Appletons' hand-book of American travel.: The southern tour;being a guide through Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgiand Kentucky ... With maps of the leading routes of travel and of the principal cities.
Hall, Edward Hepple.

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Page  A00A UNION ADAMS, HOSIER, 6LOVE-R,. AND SHIRT MAKER, No. 637 BROADWAY, New York City, Keeps continually on hand the largest and best variety, in this country, of FASHIONABLE FURN ISHING GOODS, LADIES, GENTLEMEN, AND CHILDREN, Adapted go tke easons, SPRING, SUMMER, FALL, AND WINTER. Importing and manufacturing'largely, we CAN and WILL Qffer superior inducements to every patron. UNION ADAMS, No. 637 BROADWAY, New York City, a F ,a/, , A. I) /i~ FOR

Page  A00B OFFICE, NO.135 BROADWAY. X OFFICE, NO. 135 BROADWAY. CASH CAPITAL..............................$2,000,000 00 ASSETS, 1st January, 1866....................................... 3,598,674 14 LIABILITIES,......................................................... 153,746 24 The HOME INSURANCE COMPANY continues to Insure against LOSS or DAMAGE by FIRE and the DANGERS of INLAND NAVIGATION and TRANSPORTATION, on terms as favorable as the nature of the risks and the real security of the Insured and of the Company will warrant. LOSSES EQUITABLY ADJUSTED AND PROMPTLY PAID. DIRIECTORS: GEO. C. COLLINS............................of Geo. C. Collins & Co. DA NFORD N. BARNEY.................... Pres. of Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express. LUCIUS HOPKINS.......................of hIopkins, Dwight & Trowbridge. THIOMAS MESSENGER....................... of T. & H. Messenger. WILLIAM H. MELLEN.................... late Claflin, Mellen & Co. HOMIER MORGAN......................... LEVI P. STONE.............................late Stone, Starr & Co. JAMES HIU5IPHRPEY.......................late Barney, Humphrey & Butler. GEO. PEARCE..............................of Geo. Pearce & Co. WARD A. WORK.............................of Ward A. Work k. Son. JAMES LOW.................................of Low, Harriman & Durfee. ISAAC H. FROTHINGIIHAMI..................President Union Trust Company. CHARLES A. BULKLEY.....................of Bulkley & Co. GEO. D. MORGAN........................... late of E. D. Morgan & Co. OLIVER E. WOOD...........................of O. E. Wood & Co. ALFRED S. BARNES.........................of A. S. Barnes & Co. GEORGE BLISS............................. of George Bliss & Co. ROE LOCKWOOD........................... late R. Lockwood & Son. LEVI P. MORTON........................... of L. P. Morton & Co. CURTIS NOBLE........................... of Noble & Douglass. J. B. HUTCIINSON.........................ofJ C. Iowe & Co., Boston. CHARLES P. BALDWIN.....................of Baldwin, Starr & Co. AMIOS T. DWIGHT...........................of Hopkins, Dwight & Trowbridge. HENRY A. HURLBUT..................... late Swift, Hurlbut & Co. JESSE HOYT................................of Jesse Iloyt & Co. WILLIAM STURGIS........................late Sturgis, Shaw & Co. JOHN R. FORD..............................late Ford Rubber Co. GEORGE T. STEDM-AN.................. of Stedman, Carlisle & Shaw, Cinclnnatt SIDNEY MASON.................late Mason & Thompson DAVID I. BOYD.............................of Boyd, Brothers & Co., Albany. CIIARLES,J. MARTIN........................President. ARTIIUR F. WILLMARTH..................Vice-President. F. H. COSSITT................................of Cossit, HIill & Co., Memphis. WILLIAM RI. FOSDICK......................President of St. Nicholas National Bank. LEWIS ROBERTS............................of L Roberts & Co. S. B. CALDWELL............................of Caldwell & Morris. A J. WILLS..................................of Thonmson & Wills. WMI. H. TOWNSEND................. of Henrys, Smith & Townsend. P. C. VAN SCHAICK.........................of Van Schaick & Edwards. THOMIAS T. BUCKLE Y......................of Buckley, Sheldon & Co. JAMES S. STURGES.........................of Sturges & Co. OLIVER S. CARTER.........................of Carter & Hawley. HENRY M. TABER..........................of C. C. & II. M. Taber. CHAS. J. MARTIN, President. A. F. WILLMARTH, Vice-President. .O0HN McGEE, Socretary. J. H. WASHBURN, Ass't-Secretary. b HOM-1CE

Page  A00C NORTH AMERICAN FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK, INCORPORATED 1823. CASH CAPITAL, 50, OOO. Cash Capitat Suriplus Jan. 1, 1866, $751,653.57. Fire Insurance Exclusively. Insures Property against loss and damage by Fire at usual rates. The assured participate in the profits of business without incurring any liability. R. W. BLEECRER, Secretary. JAMES W. OTIS, President. J. GRISWOLD, General Agent. Main Office, No. 114 Broadway, New York. Branch Offlice, No. 10 Cooper Institute. c

Page  A00D DUNCAN, SHERMAN & G0., B A N K E R S Cor. of Pine and Nassau Sts., New York, ISSUE CIRCULAR LETTERS OF CREDIT AND,CIRCULAR NOTES OAVAILABLE I ALL THE PRINCIPAL CITIES OF THE WORLD.ER, AVAILABLE IN ALL THE PRINCIPAL CITIES OF THE WORLD. ALSO, For Europe, South America, India, China, &c., on Messrs. FINLAY, HODGSON & Co., of London. DRAFTS AND CREDITS FOR AUSTRALIA, ON THE BANK OF NEW SOUTH WALES, OF LONDON. Branches and Agencies at NEW SOUTH WALES. VICTORIA BRANCHES. Sydney, Xaitland, Xelbourne, Geelong, New Castle, Brisbane, Kyneton, Castlemain, Ipswich, BathiLrst, Ballaarat, Sandhurst, Windsor, &C., &C. &C., &C. &C., &c. ALSO, DRAFTS ON SAN FRANOISCO. d

Page  A00E H. H. CASEY, (Late J. & C. B-ER-RIAY,) IMPORTER AND DEALER IN EVERY DESCRIPTION OF s'il ~lfi....4~ -~~....! M: f I" -— l I a mI ] ); - W11fi!, 11'1H' 4 X *" 14 f I,.,,, ), a, 601 BROADWAY. NEW YORK BELTING AND PACKING CO., MANUFACTURERS OF VULCANIZED RUBBER FABRICS, ADAPTED TO ~IECHANICAL PURPOSES. Patent Smooth Belting (Patented Nov. 22, 1859), vulcanized between layers of a patent metallic alloy, by which the stretch is entirely taken out, the surface made perfectly smooth, and the substance thoroughly and evenly vulcanized. This is the only process that will make reliable Rubber Belting. Hose never needs oiling, and is warranted to stand any required pressure. Steam Packing in every variety, and warranted to stand 300~ of heat. SOLID EMERY VULCANITE. Wheels made of this are solid, and resemble stone or iron; will wear out hundreds of the ordinary wheels. -)irections, Prices, &c., can be obtained by A[til, or otherwise. JOHN IL. CHEE VEE, Treasurer. Warehouse, 37 and 38 Park Row, New York. C c2la0',f' -, 8 2t2t,,,r), 2 L z'),, L'gZa 2Xr dT,-v Lj

Page  A00F THE STANDARD' AMERICAN BILLIARD TABLES, Approved land Adopted by the Billiard Congress of 1863. THE BEST AND THE ONLY RELIABLE BILLIAF '"lblgilil ll~lf l~l 11~~~~~~~~~~~i',1X lll l,, l',11' The most eminent players and most competent judges have given their unqualified approval to these tables, and have publicly acknowledged their unequalled merit. We have seven separate Patents for our COMBINATION CUSnIONS from the U. S. Patent Office. The French Government have lately granted a patent for the same admirable invention. We devote our whole time and attention to the perfection and improvement of the machinery of Billiards, and no other house can so readily and perfectly fill orders for all articles in the Billiard line. There is no other house where the machinery of Billiards is so fully understood. We have alwavs on hand an extensive assortment of tables, made of the finest material, thoroughly seasoned. The workmanship is of the most scientific and accurate description, no labor or expense being spared to sustain the reputation already achieved by Phelan's Tables. Orders by mail carefully and promptly executed. Illustrated catalogues and price lists sent by mail. The BILLIARD CUE, a monthly journal, published in the interest of Billiards, and containing details of all novelties, a copious monthly record of Billiard news, and every thing of interest to the amateurs of Billiards, sent free on application. PHELAN & COLLENDER, 63, 65, 67 & 69 CROSBY STREET, NEW YORK f

Page  A00G L. T. BROWNELL, (Late BROWNELL & M1AR VIX,) MANUFACTUIRER OF READY-MADE AND TO ORDER, EXPRE SSLY OR THE RETAIL TRADE, FOR IIEN'S AND BOYS' WEAR. Gentlemen can find at all times on hand an extensive stock of A complete and varied stock of ' Ctns Mn'sIg sa & DP W RTE ar OUR CUSTOM DEPARTMENT IS AT ALL TIMES FULL OF FOREIGN SPECIALTIES. Our PRICES at all times moderate. ST. NICHOLAS BILOCK, 503 BROADWAY. 9

Page  A00H FOR SAVANNAH, CEORCIA, TIE ELEGANT SIDE-WHEEL STEAMSHIPS 1,500 Tons Burthen, ATKINS, Commander, and 1,500 Tons Burthen, LOVELAND, Commander, Have been placed permanently on this route, and are offered to the travelling public as more com modious and comfortable in their appointments than any other vessels in the trade. SAIL EVERY S4TURDAY at 3 o'clock, P. M., Landing Passengers in SAVANNAH invariably on Tuesday following. Returning, Leave SAVANNAH every SATURDAY, arriving in New York Tuesdays. Passengers for Northern Alabama, Florida, and points South, on the coast, and those to whopn time is an object, will consult their interests and promote their comfort by taking this route. These vessels, although of large carrying capacity, are enabled, by their light draught of water, to insure no detention in the Savannah River. For passage or Freight apply to GARRISON & ALLEN, Agents, No. 5 Bowvlng Green, New York City. Goods for the interior of Georgia and Florida forwarded by B. II. HARDEE, Agent at Savannah. FOR NEW ORLEANS DIRECT. ATLANTIC AND MISSISSIPPI S. S. LINE.-FIRST-CLASS STEAMSHIPS AND SUPE RIOR ACCOMMODATIONS FORP PASSENGERS. $40 FIRST CABIN PASSAGE. SAILING EVERY WEDNESDAY. Running in connection with the Atlantic and Mississippi S.S. Co., of St. Louis, to all points on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Through Bi'ls of Lading given for Freight. One of the elegant steamers of this new Line will sail every week from New York and New Orleans, carrying passengers at the low rate of $40 currency. GARRISON & ALLEN, Agents, NEWV ORLEANS: 104 COMMON STREET. 5 BOWLING GREEN, NEW YOREK. h

Page  A00I THE UNITED STATES AND BRAZIL MAIL STEAMSHIP COMPANY, UNDER CONlTRACT With the Governments of the United States and Brazil, Will despatch one of their new, first-class steamships, each over 2,000 tons burthen, on the 29th of every month, from the Port of New York for the following named Ports, and the following rates of passage, payable in coin, or its equivalent in United States currency: NEW YORK TO ST. THOMAS..................$80 BAHIA.........................$180 PARA.......................... 150 RIO DE JANEIRO.......... 200 PERNAXBUCO............. 170 Steerage at half these rates; meals and bedding included. An experienced Surgeon attached to each vessel. All letters must pass through the Post-Office. Postage 10 cents. For further information, Freight or Passage, apply to GARRISON & ALLEN, Agents, No. 5 BOWLIED GREEN, N. Y. UNITED STATES MAIL LINE TO HAVANA. The elegant, new Steamships MORRO CASTLE, EACLE, and COLUMBIA, Built expressly for the trade, and having most superior accommodations, will continue to run regularly to IIAVANA, sailing from Pier 4 North River, every WEDNESDAY, at 3 o'clock P. m. Returning, leave Havana every SATURDAY. For further information, Freight or Passage, apply to GARRISOX & ALLEN, Agents, No. 5 BOWLING GREEN, NEW YORK. i

Page  A00J D. RUSSELL, MERCHANT TA ILOR, 835 BROADWAY, (CORNER 13TH STREET.) I receive during the season, direct, the latest London styles of Goods, selected from the best West End houses. IMlPORTANT TO TRAVELLERS. BINOCULAR LANDSCAPE GLASSES. _ Invaluable to Sportsmen, Offlcers, Travellers, etc. A d ~Compact, Portable, Efficient, Combining extraordinary defining power and wide field of observation. - Spectaeles, EyeGlasses, Railway Protectors, etc., to strengthen and improve the sight of old and young, without the distressing results of frequent changes, in endless variety, by the manufacturer and inventor. SEMMONS, Oculist-Optician, 6691/2 Broadway, Under Lafargye HUouse. MINERAL SPRING WATERS, Dispensed by the glass, as well as sold in bottle, at SoS BROADWAY, Opposite Eleventh Street. Kissinger, preferred to Congress; Vichy, Antacid; Pyrmont, Chalybeate, and every other for which there is adequate demand. HANBURY SMITH, M.D. J NEW YORK.

Page  A00K D. APPLETON & COMPANY'S PUBLICATIONS FOR 'Eltti Alit omrrltt rr t tw. APPLETONS' HIAND-BOOK OF AMERICAN TRAVEL, being a Guide, by Railway, Steamboat, and Stage, to the Cities, Towns, Battle-fields, Waterfalls, Mountains, Rivers, Lakes, Hunting and Fish ing Grounds, Watering Places, Summer Resorts, and all Scenes and Objects of Importance and Interest in the United States and British Provinces. Edited by EDWArD H. HALL. Accompanied by Maps of all Parts of the Country, and the principal Rivers. The SOUTHERN TOUR is now ready; NORTHERN and EASTERN TOUR in press. The two volumes, bound in one, will be published May 1st, 1867. APPLETONS' 0 F F I C I A L ILLUSTRATED RAILWAY GUIDE, containing the Time-Tables of the Railways of the United States and Canadas; also, One Hundred Railway Maps, representing the principal Railways of the Country; their Stations, Distances, and Con nections. Important Instructions to Railway Travellers in reference to Time Tables, Checking Baggage, and Purchasing Tickets; together with monthly account of Railways and their Progress, etc., etc. Compiled by G. F. THoMAs. Published semi-monthly, under the supervision of the Railway Companies. 1 vol., 360 pages. THE GREAT WEST: Railway, Steamboat, and Stage Guide and Hand-Book, for Travellers, Miners, and Emigrants to the Western, Northwestern, and Pacific States and Territories. With a Map of the best Routes to the Gold and Silver Mines. By EDWARD H. HALL. One volume, 12mo. Paper covers, price 50 cents; cloth, price $1.00. For Sale by all Booksellers. k

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Page  A001 THE TRAVELLER'S MEMORANDUM. *** The traveller is respectfully solicited to note all elrrors and omissions which he may discover in this work, and any new facts of interest,-and to send such memoranda to the Editoi, care of the Publishers. Such communications mutist be accoipanied by the name and address of the writer. i

Page  A002 THE TRAVELLER'S MEMORANDUM. 2

Page  A003 THE TRAVELLER'S MEMORANDUM. 3

Page  A004 THE TRAVELLER'S MEMORANDUI.' ' 4

Page  A005 THE TRAVELLER'S MEMORANID. 5

Page  A006 THE TRAVELLER'S MEMORANDUTM. 6

Page  A007 THE TRAVELLER'S MEMORANDUM.' 7

Page  A008 THE TRAVELLER'S MEMORANDUM. 8

Page  A009 THE TRAVELLER'S MEMORANDU3M. a 9

Page  A010 0 THE TRAVELLER'S M1EMIORANDUM. 10

Page  A011 THE TRAVELLER'S MEMORANDUM.' 11 THE TRAVELLER'S MEMORANDUM. 11

Page  A012 THIE TRAVELLER'S MEMORANDUM. 12

Page  i APPLETONS' HAND-BO OF AMERICAN TRAVE L. THiE SOUTHERN TOUR; BEING A GUIDE THROUGH MARYLAND, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA, SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA, FLORIDA, ALABAMA, MISSISSIPPI, LOUISIANA, TEXAS, ARKANSAS, TENNESSEE, AND KENTUCKY. WITH DESCRIPTIVE SKETCHES OF THE CITIES, TOWNS, WATERFALLS, BATTLE-FIELDS, MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, LAKES, HUNT ING AND FISHING GROUNDS, WATERING PLACES, SUMMER RESORTS, AND ALL SCENES AND OBJECTS OF IMPORTANCE AND INTEREST. WITH MAPS OF THE LEADING ROUTES OF TRA VEL AND OF THE PRINCIPAL CITIES. BY EDWARD HI. HALL. "When thou haply seest - Some rare, noteworthy object in thy travels, Make me partaker of. thy happiness."-Shak8peare NEW YORK: D. APPLETON & CO., 443 & 445 BROADWAY. LONDON: TRUBNER & CO, 1866. _3

Page  ii NO TICE. No expense or labor will be spared to make the Hand-Book of American Travel attractive, comprehensive, concise, and every way reliable. The next Annual Edition will be published in June, ] 867, and any information in regard to errors and omissions, which those who use this portion of the work may detect, or any facts of interest and value-particularly in respect to new routes and accommodations-will be gratefully received and considered. Such communications should be addressed to the Editor, care of the Publishers. The Population of Cities and Towns mentioned in this work are those given in the last National Census-1860-except when otherwise stated. B Advertisers wishing to change or discontinue their advertisements, will please to inform the Editor to such effect, on or before April 1st of each year, that the necessary alterations may be made in time for the new edition. The Editor of "Appletons' Hand-book " is alone responsible for the information contained in its pages. No other person is authorized to procure advertisements, or receive money or other favors from Hotel-keepers or Tradesmen on account of the Hand-book, as r.ommendations in this work are not to be purchased; they are the result of personal experience or disinterested information only, and when houses here represented fail to fulfil their obligations to the public, they will be stricken from its pagce EATEIED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, by D. APPLETON & CO., In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 6

Page  iii CONTENTS. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS, Some Parting Words to the Traveller, of Explanation and Advice, Plan of the Book,..... Money,...... Travelling Expenses,..... Baggage,...... Hotels,..... Waiters, etc.,...... Tickets,...... Outfits, Costumes,.... Steamship Lines,...... Fine Arts, etc.,... Where to Go, Skeleton Tours, etc., Obligations,... The Traveller's Almanac, Memoranda, etc. THE SOUTHERN TOUR. MARYLAND. Historical Sketch; Baltimore; Map; Vicinity; Chesapeake Bay; Baltimore and Ohio Railway; Places and Objects of Interest,. 1-20 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. Washin,gton City; Map; Vicinity; Alexan dria; Mount Vernon; Defences,..... 21-34 VIRGINIA. Historical Sketch; Railways; Richmond; Norfolk; Williams burg; Fredericksburg; Lynchburg; Lexington; Charlottesville; Mon ticello; Winchester; Wheeling; the Springs; Natural Bridge,. 35-53 NORTIH CAROLINA. Raleigh, Wilmington, and other Cities; Mountain Region; Objects of Interest,..... 54-58 iii 0 I ot. PAGE v v v vi vi vi vii vii viii ix x x xi .ii

Page  iv CONTENTS. PAGi SOUTH CAROLINA. Historical Sketch; Railways; Charleston and Vi cinity; Map; Beaufort and the Lowlands; Mountain Villages and Scenery; Yorkville and Vicinity,..-. GEORGIA. Historical Sketch; the Savannah, Oconee, and other Rivers; Railways; Savannah and Vicinity; Augusta; Atlanta; Macon; Mil ledgeville, and other Cities; the Mountain Region; Toccoa and Tal lulah; the Springs,..... FLORIDA. Historical Sketch; St. John's and St. Mary's Rivers; St. Au gustine and Vicinity; Jacksonville; Pilatka; Tallahassee; Appala chicola, etc.; Routes, etc.,.... ALABAMA. The Alabama, Tombigbee, and other Rivers; Railways; Mobile and Vicinity; Montgomery; Tuscaloosa; Huntsville, and other Cities; the Hill region,.- - MISSISSIPPI. Its Rivers and Railways; Jackson; Vicksburg; Natchez; Holly Springs, etc.,..... LOUISIANA. Historical Sketch; New Orleans and Vicinity; Map; the Creoles; the Carnival; Railways and Routes; Baton Rouge,. 99-111 TEXAS. Its Rivers; Railway Routes; Galveston; Austin; Houston; San Antonio,...... 112-116 ARKANSAS. Little Rock; Fort Smith; Camden,... 117-118 TENNESSEE. Rivers; Railways; Nashville and Vicinity; Memphis; Chattanooga, and Lookout Mountain, etc.,.... 119-123 KENTUCKY. Historical Sketch; the Cumberland and Kentucky Rivers; Railways; Louisville and Vicinity; Frankfort; Ccvington; Lexing ton, and other Towns; "Ashland" and "Woodburn,".. 124-133 THE OHIO RIVER. From Pittsburg to Cairo; Map; Table of Distances; Cincinnati and Vicinity,..... 134-137 THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. From Cairo to New Orleans; Map; St. Louis and Vicinity; Places and Objects of Interest,.. 138-142 iv 69-72 73-84 85-90 91-95 96-98

Page  v INTRODUCTION. THlE PLAN OF THE BOOK. LI preparing the ninth year's issue of "Appleton's Hand-book," the editor has thought it best to continue the original plan of the work, and follow the familiar geographical order of the several States, as that best adapted to the special tastes and convenience of travellers wishing to visit the respective points and objects of interest. Thus, in making the "Southern Tour," the traveller starting from New York finds his true "point of departure " at Baltimore, in the chapter on Maryland. Continuing his route thence by steamer or rail, the Guide accompanies him through Virginia and the Carolinas to the Gulf coast, and up the valley of the Lower Mississippi, till he finally reaches Louisville, Cincinnati, or St. Louis, on his return northward. Instead of selecting a particular route, and seeing all it offers of attraction, we have, with few exceptions, jumped at once to our especial destination, and then intimated the way by which it is reached. Thus, if the traveller happens to be in New York and desires to go to New Orleans, he will, by turning to New Orleans, in the chapter on Louisiana, find the routes thither. The chief cities are taken as starting-points for all other and lesser places in their neighborhood. Thus Richmond is made the point of radiation for Virginia; Charleston and Columbia for South Carolina; Nashville for Tennessee, and so on. It has not, of course, been possible to mention every village or town in the South, in the narrow limits of a pocket-volume like this. Sketches of many places which, owing to their difficulty of access in the present disrupted condition of the railroads, are unavoidably left out, will, it is hoped, appear in future editions of the work. MONEY. United States Treasury notes (greenback) are everywhere current throughout the South, the assertions of the "reliable" gentlemen who have testified v .* - 0.

Page  vi INTRODUCTION. before the Reconstruction Committee at Washington City to the contrary notwithstanding. Gold and silver readily pass, but as they command a premium in the North, and are, moreover, less portable than paper,they are less desirable for the traveller's use. The notes of Northern banks should, on no account, be taken, as they may sometimes subject the holder to annoyance. The safest and most convenient shape in which to put your money for current expenses on your trip is that of letters of credit or circular notes-the former are preferable. These are issued by the leading banking-houses in New York and elsewhere in the United States. The well-known banking firm of Duncan Sherman & Company issue such letters, payable in all the principal Southern cities. Their announcement will be found in our advertising columns. A reasonable supply of fractional currency (" stamps ") will save the traveller frequent inconvenience in making change at railway stations, omnibus stands, etc. TRAVELLING EXPENSES. This is a sufficiently important feature of the trip to merit a separate consideration. The cost of living and travelling through the South has materially increased since the war. Six to seven dollars a day will be found a fair estimate. (For hotel expenses, see Hotel8.) BAGGAGE. "As little baggage as possible" is always a good rule, though a liberal supply is permitted on the railways, and almost any quantity on the steamboats. On the stages the prescribed limit of sixty or eighty pounds cannot be exceeded without extra charge. The "check" system, so universally practised throughout the North, has been pretty generally adopted on the Southern lines of railway. Many of the omnibus lines in the Southern cities are reaping an ill-gotten harvest by imposing on the ignorance and credulity of strangers in this regard. As a general rule, the traveller will best consult his own convenience and interest by retaining his check until he arrives at his destination, and then proceeding to his hotel in a carriage with his baggage. If you purchase an omnibus ticket you have, in most instances, to pay separately for your baggage, either to the agent in the cars or in settling your bill at the hotel. In travelling in a stage, or in making short trips from the leading centres to the interior, a carpet-bag or small valise will be found the most convenient form of baggage, as in many instances it will be requisite for the traveller to play the part of porter. HOTELS. With few exceptions, the hotels of the principal cities South will compare favorably with those of other sections of the country, and perforce with vi

Page  vii INTRODUCTION. those of any other part of the world. Barnum's, in Baltimore, the Metropolitan and Ebbett, in Washington, the Exchange and Ballard's, in Richmond, the Mills House, in Charleston, the Pulaski and the Marshall House, in Savannah, the St. Louis and St. Charles, in New Orleans, Louisville, in Louisville, and the Southern and Lindell Hotels, in St. Louis, are all strictly firstclass establishments. The charges at these houses range from $3.50 to $5.00 per day, which includes every thing except private parlors, wines, and extra attendance. Four dollars per day, or $28.00 a week, will be found a, safe average. Other houses of good repute, having the best hotel accommodation the several cities afford, will be found throughout the work. In New York, the Fifth Avenue Hotel and the Hoffmian iHouse, on Madison Square at the intersection of Broadvway and Fifth Avenue, and the Everett House, occupying a conspicuous and delightful locale at the north end of Union Square, are the most desirable houses in the metropolis. From the observatory of the Fifth Avenue Hotel a fine view of the city and the neighboring bay is to be had. The house is fitted with a passenger-elevator, or vertical railway, for the use of guests. Those fond of the quiet and retirement of private life, combined with the luxuries of hotel cuisine, will find the Everett a desirable stopping-place. The Hoffman House has been recently (1865) opened, and the furniture is new and of the best quality. The Hoffman is conducted on the European plan. The cuisine and attendance are excellent. For those who decide to make a stay in Philadelphia on their way South, the Continental is the most desirable hotel.. The well-known reputation of this fine house is well sustained by its present management, Messrs. Kingsley & Co. Newly-married couples will find this a most inviting resting-place on their winter tour South. WAITERS OR SERVANTS. It is not the custom in America, as in Europe, to fee waiters at the hotels, though it may very properly be done for espedal personal service. It is often done by those who prefer hot dinners to cold when they happen to " come late," or who may have a fancy for some rare dish when it unluckily happens to be "all out." Waiters, especially the "unprofessionals," who largely outnumber the " regular hands," are frequently guilty of impertinences in large popular hotels. A word to the steward or headwaiter, a functionary always at hand in every well-regulated hotel, will speedily put matters right. On the other hand, let gentlemen remember that it is impossible for a waiter, however proficient, to wait on more than one at a time and do it well. By due attention to these matters, much needless annoyance will be saved. TICKETS. Tickets on the railways should be purchased at the railway office before starting, otherwise a small additional charge will be made. If a long journey vii

Page  viii INTRODUCTION. over various roads is intended, it is cheaper and more convenient to buy a through ticket to the end of the route, or for as long a distance as possible. What are called "lay-over "or accommodation tickets, affording opportunities to the traveller to visit points of interest on his line of route, can always be obtained on the leading through-lines. On the steamboats the tickets for passage, for meals, and berths, can be purchased at leisure, after starting, at the "captain's office." OUTFITS, COSTUMES, ETC. At the Virginia Springs and at the watering-places of the South generally, the same resources of toilet will be found necessary as in the city salon or the most fashionable resorts of the North-that is for the ladies. The gentlemen will best consult their own tastes and circumstances as regards their wardrobe and outfit generally. Let me advise my reader, however, whatever else he may omit to take, not to fail to supply himself with a travelling suit equal to the wear and tear of rough mountain life. If the color be a gray or a brown, so much the better in the dust of railway and stage routes. Get a felt hat-it does not crush itself on your head in car or carriage, or blow overboard on steamboats. Storm, 178 Broadway, under the Howard Hotel, has a fine assortment. Leave thin boots (this especially to the ladies) at home, and go well and comfortably shod in stout calf8kin. It is a pity to -be kept in-doors by the fear of spoiling one's gaiters or wetting one's feet, when the meadows and hills and brooks are inviting you abroad. In mountain tramps, a generous-sized flask may be swung over the shoulder with very picturesque effect. If filled with generous "cognac," beware of too picturesque an effect, especially if you be in the company of a certain party. In the way of clothing, the traveller cannot do better than call on Mr. D. Russell, No. 835 Broadway, corner of Thirteenth Street. All the garments made by this long-established and well-known house are adapted to the wants of gentlemen of taste who appreciate style and quality in clothing. Brownell (late Brownell & Marvin), at No. 503 Broadway, in the St. Nicholas block, keeps a fine assortment of ready-made clothing. A good trunk is an indispensable article of outfit for either lady or gentleman. Messrs. J. T. Smith & Co., at 344 Broadway, have the most extensive assortment in the city, embracing every kind of travelling package from the largest-sized "Saratoga" down to the smallest valise, carpet-sack, and haversack. Their goods are of the best quality and make. Edwin A. Brooks' boot and shoe store is at 575 Broadway, convenient to the principal hotels. His stock of ready-made custom-work is large, and his fits are warranted. By leaving their measure, parties going into the interior can be supplied at any given point. Mr. Union Adams, at No. 637 Broadway, offers opportunities of making viii ... VIII

Page  ix INTRODUCTION. selections in gentlemen's furnishing goods unequalled elsewhere in New York. Mis stock is large and rich, embracing every thing in that line required by the most fastidious. His assortment of shawls, travelling-bags, neglige shirts, scarfs, ties, etc., is especially complete. Berrian's house-furnishing store, on Broadway, is an excellent place to purchase goods. INSURANCE. Having laid in your necessary supplies, it only remains for you to insure yourself against accidents by sea or land, and the editor of the "' Hand-book" having had recent experience in that line, would advise you not to omit to insure. The "Accide4 Insurance Company" of New York is a reliable company. This office issues po!".,es against death, and compensation in case of disabling injury, as well as against death only. Policies are issued good for one year, one month, or one day. Mr. Edward Greene, 141 Broadway, is the secretary of the company. STEAMISHIIP LINES. The several lines of passenger steamships running between New York and Baltimore and the Southern ports afford, except during inclement weather, the most pleasant means of reaching Richmond, Wilmington, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans, or Galveston. The leading and bestconducted lines of steamers now in operation firom New York to Southern domestic ports are the following: b'or -horfolk, City Point, and Ric7imond.-The steamers of the Old Line (New York and Virginia Company) sail every Wednesday and Saturday at 3 P. m. for Norfolk and all points on the James River. The boats are coinmodious and well-officered. G. Heineken & Palmiore, 115 Broadway, agents. The boats of the Atlantic Coast Mail Company leave same days at noon. Livingston, Fox & Co., 88 Liberty Street, agents. From Baltimore, Leary & Co.'s "New Line" of steamers offer every inducement to travellers. For Charleston.-The Messrs. Leary despatch one of their fine steamers from Pier No. 14, E. R., every Saturday at 3 o'clock. The "Quaker City' has first-class accommodations for cabin passengers. For Savannah.-Messrs. Garrison & Allen, 5 Bowling Green, and Livingston, Fox & Co., despatch regular steamers weekly for Savannah, where immediate connection is made with the boats leaving that port for St. Augustine, Pilatka, and other points in Florida. The favorite sidewheel steamship "S,an Jacinto" belongs to the former, and the " Hermann Livingston " to the latter line. Invalids bound for the Florida water-cures have ample choice between the boats comprising either of these fine lines. For New Orlean8.-Cromwell's line of first-class steamships, one of which ix

Page  x INTRODUCTION. leaves Pier No. 9, N. R., every Saturday at 3 P. m., has the confidence of tho public. The Coastwise Company also despatch a steamer every Wednesday from Pier No. 29,- foot of Warren Street. Mr. D. N. Carrington, at 177 West Street, is the agent. For California.-The best line for San Francisco and all points on the South Pacific and Central American ports is unquestionably that of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. It is a through line, connecting at Panama with the company's line of steamers on the Pacific. Three departures each month, viz., on the 1st, 11th, and 21st. The boats of this line are appointed, equipped, and officered equal to the best European steamships. The passage to San Francisco is made by the steamers of the Pacific Mail Company in twenty-two days. The general office of the line is over the new bankinghouse of Messrs. Brown Brothers, in Wall Street, below William. Shipping and ticket office Pier No. 42, foot of Canal Street. FINE ARTS, ETC. The fine-arts galleries of the Bendann Brothers (branch of the wellknown Baltimore establishment) have just been located on Fifth Avenue, corner of Seventeenth Street. Their pictures are executed in the highest style of photographic art. Brady's pictures are too well known to need more than a passing mention here. His galleries, at 785 Broadway, opposite Stewart's, contain the finest collection of war views, in the shape of photographic pictures, to be found in New York. Semmons, at 6691 Broadway, under the Lafarge Hotel, has the best assortment of field, marine, and opera glasses to be found in New York. To the citizens of New York, not less than to those visiting it during the spring and early summer months, mineral waters and baths have become a necessity. Dr. Hanbury Smith's famous mineral-water establishment, "The Spa," is pleasantly and cenitrally located at No. 808 Broadway, nearits intersection with Eleventh Street. Its health-giving waters, agreeable shade, and proximity to other objects of interest, combine to make it one of the pleasantest lounginlg-places of the metropolis. The best baths in the city are those conducted by Dr. Gutmann, at 25 East Fourth Street. OBLIGATIONS, ETC. Those only who have had frequent occasion to use Guides and Handbooks of travel have any adequate idea of the labor necessary to produce them. How far the ordinary duties of the editor have been increased by the changes incident to the late war, can only be known to himself. That they have been very largely augmented will readily be believed. While the following pages are mainly the result of personal observation, much of the matter has been gleaned from the experience of others. For the attainment I

Page  xi INTRODUCTION. of an object, apparently so hopeless, as the preparation, at this time, of a reliable Hand-book of Travel to the South, the author has found it necessary to use every available source and means of information. Without such timely aids it would, of course, have been impossible to prepare and publish such a work. Our obligations are due to the entire Southern press for their unceasing endeavors to keep us informed of the rapid changes going on in their several communities, and for their numerous contributions to local and State history, descriptive sketches, etc., etc. We are also indebted to Mr. Eugene Piffet, of New Orleans, Mr. Sancier, of Mobile, Mr. Linn, of Chattanooga, and other photographic artists of the South, who kindly furnished us with views of prominent objects of interest in their several localities. We regret that lack of space has compelled us to exclude their contributions from our pages. It is decided to make future issues of the Hland-book uniform in style and appearance with the present work. For much valuable information contained in the following pages we are indebted to the recently-published Directories of New Orleans, Baltimore, Mobile, Cincinnati, and Memphis. Much of the historical matter relative to the battle-fields met with in our tour South, is gleaned from the pages of the "Military and Naval History of the Rebellion," edited by W. J. Tenney. Thankful to one and all for their valuable assistance, we shall endeavor to merit a continuance of their favors. SKELETON TOURS, ETc. For the benefit of foreigners visiting this country, desirous of spending the winter at the South, the following six weeks' tour through the frequented portions of Georgia and Florida is inserted: A Winter Tour of Six Weeks, visiting the Invalid Resorts of Florida, Sa vannah and Augus8ta, Ga., Charleston and Columbia, S. C., Richmond, Va., and Washington City. FIRST WEEK.-Saturday.-Leave New York by the steamer Saturday afternoon, and arrive in Savannah Tuesday morning. Spend the rest of the week in Savannah, at the Pulaski louse or Marshall House. (See page 74.) SECOND WEEK.-Saturday.-Leave Savannah in the steamer for Jacksonville, Pilatka, and other places on the St. John's River (pages 85 to 89). Spend the week thereabouts. THIRD WEEK.-At St. Augustine, on the coast, below the mouth of the St. John's (page 87). St. Augustine, or the "Ancient City," as it is sometimes called, from its venerable age, which exceeds that of any other place in the Union, will tempt the visitor to a long sojourn with the social attractions which its fame as an invalid resort has secured. The peculiar natural xi

Page  xii INTRODUCTION. features of the city and the neighborhood will also win his particular interest. FOURTH WEEK.-At St. Augustine. FIFTH WEEKg.-Return to Savannah and take the Georgia Central Railway to Augusta (page 77), thence by steamer to Charleston (page 60). SIXTH WEEK. —Monday.-By South Carolina Railwayfrom Charleston to Columbia. Tuesday.-At Columbia (page 64), resuming journey in the afternoon. Wednesday.-En route. Thursday.-At Richmond, Va. (page 38). Friday.-Arrive at Washington City (page 21). Saturday.-To Baltimore same evening. Sunday.-At Baltimore (page 2). fonday.-To New York. If time permit, numerous other pleasant tours can be made from Charleston or Savannah southwest. Xii

Page  1 APPLETO1''S HAND-BOOK OF AMERICAN TRAVEL. MARYLAND The area of the State is 10,210 square miles, a portion of which is covered by the water s of the Chesapeake Bay, w hich extends within it s jurisdictio n 120 miles northward. The State is naturally divided into three distinct geographical sections. The first section comprises that portion lying east of the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay, known as the " Eastern Shore," and which contains the counties of Worcester, Somerset, Dorchester, Talbot, Caroline, Queen Anne, Kent, and Cecil. The second section, comprising what is usually called the " Western Shore," consists of another peninsula, lying inland, between the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay, and up to the line of the river falls, and comprises the counties of St. Mary's, Calvert, Charles, Prince George, Anne Arundel, Howard, and parts of Montgomery, Baltimore and Harford, an area of about 3,698 square miles. A ledge of primitive rocks, which constitute the leading geographical feature of this section, forms the natural boundary between the alluvial region and the mountainous district of Maryland, which latter constitutes the third section of the State. Embraced in this section are Carroll, Frederick, Washington, and Alleghany Counties, which cover an area of 2,590 square miles, and afford some of the most picture THE country which now forms the State of Maryland, was granted to Lord Baltimore by Charles I., and was named in honor of Henrietta Maria, Queen of that monarch. Maryland is one of the most northern of the late slaveholding States, and the most southern of the group distinguished as the Middle States. It is one of the original thirteen. The first permanent settlement in Maryland was made at St. Mary's, by Leonard Calvert, brother of Lord Baltimore, in 1634. It was one of the earliest of the colonies to grant entire freedom of reliious faith-virtually, though not, as is often written and said, by formal legal enactments. The emigrants in their own annals still bear the title of "Pilgrims of St. Mary's." Maryland was not the theatre of any of the great battles of the Revolution; but some important scenes of the war of 1812 took place within her borders. The limits of the State were at that period twice invaded by the British troops. They were bravely met and repulsed at the battle of North Point, in the Chesapeake, September 13, 1814. During the Rebellion of 1861-'65, repeated invasions of the State were made by Confederate troops, resulting in great destruction of property, especially on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railway. 1 1 * - 0

Page  2 MARYLAND. esque scenery to be found in the State. The country upon both the eastern and western shores of the bay is generally level and sandy. The long narrow strip which extends westward is a lofty region, crossed by several ridges of the Alleghanies. These ranges, with their intervening valleys, afford charming landscape passages to the traveller, on the route of the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, and make that highway one of the most attractive of the many leading from the Eastern cities to the great West. The hill-region of Maryland abounds in rich mineral deposits. The coal lands, though not very extensive, are extremely productive. Copper mines are worked in Frederick and Carroll Counties. Besides the culture of all the grains, fruits, vegetables, and other products of the Northern States, Maryland grows large quantities of tobacco. The State ranks, in the production of this staple, as third in the Union, and, measuring by population, as second. 000, is imposingly situated upon the north side of the Pa tapsco River, 1 2 mi les from its entrance into the Chesapeake Bay, and about 200 miles, by these waters, from the sea. Built, as it is, upon hill-slopes and terraces, it s app earance is at once imposing and picturesque. Striking, indeed, to the stranger, is the unlooked-for scene, as he gazes from the water upward, through the climbing streets, capped at their tops by soaring spire and dome, in whose midst, and above all, soars t he proud crest of the fa mous mo nument to Washington; and hardly less attractive is the picture as the eye looks downward from thes e elevated po in ts upon the bus y city and its surrounding lands a nd w aters. The present site of Baltimore was chosen in 1729, and its name was bestowed upon it, in 1745, in honor of Lord Baltimore. In 1780 i t became a port of entry, with the accompanime nts of custom-house, naval officers, etc. In 1782 the first pavements were laid on Baltimore Street, the chief avenue of the city at that period, as at the present time. In the same year the first regular communication with Philadelphia was established, through a line of stage-coaches. The charter of the city bears date as late as 1797. The population, which at this date was 26,000, had increased by the year 1854 to nearly 200,000. In 1860 it was 212,418. The next census will undoubtedly show a still greater ratio of increase; and so, each succeeding enumerationfor the natural advantages of the city promise it ever-increasing progress. As laid out, it includes an area of four miles square, and extends nearly round the bay. The harbor is capacious and safe, and consists of an inner basin, into which vessels of considerable burden can enter, and an outer harbor at what is known as Fell's Point, accessible to the largest merchant ships. The entrance is defended by Fort McHenry, which figured conspicuously in the war of 1812. The harbor is seldom obstructed by ice, a fact which adds to the commerce of the port during the winter months. Jones' Falls, a snmll stream from the north, spanned by several wooden bridges, divides the city into two nearly equal parts, which are known locally as East and West Baltimore. From these falls and 98 miles from Philadelphia, 186 from New York, via Philadelphia, Wilmington, and lHavre de Grace. HEOTELs. —Barnum's (City), on Monument Square, corner Fayette and Calvert Streets, is a long-established and deservedly popular house. Rooms large and well ventilated. The main apartment dining-room has just been refitted and furnished, at an expense of ten thousand dollars. Has accommodation for 400 guests. 17Tie Etetaw Htoutse, corner W. Baltimore and Eutaw Streets, in the west end of the city, is pleasantly situated for families. Its management entitles it to rank among the best hotels in the country. The Fountain, in Light Street, the Afaltby, in Pratt Street, and Gilmotr's, in Baltimore Street, are conveniently located, and among the best of their class in the city. Restaurants are numerous, and generally well kept. The oysters of the Chesapeake and its tributaries have long been famous. Baltimore, one of the four great Eastern cities, with a population of over 240, 2 BA.LTIMOP.E.] [BALTIMORE. BALTIMORE,

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Page  3 MARYLAND. Swann Lake, six miles beyond, the city has a never-failing supply of fine water. The streets are regular and well paved, and the houses built mainly of brick, with marble or granite facings. The city is divided into twenty wards, and has an effective, well-regfulated fire department. During the early days of the late rebellion, the city was the scene of considerable rioting. On the 19th April, 1861, on the passage of Massachusetts troops (6th regiment infantry) through the city, crowds collected at the depot and along the line of route, and stoned the cars and soldiers: nine citizens were killed'during the course of the riot and many more were wounded. Twenty-five of the wounded soldiers were sent to the Washington Hospital. The rioting was mraainly on Pratt Street, between South and Howard. Baltimore has been called " The Monumental City," and not inappropriately, for its monuments are its greatest ornaments. Constituting as they do not only a source of much pride to its citizens, but the leading objects of interest to strangers, they command our first attention. The Washington Monument is chief among the structures of this kind. It is a very graceful work,standing upon a terrace 100 feet above tide-water, in Mt. Vernon Place, at the i nters ection of Ch arle s and Monument Streets. Its base is 50 feet square and 20 feet high, supporting a Doric shaft 176i feet in height, which is surmounted by a colossal statue of Washin,-ton, 16 feet high. " The Father of his Country" is represented in the crowning act of his military life, the resignation of his commission as commander-in-chief at Annapolis, Dec. 17, 1783. The total elevation is thus 3121 feet above the level of the river. It is built with brick, cased with white marble, and cost $200,000. From the balcony of the monument the finest view of the city, harbor, river, and surrounding country is obtained. Access is by a circular stairway within. Application for admission should be made to the keeper, who will furnish the necessary light. Battle Mionument, erected to the memory of those who fell defending the city in September, 1814, is at the corner of Calvert and Fayette Streets,near Barnum's Hotel. The square sub-base on which the pede stal or column rests rises 20 feet from the ground, with an Egypti an door on e ach f ront, on which are appropriate inscriptions and representations, in bassorilievo, of some of the.incidents of t he battle. The column rises 18 feet above the base. This, which is of marble, in the form of a Roman fasces, is en circle d by ba nds, on wh ich a re inscribed, in sculptured letters, the names of thos e whose patriotic achievements it s erves to commemorate. It is surmounted b y a female figure i n marble, emblematic of the City of Baltimore, the work of an Italian a rtist named Capellano. The whole heigh t of the mon ument is 62i feet. Armistead Monument, near the City Spring, is merely a tablet, sunken in a subterranean niche. It was erected to the memory of Col. Geor ge Armistead, the c o mmande r at Fo rt McHenry, in 1814, through who se intrepidity a British fleet of sixteen sail w a s re pulsed, after having b ombarde d the fort f or twenty-f our hours. This st one is sometimes spoken of abroad as among the mon ume nta l wonder s of Baltimore- to wh ich glory, however, it has no kind of claim. Baltimore ans themselves seldom speak of it. PUBLIC BUILDINGS.-The Exchange, in Gay Street, is a large an d elegant structure, wilh a fagade of 240 feet. The building has colonnades of six Ionic columns on i ts east and w es t sides, the shafts of which are single blocks of fine Italian marble, of admirable workmanship. The whole is surmounted by an immense dome, the apex of which is 115 feet above the street. The Customn House occupies the first story of the south wing of the Exchange, fronting on Lombard Street. In the northeast part of the building is the Merchants' Bank, while the Rotunda is used for the City Post-Ofice. The Reading-Room is a fine apartment, 50 feet square. Original cost of the whole structure $600,000. Subsequent improvements have increased this to nearly one million dollars. The Maryland Institute, on Baltimore Street, near the bridge, is an imposing edifice 355 feet long by 60 feet wide. The first story of this immense building is occupied as a place of public venduie, and known as the " Centre Market." The BALTIMORE.] [BALTIMORLP.

Page  4 MARYLAND. three-story edifice fronting on Baltimore Street, contains the library and offices. The main hall, 260 feet by 60, is devoted to the Annual Exhibitions of American Industry, Fairs, and other similar purposes. It will accommodate five thousand persons. The cost of the structure was about $100,000. The Alrew City Hall, on Holiday Street, is a plain, substantial building of three stories, with a massive-looking portico. The Court Igouse, corner of Monument Square and Lexington Street, is a commodious and commanding building, 145 feet by 65, two stories in height, constructed of marble and brick, appropriated to the purposes of the City and County Courts. It is ornamented with white marble pilasters, in the modern Ionic style, and surmounted by a cupola of imposing appearance. Its interior appointments are excellent. The new U. S. Court House, corner of North and Fayette Streets, is a massive granite structure, not yet quite completed. The City Prisons and State Penitentiary, fronting on Madison Street, east of the Falls, are worthy a visit. The former building, more popularly known as the "'Jail," was built in 1857-'60, from designs by the Messrs. Dixon, at a cost of $250,000. The building is 404 feet long, and comprises a centre building and two wings. The exterior walls of the building are of rubble masonry, the stone being from the adjacent quarries on Jones' Falls. It is a substantial and well-arranged prison. The Peniiary consists of three large buildings, occupying nearly four acres, laid out in gardens and shrubbery, and surrounded by a stone wall 20 feet high. The convicts are principally employed in the mechanic arts. The County Prison, near the latter institution, is a neat edifice, with castellated towers and surmounted by a cupola. The Corn and Flour Exchange, on South Street, corner of Wood Street, is a substantial structure. CHURCHES.-There are upward of one hundred and sixty churches, chapels, and religious mneeting-houses in Baltimore, with accommodation for upward of 100,000 persons. Of these, 44 are Methodist, 20 are Episcopal, and the same number 4 Roman Catholic. The Presbyterians have 15 places of wo rshi p, the Baptists 9, a nd the Jews 6. The mos t imposin g church edifice is the Catholic Cat/iedral, co r ne r of Cathe - dral and Mulber ry Streets. It is built of granite, in the form of a cross, and is 190 feet long, 177 broad at the arms -of the cross, and 127 feet high, from the floor to the top of the cross which surmounts the dome. The building is well lighted by windows in the dome, which are concealed from the view of persons below. At the west end rise two tall towers, crowned with Saracenic cupolas, resembling the minarets of a Mohammedan mosque. This church is said to have the largest organ in the United States, having 6,000 pipes and 36 stops. The interior is ornamented with two excellent paintings: one, " The Descent from the Cross," pre. sented by Louis XVI.; the other, "St. Louis burying his Officers and Soldiers slain before Tunis," the gift of Charles X., of France. This edifice though inferior in architectural proportions and costly ornamentation to many other of the Roman Catholic cathedrals and churches in the Union, in the solidity of its construction and massive appearance is excelled by none. The First Presbyteriant Church, situated at the corner of Madison and Park-Streets, is much admired for its simplicity and elegance of architectural finish. It is constructed of free stone from the "Albert Quarries" of New Brunswick, in the "Lancet Gothic" style of architecture and is one of the most elaborate specimens of that order in the country. It was commenced in 1855, under the superintendence of Mr. N. G. Starkweather, and finished the following year. The building is 131 feet in depth, exclusive of transept, and 87 feet wide. The tower is 268 feet-the highest in the city; the interior is beautifully and appropriately ornamented. The Unitarian Clhurch (First Independent), at the intersection of North Charles and Franklin Streets, ranks next to the above in architectural beauty. This edifice is 108 feet long and 78 wide. In front is a colonnade, consisting of four Tuscan columns and two pilasters, which form the arcades. Above, extending BALTIMORE.) [BALTIMORP..

Page  5 MARYLAND. around the pediment, is a cornice, decorated with emblematic figures and inscriptions. From the portico the entrance is by bronze doors, in imitation of the Vatican at Rome-three conducting to the body of the building, and two to the galleries. The Catholics, who are a numerous and wealthy part of the community, have in addition to the Cathedral various elegant church edifices, among which may be mentioned that of St. Alphonsus, at the corner of Saratoga and Park Streets, which has a spire of 200 feet; and that of S&. Vincent de Paul, in N. Front Street. Grace Clturch (Episcopal), corner of Monument and Park Streets, is a fine specimen of the Gothic, in red sandstone. Close by is another Episcopal church, also Gothic, built of gray sandstone. St. Pautl's Church, at the corner of Charles and Saratoga Streets, is a pleasing example of the Norman style; $142,000 were expended in its construction. CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS, ETC.-The city is well provided with institutions of benevolence and charity. The Maryland Hospital for the Insane occupies an eminence on East Monument Street, in the eastern part of the city. It is a large brick building, with three cupolas. Moutnt Hope Hospital, conducted by the Sisters of Charity, is in Madison Street, near the northwestern limits of the city. Near the University, in Lombard Street, is the Baltimore itfqirmary. It is controlled by the Regents of the University. In the western part of the city is the Aged Widows' Home, a new and elegant edifice; near it a similar building has been erected for aged men. The Blind Asylum (Maryland Institution for the Instruction of the Blind), on West Saratoga Street, is a flourishing charity, well worthy a visit. It was org aniz e d in 1853, p reviou s to which dat e the children were maintained at the Pennsylvania Asylum, located in Philadelphia, under an annual appropriation from the Maryland Legislature. The cost of the building was about $27,000, and the number of inmates is limited to twenty. The extent of the accommodation afforded by this institution is quite inadequate to the number and needs of these poor sufferers throughout the city and State. The Cloughrc Home, formerly the old Washington College, is situated on Broadway, near Baltimore Street. It belongs to the Protestant Episcopal Church of the city, is superintended by a committee of ladies from the several Episcopal churches, and is endowed for the relief of the destitute, afflicted, and orphans. The elevated situation of this structure, in a healthy neighborhood, overlooking the city and bay, e specially fIts it for such a Home. The Orphan Asylums o f St. Anthony (de Padna) and of St. Vincent de Paul, the former on Cana l, near Madison Street, and the latter No. 23 N. Front Street, are flourishing Roman Catholic institutions, with fre e s cho ols attached. The House of Refu0ge and the cit y Almsh7co s ea are admirably situated amidst attractive scene ry near the Fred erick turnpike, about two miles from the city. In addition to the se, Baltimore contains numerous institutions fgr the relief and support of the poor, afflicted, and friendless. LITERARY INSTITUTIO.NS, ETc.-The University of,laryland is at the intersection of Green and Lombard Streets. The Medical Department of the University was founded in the year 1807; the College of Loyola is at the corner of Madison and Calvert Streets. The Athenceum, which is at the corner of Saratoga and St. Paul Streets, is occupied conjointly by the Mercantile Library Association, the Baltimore Library, and the Maryland Hist. Society. The Library of the Mercantile Association numbers nearly 20,000 volumes; the Baltimore Library 15,000, and the collection of the Historical Society upward of 1,000. It is in the gallery of the Historical Society that the annual exhibitions of pictures are held. Admission to these libraries from 10 A. M. to 10 P. M. The Peabody Institute, corner of Charles and Monument Streets, founded by George Peabody, the eminent London banker, is a massive structure of white marble, recently completed. It is designed for literary and scientific purposes, and will when fully endowed contain a library and fine arts gallery. The Lecture-Room is admirably constructed, and has sittings for 700 persons. The St. Mary's College, a Roman Cath 5 BALTIMORE.] [BALTIMOP.S.

Page  6 MARYLAND. olic theological institution, founded 1799, is at the corner of Franklin and Greene Streets. AJcKim's Free School, on East Baltimore Street, was founded by the liberality of the late Isaac McKim The -~aryland College of Pharmacy, No. 47 N. Calvert Street. Lectures on Pharmacy, Chemistry, and Materia Medica during the winter months. THEATRES, ETc. —Holiday Street Theatre, in Holiday Street, two squares from Barnum's Hotel, is the well-known and popular resort of theatre-goers in Baltimore. It is worthy of remembrance that it is the oldest temple of the Drama in the United States. The first theatrical entertainments given in Baltimore were conducted in a frame building, erected about the year 1780. The present structure was opened May 10, 1814, under th e management of Messrs. Wood & Warren. It was enlarged and remodelled in 1854 at an expense of $50,000. It is under the management of Mr. J. T. Ford, and has accommodations for 1,500 persons. Front Street (American) I'lcalre, in Front Street near Gay. The Concordia (German), on S. Eutaw, is a well-conducted establishment. Buffet, lunch, and billiard rooms attached. Admission to the latter through a member of the society. The Mulseum is on the corner of Baltimore and Calvert Streets. Like "Barnum's" in New York, it serves to gratify the juvenile dramatic taste. The New Casino'(Melodeon) is on Baltimore Street (comic songs and minstrelsy). The New Assembly Rooms, the fashionable lecture and concert rooms of the city, are at the intersection of Hanover and Lombard Streets. Carroll Hall, at the corner of Baltimore and Calvert Streets, also contains spacious lecture and exhibition rooms. The Halls of the fraternities of Masons and Odd Fellows, the former in the Gothic, the latter in the Grecian style of architecture, are conspicuous buildings. PARKS, SQUARES, ETc. —Druid Hill Park is a noble pleasance of 550 acres, pleasantly situated in the northern suburbs of the city. It was opened in October, 1861, and abounds in venerable trees and beautiflil shrubbery. It is easily reached from Baltimore Street by Madison Avenue cars. Union Square is a pleasant resort, em 6 brac ing an area of between two and three acre s, at the head o f West Lombard Street. It was laid out in 1851; a spring of most del i ci ous water flows from the centre of the square. Franklin Square, corner of Fayette and Carey Streets, and Jackson Square on Hampstead Street, east of Broadway. Patterson P ark, on E ast Baltimore Street, contains 36 a cres, and embraces the earthworks thrown up for defenc e of the city in the war of 1812. The City Spring, on North Calvert Street, near Saratoga, enclosed by an irn r n ra iling, a nd surrounded by umbrageous elm- t ree s, is an inviting retreat for the thirsty pedestrian during the heats of summer. Near this spring is the Armistead monument, before referred to. Federal Hill.-From the Signal House on this eminence a fine, perhaps the best, view of the city and surroundings is to be had. CEMETERIES.-Green Mountain Cemetery is a charming rural spot, about a mile and a half from Battle Monument, The stone gateway, forming the entrance, at the junction of Belvidere Street and York Avenue, and the chapel, are much admired. It was incorporated in 1837. The cost of grounds and improvements exceeds a quarter of a million dollars. City office, No. 1 Courtland Street. London Park Cemetery, on the Fredererick road, about two miles from the city, is another charming City of the Dead. The grounds, which embrace 100 acres of land, are of diversified character, and admirably adapted for the purposes of sepulture. The gateway is an imposing structure 72 feet wide. City office, 56 W. Fayette. Mount Olivet, on the Frederick pike, is a pretty rural buryingground. An enclosure similar in extent to that of Loudon Park, known as the Baltimore Cemetery, is reached by taking North Gay Street to the limits. There are other burial-grounds in and near Baltimore, two of which are known as Mount Carmel and the Western, but they will hardly repay a visit after you have seen Green Mount and Loudon Park. DRIVES, WALKS, ETC. —Aorth Point, at the mouth of the Patapsco, was the scene of a memorable battle, September 12, 1814, between the Americans, un BALTIMOITE.) [BALTIMORE.

