bv the reports of the State oficers, it appears that the capital of the school fund, December 31, 1852, was S8819,200 50; of which amount $681,931 71 was due from sales of school lands, $132,491 641 fiom loans made, andt $4,776 15 then in the treasury subject to loan. Thle interest upon this sLm, at seven per cent., amounts to 857,27: 03, of which $5~6,12S 31 was paid in and apportioned to tihe several to-wns in this State, in March 1853. The whole amount of money.- raisedcl from all sources was $127,718 42. The Superintendent repor.ts that for thle year ending Aiugust 81st, 18S52, 2,765 school districts and part,s had made reports. In the districts reported, the average duration of schools was five and a half months; average monothly vaees of mnale teachers $16 34; of female teachers $8 52. There are 66 school houses of brick, 74 of stone, 778 of logs, and S 12 fi'amedl, all valued at $261,986 32. The highest valuation of any school 1-house is $5,500, and the lowest $1 50. GovrNNIXMNT. —The government of Wisconsin does not differ essentially from that of the other States of the Union-in mainy 25 Ceminti In Bad Ax c Ir) Brown In Cilumet In ColuLmbia In Crawford In Dane In Fond du I In Grant In Iowa

Page  26 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. respects it is more liberal. The qualification for electors is, one year's residence in the State; and this applies as well to persons of foreign as native birth, subject only to the limitation that they shall have declared their intentions to become citizens, comformably to the laws of the United States, on the subject of naturalization. No distinction can be made, under the organic law, between aliens and citizens in reference to the possession, enjoyment, or descent of property. Imprisonment for debt is prohibited by the Constitution. The legislative power is vested in the Senate and Assembly. The Senate consists of twenty-five members, who hold their offices for two years, and are chosen from single districts. Those from the odd numbered districts being chosen one year, and those from the even numbered the next. The Assembly consists of eighty-two members, who are chosen annually, and hold their office for one year. The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is elected by a plurality of votes, and holds his office for the term of two years. A Lieutenant Governor is chosen at the same time, and in the same manner. The usual executive powers are conferred upon the Governor; whose salary is $1,250. The Lieutenant Governor is President of the Senate, and receives five dollars a day, while ill attendance, and the same mileage as members. In certain contingences he succeeds to the duties of the office of Governor. The administrative powers are conferred upon the Secretary of State, salary $1,200; State Treasurer, salary $800; Attorney General, salary $S00; and State Superintendent, salary $1,000. They severally hold their offices for two years, and are elected at the same ti;me as the Governor. Several offices for the performance of special duties have been established by law since the adoption of the Constitution. The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, County Courts, and Justices of the Peace. The Supreme Court, with few exceptions, has appellate juris 26

Page  27 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. diction. It consists of one Chief Justice, and two Associates, who are elected by the people, and will hereafter be chosen for six years. [The Judges of the several Circuit Courts have heretofore comprised the Supreme Court.] A majority of the Judges appoint a Clerk, who continues during their pleasure. This Court has two termns a year at the Capitol, in Madison. The salary of each of the Judges is $2,000. Circuit Courts have original jurisdiction in all matters civil and criminal, except such as is otherwise provided, and an appellate jurisdiction from all inferior Courts and tribunals. The Judges are elected by districts, holding their office for six years, and having a salary of $1,500. Two terms of this Court are holden annually in each county organized for judicial purposes in the State. The voters of any county so organized, elect a County Judge, who holds his office for four years, and has certain civil, original and appellate jurisdiction. IHe is also Judge of the Probate Court of the county. Four Justices of the Peace are elected in each town, two annually, and hold their offices for the term of two years; they possess the powers usually conferred upon such officers. CIVIL DivIsIoxs.-The State of Wisconsin is divided into fortyfour counties, with about four hundred towns; three Congressional Districts, and six Judicial Circuits. Counties-Adams, Bad Ax, Brown, Calumet, Chippewa, Columbia, Crawford, Dane, Dodge, Door, Fond du Lac, Grant, Green, Iowa, Jackson, Jefferson, Xewaunee, Kenosha, La Crosse, Lafayette, La Pointe, Manitowoc, Marathon, M/[arquette, Milwaukee, Oconto, Outagamie, Ozaukee, Pierce, Polk, Portage, Racine, Richland, Rock, St. Croix, Sauk, Shawana, Sheboygan, Wal. worth, Washingtonl, Waukesha, WVaupacca, WVanshara and Winnebago. Congressio2al.Districts,.-lst, DANIEL WELLS, jr., member; composed of the Counties of Kenosha, Milwaukee, Racine, Walworth and Waukesha. 27

Page  28 W TSCONSIN GA7,ETTElrR. 2d. BEN C. EASTrMAN, member; composed of the counties of Adams, Bad Ax, Chippewa, Crawford, Dane, Grant, Green, Iowa, Jackson, La Crosse, Lafayette, La Pointe, Marathon, Pierce, Polk, Portage, Riclhland, Rock, St. Croix and Sauk. 3d. JoHIx B. MIACY, member; composed of the counties of Brown, Calumnet, Coltmbia, Dodge, Dooi, Fond du Lac, Jefferson, Kewaunee, BIanitowoc, Marquette, Oconto, Ozaukee, Outagamie, Shawana, Sheboygan, Washington, Wanpacca, Waushara and Winnebago. Judicilg Circuits.-lst. Green, Kenosha, Racine, RPock and Walworth counties. 2d. Dane, Jefferson, Milwaukee and Waukesha counties. 3d. Adams, Columbia, Dodge, Marathon, Mlarqulette, Ozaukee, Portage, Saukl, Waushara and Washington counties. 4th. Brown, Calimet, Door,*, Fond du Lac, Kewaunee,* Manitowoc, Oconto,- Outagamie, Shawana,* Sheboygan, Waupacca and Winnebago. 5th. Grant, Iowa, Lafayette and Richlland counties. 6th. Bad Ax, Chippewra,, Craw-ford, Jackson,* La Crosse, La Pointe, Pierce,r Polik,- and St, Croix counties. IMPROVEMENTS.-Of the many railroads projected and ch artered in this state, several are already under contract and rapidly p)rogressing to completion. Plank roads have been constructed and are now in progress, connecting most of the leading towns of the interior with each other, and with the towns on the lake shore. A large grant of land has been made by Congress to aid in the improvement of the navigation of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers, and to connect the same by a canal. This work is under the immediate supervision of a board of Public Works, comprised of three Commissioners, and a Register and Treasurer, who are elected yearly by the legislature. The Governor has the general control and supervision of the work. A large portion of -Neot organized for jnidici,l purposes. 28

Page  29 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. the Improvement is let out by contract, while some parts are carried on by the Commnissioners. This work, when completed, will open steamb)oat navigation nearly through the centre of the State from the GLlf of Mexico to St. Lawrence. The construction of thle canal and the improvement of the Lower Fox, has been under contract for several years, but owing to various causes is as yet unfinished. PUBLIC LANDs. —By a pre-emption law passed September, 1841, any person being the head of a family, widow, or single man over the age of twenty-one years, a citizen of the United States, or who has filed declarations to become so under the naturalization laws, who makes a settlement on any public lands in person, is entitled to enter, at the minimum price of $1 25 per acre, a quarter section, of 160 acres-, or a less legal subdivision, at the district land office. Lands not entered by pre-emption are offered for sale, previous to which no person not having a pre-emption claim can purchase. There has been granted to Wisconsin, by the General Government, for various purposes, the following amounts of public lands: Improvements.....................................858,400 acres. Individuals and Companies.............. 5, 05 Public Buildings --- ------------------------------- 6,400 Salines ---------------------------------------—. 46,400 " Educational purposes —----------------------------- 1,004,72g Swamp Lands. —----------------------------------- 1,259,269 " There is still undisposed of........... 24,506,295 " Public lands are laid out by the rectangular system of surveys adopted for the first time in 1785, by the United States, and are so simple that the position of any surveyed section or township is known at once, by observing the letters and figures applied to each. Each township of six miles has a number different from every other; and to follow the directions here given, it is only necessary to take the erdi as a straight line, extending due north and south, when reckoning east or west; and the base 29

Page  30 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. extending duLe east and west when reckoning north or south. Commiencing at the base line, (which, in Wisconsin, is the south line of the State,) every six miles numbering to the north is called a town, and is numbered town one, town two, town three, &c. Commencing at the meridian, (whilch is the line separating Grant from Iowa and Lafayette counties,) every six miles is called a range, and is numbered range one east, range two east, or range one west, &c., as the case may be. It will be seen that this system divides the whole surface of the country into squares of six miles square, or thirty six square miles eachl. These squares are townshiAps, and the figures are applied as follows: Madison is in town 7 N., range 9 E.; Fond du Lac, in town 15 N., range 17 E.; Lancaster, in town 4 N., range 3 W.; Hudson, in town 29 N., range 19 W., &c. Townships are divided into thirty-six squares of one mile each, called sections, and numbered as follows: 5 4 3 8 9 10 School 17 16 15 Section 20 21 22 29 28 33 34 35 36 I 30 6 2 I 7 11 12 is 14 13 19 23 2,1 30 2-7 26 25 32 31

Page  31 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Each section contains 640 ares of land, and is divided into four equal parts, called quarters, by a line through the centre each way, each quarter consequently containing 160 acres, thus: N. W. qr. S. W. qr. S. E. qr. i Il Each quarter is again subdivided into four equal parts, after the manner of the division of sections, each subdivision containing 40 acres: N. W. qr. of N. E. qr. of N. W. qr. of N. E. qr. of N. W. qr. N. W. qr. N. E. qr. N. E. qr. S.W. qr.of S.E. qr. of S.W. qr. of S.E. qr. of N. W. qr. N. W. qr. N.E. qr. N. E. qr. N. W. qr. of N. E. qr. of N.W. qr. of N.E. qr. of S. W. qr. S. W. qr. S. E. qr. S. E. qr. S.W. qr. of S.E. qr. of S.W. qr.of S.E. qr. of S. W. qr. S.W. qr. S. E. qr. S. E. qr. I 31 N. E. qr.

Page  32 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. The subdivisions are designated as quarters of quarters, thus the northeast 40 acre subdivision is known as the N. E. qr. of the N. E. qr. Madison is situated at the corners of sections 13, 14, 23 and 24; it is therefore on the S. W'. qr. of sec 13, S. E. qr. of sec. 14, N. E. qr. of sec. 23, and N. WV. qr. of sec. 24. MISCELLANEOUS.-The District Court of the United States for the district of Wisconsin, ANDREW G. AMILLER, Judge, holds one term at Madison, and one at ],!ilwaukee, annually. HENXRY DODGE, of Dodgeville, Iowa county, and ISAAC P. WALKER, of Milwaukee, are United States Senators in Congress, from Wisconsin. The followitng are the officers of the Wisconsin Militia: LEONARD J. FAARWELL, Commiander-in-Chief, Madison. BENJ. F. IHOPKINS, Madison, C. C. WASIIBuRNE, Minleral Point, COLES BASHFORDi Oshlikosh, CRIAPLES CLEMIENT, enosha, Governor's Aids. WILLIA3M L. UTLEY, Racine, ACjutant General, salary $300; DAVID ATWOOD, Ti,aadison, Quarter-Mlaster General; JAMEs B. MiARTIN, Milwaukl,kee, PaJ-:aster General; JAMEs RICRARDSON, Madison, Commissary General; JoaN W. TIUNT, M. D., Madison, Surgeon General; N. BISHoP EDDY, Madison, Judge Advocate General; WILLIAMi DUDLEY, Mlladison, Military Secretary. ANDREW PROUDEIT, BENJAMIIN ALLEN and LucAs M. MILLER, are Commissioners; R. P. EIGIIME, Register, and JTAMES MURDOCK, Treasurer of the Board of Piublic W7orks. -I. S. ORTON, is Private Secretary of the Governor, also Reporter of the Supreme Court. WILLIAMi DUDLEY, State Librarian. The following are the names of members of the Legislature: Senators by Districte. -lst. HI. N. Smithl; 2d. James. S. Albaln; 3d. A. M1. Blair; 4th. B. S. WVeil; 5th. E. M. hunter; 6th. D. C. Reed; 7th. J. W. Cary; 8th. J. PA. Sharpstein; 9th. Geo. R. McLane; 10th. IM. IH. Bovee; 11th. T. T. Whittlesey; 12th. E. Wakeley; 13th. Charles DtuXt; lith. Alva Stewart; 15th. Levi 32

Page  33 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Sterling; 16th. Joel C. Squires; 17th. Ezra Miller; 18th. J. R. Briggs, Jr.; 19th. Benjamin Allen; 20th. Bertine Pinckney; 21st. Coles Bashford; 22d. Juds )n Prentice; 23d. David S. V-ttum; 24th. Thos. S. Bowen; 25th. James T. Lewis. Timothy Bulils, President. Jouhn lK. Williams, Chief Clerk. Xembers of Assemb7y by Counties.-Adams and Sauk-Charles Armstrong. Brown, Kewaunee and Door-Randall Wilcox. Bad Ax and Crawford —H. A. Wright. Calumet-J. Robinson. Chippewa and La Crosse-A. D. La Due. Columbia-O. D. Coleman and J. Q. Adams. Dane —LIatthew Roche, HI. Baines, IH. L. Foster, P. C. Burdick and S. W. Field. Dodge-Whitrnman Sayles, W. M. Dennis, P. Kelly, John W. Davis, Edwin Hiillyer and E. N. Foster. Fond du Lac-J. S. Tallmadge, Charles D. Gage, Querin Loehr and N. MI. Donaldson. Grant-J. E. Dodge, J. A. Barber, IH. E. Block, II. D. York and T. Hayes. Greeln-Thomas Fenton. Iowva-iH. Mladden and P. W. Thomas. Jefferson —Patrick Rogan, W. W. Woodman, D. Powers, Jo E. Holmes and J. H. Ostrander. Kenosha-J. ALcKisson and C. L. Sholes. Lafayette-Eli Robinson, P. B. Simpson and Nathan Olmsteado Marquette and Waushara-Ezra Wheeler. Marquette-E. B. Kelsey. Milwaukee-iH. Haertel, E. McGarry, I. L. Palmer, Richard Carlile, H. C. West, J. Meyer, J. H. Tweedy, W. A. Hawkins, and E. Chase. Manitowoc-E. Ricker. Outagamie, Waupacca and Oconto-A. Resley. Portage-G. W. Cate. Racine-H. T. Sanders, W. IH. Roe, T. West and P. Belden. 3

Page  34 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Richland-Henry Conner. Rock-C. Stevens, IH. Stebbins, W. D. Murray, and IH. Holmes. Sheboygan-C. B. Coleman and D. Taylor. St. Cruix and La Pointe-O. T. Maxson. Walworth-John Bell, James Lauderdale, O. T. Bartlett, T. HI. Fellows, Joseph W. Seaver and T. W. IhIill. Washington-C. E. Chamberlin, C. Schutte, W. P. Barnes and J. WV. Porter. Waukesha-Orson Reed, E. Lees, W. D. Bacon and E. Pearl. Winnebago —Curtis Reed and Lucas M. Miller. Henry L. Palmer, Speaker. Thomas Mctugh, Chief Clerk. The settlement in Wisconsin at the organization of the Territorial Government, will be shown by the following statement of the number of votes given at the first election under the organic law, in 1836: Brown County-Green Bay, 118; Howard, 32; Mason, (Depere,) 34; Sheboygan, 36; Menomonee river, 15; Little Butte des Morts, 9; MIanitowoc, 20; Portage of Fox and Wisconsin, 61.-325. Crawford County-Prairie du Chien, 68.-68. Iowa County-Elk Grove, 28; Van Buren, (Potosi,) 97; Diamond Inn, 35; New Diggings, 77; Platteville, 90; White Oak Springs, 106; Hamilton, (Wiota,) 64; Hardscrabble, (Hazel Green,) 48; Wingville, 57; Gratiot's Grove, (Shullsburg,) 43; Mineral Point, 226; Menomonee, (Jamestown,) 24; New Mexico, (Monroe,) 47; Cassville, 150; Paris, 12; Belmont, 76; Bois Prairie, (Lancaster,) 18; Dodgeville, 90.-1288. f[ilwaukee County- Pike River, (near Kenosha,) 108; Milwaukee, 449; Louis Vieux, (Waukesha,) 60; Moses Smith's, (Rochester,) 13; Racine, 92; Pock River, (Watertown,) 23; Upper Fox River, (Waterford,) 25.-781. Total, 2,462. 34

Page  35 ....- 1638 8801 11464 I.nosia —----.... ------------- I.-. 9335... o:67 263.. 629 1285.......~. I Marathon~~~~~~~~~~ —------ ---------------------— 43 . —--— 59'. - -— 986..2261 .-. 9565..15922 -22791 ---— 646.- -—.931 ---- 1504 ----. 6318... 17983, _19538 Richind —---------------------------- ---- ---- ---- ---- ------— 0 ---- 2867 - 12405... 14720 . —---------- 1419 -- 1674 .... 393....1003"....2178 -.227....1637....5580 .... 461l —.13439.. 150391 .a.. 965 —--.7473 - - 15447 1 .. —------ -— 13793.. 15866 e -— 143 732. —- 2748 106 1 44,478 155,277 210,546 From the above census return, it will be seen thlat the population of Wisconsin has increased in greater ratio than any other State in the Union. In 1825, the population o~ the Territory was only 1,441. An Abstract of the Census Returns of the Terrcitory of the United States, frong 1800 to 1850. STATES. 1800. 1810. 1820. 1830. 1840. 1850. Ohio ------------- 4,500- 230,000 581,000 937,000 1,519,000.1,980,000 Indiana --—.. —. —.. 1 - -3 4,000. - 24,000 147,000 353,000 - 685,000j- 988,000 Illinois-.- 12,000. 55,0001 157,000 476,000. 851,000 Michigan ----—............... --- -------- 4,000.. 8,000.. 31,000 212,000.. 397,000 Wisconsin —--------—................. 30,000 - 305,000 i I i I i I I I ! I Jefferson, —.-.. Kenosha........, Lafaayette' Lapointe........ ,Ianitowoc.-. —Alarathon. Marquette..... .lilwaukee - --—. —— 2893 Portagc.-.. —---—. —--- Racine............I —---- Richland........ —-.. —. Rock. — Saint Croix. Satik.. Sheboygan. Walworo th -. —--- Washington... Waukesha.-.-. |-..Win~nebago.- - - [ — Total -.. 11,683 ..... 463 i 3131 . 2054 .... 1019 -- - -64 ----- 914 -235 -- -5605 1623 3475 -1701 - - -102 - 133 2611 343 !.135 30,945 15339 ___10730 -..11556 - 595 ... 3713 .. 466 .8642 — 3111 9 -...1i267 _14971 . 903 ...30717 - 624 .... 4372 .. 8386 ...17866 _..19476 -..19324 ...10167 305,566 18,130

Page  36 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. From the foregoing table, it appears that the greatest ratio of increase of Ohio was, from 1800 to 1810, 409 per cent.; Indiana, from 1810 to 1820, 506 per cent.; Illinois, from 1810 to 1820, 350 per cent.; Aichigan, froro 1830 to 1840, 570 per cent.; Wisconsin, from 1840 to 1850, 890 per cent. 36

Page  37 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER: CONTAINING THE NAMES, LOCATION, AND ADVANTAGES OF THE CITIES, TOWNS, VILLAGES, POST-OFFICES AND SETTLEMENTS, TOGETHER WITH A DESCRIPTION OF THE LAKES, WATER COURSES, PRAIRIES, AND PUBLIC LOCALITIES IN TIlE STATE OF WISCONSIN-FOR 1853. ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED. NOTICE.-Names and descriptions prepared too late for their proper place, will be found in the Appendix. ABBEVIATION-S.-C. H., Court House, or County Seat; L., Lake; Pi., Prairie; P. O., Post Office; P. F., Post Village; S., River; T, Town; V., Village. ABBOTT, Town, in county of Sheboygan, being town 13 N., in range 21 E.; located soiuthwest fromn Shleboygan, the county seat. It has 9 school districts. ADAM,S, P. V., in Walworth county, on section 1 S, town i N., range 17 E.; being in the town of Troy, I 0 miles north from Elkhorn, and 60 miles southeast from:Aadison, in a good farming district, 8 miiles southwest from the:Milwaukee and Mississippi railroad depot at Eagle Prairie. ADAS, Town, in the county of Green, being township 3 N., of range 6 E.; located ten miles northwest from 3/Ionroe. the county seat. It has 5 school districts. 4

Page  38 WISCONSIN GAZETER. ADAMS, Coqnty, is bounded on the north by Portage, on the east by Waushara and Marquette, on the south by Columbia and Sank, and on the west by La Crosse and a portion of Sank. It was established March 11, 1848, from Portage; at which time it embraced the territory south and west of the Lemon wier and Wisconsin rivers, north of town 13, and east of range 1 E. By an act approved March 6, 1849, the territory was extended north and east, and so changed in the southeast that it embraced only about four townships of its original limits. At the session of the legislature of the winter of 1853, it was restored to its former southern bounds, and the seat of justice located at Kingsbury's Ferry, on the Wis consin river. The county is attached to Sank for legislative purposes. It is watered by the Wisconsin, Lemonwier, Yellow, Necada, and the two IRoche a Gris rivers, with several other streams, the banks of some of which are cov ered by an excellent growth of pine timber. The first sur veys of Adams county having been made so recently as 1851, but little is as yet known of its advantages and resources. The population in 1850 was 187, since which time it has been rapidly settling. IUpon the Lemonwier are erected and in operation, four saw mills propelled by water, and one'by steam, and are supposed to produce from four to six million feet of pine lumber per annin. The valley of the Lemonwier, so called, constitutes that part lying on the west and south of said river, is not easily surpassed in richness and fertility of soil; the timber being principally black and burr oak; nu merous small streams and rivulets flow from the high lands across the valley, which already contain a numerous popula tion. There is one steam saw mill, and one mill propelled by water, on the Yellow river, employed in the manufacture of pine lumber, producing from two to three million feet per annum. The country lying between the Yellow river and the Wisconsin, and the Yellow river and the Lemonwier, presents a flat and monotonous appearance; the soil in general being 88

Page  39 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. unfit for agricultural purposes, affording, however, many faci lities for stock raising and dairy farming unsurpassed in the state. The features of the country are more varied in the east than on the west side of the Wisconsin river, presenting a more broken and undulating surface, and more elevated. This part of the country is fast being settled by a hardy and enter prising class of farmers, and is destined, at no distant day, to be one of the best grain-growing portions of the State. The southeast part of the county is the most densely populated, the country being diversified and much elevated, but not very well watered. At the first election held in the county, in April 1853, the following gentlemen were elected County Officers: County Judge, E. S. Miner; Sheriff, W. J. Sayre; Clerk of Court, S. G. Hlolbrookl; Clerk of Board Supervisors, Wim. IH. Spain; Register, Wm. TI. Palmer; District Attorney, D. A. Bigelow; Treasurer, S.G. Holbrook; Surveyor, Caleb Mc Arthur; Coroner, W. I. Webster. ADDIsox, Town, in county of Washington, being town 11 N., of range 18 E.; located 23 miles west from Ozaukee. The popu lation in 1850 was 1,092. It has 9 school districts. ADELL, P. F., in county of Sheboygan, being on section 17, in town 13 N., (Abbott,) range 20 E. AINEPEE, Creek, rises in Door county, and runs southeast, entering Lake Michigan in town 25, range 25 E., in Kewaunee county. AJASOWI,?River, see Courterielle river. ALBANY, P. V., in Green county, on section 28, town 3 N., range 9 E.; 14 miles northeast from Molnroe, 28 miles south fiom Madison. Population, 200; 26 dwellings, 8 stores, 2 hotels, 2 mills, and 9 manufactories. It has a large water power-in the midst of a good farming country, and has three regular mail routes passing through the village. ALBANY, Tow,, in Green county, being township 3 N., range 9 E.; located 12 miles northeast from Monroe. The population in 1850 was 546. It has 6 school districts. 39

Page  40 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. ALBION, P. V., in town of same name, Dane county. ALBION, Town, in county of Dane, being in town 5 N., range 12 E.; centrally located, 25 miles southeast from Madison, the county seat. It has 7 school districts. ALBION, Town, in county of Jackson, being all of said county, north of township 22. It has 4 school districts. ALCOVE, P. V., in Fond du Lac county, on section 32 of the town of Empire, (town 15 N., range 18 E.,) 6 miles southeast from Fond duL Lac, the county seat, and 75 miles northeast from Madison. ALGOMA, Town, in county of Winnebago, south side of Fox river. The population in 1850 was 702. It has 7 school districts. ALGOMA, P. V., in town of same name, Winnebago county, on section 15, in town 18 N., range 16 E., on Fox river, between Lake Great Butte des Morts and Winnebago, 2 miles above Oshkosh. ALLEN's GROVE, P. V., in town of Sharon, Walworth county, on section 6, in town 1 N., range 15 E. ALMOND, P. V., in county of Portage. It is 16 miles from Plover, the county seat, and 105 miles from M,adison. Population, 150. ALTO, P. V., Fond du Lac county, on section 13, in town of same name, being town 14 N., range 14 E.; located 18 miles south west from Fond du Lac city, and 55 miles northeast from Madison. ALTO, Towrn, in the county of Fond du Lac, being town 14 N., of range 14 E.; centrally located, 10 miles southwest from Fond du Lac. Population in 1850 was 630. It has 9 school dis tricts. AMENECON, (Amican), River, a tributary of Lake Superior, next east of Sandy river, in La Pointe county. Am ST, Town, in county of Portage, being towns 21, 22, 23, 24 and 25, in range 10, and 24 and 25 in range 9 E. 40

Page  41 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. APPLE, -River, rises near the head of Duck Creek, and runs north easterly into Fox river, 5 miles below RPapide de Croche, in Outagamie county. APPLE, Piver, a tributary of St. Croix river from the east, in St. Croix county, enters the same from the east, near the line between townships 30 and 31. APPLETON, P. V., and C. H., in Outagamie county, town of Grand Chute, on section 26, town 21 N., range 17 E. It is about 125 miles northeast from Madison. The Lawrence Institute is loca ted at this place, and the surrounding country is very healthy and fertile. Population 800; 275 dwellings, 10 stores, 5 hotels, 4 saw mills, 1 flouring mill, 1 edge tool factory, 2 planing mills and a paper factory. It is situated onl the Lower Fox river at the Grand Chute Rapids, 30 miles from Green Bay. Its hydraulic advantages are equal to any in the United States, the aggregate fall being 40 feet. It is in a direct line between Manitowoc on the Lake, and Stevens' Point on the Wisconsin, between which places a plank road is in process of construction. ARENA, Town, in the county of Iowa, being townships Nos. 7 and 8 N., of ranges 4 and 5 E.; centrally located, 20 miles northeast fromn Mineral Point, the county seat. It has 3 school districts. It is in an agricultural district, containing bottom lands of the first quality, sandy, but well watered. Settled originally by the British Temperance Emigration Society. ARENA, P. F., in town of same name, Iowa county, on the Wis consin river, town 8 N., range 5 E. ARMIITAGERS, Papiids, in Chippewa county, and on Chippewa river, in town 30 N., range 7 W. ARMY, Lake, in town of East Troy, Walworthi county, on section 16, town 4 N., range 18 E. It is named in compliment to the TU.S. army, and is owned by Major H. W. Merrill, of the army. His farms, which includes the lake, contains 640 acres. The lake covers about 100 acres; is 28 miles southwest from 41

Page  42 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Milwaukee, and is on the northwest quarter of the section. Its form is oval, beautifully curved and indented with small bays and promontories, and being supplied by springs it has no visible inlet. Its shores are elevated by gently rising banks, and bordered on all sides with a fine growth of forest trees. ASnFORD, Town, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 13 N., range 18 E.; centrally located, 15 miles southeast from the city of Fond du Lac. The population in 1850 was 546. It has 7 school districts. ASHIPPruN, Town, in county of Dodge, being town 9 N., range 17 E.; centrally located, 14 miles southwest from Juneau. It has 8 school districts. AsHippux,, P.O., in town of same name, in southwest corner of Dodge county. ASHWABENA, Pitver, in Brown county, a small tributary of the Fox, emptying opposite to Depere. ATTANWA, River, a tributary from the east of St. Croix river, a few nailes above the Falls of St. Croix. ATrIcA, P. V., in southwest corner of the town of Brooklyn, on Sugar river, Green county. ATroNOWINING, Ptiver, a tributary from the north of river St. Croix. AUBURN, P. O., Fond du Lac county, on section 18, of town of the same name, 14 miles southeast from Fond du Lac, and 90 miles northeast from Madison. It is situated on the Rubicon, the head waters of Milwaukee river, and has 1 store, 1 hotel, and 1 church. AuBURN, Town, in the county of Fond du Lac, being town 13 N., range 19 E.; centrally located, 18 miles southeast from Fond du Lac. The population is 400. It has 8 school districts. AvocA, P. V., in Fond du Lac county, on section 13, town 14 N., range 16 E. AvoN, P. O., in town of same name, Rock county, on section 8, town 1 N., range 10 E. 42

Page  43 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Avox, Town, in the county of Rock, being town 1 N., of range 10 E.; centrally located, 17T miles southwest from Janesville. The population in 1850 was 588. It has 7 school districts. AZTAL-IN, Cow>, in the county of Jefferson, being town 7 N., of range 14 E.; centrally located, 5 miles north from Jefferson, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 429. It has 8 school districts. AzTALAN, P. V., in Jefferson county, and town of same name, 7 miles northwest from Jefferson, and 28 miles east from M[adi son. It is on both sides of the Crawfish, on the direct road from Madison to Milwaukee. It contains 1 Baptist chlurch, 3 deno minations of Christians, 2 blacksmiths, 1 waggon-maker, 1 shoe shop, 1 fanning mill shop, brick yard, 1 saleratus factory, 3 stores, 2 hotels, 1 steam mill, 1 nursery of 150,000 trees, and an extensive stone quarry. In this town is situated the renown-ed " Ancient City," which comprises 30 acres of land. The city is surrounded by a brick wall, and is an object of antiquarian research. Population 250. BACHELOR's GRovE, P. V., in Rock county, on section 4, town 2, range 11 E., of the town of Plymouthl; 10 miles west from Janesville, and 40 miles south firom Madison. Population 70, with 12 dwellings, 1 temperance hotel, and a M. E. church. BAD Ax, Town, in county of Bad Ax. The population in 1850 (at which time it formed a portion of Crawford county,) was 630. It has 8 school districts. BAD Ax, County, is bounded on the north by La Crosse, on the east by Sauk and Richland, on the south by Richland and Crawford, and on the west by the Mississippi river, and was set off from Crawford and organized March 1, 1851. The county seat was established by a vote of the electors of the county on the 29th day of Jane, 1852, at Varoqua, near the centre of the county. It forms a part of the sixth judicial circuit, the second congressional, and the nineteenth senate district, and with Crawford sends one member of the assembly. 48

Page  44 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. The streams are the Bad Ax, Kickapoo and Racoon rivers, with their tributaries, and small streams emptying into the Mississippi. A large quantity (41,807 acres,) of that portion of school lands known as the 500,000 acre grant, is situated in Bad Ax county, the soil of which is good, and produces good crops of wheat, oats, corn, &c. This county is compara tively new, and contained in 1850 less than 700 inhabitants. During the last two years the population has increased very fast.-County Officers: Judge, Henry J. Defrees; Sheriff, James Bailey; Clerk of Court, Wm. F. Terhune. BAD Ax, P,ver, in Bad Ax county, rises in town 14, range 4 W.; runs southwest, and empties into the Mississippi, in town 12. Its mouth is remarlkable for being adjoining the site of the last battle field with Black Ihawk, August 2d, 1832. 3BAD Ax, P. F., in Bad Ax county, on section 25, town 12 N., range 5 W. BAD Fisnt, reek, rises in Oregon, Dane county, and runs south east, emptying into the Catfish river, in Porter, Rock county. BAD, Whivee, of Lake Superior. See M\auvoise. BAILEY'S, h6'~o0, on western shore of Lake Michigan, in town 30, Door county, at Gibraltar. BAxErn's COONxEr, P. V., in Walworth county, on section 6, town 3, range 18 E., town of Spring Prairie, 10 miles northeast from Elkhorn, and 80 miles southeast from Madison, on the road from Janesville to Racine, at the junction of the highway to East Troy and AIiliwa-ukee. It is in a good farming district, well adapted to raising wheat, &c. BALD, Prairie, in Winnebago county, in towns of Clayton, Vin land, Winneconne and Winchester. BALL, River, see La Crosse river and Prairie La Crosse. BARABoo, P. V. and C. I., on both sides of river of same name, in Sank county; it is mostly on section 2, in town 11 N., of range 6 E., and is about 50 miles northwest from Madison. 44

Page  45 WISCONSI GAZETTR. It now includes the village of Adams. It has 6 taverns, 7 stores, 5 mills, 26 mechanical shops, I carding machine, 1 tannery, and 1 printing office at which the Sank County Standard is published weekly. Population, 2,000. BARKER's, Lake, is in the northwest part of the town of Sugar Creek, Walworth county. It is about one and a half miles in length. BARK, Point, Lake Superior, near the mouth of Hieron river. BARK, River, rises in Richfield, Washington county, and running southwest through the towns of Mlerton, Delafield, Summit, and Ottawa, in WVaukesha county, passes through the towns of Sullivan. Hebron, Cold Spring and Koskonong, in Jeffer son county, emptying into Rock river at Fort Atkinson, five miles arove Lake Ioshkonong. BARK RIvFR, P. O., Jefferson county, in the town of Hebron, 10 miles southeast of Jefferson, and 40 southeast of Madison. BARTON-, P. O., Washington county. See village of Newark. BAss lake, a small lake on section 24, in the town of Rutland, Dane county. PASS LAKE, P.O. in Rutland, Dane county, discortinued. BATTLE, Creek, is a small stream having its source in two or three small lakes in Summit, Waulkeshla county, runs northwesterly, and empties into Oconomowoc river, in the town of Concord, Jefferson county. yACIInWOOD, P. O., in county of Sheboygan, being in Scott, town 13 N., range 20 E. 3EAR, Creek, Chippewa county, enters Buffalo Slough from the east. 3EAR CREEK, P. O., in Richland county. BEAR, Creek, rises in Sauk county, and runs southwest into the Wisconsin, in range 2 E. BEAR, Is8land, in lake Michigan, near southeast corner of town 32, range 29 E., Door county. It is about a mile in diameter. 45

Page  46 WISCONSIN GAZELTrEER. BEAR, Lake, in the town of Greenbush, Sheboygan county, on sec. 29, township 15, range 20 E. BEAVER, CU'eek, a tributary from the north of Black river, enter ing the saime near Dakorra Mound, La Crosse county. BEAvER DAIM, Town, in the county of Dodge, being township 11, of range 14, and south half of town 12, range 14, and south half of town 12, range 13, eight miles west from Juneau, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 1,830. It has 10 school districts. BEAVER DAM1, R'ifer', rises in Fox lake, and runs south, emptying into the Crawfish, in the southern portion of Dodge county. BEAVER DAAr, P. V. in town of same name, Dodge county, being on section 4, town 11 N., range 14 E. It issituated on a stream of the same name, at the outlet of a poni some 8 or 10 miles in extent, where stands a flouling mill, iL which are constantly employed 4 runs of stonre; where there is to be built the coming season another flouring mill and woollen factory, an oil mill, a saw mill, and a carding machine, with 5 more saw mills and 2 flouring mills with two runs of O-one each, within 3 miles of the village, and yet the stream is considered sufficient for considerable improvement in tie line of mills and machinery. A strip of excellent timbei skirts its banks, rendering timber and lumber very abun dant and cheap. In the village there are 3 hotels, 10 or 12 stores, 1 apothecary shop, 1 furnace, 1 cabinet, 1 tin, 1 sLd dle and harness shops, 2 livery stables, 3 churches, and tro to be built immediately; 1 jewelry store, 6 doctors, 1 printirg office, besides carpenter, tailor, blacksmith, waggon and sh(e shops, &c., with some 400 dwellings, and a population of t least 1,500. This place possesses superior advantages. 1 has plenty of water power, and of timber to saw, thus re ducing the price of lumber and rendering building easy. It is surrounded by one of the most fertile sections of the state, which naturally inclines to this point for a market; and its 446

Page  47 WIS'CONSIN GAZEITEER. means of transit when the La Crosse and Milwaukee railroad is completed, will add another important feature to its pros pects. With such natural advantages, and these evidences of prosperity, who can wonder that Beaver Dam should make such rapid strides in advancement and business facilities, while it requires no prophetic eye to discover that, ere long, she is to be ranked among the most populous, wealthy, and business inland towns in Wisconsin. BEAVER, Lake, is near the centre of the town of Merton, a short distance east of Pine lake, in Waukesha county, into which it has its outlet. It is about a mile in length. BEETOwN, Town, in the county of Grant, being townships 4 and 5 N., of range 4 WV.; 6 miles west from Lancaster. It has 7 school districts. BEETowN, P. V. on section 30, in town of same name in Grant county, town 4, range 4 W.; is surrounded by rich lead mines and a good farming region of land, with timber on the east, and prairie on the north, west, and south. The popula tion is about 300; with 55 dwellings, 9 stores, and 1 hotel. BEETOwN, -Diggins, a mining place on section 17, town 4, range 4 W., in Grant county. BELFO~NTAINE, P. 0., in Columbia county. BELGIUMN, Town, in the county of Ouzaukee, being township 12 N., of range 22 E.; located 7 miles north from Ouzaukee. The population in 1850 was 1,154. It has 7 school districts. BEL1Or,T formerly P. O., in town of same name, in-northwest corner of Lafayette county, at Platte Mounds. At this place the first session of the territorial legislature of Wisconsin was held. It is now the residence of I-on. Charles Dunn, chief justice of the territorial supreme court. BELOIT, Town, in county of Rock, being township 1 N., of range 12 E.; located southerly, 10 miles from Janesville, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 2,750. It has 9 school dis tricts. 47

Page  48 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. BELOIT AND MADISON RAIL ROAD C.OMPANY.-Directors: John B. Turner, W. L. Newberry, Edward J. Tinkham, and E. S. Wadsworth, Chicago, Ill.; L. G. Fisher, lHazen Chleney, and Johln Hacklett, Beloit, Wis.; Volney Atwood, J. A. Sleeper, and Otis W. Norton, Janesville, Wis.; Simeon Mills, F. G. Tibbits, and Elisha Burdick, Madison, Wis.; John P. Turner, President; Benj. Durham, Secretary; Edward J. Tinkham, Treasurer; and John P. Ilsley, Chief Engineer. This com pany was incorporated by act of tihe legislature, approved Feb. 18, 1852. By the charter the company are authorized to create a capital stock of $1,200,000, and to locate, con struct and operate a single or double track railroad, from the village of Beloit in tho county of Rock, via Janesville in the county of Rock, to Madison, the capital of the State of Wis consin, with power also to connect or consolidate with other railroad companies. The company was organized at Madison on the 1st day of July, the same year, by the election of officers as above stated. Preliminary surveys were imme diately commenced, preparatory to the location of the line, and the attainment of the right of way. The report of the chief engineer shows the length of the line from Beloit to Madison to be 52,08 miles, and thie estimated cost $790,000, or $15,027 per mile, laid withi heavy T rail. Some portions of the work have already been contracted, and the engineer is now actively engaged in completing the surveys and pro curing the right of way, and the whole line will soon be ready for contract, and it is confidently believed that the entire road will be completed to Madison by the 4thl of July, 1854. By an amendment to its charter, passed February, 1853, this company are authorized to construct their road direct from Beloit to Madison, and by running about twelve miles west of Janesville, the line will be reduced in length something over four miles, and be entirely removed from competition with rival roads. The district of country through which this road passes to its present terminus, the capital of 48

Page  49 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Wisconsin, is equal, if not superior, in population, produc tiveness and natural beauty to any portion of the state; while its ultimate extension to the Wisconsin river at Portage city, and thence through the extensive pine regions of the north to Lake Superior, or the Upper Mississippi, insure for it an im mense and constantly increasing business, as that interesting portion of the country becomes settled and more fully devel oped. The very favorable terms upon which this company have arranged with the Chicago and Galena railroad company, to run in connection with and operate this road as a branch of that already popular and profitable thoroughfare, added to the many other superior advantages already enjoyed by this company, warrant the belief that this will prove one of the most useful, as well as most profitable, railroad enterprises in the Great West. To Simeon Mills, Esq., of Madison, is due the credit of originating and largely contributing toward the successful prosecution of this enterprise. BELOIT, P. V., Rock county, on sections 35 and 36, in town of same name, being town 1 N., of range 12 E., 12 miles south from Janesville, and 45 miles southeast from Madison. It is situated on the State line, at the junction of Turtle Creek with Rock River. Its commercial and manufacturing facilities are of a superior character, and the means of education are as great as in any other town in the State. It has a population of 3,000, with 400 dwellings, 1 baptist, 1 congregational, 1 methodist, 1 presbyterian, 1 episcopal, and 1 catholic church; 18 dry goods stores, 10 grocery and provision, 2 hardware and 3 drug stores; 3 stove and tin, 2 shoe, 4 clothing and 2 book stores; 2 cabinet, 2 barbers, 2 jewvellers, 4 market and 2 paint shops; 3 saddle and harness, 4 blacksmiths and 2 coopers shops; 1 tobacco factory and store, 3 hotels, 3 flouring, 1 oil, and 1 saw mill, 1 flax factory, 1 foundry, 1 machine shop, 1 manufac tory of reapers and fanning mills, 2 carriage and waggon factories, 1 scale manufactory, 1 woollen factory, and 1 candle and soap factory. 49

Page  50 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. BEM, P. 0., in Greene county. BENTOX, Creek, rises in town 23, range 23 E., Kewannee county, runs southerly, emptying into the west Twin River in Maii towoc county. BERLIN, Town, in county of Mlarquette, being township 17 N., of range 13 E. It has 9 school districts. BERRY, Towvn, in the county of Dane, being township 8 N., of range 7 E. It is 15 miles northwest fromn Madison. BERRY, P.O., in town of same name, Dane county, on section 29, town 8 N., range 7 E. BIG BEND, P. O. in southern part of Waukesha county. BIG, Creek, a small tributary from the southeast of Black River, in La Crosse county, into which it empties, in town 19 N., of range a W. BIG PLOvER, Piver, is a tributary from the northeast of the Wis consin, which it enters between Plover and Stevens' Point. BIG, Prairie, Wausliara county, is a crescent shaped prairie in the eastern part of the town of Oasis, town 20 N., of range 8 E. Its greatest length is six miles, and extreme width three miles. It contains about 15,000 acres of land. BIG QUINNESEC, Fat,718, are rapids in the Mlenominee river, about one and a half miles in length, in which distance the fall is 134 feet. This distance is divided into four chutes, at the lowest of which the river dashes over a perpendicular fall of rocks forty feet in height. BIG SUvInco, Piver, rises in Oconto county, and runs east, through township 25, emptying into Green Bay from the west. BILLrNG'S, Creek, in Bad Ax county, is a branch of the Kickapoo river. BIRCH, Lake, on Red Cedar river, between Sketch and Pine lakes. BmD's RuIrN, see Hanchettvi-le P.. 50

Page  51 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. BLACK, Creek, Sheboygan county, rises in the southwest part of town 13, range 23 E., and runs north easterly to the north east corner of the town of Wilson, where it falls into Lake Michigan. BLAcx, Creek, is a small tributary, from the west of Fox River, which it enters near the line between towns 16 and 17, in Marquette county. BLACK:, Creek, rises near the N. E. corner of Outagamie county, and runs southwesterly, uniting with the outlet of White Lake, and falls into Wolf river, in the town of Ellilgtoln. BLACK EARTH, Town, (formerly Farmer'sville) in county of Dane, being township No. S N., range 6 E., located 20 miles from Madison. It has 3 school districts. BLACK EXRTII, P. F., Dane county, in town of same name, on section 26, town S N., range 6 E., 21 nailes nearly west from Mladison. Population t5; 15 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel and a good flouring mill. It is situated in the fertile valley of the Black Earth creek, 9 miles above its entrance into the Wis consin. This village was laid out in 1850, and has a good water power. BLACK EARTH, Pliver, rises in Middleton, in Dane county, and runs N. W., entering the Wisconsin at Arena, in Iowa county. BLACKI, tiver, (Sappab,) rises in llarathlon county, and runs south west, entering the Mississippi, in La Crosse county, about half way between La Crosse and Trempeleau rivers. It is navi gable to the Falls, to which place it maintains a width of 200 yards. BLACK RIVER, Fclls, are about 50 miles from the mouth of the Black River, in Jackson county, at which place the stream is about 200 yards wide, and falls 22 feet in the distance of 100 yards. BLACK RIVER FALLS, P. V., on Black river, in Jackson county town 21 N., range 4 W. 51

Page  52 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. BLACK RIVER PINERY, is on Black river, and its tributaries mostly in La Crosse and Jackson counties. The amount of lumber manufactured in this section, aside from square timber, lath, and shingles, is shown by the following estimate: Angle's Mills, on La Crosse river 500.000 La Crosse Mills-.. —. —-.. 2,000,000 Nichols,, —------------- 800,000 Douglass --------------- 1,000,000 Polley's,, —-------—. —--- 500,000 Robinson's,, — --------------- 500,000 ~alentine's,,.......800,000 Shephard's,,,. Patterson's 500,000 Perry's ----------—..- -, 800,000 Spaulding's,,...... 500,000 Wm. Levice's Mills.- 1,800,000 John Levice's,, 800,000 Hall's,,.... 800,000 Johnson's,, 300,000 Blanchard's,, 300,000 Bailey's,, 300,000 Clarke's,, 500,000 Whipple's -. — 800,000 O'Neall's,, 500,000 Cowley's,,. 800,000 Eaton's,,- - 500,000 Total 14,500,000 BLACK WOLF, P.O., in town of same name, Winnlebago county. BLACK WOLF, Townt, in county of Winnebago, being township 17 N., of range 17 E.; located 18S miles northwest from Oshkosh, the county seat. It has 3 school districts. BLABE's, Prcirie, is a large prairie, in range 5 W., in Grant county. BLOCK HOUSE, Creek, a branch from the east of Little Platte river, in Smeltzer, Grant county. BLOOMFIELD, ToWqn, in the county of Walworth, being township 1 N., of range 18 E.; located 13 miles southeast from Elk horn, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 879. It has 6 school districts. BLOOmIFIELD, P. V., in Walworthl county, on section 35, of town of same name, (town 1 N., range 18 E.,) 18 miles southeast from Elkhorn and 80 miles southleast from Madison, on the Nippis sing creek, with a good water fall. BLOOMIGDALE, P. V., in town of Omro, Winnebago county, being in town 18 N., range 15 E. 52

Page  53 WISCON SIN GAZETEEER. BLOOMINGDALE, Town, see Omro. BLOOMiNG GROvE, Town, in the county of Dane, being township 7 N., of range 10 E.; located 4 miles east fiom Madison, the county seat. Population in 1850 was 291. It has 6 school districts. BLUE MfOUNDS, P. O., at the oldest settlement of Dane county, in town of same name, on section 5, town 6, range 6 E., 25 miles northeast from MAineral Point; and is the same distance west from Madison, on the great stage route and thoroughfare from the Mississippi to Milwaukee, via Madison. It was first settled in 182, by Ebenezer Brigham, who made a valuable discovery of mineral at this place in that year. BLUE MOUNDS, two conical shaped hills, the one in Iowa, the other in Dane county; 12 miles south from the Wisconsin river, and 25 miles west fromtn Madison. The top of one of these mounds is luo01 feet above the level of the Wisconsin river at Helena, and is the highest point in the State. BLUE MOUND, Creek, rises near the Blue Mounds in Dane county, and runs northwest, uniting with the Black Earth river in the town of Arena, Iowa county. BLUE MOUNDS, Towrs, in county of Dane, being township 6 N., of range 6 E; located 21 miles west from Madison. It has 5 school districts. BLUE PRIVER, P. O., in Iowa county. BLUE, River, rises in Highland, Iowa county, and runs northwest into the Wisconsin river, in the town of Fennimore, Grant county. BLUE RIVER, DiTgging, a mining point at section 24, town 6 N., of range 1 W., in Grant county. ]3LUFF, P. O., in town of Kingston, Sauk county, in town 10 N., of range 6 E. BLUFTrON, P. V., in Marquette county, being town 16 N., of range 13 E., on section 7 It is located 3 miles northwest from 5 53

Page  54 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Dartford, 54 miles north and 18 miles east from Madison. It is at the head of navigation on the Pukyaun river, the main east branch of the Upper Fox. The rapids afford a fine water power. It has 1 hotel, 1 mill, and a congrega tional and methodist denomination. The roads from Sheboy gan to La Crosse, from Green Bay to Fort Winnebago, and from Oshkosh to the Upper Fox River, all cross the rapids at this place. BOILING, Creek, is a small stream in the town of Black Earth, Dane county, emptying into the Wisconsin. Bois BRULE, River, (Burnt Wood,) a tributary of Lake Superior, into which it enters, about 20 miles east from Fond du Lac bay. It rises near the Upper St. Croix lake, and is nearly 100 miles in length. Bois, Creek, a branch of Grant river, from the east, in the town of Potosi, Grant county. Bois, Prairie, a long and narrow prairie, extending from Lancas ter nearly to Potosi in Grant county. BONNER'S, Creek, rises near Belmont, Lafayette county, and runs east into the Pekatonica, in the town of Willow Springs. BOOTII, lake, is a small lake on the line between the towns of Troy and East Troy, Walworth county. BOTHELLE, P. V., in Fond du Lac county, on section 7, in the town of Eldorado, being town 16 N., of range 16 E., 15 miles northwest from the city of Fond du Lac, and 70 miles north east from Madison. Bo'D's, Creek, a small stream entering the Wisconsin, in town 7 N., of range 4 W., in Crawford county. BRADFORD, TOWn, in county of Rock, being township No. 2 N., of range 14 E., located 12 miles east from Janesville, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 703. It has 8 school districts. 54

Page  55 WISCONSIN GAETEER BRIDGEPORT, P. V., in Brown county, on section 2, town 21 N., of range 19 E. BRIGHAAM's, Branch, a small tributary of the Fourth Lake, in Dane county. BRIGHA'I'S, Prairie, is a large prairie in the town of Blue Mounds, Dane county. BRIGHTON, P. V., in town of same name, Ktenosha county. BRIGHTOX, Town, in county of 1Kenosha, being township 2 N., of range 23 E.; located 17 miles west from Kenosha, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 180. It has 7 school dis tricts. BRISTOL, T own, in county of Dane, being township 9 N., of range 11 E.; located 14 miles northeast from Madison, the county seat. It has 5 school districts. BRISTOL, Town, in county of Kenosha, being township 1 N., of range 21 E.; located 10 miles southwest from Kenosha, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 1,125. It has 12 school districts. BRISTOL, P. V., Kenosha county, on section 4, town 1 N., of range 21 E., being in town of same name; located 11 miles west from Kenosha, and 95 miles southeast from Madison. The post office was established in 1839. BROCK's, Urossing, on L' eau Galle, in St. Croix county. BROKEN GUx, Channe7, the middle outlet of Black river. BROOKFIELD, P. O., in town of same name, Waukesha county. BROOKFIELD, Town, in the county of Waukesha, being township 7 N., of range 20 E.; located 9 miles northeast from Wauk esha, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 1,939. It has 13 school districts. BROOKLYN, UCreek, a small stream, entering the Wisconsin from the southwest, at Brooklyn, Grant county. 55