Page  7 MARYLAND. der General Stryker, and the British, under General Ross, in which the former were defeated, and the latter lost three commanders. On the following day, September 13th, Fort McHenry was bombarded for twenty-four hours, by sixteen ships and a land force of 1,200 men. The assailants were repulsed, and the fortress left in the possession of its defenders. This engagement at North Point and Fort McHenry is duly celebrated in Baltimore on each recurring anniversary, and the Battle Monument, already described, was erected in commemoration thereof. Govanstown, four miles from the city, on the York road, has a well-kept hotel. The Cold Spring House is passed on the way. A line of street cars extends to Towsontown, three miles beyond. Four miles on the Philadelphia road is the village of Kiygsville and the Herring -Run, a favorite spot for gudgeon fishing. Fort JfeHenry, at the entrance to the harbor, and distant about three miles from the centre of the city, ought not to be forgotten by the visitor to Baltimore. It is built on the extremity of a peninsula formed on one side by the harbor and on the other by the Patapsco River. It successfully resisted the bombardment of the British fleet in 1814. Franklin, five miles from Baltimore, over a well-shaded, well-laid turnpike and attractive landscape. A road leading south-west from Franklin brings the visitor into the old Frederick turnpike. On this road are Mount de Sales, the Convent of the Visitation, and St. Timothy's Hall. Returning cityward, a number of beautiful country seats are passed. Bv crossing the Patapsco River at the foot of Light Street, the stranger will be afforded an opportunity of visiting the embryo city of Brooklyn, in the adjoining county of Anne Arundel. Among the promenades and rambl es of the city, Baltimore Street, west of Jones Falls, is perhaps the most attractive. In it are located the principal retail stores, and thither repair those of both sexes who make " shopping " the great business of week-day life. The " Sui" Building, on the corner of Baltimore and South Streets, has the first iron front erected in the city. It is a large and highly ornamented structure. The " Sun " newspaper is issued daily and weekly from th is buildin g. The extensive news and periodica l de pot of Henry Taylor & Co. ad joins the Sun offi ce on the east. The office o f the "Americ an," the le ading Republican journal of the State, is on the oppos i te side of Baltimore Street, wes t of Sou th Street. Bendann Bro the rs, the eminent pho to graphers, o ccupy commodious rooms at No. 207. Gallery open from 10 to 5. Well-executed pictures and views of the pu blic buildings can be procured at th is establishment. The largest and richest assortment of watches, jewelry, and silver ware, is to be found at the establishment of Messrs. Canfield, Brother & Co., No. 229 Baltimore Street. North Charles Street and Avenue are also pleasant promenades. In Mount Vernon Place, and the vicinity of the Monument, are some handsome residences. This constitutes the Belgravia of Baltimore, the favorite resort of the city's "best society." East Baltimore Street and Broadway, in the other end of the city, afford pleasant promenades. Crossing Jones Falls at the foot of Baltimore Street, the Church of St. Vincent de Paul and the cupola of the Front Street Theatre are seen north of the bridge. Proceeding eastward, the visitor will pass the Second Presbyterian Church, a fine Gothic structure, corner of Baltimore and Lloyd Streets, and many handsome residences, until he reaches Broadway, the boulevard of the East End. Turning southward, down Broadway, he can visit the Methodist, Presbyterian, and St. Patrick's Churches; and further on the Fell's Point market house. The passenger depot building, and offices of the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. in Camden Street, between Eutaw and Howard Streets, present an imposing appearance. The main front on Camden Street is upward of 300 feet long, and is one of the finest structures of the kind on the continent. The passenger depots of the Northern Central Railway, in Calvert Street, and of the Phil., Wil. & Balt. Railway in President Street, are large and costly structures. TYze Shot Tower, on the corner of Front and Fayette Streets, is a prominent object, and one which always elicits the 7 BALTIMORE.] [BALTIMORE.

Page  8 MARYLAND. attention of the stranger. It is 246 feet high, and contains over one million bricks. CAR AND STAGE ROUTES, FERRIES, ETC.Car and stage routes are laid in all the principal streets and avenues, and almost every object of interest mentioned in the foregoing pages is readily reached by this means. The following are the main lines of the City Passenger Railway: Sout/ Baltimore, from Baltimore at the intersection of Gay Street, to Light Street terminus, every ten minutes. North Baltimore, from Baltimore corner North Street, to end of Charles Street, every ten minutes. Franklin Square, from Baltimore Street West End, to Baltimore Cemetery, every five minutes. Madison Avenue, from Thames Street, East Baltimore to city limits, every five minutes. Canton line connects at Thames Street and runs to East City boundary at Canton. Pennsylvania Avenue, from city limits to Gay Street, every ten minutes. Running time, Summer 6 A. M., Winter 61 A. M. till midnight. General office corner Baltimore and Eutaw Streets. York Road, from corner Baltimore and North Streets every hour, from 7 A. M. to 6 P. M. excepting 12 M., connecting at North Avenue; returning, leave Towsontown same hours. Time to Towsontown, 7 miles, 1 h. 15 min. Catonsville and Ellicott's Mills, hourly from 7 A. M. to 8 P. m., terminus City Passenger Railway; time to Catonsville, 6 miles, one hour. For such as prefer their own mode of conveyance, the livery stables and hackmen of the city afford ample accommodation at reasonable rates. Stages run daily to Long Greene, Franklintown, and Pikesville, and triweekly to Bel-air and Kellville (see Wood's City Directory, for points and time of departure). The rates of hack and coach fare in Baltimore are regulated by law, and penalties for over-charging are rigidly enforced. Federal Hill Ferry, fiom City Block, foot of West Falls Avenue. Locust Point Ferry, from foot of Broadway. EXPRESSES.-Adams' (freight and package).-164 W. Baltimore. McClintock's (baggage).-South End B. & O. R. R. Depot. Renshaw's.-Northern Central Depot. Donaldson's.-President Street Depot. TELEGRAPH OFFICES.-People's line, 23 South Street. U. S. line, 21 South Street. American, corner North and Baltimore, with branches at the principal hotels. The river and shore scenery in the neighborhood of Baltimore offers great attractions to tourists and sportsmen. The Patapsco River flows, 70 miles, from Carroll County, in the northern part of the State, to the Chesapeake Bay, which it enters 15 miles below the city of Baltimore. It is navigable as far as Baltimore for large merchant ships. It is a rapid stream, and is much utilized as a waterpower. The Baltimore and Ohio Railway is built along the whole extent of the western branch of the river. The S?tsquehanna River enters the northeast corner of the State, not far from its dgbouche into the Chesapeake Bay at Havre de Grace. It is formed by the union o f two bran ches, known as the east and west bran che s, which u nite at Northumberland, 60 miles above Harrisburg, Pa. The mai n stream is 150 miles in length, and is adorned by numerous beautiful islands and rocky rapids. The Potomac River forms the boundary line between Maryland and Virginia. Along its passage of 350 miles, from the mountains to the Chesapeake Bay, there is much beautiful and varied scenery. The landscape at its confluence with the Shenandoah, near Harper's Ferry, Virginia, has long been famous among the chief picturesque wonders of America. The Falls of the Potomac, about 14 miles above Georgetown, D. C., will repay a visit. The principal cascade is between 30 and 40 feet perpendicular pitch, and the rocky cliffs on the Virginia side of the river have a very impressive aspect. This river is navigable for'ships of the line 200 miles to the Washington Navy Yard. At Alexandria, Va., 9 miles below the Capital, the river is more than a mile wide, and nearly 8 miles wide at its conflu 8 BALTIMORE.] [VICINITY. VICINITY.

Page  9 MARYLAND. ence with the Chesapeake. Independent of its many and varied natural attractions, this noble river is invested with an interest which will forever render it attractive, not only to every student of history, but also to every lover of his country. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is construct ed along the north branch of this river, between Georgetown, D. C., and Cumber land, Maryland. Tie Chesapeake Bay is the great highway from Baltimore to the Atlantic, which it enters between Capes Charles and Henry, in Virginia. It is the largest bay in the United States, its length being about 200 miles, with a breadth varying from four to forty miles. Its depth permits the passage of the largest ships nearly to the mouth of the Susquehanna, at its upper extremity Its shores are profusely indented with arms or estuaries of the oddest shapes, and with the mouths of tributary rivers and creeks, which abound in fish. The region drained by the Chesapeake and its tributaries embraces an area of 70,000 square miles. Among the principal of these tributaries are the Susquehanna, Patapsco, and Potomac, already mentioned; the James, and Rappahannock, the Elk, Choptank, Chester, Nanticoke, and Pocomoke, smaller rivers, are all more or less navigable. The waters of the Chesapeake cut off a large portion of Maryland, and further down the coast a little slice of Virginia on the east. This severed portion of the mainland is known as the Eastern Shore of Maryland and of Virginia. These districts, in the aside position which they thus o c c u p y out of the great current of the national life, invite the traveller by their u n i q u e specialties of social habit and chara c t er. Railway enterprises, city lot man i a s, and other "general orders" of the d a y, by which the thought and manner of the country are dragooned into universal uniform, and hurried along at forced m a r c h, have not yet entered these byplaces. Indeed, there may still be found in them, intact, much of the fbeling, opini on, and life of the "Old Dominion " of a c e n t u r y ago; genuine "first families," with a w f u l pedigrees, hung up in the weatherstained halls of antediluvian homes; man o r i a l homesteads, with big doors ever o p e n, and surrounded with lordly acres. The reti nue s o f hereditary dependa nts however, are gone, with the abolition of the slave system; they and many of the customs and usages of society in this locality have disappeared. The Eastern Shore, both in its material and social aspect, is much changed since " the good old times" the early settlers were wont to boast of before the war, but not altogether for the worse. Here is yet preserved the old, exploded idea, that the present hour, as well as the future, is worth the caring for, and life is considered a thing to be enjoyed, not in anticipation alone, but as it passes, day by day. Let the business man, care-worn and wearied, slip down from New York, Philadelphia, or Baltimore by one of the way steamers on the Chesapeake; let him land lazily at ancient Accomac, or thereabouts, and forget for a little while the wrinkling perplexities of cabinets and commerce, in the quiet pleasures of simple domestic life within doors, and the genial recreations to which he will be bidden without. These waters, with their tributary streams, are among the most famous resorts in the United States for every species of aquatic game. Birds of all feathers are drawn hither in marvellous numbers by the abundance of food found on the great flats or shoals along the shores and upon the river inlets. " Above, around, in numerous flocks are seen Long lines of ducks o'er this their favorite scene,." " There is," says Dr. Lewis, in his American Sportsman, "no place in our wide extent of country, where wild-fowl shooting is followed with so much ardor as on the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, not only by those who make a comfortable living from the business, but also by gentlemen who resort to these waters from all parts of the adjoining States to participate in the enjoyments of this farfamed ducking ground. All species of wild-fowl come here in numbers beyond credence, and it is really necessary for a stranger to visit the region, if he wishes to form a just idea of the wonderful multitudes and numberless varieties of ducks that darken these waters, and hover in interminable flocks over these famed feeding-grounds. It is not, however, the va [VICINITY. BALTI31ORE.]

Page  10 , RCHESAPEAKE BAY. riety or extraordinary numbers of ducks on the Chesapeake that particularly attract the steps of so many shooters to these parts, as there are other rivers and streams equally accessible where wildfowl also abound. But the great magnet that makes these shores the centre of attraction, is the presence of the far-famed CANVAss-BAcK, that here alone acquires its peculiar delicacy of flavor, while feeding upon the shores and flats of these waters." "The canvass-backs," says Dr. Sharpless, of Philadelphia, in a paper contributed to Audubon's Birds of America, " pass up and down the bay, from river to river, in their morning and evening flights, giving, at certain localities, great opportunities for destruction. They pursue, even in their short passage s, v ery much the o rder of their migrat ory mo vements, flying in a line of baseless t riangle: and w hn the wil on the win d blows on the points which may li e in their course, the sportsman has great chance of success. These points o r cour ses of the duc ks ar e materially affected b y t e ins o the inds; for they avoid, if possible, an app roach to t he sho re; but when a strong b reez e sets them on to these projections of the land, they are com p elled to pass with in shot, and often over the l and itself. "In the Susqu e hanna and E lk Ri vers there are few of these points for shooting, and there success depends on approaching them while on their feedinggrounds. After leaving the eastern point at the mouth of the Susquehanna and Turkey Point, the western side of the Elk River, which are both moderately good for flying shooting, the first place of much celebrity is the Narrows, between Spesutic Island and the western shore. These Narrows are about three miles in length, and from three to five hundred yards in breadth. "By the middle of November, the canvass-backs, in particular, begin to feed in this passage, and the entrance and outlet, as well as many intermediate spots, become very successful stations. A few miles down the western shore is Taylor's Island, which is situated at the mouth of the Rumney and Abbey Island at the mouth of Bush River, which are both celebrated for ducks, as well as for swans and geese. These are the most northerly points where large fowl are met with, and projecting out between deep coves, where immense numbers of these birds feed, they possess great advantages. The south point of Bush River, Legoe's Point, and Robbins' and Pickett's Points, near Gunpowder River, are famous localities. Immediately at the mouth of this river is situated Carroll's Island, which has long been known as a great shooting-ground. Maxwell's Point, as well as some others up other rivers, and even further down the bay, are good places, but less celebrated than those mentioned. Most of these places are let out as shooting-grounds for companies and individuals, and are esteemed so valuable that intruders are severely treated." Norfolk, Virginia, on the Elizabeth River, at the lower extremity of the bay, is the depot for the receipt and sale of the game taken in the Chesapeake, and there the best purchases can be made. The sport, as all who have joined in it full well know, is not without its difficulties and its dangers. Says the learned Doctor from whom we have already quoted: "Notwithstanding the apparent facilities that are offered of success the amusement of duck-shooting is probably one of the most exposing to cold and wet; and those who undertake its enjoyment without a courage'screwed to the sticking-point,' will soon discover that'to one good a thousand ills oppose.' It is, indeed, no parlor sport; for, after creeping through mud and mire, often for hundreds of yards, to be at last disappointed, and stand exposed on points to th~'pelting rain or more than freezing cold,' for hours, without even the promise of a shot-would try the patience of even Franklin's' glorious nibbler.' It is, however, replete with excitement and charm. To one who can enter on the pleasure with a system formed for polar cold, and a spirit to endure the weary toil of many a stormy day, it will yield a harvest of health and delight that the roamer of the woods can rarely enjoy." The voyage down the Chesapeake from Baltimore to Norfolk, provided it be made in pleasant weather, is a delightful trip. The steamers of the Old (Bay) and New Lines make trips daily, running through in twelve hours. 10 CHESAREAKF, BAY.] MARYLAND.

Page  11 [BALT. & OHIO RAILWAY. for the auspicious event, and on the 30th of Augus t, 1830, the first section was opened by steam-power, 14 miles, from Baltimore to Ellicott's Mills. The trial of the first engine was made on the 25th of August of that year. On the 1st of June, 1853, the entire route, of nearly 400 miles, was completed, and on the 10th of January a formal opening of the road was made by a through excursion, With great public fetes and rejoicings. It suffered severely during the late war from the destruction of its track, bridges, and rolling-stock.'On the 16th of May, 1861, several bridges were destroyed and portions of the track torn up. June 14th, the costly bridge at Harper's Ferry was wholly destroyed; and on the 23d of the same month no less than 46 locomotive engines and upwards of 300 cars, valued at nearly half a million dollars, were burned by order of the Confederate General, Joseph E. Johnston. With the enterprise which has always characterized the management of this road, these damages have all been made good, and the road is now in the best order possible. To see it, and the numerous points and objects of interest tributary to it, the traveller should be prepared to spend at least three days between Baltimore and Wheeling; a fortnight might be profitably and pleasantly passed in making the entire distance and returning. Leaving the city, we cross the Carrollto?? Viaduct, a fine bridge of dressed granite, with an arch of 80 feet span, over Gu,ynn's Falls, after which the road soon reaches the long and deep excavation under the Washington Turnpike, which is carried over the railroad by the Jackson Bridge. Less than a mile further the "deep cut" is encountered, famous for its difficulties in the early history of the road. It is 76 feet in extreme depth, and nearly half a mile in length. Beyond this the road crosses the deep ravine of .Robert's -Run, and, skirting the ore banks of the old Baltimore Iron Company, now covered by a dense forest of cedar-trees, comes to the long and deep embankment over the valley of Gadsby's.Run, and the heavy cut through Vinegar Hill immediately following it. The Relay House, eight miles from the inner station, is next reached, where, as 11 The points of chief interest seen in the passage of the bay, are the embouchure of the Patapsco River and the battleground of North Point, near Baltimore, and referred to in our mention of that city: the Bodkin, three miles distant; the harbor of Annapolis, 15 miles still below; and, in the distance, the dome of the venerable Capitol in which "Washington, the great and good, set the seal to his sincerity, and finished the edifice of his glory, by voluntarily surrendering his conquering sword to the civil authority of his country." At the lower end of the bay are the famous fortifications of Fort Monroe and the Rip Raps, protecting the entrance to Hampton Roads and James River. It is a charming route, also, to Richmond, turning at or near Norfolk, into the mouth of the James River, and following the many devious miles of those winding and picturesque waters. (See chapter on Virginia, for James River.) For variety of picturesque landscape scenery, combined with the scarcely less important considerations and attractions of memorable historic association and convenience of travel, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad affords a route which no one making the Southern tour should fail to take. In extent, commercial importance, and pictorial attraction, this great route is one of the most important and interesting in America. It unites the city of Baltimore with the waters and valley of the Ohio, at Wheeling, 379 miles away, making one of the pleasantest and speediest of the great highways from the Atlantic to the Mississippi States. Its whole course is through a region of the highest picturesque variety and beauty, and it is itself a work of the highest artistic achievement in the continual and extraordinary display of skill which the singular difficulties of the way have called forth. It claims, too, especial consideration, and reflects the greatest honor upon the State of Maryland and its beautiful metropolis of Baltimore-as the first railway in America which was built by an incorporated company, and without the assistance of the public purse. The corner-stone of the road was laid at a very early period in the history of railways. July 4, 1828, was the day chosen CHESA.PEAKE BAY.] MARYLAND.

Page  12 RELAY HousE.] the name imports, there was a change of horses during the period in which those animals furnished the motive power of the road. Here diverges the branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to Washington City, which we shall have occasion to speak of in our journey southward from Baltimore. At this point the open country of sand and clay ends, and the region of rock begins at the entrance to the gorge of the Patapsco River. In entering this defile, you have a fine view of the Thomas Viaduct (named after the first President of the Company), a noble granite structure of eight elliptic arches, each of about 60 chord, spanning the stream at a height of 66 feet above the bed, and of a total length of some 700 feet. The pretty village of Elkridge Landing is in sight, and upon the surrounding heights are seen a number of pleasant country seats. The road now pursues its devious course up the river, passing the Avalon Iron Works, a mile beyond the Relay House, and coming, in a couple of miles further, to the Patterson Viaduct, a fine granite bridge of four arches, two of 55 and two of 20 feet span. This bridge crosses the river at the Ilchester Mills, situated at a very rugged part of the ravine. The Thistle Cotton Factory appears immediately beyond, and soon after Gray's Cotton Factory. Proceeding westward, we reach Ellicotts Jfills, 14 miles from Baltimore, an exceedingly picturesque little town, in a bold, rocky passage of the Patapsco. It contains a newspaper-office, bank, several churches, and a population of 1,500. The Frederick Turnpike road passes through the town here, and is crossed by the railroad upon the Oliver Viaduct, a handsome stone bridge of three arches, each of 20 feet span. Just beyond this bridge is the I'arpeian Rock, a bold, insulated mass of granite, between which and the body of the cliff the railroad edges its way. The road soon after comes in sight of the Elysville Factory buildings, where it crosses the river upon a new viaduct of three iron spans, each of 110 feet, and almost immediately upon another of similar length. Thence it follows the various 12 windings oft the s tr eam to the Fork, 25 miles fro m Baltimore. Pas sing th e Marriottsville limestone quarries nea r t he station o f that name, the road crosses the Patapsco by an iron bridge 50 feet span, and dashes through a sharp spur of the hill by a tunnel 400 feet long in mica slate rock. After passing one or two rocky hills at Hood's Mill, it leaves the granite region and enters upon the gentle slopes of the slate hills, among which the river meanders until we reach the foot of Parr's Ridge, which divides the waters of the Patapsco from those of the Potomac. From the summit of the ridge at the Mount Airy Station, 44 miles from Baltimore, is a noble view westward across the Fredericktown Valley, and as far as the Catoctin- Mountain, some 15 miles distant. The road thence descends the valley of Bush Creek, a stream of moderate curves and gentle slopes, with a few exceptions, where it breaks through some ranges of trap rocks, which interpose themselves among the softer shales. The Monrovia and Ijamsville Stations are passed at Bush Creek. The slates terminate at the Monocacy River, and the limestone of the Fredericktown Valley commences. That river is crossed by a wooden bridge of three spans, 110 feet each, and elevated about 40 feet above its bed. The Valley of the Monocacy is equally remarkable for its beauties of position, its rich agricultural resources, and its mineral wealth. At Monocacy, the traveller will pass the battle-ground where, on the 9th of July, 1864, Gen. Lew. Wallace and the Federal forces were defeated by a superior Confederate force, and compelled to retreat to Baltimore. Subsequent developments have rendered it probable that the gallant stand made at the Monocacy Bridge on that day by Gen. Wallace, and the heavy loss that he inflicted on the enemy, saved Washington from capture on the 12th. From Monocacy a branch road extends three miles north to Frederick, the county seat of Frederick County and the centre of one of the most fertile, populous, and wealthy sections of the State. It is the third city of Maryland in population, MARYLAND. [FREDERICK.

Page  13 POINT OF RocKs.] wealth, and trade. Besides a handsome court-house, it contains numerousc hurch edifices, two newspaper offices, and sever al large factories. Some popular Catholic educational establishments, among them St. John's College, are located here. From the Monocacy to the Point of Rocks, the road, having escaped from the narrow, winding valleys to which it has thus far been confined, bounds away over the beautiful champaign country lying between that river and the Catoctin Mountains. This range of mountains, a continuation of the Blue Ridge, runs west of Frederick, due south, to the Point of Rocks. Between this range and the South Mountain, which slopes to the Potomac at Knoxville, nestles Maryland's loveliest valley, the valley of Catoctin, of which Middletown, 10 miles from Frederick, is the centre. A conspicuous elevation at the termination of the Catoctin range is known as the Stgarloaf -Jount airo. The Point of Rocks is formed by the bold profile of the Catoctin Mountain, against the base of which the Potomac River runs on the Maryland side, the mountain towering up on the opposite (Virginia) shore forming the other barrier of the pass. The railroad turns the promontory by an abrupt curve, and is partly cut out of the rocky precipice on the right, and partly supported on the inner side of the canal on the left by a stone wall of considerable length. Two miles further another cliff occurs, accompanied by more excavation and walling. Beyond, the ground becomes comparatively smooth, and the railroad, leaving the immediate margin of the river to the canal, runs along the base of the gently sloping hills, passing the villages of Berlin and Knoxville, and reaching the Weverton Factories, in the pass to the South Mountain. The Battle of South Mountain really commenced at a bridge over Catoctin Creek, half a mile west of Middletown, where Confederate artillery had been posted to dispute the passage. After most desperate fighting, the crest of the h i l l was gained by the Federal troops and the enemy driven into the valley on the w e s t side of the mountain. Turner's Gap, w h e r e the last desperate stand of the Con federate right was made, is two miles from the base of the mountain. Crampton's Gap, t hrough whi ch passe s the road from Jefferson to Roherville, is six miles south. From Southi Mounltain to Harper's Ferry, the road lies along the foot of a precipice for the greater pa rt o f the distance of t hre e miles, the last of w hich is immediately under the rocky cliffs of Elk Mountain, forming the north side of this noted pass. The Shenandoah River enters the Potomac immediately below the bridge over the latter, and their united currents rush rapidly over the broad ledges of rock which stretch across their bed. The length of the bridge is about 900 feet, and at its western end it divides into two, the left-hand branch connecting with the Winchester and Potomac Railroad, which passes directly up the Shenandoah, and the right-hand carrying the main road, by a strong curve in that direction, up the Potomac. The bridge consists of six arches of 130 and one arch of about 75 feet span over the river, and an arch of about 100 feet span over the canal; all of which are of timber and iron, and covered in, except the western arch connected with the Winchester and Potomac Railroad, which is entirely of iron, excepting the floor. This viaduct is not so remarkable for its length as for its peculiar structure, the two ends of it being curved in opposite directions, and bifurcated at the western extremity. Harper's Ferry and all its fine points of scenery are too well known to need elaborate description here. The precipitous mountains which rise from the water's edge leave little level ground on the river margin, and all of that is occupied by the United States Armory buildings. Hence the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad has been obliged to build itself a road in the river bed for upwards of half a mile, along the outer boundary of the Government works upon a trestle-work, resting on the side next the river upon an insulated wall of masonry, and upon the other side supported by strong iron columns placed upon the retaining wall of the Armory grounds. The town is delightfully situated at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers, in Jefferson County, Va., 160 miles north of Richmond and 63 miles northwest of Washington. It is coin l3 MARYLAND. I [HA.RPER's FERRY.

Page  14 HARPzR's FERRY.] pactly though irregularly built around the base of a hill. Besides the Armory, a National Arsenal was located here. Both buildings, with nearly 15,000 stand of arms, were destroyed by fire, April 18th, 1861, on the approach of the Virginia State troops. Southern troops soon occupied the town and adjacent heights, and by May 20th, the number of Confederate soldiers on the spot was estimated at 8,000. On the 14th the point was evacuated. Previous to the war it was a prosperous tradingplace, and was known in the early days of Virginia as Shenandoah Falls. It was once "the garden spot of Virginia;" but war, though it has rendered it more interesting to the traveller, has, for the present at least, robbed it of its claim to the former distinction. It was the scene of the exploits which in October, 1859, rendered the name of John Brown, of Ossawattomie-Kansas notoriety, still more notorious. Charlestown, the county scat, where Brown and his followers were tried and executed, is seven miles distant, on the road to Winchester. Visitors to Harper's Ferry should not fail to see the Maryland Heights, Bolivar Heights, Loudon Heights, and the fortifications which have been erected on them. This was the theatre of one of Stonewall Jackson's most famous exploits, when Harper's Ferry was captured by the Confederates in September, 1862. After passing the uppermost of the Armory buildings, the road runs along the outer bank of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, which brings the water of the river to the works, and soon crosses this canal by a stone and timber bridge 150 feet span. Thence the road passes up the river on the inner side of the canal, and opposite the dam at its head, about one and three-quarters of a mile from the mouth of the Shenandoah, and pierces aprojecting rock by a tunnel or gallery of 80 feet in length. The view down the river through this perforation is singulary picturesque, presenting the pass through the mountain at the confluence of the rivers in one of its most remarkable aspects. A short distance above the tunnel, where the river sweeps gradually round to the eastward in the broad smooth sheet of water crea 14 ted by the dam, the railroad leaves the Potomac and passes up the ravine of Elk Branch, which presents itself at this point in a favorable d irection. This ravine, at first narrow and serpen tine, becomes wider and more direct, until it almost roses itsel f i n the rolling table land which ch aracterizes the "V alley of Virginia." The head of Elk Branch is reache d in about nine miles, an d thence the line descends gra dually over an undulating champaign country, to the crossing of the "Opequa" Creek, which it passes by a stone and ti mbe r viaduct of 150 feet span and 4D feet above the water s urface. Beyond the crossing the road e nters the open valley of Tuscarora Creek, whic h it crosses twice and pursues to the town of Martinsburg, 18 miles from Harper's Ferry. Kearneysville, 11 miles west of Harper's Ferry, was the scene of many cavalry fights between Generals Pleasanton, Averill, Custer, and Merritt, on the one side, and Fitz Lee and Stuart on the other. This part of the road, and indeed the whole region around Martinsburg, including that town itself, was occupied alternately at least fifteen times during the war, first by the Federal and then by the rebel soldiers, and battles were almost continually taking place in its vicinity. Antietam, seven miles from Kearneysville, is reached over the turnpike road to Sharpsburg. Tourists will find good conveyance to the battle-field, where was closed one of the most memorable campaigns of the war. The battle was fought on the 17th September, 1862, between General McClellan and General Lee, and resulted in the withdrawal of the forces of the latter across the Potomac on the following day, and the virtual abandonment of further contest on the soil of Maryland. Eight miles westward the train reaches Martinsburg, the end of the first division of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and (which is of vastly greater importance to the hungry traveller) the Dinner Station. Martinsburg, the capital of Berkeley County, West Virginia, and a place of considerable trade, is pleasantly situated 100 miles west of Baltimore, on Tuscarora Creek, a rapid stream, which affords fine manufacturing privileges. Here the traveller will find the scene of the most de MARYLAND. [ANTIETAM

Page  15 MARYLAND. structive labors of the Confederate troops. i It was here, and near here, on the 23d June, 1861, that 87 locomotives and 400 freight cars, belonging to the railroad company, were collected by the rebel troops under Jackson's personal direction, and burned or destroyed; little even of the wreck of this terrible destruction is now to be seen. At Martinsburg the Tuscarora is bridgeed twice, and the crossing east of the town being made upon a viaduct of 10 spans of 44 feet each of timber and iron, supported by two abutments and 18 stone columns in the Doric style. The architectural effect of this structure is good. Sharpsburg, situate not far distant from the west bank of Antietam Creek, 14 miles south of Hagerstown, owes its interest mainly to the great battle fought in its vicinity. The town still bears many marks of the fight, the houses being perforated by shells, and defaced by Mini6e balls. The Lutheran and Episcopal Churches suffered so severely that they have had to be pulled down. The principal object of interest, next to the battlefield itself, a fine view of which it commands, is the National Cemetery. The plan originated with Governor Bradford, was approved by the General Assembly of 1865, and the grounds located on the site they now occupy upon the summit of the most prominent hill of the range selected by Lee for his line of battle. The view is at once commanding and beautiful. Westward from Martinsburg the route for seven miles is continued over the open country, alternately ascending and descending, until it strikes the foot of the North Mountain, crossing this by a long excavation, 63 feet deep, in slate rock, through a depression therein, passing out of the valley, having traversed its entire breadth upon a line 26 miles in length. On leaving these rich and well-tilled lands, we enter a poor and thinly-settled district, covered chiefly with a forest in which stunted pine prevails. The route encounters a heavy excavation and embankment for four or five miles from the North Mountain, and crosses Back Creek upon a stone viaduct of a single arch of 80 feet span and 54 feet above the stream. The view of the Potomac Valley is magnificent as you approach the bridge, and extends as far as the distant mountain range of Sideling Hill, 25 mile s to the west. The immediate margin of the river is reached at a point opposite the ruins of Fort Frederick, on the Maryland side, an ancient stronghold, erected more than a hundred years ago. From this point, thirty miles from Harper's Ferry, the route follows the Virginia shore of the river upon bottom lands, interrupted only by the rocky bluffs opposite Licking Creek, for ten miles to Hancock. The only considerable stream crossed in this distance is Sleepy Creek, which is compassed by a viaduct of two spans of 110 feet each. Six miles west of Hancock, the traveller reaches Sir John's Rutn, the scene of much warlike preparation and activity during the early days of the rebellion, and the point of departure for the Berkeley Springs. These famous springs are situated at the eastern base of the Warm Spring Ridge, two miles distant from the railway-station, and are the resort of much travel. The hotel is elegantly fitted up, lighted by gas, and is well kept during the season. Coaches await the arrival of the trains. Leaving Sir John's Run, the track sweeps around the termination of the Cacapon Mountain, opposite the remarkable and insulated eminence called the " Round Top." Thence on to the crossing of the Great Cacapon River, nine and a half miles above Hancock, which is crossed by a bridge about 300 feet in length. Within the next mile it passes dam No. 6 of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and soon after it enters the gap of Sideling Hill. The next point of interest reached is the Tunnel at Doe G~tlly. The approaches to this formidable work are very imposing as for several miles above and below the tunnel they cause the road to occupy a high level on the slopes of the river hills, and thus afford an extensive view of the grand mountain scenery around. The Paw Paw Ridge Tunnel is next reached, 30 miles from Hancock, and 25 miles below Cumberland. This tunnel is through a soft slate rock, and is curved horizontally with a radius of 750 feet. 15 SHARPSIIURG.] [DoE GULLY.

Page  16 PATTERsON's CREEK.] River. It contains a court-house, county prison, banks, and other public buildings, several handsome church edifices, three newspaper establishments, and a good hotel-the Revere House. The entrance to the town is beautiful, a nd dis plays the nobl e amphitheatre in which it lies to great advantage, the gap of Will's Mou ntain, westwa r d o f the to wn, being a justly prominent feature of the view. The brick and stone viaduct over Will's Creek is entitled to particular notice. It consists of 14 elliptical arches of 50 feet span and 13 feet rise, and is a well-built and handsome structure. Visitors for Bedford Springs, Virginia, leave the main line at Cumberland. From Cumberland to l]'iedmont, 28 miles, the scenery is remarkably picturesque, perhaps more so than upon any other section of the road of similar length. For the first 22 miles, to the mouth of New Creek, the Knobly Mountain bounds the valley of the North Branch of the Potomac on the left, and Will's and Dan's Mountains on the right; thence to Piedmont, the river lies in the gap which it has cut through the latter mountain. Chimney-Hole Rock, at the termination of Fort Hill, is a singular crag, through the base of which the Railroad Company have driven a tunnel under the road to answer the purpose of a bridge for several streams entering the river at that point. The cliffs which occur at intervals during the first 10 miles after leaving Cumberland; the wide bottom lands extending for the next four miles; the high rocky bluffs along Fort Hill, and the grand mural precipice opposite to them, on the Virginia shore, immediately below the "Black Oak Bottom," a celebrated farm embracing 500 acres in a single plain, between mountains of great height, are worthy the attention of the tourist. The crossing of the Potomac, from the Maryland to the Virginia shore, is 21 miles from Cumberland, where the railroad, after passing through a long and deep excavation, spans the river by a bridge of timber and iron, on stone abutments and a pier. The view at this point, both up and down the river, is very fine. The Bull's Head Rock, a mile beyond this bridge, is a prominent object. The viaduct over Little Cacapon Creek is 143 feet long. About five and a half miles further on, the south branch of the Potomac is crossed on a bridge 400 feet long. Some two miles above is a fine straight line over the widely-expanded fiats oppo site the ancient settlement of Old Town, in Maryland. These are the finest bottom lands on the Potomac, and from the upper end of them is obtained the first view of the Knobly Jfountain, that r emarkable range which lies in a line with the town of Cumberlend, and is so singularly diversified by a profile which makes it appear like a succession of artificial mounds. Dan's ~fountain towers over it, forming a fine background to the view. Soon after, the route passes the high cliffs known by the name of Kelly's Rocks, where there has been a very heavy excavation. Patterson's Creek, 70 miles west of Martinsburg, and eight miles east of Cumberland, is next reached. Immediately below this stream is a lofty mural precipice of limestone and sandstone rock, singularly perforated in some of the ledges by openings which look like Gothic loopholes. The valley of this creek is very straight and bordered by beautiful fiats. The viaduct over the stream is 150 feet long. Less than two miles above, and six miles from Cumberland, the north branch of the Potomac is crossed by a viaduct 700 feet long, and rising in a succession of steps-embracing also a crossing of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. This extensive bridge carries us out of Virginia, and lands us once more in Maryland, which we left at Harper's Ferry. The route thence to Cumberland is across two bends of the river, between which the stream of Evett's Creek is crossed by a viaduct of 100 feet span. Cumberland, on the Potomac River, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, is 179 miles west of Baltimore. It is in the mountain region of the narrow strip which forms the western part of the State, and in point of population and trade is its second city. It is the eastern terminus of the Great National Road leading to the Mississippi 16 MARYLAND. [CUMBERLAND.

Page  17 CHIMNEY-HoLE RocK.] From Cranberry Sumnmit, "the topmost round" of the Alleghanies, magnifi cent views to the west are to be had. The descent of 11 miles to Cheat Rive r pre - sents a rapid succession of very heavy ex cavations and embankments. At one point the r oad, a fter skirting a beautiful glade,enters a savage -look ing pass throu gh a deep forest of hemlocks and laurel thickets, the stream dash ins over large rocks and washing the side of the ro ad but a few f eet below i ts level Th es e are kno wn as the Falls of Snowy Creek. There are also two t u nnels, viz., t he McGuire Tunnel of 500, and the Itodem rer Tunnel of 400 feet in lenxt h, secured by the most durable arches of stone and brick. The re is also a stone and iron viaduct over Salt Lick Creek 50 feet span and 50 feet hitgh. The creek passes through a dense fore st of fir-trees in its appro ach to the ri ver. Cheat Rive r is a dark, rapid moun tain st ream, whose waters are of a curious coffee-colored hue, owing, it is said, to its rising in fore sts of laure l and black spruce on the highe st mountain levels of that c ountry. This stream is c rossed by aviadu ct consisting of two arches, 180 and 130 feet span, of timber and iron, on stone abutments and pier. The ascent to the Cheat River Hill comes next. This is decidedly the most imposing section of the whole line-the difficulties encountered in the four miles west of the crossing o f th e river being quit e appalling. The road, winding up the slope of Laurel Hill and its spurs, with the river on the right hand, first crosses the ravine of Kyer's Run 76 feet deep, by a solid embankment; then, after bold cutting, along a steep, rocky hill-side, it reaches Buckeye Hollow, the depth of which is 108 feet below the road level, and 400 feet across at that level; some more side cutting in rock ensues, and the passage of two or three coves in the hillside, when we come to Tray Run, and cross it 150 feet above its original bed by an iron trestle-work of light and graceful construction, 600 feet long at the road level. For several miles on this part of the line, the road runs along the steep mountain side, presenting a succession of the most delightful landscapes. In favorable weather, day trains stop ten minutes to 17 At Piedmont, 206 miles west of Balti more, the traveller reaches, as the name implies, the foot of the Alleghany Moun tains. This is the end of the second divi sion of the road, and here are located a hotel and extensive machine-shops. The village stands at the mouth of George Creek, and opposite is the ancient village of Westenport. We now commence the ascent of the Alleghanies. Passing up the valley of Savage River, through the Everett Tunnel, past the mouth of Crabtree Creek, where, in military parlance, the road turns the flank of the Great Backbone Mountain, we reach Altamont, in Alle,,hany County. Here, 160 miles east of Parkersburg, the traveller finds himself at the surprising altitude of 2,700 feet above the city of Baltimore, and upon the extreme summit of the Alleghanies. It is here that the mountain streams divide, flowving in one direction towards the Ohio River, the Mississippi, and the Gulf of Mexico, and in the other towar ds the Potomac River, the Che sapeake Bay, and the Atl antic Ocean. From Altamont wec stward, for a distance of nearly twenty m iles, are beautiful na tural m eadows lying al ong the upper waters of the Youghiogheny (Yoh-ho-ganee) River, and its numerous tributaries, divided by ridges generally of moderate elevatio n an d g entle slope, with fine ranges of mountai ns in the background. These meadows are known as the " Glades." At Oakland, nine miles beyond Altamont, is the Glades Hotel, which some poet, doubtless to the manor born, has honored in the following Shakespearian paraphrase: "This hotel hath a pleasant seat, the air Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself Unto our gentle senses" MAOACBETH The Great and Little Youghiogheny, close by, are famous trouting streams; and the glades and oak-clad hills in the neighborhood abound with game. The crossing of the Great Youghiogheny River is by a viaduct of timber and iron-a single arch of 180 feet span resting on stone abutments. The site of this fine structure is wild, the river running here in a woody gorge. A few miles beyond Oakland, the boundary line between Maryland and Virginia is crossed MARYLAND. [CH]EAT RIVER.

Page  18 MARYLAND. afford travellers an opportunity to view the viaduct and scenery of this part of the line. After passing these two tremendous clefts in the mountain side, the road winds along a precipitous slope with heavy cutting, filling, and walling, to Buckhor-n Branchi, a wide and deep cove on the western flank of the mountain. This is crossed by a solid embankment and retaining wall 90 feet high at its most elevated point. Some half mile further, after more heavy cuts and fills, the road at length leaves the declivity of the river, which, where we see it for the last time, lies 500 feet below us, and turns westward through a low gap, which admits it by a moderate cutting, followed soon, however, by a deep and long one through Cassidy's Summit Ridge to the table land of the country bordering Cheat River on the west. Here, 80 miles fi-om Cumberland, we enter the great western coal-field, having passed out of the Cumberland field 35 miles from that place. Descending from Cassidy's Ridge, and passing by a high embankment over the Bushy Fork of Pringle's Run, the line soon reaches the Kinywood Tunnel, the longest finished tunnel in America. This fine structure, the work of Benjamin H. Latrobe, is 4,100 feet long, took five years to build, and cost one million dollars. Leaving Kingwood Tunnel, the line for five miles descends along a steep hillside to the flats of Raccoon Creek, at Newburg. In this distance it lies high above the valley, and crosses a branch of it with an embankment 100 feet in elevation. There are two other heavy fills further on. Two miles west of Kingwood Tunnel is Murray's Tunnel, 250 feet long, a regular and beautiful semicircular arch cut out of a fine solid sandstone rock, overlaying a vein of coal six feet thick, which is seen on the floor of the tunnel. From Newburg, westward, the route pursues the valleys of Raccoon and Three Forks Creeks, which present no features of difficulty to the Grafton Station. Grafton is nearly equidistant from Cumberland and Wheeling, being 100 miles west of the first, and about 100 east of the last-named place. It is pleasantly situated on the Tygart's Valley River, which is 18 here crossed by a handsome iron bridge. Here terminates the third or mountain division of the line. The Northwestern Virginia Railway to Parkersburg, 104 miles, intersects the mai n l ine at this point. It has a good hotel and dining saloon. Fetterman, a prom ising looking village, two miles fur ther on, is ne xt reached. Here the turnpike to Parkersburg and Marietta crosses the river. The route from Fetterman to Fairmont has but one very striking feature: the Tygart's ValleyRiver, whose margin it follows, is a beautiful and winding stream, of gentle current, except at the Falls, where the river descends, principally by three or four perpendicular pitches, some 70 feet in about a mile. The view in fine weather is charming. A mile and a half above Fairmont the Tygart's Valley River and the West Fork River unite to form the Monongahela, the first being the larger of the two confluents. A quarter of a mile below their junction, the railroad crosses the Monongahela, upon a viaduct 650 feet long and 39 feet above low-water surface. The lofty and massive abutments of this bridge support an iron superstructure of three arches of 200 feet span each, which form the largest iron bridge in America. It was five times destroyed and as often rebuilt during the war. At Fairmont, 77 miles from Wheeling, the Monongahela is again spanned by a beautiful suspension bridge 1,000 feet in length. The road, a mile and a half below Fairmont, leaves the valley of the beautiful Monongahela, and ascends the winding and picturesque ravine of Buffalo Creek, a stream some 25 miles in length. The creek is first crossed five miles west of Fairmont, and again at two points a short distance apart, and about nine miles further west. About nine miles beyond Fairmont we pass the small hamlet of Farmington, and seven miles further is the thriving village of 1, -J~annington," at the mouth of Piles' Fork of Buffalo. There is a beautiful flat here on both sides of the stream, affording room for a town of some size, and surrounded by hills of a most agreeable aspect. Thence to the head of Piles' Fork, the road traverses at first a narrow and GRAFTON.] [FETTERMAN. I

Page  19 LITTLETON STATION.] ed eight times. There are also several deep cuts through sharp ridges in the bends of the creek, and one tunnel 400 feet long at Sheppard's, 19 miles from Wheeling. The approach to the bank of the Ohtio tRiver at the village of.foundsville, 12 miles from Wheeling, is very beautiful. The line, emerging from the defile of Grave Creek, passes straight over the "fiats" which border the river, and forming a vast rolling plain, in the middle of which looms up the "great Indian mound," 80 feet high and 200 feet broad at its base. The history of this singular mound is still involved in mystery. There is also the separate village of Elizabethtown, half a mile from the river bank, the mound standing between two towns and looking down upon them both. The " flats" embrace an area of some 4,000 acres, about three-fourths of which lies on the Virginia, and the remaining fourth on the Ohio side of the river. The soil is fertile and well cultivated, and the spot possesses great interest, whether for its agricultural richness, its historical monuments of past ages, or the beauty of its shape and position as the site for a large city. About three miles up the river from Moundsville, the "flats" terminate, and the road passes for a mile along rocky narrows washed by the river, after which it runs over wide, rich, and beautiful bottom lands, all the w ay to Wheeling.. Hagerstown, capital of Washington County, with a population of about 4,000,is a prosperous place, 26 miles northwest of Frederick, from which it may be easily reached by stage. It is pleasantly situated on the west bank of Antietam Creek, nine miles from the Potomac River. It is the southern terminus of the Cumberland Valley Railroad, which runs through Chambersburg to Harrisburg 74 miles. It is well located in the midst of a fine agricultural district, is well built, and contains several substantial edifices. The Washington is the principal hotel. Of the numerous routes from the Atlantic seaboard, southward, that by rail, via Baltimore and Washington, is the most expeditious, and, all things considered, the most popular. We will suppose the traveller to have made the tour ot 19 serpentine gorge, with five bridges at different points, after which it courses with more gentle curvatures along a wider and moderately winding valley, with meadow land of one or two hundred yards broad on one or other margin. Numurous tribut ari e s open out pretty vistas on either hand. This p ar t of the valley, in its summer dress, is singularly beautiful. After reaching its head at Glover's Gap, 23 miles beyond Fairmont, th e roa d p asses the ridg l e by d eep cuts, an d a tunnel of 350 feet long, of curious shape, forming a sort of Moorish a rch in its roof. From this summit which divides the waters of the Monongahela fr om th ose of the Ohio) t he l ine descend s by Church's Fork of Fsrish Creek — a valley of the same general features with the one just passed on the eastern side of the ridge. The road now becomes winding, and in the next four miles we cross the c reek eight times. We also pass Cole's Tunnel, 112 feet, Eaton's Tunnel, 170 feet, and Marten's Tunnel, 180 feet long. T he Littl6ton Sta tio n is re ach ed just b eyond, and Board tree Tu nnel is soon at h and. This tunnel, 40 miles east of Wheeling, passes under a g reat hill, which was originally crossed by the railroad on a zigzag t rac k with seven angles representing seven V's. Leavinto Board T ree Tunnel, the lin e descends alon g the hi l l-side o f the North Fork of Fish Creek, crossing ravines and spurs by deep fillings and cuttings and reaching the level of the flats bo rdering the Creek a t Bell's Mill; soon after which it crosses the c reek and a scends Hart's Run an d F our Mile Run to the Welling Tunnel, 50 miles w est of Fa irmont, and 28 from Wheeling. This tunnel is 1,250 feet long, and pierces the ridge between Fish Creek and Grave Creek. It is through slate rock, like the Board Tree Tunnel, and is substantially arched with brick and stone. From the Welling Tunnel the line pursues the valley of Grave Creek, 17 miles to its mouth at the Flats of Grave Creek on the Ohio River, 11 miles below Wheeling. The first five miles of the ravine of Grave Creek are of gentle curvature and open aspect, like the others already mentioned. Afterwards it becomes very sinuous, and the stream requires to be bridg MARYLAND. I [HAGFRSTOWN.

Page  20 [BLADENSBURG. Academy, established in 1845. It has since been removed to Newport, Rhode Island. The city contains a market, theatre building, and about 500 private dwellings. Many important events occurred in Annapolis during the period of the Revolution; and here, at the close of the conflict, occurred the memorable scene of Washington's resignation of his commission. A fine picture of this incident, by Edwin White, has been recently placed in the chamber where it occurred. It was a nimportant rendezvous for troops, and depot for the receipt and shipment of supplies during the late rebellion. Near Annapolis Junction the remains of a large military camp are still seen. Leaving the Junction and pursuing our way s outh ward past Savage, Laurel, and Beltsville Stations, we reach Bladervburg, a pretty little surburban village lying on both sides of the road, and on the east side of the Eastern Branch of the Potomac, which it enters immediately below Washington City. It is conspicuous as the spot where the national arms sustained a defeat in attempting to arrest the British in their movement on the capital, August 24, 1814. It was also a famous duelling-ground in the early days of Congressional wrangling. It abounds in gardens, has a fine mineral spring, and is much visited by Washingtonians during the summer months. Soon after leaving Bladensburg, the lofty dome of the Capitol rises in view, forming the centre of an extended landscape, and soon after the train stops at the foot of Capitol Hlill. the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and to have returned to Baltimore, for unless his& ultimate'destination be New Orleans, or some other point on the Mississippi, he will find it to his advantage, not only as regards time and money, but also as regards opportunities for sight-seeing, to continue his journey by the route here indicated. Crossing the Thomas Viaduct, a splendid structure, which spans the valley of the Patuxent a short distance south of the Relay House, mentioned in the commencement of our chapter, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, as connecting the branch with the main line, we reach An. napolis Junction, 18 miles from Baltimore. Here a branch road connects with Amnapo]L s, 21 miles from Annapolis Junction, and 39 from Baltimore. Annapolis, the capital of Maryland, county seat and port of entry of Anne Arundel County, is a place of considerable interest, from its antiquity and its many historical associations. It is situated on the west side of the River Severn, two and a half miles from Chesapeake Bay. Founded in 1649, it was first called Providence, next Anne Arundel Town, and lastly, when it received a city charter in 1708, Annapolis, in honor of Queen Anne. It became the seat of the State Government in 1689, on its removal from St. Mary's, the old capital. The State House is an interesting ediflee. Here is the seat of St. John's College, founded in 1784, by an endowment from the State and by the munificence of individual citizens. At Annapolis, also, was located the United States Naval 20 ANNAPOLIS.] MARYLAIND.

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Page  21 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. Washington City, the political capital of the United States, is situated in the District of Columbia, on the north bank of the Potomac River, 122 miles north of Richmond, Virginia. After much discussion and not a little ill feeling amongst members of Congress, and leading men in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Maryland, the site for the Federal capital was decided on, and the necessary grants of lands made. The site, if not chosen by Washington himself, seems to have been selected through his agency, and it was he who laid the corner-stone of the Capitol. This was on the 18th of September, 1793, seven years before the seat of government was removed thither from Philadelphia Under Washington's direction the city was planned and laid out by Andrew lilicott. The first public communication on record in regard to laying out the city is from the pen of General Washington, and' bears date 11th March, 1791. In a subsequent letter-20th April, 1791-he called it the "Federal City." It was first known as " the City of Washington," September 9th of-the same year. Its ancient name was Conococheague, derived from a rapid stream of that name which ran near the city, and which, in the Indian tongue, means the Roaring Brook. The city was incorporated May 3, 1802, and is therefore in its sixty-fifth year. Its limits embrace an area equal to four and a half miles long by t wo a nd a half broad. It is i dle to speculate upon the action of legislative bodies, and especially of those which convene at the national capital; but should the original plan of Washington ever be realized in its full growth to the proportions it was designed to reach-as may yet happen-it will be in its own. right, and without the aid of its official position, one of the great cities of the Union. Indeed, it would be difficult to invent a more magnificent scheme than that of the founder of Washington, or to find a location more eligible for its successful execution. Its easy access 21 THE District of Columbia is a sui generis tract, neither State nor Territory, but set apart as the seat of the Federal Government. It was ceded to the United States for this purpose by Maryland. It occupies an area of 60 square miles. Oriinally its m easure was one hundred square miles, the additi on al forty ominc g from Virginia. This part of the cession, howe ver, w as retroceded in 1846. T he pr esent cities of the District are Washingto n, the national capital, and Georgetown, close by. Maryl and lies upon all sides, except the sout hwest, w her e it is separated from Virginia by the Potomac River. The Di strict of Columbia is governed directly by the Congress of the United States, unde r act of Cong ress (Feb. 27, 1801), a nd it s inhabitants have no representation, and no voice in the Federal elections. ~ Its population, which in 1860 was 78,300, has increased to nearly double that number; an increase attributable rather to the demands of the Government during the military operations of which Washington was the great centre, than to the legitimate increase of local trade and traffic. Its principal water-course is the Potomac River, which, taking its rise in the Alleghany Mountains, receives the waters of several important streams, and after a winding course of nearly 400 miles, discharges into Chesapeake Bay. Its principal tributaries are the Shenandoah, the Monocacy, the Conococheague, and the Anacostia or Eastern branch, which forms the eastern boundary, and Rock Creek, the western boundary of the capital. WASHINGTON CITY.] [WASHINGTON CITY. WASHINGTON CITY, 40 miles from Baltimore, 138 from Philadelphia, 226 from New York. JIOTELs. —Jfetropolitan (Brown's), fflzllard'8, Mbe'tt Home, spacious first-class establishments.

Page  22 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA., [WASHINGTON CITY. from the sea gives it every facility for commercial greatness, and its varied topography almost compels picturesque effect and beauty. The scene from the lofty dome of the Capitol, or from the high terrace upon which this magnificent edifice stands, is one of unrivalled beauty, and gives the visitor at once and thoroughly a clear idea of the natural advantages of the location, and of the character, extent, and possibilities of the city. Looking eastward, for the space of a mile or more, over a level plain, now thickly dotted with small dwellings, the eye falls upon the broad and beautiful waters of the Potomac, flowing by Alexandria and the classic groves of Mount Vernon, to the sea. Turning westward, it overlooks the city as it at present exists, upon the great highway of Pennsylvania Avenue, to the edifices of the State and Treasury Departments and the President's House, the avenue dropping toward its centre, as a hammock might swing between the two elevated points. Around, on other rising grounds, the various public edifices are seen with fine effect; and, turning again to the left, the view takes in the broad acres of the new Park, over which may be seen the towers of the Smithsonian Institute, and the half-finished shaft of the Washington Monument; whilst off in the distance, across Rock Creek, lies the quaint but picturesque little city of Georgetown, embosomed in an amphitheatre of hills. Those who do not care, or who have not time to visit the several public buildings and objects of interest in and around Washington, should not fail to make the ascent of the dome, and enjoy this view. The visitor will of course turn his first attention to the public or Government buildings, which form the especial attraction of the city. The Capitol, not less on account of its strictly national character than its extent and magnificence, is entitled to the first consideration. The corner-stone of this imposing struc ture, as we have already stated, was laid by Washington himself, September 18, 1793. In August; 1814, it was burned by the British, under Admiral Cockburn, together with the Library of Congress, 22 the President's House, and other p ubl ice works. Portrai t s of Louis the XVIth and Marie Antoine tte, King and Queen of France, which were in the Senate Cham - ber of the Capitol at the time of the capture, were also burne d o r stolen. In 1818 it was entirely repaired, and in 1851 (July 4), President Fillmore laid the corner-stone of the new buildings, which make the edifice now more than twice its original size. Its w hole len gth is 751 feet, and the area covered, exclusive of the court-yards, 153,112 square feet, or rather more than three and a half acres. The surrounding grounds, which are beautifully cultivated and embellished by fountains and statuary, embrace from 25 to 30 acres, and are known as the East and West Grounds. The Senate Chamber and the Hall of Representatives of the Congress of the United States, are in the wings, or, as they are more familiarly known, the "Extension" of the Capitol, on either side of the central building. The grand -Rotunda contains eight large pictures, illustrating scenes in American history, painted for the Government by native artists. Entering the Rotunda immediately under the dome at the main doorway on the east front, the visitor will find the pictures ranged in the following order: 1. Discovery of the Mississippi by De Soto. May, 1541. 2. Baptism of Pocahontas, Jamestown. May, 1613. 3. Declaration of Independence. Phila delphia, July 4, 1776. 4. Surrender of General Burgoyne. Sar atoga, Oct. 17, 1777. 5. Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, York town, Oct. 19, 1781. 6. General Washington resigning his Com mission. Annapolis, Dec. 23, 1783. 7. Embarkation of the Pilgrims. July 21 (0. S.), 1620. 8. Landing of Columbus. Oct., 1492. The third and three following pictures of the series, were painted by Colonel John Trumbull, for the Government, at a total cost of $32,000. It was the picture of the Declaration that provoked John Randolph's ungracious and unjust criti cism. He called it the shin piece, and a host of would-be connoisseurs have been denouncing it ever since. It is really WASHINGTON CITY.] I

Page  23 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. one of the best, if not the best painting, in the Rotunda. Over the main entrance is a fine picture by, representing the murder of the Innocents. A full-length portrait of the late President Lincoln, oc cupies a similar position over the door way leading to the Senate Chamber. Over the western entrance is a half portrait of the late Joshua R. Giddings. These pictures have little intrinsic merit, and are valuable and interesting mainly on ac count of the portraits they contain. The connoisseur will best decide for himself their relative merits as works of art. Heads of Columbus, Sir Walter Raleigh, Cabot, and La Salle appropriately occupy alternate panels over the pictures. In the panels over the four entrances to the Rotunda are alto-rilievos in stone, representing Penn's Treaty with the Indians, the Landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, the Conflict of Daniel Boone with the Indians, and the Rescue of Captain John Smith by Pocahontas. The floor of the Rotunda, 96 feet in diameter, is of freestone, supported by arches of brick, resting upon two concentric peristyles of Doric columns in the crypt below. The height of the Rotunda is 96 feet. On the floor of this Rotunda were encamped the soldiers of the New York Seventh Regiment, when they arrived in Washington in April, 1861. The Dome, which rises over the Rotunda in the centre of the structure, is the most imposing feature of the vast pile. The old dome was constructed of brick, stone, and wood, and sheathed with copper, and rose to the height of 145 feet from the ground. This was removed in 1856, and the present structure of iron erected, from designs by Walter, the architect of the Extension. The castings composing the Dome, are from the manufactoriy of Janes, Beebe & Co., New York. The weight of iron used in its construction amounts to ten million lbs. The interior of the Dome measures 96 feet in diameter, and 220 feet from the floor to the ceiling. Externally, it rises 241 feet above the roof of the main building, 300 feet above the eastern, and 396 feet above the western front. The view of the Dome from the gateway to the Western Grounds, partially broken by the intervening forest trees, is very fine. As before remarked, visitors should not fail to make the ascent of the Dome. A spi s tiral stairway, t ravers ing the whole superstructure between the outer and inner shells, affords easy access, and gives the visitor a favorable opportu nity for inspecting, from different points of view, the fresco painting on the canopy overhead. This is the work of Constan tine Brumidi, whose altar-piece of the Crucifixion, recently placed in the Cathe dral of St. Peter and St. Paul, in Phila delphia, has been so much admired. It covers a space of 6,000 square feet, and was commenced and completed within the space of ten months. The canopy at its base is 54 feet in diameter and 250 feet in circumference; 63 figures are contained in the picture, many of them, in order to produce the effect necessary for life-size when seen from the floor beneath, being colossal in their dimensions, and varying from twelve to seventeen feet in height. The centre figure will be readily recognized. It consists of a portrait of Washington, in a sitting posture. To his right is seated the Goddess of Liberty, and on the left a female figure representing Victory and Fame proclaiming Freedom. In a semicircle is a group of females, representing the original sister colonies, bearing aloft a banner on which is inscribed the national motto. Surrounding this undercircle, near the base of the design, are six artistic groups, representing War, Agriculture, Mechanics, Commerce, the Navy, and Science. The overthrow of treason is strongly typified in the discomfited yet malignant aspect of the figures which shrink from view under the feet of the incensed figure of Liberty and Union. In the group representing the Arts and Sciences the figures of Franklin, Walter, and Fulton occupy prominent places. Mr. J. P. Gulick has immediate charge of this portion of the Dome. From the gallery immediately underneath the fresco gallery, another spiral stairway leads to the lantern, 17 feet in diameter and 52 feet high. This is surmounted by the tholus, or ball, and this in turn by Crawford's statue of Liberty, 16. feet high, cast in bronze by Clark Mills. Leaving the Rotunda by the southern 23 WASHINGTON CITY.] ['WASHINGTOlq CITY.