Page  56 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. BROOKLYN, Town, in county of Green, being township 4 N., of range 9 E.; located 17 miles northeast from Monroe, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 531. It has 8 school districts. 3BROOKLYN, Town, in county of 3Marquette, being township 16 N., of range 13 E. It has 9 school districts. BROOK.LYN, Town, in county of Sank, having 7 school districts. BROOKLYN, V7llage, in Grant county, on Wisconsin river, at the outlet of creek of the same name, in the town of Patch Grove. BROWN, County, is bounded on the north by Oconto, on the east by Kewaunee, on the south by Manitowoc, and on the west by Outagamie, and a portion of Ocouto. It derived its name from General Brown, commander-in-chief of the army, and was originally organized by an act of the legislative council of the territory of Michigan, approved 16th October, 1818, and then included all of the territory of the present state of Wisconsin, east of a line drawn due north firom the northern boundary of Illinois, through the middle of the Portage be tween the Fox and -Wisconsin rivers. Its limits have been decreased from time to time, until at present it contains only fourteen and a half townships, being 2 L by 24 miles square, with an addition of 3 by 6 miles to its northwestern corner. The seat of justice is established by law at the village of Depere, on the Neenah, about eight miles from its mouth, although the courts are held, and most of the county business transacted at Green Bay. Its streams are: Fox, (Neenah), Manitoo, (or East), Ashwabena and Big Suamico rivers, and Duck creek. The soil is better adapted to grazing than the raising of grain, although it produces good crops of wheat, rye, oats, potatoes, &c. The surface is mostly level or slightly undulating, with but little swamp or waste land. It is mostly heavily timbered, with maple, beech, birchl, &c., interspersed with pine and a good proportion of hemlock. Brown county is attached to the fourth judicial circuit, to the third congres 56

Page  57 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. sional, and to the second senatorial district, and with Kewaunee and Door, forms an assembly district. The population in 1825 was952; 1830, 9641; 1836, 2,706; 1838, 3,081; 1840, 2,107; 1842, 2,146; 1846, 2,6(32; 1847, 2,914; 1850, 6,222. Farms, 267; manufactories, 23; and dwellings, 1,005. It must be borne in mind that new counties were established from the county of Brown, between nearly every taking of the census, and that the foregoing table, so far as showing the increase of population is concerned, is a very unsatisfactory one. The following are the county officers for 1853 and 1854: County Judge, David Agry; Sheriff, Orlo B. Graves; Clerk of Court, John Last; District Attorney, Baron S. Doty; Register of Deeds, E. Hiolmes Ellis; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, Wm. Field, Jr.; County Treasurer, Charles Henry; County Surveyor, Eli P. Royce; Coroner, David Cormier. BROWN, -Lake, about one and a half miles east of the village of Burlington, in Racine county. It is nearl. a mile in diam eter, and discharges its waters into the Pishtaka. BUENA VISTA, P. V., Portage county, on section 20, town 22 N., of range 9 E.; 100 miles north from Madison, in a good farm ing country; with 100 inhabitants, 25 dwellings, 3 hotels, and 1 church. BUENA VISTA, TOwn, in county of St. Croix. BucK, Creek, empties into the Mississippi, in town 9, Crawford county. BUFFALO, ToWl, in county of Marquette, being township 14 N., of range 10 E. It has 4 school districts. BUFFALO, -Lake, M{arquette county, is an expansion of the Neenah river, about 12 miles in length. It is mostly in town 15 N., of ranges 9 and 10 E. BUIFFALO, Rider, forms the boundary line for several miles be tween La Crosse and Chippewa counties, emptying into the Mississippi, in town 24 N., of range 6 E. 57

Page  58 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. BUFFALo, Slough, the name given to the lower mouth of the Chip pewa river. BULLION, P. 0., in Wauklesha county. BuR, Town, in the county of Dane, being township 8 N., of range 10 E.; located 6 miles from Madison, the county seat. It has 6 school districts. BCURLINGTO, Townt, in the county of Racine, north 2 of town 2 N., and town 3 N., of range 19 E.; located 24 miles west of Racine, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 1,640. It has 8 school districts. BURLINGTON, P. V., on Fox river, in town of same name, in county of Racine, on section 32, in town 4 N., of range 19 E. BURNETT CORNERs, P. O., in town of Burnett, Dodge county. BURNETT, P. O., in town of same name, Dodge county. BURNETTE, 17Town, in the county of Dodge, being town 12 N., of range 15 E.; located 6 miles north from Juneau, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 816. It has 6 school dis tricts. BURNT DISTRICT, F(tll8, two perpendicular falls in the Menominee river, near its source, about a mile apart, and 9 feet in height. BURNT WOODn,./2er, see Bois Brule. BUTLER, P.O., Milwaukee county, on section 6 in town of Wan watosa, (town X N., range 21 E.,) 8 miles northwest from Mil waukee, on the Lisbon plank road, being the route of the North Madison Territory road from Milwaukee, and 80 miles from Madison. It has 1 hotel and a steam saw mill. BUTTE DES AMORTS, P. V., Winnebago county, on section 24 in town of Winneconne, (town 19 N., of range 15 E.), 10 miles north west from Oshkosh, the county seat, and 85 miles northeast from Madison. It is beautifully situated on a high bluff on the left bank of the Fox river, near the head of lake Butte 58

Page  59 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. des Morts, from which it takes its name. It offers many inducements to the settler, being a very healthy location, and surrounded by a good farming country. Lumber is plenty, immense quantities being rafted on the river. Population, 100; with 15 dwellings, 5 stores, 3 hotels, I steam mill, 2 religious denominations, and various mechanical shops. BYRON, Town, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 14 N., of range 17 E.; centrally located, 8 miles south from Fond du Lac, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 882. It has 9 school districts. CADIz, P. V., in town of same name, Greene county; being on section 14, in town 1 N., of range 6 E. CADIz, Town, in the county of Green, being town 1 N., of range 6 E.; centrally located, 8 miles southwest from Monroe. The population in 1850 was 459. It has 5 school districts. CADWELL, P. O., in county of Racine. CALAMUS, Town, in the county of Dodge, being town 11 N., of range 13 E.; centrally located, 12 miles west from Juneau, the county seat. It has 6 school districts. CALEFDONIA, P. O., in town of same name, in county of Racine; being town 4 N., of range 22 E. CALEDONIA, Town, in the county of Racine, being town 4 N., of range 22 E.; centrally located, 6 miles northwest from Racine. The population in 1850 was 1,065. It has 11 school districts. CALE,DOIAX, Town, in the county of Columbia. It has 6 school districts. CALEDONIA, Town, in the county of Portage. CALUMET, County, is bounded on the north by Brown and Outaga mie, on the east by Manitowoc, on the south by Sheboygan and Fond du Lac, and on the west by Winnebago. It was set off from Brown, December 7, 1836, and organized for county purposes, January 6, 1840. On the 13th of August, 1840, it was disorganized, and its territory attached to Brown. 59

Page  60 WI,SCONSIN GAZETTEER. It was again reorganized February 18, 1842, remaining in judicial connection with Brown until the organization of Fond du Lac, January 22, 1844, to which it was attached for judi cial purposes. It was fully organized February 5, 1840. The seat of justice is at Chilton Centre, in the town of Charles town, being in town 18 N., of range 20 E. It is well watered by tributaries of the Manitowoc river, and by small streams entering Lake Winnebago. The Brothertown and Stockbridgo Indians have fine settlements, schools, and churches, in this county, and their farms and buildings compare favorably with others in the State. They are entitled to all the privileges of citizenship, and are frequently represented by some of their own number in the State legislature. This county contains much good land, which is for sale at low rates; the soil is good, and covered with a heavy growth of hard timber. It forms a portion of the fourth judicial circuit, of the third congressional, and of the first senate district, and sends one member to the assembly. The population in 1840 was 275; 1842, 407; 1846, 836; 1847, 1,060; 1850, 1,746. Farms, 243; manufactories, 5; dwellings, 381. The county officers for 1853 and 1854 are: County Judge, Mloody Mann; Sheriff, J. S. Hammer; Clerk of Court, Charles Growing; RIegister, L. P. Fowler. CALUMET, P. V., in town of same name, Fond du Lac county. CALUIET, Town, in the county of Fond du Lac, being the south fractional half of township 17 N., of range 18 and 19 E., and north fiactional half of town 16 N., of range 19 E.; centrally located, 10 miles northeast from Fond du Lac. The popula tion in 1850, as then organized, 1,704. (CALvIN's, Creek, in M1anitowoc county, a small stream, entering Lake Michigan about 5 miles southwest from the mouth of the Manitowoc river. CAMBRIDGE, P. V., in northern part of town of Christiana, Dane county, on stage route from Madison to Whitewater. go

Page  61 WISCONSIN GAZETTEFR. CAMP, Creek, rises in the north west corner of Richland county, and runs westerly into Otter creek, of Bad Ax county. CAMP, lake, in Kenosha county, is a long and narrow lake near the centre of the town of Salem. CARMIA, Island, near the western shore of lake Michigan, in Door county. CASCADE, P. V., Sheboygan county, in town of same name, on section 29, town 14 N., of range 21 E.; 18 miles southwest from Sheboygan, and 110 miles northeast from Madison, on the most direct route between the same. It is situated onl the east branch of the Milwaukee river, and has a good water power; in the midst of a good, though new, farming country, mostly of timbered lands. It has 300 inhabitants, 25 families, 2 stores, 2 hotels, 1 saw, and 1 grist mill; 3 organized deno minations, baptist, congregatioinal, and methodist. It has a good charter for an academiy. CASSVILLE, P. V. in town of same name, Grant county, being in town 3 N., of range 5 W., on the Mississippi river, and was formerly a place of considerable importance. CASSVILLE, Town, in county of Grant, being all of the same em braced in towns 3 and 4 N., of ranges 5 and 6 W.; centrally located, 15 miles southwest from Lancaster, the county seat. It has 7 school districts. CASTLE ROCK, on the west bank of the Wisconsin river, in town 15 N., of range 5 E,, in Adams county. CATFISH, River, rises in the Fourth Lake, and connecting the four lakes in Dane county, runs southeast, emptying into the Rock river in the town of Fulton, Rock county. CEDARBURG, P. V., in town of same name, Ozaukee county, being on section 34, town 10 N., of range 21 E.; located 10 miles southwest from Ozaukee. CEDARBlXEG, Town, in county of Washington, being town 10 N., of range 21 E., excepting the easterly range of sections be 61

Page  62 WISOCNSIN GAZETTEER, longing to the town of Grafton; centrally located, 8 miles southwest from Ozaukee, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 1,134. It has 7 school districts. CEDAR CREEK, P. V., in town of Polk, Washington county, being on section 10, in town 10 N., of range 19 E. CEDAR GROVE, P. V., in Sheboygan county, in section 30, town 13 N., of range 23 E.; located 15 miles southerly from She boygan, and 75 miles east northeast from Madison. It has 6 dwellings, 1 hotel, and 2 stores. CEDAR, Lake, is a small lake on the line between the towns of Polk and West Bend, in Washington county. CEDAR, Lake, in the town of Rhine, Sheboygan county, on sections 31 and 32, town 16 N., of range 21 E. CEDAR, Rapids8, of Fox river, about half way between Grand and Little Chute. CEDAR, -River, rises in Cedar lake, and running southeasterly enters Milwaukee river in the southwest corner of the town of Grafton, Washington county. CENRE, P. O., in town of same name, Rock county. CENTRE, Town, in county of Rock, being town 3 N., range 9 E.; centrally located 10 miles west of Janesville. The popula tion in 1850 was 625. It has 7 school districts. CENTRE, Lake, a small lake in the centre of the town of Trenton, Washington county. CENTRES, -River, is a small tributary entering Manitowoc river about 10 miles from its mouth, having its source in Brown county. CENTREvILLE, P. O., in town of Randolph, Columbia county. CENTREV-E, Town, in county of Waupacca, being the northwest portion of the same. CEEsco, Town, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 16 N., of range 14 E.; located 19 miles northwest from Fond du Lac city. It has 6 school districts. 6h

Page  63 VISCONSN GAZETrEER. ClmESo, P. O., in town of same name, Fond du Lac county, on sections 16, 17, 20 and 21. CHAGWAMIGoO, or CHE-GoI-ME-GoN, Bay, see Shagwamigon. CHAGWAMIGON, Point, in La Pointe county, east of bay of same name. CHAMBER'S, Island, near the eastern shore of Green Bay, in towns 32 and 33 N., of range 27 E., in Door county. C'tEER'S, Lake, is about a mile in length, on an island of same name in Green Bay. CHAPPEAiTu, apids, of the Menomonee river, are above Menomo nee Rapids. CaARLEsTON, P. F., in town of same name, Calumet county, on section 6. CHA.RLESTOWN, Town, in county of Calumet, being in the east part thereof. It has 6 school districts. CHARLOTrE, P. O., in town of Cassville, Grant county, being town 4 N., of range 5 W. CHERRY HILL, P. O., in Washington county. CHESTER, P. O., in town of same name, Dodge county, on section 28. CHESTER, Town, in county of Dodge, being town 13 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 13 miles northwest from Juneau. Population in 1850 was 829. It has 4 school districts. CHILTON CENTRE, P. F., and C. H., in town of Charleston, Calu met county, town 18 N., of range 20 E. The county seat was located at this place by a vote of the county, in 1852. CHIPPEWA FALLS, P. V., and C. H., at falls of Chippewa river, in county of same name, at which place the river has a descent of 24 feet in half a mile. Population 250. Good hotel and several mills. CITPPEWA, County, is bounded on the N. by St. Croix and La Pointe, on the E. by Marathon, on the S. by La Crosse, on 63

Page  64 WISCONSLN GAZETTEER. the S. W. by the Mississippi river, and on the W. by St. Croix. The southern boundary is rather indefinitely defined. It was establishled-from Crawford, February 3, 1835, but has never been organized. Since the organization of La Crosse county, larch 1, 1851, the county and judicial connection has been changed from Crawford to La Crosse. The boundaries were somewhat chai ged January 14, 1846. Population in 1850 was 615. The soil in the western portion is good, in the northeastern less valuable, and covered with forests of excellent pine timber. It is watered by Chippewa river and its branches, and tributaries of Buffalo and Mississippi rivers. The tributaries of the Chippewa river are numerous, and pass through large portions of the county, watering lands as valuable as any in the State. There are now in successful operation 11 saw mills, capable of cutting 30,000,000 feet of lumber annually. The largest of these mills is owned by Allen, at Chippewa Falls; Menomonee, owned by Knapp, Williams & Taintor; and Carson & Eaton, at the mouth of the Eau Galla, which average about 5,000,000 of feet each, per annumr, and furnish employment for about 200 hands each. The county seat was established by an act of the legislature, at the January session 1853, at Chippewa Falls, on Chippewa river. CHIPPEWA R?(Tids, in county of same name. This name has been given to two rapids in Chippewa river, one in town 29 N., of range 8 W., and the other in town 30 N., of range 7 W. CHIPPEWA (Ojibwa),?River, the largest tributary in Wisconsin of the Mississippi, into which it empties in town 22 N., of range 14 W. It rises near the head waters of Bad river of Lake Superior, and runs southerly, to its mouth, where it is 500 yards wide. CHRISTIANA, Town, in county of Dane, being town 6 N., of range 12 E.; centrally located 17 miles southeast from Madison. The population in 1850 was 785. It has 10 school districts. 64

Page  65 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. CHRISTIANA, P. V., in town of same name, Dane county, on section 23, town 6 N., of rang-e 12 E., being 23 miles southeast fiom Madison. It is situated on IKoskonong creek-possesses good water power, with good lime stone and excellent quarries of sand stone. Population 200, dwellings 30, stores 2, hotels 1, mills 2, a stone school house, and 1 carding machine. CHRYSTAL LAKE, Town, in county of Marquette, being town 17 N., of range 10. CLAIRvILLE, P. O., in Winnebago county. CLARENCE, P. O., in the county of Greene. CLARNO, Towzn, in county of Green, being town 1 N., of range 7; centrally located, 7 miles south from Monroe. The popula tion in S1850 was 714. It has 5 school districts. CLAYTON, Town, in county of Winnebago, being town 20 N., range of 16 E.; centrally located, 13 miles from Oshkosh. The population in 1q50 was 402. It has 4 school districts. CLEARWATER, P. V., in Chippewa county, in town 27 N., of range 9 W., at the mouth of L'eau Claire river. Population, 200; 2 mills, 1 store, and 1 hotel. CLEARWATER, stew, see L'eau Claire, Chippewa county. CLIFTON, Towei, in county of Grant, being town 5 N., of range 1 W.; centrally located, 12 miles west from Lancaster. It has 5 school districts. CLIFToN, V]iage, in the town of Roxbury, Dane county, imme diately opposite Prairie du Sac, on the Wisconsin river. The location is a beautiful one, possessing good shores and other facilities for unloading rafts and boats. As yet, but few improvements lhave been made. There is 1 store, 1 tannery, 2 lumber yards, and about 50 inhabitants. A large portion of the lumber used in Madison and the interior of Dane county, is brought from this place, to which it is floated from the immense pineries on the Upper Wisconsin river. Its prospects for being an important lumbering and trading point are, at present, very flattering. 65

Page  66 WISCONSIN GAZEITEER. CLINToN, P. V., in town of same name, Rock county. CLINTON, Town, in county of Rock, being town 1 N., of range 14 E.; centrally located, 14 miles southeast from Janesville. The population in 1850 was 1,176. It has 8 school districts. CLYDE, Town, in county of Iowa, being part of townships 7 and 8 N., of ranges 2 and 3 E.; centrally located, 18 miles north of Mineral Point, the county seat. It has 3 school districts. It is on the Wisconsin river, on both sides of Otter creek. It is an agricultural town, well timbered and watered, and has one grist mill. CLYMAN, P. O., in town of same name, Dodge county. CLYMA1N, Town, in county of Dodge, being town 10 X., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 6 miles south from Juneau. The population in 1850 was 735. It has 9 school districts. COLAMER, P. O., in town of Kingston, Sauk county. COLD SPRING, Lake, a small lake in the town of Fredonia, Wash ington county. COLD SPRING, P. V., in town of same name, in the county of Jef ferson; 8 miles southeast from Jefferson. COLD SPRING, -Race Course, situated 2 miles west from Milwaukee, the property of E. B. Walcott, -A/. D., of Milwaukee. COLD SPRING, Town, in county of Jefferson, being town 1 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 9 miles southeast from Jefferson. The population in 1850 was 568. It has 5 school districts. COLUMBUs, P. V.~ in town of same name, on section 12 Columbia county, on the Crawfish river. It is considerable of a village. COLUMBUS, Town, in county of Columbia, being town 10 N., of range 12; centrally located, 24 miles southeast from Portage. The population in 1850 was 960. It has 7 school districts. COLUMBIA, County, is bounded on the north by Adams and Mar quette, on the east by Dodge, on the south by Dane, and on the west by Sauk; and is located mostly in the vicinity of the 66

Page  67 WISCONSIN GAZETrEER. Portage of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers. It was set off from Portage and organized February 3, 1846. The boundaries were somewhat changed March 6, 1849. The streams of this county are: the Fox, (Neenah), Wisconsin, and Crawfish rivers, and Rocky Run, Ockie, Spring, and Duck creeks. For fertility of soil and feasibility of lands, the most of which are openings and prairie, this county is unsurpassed by any other in the State. It is connected with the third judicial circuit, and with the third congressional district, and constitutes the twenty-fifth senate district; sends two members to the assembly, being divided into the north and south assembly districts, nearly of the same size. The towns of Winnebago, Port Hope, Marcellon, Scott, Randolph, Portage, Prairie, Spring Vale, and Wyocena, forming the first; and the towns of Columbus, Fountain Prairie, Hampden, Otsego, Leeds, Lowville, Lodi, Dekorra, Westpoint, and Caledonia, the second district. The vote of the electors at the annual town meeting in April, 1851, permanently located the seat of justice at Fort Winnebago, in accordance with an act approved March 15, 1851. The population in 1846 was 1,969; 1847, 3,791; 1850, 9,565. Farms, 998; manufactories, 25; dwellings, 1,855. County officers for 1853 and 1854: County Judge, Joshua J. Guppy; Sheriff, Perry Lee; Clerk of Court, James Delany, Register of Deeds, William Owen; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, Alvin Alden; County Treasurer, IH. Hascall; County Surveyor, John Thomas; Coroner, Isaac Smith. COMO, lake, in the south part of the town of Geneva, in WaI worth county. It is about three miles long, and half a mile broad. CONCORD, P. O., in town of same name, Jefferson county, on section 15, known as " Kelloggs," formerly Union Centre. CONCORD, Town, in county of Jefferson, being town 7 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, 10 miles northeast from Jefferson. The population in 1850 was 725. It has 9 school districts. 67

Page  68 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. COOKSVILLE, P. V., (Waucoma village), in Rock county, being on section 6, town 4 N., of range 11 E. It is 16 miles northwest from Janesville, and 18 miles southeast from Madison, on the edge ()f a broad and gently sloping prairie of two miles in width. It is on the Badfish, witlI three good millsites within one and a half miles. Population, 250; dwellings, 35; stores, 3; hotels, 1; mills, 3. 1 Presbyteiian church, 1 sash and door, 1 waggon, 1 harness, 1 shoe, 1 blacksmith, 1 cabinet, and 1 tailor shop. CooN, Prairie, in Bad Ax county, on section 5, town 13 N., of range 4 W. COOPERSTOWN, P. V., in Brown county, on section 1, town 21 N., of range 22 E. COPPER, Creek, empties into the Mississippi, in town 6, Crawford county. COPPER, Creek, is a small stream entering Baraboo river from the N., about 5 miles below Reedsburg. COTTACGE GROVE, P. O., in town of same name, Dane county, on section 23. COTTAGE GROVE, Town, in county of Dane, being town 7, range 11 E.; centrally located, 10 miles east from Madison. The population in 1850 was 1,022. It has 12 school districts, and 3 hotels; the settlers are principally Irish and German. COtURT-EOREILLE, lake, (Lac Coiirt-eoreille, Agasowi Lake), a con siderable lake in the southern part of La Pointe county, dis charging its waters through a river of the same name, into the Chippewa river. COURT-EOREILLE,?River, rises in lake of same name, runs southeast into the Chippewa. CoUmRTLAND, Town, in county of Columbia. CRANBERRY, Creek, in Adams county, is a northern branch of the Yellow river. 68

Page  69 WISCONSIN GAZETTEERP. CRA.NBERRY, Iakes, several small lakes ill the town of Concord, Jefferson county; have been so named on account of the great quantities of that fruit formerly found in their vicinity. CRAWFISH, Pt,it:er, rises in the towvan of Hampden, Columbia county, and running southleasterly, uniting with Beaver Dam creek, in Dodge county, enters Pock river, at Jefferson. It is about the samne size as Rockl river. CRAWFORD, County, is located at the junction between the Wis consin and MIississippi rivers, and is bounded on the north by Bad Ax, on the east by Riciland, on the southeast by Grant, and on the west by the Mkississippi, which separates it from the State of Iowa. It was established October 16, 1818, when it embraced all of the territory between the MAissis sippi and "a line drawn due north friom the northern line of the State of Illinois, througlh the centre of the Portage be tween the Fox and Wisconsin rivers to the MSichilimacinac," and derived its name from lion. Wm. H. Crawford, formerly Secretary of War, and afterwards Secretary of the Treasury. Its limits have now been so far reduced that it is one of the smallest counties in the State. Thie seat of jiustice is at Prairie du Chien, one of the oldest settlements in the State, on the Mississippi river, about three mnailes above the mouth of the Wisconsin, and is one of the most beautiful locations in the west. The surface of the country is broken by a ridge run ning between the twoo great rivers. The soil, foir thie most part, is good, producing wheat, oats, and lmost other grains, which find a ready ho —me market, in supplying the lumber traders, military posts, and the great tide of emigration which is now turned to this and the neighboring counties of La Crosse and Bad Ax. It is watered bty the Iiickapoo river and its branches, and small streams emptying into the Mis sissippi and Wisconsin rivers. Between the Kickapoo river and Richland county, is one of the finest tracts of country in the State. It is well supplied with pare water; and good 6 69

Page  70 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. timber is found along the banks of the small streams, and in groves, scattered at convenient distances, to be useful for the rapidly increasing population. A fine village has been regularly laid out midway between the mouth of the Kickapoo and the Richland county line, on the Wisconsin river, called Boyd's town. It has a good landing. There is much pine timber in this county, on and near the banks of the Kickapoo, firom which large quantities of lumber are manufactured, finding an outlet to a market by said river, and the Wisconsin and Mississippi. Copper has been found in the northern part of the county, in such quantities and appearance as to indicate the near presence of a vast body of that mineral. Near the west bank of the Kickapoo, in town 8, has been found considerable quantities of lead, and there is no doubt that if a geological survey was made, that lead, rivalling in quantity and purity that raised in the counties of Iowa, Grant and Lafayette, would be discovered. It is connected with the sixth judicial circuit, and the nineteenth senate district, and with Bad Ax, is entitled to one member of the assembly. The estimated population of Crawford county in 1825, includinlg most of the present State and a portion of Minnesota, was 492. The population in 1830 was 692; 1836, S8.; 1838,1,220; 1840,l 1,502; 1842, 1,409; 18S46, 1,441; 147, 1,409; S1850, (including Bad Ax and La Crosse,) 2,399; 1850: within its present limits, 1,407. Farms, S81; mnanufactories, 14; dwellings, 665. The above will give but little information in regard to the increase of population, as new counties were set off between nearly every taking of the census. The present population of the county is upwards of 3,000. County Officers for 1853 and 1854: County Judge, Iliram A. Wright; Sheriff, Leander LeClerc; Clerk of Court, Ira B. B]runson; District Attorney, Samuel Cowden; Register of Deeds, Ira B. Brunson; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, iHeman Baldwin; County Treasurer, I. P. Perrett Gentil; County Surveyor, Ira B. Brunson; Coroner, Henry H. Bailey. 70

Page  71 WISCONSIN GAZEfTTrEEi.. CRocoDILE, PiVe%, or Rice River, see Fond du Lac river. CROOKED, -auke, a small body of water near the Wisconsin, in the town of Fennimore, Grant county. CROOKED, Lake, an expansion of Bairk river, in the south part of the town of Summit, Waukesha county, a shorlt distance below the Nebalimin lakes. CROOKED, lake, near the centre of the town of Auburn, Fond du Lac county. CRoss PLAIXNS, P. 0., in town of same name, Dane county. CRoss PLAINS, Tows, in the county of Dane, being town? N., of ranges 6) and 7 E.; centrally located, 17 miles W. from Madison. It has 7 school districts. CRYSTAL, (ake, in Marquette county, in town 17 N., on a line between ranges 9 and 10 east, discharging its waters south easterly, into the Neenah, near the line between towns 15 and 16 north. (CYAON, Clee/l, empties into the Kickapoo from the west, in towni 9 north, in Crawford county. DAKOTAH, To7W, in county of Waushlara, being town 18 N., of range 10; centrally located, 10 miles west from Sacramento. DANE, Town, in county of Dane, being town 9 N., of range 8 E.; centrally located, 15 miles northwest fiom Madison. DANxE, CO?lnty, is bounded on the northwest by the Wisconsin river, by which it is separated from Sauk; on the north by Columbia, on the east by Dodge and Jefferson, south by Rock and Green, and west by Iowa. It was established firom Mil waukee and Iowa, and attached to Iowa for judicial purposes December 7, 1836, and fully organized March 11, 1839. The seat of justice is at Madison, near the geographical centre of the county, and the Court House is the best in the State. Dane county contains about 1,250 square miles, mostly of good tillable land, and a fertile soil, well apportioned between woodland, openings and prairie, and is well adapted 71

Page  72 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. to grazing, and the raising of grain, roots and fruit. There is, in the county, considerable non-resident land which can be bought on reasonable terms. One of the most attractive features of the county is its beautiful lakes of clear, pure cold water, originating in deep springs. The Catfish river forms the outlet of these lakes, and passes fiom the northiwest to the southeast completely through the chain known as the Four Lakes. The county is connected with the second judicial circuit, the second congressional district, and constitutes the eleventh senate district. It is divided into assembly districts as follows: 1st. The towns of Dunkirk, Christiana, Pleasant Springs and Alb.ion. 2d. The towns of Cottage Grove, Deerfield, Sun Prairie, MIedina, York and Bristol. 3d. The towns of Velrona, M[onitrose, Oregoon, Greenfield, Dunn and Rutland. 4th. The towns of Perry, Primrose, Blue Mounds, Springdale, Cross Plains, M]iddletonii, Springfield, Berry, Black Eaithi, lRoxl)ur) and Dane. 5th. The village and town of MIadison, and the towns of Burk, Blooming Grove, Westport, ~ienna and Windsor. The county is watered by the Catfish and Sugar rivers, and Black Earth, Badfish, Token, Waterloo and l1oskonong creeks. The population in 1836 wras Ebenezer Brighami; 1838, 172; 1840, 314; 1842, 8,289; S18-i7, 10,935; 1850, 16,654. Farms, 1,511; manufactories, 87; dwellings, 3,510. County Officers: County Judge, X. Bishop Eddy; Clerk of the Court, Charles Lumm; Sheriff, Willet S. Main; Reogister, John B. Sweat; Clerk of Board Supervisors, Gabriel Bjornsen; District Attorney, Samuel TI. Roys; Treasurer, Philo Dunning; Surveyvor, Russel Babbitt; Coroner, Andrew Bishop. DARIEN, P. V., in town of same name, Walworth county. DARIEN, Town, in county of Walworth, being town 2 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 10 miles southwest from Elkhorn, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 1,013. It has 8 school districts. 79

Page  73 WISCONSIN Gt_ZETTEEP. DARTFORD, P. T., ill town of Brooklyn, the seat of justice of Mar quette county, is located on the outlet of Green Lake, in the openings on section 21, towna 16 -N., of range 13 E.; 65 miles northeast from -ladcison. It contains about 400 temperate and industrious inhabitants. It is on the stage route from Milwaukee to Berlin and Plover, as also on the great western thoroughlfare from Shleboygan and Fond du Lac. The climate of this vicinity is very healthy. It has 58 dwellings, 5 stores, 1 hotel, 4 mills, 5 mechanical shops, 1 church, and 3 organ ized religious denominations. DAYTON, Toitii, (former,ly ]I~iddletown), in county of Marquette. DAYTON, Town, (formerlyv E imibarrass), in northeast corner of the county of aNTaupacca. It wAas organized in the fall of 1852. DAYTON, To'v0, ill counity of WTaushara, being town 21, of range 11. DEAD, (Icke, in town 24 X., of range 14 W., in Chippewa county. DEAD, i(t7:, near M[adison, in Dane county. DEATH'S -Door, the entrance firom Lakle liichigan to Green Bay, between Plum Islandd an the main land of Door county. DECATUR, P). TF, in town of same name, in Green county. DECATUn, To't2n, in the countyV of Green, being town 2 N., of range 9; centrally located, southeast from Monroe. The pop ulation in 1S50 was So. It has 7 school districts. DEER, Cie'-c, a tributary from the northwest, rises in Waushara county, entering Aiechan river in town 17 N., of range 9. DEFE, Ci,(- k, a small stream, entering Rock river about 2 miles above Fort At'kinson. DEE,FIELD, T'OWn, in conuty of Dane, being town 7 N., of range 12 E.; centrally located, 16 miles east from Madison. DEERFIELD, P. O., in Dane county, on section 9, town 7 N., of range 12 E.; 16( miiles east from Madison, at Junction of Columbus and Jaanesv-ille stage road with the great eastern 73

Page  74 WISCONSIN GAZEYTEER. mail route and thoroughfare from Galena to Milwaukee. It has 75 inhabitants, 13 dwellin-gs, 2 stores, and 1 hotel; and is located in the vicinity of good timber, prairie and open ings, and has excellent water. This place is well known as "Hyer's," in hlonor of D. R. Hllyer, by whom it was settled in 1843, at which time he was the only settler within 6 miiles. DEER, l(;ake, is a small lake in the town of Ilarmony, Rock county. DEKORRA, Towib, in county of Columbia, being town 11 N., of ranges 9 and 10 E.; centrally located, 10 miles from Portage city. The population in S1850 was 661. It has 8 school districts. DEKORRA, P. T., ill Columbia county, on section 6, town 11 N., of range 9 E.; 6 miles south from Portage city, and 30 miles northwest from Madison. Its location is on the east side of the Wisconsin river, at the mouth of Rocky Run creek, and has 150 inhabitants, 45 dwellings, 2 stores, 2 hotels, 1 mill, and 1 methlodist church. DFiKORRA, 2ot,tds, in La Crosse county, on sections 3 and 4, town 18 N., of range 7 W., near Black river. DELAFIELD, ToWn, in county of Waukesha, being town 7 N., of range 1S E.; centrally located, 9 miles northwest from Wauk esha. The population in 1850 was 1,13i. It has 5 school districts. DELAFIELD. P. V., on Bark river, in town of same name in Wau kesha county, on section 20. The former great western thoroughfare, from Milwaukee to Madison, passed through this place, but since the completion of the Watertown and Milwaukee plank road, which passes 2-} miles north, the vil lage has lost, in a great degree, the activity and bustle that once characterized it. It has 2 good flouring mills, 1 machine shop, 4 stores, 3' hotels, 3 shoe shops, 3 blacksmiths, 2 cabinet and 2 wag,onr maker's shops. DELAvAN, P. F., in town of same name, Walworth county, being on section 18. It is the seat of the Wisconsin Deaf and Dumb Institution; has an excellent flour mill with good hydraulic power, and one of the best nurseries in the State. It is 60 miles southeast from Madison. 74

Page  75 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. DELAVAN, Town, in Walworth county, being town 2 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, 5 miles southeast from Elkhorn, the county seat. The population in 1850, was 1,260. It has 6 school districts. DELAYAN, Lake, is in the southern part of the town of the same name. It is about three miles in length, and one in width, discharging its waters through its outlet into Turtle creek. DELHI, P. V., in Winnebago county, on section 20, town 18, of range 20. It is located on the south side of Fox river, 12 miles northwest from Oshkosh and 80 miles northeast from Madison. Population 150; 40 dwellings, 3 stores, 1 hotel, and 2 mills. DELL, Cieec, a considerable tributary from the west, entering the Wisconsin river in the towni of New Buffalo, Sank county. DELL, Creek, P. O., on creek of same name, in Sank county. DELL, Prai(iie, a large prairie near the Dells of Wisconsin. DELLOXA, PI. 0., Sank county, in town of the samte name, near centre of town 1 3, of range S E.; 15 mniles northerly from Baraboo, and 55 miles northwest from Madison. It is half way between Reedsburg and Delton, being about 6 miles from eaclh. DELLONA, Town, in Sank county, being town 13 N., of range 5 E., The population is about 400. DELLS, in Chippewa river, in town 28, of range 9 W. DELLS, in Wisconsin river, in town 15 N., of range 5 E. The river passes between rocks, 300 feet high, for S miles. DELLTON, P. V., in Sank county, in town of Deltona, on section 21, town 13 N., of range 6 E.; 10 miles northerly from Bar aboo, and 50 miles firom Madison. It is well situated on Dell creek, one and a half nailes from its mouth into the Wiscon sin. It has a steamboat navigation with the Upper Missis sippi, through the Wisconsin river, which is navigable to this point. It is also on the proposed route of the Milwaukee and 75

Page  76 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. La Crosse railroad. It has 140 inhabitants, 34 dwellings, 2 stores, 2 hotels, 2 churches, and 7 mechanical shops. DELTOXNA, Town, in couLnty of Sank, being town 13 N., of range 6 E.; centrally located, northwest from Baraboo. It has 6 school districts. DENOON, P. V., Waaukleshla county, on the north line of Racine county, on section 32, town 5 N., of range 20 E. (Muskego), and section 5, town 4 N., of rangoe 20 E. (Norway); 15 miles southeast from Waukesha, 25 miles northwest from Racine, and 80 miles southeast from Madison. It is located on the Milwaukee and Rochester plank road, 20 miles southwest from Iilwaukee, on the east bank of Denoon lake. Popula tion 100; 10 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, several mechanical shops, and 1 Lutheran church. DEPFE, lClpd.7, on thie Fox river, 7 miles above Green Bay. They are improved by a dami at Depere. DEPERE P. I. and C. f., in the county of Brown, in town 23 N., of range 21 E., 110 miles northeast from Mladison. It was first settled A. D. 1672, and a small log church was built by the Jesuits. The first court house and jail in the State was erected here, also thie first saw mill, whiclh was built in 1824. It has a bridge and draw 2,500 feet long, across Fox river. It is the head of lake and foot of river navigation. It has a most beautiful and healthy location, being on both sides the river Neenah. Population 1],200; 400 dwellings, 10 stores, 4 hotels, 7 mills, 4 shingle factories, 2 extensive fisheries, yielding annually 1,500 barrels of fish; 2 churches, and 5 denominations. DES PLAINE, T-~eiVei, in Lenosha county. See O'Plaine river. DIETOUR, P]?iver, is a small stream, entering Lake Superior east of Herron river. DETROIT, Istan(C, is at the connection of Green Bay and Lake Michigan, south from Pottawattamne Island. It is 4 miles long and half a mile wide. 76

Page  77 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. DEVIL'S, Chlimney, so called, a natural curiosity, is situated near the village of Mount Vernon, in Dane county. It consists of a tall round arch about 20 feet in diameter and 125 feet high. The surrounding country being comparatively level. DEVIL'S, R.ive", see East river, Brown county. DICKERMAN:'S, Cieek, rises in the south part of Nekimi, Winne bago county, and runs northeasterly into lake Winnebago. D)ICKEY'SVILLE, P.O., in Grant county, on section 22, town 2 N., of range 2 W., being in the town of Paris, 20 miles south from Lancaster, and 125 miles southwest from Madison, on the Galena and Mississippi stage route. Population 50, with 6 stores, 1 hotel, and I church. DODGE, COtUnty, is bounded on the north by Alarquette and Fond du Lac, on the east by Fond du Lac and Washington, on the south by Waukesha and Jefferson, and on the west by Dane and Columbia; and is 30 miles square. It was so named in honor of General Dodge, first Governor of the territory, and was set off fr(mi Brown, December 7, 1836, to which it re mained attached for judicial purposes until January 13, 1840, when it was organized for county purposes, and its judicial connection changed to Jefferson. It was fully organized Jan, 20, 1844. The seat of justice is at the village of Juneau, for merly known as Dodge Centre. The surface of the country, west of Rock river, is diversified with openings, prairie, and good hay marsh; and the soil being good, it is well adapted to the raising of wheat and the summer grains, and to grazing. East of the river it is timbered with a heavy growth of maple and other hard woods, and the soil produces the grain crop with equal advantage with the other side, while it is more naturally adapted to the growth of the cultivated grasses. Near the banks of Rock river are beds of iron ore, which are success fully worked. Dodge county forms a part of the third judicial circuit, and of the third congressional district, and constitutes the twenty-second senate district. It is divided into six assem, 77

Page  78 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. bly districts, as follows: 1. Towns of Leroy, Lomyra, Williamnstown and Theresa. 2. Towns of Hubbard, Hiermon, Hustisford and Rubicon. 3. Towns of Emmet, Lebanon and Ashippun. 4. Towns of Elba, Lowell, Clyman, Portland and Shields. 5. Towns of Fox Lake, Trenton, Westford, Calamus and Beaver Dam. 6. Towns of Chester, Burnette and Oak Grove. It is watered by the Crawfish, Roc and Beaver Dam rivers, and their tributaries. The population in 1838 was 18; 18i0, 67; 1842, 149; 1846, 7,787; 1847,14,905; and 1850, 19,14). Dwellings, 3,561; farms, 2,338; manufactories, 30. County Officers: County Judge, S. L. Rose; Sheriff, Benj. Ferguson; Clerk of Court, J. B. Ribble; Register of Deeds, N. Juneau; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, E. Sweeney; County Treasurer, L. Merz. DODGE CENTRE, see Juineau. DODGE'S, Braneh, of the Peckatonnica river, rises near Dodge ville, Iowa county, and runs southerly through the eastern portion of Iowa and Lafayette counties, entering the Pecka tonnica in the southeast corner of Wyota, Lafayette county. DODGEVILLE, Towft, in the county of Iowa. DODGEVILLE, P. V/., in town of same name, being on section 34. The village contains about 100 inhabitants, mostly miners, (English and Welsh.) There are 3 churches, 9 stores, and 1 smelting furnace. The country surrounding is well adapted to farmning, and is well watered. I)OUGHERTY, R?'ier, rises in York, Green county, and runs south west, entering the Peckatonnica, in the south part of the town of Argyle, Lafayette county. DOUGLASS, Creek, a small branch from the north, in town 19 N., of range 5 W. DOUGLAss, Harbor, on the western shore of Lake Michigan, in town 30, Door county. 78

Page  79 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. DOOR, County, is located between Green Bay and Lake Michigan, and is bounded on the north and east by the State line of Michigan, on the south by kewaunee, and on the west by Oconto. It was set off from Brown, February 11, 1851. It then included the present county of Kewaunee, and was at tached to Manlitowoc for judicial government. The county seat was established at Gibralter, on Gibralter Bay, here tofore known as Bailey's Harbor, on the west shore of Lake Michigan, in town 30 N., of range 28 E. Door county is for legislative and county purposes, in connection with Brown county. It has several small streams emptying into the Bay and into Lake Superior. DOOR, Creek,, Dane county, rises in Sun Prairie, and runs south, emptying into First Lake. DOOR CREEK, P. O., is on Liberty Prairie, in town of Cottage Grove, county of Dane, on section 33, town 7 N., of range 11 E. It is 11 miles east of south from Madison, and contains 1 store, 1 hotel, and methodist and presbyterian congrega tions. DOTY'S, Islanc8, is between the villages of Menasha and Neenah, in lake Winnebago, at its outlet. It contains about 750 acres of land, the residence of Governor Doty. DoTY's, -Rier, a small tributary of Rock river, which it enters, in the north part of Dodge county. DOTYVILLE, P. V., in town of Forest, Fond du Lac county, on sections 13 and 14. DOVER, Town, in county of Racine, being town 3 N., of range 20 E.; centrally located, 16 miles west of Racine. The popu lation in 1850 was 840. It has 5 school districts. DOVER, P. V., on section 24, town of same name, in Iowa county, 33 miles northeast from Mineral Point, and 27 northwest from Madison. The location is near the junction of the Blue Mound and Black Earth rivers, 2 miles above the Wisconsin, 79

Page  80 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. at the crossing of the western thoroughfare to the pinery, and the easterni thoroughfare from Richland county. Population 100; with 20 dwellings, 2 stores, 1 hotel, 1 flourinug mill, a school hlouse, mechanics of nearly all kinds, and several reli gious denominations. DEucK, (Cree(, Columbia county, rises in the northeast corner of the county, and running soutltwest, enters the Wisconsin about 3 miles below the Portage. DucK CREEK, is the outlet of Golden Lake, on the line between Waukeshla and Jefferson counties, and empties into Bark riv-er about half way between Palmyra and Fort Atkinson. Ducrc, lake, Walworth county, see Comno Lake. DucIK, River, (or Duck Creek of Green Bay), rises in the north west corner of the town of Kaukauna, and runs northeast parallel to the:,Neenahl, through the Oneida Reservation, entering Green Bay a few m-iles below the mouth of the Oieenah. DJ)hDAs, I'. O., in Calumet conuty. Du.N.KIKK, Towi, in couny of Dane, being town 5 N., of range 11 F.; centrally located, 16 miles southeast from Madison. It has 7 school districts. Du-NKIIK FALLS, jC,ie[.., in the Catfish river, in which the descent is 6 feet, in a distance of little over a mile. DUNX, TowN, in county of Dane, being town 6 N., of range 10 E.; centrally located, S miles southeast from )Iadison. Thle pop ulation in 1850 was 258. It has 6 school districts. EAGLE, Tow,, in the county of Waukesha, being town 15 N., of rance 17 E.; centrally located, 18 miles southwest from Wan kesha. The population in S1850 was 81S6. It has 6 school districts. EAGLE, Bay, a bay of Green Bay, about 16 miles northeast from Sturgeon Bay, extending easterly into Door county. so

Page  81 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. EAGLE, Creek, rises in the northwest corner of Richland county, and running southeast enters the Wisconsin, near the fourth principal meridian. EAGLE, Creek, a smlall tributary of the:Iississippi, near range line between rang,es 11 and 12 east. EAGLE, Iftcrbor, western part of Eagle Bay of Green Bay, Door county. EAGLE, -cake, is about a mile and a half long, near the centre of the town of Dover, in Iracine county. EAGLE, JJi[[S, on Eagle creek, about twvo miles above its mouth. EAGLE POINT, Town, in county of Portage, being all of same, west of range 5. EAGLE, Prairie, a large prairie in the southwest part of town of sauie name, in Waukesha county, on which is located a depot of the Milwaukee and Bfississippi railroad. EAGLEVILLE, P. O., in the southeast corner of the town of Eaglet on section 25, in Waukesha county. EAST Branch, of the Peckatonica river. See Dodge's branch. EAST Branch, of the l1enomonee river of Ylilwalukee, which it enters from the west, in the town of Granville. EAST FORK, Creek, the northeastern branch of Grant river, rises in Wingville, Grant county, and runs southwvesterly, through Lancaster, into that river in Beetown.v EAST river (Mlanitoo or Devil's), Brown county, rises in the south part of the county, running parallel, on the east, to Fox rivei, into which it empties about two miles below the village of' Green Bay. EAST TRoy, P. F., Walworth- county, on sections 19, 20, ~9 and 30, in town of same name, 12 miles northeast from Elkhorn, and 73 miles southeast from [ladison. It is a beautiful in land village, in a good farming district, 35 miles southwest from Milwaukee, and 33 miles northwest from Racineo S1

Page  82 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Population 400, with 75 dwellings, 5 stores, 2 hotels, 2 mills, several mechanical shops, a Baptist, Presbyterian and Metho dist denomination. EAST TRoY,:Tow), in county of Walworth, being town 4 N., of range 13 E.; centrally located, 13 miles southeast from Elk horn. The population in 1850 was 1,318. It has 7 school districts. EAUI PLAINE, P. V., on Wisconsin river, at DIubay's trading post at the mouth of Little O'Plaine, in northern part of Portage county. EDEN, Town, in the county of Fond du Lac, being town 14 N., of range 18 E.; centrally located, 10 miles southeast from Fond du Lac. The population in 1850 was 840. It has 8 school districts. EDEN, P. 0., in same town, Fond du Lac county. EIGHIT MIILE, Creek, rises in the town of Nekimi, Winnebago county, and runs westerly into the outlet of RPush lake. ELBA, P. O., in town of same name, Dodge county. ELBA, Town, in the county of Dodge, being town 10 N., of range 13 E.; centrally located, 12 miles southwest from Juneau. The population in 1850 was 1,548. It has 7 school districts. EL DorADo, Town, in the county of Fond du Lac, being town 16 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, 7 miles northwest from Fond du Lac. The population in 1850 was 504. EL DORADO, P. O., in town of same name, Fond da Lac county. ELK, P. O., in Bad Ax county. ELK, tiver, a branch from the north, of Chippewa river, rises in town 26 N., of range 11 W. ELKHART, Lake (Big), in the town of Rhine, Sheboygan county, on sections 29 and 30 of town 16 N., of range 21 E. ELKHART, Lake (Little), on sections 33 and 34, of town 16, of range 2 E. 82

Page  83 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. ELKIIART, P. F., Sheboygan county, on section 31, in the town of Rhine, town 16 N., of range 21 east, 20 miles northwest from Sheboygan. ELKHORN, P. V.. and C. I., Walwortli county, on section 36, town 3 N., of range 13 E., at the geographical centre of the county. It is in town of same name, 65 miles southeast fromn Madison. Population 250, with 60 dwellings, 4 stores, 2 hotels, steam mill, various mechanical shops, and 4 religious denominations. ELKIHORN, Towit, in county of Walworthl, comprising section 1, town 2 N., of section 36 of town 3, range 16 E., and section 6, of town 2, and section 31 of town 3 N., of range 17 E. It is the county seat. The population is 600. ELLENBORO', P. F., Grant county, on section 28, in the town of hIighland, town 4 N., of range 2 W.; 7 miles southeast from Lancaster, and 95 miles southwest from Madison. It is located on Platte river, about half way between Platteville and Lan caster, on the mail route from Galena to the Upper Missis sippi, and is in a good farming district, with excellent water power, with considerable vacant land, and unimproved hy draulic power. Population 51, 7 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, 2 mills, and a blacksmith and carpenter's shop. ELLENBORO', Town, (recently south half of I-ighland), in county of Grant, being town 4 N., of range 2 W.; centrally located 8 miles southeast from Lancaster. ELLINGTON, P.., in county of Outagamie, on section 20, of town 22 N., of range 16 E.; 13 miles northwest from Grand Chute, 130 miles northeast firom Madison. It is located on the road from Green Bay (36 miles) to Plover Portage (70 miles). It is 28 miles from Oshkosh, and 35 miles from Lake Shawanaw. Population 150, with 35 dwellings, 2 mills, 2 hotels and seve ral religious denominations. ELLINGTON, TiOWe, in county of Outagamie, being towns 23 and 24 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, 20 miles northwest from Grand Chute. It has 3 school districts. 83

Page  84 WISCOhNSIlX GAZETTEER. EMPARRAss, Towt, in county of Waupacca, being towns 23, 24 and 25 N., of range 14 E.; centrally located, north from Mukwa. EImARRASS, iver, see Bad or AMannaise river of La Pointe county. EMERALD GROVE, P. V., in town of Bradford, Rock county. EMMET, P. O., in town of same name, Dodge county. E.LNIET, Toiwc,, ill county of Dodge, being town 9 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 12 miles south from Juneau. The population in 1 850 was 1,207. It has 7 school districts. EM.PIRE, Tows, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 15 N., range 18 E.; centrally located, 6 miles southeast fiom Fond du Lac. ENGLISII, Iak'e, a small lake in the northwest corner of town 18 N., of range 23 E. ERIN, Town, in county of Washington, being town 9 N, of range 18 E.; centrally located, 26 miles southwest fiom Ozaukee. The population in 1850 was 849. It has 5 school districts. ERVAxDIGO, River, a tributary, from the north, of St. Croix river, in La Pointe county. EUREKA, P. U., in Winnebago county, on section 28, town 18 N., range 14 E., in town of Rushford, 16 miles west from Oslh koshl, and 70 miles northeast from Madison. It is beautifully situated on the southlern shore of Fox river, surrounded by a rich farming country, and possesses plenty of lime stone, sand, clay and timber, for buildintg purposes. The settlement was first commenced in 1850. Population 70, with 14 dwel lings, 2 stores, 1 hotel, 1 mill, and various mechanical shops. EVANSVILLE, P. V., on Allen's creekl, section 27, town 4 N., range 10 E., in Rock couity, 18 miles northwest from Janesville, and 23 miles southeast from Madison. It has a population of about 200 temperate and industrious people, with 25 dwel lings, 2 stores, 1 hotel, 2 mills, 1 machine, 1 waggon, 1 shoe, and 1 blacksmith's shop; 1 meeting house, and two religious denominations, and a large and commodious school house. The Madison and Beloit railroad is located through this place. 84:

Page  85 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. EVERFLOWING, River, a tributary from the north of the St. Croix river, in the western part of La Pointe county. EXETER, P. V., Green county, on section 33 of town of same name, being town 4 N., of range 8 E., 16 miles northeast from Monroe, and 24 miles southwest from Madison. Popula tion 105, with 22 dwellings, 2 stores, 2 hotels, and 6 religious denominations. The principal occupation of the inhabitants is mining. EXETER, Town, in the county of Green, being town 4 N., of range 8; centrally located, 15 miles northeast from Monroe. The population in 1850 was 450. It has 6 school districts. FAIRFIELD, P. O., (iAlaxson's Mtill), in townv of Bradford, county of Rock, on section 13, town 2 N., of range 15 E. It is 11 miles southeast from county seat, and 50 miles east of south from Madison. Population 100, 12 dwellings, 2 stores, 1 grist mill, and Presbyterian and Baptist denominations. It is oni Turtle creek, 16 miles from Beloit, and on the county line between Rock and Walworthl, 9 miles from the state line. The first settler was Joseph Maaxson. FAIRPLAY, P. V., in Grant county, on section 25, in the town of Jamestown, town 1 N., of range 2 W., in a good mineral and farming district; 30 miles southeast from Lancaster, 12 miles northwest from Galena, 6 miles northeast f'om Dubuque, and 85 miles southwest from Madison. Population 800, with 110 dwellings, 2 stores, 2 hotels, 1 church and 3 religious denominations. A Poman Cathlolic college is located at this place. FAIR PLAY, )iqgings, on section 25, townl 1 N., of range 1 W., in Grant county. FAIRWATER, P. V., Fond du Lac county, on section 31, town 15 N., of range 14 E.; being in thie town of Metomon, 22 miles west from Fond du Lac, and 65 miles northeast irom Madi son. It is situated onl the road firom Watertown to Ceresco and Berlin, in a fine and healthy section, of good farming 7 85

Page  86 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. land, on the north branch of Grand river. It has two good water powers, one of which is improved by a fine flouting mill; the other is unimproved, with 28 feet head, and suffi cient water for three run of stone. Population 10(), 5 dwellings, 1 stole, and 1 hotel. FALLEN R?OCks, on the Wisconsin, a few miles below Helena, in Iowa county, where the river has undermined the rocks about 200 feet lon~g. FALL RIVE:, I_. V., Columbia county, in the town of Fountain Praiie, on section 26, town 11 N., of iange 12; 25miles east of southeast from Portage City, and the sainie distance north east ft'iom on Madclis(n. It has an excellei,t water power, with a fa 1,.f 16 feet. on which is a good saw and flouting niill, being the best I].draulic Jc. —1 in the viciniity. Population 175, with 35 dwellings, 3 stores, I hotel, 2 mills, 3 religious de nomi, at orls, aid a good school house. FALLs OF ST. CrOIx, P. V., and C. II., on St. Croix river, in town 31, Polk countv. FALLS OF ST. CRoix, Town, in county of Polk, comprising the same. FARMLrR's GROVE, P. O., in town of Yolk, Green county, being town 4 N., of range 6 E. FARMIERSVILLE, P. O., in Dodg,e county. FARMIN.GTOXN, Town, in conlity of \Washington, being township 12 N., of rl a,ge 20 E.; ceiitraly located, 15 miles northwest firom Ozat kee. P,,pnlationl in 18-)0 was 501. It has 9 school districts. FAREIINGTON, Tow~i, in county of Jefferson, being town 7 N., of range 15 E.; entrally 1()ca ed, S miles northeast firom Jeffer son. Tl e Jopulatioii is 900. It has 6 school districts. The surface is rolling, with heavy timber and good springs, and small streams of water. The soil on the high land is mostly a clay loam, in the vallies a black, vegetable and sandy loam, with subsoil of clay. The timber is mostly maple, basswood, oak, elm, walnut, and ash.. 86

Page  87 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. FAMIINGTON, P. O., Jefferson county, on section 14 of town of same name, being town 7 N., of range 15 E.; 11 miles north east f-om Jefferson, 38 miles east from Mladison, midway betwveen _Milwaukee and Madison, via Aztalan and Concord. FARWELL'S 4Addition to MADISON, is on the northeast side of the Catfish, and is laid out into lots of an acre each, conspicuous to the business portion of the village. FARWELL'S fVill, a small settlement on the Catfish river, near MIadison. At this place is the best flouring mill in the State, with 8 run of stone; also a good saw mill, woollen factory, brewery, and several nie chlanical shops. FAYETTE, iP. F., La Fayette county, on section 8, town 3 N., of range 4 E.; 18 miles northieast from Sllull~burg, and 50 miles soutihwest fi'om AIadison, in a good iiiineial region. Popui'ation 100, 30 ldwl llings, 2 st, res, 2 mills, I hotel, and 1 Mietihodi t and 1 F. W. Baptist denumiination. FENNIMNORE, P. V., in t(),wn of same name, town 6 N., of range 2 W., Gratt count,)y. FEN.NIORzE, Tow,, in county of Grant, being all south of the WAVisconsin liver o'f towns 6 and 7 N., of lranges 2, 3 and 4, and firactional town 8 N., (,f rai)ge 3 W. It is centrally located, 12 miles north fronom Lancaster. It has 9 sclool districts. FENNIIOROE FOR,, I?Pver, a branch from the south of Blue river, Gi-ait county. FEVRE, Pidver, rises near Belmont, Lafayette county, and running southe,ly, through GLilena, into the lississippi, 7 miles below that place. FILLMIORE, P. U., in town of Farmington, Washington county, being in 12 N., of range 20 E. FIRsT, lacke, the l,)west of the chain of Four lakes, in the towns of DuLnn ai,d Pleasant Sj)rings, Dane county, 12 miles south east from M.adison. It has an area of five square miles. FISH, Lake, a small lake in the northeast corner of Deerfield, Dane county. 87

Page  88 WISCONSI:N GAZETTEER. FIsK's, Corners, P.:., Winnebago county, on section 11, town 17 N., of range 15; it is 8 miles from Oshkosh, and 90 miles from Madison. Population 600, 100 dwellings, and 2 hotels. FITCHBURG, P. V., in town of same name, formerly Greenfield, on section 33, town 6 N., of range 9 E. It is an excellent region of farming land, 10 miles south from Madison, on stage route to Janesville. It has 1 hotel, 2 stores, a school-house, meet ing-house, 3 religious denominations, 15 dwellings, and 80 inhabitants. FrrcnBURC, Town, Dane county, town 6, range 9 E., late Greenfield. FLAMIBEATI, lTake, in latitude nearly 46~, the outlet running north to nearly the state line, thence southiwest into the Chippewa. FLEMING, C)eek, a small tributary of Black river, from the south east, into which it empties in town 18 N., of range 6 W. FLORA, Town, in county of Sauk; centrally located, northeast from Baraboo. It has 3 school districts. FoND DU LAC, County, is bounded on the north by Winnebago and Calumet, on the east by Calumet and Sheboygan, on the south by Washington and Dodge, and on thle west by Marquette and portions of Dodge and Winnebago. Its name is derived from its locality, being at the "end of the lake." It was estab lished December 7, 1836, and set off from Brown, to which it remained attached until Marchl 11, 1839, when it was organized for county purposes. The seat of justice is at the city of Fond du Lac, at the head of Lake Winnebago. This county is generally well watered with springs, brooks, and small streams of pure water. The largest streams in the western part of the county are the two branches of the Rock river; one flowing eastwardly through the towns of Alto and Waupun, and the other rising in Metomon, and flowing southwardly through Springvale and the eastern part of Waupun. There are also the two branchles of Fond du Lac river (the east and west); the one rising in the town of Rosendale, and passing through a portion of Eldorado and 88

Page  89 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Lamartine, and the other (the east) rising from small streams and springs in the towns of Lamartine, Oakfield, and Byron, and passing through the town of Fond du Lac, unites withl its west branch withlin the city, about a mile from lake Winniebago. There is also another beautiful stream, known as the Chrystal Creek, (or the Green lake inlet), passing westwardly through the town of Ceresco into Marquette county, affording, at the villages of IRipon and Ceresco, some of the best water power in the county; and also Grand river, which rises and runs southwesterly through Metomon, affording excellent water power at the village of Fairwater. In the eastern and southern portions of the county are several small lakes and numerous streams, also affording good water power. The most northerly branch of the Milwaukee river rises in a small lake in the town of Eden, within about eight miles of Winnebago lake, and flows southerly through the town of Auburn, where there are numerous water powers. Another fine stream rises in Dodge county, and flows eastwardly through the town of Ashford, and unites with the last mentioned stream near the south line of Auburn. The east branch of the lilwauklee river rises by separate branches in the towns of Empire and Forest, and flows thllrough the town of Osceola, passing through Long Lake, and affording excellent water power at its outlet. It is worthy of remark that the lake in Eden, which gives origin to the Milwaukee river, is also the source of a small stream running northwardly into lake Winnebago, and is within a mile or so of the source of the Sheboygan river, which runs north and eastwardly through the towns of Forest and Kossuth; affording, also, more or less water power to those towns. In the northeast part of the county, in the town of Taycheedahl, and within 3 miles of lake Winnebago, arises the southerly branch of Manitowoc river, which runs northeasterly through the town of Calumet into the county of that name. In addition to these, there are numerouts small streams and branches of the above mentioned 89

Page  90 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. rivers, watering ahlmost every portion of the county. Water powers are already improved in the city and town of Fond du Lac, in Ceresco, the village of Ripon, -{etomon, Eldorado, Oakfield, Alto, Waupun, Ashford, Auburn, Osceola, Empire, and Forest. The soil of the county is somewhat diversified. The eastern and southeastern portions being mostly heavy timbered land, having a dark, rich soil in the bottoms, and fine gravelly ridges upon the swells. In the western portion, which is composed of small prairies and openings, and indeed in the whole open portion of the country, which comprises more than two-thirds of the whole area, the soil is an argillaceous loam, moderately mixed with sand and lime, resting on a thini layer of limestone much broken, and occasionally interspersed with knobs of drift gravel. Underlaying a considerable portion of the whole is a red sandstone, which occasionally outcrops in ravines. On many of tihe highest points of the pi,airies and openings, in the towns of Ceresco, AlIetomon, Waiipun, Lamartine, Oakfield, Byron, Empire, Taychleedahl, and Calumet, the limestone comes to the surface, affording thle best of material for building and fencing; and in many places furnishiing the most beautiful flaggirng stones of any thickness, f'om one inch to ten, of a texture neirly as fine and compact as marble. The face of the country is gently rolling,, and fromin the quality of the soil, the county is well adap)ted to all the more northern product; ons of agrieulture. The peculiar geographlical position of this country, erabraecng nearly the southern half of Winnebago lake, lwhiclih is connected wihi the great lakes by Fox river and Green Bay, and being, withiin some tlhirty-five miles of lake lichligan, at Sheb(-)oygan, as well as thle character of its soil, renders it one of the most important inland counties. Fond du Lae county forms a pI)art of the fourth judicial circuit, and of the the third congressional district. It constitutes the twentieth senatorial district, and is divided into four assembly districts, as follows: 1st. Ceresco, Meto 90

Page  91 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. mon, Alto, Waupun, Springvale, and Rosendale. 2d. Byron, Eden, Osceola, Aslhf,rd, and Auburn. 3d. Eldorado, Lamar tine, Oakfield(, Friendlslip, Fond du Lac, and the city of Fond du Lac. 4th. Calumet, Forest, Taycheedah, Kossuth, and Empire. The population in 1840 was 139; 1842, 295; 1846, 3.514; 1847, 7,459. Dwellings, 2,722; farms, 1,073; manufactories, 16. County Officers for 1853 and 1854: County Judge, C. l. Tompkins; Sheriff, Robert Jenkinsorn; Clerk of Court, John J. Driggs; Register of Deeds, Ran dolph Ebert; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, A. W. Paine; County Treasurer, O. S. Wright. FOND DU LAC, Torn, in county of same name, being town 15 N., of range 17 E. It is the seat of justice of the county. Population in 1850 was 2,016. It has 6 school districts. FOND DU LAC, City, see Appendix. FOND Du LAC, ]?iveP, rises in Oakfield, Fond du Lac county, and runs northeast, emptying, into lake Winnebago, at Fond du Lac city. FORT ATKINSON, ]P. V., on section 3, town 5 N., of range 14 E., Jeffeison county, being in the town of osk,()nong, at the junction of Bark with RPockl river. It is 6 miiles south of Je-ffcrson, and 32 miles southeast from Madison. It derives its name fr'om General Atk'n-on, who built a temporary fort at this place duiing the Black Hawk war —-hence its name. Population 350, with 70 dwellings, 8 stores, 3 hotels, 1 steam saw mill, 3 tailois, 2 shoe, 3 blacksmithl, 2 cooper, and 1 cabinet shops. 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist church. FORT CRAWFORD, forme, ly a military station near Prairie du Chien, in Crawford county, about 540 miles above St. Louis. FORT IIowARD, formerly a military station at mouth of Fox river, see Fort Howard village. FORT IHowARD, VFilage7, is situated on the west side of the Fox river, near its mouth, opposite to the old town of Green Bay. The site of the villa,ge of Fort Howard was purchased and 91

Page  92 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. surveyed into village lots by Joel S. Fisk and the ilon. Urial H. Peak, in the spring of 1850, since which there has been a rapid growth and settlement of the place, and it bids fair to become one of considerable commercial importance. It derived its name from being situated immediately in the vicinity of Old Fort HIoward, a military post of considerable notoriety. The village contains some four or five hundred inhabitants; it has several stores, three public houses, a large foundry and machine shop which gives employment to some thirty or forty workmen; there is also in the course of erec tion two steam saw mills, together with shops for various mechanical purposes. The soil on which the village is located is alluvial, on a clay subsoil, and is well adapted to gardening and the growth of fruit trees and shrubs; it possesses a back country of very considerable extent, which is rapidly filling up with an intelligent, industrious and go-a-head population; and although the pioneer settler is under the necessity of undergoing the fatigue and labor incident to the settlement and clearing up of a heavy timbered country, yet when it is brought under a state of proper cultivation it will not be sur passed by any section of the state in fertility of soil, and all the other appendages which make a country desirable for farming purposes. FORT WILNNEBAGO, P. O., at the old military station of same name, at the Portage of Fox and Wisconsin rivers, near Portage city. FORT WINNEBAGO, Town, in county of Columbia, being town 13 N., of range 9 E. Population in 1850 was 1,642. It has 11 school districts. FORREST, Town, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 15 N., of range 19 E.; centrally located, 12 miles east from Fond du Lac. The population in 1850, as then organized, was 1,218. It has 8 school districts. FOUNTAIx, Prairie, is the name of a large prairie south and west of Columbus, in Columbia county. 92

Page  93 WISCotSIN GAZETTEER. FOUNTAIN PRAIRIE, Town, in county of Columbia, being 11 N., of range 12 E.; centrally located, 23 miles from Portage city. The population in 1850 was 546. It has 5 school districts. This is an excellent farming town, and has a good water power at Fall river, with a mill capable of making 500 barrels of flour per week. FCURTIT, -Lake, adjoining and north aad northwest of Madison, is the uppermost and largest of the Pour Lakes. It has an area of nearly 16 square miles. Its diameter is 6 miles, and its periphery 194. It is also called Mendota. FowvL. Ptiver, (Sand Creek), a tributary from the north of St. Croix river, in the west part of La Pointe county. Fox, Eake, (Waushara), in town of same name, in northwest corner of Dodge county, is three miles long and two wide. It is of an oval form, and discharges its waters into the Crawfish river, through Beaver Dam creek. Fox LAXE, P. V., see Waushara. Fox LAKE, Town, (formerly Waushlara), in county of Dodge, being north half of town 12, and town 13 N., range of 13 E.; cen trally located, 14 miles northwest from Juneau. The popula tion in 1850 was 856. It has 6 school districts. Fox, Piver, of Illinois, (Pishtaka), rises in the north part of Waukesha county, and running south through the counties of Waukesha, Racine, and Kenosha, into the State of Illinois, discharges its waters into the Illinois river at Ottawa, Lasalle county. Fox, Piver, of Green Bay, (Neenah), rises near the middle of the town of Randolph, being in the northeast corner township of Columbia county, runs southwesterly to the Portage, where its course is turned to the northeast, passing through exten sive marshes, covered with wild rice. It enters on the west side of Lake Winnebago, at Oshkosh, and forms the outlet of the same lake, which it leaves on either side of Doty's island, 93

Page  94 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. 3enasha on the north, and;Neenah on the south. Below the lake it has a succession of rapids as far down as Depere, 7 miles above its outlet, into Green Bay. FRANKLIN, Town, in county of Milwaukee, being town 5 N., of range 21 E.; centrally located, 12 miles southwest from Mil wauklee. The population in 1850 was 1,246. It has nin school districts. FRANKLIN, P. T., Milwaukee county, in town of same name, on section 7, town 5 N., of range 21 E., 12 miles southwest tom M[ilwaukee, and 80( miles east from Madison. It is beautiully located, 2 miles south of the Milwaukee and Janesville -lank road, and three miles northeast friom Muskego lake. P(,pula tion 60; with 17 dwellings, 2 stores, and 2 hotels. FREDONIA, Town', in county of Washington, being town 12 N., of range 21 E.; centrally located, 9 miles northwest from Ozaukee. The population in S1850 was 672. It has 9 school districts. FREDONIA, P. 0., in county of Washington, being town 12 N., of range 21 E.; centrally located, 9 miles northwest from Ozau kee. FREEDOMf, Tow)n, in county of Out,gamie, being all of said county, not included in the O-neid-t R se vation, in towns "2 and 23 N., of range 18 and 19 E; centrally lo, ated, 15 miles north east fi'cm Grand Clhute. It has two school districts. FREED.OM, Town, in county of Sauk, located west from Baraboo. It has 5 school districts. FREO.ONT, P. V., in Waupacca county, being on section 25, town 21 N., of range 13 E.; it is 11 miles southwest fiom Mukwa. Population 50; 12 dwellings, 2 sto,es, and 1 hotel. It is situated on the left bank of the WVolf river; is a steam boat landing, and the only feasible crossing on the river in the route fiom Menasha to Plover Portage. FRENCH, Creek, in Columbia county, a small tributary of the Fox or Neenah river, from the east, in Port Hope. 94

Page  95 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. FRENCH, Creek, a branch from the east of Little Platte river, in the towns of Paris and Smeltzer. FRIENDSBIP, FToWtL, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 16 N., of range 17 E. The population is 415. It has 5 school districts. FRIENDSHIP, Town, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 16 N., of range 17 E; centrally located, 6 mniles north from Fond du Lac city. FELTON, P. T., in town of same name, Rock county, on section 7, town 4 N., of range 12 E. FULTON, Towt, in counlty of Rock, being town 4 N., of range 12 E.; centrally located, 10 niles north firom Janesville. The population in 185o was 1828. It has 7 school districts. GARLICK, Is7and, in Lake Winnebago, near its west shore. GAUCHE, R'vee, enters Fond du Lac Bay, (Lake Superior,) near St. Louis river, in La Pointe county. GENESEE, Totvn, in county of Waukesha, being town 6 N., of range 18 E.; centrally located, 8 miles from Waukesha, the county seat. The polpulatiun in 1850 was 1,290. It has 9 school dis ti'icts. GENESEE, P. V., Waukesla county, in town of same name, being town 6 iN., of ra,nge 18 E., 8 miles west st)uthlwest from Waukesh)a, anrd 66 miles east from Itadis,)n. It is one mile southl of the depot on the Mt. & Al. R. R. It has 160 illnhabi tants, 30 dwellin,gs, 1 store, 1 hotel, 1 new congregational chulrchl. 1 flour;ng inill, 1 saw m'1, 1 w(,ollen factory. It is beautifully situated on Whlite cleek, which falls 76 feet in one mile, and is used for thilee separate powers of 20, 22 and 22 feet each. GENESEE, Farm residence of the olon. E. W. Edgerton, in town of Sumnmit, Waukeslia. GENESEE, cLake, forms the h)ead waters of Battle creek, and is located one mile south of the centre of the town of Summit, Waukesha county. 95

Page  96 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. GENEVA, Town, in county of Walworth, being town 2 N., of range 17 E.; centrally located, 5 miles southeast from Elkhorn. The population in ]_S50 was 1533. It has 8 school districts. GENEVA, P. V., in town of same name, in Walworth county, being on sectian 36, at the northeast extremity of Lake Ge neva. GENEVA BAY, P. O., in town of Geneva, Walworth county. GENEVA, Creek, has its source in Geneva Lake, Walworth county, and running northeasterly enters Peckatonnica at Burlington, Racine county. GENEVA, Icake, is in the southern part of Walworth county, 8 miles long, with a mean breadth of 1 mile. It is supplied mostly froml springs, and discharges its waters into the Pishtaka river, through Geneva creek. GErOA, P. Vl., in town of Geneva, Walworth county, being town 2 N., of range 17 E. GENTIHER'S, Creek, a branch from the north of Chippewa river, Chippewa county. GERMANTOWN, TOw,), in county of Washington, being town 9 N.; of range 20 E.; centrally located, 18 miles south west from Ozaukee, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 1,722.. It has 10 school districts. GIBBSVILLE, P. O., in Sheboygan county, on section 26, town 14 N., of range 22 E.; 9 miles southwest from Sheboygan, and 100 miles northeast from Madison. It is on the road from Milwaukee, 50 miles; to Green Bay, 65 miles. It was first settled by three brothers, whose name it bears, in 1836. GIRALTER, Creek, a small stream entering Green Bay, in the northeast corner of Brown county. GmsoN, C-reek, is a small tributary from the north of Baraboo river, which it enters three miles above Baraboo village. GIBERT'S MILLS, on Red Cedar river, in Chippewa county, town, 28 N., of range 13 W. 96

Page  97 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. GOLDEN, lake, is on the line between Jefferson and Waukesha counties, 3 miles in circumference, and discharges its waters through Duck creek into Bark river. GOOD tIOPE, P. V., in county of Milwaukee, on section 8, town 8 N., of range 22 E. GRAFTON, P. VF., in town of same name, county of Washington. GRAFTrON, Town, in county of Washington, being town 10 N., of range 22 E., and east tier of sections of town 10 N., range 21 E.; centrally located, 6 miles southwest from Ozaukee. Theo population in S1850 was 626. It has 6 school districts. GRAND ROChE-A-GRIs, Creek, empties into the Wisconsin in range 5 N., Crawford county. GRAND CHUTE, Tows, in county of Outagamie, being town 21 N., of range 17 E.; centrally located, 3 miles northwest fromr Grand Chute, the county seat. It has 6 school districts. GRAM) CHUTE, R(apiidS7, of the Neenah river, 7 miles below Wine,. nebago Rapids, with a fall of 30 in 8525 feet. GRAND KAKALLN, agp);d8, of Neenah river, with a fall of 44 feet in a distance less than 9,000 feet. These rapids are 9 miles below Grand Chute. GRAND MIARSH,) P. O., in Columbia county. GRAND PRAIRIE, P. O., in town of Aliddleton, Marquette county, being on section 35, in town 15 N., of range 12 E. GRAM)D, Pc(icls, are shoals of the Menominee river, about 2 miles. in length, below White Rapids. GRAND Rapids,3 town in county of Portage. GRAND RAPIDS, P. V., in county of Portage, being on section 17, town 22 N., of range 6, in town of same name. It is 16 miles southwest from Plover, county seat, and 115 miles northwest from Madison. Population 400; 30 dwellings, 3 stores, 3: hotels, 4 saw mills, 1 Catholic church. It possesses the best water power in the State, abounding with springs of pure soft water. Lumber and shingles have been the chief products, 07

Page  98 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. although some attention has been paid to farming. There is plenty of government land in the vicinity, and timber enough to last for years. Iron ore is found. Most of the buildings have been erected within two years. GRAND, Wives,, rises in the western portion of Fond du LIac county, and running near the line between towns 14 and 15 N., enters the Neenalh about a mnile above the head of Apuckaway lake. GRAND SPRINGS, name given to lairge splings in Montrose, Dane county, emptying into Sugar river. GRAND SPRINGs, P. V., in Dline county, on section 25, town 5 N., of range 8 E.; 16 mnile, sou ihwest fromo Ma lison. Its general location and advantages are go,d, beingc on the outlet,f large springs emptying illto S,ugar iver, an(i in a good farming regi,n. It has 109 inhllabtants, 25 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, 1 mill, 1 manufactory, and 1 relig,ious denomination. GRANT, County, is bounded on the nortlhwest and noith by the Wisconsin river, which separates it firomrn Ciawfoi, d and Rich land, on the east by Iowa and Lafayette, on the south by tile northern line of tlhe Sta-te of Illinois, and on the southwest by tlhe Sta'e of Iowa, floim witch it is sepa,ate( by the MIis sissippi river. It was set f trom Iowa, atid fully organized by an act approved Dec. t, 1(36. The eastern bon,dary ex tends north, on the 4th principl meridian, about 50 miles. Thie southern boundary onl Illinois river is only about 10 miles, and its river c)ast is abouit 100 ililes in length. The seat of justice is at Lancaster, near the centre of thie county. Its principal streams are Grant, Big and Little Platte, Greene and Blue rivers. The surface of the country consists of a series of ridges, high rolling prairie and timbered lands. The ridges are filled with fissures, which are abundantly sup plied with ores of zinc, lead, and occasionally copper. It is one of the best mineral counties in the State, and there is no other in which the soil is better adapted to the raising of wheat and corn. The county is well supplied with timber, 98

Page  99 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. and has many fine streams abounding in springs of p water. It is said that there is neither lake, swamnp, nor st nant pool of water in the county. Jt is 9fttached to the fi judicial circuit, and to the second congressional dist,ict, a constitutes the 16tli senate di.t,i'.t, and sends five members the assembly, as follows: 1. Towns of IIazel Green, Jain town and Smneltzeli. 2. T)owns of Pauis, Ptosi and Hlarrii ton. 3. Towns (-)f Plattev lle, Lima, Clifton, AtIuscoda a V Wingville. 4. Towns of Fen, imore, Ellenboro', Liberty a Lancaster. 5. Towns of Waterloo, Beetown, Patchlgrove a Cassville. The pIopulation in 18S3S was 2,T63; 184i0, 3,92 1842, 5,937; 1846, 192034; 1817, 14,016; S1850, 16,19 2861 (t4-!l11 —' lngs, O7 f (rms, 78 ianufactories. Colinty O cers for 1853 and 1854: Judge, Cyrus K. Lord; Clerk Court, A. W. Ke1nda1ll; Di;t,ict Atto,(n,y, J. Allen Barbr Register, George Hi. Cox; Cleik of Board of Siperviso Wood A. Beacli. GRANT, icyin/s, a mining settlement, on section 15, town 4 ] of range 4 \W., in colIunty (,f Grant. GRANT, Pi:ve,~, waters the central l)crtion of Grant county, a enters tle Mississi1ppi in the southwest corner of the town Potosi. GRA.NVILLE, P. O., in town of same name, -Iivwaukee county. GRANVILLE, bown, in county of' Milwalukee, being town 8 N., range 21 E.; centrally located, 12 miles northwest from i waukee. The population in 1850 was 1,739. It has 9 sch districts. GRAss, -Lake, in Columbia county, a small lake in town 12 N., range 8 E.; between Baraboo and Wisconsin rivers, 5 mi west from Portage. GRATIOT, Towii, in county of Lafayette. Over 7,000 acres of la were sold in this town during the year 1852. Nlo discover of mineral have been made in this town, except float. h inhabitants are mostly farmers. 99

Page  100 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. GRATIOT, P. V., in Lafayette county, in town of the same name, on section 9, town 1 N., of range 4 E.; 12 miles east from Shullsburg, 28 from Galena, 28 from Mineral Point, and 65 southwest from AMadison. Population 50; 10 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, and 1 schoolhouse. GREAT BUTTE DES MORTS, lake, is an expansion of the Neenah river, just below the mouth of the Wolf, and 5 miles west of Oshkosh. It is four miles long and two wide. GREEN, Bay, is an arm of Lake Michigan, fromnt its northwest ex tremity, extending southwest 120 miles, having a coast of 320 miles in length, and being fromnt 6 to 30 miles wide. Its mean length is 100 miles, breadth 20 miles, and depth 50 feet, with an area of 2,000 square miles, at an elevation of 518 feet above the Atlantic Ocean. Green Bay was so called from the fact that voyagers, upon leaving MVIackinaw in the early spring before the trees put forth their buds, found the borders of this Bay covered with the finest verdure and vegetation. It was called the Bay of Puans, by the early French, and has also been called Menominee Bay. BEEN BAY, P. V. The village of Green Bay is an incorporated borough, comprising the town plats of both Navarino and Astor, the former being desiygnated in the act of incorpoia tion as the north, and the latter as the south wards. The town stands in the junction of the Fox and East rivers, on the east bank of the former, and about one mile above the mouth or entrance into Green Bay. The site of the town, although partly low and flat, is handsome and pleasant; the soil is alluvial, with large proportion of sand, which forms dry streets and walks, and proves most excellent for garden and cultivation. The present population of Green Bay proper is about 2,000, and is constantly increasing. The town is laid out with streets and alleys running at right angles. The cor poration embraces a tract about one and a half miles in length on Fox river, and about one mile in width from east to 100

Page  101 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. west. The buildings are of wood, mostly frame, and many of them very neat and commodious as dwellings, stores, warehouses, offices, &c. The streets are generally of good width, and the lots larger thafn usually laid out in villages. Directly' opposite, on the west shore of Fox river, stands Old Fort Howard, and the new and flourishing town of that name, lately laid out, and now containing a large number of houses, stores and inhabitants. The scenery around Green Bay and on the Fox river, is beautiful; the climate unsurpassed by any in the West for salubrity and healthfulness. It is even, and not subject to sudden change, as in many parts of the United States; and all kinds of fruits and vegetables capable of culture in the eastern, or northern or western States, are easily raised here, and most of them in great perfection and abundance. The bay and river abound with a vast variety of the finny tribe, of delicious and palatable flavor, and wild duck and other game are abundant. The winter season may be said to commence about the first of December, and continues with but slight change or variation, until about the middle or latter part of Mlarchl. The Fox river is navigable, for six miles from its mouth, to Depere, for the largest class of steamers and vessels navigating the lakes. Its medium width between the two points mentioned is about 1,400 feet. The harbor at Green Bay is one of the most spacious and secure on the whole chain of lakes, and, as a vat,?-ral one, it is next to Detroit. The geographical position of this place, situated as it is at the head of steamboat navigation on the lakes and upon the Fox river, connectinig with the Wisconsin and Mississiplpi by canal, muist necessarily be a commanding one-and it only requires the completion of the public work for the improvement of the Fox and Wisconsin river, to insure its permanent prosperity and future importance as a commercial and manufacturing depot. The principal articles of export from Green Bay and the surrounding country at the present time, are fish, lumber, 8 101

Page  102 WISCONSIN GAZETrEER. shingles, and furs and peltries. An estimate of the amount of each of these articles is made below. The water power on the Fox river is equal to, if it does not surpass, any other in the WVest. It is a natural one, of great magnitude; but when the improvement, or public works, are completed, it will be unlimited in power and extent. GREEN BAY, Pinery, under this name is given the amount of lumber manufactured at the several mills on Green Bay and its tributaries, which is shown by the following estimate Depere, 2,500,000; Green Bay, 2,500,000; Duck Creek, 1,500, 000; Hiill Creek, 500,000; Little Suamico, 500,000; Pensan kee, 2,000,000; Oconto, 4,500,000; Oconto Falls, 6,000,000; Pishtego, 3,000,000; Menominee, 5,000,000; making a total of 28,000,000. This statement is exclusive of shingles, &c. There was computed to be in store, at Green Bay alone, on the 15Sth of March, 1853, 14,000,000 feet of lumber logs and timber. GREEN BusH, P. V., in county of Sheboygan, being on section 11, in town of same name 15 N., of range 20 E. GREEN Busn, Town, in county of Sheboygan, being towns 15 and 16, of range 20 E.; centrally located, northwest from She boygan. It has S school districts. GREEN, Coutnty, is bounded on the north by Dane, on the east by Rock, on the south by the State line, and on the west by Iowa and Lafayette, and is 4 townships, or 24 miles square. It wat set off from Iowa, Dec. 7, 1836, to which it remained attached until Jan. 15, 1838, when it was fully organized. The seat of justice is at Monroe, about 7 miles south from the centre of the county. The soil in the northern part is generally a sandy loam, and in the south mostly prairie, with a subsoil of clay, and is very productive, being adapted to all the purposes of tillage and grazing. It is well watered by the Peckatonnica and Sugar rivers and their branches, and is well apportioned between meadow, prairie and timbered 102

Page  103 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. lands. This county comprises the twenty-fourth senate dis trict, and sends one member to the assembly. It is connected with the first judicial circuit and to the second congressional district. The mineral region extends east nearly through this county, and several valuable lodes are being worked. The population in 1840 was 933; 1842, 1,594; 1846, 4,758; 1847, 6,487; 1850, 8,583. Dwellings, 1,487; farms, 805; manufac tories, 46. County Officers for 1853 and 1854: County Judge, John A. Brigham; Sheriff, John Moore; Clerk of Court, Noah Phelps; District Attorney, E. T. Gardiner; Register of Deeds, James L. Powell; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, Horace B. Poyer; County Treasurer, Francis Emmerson. GREENFIELD, P. V., in town of same name, Milwaukee county, town 6 X., of range 21 E. GREENFIELD, Town, in county of Milwaukee, being town 6 N., of range 21 E.; centrally located, 7 miles southwest from Mil waukee. The population in 1850 was 1,894. It has 15 school districts. GREE.NFIELD, Town, ill county of Dane, (nlame changed to Fitch burg,) being, town 6 N., of range 9 E.; centrally located, 10 miles southwest from Madison. The population in 1850 was was 598. It has 8 school districts. GREEN, Island,, near the middle of Green Bay, opposite the mouth of Mlenominee river. GREEN LAKE, P. O., in town of same name, Marquette county, being on section 4, in town 15 N., of range 13 E., 18 miles east from Alontello. GREEN LAKE, Town, in county of Marquette. It has 8 school dis tricts. GREEN, cLae, Mlarquette county, is east of Lake Apuckawa. It is eight miles long and two broad, and discharges its waters into the Fox River. It is very deep, and its waters remarkably pure and clear. 103

Page  104 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. GREEN, -Rver, rises in town 6, of range 3 W., and runs northeast, emptying into the Wisconsin. GREENVILLE, P. V., in town of same name, Outagamie county. GREENVILLE, TOWn, in county of Outagamie. It has 2 school dis tricts. GREEN WOOD, P. O., in MlarquLette county. GRIGNON's [ilgls, on the Wisconsin river, in the west part of town 22, of range 6 E., in Portage county. GROVE, P. O., in town of Lafayette, Walworthli county. GROVELAND, P. V., in Winnebago county, on section 1, town 19 N., of range 16 E. It is 10 miles northwest from Oshkosh, on the town line road, and 5 miles from Neenah, with roads leading from Ilortonville, Ball Prairie, Winneconna, and Appleton. It has 5 dwellings, and 1 hotel. IHALFWAY, Creek, a small stream in La Crosse county, entering the old channel of Black river, about half way between Black river ani! the present outlet. IHALFwAY, Creek, a small branch of Black Earth creek, from the northeast rising in Berry, Dane county. HALL's Creek, empties into the Kickapoo firom the west, in town 9, Crawford county. HINIPDEN, Town, in county of Columbia, being town 10 N., of range 11; centrally located, 20 miles southeast frommPortage. The population in 1850 was 489. It has 4 school districts. HIANCIIETVILLE, P. VY., in town of Medina, Dane county, town 8 N., of range 12 E. HIARDEN, Town, (formnerly Albany,) in county of Marquette. It has 6 school districts. HARDSCPRABBLE j[)i)(/8, a mininig settlement on the line between Grant and Lafayette counties. HARMoy —:. Town,, in county of Rtock, being town 3 N., of range 13 E.; centrally located, 5 miles southeast from Janesville. The population in 1850 was 840. It has 5 school districts. 104

Page  105 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. HARRISOX, Town, in county of Grant, being town 3 N., of range 2 W.; centrally located, 10 miles southeast from Lancaster. It has 8 school districts. HARRISVILLE, P. O., Marquette county, on section 14, town 16 N., of range 9 E., 20 miles west from Dartford, on the Montello river, and 50 miles north fiom Madison. It has a good mill power and is well located for a village, in a good farming country of land. HARTFORD, Town, in county of Washington, being town 10 N., of range 18 E.; centrally located, 24 miles southwest from Ozaukee. The population in 1850 was 1,078. It has 9 school districts. HARTLAND, P. V., Waukeshla county, on section 3, town 7 N., of range 18 E., being in the town of Delafield, 10 miles north west from Waukesha, and 60 miles east from Madison. Pop ulation 175, with 30 dwellings, 3 stores, 3 hotels, 1 fiouring mill, a large and commodious school house. This place is situated on the Milwaukee, Watertown and Madison plank road, at the crossing of Bark river. HAT, Island, about 41 miles southeast from Chamber's Island, in Green Bay, near the eastern shore, in town 30 N., of range 26 E. HAY, River, a large tributary of Chippewa river from the north west, empties in town 20 N., of range 12. HAY, Creek, is a small tributary from the north of the Baraboo, which it enters at Reedsburgh, Sank county. IIAZLM' GREEN, Town, in county of Grant, being town 1 N., of range 1 W.; centrally located, 18 miles southeast from Lan caster. It has 5 school districts. IEHAZLE GREEN, P. V., Grant county, on sections 24 and 25, town 1 X., of range 1 W., 32 miles east of south from Lancaster, and 80 miles southwest from Madison, on the mail route to Galena, from which place it is 10 miles north It has 750 105

Page  106 WISCONSIN GAZETEER. inhabitants, 100 dwellings, 7 stores, 3 hotels, 1 mill, 5 black smith, 3 waggon, 2 cooper, 3 tailor, 2 shoemaker, and 2 butcher shops; 2 drug stores and 2 physicians; 3 carpenters, and 1 cabinet maker; 1 Presbyterian, 1 Catholic, 1 Baptist, and 1 Methodist church.' HIEART, Lake, is at the head of a small stream entering the east end of Lake Apuckawa, in town of Mfiddleton, Marquette county. HIEART PRAIRIE, P. V., in town of Lagrange, Walworth county, being on section 27, in town 4 N., of range 16 E. HEBRON, Town, in county of Jefferson, being town 6 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 6 miles east from Jefferson. The population in 1850 was 640. It has 6 school districts. HELENA, VTillcge, in town of Arena, Iowa county, town 8 N., of range 4 E. HELLENVILLE, P. O., on section 23, in town of Hebron, town 6 N., of range 15 E., Jefferson county. It is 6 miles east from Jef ferson C. I., and 41 miles southeast from M/Iadison. It has 1 store, 1 hotel, 1 Lutheran church, and 2 saw mills. IERM,Xx, Town, in county of Sheboygan, being town 16 N., of range 22 E.; centrally located, northwest from Sheboygan. It has 5 school districts. HERI-.AN, Town, in county of Dodge, being town 11 N., range 17 E.; centrally located, 12 miles northeast from Juneau. It has 5 school districts. IHIERMIONX P. O., in town of same name, Dodge county. IHIERRON, Rhier, enters Lake Superior, at Bark Pointe. HIGHLAND, Town, in county of Iowa, being parts of townships 6 and 7 N., of ranges 1 and 2 E.; centrally located, 15 miles northwest from Mineral Point. It has 7 school districts. HIGHLAND (recently) Town, in county of Grant, being townships 4 and 5 N., of ranges 2 W.; divided by Board of Supervisors in 1852, by the erection of the towns of Liberty and Ellen boro'. 106

Page  107 WISOONSIN GAZErEER. IIIGHLANXD, P. V., in town of same name, in Iowa county, con taining 400 inhabitants, 6 stores, 2 smelting furnaces, 3 hotels, and 1 church. Blue river runs through the southern part of the town. HILNGHAM, P. V., in county of Sheboygan, being on section 26, in town of Lima, 14 T., of range 22 E. IHIOADLEY, P. O., in the county of Racine. HOLLANXD, Town, in county of Sheboygan, being town 13 N., of range 22 E.; centrally located, 15 miles southwest from She boygan. It has 7 school districts. HIOLMES'.l(an7dng, near the mouth of Eagle creek, in La Crosse county. HONEEY CRiEEK, P. V., in town of Spring Prairie, Walworth county, being in town 3 N., of range 18 E. HONEY CREEK, TOWn, in county of Sank, being parts of towns 9 and 10 N., of ranges 3, 4 and 5; centrally located, southwest from Baraboo. HOXNEY, Cr eek, rises near Monroe, Green county, and runs south west into the Pecklatonnica, Green county. HOxNEY, Creek, has its source in several small lakes in the town of Lagrange, Walworth county, and running southeast, unites with Sugar Creek at Vienna, in the town of Sugar Prairie. HONEY, Creek, rises in town 10 N., in the western part of Sauk county, and running eastwardly unites with Otter creek, and enters the Wisconsin about 6 miles below Prairie du Sac. HOOSICK, P. O., Green county, in southeast corner of the town of Albany, town 3 N., range 9 E., on section 36. It is 14 miles northeast from MIadison, and 30 miles south from Madison. HoozIER GRovE, P. O., in Green county. HOPE, cake, is a small lake about half a mile in diameter, on the town line between Lake Mills and Oakland. Its waters are discharged with those of Ripley lake, into lake Koskonong. 107

Page  108 WISCONSIN GAZETrEER. HORICON, lake, is a lake in Dodge and Fond du Lac counties, in ranges 15 and 16 E., formed by a dam across Rock river, at IHoricon, at the lower point of Winnebago marsh. It is 16 miles long, and about 6 miles wide. ionicoxN, P. O., in town of Hubbard, Dodge county, on section 6, town 11 N., of range 16 E., at outlet of lake of same name, on IRoek river, possessing good water power. IHORSE-SHOE, Isl'and, in Eagle harbor, Green Bay. HORTONIA, Towe, in county of OutagamTie, being 22 N., of ranges 15 and 16 E., 16 miles northwest from Grand Chute. It has 3 school districts. HoIvowARD'S GROVE, P. F., in county of Sheboygan, being on sec tion 24, in town of Hermann, 16 N., of range 22 E. HOWARmD, P. O., in town of Pewankie, Waukesha, 6 miles north west from Waukesha, on the mail route to Delafield from Milwaukee. IUBI]BARD, Toun, in county of Dodge, being town 11 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, 6 miles east from Juneau. It has 7 school districts. IILBBLETON, P. Y., in town of Milford, Jefferson county, on the Crawfish river, at the crossing of the M. W. & WI. plank road. HUDSOx, Town, in county of Walworth, being town 2 N., of range 18 E.; centrally located, east fiomn Elkhorn. The population in 1850 was 1,273. It has 7 school districts. HUDSON, P. V. & C. H., (formerly Willow River,) in county of St. Croix, on section 24 and 25, town 29 N., of range 20 W., of the fourth principal meridian. It is 200 miles northwest from Madison. Population 500; 94 dwellings, 6 stores, 4 hotels, 2 churches, 4 denominations; 2 shoe, 1 harness, 3 blacksmith, 11 carpenter, 2 cabinet maker, 2 turner, and 2 tailor shops. It is beautifully located on an eminence gra dually rising from the eastern bank of Lake St. Croix, sur. rounded by a farming country second to none in the North 108

Page  109 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. west, and is eligibly situated to command the lumbering interests of the St. Croix. In the winter season it is the only thoroughfare and mail route between Galena and Minnesota. It is rapidly increasing in population and wealth. It has in its vicinity 4 saw mills and 2 grist mills. The U. S. Land Office for the Chippewa district is located at this place. HUDSON, Town, in St. Croix county, see Willow River, its former name. IUGHLANS' Creek, a branch from the east of Little Platte river, in Smieltzer, Grant county. HUMES'?aviyd,s, on Rock river, 16 miles north of State line of Illinois; is about one and a half miles in length, with a descent of 7 feet. HIURD'S Aill,s, a small stream entering Red Cedar river, in Chip pewa county, in town 28 N., of range 13. HID's 3fills8, (see Okauchee.) HURRICANE GROVE, P. 0., in town of Lancaster, on section 36, Grant county, town 4 N., of range 3 W.' IHURRICANF, -Teiqhborhood, embraced in parts of Lancaster, Bee town and Waterloo, contains the heaviest growth of timber in the State. The timber region took its name from a tornado or hurricane of wind that once swept over and prostrated most of the timber, perhaps 75 or 100 years ago. As we have only tradition and decayed logs for testimony, nothing very particular is known of the extent or time of the storm. The present size of the trees, and quantity standing upon the ground indicate, however, that the hurricane took place before the generation of timber now occupying the country had more than fairly germinated. There are large quantities of walnut, basswood, red and white oak, and maple trees of large size. The soil of this timber region differs from most any in Wisconsin. It resembles most the black limestone soil of Pennsylvania and New York; but in many places 109

Page  110 WISOONSIN GAZEITEE. is of lighter quality, and is always deeper before coming to the clay. Its productiveness is absolutely astonishing yielding uLnder good cultivation an hundred bushels corn to the acre. The only complaint is the work required in clear ing the ground of the wood, which many prefer to do rather than settle on prairie land. The Hurricane will be a rich settlement in a few years. HIUSTISFOuD, Town, in county of Dodge, being in town 10 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, 8 miles southeast of Juneau. It has 8 school districts. IHUSTISFORD, P. V., in Dodge county, on section 9, town 10 N., of range 16 E. It is 8 miles southeast from Juneau, and 60 miles northeast firom Madison. It is situated on Rock river, on the route of the Milwaukee and La Crosse railroad. Population 75; 12 dwellings, 2 stores, 1 hotel, 2 mills, and 1 Methodist denomination. HUSTIS'.apids, on Rock river, in Dodge county, three-fourths of a mile in length, in which distance is a descent of about 7 feet. HYLAND'S Pra'r ie, is in the town of Burnette, Dodge county. INDIA, P. O., in county of Green, being on section 2, town 1 N., of range 8 E. INIANSVILLE, P. F., in town of Newarlk, Rock county, a Norwe gian village, on town 1 N., of range 11 E. The only Norwe wegian paper in the State is printed in this village. IowA, Co?nty, is bounded on the north by Richland and Sauk, on the east by Dane and a portion of Green, on the south by Lafayette, and on the west by Grant. It was formed from Crawford by an act of the legislative assembly of Michigan October 9, 1829, at which time it included all of the present State of WTisconsin, south of the Wisconsin river, and west of "a line drawn due north from the northern boundary of Illi nois, through the middle of the Portage between the Fox and 110

Page  111 WISCOlsIN GAZETTEER. Wisconsin rivers." On the 6th September, 1834, the southern boundary of Iowa county was changed to the line between the Green Bay and Wisconsin land districts, which was a north and south line from the northern boundary of Illinois along the range of township line next west of Fort Winnebago, to the Wisconsin river, on the range line between ranges 8 and 9. The seat of justice is at Mineral Point. It is watered by branches of the Peckatonnica river, Blue river, and Mineral and Pipe creeks. The county contains about 750 square miles, and is eminently a mining county, but is also equally valuable for its agricultural resources. The soil is not surpassed in fertility by any in the State. Prairie and timber land in about equal proportions. The wheat or corn crop along the Wisconsin river never fails. The population is composed of Americans, Germans, English, Welsh, and Irish. The whole northern portion of the county, to a distance of eight or ten miles from the Wisconsin river, is peculiarly an agricultural country, and unsurpassed for stock raising. South from this, the mineral region extends in every direction, over prairie and woodland. The central and southern portion of the county is a mining country, but none the less adapted to farming-for its rich soil and abundant water render any part of it attractive. Prairie and timber alternately predominate. Streams of water meander through every ravine, furnishing not only irrigation for the land but a large quantity of water power. The ague and fevers of the West are unknown here. The advantages of this county are briefly, health, mineral wealth, agricultural resources, and abundant water power. The railroad to State line and connection with Chicago will give the settlers here a constant market. This county is connected with the fifth judicial circuit, the second congressional district, and, with Richland, forms the fifteenth senate district. It is divided into two assembly districts: 1. Towns of Highland, Dodgeville, Ridgway, Arena, Wyo ming, Pulaski, and Clyde. 2. Towns of Mineral Point, 1il

Page  112 WISCONSIN GAZEITTEER. Mifflin, Lyndon and Waldwick. The population in 1830 was 1,589; 1836, 3,218; 1838, 5,234; 1840, 3,978; 1842, 5,029; includingRiichllaind-1846, 14,905; 1817, 7,963; 1850,10,479. Count'y Officers for 1853 and 1854: County Judge, Parley Eaton; Sheriff, H. N. Mumford; Clerk of Court, James Ilutchinson; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, James B. Gray; Register of Deeds, N. B. Boyden; County Treasurer, John B3. Uren; District Attorney, Amasa Cobb; County Surveyor, Henry Madden. IRON RIDGE, P. V., in town of hlubbard, on section 13, town 11 N., of range 16 E., of Dodge county, 8 miles east from Juneau, and 50 mniles northeast from Mladison. It was first settled in 1849, and is on the Milwaukee and Mayville plank road, in a good fairming region of land, with abundance of water, and an inexhaustible bed of the best quality of iron, occupying about 80 acres of surface, and from 10 to 50 feet deep. Popu lation 60; with 15 dwellings, 1 store, I hotel, 1 mill, 2 asheries, 1 pearl-house and saleratus manufactory. IoRx, Pive~, a tributary of Lake Superior, in La Pointe county, east of Bois Brule river. ISLAND, Laike, in town of Dunn, Dane county, on section 27, town 6 N., of range 10 E. IVES' GrovE, P. O., in Racine county. IXONIA, P. O., in town of same name, Jefferson county, on section 30, town 8 N., of range 16 E., known as Piperville, on Rock river, 6 miles above Watertown. IXONIA, Town, in county of Jefferson, being town 8 N., of range. 16 E.; centrally located, 14 miles northeast from Jefferson, The population in 1850 was 1,113. It has 11 school districts. JACKcSON, Town,, in county of Washington, being town 10 N., of range 20 E.; centrally located, 15 miles southwest from Ozaukee. The population in 1850 was 1,038. It has. 10, school districts. 112