Page  24 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. I [WASHINGTON CITY. doorway, the visitor to the Capitol finds himself in the south wing of the centre building, in the Old Hall of Representatives. Most persons who visit the Capitol for the first time have their attention so much absorbed in the new extension, and the debates which during the session are carried on there, that they overlook the objects of interest in the central edifice; yet, as a late writer has justly remarked, there is no roam in the new buildings comparable in beauty to the old Representatives' Hall. This fine chamber really forms one of the most interesting relics of the history of Congress. It is, moreover, replete with historical associations of the deepest interest. The ruined towers and fretted aisles of the Old World, moss-clad and ivy-wreathed, may delight the eye and please the sense of the European tourist, dillettanti, and scholar more than these sombre and unromantic walls, bare and whitewashed as they are; but surely to the American-born citizen they must ever be replete with an interest wellnigh sacred. On the floor of this hall all the great men of the first half century of the republic figured. Here Clay presided, here Webster spoke, here Adams died; but the reader's knowledge of American history is, doubtless, better than the author's; besides, the limits of a guidebook forbid any attempt at historical picture-painting. The apartment is semicircular in form, 95 feet in length and 60 feet high to the apex of the ceiling. The columns which support the entablature are 24 in number, and constructed of variegated green brecc/ia,or pudding-stone, from the Potomac Valley, and cost over $8,000 apiece. There is nothing like them nor so fine elsewhere in Washington. The ceiling is painted in panel, to imitate that of the Pantheon at Rome. Light is admitted through a cupola in the centre of the ceiling. In the tympanum of the arch stands a statue of Liberty, executed in plaster by Causici. A full-length portrait of Lafayette, presented to Congress on the occasion of his visit in 1825, occupies a place on the western wall; opposite is a portrait of Washington by Vanderlyn. The statue by Franzoni, representing History standing in a winged car, the wheel of which, by an ingenious device, forms the dial of a clock, is de 24 servedly admired. The unsightly galleries an d othe r unpleasi ng (but for their original p urpose necessary) features of the hall have been removed, aid the m ain corridor now tra verses o the hall to the door of the new hall. An ornamental railing has recently been erected, within which will be placed the statu a ry and paintings which, from time to time, come into possession of the Government. The plaster model of Crawford's statue of Freedom which crown s the dome of the building, and busts of Secretary Stanton and Crawford the sculptor, occupy the left of the entrance to the main corridor. On the right are statues of Washington and Kosciusko, and busts of Presidents Lincoln and Johnson. The Bronze Door, which opens out of the old hall upon the corridor leading to the new hall, is a work of considerable merit, though seen to poor advantage in its present position. It is composed entirely of bronze, and weighs 20,000 pounds. It was designed by Randolph Rogers, an American artist, and modelled by him in Rome in 1858. The cast was executed by F. Von Miiller, at Munich, in 1861. The work is in alto-riltievo, and commemorates the history of Columbus and the discovery of America. It is 17 feet high, 9 feet wide, and cost $30,000. The door has eight panels, each containing a distinct scene in the life of the great discoverer, the last the death scene, in which Columbus is represented surrounded by his friends and attendants, with his eyes fixed upon the crucifix, feebly nmuttering his last words, "tIn manus tuas Domine commendo spiritum meum," is a beautifully executed and impressive picture. The statuettes, sixteen in number, between the panels and on the sides of the door, represent the eminent contemporaries of Columbus. Advancing southward along the corridor, a few steps bring us to the new hall of the House of Representatives. Admission to the floor of the House is only granted before the morning session, or during a recess of the House. The cham ber itself is 139 feet long, 93 feet wide, and 30 feet high. The lowness of the ceiling, which is supported by trusses from the roof beyond, and panelled with stain ed glass, gives this otherwise fine atpart WASHINGTON CITY.]

Page  25 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.' frescoes typical of the history of the country; also portraits of the first President and his Cabinet, by Brumidi. The room of the Vice-President contains a portrait of Washington by Rembrandt Peale. Admission to the galleries of both Senate and House can always be obtained on application to the Door-keeper or any of his assistants. The Supreme Court Room, a semicircular apartment 75 feet long and 45 feet high, situated upon the eastern side of the north wing of the centre building, is interesting. Busts of the former Chief Justices Jay, Rutledge, Ellsworth, and Marshall, adorn the walls. Underneath the Supreme Court room-is the apartment formerly occupied by the Court, and devoted to the Law Library. The corn-stalk columtn s which ornament the entrance to this apartment, and the tobacco-leaf cap. itals of the circular colonnade, between the old Senate Chamber and the Rotunda, are worthy of notice. This library, which is separated from the main library of Congress for the convenience of the Court, contains upwards of 16,000 volumes, and is rich in works upon civil, maritime, and commercial law; a catalogue was published in 1860. The principal architectural feature of this room are the arches which spring from the massive arched ribs of stoine resting on Doric columns. The Library of Congress occupies a suitable apartment, which, when fully completed, will embrace the entire western projection of the centre building. The main room is 91 feet long and 34 feet wide, ceiled with iron, and fitted up with fire-proof cases. It has been found that in this particular too much caution cannot be exercised. The collection of books was commenced under act of Congress, April 24, 1800, at the suggestion of President Jefferson; the collection, amounting. to 3,000 volumes, was destroyed when the Capitol was burnt by the British in 1814. In December, 1851, the library numbered 55,000; a second fire, which occurred on the 2,4th of that month, swept away all but 20,000 volumes; among those saved were fortunately a large portion of the Jefferson collection. The present library-room was completed July, 1853, at a cost of nearly $73,000. The annual appropriations for the pur 25 ment a g loomy and cramped appearance, which the is audy, g arish charac ter of the decoration serves ra ther to heighten. The Strangers' Gallery, to which ready ascent is afford ed by means of two grand marble stairways, extends entirely round the hall, and affords seats for 1,200 persons; sections of the gallery are railed off fo r the use of the diplomatic corps an d s o the reporters for the press. The space not specially appropriated to their us e is open to visitors. The Speaker's Room, immediately in the rear of his chair, i s a high ly d ecorated apartment. From the southein lobby of the House two stair way s descend t o the basement, w here are located the Refectory and various committee-rooms. The room of the Committee on Agriculture will repay a visit;, the walls and c eiling are painted in fresco by Brumidi. To those who visit the Capito l dur ing te spring or summer m onths, a walk throujth the basement wi ll be ap preci ated a s n ot t he least enjoyable feature of the visit. The corridor, which is 241 feet wide, contains 30 monolithic flute d column s of whit e marble, wi th f ol iated capitals, and, fr om the th ickness of the surround ing w alls and exclusio n from the sun' r s rays is a refreshingly c ool place for a promenade. Traversing t he basement to the north end, we reach the floor above by a stairwa y similar t o that leading from the Hall of Representatives. T he Senat e Chamber pre se nts few featur e s worthy special notice, after v isiting the Hall of Representatives. It is somewhat smaller than the other, being 112 f eet l ong by 82 fee t in width, and is open t o the same objection on account of the lowness of the ceiling. Being ornamentcd and f itted with better taste, h o wever, it has a more pleasing general appearance. T he galleries a re r each ed by marbl e stairways s imilar to those in the south w ing. Thes e staircases really constitute the most striking architectural displays in the recent extension of the Capitol. Those who have the necessary time at their disposal, will be repaid by visiting the President's and Vice-President's Rooms, the Senators' Retiring-Room, the Reception-Room, and Senate Post-Office. In the President's room, which adjoins the retiring-chamber on the west, are 2 WASIAINGTON CITY.] [WASHINGTON CITY.

Page  26 'DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. feet high. The surrounding grounds, which embrace an area of about 20 acres, slope gradually to the Potomac on the south. A circular colonnade of six Doric pillars adorns this front, from which is a pictur esque view of the river and Virginia shore. On the north front, overlooking Pennsyl vania Avenue, is a portico with four Ionic columns, under which carriages pass. In the lawn, immediately in front of this drive, is a bronze statue of Jefferson. On the grounds south of the White House a band of music performs Wed nesday and Saturday afternoons, during the summer months, when there is usually a large attendance of ladies from the city. It is proposed to build anew Presidential Mansion, in which case the Department of State will occupy the present White House. The President receives calls every week day, except Cabinet days and special ap pointment days, from 10 to 1 o'clock. A grand levee is held at the White House on New-Year's Day; this is regarded as the opening levee, after which, of late years, it has been the custom to con sider fortnightly evening levees as in order. The President's Lady, in compa ny with the President, also gives a recep tion weekly, during the Session of Con gress, usually on Saturday mornings. The announcements of the daily press furnish the best guide in this particular. Lafayette Square, on the north side of Pennsylvania Avenue, in the immediate vicinity of the President's Mansion, affords a pleasant ramble. In the centre of the square is Clark Mills's well-known eques trian statue of Jackson, erected January, 1853. The pose of the rider and the * poise of the horse may be regarded as miracles of art. The Treasury Department.-The ravt ages of fire, and the constantly increasing business of the Government, has required repeated and extensive additions to and ex tensions of the public buildings of WashI ington. Perhaps the most noteworthy , instance of this rapid growth and ad- vancement in the material wealth of the nation is furnished in the present extent t of the United States Treasury building. I The act establishing the Treasury De- partment was approved September 2,1789. The first edifice erected for the purpose chase of books amount to $7,000. The colle ction n ow numb er s 70,000, exclusive of documents, which number nearly a s many more; a catalog ue of the book s has just been published. Th e library is open to all throughout the sessions of Congress, and on stated days during the recess. Since the erection of the bronzed gates to guard the alcoves containing the books, this famous library has lost many of its attractions for the literary lounger; neither is it so attractive to the ladies who, during the pendency of dull debates, whilome found these alcoves such pleasant places for quiet flirtation. The Document Library is reached by a flight of stairs at the left of the entrance to the old Hall of Representatives. On the eastern portico, and in the grounds surrounding the Capitol, are several works of art, conspicuous among which are Persico's statues of Columbus, of Peace, and of War, and the group of statuary representing Civilization, by Greenough; the statue of Washington, executed by the same artist, representing the Father of his Country seated on a pedestal of granite 12 feet high, in imitation of the antique statue of Jupiter Tonans, cannot be regarded as a very truthful or artistic effort. The whole cost of the Capitol buildings, as they exist at this time, (1866), has been nearly $12,000,000; work upon it has never been entirely suspended since the commencement of the war. The Executive Mansion, or White House, as it is popularly called, is 1I miles west of the Capitol, upon a high terrace, at the opposite extremity of Pennsylvania Avenue, surrounded by the Treasury, State, War, and Navy Departments. The corner-stone of the building was laid with appropriate ceremonies on the 13th October, 1792. It was built from designs by James Hoban, and was modelled after the palace of the Duke of Leinster; it was much injured during the occupation of the city by the British, and extensive repairs were found necessary, which were made in 1815, under the supervision of the same architect. It is two stories high, 170 feet long, and 86 feet deep, built of freestone, and painted white. The " East Room " is a fine apartment, 80 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 20 26 WA.SHINGTON CITY.] , [WASHINGTON CITY.

Page  27 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. mass of copper-ore from Ontonagon, Lake Superior. It is said to have been originally used as a sacrificial rock by the Indians, who regarded it with peculiar awe and veneration. It cost the United States $5,640. The State Department.-The Department of State, at present, occupies an unpretending two-story brick building on the corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and Fifteenth Street. This will probably be removed in a short time, to make way for the northern front of the Treasury building, already referred to. The organization of this Department embraces the following bureaus, under the immediate jurisdiction of their respective officers, viz.: the Diplomatic Branch, the Consu lar Bran ch, the Disbursing Agent, Transla t or, Appointments and Commissions, Rolls and Archives, Territorial business, Pardons and Passports, and Statistics. The Library contains books, maps, and charts, to the number of 16,000, and is worthy of examination. The Patent- Office, sometimes but erroneously called the Department of the Interior, is centrally located on F Street, between Seventh and Ninth Streets. It occupies the entire block, having a frontage of 410 feet on F Street, and extending back 275 feet to G Street. It was built after designs by Wm. P. Elliott, and extended recently by Edward Clark. It is admired, not less for the simplicity of its style than for its extent and the massive grandeur of its proportions. The style of architecture is Doric. There are porticoes on the east, west, and south fronts. The north front is not yet quite complete. The interior of this building is admirably designed and handsomely finished. The basement is occupied by the Bureau of Agriculture and the Indian office. In the second or main floor are located the office of the Secretary of the Interior, the General Land-Office, the Pension and Census Bureaus, and the office of the Commissioner of Patents. The principal feature of the whole building is the Model-Room of the Patent-Office, which occupies the entire upper floor of the edifice, forming four large halls or chambers, unequalled for extent and beauty on the continent. The total length of this floor is 1,350 feet, or rather more than a quarter of a mlle. of a United States Treasury, was destroyed by the British in 1814. The second was also burned down in the spring of 1833. The east front of the present building, on Fifth Street, with its unbroken Ionic colonnade of 300 feet, occupies the site of the old T reasury building. This colonnade was modelled after that of the Temple of Minerva a t Athens. It was commenced in the summer of 1836. The extension, now nearly completed, w a s begun in 1855, from designs by Walter, the archit ec t of t he Capitol extension. The plan of t he extension flanks the old building at each end with massive fronts. The old building is c ompose d of brown sandstone, paintedthe r ecent extension is of solid granite from Dix Island, on the coast of Maine. Whe n completed, and i t on ly lacks the north ern front, it will be 514 feet long, b y 275 f eet in width. The interior arrangement of the building is admi rable. The printing of the public paper moneys, popularly k nown during an d ever since the war as " greenbacks," is carried on in the basement and upp er flo ors of th is building. A p ermi t fr om the S ecretary of the T reasur y is necessary for admission to this par t of the buildinga The gr ounds on t he south, or Potomac front, are used by the various cricket and baseball club s of the city. The War and Navy Departmnents, facing each other on Pennsylvania Avenue and Seventeenth Street, we st of the White House, a re plain brick buildings, with nothing but their size and past impor tan ce to invi te at t ention. They were en larged in 1864-'65, in order to meet the g r eatly increased demands of the Government gro wing c ut of t he war. A l arge stone building on the west side of Seventeen th St reet, and nearly o pposite the Navy Department, know n a s Winder's Bu ild ing, is attached to the War Department, for clerical purposes. * A collection of flags and other trophies captured during the rebellion, will be found in both these Departments. The visitor's card, accompanied by a request, will insure permission from the Secretary to see them. In the open space between the War and Navy Departments, those curious in ,such matters will do well to examine a WASHINGTON CITY.] [,WASHINGTON CITY. 0

Page  28 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. I [WASHINGTON CITY. two fountains. The main entrance to the building is from F Street. The General Post-OQi%ce, opposite the south front of the Patent-Office, is a n imposing edifice of white marble i ll the modified C o rin t hian style. Th e b uildin g rests on a rustic basement, scarcely discernible since the raising of the street grade. It is 300 feet long, 204 feet deep, and thre e s to ries high. It was commenced in 1839, e xtended in 1855, under th e direction of Mr. Walter, and finished in 1865. Monol iths of Italian marble f orm the colu m ns of the extension. The City Post-Office occupies a por ti on of the north o r F Street front. The whole u pper portion is appropriated to the use of the Gener a l or Uni ted State s PostOffice. Pap ers left by Ben F ranklin when Postmaster General, are preserved here. The Smithsonian Institu!e occupies the areahe b wt of the N ew Park, west of the Capitol, and south of Pennsylvania Avenue, kno wn as the Mall. The easiest approach from Pen ns ylvan ia Avenue is by the Seve nth Street bridge. This noble institution was endowed by James Smithson, Esq., of England, "for. the increase and diffusion of knowledge amongt men." The e d ifice, which is constructed of red sandstone, in the Norman or Romanesque style, was commenced in 1847, and completed soon after. Its length is 4.50 feet, its breadth 140, and it has nine towers, ranging from 75 to 150 feet high. It contains a lectureroom, with sittings for 1,200 auditors; a museum of natural history, 200 feet in length; a superb laboratory; a libraryroom capable of holding 100,000 volumes; and a gallery for pictures and statuary, 120 feet in length. The grounds attached to the Institute, embracing about 50 acres, were laid out by the late A. J. Downing, whose name, so long connected with rural art, and whose melancholy death, will lon, be remembered. A monument erected to his memory by the American Pomological Society, stands near the Institute. Thre Washington Moonument.-All guide and hand-books to Washington, and their name is legion, reserve a conspicuous place for the Washington Monument, contrasting its prospective proportions with the great Pyramid of Cheops in The East Hall is devoted to mechanical models, the north to models of agricultural implements, and the West Hall to rejected models. The entire collection numbers over 50,000 articles; an enumeration of them here might weary the reader, and is therefore omitted. The fresco painting on the roof of the south room is much admired for its freshness and elaborate detail. In this room are cases containing a collection of Revolutionary curiosities and relics, among which are the printing-press of Ben Franklin, and the wardrobe, and many of the other personal effects of Washington, worn by him when he resigned his commission as Commander-in-Chief. Near these are cases for the preservation of medals and treaties of the United States with foreign powers. Among the latter are treaties with Louis Philippe (1831), Louis XVI. of France (1778), and Lollis XVIII. of France (1822). A fine collection of sabres, presented by Bey Ali Pacha to Captain Perrie of the United States ship "Concord," at Alexandria, 1832, adorns the upper end of this case. Cases adjoining these to the west, and numbered four and five, contain a collection of Goodyear's patent rubber goods. On the left of the main stairway are four cases containing robes presented by the Government of Japan to United States Consul-General Harris, June 16, 1859. The rich coloring and fantastic patterns of these vestments are much ad m ired. The gifts of the Tycoon to President Lincoln are worthy close inspection. Powers's fine statue of Washington, taken by General Butler from the Louisiana State House at Baton Rouge, is also in this room, near the head of the stairway. The Model-Room throughout forms one of the most interesting sights at the national capital. The whole building, except the nerth front, which is of brown sandstone, painted to correspond with the rest of the building, is of crystallized marble. The broad platform of the southern portico is reached by a flight of granite steps, 28 in number, and has a double row of fluted Doric columns, each 18 feet in circumference. The inner quadrangle of the structure measures 265 feet by 135 feet, and contains 28 WASHINGTON CITY.] 0

Page  29 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. Egypt, the Tower of Malines in Belgium, and other celebrated monuments, and indulging all sorts of speculative fancies regarding its future extent and magnificence. The truth is, that thle monument as it now exists is a very small and insignificant affair, and, in the out-of-the-way positioni it occupies, scarcely worth the trouble of visiting it. The design contemplated a shaft 600 feet in height, with an ornamented base modelled after the Pantheon at Rome, estimated alone to cost over half a million dollars. Within the base or "Temple" it is contemplated to place statues of Revolutionary heroes and relics of Washington. It is to be surrounded by a colonnade of thirty Doric pillars, with suitable entablature and balustrade. Each State contributes a block of native stone or other material, which is to be placed in the interior walls. Many of these blocks are beautiful specimens, worchy of inspection. They are contained in a shed near the structure. The monument, in its present state of progress, is 170 feet high, and has cost $230,000. Work on it has been suspended for some time. The 1Nagional Observatory is well located on rising ground near the Potomac, between the Navy Department and Georgetown, commanding a fine view of the river and the two cities. This site was formerly known as Camp Hill, and is said to have been the precise spot on which General Washington encamped with Braddock's forces. It was founded in 1842, and was originally designed and used for a hydrographical office. The transit instrument, in the west wing, and the prime vertical transit in the south wing of the building, are fine instruments. A library of astronomical works, and a normal clock by Kessels, of Altona, are in the Superintendent's room. Open for visitors daily, from 9 t o 3 o'clock. The 2Vavy Yard, on the Eastern Branch, about three fourths of a mile southeast of the Capitol, has an area of 27 acres, enclosed by a substantial brick wall. Within this enclosure, besides houses for the officers, are shops and warehouses, two large ship-houses, and an armory, which, like the rest of the establishment, is kept in the finest order. The Navy l]la5yazine is a large brick structure, situ ated in the southeaster n s ection of a plot of 70 acres, on the Eastern Branch. The Armory, appropriated, as the name implies, to the p reser vati on of the ordnance and arms of the Ignite d States required for the use of the District mil itia and similar purposes, is an unpretending three-stor y brick building, on the Mall east of the Smithsonian Institute. The Arsenal, lo cated on Greenleaf's Point, near the confluence of the Eastern Branch with the Potomac, is worthy a visit. The buildings were commenced in 1814, under the superintendence of Colonel Bomford. The Model-Room, and the famous batteries of Bragg and Duncan, will interest the student of militarv science. Many old pieces of ordnance, captured during the war of'76, are preserved here. A frightful explosion occurred here December 18, 1865. The -JIilitary Asylum, or " Soldi-ers' Home," as it is more familiarly known, should not be omitted among the " places worth seeing" in Washington. It occupies a high plateau three miles north of the city. The drive thither is among the most pleasant the District affords. The site was selected by General Scott. The main building is 600 feet long, built of Eastchester marble, in the Norman style of architecture. It has been the custom of the Presidents, since Mr. Pierce's administration, to occupy one of the smaller buildings of the Home as a summer resort, and here the late lamented Lincoln passed some of the last hours of his eventful term. The Congressioiinal Cemetery is about a mile east of the Capitol, near the Eastern Branch. Its situation is high, and commands fine pictures of the surrounding country. The original name of this cemetery was the " Washington Parish BurialGround." It contains several monuments of interest, among which are those to George Clinton, Elbridge Gerry, and William Wirt. There are upward of 150 cenotaphs erected to the memory of members of Congress, who have died during their terms of office. Glenwood, another city of the dead, possessing greater beauty if less interest, is situated about a mile north of the Capitol. The principal public buildings of the city (not strictly national) are the CGity 29 WASHINGTON CITY.] [WASHINGTON CITY.

Page  30 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. [WASHINGTON CITY. may be mentioned that belonging to the Indian Bureau, in the Patent-Office building, and that in the Smithsonian Institute, both consisting mainly of portraits of Indian chiefs who, at different times, have visited the capital. The first-named collection was painted by King, the latter by Stanley. The private collections-in the city, however, far excel in number and value those in the possession of the Government. That of Mr. W. W. Corcoran, the banker, has some very fine pictures and statuary, prom ine nt a mon g which a re Powers's Greek Slave, and the Attack of the -Huguenots, by W. D. Washington. Mr. J. C. Maguire, Mr. Janvier, and other well-known collectors, have also o pened their galleries to artists and lovers of ar t. b The roomus of the Was hington Library Association, o n Eleventh Street, are worthy a visit. The association was incorporat ed in 1814. Th e coll ection numbers 15,000 vol umes. The Patent-Opfrce Library is rich i n s cientific and mechanical works. Here ma y be found a c omplete set of the reports of the British and French Patent Commi ss ioners. The largest and most valuable private coll ect io n of books t o be fou nd in Washingt on is that of Mr. Peter Force; it numbers upward of 50,000, an d is speci ally rich in works on American histo r y. Its loss would be a national cal am ity. The British Embassy is at present located in the residence lately occupied by Dr. Maynard, on Pennsylvania Avenue, between the Circle and Georgetown. It is customary, but by no means obligatory, for British visitors to register there. Visitors to Washington will be spared a great deal of needless expense, delay, and inconvenience, by bearing in mind that all public buildings, including the Capitol and the several Departments, are open to the public from 10 A. M. to 3 r. M. (Sundays excepted), and closed at all other times. No fees are asked or expected for showing them. With few exceptions, all objects of interest in and around the city can be readily reached by street-cars. If you prefer other modes of conveyance, order your own livery, deal only with principals, and observe the regulations duly provided in such cases. By all means avoid the noisy hackmen, Hall in N orth D St reet, between Fourth and Fif th Streets; and the Columbia College, on Fourteenth Street, near th e northern limits of the city. The Itsane Asylumin'occupies a prominenit location on the east bank of the Potomce. It is 711 feet l ong, and is surrounded by p retty g rounds. Am ong the c hurch edifices of Washington, the mo s t noteworthy are Trinity, corner of Third and North C Streets, Chur-ch of the Epiphany ( Dr. Hall's), on G near Thirteenth Street, St. John's, on Lafayette Square, opposite the Executive M ansion, all belonging t o the Episcopalians; St. AloysiNs (R. C.), north of the Capitol; First Presbyterian, on Four and a half Street, near L ou isiana Avenue; and Foundry Ch urch (M. E.), recentlv reconstructed, c orn e r of Fourteenth and G Streets. The places of public amusement in Washington are few and insignificant. Grover's Theatre, on E Street, east of Willard's Hotel, is the best worthy of patronage. The old Washington l'heatre, on Eleventh Street, south of Pennsylvania Avenue, is occasionally open dulring the winter months. Ford's New Theatre, once a popular and well-conducted establishment, is now an object of melancholy interest, from having been the scene of the assassination of President Lincoln. This event occurred on Friday, April 14, 1865, The door by which the assassin Booth escaped is in the rear of the stage, at the back of the theatre. The building is closed by order of the War Department. The room in which the murdered President breathed his last is a back, or extension chamber in the house No. 453 Tenth street, opposite the entrance to the theatre. Among the banking houses of the city, that recently erected for Messrs. Jav Cooke & Co., and the First National Bank, on Fifteenth Street, opposite the eastern entrance to the United States Treasury, are the most prominent and most costly. The banking house of the well-known firm of Messrs. Riggs & Co. occupies a prominent site at the northern intersection of Pennsylvania Avenue and Fifteenth Street. Among the fine-arts collections in Washington, aside from that already referred to in the Rotunda of the Capitol, 30 WASHINGTON CITY.]

Page  31 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. who infest street corners and hotel-bars. Av o i d second and third-class hotels. If y ou are likely to stay a week, or longer, s e cur e only lodgings, of which there are a great number, and board a t a restaur a n t. Gautier's, 252 Pennsylvania Avenue, o r the Restaurant Beuhler, two blocks furt her east, are the best; French an d German spoken; wines and cigars excellent. A v o i d barber-shops and bath-rooms; or, i f it is warm weather, and total immers i o n is necessary to your comfort, go b a t h e in the Potomac, for the baths of t h e Capitol, unlike those of Si loam, never wash clean. from them the relative distance and direction of other points and localities can be readily obt ained. T he Aqueduct, by which the waters of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal a r e carried over the Poto mac, will re pay inspection. It is 1,446 feet long and 36 feet high. The conduit has a nine-foot vent, and dischar ge s 68,000,000 gallons in twenty-four hours. The piers, nine in number, a re built o f gran ite, embedded 17 feet i n the river botto m. It was con struct ed u nder the direction of Major Turnbull, U. S. Top ogr aphical Engineers, and cost $2,000,000. The canal extends 184 miles to Cumberland, Maryland, an d cost $12,000,000. Geor getown College, at the west end of the city, is an old i nstitution of learning. The fir st edifice was commence d i n 1788, a nd completed in 1795. In 1799 it became "The College of Georgetown." In May, 1815, it was incorporated a univ ersity. The Medical Department was a dde d i n 1851. The buildings are spacious, and c ontai n a well-selected library of 25,000 volumes, an observatory, and a Museum of Na tur al History. It is under the direction of the Jesuits. In the rear of the college is a pretty rural se rpentine wa lk, command ing a still pret tier view. The Con vent o f t he Visitation, founded in 1799, is on Fayette Street. The bui ldin g appropriated for the Ladies' A ca de my i s of brick, ab out 250 f eet in length; the interior is a combination of neatness a nd elegance. Visitors are admitted between the hours of 11 and 2 o'clo c k. The residence of the archbishop of the diocese is near by. On the heights north of the convent is an As/lum for Destitute Colored Women and Children. Oak Hill Cobem tery, on the northeastern declivity of the heights, is a romantic burying-ground. It was laid out in 1849, by its donor, Mr. Corcoran, whose vault of white marble occupies a prominent place in the cemetery. The granite monument to M. Bodisco, the late Russian minister, is worthy of notice; it was sent from St. Pe, tersburg by the Russian Government. An elegant Gothic chapel with stainedglass windows, planned by Renwick, and now overgrown with ivy, is an attractive feature of this really pretty spot. Georgetown contains several churches, a flourishing academy, and other educa 31 Proceeding westward along Pennsylva nia Avenue, half a mile beyond the War - Department, we pass a small, open ground enclosed within an orna ment al railing, and known a s " The Circle." In the centre of the enclosure is an equestrian statue of Washington, by Clark Mills, finished in 1860. Beyond the Circle, on the right, are seen several private residences, con spicuous among which is the headquar ters of the British Legation, already men tioned. In crossing the iron bridge, which spans Rock Creek at the foot of the Ave nue, a fine view is had of the Heights of Georgetown on one side, and the high bank of the Potomac on the opposite or Virginia shore. Cweorgetov. HOTELS. Lang's, The Union. Distant little more than two miles from Capitol Hill, and divided only by Rock Creek from Washington City, Georgetown may be almost regarded'as forming a suburb of the national capital. Since the introduction of street-cars, the tide of travel between the two cities is very great. The city is beautifully loca ted on a range of hills, which command a view unsurpassed for extent and beauty in the Potomac Valley. It was laid out by act of the colonial government of Maryland, June 8, 1751, and was incor porated December 25, 1789. It is a port of entry, and carries on a considerable coasting trade; a line of steamships plies between New York and this port. The city presents many points of attraction, The Heights should first be visited, as VICINITY.] I [GEORGETOWN. VICINITY OF WASHINGTON.

Page  32 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. tional institutions. Population about 9,000. The Potomac in the vicinity of George town abounds in fish; shad and herring are taken in great abundance, large quantities being exported monthly through the season. A dish of baked shad constitutes one of the dinner-table attractions of the District. Arlington House, once the mansion of George Washington Parke Custis, the last but one survivor of the Washington family, occupies a commanding position on the Virginia side of the river, nearly opposite Georgetown. It stands more than 200 feet above the river, and the view from the portico of the building is among the best this part of the Potomac affords. The collection of pictures and other relics, among them the Mount Vernon plate and the bed and bedstead of Washington, have passed into other hands. Before the war, Arlington formed part of the estate of Robert E. Lee, afterwards known as the Commander-in-chief of the Confederate army. The ravages of war have laid waste this once lovely spot. The beautiful heights, upon which the house and grounds stood, were occupied by Union troops May 2, 1861; they are now occupied by the Freedme?i.'s Village. Fort Albany is near by. A recent visit to Arlington Heights and the settlement surrounding them is thus described: "Being provided with passports, a good carriage, willing horses, and a shrewd driver, we started gayly through the wide streets of Washington, and were soon on that longest of Long Bridges, that spans the Potomac. As we were obliged to walk the horses, the drive over being a mile, gives us ample time to prepare our minds for entering on that sacred soil of the F. F. V.'s, that the irreverent Yankees are said to describe as'Poor, old, worn-out, God-forsaken Virginia.' It is the first glimpse a Northerner can catch of the iron hoof of war, and as you roll over the dusty, broken road, it rises around you on every side and forms a desolate picture. Broken fences, clayey fields, felled trees, and' deserted houses, the charred remains of camps, fires lighted in the midst of pleasure-grounds, and fed with the broken lattice-work of sum 32 mer-houses, rusty canteens, and all the discarded remains of camp life-these are the features of a landscape that was once a summer resort for gayety and mirththe Sans Souci gardens of Was hin gto n. The road to Arlington is a cli mb nearly all the way, a nd fo r the first half mile we rode in the rear of an arm y of several thousa n an d, a nd co nsequently in a clou d of dust that was n ot relieved by bumping in and out of the rut s made by heavy ambulances. At last o ur way turned and became smooth and less desolate; the trees were green, so were the fields beneath them, and e ve ry thing, though neglected, was uninjured. -The n w e saw what appeared to me two very good imitations of the castle of Giant Despair. They were the houses of two declared enemies of the Government who had never been convicted of any active treason, but were considered sufficiently worthy of at- ~ tention to be interdicted from leaving their own grounds on any pretence whatever And here they both abide within a few furlongs of each other, yet apart; with liberty to range at will in the narrow circuit of their desolate gardens, yet in reality close prisoners and under strict watch. They had not taken kindly to their captivity, if the utterly ruinous aspect of their surroundings could speak for them, and the sluggish gloom that rested on every thing must have been a reflection to their own hearts. " About three-quarters of a mile before you reach Arlington House, vou come upon the village (Freedmen's), which is built terrace-fashion, circling the brow of the heights. It contained at that time about 1,800 inhabitants, and consisted of two and a half storied white frame houses, built in small rows along avenues, designated by the names of Garrison, Lovejoy, Fremont, etc. Leaving our conveyance, we climbed up the hilly path to the superintendent's house, which is comfortably large and airy, but bare and unimproved like all the rest." The number of freedmen here cong-regated is about 2,000, and a chapel has been erected for religious service. Near the river, at the foot of an umbrageous oak, is the famous Arlington Spring. The -Little Falls of the Potomac, three miles above Georgetown, are a succession VICINITY.] [Ar,LINGTON,

Page  33 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. of romantic cascades at the head of tide water. The scenery is wild and pic turesque, and the waters abound in fish; striped bass is the most common. These waters were a favorite angling-haunt of Daniel Webster, and no spot within easy reach of the visitor to the capital pre sents more varied attractions. Great Falls, 12 miles beyond, present a scene of unusual, picturesque, and grand effect. The road thither affords a pleasant car riage drive. Alexandria, Va., is situated up on the south bank of the Potomac, seven miles below the capital. It was once within the District of Columbia, but was retroceded to Virginia in 1846, with all the territory of that State which had be fore been a portion of the national ground. Its foundation dates from 1748. General Braddock's disastrous expedition to the West was fitted out here. The town is intimately connected with the life and name of.Washington. In Clirist Church, the pew in which he sat is an object of much interest. Many mementoes of him are carefully preserved. The Musuem, Court House, Odd-Fellows' Hall, and Theological Seminary, are among the prominent buildings. The town, like all others in Virginia, suffered much during the war from the hands of soldiery. The city was occupied by Ellsworth's Zouave regiment and a Michigan regiment on the morning of the 24th May, 1861, and continued in the possession of the Federal troops. In the entrance to the Marshall House Co lonel Ellsworth was shot by Jackson, the proprieter of the house, for tearing down the secession flag. Jackson was in turn shot by F. E. Brownell, one of Ellsworth's command. Of the merchants accustomed to do business in Alexandria, but few remained through the war. It had a population of 12,500 in 1860, contains one hotel (Newton's), and is connected with WVashington by steamboat, railway, and turnpike. The daily steamer down the Potomac to Aquia Creek and Fortress Monroe, calls here. It also has railway communication with Leesburg, 38 miles; also with Gordonsville, Charlottesville, and Lynchburg, by the Orange and Alexandria Railway. The Long Bridge, which spans the Potomac at Washington, played an important part during the late rebellion; upwards of half a million troops are estimated to have crossed upon it. Mount Vernon, sacred as the home and tomb of Washington, is upon the west bank of the Potomac, 15 miles below the capital, and eight miles from Alexandria. Mount Vernon, then known as the Hunting Creek estate, was bequeathed by Augustine Washington, who died in 1743, to Lawrence Washington, who received a captain's commission in one of the four regiments raised in the colonies, to aid the mother country in her struggle against France and Spain. It was named after Admiral Vernon, under whom Lawrence Washington had served, and for whom he cherished a strong affection. The central part of the mansion, which is of wood, was erected by Lawrence, and the wings by George Washington. It contains many valuable historical relics, among which are the key of the Bastile, presented by Lafayette, portions of the military and personal furniture of Washington, the pitcher, portrait, etc. The tomb of Washington, which is now fast going to decay, occupies a more picturesque situation than the present one, being upon an elevation in full view of the river. The new tomb, into which the renains were removed in 1837, and subsequently placed within a marble sarcophaguis, stands in a more retired situation, a short distance from the house. It consists of a plain but solid structure of brick, with an iron gate at its entrance. Above the arch of this vault are inscribed the following lines: "Within this enclosure rest the remains of GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON." The Mount Vernon domain, which has remained since the death of Washington in the possession of his descendents, was purchased a few years ago for the sum of $200,000, raised by subscription, under the auspices of a society of ladies known as the "Ladies' Mount Vernon Union Association." It is therefore, and will continue to be, the property of the nation. In this noble movement the late Hon. Edward Everett took a distinguished and active part. To reach Mount Vernon from Wash 33 .&LEXANDRIA.] I [MOUNT VERNON.

Page  34 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. ington, take the ferry to Alexandria, and thence by road. Six miles south of Alexandria, old Fort Washington, known during the war of 1812 as Fort Warburton, is passed. The important position of Washington during the late war led to careful preparations for its defence, and the modern fortifications of the place will long remain among its main objects of interest. They are 56 in number, embracing a circuit of nearly 40 miles around the city and Alexandria. These works are built of earth, and are bomb-proof. Of the whole number, Fort Stevens, at the northern end of 34 Seventh Street, was the o nly one attacked during the war. The events of the memorable "four days"' siege of the city are still fresh in the recollection of its citizens. The Army Hospitals of Washin,ton and vicinity numbered 23 during the war, with accommodation for 12,000 patients. Many of these have been removed. Among those remaining, worthy a visit, are Armory Square Hospital, east of the Smithsonian grounds; Emory and Lincoln Hospitals, and Judiciary Square Hospital, in the rear of the City Hall. VICINITY.] [DEFENCES.

Page  35 VIRGINIA. VIRGINIA. pulpits, poets for our closets, and painters and sculptors for our highest and most enduring delight. Scanning the map of middle Virginia, the e ye is continually arrested by ha llowed shri nes-the birthplaces, the homes, the o me the gra ves o f those wh om the wo r ld has most delighted to honor. Here we pause within the classic groves of Monticello, an d look abroad upon the scenes amidst which Jefferson so pro foundly studi ed an d taught the world. There, i n the little village o f Hanover, the burning wo rds of Patrick Henry first awakened the glowing fire of liberty in the bosoms of his countrymen; and here, too, the gre at Clay was nurtured in that lofty spirit of patriotism, from which sprang his high and de vote d public services. Not far off we ma y again be nd, reverently, over the ashes of Madi son and Monroe, of Lee, and Wirt, and Marshall. Prominent among the events of the Revolution was the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, October, 1781, which virtually terminated the war. Washington died December 14, 1799. Alexandria capitulated to the British, August 27, 1814. Nat Turner's negro insurrection occurred in 1831. A State Constitution was formed in 1776, which was remodelled in 1830, and again in 1851. The events of the last five years have added materially to the historical and scenical attractions of Virginia. The " ordinance of secession " was passed April 17, 1861, and the accession of Virginia (Eastern) to the Southern Confederacy announced by Governor Letcher on the 25th of the same month. In Western Virginia, on the 23d of April, at a public meeting held at Clarksburg, Harrison County, delegates were appointed to a convention to be held at Wheeling, May 13th, to determine what course ' 35 VIRGINIA, the oldest of the original thirteen States of the North American Confederacy, and, on that account, often referred to as the "Old Dominion," is bounded on the north by Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Maryland; east, by Maryland and the Atlantic Ocean; south, by North Carolina and Tennessee; and west, by Kentucky and Ohio. Jamestown, on the James-River, is the oldest permanent settlement made by the English on this continent, the redoubtable Captain John Smith and his followers having landed and located thcre in 1607. In its early career it encountered great difficulties in the shape of famine, disease, and the hostilities of the natives. Bacon's rebellion, the most serious of these disturbances, broke out in 1676. In 1677 Virginia obtained a new charter, depriving h er of some of her former privileges, as a punishliment for this rebellion. In 1752 Washington, then a young man, was sent by Governor Dinwiddie as an envoy to the French commander at Fort Du Quesne (Pittsburg), and two years after defeated the French at the Great Meadows, but was obliged finally to capitulate. Virginia took an active part in the events leading to and in the conduct of the Revolutionary war, as she also did in the rebellion of 1861-'65. Among the proudest boasts of the State is the extraordinary number of great men which she has given to the nation. During half the lifetime of the Republic, its highest office has been conferred upon her sons. Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Tyler, and Harrison, all Presidents, were born in Virginia. Not only has she been the mother of Presidents, but she has raised leaders for our armies and navies, lawgivers for our Senates, judges for our tribunals, apostles for our VIRGINIA.] [VIRGINIA.

Page  36 VIRGINIA. should be pursued. This movement resulted in the separation of Western from Eastern Virginia. Great activity was soon observed in Eastern and Southwestern Virginia, in the organization and equipment of troops, and by the 5th of June it was estimated that there were fifty thousand Confederate troops in active service in the State. All between the ages of eighteen and forty-five were required to enlist, and not such only as a draft would call into the field. From that time to the capture of Richmond and the virtual close of the rebellion, Virginia was' the principal theatre of war, and is fairly entitled, in addition to her former appellation of "the Old Dominion," to be known as the Battle-Field of the Union. For the information especially of those desirous of visiting the battle-fields throughout the State, we give, at the close of the chapter, a list of the battles and principal skirmishes, the points at which they were fought, and the best routes by which to reach them. In regard to internal improvements and the means of communication, Virginia, though behind many of her younger and less wealthy sister States, is yet far in advance of States lying to the south and west of her. Her noble rivers and main lines of railway afford easy access to almost every section of her wide domain. According to the census of 1860, the railroad system of the State embraced 1,771 miles of track, the construction and equipment of which cost sixty-five millions of dollars. Geographically, Virginia occupies a central position on the seaboard of the Union. It lies between 36~ 30' and 40~ 38' north latitude, and between 75~ 10' and 83~ 30' west longitude, and is very irregular in its outline. It is about 425 miles in its greatest length from east to west, and 210 in breadth, embracing an area of about 61,352 square miles, or 39,265,280 acres, of which only 11,437,821 were improved in 1860. No State in the Union presents a greater variety of surface than Virginia, from the mountain ranges and rugged hills of the interior to the rich alluvions of the rivers and the sandy flats of the seacoast. It is usually divided into four sections. 1. The Tidewater District, containing thirtyseven counties, bordering on the Atlantic 36 and Chesapeake Bay, is generally level. 2. West of this is a more elevated region, sometimes called the Piedmont Distri ct, conta in ing t hirt y-two counties. 3. The Valley District, containing nineteen c ou nties, is e nte red by a sce nding the Bl ue Ridge, whic h pass es from Maryland into Virginia, near Harper's Ferry. 4. The Trans-Alleghany District, containing forty-nine counties, lying west of the mountains. This portion is for the most part hilly and broken, or occupied with outlying spurs With such a topography, Virginia, as will readily be believed, abounds in grand and picturesque scenery, and in objects of interest to tourists. It is especially rich in mountain scenery, though the mountains do not attain so great an elevation as in New Hampshire and North Carolina. White Top, in Grayson County, the highest land in the State, is 6,0()0 feet above the sea level. Next to White Top, the highest known summits are the peaks of Otter, between Bedford and Botetourt Counties, which are 4,300 feet above the level of the sea. The mountains extend across the middle of the State in a southwest and northeast direction, and occupy a belt of from 80 to 100 miles in width. Next to her mountain scenery, the springs of the Old Dominion present the greatest attractions to travellers. Some of the most valuable medicinal waters on the continent are found within her borders. Among the most celebrated are the Berkeley Springs, in Morgan County (see Baltimore and Ohio Railway, in our chapter on Maryland); White Sulphur in Fanquier, White Sulphur and Blue Sulphur in Greenbrier, the Alum and Hot Springs in Bath, the Salt and Red Sulphur in Monroe, and the White Sulphur in Grayson County. The most celebrated of these, the White Sulphur Spring in Greenbrier County, is strongly impregnated with carbonic and nitrogen gases, with sulphates of lime and magnesia, and carbonate of lime. The far-famed passage of the Potomac through the Blue Ridge at Harper's Ferry is already familiar to most travellers, as is also the Natural Bridge in Rockbridge County; Weyer's (Weir's) Cave, Madisoni's Cave, and the Chimneys in Augusta Cour VIP.GINIA.] [VIRGINIA.

Page  37 VIRGINIA. C. H., 62; Orange C. H., 79; Gordonsville, 88; Lynchburg, 170. The Ma nassas Gap Railway, from Manassas (Orange and Alexandria Road), 85 miles to Mt. Jackson. The Alexandria, -London, and Ilampshire Railway, from Alexandria, through Arlington, Fall's Church, Guildford, 38 miles to Leesburg. The Richmond, Fredericksburg, an d Poto nac R ailway, from Aquia Creek, on the Potomac, to Fredericksburg, 15 miles; to Richmond, 75. Between Aquia Creek and Washington City communica tion is by steamboat. The Seaboard and Roanoke Railway, from Portsmouth and Norfolk, 80 miles to Weldon, N. C. Winchester and Potomac River Railway, .32 miles from Winchester to Harper's Ferry (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad). The Baltimore and Ohio Railway, 397 miles from Baltimore to Wheeling, is partly in Maryland and partly in Virginia. (See Maryland for further account of this road.)' The Northwvestern Railway, from Grafton, on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Road, 104 miles to Parkersburg, on the Ohio River. The TVir-ginia Central Railway, from Richmond westward 95 miles, to Jackson's River, through Hanover, Louisa, Gordonsville, Charlottesville, Staunton, Millboro, and other places, Route to the Virginia Springs, Natural Bridge, Weir's Cave, etc. The Richmond and -Danville Railway, from Richmond, 141 miles southwest to Danville, on the North Carolina boundary. Richmond and Petersburg Railway, from Richmond, 21 miles to Petersburg. The Petersburg and Lynchburg (Southside) Railway, from Petersburg, 123 miles to Lynchburg. From Petersburg it is extended 10 miles to City Point, on James River. It intersects the Richmond and Danville Road about midway, at Burkesville. The Virginia and Tennessee Railway, from Lynchburg, 204 miles to Bristol, thence to Knoxville, Tennessee. The Roanoke Valley Railway, 22 miles from Clarksville to Ridgeway, on the Raleigh and Gaston Railway, N. C. Parties desirous of visiting Fairfax CourtHouse, Manassas, and other points of interest in the neighborhood of Washington and Alexandria, should take the Orange and Alexandria Railway, while those wishing to go direct to Richmond first, and select their routes from that point, can 37 ty, the Buffalo Knob in Floyd County, the Natural Tunnel in Scott County, and the Hawk's Nest, on New River, in Fayette County, are all noteworthy objects much frequented by tourists. The political and natural divisions of the State have been briefly stated. Its internal organization embraces 148 counties, 46 of which are now included in West Virginia. Richmond is the capital, and largest city in the State. Petersburg, Norfolk, Wheeling, and Alexandria, take rank next the capital in size and importance. The white population of Virginia is mainly of British origin, and until a recent period was but slightly affected by admixture from other sources. The native Virginians have always prided themselves on the purity of their descent, and "one of the F. F. V.s," or first families of Virginia, has passed into a proverb. The population in 1860 amounted to 1,596,318, of which number nearly one-third we" slaves. The population has decreased during the war, and does not now probably number more than one million and a half white and black. Political and social differences and distinctions are fast passing away, and a healthy immigration is setting in from the Northern States and from Europe. As the Southern-bound traveller is now about to enter a section of the Union the means of communication throughout which have been seriously broken and otherwise injured by the war, the author of the Hand-book has thought it advisable to give only such routes as have either not been interfered with or have been so far restored as to invite travel. For information in regard to the condition and facilities of roads not mentioned here, the traveller is referred to "Appletons' Monthly Guide," and the proprietors of the several leading hotels represented in these pages, whose means of obtaining the latest intelligence in regard to local travel are unquestionably the best. RAILWAYS.-The Orange and -Alexandria Railway, from Alexandria to Lynchburg, 170 miles, via Springfield, 9 miles; Burke's, 14; Fairfax, 17; Union Mills, 23; Manassas, 27 (junction of Manassas Gap Road); Bristoe, 31; Weaversville, 38; Warrenton Junction, 41 (Branch nine miles to Warrenton); Culpepper VIRGINIA.] [VIRGINIA.

Page  38 VIRGINIA.' take boat either at Washington or Alexandria to Aquia Creek, and thence by rail via Fredericksburg, or continuing on to F or tress Monroe or Norfolk reach Richmond by steamboat up the James River. The former of these routes is the quicker and least expensive, the latter the most pleasant and most interesting. orders, it is affirmed, from General Early, then commanding the Confederate troops quartered in Richmond, and soon a great portion of the business section of the city was a mass of blackened ruins. The upper part of Main Street, the principal avenue of fashion and business, from the Spottswood House down for several blocks, was entirely demolished, and only portions of it have yet been rebuilt. IUpwards of 1,000 buildings, and property estimated at eight millions of dollars, were destroyed. The Capitol, as before stated, stands on the brow of Shockoe Hill, overlooking what was once the city proper, but now the burnt district. From its size and elevated location, it is by far the most conspicuous object in the city. It is a Graeco-composite building, adorned with a portico of Ionic columns. There are windows on all sides, and doors on the two longer sides, which are reached by high and unsightly double flights of steps placed sidewise, undt which are other doors leading to the basement. The view from the portico is extensive and beautiful, taking in the James River, with its windings and numerous islands. It stands in the centre of a public square of about eight acres. Entering by one of the upper doors, an entry leads to a square hall in the centre of the building, surmounted by a dome which transmits light from above. The hall is about forty feet square, and about twenty-five above the floor. In one of the niches in the wall is a marble bust of Lafayette. In the centre of the square hall above described there is a marble statue of George Washing ton, on which is the following inscription: "Fait par Houdon, Citoyen Franpais, 1788." The statue is mounted on a rectangular pedestal, four and a half feet high, on one of the larger sides of which is the following honest and affectionate inscription: "The General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia have caused this statue to be erected, as a monument of affection and gratitude to GEORGE WASHINGTON, who, uniting to the endowments of the Hero the virtues of the Patriot, and exerting both in establishing the Liberties of his Country, has rendered his name dear to his Fellow-Citizens, and given the HOTELS.- The Ballard Hou s e. Th is well-known a nd deservedly popular house h as b een th o roughly refurnished, and has every c onvenience for guests. The Exchange, immediately facing this, has large priva te parlors, and spacious ballroom. A well-s haded court-yard, at j et d'eau, and observ atory comm andin g an extended vi ew of the city and vicinity, are amo ng the attraction s of this hotel. Cuis ine excellent. The Spottswood and St. Charles a re also goo d houses. Richmond, the capital of the " Old Dominion," as Virginia is familiarly called, and the seat of government during the Confedera te rule in the State, is beautifinll y situated on the left or northeast bank of t he James River, at what are called the Lower Falls. The city w a s founded by act of Assembly in May, 1742, and became the State capital in 1779. Richmond, as first seen on approaching by the river, has the imposing aspect of a large and populous capital. It owes this in a great degree to the elevated position of its Capitol, which stands on Shockhoe Hill, and afar off has a handsome and classical appearance; when, however, you approach within criticising distance, it loses some of that enchantment which distance ever lends the view. The situation of the city and the scenery of the environs are much admired. It is regularly laid out in rectangular blocks. Always a city of considerable political and commercial importance, it gained still greater prominence as the capital of the Southern Confederacy. Upon the surrender of the city to the Federal forces, April 2, 1865, fire was set to the tobacco and other warehouses of the city, under 38 RICHMOND.] [RICHMOND. RICHXOND, 130 miles bv rail from Washington, 356 from New York.

Page  39 VIRGINIA. World an immortal example of true Glory. Done in the year of 'CHRIST One Thousand Sevenuundred and Eighty-Eig,ht, and in the year of the Common wealth the Twelfth." The simplicity, dignity, and truth of that inscription are worthy of the great original commemorated, and of the young and chivalric State whose ready gratitude so early erected this lasting monument, and overflowed in language so beautiful and appropriate. The statue is decently clad in the uniform worn by an American General durinig the Revolution, and not half covered by the semi-barbarous and pagan toga, with throat uncovered and naked arm, as if prepared for the barber and the bleeder, which is the case with the statue of Washington, by Greenough, at the National Capitol. It is of the size of life, and stands resting on the right foot, having the left somewhat advanced, with the knee bent. The left hand rests on a bundle of fasces, on which hang a military cloak and a small sword, and against which leans a plough. The attitude is natural and easy, and the likeness to the great original is strong. A fine statue of Henry Clay stands near the western corner of the square. Besides the Capitol, the most noteworthy edifices are the City Hall, the Penitentiary, and the Custom House. The City Hall is an elegant structure, at the northwest angle of the Capitol Square. The Penitentiary, near the river, in the western part of the city, is a spacious edifice, with a facade of near 300 feet long. The Custom IHouse is a substantial structure, fronting on Main Street. It has been recently completed, and cost upwards of half a million of dollars. The lower story is used for the purposes of the City Post-Office. Above this are the headquarters of the military commandant of the district. -Richmond Co7le,qe was founded by the Baptists, in 1832. St. Vincent's Colleye is under the direction of the Catholics. The medical department of Hampden and Sydney Colleye, established in 1838, occupies an attractive building, of Egyptian architecture. Among the' churches of Richmond, over thirty in number, are some of architectural skill worth observing. The Jfon umental Church (Episcopal) stands where once stood the Theatre, so disastrously burned in 1811, at the sad sacrifice of the life of the Governor of the State, and more than sixty others of the illfated audience in the building at the time. St. John's, on Church Hill, corner Broad and Twenty-fourth Streets, is interesting from its historical associations. Holywood Cemetery i s a pretty, reti'red spot, adorned with some handsome monuments. It is at the north end of Main Street. The Libby Prison and Castle Thunder are always pointed out to strangers. Theformer and better known of the two takes its name from its owner, a Mr. Libby, who long occupied it as a tobacco warehouse. During the w ar it was used as a place of confinement for Union prisoners. It has little, either in its past history, present condition, or future prospects, to invite a closer acquaintance than this brief description affords. Richmond is the great depot for the tobacco product of Virginia, and the warehouses where this famous " weed " was stored, the number of which exceeded forty, were before the war among the " sights " of the city. The wheat grown in the neighborhood of Richmond, and indeed throughout Virginia, has long been esteemed for its excellence. The flouring mills are numerous, and many of them extensive. The " City," " Gallego," and " Haxall " are the largest concerns of this kind. The city also contains a CourtHouse, a Jail, an Armory, a Theatre, two Market-Houses, an Orphan Asylum, and a Masonic Hall. Three bridges across the river connect the city with Manchester and Spring Hill. The Rapids, or Falls of James River, which extend six miles above the city, and have a descent of 80 feet, afford valuable water power. The navigation of the river is opened above the city by the assistance of a canal which overcomes the rapids. The city is supplied with water from the river by means of forcing-pumps, which furnish three reservoirs, of 1,000,000 of gallons each. The James River and Kanawha Canal, commenced in 1834, extends westward upwards of 200 miles. Richmond, like Washington, though in a much greater degree, has been the centre of absorbing interest during the war, and no one ought 39 RICHMOND.] [RICHMOND.

Page  40 VIRGINIA. to leave it without visiting the line of fortifications which constituted the defences of the city, and which were so long deemed impregnable. nearly one thousand men. Two days afterwards it was destroyed by fire, together with the frigate Merrimac,-the Pennsylvania and other ships-of-war. Property valued at several millions was destroyed, and the roar of the conflagration was heard for miles. It will take years to rebuild, if indeed it is ever rebuilt. The U. S. Naval Hospital, on the south bank of the Elizabeth River, is an imposing-looking buildin g of brick, stuccoed. The Seaboard and Roanoke Railway comes in at Portsmouth from Weldon, N. C. Gosport lies just below. The United States Dry Dock at this suburb is a work of great extent and interest. Communication between Portsmouth and Norfolk is kept up by ferry. Fort Calhoun and Craney Island are at the entrance to the harbor. Tri-weekly steamers ply between Norfolk, City Point, Newbern, Mattapony River, and Cherrystone. The oysters obtained in these waters are esteemed for their size and flavor. The " Virginia " and " Commercial " club-houses, in Bank Street, Norfolk, are popular chop and oyste r h o uses. Old Point Comfort and Fortress M]onroe, 14 miles n orth of Norfolk, are much frequented by travellers, the former fo r its fine bathing-ground, the latter for its formidable militar y defences. The y are ple asantly situate d at the entrafce to Hampton Roads. Fort res s Monroe is the largest military work, and, strictly speaking, th e only fortress i n the United State. The area embraced within its outer works is 65 acres. Within is a parade ground 25 acres in extent, with numerous fine shade trees. It is a basti o ne d work, the walls built of granite, and 35 feet high. A moat 75 to 150 feet wide, and 8 to 15 feet deep, surround s the work. The embrasur es of the water battery on the sea face of the fort are 42 in number. The wh ole a rmament of the fortress is 371 guns, many of which are the largest-sized columbiads. It has always remained in the possession of the United States. The village of Hampton, three miles from Fortress Monroe, is largely occupied by freedmen. Horse-cars run there throughout the day. The restaurant "Hygea," at the " Old Point " steamboat landing, is a well-regulated establishment. The trip up the James affords the trav IIOTELS. —Atlantic and National, both on Main Street, are well-ordered houses. The former has reading and billiard rooms attached. Norfolk is pleasantly situated upon the Elizabeth River, eight miles from Hampton Roads, and 32 miles from the oceanIt was named Norfolk after one of the counties of England, by Colonel Thorogood, who was one of the first settlers in what was then known as Elizabeth City County. It contains 20,000 inhabitants, and is, after Richmond, the most populous city in Virginia. A canal comes in here through the Dismal Swamp, which opens communication between Chesapeake Bay and Albemarle Sound. The city was laid out in 1705, and incorporated as a borough in 1736. In 1776 it was burnt by the British. In 1855 it was visited by the yellow fever, which carried off several hundreds of its inhabitants. The harbor is large, s af e, and easily accessible, defended at its entrance by Forts Monroe and Calhoun. It is a great market for wild fowl, oysters, poultry, and vegetables. The Custom Hoarse and Post- Ofice, on Main* Street, is a handsome edifice, recently erected at a cost of $228,505. The City Hall has a granite front, a cupola 110 feet high, and a handsome portico. The Baptist Church, on Freemason Street, has a fine steeple. Portsmouth, directly opposite Norfolk, is a naval depot of the United States. At the time of the secession of Virginia (April 18, 1861), the marines and others employed at the Navy Yard numbered 40 NORFOLK.] [VICINITY. BOUTE X. INorfollk, 300 miles from New York by sea, 190 from Washington, 180 from Baltimore, 140 from Richmond. From Baltimore daily, by steamboat down Chesapeake Bay. From Richmond the route is bv steamer down James River. Several fine boats ply between the two cities, and in favorable weather the trip is a most delightful and interesting one. a

Page  41 I [WILLIAMSBURG. terribly, and it must be many years before it regains its former position. It is on the great route from Ne* York to Charleston and New Orleans. The Southsid e Railway from Lynchburg, 133 miles distant, terminates here. The romantic ruins of the old church of Blandford are within the limits of this borough. The falls of the river just above the city furnish extensive water power. A canal round these falls affords passage for boats 100 miles above the city. It fell into the hands of the Union forces April 3, 1865. Marks of the fierce attacks to which it was subjected are seen everywhere in and around the city. A visit to the fortifications will well repay the stranger. Fort Steadman, " the last ditch " of the rebellion; the Crater, the scene of the explosion and bloody struggle in August, 1864; Fort Hell, to the left of Steadman, where the Union and Rebel lines almost touch, and near by Fort Damnation, are among the places and scenes of interest around Petersburg. Jarratt's is the leading hotel. eller some charming river scenery and views of many places full of historic interest. Thirty-tivo miles above its mouth are passed the r-uins of James,own2. The history of this spot is a romantic one, full of the varied story of early colonial adventure and suffering, of the gallantry of Captain John Smith, and the devotion of the gentle Pocahontas. The first English settlement in the United States was made here in 1607. Its Revolutionary history was eventful. Nothing now remains of the town save a few ruins. Ascending the river, we next reach City Point, at the mouth of the Appomattox River, 10 miles east-northeast of Petersburg, with which place it has direct communication by railway. City Point acquired very considerable prominence in the annals of the war as a military camp and depot for supplies of the Army of the Potomac. The brick building on the extreme point of land overlooking the Appomattox was occupied during the closing years of the war as General Grant's headquarters. The view from this point, independent of its memorable associations, will always render it attractive. Many of the lines of Government storehouses and depots are still standing. The defences of City Point are among the most noteworthy objects of interest in the vicinity. There are no hotels worth mentioning, the attractions of the place not being at all in that line. On the left bank of the James, immediately above the mouth of the Appomattox, we pass Bermuda tIundred, and further on other points interesting through their association with the movements of the respective armies during the war. A short distance above Varina Landing, at a bend in the river, the Dutch Gap Canal is passed, in sight of the signal-tower, and shortly after the Howlett louse Batteries and Drury's Bluff (Fort Darling). Three miles further up, the roof and portico of the Capitol on Shoekoe Hlill in Richmond rises in view. Petersburg, 21 miles from Richmond, 10 from City Point, is pleasantly situated on the south bank of the Appomattox. It was the third city of the State previous to the war, containing a population of nearly 16,000, but it has suffered Willianlsburg, 60 miles east of Richmond, and 68 miles west of Norfolk, the oldest incorporated town in Virginia, and a place of extreme interest in its historical associations, is built upon a plain, between the York and James Rivers, six miles from each. This was the seat of the colonial Government anterior to the Revolution, and the capital of the State until 1779. It was first settled in 1632. IVilliaii? and Mary College, founded 1692, is the oldest educational establishment in the United States, after Harvard University. Previous to the war it had a fine library. The losses sustained by this institution during the war are estimated at $80,000. An appeal for its relief is being urged abroad. In the centre of the lawn, fronting the College, is a mutilated statue of Lord Botetourt, one of the most popular of the old colonial Governors. This statue was placed in its present position in 1797. Palace of Lord Dunnwr-e.-The remains of this ancient building, the home of the last of the royal Governors of Virginia, is at the head of a pleasant broad 41 PF,TEP.SBUP,G.] VIRGINIA. BO UTE XX.

Page  42 [FREDERICKeSBURG. court, extending from the main street in firont of the City Hall. It was built of brick. The centre edifice was accidentally destroyed by fire while occupied by the French soldiers, just after the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Here the stately old Governor lived, or attempted to live, in royal splendor. All that now t remains of his pomp are the two little outbuildings or wings of his palace, yet to be seen by the visitor at Williamsburg. The Old Capitol stood on the site of the present Court-House, on the square, opposite the Magazine. It was destroyed by fire in 1832. A few of the old arches lie yet around, half buried in the greensward. It was in the "Old Capitol" that the Burgesses of Virginia were assembled when Patrick Henry, the youngest member of that body, presented the series of bold resolutions which led to his famous speech: "Cnesar had his Brutus, Charles the First his Cromwell, and George the Third "-concluded by those master-words of raillery, when the excited assembly interrupted him with the cry of "Treason! treason! " —"may profit by their example. If this be treason, make the most of it!" The Apollo Room of the Raleighb Tavern is an apartment in another timehonored old building of Williamsburg, in which the House of Burgesses assembled to consider the revolutionarymovements which were then passing in Massachusetts. This assembly had just been dissolved by the Governor, in consequence of its passage of acts in opposition to those of the Lords and Commons of England just before received. The Queen's Rangers, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Simcoe, entered Williamsburg, driving out the Virginia militia, on the stormy night of April 19, 1781. The thoughtful traveller will delight himself by recalling other incidents in the history of the localities here presented, and in following the course of the great train of events which resulted from or were connected with them. Brenton Church, a venerable edifice of the early part of the last century, stands on the public square, near Palace Street or Court. It is a cruciform building, surmounted by a steeple. Near Brenton Church is an octagonal edifice, built during the administration of Governor Spottswood, known as the Old -J~ag 42 azine. The Eastern Lutnatic Asylum of Virginia is also located'at this place. Yorktown, upon the York River, 11 miles from its entrance into Chesapeake Bay, 70 miles east-southeast of Richmond, and about 12 miles from Williamsburg, is memorable as the scene of that closing event in the American Revolution, the surrender of the British army under Lord Cornwallis, October 19, 1781. This event is commemorated in one of Colonel Trumbull's pictures in the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington. The precise spot at Yorktown where the scene of the surrender of the British arms and standards took place will be pointed out to the inquiring visitor. At the time of the surrender the place contained about sixty houses. In 1814 it was desolated by fire. Remains of the intrenchments cast up by the British on the south and east sides of the town are yet to be seen. These mounds vary from 12 to 16 feet in heig,,ht, and extend in broken lines from the river bank to the sloping grounds back of the village. Cornwallis' Cave is an excavation in the bluff upon which the village stands, reputed to have been made and used by Lord Cornwallis as a council chamber during the siege. It is exhibited with this character for a small fee. A quarter of a mile below this cave there is another, which there is good reason to believe really was thus occupied by the English commander. The region of country round Williamsburg and Yorktown bears abundant evidences of the operations conducted there during the recent rebellion. tFredericksburg, 60 miles north of Richmond, and 70 miles south of Washington, is situated on the right bank of the Rappahannock River, at the head of tide-water. On the route hither, 16 miles from Richmond, the traveller passes Ashland, the scene of many a cavalry raid during the war. During the battle of Chancellorsville, Stoneman's cavalry made a dash on this station, and later, Generals Kilpatrick and Sheridan. At the junction, seven miles beyond Ashland, a fight took place between Grant and Lee, in the WILLIAMSBURG.] VIRGINIA. B 0 UTE IIX.

Page  43 FREDERICKSBURG. ] campaign from the Rappahannock to Cold Harbor. From Hamillon's Crossing to Fredericksburg, a distance of four miles, the line is laid through the scene of Burnside's attack. That portion of Stafford County lying between the Rappahannock and the Potomac Rivers, the scene of many a bivouac, march, and fight, is now a desolate waste. A4quia Creek, the northern terminus of the road, is mainly known as the base of supplies for Burnside during the operations against Fredericksburg. The great fight took place December 13, 1862. The Birthplace of Washington. - It was in the vicinity of Fredericksburg that Washington was born, and here he passed his early years; and here, too, repose the remains of his honored mother. The birthplace of the Father of his Country is about half a mile from the junction of Pope's Creek with the Potomac, in Westmoreland County. It is upon the "Wakefield estate," now in the possession of John E. Wilson, Esq. The house in which the great patriot was born was destroyed before the Revolution. It was a plain Virginia farm-house of the better class, with four rooms, and an enormous chimney on the outside at each end. The spot where it stood is now marked by a slab of freestone, which was deposited by George W. P. Custis, Esq., in the presence of other gentlemen, in June, 1815. On the tablet is this simple inscription: "HERE, THE 11TH OF FEBRUARY (O. S.), 1732, GEORGE WASHINGTON WAS BORN." The remains of the mother of Washington repose in the immediate vicinage of Fredericksburg, on the spot which she herself, years before her death, selected for her grave, and to which she was wont to retire for private and devotional thought. It is marked by an unfinished, yet imposing monument. The cornerstone of this structure was laid by Andrew Jackson, President of the United States at the time, on the 7th of -May, 1833, in the presence of a large concourse of people, and with solemn ceremonials. After the laps e of almost a quarter of a century the monument remains still unfinished. The mother of Washington resided, during the latter part of her life, in Fredericksburg, near the spot where RICHMOND to BURKESVILLE, LYNCHBURG, LEXINGTON, and BRISTOL, by Richmond and Danville Railway. BTuriesville (54 miles), in Prince Edward County, is situated at the junction of th e Richmon d an d Danvi lle Rai lway with te othe Southside Railway. The surrender of the sha t tered Army of Virginia was made ne ar here, April, 1865. Lynchburgt (120 miles) is finely situated on the n orth bank of the James River. Th e town was foun ded i n 1786, and incorporated in 1805. The James River and Kanawha Canal, the greatest public work in Virginia, following the course of the river from Richmond, pas ses Lynchburg on its w ay to Buchanan and Covington. Distant from Richmond, by canal, 147 miles. The connecting roads with the South and Southwest are the Virginia and Tennessee Railway to Bristol, the East Tenncssee and Virginia Railway to Knoxville, and the East Tennessee and Georgia Railway to Chattanooga. Distance to Chattanooga, 446 miles. Lynchburg is on the route to and in the immediate vicinity of the Spring region. The Natural Bridge and the Peaks of Otter are here easily accessible. (See descriptive sketches.) ]Danville (141 miles), the terminus of the Richmond and Danville Railway, is pleasantly situated at the head of navigation on the Dan River, five miles from the boundary line of North Carolina. Population 4,000. The Piedmont Railway, running 48 miles to Greensboro', N. C., terminates here. Lexington (155 miles) is charmingly situated on the North River, amidst the mountain and spring region of Western Virginia, 35 miles northwest of Lynchburg, from which point it is reach 43 VIRGINIA. RLYNCIIBUP.G. she now lies buried. In a house recently occupied by Mr. Richard Sterling, at the corner of Charles and Lewis Streets, her last but memorable interview with her illustrious son took place when she was bowed down with age and disease. The principal hotel in the town, and indeed almost the only one left open for travellers, is the Planters' House. BOUTE IV.

Page  44 IIHANovER COURT HOUSE.] ed by stage. TasAington College was founded in 1798, and was endowed by General Washington. The Viryinia Jfilita-y Institute was established by the State Legislature in 1838-'39. InJuly, 1856, a copy in bronze of Ilondon's statue of Washington, in the Capitol at Richmond, was erected here. The town was l a i d out in 1778. Population about 2, 0000 The Natural Bridge an d P eaks o f Otter are within easy stag e-ride. at Newcastle, once a prosperous village, but now a ruin, with a single house only on its site. Gordonsville (76 miles), in Orange County, is situated at the intersection of the Orange and Alexandria Iaailway, to Lynchburg. Charlottesville (97 miles), famous as the sea t of the University of Virginia, and for its vici nage to Monticello, the home and tomb of Thomas Jeffererson, is situated o n t he Rivanna River in t he east-central part of the State, 119 miles from Washingt on Citbyb the Or ange and Alexandria and the Virginia Central Railways. TYhe Universit2/ of Virgini ia, one of the most distinguished of the colleges of the Unit ed States, is situated about a mile west of the village of Charlottesville. It is built on moderatly elevated ground, and forms a striking feature in a beautiful landscape. On the southwest it is shut in by mountains, beyond which, a few miles distant, rise the broken, and occasionally steep and rugged, but not elevated ridges, the characteristic feature of which is expressed by the name of Ragged Mountains. To the northwest the Blue Ridge, some 20 miles off, presents its deep-colored outline, stretching to the northeast and looking down upon the mountain-like hills that here and there rise from the plain without its western base. To the east, the eye rests upon the low mountain range that bounds the view as far as the vision can extend northeastward and southwestward along its slopes, except where it is interrupted directly to the east by a hilly but fertile plain, through which the Rtivanna, with its discolored stream, flows by the base of Monticello. To the south, the view reaches far away until the horizon meets the plain, embracing a region lying between the mountains on either hand, and covered with forests interspersed with spots of cultivated land. The University of Viginia was founded in 1819, by Thomas Jefferson, and so great was his interest in its success, and his estimate of its importance, that in his epitaph, found among his papers, he ranks his share in its foundation third among the achievements and honors of his lifethe authorship of the Declaration of Independence being the first, and of the RICHlIMXND TO HANOVER C. H., GORDONSVILLE, CHARLOTTESVILLE, MONTICELLO, STAUNTON, AND MILLBOrO, by Virginia Central Itailway. Hlanover Court-House (18 m iles) is m em orable as the sce ne of Patrick H eenry's early oratorical triumphs, and as t he birthplace of Henry Clay. It is pleas an tly situated near the Pamunky River. Thre e miles from the CourtHouse, on the right of the turnpike road lead ing t o Richmond, stands, or did when the author last visited it before the war, the house in which Clay wa s born. The building is a " one-story frame," with dormer windows, and a large outside ch imne y ( after the universal fas hion of Southern country-houses) at each gable. In this humble tenement the S e nator who "would rather be right than be Presiident," was born, in 1777. The flat, piny region, in which it is situated, is called the Slashes of Hanover; hence the popular sobriquet familiarly applied to the great statesman, of the " Millboy of the Slashes." Hanover awakens pleasant memories of Patrick Henry assembling his volunteers and marching to Williamsburg to demand the restoration of the powder which Lord Dunmore had removed from the public magazine, or payment therefor, a daring demand, which he however succeeded in enforcing, as the Governor, alarmed at the strength of his cortege, which grew as he went along to 150 in number, sent out the ReceiverGeneral with authority to compromise the matter. The young leader required and obtained the value of the powder, 330 pounds, and sent it to the treasury at Williamsburg. This incident happened 44 VIRGINIA. I [CIIAITLOTTESVILLE. ROUTE V.

Page  45 MONTICELLO.] Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom the second. The University is endowed and controlled bv the State. Alfoniticello, once the beautiful home, and now the tomb of Jefferson, is about four miles west of Charlottesville. 'i This venerated mansion," says Mr. Lossing, in his "Field Book of the Revolution," " is yet standing, though somnewhat dilapidated and deprived of its former beauty by neglect. The furniture of its distinguished owner is nearly all gone, except a few pictures and mirrors; otherwise the interior of the house is the same as when Jefferson died. It is upon an eminence, with m an y a spen-trees around it, and commands a v iew of the Blue Ridge for 150 miles on one side, and on the other one of the most beautiful and extensive landscapes in the world. Wirt, writing of the interior arrangements of the house during Mr. Jefferson's lifetime, records that, in the spacious and lofty hall which opens to the visitor on entering,' he marks no tawdry and unmeaning ornaments; but before, on the right, on the left, all around, the eye is struck and gratified by objects of science and taste, so classed and arranged as to produce their finest effect. On one sid e specimens of sculpture, set out in such order as to exhibit at a coup d'eeil the historic progress of that art, from the first rude attempts of the aborigines of our country, up to that exquisite and finished bust of the great patriot himself, from the master-hand of Cerracchi. On the other side, the visitor sees displayed a vast collection of the specimens of the Indian art, their paintings, weapons, ornaments, and manufactures; on another, an array of fossil productions of our country, mineral and animal; the petrified remains of those colossal monsters which once trod our forests, and are no more; and a variegated display of the branching honors of those monarchs of the waste that still people the wilds of the American Continent! In a large saloon were exquisite productions of the painter's art, and from its windows opened a view of the surrounding country such as no painter could imitate. There were, too, medallions and engravings in great profusion.' Monticello was a point of great attraction to the learned of all lands, when travelling in this country, while Mr. Jefferson lived. His writings made him favorably known as a scholar, and his public position made him honored by the nations. The remains of Mr. Jefferson lie in a small family cemetery by the side of the winding road leading to Monticello." Over them is a granite obelisk 8 feet high, which bears the following inscription: ITERE LIeS BURITED THOMAS JEFFERSON, Author of the Declaration of Independ e nce; of the Statute of Vir gi nia f or Religiobs Freedom; And Father of the University of Virginia." Staunton (136 miles) is plea santly located in Augusta County, upon a small branch of the Shenandoah River. It is a pret ty and pr osperous village, with a population of between 2,000 and 3,000. The Western Lunatic Asylum and the State Institution for the -Deaf, -Dumb, and Blind, are among its principal objects of interest. It is the main point of rendezvous for tourists to the spring re,ion, hard by. TVeyer's and Jfadison's caves (18 miles) are reached by stage. ot[arper's Ferry (160 miles north of Richmond). See MARYLAND, for Baltimore and Ohio Railway. Winchester (30 miles from Harper's Ferry), by Winchester and Potomac Railway, is in the midst of a pleasant and picturesque country in the northwestern part of the State 20 miles west of the Blue Ridge, and within the limits of the great Valley of Virginia. Ice -Iountain, in Hampshire County, 26 miles northwest from Winchester, is a natural curiosity. Blocks of ice are found here at all seasons of the year. On the west side of the North Mountain in this county, are the famous Capon Springs, Candy Castle, the Tea Table, and the Hanginy Rocks, are notable curiosities in this region. WIheeling, the capital of West Virginia, and the terminus of the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, is situated on the east bank of the Ohio River, and on both sides of Wheeling Creek, 379 miles west of Baltimore, 95 miles below Pittsburg, 45 VIRGINIA. [WHF,ELING. BO UTE VX.

Page  46 [THE SPRINGS. and 365 miles above Cincinnati. It has railroad communication with the cities of Cleveland and Pittsburg,, and is also the terminus of the Hempfield Railroad. The site of the city is an alluvial tract extending along the river bank a distance of three miles of varying width, shut in by hills. It has important manufactories of iron, glass, and paper. The first settlement was made in 1769. The suspension bridge across the Ohio River has a span of 1,010 feet. It is built of wire, and cost $210,000. The tops of the towers are 153 feet from low-water mark. The city contains a handsome court-house, a custom house, and twenty church edifices. Extensive vineyards are in the neighborhood. Population 22,000 Wellsburg, on the Ohio River, 16 miles above Wheeling, was laid out in 1789, and named after Alexander Wells, who built the first flouring-mills on the Ohio. It was originally called Charlestown. Among the early settlers was Joseph Doddridge, author of the "Indian Wars of Northwestern Virginia." Rich coal mines are in the vicinity. Bethany, eight miles distant, is the seat of a college, founded in 1841, by Rev. Alexander Campbell. Parkersburg, the second city of Western Virginia, and the county seat of Wood County, is pleasantly situated on the Ohio at the mouth of the Little Kanawha River. It was laid out in 1817, incorporated in 1820, and chartered in 1860. It has had a rapid growth since the formation of the State; the streets are well laid out. Oil wells abound in the vicinity. Good turnpike roads lead to Winchester and Staunton. Population 6,000. stage and the Richm ond and Danville and Southside Railways to Lynchburg, and thence vza Lexington, Ky., afford the easies t routes. F rom Baltimore and Washington the B alt imore and Ohio Railway to Harper's Ferry and Winchester and thence by stage or the ferry to Alexandria a d tne ane, and thence by Orange and Alexandria and Virginia Central Railways as before. The latter is the more expeditious, though not so interesting. Approaching from the south, travellers s hould diverge from Richmond. From the west, passengers should lea ve the Ohi o Rive r route at Guyandotte, and thence by stage. For minute details, consult the recent newspaper announcements and the hotel-keepers. The best time to visit these springs and drink the waters is friom 1st July to September. A few words of advice to those who visit e, a ms o them, as most do, for the benefit of their health, contributed by one who is qua lified to give ad vice in such mat ters, are i nserte d her e: " When the patient, unde r prope r advice, has selected and arrived- at the Sprin g where he expects relief, there a re so me o bse rvances so essential to his success, that in a work professing in some degree to serve as his guide, it would be improper to omit calling attention to them. If he has directions from his family physician, the first question that suggests itself is, Is he in the precise condition in which that physician saw him? If he be not, what change' has taken place, and what new symptoms have occurred? It will readily be understood, that if the journey has been tedious and laborious, as in visits from the distant States must be the case, the invalid may have suffered from a change of water, he may be in a state of over-excitement, or exhaustion, from want of sleep, fatigue, or want of accustomed comforts. He may, from exposure, have taken cold and be in the incipient stage of catarrhal fever. His liver may have been deranged by the journey. His arterial and nervous system may be abnormally excited. He may have headache, furred tongue, or he may be constipated, or in other respects' out of sorts,' and so on ad nauseam." In all such cases, and they are of course numerous, the only relief to be hoped for is by sending the patient to the water adapted As the springs of Virginia furnish an important characteristic feature of the State, and annually attract a large concourse of visitors, I have thought it best to devote a considerable portion of this chapter wholly to them. First, as to the best means of reaching them. From Richmond, the Virginia Central via Staunton, Goshen to Millboro', and thence by 46 WELLSBURG.] VIRGINIA. T-UE SPBINGS.

Page  47 THE SPRINaGS.] per-take a cup of black tea or a glass of milk and a cracker." Avoid as much as possible all excitements and late hours. T/he WVhite Sulphur Springs. - Not knowing which of the several routes our traveller may desire to follow, we shall, instead of journeying in any prescribed line from Spring to Spring, jump at once to that central and most famous point, the White Sulphur. This favorite Spa is on Howard's Creek, in Greenbrier County, directly on the edge of the Great Western Valley, and near the base of the Alleghany range of mountains, which rise at all points in picturesque and winning beauty. Kate's Mountain, which recalls some heroic exploits of an Indian maiden of long ago, is one fine point in the scene, southward; while the Greenbrier Hills lie two miles away, toward the west, and the lofty Alleghany towers up majestically on the north and east. The Hot Spring is 38 miles distant, on the north; the Sweet Spring, 17 miles to the eastward; the Salt and the Red Springs, 24 and 41 miles, respectively, on the south; and the Blue Spring, 22 miles away, on the west. The vicinage of the White Sulphur is as grateful in natural attraction as the waters are admirable in medicinal value. Its locale is a charming va lley, environed, like that of Rasselas, by soaring hills, and the summer home in its midst has all the conveniences and luxuries of a veritable Castle of Indolence. Fifty acres, perhaps, are occupied with lawns and walks, and the cabins and cottages of the guests, built in rows around the public apartments, the diningroom, the ball-room, etc., give the place quite a merry, happy village air. There is Alabama Row, Louisiana, Paradise, Baltimore, and Virginia Rows, Georgia, Wolf, and Bachelor's Rows, Broadway, the Colonnade, Virginia Lawn, the Spring, and other specialties. The cottages are built of wood, brick, and of logs, one story high; and, altogether, the social arrangement and spirLt here, as at all the surrounding Springs, has a pleasant, quiet, home sentiment, very much more desirable than the metropolitan temper of more accessible and more thronged resorts. It is said that the site of these Springs was once the favorite hunting-ground of the Shawnees, a tradi 47 to h is disea se. " Wh eth er he employs a phys icia n or not, le t me say to the invalid:' Be in s low h as te.' S ur vey the whole ground according to the sug,ge stions I have laid before you. Do not gulp down large q uantities of water to expedite a cure. I t would be about a s wise as the conduct of a man who eats to repletion, in order to get the worth of his money, or as that of the old negro who swallowed down all the phy sic left by his mas ter, l est it shoul d go to waste. Be moderate in all things. Take the wat er so as to insure its gradual diffusion thro ugh your sys tem, that you may obtain that invisible and silent alterative act io n wh ich is eventually to eradicate your disease. G o to w ork c oolly, calmly, and systemati cally, a n d you will own the benefi t of the advice." " Fo llow as near as circumstances will permit the following cours e of treatment: If the weather and other circumsta nce s ad mit, ris e about 6, throw your cloak on your shoulders, visit the Spring, take a small-sized tumbl er of waters, move about in a b risk walk; drink again at 61, continuing moderate exercise-again at 7; breakfast about 8, but let it b e mod era t e and of suitable quality. In mo st cases, a nice tender mutton-chop, or a fresh soft-boiled egg, or venison, or beef-steak is admissible. Eat stale bread, or corn mush, or hominy-the latter a delightful article to be found at some of the Sprin-s —a cup of black tea, not strong, or a glass of unskimmed milk. If you value your health less than the gratification of your palate and stomach, you can indulge in buckwheat cakes, floating in butter, omelets of stale eggs, strong coffee, half-baked pastry, rich pates, hot bread, and such like, and take the consequences. After breakfast, walk, ride, or drive till near noon. Eat no luncheon at noon, but take a glass of water, and walk in the shade. Drink again at ] 2 —ag,ain at 1. Dine about 2. Eat for nourishment, and not for luxury. Avoid bad potatoes, cabbage, beets, turnips, onions, salt meat of every description, pastry, fruits, either cooked or in their natural state. Though innocent elsewhere, they are not usually so at mineral waters. Amuse yourself in social intercourse or gentle exercise until 6, take a glass of water-walk or ride until sup VIRGINIA. [THE SPRINGS.

Page  48 THE SPRING.] good accommodation during the season. Thle Red Sulphur Springs, in the southern portion of Monroe County, are 42 miles below the White Sulphur, 17 from the Salt, 32 from the Blue, and 39 from the Sweet. The approach to these Springs is beautifully romantic and picturesque. Wending his way around a high mountain, the weary traveller is for a moment charmed out of his fatigue by the sudden view of his resting-place, so me hundreds of feet immediately beneath him. Continuing the circuitous descent, he at length reache s a ravine, which co nducts him, after a few rugged ste ps, to the entrance of a verdant glen, surrounded on all sides by lo fty mountains. The south end of this enchanting vale, which is the widest portion of it, is abo ut two hundred feet in width. Its course is near ly north for about one hund red a nd fift y yards, when it begins gradually to contract, and changes its direction to the northwest and west, until it terminates in a narrow point. This beautifully secluded Tempe is the chosen site of the village, The northwest portion is occupied by stables, carriag,e-houses, and shops of various sorts, the southern portion, just at the base of the east and west mountains, is that upon which stand the various edifices for the accommodation of visitors. These buildings are spacious and conveniently arranged, while the piromenades, which are neatly enclosed by a white railing, are beautifully embellished, and shaded from the mid-day sun by large, umbrageous sugar-maples. The Spring is situated at the southwest point of the valley, and the water is collected into two white marble fountains, over which is thrown a substantial cover. These Springs have been known and dis. tinguished as a watering-place for nearly sixty years. The improvements at the place are extensive and well-desig,ned, combining elegance with comfort, and are sufficient for the accommodation of 350 persons. The water of the spring is clear and cool, its temperature being 54~ Fahrenheit. The Stoeet Springs are in the eastern part of Monroe County, 17 miles southeast of the White Sulphur and 22 from the Salt Sulphur. They have been known longer than any other mineral waters in Virginia, having been tion supported by the rema ins fo u nd in various parts of the valley, in the shape of implem ents of the chase and ancient graves. It is not known precisely at wha t period the Spring was discovered. Thou gsh the Indians undoubtedly knew its virtues, there is n o recor d of it s being us ed by th e whites until 1778. Logcabins were fir st erected on the spot in 1784-'86, and the place began to assume somethina of its present a spect about 1820. Since the n it has been yearly improved, until it is capable of pleasantly housing some 1,500 guests. The spring bubble s u p fro m the earth in the lowest part of the valley, and is covered by a pavilion, for med of twelve I on i c columns, supporting a dome, crowned by a statue of Hygeia. T he Spring i s at an elevation of 2,000 feet above tide-water. Its temper atu r e is 62~ Fahrenheit, and is uniform through all seasons. Its average yield is about thi rty gallon s per minute, and the supply is neither diminished in dry weather, no r increased by the longest rains. th e S al t Sulphur Spri ngs, th ree in numb er, are about twenty-four miles from the W hit e Sulphur, n ear Union, the capital of M onro e C ounty. Like the Whi te Sulphur, they are beautifully nestled in the lap of mountain ranges. The Springs are near the eastern base of Swope's M o untain. On the north, the Alleghany rises, while Peter's Mountain extends on the south and east. The Salt Sulphu r was discovered in 1805, by Mr. Irwin Benson, while boring for salt water, which he was led to hope for by the fact that the spot had formerly been a favorite " lick " for deer and buffalo. The hotels and cottages at the Salt Sulphur have accommodation for four hundred guests. The Blue Sulphur Spring, in Greenbrier County, is another sweet valley nook, 22 miles west of the White Sulphur, 32 north by east from the Red Sulphur, and 13 from Lewisburg. It is upon the turnpike road to Guyandotte, on the Ohio. Its geographical position is within the magic hill-circle of the great group of the Westerne Springs, enjoying all the healthful climates of that most salubrious of regions. A fine hotel 180 feet in length, built of brick, with piazzas extending its entire length, affords 48 VIRGINIA. [THE SPRINGS.

Page  49 THE SPRINGS.] discovered as early as 1764. So long ago as 1774 these waters were analyzed by Bishop Madison, then the President of William and Mary College. They lie in a lovely valley, five miles in length, and between a mile and half a mile broad. The Allegfhany Mountain bounds them on the north, and the Sweet Spring Mountain rises on the south. The hotel here is of noble extent, 250 feet long, with a dininghall of 160 feet. The Red Sweet Sprin g s are a mile only from the Sweet Springs just mentioned, on the way to the White Sulphur. This water is chalybeate, and a powerful agent in cases requiring a tonic treatment. The landscape here is most agreeable. A mile and a half from the Sweet Springs are the Beaver-dam Falls. The Rockbridge Alum Springs are i n Rockbridge County, on the main road from Lexington to the Warm Springs, 17 miles fromoe irs n o the f irst and 22 fr om the second point. The valley in which they are found lies below the Nor th Mount ain on the east and the Mill M ountain on the west. The Fanugier White Sulphur, in Fauquier County, are 40 miles from Fredericksburg and 132 miles from Richmond. They are quickly reached by rail from either point. Jordan's White Sulphur. These Springs are in Frederick County, five miles from Winchester, and one mile and a half from Stephenson Depot, on the Winchester and Potomac Railway. Distance from Harper's Ferry 281 miles. The Capon Sprintgs are 23 miles southwest of Winchester, at the base of the North Mountain. Take the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, from Baltimore to Harper's Ferry, 82 miles; thence the Potomac and Winchester, 32 miles, to Winchester; thence by stage; or take the Orange and Alexandria road from Alexandria, 27 miles, to Manassas Station and the Manassas Gap Railway, 61 miles more, to Strasburg. The Shaninondale Springs are in Jefferson County, five miles and a half from Charleston, a point on the railway from Harper's Ferry to Winchester. Distance to Charleston from Harper's Ferry, 10 miles; from Baltimore, 92 miles. The Berkeley Springs, Morgan County, are two miles and a half from Sir John's Run, a point on the Baltimore and Ohio Railway 130 miles west of Baltimore. This is a very ancient and distinguished resort, esteemed and frequented by Wash ington before the Revolution. Commo dious hotels. DibrelPs Spring is on the main road from Lynchburg to the White Sulphur, 19 miles west, by a direct road from the Natural Bridge. It is in the extreme northwestern part of Botetourt County, 30 miles east of the Alleghanies, and at the base of Gordon Mountain. The Alleghany Springs are in Most gomery County, on the south fork of the Roanoke River, 10 miles east of Chris tiansburg, on the Virginia and Tennessee Railway. From Richmond to Christians 49 The Warm Springs are in Bath County, about 170 miles, nearly west, on the great Spring route from Staunton. They are situated in a delightful valley, between lofty hill ranges. Fine views are opened all about on the Warm Spring Mountain From the "Gap," where the road crosses, and from "the Rock," 2,700 feet above tide-water, the display is deservedly famous. The Bath Alum Springs are at the eastern base of the Warm Spring Mountain, five miles east of the Warm Springs, 47 miles east of the White Sulphur, and 45 west of Staunton. The valley of the Bath Alum is a cosy glen of 1,000 acres, shut in, upon the east, by McClung's Ridge; on the southeast by Shayer's Mountain; on the west by the Piney Ridge; and on the southwest by Little Piney. Hot Springs.-Five miles removed from the Warm Springs, at the intersection of two narrow valleys, are the Hot Springs. The scenery here, though veryv agreeable, as is that of all the region round, is not especially striking. Healing Springs, Bath County.-These thermal waters lie in a pleasant valley of eight or ten miles' extent, between the Warm Spring Mountain on the east and the Valley Mountain on the west. In the neighborhood is a fine cascade. VIRGINIA. [THE SPRINGS. THERMAL WATERS. 3

Page  50 THIIE NATURAL BRIDGE.] burg, 210 miles west; from Lynchburg, 86 miles. New London Alum is in the County of Campbell, 10 miles southwest of Lynchburg. Grayson's Sulphur are west of the Blue Ridge, in Carroll County, 20 miles south of Wytheville, on the New River -a region of remarkable natural beauty. Pulaski Alum Spri2ng, in Pulaski County, on Little Water Creek, 10 miles from Newbern, and sevcn miles, in a direct line, from the Virginia and Tennessee Railway. The Huguenot Springs is a wateringplace in Powhatan County, 17 miles from Richmond. Take the Richmond and Danville Railway to the Springs station, about 10 miles, thence by good omnibuses or stages. A pleasant excursion from Richmond. There are many other mineral fountains in Virginia, discovered and undiscovered. We have mentioned only those of much resort. tion of the beholder is one of double astonishment: first, at the absolute sublimity of the scene; next, at the total in adequacy of the descriptions he has read, and the pictures he has seen, to produce in his mind the faintest idea of the re alitv. The great height gives the arch an air of grace and lightness that must be seen to be felt, and the power of speech is for a moment lost in contem plating the immense dimensions of the surroundin g objects. The middle of the arch is forty-five feet in pepe rpendicular thickness, which increases to sixty at its juncture with the vast abutments. Its top, which is covered with soi l supporting sh rubs of various sizes, is two hundr ed and te n feet high. It is sixt y feet wide, and i ts span is al m ost n inety f eet. Across the top passe s a publi c ro ad, and be in g in the s ame pla ne with the neighboring country, you may cross it in a coach without being aware of the interesting pass. There are several forest trees of -large dimensions growing near the edge of the cree k d ire ctl y und er the arch, which do not na ea rly reach its lowest part. The most imposing view is from about sixty yards below the bridge, close to the edge of the creek; from that position the arch appears thinner, lighter, and loftier. From the edge of the creek, at some distance above the bridge, you look at the thicker side of the arch, which from this point of view approaches somewhat to the Gothic. A little above the bridge, on the western side of the creek, the wall of rock is broken into buttress-like masses, which rise almost perpendicularly to a height of nearly two hundred and fifty feet, terminating in separate pinnacles which overlook the bridge. When you are exactly under the arch, and cast your glance upward, the space appears immense; and the symmetry of the ellipsoidal concave formed by the arch and the gigantic walls from which it springs, is wonderfully pleasing. From this position the views in both directions are sublime and striking from the immense height of the rocky walls, stretch. ing away in various curves, covered in some places by the drapery of the forest, green and graceful, and in others without a bramble or a bush, bare and blue. The Peaks of Otter.-These famous Iahe Natural Bridge is in Rockbridge County, in Western Virginia, 63 miles from the White Sulphur Springs. From Washington, the traveller hither may take the Orange and Alexandria Railway to Gordonsville, on the Virginia Central and the Central to Millboro', and thence by stage. From Richmond or other points by railway to Lynchburg, and thence by canal packet thirty-five miles to the bridge. From Lexington the distance is 14 miles, six of which are over a heavy road. It is situated at the bottom of the deep chasm in which flows the little stream called Cedar Creek, and across the top of which, from brink to brink, there still extends an enormous rocky stratum, that time and gravity have moulded into a graceful arch. The bed of Cedar Creek is more than two hundred feet below the surface of the plain, and the sides of the enormous chasm, at the bottom of which the water flows, are composed of solid rock, maintaining a position almost perpendicular. These adamantine walls do not seem to be water-worn, but suggest tke idea of an enormous cavern, that in remote ages may have been covered for miles by the continuation of that stratum of which all that now remains is the arch of the Natural Bridge. The first sensa 50 VIRGINIA-. FTHE NATURAL BRIDG.R.

Page  51 THE PEAKS OF OTTER.] mountain heights are in the same region as t h e Natural Bridge. They lie in the county of Bedford, 10 miles from the village of Liberty, and 35 miles from Lynchburg. T h e summits of the Peaks of Otter are a b o u t two miles apart. The northern mountain rises 4,200 feet above the plain a n d 5,307 above the sea. It is the southern or conical peak which is most often ascended. "After riding about a q u a r t e r of a mile," says a visitor to these peaks, "we came to the point beyond w h i c h horses cannot be taken, and dismounting from our steeds, commenced ascending on foot; the way was very s t e e p, and the day so warm that we had to halt often to take breath. As we approached the summit, the trees were all of a dwarfish growth, and twisted and gnarled by the storms of that high region. There were also a few blackberry b u s h e s, bearing their fruit long after the season had passed below. A few minutes l o n g e r brought us to where the trees ceased to grow; but a huge mass of r o c k s, piled wildly on top of each other, finished the termination of the peak. Our path lay for some distance around the base of it, and under the overhanging battlements, and rather descending for a while, until it led to a part of the p i l e which could with some effort be scaled. There was no ladder, nor any artificial steps, and the only means of as c e n t was by climbing over the successive rocks. We soon stood upon the wild platform of one of Natutre's most magnifi c e n t observatories, isolated and appar e n t l y above all things else terrestrial, and looking down upon and over a beautiful, variegated, and at the same time grand, w i l d, wonderful, and almost boundless panorama. Indeed, it was literally boundless, for there was a considerable h a z e resting upon some parts of the ' w o rld below,' so that, in the distant ho r i z o n, the earth and sky seemed insensi bly to mingle with each other. I had been there before. I remember, when a boy of little more than ten years old, to have been taken to that spot, and how my unpractised nerves forsook me at the sublimity of the scene. On this day it was as new as ever; as wild, wonderful, and sublime as if I had never before looked from those isolated rocks, or stood o n that awful summ it. On one side, tow - ard East ern V irginia, l ay a comparatively level country in the d istance, bearing strong resemblance to the ocean; on the other hand wer e rangfes of high mountains, int ersp ersed with cultivated spots, and then term inating in piles of mountains, following in successive ranges, until they were lost also in the ha ze. Abo ve a nd b elow, the Blue Ridge and Alleghaniies ran off in long lines; sometimes rel ieved by knolls and peaks, and in one place above us making a graceful curve, and then again running off in a different line of direction. North of us, and on the other side of the Valley of Virginia, were the mountains near Lexington, just as seen from that beautiful village- the Jump, North, and House Mountains succeeding each other. They were familiar with a thousand associations of our childhood, seeming mysteri ously, when away from the spot, to bring my early home before me-not in imagi nation such as had often haunted me when I first left to find another in the world, but in substantial reality. Fur ther on down the valley, and at a great distance, was the top of a large moun tain, which was thought to be the Great North Mountain, away down in Shenan doah County. I am afraid to say how far off. Intermediate between these mountains, and extending opposite and far above us, was the Valley of Virginia, with its numerous and highly cultivated farms. Across this valley, and in the distance, lay the remote ranges of the Alleghany, and mountains about, and, I suppose beyond, the White Sulphur Springs. Nearer us, and separating East ern and Western Virginia, was the Blue Ridge, more than ever showing the pro priety'of its cognomen of the' back bone,' and on which we could distinctly see two zigzag turnpikes, the one leading to Fincastle, and the other to Buchanan, and over which latter we had travelled a few days before. With the spy-glass we could distinguish the houses in the village of Fincastle, some twentv-five or thirty miles off, and the road leading to the town. Turning toward the direction of our morning's ride, we had beneath us Bedford County, with its smaller moun tains, farms, and farm-houses, the beauti 51 VIRGINIA. [TH,E PEAKS OF OTTRWL

Page  52 MADISON'S CAg] ful village of Liberty, the county roads, and occasionally a mill-pond, reflecting the sun like a sheet of polished silver. The houses on the hill at Lynchburg, twenty-five or thirty miles distant, are distinctly visible on a clear day, and also Willis' Mountain, away down in Bucking ham County. The tourist may take a carriage from Liberty or at Buchanan, to the Peaks. A fine, well-graded turnpike leads thence, and a good hotel is at the base of the mountain." Weyer's Cave. This wonderful place, scarcely inferior in its mysterious grandeur to the celebrated Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, is in the northeastern corner of Augusta County, 77 miles from Staunton (on the Central Railway), 16 miles from Waynesboro', and 32 from Charlottesville. This cave was named after Bernard Weyer, who discovered it in 1804, while in chase of a wild animal who fled thither for escape. Many of the countless apartments in this grand subterranean castle are of exquisite beauty-others, again, are magnificent in their grand extent. Washington Hall, the largest chamber, is upwards of 250 feet in length. Following its various avenues, the visitor may traverse this cave upwards of half a mile. To see it in all its beauty, lights should be used. Madison's Cave, within a few hundred yards of Weyer's, is thus described by Mr. Jefferson, in his "Notes on Virginia: " "It is on the north side of the Blue Ridge, near the intersection of the Rockingham and Augusta line with the south fork of the southern river Shenandoah. It is in a hill of about 200 feet perpendicular height, the ascent of which on one side is so steep, that you may pitch a biscuit from its summit into the river which washes its base. The entrance of the cave is in this side, about two-thirds of the way up. It extends into the earth about 300 feet, branching into subordinate caverns, sometimes ascending a little, but more generally descending, and at length terminates in two different places at basins of water of unknown extent, and which I should judge to be nearly on a level with the water of the river; however, I do not think they are formed by refluent water from that, because they are never turbid; because 52 they do not rise and fall in correspond ence with that in tim es of flood, or of drought, and bec ause the water i s always cool. It is probably one o f th e m any reservoirs with which th e interior parts of the e arth are supposed to abound. The vault of this cave is of solid lime stone, from 20 to 40 or 50 feet high, through which water is continually perco lating. This, tr ickling dow n the sides of the cave, has incrusted them over in the form of elegant dr apery; an d dripping from the a top of the vault generates on that, and on the base below, stalactites of a conical form, some of which have met and formed massive columns." The Blowing Cave is on the stage road be tween the Rockbridge and the Bath Alum Springs, one mile west of the village of Millboro'. When the internal and external atmosphere is the same, there is no perceptible current issuing from it. In intense hot weather, the air comes out with so much force as to prostrate the weeds at the entrance. In intense cold weather, the air draws in. There is a -Flowing and Ebbing Spring on the same stream with the Blowing Cave. The Gawk's 1Vest, sometimes called Marshall's Pillar, is on New River, in Fayette County, a few rods only from the road leading from Guyandotte, on the Ohio, to the White Sulphur Springs —96 miles from Gu'yandotte, and 64 miles from the Springs. It is an immense pillar of rock, with a vertical height of 1,000 feet above the bed of the river. "You leave the road by a little by-path, and after pursuing it for a short distance, the whole scene suddenly breaks upon you. But how shall we describe it? The great charm of the whole is connected with the point of sight, which is the finest imaginable. You come suddenly to a spot which is called the Hawk's Nest. It projects on the scene, and is so small as to give standing only to some half dozen persons. It has on its head an old picturesque pine; and it breaks away at your feet abruptly and in perpendicular lines, to a depth of more than 1,000 feet. Standing on this ledge, which, by its elevated and detached character, affects you with dizziness, the forest rises above and around you. Beneath and before you is spread a lovely valley. A I VIRGINIA. [BLOWING CAVTL.

Page  53 [THE HIGING Rocxs. geian Springs. It abounds in fresh trout and other fish. Caudy's Castle was so named from having been the retreat of an early settler, when pursued by the Indians. It is the fragment of a mountain, in the shape of a half cone, with a very narrow base, which rises from the banks of the Capon to the height of about 500 feet, and presents a sublime and majestic appearance. Caucldy's Castle, as also the Tea-Table, and the Hanging Rocks, mentioned below, may all be visited from the Capon Springs. The Tea-Table is about 10 miles from Caudy's Castle, in a deep, rugged glen three or four miles east of the Capon. It is about four feet in height, and the samo in diameter. From the top issues a clear stream of water, which flows over the brim on all sides, and forms a fountain of exquisite beauty. The Hanging Rocks are about four miles north of Romney. There the Wappatomka River has cut its way through the mountain of about 500 feet in height. The boldness of the rocks and the wildness of the scene surprise the beholder. Tradition makes it the scene of a bloody battle between the Delaware and Catawba Indians. 53 peaceful r iver glides d own it, reflecting, like a mirror, all the lights of heaven, washes the foot of the rocks on which you are standing, and then winds away into another valley at your right. The trees of the wood, in all their variety, stand out on the verdant bottoms, with their heads in the sun, and casting their shadows at your feet, but so diminished as to look more like the pictures of the things than the thing-s themselves. The green hills rise on either hand and all around, and give completeness and beauty to the scene. Beyond these appears the gray outline of the more distant mountains, bestowing grandeur to what was supremely beautiful. It is exquisite. It conveys to you the idea of perfect solitude." The Ice Jfountain is a remarkable natural curiosity, in the county of Hampshire. It is upon the North River (eastern bank), 26 miles northwest of Winchester (see Baltimore and Ohio Railway). The Salt Pond is a charming lake, on the summit of Salt Pond Mountain, one of the highest peaks of the Alleghanies. It is in Giles County, 10 miles east of Parisburg and five miles from the Hy TnE ICE MOUNTAIN.] VIRGINIA.

Page  54 NORTH CAROLINA. NORTH CAROLINA. tion of Wilmington, Petersburg, and Richmond, formed o ne of the most brilliant as wel l as decisive e vents of the whole war. In picturesque at traction the State is popularly considere d to be who lly destitute-an impression which res ult s fro m a n e rroneous estimate of he r topography, which travellers in the course of years have made, from the uninteres ting forest travel in the eastern portion, t raversed by the great railway thorou ghfares from the Northern to the Sou the rn Stat es; the o nly highway until w ithi n ve ry late years, and to th is day t he only o ne very much in use. The eastern part of North Carolina, stretching sixty mil e s i nland, is a vast plain, sandy, and overrun with interminable fores ts of pine. Ye t t his wilderness is not without points and impressions of inter est to the tourist, more particularly when it is broken, as it often is, by great stre tches of dank marsh, sometimes opening into mystical-lookind lakes, as on th e Little Dismal Swamp, lying be tween Pamlico and Albe mar le Soun d s, and on the Grea t Dismal Swamp which the State shares with Virginia. The staple productions of the " piney woods country," as it is called, are tar, pitch, an d turpentine. The coast t, too, of North Carolina, is one of the most celebrated on the western borders of the Atlantic-the one most watche d a nd feared by mariners and all voyagers, that upon which the dreaded Capes Hatteras, Lookout, and Fear are found. While the innumerable bays, shoals, and islands are thus cautiously avoided by the passing mariner, they are as eagerly sought by the fisherman and the sportsman. Immense quantities of shad, and herring, and other fish, are taken here, and the estuaries of the rivers and the bays are among the favorite re IMMEDIATELY south of Virginia, and easily accessible either by land or water, lies NORTH CAROLINA, also one of the original Thirteen States of the American Confederacy. It lies between 33~ 53' and 36~ 33' N. latitude, and between 75~ 25' and 84~ 30' W. longitude, and includes an area of 50,704 square miles, or 32,450,560 acres. It is bounded on the east and southeast by the Atlantlc; on the south by South Carolina and Georgia; and northwest by Tennessee, from which it is separated by the Appalachian Mountains. The history of the region does not present many very brilliant points, although attempts to colonize it were made at a very early day-as long ago as 1585-'89, by Sir Walter Raleigh-and though the people were engaged like their nei,hboos, in bloody struggles with the Indian tribes. The first permanent settlement was made in 1653. Yet the State did memorable service in the Revolution, and especially in being the first publicly and solemnly to renounce allegiance to the British crown, which she did in the famous Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, May 20, 1775-more than a year before the similar formal assertion of the other States. On the 20th of May, 1861, the 86th anniversary of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, the Ordinance of Secession was passed. Military operations were immediately commenced; Federal forts, mint, and arsenal seized, and by June 15th a force of 20,000 volunteers had been raised for the service of the Confederacy. During the memorable campaigns toward the close of the rebellion, this State was the scene of many a bloody battle. The naval bombardment and final capture of Fort Fisher, followed as it was by the occupa 54 [NORTH CAROLINA. NOP.TH CA.ROLINA.]

Page  55 NORTH CAROLINA. the State, to the Atlantic. A few small streams empty into the Tennessee. The Roanoke and the Chowan extend from Virginia to Albemarle Sound. The Cape Fear River traverses the State and enters the sea near the southern extremity of the State. Travellers by the old steamboat route from Wilmington to Charleston will remember the passage of this river from the former place, 20 miles to its mouth at Smithville. The Neuse and the famous Tar River come from the north to Pamlico Sound. The Yadkin and the Catawba enter South Carolina, and are there called, one the Great Pedee, and the other the Wateree. These and the other rivers of this State are so greatly obstructed at their mouths by sand-banks, and above by rapids and falls, that their waters are not navigable for any great distance, or by any other than small craft. Vessels drawing ten or twelve feet of water ascend the Cape Fear River as far as Wilmington, and lightdraught steamboats go to Fayetteville. Steamboats sail up the Neuse 120 miles to Waynesboro, up the Tar 100 miles to Tarborough, up the Roanoke 120 miles to Halifax, and up the Chowan 75 miles. The Sta te is divided into 86 c ounties, and contained in 1860 a population of near l y one mill ion. Raleigh, n ear the Neuse River, ist a p a of the capit al of t he State and Wilmington, 20 miles from the mouth of the Cape Fear River, is itsi chief commercia l c ity. l[a[leigh. HOTEL, Yarborough, 286 miles frorm Washington, is re ached from Rich mond, Va., via Wel don, a nd thence by the Raleigh and Gast on Railway, 97 miles. It is the cap ital of the State, and is beautifully situated four miles west of the Neuse River, a little northeast of the centre of the State. The seat of Government was located here in 1788, and named after Sir Walter Raleigh. Union Square is an open area of ten acres, occupying a centre, on the sides of which are the principal streets. The State House, which is on this square, is one of the most imposing capitols of the United States. It is built of granite, after the model of the Parthenon, with massive columns and a grand dome, and cost half a million dollars, equal at the present time to nearly twice that sum. 55 sorts of wild fowl of every species, mak ing th is coast scarcely less attractive to the sportsm an tha n is the Ch esapeake Ba y and the shore s of Lon, H Is l and. The level region extends about 60 miles from the coast, an d is succeeded by the hilly country in the centre, which in turn gives place to the mountainous re gi on of the west. This section, when it c o m es to be better known, as the railways now approaching i t fro m all sides promise that it soon will be, will pl ace the State in public estimation among the most strikingly picturesque portions of the Union. T he tw o great ridges of the A1leghanies traverse this region, some of their peaks rising t o the noblest h eights, an d one of t hem (Mount M itchell) reaching a g reater altit ude than any summi t eas t of the Rocky Mountains. Wild brooks innumerable and of the richest beauty, water-falls, and lovely valleys, are found in this yet almost unknown land. Mineral products of great variety and value are found in North Carolina, as in the neighboring mountain districts- of South Carolina and Georgia. Until the discovery of the auriferous lands of California, this was the most abundant gold tract in the United States. The mines here of this monarch of metals have been profitably worked for many years. At the branch mint in Charlotte, in the mining region, gold was coined, between and including the years 1838 and 1853, to the value of no less than $3,790,033; the highest annual product being $396,734, in the year 1852. "The copper lands of the State," says Professor Jackson, " are unparalleled in richness. Coal, too, both bituminous and anthracite, is found here in great abundance and of the finest quality. Iron ore also exists throughout the mountain districts. Limestone and freestone may be had in inexhaustible supply. Marl is abundant in all the counties on the coast, and silver, lead, manganese, salt, and gypsum, have been discovered." The rivers of North Carolina have no very marked picturesque character, except the mountain streams in the west, which are almost inaccessible. The greater number of the rivers run from 200 to 400 miles, in a southeast direction, through NORTH CAROLINA.] [RALEIGH.

Page  56 NORTH CAROLINA. chief commercial city of North Carolina, is in the southeastern extremity of the State, upon the Cape Fear River, 20 miles from the sea, 135 miles southeast of Raleigh, and 162 from Weldon. It was originally called Newton, and was named Wilmington after the English nobleman of that name, to whose patronage Governor Johnston was indebted for his office. It offers, however, no very great attractions to the t rav eller in quest of the picturesque, though it played a part in the d rama of the Revolution. Major Crai g took possession of the town in January 1781, and o ccupied it until the surrender of Cornwallis. It fe l l i nto the p ossession of the combined military and n aval Union forces, February 22, 1865. It has been twice visited by fire, first in 1819, and last upon the evacuation of the rebel troops in 1865. It has several fine public buildings, a theatre, three newspapers, but no good hotel. Population 10,000. Steamships ply weekly to New York; daily communication by rail with Richmond and Charleston, S. C. Forts Fi.sher and Caswell, and the village of Smithville, at the mouth of the Cape Fear River, will interest the visitor. The firstnamed work withstood the most terrific bombardment of the war through two attacks, but was finally captured with the aid of the land forces under General Terry, Feburary 15th, 1865, after a most gallant defene. Fayetteville is at the head of navigation on Cape Fear River, 60 miles south of Raleigh, and 100 miles above Wilmington. Reached at present on plank roads from Raleigh, and from the Wilmington and Weldon Railway. Pre vious to the war it was a thriving city of 8,000 inhabitants. Here General Sher man halted his army from the 12th to the 15th of March, 1865, previous to cross ing the river to Goldsboro'. The arsenal and other important buildings were de. stroyed. Charlotte. —HoTEL, Mansion Hotse. This is a thriving town on Sugar Creek, 158 miles west-southwest of Raleigh. Distant from Charleston, 237 miles; from Columbia, S. C., 109 miles. A plank road runs 120 miles to Fayetteville, on Cape Fear River. The town lies in the midst of The former State House was destroyed by fire in 1831, and with it the celebrated statue of Washington by Canova. A destructive fire on the 7th of January, 1831, laid a great partion of the city in ashes. The State Lunatic Asylum, and the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, are both located here. Population 5,000. Weldon, HOTEL, Gouch's, is situated on the Roanoke River, at the head of steamboat navigation, 95 miles northeast of Raleigh. It is an important railread centre, and a place of considerable trade. Gwoldsboro', in Wayne County, is situated near the Neuse River, at the point where it is crossed by the Wilmington and Weldon Railway, 50 miles southeast of Raleigh. The Neuse is navigable to this point three-fourths of the year. The city has immediate railroad connection with roads north and south. It was occupied by the Federal forces in March, 1865. It has had a very rapid growth. The first house was erected in 1841, the present population exceeds 3,500. The Granger Home has good accommodation for travellers. Newbern, a pleasant old town of about 5,000 inhabitants, is at the confluence of the Ncuse and the Trent Rivers, midway on the Atlantic line of the State, 50 miles above Pamlico Sound. It is on the line of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railway, which extends from Goldsboro' to Morehead City, opposite Beaufort. Distance from Goldsboro', 59 miles; from Morehead City, 86 miles. This place was attacked and captured during the late war by the forces under General Burnside, March 14, 1861, after a sharp engagement of four hours. Beaufort is at the mouth of Newport River, 168 miles east-southeast of Raleigh, and 11 miles northwest of Cape Lookout. The harbor, the best in the State, was much frequented by the several naval expeditions fitted out against Fort Fisher, Wilmington, and other points on the coast. Fort Macon, at the entrance to the harbor, is worthy a visit. The beach in the vicinity affords fine bathing. Wilmington, the largest and the 5o WILMINGTON.] [CIIART-OTTE.

Page  57 THE MOUNTAIN REGION.] the gold region of the State, and is the seat of a United States branch mint. Some interesting historical memories are awakened at Charlotte. It was here that the patriots of Mecklenburg County assembled in convention, in 1775, and boldly passed a series of resolutions, declaring themselves independent of the British Crown, thus anticipating by a year the immortal Declaration of'76. The British troops occupied the town in 1780, and for a little while it was the headquarters of the American forces. Here General Greene took command of the Southern army from General Gates, fifty days after the departure of Cornwallis. Battle of _uilford Court Homse. —The scene of this interesting event in the history of the American Revolution is in the County of Guilford, in the northwestern part of the State. bold peak, almost isolated in the midst of a comparatively level region. In the olden time it was the landmark of the Indians in their forest wanderings; hence its present name. The Hawk's Bill, in Burke County, is a stupendous projecting cliff, looking down 1,500 feet upon the waters of a rushing river. The Table Rock, a few miles below the Hawk's Bill, rises cone-shaped, 2,500 feet above the valley of the Catawba River. The Ginger Cake Rock, also in Burke County, is a singular pile, upon the summit of the Ginger Cake Mountain. It is a natural stone structure, in the form of an inverted pyramid, 29 feet in height. It is crowned with a slab, 32 feet long and two feet thick, which projects half its length beyond the edge of the pyramid upon which it is so strangely poised. Thoug h seeming just ready to fall, nothing could be more secure. A fine view down the dark ravine below is commanded at this point. The French Broad River, in its wild mountain course of 40 miles or more, from Asheville to the Tennessee line, abounds in admirable scenes. It is a rapid stream, and in all its course lies deep down in mountain gorges-now foaming over its rocky pathway, and now sleeping, sullen and dark, at the base of huge precipitous cliffs. A fine highway follows its banks, and often trespasses upon its waters, as it is crowded by the overhanging cliffs. Near the Tennessee boundary, and close by the Warm Springs, this road lies in the shadow of the bold mountain precipices known as the Painted Rocks and the Chimneys. The Painted Rocks have a perpendicular elevation of between 200 and 300 feet. Their name is derived from the Indian pictures yet to be seen upon them. The Chimneys are lofty cliffs, broken at their summits into detached piles of rock, bearing much the likeness of colossal chimneys, a fancy greatly improved by the fire-place looking recesses at their base, and which serve as turnouts in the narrow causeway. The picture embracing the angle in the river, beyond the Chimney Rocks, is especially fine. The Indian name of the French Broad is Tselica. Under this title Mr. W. Gilmore Simms has woven into beautiful 57 NORTH CAROLINA. [THE'MOUNTAIN REGION. THE MOUNTAIN ITEGION. To reach the mountain reion of North Carolina from the north, ollow the great southern route from Washinton, via the Oran-,e and Alexandria, Virginia and Tennessee, and the East Tennessee and Virginia Railway, via Lynchbur-,, to Bristol. From Charleston, S. C., take the South Carolina Railway to Spartanburg, and thence by stage to Asheville; or railway lines through from Charleston, via Columbia, S. C., and Charlotte, N. C., to Salisbury, on the North Carolina Central route, and thence to Catawba, Morganton, and Asheville. The Swannonoa Gap is a ma,-,Uificent mountain pass, between Asheville and Morganton. The Falls of the Catawba are hard- by. The Hickory Nut Gap is another grand cleft in the giant hills, rich in wonderful pictures of precipices and cascades. Black Jfountai7t, 20 miles northeast of Asheville, is a semicircular mas,,i of land, about 20 miles in length, deriving its name from the darkgreen foliage of the balsam fir-trees which line its top and sides. Clingman's and MitcheH's Peaks, the former 6,941, and the latter 6,732 feet high, are the most elevated points east of the Rocky Mountain ran-es. The scene from either summit is one of surpassing grandeur. Pilot Mountain, in Burke County, is a

Page  58 THE MOUHNTAIN REGION.] verse a charming legend of the river. perishes." The Warm Springs, across "The tradition of the Cherokees," he the river from the vicinage of the Painted says, "asserts the existence of a siren in Rocks, is a very pleasant and popular the French Broad, who implores the summer resort. The excellent hotel here hunter to the stream, and strangles him occupies a fine plateau, very grateful to in her embrace, or so infects him with the sight, in its contrast with the rugged some mortal disease, that he invariably character of the wild landscape around. 58 NORTH CAROLINA. [fTE MOUNTAIN REGION.