Page  113 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. JA~mSTOWN, Town, in county of Grant, being fractional town 1 N., of range 2 W.; centrally located, 20 miles southwest from Lancaster. It has 3 school districts. JaIESTOwiVN, P. V., Grant county, on section 1 of town of same name, 26 miles south from Lancaster, and S5 miles southwest from Madison, is in a healthy location, on the head waters of the Mlenominee creek. It has a population of 100; with 25 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, 1 good public school, 2 religious denominations, a lodge of I. O. O. F., and a division of Sons of Temperance. JANESYILLE, Ciy, see Appendix. JANESVILLE, Town, in county of Rock, being town 3 N., of rangc, 12 E.; located in the southeast corner of which is Janesville, the county seat. The population in 1850 was 3,419. It has 12 school districts. JEFFERSON, County, is bounded on the north by Dodge, east by Waukesha, south by Walworth and Rock, and west by Dane,. and is four townships square, containing 576 sections. It was set off December 7, 1836, and established from Milwaukee,. to which it remained attached until 29th February, 1839, when it was completely organized. The county seat is at the. village of Jefferson, opposite the forks of the Crawfish with Rock river, and near the centre of the county. Its streams are, Rock, Crawfish, and Bark river, and Johnson's, Seuper nong, Whitewater, Waterloo, Duck, and Battle creek. The northeastern portion of the county is covered by the best growth of hard timber in the State, the southeast by prairie, and the remainder by openings. The surface of the western portion of the county is level or gently undulating. The excellent farminig land, being well watered and timbered, to gether with its location and enterprizing inhabitants, entitle it to a position among the best counties in the State. The county of Jefferson constitutes the fifteenth senate district, and is divided into three assembly districts, viz.: 1. The town 113

Page  114 WISCONSIN GAZETEER. of Watertown. 2. The town of Waterloo, Milford, Lake Mills, and Oakland. 3. Jeifferson and Koskonong. 4. Ixonia, Concord, Farmington and Aztalan. 5. Hilebron, Sullivan, Coldspring and Palmyra. It is connected with the second judicial circuit, and the third congressional district. The population in 1838 was 468; 1840, 914; 1842, 1,638; 1846, 8,680; 1847, 11,464:; S1850, 15,339. Dwellings, 2,933; manufactories, 25; farms, 1,042. JEFFERsO.N, Tow2T, in county of Green, being town 1 N., of range 8; centrally located, 6 m1iles southeast fromnt Monroe. The population in 1850 was 692. It has 7 school districts. JEFFERSON, Toown, in county of Jefferson, being town 6 N., of range 14 E. The county seat is in this town. The population in 1850 was 1,610. It has 11 school districts. JEFFERSON, P. V. and C. JI., in town and county of same name, on sect. 11, is located at the junction of Crawfish and Rock rivers, near the centre of the county, and 32 miles east from Madisoin, on the line of R. R. V. U. R. R. This place is between the timber and openings, and has not been properly developed on account of the poor roads from the east; they, however, have recently been much improved. The surrounding country is thickly settled, having a famUily upon nearly every 40 acre tract of land. These farms are just beginnling to pay well, and this vicinity is destined to be one of the best farming districts of the West. There is a good water powver on Rock river, and another ont the Crawfishl. It has 950 inhabitants, 150 dwel lings, 10 stores, 2 hotels, 4 mills, 1 chair factory, 3 shoe shops, 2 churches, a courthouse and jail. JEFFERSON, Prairie, is the name of a large prairie in Clinton, Rock county. JOHNSON'S C-eek, rises in the town of Watertown, runs south into Farmington, and thence west into Rock river, in the town of Aztalan, Jefferson county. 114

Page  115 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Jonson's.Rapids, this was the former name of the excellent hy draulic power of Rock river, at the present village of Water town, Jefferson county. The descent of the river in two miles is about 25 feet. JOHNSTOWN, Town, in county of Rock, being town 3 N., range 14 E.; centrally located, ten miles east fiom Janesville. Popu lation in 1850 was 1,271. It has 9 school districts. JoHNsTowN, P. V., on section 23 of town of same name, 13 miles east from Janesville, and fifty miles southeast from Madison. It has about 40 dwellings, 2 stores, 2 hotels, 1 Baptist and 1 Congregational church. It has a pleasant and healthy loca tion on Rock Prairie, and in a vicinity of farms of good soil and well cultivated. M:uchli attention has been paid to the raising of sheep, with satisfactory results. JOHNSTOWN CENTRE, P. V., on section 24 of town of same name, 10 miles east fiom Janesville, and 42 miles southeast from Madison. It has 200 inhabitants, 40 dwellings, 2 stores, and 1 hotel. It is located at the junction of the Chicago and Madi son with the Janesville and Milwaukee stage roads, on the north edge of Rock Prairie. JORDAN, TowSt, in the county of Greene, being town 2 N., of range 6. The population in 1850 was 389. It has 4 school districts. JUNEAU, P. V. (formerly Dodge Centre,) and county seat of Dodge county, is situated on section 21 of town 11 N., of range 15 E., being the town of Oak Grove, formerly Fairfield. It has a beautiful location, on the surveyed route of the R. R. V. U. R. R. Population 300; with 50 dwellings, 3 stores, 2 hotels, and 3 religious denominations. KAGINE, lake, La Pointe county, forms the head waters of the principal branch of the Mashlikeg river. I GAROO, Lake, in town 30 N., of range 20, Door county, near shore of Lake Superior. KAMiANOSA,?'ver, of Lake Superior, see Poplar river. 115

Page  116 WISCONSIN GAZETITEER. KAUKALA, Town, in Outagamie county, being town 21 N., of range 18, and W. half of 19; centrally located, 6 miles from Grand Chute. It has 5 school districts. KLA-VKA-UNA, P.., Outagamie county, on section 24 of town of same name. It is eight miles northeast from Appleton, and 115 northeast from Madison. It is situated at the present head of navigation on the Lower Fox, 20 miles above Green Bay. At Kaukauna (f)rmnerly Grand Kaukaulin) there is a descent in the river of 44 feet, which is being improved by a canal one mile in length, which is to be passed by four locks, and will probably be completed during the present season. This )place has an abundance of water power, and is sur rounded by good faining, lands, both timbered and openings. Population 200; with 30 dwellings, 3 stores, 4 hotels, 1 saw mill, and a Baptist and Catholic church. KAUKAULLX, Cree,, a small tributary from the south of the Nee nah river, which it enters at Grand Kaukalin. KAYISIKING, (or Shell,) River, is the outlet of Shell Lake, in south part of La Pointe county. KJAYONGWA-SOGOKA, River, a tributary from the east of Bad river, in La Pointe county. KINDALL, Town, in Lafayette county, 12 miles north from Shulls burg. KENINGANIORE, alz&e, a small lake in the northeastern part of the town of Rochester, Racine county. KENosHA, County, is bounded on the north by Racine, east by Lake Alichigan, south by the State of Illinois, and west by Walworth and a portion of Racine. The county seat is at Kenosha, formerly known as Southpoit, on the lake shore, about midway between the northern and southern extremity of the county. It was set off from Raciine and fully organized, 30th January, 18S50. The eastern portion of the county is mostly prairie, with occasional groves of timber. In the 116

Page  117 WISCONSIN GAZE,TREER. northeast part is a large tract of heavy timber. The western portion is mostly openings. The soil is productive in the highest degree, and well adapted to the growing of all the crops of the clinmate, and the raising of stock. It has the best of market facilities-Kenosha close at hand, and Mil waukee and Chlicago easy of access. It has a healthy climate, and is settled by an intelligent and enterprizing class of farmers. The principal streams are the Fox, (Pishtaka,) the Aux Raines and Pike creeks. Population 10,734; 927 farms, and 1,812 dwclvellings. This county belongs to the first congres si()nal district, the first jtudicial circuit, and forms the eighth senate disti,ict, send-ing two members to the assembly as fol lows: 1. City of Iecnoshla and towns of Southport, Somers, and Pleasant Prairie; 2 Towns of Paris, Bristol, Brighton, Salem and Wheatland. County Officers for 1853 and 1854: Coiunty Judge, lHon. Isaac N. Stoddard; 2. Sheriff, Patrick Cosgrave; Clerkl of Court, Oscar F. Dana; Register of Deeds, Saimuel Y. 3ranide; C()unty Treasurer, lichlael Frank; Dis trict Attoriney, Isaac W. Webster; County Surveyor, Mi. Howlaand; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, R. II. Deminig; Coroner, Philip Carey. KENOSnA, City, is situated upon Lake Michigan, 55 miles north from Chicago, and 3.5 miles south finom Milwaukee, and is distant from M[Idison 101 miles. It is the most southern port on Lake Mlichligan in the State. When the resources of the coiunty are fllly developed 7wlmien capital finds its account in miakiug; necessa,y imp'ovements, this place is destined to be a city of wealth, business and imp)ortance. The country which surrounds it is eminently productive, and its surface is agreeably diversified and beautiful. The city itself presents a great divierrity of soil and surface, and is generally esti mated on this account to occupy a more favorable position than those places which have a uniform level surface, and a perfect uniformity of soil. There is no considerable stream emptying itself into the lake at this place; but the harbor is 9 11,41

Page  118 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. mainly formed by a small bay, which extends in a circular form for about one mile, where it again intersects the lake, forming an island, and making two outlets from the bay into the lake, thus creating, in the opinion of many, when it shall have been properly improved, one of the most convenient and picturesque harbors upon the whole clhain of lakes. In the spring of 1835, a company was formed in western New York, whose object was to efftect a settlement at some favorable point in the West, and ion. John Bullen, now resident here, was selected as the agent of the comnpany, to proceed to the West and select a location. lie arrived at this place, then uninhabited, and also far distant from any settlement, on 12th June, 1835, and from that time became a permanent resident of the place. The first building, a log one, was erected in the month of July followiing. Thie company which he represented having, in part, soon after arrived, the place immediately assumed an appiearance of activity. The gi'owth of the place hats been greatly retarded for want of sufficient appropriation from Congress for the construction of a harbor and piers. The harbor still remains in an unLfilishled state, though its improvement is slowly- but steadily advancing. The first bridge pier ever erected on Lake:lichigan was built here by Belnjamin P. Cahoon, since which time two others have been built out into the lake by private enterprize. These, in absence of better facilities, answer in a manner, though, it must be acknowledged, not in an entirely satisfactory manner, the wants of business and the demands of commerce. In addition to private schools and academies, there are two laige public schools. The building inll the first ward accommodates 700 scholars, and the one in the second ward about 300, and both have a corps of well accomplished instructors. There are three public papers printed-whig, democrat and free soil. WtIat alre termed Artesian wells have been sunk with manifest success and advantage, by boring from 135 to 180 feet, a vein of water is struck, which over 118

Page  119 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. flows the surface, furnishing an unfailing supply of the purest of water. A plank road has been built to Fox river, distance 20 miles, and will ultimately be constructed to Beloit. There is a charter for a railroad to terminate at the same point. City Officers: AIayor, Charles C. Sholes; Clerk, J. Murray; Treasurer, Daniel MA. Clarkson; Marshal, Richard B. Winsor; Justices, J. AManisfield, O. Colwell, F. J. Whitlock. KORO, P. O., in Winnebago county. KESHAYNIC, River, see Grand river. KEwASKUM, Town, (formerly North Bend,) in county of Wash ington, being the north two-thirds of town 9, range 19 E.; centrally located, 20 miles northwest from Ozaukee. The population in 1850 was 672. It has 6 school districts. IKEWAUNE, Cotuezty, is bounded on the northl by Door county, on the east by the state line in Lake Michigan, on the south by Manitowoc, and on the west by Brown, and contains about thirteen townshlps of land. It was set off from Door, April 16, ls52, and is attached to Mlanitowoc for judicial purposes. The streams are Kewaunee and Red rivers, Benton's, ]Mar tin's, Ashnepee and Thorn-apple creeks. It is attached to the second senatorial and third congressional districts and with Brown and Door, sends one mnember to the assembly. The county having been so recently established, has not as yet reached to much dignity as a county. KEwAwNEE, Town, in county of Kewaunee, embracing the whole county. KEWAUNEE, l?ivei, in county of same name, rises in the eastern portion of Brown county, and running southeast, enters Lake Michigan, in town 23 N., of range 25 W. It is about 25 miles long, and is navigable for 5 or 6 miles from the lake. K.EWAWIYE, Lake, on the line between Chippewa and La Pointe county. KEREs' Lake, see Rock Lake. 119

Page  120 120 WISCONSIN GAZETEER. EYEs' Creek, is the outlet of Rock lake, in the towns of Lake Mills, Aztalan and 3Milford, in Jefferson county. KICKAPOO, PiVer, rises in Bad Ax county, and runs southl, nearly parallel with the Mississippi, in town 7 N., of range 4 E., in Crawford county. KILBER, River, a small stream entering the Mississippi, in the western part of Cassville, Grant county. KILBOURN, Di7y7ng8, mining point in town 1, range 1 W. KMBOURNTOWN, see Milwaukee city. KILLDARE, Town, in county of Sank. KmLLIAKE, Creek, a small tributary of thle north branch of Mani towoce river, in town 19 N., of range 20, Calumet county. KINEDO, Lake, see Tomahawk lake. KIGSTON, P. V., in town of Kingston, Marquette county, being on section 13, in town 14 N., of range 11, 14 miles from Montello. KINGSTON, Town, in county of Marquette. It has 5 school dis tricts. KINNIKINNIcK, Tow%, in county of St. Croix, being towns 27 and 28 N., of south half of town 17; southeast from Willow river. It has 1 school district. KINNIKINN-ICK, liver, rises in the centre of St. Croix county, and runs southwest, entering St. Croix river about six miles from its mouth. KiNO, L.ake, a crescent shaped lake, in Red Cedar river, below Lake Mukwa. KIINONJE, lake, on outlet of Lake Meminis, on the head waters of St. Croix. KAPP's, Creek, rises in town 11, meridian, and running south, near the line between Richland and Crawford counties, falls into the Wisconsin river.

Page  121 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. KNAPP & BLACK'S I}[i7;5, on Red Cedar river, in Chippewa county. KOSHIIKONOXG, To?Ii,, in county of Jefferson, being town 5 N., of range 13 and 14 E.; centrally located, 10 miles southwest firom Jefferson. The population in 1850 was 1,512. It has 9 school districts. KOSHKOxONG, Acue, is an enlargement of Rock river, in southwest corner of Jefferson county. It is about 8 miles long, and nearly three miles wide. KOSHRKONONG, Prcai'ie, is in south part of Deerfield, Dane county. KOSSUTHI, T~wz, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 16 N., of range 19 E.; centrally located, 10 miles northeast from Fond du Lac city. It forms a part of the old town of Calumet. KOSSUTII, P. O., in the county of Racine. IOSSUTH, Town, in county of Winnebago. LA BELLE, Lctke, is the largest and lowermost lake of the Ocono mowoc creek, on the east bank of which, is the village of Ocolnomowvoc. It is nearly 3 miles long, and a mile and a half wide. It has a beautiful island near its centre. LABIcIE, cak4e, in the eastern part of Chippewa county, discharges its waters through a river of the same name into the Mani dowish. LABICIIE, Pivei, rises in Flambeau-dore lake and Labiche lake, and running soutlhwest discharges its waters through Manidowish river, into the Chippewa. LABRA-.UGH, lake, (Oconomowoc Group), see Beaver lake. LAc BRULE, is the source of the Wiscatota or Brule river of the Mlenomiinee. LA CROSSE, Co,)ity, is bounded on the north by Chippewa, on the east by Portage, Adams, and a portion of Sauk, and on the west by the Mlississippi, by which it is separated from the territory of Minnesota. This county was set off from 121

Page  122 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Crawford, and organized March 1, 1851, the seat of justice being establisled at La Crosse, on a beautiful prairie of the same name, on the eastern bank of the Mississippi, 90 miles above the junction of the Wisconsin, and on tlhe line between townships 15) and 16 north. It is watered by Black and La Crosse rivers, and Mormon, Eagle and Billings' creeks, and the headwaters of the Lemonwier. Many of the streams are of pure water, with abundance of hydraulic power, abound ing with speckled trout. The soil may be considered as first rate, and is mostly of vegetable mould, mixed with a sufficient quantity of sand to give it warmth. In the northeastern portion of the county is a heavy growth of pine timber, which is manufactured into lumber and shingles, the export of whichl amounts to 8175,000 per annumn. Near the head of some of the large streams are cranberry marshes, yielding in good seasons several hundred bushels per acre. The popula tion in 1850, all of which was confined to Black river, was 460. In 1851, about 46,000 acres of school lands, known as a part of the 500,000 acre grant, was brought into market upon very reasonable terms, and many of the enterprizing and industrious inhabitants of tlieolder counties have changed their residence to one in this. The increase of population has probably been greater during the last two years than in any other locality in the State. This county is connected with the nineteenth senate district, and forlms a portion of the sixth judicial circuit, and of the second congressional district, and, with Chlippewa, sends one member to the assembly. County Officers for 1853: County Judge, George Gale; Sheriff; A. Eldred; Clerk of Court, R,)bert Looney; District Attorney, Edward Flint; Register, Chase A. Stevens; Treasurer, F. M. Rublee; Surveyor, William Tlood. LA CROSSE, P. V. and C. II., in town and county of same name, on section 31, town 16 N., of range 7 W., 130 miles northwest from Madison. It is situated on a prairie 5 miles long and 3 wide, on the Mississippi river, immediately below the mouth 122

Page  123 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. of the Black and La Crosse rivers, and about equidistant between Galena and St. Paul. The prairie is high enough from the river to be free fi'om all danger of innundation, and as a site for a village or city, is unsurpassed by beauty and natural advantages by any spot on the river. The first claim was made by I.. J. B. Mille' and Nathan Myrick, who took up their residence in 1812. The Government survey was not made until 1847; Jolihn A. Levy opened a store in 1846, and the next year erected the first hotel. Nothing was done towards laying out the town until after the advent of Timothy Burns, now Lieutenant Governor of the State, to whom it is largely indebted for its present progress. A post office was established in 1 844. The plat was surveyed in May 1851. In the second year of its o,ganiza,ion, the town paid into the State treasury over $900. The population in March, 18.53, in the village, was 543. It contains 4 stores of general assortment, 1 drug, 1 hardware, 1 furniture, 1 stove and tin, 3 groceries, 1 bakery, 1 livery stable, 1 harness, 4 tailor, 3 shoemaker shops, and mechanics of every description; 6 physicians, 6 lawvers, 4 clergymen, 3 religious societies, a division of the Sonis of Temperance, a Free Masons' lodge, 1 church edifice, court house, steam saw mill and grist mill, and 5 hotels. La Crosse, from the advantages of its position, cannot fail to become one of the largest and most important places in the Northwest. The large extent of excellent farmilig land in the river vallies, and the extensive pine country bordering on the Black river, will always furnish a large amount of business which will concentrate at this point, in addition to which, it is the natural depot through which the imniense business of the Utpper MIississippi must naturally pass. It has been selected as th-e terminus of a rail road from 3Iilwaukee, and the route selected is the most feasible one from Lake MAichig,an to the Mississippi, north of Dubuque. Minnesota already contains a population of many thousands, and is settling rapidly. The large tract of lands recently 123

Page  124 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. acquired by treaty from the Sioux Indians, is situated directly opposite La Crosse, on the Minnesota side of the river, and possesses advantages for emigrants unsurpassed by any sec tion of the country now open for settlement. LA CROSSE, Tows, in county of La Crosse, was, until recently, all of said county, south of town 17. It has 15 school districts. LA CROSSE, River, (MAlazwini or Ball river,) rises in the eastern part of county of the same name, and running southwest, emnipties into the Mississippi at the village of La Crosse, on the beau tiful prairie of the same name. LAC VIEux DESERT, (Kattakittekon), is the name of a lake, the mid dle of which is the boundary line between this State and Mi chigan, between the northern corner of Marathon and Oconto counties. It is the source of the Wisconsin, and occupies a high level above the lakes. Upon this elevation are the sources of several large streams, the Ontonagon and Montreal of Lake Superior, the Menominee of Lake Mlichigan, and the Wiscon sin and Chippewa of the Mississippi. This lake is about 4 miles long from north to south, and of very irregular shape. In the middle of it is an island which is made a point in the boundary between Michigan and Wisconsin. LAFAYETTE, County, is bounded on the north by Iowa, on the east by Green, on the south by the State line, and west by Grant, and is 21 miles north and south, by 30 miles east and west. The country embracing the present county was set off by a division of Iowa county, and the formation of the counties of Lafayette and Montgomery, January 31, 1846, subject to the approval of the voters of said county, at the general election in September of the same year, at which election a majority voted against the " County Division Law." At the next ses sion of the legislature, an act passed establishing the county of Lafayette, and it was organized February 4, 1S47. The county seat has been a vexed question since the organization, but it has finally become established at the village of Shulls 124

Page  125 WISCONSIN GAZETrEER. burg, a few miles southwest of the geographical centre. This county is more celebrated for its mininiy (,porations than for its agricultural products; simuply, however, because the for mer has been prosecuted to the neglect of the latter. It is in connexion with the fifth judicial circuit, and the second con gressional district, and forms the thirteenth senate district, and sends 3 members to the assembly, viz: 1. Towns of White OakSprings, Benton and New Diggings. 2. Towns of Shullsburg, Monticello, Gratiot, Wayne and Wyota. 3. Elk Grove, Belmont, Kendall, Center, Willow Springs, Fayette and Argyle. The Peckatonnica and Fevre rivers are the principal streams. The population in 1847 was 9,335; 1850, 11,556. Dwellings, 2,079; farnis, 399; manufactories, 21. County Officers for 1853 and 1854: County Judge, Jas. H. Knowlton; Sheriff, Peter C. Meloy; Clerk of Court, D. W. Kyle; District Attorney, Hamilton H. Gray; Register, Elias Slothower; Clerk of Board of Sup)ervisors, Thomas MeMannus; Treasurer, Ephliraim Ogden; Surveyor, Thomas Bowen. LAFAYETTE, P. O., in town of same name, Walworth county, being in town 3 N., of range 17 E. LAFAYETTE, Town, in county of Walworth, being town 3, of range 17; centrally located, 5 miles northeast from Elkhorn. The population in 1850 was 1,008. It has 9 school districts. LAGRANGE, P. V., in town of same name, Walworth county. LAGRANGE, Town, in county of Walworth, being town 4 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, 8 miles northwest from Elk horn. The population in 1850 was 961. It has 9 school dis tricts. LAE, Town, in county of Milwaukee, being town 6 N., of range 22 E.; centrally located, 4 miles south from Milwaukee. Population in 1850 was 1,474. It has 8 school districts. LAKE ELLEN, is adjoining the village of Cascade, Sheboygan county. It abounds in fish, and covers an area of 320 acres. 125

Page  126 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. LAKE EMILY, in the northeast part of town of Fox Lake, Dodge county. LAKE tIURON, is a small lake near the centre of town 20 N., of range 9 E., in Washington county. It covers about 200 acres. LAKE KATTAKITTEKON, see Lac Vieux desert. LAKE MIARIA, a small lake in southwest corner of Mlackford, Mar quette county, and has its outlet into Grand river. LAKE MARIA, P. V, on section 25, town 14 N., of range 12, Mlar quette county, 20 miles south from Dartford, 65 miles east of north from Madison, on the road from Watertown to the Pinery, 4 from Granville, 5 from Mackf()rd, 8 from Kingston, and 10 from Marquette. Populati,)n 60; 10 dwellings, with Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian denominations. LAKE MASON, in the southwest corner of Marquette county, dis charges its waters into the Neenah river. LAKE MILLS, Town, in county of Jefferson, being town 7 N., of range 13 E.; centrally lo(cated, 8 miles northwest from Jeffer son. Population in 1850 was 884. It has 7 school districts. LAKE MILLS, P. V:, on section 13, in town of same name, Jefferson county, 8 miles northwest from Jefferson, 26 miles east from Madison, at the outlet of RP,,c)ek lakle, on the mail route from Madisun to Watertown. Population 400; with 50 dwellings, 3 stores, 1 hotel, 1 chu"lci and several religious denominations, 1 iron foundry, 1 grist mill, 1 saleratus factory, 2 cabinet and 3 blacksmith shops. LAKE NINE, in north part of Richmond, Walworth county. LAKE OF THE IILLOCKS, in Marathon county, near the 45~ north latitude, discharging its waters easterly into the Wisconsin, about half way between Big and Little Bull Falls. LAKE OF THE IIILLS, located in town 11 N., of range 8 E. It is nearly two miles long, and three-fourths of a mile in width 126

Page  127 WISCONSIN GAZ EMEER. LAKE SARAH, forms the head waters of the Neenah, in the north east corner of Columbia county. LAKE VIEW, P. O., in town of Fitchburg, Dane county, on section 13, town 6 N., of range 9 E. LAKE VIEUX DESERT, or Kattakittekon Lake, see Lac Vieux Desert, LAKE WAUCOUSTA, two small lakes in Osceola, Fond du Lac county. LAKE WINGRA, or Dead Lake, mostly on sectiont 27, in Madison, Dane county, a mile long, and three-quarters of a mile wide. LAMARTINE, Town, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 15 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, 8 mliles west from Fond du Lac. Population in 1850 was 588. It has 9 school districts. LAMARTINE, P. V., Fonld dii Lac county, on section 34 of town of same namtie. It has 2 stores, 1 hotel, and a Baptist church. It is 7 miles southwest from Fond du Lac city, and 67 miles northeast from Madison. LASNCSTER, TOWn, in county of Grant, being towns 4 and 5 N., of range 3 W., and is the county seat. It has 9 school districts There is I grist mnill and 2 saw mills in the town, fromi three to four miles from the village; some of the most productive lead mines are in this town. Tlihee are large quantities of land yet unentered in the town, and the great fertility of the soil, convenience of building materials and fuel, of springs and brooks, offer inducement to settlers. Population about 1,500. LACASTER, P. V. and C. f., in town of same name, on section 3, town 4, near the geographical centre of the couinty, upon the edge of Bt,yce prairie, and in the most beautiful and healthy portion of the mlining region. The business and trade of the township, as also of the town of Fennimore, are concentrated at the village. Population 400; 75 dwellings, 1 drug, 4 dry goods and grocery, 1 tin and sheet iron, and 1 stove stores, 1 127

Page  128 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. waggon, 3 smith, and 2 cabinet shops, 4 hotels, 1 Baptist church of brilck, 1 letliodist and 1 Presbyterian church of wood, and an Episcopal church in progress of erection. Court house of brick, 40 by 56, with fire-proof offices for county pur poses. LANSING, P. F., in town of Freedom, Outagamie county. LANSING, ToWr, in county of Outagamie, being towns 22 and 23 N., of range 17; centrally located, 10 miles north from Grand Chute. It has 1 school district. LA POINTE, Co~enty, is bounded on the northwest and north by the State lile, in Lake Superior, on the east by Marathon, on the the south by Chippewa and St. Croix, and west by Minnesota. It was set off from St. Croix Feb. 19, 1845. It was, and remained attached to Crawford for judicial purposes, until the complete organization of St. Croix, Feb. 26, 1849. The boundaries were changed 6thl March 1849, and it was fully organized 9thFeb. 1850. The county seat is established at La Pointe, on the southeast end of Madeline Island, in Lake Superior, the oldest settlement in the State. The county is watered by Bois Brule, (Burnt Wood,) Mauvais, (Bad,) or Maskau rivers, and other small streams entering the lake from three to ten miles apart, and by lakes. The country, for a short distance along the margin of the lake, is low and wet; further south it is gene rally rolling. The western portion of the country is prairie land; and the soil being good and winters mild, offers great inducements to agriiculturists. In the more eastern parts, the timber in most places is very thick, comprising white and yellow Norway pine, and the different species of oak, maple, birch, and the soft woods. The county is in connexion with the nineteenth senate district, the sixth judicial circuit, and the second congressional district, and with St. Croix sends one member to the assembly. French missionaries visited this country as early as 1661. In 1850 the population was 489; 5 farms and 74 dwellings. R. D. Boyd is Register of Deeds, and Clerk of the Circuit Court and of the Board of Supervisors. 128

Page  129 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. LA POINTE, P. F. and C. i., is situate on Madeline Island, in Lake, Superior, La Pointe county, at about town 50 N., of range 4 W. It has a bay nearly three miles across, capable of con tainring at anchor, secure from all winds, a numerous fleet of the largest class vessels, and is the favorite harbor of the lake. La Pointe was originally settled by the North Western Fur Company as the most eligible point for a depot and trading port on the lake. As a site for a town, and as a resort.for hlealthl and pleasure, La Pointe offers advantages equal to any other place in Wisconsin. It has the best fishling-grounds on the whole lake for trout, siscowet and white fish, or lake shad, more than one thousand barrels of which are packed annually at La Pointe. Tempered, as well in summer as in winter, by the vast expanse of water which surrounds it, and which, except at the immediate surface, is almost always at 401 Fainheit, its climate is milder and more equable than any part of Wisconsin, whether it be on the mainland of Lake Superior, or further south on the Mississippi. Chiefly for this reason, but also on account of the bracing winds that sweep across the lake, Madcleline Island is probably not surpassed, in point of health, by any locality thlroug,hout the entire western country. LA POINTE, TowXE, in county of La Pointe, comprising the same. Population in 1850 was 598. LA PRAIRIE, Town, in county of Rock, being town 2 N. of range 13 E.; centrally located, 6 miles southeast from Janesville. The population in 1850 was 37S. It has 6 school districts. LAwRENCE, is the name of a town in the county of Brown. LEACH Creek, a small tributary from the west of Baraboo river,. which it enters near its mouth. L'EAU CLAIRE, -Lake and _(8ls, on river of same name, in town 26 N., of range 13 W., in Chippewa county, also called Clearwater and O'Claire. * Sce Oweii's Geological Survey of Wisconsino. 129

Page  130 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. L'EAU GALLA, River, in St. Croix county, runs southeast, and empties into Chippewa river, in Chippewa county. L'EAU CLARE, or O'CLARE Riv?er, in Clhippewa county, a branch of Clhippewa river from the west, in town 27 N.. of range 9 W. LEBANON, Towvn, in county of Dodge, being town 9, of range 16 W.; centrall]y located, 12 miles southeast from Juneau. The population in S18O50 was 1,031. It has 7 school districts. LELAND's VIILL, P. O., in town of Honey Creek, Sank county. LEMzONWIER, Town, in county of Sank; centrally located, north west fromn Balriboo. It has 3 school districts. LEMONWIER, Piver, rises in La Crosse county, and runs southeast through Adamns, emlptying into the Wisconsin in town 15 N., range 5 E. LEON, is the name of a new town in county of La Crosse. LEROY, Towte, in county of Dodge, being town 13 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, 12 miles northeast from Juneau. The population in 1850 was 397. It has 4 school districts. LEROYS, Town, in county of St. Croix. LEwISTON, Town, in county of Columbia. It was set off by the County Board in Novetmber 1852. LEWISTON, V., (BEAVER CREEIZ P. O.) in Columbia county, on sec tion 21, town 13 N., of range 8 E. It is 45 miles northwest from M[adison, and 7 miles northwest from Fort Winnebago. Population 350; 50 dwellings, 1 hotel, 5 stores, 1 Lutheran congregation. It is situated on the road from Portage city to Stevens' Point, in a good farning country, and well supplied with water and timber. LEYDEN, P). V., in town of Janesville, Rock county. LIBERTY, (recently the north half of Hiighland), Town, in county of Grant, being town 5 N., of range 2 W.; centrally located, 8 miles northeast from Lancaster. 130

Page  131 WISCOXSIX GAZETTEER. LIBRTY, P. r.., on section 25, Kenosha county, in town of Salem, 16 miles southwest fiom Ken(lsha, atid 110 southeast from Madison, on the Racine and Wilmot plank road. It has 60 inhabitants, 1 0 dwellings, 2 hotels, 2 religious denominations, and several mechanics. LIBERTY Prairie, Dane county, 2 miles south from Deerfield P.O. LIMA, Town, in county of Sheboygan, being town 14 N., of range 22 E.; centrally located, 6 miles southwest from Sheboygan. It has 9 school districts. The soil is composed of sand and clay, and when properly tilled is very productive. LIMA, Tow), in county of Griant, being town 4 N., of range 1 W. - centrally located, 12 miles east from Lancaster. It has 8 school districts. LEiA, P. 0., in town of same name, Rock county, on town 4 N., of range 14 E. LIMA, Town, inl county of Rock, being town 4 N., of range 14 E.; centrally located, 13 miles northeast fioom Janesville. Popu lation in 1850 was 839. It has 9 school districts. LIND, Town, in county of Waupacca, being town 21 N., of range 12 E.; centrally located, 15 miles from Mukwa. It abounds in prairie, timber and water, and is fast being settled by an agiicultural population. LID, P. V., in county of Waupacca, town of same name, on sec tion 22, town 21 N., of range 12 E., 15 miles from Mukwa, and 100 miles north fiom Madison. Population 500; 100 dwellings. LinDE.x, Town, in county of Iowa. LINDEN, P. V., in town of same name, Iowa county, 6 miles from Mineral Point. It contains 200 inhabitants, mostly miners The country is well adapted to agriculture. 131

Page  132 WISCONSIN GAIZETTEER. LIN, Town, in county of Walworth, being town 1 N., of range 17 E.; centrally located, 8 miles southeast fiom Elkhornl. Population in 1850 was 805. It has 7 school districts. LIsBON, Town, in county of Waukesha, being town 8 N., of range 19 E.; centrally located, 10 miles north from Waukesha. The population in 1850 was 1,010. It has 8 school districts. LITTLE BARABOO, Cieek, rises in Richland, and runs southeast into the Baraboo river, near the centre of town 13 N., of range 3 E. LITTLE BUTTE DES 3IVORTS, -ake, an expansion of the Lower Fox just below the outlet of Lake Winnebago, it is nearly 5 miles long, and 1 miile broad. LITTLLE CHUTE, P. V, Outagamie county, 5 miles below App]e ton, oni Fox river. LITTLE CHUTE,?C(fd(s7, of the Neenah river, 4 miles above Grand Kaukalin, with a fall of 31 feet in a distance of about 9,000 feet. LITTLE ENINANDIGO, Rliver, a tributary from the north of St. Croix river. LITTLE GREEN, -ake,:lIarquette county, in southwest corner of Green Lake. It is two miles long and nearly one in width, and forms a tributary to Grand River. It is 4 miles south of Green Lake, and is noted for the purity of its water. LITTLE KAUKAULIN, Ra_p(s(8, is on the Neenah river, 5 miles above Depere, at which place the navigation has been improved by a dam. LITTLE OTTER, Cieek, a small tributary from the west of Pecka tonnica, into which it empties in the town of Centre, Lafay ette county. LITTLE PRAIRIE, P. O., in town of Troy, Walworth county.. LITTLE PLATTE, Riveer, rises in Clifton, Grant county, and runs southwest, emptying into Platte river, in Paris. 132

Page  133 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. LITTLE PLOVER, River, a tributary from the northeast, entering the Wisconsin at Plover. LITTLE QUINNESEC, Fclls, of the Menominee river, at which place is a fall of 35 feet in an extent of 250 feet. At these Falls the river is contracted to 85 feet in width. LITTLE ROCHE-A-GRIs, irver, in east part of Adams county, runs west into the Wisconsin, in town 17 N. LITTLE, River, is a considerable tributary from the north of Oconto river. LITTLE STURGEON, Bay, on east shore of Green Bay, in Door county, near line between towns 27 and 28 N. LITTrLE SUAMICO, River, rises in range 18, and runs east, in town 26, entering Lake Michigan. LITTLE SUGAR, Creek, rises in the northwest corner of Green county, and running southeast into Sugar River at Albany. LITTLE TAIL, Poiqnte, name given to a point of land extending into Green Bay from the west, near the line between Brown and Oconto counties. LITTLE WISCONSIN, -Rivei, a tributary from the northeast of the Wisconsin, in Marathon county. LITTLE WOLF, River, a tributary of Wolf river, from the west, which it enters near the line between Outagamie and Wau pacca counties. LoDI, Town, in county of Columbia, being town 10 IN., of ranges 8 and 9; centrally located, 12 miles south from Portage city. It has 3 school districts. The soil is well adapted to farming and raising of stock; the surface is rolling. LODI, P. V., on section 27, town 10 N., of range 8 E., in town of same name, Columbia county. It is 16 miles south fromn Fort Winnebago, 20 miles northwest from Madison, and 4 miles from the head of Spring Creek. Population 150; 20 dwellings, 4 stores, 2 hotels, 2 flouring mills, 1 saw mill, 1 shoe, black smith, waggon, chair, cooper and harness shops; and Presby terian, Baptist, and Methodist organizations. 10 133

Page  134 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. LOmiRA LAKE, P. 0., in town of Lomira, Dodge county, being town 13 N., of range 17 E. LONG, Zake, a small Lakle in the east part of Osceola, Fond du Lac counity, is two and one half n miles long, and is the source of the MLwilwaukee river. LONG TAIL, Pointe, name given to a point of land extending into Green Bay from the west, in town 25 N., of range 20 E., in Brown county. LOST, Iacke, a small lake in the north part of Calamnus, Dodge county. LOuISA, Town, in the county of Doclde, being tow]n 13 N., of rang,e 17; centrally located, 14 miles north-east friom Juneau, The population iii 1850() was 653. It hlas 8 school districts. LOWELL, TotW~, in county of Dodge, being town 10 AN., of range 14 E.; centrally located, 12 miles southwest from Juneau. The population in 18S50 was 83v. It has 8 school districts. LOWELTL, P. V., Dodge county, on section 15 of town of same name, located S miles southwest firom JTneau, and 38 miles northeast from Mad(lison. It is on Beaver Dam river, 10 miles south from Beaver Dam. Population 200; 35 dwellings, 2 stores, 2 hotels, 1 saw, 1 grist nmill; and Baptist and Methodist denominations. LOWVILLE, Towrn, in county of Columbia, being town 11 N., of range 10 E. Population ili 1850 was 297. It has 4 school districts. LOWVLLE, P. V., on section 32 of town of same name, 14 miles south east from Portage city, and 22 miles north from Madi son, on the stage route from Madclison to Fort Winnebago; also on the nearest and best road from Madison to Stevens' Point and the Wisconsin Pinery. It is in a region of first rate improved farms. Population 40; 7 dwellings, 1 hotel, 1 school house; and Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian congregations. 134

Page  135 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. LYNDON, Town, in county of Sheboygan, being town 14 N., of range 21 E.; centrally locate(l, 14 miles southwest from She bovgan. It has 11 schlool districts. LYoNs, P.., on section 10, town 2 N., of range 18 E., in town of Hudson, AValworth county, is pleasantly situated on WVhite river, the outlet of Geneva Lake, at the point where it is crossed bv the main road from Geneva to Racine vfia Bur ling,ton. It is 9 miles southeast fi,om Elkhorn, and 75 miles from Madison. Immediately adjacent to the village, above and below, are extensive water powers, one of which has been improved by the erection of a flouring mill of three run of stones, and a saw mnill, hothl doing, a flourishling business. The otliei power remains unimproved, and offers great in dclucemeuts, as it is unsurpassed in capacity by any privilege in this part of the State. Population 130; dwellin:gs 30, 2 sto)res, 1 hotel, and 1 religious denomination. MIACKFORD), Town, in county of Marquette. It has 8 school districts. 3IAI)I-s,OX, Town, in county; of Dane, being towsn 7 N., of range 9 E. The pol)ulation in 1850 was 1,871. It has 4 school districts. IADISON, TlJl(ae, the capital of Wisconsin, and seat (f justice of the county of Dane, is situated on sections 13, 14, 23 and 24, in towrn of same name, at thle geographical centre of the county, and midway betw(een Lakle itichigan and tlhe 3Missis sippi river, being about 80 miles from each. It is widely noted for the beauty, health and pleasantness of its location, which is on an stllimus about one ifile in widtit, lying be tween the Third and Foiithi Lales. Thle surface is somewhat uneven, but in no place too abimupt f)r building purposes. From either l,ke it rises to ant altitude of about fift, feet, and is then depressed and elevated alternately, inaking the site of the village a series of gently undulating swells. The State house, a substantial edifice of lime-stone, is built, at the corners of the sections, in the cetntre of a square park, containing fourteen acres, covered with a luxuriant growth of 135

Page  136 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. native oaks, and upon the highest point between the lakes, overlooking each and the surrounding village. It has a large hall through the centre, and contains all of the State offices-the state library, the legislative chambers, and several committee rooms. The corners of the Capitol square are to the cardinal points of the compass, and from each of them a street extends, terminating, excepting the western, in the water. The streets are all straight, sixty-six feet wide, and, with the exception of those just described, are parallel to the sides of the Capitol square, and, consequently, diagonal with the meridian. From the centre of each side of the park, and at right angles with it and the principal streets, broad avenues, eight rods wide, extend completely across the town plat. At the termination of the street leading from the western corner of the park, and one mile directly west from the Capitol, on College Hill, near the shore of Fourth Lake, and in the middle of a park of fifty-five acres, comnmanding an extensive view of the town, lakes, and surrounding country, the buildings of the University of Wisconsin are located. Near the southern corner of the Capitol square, the Court Hiouse of Dane county, a large structure of lime-stone, containing commodious rooms for courts and county officers, is built. About a mile from the northern corner of the Capitol park, on the shore of Fourth Lake, at its outlet, is the best flouring mill in the State, and other machinery, owned by L. J. Farwell, present Governor of Wisconsin. Near the eastern corner of the square, the Post Office, Bank, Hotels, Stores, and other business stands, are located. The site of the town was located as early as 1S33 by James Duane Doty, afterwards Governor of the Territory, and more recently VIember of Congress; and the village plat was made out by his direction in 1836. A large addition to this plat was laid out in 1850, near the University, known as the "University Addition." Another addition has just been surveyed, on the northeast, by Governor Farwell, by whom it is owned. Several causes operated to 136

Page  137 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. retard the prosperity of Madison until 1847, since which time it has gradually and healthfully increased in growth, wealth, and population. Several rail roads are in progress of construc tion to this place, one at least of which will be completed during the present year, and the others soon after. From its location in the centre of a large agricultural district, having no im portant rival within a circle of forty miles, and being the permanent Capital of the State, and the seat of the richly endowed University, Madison has special advantages that cannot fail to mnake it a commanding business point, and a large and flourishing town. To the man of business, the merchant and iilanlfact,irer, there are offered great induce ments to settle in this thriving and rapidly increasing com munity. The retired merchant-the student-the lover of the picturesque seeking a healthy and pleasant location for a home, is presented the refi'eshing breezes and pure air of the lakes-the beautiful scenery, unrivalled in any country-the quiet of a country residence, united with the social advantages and the excitements of a city, while the great abundance of game in the prairies and openings, and the variety of fish in the lakes and streams, afford a relaxation to all in pursuit of health or pleasure. As the Capital of the State, the shire town of the county, it becomes the great centre of public business, calling together, at firequent intervals, people from all parts of the State and county, at the annual meetings of the legislature, at the session of the courts, the convocations of political conventions, and the sessions of the different benevolent societies of the day. The present population of Madison is about 3,500, with 700 dwellings, 26 stores, 15 groceries, 11 taverns, 2 large printing offices, and a book bindery; a grist mill, with eight run of stonle, 3 saw mills, an iron foundery, a woollen factory, an oil mill, 2 steam planing mills, a hominy mill propelled by steam; a bank, the first organized in the State; three churches, with three others to be built during the present season; and mechanical shops of all kinds. 137

Page  138 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. MA.oirA, V., on section 11, town 10 N., of range 7 E., being in town of Lodi, county of Columbia. It lies on the Wiisconsin river, at the mouth of Spring Creek; contains 1 hotel, 1 warehouse, 2 saw mills, and 2 flouting mnills in conteinmplation. The water pow-er is a superior one. sM:,\oLIA, To'wt, in county of R)ck, being town 3 N., of range 10 E.; centrally located, 15 miles west from Janesville. It is settled by New-Yorkers. The population in S1850 was 1,871. IO has 7 school districts, and 7 well-finishled frame and stone school houses, a good water power, 6 feet head, with 1 grist and 1 saw mill. The face of the country is generally undulat ing, with burr oak openings and prairie advantageously mixed. It is well watered by springs of the best and purest quality. The soil is a sandy loam, on a subsoil of yellow clay, and is excellent grass land. Large quantities of grass seed, of a superior quality, is annually produced and shil)ped East. The town boasts of having some of the best improved stock farms in the State. MAGNOLIA, P. V., in town of saine name, Rock county, being on sections 22 and 23, town 3 N., of range 10 E. It has 15 dwellings, 1 tavern, 1 store, 4 mechanics' shiops, 1 church, and 1 stone school house. MAIDENL's ok, on east bank of Lake Pepin, in Chlippewa county, on section 2, town 23 N., of range 16 W. MAKwA, Bake, the most northern lake on Red Cedar river. MI.-AACnESTER, Totw2, in county of Calumet. It has 4 school districts. YIANIDOWISH, lakces, are a chain of lakes in north part of Marathon county, tributary to the Chippewa river, through river of samle name. M[NIDOWISH, (MIANITOTSH or DEVIL'S), River, rises in lake of same name, running southwest, empties into Chippewa river, of which it is the largest tributary. MANITOU, River, see East River, Brown county. 138

Page  139 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. MANITOWOC, Coitnt%y, iS bounded on the nortlh by Brown and Ke waunee, on the east and southeast by the State line in Lake NIicehigan, on the south by Shehoy;n, and on the west by Caltmet and a pf,lrtion of Outagamiie. It was set off from Brown, Dece.mber 7, 1836; organized andl attached thereto for judicial T;)upr()ses, December 17, 1836; fully organized, Marlch 2, 1SIS. The northern boundaries were somewhat changed February 9, 1850. The seat of justice is established at Mianitowoc Rapids, on Manitowoc river, 3 miles from its mouth, and a few miles east of the geg(-)raplhical centre of the county. The geineral foibmation of the surface is moder ately undulating, and in some parts very agreeably diversified with hills and valleys. The soil is good and well watered, with springs and creeks, and is well adapted to tillage and grazing. Thle county is densely timbered with maple, oak, elm, birchl, ash, pine, and hlemlock. The county frmIns a part of the fourthl judical circuit, of the thirtieth congressional district, and of the first senate district. It sends one member to the assembly. The population in 1840 was 235; 1842, 263; 1846, 629; 1847, 1,28_5; 1850, 3,713; at present estimated, 7,000. Dwellings, 16; fairms, 37; and mnanufactories, 22. County Officers for 1853 and 1854: County Judge, Ezekiel Ricker; Sheriff, D. H. Van Valkenburg,; Cleik of Court, Frederick Sal,mon-; District Attorney, J. H. W. Colby; Register of Deeds, Fred. Salomon Clerk ()f Board of Super visors, Chai'les A. Reiter; Treasurer, WVm. Bachl; Surveyor, Fayette Ansl)y; Coroner, Lymant EImmerson. MAxITOWOC, -'i(hd), has its origin in two branches; the one head ing at near the southeirn extremiity of Lake Winnebago, and the other near the nortlh wester n part of the saine, in Calumet county; unite near the southeast corner of towf 19 N., of range 20 E., drainin.g about 400 square miiles ()f lands. It runs nearly east, entering Lake Aichig,an at the village of MAanito woc, and is navigal)e to the village of Manitowoc Rapids, 5 miles from its mnouth. 139

Page  140 WISCONSIN GAZEMIT:EER. MANITOWOC, P. F., see Appendix. MANITOWOC RAPIDS, P. V. and C.HI, see Appendix. MANLY, Lake, a small lake in the south part of Farmington, Wash ingtoon county. AIAPLETON, P. O., in town of Oconomowoc, Waukesha county, 22 miles northwest from Waukesha, on the Ashippun river, at which place are good mills. VMARATHON, Cotunty, iS bounded on the north and northeast by the State line, east by Waupacca and Oconto, south by Portage, and on the west by Chippewa and La Pointe. It was estab lished from Portage, and fully organized February 9, 1850. Wausan, at Big Bull Falls on the Wisconsin river, about 20 miles north from the south line of the county, is the seat of justice. It is celebrated for its extensive regions of pine timber, and the production of pine lumber, rather than for agricultural pursuits. The inills in Adams, Portage, and Marathon, cut nearly sixty millions feet per annum. The county forms a part of the first senate and of the second con gressional districts, and of the third judicial circuit, and, with Portage, sends one member to the assembly. County Officers for 1853 and 1854: Judge, Wm. HI. Kennedy; Sheriff, Thos. Minton; Clerk of Court, Asa Lawrence. MARATHON, Town, in county of Marathon, comprising the whole of the same. The population in 1850 was 466. M3aRCELLON, P. V., in town of same name, Columbia county. MaRCELLON, Town, in county of Columbia, being town 13 N., of range 10; centrally located, 8 miles from Portage city. The population in 1850 was 405. It has 4 school districts. MARINE MILLS, P. O., in Polk county, 9,niles below the Falls of St. Croix. MARION, Town, in county of Waushara, being town 18 N., of range 11. 140

Page  141 WISCON,IN GAZEF'I' EER. MARION, P. V., in town of Paris, veniosha county. MARKESAN, P. O., in Marquette county, 16 miles from Montello. MARQUETTIC, COU?t(y, is bounded on the north by Waushara, east by Winnebago and Fond du Lac, on the south by Dodge and Columbia, and on the west by Adams, and is 24 by 30 miles square. It was set off from Brown, December 7, 1836, and was organized and attached to Brown, for judicial purposes, January 22, 1844. It was fully organized July 31, 1848. The bounds of the county were extended March 6, 1849. Of late the subject of the county seat has created considerable excite ment, and the question is now being litigated between the villages of Dartford, on the north side of Green Lake, in the eastern portion of the county, and Marquette, on the south side of Puckawa Lake, in the southern portion of the county. The county is celebrated for its good lands, deep lakes, fine water powers, and its industrious and thrifty inhabitants. It is watered by Fox liver (Neenah) and its branches. Thie county is attached to the twenty-thlird senate, to the third congressional districts, and to the third judicial circuit, and, with Waushara, constitutes two assembly distri(:ts, as follows: 1. Towns of Berlin, Br(oklyn, Pleasant Valley, Middleton, Mackford, Albany and Green Lake, in the county of Mairquette, and the county of Waushara; 2. All that portion of Marquette county, being west of the range line between ranges 10 and 11 E., and the town of Mlarquette and ~ingiston, in the county of Marquette. The population in 1840 was 18; 1842, 59; 1846, 986; 1847, 2,264; including Waushara, 1850, 8,642; 237 farms, 9 mn anufactories, 1,747 dwellings. County Officers for 1853 and 1854: Judge, John S. Horner; Sheriff, James C. Potter; Clerk of Court, Dominic Devenna; Register of Deeds, J. Edmund iMillard. MARUETTE, Town*, in county of same name. It has 5 school dis. ticts. MARQTETTE, P. V. and C. f., (?) on south side of Puckawa Lake, 3arquette county. 141