Page  59 SOUTH CAROLINA. SOUTH CAROLINA. position to the Federal Government, and was the first to rise in rebellion after the election of Mr. Lincoln to the Presidency, in 1860. The Ordinance of Secession was passed December 20, 1860, and on February 18, 1865, the city of Charleston was occupied by the United States soldiers, and the national flag again floated over the city and Fort Sumter. The natural aspect of the Palmetto State is exceedingly varied. On the seaboard and the south broad savannas, and deep, dank lagunes, covered with teeming fields of rice, and fruitful in a thousand changes of tropical vegetation; in the middle districts great undulating meadows, overspread with the luxuriant maize, or white with snowy carpetings of cotton; and, again, to the northward, bold mountain ranges, valleys, and waterfalls. The poet has thus recorded its attractions: SOUTH CAROLZINA is one of the most interesting States in the Union, in its legendary and historical story, in its social characteristics, and in its physical aspect. Upon its settlement by the English, in 1670, John Locke, the famous philosopher, framed a constitution for the young colony, after the pattern of that of Plato's Model Republic. The first settlement was atPort Royal. Later (1690), the native poetic humor of the people received a new stimulus from the influx of French Huguenots, driven from their own land by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. South Carolina remained a proprietary government until 1719, when it became a royal colony. The chivalric spirit of the people was fostered by the wars which they shared with the Georgians, under Oglethorpe, against the Spaniards in Florida, and by the gallant struggles in which they were perpetually involved with the Yemassee and other Indian tribes. Next came the long and painful trial of the Revolution, in which these resolute people were among the first and most ardent to take up arms in the cause of righ t-f the most persistent and self-sacrificing in the prosecution of the contest, under every rebuff, and the last to leave the bloody and devastating fight. The colony took an active part in exciting and carrying on the revolt of the colonies, and furnished upwards of 6,000 troops to the Federal forces. Among the conspicuous fights which took place within the limits of the State, were those at Fort Moultrie, Charleston, Camden, King's Mountain, Eutaw Springs, and Cowpens. The State was occupied by the British during the greater part of 1780-'81. South Carolina has gone further than any other State in asserting the rights and powers of the sovereign States in op " The sunny land, the sunny land, where Nature has displayed Her fairest works, with lavish hand, in hill, in vale, and glade; Her streams flow on in melody, through fair and fruitful plains; And, from the mountains to the sea, with beauty plenty reigns." Among the rivers of South Carolina, the S avannah, Great Pedee, the Santee and its affluents, the Co ngaree and Wateree, Saluda and Broad Rivers, Edisto and Combahee, together affor ding an inland navigati on of 2,400 mi l es, are the most important. Formerly the most popular resorts for tourists through the State, were Table Mountain and Table Rock, Caesar's Head, and Glenn's Spring. Owing to the interruption to travel, caused by the war, and the lack of accommodation, the number of visitors to these points has greatly diminished. South Carolina is divided into 59 I [SOUTH CAROLINA. ,%UTH CAROLINA.]

Page  60 SOUTH CAROLINA. Anderson Branch (Greenville and Colum. bia Road) deflects at Belton, 10 miles to Anderson. From this point, and from Spartanburg, other roads are in progress to connect with the railway routes of North Carolina and Tennessee. The Charleston and Savannah Railway, which was the main highway of travel between these cities previous to the war, has not yet been repaired. Communication is made by steamer daily. 30 Districts, an d c ontained a white pop ulation, in 1860, of 291,300. RAmwAYs.-The South Carolina Rail way traverses the lower portion of the S tate, 137 miles from Charleston to Augusta, G eorgia. This road was partially dest roye d by G en eral Sherman' s f orces, and has not yet been reopened to travel. The Columbia Branch extends 66 miles from Branch ville, midw ay on t he South Carolina Railwhay t o Columb ia, th e c apital of the State. The Northeastern Ra ilway from Charleston, 102 miles to Florence, w here it connects with the Cheraw and Darlington Railway, 40 miles to Cheraw. The Charlotte and Sobth Carolina Railway extends northward, through the mountain region, 105 miles, from Columbia to Charlotte, N. C. The principal p laces passed are W inchester and Chester. At Chester a railroad diverges for Yorkville. The Wilmin gton an d Manchesier extends 172 miles from Kingsville, Columbia Branch of South Carolina road. Stations: King sville to Wateree Junction, 9 miles (C amden Branch road diverges here); Ma nchester, 15; Sumterville, 25; Maysv ille, 34; Lynchburg, 43; Timmonsville, 52; wlorence, 64 (Northeastern road for Charleston, and the Cheraw and Darlington, for Cheraw, diverge here) Mar's Bluffs, 70; Pedee, 76; Marion, 85; Ifullen's, 72; Nichol's, 99; Pine Bluff, 108; Grist's, 118; Whitesville, 127* F~lemington, 137; lMaxwell's, 144; Brinkley's, 154; Wilmington, 171. The Camden Branch extends 37 miles from Kingsville-Stations: Kingsville to Clarkson's, 4 miles; Manche ster Junction, 9; Middleton, 11; Claremont, 18; Hopkins, 28; Camden, 37 miles. The Greenville and Columbia -Railway extends northwest, via Newberry C. H., 143 miles from Columbia to Greenville, with branches and connecting lines to Spartanburg,, Laurensville, Abbeville, and Anderson. The Spartanburg anid Union Railway deflects at Alston, from the Greenville and Columbia Railway, 55 miles northwest of Columbia. The Laurens road extends 32 miles from Newberry C. H. (Greenville and Columbia Railway) to Laurensville. The Abbeville Branch (Greenville and Columbia Road) deflects at Cokesbury, 19 miles to Abbeville. The 60 .Route from New York, Etc. From New York daily, by railway, to Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington City, Fredericksburg, and Richmond, Va., Weldon and Wilmington, N. C.; thence by Wilmington and Manchester Railway to Kingsville, on the Columbia Branch of the South Carolina Road; or more directly by the newer routevia Northeastern Railway, which deflects from the Wilmington and Manchester road at Florence. The pleasantest mode of travel, however, from NewYork to Charleston or Savannah, is at present by Arthur Leary's fine line of steamships, which make the voyage in some 60 hours twice a week, leaving New York every Wednesday and Saturday. Office, 73 William Street. The Peoples' Line also despatch a steamship (Pier No. 37, North River) every Thursday at 3 o'clock P. x.: Livingston, Fox & Co., 141 Broadway, Agents. The cabin passage on both lines the same. From New Orleans to Charleston.-Steamers daily to Mobile and to Montgomery, Alabama; thence by railway to Atlanta; thence, by Georgia Road, to Augusta; thence, by South Carolina Road, to Charleston. From Savannah to Charleston.-Steamers daily, 6 P. x. SOUTH CARtOLINqA.] [CHARLESTON. C HARL]ESTON, 580 miles from Baltimore, 640 from Washington City, and 118 from Savannah. HOTELS.-'-The hotels of Charleston are among the most conspicuous edifices of the city, and are generally well kept. The best known and best ordered are the Bills House and the Charleston Hotel, on

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Page  61 SOUTH CAROLINA. Meeting Street. The Pavilion, just opened, is also a good house. These are particularly good specimens of Charleston architecture. Charges, $4.00 per day. Charleston, the metropolis of South Carolina, seven miles from the ocean, is picturesquely situated at the confluence of the Ashley and Cooper Rivers, which combine to form its harbor. This harbor is spacious, and sufficiently deep to admit -vessels drawing 17 feet. The coup d'eil is imposing and highly picturesque. Though the grounds are low, hardly more than 12 feet above high water, the effect is fine; and the city, like Venice, seems, at a little distance, to be absolutely rising out of the sea. The bay is almost completely landlocked, making the harborage and roadstead as secure as they are ample. The adjuncts contribute to form a tout ensemble of much beauty. Directly at the entrance of the city stands Castle Pinckney, a fortress which covers an ancient shoal. A little south of Pinckney is Fort Ripley, a small square work, built of Palmetto logs, and filled with paving stones, built in 1862. On the sea-line rises Fort Moultrie, famous, as Fort Sullivan, in beating off, and nearly destroying, the British fleet, under Sir Peter Parker, in 1776. On the eastern extremity of the same island (Sullivan's), on which Fort Moultrie stands, may yet be traced the outline of the fortress which, under Colonel Thompson, with 700 Carolina rifles, defeated Sir Henry Clinton at the very moment when Moultrie drove Parker away from the South. Within the harbor the most conspicuous object, and the one also of commanding interest, are the ruined walls of Sumter. This fort, with that of Moultrie, once constituted the chief defences of Charleston. The events and operations of which these massive ruins have formed the chief centre and culminating point, are too fresh in the public recollection to require more than a brief retrospect in these pages. The fort, which is an octagonal work of solid masonry, stands in the middle of the harbor. The armament consisted, at the time of the attack, of 140 guns. It was occupied by Major Anderson on the night of Dec. 26, 1860, and at noon of the 27th the Union flag was hoisted o ver it. On the l11th Janua ry following, Governor Pikens demanded a surrender of the fort, w hich being refused, prepara tions were commenced to attack it. Fire was opened unde r direction of General G. T. Beauregard at 4.30 o'clock A. M., April 11th, 1861, from the batteries on James Island. After a d efence of thirty-two hours the garrison surrend ered, and were tr ansported to New York in the steamer Baltic. The pres ent condition of the work sufficiently attests the warmth of the second at t ack, August, 1863. OnJames Island are seen the ruins of old Fort John son. On the opposite headlands of the Haddrill you may trace the old lines which helped in the defenc e of the city eighty years ago, but which are no w mos tly covered by the sma rt village of Mount Pleasant. These points, north, east, and south, with the city lying west of them, b ound the harb o r, leaving an ample circuit of bay-coursing over which, from south to north, the eye pursues the long stretch of Cooper River, the Etiwando of the re d m en, along the banks of which, for many miles, the sight is refreshed by noble rice-fields, and in many places by the mansions and homesteads of the former planters. Steamers ply up this river, and return the same day, affording a good bird's-eye view of the settlements, along a very picturesque shore line on either hand. It was up this river that Mr. Webster distinguished himself by shooting an alligator, or rather shooting at him-the alligator diving at the shot, and leaving the matter sufficiently doubtful to enable an old lawyer and politician to make a plausible case of it. Standing on James Island, or on the battlements of Fort Sumter, the eye notes the broad stream of the Ashley, winding from west of the city, round its southernmost point, to mingle with the waters of the Cooper. The Ashley was anciently a region of great'wealth and magnificence. It is still a river of imposing aspect-broad, capacious, with grassy, wellwooded banks, beyond which you may still behold some antique and noble edifices. Within the harbor, if you can appropriate a couple of days, you may find them agreeably employed, especially in the summer months, by a trip to Fort 61 CHARLESTO,-i.) [CHAP.LL,STON.

Page  62 SOUTH CAROLINA. Sumter, to James Island, to Mount Pleasant, and Sullivan's Island. The two latter places are favorite and healthy retreats for the citizens of Charleston in midsummer. The "Mount Pleasant Hotel," once an ample, cool, and wellkept house, with the usual adjuncts of bowling and billiard-saloons, has not yet quite recovered from the effects of its o ccupancy as a military hospital. The forests in the immediate neighborhood afford find drivesand picturesque rambles. The boat passes in twenty minutes from Mount Pleasant to Sullivan's Island. The Mo?iltrie House, before the war one of the finest watering-places in the Southern country, is now, like Sumter, a mass of ruins. The beach in the vicinity affords fine bathing and a pleasant drive for nearly three miles, to the eastern end of the island, where the sea, angrily struggling with shoals to press into the estuaries behind Sullivan and Long Islands, keeps up a perpetual and not unpleasant roar. Other objects of interest, and points for recreation and healthful enjoyment, present themselves in the tour of the harbor, which no one visiting this now memorable city ought to omit seeing. Charleston was originally founded about 1670. It was subsequently laid out on a plan furnished from England, which was then considered of a very magnificent scale; but the streets were narrow, though regularly laid out, and no provision was made for public squares. In this respect the city is still very deficient. But the general style of building, which gives to each private dwelling a large court of its own, with trees and verandahs, renders the want of public squares less sensibly felt. Originally built of wood, and ravaged by frequent fires, Charleston has become in a large degree a city of brick. Its public buildings are some of them antique as well as noble edifices. St. Michael's Church, on the southeast corner of Broad and Meeting Streets, built in 1752-'56, the StateHouse (now employed for the courts of Justice), and the Old Custom House, are all solid and imposing structures, raised during the colonial period. St. Michael's Tower is held in great admiration among the Charlestonians. It is from designs by a pupil of Sir Christopher Wren. The 62 Custom House has a traditional character, having been used by the British in the Revolution as the prison-house of the patriots. It was in this building that Hayne, the martyr, wa s ke pt i n bonds; and thence he was led out to execution. The New Custom House, of marble and granite, is an imposing edifice, not yet quite complete. The several churches of St. Philip (Ehiscopal), St. Finsbar (Catholic), Citadel Square (Baptist), Central (Presbyterian), are all fine edifices. St. Finsbar was destroyed during the great fire. The ruins are among the most striking objects of the city. Among other objects of interest is the Orphan Asylum, corner Calhoun and St. Philip Sts., a magnificent structure of great capacity. It generally contains from 150 to 250 orphans, the numbers of both sexes being nearly equal. It has a fine museum and library. A statue of William Pitt, somewhat defaced by recent acts of violence, stands in front of this edifice. - The City Hall, Court House, and Police Court, facing each other at the intersection of Broad and Meeting Streets, are among the most prominent of the strictly municipal buildings left in that part of the city. The Military Academy (citadel) is a State institution. One-half of its members are beneficiary. The plan of education is borrowed, in part, from the system at West Point, and in part from the Polytechnique in Paris. Its graduates are among the most distinguished and successful, perhaps, of all our colleges. To examine these two institutions, will afford the stranger pleasant employment for a day. The Charleston College, founded in 1788. The present structure, fronting on George and Greene Streets, was erected in 1826. The wings were added in 1850. The Public Schools, on St. Philip Street, in the immediate neighborhood of the college building, are also imposing edifices. The Jail and Workhouse, on Magazine Street, lately occupied as United States barracks for colored troops, are large, castellated structures; as are also the depots of the South Carolina, and Savannah and Charleston Railroads. The old Custom House, on Bay Street, foot of Broad, is interesting, as having been built during the British occupation of the CHAItLF,STON.] [CNARLESTON.

Page  63 SOUTH CAROLINA. Charleston into the country, was pronounced by Archdale, one of the Lords Proprietors, such an avenue as no prince of Europe could boast. This was due to t h e nobl e oak s and magnolias, the myrtles an d t he jessamines, which lined it o n either'ha nd, ma king it a covered way, embowered in sh ade, grateful in green, venerabl e with moss, and giving ou t an perpetu al fragrance from a world of summer flowe rs. T his fine avenue has been disma ntl ed of much of its beauty durin g the war. F ew of th e fine trees are left standing. Entering the cit y at the north end of King or M eet ing S treet, a good opportunity is afforded of visiting the Citadel, Orphan Asylum, and other institutions a nd buildings already mentioned. Charleston is especially rich i n her public charities -the Sout h Carolina, Fellowship, Hibernian, Hebrew, German, and other Societies, all of w hich hav e large endowments and fine buildings. She has a Literary and Philosophical Society, and a Medical College in prosperous condition. The College Library contains some 10,000 volumes: the Ch arleston Library, some 30,000; the Apprentices', 12,000. The College Museum is second to none in the United States. We have indicated Fort Moultrie as a spot distinguished by one of the greatest battles of the Revolution;but the chronicles of Charleston show, besides, a long series of gallant struggles with powerful enemies. She has been threatened by the red men, who, in formidable alliance, brought down their numerous tribes to her very gates. She has been assailed by fleets of the Spaniards and the French. Her colonial existence was one long struggle with the Spaniards and the savages. In the Revolutionary contest she took a first and most distinguished part against the Crown; was thrice assailed by the British, and only succumbed finally to their arms, after a leaguer of two months, and when half the city was in ruins, and the people were suffering from famine. She has contributed some of the most able and patriotic men to the Republic, in arts, arms, statesmanship, science, and literature. She is the birthplace of Christopher Gadsden, William Moultrie, Charles Cotesworth and Thomas Pinckney, Henry Mid 63 city. The environs of the city afford a variety of very pleasant drives. The Battery, which is the Charleston Prado, or Plaza, is a place of great resort, and on pleasant afternoons is thronged with carriages and pedestrians. This is t he fashionable quarter of the city, and many of the private residences are models of elegance and neatness. The mansion of Mr. Holmes is admired especially. The houses are mostly constructed of brick or wood, neatly painted, and embowered during the summer season amid a profusion of foliage and flowers. The gardens are adorned with every variety of flowers and shrubbery. There is no more delightful drive or promenade in the South t h a n the Battery. But if you would see Charleston's greatest attraction, drive to Mag n o lia Cemetery, the beautiful " City of the Silent." This is indeed a lovely retreat; a scene of tangled woods and silvery waters, looking out upon the b r o a d Sirface of the Cooper River, whose w a t e r s tnd their way into its pretty lakel e t s, ovtv which the majestic live-oaks h a n g their Druid mosses. This cemetery w a s laid out A. D. 1850. Among the monuments contained in it most visited, a r e those to the memory of William Wa s h ingtodn, "a Colonel of Cavalry in t h e Army of the Revolution," which stands in the centre of the ground; an elaborately carved shaft, to Hugh Swint o n Legar6, formerly United States Attorney-General, moved from Mount Aub u r n Cemetery, near Boston; and another, near by, to Elbert R. Jones, are also much admired. On the further edge of the ground, overlooking the harbor, stands the vault of the Vanderhorst family, within which, enveloped in the Union flag, repose the remains of Commodore Vanderhorst. Bethany Cemetery may be reached from Magnolia, by a short detour from the main road. Thence, if time will permit, extend your drive across the Ashley River, here a mile in width, and find yourself at once in the country, among cotton plantations and lovely farmsteads. If you have time, continue your drive a few miles further, to the " Old Parish Church of St. Andrew," one of the most antique churches built by the early settlers, under the Anglican regime. The great avenue from A.RLF,STON.] [CHARLESTON.

Page  64 SOUTH CAROLINA. dleton, Arthur Middleton, Thomas Lynch, John and Edward Rutledge, William Lowndes, Joel R. Poinsett, Stephen Elliott, Hugh S. Legare6, Holbrook R. Y. Haynes, and scores besides, who have left honorable memorials, national as well as sectional, of which she may be justly proud, and to which the Confederacy itself is happy to do honor. The descendants of these great men still survive, and serve to give character to society, and to add to the attractions of the city. Let the traveller, if he can, give a week to Charleston, and he will find its scenery, its society, its characteristics, quite sufficient to gratify his curiosity and thoughts during that period; but if he can appropriate two days only, we have shown him how these may be profitably spent. The city is regularly laid out, and extends about two miles in length, and. nearly the same in breadth. The streets, which run parallel to each other from river to river, are generally broad, and lined with beautiful shade-trees. But, wherever the visitor may go, whichever way he may turn, he notes the devastating hand of war. The charred and blackened ruins of-many of the proud city's most noted buildings confront the traveller at every step. Scarce a tower or steeple in the city that is not riddled with shot or shell, and falling walls and toppling roofs everywhere warn the pedestrian from. attempting to gratify a natural appetite for exploration. Despite the terrible blow which the city has received, nothing can stay the generous impulses nor lessen the hospitality of its citizens; and there are few places, notwithstanding its altered circumstances, which the educated and unprejudiced traveller will feel greater regret at leaving, than the City of the Sea. In walking through South Bay Street, near the office of the Courier, the visitor will observe a fine palmetto-tree, the only one observed -during a week's stay in Charleston. Near the Charleston Hotel are the offices of the " Daily News " and the "South Carolinian;" the former conducted by Mr. George R. Cathcart, the latter by the well-known novelist and historical writer, W. Gilmore Simms. Columibia, HOEL,.Nickerson's. Columbia, the capital of South Carolina, 64 i e s 130 miles fr om Charleston, by the South Carolina Railway and the Columb ia Branch. It is connected by railway with the great route from New York to Ne w Orle ans, with Augusta, Georgia, and with Camde n, Cheraw, and most of the int erior and mountain villages of the State. It is a beautiful city, situated on the bluffs of the Congaree, a few miles be low the charming falls of that river, nea r the confluence of the Salud a and Br oad Rivers, famous for its delightfully shaded st re et s, its wonde rful flow e r g ardens, and the model plantations in its vicinity. Noth ing can be more i nviting than the walks and drives in the nei ghb orho od. The Capitol, 170 feet long and 60 wide, built of marble, is one of the handsomest buildin gs i n the Uniated States. It cost nearly three mi llions of dol lar s, and was f ortunately spared during the burning of the city on its occupation by General Sherman's forces. The fire was set by the soldiers of General Wade Hampton's command. The South Carolina College, founded in 1804, is a prosperous institution, with irom 150 to 200 students. It had a library of 17,000 volumes previous to the war. The Insane Asylum is an object of great inter. est. Here also is the theological college of the Presbyterian Church, and a Roman Catholic establishment. The city was occupied by General Sherman's forces February 17, 1865. Camden, 33 miles from Columbia, the capital, and 142 miles from Charleston. This city is situated on the Wateree River, navigable to this point by steamboats. Camden is a place of great historic interest. A battle was fought near by, August, 1780, between the Amercans, under General Gates, and the British, under Lord Cornwallis; and another in April, 1781, between General Greene and Lord Rawdon. The scene of the latter struggle is the southeastern slope of Hobkirk's Hill, now called Kirkwood, a beautiful summer suburb of the old town. Upon the green, in front of the Presbyterian Church, on De Kalb Street, there is a monument over the grave of Baron De Kalb, who fell in the battle of August, 1780, at Camden. The cormerstone was laid in 1825, by Lafayette. The headquarters of Cornwallis, to be seen here, was a fine old building now in ruins. COLUMBIA.] [CAMDM.

Page  65 SOUTH CAROLINA. On the Market House there is a well-executed metallic effigy, 10 feet high, of King, Haiglar, a most famous chieftain of the Catawbas. Mr. Simms has made this Indian king the theme of one of his fine legends. It contains an arsenal, academy, factory, bank, and four churches. Population 1,600. Orangeburg is on the line of the South Carolina (Columbia branch) Railway, 97 miles from Charleston, 44 from Columbia, and 17 from Branchville. It is a spot of historic interest, near the banks of the Edisto River. It formed a link in the chain of military posts established by the British after the fall of Charles ton. Am ong the old relics here, are some remains of the works erected by Rawdon, near the Edisto, and the old Court-House, which bears traces, in the shape of b ul let marks, of the assault made by Sumter, in 1781. General Sherman's forces occupi ed the town, February 12, 1865, preparatory to their mlarch on Columbia. Eutaw Springs, interesting as the scene of the famous battle of Eutaw, is about 40 miles below Orangeburg, and 60 miles northwest of Charleston. Fort Lfotte, a relic of the Revolution, stands upon high terrace ground, near the Bull's Head Neck, on the Congaree, just above its meeting with the Wateree, six miles from Kingsville, on the Columbia Branch of the North Carolina Railway. Cheraw, near the northern line of the State, is pleasantly situated on the Great Pedee River, at the head of steam navigation, 162 miles from Charleston and 93 miles from Columbia. The Seaboard and Lowland towns, vil lages, and plantations of South Carolina may be reached by the steamboats which ply between Charleston and Savannah, or by stage or carriage from the line of rail way. The traveller will not see them in their own peculiar beauty, because the climate in summer time, when the won derful tropical vegetation covers the rank earth, is not to be braved by the unac climated. The planters themselves, in deed, remove with their families, at this season, either to the uplands or to the little sandy pine-covered elevations with which the country is dotted. The negroes alone can bear the summer heats of the lowlands with out ill results. In the winter, h owever, li fe may easily be made enjoyable in the villages here, under the balmiew n st and most health fu l o f temperatures, and in the m idst of genial and r efined society. ]Beaufort, in a dist ric t of the sam e name, is pleasantly situa ted o n Port Royal River, 16 miles fro m the sea, and about 50 miles west-south west of Charleston. It affords a delightful summer residence, and has daily communication by steamer with the cities of Charleston and Savannah. It contains an arsenal, a seminary, bank, and'several churches. The journey on the South Carolina Railwav will give the traveller some inkling of the lowland features of the Southern landscape, though not in its strongest or most interesting character-since much of the way is through extensive pine forests, which makes the rhyming sneer bestowed upon this part of the country not altogether inapt: "Where to the north, pine-trees in prospect rise; Where to the east, pine-trees assail the skies Where to the west, pine-trees obstruct the view; Where to the south, pine-trees forever grew I" But a second glimpse will reveal, amidst all these " pine-trees," the towering cypress, with its foliage of fringe and its garlands of moss-the waxen bay-leaf, the rank laurel, and the clustering ivy; and, if you are watchful; you may catch, in the rapid transit of the cars through the swamps, glimpses of almost interminable cathedral aisles of cypress and vine, sweeping through the deeper parts of the bounidless lagoons. But a railroad glimpse, and especially at the speed with which you travel here, is quite insufficient for reasonable observation. At Woodlands, a mile only south of Midway, the centre of the road, lived before the war the poet and novelist Simms. Yonder, in that wide and spreading lawn, stood our authors mansion —an old-fashioned brick structure, with massive and strange portico. The ranks of orange and live-oak trees which sentinel his castle, are the ob jects of his tenderest care-true and ardent lover of Nature as he is. Mr. Simms has a particular fondness for the fragrant grape-vine, depending in such 65 ORANGEBURG.] [BEAUFORT.

Page  66 [LOWLAD. SOUTH CAROLINA. fantastic and numberless festoons from the limbs of you venerable tree. It is strong-limbed as a giant, and, but for the grace with which it clings to the old forest-king, would seem to be rather struggling with him for his sceptre, than loyally and lovingly suing for his protec tion. The vine drops its festoons, one beneath the other, in such a manner that half a dozen persons may find a cozy seat, each over his fellow, for a merry swing. On a dreamy summer eve, you may va cillate, in these rustic couches, to'your hbeart's content; one arm thrown round th e vi ne will secfr e you in yo ur s eat, whil te th e hand may hold the favorite b ook, and the other pluck the delicious clusters of g ra pes, which, as you swing, encircle your head l ik e the w rea th upon the b row of Bacchus. If the ray s of the sett ing sun be hot, the n t he rich an d im pen etrable ca nopy of foliage above you will not prove ungrateful. As affording a most m ark ed and not altogether p leasing contrast to the pic ture which farm and do mesti c life a t the Sou th n ow pr e sents to t he stran ger, we insert the f oll owing charac teristic sketch, by a well-known trav eller, of a visit to South Carolina, before secession times. "A stroll over Ir. Simms' plantation will give yo u a pl easan t inkling of almost every feature of the Southern lowlands, in natural scenery, social life, and the character and position of t he slave population. You may sleep sweetly and soundly within his hospitable walls, secure of a happy day on the morrow, whether the rain holds you prisoner within doors, or the glad sunshine drags you abroad. He will give you a true Southern breakfast, at a very comfortable hour, and then furnish you abundant sources of amusement in his well-stocked library, or suffer you to seek it elsewhere, as your fancy listeth. At dinner, you shall not lack good cheer, for either the physical or the intellectual man, and then you may take a pleasant stroll to the quiet banks of the Edisto-watch the raft-men floating lazily down the stream, and interpret as you will the windings and echoes of their boat-horns-or you may muse in the shaded bowers of Turtle Cove, or any of the many other inlets 66 and bayous o f the stream. Go where yo u may, you must not fail t o peep into the dark and solemn swamps. You may traverse their waters on wild bridges of decayed and fallen trees; you may dream of knight and troubadour, as your eye wanders throug h the Go thic p assages of cypress, interlacing their branches, and bearing the ever-dependent moss, which hangs mournfully, as if weeping over the desolation and death which brood within the fatal precincts. If you fear not to startle the wild-fowl, to disturb the serpent, or to encounter the alligator, you may enter your skiff, and, sailing through the openings in the base of the cypress, you may penetrate at pleasure, amidst bush and brake, into the mystic chambers of these poisonous halls. Mr. Simms has beautifully described these solemn scenes in his'Southern Passages and Pictures:' I'Tis a wild spot, and bath a gloomy look; The bird sings never merrily in the trees, And the young leaves seem blighted. A rank growth Spreads poisonously round, with power to taint, With blistering dews, the thoughtless hand that dares To penetrate the covert. Cypresses Crowd on the dank, wet earth; and stretched at length, The cayman-a fit dweller in such homeSlumbers, half buried in the sedgy grass, Beside the green ooze where he shelters him. A whooping crane erects his skeleton form And shrieks in flight. Two summer-ducks aroused To apprehension, as they hear his cryb Dash up from the lagoon, with marvellous haste, Following his guidance. Meetly taught by these, And startled by our rapid, near approach, The steel-jawed monster, from his grassy bed, Crawls slowly to his slimy, green abode, Which straight receives him. You behold him now, His ridgy back uprising as he speeds, In silence, to the centre of the stream, Whence his head peers alone.' "Rambling, once upon a time, through the negro quarters of Mr. Simms' plantation, we amused ourself in studying the varied characters of the slaves, as shown in the style of their cabins, the order in which they kept them, the taste displayed in their gardens, etc.; for every man has all the material and time at his command to make himself and his family as com: fortable as he pleases. The huts of some LOWLAND.]

Page  67 SOUTH CAROLINA. ous, the young ladies of the household gayly busied themselves in kind preparations for the event; in instructions to the bride, in the preparation of her white muslin robe, of her head-dress, and other portions of her toilet, in writing her notes of invitation to her sable friends-Mr. Sambo Smith or Miss Clara Brown, according to the baptismals of their respective masters, whose names the negroes of the South always assume. In our quality of artist, we had the pleasure to expend our water-colors in wreaths of roses, and pictures of cupids, hearts, and darts, and so on, upon the icings of the cakes which the young ladies had prepared for the bridal feast; and who knows but that our chef d'oe'uvres were consumed by ebony lips on that memorable night? The ceremony took place in the cabin of the bride, and in presence of the whites; and then followed revelry, feasting, and dancing upon the lawn, much to the delight of the happy pair and their dark friends, and scarcely less to the pleasure of the bride's kind mistress and of all of us who witnessed their sports from the parlor windows. By the way, when you journey in the South, line your pockets with tobacco, dispense it gener ously to the darkeys, and they are your friends for life. Upon the seaboard, and its many lovely and luxuriant islands, you will find the beau ideal of Southern soil, climate, vegetation, architecture, and character. Here abound those lovely inlets and bays, which compensate for the absence of the lake s cener y of the North. These bayous and lakelets are covered with the rankest tropic al v egetation; they abound in every species of wild-fowl -birds of the most gorgeous plumage, songsters of the sweetest notes-the mocking-bird and the nightingale, the robin, and a host of other equally cele brated warblers. Here, the foliage is so dense and rich, in form and color, that a poor imagination will readily people the spot with elves and sprites; and there, again, so dark and solemn are the cav erns, overshadowed by the impenetrable roofs of leaves, that you may readily in terpret the screech of the owl, the groan of the bull-frog, and the hiss of the ser pent, into the unearthly wail of damned spirits. These are fitting haunts for the 67 b ore as happ y a n air as one might des ire; neat palings encl osed them; the gardens were full of flowers, and blooming vines clambered over the doors and w indows. O thers, again, had b een suffere d b y th e idle occ upants to f al l into sad decay; n o evidence of taste or industry was to be seen in their hingeless d oors, their fallen fences, or their weed-grown gardens. T hese lazy fellow s were accu stomed e ve n to cut down the shade-trees which had been kindly planted before their homes, rather than walk a few yards further for other and even better fuel. The more industrious of the negroes here, as elsewhere, employ their leisure hours, which are abundant, in the culture of vegetables and in raising fowls, which they sell to their masters, and thus supply themselves with the means to purchase many little luxuries of life. For n ecessaries they have no con cern, since they are amply and generously provided with all that they can require. Others, who will not thus work for their pin-money, are dependent upon the kindness of their masters, or more frequently upon their ingenuity at thieving. Many of them sell to their master in the morning the produce they have stolen from him the previous night. At least, they all manage to keep their purses filled; and we were assured that not one, had he occasion or desire to visit Charleston or Augusta, but Could readily produce the means to defray his expenses. One old woman was pointed out to us, who had several times left the plantation, with permission to remain away as long as she pleased; yet, although her absences were some times of long continuance, she was too wise not to return to a certain and good home. Wander how and wither she would, in due time her heart would join the burden of the song: i "Whil e once visiting s om e friends in Carolina, we had the pleasure of witness ing the bridal festivities of one of the servants of the family, a girl of some eighteen years. The occasion was one of those pleasant things which long hold place in the memory. For days previ Lo [Lowi,. I Oh I carry me back to old'Virginny, To old'Virginny's ishore I

Page  68 SOUTH CAROLINA. sad and contemplative mind at the witch ing hour of night. Here are the large rice plantations. The white population is thus necessarily thin yet opulent. The cabins of the negroes on these extensive domains, surrounding the mansion and its many outbuildings of the proprietor, give to every settlement the aspect of a large and thriving village. There is something peculiarly fascinating in this species of softened feudal life. The slaves are for the most part warmly attached to their masters, and& they watch over their inter ests as they would their own. Indeed, they consider themselves part and parcel of their master's family. They bear his name, they share his bounty; and their fortune depends wholly upon his. Through life they have every comfort; the family physician attends them when sick, and in their old age and imbecility they are well protected. They glory in their master's success and happiness; their pride is in exact proportion to the rank of the family they serve; and, whatever that may be, they still cherish a haughty and self-satisfied contempt for'poor white folks.' The planters themselves, descended from an old chevalier stock, and accustomed through many generations to the seclusion of country life, and that life under Southern skies, and surrounded with all the appliances of wealth and homage, have acquired an ease, a grace, a generosity, and largeness of character, incompatible with the daily routine of the petty occupations, stratagems, and struggles of modern commercial and metropolitan life, be it in the South or the North. Where the swamps and bayous do not extend, the country, still fiat, is mostly of a rich sandy soil, which deeply tinges the waters of all the rivers from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. This is characteristic of the southern portions of all the Gulf States. The rivers, as they extend toward the interior, are lined with high sandy bluffs, which, still further northward, give place, in their turn, to mountain ledges and granite walls. These streams, from the Mississippi to the Alabama, the Chattahoochee and the Savannal, to the smaller rivers of Carolina and Florida, are filled with sandy islands, ever chaning their position and form. Frequently high freshets occur in them, 68 completely altering their channels, and bearing away the produce of whole plan tations, from the cotton bale to the family domicile, and the century-aged tree which shaded it. In crossing the smaller water courses of the South, we have often ob served marks of the extent of a freshet upon high trees, at an elevation of 50 or 60 feet above our head. We happened to be in Augusta years ago, during a great rise in the waters of the Savannah. In the course of some few hours, the river had extended its limits throughout the city, and over the plain for miles in every direction. It was a novel and beautiful sight to gaze from your balcony upon this unlooked-for Venice. Boats were sailing in every direction through the streets even the ponderous crafts of the Savan nah, capable of holding fifty or sixty men. We observed the pretty vessel of the ' August a Boat Club' das h ing up Broad Street and under the h otel windows, with the crew in full dress, music so undin g, and gay banners waving u pon the air! A ferry was established to pick up passeners at their doors or wind o ws, and convey h o them toae the base of the Sand-hills, a summer retreat, some three miles to the northward. The cross streets leading from the river were washed away to the depth of many feet, and for days afterward passengers were transported across them in flats and bateaux. From these freshets, with the innumerable stagnant pools which they leave, together with the miasma arising from immense quantities of decaying vegetable matter, spring many of the local fevers and diseases of the South. In Augusta, the yellow fever followed the great freshet, and carried off, during the brief space of a few weeks, nearly three hundred of the inhabitants. This terrible scourge had not previously visited the city for eighteen years, and has not since returned. Georgetown, one of the oldest settlements in South Carolina, is about 15 miles from the sea, on Winyaw Bay, near the junction of the Pedee, Black, and Waccamaw Rivers. The district of Georgetown, next to that of Beaufort, produces more rice than any other section of the State. Some Revolutionary memories are awakened here. In 1780 the vicinage was the scene of a skirmish be [LowLA',N-D. [GEORGETOWN.

Page  69 SOUTH CAROLINA. tween American and British troops, and in 1781 it was taken from the enemy by General Marion, and the military works destroyed. well deserving a visit. Across this valley is the Fall of Slicking, its long line of sparkling spray heightening the beauty of the scene. The Stool -]~ountain, which is prominent from the valley below, here dwindles to its proper height. The top of the rock, which is comparatively level, is of great extent. In many places the sur face is stony, in others alluvial and cov ered with noble tre es. Near the centre, the remains o f a hu t exist; a building erecteda as a kitche n t o a hotel, which it w as once contemplated to erect on the rock. Though the ent erprise was given u p, i t is not at all impracticable. The 50 or 60 acres of tillable land might fur nish provisions, while for water the re is a spring, of the most grateful purity and coolness, near the m id dle o f the i solated and elevated demesne. The Fallv of Slicking are i n th e m oun tain glens, on the opposit e side of the vall e y, at the base of th e T able Rock. Leaving the cabi n at the base of the Saluda Mountain, the tour ist, in his ascent, soon finds himself following the windings of the river. After the passage of about one-quarter of a mile, he reaches the "Trunk," so called from its being the point of junction of two different branches of the river or creek; the distance be tween these streams, as you continue to ascend, gradually increases, and when near the summit, they are widely separated; they bear one name, and abound, each, in cascades. The right-hand branch is the more picturesque, and is the one by which the visitor is usually conducted. From the " Trunk," the gem of all this locality, and the Table Rock, is a charming view of the neighboring mountains of Coesar's Head, Bald Mountain, the Pinnacle Rock, and other spurs. At the "Trunk," the two streams fall perpendicularly some seventy feet, mingling in one in the basin below. This basin is easily accessible, and nowhere is there a more secluded or more wildly picturesque spot. Save when in his meridian, the sun's rays seldom violate its solitude. On one side are the two cascades leaping in snowy masses from rock to rock, and on others are mighty bulwarks of venerable stone, here and there studded with the adventurous shrub, or overhung with rich foliage. The northern districts of South Carolina form, with the neighboring hill-region of Georgia, and the western portion of North t Carolina, one of the most interesting chap ters in the great volume of American landscape. In mountain surprises, pic turesque valley nooks, and romantic waterfalls, this region is nowhere sur passed in all the Union. Beautiful and healthful villages, with high social attrac tions, afford most agreeable homes and headquarters to admirers of the pictu resque. These villages are rapidly becom ing favorite summer resorts of the people of the lowlands of the State; and their elegant mansions and villas are every year more and more embellishing their vicinity. Cwreenville, 271 miles from Charleston, 128 from Columbia. HOTELS, ]fanSion Ho?~se, Goodlet House. Greenville, in the northwest corner of the State, lies at the threshold of the chief beauties of this region, and gives ready access to all the rest. The village is beautifully situated on Reedy River, near its source, and at the foot of the Saluda Mountain. It is one of the most popular summer resorts in the up-country of Carolina, being in the immediate vicinity of the Table Mountain, the White Water, and the Slicking Falls, the Jocasse, and Saluda Valleys, the Keowee River, Paris Mountain, C-esar's Head, and numerous othe r bold peaks of the B lu e Ridge. The Table -J~ountain, 20 miles above the village of Greenville, is one of the most remarkable of the natural wonders of the State, rising as it does 4,300 feet above the sea, with a long extent on one side of perpendicular cliffs, 1,000 feet in height. The view of these grand and lofty rocky ledges is exceedingly fine from the quiet glens of the valley of the cove below, and not less imposing is the splendid amphitheatre of hitl-tops seen from its crown. Among the sights to be seen from Table Mountain is Ccesar's'Head. It is the highest point in the vicinity, and 69 [)FALLS OF SLICKI.-;G. GREENVILLL?.] MOU=ATN VILLAGES AND SCENERY.

Page  70 SOUTH CAROLLNA. universal admiration, for their extent alone, even were the a cces sory scenes far less beautiful th an they a re. The n umber of visitors here is in creasing year by year, and the time is a ppro achin g when this and the thousa nd othe r ma rvels of Natur e in the Sou the rn States, will win tourists from the North, a s the Wh ite Mountains and the Catskill s, a nd T renton and Lake George, now attract pilgrims from the South. Adjoining this most attractive region of South Carolina, and easily accessible therefrom, are the many beautiful scenes of the western portion of North Carolina, of which w e ha ve already spoken, and o f Ta llulah, and Toccoa, and Yonah, and Nacoochee, a nd n umero us other lovely spots in the hill-re gion of Georgia, which yet remain undescribed. Spartanburg, 223 miles from Charleston, 93 miles from Columbia, by the Greenville and Columbia, and Spartanburg and Union Railways, is in the midst of a mineral region, famous for its gold and iron. Here, too, are some celebrated limestone springs. The place is the seat of a University, endowed by Benjamin Wofford, and controlled by the Methodists; also of a prosperous Female Colleye. An Asylum for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind is located here. Within the limits of this district is the memorable Revolutionary battle-field of the Cowpens, located on the hill-range called the Thickety Mountain. The battle was fought Janua ry 17, 1781, and resulted in the defeat of the British under Tarleton. In the olden time, the cattle were suffered to graze upon the scene of the contest-whence its name. Yorkville is situated midway on the upper boundary of South Car olina, upon an elevated plain which forms the dividing ridge between the Catawba and the Broad Rivers. In the vicinity there are some valuable sulphur and magnesia waters, to add to the at tractions of winning scenery and roman tic story which the region so abundantly offers to the tourist. It is right in the heart of the mountain scenery of the State. From Charleston the route is by the South Carolina Railway, and Colum bia branch to Columbia, thence by the Charlotte road to Chester, and thence, 22 Pendleton is an agreeable little village, on Eighteen Mile Creek, Anderson District, in the mountain region. It is easily reached from Greenville, at Anderson Court House. Fort Hill, once the residence of the statesman John C. Calhoun, is a few miles only from the village of Pendleton. It is a plain but comfortable building of wood, with piazzas and other fittings and arrangements, after the usual fashion of Southern country houses. Walhalla, a flourishing German settlement, is in this region. Pickens Court House is a few hours' ride north of Pendleton and west of Greenville. It is within excursion distance of the Keowee River, the Valley of Jocasse, the Cataract of the White Water, and other interesting scenes. The Keowee is a beautiful mountain stream, in Pickens District, which, with the Tugaloo River, forms the Savannah. The road to the Valley of Jocasse lies along its banks. " I have been where the tides roll by, Of mighty rivers deep and wide, On every wave and argosy And cities builded on each side; Where the low din of commerce fills The ear with strife that never stills. The Keowee reS ion is full of romantic memories of the Cherokee wars. The Jocasse Valley, near the northern line of the State, is one of the most charmingly secluded little nooks in the State, environed as it is on every side, except that through which the Keowee steals out, by grand mountain ridges. The chief charm of Jocasse is, that it is small enough to be felt and enjoyed all at once, as its entire area is not too much for one comfortable picture. It is such a valley as painters delight in. The White Water Cataracts are an hour's brisk walk north of Jocasse. Their chief beauty is in their picturesque lines, and in the variety and boldness of the mountain landscape all around: though they would still maintain their claims to C0 KEowE-E.] [SPARTANBURG, 11 Yet -not to me have scenes like these, Such charms as thine, oh peerless stream I Not cities proud my eye can please Not argosies so rich I deem As thy cloud-vested hills that rise And forests loomin,-, to the skies I"

Page  71 SOUTH CAROLINA. miles, by King's Mountain Railway. The route from the North is by Weldon. Twelve miles northeast of Yorkville, and little more than a mile south of the North Carolina line, is the battle-fIeld of King's .lMoutntain. The King's Mountain range extends about sixteen miles southward, sending out lateral spurs in various directions. The scene of the battle is six miles from the summit of the hill. A simple momnment to the memory of Ferguiison and others marks the spot, and on the right there is a large tulip-tree, upon which it is said ten tories were hanged. It was a hotly-contested fight, the British loss being 1,105 killed, wounded, and prisoners. It was fought October 7, 1780. Crowder's Knob, the highest peak of King's Mountain, is about 3,000 feet above the level of the sea. The Jfountain Gap, near the Cherokee Ford, the Great Falls o f ter e C atawba, and R ocky Mount, the scene of another of the partisan struggles, and Hanging Rock, where Sumter fought a desperate fight, are also interesting scenes and localities of this hill-region of South Carolina. YORKVILLE.] [YORKVILIE 71

Page  72 GEORGIA. GEORGIA. extending about eighty miles, is very similar in character to that of the Carolinas, being lined with fertile islands cut off from the main land by narrow lagoons or sounds. The famous sea-island cotton is grown here; and wild'fowl are abundant in all varieties. Upon the main, rice plantations flourish, with all the semi-tropical vegetation and fruit which we have seen in the ocean districts of South Carolina. Passing northward to the central regions of the State, the cotton-fields greet our eyes at every step, until the surface of the country becomes more and more broken and hilly, and, at last, verges upon the great hill-region traversed by the Appalachian or Alleghany Mountains. These great ranges oc cupy all the northern counties, and pre. sent to the charmed eye of the tourist scenes of beauty and sublimity not sur passed in any section of the Union. THIIS great State, long regarded as the "Empire State " of the South, possesses unrivalled sources of prosperity and wealth; and though they are as yet only in the dawn of development, the traveller will not hesitate to predict for her a glo-i rious future, when he notes the spirit of activity, enterprise, and progress which so markedly distinguishes her from other portions of the South. While Nature is here everywhere most prodigal in means, man is earnest in improving them. Georgia was settled the latest of the "Original" Thirteen States of the Union. She derived her name with her charter from George II., June 1732. Her first colony was planted by General Oglethorpe, on the spot where the city of Savannah now stands, in 1773, sixtythree years after the settlement of South Carolina, and a century behind most of the original colonies. Three years after the arrival of Oglethorpe, Ebenezer was planted by the Germans, 25 miles up the Savannah River. Darien, on the sea, was commenced about the same time by a party of Scotch Highlanders. Among the early troubles of the colony was a war with the Spaniards in Florida, each party in turn invading the territory of the other. The people of Georgia took a vigorous part in the Revolution, and the State was in possession of the British a portion of that time. The city of Savan nah was taken by them, December 29, 1778. A bold attempt was made by the combined American and French forces to recapture it, but failed, with the loss to the allies of 1,100 men. The great Cherokee Country, in the upper part of the State, came into the full possession of the whites in 1838, when the Indians were removed to new homes beyond the Mississippi. The sea-coast of Georgia, 72 GEOR(IIA.] [GEORGIA. RIVERS.-There are many fine rivers in Georgia; but, as with the watercourses of the South generally, they are pften muddy, and their only beauty is in the rank vegetation of their shores, with here and there a bold sandy bluff. As the railroad system of the State has not yet been restored, and many travellers will have occasionally to avail themselves of steamboats as means of reaching points of sojourn in the interior, we propose to give a brief description of the principal ctf these rivers. The Savannah, which divides the States of Georgia and South Carolina through half their length, has a course, exclusive of its branches, of about 450 miles. The cities of Augusta and Savannah are upon its banks, and it enters the Atlantic 18 miles below the latter place. From June to November it is navigable for large vessels as far as Savannah, and

Page  73 GEORGIA. for steamboats up to Augusta, a distance of 230 miles from its mouth. The river voyage between these points is a very pleasant one, presenting to the eye of stranger many picturesque novelties in the cotton-fields which lie along the banks through the upper part of the pas sage, and in the rich rice plantations be low. Approaching Savannah, the tourist will be particularly delighted with the mystic glens of the wild swamp reaches, and with the luxuriant groves of live-oak -which shadow the ancient-looking manors of the planters. A few miles above the city of Savannah, he may visit the spot where Whitney invented and first used his wonderful cotton-gin. The alligator, in times before the war, was often seen sun ning himself on the shores of the lower waters of the Savannah, being abundant in the contiguous swamps. "When our canoe," says Sir Charles Lyell, in his record of travels in this region,- "had proceeded into brackish water, where the river banks consisted of marsh land, cov ered with a tall, reed-like grass, we came close to an alligator, about nine feet long, basking in the sun. Had the day been warmer, he would not have allowed us to approach so near tQ him, for these reptiles are much shyer than formerly, since they have learned to dread the avenging rifle of the planter, whose stray hogs and sporting dogs they often devour. About ten years ago, Mr. Cooper tells us he saw two hundred of them together in St. Mary's Rive, extremely fearless." Wonderful stories are told of these creatures, many of them much too wonderful for credence. They are now becoming rare, as one acquainted with their habits observed to me, being probably disturbed by the violent explosions of gunpowder at the time of the attack on Spanish Fort. They have been but seldom seen of late. Fort Pulcaki (see Savannah and vicinity). The Oconee Riverr rises in the gold lands of the mountain districts of Georgia, and traverses the State until it meets the Ogeechee, and with that river reaches the sea under the name of the Altamaha. Milled,eville, the capital, and Athens, one of the most beautiful places in the State, are on this river. The Ocmulgee is navigable for small steamboats to Macon. The Mlint River, in the western part of RAILWAYS.-The railway system of Georgia, embracing upwards of 1,400 miles of railroad, is now so far advanced toward complete restoration, that we venture to give all the lines, with their branches. The Central Railway, from Savannah, 190 miles to Macon. StationsSavannah to Eden, 20 miles; Guyton, 30; Egypt, 40; Armenia, 46; Halcyondale, 50; Ogeechee, 62; Scarboro', 70; Millen, 79 (branch road 53 miles to Augusta); Cushingville, 83; Herndon, 90; Speir's, l111; Davisboro, 123; Tennille, 134; Oconee, 146; Emmett, 153; Kingston, 160; Gordon, 170 (branch to Milledgeville and Eatonton); Griswold, 182; Macon, 190 miles.'MIlledgeville and Eaton 73 4 [GEORGIA. GEORGIA.] the State, passes by Lanier, Oglethorpe, and Albany, and uniting with the Chatta hoochee, at the southwest extremity of the State, forms the Appalachicola. The length of the Flint River is about 300 miles. Its navigable waters extend 250 miles, from the Gulf of Mexico to Albany. The Chattahoochee is one of the largest and most interesting rivers of Georgia. It pursues a devious way through the gold region westward from the mountains in the northeastern part of the State, and makes the lower half of the dividin line between Georgia and Alabama. At the point where it enters Florida it is joined by the Flint River, and the united waters are thenceforward called the Appalacliicola. The Chattahoochee is navigable for large steamboats as far up as Columbus, 350 miles from the Gulf of Mexico. The principal towns on this river besides Columbus, are Eufaula, West Point, and Fort Gaines. The Ogeechee rises in Green County, flows southeastward, and enters the Atlantic through Ossabaw Sound, 20 miles south of Savannah. Its whole lenth is estimated at 250 miles. It is navigable for sloops a distance of between 30 and 40 miles. Fort.AfcAllister, on Genesis Point, which commands the entrance to this river, is interesting from the part it played in the defense of the city by General Hardee. It successfully resisted the attacks of the monitor fleet in January and March 1863, but was finally captured by General Hazen's division of the 15th Corps (Sherman's army), on the 13th December, 1864.

Page  74 RAILWAYS.] ton Branch. Stations-Gordon to Wolsey, 9 miles; Milledgeville, 18; Dennis, 29; Eatonton, 38 miles. Jfacon and lVestern Railway, from Macon, 103 miles to Atlanta, terminus of Georgia Railway. Stations-Macon Junction, Howard's, 8 miles; Crawford's, 13 miles; Smarr's, 19; Forsyth, 24; Collier's, 30; Goggin's, Barnesville, 40; Milner's, 47; Thornton's, Griffin, 58; Fayette, 65; Lovejoy's, Jonesboro', 79; Rough and Ready, 90; East Point, 95; Atlanta, 103 miles. The Georgia -Railvay, from Augusta, 171 miles to Atlanta, passing through Belair, Berzelia, Dearing, Thomson, Camak, Barnett, Crawfordsville, Union Point, Greensboro', Oconee, Buckhead, Madison, Rutledge, Social Circle, Covington, Conyer's, Lithonia, Stone Mountain, and Decatur. A branch line, 10 miles long, extends from Camak to Warrenton, the capital of Warren County; another of 18 miles from Barnett to Washington, the capital of Wilkes County; another from Union Point to Athens, the capital of Clarke County. The road (the Georgia) connects at Augusta with the South Carolina road for Charleston and Savannah. The TVestern and Atlantic Road, from Atlanta, 136 miles, northward to Chattanooga, Tennessee. Statiomw-Atlanta to Vining's, 8 miles; Marietta, 20; Acworth, 35; Allatoona, 40; Cartersville, 47; Cass, 52; Kingston, 59; Adairsville, 69; Calhoun, 78; Resaca, 84; Tilton, 91; Dalton, 100; Tunnel Hill, 107; Ringgold, 115; Click amauga, 128; Boyce, 133; Chattanooga, 136 miles. The Rome Railway deflects from the Western and Atlantic at Kings ton, and extends 20 miles to Rome. The Atlanta and }Vest Point Railway extends from Atlanta, 87 miles to West Point, whence it is continued by the Montgomery and IVest Point Railway, 88 miles to Mont gomery, Alabama. Stations-Atlanta to East Point, 6 miles; Fairburn, 18; Pal metto, 25; Newnan, 40; Grantville, 52; Hogansville, 59; Lagrange, 72; Long Cane, 78; West Point, 87 miles. The Southwestern and Muscogee tRailu,ay, from Macon, terminus of Central road, 99 miles, to Columbus. /Stations-Macon to Eche connee, 12 miles; Powersville, 21; Fort Valley, 28; Everett's, 35; Reynolds', 41; Butler, 50; Columbus, 99 miles. The Southwestern, from Macon to Fort Val 74 HOTELS.-The principal h otel s of Savannah are- the Pulas ki Hom se, on Bryan Str ee t, Jo hnson Square; the Marshall House, in Broughton Str eet, - an d the Scrivet House. The la s t two have been lately refurnished. Savannah, the largest city of Georgia, with a po pulati on of about 30,000, is upon the south bank of the Savannah River, 18 miles from the sea. Its site is a sandy terrace, some 40 f eet a bove lowwater mark. It is regularly built, with streets so wide and so unpaved, so densely shaded with trees, and so full of little parks, that, but for the extent and elegance of its public edifices, it might seem to be an overgrown village, or a score of villages consolidated in oine. There are no less than twenty-four squares scattercd through the city, and most of the streets are lined with the frag,rant flowering China-tree, or the Pride of India, and the magnolia, while some of them, as Broad and Bay Streets, have each four grand rows of trees, there being a double carriage-way, with broad walks on the outsides, and a promenade between. These numerous shady avenues have gained for it the title of the "Forest City " of the South. Savannah was founded by General James Oglethorpe, in 1732. It was occupied, in 1778, by the British, and came back into the posses sion of the Americans in 1783. But few Revolutionary remains are now to be seen, the city having overgrown most of them. Batteries, ramparts, and redoubts have given place to the more pleasant sights of fragrant gardens and shady parks. GEORGIA. [SAVANNAH. ley, 28 miles; to Marshallville, 1; Win. chester, 9; Oglethorpe, 21; Anderson, 30; Americus, 41; Sumter, 51; Albany, 76 miles (branch to Eiifaula). The Savanitalt, -Albany, and Gulf Pioad will connect Savannah and Tallahassee, Florida. It extends at present from Savannah, 189 miles, to Boston, from which point a line of sta,-es runs to Tallahassee and other places m Florida. SAVANNAH. From New York by steamer; 90 miles from Charleston.

Page  75 SAVANNAH.] It has suffered severely from the ravages of fire, firstin 1796, again in 1820, and last in January 28, 1865. The aggregate amount of property destroyed at these times exceeded $6,000,000. Jasper's Spring, the scene of a brave and famous exploit of the old war time, may yet be visited. It lies near the Augusta road, two miles and a half from the westward of Savannah. The spring is a fountain of purest water, in the midst of a marshy spot, covered with rank shrubbery, at the edge of a forest of oak and pine trees. The interest of the place is in its association only. Sergeant Newton Jasper, aided only by one companion, watched by this spring for the passage of a party of American prisoners under a British guard of eight men, whom they boldly and successfully assailed, restoring the captives to their country and friends. In memory of this action, Sergeant Jasper's name has been given to one of the public parks of the city. Among the most attractive places of public resort is Forsyth Park, at the head of Bull Street. A fountain, the design of which is taken from the Crystal Palace fountain at Sydenham, England, adorns the centre of this pretty ground. It is of elaborate workmanship, and cost $6,500. In Johnson or Monument Square, opposite the Pulaski House, there is a fine Doric obelisk erected to the memories of Generals Greene and Pulaski, the corner-stone of which was laid by Lafayette during his visit in 1825. It is a marble shaft, 53 feet in height. The base of the pedestal is 10 feet 4 inches by 6 feet 8 inches, and its elevation is about 12 f ee t. The needle which surmounts the pedestal is 37 feet high. Another and very elegant structure has since been built (1853) in Chippewa Square to the memory of Pulaski. This general fell gallantly during an attack upon the city, while it was occupied by the British in the year 1779. The monument appropriately covers the spot where Pulaski fell. It is one of the most chaste and perfect specimens of monumental architecture in the United States. The shaft is of the purest marble and the steps are plinths of granite. It is I55 feet high, and surmounted by an exquisitely carved statue of Liberty holding the national banner. The arms of Georgia and Poland are intertwined on the cornice of two sides of the monument. It was constructed by Launitz, of New York, at a cost of $22,000 in gold. Among the public buildings of note in Savannah are the new Custom House, corner of Bull and Bay Streets; the City Exchange, in front of which General Sherman reviewed his army, January 7, 1865; the Court House, T-leatre, Armory, Arsenal, and Jail. St. Andrew's Hall and the Chatham Academy are conspicuous buildings. From the tower of the Exchange the best view of the city and neighborhood is to be had. Among the church edifices the Episcopal Churches of St. John's and Christ's are the most striking. The lofty spire of the Independent Presbyterian Church is much and deservedly admired. This building is built of Quincy granite, and cost $80,000. Trinity Church stands on St. James' Square, near the spot where John Wesley delivered his famous sermons. The State Historical Society has a fine library. The principal charitable institutions arethe Orphan Asylum, the Untion Society, originally established by Whitefield, the Hibernian and Seaman's Friend Societ/es, the Georgia Infirmary, the Savannah Hospital, and the Savannah Free School. The building on the northeast corner of Bull and Broughton Streets, known as the Jrasonic Hall, is interesting to the visitor as the place where the Ordinance of Secession was passed, January 21, 1861. Four years after (December 28, 1864), a meeting of citizens was held in the same apartment to commemorate the triumph of the Union arms. The main apartment is now (1866) used as a billiard-room. Among the interesting relics of the past history of Savannah are-the building in which the colonial Legislature held its sessions, on South Broad Street, just east of Drayton; and the mansion of the Governor of Georgia during the occupation of the city by the British, which stands on Broughton Street. Savannah is one of the healthiest of the Southern cities, and its climate is constantly improving, owing, it is said, to the improved manner of cultivating the great rice lands in the neighborhood. No pleasanter winter home for invalids or others can be found; for, to the balmy 75 GEORGIA. [SAVANNAH.