Page  142 WISCONSIN GAZFTTEER. ]AIARSTON, is the name of a new town in county of Sauk. MARTIN,'S Cree(, rises in town 22 N., of range 23 E., Kewaunee county, is about 7 miiles in length, emptying into East Twin river. AIASKAU, Wfi,erV, see M[auvaise River, of La Pointe county. -I[ASUKEG, -?Rel, see Maiauvaise River, of Lake Superior. MAA[uvAISE, Cieek~, a small stream, about 9 miles in length, entering East Twin river, between Benton and [Martin's creek. ]AUTvAIsE, (BAD or MIxASnEG), fit,er, La Pointe county, a consid erable stream tributary to Lake Superior, rises in Kagine Lake, near the head waters of the St. Croix, and enters Lake Superior about 15 miles west from Mlontreal river. MAYVILLE, P. F., Dodge county, on section 23, town 12 N., of range 13 E, in town of Williamstown, 12 miles northeast from Juneau, and 65 miles northeast fromi Madison. It is situated on the princi1pal branch of Rock river, and possesses the superior advantages of good water power, iron ore, tim ber, and a good soil. MCCARTNEFY'S C'eekd, a small stream in Waterloo, Grant county, entering the Mississiplpi. LIECHANx,;iver, rises in the northiern portion of Waushara county, and runs southeast into Fox river, which it enters near tLe line between towns 15 and 16 N. MEIDINA, Town, in county of Dane, being town 8 N., of range 12 E.; centrally located, 16 miles northeast from Madison. It has 7 school districts. MEEKER, P. O., in town of Germantown, Washinigtoii county AMEGIDCHEQUE, or Namebin Lake, La Pointe county. MEMEE, Creek, rises in MIanitowoc county, runs south betweer and nearly parallel to the lake shore and Sheboygan river, Enters the lake a few miles northeast of the mouth of the latter. 14-2

Page  143 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. MEErEE, P. O., in Manitowoc county, on section 14, town 17 N1., of range 22 E., bei',) in the townv of \Meeiuee, 15 miles south from M/a,aitowoc, and 130 miles fiom MIadison. MENASHIA, P. -F, see Appendix. MENIMI, -Lake, one of the sources of the St. Croix, in La Pointe countv. MIENOM, Lakie, an expansi(on of Neenah river immediately above Buffalo Lake, iin Alarquette county. MIENOMOXNEF,.Town, in county of Waukesha, being town 8 N., of range 20 E.; centrally locatedcl, 12 miles northeast fromn Waukesha. The population in 1850 was 1,340. It has 7 school districts. ME-\OMONEE, -Rere, (of Milwaukee,) rises in the southern part of Washington coulnty, and runs soutleast throughl a town of same naine in Waukesha county, and the towns of Granville, Wauwat,-sa and b,ilwaukee, enters Mlilwaukee river, in the citv of AIlilwaukee. lIENoMro.INE:, P-tvei, rises near the head waters of the Wisconsin, and runninig s,)utlheast, formingy the line between the States of Mlichioan aiid Wisco.sin, enters Green Bay, at about the middle of the western shoie. Tihis river p,tsses a la:'ge quan tity of water ii,to Greei Bay, but ownig t(o its rapidity and falls is not nav gable excelpt for can es. The h)auks of the Mlenomonee are covered with a heavTy grf)Nwthl of excellent and fine timtber. Its valley containls emuchl good land. MIEN0:,O.NEE, (C7,eek, ises near the northlea t corner of Jamestown, Grant county, ald runs soutlihwest into the State of Illinois. M1ENOMONEEx, T/, a mining, point at the corners of town 1 and 2, i., of ranges 1 and 2 W. MzENOMONEE, Fc(l8, on river of same name, 15 miles frorn [Milwau kee, at which place is a descent of 40 feet in half a nile. MFNOMONEE IILLs, P.O., in Chippewa county. MENOIONEE, RapidCs, are rapids in the river of samne name. 143

Page  144 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. MEQUON, Town, in county of Washington, being towns 9 N., of range 21 and fraction 22 N.; centrally located, 12 miles south west fiom Ozaukee. The population of 1850 was 2,148. It has 14 school districts. MEQUON, iver,; rises in the northwest corner of town of same name, and runs east, uniting with the Milwaukee river, at the village of AMequon. MEQUON RIVER, P. V., in county of Washington, on section 23, of the town of MAequon, town 9 N., of range 21 E., on the Mil waukee and Fond du Lac plank road, 15 miles southwest from Ozaukee, and 90 miles easterly from Madison. Popula tion 160; with 20 dwellings, a good school house, and various mechanics. M]ERRrrIT'S Jll, on the Wisconsin river, near the southwest corner of town 22 N., of range 5 E., in Portage county. MERTON, TotW, in county of Waukesha, being town 8 N., of range 18 E.; centrally located, 15 mniles northwest from Waukesha. The population in 1850 was 1,763. It has 8 school districts. METOMEN, P. V., is on section 10, in town of same name, being town 15 N., of range 14 E. It is in Fond du Lac county, 20 miles west from the county seat, with which it is connected by a plank road, and is 65 miles northeast from Madison. It has 250 inhabitants; with 2 stores, 3 hotels, and 2 mills; 2 churches, and 5 religious denominations. It is a good loca tion for a woollen factory, as much attention is paid to the raising of sheep in the vicinity. METOIEN, Town, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 15 N., of range 14 E.; centrally located, 18 miles west from Fond du Lac. The population in 1850 was 756. It has 9 school dis tricts. MIcICONI, Lake, forms a portion of the head waters of the Mani dowish branch of the Chippewa river. 144

Page  145 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. MICMIGAN, Lake, the eastern bounds of the State, is the only one of the great chain of inland seas that lies wholly within the United States. It is estilmated to have a length of about 320 miles, and a mean or average breadth of 70 miles-having, therefore, an area of 22,400 square miles, exclusive of Green Bay. The surface of Lake Michigan is 578 feet above the level of the Ocean, and its mean depth is estimated at 1,000 feet. The bottom is, therefore, about 400 feet below the Ocean level. Its greatest width is opposite Milwaukee, where it is nearly 100 miles. The length of coast of this lake, in Wis consin, from the State of Illinois to the north point of Rock Island, at the entrance of Green Bay, is 257 miles.* MIDDLE MILLS, P. O., in Chippewa county, town 28 N., of range 13 W. Population, 300; with 1 mill, 2 stores, and 1 hotel. MmDLETON, P.O., in town of same name, Dane county. MIDDLETON, Towne, in the county of Dane, being town 7 N., of range 8 E.; centrally located, 8 miles west from Madison. It has 6 school districts. M]rDLETON, Town, Marquette county, see Dayton. MIFLIN, P. V., in town of same name, Iowa county, formerly called Black Jack, consiSts of two small villages, from a half to three-fourths of a mile apart, containing about 200 inhabi tants, principally miners. It has 4 stores, 1 grist mill, and 1 smelting furnace. A large branch of the West Peckatonnica flows through both villages. The country around is mostly prairie. It is 11 miles west from Mineral Point. M]-FFLIN, Town, in the county of Iowa. MMLARD, P. V., on section 9, town 3 N., of range 16 E., in the town of Sugar Creek, Walworth county. It is 7 miles north west from Elkhorn, 60 miles southeast from Madison, on the east side of Sugar Creek prairie. Population 100, with 15 dwellings, 1 store, and Baptist church. * Lapham. 145

Page  146 WISCONSIN GAZE=TEER. MILL CRPEEK, a small stream entering the Neenah, in tile town of Grand Clhute, Outagamie county. MILFOPD, Townrt, in county of JefYerson, being town 8 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 12 miles north fromn Jefferson. Population in 1850 was 728. It has 6 school districts. MILLvILLTr, P. V., in town of Patch Grove, Grant county, on the Wisconsin river, in town C) N., of range 6 W. MILTON, To,'2, in county of iRock, being town 4 N., of range 13 E.; centrally located, 14 miles northeast from Janesville. Population in 1850 was 1,032. It has 8 school districts. MILTON, P. V., in town of samne name, in Ptock county, on section 27. It is S miles northeast froti Janesville, and 36 mniles southeast fiom MAadison. Populition 400, with 40 dwellings, 5 stores, 3 hotels, 2 churches, 3 societies, and 1 academy of about 70 scholars. It is 60 miles southwest fiorn AMilwaukee, on the line of the MA. &'l. l. R., with a branch to Janesville. IILwAUKEE, City, the county seat of Milwaukee coninty, and the largest town- in the State, is s'tuatted in town 7, of range 22, E., and niear the montli (,f the river of the same name, and on the she,r,s ot a layn, or indentationi of Lhkle Micliigan, SOIle Six miles l)etween the ontei poiit., and two and one half to three miles in widlthl, afihodi-ig deep water at all timnes, and g,)od holdilg ground( fe,r vessels at ainchor. The river comes fitom the n,irthl in a direction pa'allel with the lake shore, the land rising fromn the lake iii alihost perpendicular bluffs, aiJd descending gradually to the bed of the liver. On the west, the land rises again to a colisi(lerable height. Within the limits of the corporation, the Menominiee river comes in fromn the west, and joins the Milwaukee, about a mile from its present mouth. Piers were erected some years since by the United States Government, at the mouth of the river; but the citizens have long felt the necessity of dis pensing with the ciecLLitous rotnte which the river takes through the low grounds near its mouth, and have projected 146

Page  147 WISCONSIN GAZEiTTEER. a cut through an isthmus of some 200 feet in width between the river and lake, and the erection of piers at that point, thus forming a new harbor or opening into the river. There is always water enough in the river for the largest class of lake craft, as far up as the mills, some two miles from its mouth. Recently, (May, 1S53,) the citizens have voted a loan of $50,000, to be expended in connection with a Government appropriation of $15,000, in thie imnprovement of the harbor.. Aiilwaukee was laid out as a village in 1i35. Its rapidity of growth may be seen from the following, giving( the popula — tion for the years mentioned: In S1838S, 700; S1840, 1,751;, 1842, 2,700; 1146, 9,6,55; 1847, 14,061; 1849, 1S,000; 1850,, 20,061. Tile above pzeseits a rate of iljclicase ul)nparalleled in. the history even of the irapidly growing West. At present, the population is estimated at over 25,000 souls. A dam is thrown across the Milwaukee river, near the north limits of the city, and a canal is conducted from it parallel with the stream, aff, )rding an abiundant water power; the present capacity of which may be increased at comparatively small expense. Five large flounring mills, one woollen factory, oil mill, pail factory, and numerous miachine shlops, are situated upon this water power, and are accessilb)le to vessels of the largest class. The town of Milwaukee was incoiporated as a city by the territorial Legislature, Januiary 31, 1846, with five wards; and the first election under the chlarter was held on the first Tuesday of April succeeding. Solomon Juneau, who, as an Indian trader, had first built his cabin on the site of the city, and remained for many years the only white settler, was chosen the first mayor. The unuImUi of buildings elected in 1850 was 325, at a cost of $369,000. Since that time the city has greatly enlarged its borders, and increased in the iunber and quality of its. buildings. The color of the brick used being a li,ght cream, with their excellent quality, add very much to the appear — ance of the city. Great taste is exhibited in the architecture. 147'

Page  148 WISCONSIN GAZETrEER. of many of the dwellings and blocks of stores; some of the latter rivalling any buildings of the kind west of New York. Seven daily newspapers, four in English and three in Gel man, are published in the city. All of these publish weekly editions, and most of them tri-weeklies. There are, besides, two other weeklies, and two mionthly publications issued. The public schools of this city are under the charge of a board of three commissioners fromn each ward. A commodious brick edifice has been erected in each ward for the purpose, at an average cost of about $5,000. A large portion of the children of the city receive gratuitous instruction in these schools. Besides these, there aie numerous private academies and schools, among which may be mentioned the Milwaukee University Institute, which is incorporated with a University charter-the Milwaukee Femnale College, for which a very tasteful and extensive brick building has been erected-the Spring street Female Seminary-the Mlilwaukee Commercial and English School-the Milwaukee Academry, &c. For the last mentioned, a commrodious brick building is erected and in use. There are in Milwaukee 35 church organizations, and nearly 30 chLurich edifices. In S1852 there were 29 organizations, of the following denomil)ations: 2 Baptist, 2 Congregational, 4 Roman Catholic, 3 Protestant Episcopal, 1 Norwegian Lutheran, 6 German Protestant, 3 Methodist Episcopal, 5 Presbyterian, 1 Universalist, and 2 Wesleyan ~Methodist. Among the associati(,ns fbr various obljects and purposes, there were last year iil operation a City Bible So*ciety, Tract Society, 2 Musical Societies, 3 Orphan Asylutms, 2 Benevolent Societies, several Literary Asseciations, 5 Odd Fellows' Lodges, 3 Masonic Lodges, 2 Temperance Divisions, besides numerous Insurance and other C,)mpanies, belonging more appropriately to business matters. Eight Fire Companies constitute that department, well supplied with the necessary machines, and it is conducted with efficiency and harmony. The city is lighted with gas, supplied from extensive .-148

Page  149 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. works erected in 1852. The United States District Court holds its sessions in this city. The Circuit and Coutty Courts also hold several terms during the year; and a Municipal Court will probably be soon established. Several1 consul ships for German States. are located in Milwaukee. for the benefit of the very large number of Germans who arrive at Milwaukee and other Wisconsini ports, and settle within the State. During, the past three years, much has been done to increase the facilities of intercourse between Alilwaukee and the interior of the State. Several plank roads stretch out in various directions, there being now near 200 miles constructed and in operation. The Milwaukee and Mississippi rail road is completed as far as Janesville, 71 miles, and is under contract from lvfilton, 8 miles nurtheast fromn Janesville to Miadison, to be completed by the 1st Jauiary, 1854. whence it is to run westward to Prairie du Cllien, on the?lississippi, at the mointh of the Wisc(-)nsin. Other roads aie chartered, and portions of them contracted, or ready for contract, as follows: Green Bay, 3{ilwaukee and Chicago, running north and south. The portion of this road, soIuth of TLi'ilw&aukee, is expected to be complete within S18 months.-Y'ilwahakee and Beloit, (chartered;) about 70 milecs in lergtlh, but the connexion can be made through other r(-ad(s in half that distance.-Milwaukee and Watertown, under contract to Watertown, 46 miles north of west, to be extended to Poiridge city immediately, and thence to La Cri,sse (,En the UIpper MAlississii)pi.-La Cirosse and 3,lilwaukee, nearly in the same direction as the last named, passing through Dodge county. A large amount of stock subscribed, a-nd the e,iterprize in energetic hands. —Milwaukee, Fond du Lac and Green Bay, fully organized by the subscription of stock, and with a prospect of early comp,letion. These several lines of railway, once completed, will make Milwaukee the business centre of a very rich and rapidly growing region of counitry Measures are now -)roseclited with energy ftar the bul'-ding of a rail 11 149

Page  150 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. road across the State of Michigan, which, in colinexion with the Canadian system of roads, will place Milwaukee on al most an air line route from the northwest to the great Eastern cities. The value of articles manufactured in the city in the year 1852, was over $2,000,000. Tonnage of vessels owned in the city, 8,548. Number of arrivals at the port in 1852, about 1600; and departures the same. Of principal articles, the following quantities were exported during the year 1852, viz: flour, 88,597 bbls.; wheat, 394,386 bushels; barley, 345,620 bushels; oats, 428,800 bushels; rye, 67,759 bushels; hogs, live and dressed, 1,771,314 lbs.; pork, 19,603 bbls.; bacon, 188,286 lbs.; beef, 7,773 bbls.; eggs, 54,000 doz.; butter, 80,000 lbs.; saleratus, 150,000 lbs.; mill feed, 300 tons; hops, 11,625 lbs.; brick, 700,000; wool, 321,121 lbs.; hides, 12,990 lbs.; flax, 4,211 lbs.; broom corn, 270 tons; ashes, pot and pearl, 3,291 casks; grass seed, 5,852 bbls.; furs, 139 bales; lead and shot, about 1,000,000 lbs.; staves, dressed, 189,000, &C. &C. MILWAIUKEE, COt,nty, iS bounded on the north by Washington, east by the State line, south by Racine, and west by Waukesha. It was established and set off from Brown, Sept. 6, 1834, and fully organized. Its original limits extended from the south and east lines of the present State of Wisconsin north to the north line of township 12, and west to the line between the Green Bay and Wisconsin land districts, which was estab lished June 26, 1834, and was " a north and south line drawn from the northern boundary of Illinois, along the range line next west of Fort Winnebago to the Wisconsin river," or the range line between ranges 8 and 9 E. The seat of justice is established at the city of Milwaukee. This county was origi nally covered with a heavy growth of hard timber. The soil is good and well adapted to the raising of grain and to garden ing. The streams are the Milwaukee, Menomonee, and Root rivers and Oak creek. This county is in the second judicial circuit and the first congressional district. Its legislative 150

Page  151 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. representation is as follows: The first and second wards of the city of Milwaukee, and towns of Wauwatosa, Milwaukee and Granville, constitute the fifth senate district. The third, fourth, and fifth wards in the city of Milwaukee, and the towns of Greenfield, Lake, Oak Creek and Franklin, constitute the sixth senate district. The first ward in the city of Milwaukee constitutes an assembly district. The second ward in the city of Milwaukee constitutes an assembly district. The third ward in the city of Milwaukee constitutes an assembly district. The fourth ward in the city of Milwaukee constitutes an assembly district. The fifth ward in thie city of Milwaukee constitutes an assembly district. The towns of Franklin and Oak Creek constitute an assembly district. The towns of Greenfield and Lake constitute an assembly district. The town of Wauwatosa constitutes an assembly district. The towns of Milwaukee and Granville constitute an assembly district. County Officers for the years 1853 and 1854: Judge, Horatio N. Wells; Sheriff, Herman L. Page; Clerk of Court, M]atthew Keenan; District Attorney, A. IR. R. Butler; Register of Deeds, Charles J. Kern. MILWAITKEE, Towqn, in county of same name, being fractional towns 7 and 8 N., of range 22 E.; in which is located the city of Milwaukee. The population in 1S50 was 1,364. MILwAUKEE, Falls, on the Milwaukee river, near the mouth of Cedar river, in Washington county. MILW-iUKFEE, River, has its source in the towns of Eden and Osce ola, Fond du Lac county, and running southerly, through Washington county, unites with the Menomonee, at Mil waukee city, and enters Lake Michiygan. MINERAL, Creek, is a tributary from the Wisconsin, from the south, in Iowa county. It rises near Dodgeville. MINERAL POINT, P. V., county seat of Iowa county, contains about 2,500 inhabitants and is rapidly increasing. It has 5 churches, 4 smelting furnaces in operation, and the value of mineral 151

Page  152 WISCONSIN GAZETTFrR. raised in crude state is $500,000 per annum; 11 dry good stores, 5 groceries, 3 drug stores, and 1 book store. Inhabitants are mostly miners. It is surrounded )by a rich farming country; is the terminus of the Mineral Point railroad froin the Illinois state line to Mineral Point, a distance of 31-2 miles, where it intersects the central railroad. A branch of the Peckatonnica runs near the village, affording water power. Mississippi, River, "The Father of Waters," is the most important stream in the United States. Its entire lengtHi, according to Nicollett's Report to Congress, is 2,986 miles; about 275 miles of this distance forms the western boundary of Wiscon sin. The principal tributaries of the Mississippi in this State are the St. Croix, Chippewa, Treinpeleau, Black, and Wis consin. MITCHELL, P. V., in county of Sheboygan. MITCHELL, Tow~n, in county of Sheboygan, being on section 12, town 14 N., of range 20 E.; centrally located, 20 mniles south west from Sheboygan. Ithas 4 school districts. MOMIKFAN, Lake, on Red Cedar river. MIONCHES, P. O., in WAVaukesha county. MONTFORT, P. O., (Village of Wingville,) on section 24, town 6 N., of range 1 W., 1S miles northeast fiom Lancaster, and 50 miles west from IIadison, on a high aind beautiful prair'ie on the thoroughfare from Madisoni to thle Mlississiippli, and is sur rounded by a rich and fertile fad-miig country, which is becoming rapidly improved. Population 100, with 30 dwel lings, 2 hotels, 2 stores, a melting furtiace, and a AMethodist church. MONISH, Lake, in Waukesha county. See Denoon Lake. MONROE, C. Hi. and P. V., in town of sanme name, Green county, on section 35, town 2 N., of range 7 E. It is 40 mniles south from Madison. Population 900, withl 200 dwellings, 7 stores, 152

Page  153 WISCONSIN GAZEiTiER. 3 hotels, 2 mills, 4 waggon, 5 blacksmith, 4 cabinet, 4 shoe and 4 carpenter shlops, 1 broom and 1 chair factory, 2 lath saws, and several tu':ning lathes connected with machinery at the mills, 1 Althodist and 1 ChIristian church. Monroe is situated on the direct route from Janesville to Dubuque an-l Galena, 35 miles from the former, and 50 miles from the latter place. It is surrounded by a rich farmil:g country and large tracts of the best quality of timber. The location is very healthy. The floutiing mill runs 4 run of stone, and, with the saw mill, is drivenl by steam. MONROE, TO2)v,, in co)ullty of Green, being town 2 N., of range 7 E., in whichl is located the counIilty seat. Population in 1850 was 1,146. It has 7 schlool districts. MONTELLO, P. V., in MA[arquette county, on section 16, of town 15 iN., of range 10 E., 19 miles west from Dartford, and 47 miles norith fiom LAladisonl, at the moithi of MNontello river, and the outlet of Buffalo Lake. It possesses an excellent water power, having a fall of 14 feet, with sufficient water at all seasons of the -ear to carrv nfve run of stone. It has all the advantages of the navigati,n of Neeurt h river. Population 200, with 50 dwellinlgs, storw s, 2 hotels. 1 miii, 1 church, andt several mechanical and inannifaeturing shlops. MONTELLO,'.To/In, a county of Marquette, being town 15 N., of range 10. It has 3 school districts. MONTELLO, River, rises in the northwest corner of Marquette county, and running southeasterly, empties into the Neenah river at the foot of Buffalo Lake. MONTEREY, P. O., in Oconomnowoc, Waukesha county, on Aship pun creek. MIONTEVILLE, Towu, in county of La Crosse. MONTEZUMIA, P. V., in town of Jefferson, Green county, being in town 1 N., of range 8 E. 153

Page  154 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. MoNTICELLO, P. V, on section 7, town 3 N., of range 8 E., in Green county. It is situated on the Madison and Monroe, and Beloit and Mineral Point stage routes, near the centre of the county, with a fine farming country surrounding it, and possesses a fine water power. It is 10 miles north of Monroe, and 30 miles south from Madison. Population 100, with 18 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, 1 saw mill, 1 tin and sheet iron, 1 waggon and 1 cabinet shop; 1 Methodist Episcopal denom ination. MAIO\NTrEAL, Bay, in La Pointe county, on the southern shore of Lake Superior, at the mouth of Montreal river. MONTuEAL, RiVer, rises near the head of the Wisconsin and Onto nagon rivers, west of Lake Vieux Desert, and running quite rapidly northwesterly, enters Lake Superior at Montreal Bay, forming a portion of the boundary line between Michigan and Wisconsin, (La Pointe county.) MONTROSE, Town, in county of Dane, being town 5 N., of range 8 E.; centrally located, 15 miles southwest from Madison. It has 7 school districts. AIOrnIAN, Creek, rises in range 5 W., La Crosse county, and runs westerly in township 15 N., entering the Mississippi. 3IoRIsoN's Creek, a small branch of Platte river, in Highland, Grant county. MOUNDVILLE, Settlement, in Iowa county, one mile west of Blue Mounds P.O. MOUNDVILLE, P. O., in Marquette county, 12 miles from Monte]lo. MOUNDVILLE, Town, in county of Marquette. MOUNTAIN ISLAND, River, see Tempeleau river. MOUSE, Lcake, is between Okauchee and Pine lakes, on the Ocono mowoc river, in Waukesha county. MOUNT HOPE, residence of R. M. Meigs, on section 1, in Ottawa, Waukesha county, adjoining village of Waterville. 154

Page  155 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. MOUNT MORIAH, this name has been given to an elevation of land near Grand River, in the town of lKingsboro', Marquette county. MoUNT StOnRIS, Waushara county, an elevation in the south part of the town of Ontario. [OUNT MoRIS, Town, in county of Waushara, being town 19 N., of range 11. MO:UNT PLEASANT, Town, in county of Racine, being town 3 N., of range 22 E.; centrally located, 6 miles west from Racine. ]MOUNT PLEASANT, Town, in county of Green, being town 3 N., of range S; centrally located, 8 miles northeast from Monroe. Population in 1850 was 579. It has 7 school districts. 310NT PLEASANT, P. O., in town of same name, Green county, being in town 3 N., of range S E. MOUNT STERLING, P. V., in Crawford county, on section 26, town 10 N~., of range 5 W. MOUNT TREEIPELEAU, a bluff about 500 feet high, at the mouth of the river of the same name, in Jackson county, having a beautiful and extensive view of the surrounding country. 3MOU-NT ToM, in Marquette county, in the town of Pleasant Valley. MOUNT ~ERNON, P. V., on the town line between Primrose and Springdale, in Dane county, 17 miles southwest from Madison. It is a flourishing village, with a healthy situation, in the valley of Sugar River, surrounded by a fine farming country producing grain of all kinds in great abundance, and well adapted to grazing and wool growing; and occupied by an industrious and enterprizing population. It has several good hydraulic powers, an excellent stone quarry, and good mate. rial for making brick. Taking into consideration the many advantages of this place, and the distance to other villages, together with the fact, that the land in the county is owned by actual settlers, it is destined, ere long, to assume an im portant l)]ace among the rapidly growing towns of Wisconsin. 155

Page  156 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. MUD, Lkte, a small lake in the town of Shields, Dodge county. MUD, ce, i nColumbia county, a widening of the Neenah river, 5 miles below the Portage. MUI)DY, C,;ee4:, a branch from the north of Chippewa river, in town 26 N., of range 12 W. MuoDY, -) DeeY, a small stream entering the Mississippi, at Cass ville, G7 ant county. MrKWA, P. V. and C. H., on section 20, town 22 N., of range 14 E., on WTolf river, in Waupacca county. MUxwvA, Tozen in county of Waupacca. MURIWANAGO, P. V., s,ituated on section 26, in town of same name, WTaukesha coenty, 16 miles south from Waukesha, and 70 miles east frnom Aladlison, near the entrance of the Mukwa nago creek into the Fox (Pishtakee) river. It is on the Mil waukee and Janesville plank road, and is the market town of an exceilent lfar.ming region of land. The population is about 500, wit},.75 dwellings, 2 hotels, 5 stores, a large flouring mill, and a variety of mechanics. MuTEwAwxNAGO, Towgi, in county of WTaukesha, being town 5 N., of range 18 E.; centrally located, 10 miles south from Wcuh,kesha. Population in S1850 was 1,094. It has 8 school districts. MIUIWANAGO, lcake, an expansion of Pishtakee river, about two mniles in length, in Waukesha county. MULLET, Rvv,er, rises in a small lake in Fond du Lac county, and runniing easterly into Sheboygan river, in Sheboygan county, it enters just above the Falls. MUSCODA, Tow,, in the county of Grant, being the north half of town 7 N., of range 1 W., and all of the country embraced in towns 8 and 9 N., of ranges 1 and 2 W.; centrally located, 22 miles northeast from Lancaster. It has 2 school districts. This town was organized in 1852. 1g6

Page  157 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. MS(CODA, P. V., Grant county, in town of same name, is located on section 1, town 8 N., of range 1 W., on the southern bank of the Wisconsin river, being in the northeast corner of the town and county. It possesses a good site for a town, being on a beautiful prairie, heretofore known as English prairie, 10 feet above the level of high water mark. The river bank is composed of sand stone fioiiil the base to within seven feet of the top. The soil is a black vegetable loam, very productive. It is located 30 miles northeast from Lancasteir, alid 80 miles west friom Madison, 45 miles firom the mouth of the Wiscon sin, and 25 below Hlelena. Population 250, with 50 dwellings, 3 stores, 2 hotels, and various branches of industry. MUSKEGO, P. V:., in town of same name, Waukesha county, town 5 N., of range 20 E. M]USKEGO, Town, ill county of Waukesha, beiniig town 5 N., of range 20 E.; centrally located, 10 miles southleast from Waukesha. The population in 1850 was 1,111. It has 8 school districts. MUSKEGO, Creek, Waukesha county, rises in lake of the same namne, and emnpties into Fox River at Rochlester. MUSKEGO, Lake, in town of samne name, in the southeast part of Waukesha county, is nearly four miles lJng, and more than a mile wide. MUSKEGO, R?iver, is a tributary from the west of the'Menomonee river, which it enters near Big Quinesec Falls. 3USQUEWOC, ~ake, in the west part of West Bend, in Washington county, is about 31 miles long, and three-fourths of a mile wide. MuxSKOS, River, is a tributary from the west of the Menomonee river, which it enters near Big Quinesec Falls. NAGAWICKA, -ake, is mostly on section 17 of the town of Dela field. It is about 3 miles long, and three-fourths of a mile wide; at the outlet are the mills and the village of Delafield. This lake has Bark river ifor its inlet and outlet, and contains a small and beautiful island. 1511

Page  158 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. NAMEBIN, Lake, La Pointe county. See Megilcheque lake. NARROWS, Creek, is a tributary from the southwest of Baraboo river, which it enters about half way between Baraboo and Reedsburg. NASHOTAI, El-ouse, the oldest institution of learning in the State, is located on the eastern bank of the upper Nashotah Lake, in the town of Summit, Waukesha county. It was chartered in 1847, and has all the powers and privileges of a Univer sity. At present the only department in operation is the Theological, which numbers about 30 students. The Board of Instruction consists of 3 Professors and 2 Tutors. It has a library of about 4,000 volumes. It is an institution of the Protestant Epispocal Church, and endeavors are now being made to place it upon a permanent foundation, which pro mises to be successful. NASHOTAH, Lake, (Twin Lakes,) are in the eastern part of the town of Summit, Waukesha county, between which the old stage route from Madison to Milwaukee passes. The lakes are con nected by a small brook, and each contains a periphery of two miles-the lower being a trifle the largest. The lower lake approaches within a short distance of the Upper Ne mahbin. NECADA, River, rises in the north part of Adams' county, and runs southerly, emptying into Yellow river about 6 miles above the Wisconsin river, in Adams' county. NEENAR, P. V., in town of same name, Winnebago county, on south side of the outlet of Winnebago lake, opposite Mena sha, in town 20 N., of range 17 E. NEENAH, Town, in county of Winnebago. Population in 1850 was 1,420. It has 7 school districts. NEENAH, River, see Fox river of Green Bay. NEKIMI, Town, in county of Winnebago. Population in 1850 was 910. It has 6 school districts. 158

Page  159 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. NEKIMI, P. V., on section 20, town 17 N., of range 16 E., in Win nebago county. It is 95 miles northeast from Mladison, and 15 southwest from Oshkoshl, county seat, and is on the main road from Oshkosh to Milwaukee. Population 600, with 150 dwel lings, 2 stores, 4 hotels, and 3 churches-Free Will, Baptist, and Methodist congregations. NELSON'S -Landig, in Chippewa county, at mouth of Chippewa river, town 22 N., of range 14 W. NEMAHBIN, Lakes, are in the southeastern part of Summit, Wauke sha county, through which Bark river passes transversely. These lakes are separated from each other by a small strip of land, across which the road passes from Delafield west, through Summit centre. The Upper Nemahbin is but a short distance south of Nashotah, and about a mile and a half west of Nagawicka Lake. The lower lake contains a beautiful island, known as "Fairservice's," which was never surveyed, and is now claimed by the Hon. O. Reed. It is covered with a noble growth of maple. These lakes are about 3 miles long from north to south. NEMIADJI, Rarer, La Pointe county. See Gauche river. NEMAuKUM, P. O., in Marquette county, 11 miles from Montello. NEMIANDY, River, (Emandiga,) in western part of La Pointe county, a tributary from the north of St. Croix river. NE'EMAYACUM, River, see Mechan river. NEOSHA, P. O., in town of Rubicon, Dodge county, on section 30, town 10 N., of range 18 E., on the Rubicon. NEPENSKI, P. V, town 17 N., of range 14 E., Winnebago county. It is 20 miles southwest from Oshkosh, and 90 miles north from Madison, 6 miles from Ceresco, and 6 miles from Berlin. In the vicinity is Rush Lake, 7 miles long, and 3 miles wide, with an unimproved water power at the outlet. Population 95. NEPEEKUMs, P.O. in county of Winnebago. 159

Page  160 WISCONSLW GAZEITEER. NEPEUSKU-I, Town, in county of Winnebago. Population in 1850, was 361. It has 5 school districts. NESHKORA, To)Wn, in county of Ma,'quette. It embraces sections 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17, 18, in town 17, of range 12 E., and sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35, in town 17 N., of range 11 E., and sections 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11, in town 16 N., of range 11 E. NI,snKoRo, P. V., on section 8, town 17 N., of range 11 E., of Marquette county. It is 18 miles from Marquette, and SO80 miles north from Madison, in a fine farming country, with sufficient water power for 10 run of stones, on the main road from Milwaukee to the Wisconsin and Black river pineries, and from Sheboygan to La Crosse. Population 200, with 27 dwellings, 4 stoies, 2 hotels, 1 grist mill, 1 saw mill, 1 turn ing lathe, and Presbyterian and Methodist denominations. NESHONOE, is the name of a new town in the county of La Crosse. NEVADA, P. V., on section 25, town 2 NX., of range 8 E., in Green county, 9 mniles from Monroe, on the main road from Janes ville to Galena, 1 mile north of the surveyed route of the S. W. R. R. The advantages for farming are not to be sur passed by any part of the State. The denominations are Baptist, Methodist, and Christian. NEWARK, V., (Barton P. O.) in Washington county, on section 1 and 2 of town of same name. It is 18 miles west of Ozaukee, and 75 miles northeast from Madison, on the d(irect route from Milwaukee, 36 miles; to Fond du Lac, 28 miles. It is plea santly situated on the Milwaukee river, in the midst of a highly productive country, with 150 inhiabitants, 40 dwellings, 4 stores and 2 hotels, several mechanical shops and religious denominations. NEWARK, Town, in county of Washington, being part of towns 11 and 12 N., of range 19 E. It has 6 school districts. 160

Page  161 WISCONSIN GAZFrrEER. NEWARK, Town, in county of Rock, being town 1 N., of range 11 E.; centrally located, 13 miles southwvest fromn Janesville. Population in 1S50 was 798. It has 9 school districts. NEwARK, P. V., in town of same name, Rock county, town 1 N., of range 11 E. NEW BERLIN, P. V., in town of same name, Waukesha county, town 6 N., of range 20 E. NEw CALIFORNIA, P. V., on section 27, in town of Clifton, Grant county, being town 5 N., of range 1 W., 12 miles east from Lancaster, and 75 miles westerly from Madison. NEW BERLIN, ToiWn, in county of Waukeshla, being town 6 N., of range 20 E.; located six miles east firom Waukesha. Population in 1850 was 1,293. It has 10 school districts. NEW BUFFALO, Town, in counts of Sauk. It is north of Baraboo. NEWBUEG, P. VT, on sec. 12, town 11 N., of range 20 E., being in the town of Trenton, Washington county, 10 miles west from Ozanlkee, and 80 miles northleast from Madison; on the Mil wauklee river, 30 miles northwest from the city of M'ilwauLkee. The place is new, it being but five years since the first loca tion. Population 100, with 15 stores, 2 hotels, 1 flouring mill, 1 saw mill, and several mnechanical shops. NEW DIGGINGs, P. V., on section 26, of town 1, range 1 E., in Lafayette county. It is in the heart of the lead mines, and has 5 smelting fiurnlaces. It is 6 miles southwest firom Shulls burg, and about 80 southwest from Madlison, and has 5 stores, 3 hotels, 1 mill, and 3 religious denomiinations. NEW GLART.xUS, P. V., on section 14, town 4 N., of range 7 E., in Green county. It is 15 miles north from Monroe, and about 25 miles south from iMadison. Population 120, with 25 dwel lings, 2 stores, 1 hotel, and 1 German reformed church. NEW GLAR,US, Totwn, in county of Green, being town 4 N., of range 7 E.; centrally located, 14 miles north from Monroe. Population in 1850 was 321. 161

Page  162 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. NEw GRANT, Diqqngs, a mining settlement in town 4 N., of range 4 E., in Grant county. NEw IIOLSTELN, Town, in county of Calumet. It has 2 school districts. NEW ILExIco, Town & Viilage, namie changed to Monroe, Green county. NEWTON CORNERS, P. 0., on section 7, in town 7 N., of range 13 E., being town of Lake M[ills, Jefferson county. It is 15 miles northwest from Jefferson, and 20 east from Madison, at the junction of the State road from Janesville to Portage city with the Madison and Milwaukee mail route. It has 4 dwel lings, 20 inhabitants, 1 hotel, and a saw mill near, on Kos konong creek. NICHOL's, Creek, a small branch of Black river from the north, opposite Robinson's creek. M1IDJIKWE, iLake, the most eastern of the sources of the St. Croix river, in La Pointe county. NIr-AND-TucK, -)Dyj,;7tgs, a mining point on section 30, of Down 4 N., of range 4 W., in Grant county. NIPPIsING, Caeek, is a small stream in the southeast corner of Wal worth county, runs southerly into the State of Illinois. NIPPISING, cakes, two lakes in the southwest corner of the town of Wheatland, in Kenosha county, the most southern of which is about 2 miles long, the other nearly 1 mile. The road from Kenosha to Beloit passes between them. They discharge their waters into Fox River, (Pishtaka.) NORTH, Lake, is about half way between OkaLchee and Tuck-Kip ping lakes, and directly north of Pine Lake. It has an area of over 500 acres, and is near the centre of the town of Mer ton, Waukesha county. NORwAY, Town, in county of Racine, being town 4 N., of range 20 E.; centrally located, 18 miles west from Janesville. Pop ulation in 1850 was T70. It has 3 school districts. 162

Page  163 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. NORWAY, P.O., in town of same name, Racine county; being town 4 N., of range 20 E. NoRnICH, Town, in county of Waushara; name changed to Oasis. OAX CREEK, P.O., in town of same name, Milwaukee county, town 5 N., of range 22 E. OAK, Creek, a small tributary of Lake Michigan, from near the town line between the towns of Lake and Oak Creek, in Mil waukee county. OA.K CREEK, Town, in county of Milwaukee, being town 5 N., of range 22 E.; centrally nacated, 10 miles from Milwaukee. The population in 185O0 was 1,289. It has 7 school districts. OAKFIELD, Towi,, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 14 N., of range 16 E., centrally located, 10 miles southwest from Fond du Lac. The population in 1850 was 588. It has 8 school districts. OAKFIELD, P. 0., in town of same name, on section 27, in Fond du Lac county, 12 miles southwest from Fond du Lac, and 80 northeast from Madison, on the head waters of Rock river, in a good farming region. OAK GROVE, )P. V., in town of same name, Dodge county, on sec tions 31 and 32, town 11 N., of range 15 E. OAx GROVE, Town, (formerly Fairfield), in county of Dodge, being town 11 N., of range 15 E. Population in 1850 was 1,143. It has 10 school districts. OAYK HILL, P. V., in Jefferson county. OAK LAND, Town, in county of Jefferson, being town 6 N., of range 13 E.; centrally located, 8 miles west from Jefferson. Population in 1850 was 806. It has 4 school districts. OASIS, Town, in county of Waushara, being town 20 N., of ranges 8 and 9; centrally located, 25 miles northwest from Sacra mento. 163

Page  164 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. OASIS, P. V., on section 33, in town of same name, being town 20 N., of range 9, in Watausiara county; 30 miles northwest from Sacramento, and 80 mil]es noitli of Madison, on the stage road from MAadison, vpia Fort Winnebago, to Plover P()rtage. OCIIA-SUN-SEPA,,ivec, a tributary from the northeast of Court cerille river, in La Pointe county. OCKEE, Creek, rises in Lowville, Columbia county, and runs nearly west, emptying into the Wisconsin. O'CLAIR. Piver, L'eau St. Claire, in Chippewa county, a branch of Chippewa river fliom the E., in town 27 N., of range 9 W. OcoNoM-owoc, Town, in county of Waukesha, being town 8 N., of rarge 17 E.; centrally located, 20 nailes northwest from Walukesha. Population in 1850 was 1,218. OcoNoMrowoc, P. V., on section 33, in town of same namne, 18 miles nolrthwest of WVaiukeslia, and 50 east from AMadison, on the great mail iouIte fiom 3I ilwaukee to Galena; also on the Mil waukee anc WTatert)wn )i,lank ()ad. Population 250, with 50 dwe'iings, 10 stores, 3 hotels, 1 griist mill, 1 saw mill, 1 oil mill, 2 turning lathes, 1 saleratus factory, and a good sup ply of mechanics and pro-)iessioal men; also 1 MIethodist and 1 Episcopal church. It is beautifully situated on a neck of land between La Belle and Fuwler's Lakes, and is surrounded by a fertile farming district. OCONO,IOWOC, Creek, rises in the town of Polk, Washington county, and running southwest, passes through a succession of small and beauLLtiful lakes, enters Rock river in the south part of Ixonia, Jeffersoni county. OCONOMIwOC, IcaLze, is on the river and in town of samne name, about half way between the village of Ocnornowoc and Okauchee. It is nearly 2 miles long. OCONTO, CoW{nty, is bounded on the north by) the State line, on the east by the middle of Green Bay, and a portion of Brown, on the south by Brw)wll and Outagamie, and on the west by 1611

Page  165 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Waupacca and Marathon. It was set off and established from Brown, February 6, 1851, and organized for county purposes April 7, 1852. The principal rivers are Pishltego, Oconto, Pensaukee, and Little Suamico. The judicial connection of Oconto is with Brown, and representative with Outtagamie. The chief product of this county, thus far, has been pine lumber, which is produced in great quantities; but little is known of its agricultural advantages. OCONTO, Town, including the whole of Oconto county. It has 5 school districts. OCONTO, Bank, near the mouth of Oconto river, in Green Bay. OCOXTO, Piver, rises near the head waters of Wolf river, and running southeast, enters Green Bay in town 28 N., of range 22 E. OE(CA, P. O., in Jefferson county. OGALLA, P. V., at the nmills near the mouth of the Eau Galla river, in Chippewa county. OKAUCHEE, Lake, (or Kauchee), is on the Oconomowoc creek, in the eastern part of town of Oeonomowoc, at the outlet of which are mills and a settlement formerly known as " Reed's Mills," " Hurd's Mills," and "MIeCormack's IVills." OKIACHEE, P. V., at outlet of lake of same name, in Oconomowoc, Waukesha county. OMIRO, P. V., on section 17 and 18, in town of Bloomingdale, Winnebago county, at the junction of the Manitowoc and Menasha, (extended), and the Waupun and Liberty Prairie plank roads. It is pleasantly situated on the south side of the Neenah river, 11 miles west from Oshkosh, and 75 miles northeast from Madison. It has a heavy body of timber on the north, with a rich soil of openings and prairie on the south, and has excellent facilities by water for obtaining pine logs from the immense pinery of Wolf river, a great quantity ot which is here manufactured into lumber Population 600, 12 165

Page  166 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. with 100 dwellings, 5 stores, 2 hotels, 3 mills, and 4 religious denominations. A Company has been organized and is now completing the proper buildings for the manufacture of glass. Omno, Town, (formerly Bloomingdale,) in county of Winnebago, being town 18 N,, of range 18 E. ONmEIDA, P. V., in Brown county, on Duck creek, near centre of Oneida Reservation. O'NEIL's, Creek, a small tributary of Black river from the east, in town 24 N. ONE MILE, Creek, a tributary in Sauk county, of the Lemonwier river. ONEONTA, P. O., in Sauk county. ONION RIrVER, P. V., in county of Sheboygan. ONION, -Rver, rises in Holland, Sheboygan county, runs northerly, and unites with Sheboygan river, just below the Falls. ONTARIO, Town, in the county of Waushara, being town 20 N., of ranges 11, 12 and 13, north of Sacramento. O'PLAINE, River, rises in the southern part of Racine county, and runs southerly, through the county of Kenosha, into the State of Illinois, uniting with Kankakee river of Indiana, at Dres den and the Pishtaka at Ottawa, forms the head waters of the Illinois river. The Indian name is She-shik-ma-o. OREGON, Town, in county of Dane, being town 5 N., of range 9 E.; centrally located, 12 miles south from Madison. Popula tion in 1850 was 638. It has 9 school districts. OREGON, P. V., on section 12, in town of same name, 12 miles south from Madison, on Janesville stage road, on the head waters of Badfish creek, equidistant from Sugar and Catfish rivers. It has 55 inhabitants, 9 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, and 3 religious denominations-Presbyterian, Methodist and and United Brethren. ORION, P. V., in the town of Richmond, Richland county, being town 9 N., of range 1 E. 166

Page  167 WISCONSIN OGAZETEER. OSBORN, P.O., in town of Porter, Rock county, on section 31, town 4 N., of range 11 E. OSHAUKUTA, P. V., (Hill's Corners), on section 10, town 11 N., of range 9, in Columbia county. It is 7 miles from Fort Winnebago, and 30 miles from Madison. Population 100, with 12 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, and 1 religious denomi nation. OScEOLA, Town, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 14 N., of range 19 E. It has 3 school districts. OsEnosi, Town, in county of Winnebago, being town 18 N., of range 16 E. OSiKOsa, P. V., on section 24 of town of same name, and county seat of Winniebago county. It is 84 miles north from Madison, 8 miles below the junction of Fox and Wolf rivers, and where these waters empty into Lake Winnebago. The State Land Offices are located at ttiis place. Population, 2,500; with 6 hotels, 6 mills, 1 candle factory, 1 foundry, 1 threshing ma chine factory, 3 butchers, 2 breweries, 1 pump manufactory, 2 barrel and 2 waggon shops, 1 shingle and 2 sash factories, 1 tannery, 5 blacksmiths, 9 dry goods, 1 drug, 2 hardware, 2 clothing, and 4 boot and shoe stores, 10 groceries, 2 bakeries, 5 warehouses, 1 book-bindery, 1 academy, and 3 newspapers. There are 3 religious denominations-Episcopal, Methodist and Catholic. OSHTIGWAN, Lake, in Marathon county, tributary to the Little Wis consin, a few miles above its mouth. It is near the 45~ 30' north latitude. OSIITIGwAN, River, near the outlet of Lake of the same name. OsSIN, River, rises in Washington county, and runs W., emptying into Lake Hloricon, in Dodge county. OTSEGO, P. V., in town of same name, in Coltumbia county, on section 22, town 11 N.) of range 11 E. 167

Page  168 WISCONSIN GAZETTEFIR. OTSEGO, Town, in county of Columbia, being town 11 N., of range 11 W.; centrally located, 15 miles southeast from Portage. Population in 1850 was 420. It has 5 school districts. OTTAWA, P.V., in town of same name, on section 34, Waukesha county. OTTAWA, Towrn, in county of Waukesha, being town 6 N., of range 17 E.; centrally located, 15 miles west from Waukesha. Population in 1850 was 793. It has 6 school districts. OTTAWA, Lake, La Pointe county, see Lake Court-eoreille. OTTER, Creek, a branch from the south of L'eau Claire river, in town 27 N., of range 9 W. OTTr:R, Creek, in Bad Ax county, is a small tributary of Kickapoo river. OTTER, Creek, is a small stream rising near Mineral Point, in Iowa county, running southerly, emptying into the Peckatonnica at Otterborne, in the northwest corner of town 2 N., of range 4 E. OTTER, Creek, rises in town 11 N., of range 8 E., and running south, enters the Wisconsin about 4 miles below Lower Sauk. OTTER, Creek, rises in the town of Lima, Rock co,unty, and runs northwest, enters lKoskonong lake. OTTER, lake, is a small lake in the northeast corner of the town of Sugar Creek. It is about 2 miles long. OUTAGAMIE, Coui&F, is bounded on the north by Oconto and a portion of Waupacca, east by Brown, south by Calumet and Winnebago, and west by Waupacca, and is 24 miles north and south by 27 miles east and west. It was established Feb. 17, 1851, from crown, to which it remained attached for judicial purposes until March 15, 1852, when it was com pletely organized. The boundaries were defined March 4, 1852. The seat of justice is about half way between the villages of Appleton and Grandl Chute, and about a mile fiom each. The general surface of the count, is level and covered 168

Page  169 WISONSIN GAZETTEER. with a heavy growth of timber, such as maple, elm, ash and hickory, with but little or no waste lands. The soil is good, but the agricultural existence of the county is so recent, little can be said of its capabilities. All the crops that have been tested he,e have succeeded beyond the expectations of the farmer. The population, now numbering about 4,000, is com posed of good, rural, and industrious settlers, mostly from New England and New York. It is watered by the Lower Fox on the southeast, and by Wolf river on the west, and Duck Creek on the northeast. This county belongs to the fourth judicial circuit, to the second senate, and to the third congressional districts, and with Oconto, constitutes an assem bly district. (County Officers for 1853 and 1854: Judge, Perry It. Smith; Sheriff, A. B. Everts; Clerk of Court, IH. S. Eggleston; Attorney, A. S. Sanborn; Register of Deeds, J. S. Buck; Clerk of Board of Sulpervisors, G. W. Gregory; Treasured, Robert Morrow; Surveyor, Chlias. Turner; Coroner, Patrick Hunt. OxFORD, Towrn, in county of Marquette, being town 15 N., of range S. OZAUKE, C.. & P. VF., see Port Washington. OzA,-KEE, CoM?nty, wa, set off from Washington at the session of the legislature in January 1853. It comprises all of that por tion of said county east of range 20. For a description of this county, see Washington county. PACtrWA-KEE, P. F., on section 20, town 15 N., of range 9 E., in Marquette county, 35 miles northwest from Dartford, and 50 miles north fromr I Madison. It is situated on the north side of Buffalo Lalke, on a direct line from Portage to Stevens' Point, 18 miles north ifrom the former place. Being on the navigable wateis of the Neenah river, it is supposed that this place will commannad the river trade of a large poition of go.)d farmiing lands in Adams and Waishlara counties. Population 300, with 75 dweilirgs, 3 stores, 2 hotels, t il, and( 3 religious denominations. 1,69

Page  170 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. PACKWAUKIEE, Town, in county of Marquette. It has 12 school districts. PAINT, Creek, a branch of Chippewa river from the southeast, in town 28 N., of range 8, in Chippewa county. PAXKWEYORRA, Lake, a widening of Chippewa river near its source. PALMYRA, Town, in county of Jefferson, being town 5 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, 12 miles southeast from Jef ferson. Population in 1850 was 997. It has 8 school dis tricts. PALMYRA, P. V., on section 22, in town of same name, 15 miles southeast from Jefferson, and 45 miles southeast from Mad ison. It is situated on Scupernong creek, on the M. & M. R. R. 40 miles from Milwaukee. It has a fine water power, and is surrounded by a good farming district, comprising prairies, openings, and wood land. PALMYRA, Lake, a small lake about three quarters of a mile south east of Palmyra village, in Jefferson county. PARDE,EVILLE, P. V, in town of Wyocena, Columbia county, on Neenah river, in section 3, town 12 N., of range 10 E. PARis, P. V., in town of same name, Kenosha county, being in town 2 N., of range 21 E. PARIS, Town, in county of Kenosha, being town 2 N., of range 21 E.; centrally located, 10 miles northwest from Kenosha. Population in 1850 was 947. It has 9 school districts. PARIS, Town, in county of Grant, being town 2 N., range 2 W.; centrally located, 15 miles southwest from Lancaster. It has 4 school districts. PATCH, -Dgqg'ngs, a mining town in Grant county, being town 2 N., of range 1 W. PA TCH GROVE, Town, in county of Grant, being all of said county embraced in towns 5, 6, and 7 N., of range 5, 6, and 7 W.; centrally located, 20 miles northwest from Lancaster. It has 11 school districts 170

Page  171 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. PATCH GROvE, P. V., in town of same name, being on section 4, in town 5 N., of range 5 W., Grant county. PATTENWELL, Peak, in Adams county, on west bank of Wisconsin river, in town 18 N., of range 4. PATRIDGE, Lake, is about 4 miles long and 2 broad, in the town of Weyauwegan, Waupacca county, its outlet being at Wolf river. PAU-WAI-CON, Lake, is a large expansion of Wolf river, a few miles above its mouth. It is about 10 miles wide from east to west, and 3 miles long. PECKATONICA, Forks, of river of same name, at Wiota. PECKATONICA, -River, rises a few miles west of Mineral Point, in Iowa county, and running southeast through the counties of Lafayette and Green, empties into Rock river, at Rockton, Illinois. PEMENETE (ELBOW) Fl7ts, of the Menomonee river. At this place the water falls about 9 feet in the distance of 800 feet; the water is contracted to 50 feet in width. PENSAUKEE, tiver, rises in town 25 N., of range 18 E., in Oconto county, and runs northeast, entering Green Bay in town 7 N., of range 21 E. PEN YANN, P. O., in the county of Racine. PEQUOT, P. V., on the Brothertown Reservation, at the mouth of a small stream on Lake Winnebago, in Calumet county, about 90 miles northeast from Madison. PERRY, Town, in county of Dane, being town 5 N., of range 6 E. It is 25 miles southeast from Madison. It is unorganized, but attached to Primrose. PESITIGO, Shoals, on western shore of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of river of the same name. PESITIGO,?iver, the largest tributary of Green Bay, between the Menomonee and Neenah. It enters the Bay about half way between the Oconto and Menomonee rivers. 171

Page  172 WISCONSIN GAZ,ETTEER. PEWAUKEE, Town, in county of Waukesha, being town 7 N., of range 19 E.; centrally located, 4 miles north of Waukesha. Population in 1850 was 1,093. It has 11 school districts. PEwAUKIEE, P. ]T, on section 9, in town of same name, in Wauk esha county; situated at the foot of Pewaukee Lake, 6 miles northwest from Waukesha, on the Milwaukee, Watertown, and Madison plank road. Population 120, with 25 dwellings, 2 stores, 2 hotels, 1 saw mill, 1 flouring mill, tannery, a Baptist and a Congregational church. PEwVAUIEE, -Lake, mostly in town of same name, in Waukesha county, is about 5 miles long and nearly a mile wide. It is fed mostly by springs, and discharges its waters at the east end, into the Pishtaka river, at which Pewaukee village and mills are located. PHEASANT BRANcH, P. 0., in east part of Middleton, Dane county, being town 7 N., of range 8 E. PHEASANT BRANCH, a small tributary of Fourth Lake, in Middleton, Dane county. PICKARDEE, Creek, enters the Mississippi in town 8 N., Crawford county. PIERCE, Town. A new town in county of La Crosse. PIERCE, County, includes all that part of St. Croix county south of the north line of town 27, and was set off from St. Croix, March 16, 1853. It therefore is bounded on the west by St. Croix river, by which it is separated from the Territory of Minnesota. This county holds out very great inducements to immigrants, a large amount of the 500,000 acre grant, given by Congress to the State for schools, is in this county, and is sold at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, the settler being allowed thirty years pre-emption. The lands are about half prairie and half timber-the prairies a black loam, pro ducing as great a yield of wheat, oats, corn, and other grain, as any other part of the West. The timber is of an excellent quality, oak, ash, butternut, black walnut, sugar maple, &c. 1.72

Page  173 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Steam boats pass up, during the season of navigation, near to the homes of the inhabitants. It is to be fully organized at once, and is attached to the sixth judicial circuit, and to the same representative districts as St. Croix, Polk and La Pointe. PIERCEVILLE, P. V., in town of Sun Prairie, Dane county, on sec tion 26, town 8 N., of range 11 E. PIGEON, Greek, rises near Lancaster, and enters Grant River in Beetown, Grant county. PIGEON, Creek, is a small stream rising in Sheboygan county, unites with Stony Creek in Farmington, Washington county. PIGEON GROVE, P. O., in Columbia county. PIKE, river, is a small stream rising about 6 miles west of the city of Kenosha, taking a circuit of about 15 miles to the north, enters Lake Michigan at Kenosha. PIN HooK, P. O., in Grant county. PINE BLUFF, P. O., in town of Cross Plains, Dane county, town 7 N., of range 7 E. PINE, Creek, a small stream uniting with Skillet river, enters the Baraboo river about 3 miles west of the village of Baraboo. PINE, Creek, enters the Kickapoo river from the west, ill Crawford county. PINE, Lake, is a small lake between Red Cedar and Birch Lakes, in Chippewa county, on the east branch of Red Cedar river. PINE, Lake, a widening of Red Cedar River, below Birch Lake on the same. PINE, lake, is of the Oconomowoc Group, lying in the south part of Merton, Waukesha county, immediately north of Naga wicka, and of the same size. It is surrounded by scenery, which, for beauty, is unsurpassed, while the land is excellent for agricultural purposes. Several beautiful villas have been built upon its borders. 173

Page  174 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. PINE RIVER, Town, in county of Waushara, being towns 19 and 20, of range 13 E. PINE RIVER, P. O., in Waushara county. PINE, River, rises in town 20 NX., of range 10 E., in Waushara county, and running east, enters the west end of Lake Pau waicun. PINE, Rliver, rises in Bad Ax county, and runs southerly into the Wisconsin river, at the range line between ranges 1 and 2 E. PIM, River, a tributary from the north of St. Croix river, La Pointe county. PINE, Rtiver, (of the Menomonee), see Muskos river. PINE VALLEY, rTown, in county of La Crosse, being all of said county, between towns 16 and 23 N. PIPE, Creek, rises near Dodgeville, Iowa county, and runs north erly, emptying into the Wisconsin river at Helena. PIE, Creek, a small stream entering Lake Michigan, at Kenosha. PIKE, lake, in town 27 E., of Portage county, the source of Big Plover river. PIKE, Lake, a small lake in town of Hartford, Washington county. PISHTAKA, River, see Fox River of Illinois. PRIVABIK, River, of Lake Superior, see Iron river. PLATTE, [oTund,8, two conical shaped hills on either side east and west of Belmont, Lafayette county, about 12 miles southwest from Mineral Point, and 62 miles from Madison. They are three miles apart, and have a small mound half way between them. PLATTE, River, rises in Wingville, Grant county, runs southerly, and empties into the Mississippi, in Grant county. PLATTEVILLE, Town, in county of Grant, being town 3 N., of range 1 W.; centrally located, 15 miles southeast from Lancaster. It has 8 school districts. 174

Page  175 WISCONSIN GAZETEER. PLATrEVILLE, P. V., is situated near the Rountree branch of Little Platte river, being on section 15, town 3 N., of range 1 W., 16 miles southeast from Lancaster, and 70 southwest from Madison. It is in the immediate vicinity of some excellent bodies of mineral. It was settled in 1827 by General John I. Rountree, and a post office was established in 1830. The village was incorporated in 1841, and contains an academy incorporated in 1839. Platteville has a population of about 1,200, with 3 hotels, 2 smelting furnaces, a large academical building, built of stone, several churches, and other public buildings. PLEASANT PRAIRIE, P. V., in town of same name, Kenosha county, being town 1 N., of range 22 E.; centrally located, 7 miles southwest from Kenosha. Population in 1850 was 959. It has 9 school districts. PLEASANT SPRING, Town, in county of Dane, being town 6 N., of range 11 E.; centrally located, 12 miles southeast from Madison. Population in 1850 was 732. It has 6 school dis tricts. PLOVER, Town, in county of Portage, being town 23 N., of ranges 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. PLOVER, P. V. & f. I., on section 22, town 23 N., of range 8 E., in town of same name, in Portage county, being the county seat. It is 120 miles northwest from Madison. Population 200, with 35 dwellings, 2 stores, 2 hotels, 1 grist and 1 saw mill. PLL-M, Creek, a small stream in Brown county, entering Fox river from the south at Bridgeport. PLUM, Creek, rises in town 26 N., of range 15 W., in Chippewa county, runs southeast into Chippewa river. PLUM, Creek, empties into the Kickapoo river from the west, in Crawford county. PLUM, Islad, a small island at the junction of Green Bay with Lake Michigan, south of Pottowottomee. 175

Page  176 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. PLYMOUTH, Town, in county of Rock, being town 2 N., of range 11 E.; centrally located, 10 miles southwest from Janesville. Population in 1850 was 51t. It has 4 school districts. PLYMOUTH, P. V, in county of Sheboygan, being on section 22, in town of same name 15 N., of range 21 E. PLYMOUTH, Town, in county of Sheboygan, being town 15 N., of range 21 E.; centrally located, 12 miles west from Sheboygan. It has 8 school districts. POINT, Creek, in ZAanitowoc county, a small tributary of Lake Michigan, into which it empties about 10 miles southwest from Manitowoc. POINT DETOUR, in La Pointe county, opposite the Twelve Apostle Islands, between Chegwamegon Bay and Bank Pointe. POINTE SABLE, a point of land extending into Green Bay, in niorth east corner of town 24 N., of range 21 E. POLK, County. By an act of the legislature approved March 14, 1853, all that portion of St. Croix county lying north of the line between township 31 and 32, was set off into a separate county, to be called and known as the county of Polk. It is therefore bounded on the north by La Pointe, on the east by Chippewa, on the south by Chippewa and St. Croix, and on the west by the Territory of Minnesota, from which it is sepa rated by the river St. Croix. It is mostly a lumber country, though the southern part contains a large area of excellent farming lands. The village of St. Croix Falls, the county seat, situated at the head of steamboat navigation on St. Croix river, is surrounded with excellent agricultural lands, and with the business naturally centreing there of the extensive piueries above, must be a town of considerable iinportauce. This county is to be fully organized during the present year, and will form a part of the sixth judicial circuit. The representa tion will continue as before the division of St. Croix. 176

Page  177 WISCONSIN GAZErTEER. POLK, Town, in coutnty of Washington, being town 10 N., of range 19 E.; centrally located, 20 miles southwest from Ozaukee. Population in 1850 was 1,344. It has 9 school districts. PORTAGE, County, is bounded on the north by Marathon, on the east by WauLpacea, on the south by Waushara and Adams, and on the west by La Crosse, and is 30 miles north and south, by 54 miles east and west. It was set off from Brown, Dec. 7, 1,36, at which time it embraced about the present county of Columbia. By an act of the legislature, approved March 14, 1841, the territory forming the present counties of Adams, Portage and Marathon was annexed to Portage county, which was organized for counlty purposes, the judicial connection being with Dane. The coun-v seat was established at the Wisconsin Portage, and the county was fully organized Jan. 31, 1844; as now organized, it does not contain any of its original limits. The eastern boundary of the county was ex tended one range February 27, 1851. Plover, a little east of the centre of the county, is the seat of justice. The Wiscon sin river passes about contrally through the county from the north, and with its branches afford many good water powers which are, at present, chiefly used for working up pine tim ber, with forests of which the country is covered. This county is connected with the third judicial circuit, and with the second senate and second congressional districts, and, with Mlarathon, sends one member to the assembly. The popula tion, as organized in 1840, was 1,623; 1842, 646; 1846, 931; 1847, 1,504; 1850, 1,267. At the last date, including Mara thon, there were 13 farms, 30 mnanufactories, and 280 dwel lings. County Officers for 1853: Judge, Enoch S. Bean; Sheriff, Aaron Drake; Clerk of Court, C. Shekels; District Attorn]ey, Luther lanchett; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, ,Iatthias Miitchell; Treasurer, Ames M. Dunton. PORTAGE CITY, P. V. & C. f., on section 5 and 8 of town 12 N., of range 9 E., in Columbia county. It is 40 miles north from MAladisoni. Population 2,000; with 12 stores, 7 hotels, 1 steam 177

Page  178 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. saw mill, 2 harness makers, 4 waggon makers, 6 blacksmiths, 3 cabinet, 3 paint, 8 shoe, 3 tin and sheet iron, 3 butchers, 6 millinery and 4 tailor's shops, 2 breweries, 2 livery stables, 2 jewelry stores, 2 drug stores, 1 brick yard, 1 iron foundry, 1 blind and sash factory, 1 chair factory and 1 tannery; 12 law yers and 5 doctors; 3 district and 2 select schools; 1 church building and 2 denominations. It is finely situated on a bluff between the Fox and Wisconsin rivers at the point where they are connected by a ship canal. The Wisconsin is navi gable to this place, and the commerce on the river is consider able and constantly increasing. Two steamers ply constantly between this place and Galena during the summer. The number of mills on the Wisconsin, and its tributaries, is about 100; the lumber from which seeks a market between this place and St. Louis. The amount of lumber sent below is almost beyond calculation. In addition to which, numerous mills are starting on the river at different points below the pinery, and logs are rafted to them. The amount of square timber rafted exceeds millions of feet annually, shingles and bolts, lath, pickets, &c. The Wolf river pinery is beginning to pour its vast amounts of the finest lumber in the State, through the Fox river, which stream also is navigable for small steam boats. When the projected State improvement is finished, inter-conmmunication will be established between the upper Lake country and the Gulf of Mexico, and the carrying trade will produce a large revenue to the State. The importance of Portage City, as a commercial point, is beyond doubt very great. It commands 200 miles north where the pine forests nourish a large population, and are continually pouring their products south, and will for years to come. PORTAGE, Lake, is a small body of water in the north part of Ma rathon county, tributary to the Chippewa river. PORTAGE PRAIRIE, Town, in county of Columbia, being town 12 N., of range 12, 18 miles east of Portage city. Population in 1850 was 455. It has 4 school districts. 178

Page  179 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. PORT DES MORTS, see Death's Door. PORTER, Town, in county of Rock, being town 4 N., range 11 E.; centrally located, 12 miles northwest from Janesville. Popu lation in 1850 was 881. It has 7 school districts. PORT HOPE, Town, in county of Columbia. Population in 1850 was 603. It has 4 school districts. PORT HOPE, P. V., in town of same name, on section 3 on the Neenah river, at the junction of French creek, 7~ miles north from Portage city, and 48 miles north of Madison, at the natural head of steamboat navigation on the Neenah river, and on the stage and mail route from Fort Winnebago to the Wisconsin pinery. It is beautifully located, in a good farm ing district. Population about 30; 5 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, 1 Baptist, and an organized church of Methodists, and has a good hydraulic power unimproved. PORTLAND, Town, in county of Dodge, being town 9 N., of range 13 E.; centrally located, 14 miles southwest from Junea. Population in 1850 was 523. It has 6 school districts. PORT WASHINGTON, Town, in county of Washington, being town 11 N., range 22 E. See Ozaukee. Population in 1850 was 1,373. It has 5 school districts. PORT WASHINGTON, V., (Ozaukee P.O.), on section 28, in town of same name, in Ouzaukee county. It is the county seat, and is situated 80 miles northeast from Madison, on the lake shore, half way between Milwaukee and Sheboygan. Population, 2,500; withi 300 dwellings, 10 stores, 5 hotels, 3 mills, 2 breweries, 1 foundry, 5 blacksmiths, 4 waggon makers, 6 shoe-makers, and 5 tailors' shops; 2 good piers, 1 church, and 5 denominations. POPLAR, Creek, a small stream in the eastern part of Pewaukee, Waukesha county, being a tributary to the Pishtaka. POPLAR, River, a tributary of Lake Superior, in La Pointe county. 179

Page  180 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. POTOSI, P. T., on section 34, in town 3, of range 3 W., 12 miles south of Lancaster, and 80 miles southwest from MIadison. It is at the head of a ravine about 2 miles from the Mississippi river, near the mouth of Grant river, and embraces the town plats of Lafayette, Van Buren, and Dublin. This place was formerly known as Snake Hollows, at which improvements were commenced as early as 1836. POTOSI, TOWn, in county of Grant, being fractional town 2, and town 3 N., of range 3 W.; centrally located, 10 miles south fromn Lancaster. It has 8 school districts. POTTAWOTTOMEE, s18and, in towns 33 and 34 N., of range 30 E., in Door county; contains about 35 square miles. POTTER, Lake, a small lake in the east part of East Troy, Walworth county. POWACK, Lake, a small body of water in the northern part of the town of Muskego, in Waukesha county. POYNETTE, P. F., on section 34, town 11 N., of range 9 E., in Columbia county, 12 miles south from Portage city, and 21 miles north from Madison. It is situated in a rich farning district of cultivated lands, on Ockee creek, and has a good hydraulic power unimproved. It contains 150 inhabitants, 32 dwellings, 1 store, and 1 hotel. PRAIRIE DIU CHIEN, P. V. & C. [I., is situated on section 6, town 6 N., of range 6 W., upon an elevated prairie, averaging one mile in width, and is about 8 miles in length, extending from the mouth of the Wisconsin river, northward, along the bank of the Mississippi. It has one of the best landings on the river, is very healthy; and all who have visited the place concur in the opinion that its location gives it a commanding commercial importance. PRAIRIE DU CHIEN, Town, in county of Crawford, including the same. Population in 1850 was 1,407. It has 14 school dis tricts. 180

Page  181 WISCONSIN GAZETEER. Poysippi, P. O., in Waupacca county. PRAIRIE Du LAC, (Lake Prairie), is a large prairie in Rock county, near the foot of Lake Koskonong. PRAIRIE DU SAC, P. V., in town of same name, Sauk county, on section 36, town 10 N., of range 6 E. PRMAIRIE DU SAC, Town, in county of Sauk, south of Baraboo. It has 5 school districts. PRAIRIE LA CROSSE, is the name given to the beautiful prairie at the mouth of La Crosse river, it was formerly an Indian trading station, and was frequented by them for the purpose of play ing their favorite game of ball, from which fact the river now known as La Crosse river, derived its original name of Ball river. PRAIRIE LA CROSSE, Village, see La Crosse P. V. PRATT'S, Creek, rises in the north part of town of Oak Grove, in Dodge coLunty, and runs southwest, emptying into the Craw fish, in the town of Shields. PRESCOTT, Town, (formerly Elizabeth), in county of Peirce, being all of said county, south of town 27 N. It is southeast of Willow river. PRESCOTT, P. V. & a. i, of the new county of Peirce. It is at the junction of the St. Croix and Mississippi, having a number of public houses, stores, warehouses, &C. It must eventually be an important depot for the St. Croix and its tributaries, as well as for Minnesota. PRIDEAUX FORK, Creek, a branch of Grant river from the north west, in Beetown, Grant county. PRImROSE, P. V., on section 9, in town of same name, Dane county; 22 miles southwest of Madison. It contains 250 inhabitants, 50 dwellings, 1 store, 1 Baptist, and 1 Freewill Baptist church. 13 181

Page  182 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER PRIMROSE, Town, in county of Dane, being town 5 N., of range 8 E.; centrally located, 18 miles southwest from Madison. It has 6 school districts. PRINCETON, P. V., in Marquette county, being on section 24, town 16 N., of range 11 E.; 10 miles from Mlontello. PRINCETON, (formerly Pleasant Valley), in Marquette county. PROSPECT HILL, P. V., on section'29 of New Berlin, Waukesha county. It is 6 miles from Waukesha, and 70 miles southeast from Madison, at the junction of the Milwaukee and Janes ville plank road with the Racine and Waukesha stage route. It has 40 inhabitants, 6 dwellings, 1 store, 1 tavern, and a steam grist and steam saw mill, 1 blacksmith and 1 waggon shop. PUcIKAWAY, -ake, in Marquette county, is an expansion of the Neenah river, about 2 miles wide, and 7 mniles long. PULASKI, Town, in county of Iowa, being towns 8 N., of ranges 1 and 2; centrally located, 10 miles northwest from Mineral Point. It has 3 school districts. PULASKI, P. V., in town of samne name, in northwest corner of Iowa county, on the Wisconsin river. PYIl, River and Lake, upper tributaries of St. Croix river, in La Pointe county. QUAVER, ]apids, on Menomonee river, between Sturgeon and Pemenee Falls. QUITQUIOC, Vgillage, is situated upon the Mullet river, a branch of the Sheboygan and in the township of Plymouth, county of Sheboygan. It contains a fine hotel, a saw mill, several stores, blacksmith shops, &c. The river, upon which it is located, is named after General Mullet, and not, as many suppose, from the species of fish of that name. The amount of attention which this village has received fromn the legis lature, and the peculiarity of its name, have given it an importance which it would nrot otherwise have attained. 182

Page  183 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Etymologists have puzzled their heads very much over the word Quitquioc. By sonme it has been supposed to be a corrup tion of hie, haec, hoc, but this, like many other suggestions from the same source, is too absurd to merit consideration. The real derivation of the word is from the Menomonee, Quitlzt%lgeouowouwoc, which signifies a sulphur or mineral spring. A spring of this character is said to exist there, and this, together with the romantic beauty of the scenery in that vicinity-it being upon thle border of that belt of Jforaines denominated the "Potash Kettles" —nay make it hereafter the Saratoga of Wisconsin. RAccoox, -iver, in Bad Ax county, head waters in the south part of Lq Crosse county, runs southwest, and empties into the Mississil)pi in town 14 N. RAcI\:T, City, is situated on the western shore of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of Root river, and comprises fractional sections 9 and 16 of town 3 N., of range 23 E. It was flist settled in 1835, incorporated as a village in 1841, and received a city charter in 1848. The city is principally built upon a plain or table land elevated some thirty or forty feet above the waters of the lake, forming a beautiful site for a city. It is laid out in regular lots and blocks with wide streets, and is justly en titled to the appellation of "La Belle City of the Lakes." It is the county town of Racine county, situated 16 miles north of the State line, and 25 south of Milwaukee. Its beautiful and healthful location, combined with its commercial ad vantag,es, early attracted the attention of adventurers and capitalists; and it has had a rapid, continuous, and healthy growth, as will be seen by the following statement of annual enumeration of its inhabitants: In 1840 the popu lation was 337; 1844, 1,100; 1847, 3,004; 1849, 4,002; 1850, 5,111; 1851, 5,897; and it is now supposed to be nearly 7,000. Racine has one of the best, if not the very best harbor on the western shore of the lake. Over $60,000 183

Page  184 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. have been expended in its construction by the citizens, of their own means, raised by voluntary taxation. This enterprize is justly considered one of the most important ever projected and carried out to a successful completion by so small a community, and furnishes a fair index to the character of her population for enterprize. In addition to the amount raised by this means, Congress has appropriated $12,500, which has been expended, and $10,000 are now appropriated to be expended the present season. The harbor is now sufficient to accommodate the entire shipping of the lake, and being protected by the high banks of the river is entirely safe. The city of Racine is also distinguished among western towns for the number and beauty of its public buildings. Over $125,000 are now invested in them. Fourteen churches have been erected, to wit: 1 Presbyterian, 1 Congregational, 1 Baptist, 1 Freewill Baptist, 1 Episcopal, 1 Alethodist, 1 Lutheran, 2 Welch, 1 German Evangelical, 1 German Lutheran, I Universalist, 2 Catholic-1 German and 1 Irish. Racine college, an Episcopal institution, is located at this point. A beautiful college edifice, of brick, has been erected, which, together with the college grounds, are valued at $15,000. This amount was contributed by the citizens. The institution is under the management of Rev. Roswell Park, D. D. The first session of the college commenced last fall, and now numbers over 20 pupils. The board of education of the city are now engaged in erecting a central high school edifice for the more advanced scholars of the common schools. The building and furniture cost $6,000, exclusive of the lot. The facilities afforded by the harbor and other commercial advantages of the place, have attracted a large amount of capital. There are ten warehouses in the city valued at $53,000, and two bridge piers valued at $7,000. Three ship yards are constantly em ployed in the building and repairing of vessels, and five new vessels are now being built in them. The citizens of the city own in whole, or in part, between thirty and forty different 184

Page  185 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. vessels, with a tonnage of over 4,000 tons, consisting of pro pellers, schooners, brigs and sloops, which are engaged in the carrying trade between the upper and lower lakes, and in the lumber trade on lake Michigan. There are now 126 mercan tile stores in the various branches, 1 steam flouring mill with four run of stone, and 2 water mills just out of the limits of the corporation; there are 7 different mechanics shops, with steam engines and their furnaces. The bank of Racine is in successful operation, issuing bills and doing a general banking business. There are 3 plank roads extending into the country from the city-the Racine and Rock River road, leading west through the villages of Rochester, Burlington, Spring Prairie, Elkhorn and Delavan, a distance of 56 miles, completed-the Racine and Raymond road, leading northwest from the city 15 miles, nearly completed-and the Racine and Wilmot road leading southwest, a distance of 16 miles, now in process of construction. Speed's and O'Reilly's telegraph lines both have offices in the city, and the Racine and Rock River telegraph company have a line completed from Racine to Beloit, touch ing at all the intermediate villages. The Racine, Janesville, and Mississippi rail road has been surveyed and located from Racine to Beloit, and the contracts are now let for the whole distance and the work in process of construction, and will be completed by September 1854. Considering the natural ad vantages of Racine-its importance as a commercial point the character and enterprize of its inhabitants-its institutions of learning-its size, being second only to Milwaukee in population among the places of the State-and, above all, its beautiful and healthful location-no place in the State offers more inducements to those seeking a home in the West, either as a pleasant residence or a place of business. RACINE, Co7lege, was chartered by the legislature in 1852, and is located in the city of Racine, where fine college buildings have been erected. It is the diocesan college of the Protes tant Episcopal church of Wisconsin. 185

Page  186 WISOONSIN GAZETTEER. RAcINE, County, is bounded on the north by Waukesha and Mil waukee, on the east by the State line in Lake Michigan, on the south by IKenoshlia, and on the west by Walworth. It was organized from the limits of Milwaukee Dec. 7, 1836. The seat of justice is at the city of Racine, on the lake shore. This county has a proper proportion of prairie and timber, and is well adapted to agriculture. Its productions are various. Besides other branches of agriculture, the raising of fruit and keeping of cattle and sheep are successfully carried on. There is also a large amount of capital profitably employed in various branches of manufacture. A large portion of the county is well settled and improved. Though small in extent, it possesses advantages unsurpassed by any county in the State. Its soil is well adapted to all the products of the climate, and being contiguous to the lake, it h)as good and convenient markets both at Racine and other lake ports. Its principal streams are O'Plaine and Root rivers. It is in the first judicial circuit, the first congressional district, and forms the seventh senate district, and sends four members to the assembly, as follows: 1. City of Racine; 2. Towns of Racine, Mount Pleasant and Caledonia; 3. Towns of Yorkville, Dover, Raymond and Norway; 4. Towns of Burlington and Roches ter. The population in 1838 was 2,054; 1840, 3,475; 1842 6,318; 1846, 17,983; 1847, 19,583; 1850, 14,971. It has 947 farms, 2,578 dwellings, atd 99 manufactories. RACINE, Town, in county of Racine, being fractional towns 3 and 4 N., of range 23 E., in which is located the city of same name. The population of the town in 1850 was 777. It has 7 school c]istricts...^ RAINDOLPH, P. r., in town of same name, Columbia county, on section 24, town 13 N., of range 12 E. RINDOLPH, Town, in county of Columbia, being town 13 N., of range 12 E.; centrally located, 18 miles northeast from Port age city. Population in 1850 was 618. It has 5 school dis tricts. 186

Page  187 WISCONSIN GAZETTEEfR Rx,Dom, Lake, see Cold Spring lake, Washington county. RArIDE DE CROCHE, ORafiids, of the Neenali river, 4 miles below the Grand Kalaukalin. At this place the river has a descent of a little over a foot in 1,300 feet, and there is a very short elbow in the river, makling the natural navigation very difficult. RASIBERRY, iver, (F-omnboise), enters Lake Superior, opposite the island scalled the Twelve Apostles, in La Pointe county, 15 miles west from Isle St. Michael, and 6 east from Sandy river. RATHBUN, P. V., in county of Sheboygan, being in the town of Mitchell, town 14 N., of range 20 E. RAT, River, is an eastern tributary of Wolf river. RATTLE SNAKE, Creek, a branch of Grant river, from the west, in Grant county. RATTLE SNAKE, -Diggings, in town 4 N., of ranges 4 and 5 west, in Grant county. RAYMOXD, Town, inii county of Racine, being town 4 N., of range 21 E.; centrally located, 12 miles northwest fromn Racine. Population in S1850 was 820. It has 7 school districts. RAYTMOND, P. F., on section 10 of town of same name, in Racine county, 15 miles northwest from the city of Racine, and 90 miles southeast from Madison. Population, 600; with 150 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, and Baptist and Congregational churches. READLAND, residence of Hon. Geo. Read MeLane, on the border of Pine Lake, in towns of Merton and Delafield, Waukesha county. RED CEDAR, Lake, is the lowermost lake on the east branch of Red Cedar river. RED CEDAR, Lake, is about one mile west from the centre of the town of Oak]and, Jefferson county, and covers an area of over 500 acres. It is about one mile south of Ripley lake, in the same town and county. It empties, through a small stream running southeasterly, into Lake Koskonong. 187

Page  188 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. RED, Banks, name given to the south shore of Green Bay, in town 25 N., of range 22 E. RED, -River, in Door county, enters Green Bay, in town 26 N. REEDSBURGH, Town, in county of Sauk, being all of said county, in towns 11, 12, and 13 N., of ranges 2, 3, and 4; centrally located, west from Baraboo. It has 5 school districts. REEDSBUIRG, P.., near the geographical centre of Sank county, on section 10, town 12 N., of range 4 E., 18 miles northwest from Baraboo, and 50 miles northwest from Madison. It is surrounded by good farming lands, abounding in mineral wealth of iron and copper ore. Population 250, with 60 dwellings, 4 stores, 1 hotel, 4 mills, and 4 religious denomi nations. RmNE, Town, in county of Sheboygan, being town 16 N., of range 21 E.; centrally located, northwest from Sheboygan, and was organized in 1852. It has 6 school districts. RIciwiELD, Town, in county of Washington, being town 9 N., of range 19 E.; centrally located, 22 miles southwest from Ozau kee. Population in 1850 was 869. It has 14 school districts. RICHLAND, County, is bounded on the north by Bad Ax and Sank, on the east by Sank, on the south by Iowa, and on the west by Bad Ax and Crawford, and is about 24 miles square. It con tains 16 townships in a square form, and some fractional ones on the Wisconsin river, which constitutes its southern bound ary. It was set off from Iowa county 15th Feb. 1842, remain ing attached thereto for judicial purposes until Feb. 7, 1850. The seat of justice has been established at Richland Centre. The county is connected with the second congressional dis trict, the fifth judicial circuit, and the fifteenth senate district, and constitutes an assembly district. It is divided into five towns, as follows -Buena Vista on the east side, comprising towns 9, 10, 11, 12 N., of range 2 E., and one tier of sections from the east side of town 9 N., of range 1 E.-Richland, 188

Page  189 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. town 10 N., of range 1 E.-Rockbridge, town 12 N. of range 1 E., and 11 and 12 N. of range 1 W.-Richwood, town 9, 10, 11, and 12 N. of range 2 W., and 2 tiers of sections from the west side of towns 9 and 10, of range 1 W.-Richmond, 4 eastern tiers of sections from towns 9 and 10, of range 1 W., and 5 tiers of sections from the western part of town 9 N., of range 1 E. There are 4 considerable mill streams running from north to south through the county, emptying into the Wisconsin-Bear Creek, in the east part-Pine River, running through the central-Eagle Creek, more westerly-and Knapp's Creek, in the extreme west. These streams, with their tributaries, supply the county abundantly. The water is invariably soft. There are some pretty prairies surrounded by groves of heavy timber. The face of the country is diversified by hills and valleys. Fishes-pike, pickeral, codfish, mullet, suckers, and speckled trout are in abundance. Plenty of the best timber such as maple, butternut, walnut, bass, ash, elm and oak of different kinds, with pine and poplar. Lead and copper have been discovered in the southern part. A marble quarry has been opened in the valley of the Bear Creek. All the stone is found in quarries-none scattered on the surface. There are many large tracts of well-watered and rich land in the county-hence the name. The county is settling rapidly with an intelligent and enterprizing population, almost wholly Americans. Its agricultural, mineral and lumbering resources, together with its proximity to an extensive mining country, and its facilities for market, serve as great inducements to settlement and cultivation. There are many thriving villages. Perhaps there is no greater natural curiosity in the West than the natural bridge of the Pine river, located on the middle of the northwest quarter of section 10, town 11 N., of range 1. It is a rock from 40 to 60 feet high, and over 1 miles long, and extends into a level country, with a beautiful arch, sufficiently large for the waters of the Pine river in times of flood. The rock is solid for 30'feet above the 189

Page  190 WISCONSIN GAZEEERT water, and is covered with a beautiful grove of thrifty pines. It is a species of sand stone four rods wide and perpendicular (except wliere it projects over) its entire length. This fo,ms a gr'eat water power, and also shelter for man and beast. The Indians used to assemble here in great numnbers to worship, the chief or principal speaker standing upon the top of the rock whilst his audience remained bel,)w. Another curiosity is a warm cave, which sends forth a warm current of air at all seasons. Population in 1850 was 903, now about 3,000; with 76 farms, 175 dwellings, and 4 manufactories. RICHLAND, P. VF. and C. IL, is the county seat of Richland, being in town 10, of range 1 E. It is 7 miles above Sextonville, on Pine Creek, situated on a prairie, surrounded by beautiful groves and shade trees. It possesses an excellent water power, and mills are being erected. RICHLAND CITY, P. V., on the north side of Wisconsin river, at the mouti of Pine creek, Richland county. It has a good landings the banks being about four feet above high water. It is a very flourishing village, and in a good section of farm ing lands. RICIHMOND, P.O., in town of same name, Walworth county, being in town 3 Ni., of range 15 E. RICHMONDn, Village, late county seat of Richland county, on bank of the Wisconsin river. RICHMIOND, Town, in county of Walworth, being town 3 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 8 miles northwest from Elk horn. Population in 1850 was 756. It has 9 school dis tricts. RIcimOND, Town, in county of Richland. For bounds see Rich land county. It has 7 school districts. RICIwooD, Town, in county of Richland. It has 2 school districts. For bounds, see Richland county. 190

Page  191 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. RIDGEWAY, Town, in county of Iowa, being part of towns 5, 6 and 7 N., of ranges 3, 4 and 5 E.; centrally located, northeast from Mineral Point. It has 8 school districts. It is on the east side of the county, and embraces one of the Blue Mounds and also Porter's Grove. A small village, called Moundville, lies at the foot of the mounds. Both prairie and timber meet the eye in every direction. It is abundantly watered by springs and streams. RIDGEWAY, P. V., on section 14, town 6 N., of range 4 E., in Iowa county; 14 mniles northeast from MineralPoint, and 35 mniles west from Madison. It has 1 store, 3 hotels, 1 grist and 1 saw mill; 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, and 1 Congregational church. It is in a well-watered region and of good soil. RIPLEY, lake, is near the northwest corner of the town of Oakfield, Jefferson county. It is nearly 2 miles long, and covers nearly 500 acres. Its waters run westerly into Dane county, and thence southeast into Lake Koskonong. RIP(N, P. V., on section 21, town 16 N., of range 14 E., in Fond du Lac county, 22 miles west firom Fond du Lac, and 64 mniles northeast fro)nm Madison; on inlet to Green Lake, which falls 100 feet in distance of one mile. Water power is improved to half its capacity. Brockway college, a Presbyterian institu tion, is located at this place. There are Episcopal, Methodist, and Presbyterian congregations. There are sash, chair, cabinet and woollen factories. At this point the following highways cross each other:-from Watertown to Fox River and the Menomonee countr,y-fiom Madison to Oshkosh and Green Bay-and from Fond du Lac to La Crosse. RISING, Prairie, is east of Beaver Dam, in Dodge county. ROARING, Creek, emptying into Lake Pepin, a small stream in Chippewa county. ROBinSON's, C9reek, a small tributary from the east, in La Crosse county, of Black river, into which it enters, being in town 20 N., of range 4 W. 19I

Page  192 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. RocHiE-A-GRIS, -River, rises in northeast corner of Adams county, and runs southwest, emptying into the Wisconsin, in town 18 N. ROCHEsTER, P. V., in town of same name, Racine county, on sec tions 2 and 11; it is 23 miles west from Racine and 75 miles southeast from Madison, at the junction of the Muskego and Fox rivers, and has a good water power on each river, both of which are improved and have machinery in operation on them. It is on the Racine and Rock River plank road. The plank road from Racine intersects the Racine plank road, and terminates at this place. It has a daily eastern and western mail, and weekly mails from Waukesha and Milwaukee. The place is surrounded by a rich farming country, settled by an intelligent and enterprising population. It contains about 500 inhabitants, with 62 dwellings, 5 stores, 3 hotels, 3 mills, 2 plough, 2 harness, 1 boot and shoe, 1 fanning mill, 1 waggon and carriage, and 1 tin and copper shops, 1 foundry, and 1 saleratuis factory; 1 Presbyterian church, and 2 good school houses. ROCHESTER, Town, in county of Racine, being town 4 N., of range 19 E.; centrally located, 24 miles northwest from Racine. Population in 1850 was 1,672. It has 11 school districts. RocKBrIDGE, Town, in county of Richland. It has 5 school dis tricts. For bounds, see Richland county. RocK, Contnty, is bounded on the north by Dane and Jefferson, on the east by Walworth, on the south by the State of Illinois, and on the west by Green. The county seat is at Janesville, on Rock river. It was set off from Milwaukee, Dec. 7, 1836, and fully organized Feb. 19, 1839. The county is about equally divided between prairie and oak openings, with no large bodies of heavy timnber. It is situated on both sides of Rock river, the valley of which is as rich soil as can be found in any part of the country. The prairies are some of them quite large, but beautifully undulating, and productive in the 192

Page  193 WISCONSIN GAZLqYTEER. highest degree, and are being settled and cultivated to the very centre. The different varieties of soil-upland, bottom land, prairie and openings, afford facilities for cultivating all the productions of the climate to the greatest advantagewheat upon the rolling prairies and openings-the coarser grains upon the bottom lands-and tame and wild grasses upon the low prairies and marshes, flourish best, though each class of soil is adapted more or less to all these products. It is watered by Rock river and its branches. The principal villages are Janesville, Beloit, Fulton, and Milton. The county is in connection with the first judicial circuit, the second congressional district, and is entitled to the following representation:-17th Senate district, consists of the towns of Rock, Fulton, Porter, Centre, Plymouth, Newark, Avon, Spring Valley, Magnolia, and Union.-lSth Senate district, consists of the towns of Beloit, Turtle, Clinton, Bradford, La Prairie, Harmony, Johnstown, Lima and Milton.-lst Assembly district, Beloit, Turtle and Clinton.-2d Assembly district, Milton, Harmony, Lima, Johnston, Bradford, and La Prairie.3d Assembly district, Janesville, Rock Centre, and Fulton.4th Assembly district, Porter, Union, Magnolia, Spring Valley, Plymouth, Newark and Avon. Its population in 1840 was 1,701; 1842, 2,867; 1846,12,405; 1847, 14,720; 1850, 30,717. Square miles, 720. It has 3,631 dwellings, 1,975 farms, and 126 manllufactories. County Officers for 1853 and 1854: Judge, James Armstrong; Clerk of Court, George W. Crabb; Sheriff, William II. Howard; District Attorney, Wm. S. Rockwell; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, C. P. King, Register, Samuel A. Martin; Treasurer, Robert F. Frazer; Coroner, Calvin Chapin. RocK, Creek, is the outlet of Fish lake, in town of Deerfield, Dane county, runs northeast through the town of Waterloo, Jefferson county, emptying into Waterloo creek, in Portland, Dodge county. 193

Page  194 WISCONSIN GAZ'rWEER. ROCK, Town, in county of Rock, being town 2 N., of range 12 E.; centrally located, 6 miles southwest from Janesville. Popu lation in 1850 was 553. It has 8 school districts. ROCK, Ismland, lies near the\ northeast corner of Pottowottomee Island, at the connection of Gireen Bay with Lake Michigan. It is about 5~ miles in circumference. RocK, Is8tand, is in the Wisconsin, at the mouth of Copper Rock river. It is 30 feet high from the water. RocK, Ickes, are two lakes, Upper and Lower, just above Trout Lake, on the most eastern branch of the Manidowish river. They are 300 yards apart-the Lower is half a mile, and the Upper a mile in diameter. RoCK, Iake, is about 3 miles long and 11 wide, in the eastern portion of the town of Lake Mills, Jefferson county, covering an area of 1,650 acres. It discharges its wateis into the Crawfish through Keyes creek, entering near the village of Milton. ROCK,.3Jounds, on section 1, town 14 N., of range 6 W., in Bad Ax county, also on section 33, town 17, of range 4 W., in La Crosse county, on line between towns 16 and 17 N., near the east side of range 7 W. RocK, River, rises in Fond du Lac county, and runs south through Dodge, Jefferson and Rock counties, into Illinois. ROCK PRAIRIE, P. O., in town of Harmony, Rock county, being town 3 N., of range 13 E. RocK RIVER, P.O., in Fond du Lac county. RocK RIVER, West Branch, see Crawfish river. RocK RIVER, Woods. This name has been given to the whole of the timbered lands on the bo,(iders of Rock river. It includes the northeastern towns of Jefferson county, and the eastern portions of the town of Milford. 194

Page  195 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. ROCK HILL, P.O., in town of Kingsboro', Marquette county, being on section 29, town 14 N., of range 11 E.; 14 miles from Montello. ROCK VALLEY, P. O., in Rock county. RocKY, Lake, a small lake in the southwest corner of Portland, Dodge county. ROCKY RUN, Creek, a small stream entering the Wisconsin from the northeast corner of Lowville, at Dekorra. ROCKY RuEN, P.O., on section 5, in town of Lowville, Columbia county; 10 miles southeast from Portage, and 28 miles north from Madison, on a creek of the same name, having at this point an unimproved water power sufficient to carry ten run of stone most of the year. It is within a good farming region, cultivated by industrious and intelligent people. RODMIAN, R?iver, rises in Osceola, Fond du Lac county, and runs southeast into MAilwaukee river. ROMIE, P. V., on section 17, in town of Sullivan, Jefferson county, on Duck creek, 10 miles east from Jefferson, and 40 miles east from Madison. This place is in the fertile and timbered lands of Jefferson county. Population, 130; with 30 dwellings, 2 stores, 1 hotel, and 2 mills, with a good water power. ROOT CREERK, P.O., in town of Greenfield, Milwaukee county, on section 26. It is on the Janesville and Milwaukee plank road. ROOT, River, rises in the town of Muskego, Waukeshla county, and runs southeast, entering Lake Michigan at the city of Racine, being about 35 miles in length. ROsE, -ake, mostly on section 29, in town and county of Jeffer son. It is about 11 miles in length. ROSENDALE, TOWn, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 16 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 13 miles westerly from Fond du Lac. Population in 1850 was 714. It has 5 school districts. 195

Page  196 WISCONSIN GAZE1EER. ROSENDALE, P. V., in county of Fond du Lac, on section 35, in town 16 N., of range 15 E. It is 11 miles from Fond du Lac city, and 70 miles northeast from Madison. It is located on a small stream running east and west, with a prairie country on the north, and openings on the south, and is noted for the health and salubrity of the climate. Population, 150; with 25 dwellings, 3 stores, 2 hotels, 5 manufactories, and 2 deno minations. ROSLIN, P. V., in Marquette county, being on section 23, town 14 XN., of range 9 E., 10 miles from Montello. RoUND, -Lake, in town of Summit, Waukesha county, 2 miles west of Nemahbin. ROUNTREE, Creek, a branch of Platte river, in Grant county. RoxBurY, Town, in county of Dane, being fractional town 9 N., of ranges 6 and 7 E.; centrally located, 18 miles northwest fromnt Madison. It has 6 school districts. Roxo, P. V., in Marquette county, being on section 13, town 15 N., of range 9 E.; 2 miles from Montello. RUBICON, Town, in county of Dodge, being town 10 N., of range 17 E; centrally located, 12 miles southeast from Juneau. It has 10 school districts. RUBICOx, Riqver, rises near Schleisingerville, in Washington county, and runs west into Rock river, in town of Hustisford, Dodge county. RUSHFORD, Town, in county of Winnebago, being towns 17 and 18 N., of range 14 E.; centrally located, 15 miles from Osh kosh. Population in 1850 was 514. It has 4 school districts. RusH, lake, in town of Rushford, Winnebago county. It is about 5 miles long and 2 broad. Its outlet has several good water powers, the principal of which is at Waukau village. It discharges its waters northerly into Neenah river, a short distance west of Omro village 196

Page  197 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. RUSH RIVER, Town, in county of St. Croix, being towns 27 and 28 N., of ranges 16, and east half of 17; centrally located, southeast from Willow river. It has 1 school district. RUSH, River, rises in St. Croix county, and running southerly into Lake Pepin, in town 24 N., of range 16 W. RusE RIvER, P. O., at head of river of same name, in St. Croix countv. RUSSELL'S CORNERS, P. O., in town of Flora, Sauk county, town 12 N., of range 7 E. RUrLAND, P. O., in southwest corner of town of same name, Dane couInty. RUTLAND, Town, in county of Dane, being town 5 N., of range 10 E.; centrally located, 14 miles southeast from Madison. Population in 1850 was 759. It has S school districts. SACRAMFENTO, P. V. & C. -L., on section 35, town 18, of range 13 E., WVaushara county, on south side of Fox river, being ill south east corner of the county. It has a healthy and pleasant loca tion in the openings, on an inclined plane, above the banks of the river, and is the only river town in the county. It was laid out in 1551, by Thomas J. Townsend, Esq., since which time it lhas increased very rapidly. It is surrounded by a country of excellent far,minig liands. Population 250, with 40 dwellings, 3 stores, 3 hotels, a warehouse, timber yard, &c. It commanids the river trade of a large section of country. SALEMr, P. O., in townv of same name, in the county of IKenosha. SALAMIS, Tton, in county of Kenooha, being town 1 N., of range 20 E.; centrally located, 16 miles west from the city of Kenosha. Population in 1850 was 1,123. It has 8 school districts. SALT, 1i~l8, at the southern bend of Mullet river, in Sheboygan county. SANDY, Creek, a small stream rising near Patch Grove, Grant county, running southwesterly into the Mississippi. 14 197

Page  198 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. SAND, Creek, in La Pointe county, see Foul river. SAND PRAIRIE, P. O., in county of Richland, being in town 9 N., of range 2 W., town of Richwood. SANDY Portage, at a rapid of the Menomonee river, with a per pendicular fall, about a mile in extent. SANDY, Rtiver, a tributary of Lake Superior, 6 miles west of Rasp berry river, and 3 miles east of La R. Gauche. SARABOO, a branch from the southwest of Kewaunee river, near which it enters in town 24 N., of range 24 E. SAPPAR, River, see Black river. SAUK, County, is bounded on the north by Adams, on the east by Columbia, on the south by Iowa and Dane, and on the west by La Crosse, Bad Ax, and Richland. It was set off from Crawford in 1839; established, and annexed to Dane for judicial purposes, January, 1840, and fully organized in 1844. The boundaries were changed March 6, 1849, and further changed 1853. The seat of justice is at Baraboo, on river of the same name, a few miles southeast from the centre of the county. It is connected with the third judicial circuit, the second congressional, and the twenty-third senate district, and, with Adams, sends one member to the assembly. The number of square miles is about 800. The soil, in every part where cultivation has been attempted, produces well, and seems peculiarly congenial to wheat. The timber, except on the Baraboo Bluffs, is oak in its different varieties. There is an almost inexhaustible body of heavy timber, consisting of sugar maple, elm, basswood, iron wood, hickory, butternut, oak, cherry, &c. The surface of the country is generally un dulating-in some places level, in others hilly-presenting, perhaps, as great a variety as any county in the State. Its leading geological formation is old red sand stone. On the higher points there are occasionally found the remains of the carboniferous lime stonie, so abundant in the northwest. The Baraboo Bluffs are sometimes considered as a formation 198

Page  199 WISCONSIN GAZE'TEER. peculiar to themselves; but as geologists do not seem to agree as to what they are, the opinion is ventured that they bel(,ng to the same class as the prevailing strata, but that by the action of some powerful agency of a vitrifying or igneous nature, their density has been increased, and their general appearance somewhat changed. They are harder, finer grained, and often much more highly colored, than the common sand stone. Large masses of conglomorate are often found among them, especially on the higher portions. These masses are composed of sand and smooth round stones of almost all sizes, from that of a pin head to several feet in diameter. In the diluvial deposites, along the banks of the river, are found imasses of conglomerate in a transition state, a part firmly consolidated, a part only slightly so. No trace of fossil remiaiis have yet been discovered, except in the carbonifeirous lime stone. There are no mines in the county worked at present with any degree of profit, though there are strong indications of copper, and a considerable quantity (five tons) wats once dug on Copper Creek, near RIeedsburg. Small fragments, weighing from an ounce to several pounds, are oftent fo:und in different parts of the county, and there is at least a possibility that extensive mines may yet be feund. A beLautiful article of purple freestone occurs on the Baraboo [l,ftis, and a good quality of marble near the southwest part (tf the county, though neither yet has been much explored. Tlre principal streams are the Wisconsin and Baraboo lrivers, li[{e;\, Dell and Narrows creeks. The Wisconsin river has }as.et (.nlv been used for the purpose of navigation, though at present attention is being called to the construction of a damn across it at the Dells. Dell creek is a good sized streaiii for mill purposes; is about 15 miles long, and remarkable for the deep gulches through which it runs. There are seve'al inters esting caves in the sand stone rock in the vicinity of this stieam. Narrows Creek is about twelve miles long, and affords .evera.i.'o,,d mnill sites. There is one mill in operation on the 199