Page  76 GEORGIA. climate of the region, and every appliance of physical comfort,there are superadded extraordinary social attractions in the cultivated mamniers and the hospitable hearts of the people. It is well supplied with good water brought from the Savannah River, west of the Ogeechee. It was occupied by the Federal forces, under General Sherman, on the morning of December 21, 1864. The fortifications, which constituted the so-called defences of the city, are six miles in extent, and are easily reached from the centre of the city. Five daily newspapers are published here. While glimmering onward to the sea, With scarce a rippling wave at play, A line of silver through the lea, The river stretches far away." " Tatnall's tomb," a family vault of the former possessors of these grounds, s tands nea r the centre of the c emetery. Fort Pulaski, on Cockspur Island, near Tybee Island, sit uat o -t e on the south side of the entrance to Savannah River, wa s the scene of a severe bom bardment du rin g the late nava l operation s on the coa st. It was attacked from batteries erected on Tybee Island, and surrendered April 11, 1862. Fort McAllister, near King's Bridge, on the west bank of the Ogeechee, is well worthy a vis it. It is re ac hed by the Gu lf Railway. Thunderbolt, four miles ea st of the c ity. A cco rding to local tradition, this place received its name from th e fall o f a thunderbol t. A spring of water which issued from the spot upon th at even t, has c ontinued to flow ever since. Gitristersgio Batttlf teld, eight miles distant, was the sc ene of an engagement, in 1782, between General Wayne and a body of Indians under their chief Guristersigo. Routes from Savanna h.- Geo rgia is famous, the Union over, for her rail road enterprise. In this respect, as in most others, she leads all the Southe rn States. Her lines of railway traverse her borders, and especially in the central a nd nor thern portions, in ever y d irection, linking all her towns and districts to each other and with all the surrounding States. Nearly 1,500 miles of railroad-either finished or being built-now centre in Savannah, communicating thence, directly or indirectly, westward with Macon and Columbus, northward with Charleston and with Montgomery in Alabama, with Augusta, Atlanta, and onward to Tennessee, etc. The Atlantic and Gulf Railroad is completed and in operation a distance of 189 miles to Boston, whence it will soon reach Pensacola and other points in Florida. The Central Railroad extends from Savannah, 190 miles, to Macon, with branch deflecting from Millen to Augusta, and another from Gordon to Milledgeville and Eatonton. The Macon and Western links the Central road from Savannah with the Western and Atlantic at Atlanta. All The vicinage of Savannah, though flat, is exceedingly picturesque along the many pleasant drives, and by the banks of the river and its tributary brooks. Everywhere are noble avenues lined with live-oaks, the bay, the magnolia, the orange, and a hundred other beautiful evergreen trees, shrubs, and vines. The Cemetery of Bonaventutre, three miles distant, on the Warsaw River, is a wonderful place. It was originally a private estate, laid out in broad avenues, which cross each other. These avenues are now grand forest aisles, lined with liveoaks of immense size; their dense leafage minglingfl overhead, and the huge lateral branches trailing upon the ground with their own and the superadded weight of the heavy festoons of the pendent Spanish moss. A more beautiful or more solemn home for the dead, than in the shades of these green forest aisles, cannot well be imagined. The endless cypress groves of the " silent cities " by the Bosphorus are not more impressive than the intricate web of these still forest walks. Bonaventurb has thus been sketched by star-light: " Along a corridor I tread, High overarched by ancient trees, Where, like a tapestry o'erhead, The gray mioss floats upon the breeze: A wavy breeze which kissed to-day Tallulah's falls of flashing foam, And sported in Toccoa's spray Brings music from its mountain home. s The clouds are floating o'er the sky, And cast at times a fitful gloom, As o'er our hearts dark memories fly Cast deeper shades on Tatnall's tomb; 76 VICI-L41TY.] [SAVANNAH. VICINITY.

Page  77 GEORGIA. these and other routes we shall duly follow as we continue our journey through the south and southwest. Florida is reached at Pilatka, Jacksonville, St. Augustine, and other places, by regular triweekly steamers from Savannah. (See chapter on Florida.) Steamboats ply daily to Augusta and other points on the Savannah River. Lines of steamships also furnish direct communication with New York, Philadelphia, and other Northern Atlantic ports. AkugSta —OTELS, the Planters', Augusta, and the Globe, centrally located on Broad Street, are all well-conducted establishments. Augusta, one of the most beautiful cities in Georgia, and the second in population and importance, is on the eastern boundary of the State, upon the banks of the Savannah River, 230 miles from its mouth, and at the head of its navigable waters, 120 miles north-northwest from Savannah, and 136 northwest from Charleston, with both of which cities it has long been connected by railroad. Railway connection with the latter city, which was broken during the war by the destruction of portions of the track, has not yet (May, 1866) been restored. The towrn was laid out in 1735, under royal charter. It was again chartered January 31, 1798, and incorporated as a city December 19, 1817. The area embraced by the city is two miles in length and about one in width. Its present population is nearly 20,000, and is steadily increasing. Broad Street, the main thoroughfare of the city, is a noble avenue. This is the Broadway of the city, wherein all the shopping and promenading are done, and where the banks, and hotels, and markets are to be found. Greene Street is also a broad, prettily shaded avenue. Of late years, Augusta has spread itself greatly over the level lands westward. A pleasant ride of between two and three miles from the heart of the town, brings the visitor to a lofty range of sandhills, covered with charming summer residences. This high ground is in healthful atmospheres, even when epidemics prevail-as they very rarely do, however-in the ci: below. This suburban settlement is now known as Summerville. Here are located the United States Arsenal, erec ted in 1827, and the long range of wo r ksho ps buil t and used by the Confederates during th e war. The latter extend upwards of 500 feet in length, a re substanti ally built, a nd present an imposing aspect. Returning to the city by leaving the main road to the left, a short distance from the Arsenal the traveller can get a view of the Potoder Mill and Cotton Factories immediately on the outskirts of the city. These latter a re very extensive, and give constant employment to 700 operatives. There are other pleasant drives along the ban ks ofthe Savannah, particularly below the city; and across the river at Hamburg there are some beautiful wooded and grassy terraces, known as Shultz's Hill, and much resorted to as a picnic-ground. Augusta has one or two fine public buildings. The City Hall, built at a cost of $100,000, the Medical College, the RJic~mond Academy, and the Masonic Hall, are every way creditable to the taste and liberality of the people. The monument, which stands in front of the City Hall, was erected to the memory of the signers of the Declaration of Independence from the State of Georgia. The churches are about fifteen in number. St. Patrick's, corner of Jackson and Telfair Streets, constructed in 1863, at a cost of $42,000, is a fine edifice. The Market Ilouses are on Broad Street, and are three-fourths of a mile apart. The rapid development of the up-country of Georgia, within a few years, has brought down to Augusta, by her railways, great prosperity; and the water power which has been secured by means of a canal, which brings the upper floods of the Savannah River to the city, at an elevation of some 40 feet, is enlarging and enriching it by extensive and profitable manufactures. This canal, 9 miles in length, was constructed in 1845. Athens, 92 miles from Augusta, 71 from MilIedgeville. HOTEL, Lanier House. This is a flourishing town on the Oconee River, at the terminus of the Athens branch of the Georgia Railway. The situation is healthy, and the climate delightful. It is the seat of Franklin College. Atlanta-HOTEL, National. The city of Atlanta is the outgrowth 77 AUGUSTA.] [ATLANTA.

Page  78 GEORGIA. of the railroad system centreing there. It is emphatically a railroad town. The original charter of the Western and Atlantic Railway authorized its construction from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to the southeast bank of the Chattahoochee River. In 1837 an act was passed authorizing its extension eight miles in a southeasterly direction, the survey for which brought it to the site of the present city. In 1845 the Georgia Railroad was completed to Atlanta, and formed a junction with the Chattanooga and Atlanta or "State Road," as it is locally known. In 1848 the Macon and Western Railroad was completed, but little progress was made toward a permanent settlement until 1852. Even as late as 1853 the population of the place scarcely amounted to 1,500. Apart from the memorable siege with which its name is inseparably connected, Atlanta possesses little to interest the traveller or tourist. Owing to its commanding central position, in the very heart of the South, not less than on account of its railroad, manufacturing, and other important advantages, it became a point of the utmost importance early in the war. Indeed, in the opinion of those best qualified to judge, its importance was second only to that of Richmond. The series of active military operations of which Atlanta was the centre, commenced July 9, 1864, by the retreat of General Johnston within the fortifications of Atlanta, which extended nearly five and a half miles along the river. By the 17th of July, the Federal forces, with the exception of one (Davis's) division of the 14th corps, were across the Chattahoochee, and on the 18th occupied the Georgia Railroad, from Stone Mountain on the northeast to Decatur and Peach Tree Creek, within five miles of Atlanta. On the 17th the command of the Confederate troops was transferred to General Hood. From that time up to the 1st of September, a vigorous siege of the city was kept up, when General Hood gave orders for the evacuation of the works, it having been discovered that the main body of the besieging army lay between the city and General Hardee. Fire was set to the rolling stock of the several railroads concentrating here, and 78 to al l th e stores and am munition, and am uil a soon the heavens were lurid with the flames which rose from the doomed city. A reconnoitring column from General Slocum's command entered the city on the 2d, and received its formal surrender from Mayor Calhoun. It is estimated that upwards of one thousand buildings, including the principal factories, mills, and workshops, were destroyed by this fire. The main buildings at present remaining, are the Medical College, the Presbyterian, Jfethodist, and Baptist Churches, the City Hall, and a few of the residences in the northern extremity of the city. The city is rising phoenix-like from its ashes; the greater portion of the burnt district has already been rebuilt, and soon but little trace of its downfall and destruction will be left. The corporate limits embrace an area of four miles square, and the population, already 12,000, is rap idly increasing. Decatur, a station on the Georgia Railroad, six miles east of Atlanta, is a healthy and agreeable resort. Stone Mountain, 9 miles from Decatur, is also reached from Atlanta by the Georgia road. At this place is an isolated domeshaped granite rock 2,200 feet above the sea level. On the summit of this rock is a tower 180 feet high, commanding a fine view of the surrounding country. The village has good hotel accommodations. (See Stone -Jfountain, in mountain scenery of Georgia.) Dalton, situated 100 miles north of Atlanta and 36 miles south of Chattanooga, at the intersection of the East Tennessee and Georgia with the Western and Atlantic Railway, is a growing place. The town (formerly Cross Plains) was laid out in 1846. Mountain scenery in the vicinity. Macon, 191 miles from Savannah, 100 from Atlanta. HOTELS, the Lanier House, Brown's Hotel. Macon, one of the most prosperous and populous cities of Georgia, is prettily situated on the Ocmulgee River, at the western terminus of the Central Railway. Occupying so central and important a position, it is not a little surprising that it entirely escaped the ravages of war. Like most of the cities of the State, it is well laid out. The streets are generally 180 feet ATLANTA.] [DECATUIZ.

Page  79 MILLE,DGEVILLE.] wide, and adorned with shade-trees. The soil being of a sandy, porous character, does not long retain moisture, and the locale is healthy and inviting. The TVesleyan Female College, a flourishing institution before the war, and even now, numbering over 100 students, is located here. The Academy for the Bli.nd, built by the State, of brick, four stories high, is an imposing edifice. It has, also, a Botanico-.Afedical College, a F-ee Academy, and several schools for orphans. There are several iron foundries, flour mills, and machine shops. The Macon factory is prosperously engaged in the manufacture of coarse cotton goods. Rose Hill Cemetery, on the banks of the Ocmulgee, is a pretty rural retreat, within easy walking distance of the city. It is well improved, and contains some fine monuments. Lamar's ~Afound is a rising ground, covered with fine private residences, a continuation of which brings the visitor to the pleasant suburban village of Vineville. The population of the city is upwards of 12,0o0, and increasing. Three daily and two weekly newspapers are published here. l1lilledgeville. - HOTELS, J[illedqeville Hotel, Jlc Comb's Hotel. M rilledgeville, the capital of Georgia, a town of about 3,000 people, is upon the Oconee River, in the midst of a fine cotton-growing region. From Savannah, by the Central Railway, to Gordon, 171 miles, and thence by the Milledgeville and Eatonton, 18 miles. Total, 189 miles. From Augusta, 163 miles; from Columbus, 135 miles; and from Atlanta, 139 miles. The Capitol at Milledgeville is a large Gothic structure. The city also contains a State Arsenal, a Penitentiary, a Court House, and five church edifices. The Ogletlorpe University is at Midway, a pretty village on the railway, 1+ miles below Milledgeville. Eatonton, the county seat of Put nam County, is pleasantly situated on a high ridge of land, at the terminus of the branch road from Gordon, on the Georgia Central. It has excellent schools and attractive scenery. Coluambus, 99 miles from Macon, 139 miles from Atlanta. HOTELS, Hor bach's (formerly Perry House), Cook's, both well-kept establishments, with every convenience for visitors. Oolumbus is a town of considerable trade, situated on the east bank of the Chattahoochee River, which forms the western boundary of the State. Across the river has been erected a fine bridge, connecting Columbus with the town of Girard, Ala. It was laid out in 1827, on what was then known as the Coweta Reserve, at the head of the Falls. These falls supply one of the finest water-powers to be found in the South, and the manufacturing interests of the city are already very extensive. It is the centre of a fine agricultural district, and large quantities of cotton are shipped hence to the seaboard, via the Chattahooch-,ee (see Chatta7hoochee River). The principal buildings are the Court tlots.e, Pr esb//eiae Chturch, Temnperance I-all, Batrt7c of C-ol?,cibmzs, and two hotels. The streets are all wide and laid out at right angles. Of the three bridges which formerly crossed the river at this point, and which were destroyed during the war (April, 1865), but one has been rebuilt. The city has railway communication with all important points in the State. Population 10,000. Just above Columbus there are sorte picturesque rapids in the Chattahoochee, overlooked by a fine rocky bluff, famous in story as the " Lover's Leap." The scene would be a gem in regions the most renowned for natural beautv. On the left, the river pursues its downward course to the city, in a straight line. Its flow is rapid and wild, broken by rocks, over which the water frets and foams in angry surges. The bed of the stream is that of a deep ravine, its walls lofty and irregular cliffs, covered to their verge with majestic forest growth. From this point the city of Columbus is but partially visible. The village of Girard and the surrounding hills on the Alabama side form a dis tinct and beautiful background to the picture. Fort Valley, in Houston County, is on the Southwestern Railway, 72 miles east of Columbus, and 28 miles southwest of Macon. It contains two church edifices and a flourishing academy. Albany, 76 miles from Maconi, by the Southwestern Railway, is on Flint River, at the mouth of Kinchafoonee Creek. Cotton to the amount of 15,000 79 GEORGIA. [ALIIANY.

Page  80 [TOCCOA FALLS. bales was shipped from this point previ ous to the war. The surrounding coun try is among the richest in the State. Eiufaula, Ala., a thriving town on the Chattahoochee River, is reached by a branch road from the Southwestern Rail way at Smithville. The MIountain Region of Georgia.-Throughout all Northern Georgia, the traveller will find a continua tion of the charming Blue Ridge land scape, which we have already explored in the contiguous regions of Upper South Carolina, and North Carolina West. This picturesque district in the "Pine State " extends from Rabun County, in the north eastern corner of the State, to Dade, in the extreme northwest, where the summit of the Lookout Mountain overlooks the valley of the Tennessee. Here are the famous gold lands, and in the midst of them the Dahlonega branch of the United States Mint. The most frequented, if not the finest scenes in this neighborhood are in the northeast, as the wonderful Falls of Tallulah and Toccoa, the valley of Nacochee and Mount Yonah in Habersham County, the Cascades of East.toia and the great R'abun Gap in Rabun; all within a day's ride of the Table Mountain, Coesar's Head, Jocasse, the Whitewater Falls, and otherwonders of South Carolina. Further west are the Falls of Amicalolah, the Cahutta Mountain, the Dowood Valley, and Mount Lookout. This was formerly the hunting-ground of the Cherokees; and, indeed, not many years have passed since the final removal of this tribe to new homes beyond the Mississippi. Clarksville, a pleasant village in Habersham County, is a favorite summer residence of the people of the "Low Country" of Georgia, and the point of rendezvous for the exploration of the landscape of the region-the point from whence to reach Tallulah, Toccoa, Nocoochee, etc. From Charleston or Columbia, or other places in South Carolina, follow the railways to Greenville or to Anderson, S. C., and proceed thence by stage, one to two days' ride, to Clarksville; or take the Georgia railways from Augusta to Athens, and thence by stage, one or two days' travel, to Clarksville, passing the 80 Madison Spr ings, Mount Currahee, and Toccoa. Toccoa Falls is in the County of Habersham, a few miles from the village of Clarksville. A narrow passage leads from the roadside to the foot of the fall. Before the spectator rises a perpendicular rock resembling a rugged stone wall, and over it "The brook comes babbling down the moun tain's side." "Beautiful streamlet I onward glide, In thy destined course to the ocean's tide! I So youth impetuous, longs to be Tossed on the waves of manhoo(d's sea: But weary soon of cloud and blast, Sighs for the haven its bark hath passed; And though thou rashest now with glee, By hill and plain to seek the sea No lovelier spot again thou'lt find Than that thou leavest here behind; Where hill and rock'rebound the call' Of clear Toccoa's waterfall I " Ther a e are pictures que legends connected wi th this winsofne spot; one of which narrate s the story of an Ind ian chie f a nd his followers, who, be nt upon the exterm i nation of the whit es, a nd trusting to the guidance o f a wom an, were led by her over the precipice, an d, of course, perished in their fall. The Cataracts of Tallulah are 12 miles from Clarksville (see r out e to Clarksville) by a road of very varied beauty. From Toccoa to Tallula h the cut across is five or six miles only. There is a comfortable hotel ne a r t he ed ge of the gorge s traversed by this wild mountain stre am, and hard by its army of waterfalls. The Tallulah or Terrora, as the Indians more appositely called it, is a small stream, which rushes through a chasm in the Blue Ridge, rending it for several miles. The ravine is 1,000 feet in depth, and of a similar width. Its walls are gigantic cliffs of dark granite. The heavy masses piled upon each other in the wildest confusion, sometimes shoot out, overhanging the yawning gulf, and threatening to break from their seemingly frail tenure, and hurl themselves headlong into its'dark depths. Along the rocky and uneven bed of this deep abyss, the infuriated Terrora frets and foams with ever-varyiing CLARKSVILLE.) GEORGIA, The heiht of the fall is now 180 feet.

Page  81 [MOUNT YONAH. course. Now, it flows in sullen majesty, through a deep and romantic glen, embowered in the foliage of the trees, which h e r e and there spring from the rocky l e d g e s of the chasm walls. Anon, it ru s h e s with accelerated motion, breaking fr etfillly over protruding rocks, a nd uttering harsh murmurs, as it verges a precipice-, With or without such associations, it will be remembered with pleasur e by all whose fortune it may be to see it. The valley-pas s ages of the South ar e special ties in the landscape, be ing ofte n so small and so thoroughly and markedly shut in, that each forms a comple t e picture in i t self The little vale of Jocasse, in South Carolin a, is su ch a scene, a nd that of Na coochee is another, and yet finer example. Nacoochee, like Tallulah and To ccoa, is a pleasant day's excur si on from Clarks ville. Mount Yonah looks down into the quiet heart of Nacoochee, lyin g a t its base. If the touris t shou ld stay o ver - night in the valley, as he will be apt to do, he ought tota ke a peep at the mountain panorama to be seen from the summit o f old Yonah. The village of Clayton is a n out-of-the-way lit tle place, occupyin g th e centre of a valley completely encircled by lofty mountain ranges. The Falls of the Eastatoia are some three or four miles from the village of Clayton, in Rabun, the extreme north east ern county of Ge orgia. They lie off the road to the right, in the pas sage of the Rabun Gap, one of the mountain ways f rom Georgia in to North Carolina. Clayton may be reached easily from Clarksville, the next town s out hwa rd, or in a ride of 12 miles from the Falls of Tallulah. The Eastatoia, or the Rabun Falls, as they are otherwise called, woul d be a spot of crowded re sort, were i t in the m idst of a more th ic kly peo - pled country. The scene is a succession of cascades, noble in volume a nd character, down the ravined flanks of a rugg ed mountain height. Fr om the top of one of the highest of the falls, a ma,nificent view is gained of the valley and waters of the Tenness ee, north of the village of Clayton, and the hills which encompass it. Be fore e xplor ing further the mountain scenery of Georgia, we feel in duty bound to say a few words about accommodations, conveniences for travel, etc., and to remind the traveller, that when he leaves the frequented routes hereabouts, or anywhere among the Southern hills, he must voyage in his own conveyance, wagon or on horseback (the latter the better), stop for the night 81 " Where, collected all, In one impetuous torrent, down the steep It thundering shoots, and shakes the cou ntr y round: At first, an azure sheet, it rushes broad; Then whitening by degrees as prone it falls, And from the loud-resounding rocks below Dashed in a cloud of foam, it sends aloft A hoary mist, and forms a ceaseless shower." The most familiar point of observation is The Pulpit, an immense cliff which projects far into the chasm. From this position, the extent and depth of the fearful ravine, and three of the most romantic of the numerous cataracts, are observed. At various other localities fine glimpses down into the deep gorge are afforded, and numerous other paths lead to the bottom of the chasm. At the several cataracts-the J. odore, the Tempesta, the Oceana, the Serpentine, and others-the picture is ever a new and striking onewhich the most striking and beautiful, it would be very difficult to determine. The natural recess called the Trysting Rock, once the sequestered meetingplace of Indian lovers, is now a haltingspot for merry groups as they descend the chasm, just below the Lodore cascade. From this point, Lodore is upon the left, up the stream; a huge perpendicular wall of parti-colored rock towers up in front and below; to the right are seen the foaming waters of the Oceana cascade, and the dark glen into which they are surging their maddened way. Tempesta, the Serpentine, and other falls, lie yet below. The wild grandeur of this mountain gorge, and the variety, number, and magnificence of its cataracts, give it rank with the most imposing waterfall scenery in the Union. The Valley of NVacoochee, or the Evening Star, is said by tradition to have won its name from the story of the hapless love of a beauteous Indian princess, whose sceptre once ruled its solitudes. THE PULPIT.] GEORGIA.

Page  82 FALLS OF AmICALOLAH.] at any cabin near which the twilight may find him, content himself with such fare as he can get (we won't discourage him by presenting the carte), and pay for it moderately when he resumes his journey in the morning. Union County, lying upon the northwest line of Habersham, is distinguished for natural beauty, and for its objects of antiquarian interest. Among these is the Track Rock, bearing wonderful impiressions of the feet of curious animals now extinct. Pilot Mountain, also in Union, is a noble elevation of some 1,200 feet. Hiawassee Falls, on the Hiawassee River, present a series of beautiful cascades, some of them from 50 to 100 feet in height. The Falls of Amicalolah are in Lumpkin County, southwest of Habersham. They lie some 17 miles west of the village of Dahlonega, near the State road leading to East Tennessee. The name is a compound of two Cherokee words-" Ami," signifying water, and "Calolab," rolling or tumbling; strikingly expressive of the cataract, and affording us another instance of the simplicity and significant force of the names conferred by the untutored sons of the forest. The visitor should rein up at the nearest farm-house, and make his way thence, either up the Rat tlesnake Hollow to the base of the Falls, or to the summit. The range of moun tains to the south and west, as it strikes the eye from the top of the falls, is truly sublime; and the scene is scarcely sur passed in grandeur by any other, even in this country of everlasting hills. The view from the foot embraces, as strictly regards the falls themselves, much more than the view from above, and is there fore, perhaps, the better; both, however,. should be obtained in order to form a just conception of the scene; for here we have a succession of cataracts and cas cades, the greatest not exceeding 60 feet, but the torrent, in the distance of 400 yards, descending more than as many hundred feet. This creek has its source upon the Blue Ridge, several miles east of the falls; and it winds its way, fringed with wild flowers of the richest dyes, and kissed in autumn by the purple wild grapes which cluster over its transparent 82 bosom; and so tranquil and mirror-like is its surface, that one will fancy it to be a thing of life, conscious of its proximate fate, rallying all its energies for the startling leap; and he can scarcely forbear moralizing upon the oft-recurring and striking vicissitudes of human life, as illustrated in the brief career of this beautiful streamlet. D]ahlonega, the thriving capital of Lumpkin County, is beautifully situated on a high hill commanding a magnificent view of the mountain scenery of this lovely region. The Indian name of the place was Tau-lau-ne-ca, " Yellow Money." The gold mines in the vicinity are still worked, and are the richest in Georgia. The United States branch mint cost $100,000. Travellers will find a well-kept hotel. AMount Currahee is on the upper edge of Franklin County, adjoining Habersham, where we have already visited the Falls of Tallulah and Toccoa, Naeoochee and Yonah, and on the stage route from Athens (see Clarksville) to those scenes. It is about 16 miles above the village of Cairnesville, and a few miles below the Toccoa cascade. The traveller fresh from the lowlands always finds this a scene of much interest. The Rock -]~ountain (Stone Mountain) is a place of great repute and resort in the western part of the State. It is in De Kalb County, 16 miles east of Atlanta, the western terminus of the Georgia Railway. It may thus be easily reached by the Georgia Road from Augusta, and all points thereon, and from places on the many different railways meeting- at Atlanta. (See Atlanta.) The mountain stands alone in a comparatively level region. It covers 1,000 acres of surface. Its circumference is about six miles. Its height above the sea 2,230 feet, which is further increased by the addition of an observatory. The western view of the mountain, though perhaps the most beautiful, is not calcu lated to give the beholder a just concep tion of its magnitude. To obtain this, he must visit the north and south sides, both at the base and at the summit. Pursuing, for half a mile, a road which winds in an easterly direction along the base of the mountain, the traveller arrives directly opposite its northern front. There the GEORGIA. [DAHLONEGA.

Page  83 LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN.] view is exceedingly grand and imposing.This side of the mountain presents an almost uninterrupted surface of rock, rising about 900 feet at its greatest elevation. It extends nearly a mile and a half, gradually declining toward the west, while the eastern termination is abrupt and precipitous. The side is not perpendicular, but exhibits rather a convex face, deeply marked with furrows. During a shower of rain, a thousand waterfalls pour down these channels; and if, as sometimes happens, the sun breaks forth in his splendor, the mimic torrents flash and sparkle in his beams, like the coruscations of countless diamonds. Near the road is a spring, which, from the beauty of its location, and the delightful coolness of its waters, is an agreeable place of res ort. It is in a shady dell, and its water gushes up from a deep bed of white and sparkling sand. A more exquisite beverage a pure taste could not desire. Among the curiosities of the mountain, there are two which are especially deserving of notice. One is the "Cross Roads." There are two crevices or fissures in the rock, which cross each other nearly at right angles. They commence as mere cracks, increasing to the width and depth of five feet at their intersection. They are of different lengths, the longest extending probably 400 feet. These curious passages are covered at their junction by a flat rock, about 20 feet in diameter. Another is the ruins of a fortification, which once surrounded the crown of the mountain. It is said to have stood entire in 1788. When or by whom it was erected is unknown. The Indians say that it was there before the time of their fathers. Lookout Mountain.-On the summit of this beautiful spur, the northwest corner of Georgia and the northeast extremity of Alabama, meet the southern boundary of Tennessee. Almost in the shadow of the Lookout heights lies the busy town of Chattanooga, in Tennessee, on the great railway route from Charleston viia the Georgia roads to Knoxville, and thence by the Virginia railways to the north; and on the other hand westward, through Nashville, to the Ohio and the Mississippi. (See Chattanooya, in the chapter on Tennessee.) The country around the "Lookout " is extremely pic The Indian Springs are in ButtrCounty, nea r the falls o f t he Towalaga. (See Macon and Western R ailway.) Th e s hadoneis a e on Sprits are on the stage route from Athens to the waterfall region of Habersham County, seven miles from Danielsville, the capital of Madison County. (See Athens branch, Georgia Railway.) The W~arm Springs, in Merriweather County, are 36 miles N. E. by stage from Columbus. A nearer railway point is Lagrang,e, on the Atlanta and West Point Railway. These springs discharge 1,400 gallons of water per minute, of 90 degrees Fahrenheit. The Sulphur Springs are six miles north of Gainesville, Hall County, in the upper part of the State. (See Atamens branch, Georgia Railway.) The Rowland Springs are about six miles from Cartersville, in Cass County. Cartersville is a station on the Western and Atlantic Railway, 47 miles north of 83 GEORGIA. [SPITINGS. turesque; the views all about the mountain itself are admirable, an,] nothir.,g can exceed in beauty the charming valley of the Tennessee and its waters, as seen from its lofty sumniit. It is, too, in the immediate vicinage of the Dogwood Valley, and the Nickajack Cave in Alabama. The Falls of t7te To?,valaga would be beautiful anywhere, and they are therefore particularly so occurring as they do in a part of the State not remarkable for its picturesque character. They are easily reached from Forsyth or Griffin on the Macon and Western Railway. The river above the falls is about three hundred feet in width, flowing swiftly over a rocky shoal. At its first descent it is divided by a ledge of rock, and forms two precipitous falls for a distance of fift y feet. The falls are much broker? by the uneven surface over which the water flows, and on reaching their rocky basin, are shivered into foam and spray. From the foot of this fall the stream foams rapidly down its declivitous channel for two hundred feet, and again bounds over a minor precipice in several distinct cascades, which commingle their waters at its base in a cloiid of foam. SPRINGS.

Page  84 GEORGIA. The Thundering Springs are in Upson County. The nearest railway station is Forsyth. (See Macon and Western Railway.) The Powder Springs-sulphur and magnesia-are in Cobb County, 20 miles above Atlanta. (See Western and Atlantic Railway.) i cekajack Cave is in the immediate vicinity of Chattanooga. (See chapter on Alabama.) Atlanta and 89 miles south of Chattanooga. The Red Sulphur Spriigs, or " the Vale of Springs," are at the base of Taylor's Ridge, in Walker County, the northwest corner of the State. In the vicinage is the Lookout Mountain and other beautiful scenes. No less than twenty springs are found here in the space of half a mile,chalybeate, sulphur, red, white and black, and magnesia. (See Chattanooga and vicinity.) 84 i SPRINGS.] [SPRINGS. 11

Page  85 [FLORIDA. FLO RID A. Georgia, and passed into British possession in 176 3. It was reconquered by Spain in 1781, an d from that period until within very late years, it has been the field of Indian occupation and warfare. The reconquest by Spain in 1781, was confirmed in 1783, and in 1821 that power ceded the country t o the United States. Its territorial organization was made in 1822, and its admission into the Union as a State occurred March 3, 1845. A sanguinary war was waged from 1834 to 1842, between the troops of the United States and the Indian occupants, the Seminoles, led by their famous chief Osceola. Since that period the savages have been removed to other territory, excepting some few who a re still in possession of the impenetrable swamps and jungles of the lower portions of the State. The ordinance of secession was passed at Tallahassee, Janu ary 7, 1861. Florida is the grand peninsula forming the extreme southeastern parllf the United Stab. I ts entire area easTward lies upon the"ttl antic, an d the Gulf of Mexico washes almost the whole of the western side. Georgia an d Alabama are upon the north. The country is f or the most part level, being nowhere more than 250 or 300 feet above the sea. The southern part of the peninsula is covered with a large sheet of water called the Everglades -an- immense area, filled with islands, which it is supposed may be reclaimed by draina ge. The central portion of the State is somewhat elevated, the highest point being about 1 71 feet above the ocean, an d gradually declining toward the coast on either side. The country between th e Suwanee and the Chattahoochee is elevated and hilly, and the western region is level. The lands of Florida a re almost su i generis, very curi 85 FLORIDA.] FLORIDA. FLORIDA is much visited from the north during the winter months by those who love mild and balmy atmospheres, and especially by invalids in quest of healthrestoring climates. The villages of St. Augustine, Jacksonville, Pilatka, and neighboring places, which are those most particularly sou,,ht, are near the Atlantic coast, in the extreme northeastern part of the State. They may be speedily and pleasantly reached by steamers from Charleston and Savannah, as we shall show, after a very hasty peep at the specialties in the history and character of the re,-ion. Thou,h so recently (1820) admitted into the Confederacy of States, Florida is more fertile in materials of history than many of her elder sister States. Hither came Ponce de Leon (I 512), hoping to find the fabled fountain of perpetual vouth and stren-th; and shortly after, arvaez, who inv'aded the country from Cuba with 400 men, and penetrating the interior, was never again heard of. De Soto followed in 1539, with a not much happier reward, for though he subdued the sava,es and took possession of their land, it was only to leave it again and to pass on. Battle and strife have, with intervals of quiet, so characterized Florida, almost to the present day, that its name would seem but irony did it really refer, as is generally supposed, to the floral veetation of the soil, instead of to the simple happening of the discovery of the country on Pascua F-lorida, or Palm Sunday. The earliest settlements in Florida were made by the French, but they were driven out bv the Spaniards, who established themselves securely at St. Augustine in 1565, many years before any other settlement was made on the western shores of the Atlantic. Before the Revolution, Florida warred with the English colonies of Carolina and

Page  86 FLORIDA. ously distributed, and may be designated as high hummock, low hummock, swamp, savannas, and the different qualities of fine land. High hummock is usually timbered with live and other oaks, with magnolia, laurel, etc., and is considered the best description of land for general purposes. Low hummock, timbered with live and water oak, is subject to overflows, but when drained is preferred for sugar. Savannas, on the margins of streams and in detached bodies are usually very rich and alluvious, yielding in dry seasons, but needing, at other times, ditching and diking. Marsh savannas, on the borders of tide streams, are very valuable, when reclaimed, for rice or sugar-cane. The swampy, island-filled lake called the Everglades is covered with a dense jungle of vines and evergreens, pines, and palmettoes. It lies south of Okechobee, and is 160 miles long and 60 broad. Its depth varies from one to six feet. A rank tall grass springs from the v egetable deposits at the b ottom, and risind abov e the surfac e of th e wa ter, give s the lak e the deceitful air of a beautiful verdant lawn. The soil is well adapted, it is thought, to the pr oduction of the plantain and the b naan a. In the in teri or of Fl orida there is a chain of lakes, of which the extreme southern link is Lake Okechobee, nearl y 20 mil es in leng th. Many of these waters are extremely picturesque in their own unique beauty of wild and rank tropical vegetation.s' The rivers of the Uate are numerous, and, like the lakes present everywhere to the eye of the stranger very novel attractions, in the abundance and variety of the trees and shrubs and vines which line all their shores and bayous. The largest of the many rivers is the Appalachicola, which crosses the western arm of the State to the Gulf of Mexico. The St. Mary's is the boundary on the extreme northern corner, Georgia being upon the opposite bank. Its waters flow into the Atlantic, as do those of the St. Johns River, in the same section of the State. All the main points of interest in Florida are easily reached from Savannah by steam-packets down the coast. The Dictator makes the round trip from Charleston to Jacksonville weekly, stopping at Savannah and Fernan 86 dina; other boats run between Savannah and Pilatka, calling at Brunswick, St. Marys, Fernandina, Ja ckson ville, and Picolata. The St. Johns River is the principal point of at t raction, and that to which w e p ropose to direct the more particular attention of the t o urist. It co mes from a marshy tract in the central part of th e peninsula, flowing first northwest to the mouth of the Ochlawaha, and the nce about northwa rd to Jacksonvil le, and finally eastward to the Atlantic. It is navigat e d by steamboats only to Pilatka, though vessels drawing eight feet of w ater may pass up 107 miles, to Lake George. The entire length of the river is 200 miles. The country which it traverses is covered chiefly with dank cypress swamps a nd desolate pine b arrens; the banlos, which are fro m ten to twenty feet high, are over g ro wn with the tre es fo r which the State i s so famous, amongst which are the pine, magnolia, live-oak, and palmetto. Ja ckson ville 25 miles from the mout h of the St. Johns, i s th e most important point on the river. It is a flourishing, busy town of about 2,000 inhabitants, has numerous saw-mills, and considerable commerce. Jacksonville has direct railway communication with Tallahassee and Cedar Keys. IHibernia, situated at the mouth of Black Creek, 47 miles up the St. Johns, is a quiet, pleasant, home-like place, of considerable resort. ]liddleburgh, 16 miles up Black Creek, report speaks favorably of. It consists of a few houses only. XlIagnolia (56 miles, on the west bank of the St. Johns) has a large hotel kept by Dr. Benedict, a Northern physician, of established reputation. Good rooms and good entertainment may be expected here. Green Cove Springs (warm sulphur) are one and a half miles above Magnolia. There is good accommodation for visitors. Picolata, 10 miles beyond Magnolia, and 66 miles from the mouth, has a good house for visitors. This is the point of departure for St. Augustine. Pilatka, on the west bank, 25 miles, or two hours, further south, is a new and thriving town, deriving consider, FLORIDA.] [IIIBERNIA.

Page  87 [ST. AUGUSTINE. able trade from the fertile back country. It is the capital of Putnam County. Here are two hotels. Passengers take stage here for Orange Springs and Ocala. Wilaka is a comparatively recent settlement, on the east bank of the St. Johns, 110 miles from its mouth. Enterprise (180 miles), also on the east bank, on Lake Monroe, boasts a new, large, commodious, and well-kept hotel. The hunting and fishing are good in the vicinity. Steamboat excursions on the St. Johns River are frequently made to Lake Harney, sixty miles above Enterprise. Thirty miles east from Enterprise, on the sea-coast, and four mniles from Mosquito Inlet, is Y~ew S)nyrna, consisting of two houses. Reached by mailwagon, once a week. Mr. Sheldon entertains company, and insures them capital sport. Mail boat leaves here for Indian River every second week. This is a fine, healthy location. A new hotel is to be put up the coming season. St. Augustine, 160 miles from Savannah, 200 from Tallahassee. St. Augustine is well furnished with ho tels and boarding-houses, and there is unusually ample and comfortable accom modation for all comers. The principal hotels are the Maqgnolia, a well-built, well-kept, and well-furnished resort, and the Planters'. First-class boarding houses are also to be found. Visitors, unless more than ordinarily difficult and exacting, will find the tables satisfactorily furnished; admirably so, considering the isolation of the place, and its remoteness from markets and commercial cities. The winter fare consists of groceries and butter from the North; delicious fish and oysters, beef, game, poultry, venison, duck, wild turkey, and occasionally green turtle; green peas and salads are rarely lacking, even in midwinter; game birds are abundant, such as quail, snipe, etc. St. Augustine is built along the seaward side of a narrow ridge of land, situated be tween a salt marsh and estuary half a mile from the beach, two miles from the ocean, in sight of the bar and lighthouse, and within hearing of the surf. The soil is sandy loam and decomposed shell, and is very productive. Approaching by a bridge and causeway crossing the St. Sebas tian River and marshi, we enter a we l l-s haded ave nue, flanke d by gardens and orange-groves, which lead s dir ectly to the centre of the quaint old city. Her e is the public square, a neat enclosure of some two acres, facing which, on either side, stand the Court House, t he Marke t and wharf, the Protestant Episcopal Church-a plain building, in the pointed style, handsomely furnished-and, immediately opposite, the venerable Roman Catholic Church, a striking edifice of seemingly great antiquity, but built only about eighty years ago. It is of the periwig pattern, and in the worst possible taste. One of its bells bears date 1682. Connected witfi this church is a small convent and school. A minute's walk brings us to the sea-wall or breakwater, a broad line of massive masonry, built about 1840 by order of Government, at great cost, for the protection of the city, but whose chief use is that of affording to the inhabitants the pleasantest promenade in fine weather. This wall extends half a mile southward to the now deserted barracks and maga zine, and as far northward as Fort -Jarion (formerly Castle of St. Mark), a pictu resque and decayed fortress, which once commanded the whole harbor, looming up out of the flat landscape, grand as a Moorish castle, and forming the most conspicuous and interesting relic of the Spanish occupation. Parallel to this sea wall, run north and south, with short in tersections, the three principal streets or lanes, long, narrow, without pavement or sidewalk, irregularly built up with "dumpy" but substantial houses, rather dingy and antediluvian, mostly of stone, or with the lower stories stone and the upper of wood. They have invariably the chimneys outside, and are ornamented with projecting balconies and latticed verandas, from which the gay paint has long since faded, being all toned and weather-stained into one sombre gray hue, which, in keeping with the surroundings, is the joint result of age, neglect, sun, and saline air. Every house is separated from its neighbor by more or less of garden plot, ill protected by broken fence and crum bling wall, wherein they raise two or more crops of vegetables every year, figs in perfection, and roses in unmeasured abundance. St. Augustine is sometimes 87 ENTF,P.pRiSE.] FLORIDA.

Page  88 ST. AUGUSTINE.] styled the "Ancient City," and is, indeed, the oldest in the United States. Its ap pearance is in strict keeping with its venerable age, seen in the unequivocal marks of decay or decrepitation. Perhaps the friable nature of the common building material contributes to this ruinous ap pearance, all the older houses being con structed of a stratified concrete of minute shell and sand called "coquina," in blocks conveniently obtained, and easily worked, hardening by exposure, but abrading and crumbling in course of time. Coquina houses, however, are invariably dark, and always damp in winter, on which account frame dwellings, although not so cool for summer houses, are much preferred by the innovating Yankees. But the Minor can, or sub-Spanish population, still adhere to their traditions, and refuse to be reformed. They build for the summer timethe longest season-and wisely build, when they do build, the same solid, squat, low-doored, narrow-windowed, dis agreeably-darkl and rheumatically-damp dwellings as ever. Visitors, however, in choosing winter quarters, will do well to prefer those hotels which are of frame, and have a cheerful sunny exposure. Northerners seeking in Florida a milder climate and permanent winter residence, have generally preferred St. Augustine. And with the best reason. The proximity of the Gulf Stream renders it warmer in winter and cooler in summer than the settlements on the St. Johns River. It is at present the most southern habitable place on the eastern coast; and it has peculiar advantages over all other towns in East Florida-in its churches, its company, and its comforts. Good society may always be had there; the citizens are hospitable, and among the visitors are always some agreeable persons, cultivated and distinguished. Visitors begin to arrive abo-ut the holidays, and the first "stranger" is looked for with as much anxiety as the first Connecticut shad. From the middle of March until the middle of April is the height of the season, and then the hotels are crowded. Deliciously fresh and mild is the atmosphere during the first spring heats. Then the soft south wind fills the senses with a voluptuous languor, and the evening land breeze comes laden with the fragrance of 88 orange-blossoms and the bre a th of roses. A moonlight walk upon the sea-wall sug gests the Mediterranea n, an d t he illusion i s he i ght en ed by the accent s of a foreign tongu e. The effect of these h appy climat i c and social c onditions is very noticeable. The most morose tempers seem to lose their acerbity, and even the despairing invalid catches the contagion of cheerful ness. Two-thirds of the population of St. Augustine (amounting to 1,300 whites) are of Spanish origin, and still speak the Spanish language. The women'are pretty, modest, dark-eyed brunettes; dress neatly in gay colors, are skilful at needle-work, and good housewives. The men exhibit equally characteristic traits of race and nationality. The people are generally poor. There are no manufactures. The town produces little, and exports nothing — its chief support, since the loss of its orange-groves, being derived from Gov ernment offices, and receipts from stran ers. It has one saw-mill, rarelv running. It has a bathing-house, three good physi cians, and a dentist. Anastatia Island, opposite St. Augustine, is twenty miles in length, and affords picturesque views. Perhaps no city in the Union is healthier than St. Augustine. Thirty-six miles north of the St. Johns is the St. Mary's river. St. olary~s.-St. Mary's may be included in this region, though it lies in the State of Georgia, yet still near the northeast line of Florida. It is upon the St. Mary's River, nine miles from the sea. The village is a pleasant one, and the healthfulness of climate makes it a great resort for invalids. Fernandina, the county seat of Nassau County, is pleasantly situated on the north end of Amelia Island, a little south of the St. Mary's River. The island is fifteen miles long and nearly three in its greatest width. The land is well adapted to the growth of cotton. The town consists of about fifty houses, built of wood. The harbor is considered one of the best south of the Chesapeake. Tallahassee, 194 miles from Mobile, 130 from Pensacola. HOTEL, City HIotel. Tallahassee, the capital of Florida, is a pleasant city, of some 2,000 inhabitants, in the centre of the northern and most populous part of the State, near the head of the Gulf of Mexico. It is con FLORIDA. [FERNANDIliA.

Page  89 TALLAHASSEE.] nected by railroad, 26 miles, with St. Marks, near the Gulf. It is regxularlv built upon a somewhat elevated site. Some of its public edifices are highly respectable, but do not call for any especial remark. Chief among the attractions of Tallahassee are the many beautiful springs found in the vicinity. Ten miles from the city is a famous fountain, called Wachulla. It is an immense limestone basin, as yet unfathomed in the centre, with waters as transparent as crystal. It contains the State House, Court House, and several churches. Here, on the 7th of January, 1861, the ordinance of secession was passed. From Pensacola to Tallahassee.-To La Grange (on Choctawhatchie Bay), by steamboat, 65 miles; by stage to Holmes Valley, 25; Oakey Hill, 42; Marianna, 66; Chattahoochee, 90; Quincy, 108; Salubrity, 117; Tallahassee, 130. From Jacksonville to Tallahcassee.-To the White Sulphur Spring, 82 miles. This curious spring rises in a basin ten feet deep and thirty in diameter; it discharges a quantity of water, and after running a course of about 100 feet, enters the Suwanee River. The waters have been found very beneficial in cases of consumption, rheu matism, and a variety of other complaints. Visitors will find ample accommodation here. From the mineral spring to Madi son, 35 miles; Lipona, 73; Tallahassee, 98-or 180 miles from Jacksonville. Appalachicola is at the entrance of the river of the same name into the Gulf o f Mexico, through the Appalachicola Bay. It is easily accessible by the river and the gulf, and is a place of large cotton shipments. It is 135 miles southwest of Tallahassee. Population 2,000. Pensacola- HoTELS, Bedell iouse, Winter's Hoszse, St. Jfary's Hall. Pensacola is upon the Pensacola Bay, in the extreme northwest corner of the State, 10 miles from the Gulf of Mexico and 64 east of Mobile. It was known as late as 1699 by its Indian name of Auclusia. The harbor here is one of the safest on the Florida coast, which is not remarkable for safe harbors. It is well sheltered by St. Rosa Island, and is defended by Forts Pickens, McRca, and Barrancas. Forts McRae and Barrancas were occupied by rebel troops during the war of 1861-'65. Pensacola is a United States naval station, and contains a Marine Hospital and Custom House. The population of Pensacola is about 3,000. Route from Pensacola to Mobile, Ala. -To Blakely, 50; Mobile, 64 miles. Tampa is on Tampa, formerly Espiritu Santo Bay, which opens on the Gulf of Mexico, near the centre of the western coast of Florida. ]Key West City is upon the island of Key West, off the southern extremity of the peninsula, occupying the important post of key to the Gulf passage. 89 "Wachulla, beauteous Spring I thy crystal waters Reflect the loveliness of Southern skies; And oft methinks the dark-haired Indian daughters Bend o'er thy silver depths with wondering eyes; From forest glade the swarthy chief emerg ing, Delighted paused, thy matchless charms to view; Then to thy flower-gemmed border slowly verging, I see him o'er thy placid bosom urging His light canoe I With the bright crimson of the Maple twin ing, The fragrant Bay its peerless chaplet weaves And where Magnolias in the ir pride are shin ing, The broad Palmetto spreads its fan-like leaves: Far down the forest aisles where sunbeams quiver, The fairest flowers their rainbow hues com bine; And pendant o'er the swiftly flowing river, The shadows of the graceful Willow shiver, In glad sunshine! Bright-plumaged birds their gorgeous hues enwreathing, Their amorous tunes to listening flowers repeat; Which in reply, their sweetest incense breathing, Pour on the silent air their perfume sweet: From tree to tree the golden jasmine creep ing, Han,,s its light bells on every slender spray; And in each fragrant chalice slying peeping, The Humming-Bird its odorous store is reaping, The livelong day " FLORIDA. [PINSACOLA. ROUTES. A Southern poetess has thus graphically portrayed its beauties:

Page  90 KEY WEST CITY.] It was first settled in 1822, and is now the most populous city of Florida, having a population of about 3,000. It is a military station of the United States. Some 30,000 bushels of salt are annually made at Key West, by solar evaporation. Great quantities of sponges, too, are found and exported; but the chief business of the island accrues from the salvages upon the wrecks cast upon the coast. Forty or fifty vessels are every year lost in the vicinity, by which the island profits to the amount of $200,000. The iJfarine Hospital here, 100 feet long, is a noteworthy building. Fort Taylor, a strong and costly post, defends the harbor. The Charleston and Havana steamers touch at Key West once a week. The "Florida Steamship Line" dyspatch 90 a steamer fortnightly from Pier 9, East River, N. Y., for Appalachicola and Key West (Bonner & Brown, 113 Wall Street, Agents). A railway now extends from Fernandina, on the Atlantic coast, southwesterly across the peninsula, to Cedar Keys on the Gulf of Mexico; stage lines diverge to various points in the interior. The Pensacola and Georgia Railway will cross the upper part of the State from Jackson west to Tallahassee. This route is at present in operation 25 miles from Tallahassee to Monticello. Other lines wil soon connect Tallahassee with Pensacola, and with Savannah, Macon, etc. The best time to go to Florida (east coast), either for health or pleasure, is from the 1st of January to the 1st of April. FLORIDA. [KEY WEST CITY.

Page  91 ALABAMA. ALABAMA. long journey, they here droop their once bold heads and fall to sleep, willing, perhaps, to accept the p oetical signification of the name of the ne w t erritory into which they no w e nter -Ala bama, Here we rest. While the upper portion of the State is thus rude and hilly, the central falls into fertile prairie reaches. The extreme southern edge for fifty or sixty miles from the gulf is sometimes a sandy, sometimes a rich alluvial plain. The climate, like that of most of the Southern States, varies from the characteristics of the tropics below, through all the intermediate degrees, to the salubrious and invigorating air of the mountain lands above. The chief agricultural product of Alabama is cotton, of which great staple it yielded, before the war, more than any other State in the Union. Extensive canebrakes once existed, but they have been greatly cleared away. Sugar-cane grows on the southwest neck, between Mobile and the Mississippi. Many of the rich alluvial tracts yield rice abundantly. Tobacco, also, is produced. Indian corn, oats, sweet potatoes, buckwheat, barley, flax, and silk, are much cultivated, besides many other grains, fruits, and vegetables, and large supplies of live stock of all de scriptions. Alabama is rich in minerals; deposits of coal, iron, variegated marbles, limestone, and other treasures, being ex tensively found within her borders. Gold mines, too, have been found and worked. Salt, sulphur, and chalybeate springs abound. The State is divided into fifty-two counties, and contains a white population of nearly half amillion. Montgomery, the capital, is a growing city; the principal commercial towns are Mobile, Tuscaloosa, Huntsville, and Selma. THIs State, though hitherto little visited by tourists and pleasure-seekers, either from the North or South, forms nevertheless an interesting field of adventure, as well as an important link of communication in making the grand tour of the South. From the North it is most readily and expeditiously reached by way of Washington, Lynchburg, Knoxville, and Atlanta. The route by Savannah, Macon, Columbus, and Montgomery is, however, the most pleasant, as combining both sea and land travel. Travellers from New Orleans and Mobile can reach Montgomery, the State capital, either by boat up the Alabama River, or by railway from Mobile. The history of this State is involved in some obscurity. It is supposed that it was first visited by white men in 1541, when the troops of De Soto passed through it on their memorable exploring expedition to the great Mississippi. In 1702 a fort was erected in Mobile Bay by a Frenchman named Bienville, and nine years later the present site of the city of Mobile was occupied At the peace of 1763 this territory passed into the possession of the English, with all the French possessions (except New Orleans) east of the Mississippi. Until 1802 Alabama was included in the domain of Georgia, and after 1802 and up to 1817 it was a part of the Mississippi Territory. At that period it was formed into a distinct government, and was admitted in 1819 into the Union as an independent State. The natural beauties of Alabama, excepting in the peculiar features of the southern lowlands seen near the coast, are not of such marked interest to the tourist as the landscape of many other States. In the upper region are the extreme southern outposts of the great Appalachian hill ranges; but, as if wearied with all their RIVERS.-The Alabama is the principal 91 .[.&LABAMA. .&LABAMA.) -

Page  92 ALABAMA. river of the State. It is formed by the Coosa and Tallapoosa, which unite about ten miles north of Montgomery. About 45 miles above Mobile it is joined by the Tombigbee, and the united waters are thence known as the Mobile River. The Alabama is navigable for large steamers through its whole course of 460 miles, from the city of Mobile to Wetumpka. Between these points there arc upwards of two hundred landings. It flows through a country of rich cotton-fields, broad savanna lands, and dense forest tracts. The trip down the Alabama, from Montgomery to Mobile, during the cottonshipping season (December to March), forms one of the most interesting and exciting experiences of the Southern traveller. The Tombigbee River flows 450 miles firom the northeast corner of Mississippi, first to Demopolis, where it unites with the Black Warrior, and thence to the Alabama River, about 45 miles above Mobile. Its course is through fertile savanna lands, occupied by cotton plantations. Aberdeen, Columbus, Pickensville, Gainesville, and Demopolis, are upon its banks. Large steamboats ascend 416 miles to Columbus. The Black Warrior -River unites at Demopolis with the Tombigbee (see Tombigbee, above). Tuscaloosa, the capital of the State, is upon its banks. To this point large steamboats regularly ascend, 413 miles from Mobile. The Indian name of this river was Tuscaloosa, and it is still thus sometimes called. The Chattahoochee forms a part of the eastern boundary of the State. (See Georgia.) The Tennessee flows for 130 miles of its course through noithern Alabama (see .~usele Shoals). The remaining rivers worthy of mention are the Cahawba, Escambia, Blackwater, Yellowwater, and Choctawhatchee. and thence 50 miles to Pollard, where it connects with the A labama a nd Fiorida Railway to Montgomery, etc. A branch is in course of construction to Pensacola, Florida. The ~femp7tis and Charleston Railway from Memphis, Tenn., via Corinth (93 miles), Tuscumbia (145), Decatur (188), Huntsville (212), to Stevenson (272 miles), and thence by the Nashville and Chattanrooga Railway to Chattanooga, and the East and Northeast. The lllontgomery and West Point Railway from Montgomery, 88 miles to West Point, and thence 87 miles to Atlanta. The Alabama and 1l'nltessee River Railway, 110 miles from Selma to Talladega. Steamers from Selma to Mobile. Shelby Springs on this route. The Alabama and Mississippi River Railway from Selma 30 miles to Uniontown, and thence by stage to Demopolis and Lauderdale Springs. The Pensacola and Georgia Railway is in operation between Lake City and Quincy. It will eventually extend between Pensacola and Tallahassee, Florida. The _ffobile and Girard Railway will traverse the State from Columbus, Ga., to Mobile. Completed from Montgomery 47 miles to Chunnuggee. 165 miles from New Orleans; 197 from Montgomery. Mobile was founded by the French in 1699, and was ceded by that nation to England in 1763. To Lcmoin D'Iberville, who has not inaptly been called the "father of Southern colonization," justly belongs the credit of founding the city. Historians, however, differ as to the precise date of the foundation. In 1780 England surrendered it to Spain, and that Government made it over to the United States in 1813. It was incorporated as a city in December 1819, the population numbering about 800 souls. It was one of the last points in the Confederacy occupied by Union forces during the late war. This event took place April 12th, 1865. An explosion, which took place in the north end of the city on the 25th May following the occupation, destroyed twelve entire squares RAILWAYS.-The 9 obile and Ohio Railway to Corinth and Jackson, Miss., Columbus, Kentucky, 472 miles, and thence by steamer to Cairo, Illinois, where it connects with the Illinois Central to Chicago, and all points North, East, and West. The Mobile and Great Northern R?ailway. Steam ferry, 22 miles, to Tensas, 92 RAILWAYS.) [3fOBlLE. MOBILE.

Page  93 ALABAMA. of buildings, besides doing much damage in adjacent portions of the city. The city is pleasantly situated on a level, sandy plain which rises on the west bank of the Mobile River, immediately above its entrance into the bay, and thirty miles from the Gulf of Mexico. The city extends along the river bank upwards of two miles east and west, and nearly three miles north and south, and is divided into seven wards. Population about 35,000. The plateau is elevated 15 feet above the highest tides, and commands a fine view of the river and bay, from which it receives refreshing breezes. The numerous obstructions and shallowness of the channel at low water render navigation not only difficult but hazardous for vessels drawing more than seven feet of water. They cannot come directly up the bay to the city, but pass up Sp ani s h River six miles round a marshy islan d into Mobile River, and down this a short distance to th e wharves. As a c otton mart and place of exp ort for th is great staple, Mobile ranks next i in impor tanc e to New Orlea ns. In 1850 th e tonnag e of the port was upwards of 25,000 tons; in 1860 it had increased to 37,000. The city is supplied with excellent water, brough t a dist ance of two miles, and thence distributed throug h the city. On Mobile Poist is a lighthouse, the lantern of which is 55 feet above the sea level. Fort Morgan (formerly Fort Bower), and Fort James, opposite Dauphin Island, mounting 69 guns at the time of the attack, command the entrance of the hrrbor. Spanish Fort, and Fort Blakely, and Batteries Gladdens, Tracy, J]cIntosh, and Hitger are passed on the way up the Tensas River from Mobile to Pollard and Montgomery. Large numbers of sailing vessels ply between Mobile and New Orleans, the ports on the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic coast. A daily line of steamers run to New Orleans by way of Lakes Borgne and Pontchartrain; likewise up the Alabama River to Montgomery and other points. Mobile has many fine private residences, but few buildings of a public character which would interest the visitor. Cotton is still king in Alabama; and Mobile, as her chief city and commercial emporium, is mainly devoted to the receipt, storage, and shipment of this wonderful product. Government Street is the finest avenue and favorite promenade of the c ity. Public Square, between Dauphin and St. Francis Streets, is also a place of much resort. Both are adorned wit h live oaks and other shade -trees. The lofty dome of the Academy building, a nd the spires of the several church edifices on Governm ent Street, afford a pl ea sing relief to the eye accustomed to dwell upon the darkgreen foliage of the oak-tree s w hich shade its whole length. The bui lding a t th e intersection of Government with Dearborn Street, the property of Mr. Eman uel, is at present occupied as the h eadquarters of the District C ommandant. The Custom House, at the corner of Royal a nd St. Francis Streets, is the most costly public edifice in the city. It i s built of m a rble, and cost $250,000. The Theatre, f~unicinpal Buildings, and Markets are on Royal Street. The Battle Iokese, the la rgest hotel in the city, presents an imposing facade of white m arble, immediately facing the Custom Hou s e. The somewhat imposing r ui n on the west sid e of Royal Street, nea r ly op posit e the city ma r ke t, marks the si te of the Court House destroyed by fire during the war. Odd Fellows' Hall, on Royal Street, and Temperance Hall, corner of St. Michael and St. Joseph Stre ets, are con sp icuous buildings. Among the religious and charitable institutions of Mobile the most prominent are the Catholic Cathedral (Immaculate Conception), on Claiborne Street, between Dauphin and Conti Streets; Christ Church (Episcopal), northwest corner of Church and St. Emanuel Streets; First Presbyterian Church, northwest corner of Government and Jackson Streets; and the Catholic Male and Female and Protestant Orphan Asylums, all situated within a short distance of the business portion of the city. Mobile possesses fourteen public schools, and a large number of benevolent and other societies. Mobile College, on Government near Ann Street, is a flourishing institution. M. Saucier, at No. 96 Dauphin Street, executes excellent photographic views. Spring Hill is a pleasant suburb and retreat six miles west of the city. The Roman Catholic College; commenced in 1832 under the direction of Bishop M. Portier, is 93 MOBILE.] [',UOBILE.