Page  200 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. stream, and at its mouth is laid out thle town of Excelsior. Honey Creek is about 25 miles in length, together with the rapidity of its current, renders it peculiarly serviceable as a water power. Several mills are already in operation upon the stream, and others are in process of erection. The Baraboo river, however, is the most important stream as a water power in the county, if not in the State. It is some S80 miles in length. There are already seven dams across it, each propelling from 1 to 3 mills. The rapids of this river at Baraboo are about two miles in length. The bed of the stream is rock; the amount of water is about 4,500 inchles; the amount of fall, 50 feet. There are already in operation, along these rapids, 4 saw mills, running 5 saws; 1 flouring mill with 2 run of stone; (another, with 2 runs, was burned in the fall of 1852); 4 lath and picket factories, 1 carding machine, 1 iron foundry, 1 machine shop, 1 bark mill, and several turning lathes, and but a small portion of water is used. Other machinery is in process of erection along the stream, and many good mill sites yet lie untouched. Devil Lake is, perhaps, the only lake in the county worthy of notice. It occupies about a square mile, is situated a little over two miles south of the foot of the Baraboo rapids, and about three nailes from Baraboo village. On the east, south and west of the lake, the rough, rocky banks rise from the edge of thie water, almost perpendicularly, to the height of 150 or 200 feet. The smooth crystal water, and the steep, craggy rocks, presenting the most perfect contrast. On the north, the land gradually rises for a short distance, and then as gradually slopes away to the Baraboo river. Although several attempts have been made, the depth of the lake has never been fathlomed. The purity and beauty of this body of water, together with its surrounding romantic scenery, never fail to excite the admiration of all who visit it. Of the Prairies, Sank Prairie is much the largest. It is about 16 square miles in area. It is bounded on the north by the Baraboo bluffs, a chain of high steep 200

Page  201 WISCONSIN GAZE1TTEER. bluffs also extend along its western side, and on the south and east is the Wisconsin river. Its surface is undulating, soil good, and a considerable portion is cultivated. It is based (as we suppose all genuine prairies must be) upon a diluvial strata. There are several other smaller prairies in the county, from one to five miles in extent, but as there is such a great uniformity, it is unnecessary to go into detail. The following is a pretty accurate detail of the hotels, stores, manufactories, &c., in the county: 13 taverns, 22 stores, 5 groceries, 4 drug stores, 7 tailors, 3 distilleries, 1 brewery, 2 steam saw mills, 4 grist mills, 1 foundry, 1 furniture, 1 machine, 9 shoe, 15 blacksmiths, 6 waggon, 4 coopers, 5 tinners, and 3 jewellers shops, 1 carding machine, 6 lath and picket factories, 1 pottery, and I tannery; 302 farins, 7 manufactories, and 821 dwellings; 4 district school houses, 3 select schools, and 3 churches. Population in S1840 was 102; 1842, 393; 1846, 1,003; 1847, 2,178; 1850, 4,372. County Officers: Judge, J. M. Clark; Sheriff, Daniel Munsen; Clerk of Court, George Mertons; District Attorney, J. B. Quinley; Register, Edwin P. Spencer; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, James T. Moseley; County Treasurer, Curtis Bates; County Surveyor, Wm. IH. Canfield; Coroner, Royal Gendall. SAvE, Ceeek, is a tributary of Lake lMichigan, which it enters at Ozaukee. It rises in south part of Sheboygan county. SAU vILLE:, P. Tr, in town of same name, county of Washington, being town 11 N., of range 21 E.; located 4 miles west from Ozaulhee. SAUIVILLE, Town, in county of Washington, being town 11 N., of range 21 E.; 6 miles west from Ozaukee. It has 8 school dis tricts, and possesses an excellent improved water power. Population in 1850 was 1,796. SCARBORO, Cieek, rises near the source of Twin rivers, and runs northeast, entering Kewaunee river in northwest corner of town 24 N., of range 24. 201

Page  202 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. SCULEISINGERVILLE, P. V., in town of Polk, on section 18, in Wash ington county, 25 miles west from Ozaukee, and easterly from Madison 80 miles. It derives its name in honor of HIon. B. Schleisinger Weil, State senator from the fourth district, whose residence is near this place, and who laid it out in 1845. Population, 125; with 25 dwellings, 3 stores, 3 hotels, 1 mechanical shop, 1 tannery, and 1 church edifice. It is on the Milwaukee and Fond du Lac road, possessing a healthy climate and good soil of farming lands. SCOTT, P. V., in county of Sheboygan, being in town 13 N., (Scott), of range 20 E. SCOTT, Town, in county of Sheboygan, being town 13 N., of range 20 E.; centrally located, 22 miles southwest from Sheboygan. ScorrTT, Town, in county of Columbia, being town 12 N., of range 11 E.; centrally located, 12 miles from Portage city. Popu lation in S1850 was 395. It has 4 school districts. SCUPERNONG, Creek, rises in the south part of the town of Dela field, and running southwest, (affording a mill site at Water ville and one in Ottawa), through Summit and Ottawa, enters Bark river in Cold Spring, Jefferson county. SEARGENT, P. O., is in the southeast part of town of Oasis, Waush ara county, being town 20 N., of range 9 E.; 30 nmiles north west from Sacramento, and 80 miles north from Madison, on the stage route from Berlin to Stevens' Point. SECOND -Icae, the second from below of the chain of Four Lakes, in the towns of Blooming Grove and Dunn, 6 miles southeast from Madison. It is 2 miles wide and 31 long. SEELEY'S, Creek, rises in the southwest corner of town 11, range 7 E., runs northeast, emptying into the Baraboo river, by its course, about 10 miles above the village of Baraboo. SEVEN MILE CREEK, P. O., in town of Lemonweir, Sauk county. 202

Page  203 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. SEXTONNVILLE, P. V., on section 7, town 9, of range 2 E., in Rich land county, 5 miles above Richland city, on Pine creek, at the mouth of Willow creek. It is 56 miles west from Madison. Population 130, with 21 dwellings, 2 stores, 1 hotel, 2 mills, and 2 excellent water powers. SHAGWAMIIGON, Bay, (Chegoimegon and Chagwamigon), south of the Twelve Apostle Islands, in La Pointe county, Lake Supe rior. SIIAGWAIGON, River, empties into bay of the same name, in La Pointe county, 6 miles west from Bad river. SHAKWIYA, RPaer, (or NEw WooD), enters the Wisconsin from the west at Lynch's Trading House, 4 miles below Grand Father Bull Falls. SIHARON, P. V., on section 13, in town of same name, Walworth county, 12 miles southwest from Elkhorn, and 60 miles south east from Madison, in a fine farming country. Population, 110; with 15 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, and 1 catholic church. SHARON, Townu, in county of Walworth, being town 1 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 13 miles southwest from Elkhorn. Population in 1850 was 1,169. It has 10 school districts. SHAW-xNA, County, was established at the January session of the legislature in 1853, most of its limits were taken from Oconto. The seat of justice is at Shawana village, near the outlet of the lake of same name. SnAWANA, Lake, in town 27 N., of ranges 16 and 17; is about 6 miles long and 2 in width, discharging its waters through an outlet into Wolf river. SHAWANA, P. O., near lake of same name, in Shawana county. SHEBOYGAN, County, is bounded on the north by Calumet and MAanitowoc, on the east by the State line in Lake Michigan, on the south by Washington, and on the west by Fond du Lac. It was set off from Brown Dec. 7, 1836; organized for county purposes Dec. 17, 1838; and attached to Fond du Lac for 203

Page  204 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. judicial purposes; and flilly organized January 22, 1846. The whole surface of the county is covered by a dense growth of timber, among which pine is found in considerable quanti ties along the margin of the principal streams. The seat of justice is at the village of Sheboygan, on the lake, centrally from the north and south boundaries of the county. It is watered by the Sheboygan river and its tributaries. It is connected with the fourth judicial circuit, the third congres sional and the first senate districts, and sends two members to the assembly as follows: 1st. Towns of Sheboygan, Wilson, Lima and Holland; 2d. Towns of Sheboygan Falls, Haliarmony, RPhine, Plymouth, Greenbush, Abbott,:Mitchell, Scott and Lynden. Population in 1840 was 133; 1842, 227; 1846, 4637; 1817, 5,580; 1850, 8,836. There are 1,790 dwellings, 581 farms, and 30 manufactories. County Officers for 1853 and 1854: Judge, Chas. E. M/Iorris; Sheriff, J. DI. Murphy; Clerk of County Court, A. IH. Edwards; District Attorney, Edward Elwell; Register, Charles Adolphi; Clerk of Board of Super visors, J. T. Kingsbury; Treasurer, Geo. H. Wordan; County Surveyor, Hiorace Cleves. SnEBOYGAN, Town, in county of same name, being towns 15 and 16 N., of range 23 E. It has 7 school districts. SnHEBOYGAN, P. V., the county seat of county of same name, is si tuated on the lake shore, near the middle of the county, and at the mouth of Sheboygan river, a stream about 400 feet wide, and from 12 to 15 feet deep. The town plat is a dry, level and sandy plain, about 40 feet above the level of lake Michigan. In 1846 this village contained about 400 inhabi tants, and had no churches, newspapers, or roads. At present it has a population of 2,000; 7 good churches, viz. Episcopal, Baptist, Presbyterian, Congregational, Methodist, German Reformed and Roman Catholic, and 4 weekly newspl)apers, viz., Mercury, Lake Journal, Republicaner, and The Niews bode. During the past year the county has raised $20,000, and the General Government hlas appropriated $10,000 for 204

Page  205 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. the purpose of constructing a harbor at the month of the river. The work was commenced last spring, and has been vigorously prosecuted during the sunmmer and fall. It will be finished during the coming season, which will give Sheboygan the best and most accessible harbor on the lake. One of the best plank roads in the State runs from this place to Taycheda, a thriving village on Lake Winnebago. There are four stage and mail routes running from here: one north, to Manitowoc and Two Rivers; one west, to Fond du Lac, Menasha, and Green Bay; one southwest, to Cascade, Maayville, &c.; and one south, to Milwaukee and Chicago. SHEBOYGAN, Faells, is 6 miles above the mouth of Sheboyg,an river, in county of same name, at the crossing of the U. S. road. SHEBOYGAN FALLS, P. V., on section 36, town 15 N., of range 22 E., in town of same name, and county of Sheboygan, 6 miles from the county seat, 115 miles from Madison via Fond du Lac, and 150 miles from the same place via Milwaukee. The village was first settled 15 years ago, a saw mill erected, and one or two buildings. The plat was laid out and named Rochester. The real commencement of creating a village was made seven years ago, and since, its growth has been constant. The soil in the vicinity is well adapted to the growth of wheat and other kinds of grain. It is located on both sides of the river, which has a fall of 30 or 40 feet in half a mile. A bed of lime stone underlies the whole village a few feet below the surface. Lime made from it is of the finest quality. Large quantities of pine and oak timber are cut along the banks of the river during winter. The Sheboygan and May ville plank road will pass through the village, and the She boygan and Fond du Lac plank road passes through the north part of it. Population 800, with 200 dwellings, 12 stores, 4 hotels, 2 grist mills, 1 foundry, 2 turning lathes, 2 cabinet shops, 1 printing office, and 3 churches. SHEBOYGAN FALLS, Town, in county of Sheboygan, being towns 14 and 15 N., of range 22 E. It has 9 school districts. 205

Page  206 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. SHEBOYGAN, Piver, rises in Fond du Lac county, near the southern extremity of Lake Winnebago, and runs southeasterly, emp tying into Lake Michigan at the village of Sheboygan. It drains about 400 square miles of surface. SaEBOYGAN, Lake, a small lake in town of Rhine, Sheboygan county. SHELL, Lake, see Pewaukee lake. SHELL,.?iver, see KIayesikang river. SHIELDs, Town, in county of Marquette, being town 16 N., of range 16 E. SIELDS, Town, in county of Dodge, being town 9 N., of range 14 E.; centrally located, 14 miles southwest from Juneau. Population in 1850 was 590. It has 6 school districts. SHIOPIERE, P. V., in county of Rock, in town of Turtle, being on section 3, town 1 N., of range 13 E. It is 9 miles southeast from Janesville, and 54 from Madison, on the Turtle creek, which gives a water power here of 9 feet head and fall, and is a very reliable stream for supply of water. The fiouring mill is of stone, 4 stories high, running three pairs of burrs, and is completely finished throughout. From thle north side of the Turtle stretches Rock Prairie; on the south side com mences a timbered tract, extending some X miles. Abundance of excellent lime stone for building purposes is found in the vicinity, which suggested the name-a corruption of the French Chaux (Sho) Pierre. Turtleville flouring mill is one mile below, on the same stream. Population 200, with 38 dwellings, 3 stores, 1 hotel, 2 mills, 1 plough nianufactory, 1 congregational church. SHUULLSBURG, P. F., and county seat of Lafayette county, in town 1 N., of range 2 E., head waters of an eastern branch of Fevre river. It is 16 miles fiom Galena, and 75 southwest from Madison. The business and trade of a large portion of country is concentrated at this place, where an excellent and 206

Page  207 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. ready market is found for mineral and all of the products of industry, which is paid for in gold and silver coin-bank bills and coppers having long since been repudiated in the lead mines. It contains 2,500 inhabitants, with 5 hotels, 12 dry good and grocery, 1 drug, 1 jewelry, and 1 tin and iron stores; 2 waggon, 5 smiths, 2 cabinet, 4 tailors, 4 shoe, 2 saddle and harness, 6 carpenter, and 1 gunsmith shops; 4 mineral ware houses, 4 church edifices-1 Primitive Methodist, 1 P. E. Me thodist, 1 Catholic and 1 Congregational-the latter of which is built of stone. The court house is built of brick, 44 by 60 feet, with offices for county purposes, and the jail of stone. SHULLSBURG, Town, in the county of Lafayette, being a part of town 1, of ranges 2 and 3 E., in which is located the seat of justice of the county. There are 2 furnaces for smelting lead ore in this town. Shullsburg is noted for its inexhaust ible mines of lead ore which have been worked for many years, and are the most productive in the mineral district, The Southern Wisconsin rail road is located through the en. tire length of the town from east to west. The population of the town is 3,500. SHIUNAXEE, Lake, see North Lake, Waukesha county. SILVER, Creek, has its source in English Lake, in Manitowoc county, and running easterly, enters Lake Michigan about 10 miles south of Manitowoc. SILVER, Creek, rises in town of Metomnon, Fond du Lac county, and runs northwest into Green Lake, Marquette county. SILnvER, Lake, in town of Salem, Kenosha county, discharges its waters through a small stream into Fox river, near Salem P.O. It is about a mile in diameter. SILVER, Lake, is nearly in the centre of town of Summit, Wauk. esha county. It is a mile in length. SILvER, Lake, a small lake in eastern part of town of Sugar Creek, SINSINAWA, Creek, rises in Smeltzer, Grant county, and runs south erly, discharging its waters into La Fevre river, in Illinois. 207

Page  208 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. SINSINAWA, Jfound, is a conical elevation, one mile south of the village of Fair Play, Grant county. Sioux PORTAGE, CUeek, in Portage county, is the inlet of Yellow Lake. SISCOE, River, rises in town of Clayton, Winnebago county, and runs southwest into Wolf River, at the head of Lake Pau waicun. SKETCH, go>e, the largest of the lakes forming one of the sources of Red Cedar river. SKILLET. Ciaeer, a tributary from the south of Baraboo river, which it enters about 3 miles above Baraboo village. SKILNNEIs Creek, in Green county, a branch of the Peckatonnica, which it enters in the town of Cadiz. SLAWSON'S Prai;e, in Dodge county, east of Beaver Dam. SLEEPING BEAR, River, (Nibegomowin), a tributary from the west of Burnt Wood river. SMIELTZFR'S GHOVE, P. O., in town of Smeltzer, being town 2 N., of range 7 W., in Grant county. SMFELTZER, Town, in county of Grant, being town 2 N., of range 1; centrally located, 18 miles southeast from Lancaster. It has 5 school districts. SNAIL, Lake, or Shell Lake, see Pewaukee Lake. SOxIEs, Town, (foimesly Pike), in county of Kenosha, being town 2 N., of range 22 E.; centrally located, 5 miles southwest from Kenosha city. Population in 1850 was 680. It has 7 school districts. SoocauIRA, River, see Fond du Lac river. SOUTH BRISTOL, P. O., in Racine county. SOUTH GEFNESEE, P. v., in town of Genesee, Waukesha county, being town 6 N., of range 18 E. SOUTH GROVE, P. V., in town of Walworth, Walworth county, being town 1 N., of range 16 E. 208

Page  209 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. 209 SOUTH Fork of Black river, from the east, entering the same in town 23 N., of range 3 W. SOUTH Foor/, a tributary of Baraboo river, in Bad Ax county. SOUTHPORT, Town, in county of Kenosha, being fractional towns 1 and 2 N., of range 23 E., on Lake Michigan. Population in 1850 was 363. It has 7 school districts. SPAFFORD'S Cieek, a small tributary of the Peckatonnica. SPENCER, kicer, a small stream in La Pointe county, entering Lake Su,,)erior. SPRLNG, Creek, a branch of Ockee creekl in Lodi, Columbia county. SPRINGDALE, P. O., in town of same name, Dane county, being town 6 N., of range 7 E. SPRINGDALE, Town, in county of Dane, being town 6 N., of range 7 E.; centrally located, 14 miles southwest from Madison. SPRINGFIELD, Town, in county of Dane, being town 8 N., of range 8 E.; centrally located, 10 miles northwest from Madison. It has 6 school districts. SPRING GrovE, P.O., in town of same name, Green county, being town 1 N., of range 9 E. SPRING GREEN, Town, in county of Sauk, being all of the ranges of town 8 in said county; centrally located, southwest from Baiaboo. It has 14 school districts. SPRING GROVE, Town, in county of Greene, being town 1 N., of range 9. Population in 1850 was 703. It has 7 school districts. SPRING, Lake, is a small lake in town of Marion, Waushara county, tributary to the Neenah. SPRING, Lake, in town of Green Lake, Marquette county, with its outlet, forms one of the inlets of Green Lake. SPRING, Lake, is a small lake in the north part of Mukwonago, Waukesha county.

Page  210 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. SPRING, Piut;<e, town ill county of Walworth, being town 3 N., of range 18 E.; centrally located, 6 miles from Elkhliorn. Pop ulation in 1850 was 1,344. It has 8 school districts. SPRING PRAIIE, P. V., in town of same name, on section 30, WTalworth county, 7~ miles east from Elkhorn, 70 miles south east from Madison. Population 200; with 20 dwellings, 3 stores, 1 hotel, and one Baptist church. SPRINGVALE, P.O., in Fond du Lac county. SPRINGVALE, Town, in county of Columnbia, being town 12 N., of range 11 E.; centrally located, 12 miles southeast fiom Portage city. Population in 1850 was 471. It has 4 school districts. SPRINGVALE, Tozvr, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 15 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 12 miles southwest firom lFond dnL Lac. Population in 1850 was 588. It has 8 school dis tricts. SPRING VALLEY, P. O., in town of samue iname, Rock county, town 2 N., of range 10 E. SPRING VALLEY, Town, in county of Rock, being town 2 N., of range 10 E.; centrally located, 15 miles southlwest from Janesville. Population in 1850 was 766. It has 7 school districts. SPRINGVILLE, P.O., in Bad Ax county, on section 23, towni 13 N., of range 5 W. SQUAW PORTAGE, River, in La Pointe cojinty, running nearly parallel to Namekagon river, entering the same a few miles above the junction with the St. Croix. SQUIRREL, River, a tributary from the west of the Little Wis consin. STATE LINE, P. O., in town of Sharon Walworth county, being in town 1 N., of range 15 E. 210

Page  211 4 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. ST. CROIX, County, is bounded on the north by La Pointe, on the east and south by Chippewa, on the southwest and west by the boundary between the State and Minnesota. The county seat is at Hudson, formerly Willow river, at the mouth of a stream of the same name, emptying into Lake St. Croix. It was set off from Crawford, and organized January 29, 1850; was attached to Crawford for judicial purposes April 10, 1843, and again fully organized February 26,1845.' The boundaries were somewhat changed MVarch 16, 1849. It is attached to the third congressional district, to the sixth judicial circuit, and to the nineteenth senate district, and, with La Pointer sends one member to the assembly. It is one of the largest counties in the State, being 130 miles in length, and 50 in width; presents to the agriculturist, in fertility of soil, well watered and well wooded farms, in the means of access to, market through Lake St. Croix and the Mississippi, and in the perfect healthiness and salubrity of climate, advantages which are to be found combined in but few places in the West. The surface is generally undulating north of the Falls of St. Croix. It is mostly timbered with maple and other hard woods, while south of the Falls is a due proportion of prairie and openings. But little attention has yet been paid to the pursuits of agriculture, and the manufactories are con fined for the present to pine lumber. It is well watered with fine streams and beautiful lakes. The principal streams are Willow, Kinnickinnic, Vermnillion, Isabelle, and Rush river. Population in 1846 was 1,419; in 184:7, 1,67T; in 1850, 624; with 181 dwellings, 4 farms, and 2 manufactories. In 1846 the census returns included all of the present Territory of M[innesota, east of the Wisconsin river, also the present county of La Pointe. In 1847 it included the same, except ing the county of La Pointe. This is the reason why there appears to be a decrease in the population from 1847 to 1850 County Officers: Judge, S.S. N. Fuller; Shleriff, A. S. Youle; Clerk of Court, Joseph Bowman; District Attorney, Benja. 211

Page  212 WISCONSIN GAzE_ErEER. min Allen; Register, William R. Anderson; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, Charles R. Knight; Treasurer, James M. Bailey; Surveyor, William R. Anderson; Coroner, Jonathan Bailey. (See Peirce and Polk Counties.) ST. CROIx, ~(-ke, is an expansion of the river of same name, com mencing 12~ miles above its mouth, and extending to within a few rods of the Mississippi, and is about a mile broad. ST. CROIX, Pnery. The amount of sawed pine lumer manufac tured at mills on the Wisconsin side of St. Croix river, annu ally, is about 20,000,000 feet, besides shingles, logs, hewed timber and latlh, to wit.: Prescott Mills, 3,500,000; Kinnikin niek, 1,500,000; Rush River, 2,000,000; Hudson, 2,000,000; WVillow River, 4,000,000; Osceola, 3,000,000; Falls of St. Croix, 4,000,000. Total, 20,000,000. ST. CROIX, R?iver, rises in upper St. Croix Lake, within two miles of the Bol)is Brule river of Lake Superior, and enters the Mis sissippi river a few miles above Lake Pepin, having a descent of about 230 feet. At the different mills on this river are manufactured 26,000,000 feet of lumber. It is about 300 feet wide, and is navigable to the Falls. STEPriErNS' Point, town in county of Portage, being towns 24 and 25 I., of rangyes 5, 6, 7, and 8. STEvENs' POIN'T, P. V., in Portage county, on section 32, town 24 N., of range S E., 51 miles north of Plover, and 120 miles north of MlIadison, on the Wisconsin river. It is the principal depot of the lumbering trade of the Upper Wisconsin, from which most of the lunmbermen make their outfits both for the pine forest in the fall, and for St. Louis, with rafts, in the spring; is beautifully situated, is proverbially healthy, and rapidly being built up. It will probably be the first point at which two great thoroughfares will meet-a rail road from Chicago to Ontonagon, of the Lake Superior, and from Green Bay to St. Pauls, of the Mississippi. A plank road is about to be commenced from Green Bay to this place, and another 212

Page  213 WISCONSIN GAZE'ITrEEPR. is projected from Berlin. The surrounding country is fast settling, and is adapted to farming equally as the up river country is pre-eminent for lumbering. The land office of the Stevens' Point land district is located here. Population 500; with 8S dwellings, 9 stores, 4 hotels, 3 mills; 1 chair, 1 bed stead, 1 leather, 1 harness, and 1 sash manufactory; 2 tailors, 2 blacksmiths, 2 shoemakers, 1 sleigh and waggon maker, and 3 organized religious societies. ST. Louis, Riviter, rises in several small lakes in latitude 48~ iN., longitude 16~ W. from Washington, and enters west end of Lake Superior. STOCKBnIDGE, P. O., in Calumet county, at mouth of a sminall stream entering Lake Winnebago. STOCKBRIDGE, Town, in county of Calumet. It has 5 school dis tricts. STONER'S PRAIPE, P.O., on section 17, on prairie of same name, in town 6, of range 9 E., being town of Fitchburg, Dane county, 8 miles southwest from Madison. STONEY Creek, is a small stream in the north part of Washington county, in the towns of Fredonia and Farmington, uniting with Pigeon Creek, enters the Milwaukee river in southeast corner of the town of Farmington. STOXEY, Creek, rises in town of Clayton, Winnebago county, and runs northeast into the Little Butte des Morts Lake. STONEY Ii(11, in Marquette county, being town 17 N., of range 9 E., between AMontello River and Deer Creek. STOUGHTON, P. V., in Dane county, on section 8, in town of Dun kirk, being town 5 N., of range 11 E., 16 miles southeast from Madison; is pleasantly situated on the Catfish river, a few miles below the First Lake. and is on the route of the Mil waukee and Mississippi rail road, 20 miles from Janesville, and 18 miles from Milton. It has a good hydraulic power, with a suffcient supply of water, having a head of't 9 feet. It 15S 213

Page  214 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. is in one of the most productive farming sections of the State. Population 150, with 30 dwellings, 2 stores, 2 hotels, 1 grist and 1 saw mill. STRAWBERRY Islands, Green Bay, between Chamber's Island and Eagle Bay. STRONG's LANDING, V'Z~lae, see BERLIN, P. V., (Appendix.) STURGEON, Bay, a long point of water extending from Green Bay across Door county, into within 2 miles of Lake Michigan. It is 6 miles wide, and 15 miles in length, narrowing towards its head, where it receives a small stream. STURGEON, Fal7ls, are falls of the Menomonee river, of 14 feet in the distance of 1,000 feet. STURGEON, Portage, Door county, is the portage from Big Stur geon Bay to Lake Michigan, about 11 miles. SUGAR, Creek, in town of same name, Walworth county, and run ning southeast unites with Geneva Creek, enter'ing Pishtaka river at Burlington. SUGAR, Cieek, a branch of Sugar river, rises in town of Sylvester, Green county, and runs southeast, entering Stugar river op posite to Clareville. SuGAR CREEK, P. O., in town of same name, Walworth county, in town 3 N., of range 16 E. SUGAR CREEKr, TOWs, in county of Walworth, being town 3 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, 5 miles northwest from Elk horn. Population in 1850 was 1,229. It has 7 school dis tricts. SUGAR, -tiver, rises in town of Primrose, Dane county, runs south east through Green and Rock counties, into thie State of Illinois. It empties into the Peckatonnica, in Winnebago county, Illinois. SUGAR RrvER, Diygings, a point of some considerable importance as a mining settlement. It is in town 4 N., of range 8, Green county, and is known by the name of Exeter. 214

Page  215 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. SULLIVAN, P. O., in town of same name, Jefferson county, being town 6 N., of range 16 E. SULLIVAN, Town, in county of Jefferson, being town 6 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, nine miles east from Jefferson. Pop ulation in 1850 was 872. It has 6 school districts. SULPHUR, Springs, in town of Holland, Sheboygan county. SUMMERVILLE, P. VF., Rock county, on sections 1 and 2 of Clinton, being town 1 N., of range 14 E., 15 miles southeast of Janes ville, and 60 southeast from Madison, on stage and mail route from Milwaukee to Beloit, at crossing of road from Johns town to Belvidere, Ill. In a good farming district of prairie, timber, and openings. It has 85 inhabitants, with 17 dwel lings, 1 store, 2 hotels, 2 blacksmiths, and 2 organized reli gious denominations. SUMMIIT, P. V, in town of same name, Waukesha county, 15 miles northwest from Waukesha. SUMMIT, Town, in county of Waukesha, being town 17 N-., of range 17 E.; centrally located, 15 miles west from Was,kesha. Pop ulation in 1850 was 1,008. It has 6 school districts. SUN PRAIRIE, P. O., in town of same name, Dane county, being town 8 N., of range 11 E. SUN PRAIRIE, Town, in county of Dane, being town 8 N., of range 11 E.; centrally located, 10 miles northeast from Madison. It has 6 school districts. SussEx, P. V, in town of Lisbon, Waukesha county, on section 26, town 8 N., of range 19 E, 10 miles north from Wauke sha, and 0tO miles east of Madison, 1~ miles north of the Mil waukee and Lisbon plank road, in a fine farmilig country, well adapted to raising the winter grains. Population 100; with 15 dwellings, 1 waggon shop, 1 shoe shop, 2 black smiths, 1 saw mill, 1 school house, and an Episcopal church. SwAN, Lake, Columbia county, an expansion of Fox river above the Portage. It is half a mile wide, and 3~ miles long. 215

Page  216 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. SYILVNIA, P. O., in Racine county. SYLVESTER), Town, in county of Green, being in town 2 N., of range 8 E.; centrally located, 8 miles east from Monroe. Pop.lation in 1850 was 712. It has 12 school districts. SYLVESTER, P. V., Green county, on section 11, town 2 N., of range 8 E., 9 rmiles northeast from Monroe, and 35 miles southwest from Madison. Population 300; with 70 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, and 3 religious denominations. TAINTER'S, CAeek, enters the Kickapoo from the northwest, in town 10 N., of range 7 W. TALKING FIsHI, River, a tributary of Lake Superior, enters Shag wamigon Bays south of Magdalen Island, in La Pointe county. TAMARAc, Creek, a tributary near its mouth of Trampaleau river from the east. TAYNAH, Creek, is a small tributary of the Wisconsin, in Columbia county. See Rocky Run. TA.YCHlDAH, P. V., near Fond du Lac City, on Lake Winnebago, in Fond du Lac county. TAYCHEDAH, Town, in county of Fond du Lac, being the north third of town 15, and south half of town 16 N., of range 18 E.; centrally located, 6 miles from Fond du Lac City. Population in 1850 was 798. It has 5 school districts. TECHORA, P. O., in town of Green Lake, Marquette county, being on section 33, town 15 N., of range 13 E.; 14 miles from Montello. TELUNGOWAN, River, see Duck River. TEOTSA, P. V., on section 12, town 4 N., of range 13 E., in Rock county; 10 miles north from Janesville, and 30 southeast from Madison. It is on Rock River. Population 100; with 25 dwellings, 1 store, 1 hotel, and 1 mill. Denominations, Seventh-day Baptists and First-day Baptists. 216

Page  217 WISCONSIN GAZETEER. THERESA, Town, in county of Dodge, being town 12 N., of range 17 E.; centrally located, 14 miles northeast from Juneau. It has 5 school districts. THERESA, P. V., in town of same name, on section 10, Dodge county, 15 miles northeast from Juneau, and 64 miles north east from Madison. It is situated on the old Milwaukee and Fond du Lac road at the crossing of Rock river. Population 200; with 30 dwellings, 2 stores, 2 hotels, 1 grist and 1 saw mill, 1 pearl ash manufactory, and several mechanical shops. THE SISTERS s7lan(ts, in Green Bay, near eastern shore, about 5 miles northeast from Eagle Hiarbor. THIRD,.lctke, adjoining and east of Madison, Dane county, is of the Four Lakes group, 6 miles long and 2 miles broad. It is also called AIenona. THOIPSONVILLE, P. V., in county of Racine, being on section 30, in township 4 N., of range 22 E., town of Caledonia. It is 9 miles from Racine, and 90 miles southeast from Madison. It is located on the borders of prairie and timber, at the cor ners of two public roads, with a plank road to the city of Racine, and on the line between the towns of Caledonia and Raymond. Population 40, with 12 dwellings, 1 store, 2 hotels, with mechanics of various kinds. Name changed to Whites ville. THORN APPLE, reek, rises in town 23 N., of range 23 E., in Ke waunee county, runs southerly, discharging its waters into East Twin river, in Manitowoc county. TOKEN, Creed, the principal inlet of Fourth Lake, mostly in Wind sor and Westport, Dane county. TOLAND'S PRAIRIE, P. V., in town of Erin, Washington county, being town 9 IN., of range 18 E. TOMAIIAwK, Lake, in the southeast corner of La Pointe county, discharges its waters into the Mississippi, through Chippewa river. 217

Page  218 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. TPREMIPELEAU, ['ountain, see Mount Trempeleau. TREMPELEAU, River, a considerable tributary of the Mississippi, in La Crosse county, enters the same near Mount Trempeleau, about 15 miles northwest from the mouth of Black river. TRENTON CORNERS, P. O., in town of same name, Dodge county, being town 13, N., of range 14 E. TRENTON, Town, in county of Washington, being town 11 N., of range 290 E.; centrally located, 12 miles west from Ozaukee. It has 6 school districts. TRENT(, Town., in county of Dodge, being town 13 N., and north half of town 12 N., of range 14; centrally located, 14 miles northwest from Juneau. Population in 1850 was 997. It has 11 school districts. TRENTON, P. V., in town of same name, on section 1, Washington county, 1 t miles northwest from Ozaukee, and 90 miles easterly from M!adison. Population 75; with 20 dwellings, and 2 mills. TROUT, Creek, enters the Mississippi in town 8 N., in Crawford county. TPROUT, Creek, Grant county, a small stream entering the Wiscon siii, in town of Fennimore. TROUT, -ake, is near the head of the Manidowish river, in Mara thon county. It is a beautiful body of clear water, 8 miles long and four wide, and yields a great quantity of the fine fish from which it is named. TROY, P. V., in town of same name, Walworth county. TROY CENTRE, P. V., in town of Troy, Walworth county, being town 4 N., of range 17 E. TP-oY LAKES, P. V, in town of East Troy, Walworth county, being town 4 N., of range 18 E. T,R -ELLE, Rvrer, rises in town 27 N., of range 18 E., in St. Croix county and runs south, emptying into the Mississippi, near the head waters of Lake Pepin. 218 4.

Page  219 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. TucK-rIiP-PING, iake, is about 2 miles in length, situated in the northeast corner of the town of Merton. TURTLE, Ciee7g, rises in Turtle Lake, near the northeast corner of Richmond, Walworth county, and runs Southwest into Rock river, at Beloit. TURTLE, -cake, is in the eastern part of Richmond, Walworth county, and falls into Rock river, at Boloit, through Turtle creek. TLRTLE, Towl, in county of Rock, being town 1 N., of range 13 E.; centz ally located, 7 miles east from Janesville. Popula tionI in 18S50 was 966. It has 7 school districts. TWELVE APOSTLES, Isa8nd7s, in Lake Superior, La Pointe county, near the 47" N. latitude, and 14Q W. longitude from Wash ingtonI. They embiace in all an area of about 400 square miles, of which one half is water. The soil in some portions is good, but in the major part difficult to clear and cultivate. The waters about these islands afford excellent white fish, siscoitret and trout. In regard to health, no portion of the' Continent surpasses the Apostle Islands. In the summer months they present to residents of the south the most cool and delightful resort that can be imagined, and for invalids especially; such as are effected in the liver and lungs, the uniform bracing atmosphere produces the most surprising and beneficial ]results. TWIN, C),eel7, a tributary from the north of Baraboo river, in Sauk county, whichl it enters in town 13 N., of range 4 W. TwI\, -lakes, see Nashlotah Lakes. TwIN, Iivers, (Nashotah Rivers), E. and W., have their sources, the one in Kewaunee, the other in Brown county, and run nearly parallel to the southeast, uniting, and enter Lake Mich igan at the village of Two Rivers, Manitowoc county. Two RIVERS, P. V., is situated on the shore of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of Twin Rivers, on section 1, town 19, of range 24 E., 6 miles northeast from Manitowoc. It is quite an impor tant place, and does a large trade in lumber, fish, leather, &c. 219

Page  220 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. ULA'), P. O., in Washington county. UNION GRovE, P. O., in Racine county. UNION, P. -., in town of same name, Rock county, being town 4 N., of range l0 E. UNION, Town, in county of Rock, being town 4 N., of range 10 -E.; centrally located, 16 miles northwest from Janesville. Popr lation in 1850 was 1,050. It has 9 school districts. UrPER ST. CRoix, Lake, is on the St. Croix river, in La Pointe county. It is about 12 miles long and nearly 3 wide, and is noted for the depth and clearness of its water, and a small island near its outlet. URSI-NE, P. O., in Grant county. UTTERP'S CORNERS, P. V., Walworth county, on section 6, town 3 N., of range 15 E., being town of Richmond, 15 miles north west from Elkhorn, and about 50 miles southeast from Madi son. It has a store, hotel, and Methodist church, and is surrounded by a good farming country. UTIcA, Town, in county of Winnebago, being town 17 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 12 miles southwest from Osh kosh. Population in 1850 was 630. It has 6 school districts. VASEAUX, -ake, head of the northwest branch of the Neenah. VERMIILLION, River, rises near the head waters of the Kinnikinnic river, and runs southerly, entering the Mississippi. VERPNON, P. VF., is located on section 9 in town of same name, Waukesha county, 8 miles south from Waukesha, and 70 miles southeast from Madison. It is situated in a well tim bered and watered vicinity. Population 40; with 11 dwel lings, 1 store, 1 hotel, 1 blacksmith and waggon shop, and 2 organized religious denominations. VERNON, Town, in county of Waukesha, being town 5 N., of range 19 E.; centrally located, 9 miles south from Waukesha. Population in 1850 was 889. It has 11 school districts. 220

Page  221 WISCONSIN GAZETrEER. VERONA, P. 0., in town of same name, Dane county, on Badger prairie, town 6 N., of range 8 E. VERONA, Town, in county of Dane, being town 9 N., of range 9 E.; centrally located, nine miles southwest from Madison. It has 9 school districts. VIENNA, P. V., in town of Spring Prairie, Walworth county, being in town 3 N., of range 18 E. VIENNA, Town, in county of Dane, being town 9, of range 9 E.; centrally located, 12 miles north from Madison. VIEUX DESERT, -Lake, see KIattakittekin. VINLAND, P.O., in Winnebago county. VINLAND, Town, in county of Winnebago. Population in 1850 was 756. It has 6 school districts. WABANGI ONIGOI, Portage, see Plover Portage. WAINCK, River, rises near the centre of Waupacca county, and runs southeast, entering Wolf river a mile north of the mouth of the Waupacca river. WABIZIPINIKAN, 2Rver, see Willow river. WALDWIC, P. O., in Iowa county. WALDWIC, Town, in southeast corner of Iowa county, intersected by the east Peckatonnica'and Yellowstone creek. It possesses both prairie and timber, is sparsely settled, and is adapted both to mining and farming. WALLACE, P.O., in Iowa county. WALNUT SPRINGS, P.O., in Green county. WALWORTH, County, is bounded north by Jefferson and Waukesha, east by Racine and Kenosha, south by the State of Illinois, and west by Rock. It was set off Dec. 7, 1836, from Mil waukee, to which it was attached for judicial purposes, and was fully organized January 17, 1838. The county seat is at Elkhorn, the centre of the county. The surface is for the most part undulating, but through its whole extent there are 221.

Page  222 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. small bodies of level prairie or meadow land, and abrupt and irregular hills or knobs. A chain of these enters the county, about the middle of the northern line, and runs through the northwestern corner. The greater portion of the county consists of oak openings. There are some 12 or more prairies of limited size, exclusive of low lands and marshes. There are also a few small bodies of heavy timber. Of soil, there are many varieties. The prairie-high and low; the openings of white, black, and burr oak; all have their peculiarities of soil, and are all fitted inl a high degree to the different productions of the country. The most considerable streams are the Geneva Outlet, Sugar and Ihoney Creeks, running eastward into Fox river and Turtle and Whitewater creeks, running westward into Rock river. These all head in the county, and are fed by springs. The population of the county consists mainly of peol)e firom the New England and other Eastern States. It ranks among the very first counties of the State for its intelligence, enterprize, fertility and wealth. The principal villages are Geneva, Delavan, Whitewater, Elkhorn and East Troy. Population in 1838,1,019; 18140, 2,611; 1842, 4,618; 1846,13,439; 1847, 15,039; 1850, 17,866; with 1,960 farms, 3,092 dwellings, and 82 manufactories. It belongs to the first judicial circuit, the first congressional district, forms the twelfth senate district, and sends five members to the assembly, as follows: 1. Towns of Whitewater, Richmond and La Grange. 2. Towns of Sugar Creek, Lafayette and Troy. 3. Towns of East Troy and Spring Prairie. 4. Elkhorr, Geneva and HIudson. 5. Delavan, Darien and Sharon. 6. Walworth, Linn, and Bloomfield. County Officers: Judge, William C. Allen; Sheriff, J. C. Crum; Clerk of Court, Wim. H. Pettit; Register, John Perry. WALWORTH, P. V., near cenire of town of same name, on section 17; 11 miles southwest from Elkhorn, and 70 miles southeast from Madison, in a good farming region. Population 60, with 10 dwellings, 1 store, and a Baptist Church. 222

Page  223 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. WALWORTH, Town, in county of Walworth, being town 1 N. of range 16 E.; centrally located, 10 miles southwest fiom Elk horn. Population in 1850 was 987. It has 7 school districts. WARNER'S, Creek, a small stre.am entering the Wisconsin, in town 6 N., of range 5 W., Grant county. WARNER'S LANDING, P. O., (discontinued), in Bad Ax county. WARREN, P. 0., in Rock county. WARREN, Town, in county of Waushara, being town 18 N., of range 12. WARREN, Town, Waukesha county, name changed to Merton. WARWICK), P. O., in Marquette county. WASHINGTON, County, is bounded on the north by Fond du Lac and Sheboygan, on the east by the State line in Lake Michigan, on the south by Milwaukee and Waukesha, and on thie west by Dodge. It was set off from Milwaukee December 7, 1836, was organized for county purposes Aougust 30, 1840, and fully established February 2(), 1845. By an act of the legislature, approved in 1853, the portion of the county east of range 20, was set off and organized into a new county, by the name of Ozaukee, and the county seat of the new county was fixed at Ozaukee, (Port Washington), and that of Washington county, at West Bend, near the centre (,f the county. The surface is rolling, and abounds in living springs and streams of water, and is heavily timbered with oak, beech, maple, ash, &c. A large majority of the farmers are hardy Gerrmans, who cultivate thoroughly. Wheat has been a surer crop for the last few years in this than in any other county in the State. The soil is well adapted to the raising of the grape and to tillage. The county is connected with the third judicial circuit, and with the third congres sional district, and its legislative representation is as follows: The towns of Mequon, Cedarburg, Grafton, Port Washington, Saukville, Fredonia and Belgium, constitute the third senate 223

Page  224 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. district. The towns of Erin, Richfield, Germantown, Jack son, Polk, Hartford, Addison, West Bend, Newark, Trenton, Fat-mington, Ieewaskum and Wayne, constitute the fourth senate district. First assembly district, towns of Belgium, Fredonia, Saukville, and Port Washington. Second assembly district, towns of Cedarburg, Grafton and Mequon. Third assembly district, towns of Erin, Richfield, Polk, Jackson, and Germantown. Fourth assembly district, Hartford, Addi son, Wayne, Kewaskum, Newark, West Bend, Trenton and Farmington. The principal streams are the Milwaukee river and Oconomowoc creek. Population in 1838, 64; 1840, 343; 1842, 965; 1846, 7,473; 1847, 15,447; 1850, 19,476. There aie 1,636 farms, 381 buildings, and 7 manufactories. WASHINGTON, Town, in county of Green, being town 3 N., of range 7; centrally located, 8 miles north from Monroe. Pop ulation in 1850 was 317. It has 4 school districts. WASHWAGOWING, -Lake, see Flambeau Lake. WASSAwA, _lake, see Yellow Lake. WASSAWx, Piver, see Yellow River. WATERFORD, P. V., on section 35, in town of Rochester, Racine county; 23 miles northwest from city of Racine, and 80 miles southeast from Madison. It is situated on Fox river (Pishtaka) 25 miles southwest fiom Milwaukee, and has a fine hydraulic power. Population 500, with 100 dwellings, 4 stores, 2 hotels, 2 flouting mills, 3 saw mills, several mechanical shops, and a woollen factory; with 4 denominations-Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian and Catholic-the latter having a good church edifice. WATERLOO, Town, in county of Jefferson, being town 8 N., of range 13 E.; centrally located, 12 miles northwest from Jef ferson. Population in 1850 was 831. It has 6 school districts. WATERLOO, Town, in county of Grant, being fractional town 2 and 3 N., of range 4 W.; centrally located, 12 miles southwest from Lancaster. It has 2 school districts. 224

Page  225 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. WATERLOO, P. V., on section 8, in town of same name, Jefferson county, being the most northwest town in said county. It is 16 miles northwest from Jefferson, and 25 miles east from Madison. The location is on a creek of the same name, with a good hydraulic power sufficient for three mills now in oper ation. Population 200, with 60 dwellings, 4 stores, 2 hotels, 1 church, 1 pump and 1 fanning mill manufactory, 1 cabinet, 2 waggon, 1 plough and 3 blacksmith shops. WATERLOO, Creek, rises in Bristol, Dane county, runs southeast into Jefferson county, thence northeast, emptying into Craw fish river in Portland, Dodge county. WATERTOWN, City, iS situated on both sides of Rock river, at the line between Dodge and Jefferson county, on the old stage route, half way (40 mriles) between Madison and Milwaukee, and 12 miles north of Jefferson. It is connected with Mil waukee by a plank road, and is a point in the charters of several rail roads. The location of Watertown, in the heart of an excellent farming country, its good hydraulic power, access to market, and the energy and spirit of its inhabitants, cannot fail to have it continue, as it now is, one of the largest and most important inland towns in the State. The following are some of the statistics of the place taken in May, 1853: Watertown now contains 4,000 ilnhabitants; with 6 dry good, 11 grocery, 2 drug, and 3 hardware stores, 15 taverns, 1 tobacconist, 2 bakeries, 3 meat markets, and 2 livery stables, 7 blacksmith, 6 waggon, 2 joiner, 2 jewelry, 4 tin, 6 cabinet, 1 chair, I machine, and 5 shoe shops; 1 fork and hoe, 1 plough, 1 door and sash, and 1 saleratus factory; 3 flouring and 4 saw mills; 1 fanning mill and 2 harness maker's shops; 2 book stores, 2 barber's shops, 1 gunsmith, 1 tannery, 1 furnace, 1 pottery, 1 oil mil, 1 carding machine, 1 rake and cradle, factory, 1 woollen and yarn factory, 2 printing offices, 6 school houses, 2 select schools, Jones's Exchange bank, and several lawyer's offices. 225

Page  226 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. WATERTOWN, T7own, in county of Jefferson, being town 8 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 11 miles north of Jefferson. Population in 1850, including village of same name, was 1850. It has 14 school districts. WATERVILLE, P. V;, in east corner of Summit, Waukesha county. WAUKAU, P. V., 01o section 36, in town of Rushford, Winnebago county, 12 miles southwest frot Oshkosh, and about 60 miles northeast from Mladison, 2- miles south of Neenah river, on the outlet of Rush Lake, with 30 feet fall of water, in a good and productive section of farming land. Population 500, with 150 dwellings, 7 stores, 3 hotels, 5 mills, and considerable water power unoccupied. W-vUKESHA, County, is bounded on the north by Dodge and Wash ington, on the east by lMilwaukee, on the south by Walworth and Racine, on the west by Jefferson, (nd is 24 miles square. It was set off from Milwaukee and fully or,ganized January 31, 1846. The eastern portion of the count) is heavily titn bered, while the western is divided between oak openings, prairie and marsh. The soil is good at,d well adap)ted to tillage and grazing. The county is distinguished for its numerous and beautiful lakes, there beig pr(.)bablv more than 30 within its limits. It is watered by the Fox, (Pishtaka), MIenotnoniee, Ashippin and Bark rivers, and Oconomowoc, Scupernong, Poplar, White and Mukwonago creeks. Population in 1846 was 13,793; 1817, 15,866; 1850, 19,324. It has 2,561 dwel lings, 1,743 farms, and 78 manufactories. The county of Waukesha is in the first congressional district and the second judicial circuit, and its legislative representation is as follows: Ninth senate district, towns of Oconomowoc, Merton, Lisb(n, Summit, Menomonee, Delafie(ld, Pewaukee, and Brookfield. Tenth senate district, towns of Ottawa, Genesee, Waukesha, New Berlin, Muskego, Vernon, Mukwonago and Eagle. The assembly districts are as follows: 1st. towns of Merton, Dela field, Summit and Oconomowoc. 2nd. towns of Pewaukee, Lisbon, Menomonee and Brookfield. 3d. towns of Ottawa, 226

Page  227 WISCONSIN GAZEITrEER. Genesee, Iulkwonago and Eagle. 4th. towns of Waukesha, Vernon, Muskego and New Berlin. County Officers for 1853 and 1854: Judge, Martin Field; Clerk of Court, Lemuel White; Register, Williamni Ri. Williams; Sheriff, Charles B. Ellis; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, Benjamin- E. Clark; District Attorney, John E. Gallagher; Surveyor, John O. Reedsburg. WAUKESHA, Lake, is a small lake in northwest corner of Norway, Racine county, about one mile in diameter and three quarters of a mile west of Wind Lake. WAUKESHA, P. V. and C. X., is located on section 3, town 6, of range 19 E., in town and county of the same name, 18 miles west of Milwaukee and 70 east of Madison. It is situated on Fox river, (Pishltaka), near the head of a beautiful prairie from which it derived its former name of Prairieville. It is situ ated on the Milwaukee and Mississippi railroad. This place was incorporated in 1852, and has about 1,500 inhabitants, 1 flour ing, 1 saw, and 1 carding mill, 1 iron foundry, 1 machine and car shop, 3 blacksmiths, 2 coopers, 2 wheelwrights, 6 shoe makers, 2 cabinet makers, and 4 saddle and harness makers, 4 hotels, 8 diry good, 2 drug, 3 hardware and 7 grocery stores, 1 printing office, 6 chu]rches, 1 academy, and is the seat of Carroll College, incorporated in 1846. It has a stone court house and jail built of the celebrated Wauke8ha lime stone, and the several societies of 3/lasons, S. of T., I. O. of O.F., D. of T., andB. of U. WArUKESHA, Town, in county of same name, being town 6 N., of range 19 E.; centrally located, 3 miles south from village of Waukesha, the county seat. Population in 1850 was 2,314. It has 10 school districts. It is a good township of mostly prairie, and well watered, &c. WAUPACCAx, P. O., in Waupacca county. WAUPAccA, Town, in county and on river of same name, west of Mukwa. 227