Page  94 MONTGOMERY.] view of the city and adjacent country is obtained. Considerable interest attaches to Montgomery as the capital of the Confederate Government during four months, commencing 4th February, 1861, and terminating with its final removal to Richmond, in May of the same year. The city has suffered severely by fire; first, in December, 1838, and again on the occasion of the rebel evacuation of the town, 11th April, 1865, when the cotton warehouses, containing 80,000 bales of cotton, were destroyed. Seven days afterwards the arsenal, railway depots, and foundry were destroyed by Federal troops. Next the Capitol, the prominent buildings are the Episcopal, Baptist, and Presbyterian churches, Theatre building, Court House, and Exchange Hotel, besides several private residences. The city is lighted with gas, and supplied with good water from Artesian wells in the centre of the city. Population 10,000, and increasing. Two miles southeast of the city commences what is known as the prairie region. Montgomery is connected directly by river and rail with Mobile and New Orleans; also by rail with Atlanta, Columbus, and all points north and cast. The city is surrounded by a cordon of small earthworks, erected in 1864, and known as the defences of Montgomery. Selnla, in Dallas County, is located on the Alabama River, 70 miles below Montgomery. The Alabama and Tennessee River and Alabama and Mississippi River Railways meet at this point. It is reached from Montgomery by boat on the Alabama River, the road not being in operation east of Selma. Population 6,000. Opelika is in Russell County, at the intersection of the Montgomery and West Point and Columbus Branch Railways. It is distant from Montgomery 65 miles, from Atlanta 109 miles, and from Columbus 28 miles; population 1,500. The Talladega Railway is graded 40 miles from this point. The Sledge House has accommodation for travellers. Tuscaloosa. - HOTEL, Mansion House. Tuscaloosa is upon the Black Warrior River, at the head of steamboat naviga. tion, 125 miles by plank road from Montgomery. It is one of the principal towns of Alabama, and was once the capital. located here. The former building was 12S feet in length, surmounted by a tower. Two additions, each 126 feet in length, have s ince been added, making the entire length 375 feet. It c ontain s a library of nearly 8,000 volumes, and a valuable collection of instruments, etc. A statue of th e Vi rgin Mary, brought from Toulouse, F rance, stands in the rear of th e - bu ilding. The institution is under the management of the Jesuits, and has accommodation for upwards of 200 students. It is rea ched by the St. Francis Street cars. The Gulf Shell road affords a pleasant drive. The city possesses several good restaurants; that conducted by M. Ed. Denechaud, No. 17 Royal Street, immediately west of the Custom House, is the best. The Battle House is the leading hotel, almost the only one worthy the name; a good hotel being among the many "wants" of the city. The City Baths are reached from Royal and Conti Streets. Trains leave Mobile daily over the Great Northern Railway for Montgomery, and over the Mobile and Ohio Railway for all points north and west. Daily steamers for New Orleans; also for 3Iontgomery, Columbus, and Aberdeen, Mississippi. M1ontgomery.-197 miles, by rail, from Mobile; 839 from Washington. HOTELS.-The Exchange is a well-kept house, centrally located for business travel. TPhe Central has been enlarged and refurnished. Montgomery, the capital, and second city of Alabama in population and trade, is situated on the Alabama River, 400 miles by water northeast of Mobile. It was laid out in 1817, by Andrew Dexter, of Boston, and was formerly known as New Philadelphia. The State capital was moved here from Tuscaloosa, in 1847. It was named Montgomery after the lamented General Richard Montgomery, who fell at Quebec. The original State House was destroyed by fire 14th December, 1849, and the present structure erected in 1851, at a cost of about $75,000. It occupies an elevated position on Capitol Hill, at the head of Market Street, four squares east of the Court Square, and though of small size, is an imposing structure. From the gallery of the dome, which surmounts the roof, an extended 94 ALABAMA. [SELMA.

Page  95 [THE HILL REGION. It is the seat of the University of Alabama, established 1831. The University buildings are beautifully situated half a mile from the river; they are extensive, and cost $150,000. The State Lunatic Asylu)n and a United States Land Office are located here also. Population about 4,000. The route from Tuscaloosa to Tuscumbia is by stage. To New Lexington, 24; Eldridge, 51; Thorn Hill, 73; Russelville, 103; Tuscumbia, 111 miles. Tuseumbia, on the Memphis and Charleston Railway, 145 miles east of Memphis, is a thriving town, one mile south of the Tennessee River. Steamboats from Louisville and Cincinnati, on the Ohio, ascend the Tennessee River as far as Tuscumbia in good stages of water. Here is one of the largest and best springs of water in the State. Florence, five miles from Tuscumbia, is reached by a branch railway. It is considered the head of navigation on the Tennessee River, although boats ply above the Muscle Shoals. The fine bridge across the river at this point, which cost $150,000, was destroyed during the late war. The ~Jfuscle Shoals are an extensive series of rapids. The descent of the water here is 100 feet in the course of 20 miles. The neighborhood is a famous resort of wild ducks and geese, which come in great flocks in search of the shell-fish, from which the rapids derive their name. Boats cannot pass this part of the Tennessee except at times of very high water. A canal was once built around the shoals, but it has been abandoned, and is falling into decay. Huntsville is a beautiful moun tain town on the Memphis and Charleston Railway, 212 miles east of Memphis, and 97 miles w est of ChattanooRa. It con tains a few handsome buildings, among which are the Court House, U. S. Land Office, Fem a le Seminary, and Bank. From Tusc aloosa ee the route thither is by stage. To McRath's, 32; Joncsboro', 44; Elyton, 56; Mount Pinson, 70; Blountsville, 96; Oleander, 120; Lacy Springs, 132 Whitesburg, 139; Huntsville, 149. The Hill Region.-The upper part of Alabama is picturesquely broken by the Alleghanies, which e nd the ir long journey hereabouts. In the northeast extremity of the State there are ma ny fine landscape passages. The NVickajack Cave enters the Raccoon Mountain a few miles above Chattanooga a nd the Lookout Mountain, Tennessee, and immediately finds its way into Georgia. A magnificent rocky arch of some eighty feet span forms the mouth of the cavern, high up in the mountain-side. This cave is said to have been the headquarters of the leader of a band of negroes. He was known by the name of " Nigger Jack," hence the name of the cave. The Natural Bridge, in Walker County, is thought by some travellers to be more curious than the celebrated scene of the same kind in Virginia. Mineral Springs abound in the upper part of Alabima. The Blount Springs, in Blount County, near the Black Warrior River, are much resorted to; so also are the Bladen Springs, in Choctaw County, ifi the western part of the State, near the line of the Mobile and Ohio Railway. In Franklin County (see Tuscumbia) is a spring which dis charges 20,000 cubic feet of water per minute. It forms a considerable brook, which enters the Tennessee 2} miles be low. There are valuable sulphur springs in Shelby and Talladega Counties. The route to the Shelby Springs is via Colum biana, on the Alabama and Tennessee River Railway. 95 ALABAMA. FLORE,XC.E.1

Page  96 MISSISSIPPI. MI SI SS IPP I. sissippi and Ohio Rivers. In 1798 the colony was organized as a Territory, Alabama forming a por tion thereof. The history of Mississippi, a s a State, began December 10, 1817. This State stands third in the order of secession from the United States. This event transpired January 9, 1861. Much of the area of Mississippi is occupied by swamp and marsh tracts. There is within her territory, between the mouth of the Yazoo River and Memphis, in Tennessee, a stretch of this description, covering an area of nearly 7,000 square miles. It is sometimes a few miles broad, and sometimes not less than a hundred. These low portions of the State are subject to inundation at the time of freshets, and great is the cost and care necessary to protect them, as well as all the lands of a similar character lying along the Mississippi. Banks (levees) are built along the river shores to restrain the floods, but sometimes a breach (crevasse) occurs, resulting in great damage to property, and no little risk to life. Where the country is not thus occupied by swampy or marshy stretches, it sweeps away in broad table-lands, shaped into grand terraces, or steps, descending from the eastward to the waters of the river. The steps are formed by two ranges of bluffs, which sometimes extend to the river shores, and rise abruptly in precipices of fifty and even a hundred feet perpendicular height. These bluffs are features of great and novel attraction to the voyager on the Mississippi River. The climate of Mississippi has the same general charac. teristics as the other Southern States, passing from the temperatures of the torrid zone, southward, to more temperate airs above; unlike Alabama, however, and the Southeastern States of Georgia MISSISSIPPI, like Alabama, was first visited by Europeans at the time (1541) when the Spanish expedition bore the banner of De Soto through the great belt of forest swamps which lie upon the Mexican Gulf, from the palm-covered plains of Florida on the east, to the far off floods of the mighty "Father of Waters," on the west. The enmity of the Indians and other obstacles prevented any permanent occupation of the new country at this period. In 1682 La Salle descended the Mississippi River, and visited the territory now embraced in this State. Two years after, he set out again for the region, with a resolute band of colonists, but the venture failed before it was fairly begun, various misfortunes preventing his ever reaching his destination. Iberville, a Frenchman, made the third attempt at a settlement, but with no better success than his predecessors met with. A beginning was, however, at length accomplished by Bienville and a party of Frenchmen. This expedition settled in 1716 at Fort Rosalie, now the city of Natchez. A dozen years later (1728), a terrible massacre of the newcomers was made by their jealous Indian neighbors, which checked, but yet did not stay, the "course of empire." Other sanguinary conflicts with the aborigines took place in 1736,'39, and'52, with the same fnal result-the defeat and devastation of the Indian tribes, and the triumph of the invading whites. The territory fell into the possession of the British crown upon the conclusion of the peace of Paris, in 1763. The strength of the new colony was augmented about this period by portions of the dispersed Acadian communities of Nova Scotia; and soon after by colonists from the New England territories, by way of the Mis 96 [MISSISSI.PPI. 3f ISSISSIPPI.)

Page  97 I MISSISSIPPL. sippi. The Tallahatchee, the largest branch of the Yazoo, has a length almost as great as that river, 100 miles of which may be traversed by steamers. -The Big Black River is some 200 miles long. Its course is much the same as that of the Yazoo, as also the character of the country which it traverses. The Pearl River pursues a devious course from the northeast part of the State, 250 miles, to Lake Borgne, and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. Jackson, the capital of the State, is upon the Pearl River, southwest of the central region. Small boats sometimes ascend the river as far as this place, though the navigation is almost destroyed by the accumulation of sand-bars and drift-wood. and Carolina, it has n o bold mou ntain lands within its area. The winters here and in the neighboring State of Louisiana have a temperature a few decrees lower than that of the same latitudes near the Atlantic. The fig and the orange grow well in the lower part of the State, and the apple flourishes in the higher hilly regions. Cotton is the great staple of Mississippi, the State being the third in the Union in this product. The soil is well adapted to the growth of Indian corn, tobacco, hemp, flax, silk, and all species of grains and grasses. Live stock is also raised to a considerable extent. Mississippi has no very extensive mineral products; or, if she has, they have not as yet been developed. Some gold has been found, but in no important quantity. Most of the water courses here are tributaries of the Mississippi. They run chiefly in a southwest direction, following the general slope of the country. Some lesser waters, in the eastern sections, find their way to the Gulf of Mexico, as tributaries of the Pearl River, in the centre of the State, and of the Tombigbee and Pascagoula, in Eastern Mississippi and Western Alabama. The Yazoo and the Big Black Rivers drain the northwest portion of the State, and are the largest tributaries of the Mississippi from this State. Among the principal resorts for tourists are Cooper's Wells, in Hinds County, 12 miles west of Jackson, and Lauderdale Springs, 18 miles north of Meridian, both of which have valuable medicinal properties. The State is divided into sixty counties. Vicksburg, Natchez, Columbus, and Jackson,ire the largest towns. The white population before the war amounted to 353,899. RAILwAYS.-The Mobile and Ohio Railn way extends first along the western edge of Alabama, and afterwards near the eastern line of Mississippi, northward from the city of Mobile, Alabama, through Meridian, Okolona, Corinth, and Jackson, Tennessee, 472 miles to Columbus, Kentucky. The Southern Mississippi extends at present eastward from Jackson, the capital of the State, 96 miles to Meridian, and westward 44+ miles to Vicksburg. The Mlississippi and Tennessee extends southward from Memphis 99 miles to Granada, from whence it is continued by the Mississippi Central, and the New Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern road to New Orleans. The.Mississiipi Central Railivay, from Jackson, Tennessee, 237 miles, south to Canton, Mississippi. At 'Jackson it meets the Mobile and Ohio road north from Mobile, and at Canton it is continued southward by the New Orleans and Great Northern Railway to New Orleans. The Netv Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern Railway, from New Orleans 206 miles north to Canton, Mis sissippi, and thence by the Mississippi Central and connections north and east. Grenada.-HOTEL, S7enkle Hoose. This town is pleasantly situated at the head of steamboat navigation on the Yallabusha River, It is 100 miles south of Memphis. The Mississippi and Ten nessee and the Mississippi Central Rail ways unite here. Population, 2,000. J a c k s o n.-IIOTEL, Bowtman House. Jackson, the capital of Mississippi, is upon the Pearl River, southwest of the 97 RIVERS.-Pie Yazoo River is formed by the Tallahatchee and Yallabusha Rivers, which unite at Leflore, in Carroll County. It is a dee p and narrow s tream, and sluggish in i+,s movements. It is nearly three hundred miles in length, exclusive of its branches, and is navigable for steamboats in all its course, and at all seasons, from its mouth to its sources. Its wav leads through great alluvial plains of extreme fertility, covered everywhere by luxuriant cotton-fields. Vicksburg is twelve miles below the union of the Yazoo with the Missis 5 RIVERS.] [JAMMON.

Page  98 [HOLLY SPRINGS. centre of the State. It is connected by railway, 44+ miles, with Vicksburg, on the Mississippi River. The Southern Mississippi road extends 95 miles east of Jackson, to Meridian. The State Capitol, Executive Mansion, the Penitentiary, Lunatic Asylum, and a United States Land Office, are the most prominent buildings. Population, about 6,000. Cooper's Well, 12 miles west of Jackson, is noted for its mineral waters. Natchez. —HOTEL, -J~ansion House. Natchez, on the Mississippi River, 279 miles above New Orleans, is the most populous and commercial city in the State. It is built upon a bluff, 200 feet above the water, overlooking the great cypress swamps of Louisiana. The lower part of the town, where the heavy shipping business is done, is called Natchezunder-the-Hill. In Seltzertown, near Natchez, there is a remarkable group of ancient mounds, one of which is 35 feet high. Smaller remains of the kind are found yet nearer the town. The broken and varied character of the country about Natchez is in most agreeable contrast with the flat lands on the opposite side of the river. The streets are wide and regular, and, to a great extent, elegantly built. The public edifices are well constructed, and the private mansions are pleasantly surrounded with trees and gardens. The town is the centre of an extensive trade, continually upon the increase. The Court House, Orphan Asylum, and Masonic Hall, are fine buildings. Steamers. ply daily between this and all points on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Canton, 206 miles north of New Orleans, 187 south of Memphis, is a thriving place. It is the county seat of Madison County. Vicksburg. -- HOTL, Prentiss House. Vicksburg is upon the Mississippi, 400 miles above New Orleans, and 44+ miles from Jackson, the capital of the State. Population, about 4,000. The site is elevated and commands a fine view of the Mississippi River. Next to Natchez, it is the most thriving commercial point between New Orleans and Memphis. Westward it has railroad communications by 98 means of the Vicksburg, Shreveport, and Texas Railway. The city was captured from the rebels, after a protracted siege, by Gen e ral Grant, Jul y 4, 1863. Mno lly Springs, 188 mi les north of Jackson, and 25 miles north of Grand Junction, i s a beautifu l village, distinguished not less f or the e xce l lence of its sch ool s than fo r the h ospitality of its inhabitants. The Chalmers Instit ute and St. Thomas' Hall for boys, the Franklin Female College, and the Holly Springs Female Institute, are among the most conspicuous institutions. Being on the main through line of travel between New Orleans and the North, and near the line of the Memphis and Charleston Railway (Grand Junction), it is a most advantageous point for tourists to stay and make up their routes. The vicinity abounds in attractive scenery and pleasant drives. It was the scene of active operations during the late war. The city was occupied by Union troops from General Halleck's army, June 17,1862. On the 20th December, the post, under the command of Colonel Murphy, surrendered to General Van Dorn, of the rebel army. The Lauderdale Springs, sulphur and chalybeate, are in Lauderdale County, near the line of the Mobile and Ohio Railway, 18 miles north of Meridian. The State Orphan Home, for the support and education of the poor children of deceased Confederate soldiers, in course of erection, is situated on the Mobile and Ohio Railway, 18 miles above Meridian. Columbus is on the left bank of the Tombigbee River, 60 miles south of Aberdeen, and 145 miles northeast of Jackson. Regular steamboat communication with Mobile. Population 3,500. A branch railway extends southwest to Artesia, on the Mobile and Ohio Railway, 219 miles north of Mobile. Abeirdeen, a town of some 4,000 inhabitants, is upon the Tombigbee River, 165 miles northeast of Jackson, 60 north of Columbus, and 470 from Mobile, by water. Steamboats ply regularly from Mobile. It is reached from the Mobile and Ohio Railway Junction via Gainesville, 8 miles distant. NATCHEZ.] missislqlppi.

Page  99 LOUISIANA. LOUISIANA. is so low that it becomes inundated at high water. Marshe s extend from the coast; next come the low prairie lands which a pproach the central parts of th e State; above, the cou n tr y west of the basin of the Mississippi grows broken and hilly. In the extreme northwe st is a marshy tract of fifty miles in length and six in bre adth, full o f small lakes, made by the interlacings of the e arms of Red River. It is estimated that an area of between e ight and nine thousand s quare miles, lying respect ively upon the Mississippi and Red River s, is subject to in un - dation annually. Abou t three-fifths of the whole area of the ae the Stat e is alluvial a nd diluvial; the rest is occupied by the tertiary formation, and contains coal and iron, ochre, salt, gypsum, and marl. In the vicinity of Harrisonburg, near the northeastern line of the State, a nd among th e frees tone hills whi ch rise hereabo u ts precipitously to a height of eighty and one hundred feet, large quartz crystals have been found, and quantities of jasper, agates, corne lians, sardonyx, onyx, feldspar, crystal ized gypsum, alumine, chalcedony, lava, meteoric stones, and fossils. The exhalations from the marshes in the long, hot summers affect the atmos phere, and make these districts not only unapproachable to strangers, but danger ous to the acclimated, at the season when the especial features of the landscape may be seen in their greatest glory. Cotton and sugar-cane are the great products of this State. Of the latter sta ple, it yielded in 1850 nine-tenths of the whole supply raised in the United States. The most productive district of the- State is a belt of land called the "1 Coast," lying up and down the Mississippi in the neigh. borhood of New Orleans. It consists of 99 LOUISIANA is one of the most interesting States in the Union, not only on account of the romantic incidents of its early history, but for the peculiar features of its landscape, and its unique social character and life. The traveller, looking upon the face of the Great River, will recall the bright hopes of De Soto, when he, too, so gazed with delighted wonder; then he will muse upon that hapless destiny which gave the gallant explorer a grave beneath the very floods which he was the first to find and enter, with such exultant anticipations. Then he will remember the visit of La Salle to the mouth of the river, in 1691next, the attempted settlement, in 1699, under the brave lead of Iberville; then comes the enterprise of Crozart, to whom the country was granted by Louis XIV., in 1712; next comes its history from 1717, while in possession of the famous French financier John Law, and his company of rash speculators, with all the incidents of the story of the brilliant but fleeting "Mississippi Bubble*" next the restoration of the territory to the French Crown, its transfer to Spain in 1762, its retrocession to France in 1800, and its final acquisition by the United States in 1803, when this Government purchased it for $11,500,000, and the further payment of certain claims of American citizens against the Government of France. Of the history of this State in its participa tion in our national trials, and especially of the memarable event of the battle of New Orleans, and its still more recent oc cupation by the Federal forces under Gen. Butler, we shall speak by and by Louisiana in no part of its territory reaches a greater elevation than 200 feet above the level of the Gulf of Mexico, while very much of the Southern region . *. -* ~;*. LoulSIANA.] [Louisi-iA

Page  100 NEw ORLEANS.] that part of the bottom, or alluvion, of the Mississippi, which commences with the first cultivation above the Balize, about forty miles below the capital, and extends about one hundred and fifty miles above it. This belt on each side of the river is secured from overflow by an embankment called the "levee." We shall have occasion to speak of it in our explorations through the city. The bays and lakes, formed by expansions of the rivers in the marsh lands near the coast, make a marked feature in the landscape of Louisiana, as Lakes Pontchartrain, Borgne, Maurepas, etc. Some of these waters we shall recur to again when we reach New Orleans. Except the Mississippi and the Red Rivers, of which the reader will find accounts elsewhere in our volume, the streams in Louisiana do not offer very great attractions to the traveller. at all times by vessels of the largest description coming from the ocean, and it s advantages of communication with the upper country, and the whole valley o f the Mississippi, are at o nc e stupendous and unrivalled. The site was selected by Gov. Bienville in 1718, a1ainst much opposition, the site having previously been at Biloxi. It was abandoned in 1719, a rise in the Mississippi h avi ng inundated it. It was again selected by Delorme in 1722 as t he principal post in the province. It then consisted of ab out one hun dred cabin s, a nd c ontained a population of ne ar ly t wo hundred and fiftv. Louisiana was ceded to the United States in 1803, after whic h da te t he population of New Orleans rapidlv increased. In 1810 it amounted to 24,552, having trebled in seven years under the admini str ation of its new government. We append a tabular sta te ment, showing the growth of population since tha t time: 1815........32,947 1830........ 49,826 1820........ 41,350 1840.......102,191 1825........ 45,336 1850 160,000 IS60....... 187,000 I This levee has been frequ ently broken through by t h e r iver. In May, 1816, a crevasse occurred about nine miles above New Orleans, which destroyed several plant ations and inundated the r ear of the city to the depth of several feet: again in June, 1844, and last in 1855. The dyke or levee has been strengthened, and is now beli eved t o be st rong en ough t o resist further e ncr oachm e nt. This city is the chief cotton mart of the world. Not unfrequently from a thousand to fifteen hundred steamers and flatboats may be seen lying at the Levee, that have floated down the stream huldreds of miles with the rich produce of the interior country. Steamboats of the largest class may be observed arriving and departing almost hourly; and, except in the summer months, at its wharves may be seen hundreds of ships and other sailing craft from all quarters of the globe, landing the productions of othier climes, and receiving cargoes of cotton, sugar, tobacco, lumber, provisions, etc. Indeed, nothing can present a more busy, bustling scene than exists here in the loading and unloading of vessels and 1,653 miles from New York; 1,435 from Washington. New Orleans, the metropolis of t he Southwest, is built within a great bend of the Mississippi River (whence its familiar name of the Crescent City), ninety-four miles from its debouchure into the Gulf of Mexico, in latitude 29'57' north, longitude 90~ 8' west. It was named in honor of the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France during the minority of Louis XV. It was the place selected for the seat of the monarchy meditated in the treason of Aaron Burr. Great was the alarm of the citizens in January, 1804, at that prospective insurrection. It is built on land gently descending from the river toward a marshy ground in the rear, and from two to four feet below the level of the river at high-water mark. It is prevented from overflowing the city by an embankment of earth, termed the Levee, which is substantially constructed, for a great distance along the banks of the river. This levee is fifteen feet wide and four feet high, and forms a delightful promenade during the fall and winter months. It is accessible 100 LOUISIANA. [NEw- ORLEANS. NEW ORLEANS. ilt1,::. i, I..:: '.-i:..: ,.. I I -- -. il

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Page  100B

Page  101 NEW ORLEANS.] up-river merchants and steamboat men. The rates of fare at the St. Charles and St. Louis are $5 per day; at the St. James and City $4. PLACES OF AMUSEMENT-TTHEATRES, ETc.-New Orleans is well supplied with public amusements, these being esteemed as among the first of human necessities. The Opera House, corner of Bourbon and Toulouse Streets, erected in 1859, is an imposing edifice. It has se ats for two thou sand, an d i s fitted up in the style of the Theatre Franaise, Paris. The St. Charles, on St. Charles between Poydras and Perdido Streets, occupies the site of the former St. Charles, destroyed by fire in 1842. Ben. De Bar lessee. Academy of Jfusic, St. Charles between Perdido and Commercial Streets, built in 1853. Performances day and night. Spalding & Bidwell proprietors. Varieties, Gravier between Carondolet and Baronne Streets. Orleans Theatre, corner of Orleans and Bourbon Streets. This is the oldest "Temple of the Drama" in the city, if not in the South. It was opened in November, 1819. The performances are in the French language. It is frequently used, together with the adjoining building, for balls, parties, etc. Thte American, burnt July 30, 1842-. rebuilt and reopened December 5, 1843, and again destroyed by fire in 1854; has not been rebuilt. It occupied a central site on Poydras Street near Lafayette Square, now covered by an ornamental cast-iron building intended for business purposes. PUBLIC BUILDINGS.-The Custom House, Canal Street near the Levee. This noble structure is built of Quincy granite brought from the celebrated quarries of Massachusetts. Next to the National Capitol at Washington, it is the largest building in the United States. It covers an area of 87,333 superficial feet. Its main front, on Canal Street, is 334 feet; that on Custom House Street, 252 feet; on the new Levee, 310 feet, and on the old Levee, 297 feet. Its height is 82 feet. The long-room, or chief business apartment, is 116 feet by 90 feet, and is lighted by 50 windows. Commenced in 1848, the erection of this immense strue 101 steamers, with hundreds of drays transportin;, the various and immense products which come hither from the West. The receipts and exports of cotton from New Orleans exceeded in the years 1859-'60 two millions and a quarter of bales, the value of which exceeded one hundred millions of dollars. Besides cotton, a vast amount of other products, as sugar, tobacco, flour, pork, etc., are received at New Orleans, and thence sent abroad. The total value of these products for the year ending Sept. 1, 1859, amounted to $172,952,664. Besides its exports, New Orleans has a large import trade of coffee, salt, sugar, iron, drygoods, liquors, etc., the yearly value of which exceeds $17,000,000. The ordinance of secession was passed by the State Legislature Jan. 26, 1861. On April of the following year Forts Jackson and St. Philip were successfully passed by Rear-Admiral Farragut, who arrived before the city on the 29th of the same month. On the 1st of May, 1862, General B. F. Butler landed and took possession of the city. HOTELS.-The St. Charles, bounded by St. Charles, Gravier, and Common Streets, is one of the institutions of New Orleans. Destroyed by fire in 1850, it was rebuilt by the close of 1852 at a cost of $600,000. Its predecessor, the old St. Charles, was long regarded as the pride of New Orleans. The present structure has accommodation for nearly 1,000 guests. O. E. Hall proprietor. The St. Louis, formerly known as the City Exchange, is located on St. Louis between Royal and Chartres, in the French quarter of the city. It was reopened January 10, 1866, with new furniture, after being closed nearly four years, and is now in the full tide of business again. It holds the same high rank as the St. Charles, and is under the same proprietorship. The St. Janbes, Magazine Street between Gravier and Natchez, occupies the site of the old "Banks' Arcade," a place of great public resort previous to 1858. It has been recently repainted and furnished, and has accommodation for 400 persons. Th e C ity Hotel, corner of Camp and Common Streets, is much frequented by LOUISIANA. [Nv.w OJ&L.EAN&

Page  102 Nxw ORLEAN.S.] ture was steadily prosecuted through four successive administrations until the outbreak of the Rebellion, when work was necessarily suspended. The building, it is much to be regretted, has suffered severely from the weather and the various uses to which it has been put. A temporary roof has been lately added at a cost of $25,000; but far from affording adequate protection, it seems rather to have proved a source of injury than otherwise. The basement of this building is appropriated to the uses of the Post Office, but being both dark and damp it is illsuited for such a purpose. The offices of the Postmaster and Special Agent and their deputies are on the right and left of the Canal Street entrance. The long corridors which surround the main apartment in the second story, afford access to the offices of the Collector and Surveyor of the Port, the Collector and Assessor of Internal Revenue, U. S. Marshal, and other Government officers. The United States courts are also located in this building. It is noteworthy rather for its immense size and the important interest it represents than for any attraction of its own. Thle -3]Tnl (U. S. branch). The building formerly used for coining the public moneys in New Orleans, and still known as the Mint, is situated on what was once called Jackson Square, near the former site of Fort St. Charles, now known as the corner of Esplanade and New Levee Streets. It is built of brick, stuccoed in imitation of brownstone, in the Ionic style of architecture, and being 282 feet in length, 108 feet deep, and three stories high, presents an imposing appearance. It was begun in 1835 and finished in 1837, at a cost of $182,000. A visit to the coin room will repay the stranger. On the 25th January, 1861, upwards of three quarters of a million dollars were taken from this room by a committee of citizens headed by Governor Roman. The Superintendent, M. F. Bonzano, succeeded in destroying the dies, and thus saved the Government and the country from the issue of spurious money, The window from which the flagstaff projected on which the rebel Mumford was hung by order of General 102 Butler, June 7, 1862, is still pointed out, It is under the front portico of the main building, and will always be at object of interest. The City flall, at the intersection of St. Charles and Lafayette (formerly Hevia) Streets, fronting 90 feet o n t he former and 208 feet on the latter, is a handsome marble structure in the Gre cian Ionic style of archi tecture. The municipal hall was formerly located on the upper side of the cathedral in Jackson Square, but that building being insufficient for the rapidly increasing business of the citv, the present structure was erected and finished in 1850, since which time it has been occupied for city purposes. Here are located the Mayor's office, the bureaus of " Finance" and " Streets and Landings," the offices of the Treasurer, Comptroller, Street Commissioner, Register, etc. It also serves at present as the official headquarters of the Governor and Secretary of State. -Lyceum Hall, in the second story of this building, is a comnmodious apartment, 61 by 84 feet, well adapted for the purpose intended. The State and city libraries occupy suitable rooms in the building. (See Libraries.) The grand entrance from St. Charles Street is by a flight of steps 18 in number, of Quincy granite, of which material the basement is constructed. Cost, $120,000. Odd Flllows' Hall, a solid square edifice on the corner of Camp and Lafayette Streets, and immediately facing the upper corner of the square. It is four stories high, built of brick, stuccoed and painted white, and cost $210,000. The basement is occupied by stores. On the second, or main, floor is the concert hall, the finest in the South. It is 132 by 56 feet and 35 feet high, and lighted by three large chandeliers. The upper stories are used by the several lodges of Masons and Odd Fellows. The -J~asonic Hall, on St. Charles Street, at its intersection with Perdido, is an imposing edifice, fronting 103 feet on the former and extending back 100 feet on the latter street. It was designed and built by Gallier, a local architect of considerable repute, in 1845, and cost, including the land, $90,000. The A~erchants' Exchange, on Royal, south of Canal Street, was formerly a LOUISIANA. [NEw ORLEANS.

Page  103 NEW ORLEANS.] place of great resort. Since the removal of the Post Office to the Custom House building, its glory has departed, and it exists now in little more than name. It was erected in 1835, from designs by Dakin, is composed of marble, and cost $100,000. CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS.-There is probably no city in the United States which contains so many benevolent institutions, in proportion to its population, as New Orleans. Among the most prominent are the hospitals and male and female orphan asylums. The United States.4~arine Hovspital, a commodious brick edifice, corner Common and Broad Streets, in the rear of the city proper, and easily reached by street cars on Canal Street. The hospital building was formerly located in Macdonough, opposite the city. It occupied a whole square, measuring 350 feet each way. It was three stories high, built in the Gothic style, from designs by Mondale and Reynolds. It was commenced in 1834, extended in 1844, and was used for hospital purposes up to the breaking out of the war, when, like many other Government buildings, it suffered at the hands of its enemies. It was used as a powder magazine by the Confederate aut hor it i es, and by them blown up. Amont th e obj ect s of int erest in New O rleans, especially w orthy of notice, is The Charity Hospital, on Common Street, between St. Mary's and Gironde. It is conspicuous, not more for its great size, than for the air of neatness and comfort which prevails in and around it. The first hospital for indigent persons established in the city appears to have stood on Rampart, near Toulouse Street. It was constructed of wood, and was blown down in 1779. Another, built of brick, and completed in 1786, at a cost of $114,000, was entirely consumed by fire in 1810. The present fine edifice was erected 1812-'14, at an expense of $150,000. The attendant medical fac ulty are among the ablest in the city and State. It has accommodation for 450 patients. The ruins of the Town -Ams Home oc cupy a prominent locale on the Lev4e, in the south end of the city, This building was occupied during the war as a hospi tal, and afterwards by colored troops as a barracks. It was destroyed by fire September 1st, 1865. Among the prominent charities of the city are, the Asylum of St. Elizabeth, corner of Magazine and Josephine Streets, and the Maison de Sante, comer of Canal and Claiborne Streets. Lady visitors especially ough t to se e the interio r of the former institution. It is a very model of neatness and good order. It was erected in 1853, and is under the c ha rge of Superior Angelica and fourteen siste r s. The Female Orphan Asylum, a t the intersection of Camp and Prytania Streets, has accommodation for 160 child ren. It was commenced in 1836, and finished in 1840, at a cost of $42,000, of which nearly one -half was the re sult of private subscription. The land was d on ated by Madame Foucher and her brother, Francis Soulet. The Poydras Female Orphan Asyl um, on Julia Street, founded 1817, and the Male Orphan Asylum, in the adjoining parish of Lafayette, are both flourishing insuttutions. The re are several other noble c haritie s in the city. Admission bv application to the Superior or Superintendent in charge. The Workhouses of the second and third municipalities are worthy a visit from those interested in mo ra l and social reform, especially of youth. The former was built in 1841; the latter, which stands on Moreau Street, near Piety, the site of the old Washin,ton Market, was erected years later. Many of these insti tutions have been recently consolidated, and located at the foot of Girod Street. The City Prisons, which comprise a parish jail and a police jail, are on Or leans and Ann Streets, opposite the market place, main entrance on Orleans Street. They are three stories in height, built of brick, and plastered to imitate granite. The building is surmounted by a belvi dere, with an alarm bell. The Court-houses are on the right and left of the cathedral on Jackson Square. They were constructed toward the close of the last century, through the liberality of the founder of the cathedral, Don Andre Almonaster, and are conspicuous for their style of architecture, which is Tugco-Doric. 103 LOUISIANA. [NEW ORLEANS.

Page  104 [NEW ORLEANS. famous minster at York, England, agreeably to the designs of the Messrs. Dakin. The co st was about $100,000. Among the Episcopal church edifices, Chciost's, corner of Canal and Rampart Streets, and An?ineifation, overlooking Annunciation Square, a re th e most prominent. The Unitarian Church, corner of St. Charles and Julia, a St. A npao ubso, on Constance, and St. 3~ary's, on Josephine Stre et, ar e new and elegant buildings. The two last na med are Roman Catholic. One of thQ most interesting relics of the early church history of Ne w Orleans is the old 1rsuline Convent and Cha pel o n Cond6 Stre et. This building, of a quaint style of architecture, was erecte d, according to a Spani sh inscription on a marble tablet, in the middle of the facad e i n 1787, durin g the reign of Carlos III., by Don Andre Almonaster. It is now occupied and known as the Bishop's Palace. St. Antoine's Cha pe l, at the cor ner o f Rampart and Conti Stree ts, was erected in 1826. It is generally known as the Mortuary Chapel, all funeral ceremonies of resident Catholics being performed here. COLLEGES, SCHOOLS, ETC.-The Untiversity of Louisiana is on Common Street, near Baronne, and occupies the whole front of the block. It has a prosperous law school and a medical school. This university was organized in 1849. The medical college, which stands in the centre of the block, has a fagade of 100 feet. This department was established in 1835. It has a large anatomical museum, and extensive and valuable collections of many kinds. The State made an appropriation of $25,000 toward the purchase of apparatus, drawings, plates, etc., illustrative of the various branches of medical study. The college had, in the year 1859, no less than 400 students. There is also a school of medicine, numbering 200 students. Built 1836. The public school system of New Orleans embraces four high schools and thirty-eight primary and intermediate district schools for the youth of both sexes, distributed in every part of the city. There are also eighteen schools for colored children, under charge of the Board of Education for FreedmeD, established March 22, 1864. CHURCIHES.-The city contains many large, but few elegant, church edifices. Among the religious denominations, as might be expected in a community so largely composed of French, the Roman Catholic largely predominates. There are upwards of fifty church edifices, about one-half of which are Roman Catholic. Of these, the Cathedral of St. Louis is the most noteworthy. It stands on Chartres Street, on the east side of the Place d'Armes (Jackson Square), and arrests the attention of the stranger by its venerable and antique appearance. It lays no claim to architectural display, though there are few church edifices in the Union at once so imposing and impressive. The foundation was laid in 1792, and the building completed in 1794, by Don Andre Almonaster, perpetual regidor, and Alvarez Real, of the province. It was altered and enlarged, in 1850, from designs by De Louilly. This building is almost inseparably connected with the memory of the venerable Pare Antonio De Sedella (Father Antonio), curate of the parish for nearly fifty years, who died in 1829, and whose remains are interred here. The paintings on the roof of the building are by Canova and Rossi, and are fine specimens of art. In the square in front of this cathedral General Jackson reviewed his troops (December 18th, 1814), prior to his victory over the British. The Church of the Iiizmaculate Conception (Jesuit), comer of Baronne and Common Streets, is a striking edifice, in the Moorish style of architecture. It was commenced in 1852, and opened for worship by Pbre Canbiaso in 1857. One hundred and seventy thousand dollars have been expended in its construction, and the towers are still wanting to complete it. High mass, both here and at the cathedral, at 10 o'clock every Sunday. The Presbyterian Church, fronting on Lafayette Square, in the Greco-Doric style, is a fine edifice, much admired for its elegant steeple. It was built in 1835 at a cost of $55,000. It was enlarged in 1844, and has sittings for 1,000. St. Patrick's, on Camp Street, north of Lafayette Square, is a fine Gothic structure, with a tower 190 feet high. The style is said to have been taken from the 104 NEW ORLEANS.] LOUISIANA.

Page  105 , [NEW ORLEANS. fine marble front of the City Hall, the tapering spire of the Presbyterian Church, and the massive-looking facade of the Odd Fellows' Hall, present a striking appearance. To the visitor and stroller in the west end, Annuniteation Square and Tivoli Circle, at the head of St. Charles Street, are worthy a visit. The former has a few tastefully built p rivate re siden ces i n its immediate neighborhood. Cirycus P lace (Congo Square), on Tampart Street, between St. Ann and St. Peter. Like other public grounds in the city, it is a delightful place to lounge away a summer evening. It was formerly known as Congo Park, and is th e place where the negroes, in the " good old times before the war," were accustomed to congregate and go through the double shuffle to the favorite air of " Old Virginia never tire." Being in the colored district, it is still much frequented by them, but the dancing has given place to other pleasures less harmless and attractive. Washington Square, in the neighborhood of the Elysian Fields in the Third District, is a pleasant promenade. These several resorts are easily reached by street cars from Canal Street. The Streets of New Orleans are, for the most part, wide, well paved, and regularly laid out, usually intersecting each other at right angles, and, since the war, kept passably clean. The broadest is Canal Street, with a width of 190.1 feet, with a grass plot 25 feet wide, extending in the centre through its whole length. Esplanade, Rampart, and Basin Streets are similarly embellished. The houses are built chiefly of brick, and are usually four or five stories high. The Libraries of New Orleans are few and unimportant. The collection of books forming the State Library, occupy a room in the upper story of the City Hall until a suitable place is provided by act of Legislature. The City Library is on the first floor of the same building. It comprises about 19,000 volumes, principally miscellaneous works. Admission to the privileges of the Library, for nonresidents, is by introduction. Armory Hall, on Camp Street, occupies the site, and part of the walls of the old 105 For location of schools, number of scholars, names of teachers, and other information respecting the school system of the city, the reader is referred to local directories and reports of the respective boards. One of the most attractive public places of literary resort, and the only one combining the essential features of a news reading-room and exchange, are the lferchants' Reading Rooms, conducted by Mr. E. E. Overall, corner of St. Charles and Commercial Alley. Files of the principal American and European jour nals are kept. A chess-room is attached. No stranger in New Orleans should omit going to Overall's. PARKS, SQUAiRtES, ETC.-Like most Southern cities, New Orleans is dotted over with numerous squares with shade trees and gravel walks, where the lounger or pedestrian, wearied with his journey ings, may draw aside for retirement and rest. Since the introduction of street railroads, these public squares are less resorted to than in former years, when they formed the most attractive feature of the place. The -Vew City Park, the largest of these enclosures, and the only one having any claims to be considered a "park," is near the northeasterly boundary of the city, in the neighborhood of Metarie Road and Monroe Avenue. It embraces 55a city squares, an area equal to about 150 acres, and is tastefully laid out. Access by the Canal Street and Ridge Road cars, from the Monument. Jackson Square, formerly known as the Place d'Armes, covers the centre of the river-front of the Old Town Plot, now the First District. It is a place of favor ite resort. Its shell-strewn paths, its beautiful trees and shrubbery, afford an agreeable relief to the dust and din of the busy levee and markets. The imposing -front of the cathedral and courts of justice are seen to great advantage from the river entrance of the square. The eques. trian statue of Gen. Jackson, by Mills, stands in the centre. A similar statue is placed in Lafayette Square, in the rear of the White House at Washington. Lafayette Square, in the Second Dis trict, bounded by St. Charles and Camp Streets, is another handsome souare. The NEw ORLEANS.] LOUISIANA.

Page  106 NEW ORLEANS.] are granted at 10 Bank Place. The Monument Cemetery on the Battle Field is wholly devoted to the interment of soldiers. It was opened May 2, 1864, and' has already 9,000 interments. There are two other cemeteries for deceased soldiers on the Carrolton Shell Road. .Monuments.-New Orleans has two monuments worthy of notice. The Clay Monument on Canal Street, between St. Charles and Royal Streets, is built of granite; the figure bears a striking resemblance to the great statesman. The monument in course of erection to the Hero of New Orleans, on the Battle-Field, below the city, is seventy feet high. It was commenced in 1856. When complete, it will be 140 feet in height. The equestrian statue of Jackson in the Place D'Armes, opposite the Cathedral, is too well known to need description here. It is the same met with so often in Washington and other cities. The Markets.-The stranger in New Orleans will be much interested by a visit to the markets. They are characteristic and numerous. The principal are the vegetable and m ea t (French) markets on the Lev6e near Jackson Square and the French Cathedral. To be seen to the greatest advantage, they should be visited on Sunday morning, between the hours of 8 and 9 o'clock. At break of day the gathering commences-all colors, nations, and tongues, commingled in one heterogeneous mass. The music far from being unpleasant, however, is musical to the stranger's ear. A visit thither is thus described by a well-known writer: One morning we rose early to visit the market of the First Municipality, and found the air on the bank of the Mississippi filled with mist as dense as a London fog, but of a pure white instead of yellow color. Through this atmosphere the innumerable masts of the ships alongside the wharf were dimly seen. Among other fruits in the market we observed abundance of bananas, and good pine-apples, for twenty-five cents each, from the West Indies. There were stalls where hot coffee was selling, in white china cups, reminding us of Paris. Among other articles exposed for sale were brooms made of palmetto-leaves, and wagonloads of the dried Spanish moss, or Til Camp S treet theatre, er ected in 1822. It i s a fine apartm ent 120 f eet long, 60 feet wide, and 22 feet hi h n. It was long used as the armory of the Washington Battalion. It is now u se d as an aucti on mart. The CenOetei es.-wSom e of these homes of the de ad in New Or leans are deserving, o f particular notice, both from their unique arrangement and for the peculiar modes of interment. Each is enclosed with a brick wall of arched cavities (ovens, as they ar e called here), made jus t large enough t o ad i admit a single coffin, and ra ised, tier upon tier, to a height of ab out twelve f eet, w i th a thickness of ten. T he whole enclosure is divided into plots, wi th gravel paths in tersecting each o the r at right angl es, an d is d ens ely covered with tombs, built wholly above ground, and from one to thre e stori es h igh. This method of sepulture is adopted from necessity, and bur i al un der ground is never attempted, excepting in the Potter's Field, where the stranger without friends, and th e poo r with out money, f ind an u ncertain rest-the water with which the soil is always saturated, often lifting the c offi n and its conte n ts out of its narrow and shallow cell, to rot with no other cov er i ng than th e arch of heaven. There ar e twel v e public burial-gr oun ds in the city, known respectively as Girod Street, Charity Hospital, Odd Fellows', Cypress Grove, Greenwood, St. Patrick's, St. Joseph, St. Vincent, Lafayette, St. Louis, Nos. 1 and 2 New St. Louis, and Hebrew Rest. Of these the Cypress Grove and Greenwood Cemetery, on the Metarie Ridge, at the north end of Canal Street, are the best worthy a visit. The cemetery of St. Louis No. 1, at the intersection of Basin and St. Louis Streets, contains some fine monuments. Among those most conspicuous for their size and beauty, are the vaults of the " Soci6t6 Fran;aise de bienfaisance," " Orleans Battalion of Artillery," the " Portuguese Society," and " Italian Benevolent Society."' The last is one of the most beautiful structures of its kind in the country. It is of white marble, and was built in 1837, by Pietro Gualdi. St. Louis Cenetery No. 2 occupies four city squares on Esplanade Street, near Bayou St. John. Other cemeteries, principally Catholic, are situated in Lafayette and Algiers. Permits to visit the cemeteries 106 LOUISIANA. [NF,w OP.LEANS.

Page  107 NW ORLEANS.] landsia. The quantity of this plant hanging from the trees in the swamps surrounding New Orleans, and everywhere on the Delta of the Mississippi, might suffice to stuff all the mattresses in the world. The Indians formerly used it for another purpose-to give porosity or lightness to their building materials. When passing through the stalls, we were surrounded by a population of negroes, mulattoes, and quadroons, some talking French, others a patois of Spanish and French, others a mixture of French and English, or English translated from French, and with the French accent. They seemed very merry, especially those who were jet-black. Some of the creoles also, both of French and Spanish extraction, like many natives of the south of Europe, were very dark. Amid this motley group, sprung from so many races, we encountered a young man and woman, arm-in-arm, of fair complexion, evidently Anglo-Saxon, and who looked as if they had recently come from the North. The Indians, Spaniards, and French standing round them, seemed as if placed there to remind us of the successive races whose power in Louisiana had passed away, while this fair couple were the representatives of a people whose dominion carries the imagination far into the future. However much the moralist may satirize the spirit of conquest, or the foreigner laugh at some of the vainglorious boasting about "destiny," none can doubt that from this stock is to spring the people who will supersede every other in the northern if not also in the southern continent of America. The buildings forming the market-place first described were built in 1830, at a cost of $55,000. The other markets are those in Poydras and Magazine Streets, St. f~ary's on Thompson Street, Orleans near the city prison, and that at the head of Elysian Fields. A visit to the first, however, will save the stranger the trouble of making further explorations. Among the relics of the Spanish rule in New Orleans the most interesting are the Casa Blanca, at the corner of Bienville and Old Lev6e Streets. It was once the courtly residence of Bienville, the first Governor of Louisiana (1710). It remains as originally built, and in a good state of repair. The first or street floor is now occupied as a grocery store; the upper portion as a boarding-house. The old Spanish building at the corner of Roya l and Dumaine Streets should also be visited by those who would see what New Orleans was "m or e than a hundred years ago." Jackson's He adquarters are in the upper part of the house No. 86 (old number, 104) Royal Street. General Jackson occupied these quarters during his stay in the city from December 2, 1814, to a few days before the battle. The Old Spanish Court House, where Jackson was arraigned for contempt of court and fined a thousand dollars, is still another object of interest connected with the history of this remarkable man. It is at 269 Royal Street. Walking through the French quarter of the city, near the corner of Orleans and Dauphin Streets, not far north of the Cathedral, the stranger will observe a fine date palm, 30 feet high, growing in the open air. This tree is near one hundred years old, for Pbre Antoine, a Roman Catholic priest, who died (1829) at the age of eighty, recorded that he planted it himself when he was young. In his will he provided that they who succeeded to this lot of ground should forfeit it if they cut down the palm. The /~Je, already briefly referred to in our sketch, affords to the visitor one of the most peculiar and characteristic sights of the Crescent City. For extent and activity the scene has no equal on the continent. The best point from which to obtain a view of the city and its environs is the roof of the St. Charles Hotel, or the tower of St. Patrick's Church. If the traveller, says Sir Charles Lyell, has expected, on first obtaining an extensive view of the city, to see an unsightly swamp, with scarcely any objects to relieve the mo notony of the flat plain, save the wind ing river and a few lakes, he will be agrec ably disappointed. He will admire manv a villa and garden in the suburbs; and in the uncultivated space beyond, the effect of uneven and undulating ground is pro duced by the magnificent growth of cypress and other swamp timber, which have converted what would otherwise have formed the lowest points in the landscape into the appearance of wooded eminences. The French began their settle 107 LOUISIA-NTA. [NF,w OF.LE-A.-iS.

Page  108 [NEW ORLEANS. ments on Lake Pontchartrain, because they found there an easy communication with the Gulf of Mexico. But they fixed the site of their town on that part of the great river which was nearest to the lagoon, so as to command by this means the navigation of the interior country. The private dwellings in the suburbs are many of them very charming places, buried in the grateful shadow of tropical leaves -the magnolia, lemon, myrtle, and orange tree. Visitors wishing to bring away with them a few pictures of the prominent buildings and objects of interest in New Orleans should not fail to visit the gallery of Mr. Eugene A. Piffet, at 93 Camp Street. His collection affords every latitude of choice, and his facilities for executing orders are not excelled by any other establishment in the city. The Restaurants of New Orleans have long been famous for the excellence of their cuisine. Victor's, 185 Canal Street; the Maison Dorge, 144 Canal, and the Restaurant Moreau, have no superiors in the South. GalCin's, 32 Royal Street (steaks and chops); Pino's, 23 St. Charles, and Rivas (oysters), 156 Dryades Street, are amongthe best of their class in the city. The City -Railroad system of New Orleans embraces eight main lines-traversing the following streets: Magazine, from Canal to 8th; Prytania, from Canal to Limits; Canal, from Monument to Ridge Cemeteries; Esplanade, from Monument to Bayoui Bridge; Dauphin, from Monument to U. S. Barracks; Levee, from Custom House to IJ. S. Barracks; Baronne Street, throughout. The aggregate length of track laid in the city is 40 miles. Fares range from 5 cents to 7 cents. Good carriages and hacks can be found at the stands in front of the St. Charles and principal hotels. Fare, $2.00 an hour; $5.00 for the forenoon or afternoon. Livery charges are somewhat hi,-her. The best plan for strangers, especially if accompanied by ladies, is to hire a suitable conveyance by the hour, and discharge at the end of each trip. The city is supplied with water from the river, raised by steam to an elevated reservoir, and thence distributed through the streets. Some six millions of gallons are used daily. Gas was introduced in 1834-water the same year. 108 The holiday s eas on, which includes Christmas and the New Year's, is the best time to visit New Orleans. No city o n the broad con tinent presents such numerous and varied attractions at th is f esti ve season, tand stolid, indeed, must be the stra nger who is not impressed with his experienc es. The d istinguished author from whom we have so largely quoted, thus writes of the Carnival and t he ceremonies of Mpardi Gras: "It wa s quite a novel and refreshing si ght to s e e a whole population giving up their minds for a s hort season to amusement. There w as a grand pr oce ssion parading the streets almost every one dressed in the most grotesque attire, tro o ps of the m on horseback, s ome i o en open carriages, with bands of music, and in a var iety of costumess ome as Indians, with feathers o n their heads, and one, a jolly fat man, as Mardi Gras himself. All wor e mas ks, and here and there in the crowd, or stationed in a balcony above, we saw persons armed with bags of flour, which they showered down copiously on any one who seemed particularly proud of his attire. The strangeness of the scene was not a little heightened by the blending of negroes, quadroons, and mulattoes in the crowd; and we were amused by observing the ludicrous surprise, mixed with contempt, of several unmasked, stiff, grave AngloAmericans from the North, who were witnessing for the first time what seemed to them so much mummery and tomfoolery. One wag-oner, coming out of a cross street in his working dress, drove his team of horses and vehicle, heavily laden with cotton-bales, right through the procession, causing a long interruption. The crowd seemed determined to allow nothing to disturb their good humor; but although many of the wealthy Protestant citizens take part in the ceremony, this rude intrusion struck me as a kind of foreshadowing of coming events, emblematic of the violent shock which the invasion of the Anglo-Americans is about to give to the old regime of Louisiana. A gentleman told me that, being last year in Rome, he had not seen so many masks at the Carnival there; and, in spite of the increase of Protestants, he thought there had been quite as much' flour and fun' this year as usual. The proportion, however, of ~ NEW ORLEANS.] LO'UISIANA. I )I

Page  109 NEW ORLEANS.] quadroons, or the offspring of the whites and muluttoes, sit in an upper tier of boxes appropriated to them. When they are rich, they hold a peculiar and very equivocal position in society. As children they have ofteh been sent to Paris for their education, and, being as capable of improvement as any whites, return with refined manners, and not unfrequently with more cultivated minds than the majority of those from whose society they are shut out. "By the tyranny of caste they are driven, therefore, to form among themselves a select and exclusive set. Among other stories illustrating their s o cial relation to the whites, we are to ld that a young man of the dominant race fell in love with a beautiful quadroon girl, who was so light-colored as to be scarcely distinguishable from one of pure breed. He found that, in order to render the marriage legal, he was required to swear that he himself had negro blood in his veins; and, that he might conscientiously take the oath, he let some of the blood of his betrothed into his veins with a lancet. The romance of this doubtful tale was greatly diminished, although I fear that my inclination to believe in its truth was equally enhanced, when the additional circumstance was related, that the young lady was rich." The foregoing sketch of society and social life in New Orleans, I need hardly remind my reader, was penned long before the late rebellion had so changed the aspect of every thing throughout the South. The visitor will, however, be surprised as well as delighted at the extent to which the manners and customs of " the old regime," are still perpetuated among the descendants of the early settlers in the Crescent City. strict Romanists is not so great as formerly, and to-morrow, they say, when Le nt begins, there will be an end of the trade in masks; yet the butchers will sell nearly as much meat as ever. During the Carnival the gre ater part o f the Fr ench p opulation keep op n hou ses, espec ially in the country." The Creoles.- Those who wou ld form a jus t estimate of the social character and appearance o h ceole at o of the reole population of the city, sh ould visit t he op era in th e heigh t of the season. T he F renc h creo le ladies, man y of them d escended from Norm an ancestors, and of pure, unm ixed blood, ar e v er y handsome. They are usually a ttir ed in Parisian fashion, not over-dressed, n or so thinly c lad as are the generality of Am eri can women- thei r luxuriant hair, tastefu l ly arranged, fastened wi th orname n ta l pins, and adorned with a color ed ribbon or a single flower. The word " creole " is used in Lou isiana to ex press a native-born American, w hether black or white, descended from old-world parents, for they would not call the aboriginal Indians creoles. It never means persons of mix ed br eed; a nd the F rench or Spanish creoles in New Orleans would shrink as much as a New Englander from intermarriag the with aione tanted, in the slightest degree, with Africa n blood. The frequen t alliances of the creoles, or Louisianians, o f French extracti on, with lawyers a e rand merchants from the Northern States, hel p to c ement the ties which are every day binding more firmly togethe r the distant p arts of t he ADnion. Both r aces may be improved by such connection, for the manne rs of the creole ladies are, for the most pa rt, m ore refined; and many a Louisianian might justly have felt indinant if he could have overheard a conceited young bachelor from the North telling me " how much they were preferred by the fair sex to the hard-drinking, gambling, horse-racing, cock-fighting, and tobacco-chewing Southerners." If the creoles have less depth of character, and are less striving and ambitious than the N~ew Englanders, it must be no slight source of happiness to the former to be so content with present advantages. They seem to feel, far more than the AngloSaxons, that if riches be worth the win.ning, they are also worth enjoying. The RAILWAYS.-The New Orleans, Jackson and Great Northern Railway. Stations, Magnolia (98 m.), Jackson (183 m.), Canton (206 m.), where it connects with the Mississippi Central to Jackson, and all points north, east, and west. Mexican Gulf Railwvay from New Orleans 28 miles to Proctorsville, connecting with Mobile steamers. New Orleans, Opelousas, and Great TVesteri Railway from Algiers, opposite New Orleans, via St. Charles (18), La, fourche (52), Terrabonne (55), -Bayou 109 LOUISIANA. [VICINITY.