Page  228 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. WAUPAccA, County, is bounded on the north and northeast by Oconto, on the east by Outagamie, on the south by Winne bago and Waushara, and on the west by Portage. It was set off from Winnebago and established February 17, 1851, and attached thereto for judicial purposes. It is watered by the Wolf, Waupacca, Wabunk, Embarrass and Little Wolf rivers, and contains some of the best pine timber in the State. It being new, but little is known of its agricultural capacities. The county seat is at AMukwa, on Wolf river. Waupacca county belongs to the fourth judicial circuit, to the second senate and third congressional district, and with Outagamnie and Oconto, sends one member to the assembly. WVATP-zccA,.Fal7s, on river of same name, at which place is a descent of 7 feet. WAUPACCA, PRiver, rises near Plover, Portage county, and runs southeast, entering Wolf river near Mukwa. WAUPUN, P. V., in county of Fond du Lac, being on section 32, town 14 N., elf range 15 E., S18 miles southwest from Fond du Lac city, and 50 miles northeast from MVadison. The vil lage is divided by the county line between Dodge and Fond du Lac counties. Population 500, with 100 dwellings, 9 stores, 2 hotels, 2 mnills, and 1 distillery; Presbyterian and Baptist churches. The States Prison is located at this place. WAUPULN, Town, in county of Fond du Lac, being town 14 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 15 miles southwest from Fond du Lac. Population in 1850 was 882. It has 5 school dis tricts. WATSA-U, P. V. & C. H., on sections 25, 35, 26 and 36, of town 29 N., of range 7 E., in Marathon county, at Big Bull Falls, on the Wisconsin. It is 150 miles north firom Madison. Its location is good for manufacturing and agricultural interests combining fertility of soil, unsurpassed in the north-water power sufficient to supply the State, if properly distributed and large quantities of pine for future use. The place is new, 228

Page  229 WISCONSIN GAZ%rElIER. having had a P. O. but two years. The interest llurbering chiefly; but recently attention has been paid( to the cuiltivation of some of the maple ridges, which are very numerous, and found to repay the laborer largely. It has a migratory population of about 300; with 5 stores, 4 hotels, 4 mills with 12 run of stones, and 9 saw mills. WAUSHARA, Cotenty, is bounded on the north by Portage and Wau pacca, east by W\innebago, south by Marquette, and west by Adams, and is 18 miles north and south by 36 miles east and west. It was established February 15, 1851, from Marquette, remailling in judicial connection therewith, until February 16, 1S52, when it was completely organized. The seat of jus tice is at Sacramento, in the southeast corner of the county, o:i Fox river. This county embraces what has been fami liarly known recently as the'" Indian Lands" of Marquette county. It belongs to the third judicial circuit. County Officers for ls53 and 1854: Sheriff; Xathaniiel Boyington; Clerk of Court, Allyn Boardman; District Attorney, C. M. Seely; Register, James S. Btigh; Clerk of Board of Super visors, Augustus P. Noyes; Treasurer, Charles N. Shumway; Surveyor, S. W. IHall; Coioner, George MAarshall. WAUSI-IRA:, To,2,, in county of same name, being town 18, of range 13; in the southeast corner of which is Sacramento the coliunty seat. WxAVUSIJAnA, P. Y., is situated on section 26, town 13 N., of range 13 E., il Dodge county, 17 miles northlwest from Juneau, and 43 mites northeast from Madison. Population 400; with 60 dwellings, 6 stores, 3 hotels, 2 mills, 2 blacksmiths, 1 waggon maker; and 2 churches, with 5 denominations. It is on the Watertown and Fort Winnebago road, and the United States road from Fond du Lac to Fort Winnebago. WAIITONMA, P. O., in town of same name, Waushara county, on section 34, town 1I N., of range 10 F. 16 229

Page  230 WISCONSIN GAZEi'fEER. WAUTOr A, Towi, in county of Waushara, niortlhwest from Sacra mento. WAUwAVTOSA, P. V., in town of same name, in Milwaukee county, 5 miles west from Milwaukee, with which it is connected by the Al. & AI. RP. R., and 92 pl)ank roads. It is near the centre of the township, and has 4 stores, 2 hotels, 1 flour mill, 1 saw mill, various mechanics, and 2 churchles, belonging to the Con gregational and Baptist denominations, costing respec tively $92,500 and $2,000, and a good school house. WAUwNANTOSxA, Town, in county of Milwaukee, being town 7 N., of range 2i 1E.; centrally located, 5 miles from Milwaukee city. Population 2,500. It has 11 Schlool districts. The surface of th-e country is rolli-ni, with a good soil, presenting fine situa tions for residences, many Tood ones having b)een already erected. The social, cducational, and rclig,ious advantages are of a superior order. WAVYAxO'INGX, I(4ce and?ivr, form the ]tcad waters of the St. Croix river. xT,AYN, - (NE:,i, in Lafi,y ette county. WATNYxE, Tow, in county of Washinigton, bein(, town 12 N., of range 1S E.; centrally located, 24 mucils nortlhwest from Ozau kce. Population inr 1S50 was 714. It has 10 school districts. WEsSTEIZ, h.(nd, a small island in Fox Lake, J)odge county, in town 13 N.) of range 13 E. WEDGErn, Creek, a smiall branchi of Black Iivecr, in La Crosse coiunty, friom the north, being in town 23 N., of range 2 W. WELAtNEE, P. O., in Winnebago county. WELCaI 0Fojk, a branch fromn the north of Grant river, in Beetown, Grant county. \WS,'COTA, Piver (B rule or Wood River of Meinoinonee), is a b)ranch of the Menomonee, forming a portion of the boundary line b)etweeln Wisconsin and ilichii,an. It rises in Lake Brule, and is about 100 feet in width. 230

Page  231 WISCONSIN GAZETrrEER. WEST BEND, Town, in county of Washington, being town 12 N., of range 19 E.; centrally located, 20 miles northwest from Ozaukee. Population in 1850 was 672. It has 4 school districts. WEST BEND, P. V. and C. f., on section 14, in town of same name, Washington county. It is 17 miles west from Ozau kee, and 90 miles northeast from Madison, on the Milwaukee river, with an excellent water power and good general advan tages. The county seat of Washington county was estab lished at this place in 1853. Population 500, with 200 dwellings, 7 stores, 2 hotels, 2 mills, 10 mechanical shops, 1 churchl and 3 denominations. It is on the road from Ozaukee to Fort Winnebago, at its junction with the Milwaukee and Fond du Lac plank road, and is a point on the air line rail road fromn Milwaukee to Fond dii Lac. AWVESTFIELD, P. 0., in town of same name, Marquette county. WESTFIELD, To?w~n, in county of Marquette, being towns 16 and 17 N. of ranges S and 9 W. WEST FoI_0 OF MONTREAL _/ieq, a small tributary from the south west, of Montreal river, in La Poiute county. WEST POINT, To0,i), in the county of Columbia, being town 10 N. of range 7 E:; centrally located, 17 miles southwest from Portage. Population in 1850 was 197. It has 4 school districts. WESTPORT, Totv),, in county of Dane, being town 8 N. of range 9 E.; centrally located, 8 miles north of Madison. It has 3 school districts. WEST IROSENDALE, P. O., in Rosendale, Fond du Lac county. WEYAUWEGO, P. V., in Waupacca county. WEYAUWEGO, Town, in county of Waupacca, being town 21 N. of range 18; situated west from Mtikkwa. WHAYPAw, i;ver, is a tributary, from the west, of the Wisconsin, in' Marathon county,. 231

Page  232 WISCONSIN GAZETEER. WHEATLAND, P. V., in town of same name, Kenoshla county. WHEATLAND, Town, in county of Kenosliha, being, town 1, and S. one-third of town 2 N. of range 19 E.; centrally located, 22 miles southwest from Kenosha city. Population in 1850 was 1,193. It has 11 school districts. WHITE, Creek, a tributary of the Wisconsin, in Adams county. WaITE, Creekc, a tributary from the west of Fox river, in Wauke sha county. WHITE ELK, -akes, are four in number, forming the most north eastern head waters of the Chippewa river into which they run through the:Nanodowish. They are severally called Lower White Elk Lake, and Second, Third and Fourth White Elk Lakes. WHIrrTE Fisn, BAy, on western shore of Lake -Iichigan in Door county. WHITE FisH, -akes, emptying into Little Wiscollsinr river in 45~ 45' north latitude, about half-way between Wisconsin and Little Wisconsin rivers. WHITE, -ake, in the north part of towin 25 N. of range 17 E., in Oconto county, discharges its waters southwesterly into Wolf river. WHITE, cl(i6ids, are shoals of Menomonee river, below Penemee Falls. WHITrE, Wirer, rises in the western part of Waushara county, and runs southeast, entering Fox river, in town 17 north. WHITE OAK SPRINGS, P. V, on section 32, town 1 N., of rage 2 E.; being in county of Lafayette, and distant 5 miles from Shullsburg, and 80 miles southwest from Madison. Popula tion 100; with 26 dwellings, 4 stores, and 1 hotel. Its loca tion and advantages are as favorable as any village in the West. Lead ore abounds in large quantities in its vicinity, and forms no inconsiderable item in the pursuit of its inhabi tants. 232

Page  233 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. WHITE OAK SPRINGS, Town, of same name ill Lafayette county, on the State line. WHITEWATER, Cheek, rises in town of same name, Walworth county, and running northwest, enters Bark river, about 5 miles above Fort Atkinson, in Jefferson county. WHITEWATER, P. V., is situated on sections 4 and 5, in town of same name, in the northwest corner of Walworth county; it derives its name from Whitewater creek which passes through it. It was settled about the year 1839. The village has a pop ulation of about 1,000, derived mostly from New York, New England and Ohio. There are four well finished churches, and the fifth-the Catholic-is erected and partly completed. The buildings are generally neat, and in good taste, and the grounds finely planted with trees and shrubbery, which con tribute to give the place an attractive rural air. It is one of the pleasantest of our interior villages, and will continue to be a desirable place of residence. It is the principal point between Wankeslia and Janesville, on the Milwaukee and MIississippi rail road, and is made the point of intersection of that road and the proposed Wisconsin Central rail road, for which a com,pany has been recently chlateredl, and just or ganized. The construction of this road, which is confidently anticipated, would render Whitewater a very central location, on the junction of the main east and west, and north and south rail road lines of the State, and connect it, by direct cormmnuication with Chicago, at 90 miles distance. It has now a considerable business in the purchase of produce and the sale of l-,mber, induced by the rail road. It contains 2 grist mills, 1 saw mill, 1 iron foundry, 1 manaufaictory of pottery ware, and the usual variety of stores and meclhanic shops, &c The location of the village is on a soil of sandy loam, which secures dry streets and sidewalks, and eligible building sites. WHITEWATER, Towtn, in county of Walworthl, being town 4 N., of range 15 E.; centrally located, 13 miles northwest from Elk horn. Population in 1850 was 1,252. 233

Page  234 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. WHITEWATER, Iake8, are 2 small lakes, forming the source of Creek of same name, in south part of town of same name. WflITNEY'S Jfi8s, on the Wisconsin, in south part of Portage county. WIGOIoMIS, lake, is in the northwest part of St. Croix county, dis charging its waters through a river of same name into St. Croix river. WIGOBImIS, PiVer, is the outlet of Lake of same name, in St. Croix county. WILLE-T, P. O., in town of Adams, Green county. WILLIAMSTOWN, Town, in county of Dodge, being town 12 N., of range 16 E.; centrally located, 8 miles northeast from Juneau. It has 6 school districts. WILLOW CREEK, P. O., in Marquette county. WILLOW, Cieek, rises in northeast corner of PRiclland county, and running southwest enters Pine river, at Sextonville. WILLOW, Creek, rises in town of Wantoma, Waushara county, and running east, enters the west end of Lake Pauwaicun. WILLOW, Pr(tiie, WauLshara county, contains about 2,000 acres of land. It is in the centre of town 20 N., of range 8 E. WILLOW DIVER, P. O., St. Croix counIty. See HIudson. WILLOW r-IVER, Town, (formerly Beuna Vista,) being town 29 and 30, and west half of town 28 N., of range 19 W., in which is located the county seat of St. Croix county. It has 3 school districts. Name changed to Hudson in 1852. WILLOW, I?iver, rises in the eastern portion of St. Croix county, and runs southwest, entering Lake St. Croix, about 18 miles above the mouth of St. Croix river, into the Mlississippi. WILLOW SPRINGS, P. O., in town of same name, Lafayette county. WILLOW SPRINGS, Town, Lafayette county. WILMOT, P. V., in town of Salem, Kenosha county, being in town 1 N., of range 20 E. 234

Page  235 countfly, ini a b(-,,,d (~~1~ l( istriet, oi T(-)-cii - 1 ( ml iiotlIeast front -illaisoii, on i'i r,t to P(l'ota,, city. Wl,-,D~' l(,i, T(o~n~, ii- coil~ly(tv of~iy 9-~~ t)~ N'., (-) i 1q.0 E.; coiit,,-,ay loca~ted, 12 -14iIla D(liG,s" loiij It lia S't selio districts. -WT,NGVTLI,E, f()Miv~~, in coility o)f Graiit, I)c,,iii, t )v~ii O' N., -)f' I W.; cen(traly i-ocated, 1- m inls iio-l~i(.,act ~)f It ha~s 7 scitool districts. WTNGVII,~ I 7IE, 1, Graiit co'4]lty. See Mo iutfort f). 0. WTIN.NF~,A(:,,-) Clt-,-()ity, is t)oii(1doT oni tc i-ioit't I)y O)l}ta!,,l- east Ci) i cJ,,{it, ( ~ vi ~iei} s~1 (,-,) -r,,tte,(t y~ ~i,,,ke \ L~!4() t]li s",itlc I )yT ~~~1d v~~ t ("S I),y ai,(l.1~~~tc It -v,-as set F,-).i( f(li~t )1t( aes aI ("c, c4~~~~] ~ ~ 843 If-, w a ~ s ()r~,an~ize t)rc1typ~ ~ c~(its j,,IiciteiLl ( nc c1 itii ( i 11~ ( ~)1 l1 V0fi,y~;11c~ ].S 4t. 1~ sc~at (1f jasticc was 1)c)ctq}iiv~c( oi t ( )s- ~ )J~fC) ~ i{~~c tlic coiii-tfy is wct(Tylvl~J~ty)i)Li~~ (-,,vil of piiec, i( 1(1 ater. Ti-te s()i ]~ )dI( ],i is~ w(qi( ito ~~' 4(.ti-aziii (T ii(-,Lt~!( )\ iscc I~~)fII

Page  236 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. tinguishlied for its dairying, the growing of stock, and its manufactures, than for the raising of grain. The principal streams aie the Fox and Wolf rivers. It is connected with the fourth judicial circuit, with the third congressional dis trict, and constitutes the twenity first senate district, and is divided into two assembly districts, viz: 1st. Towns 17 and 18, ranges 14, 15, 16 and 17. 2d. Towns 19 and 20, ranges 14, 15, 16 and 17. Population in 1840 was 135; in 1S42, 143; in 1846, 732; in 1847, 2,748; in 1850, 10,167. County Officers for 1853 and 1854: Judge, Edwin Wheeler; Clerk of Court, E. R. Baldwin; Sheriff, Alex. F. David; Register, Edwiu R. Rowley; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, J. H. Osborn; Trea surer, Jonathan Dougherty. WINNEBAGO, Islc,id, at mouth of lake of same name. See Doty's Island. WINNIEBAGO, -ake, is situated between the counties of Calumet and Winnebago, having its head in Fonid du Lac. It is nearly 30 miles in length from north to south, and about 12 miles wide at the mouth of the Neenah, at Oshkosh. This lake forms a portion of the navigation of the Fox and Wisconsin river improvement, and is about 160 fee(t above the level of Lake Michigan, and 63 feet below the Wisconsin Portage. It is navigable its whole length for small steam boats, which ply regularly upon it during the summer season. It covers an area of about 90 square miles. WINN-EBAGO, /-alsi8, Dodge county. See Hioricon lake. WINNEBAGO, Rapids, on Neenal river, at the outlet of Lake Winnebago, has a descent of 7~ feet in a distance of 7,700 feet. WINNEBAGO, Town, in county of Winnebag(o. Poplitlatiol in 1850 was 1,647. It has 4 school districts. WINNECONNA, P. V., on east side of Wolf riv(er, in towin of same name, Winnebago county. 236

Page  237 WISCONSIN GAZEFrEER. WINNECONNA, Town, in county of Winnebago, town 19 N. of range 15 E.; centrally located, 10 miles northwest from Oshkosh. Population in 1850 was 1948. It has 3 school districts. WIOTA, Town, in county of Lafayette. WiscoNsiNx -iver, is the most important inWisconsin, rising in Lake Vieux Desert, on the northern boundary and extending com pletely across the State, in a southwesterly direction, enters the Mississippi, by its course, 90 miles from the line of Illinois. Its head waters are surrounded by extensive forests of pine timber, with plenty of wvaterfall for its economical manufacture into lumber, and a good channel and current to transport the same to market. It is navigable for steamboats to the Portage of the Fox river, 114 miles, from its mouth, and even above for small boats. The trade of this river in lumber and mine ral (lead) is quite extensive, and gradually increasing, and at the completion of the Fox and Wisconisin Rivers Improvemenet, the trade in all branches of commerce will be great.-Tlhe following account of this river was made by Marquette and Joliet, who descended it from the Portage in 1673: "The river upon which we embarked is called Mescousin (Wisconsin); the river is very wide, but the sand bars make it very diffi cult to navigate, which is increased by numerous islands, covered with grape vines. The country through which it flows is beautiful; the groves are so dispersed in the prairies that it makes a noble prospect; and the fruit of the trees shows a fertile soil. These groves are full of walnut, oak, and other trees unknown to us in Europe. We saw neither game nor fish, but roebuck and buffaloes in great numbers. After having navigated 30 leagues, we discovered some iron mines; and one of our company, who had seen such mines before, said these were very rich in ore. They are covered with about three feet of soil, and situate near a chain of rocks, whose base is covered with fine timber. After having rowed ten leagues further, making forty leagues firom the place we em barked, we came into the Mississippi, on the 17th June. 237

Page  238 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. WIscONsIN, oSlate. See Introduction, page 4. WISSAK-UDE, River, of Lake Superior, see Bois Brule or lurnit Wood river. WISCONSIN, Pinery, is all of that section of country, north of Dell Prairie, tributary to the Wisconsin river, producing yearly 70,000,000 feet of pine lumber, beside shingles, timber, &c. The following statement shows the location of the several mills, the number of saws, and the amount of lumber mann factured annually by each, commencing at the lowest point on the river:-Dell Creek, 2 saws, 1,000,000 feet.-Lemonwier, 5 saws, 2,700,000 feet.-Yellow River, 7 saws, 3,700,000 feet. Pointe Bausse, 3 saws, 200,000 feet.-Grand Rapids, 15 saws, 8,000,000 feet.-Crooked Rift, 1 saw, 600,000 feet-Mill Creek, 5 saws, 2,400,000 feet.-Little Plover PRiver, 1 saw, 600,000 feet. Conant Rapids, 3 saws, 2,000,000 feet.-Big Plover River, 2 saws, 1,200,000 feet.-Stevens' Point, 5 saws, 3,000,000 feet. Little Aux Plaines, 2 saws, 2,400,000 feet.-Little Eau Claire, 2 saws, 1,500,000 feet.-Big Aux Plaines, 2 saws, 2,000,000 feet.-Little Bull Falls, 8 saws, 6,000,000 feet.-Junior Bull Falls, 1 saw, 600,000 feet.-Big Eau Claire, 8 saws, 6,000,000 feet.-Little Rib, 2 saws, 1,000,000 feet.-Big'aull Falls, 22 saws, 19,000,000 feet.-Trap, 2 saws, 900,000 feot.-Pine River, 4 saws, 2,000,000 feet.-Jenniy Bull Falls, 4 saws, 4,000,000 fet.-Alaking a total of 105 saws, and 70,000,000 feet. Thlis statement does not include luml)er manutfactured at several places below the Dells, the logs for wMli(,l conme from albove that point. WISCONSTN, Yeitt ra ]istory Association,. This Society was organ ized at Madison, the capital of the State in 1S52. Its oblject is to collect and procure in a Xitseu?, the Fauna and Flora of the State, -)ooks, papers, and documents relating to the physical sciences, and the social, political, and natural history of the Great West. Soon after the organlizatio~i of the Asso ciation a large anid very valuab le olectiol of sptcimen, in 238

Page  239 WISx)NSIN GAZEA TTTEER''. natural history, prepared by Samuel Sercomb, Esq., who has resided 15 years in the West, collecting, the same, was pur chased. This, together with several valuable donations, has placed the Association upon a substantial basis. It is now constantly receiving additions by contributions, purchase, and exchange, and the catalogue embraces quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, inolusca, crustacea, insects, geological and botanical specimens, Indian relics, curiosities of nature and art, books, papers, documents, &c. The circular of the Society solicits correspondence with the Secretary in relation to any thing of interest that can be obtained, by exchange or otherwise, in different parts of this and other western States. The following are the Officers: President, Leonard J. Far well; Secretary, William Dudley; Taxidermist, Samuel Ser comb. WISCONSIN, State Ayr(rcal Soiety. This Society was organized on the fifth day of Mlarch, A. D. 1851, at a meetingt, of some of the leading agriculturists of the State, held at the Capitol, in M1adison. At that meeting a constitution was adopted and officers chosen, conlsisting of a President, three Vice-Presi dents, (one to be located in eacli con,ressioial district), a Pecording, Secretary, a Correspoendiing Seecretary, and a Trea surer, who, togethler with five additional mebl)ers, chosen from the Society at lage, conlttute an ELxeutivLe Committee, which forms the executive and administrative power of the Society. Bv a standing resolution olthte Executive Committee, the President, Secretaries and Treasurer constitute a Standing Committee, with power in the recess of the Executive Com mittee to transact such minor business as may be necessary. The Standing Committee meets monthlly, on the first Wednes day in eachl monthl, at the rooms of the Society, in the Capitol, at ATadison, for the transaction of business. The Executive CJommittee meets quarterly, or at the call of the Corresponding Secretary, at which ineetings the p-)roceedings of the Standing Committee are re-viewed, for c(on)lfirmatioTl or otherwise. The 239

Page  240 WISCONSIN GAZETrEER. Society meets annually, on the third Wednesday of January in each year. It possesses ample and commodious rooms in the Capitol, which are elegantly fitted up, and placed in charge of the Corresponding Secretary. The first volume of the Society's Transactions was issued in the spring of 1852, and was a large and elegant volume, well stored with valuable reading, and showing evident marks of advancement in agri cultural science and scientific investigation. The second volume is now in press, and will shortly be issued. The great and unparalleled success which has attended the labors of this Society may be traced almost entirely to the intelligent enterprisze and active energy of the officers who have hitherto had the direction and management of its affairs. To their judicious management, wise counsels, and zealous labors so uniformly and freely bestowed, our State is, and must ever be, greatly indebted for that advancement which is now so rapidly taking place in our agricultural and industrial interests. In this respect the Society has been most fortunate. The first Annual Cattle Show and Fair of the Society was held at Janesville, in the month of October, 1851, and was a most brilliant exposition of the condition of the rural arts in Wisconsin. The show of cattle, sheep, horses, and swine, was such as to astonish and delight all; while the domestic manufactures, and the products of the dairy exhibited, gave amnple proof of the skill and ih,dustry of the exhibitors-nor were the treasuries of Ceres and Pomona wanting to give variety to the scenebut all alike admirably hlending, each in due proportion, gave promise of the future high rank which Wisconsin must attain, amid the peaceful walks of husb.andry. The Show at Milwaukee, in the fall of 1852, amply sustained the proud position of the Society, and demonstrated the certainty of its success. The Fair for the present year is to be held at the city of Watertown, on the 4th, 5th, 6thi, and 7th days of October next. Ample arrangements have been made for the accommodation of the immense throngs that will be in attend 240

Page  241 WIS('()NSIN (GAZETrEER. artce, and no pains will be spared to make this, the most brillian t an d s uccessfLl of all the exhibitions of the Society. The Officers, for the current year, are as follows: President, Elis ha W. Edgerton, Summit. Vice Presidents, Bertine Pink ney, Rosendale; Jeremnial E. Dodge, Potosi; and Nathaniel B. Clapp), Keinoshla. PRecording, and also Corresponding Secre tary, Albert C. Iingham, Madison. Treasurer, Simeon Mills, Madison. -Additional Mermbers of the Executive Committee: Hiram Barber, Juneau; Hienry M. Billings, IJighland; Martin Field, Mlukwonago; Sam. S. Daggett, Milwaukee; and Mark Miller, Janesville. All conimlnications for the Society should be addressed to the Corrcspotding, Secretary at Madison, Wisconsin. WiscoxNsI5N The bnui(dings of this Institution are situated one mile wsest of the Capitol in Madison, on a beautiful emi nence commanding an extensive view of the basin of the Four Lakes. The site comprises, within the enclosure, about 50 acres; on which, in accordance with the plan adopted by the Re gents, it is proposed to erect five colleg,iate structures, namely: the main edifice, on the crown of the hill, at the head of a wide avenue leadingf throulgh the grou)nds in the direction of the Capitol; and the four subordinate buildings, on a line, several rods in advance of the main edifice, two on either side of the avenue. The main edifice is intended to contain all the public rooms, the observatory, and two dwelling houses. The other build(ings are to be divided into dormito tories for the residence and accommodation of students. The first dormitory building, onL the north side of the avenue, was completed in the summer of S1851; and the Collegiate De partment was opened in it on the third Wednesday of the same year. The corresponding building, onil the south side of the avenue, is in process of erection, to be followed, next in order, by the construction of the main edifice. The organic law of the University provides for the establishment o)f the fobur Faculties, namely: of "' Science, Literature and 241

Page  242 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Arts;" of'' Law;" of "Medicine;" and of the "Theory and Practice of Elementary Instruction." Of these, the former has been organlized by the Regents, and the following chairs having been created by ordinance: 1. Of Ethics, Civil Polity and Political Economy; 2. Of Mental Philosophy, Logic, Rhetoric, and English Literature. 3. Of Ancient Languages and Literature. 4. Of -Modern Languages and Literature. 5. Of Alatlhematics, Natural Phlilosophy and Astronomy. 6. Of Clhemistry and Natural History. The Chair of Ethics, &c., is occupied by the Chancellor of the University, who, together, with the other Professors, and the requisite nuilber of Tutors, will constitute the Faculty of Science, Literature, and Arts. The University was originally endowed by act of Congress, granting seventy-two sections of land to be selected by the State fer that use. Under thle appraisal of 1S52, the capital fund derived from the sale of these lands, amounts to,1i0,(t,00. They a,re now oopen to private entry, at the aplr aised value, in tlhe olffiee of tlhe Comui-issioners of School andtl UtJivelorsity La1:ds at M:Idison. Tlley are selling off' rapidlSy, and it is blieved thlat the whole will be converted inito a pl-)rod,etive flunci within a short period. The University o icosi-, like the coimunity whose institution it is, is still -oung. It hLas gone into operation with appointments amply su-'ieieit to aiswer all present educational demands, -while the coindltiou of i!s flinances juistifies the confidence, that its inereasiicg eapabl1ities will keep pace with the future growth of tllhe State, and make it an attractive gathering point for the scholars of the West. WTISSAUNA, I-ake, see Golden Lake, of Waukeshla county. WIsIIcoNI, Ic(e, is a small body of water, in Marathon county, tributary to the Chippewa. WOLF, CUieek, a small tributary of the Peckatoni-ica, into which it empties at Gratiot, Lafayette county. 242

Page  243 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. WOLF, Pfiver, (Pauwaicun,) east of the Wisconsin, and running southeast, unites with Neenah river just above Great Butte des Aforts Lake, at which place it is much larger than the Neenah. It is navigable, for over 100 miles from its mouth, for small steamers, and furnishes the best pine lumber in the State. WOLF RIVER, Pinery, as it is called, is the extensive evergreen district on Wolf river and its tributaries, Pat, Pine, Little, Wanpacca, Little Wolf, Erabarass, and Shawana rivers. Some of these are large streams, and afford excellent hydraulic power. The annual mantflcture of luml)er, besides shingles and timber, will be partially shown by the following list which contains nothing but the estimated amount of sawed lumber: Appleton, 2,000,000; Menasha and Neenah, 3,000,000; Oshklosh, 5 mills, 4,000,000; Algoma, 2 mills, 1,000,000; Butte des Morts, 2 mills, 1,000,000; Winneconna, 1 mill, 500,000; Little river, 1 mill, 500,000; Little Wolf, 4 mills, 5,000,000; Shlawana, 2 mills, 1,000,000; Red river, 1 miill, 500,000; Clarkl's, 2 mills, 1,000,000; Fox river above mouth of Wolf, 6,000,000. MIakingg a total of 25,500,000. WornTu, P. O., in Sheboygan county. WRIGHTSTOWN, Towsi, in Brown county. WYALUSING, P. V., on section 1, town 5 N., of rante 7 W., Grant county, 25 miles northwest firom Lancaster,i and about 100 miles west from Mladison. It is beautifully situated on the MlIississippi river, and has an excellent steam boat landing. The vicinity is well supplied with timber and water, and good hydraulic powers, and is well adapted to all the pursuits of agriculture. Population 30; with 2 stores and 1 hotel. WYOCENA, P. V., in town of same name, Columbia county, being on sections 21 and 22, town 12 N., of range 10 E. \WYOMING, P. O., in town of same namie, Iowa county. WYON(iNG, Towen, in county of Iowa, being part of towns 7 and 8 N.. of ranges 3 and 4. It has 4 school districts. 243

Page  244 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. YELLOW, -ake, is the source of a river of the same name, a small tributary of the St. Croix, in La Pointe county, from the south. YELLOW, Piver, rises in the south part of Poi'tage county, and runs southerly, emptying into the Wisconsin river, in south east corner of town 17 N., of range 4 E., Adams county. YELLOW, Rlver and -Lake, in La Pointe county. See Massawa River and Lake. YELLOW, Rivet Chippewa county, rises in Marathon county, and runs southwesterly into the Chippewa river, about 5 miles above the falls. YELLOW STONE, CU)eek, is a tributary firom the northwest of Dodge's branch or east branch of the Peckatonnica river, into which it empties, ill the town of Argyle, Lafayette county. YoRK, P. O., Dane county, on section 51, of town of same name. It has 1 store, 3 hotels, and is 22 miles n,rtheast from MIadison. YORK, Town, in county of Dane, being town 9, of range 12 E.; centrally located, 19 miles northeast from M/adison. It has 6 school districts. YORK, Town, in coutnty of Greene, being town 4 N., of range 6; centrally located, 16 miles northwest from Monroe. Popula tion in 1850 was 191. It has 2 school districts. YORKVILLE, P. O., town of York, Racine county, being in town 3 N., of range 21 E. YOREVILLE, Town, in county of Racine, being town 3 N., of range 21 E.; centrally located, 10 miles west of Racine. Popula tion in S1850 was 997. It has 10 school districts. YOUNG HICKORY, P. V., in town of Jackson, Washington county, being in town 10 N., of range 20 E. 244

Page  245 APPENDIX. ALIOND, Town, in county of Portage. A-NCIEiNT, P. O., in Dane county. ARGYLE, P. O., in Lafayette county. ARGYLE, Town, in Lafayette county. ASHTON, P. O., in Dane county. BADGER, P. O., in Fond du Lac county. BEAULILUX, Rapi(s, are in the Wisconsin river, seven miles above the mouth of Pine river. See Jenny Bull Falls. BELMON,T, Town, in Lafayette county. BENTON, P.'O., in Lafayette county. BERLIN, P. F., is situated on sections 3 and 4, on the east side of Fox river, in town 17 N., of range 13 E. It was laid out in 1849 by N. II. Strong, Esq., from whom it derived the name of Strong's Landing, by which it is sometimes called. It is a place of considerable business, has a good river trade, and is in the centre of a large agricultural district. It has two newspapers, and various mercantile and mechanical establish ments. BENTON, Town, in Lafayette county. BIG FOOT PRAIRIE, P. O., in town of Walworth, Walworth county. 17

Page  246 246 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. BRISTOL, P. 0., in town of same name, in the county of Kenosha. BYRON, P. O., in Fond du Lac county. CENTREVILLE, Town, in Manitowoc county. CENTRE, Town, in Lafayette county. COLLINS, P. O., in MAanitowoc cnunty. CooN PRAIRIE, P. 0., in Crawford county. COPPER RocK, RPiver, is a tributary from thie west of Wisconsin river, which it enters, at Rock Island, 10 miles below Grand Father Bull Falls. COTTAGE INN, P. O., in Lafayette county, on stage route from Madison to Galena, 60 miles southwest from Madison. DEPERE, Town, in Brown county. DUNKIRK, P. 0., in Dane county. EDSON, Tovwn, in Manitowoc county. ELK GROvE,) P. O., in town of same name, Lafayette county. ELK GROVE, Town, in Lafayette county. EOLIA, P.O., in Dane county. FAYLTTE, Town, in Lafayette county. FLORENCE, P.O., in town of Portage Prairie, Columbia county, on section 6, town 12 N., of range 12 E., at head of Duck Creek. FOND DU LAC, City. This place was one of the earliest located towns in Wisconsin, a paper city, laid out and platted several years in advance of the progress of civilization. But the past ten years has wrought a change which few Western towns can rival. The city is located at the head of Lake Winnebago, on section 10, town 15, of range 17 E. The principal busi ness portion is situated about three-quarters of a mile from the lake, on the Fond du Lac river, whose mouth forms a convenient port of entry for the steamn boats and other

Page  247 WISCONSIN GAZElTEER. watei crafts wlhich lirun between thlis place, Oshkosh, Wolf river; and tpp:per and Lower Fox rivers. The river, at the ul-pcr part of the city and a short distance above, furnishes several very fair mill powers for the manufacture of lumber, fi,_ur, &c. acnd on which an oil mill is also being erected. The principal part of the city is built upon a level prairie on the east side of the river. On the west side was formerly a beautifutl sugar maple grove, which affords one of the most invitin{( and pileasant retreats that could well be desired, and iJn whiel] are erected a large number of private residences, whiclh are dlestined to be the most desirable in the city. The place is b4cked up and sustained by one of the richest and lmoist pr>ductive farming counties in the State. One of the most inviting features of this place, is the pure water with w\hichl it is supllied, from the large nuimber of never-failing foulntaiiis, or artesian wells, whichl brings the water to the sui face of thie eartl, and yields a most bounitiful supply of ais pure water as can be found in the State, and to whlich ll ie attributed, ril a great degree, the extensive healthfll::s (f the place. The streets are wide, the lots of coiveii,,ijt size, and laid out witlh much niuifoimnity and taste — with sveal public squares, wihich, when pro;,erly improved, will ad( muchilt to the beauty of the place. About 3 miles of t(l(l)1e l,ltnk road has been constructed within the limits of of the citA. A large amount of money has also been expend(ied( in builing sidle-w-alks througlhoiit the entire city, whic]l are miostly of l-)]ank, and of very convenient width. Tlhe!,resent popullation of the city is estimated at about 4,C)(}(), and is ra, cidly increasing by the influx of business i-en,and capitalists firoom the East. It was first incorporated as a v iafe in S1847, and a city charter granted in the winter of IS.52. Ther'e are in th(, city 9 hotels, 2 exchange or banking lhouses, 12 dry goods, lo grocery and provision, 4 clothing, 4 w-nue and liquor, 8 boot and shoe, 2 hat and cap, 4 harness and eather, 3 stove and tin ware, and I iron and hardware 247

Page  248 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. stores; 2 jeweller, 5 cabinet, 5 blacksmith, 3 paint, 2 gun, 3 waggon, and 3 milliner shops; 4 warehouses, 4 lumber yards, 5 saloons, 3 livery stables, 6 bakeries, 1 foundry, 3 sash and blund factories, 4 meat rmarkets; 1 cigai,, 1 car, and 1 cradle manufactory; 1 book bindery, 2 pluiiig mills, 3 nursery establishments, 1 auction store, 2 dacuerrean galleries, 3 printing offices, 16 law offices, 9 physicians and surgeons, 3 barbei's shops. In addition to these, there are a large number of small establishments, where various kinds of business are carried on with great success. There are 7 religious denominations. FRANcis CREEK, P. 0., in Mfanitowoc county. FREEDOM, P. O., in Sank county. GEORGETOWN, P. O., in Lafayette county. GRAND FATImIER BULL, Falls, are the largest rapids on the Wis consin river. The river at this place is divided into three chutes by two chains of rocks rising fifteen feet above the water. GREEN BAY, Town, in Brown county. HAMPDEN, P. O., in town of same name, in Columbia county. HARTFORD, P. V., in Washington county. HELENA, P. V., see Helena Village. HOWARD Town, in Brown county. HORTONVILLE, P. O., in town of Hortonia, on Wolf river, in Outa gamie county. JAC.KsoN, County, was set off from La Crosse at the January session of the legislature in 1853, and includes all of said county of, La Crosse, north of town 18. The seat of justice is at the village of Black River Falls, on Black river. In this county about 15,000,000 feet of pine lumber is sawed annually. For further particulars, see La Crosse county. 248

Page  249 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. JANESVILLE, City, is located on section 1, of town of same name, in Rock county. It is pleasantly situated on both sides of Rock river, 14 miles north of the State line, and abo-It mid way between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river; 40 miles southeast of Madison, and 90 fr()om Ciicago), Ill. It was organized into a city government in April, 1853. It is-the county seat of Rock county, has two extensive water powers which are but partially developed, and is surrounded by a fertile and farming dairy country, with which it has an exten sive trade. Its steady and rapid increase in population and wealth will appear from the following statistics: The first families settled uponthe spot where the city now stands in the year 1836. A: village was laid out in 1839. In 1S43, the population was 333; in 18S5, 857; in 1847, 1,458; in 1849, 1,812; in 1850, 3,100; in 1853, about 5,000. Rail roads from Milwaukee, RJ cine, Kenosha, Chicago, Beloit, I)bbuqnie, Madison, and Fond du Lac, are projected to this city; the first already completed, and the others are under contract to be finished in one or two years. There are 4 flouring mills, within the limits of the corporation, having 10 run of stones; 3 saw mills, 1 woollen factory, 1 mill for manufacturing, water lime, and grinding coarse feed for cattle, swine, &c., to which is to be added an oil mill, two foundries, a mill for sawing stone and turning wood, with a large number of mechanic shops of all descriptions; 12 dry good, 17 grocery, 2 hard ware, 2 book, 3 drug, several clothing, shoe and variety stores; 2 banks, (Badger State, and Central WTisconsin); 5 hotels, and a sixth being erected, of very large dimensions, on the ruins of one recently burnt down; 4 printing presses, 3 weekly and 1 monthly newspaper, and 1 book bindery. The State In stitution for the. Blind is located at Janesville, a portion of the buildings are completed in which several children are receiv ing instruction. Besides the public schools, Janesville has an academy and a female seminary, both excellent institutions; also 6 large churches erected, built of brick or stone. 249

Page  250 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. JENNY BULL, Falls, (Beaulieux Rapids), on the Wisconsin river, are in town 31, of range 6. At this place are 4 mills, cutting about 3,000,000 feet of lumber per year. KEwAS,UTM, P. O., in Washington county. -OSSUTIt, Town, in Manitowoc county. LAwzENxCE, Town, in Brown county. LEROY, P. O., in Fond du Lac county. LIsBON, P. 0., in Waukesha county. LrrTLE CFIUTE, P. 0., oni Fox river, in Outagamie county. MANITOWVOC RAPIDs, P. V., is situated at the Rapids of MIanitowoc river, in Mianitowoc county, 4 nmiles west from Lake Michigan. The river at this place furnishes a good hydraulic power, which is improved, and used for several lmanufacturing pur poses. M1ANITOWOC RAPIDS, Town, in Mlanitowoc county. MANITOW,OC, P. V., is beautifully situated at the mouth of the Mlaniitowoc river, on Lake Michigan, 90 miles below Mil waukee. Its present population is about 2,000, and is rapidly increasing. Its harbor, the best natural one on the lake west, is being improved through an appropriation by Congress. The county seat of the county has been lately located here, and an appropriation made for the erection of county build ings. It has 1 pier, 4 warehouses, 12 stores, 2 steam saw mills, 6 blacksmith and waggon, 3 shoe, and 3 tailor's shops; 2 ship yards, at which ship building is carried on to consider able extent; 4 hotels, and 2 school houses; it has Episcopa lian, Presbyterian, Methodist, and Catholic congregations the first has built a fine church, and the others have arranged] for suitable sites, and will soon erect churches. Large quan tities of lumber, manufactured on the river above, are sold and shipped here every year, from which considerable revenue is derived yearly. As soon as the plank road, which is being 250

Page  251 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. built between this place and Menasha, is finished, Manitowoc will become the depot of considerable trade of the Fox River Valley, and a place of importance as a commercial point. The rail roads projected from this place north and west, connecting with roads in the interior, will undoubtedly be built. MA'NITowoc, Town, in Manitowoc county. MAPLE GROVE, Town, in Manitowoc county. 3MARCY, P. O., in Waukesha county. MENASA, iP. V., is situated at the outlet of Lake Winnebago, on the north side of the northern channel. It is now a place of some ten or twelve hundred inhabitants, and possesses all the advantages for a large town. Its hydraulic power is very great, and has been improved with great rapidity. There are now in operation upon it, 2 grist mills, 5 saw mills, 1 large tub and pail factory, which occupies a building 40 by 60 feet, and 3 stories high, 2 cabinet and chair manufactories, 2 sash and blind establishments, 1 large iron foundry, 1 brewery, and there is also an extensive pottery which turns out large quantities of the best kind of ware, pronounced, by those who are conversant with such matters, equal to the best Ohio stone ware-and the clay of which it is made is found in the immnediate vicinity in inexhaustible quantities. The place con tains 4 taverns, and the usual number of shops and stores. Hon. Curtis Reed commenced the settlement of the place in July, 1S49, and has since been the leading spirit of the place. A plank road connects this place with Appleton and Grand Kaukauna; and one is also in progress of construction to Ma nitowoc, on Lake Michigan, and will be completed during the present season. The State Improvement and U. S. Land Offices are located here; and an appropriation of $5,000 has been made by Congress for the construction of a light house. A daily line of steam boats connect with Fond du Lac, and the Fox and Wolf rivers. 251

Page  252 252' WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. MEEME, Town, in Manitowoc county. MENOMO.NE FALLS, P. 0., in Waukesha county. MENTOR, P. 0., in Sheboygan county. MENTOR, P. O., in Waukesha county. MISHCOTT, P. O., in M,anitowoc county. MONTICELLO, Town, in Lafayette county. MUsCLE, Lake and River, are on the western head waters of the Wisconsin, in Marathon county. iMUSKEGO CENTR:E, P. O., in town of MIuskego, Waukesha county. M1rUKwA, P. V. & U. H., on Wolf river, in Waupacca county. NEENAAH, P. V., is situated at the outlet of Lake Winnebago, op posite AMenasha, on the south side of the south channel. The property was first purchased from the Government by Har rison Reed in 1846. There are now 3 large flouring mnills, 2 saw mills, 1 sash and blind manufactory, 1 cabinet shop, 1 planing miill, and an immense hydraulic power yet inoccu pied. Some think that time will ultimately connect the two villages of Menasha and Neenah, including the large island between, in one lai,ge city, possessing advantages of location and water power rarely equalled. NEw DIGGINGs, Town, in Lafayette county. NEw HOLSTEIN, P. O., in town of same name, in Calumet county. NEWTON, Town, in Mlanitowoc county. NORTH JANESVILLE,, P. 0., in town of Janesville, Rock county, town 3 N., of range 12 E. OAKLAND, P. O., in town of same name, in Jefferson county. ONEONTA, P. O., in Sauk county. ORIN, P. O., in Richland county.

Page  253 WISCONSIN GAZETi'EER. ONION RIrvER, -P. O.,;Il Sheboyg, county. OwAs,cs, -. 0., in Fond du Lac county. PITrl'FIELD, Touwn, in Brown counity. SPPINGvILNvLE, P~. 0.. in Fond duI Lac county. TURKEY GRcovIL, ). ()., OI1 section 31, town miles from iAladison, D)ane county. WISCONSIN EMIGRANT AGENCY. For the purpose of promoting emigration to the State, an Emigration Agency has been established, the officers of which are paid by the State, and are interested only to point out the various industrial re. sources of Wisconsin, its adaption to mercantile and mechani cal pursuits-the best location where either wild, government, or improved lands can be procured-and such other general and useful information as is needed by the emigrant. The office of the Agency is at 89, GREENWICH STREET, NEW YORK. The following named gentlemen are connected with this Agency, either of whom will give, free of cost or charge, im partial and reliable informntion, both verbal and documen tary, to all wishing to inquire in regard to the State: HIERMIAN HAERTEL, Commissioner. JOHN H. BYRNE, Assistant Commissioner. TuONIAS J. TOWNsEND), Travelling Agent. 253 5, of range 6, 28 IArc

Page  254 .ZETTEERL NEWSPAPERS IN WISCONSIN. Name of Paper. Appleton Crescent, Sanuk County Standard, Beaver Dam Republican, Beloit Journal, Marquette Mercury, Columbus Reporter, Walworth County Reporter, Walworth County Journal, Fond du Lac Journal, Fountain City Herald, National Democrat, Green Bay Advocate, Emigranten, [Norwegian] Democratic Standard, Janesville Free Press, Janesville Gazette, Wisconsin & Iowa Farmer, Jeffersonian, Dodge County Gazette, Kenosha Democrat, Kenosha Telegraph, Kenosha Tribune, La Crosse Democrat, Grant County Herald, Wisconsin Argus & Democrat, Wisconsin State Journal, Manitowoc County IHerald, Monroe Sentinel, Milwaukee Free Democrat, Milwaukee Sentinel, Wisconsin, Morning News, Wisconsin Banner, [German i Volksfreund, [German ] See Bote, [German ] Place. Appleton, Baraboo, Beaver Dam, Beloit, Berlin, Colui-nbus, Elkhorn, Delavan, Fond du Lac, Fond du Lac, Fond du Lac, Green Bay, Inmansville, Janesville, Janesville, .T-t(esville, Janesville, Jefferson, Junea-,i, Kenosha, Kenosha, Kenosha, La Crosse, Lancaster, Madison, Madison, Manito-w, oc, Nlonroe, Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Nlilwatikee, Milwaukee, County. Publiske'rs. Samuel Ryan, jr. C. H. MeLaugblin, Edgar C. Hull. Briggs & Foster. J. H. Wells. Hunti-ngton. Utter & Co. Buniier & Co. Outagamie, Sauk, Dodge, Rock, Marquette, Columbia, Walworth, Walworth, Fond du Lac, Fond du Lac, Fond du Lac, Brown, Rock, Rock, Rock, Rock, Rock, Jeffersoi-i, Dodge, Kenosha, Kenosha, Kenosha, La Crosse, Grant, Dane, Dane, Manitowoc, Green, lvlilwaukee, Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Milwaukoe, E. Beeson. R. Buck. Amos Reed. Robinson &- Brother, C. L. Clausseia. Daniel 0. Brown, Joseph Baker. Alden & Holt. Mark Miller. W. -Al. Watt. R. B. Wentworth, G. H. Paul. C. L. Sholes. Butts &, West. Stevens & Rogers. Cover & Goldsmith. Beriah Brown. David Atwood. C. W. Fitch. J. Walworth. S. M. Booth. It. King & Co W. E. Cramer. Shaw & Hyer. Shoeffl.er & Wendt. Fratjiey & Hertzber!, —. A. St, Vincent.

Page  255 WISCONSIN GAZETTEER. Name of Paper. Publishers. Mineral Point Democrat, O.J. Wright Wisconsin Tribune, Bliss & Chaney. Independent American, J. L. Marsh. Potosi Republican, Seaton & Paul. Crawford County Courier, Hutchinson & Hurd. River Times, John Delaney. Northern Republic, W. W. Noyes. Noerdlicher Anzeiger [German] Coleman & Co. Oshkosh Courier, Oshkosh Democrat, Washington County Blade, Racine Advocate, Racine Democrat, Sheboygan Journal, Democratic Secretary, Sheboygan Chronicle, Nieuwsbode, [Dutch] Phcenix aus Norwesten [Germ.] German] Sheboygan Falls Free Press, Pick & Gad, Wisconsin Pinery, Democratic State Register, Watertown Chronicle, WauWaukesha Chronotype, All of the foregoing, except the Wisconsin and Iowa Farmer at Janesville (monthly) are published weekly; and daily editions are also published by all ill Madison, Milwaukee, and Racine; and tri-weekly by most of those in Milwaukee. 255 Place. Mineral Point, Mineral Point, Platteville, Potosi, Prairie du Chien, Portage City, Portage City, Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Ozaukee, Racine, Racine, Sheboygan, Sheboygan, Sheboygan, Sheboygan, Sheboygan, Sheboygan, Shebo-yzan Falls Shullsburg, Stevens' Point, Watertown, Watertown, Waukesha, County. Iowa, Iowa, Grant, Grant, Ci-awford, Columbia, Columbia, Winnebago, Winnebago, Winnebago, Ozaukee, Racine, Racine, Sheboygan, Sheboygan, Sheboygan, Sheboygan, Sheboygan, Sheboygan, Sheboygan, Lafayette, Portage, Jefferson, Jefferson, Waul,-esha, J. Crowley. Burnside & Co. R. A. Bird. C. Clement. Hewlett & Carey. F. J. Mills. J. Quintus. Lyman & Eastman. J. Quintus. Reinholt. A. Marschner. J. A. Si-riith. Sai-nuel G. Bugh. Chandler & Co. E. B. Quiner. J. A.. Hadley. H. D. Barron.

Page  256 ERRATA. Page 7, line 2, for "county" read "country." ,, 10, line 15, for "features" read "feature"; line 22, for "are" read "is." ,, 16, line 15, read "200,000,000." ,, 20, read "Green Bay, 28,000,000; Wisconsin, 70,000 000; Total, 211,000,000;" and for "nearly 400,000,000," read "over 200,000,000." ,, 59, line 16, read "Cadwell Prairie, P. O." ,, 60, line 24, read "Calumet Village, P. V." ,, 95, line 5, for "Town" read "P.O." ,, 98, line 24, for "river" read "line." ,, 130, line 7, for "W." read "E." , 249, line 1, for "1," read "36."

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