Page  110 NEW ORLEANS.] was fired by the shells from Admiral Farragut's fleet on their way up to the city (April 25, 1862). The garrison is now composed of the 1st Regular Infantry. The Ursuline Convent is passed a short distance north of the Barracks. It has an imposing front of near 200 feet, and commands a fine view of the river. It was founded in 1826. A nunnery and chapel are attached to the convent. The former has accommodation for forty sisters of the Ursuline Order. Admission to the convent is granted only during vacation. Lake Pontchartrain, five miles north of the city, i aos famo us f or its fish a nd game. It communicates with Lake Maurepas on the west, and through the Rigolets, with Lake Borgne and the Gulf of Mexico on the east. By this latter route the daily steamers leave New Orleans for Mobile. The lake is 40 miles in length and 24 miles in with. It is from 16 to 20 feet deep, and abounds in fish. It is reached by the Lake Railway every hour through the day. The swamps which lay between the city and the lake, and are traversed by the railway, are covered with a thick growth of cypress and other trees peculiar to this locality. At the railway terminus is a hotel (the Washington) for the accommodation of visitors. Those particular about their sleeping accommodation and their associations, would do well to return to the eity by the last train, which usually leaves at 7 o'clock. The S/lell Road affords an agreeable drive to Lake Pontchartrain for those who prefer that kind of locomotion. This road lies along the margin of the canal, and was once the finest and smoothest road in the country. During the military occupation of the city, a railroad track was laid through it, which has greatly marred its beauty and excellence. A movement is on foot to restore it. Half way between the city and the lake is the celebrated Metarie race track. Buffet and restaurant adjoining.' Lafayette, until 1852 under a distinct government, now forms the 4th district of New Orleans. Jefferson City is a pleasant suburb of New Orleans, lying immediately west of the city. It is reached in thirty min. utes by car from Canal Street. Carrolton, in Jefferson Parish, six miles Bdeuf (73), to Brashear (80 miles), where trains connect with Southern Steamship Company's packets for Galveston and Indianola, Texas. STEAMBOATs. -Steamer to New York twice a week. To St. Louis, and all points on the Upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, every evening. For Red, Ouachita, and Yazoo Rivers, regular semiweekly packets. VICINITY. The Battle-Field, formerly known as the Plains of Chalmette, is an object of much interest to all American visitors, and is generally first visited. It lies four miles and a half south of Canal Street, and may be reached either by carriage along the levee, or by the street cars. It is washed by the waters of the Mississippi, and surrounded by cypress-swamps and cane-brakes. The action took place January 8, 1815, between the British troops, under General Pakenham, and the Americans under Jackson, the former suffering a signal defeat. Pakenham was approaching the city by the way of Lakes Borgne and Pontchartrain, at the time of this terrible repulse. His loss in killed and wounded was nearly 3,000, while the Americans had but 7 men killed and 6 wounded. A marble monument, 70 feet high, and yet unfinished, occupies a suitable site overlooking the ground, and serves to commemorate the victory. The -Jornumental Cemetery or Soldiers' Burying-Ground, occupies the southwest corner of the field. In returning to the city a good opportunity is afforded for visiting the United States Barracks, which front the river about three and a half miles below the city. The purchase of the property, which embraces two acres front and forty acres in depth, was made through Adjutant G. M. Dreme, in 1830. The works were begun in February, 1834, and completed December, 1835, at a cost of $182,000. The quarters of the commandant occupy the centre of the front, those of the staff and company being on either flank. The hospital storehouse, corps de garde, and post magazine, arc in the rear of the parade-ground. One of the buildings on the right of the parade-ground 110 LOUISIANA. [VICINITY.

Page  111 [BATON ROUGE of the 25th April, 1862, the fleet anchored off the Custom House. Baton 1touge.-HOTEL, Harney House. This city, the former capital of Louisiana, is upon the Mississippi, 129 miles above New Orleans. It is built upon the first of the famous bluffs of the Great River seen in ascending its waters, and is thought to be one of the most healthy places in this part of the country. The city contains a Clollege and a United States Arsenal and Barracks. The name of Baton Rouge is said t o have been thus derived: when the place was first settled, there was growing on the spot a cypress (a tree of a reddish bark) of immense size and great height, denuded of branches. One of the settlers playfully remarked that it would make a handsome cane. From this small jest grew Baton Rouge (red cane).* The Deaf and Dumb Asylum, and Penitentiary are conspicuous buildings. Baton Rouge is interesting as havin,, been the home of Zachary Taylor. As the usual route to the States of Texas and Arkansas, adjoining Louisiana, west of the Mississippi River, is by steamer from New Orleans, I shall devote the two following chapters to a brief description of the main points and features of interest in those States, reserving more minute particulars in regard to the river routes from New Orleans northward to Memphis, St. Louis, and Cincinnati, to the close of my volume. from Canal Street, has many fine public gardens and private residences. The route beyond the city of New Orleans is through cultivated fields, gardens, and well-shaded pastures. It has a good race-course. Railway communication with New Orleans every hour. Greenville is at the western terminus of the city car route. The United States Hostal buildings located here are worthy a visit. Algiers, opposite to New Orleans, has extensive dry docks and ship-yards. Communication by ferry. Macdonough, on the same side, was once conspicuous for its fine U. S. Hospital, one of the largest structures in the State. It was destroyed during the late war. Gretna, two miles above Macdonough and nearly opposite Lafayette, is a pretty rural spot, abounding in pleasant, shady walks. Forts St. Philip and Jackson, seventyfive miles below the city and twenty-five miles from the "passes," or mouths of the river, are interesting to the Northern traveller as the scene of the bombardment by the naval fleet under Admiral (then Captain) Farragut, April 18, 1862. Fort St. Philip is on the north and Fort Jackson on the south bank of the river. The bombardment continued six days. The Chalmnette Batteries, six miles below the city, manned for a short time by the rebels as Farragut's fleet passed up the river, are seen near the edge of the old Chalmette battle-field. At 10 o'clock P. M. 111 BATON ROUGE.] LOUISIANA.

Page  112 TEXAS. TEXAS. States. Two of the famous fights in this war, under the lead of General Taylor, occurred within the limits of the present State. The battle-field of Palo Alto is near the southern extremity of Texas, between Point Isabel and Matamoras, nine miles northeast of the latter town. The battle took place on the 8th of May, 1846. The American troops, numbering 2,111, led by General Taylor, had 32 killed and 47 wounded; while the Mexicans, under General Arista, amounting to 6,000 men, had 252 killed. The American loss unhappily included the gallant Major Ringold. The battle-field of Resaca de la Palma lies in the southeastern extremity of the State, near the entrance of the Rio Grande into the Gulf of Mexico. It is in close vicinage with the field of Palo Alto, four miles north of Matamoras, on the route to Point Isabel. This gallant engagement occurred on the 9th of May, 1846, the day following the victory of Palo Alto. The Mexicans, to the number of 6,000, under General Arista, were totally defeated by about 2,000 Americans, commanded by General Taylor. The loss of the former was about 500 killed and wounded, besides all their artillery and furniture; that of the latter was 39 killed and 82 wounded. Though Texas has since these days of trial gone on prospering and to prosper, she is not yet entirely at peace in all her borders. On the northwest plains of the State the people are still exposed to the murderous incursions of their Indian neighbors, the fierce and warlike Camanches, Apaches, and other tribes. Texas was the seventh of the Southern States to join the ill-fated Confederacy, the ordinance of secession having been passed at the city of Austin, February 5, 1861. The United States troops in the TEXAS is one of the youngest of the great family of Southern United States, and on account of its remoteness from the ordinary thoroughfares of travel, is but little visited by Northern tourists. In the year 1821 the inducements held out to setters in this region by the Government of Mexico, to whom the territory at that period belonged, caused an immense rush of emigration thither from the United States. This new and hardier population had grown so numerous by the year 1832, as to quite absorb and destroy the original feeble spirit of the land under Mexican rule, and to embolden the exotic population to seek the freedom and independence there, to which they had been accustomed at home. With both the will and power to accomplish their purpose, they first demanded admission for their State as an independent member of the Mexican Confederacy; and that being refused, they declared themselves wholly free of all allegiance whatsoever to that government. This assumption resulted in a war with Mexico, which, after various fortunes, was detertermined in favor of the Texans, by the total defeat and capture of the Mexican President, Santa Anna, at the memorable battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836. The little village of San Jacinto is in Harris County, on Eaffalo Bayou, near its entrance into Galveston Bay, 17 miles east of the present city of Houston. Texas continued to be an independent nation after the battle of San Jacinto, until her admission in 1845 as a member of the great North American Confederacy. This fresh turn in events, and the disputes which followed in respect to boundary lines, between the new State and the territory of Mexico, were soon followed by the war between that country and the United 112 [TEx". TF,xAiL

Page  113 TEXAS. State at that time numbered 2,500, divided into 37 companies. The landscape of Texas is varied, and in many sections of the State highly picturesque. Along the coast, on the southeast, there is a flat reach of from 30 to 60 miles in breadth; next comes a belt of undulating prairie country, extending from 150 to 200 miles wide, and this again is succeeded in the west and northwest by a region of bold hills and table lands. The plateau of Texas, including some portions of New Mexico, extends about 250 miles from north to south, and 300 miles from the Rio Grande east. The upper part, known as the Llano Estacado, or "Staked Plain," is 2,500 feet above the sea. This immense district, excepting, sometimes, the immediate edge of the streams, is almost wholly destitute of vegetation. Even the stunted grasses, which follow the rains, soon wither and die. The Colorado, the Brazos, and the Red Rivers find their sources here. The extreme northern part of the State, extending, perhaps, 60 miles or more, is occupied by a portion of the great American desert. The high lands of the west and northwest are yet a wilderness, visited only by a few bold hunters in quest of the buffalo and other wild animals which abound there. The region, however, is said t o have an inviting aspect, and to be well wat ered and fertile. The Colo rado Hills extend in a north and south direction, east of the Colorado River. Between the Colorado and the Rio Grande, and north of the sources of the San Antonio and Nueces Rivers, are broken and irregular chains of hills, probably outposts of the great Rocky Mountain ranges. Some of these hills, as the Organ, the Hueco, and the Guadalupe Mountains, have an elevation of 3,000 feet above the Rio Grande; and the Guadalupe group rises to that height above the adjacent plains. Texas abounds in mineral wealth, as might be supposed from her proximity to the rich mining districts of Mexico. Gold and silver lie buried, no doubt, in large quantities in her soil. Indeed, the latter metal has been already found at San Saba and upon the Bidas River. Coal is supposed to exist about 200 muiles from the coast, in a belt extending southwest from Trinity River to the Rio Grande. Iron is found in many parts of the State; and copperas, agates, lime, alum, chalcedony, jasper, and red and white sandstone. There are, too, salt-lakes and satlt-springs. In a pitch lake, 20 mi les fr o m Beaumont, there a re d eposits of sulphur, nitre, a nd fire-clay. An immense gypsum-bed, the la r gest yet discover ed on th e continent traverses the northwest porti on of the State. Min e ral sprin g e ings (see Sprns) exist in different part s of the c ountry. The soil of Texas is as varied as its sur-e face and climate, and, for the mos t part, extredmely fertile. The great staple is cotton, which thrives all over the Stat e, and is of very superior quality in the Gul f districts. Sugar may be profitably cultivated in the level regions. Tobacco is raised with e ase, and with scarce ly less success than on the is land of Cu ba. All the grains and gra sse s o f the North are found here, with every variety of t ropical and other fruits and vegetation. The live oak, in many varieties, abounds in the forests, beside the palmetto, cedar, pine, hickory, walnut, as, pecan, mulberry, elm, sycamore, and cypress. Sportsmen will find a congenial abiding-place in Texas. On the prairies almost every kind of wild animal abounds. In the northwest are the wild horse, or mustang, and the fierce b uffalo. The deer and the antel ope, the moose and the mountain goat, are plentiful-not to mention the jaguars, the p u mas, wild-cats, b lack bears, ocelot ol es, a es, wolves, and foxes, and such smaller game as peccaries, opossums, ra ccoons, ha res, rab bit s, an d squirre ls. A special feature of the wild life here is the prairie dog, or marmot, dwelling in holes burrowed in the gro u nd. Their numbers are so great that the traveller may sometimes journey for days together without losing sight of them. The feath ered t ribe are also abundant, including birds of prey and birds of sport. There is the baldheaded eagle and the Mexican eagle, vultures, owls, hawks, wild turkeys, wild geese, prairie hens, canvass-back and other ducks, teal, brandt, pheasants, quails, grouse, woodcocks, pigeons, partridges, snipes, plovers, red-birds, and turtle-doves. By the waters are found, also, the crane, the swan, the pelican, the water turkey, and the king-fisher. The smaller birds are numerous, and among them many of 113 TEXAS.] [T PX A S.

Page  114 [GALVESTON, ingtomn; and steamboats may ascend 40 miles, to Columbia, at all seasons. Much of its course is through alluvial plains, occupied with sugar and cotton plantations, fields of Indian corn, and forests of red cedar and of live oak. Richmond and Waco are also small towns on this river. The Nueces, like most of the rivers of Texas, rises in the table and hill districts of the west, and flows through the State into the Gulf of Mexico. This river follows a very eccentric course of 350 miles to Nueces Bay. It may be ascended by steamers 100 miles. The San Antonio, the Guadaltpe, the Trinity, the Neches, and the Sabine, other chief rivers of Texas, are, in general character, course, and extent, much like those of which we have already spoken. the most brilliant plumage, as the oriole, the paroquet, the cardinal, the whippoorwill, and thle sweet-toned mockingbird. Blackbirds abound, and woodpeckers, blue-jays, starlings, red-birds, swallows, martens, and wrens. In the rivers and bays there are all the varieties of water life, from alligators to perch, pike, trout, turtles, and oysters. Snakes and reptiles of all sorts are at home in Texas; rattlesnakes, moccasins, copperheads, coachwhips, and garden snakes, horned frogs and lizards, the ugly centipedes and the poisonous tarantula. The coast of Texas, like that of the borders of the Southern States, on the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, is lined with a chain of islands, separated from the main land by bays and lagoons. There are the bays of Galveston, Matagorda, Espiritu Santo, Aranzas, Corpus Christi, and Laguna del Madre. These bays are some 30 and some nearly 100 miles in length. RAILWAYS.-The Houston and Texas Central Railway from Houston 80 miles to Millican. Connects at Houston with steamers for Galveston and New Orleans; at Hempstead, with the Washington County Railway for Brenham; and at Navasota, with stages to Shreveport. The Galveston, Houston, and Henderson Railway from Galveston 50 miles to Houston. Connects at Harrisburg with the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos, and Colorado Railway; at Austin with Texas Central Railway. The Buffalo Bayou, Brazos, and Colorado Railway from Galveston (steamboat) 65 miles to Harrisburg; to Richmond (railroad), 32 miles; and thence by stage, via Columbus (145) and Bastrop (210), to Austin, 240 miles. The Houston Tap and Brazoria Rail way, from Houston to Columbia, 50 miles. There are numerous other routes projected and partially completed. Prominent among these ale the Galveston and Fulton, Arkansas, route; the Texas and New Orleans route; and Southern Pacific route. RivERs.-The.Rio Grande, or Rio Bra,o del Norte, the largest river in Texas, of which it forms the southern boundary, is 1,800 miles in length. It flows from the Rocky Mounta i ns t o the G u lf of Mexico. It is a shallow stream, much b roken by rapids and sand-bars, though small steamboats ascend its waters 450 miles from the s ea, t o Kingsbury Rapids. Brownsville, 40 miles from its mouth, is its principal t own. T he " G rea t In dian Crossing " is about 900 miles from its mouth. At this place is the famous ford of the Apaches and the Camanches, when they make their predatory visits into Mexico. The Colorado -River runs from the tablelands in the nor thw est part of the State 900 miles to Matagorda Bay. Austin City, Bastrop, La Grange, Columbus, and Matagorda are upon its banks. Austin, the capital of the State, at the head of steamboat navigation, is 300 miles from the sea. The scenery of many portions of this river is extremely picturesque. The Brazos is one of the largest of the Texan rivers. It runs from the tablelands of the west to the Gulf of Mexico, 40 miles below Galveston; the direct distance from its source to its mouth is 500 miles, and by the windings of its channel 900 miles. At high water the Brazos is navigable 300 miles from its mouth, to lWash 114 RIVERS.] TEXAS. GALVESTON. 450 miles froi-n New Orleails; 230 from Aiistin. HOTELS, Island City Hou,8e. Galveston is the largest city and the commercial

Page  115 HOUSTON.] metropolis of Texas. It is built on an island at the mouth of Galveston Bay. The i~land of Galveston is about 30 miles in length and 3 miles broad-dividing the harbor from the Gulf of Mexico- It is a thriving place, and its advantages as the best harbor on the coast will, no doubt, rapidly increase its importance. The city was first settled in 1837. The Roman Catholic University of St. Mary's, the Cathedral, and the Episcopal Church are large, noticeable structures of brick, in the Gothic style. There is in the city also a cohvent of Ursuline nuns. It has also a fine Town Hall and Market House. The island of Galveston was for a number of years the rendezvous and headquarters of the famous pirate of the Gulf, Lafitte, until his settlement was broken up in 1821 by Lieutenant Kearney, commanding the United States brig Enterprise. The bay extends northward from the city to the mouth of Trinity River, a distance of 35 miles, and has an average breadth of 15 miles. The city has two good hotels, and several newspapers. Railroads and steamers are bringing Galveston within speedy reach of the great country around it. Passengers may now leave the city on the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos, and Colorado Railway (see Railways), and reach Austin in 60 hours, including 18 hours' rest. Stages go from Columbus, on this route, to Hallettsville, Gonsales, Seguin, and San Antonio; and from Austin to all points of Western and Northwestern Texas. Galveston is connected with Houston by the Galveston, Houston, and Henderson Railway, 50 miles in length. Daily steamers to New Orleans. Population 12,000. Route from New York. —One of the United States mail line packets (Williams & Guion, 71 Wall Street, agents) leaves Pier No. 37, E. R., every fortnight. Cabin fare, $75.00. Houston.-HOTELS, State Capitol Hotel, Fannin House. Houston, the second of the Texan cities in commercial importance, is reached from Galveston by river, 82 miles; or by the Galveston and Houston Railway, 50 miles. Its population is about 10,000. It is situated on the low lands of the coast stretch, upon Buffalo Bayou, 200 miles east-southeast of Austin City. Much of the surrounding country is a treeless savanna, covered with fine pasturage. This is a great entrepot for the cotton, sugar, and other products of the adjacent country. Houston was settled in 1836, and was once. the capital of Te xas. The other hotels here are excellent. Its schools and educational institutions are among the best in the State. Cars leave Houston by the Houston and Texas Central Railway, onnecting at Hempstead (50 miles) with daily stage lines for San Antonio and various other towns in the interior. Austin, the capital of Texas, is beautifully situated on the north bank of the Colorado River, 200 miles by land from its mouth, and 230 miles west-northwest of Galveston. The seat of Government was established in 1844. The landscape of the vicinage is strikingly picturesque. The Asylums for the Blind and Deaf and Dumb and the Lunatic Asylum are commodious and well-conducted institutions. A fine view is obtained from the Governor's house. The Springs in the vicinity of the citv are much frequented by travellers. The present population of 5,000 is steadily increasing, and in due time the city will, no doubt, become a large and prosperous business mart. From New Orleans the route is by steamer to Galveston. For routes thence, see Galveston. Stringer's Hotel is a well-kept house. ~:, ~/~ San Antonio, 80 miles twest of Austin, is a thriving city, with a population of nearly 9,000. It is in Bexar County, on the San Antonio River. Sawyer & Co.'s stages connect it with Austin. It is the centre of a prosperous trade with Mexico. The United States Arsenal is one of the principal objects of interest. Fort Alamo, in the immediate neighborhood, is worthy a visit. Here (March 6, 1836) a garrison of Texans, attacked by an overwhelming Mexican force, perished to a man rather than yield; on which account it is sometimes spoken of as the Thermopylae of Texas. Many of the private residences are elegant. Missions San Jos6, San Juan, and Conception, built by the Spaniards, are among the most interesting objects of the place. The main Plaza is still used by the Roman Catholic inhabitants as a place of assembly and worship. A daily line of stages leave for Victoria, where connection is 115 TEXAS. [AUSTIN.

Page  116 BR L.]TEAS. ~[MATAGOrDA. enemy's batteries (May 6, 1846) while General Taylor was occupied in opening a communication with Point Isabel. tIatarmora%, on the opposite side of the Rio Grande, is a populous Mexican town, with an important trade. The American army under Taylor entered this place without opposition, after the victories of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. ]iBastrop, on the Colorado RIiver, 35 miles east by south from Austin, is a trading point of some pretension. It is accessible by steamboat from Matagorda. lnMatagorda, at the mouth of the Colorado, is a delightful summer resort. Population 1,500. made with the San Antoni o and Mexican Gulf R ailway for Zorrillo a, Lavaca, and Indianola. T he leading hotels of San Antonio are the Plaza and the dJclnger IHouse. B r o wv n s v i I1 e, formerly Fort Brown, is in Cameron County, opposite Matamoras, on the Rio Grande, 40 miles from its mouth. It is 300 south of Austin. Brownsville is one of the chief towns of the State, and has a population of about 2,000. It has a Custom House and a, thriving, trade. It was named in honor of Major Brown, who commanded the garrison at the period of the Mexican war. He was mortally wounded by a shell from the 116 TEXN BROWNSVILLE.]

Page  117 ARKANsAs.] ARKANSAS. ucts exist here. Gold, too, it is said, has been found. " There is," says a writer, "manganese enough in Arkansas to supply the world; in zinc it exceeds every State except New Jersey, and has more gypsum than all the other States except Texas put together; while it is equally well supplied with marble and salt." Wild Animals range the forests and swamps in Arkansas as in Texas; and quails, wild turkeys, geese, and other birds abound. Trout and other fish are plentiful in the rivers and streams. The ordinance of secession, which took (nominally) Arkansas out of the Union, was passed against strenuous and long-continued opposition, 6th May, 1861. Arkansas is most easily and expeditiously reached from New Orleans by steam packets, which leave daily for the Red and Ouichita, the Arkansas, and White Rivers. The same general direction will serve the traveller from Memphis and other points on the Mississippi River between that city and New Orleans. The Arkansas River, rising in the Rocky Mountains, flows from the Indian Territory on the west, and traverses the middle of the State for 500 miles, gathering up in its long course the waters of many tributary streams, and bearing them to the great floods of the Mississippi. The entire length of this river is 2,000 miles. It is navigable for steamers 800 miles. Next to the Missouri the Arkansas is the largest tributary of the Mississippi. The W7ito River is 800 miles in length. It is navigable from the Mississippi-into which it debouches, not far from the mouth of the Arkansas-350 miles to the mouth of the Black River, and at some periods of the year 30 miles yet higher up, to Batesville. As along the other rivers of Arkansas, the cypress covers the swamps of the Mississippi vicinage, 117 1 ARKANSAS, which adjoins Texas on the north, is also one of the younger States, having been admitted into the Union as late as 1836. It was settled by the French at Arkansas Post, about 1685, and until 1803 formed part of the Territory of Louisiana. Its history has no very marked points, beyond rude frontier contests with the Indian tribes. It is a wild, desolate region of swamps, marshes, and lagoons, for a hundred miles back from the Mississippi River. This great plain is broken at intervals by elevations sometimes thirty miles in circuit. At flood periods, when the land is inundated, these points become temporary islands. Extensive levees have been constructed along the banks of the river, by which means much of this vast tract will eventually be converted into valuable land, with a soil of the richest nature. The Ozark Mountains bisect the State unequally. The middle regions, and the district north of the Ozark ranges, have a broken and varied surface. The climate, soil, vegetation, and products of the lower portion of Arkansas, are all similar to those of the other Southwestern States; while the hilly regior!s above have, in all these respects, the more Northern characteristics. The southern section is unhealthy, while the uplands are as salubrious as any part of the Union. The rich, black alluvion of the river yields Indian corn in great luxuriance. This product, with cotton, tobacco, rice, many varieties of grain, wool, hops, hemp, flax, and silk, constitute its staple products. The Forest Trees include cotton-wood, gum, ash, and cypress in the bottom lands, and the usual vegetation of the North in the uplands. The sugarmaple, yielding large supplies of sap, is found here. Coal, iron, zinc, lead, gypsum, manganese, salt, and other mineral prod ARKANS". [AR;rANsAs.

Page  118 LITTLE RocK.] west - northwest of Little Rock, within five miles of the Indian Territory. It is pleasantly situated on the Arkansas River. Fort Smith is a thriving village on the Arkansas River, 163 miles west-northwest, by land, of Little Rock, and a few miles by the river above Van Buren. It is a military post, and has an extensive Indian trade. Fort Gibson is on the Neosho River, 23 miles above Fort Smith. Arkansas Post is upon the Arkansas River, some 50 miles from its mouth. It is an ancient settlement, having been occupied by the French as early as 1685. It was, for many years, the chief depot of the peltries of the country far around. Fort Hinzdman, a regular square bastioned work mounting 12 guns and garrisoned by 5,000 troops under General Churchill, surrendered to the Federal forces under Admiral Porter and General Sherman, January 11, 1863. Napoleon, 125 miles southeast of Little Rock, is upon the Mississippi River, at the mouth of the Arkansas. It is a busy and thriving place. The United States Marine Hospital here is a conspicuous building. Boats running on the Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers, call here. Passengers will find the best accommodation the place affords on the wharf boat. Camden is on the Ouichita River, a tributary of the Red River, by which it is reached by steamboat from New Orleans. It is distant 110 miles by stage from Little Rock. It was a place of large cotton export and trade before the war. Population 3,500. ]Batesville. with a population of about 2,000, is upon the White River, 400 miles from its mouth. Small steamers ascend at nearly all seasons. Batesville is distant from Little Rock by stage 90 miles; from Memphis, Tenn., 115 miles. -Alabaster Mountain.-In Pike County, on the Little Missouri River, there is a mountain of alabaster, of fine quality, and white as new-fallen snow. Natural Bridge.-In the neighborhood of the Alabaster Mountain there is a remarkable natural bridge formation. and gives place to the pine and other vegetation higher up. This stream has numerous large affluents, among them the Big North Fork, Bryant's Fork, the Little North Fork, and Buffalo Fork. The St. Fra n os, t he Red River, the Ouichita, a nd o ther waters, bear the same general characteris tics as t he streams already men tioned. There are no l akes in this State of especial extent or interest. Railways have not thus far been much needed in Arkansas, with her great faciliities of water communication and her thin population. A route is now in progress from Memphis to Little Rock. This line is completed at this time between the former city and Madison. 300 miles from Napoleon; 155 from Memphis. HOTEL, Anthony House. Little Rock, the capital of the State, with a population of 5,000, is picturesquely situated on the top of a rocky bluff-the first of these characteristic precipices which is seen in the ascent of the Arkansas Riser, 300 miles up. The State House is a handsome, rough-cast brick edifice. The Penitentiary is located here, and also a United States Arsenal. This was seized by the State troops earlyin the war of 1861-'65. Big Rock, two miles above, on the north bank of the river, is 200 feet high. The vicinity affords many pleasant drives and rides. Hot Springs is the name of a small village 55 miles west of Little Rock. These Springs were much resorted to b efore the war. They are possessed of valuable medicinal qualities, and are especially beneficial in rheumatic and syphilitic cases. They are upwards of thirty in number, and have an average temperature of 145~. The hotels have baths and ev er y convenience for visitors. Daily stage to Little Rock. ROUTES FROM LITTLE ROCK. Van ]Buren, the principal commercial point in Arkansas, is 100 miles 118 ARKANSAS. [CAMDEN. LITTLE ROCK.

Page  119 TENNESSEE. TENNESSEE. paratively level. Many valuable mineral products are found here-coal and iron in great abundance, and rich deposits of copper. Gold, too, has been detected, and silver, lead, zinc, manganese, magnetic-iron ore, gypsum of superior quality, and a great variety of beautiful marbles, slate, nitre, burrstones, and limestone. Salt and mineral springs, the latter of a very valuable character, abound. The climate here, excepting in the river lowlands, is most agreeable and healthful; exempt alike from the winter severities of the North, and from the summer heats of the South. Immense quantities of livestock are raised in Tennessee; more, indeed, than in any other part of the Union. It is, too, a vast tobacco, cotton, and corn-growing region. The culture of hemp, buckwheat, rye, oats, barley, maple sugar, and many other agricultural products occupy the industry and contribute to the wealth of the people. THE territory, which now forms the State of Tennessee, was settled before any other of the lands west of the Alleghanies, Fort Loudof having been built by adventurers from North Carolina as early as 1757. The early history of the country is, like that of the neighboring State of Kentucky, full of the records of bloody struggles with the Indian occupants of the soil. The little band of pioneers at Fort Loudon were not, of course, suffered to rest peacefully in their new home: on the contrary, they were all either butchered or driven away. In a few years, the axe of the white man again rang through the wild forests, and cabins dotted the land, gradually clustering into villages and towns. Tennessee was admitted, in 1796, as the sixteenth member of the American Union. She played a distinguished part in the war of 1812. The landscape of Tennessee is varied and picturesque, though none of the great natural wonders of the Republic lie within her borders. - Her mountain, valley, and river scenery is exceedingly beautiful, and will become famous as it becomes better known. The Cumberland Hills, and other ranges of the Appalachian chain, pass through her western area, separating her from North Carolina, and shutting in the valleys of the Holston and other rivers. The height of the mountain ridges and summits here is variously estimated at from 1,500 to 2,000 feet. They are most of them covered with a rich forest growth to the top, where the axe and the plough have not changed their native character. Trie central portion of the State, stretching from the mountains to the Tennessee River, has a broken surface, while beyond, toward the Mississippi, which makes the western boundary, the country is com RIVIERS.-The Tennessee River enters the State at its southeast extremity, from North Carolina, and forms the chief affluent of the Ohio. Its sources are among the Alleg,hanies, in Virginia, flowing under the names of the Clinch and the Holston Rivers, until they unite at Kingston, in Tennessee. The first course of the main stream is southwest to Chattanooga, near the point where the States of Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama meet. From Chattanooga it turns toward the northwest, until the obstruction of the Cumberland Mountains bends its current southward again, and sends it off on a detour of 300 miles into Upper Alabama and the northeast corner of Mississippi. It gets back to Tennessee at this point, and, for the second time, traverses the entire breadth of the State, 119 TF,ssEE.] [TEN-,;ESSE.E.

Page  120 TENNESSEE. crosses Kentucky, and reaches the end of its journey at Paducah, 48 miles from the mouth of the Ohio. The length of the Tennessee proper is about 800 miles; including its longest branch, the Holston, its waters extend 1,100 miles. The only important obstruction in the navigation of the Tennessee is the 20 miles stretch of rapids in Alabama known as the Muscle Shoals. (See Alabana.) Steamboats ascend the river nearly 300 miles, to the foot of these rapids, and above, to Knoxville, on the Holston, nearly 500 miles. A railway supplies the missing link in the passage of the river, caused by the intervention of the rapids. Knoxville and Chattanooga are the principal places on the Tenneessee. In Alabama, Tuscumbia and Florence, and in Kentucky, Paducah, are on its banks. The upper waters of the Tennessee, and all that portion of the river in the eastern and middle parts of the State, are extremely beautiful, varied as the landscape is by wild mountain scenes and fertile pastoral lands. In the neighborhood of Chattanooga, where the Lookout Mountain lifts its bold crest, the scenery is especially attractive. It would be difficult to find a more charming picture than that from the summit of the Lookout Mountain, over the smiling valley of the Tennessee, and the capricious windings of the river. The chief tributaries of the Tennessee besides the two branches from which it is formed-the Hoiston and the Clinch-are the Hiawassee, from Georgia, the Hatchee, and the Duck River. All the waters of the State are ultimately absorbed by the Mississippi, its western boundary. The Cumberland makes an extensive circuit of 250 miles through Middle Tennessee. It is navigable for large boats to Nashville in good stages of water. HOTRALS.-Stacey House and St. C l o ud, both centrall y located on Ch urch Street. The former opened i n Ja nuary, 1866, is newly furnished. Charges at both these houses, $3.50 per day. Nashville, the capital of Tennessee, a nd the most important city in the Commo nwealth, is mo st agreeably situated on the south side of Cumberland River, at the head of steamboat navigation. The principal portion of the city is cofistructcd upon a ridge, the highest point of which is about 108 feet above low-water mark. The first settlement was made in 1779-X80 by a party of North Carolina emigrants, and the town established by act of the Assembly of that RAILWAYS.-The Na~shville and C7iattanooga Railway, 151 miles from Nashville, in the north central part of the State, to Chattanooga, near the Georgia and Alabama lines, connecting with the Georgia and South Carolina Railway system. The -Louisville and Nashville -Railway, from Nashville north 185 miles to Louisville, Ky., via Bowling Green and Cave City, the point of departure for the Mammoth 120 RAILWAYS.) [NASHVILLF,. Cave. The Tennessee and Alabama Railway, in operation southward to Columbia; to be extended and connected with routes from Mobile, Alabama, and from New Orleans. -East Tennessee and Geo-gia Railway, from Knoxville southwcst 112 miles to Chattanooga, connecting with the railways of that State. Now extended northeast, by the East Tennessee and Virginia, to the railways of Virginia; and west, from Knoxville to Nashville. The Jfemphi8 and Charleston Railway, 310 miles from Memphis to Chattanooga, partly on the southern borders of extreme Western Tennessee, through the upper part of Mississippi and Alabama, into East Tennessee. The Mississippi and Tennessee Pailway, from Memphis south 99 miles to Grenada, Miss., where it connects with the Mississippi Central Railway to Jackson and New Orleans. The Nashville and Northwestern -Railway, from Nashville 78 miles to Johnsonville, where it connects with steamboats on the river. The Nashville and Dcatur P-,ailway, from Nashville 122 miles south to Decatur, connecting with trains on the Memphis and Charleston Railway. The Nashville and Clarksville -Railway, from Nashville 29 miles to Springfield, where it makes connection with roads to Clarksville and Memphis. NASHVILLE. 684 miles from Washington, 185 from Louisville.

Page  121 TENNESSEE. foundation of solid stone, and contains four niches in the basement and eight in the principal story, with spacious halls leading to the right and left. The Library numbers upwards of 12,000 volumes. All the materials used in the construction of the Capitol were furnished within the State. Its cost was nearly one million dollars. Judged by the present standard of prices, it may be considered one of the cheapest as well as finest public buildings in the United States. The seat of Government has been alternately located at Columbia, Murfreesboro', and Nashville. The Lunatic Asylum, built in 1833, and the Penitentiary, are large, imposing buildings. The latter has a front of 300 feet, and contains 200 cells. The City Hall occupies a prominent location on Market Square. The University of Nashville, founded in 1806, is worthy a visit. Its Medical Department, opened in 1851, has nearly one hundred students. The mineral cabinet of the late Dr. Troost, is the richest private collection in the United States. Application to inspect it should be made to John B. Lindsey, Chancellor of the University. The fine wire suspension bridge which formerly spanned the Cumberland River opposite the city, and which cost $100,000, was destroyed by the Confederate authorities, February, 1862. Nashville has two theatres; one on Cherry, near Cedar, and the other known as the " Neo " Theatre, corner of Union and Summer Sts. The former, under the management of Messrs. Duffield & Flynn, is a well.conducted establishment. The city has in. creased in population rapidly since the war, and now claims 45,000 inhabitants. No less than eight daily newspapers are published here. The social attractions of Nashville are not excelled by those of any city in the South. Nashville has immediate connection by rail with all the principal cities north and south, east and west. Boats to St. Louis and Cincinnati semi-weekly. Edgefield is a pleasant village opposite Nashville. Laid out in 1849. The lHermitage.-The traveller while in this vicinage will not fail to make a pilgrimage to the sopt sacred as the hearthstone of General and President Andrew Jackson. S tate, M say, 1784. Owing to its healthy location, it is the re so rt of numbers from the lower country during the heat of summer. Both the public and private buildings of Nashville are creditable to the tast e and liberality of its citizens. The Capitol may justly be considered one of the finest edifices on the continent. It is an elegant and imposing structure, and covers an eminence which rises to the height of 197 feet above the river. The corner-stone was laid July 4, 1845. It is built of fine fossilated limestone, much like marble, which was quarried on the spot. Many of the blocks weigh ten tons each. Its dimensions are 270 by 140 feet. Its architecture is Grecian, consisting of a Doric basement, and supporting on its four fronts Ionic porticoes, modelled after those of the Erectheum at Athens. In the centre of the building is a tower 80 feet high. The basement or crypt of the building is used as a depository of arms. The principal story is approached by a double flight of stairs, which lead to the chambers of the Senate and House of Representatives, the Library, etc. The Senate Chamber is a handsome apartment, 35 by 70 feet, with a gallery, the columns supporting which, and the desks, are of the beautiful East Tennessee marble. The Hall of Representatives contains sixteen fluted columns of the Roman Ionic order, two feet eight inches in diameter, and twenty-one feet ten inches in height, from the level of the galleries over the committee-rooms. The shafts of these columns are all in one piece. The dimensions of this room are 100 feet by 70-height of ceiling from floor, 40 feet. The beauty and convenience in the design of the principal story, so much superior to the plan of the Capitol at Washington, is, that the committee-rooms are on the same plan with, and surrounding the Hall of Representatives. In the display of native marbles in this hall, consists the greatest attraction of this magnificent structure. Flanking the public hall private stairways are constructed, leading from the crypt to the various stories, and to the roof. A geometrical stairway leads from the level of the roof to the top of the tower, where you land upon an arched platform, which is intended for an Observatory. The tower is built from the 121 6 NASHVILLM] [VICINITY.

Page  122 TENNESSEE. stay. Stone River, where the battle was fought, 31st December, 1862, is one mile from the town. It is yet called Murfreesboro' by the people in the vicinity. At Fisterville, 13 miles south of Murfreesboro', are the remains of a fort. Bridqeport is a strongly fortified point at the crossing of Tennessee River. Chattanooga is upon the Tennessee River, in the southern part of the State, where its boundary is touched by Alabama and Georgia. It is 250 miles from Knoxville by water, and 150 miles southeast of Nashville. It is a great railway centre, being the terminus of the Nashville and Chattanooga and Western and Atlantic Railways, which tap the Georgia routes, reaching to Knoxville, and thence through Viriginia; and upon the great line from Charleston, S. C., to the Mississippi at Memphis. The Tennessee River is navigable two-thirds of the year, and at all times for small boats, from the Muscle Shoals to Chattanooga. Population about 7,000. (See Lookout Mountain, in the chapter upon Georgia, for the beautiful landscape surroundings of Chattanooga). The Crutchfield House is a well-kept hotel near the railroad depot. Chickamauga Battle-Field is distant from the city 7 miles southeast. The road thither is good for horses only. The Lookout Mountain is within easy riding distance of Chattanooga. On the summit of this beautiful spur the northwest corner of Georgia and the northeast extremity of Alabama meet on the southern boundary of Tennessee. Almost in the shadow of the Lookout heights lies the busy town of Chattanooga. The country around the "Lookout" is extremely picturesque; the views all about the mountain itself are admirable, and nothi ng can exceed in beauty the charming valley of the Tennessee and its waters, as seen from its lofty summit. It is, too, in the immediate vicinage of other remarka ble localities, the Dogwood Valley, hard by, and the Nickajack Cave in Alabama. The scenes on Lookout, best worth visiting, are Lake Seclusion, Lulah Falls, the Battle-Field, and Rock City. Guides are in attendance throughout the visiting season. W. R. M. Lunn, photographic artist, supplies excellent pictures of these several views. His gallery is on the ex Mlemp his, 420 m iles from St. Louis, 209 from Nashville. HOTELS Gayoso, Wo rsham, and C omm ercial. Memphis is finely situated upon the Third Chickasaw Bluff of the Mississippi, at the mouth of the Wolf River. It is in t he sou thwest corner of the St at e, upon the site of old Fort Pickering. The city presents a striking appearance as seen from the water, with its esplanade several hundred feet in width sweeping along the bluff and covered with large warehouses. It is the chief town on the Mississippi between New Orleans and St. Louis. R ailways unite it at all points with the neighboring country and with the most distant towns, north, east, south, and west. The hotel accommodations are ample, though by no means excellent. The Theatre, corner of Jefferson and Third Streets, is one of the best in the South. It has seats for upwards of 800. A city railroad company is now organized, and it is expected that cars will soon be in operation on Main Street and the leading thoroughfares. It has steamboat connections daily with New Orleans, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Louisville, and all points on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. The Memphis Library Association has its rooms in the Post-Office building, corner Third and Jefferson Streets. The collection of books numbers nearly 2,000. The city is divided into eight wards. It contains twenty churches and twenty-four public schools, built mostly of brick. The &ate Female College is located at Greenwood, two miles southeast of the city. The Memphis Female College and St. Agnes Female Academy are flourishing institutions. The population has more than quadrupled since 1850 in spite of the war, and now numbers nearly 30,000. It fell into the possession of the United States forces, June, 1862, after a brief period of rebellion. Mlfurfreesboro', 32 miles below Nashville, is passed on the railway route to Chattanooga and Atlanta. The town is built in a beautiful and picturesque valley. It is the seat of the Union University (Baptist), established in 1841. Murfreesboro' was the capital of Tennessee from 1817 to 1827, when the State House was burnt. It is a pleasant point at which to make a short 122 3fEWHIS.) [ATTANOOGA.

Page  123 [KNOXVILLE. ference College. The Capitol of the State was once located here. Jackson is upon the Forked Deer River, 180 miles below Nashville by stage. The Mobile and Ohio Railway passes here. ]Lebanon, th e seat of the Cumberland University, is 30 miles east of Nashville by stage. Knoxville is upon the Hoiston River, four miles from its junction with the French Broad, 185 miles east of Nashville, and 204 miles southeast of Lexington, Kentucky. It is connected by the East Tennessee and Georgia Railway with all the great routes of Georgia to the Atlantic, and with the highway to New Orleans, via Montgomery and Mobile, in Alabama; also by the East Tennessee and Virginia Railway, with Richmond, Virginia, and all the great thoroughfares of the country. The great route from Boston to New Orleans now passes through Knoxville. The city is delightfully situated, and affords a pleasant place of resort. It was laid out in 1794, in which year it became the capital of the State, and so continued until 1817. The University of East Tennessee, founded 1807, is a fine building. The State Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb is also a prominent edifice. Population 10,000. The place is famous for its manufacture of window-glass. Caves and Mounds in Tennessee.While in Eastern Tennessee the traveller should not fail to see some of the numerous caves in the Cumberland Mountains. Upon the Enchanted Rock, here, are some singular impressions of the feet of men and animals. In Coffee County, not far from Manchester, there is an ancient stone fort, enclosed by a wall, upon which trees are growing, whose age is supposed to exceed 500 years. This mysterious fortification is situated between two rivers, and occupies an area of 47 acres. 123 treme point of the mountain. The fol lowing brief outline of the operations at Lookout, gleaned from the official report of General Grant, will interest the reader: The Battle of Lookout -J~ountain was fought on the 23d November, 1863, be tween the forces under Hooker, consist ing of Geary's division (12th corps) and 2d brigade of Stanley's division (4th corps) of Thomas's army, and Osterhaus's division (15th corps) of Sherman's army. Booker scaled the western slope of the mountain, drove the enemy from his riflepits on the northern extremity and slope of the mountain. The fight lasted from ten to four P. M., when the rebels gradually withdrew, leaving their artillery, etc. This battle has been greatly magnified. It was really nothing more than an extended skirmish. On the night of the 24th the Union forces maintained an unbroken line with open communications from the north end of Lookout Mountain through Chattanooga valley, to the north end of Mission Ridge. The NVickajack Cave.-The mouth of this wonderful cavern, which has only to be known in order to be famous, is in Alabama, although otherwise it traverses Georgia territory. (See chapter on Al abama.) There are some other mountain and waterfall pictures in Georgia besides those in the upper tier of counties, a few isolated scenes lower down standing as outposts to the hill-region, as Mount Currahee, the Rock Mountain, and the Falls of Towalaga. Colmubia is upon the Duck River, 46 miles south of Nashville, upon the Nashville and Decatur Railway. Jackson College is located here. The educational institutions of the town are important. The most prominent are the Female Athenaceum, Female Institute, and Co n I COLUMBIA.] TENNESSEE.

Page  124 KENTUCKY. KENT U CKY. colonists were routed, with a loss of sixty me n, a mon g t hem a son of the gallant Boone. In 1778 Du Quesne, with his Canadian and Indian army, was bravely r epuls e d at Boonesborough. Kentucky came into the Union in 1792, being the second State ad m itted a fter the Revolutio n. During the re bellion of 1861-'65 Kentucky, from her geographical situation on the bor der, occup ied a difficult and delicate position. For a long time she re fused to side either wi th the North o r the South. On the 4th May, 1861, an election for delegates to the Bo r der State Convention was held, at which the vote was overwhelmingly in favor of the Union. The Convention met at Frankfort on the 27th of May. Volunteers from Kentucky entered both the Union and Confederate s ervice. On t he 4th of July the Louisville and Nas h vi lle Railway, the main thorough fare of the State, was seized by the Con federate soldiers, and shortly afterwards closed. The towns of Hickman and Co lumbus were occupied by Confederate troops under the command of General Polk. On the 18th September a skirmish between Zollicoffer's troops and the Home Guards took place near Barboursville. By 1st December the number of Federal troops in the State amounted to 70,000. The forces of the enemy, under General Buckner, were estimated at 30,000. Early in 1862 active military operations were commenced, and continued throughout the year, when the campaign in Kentucky was virtually abandoned by the rebels. The physical aspect of Kentucky is one of changing and wonderful beauty, as the traveller will see in visiting some of her marvellous natural scenes. The Cumber land Mountains traverse the eastern coun ties, and a line of hills follows the course of the Ohio River, with meadow stretches " THE highest phase of Western character," says Mr. Tuckerman, "is doubtless to be found in Kentucky, and in one view best illustrates the American in distinction from European civilization. In the North this is essentially modified by the cosmopolite influence of the seaboard, and in the South by a climate which assimilates her people with those of the same latitudes elsewhere; but in the West, and especially in Kentucky, we find the foundations of social existence laid by the hunter-whose love of the woods, equality of condition, habits of sport and agriculture, and distance from conventionalities, combine to nourish independence, strength of mind, candor, and a fresh and genial spirit. The ease and freedom of social intercourse, -the abeyance of the passion for gain, and the scope given to the play of character, accordingly developed a race of noble aptitudes; and we can scarcely imagine a more appropriate figure in the foreground of the picture than Daniel Boone, who embodies the honesty, intelligence, and chivalric spirit of the State." The first visit of Boone to the wilderness of Kentucky was about the year 1769, at which period he and his hardy companions made the earliest settlement at Boones borough. In 1774 Harrodsburg was begun, and Lexington a year or two after wards. The pioneers in their western forests met with all the adventure their hearts could desire-more, indeed; for so great was their exposure and suffering, for many long years, from the cruel enmity of the savage populations, that the country came to be known as "the dark and bloody ground." A memorable battle was fought near the Blue Lick Springs, August 19, 1782, between the Ken tuckians and the Indians-an unequal and disastrous conflict, in which the 124 KENTUCKY.] [KENTUCKY.

Page  125 KENTUCKY. between, sometimes ten and even twenty miles in width. The State is well supplied with coal, iron, and other minerals. Salt and mineral springs of great repute abound. The chief agricultural staples of this region are hemp, flax, tobacco, and Indian corn. Of the first-.two of these products a greater quantity is raised here than in any other State. In the production of tobacco Kentucky is second only to Virginia, and in the product of Indian corn she stands third in the list. co ver ed w ith huge f orest trees. The South Licking and the North Fork are among its tributaries. The Ohrceo River is abou t 300 miles in length. It rises in the easter n s ection of the State, and flows westward for some 150 miles, through the limestone regions and by the Mammoth Cave, finally entering the Ohio nine miles above EvansviNe, Indiana. It is navigable in high water, and by the aid of locks and dams, for steamboats, 200 miles to Greensburg. The Salt River, named in token of the Salt Springs which abound in its vicinity, enters the. Ohio 22 miles below Louisville. This is the fabled retreat of defeated politiciaiis and other unhappy adventurers. The Tennessee Rives rises among the Cumberland Moiintains of Eastern Kentucky, and flows 70 miles within the limits of this State. (See Tennessee.) RIVERS.-Thie Ohio River forms the en tire northern boundary of Kentucky, and the Mississippi washes all her western shore; thus giving her, with the aid of the many streams which come fi-om the in terior of the State into these great high ways, the greatest possible facilities for travel, and for the transportation of her staples to all markets. The Kentucky River, like most of the streams of the State, is remarkable for picturesque beauty. Its passage, in a course of 200 miles northwest to the Ohio, is often through bold limestone ledges, ranged on either side of the narrow, dark channel in grand perpendicular cliffs. "Deepen Trenton Falls," says Mr. Willis, "for one or two hundred feet, smoothe its cascades into a river, and extend-it for thirty miles between perpendicular precipices, from three to five hundred feet high, and only a biscuittoss across at the top-and you have a river of whose remarkable beauty the world is strangely ignorant." The Cuminberland -iver is one of the largest of the tributaries of the Ohio. It has its source in the Cumberland MAountains, in the southeast corner of the State, and flows 600 miles, making a bend into Tennessee, and then traversing western Kentucky. It is navigable for steamers 200 miles to Nashville, and sometimes to Carthage, while small craft may ascend 300 miles yet higher. About 14 miles from Williamsburg there is a fine perpendicular fall of 60 feet. The Licki2q -River flows from the Cumberland Mountains, 200 miles, into the Ohio, opposite Cincinnati. Steamboats may ascend 50 miles to Falmouth. This river varies in width from 50 to 100 yards. Its banks are often lofty and precipitous, - RAILWAYS.-The Louisville and Neashville - Railway from L ouisville, via Shepherdsville (18 miles), Lebanon Junction (30), Elizabethtown (42), Munfordsville (73), Cave City (85), Bowling Green (114), to Nashville (185). Immediate connection at Louisville and Nashville with roads North and South. Lebantot Branch (L. and N. R. R.) from Lebanon Junction (30), Lebanon (66), Danville (95), to Stanford, 105 miles. The Ientuck,. Central (Covington and Lexington) Railway from Covinton (opposite Cincinnati), via Falmouth (39), Cynthiana (66), Paris (80), to Lexington (99 miles), where it connects with the Lexington and Soutlern Kentucky Railway to Nicholasville (112 -miles). The Louisville and Fr],a2fort and Lexington and k*rantkfort Paiul;wa, 94 miles from Louisville to Lexi,ngton, via Frankfort. 133 miles from Cincinnati by river, 94 from Lexington. To reach Louisville from Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and intermediate places, see Cicinnrati and routes to that city. From Cincinnati, talke the steamer down the Ohio River, 133 miles to Louisville; or the Ohio and Mississippi Railway 87 miles to Seymour, and thence by 125 RIVERS.] [LOUISVILLE, LOUISVILLE.

Page  126 KENTUCKY. the Jeffersonville Railway 59 miles to Jeffersonville, opposite Louisville. This is the shortest land route. Total distance to Louisville from Cincinnati, 146 miles. Louisville may also be reached less directly but more pleasantly from Cincinnati by the Kentucky Central Railway (Covin,ton and Lexington), 99 miles to Lexington, and thence by the Louisville and Lexington Railway via Frankfort, 94 miles. The distance from Cincinnati to Louisville, by this route, is 193 miles. Louisville may be reached from Pittsburg, the western terminus of the Pennsylvania Cen tral Railway, from Philadelphia or from Wheeling, the western terminu s of the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, by steamboat down the Ohio. From St. Louis ther e is railway communication by the Ohio and Mi s s issippi to Mitchell (213 miles), and thencetby the Louisville, New Albany and Chicago Railway, 61 miles. From Indianapolis the route is by the Jeffersonville Railway, 108 miles. HofLs. —The Louisville Hotel, on Main Street, is a commodious and well-kept house. The obtionat and United States Hotels are centrally located. Louisville, With a population of about 80,000, is th e chief city of Kentucky. It is located at the Falls of the Ohio, where Bear Grass Creek enters that river. The topography is most agreeable, affording fine views from many parts of the terrace elevation of 70 feet. The Falls, which are quite picturesque in appearance, may be seen from the town. In high stages of the water they almost entirely disappear, and steamboats pass over them; but when the water is low, the whole width of the river, which is scarcely less than a mile, has the appearance of a great many broken rivers of foam, making their way over the falls. The river is divided by a fine island, which adds to the beauty of the scene. To obviate the obstruction to the navigation caused by the falls, a canal two and a half miles in length has been cut round them, to a place called Shippingsport. It was a work of immense labor, being- for the greater part of its course cut through the solid rock. The total cost of the work was little short of a million dollars. The extent of the city riverward is over two miles. The course of the leading streets is in this direction. 126 The y are, f or the most part, wide, wel pavill ay sh aded with t re es. The fo llowing are among the most prominent buildings: o the City Hall, t Court House, o n Jefferson Str eet; the Louisville University Medical College, corner Ninth and Chestnut Streets; the Blind Asylum, Male, and Female High Schools, the Cut. tom Hous e, and Post-Office, corner Greene and Third Streets; Masonic Temple, co rn er Fourth an d Greene. Among the church edifices of the city the most note. worthy are: the Ca thedr al, on Walnut Stree t, corner of Fif th; St. Paul's Episco pal, at the intersect ion of Walnut and Sixth; and the First Presbyterian Church, opposite. pThe First Baptist Church is also an imposing structure. The Mercantile Library contains upwards of 7,000 volumes. The collection of the Historical Society contains many rare and valuable works rela tive to the early se ttlement of the State. The "1Journal"1 (still conducted by the veteran poet and politician Prentice) and the " Democrat"1 are the leading newspapers published in the city. The Louisville Theatre, another of the "1institutions"1 of the city, is at the southeast corner of Fourth and Greene Streets. " Wood's"1 Theatre, also a popular place of resort, is at the intersection of Jefferson with Fourth Streets. Temperance Hall, in Market Street, is used for lecture,,, fairs, etc. The chief exports of the city are tobacco, pork, hemp, and flour. A visit to the tobacco warehouses, which are large and numerous, will repay the stranger who finds himself with the necessary leisure. Jeffersonville, on the Indiana shore, opposite Louisville, is the terminus of the railway to Indianapolis, and a place of much trade. Portland, a village on the Ohio River, at the foot of the falls, three miles below Louisville. Silver Creek, four miles below the city, on the Indiana side, is a beautiful rocky stream, and a favorite fishing and picnic place of the Louisville ruralizers. There is a small but fair hotel here. It is reached by ferre from Portland. Harrod'8 Creek, eight miles up the [VICINITY. LouisviLLz.l VICINITY.

Page  127 KENTUCKY. Ohio, affords a pleasant excursion. T h e Lexington and Bardstown turnpikes afford many pleasant drives through a pretty and well-cultivated country. The road along the borders of Bear Grass Creek, in the direction of Lexington, is very agreeable. The fine forest- vegetation, the charming park-like groves, the hempfields and the bljrass pastures, all help to furnish delight in the Louisville rides and rambles. Cave Hill Cemetery is much admired for its monuments. It is in the immediate suburb of the city eastward. (For excursion to the Mammoth Cave, see Louisville and Nashville Railway.) Covington, opposite Cincinnati, is one of the principal cities of Kentucky, with a population of about 17,000. It is up on the Oh io, immediately bel ow its point of c onfluence with the Licking. Across the latter stream is the suburban town of Newport. Steam ferries unite Covington with Cinci nnati, and the great suspension bridge will soon make a yet better means of communication thenc e. T he city is built upon a broad and beautiful plain very much after the topog — raphy o f the g reat Ohio city opposite, to which, indeed, it may be regarded as suburban. This is the seat of the Western Theological College, a prosperous and r ichly-endowe d in stitut i on. There are here large manufactories of hemp, silk, and tobacco, also several large rollingmils. The business of packing pork and beef is also extensively carried on. It' is the northern terminus of the Kentucky Central Railway. lNearort, across the Licking River from Covington, has a population of about 14,000. Like the neighboring cities of Covington and Cincinnati, to which it owes its prosperity, it is pleasantly and advantageously situated. It will probably soon absorb the adjoining villa-es of Jamestown and Brooklyn. A suspension bridge connects it with Covington. Th~e Pailway route to Le~xington from Covington runs southerly to the thriving towns of Falmouth, Cyntbiana, and Paris, 99 miles to Lexington. At Falmouth the road crosses the south branch of the Licking River, along the banks of which stream the road mainly runs as far as Cyuthiana. At Paris, 40 miles further, is the confluence of the Hueston and ~tony Creeks, which are also crossed over a stone viaduct. Paris is the county seat of Bourbon County, the centre of one of the finest stock-raising districts of the State. aFalmaouth (39 miles), in Pendleton County, is prettily situated on a beautiful plain, watered by the Licking and the South Branch, which here unite their waters. The neighborhood abounds in fine views. Cynthiana (66 miles), on the south fork of the Licking River, was incorporated in 1802. It has accommodation for visitors. Fine fishing in the vicinity. Paris (80 miles), the county town of Bourbon County, is the centre of one of the finest farming districts of the State. The manufacture of the famous Bourbon whiskey is extensively carried on in several large distilleries. To lovers of that somewhat popular beverage, no stronger inducement to sojourn here is deemed necessary. The Blue Lick Springs are reached by stage from this point. ]Lexington, 29 miles from Frankfort; 94 from Louisville; 100 from Cincinnati. HOTEL, the PAcenix House, an excellent house, newly arranged and refurnished. Lexington is one of the most opulent and beautiful of Kentucky's cities. Few inland towns of the Union are more delightfully situated, or afford greater attractions to the tourist or traveller. It is situated on the lower fork of the Elkhorn River. In population and trade it is the second city of the State. The streets are regular, broad, well paved, well built, and delightfully shaded. Here is the seat of the Kentucky University, on the ruins of Transylvania University, the Law and Medical schools of which are held in high repute. This has been established in 1865. It has an endowment of $500,000. The students number 250. The University Library numbers over 25,000 volumes. The State Lunatic Asylum occupies a prominent locale. The city was founded in 1776, and incorporated in 1782. Its population exceeds 10,000. Lexington Cemetery, in the west end of the city, is a pretty, sequestered spot, much frequented by visitors to Lexington. It contains 60 acres, mostly woodland. It was laid 127 COVINGTON.) LExiNGTON.

Page  128 KENTUCKY. throng of pilgrims continually pouring thither, as though it were a wilderness. After the death of Mr. Clay, the estate of Ashland was sold at public auction, but was purchased by James B. Clay, the great statesman's eldest son, and so the honored and beloved little homestead remains yet, happily, in the family possession. Let it be sacredly and forever preserved." The visitor to Ashland now will find the scene much changed since Mr. Greeley's visit. It is stripped of much of its beauty. The old homestead has been replaced by a house of more pre tentious style, but in other respects as much like the old one as it was possible to make it. It is occupied by the widow of the late Colonel Clay, who kindly al lows it to be shown to visitors. It has recently been resold for a public purpose. Woodburn, the estate of Mr. R. A. Alexander, is in Woodford County. near Spring Station, on the Lexington and Frankfort Railway, nearly equidistant from these two points. It contains over 2,000 acres of land, and is one of the largest and most valuable farms in the State. The collection of thorough-bred stock at Woodburn is the finest in the United States. The famous thorough-bred stallion Lexington, purchased from his late owner, Mr. Tenbroeck, at a cost of $15,000, is among the many and varied attractions of Woodburn. It is an easy walk from the Spring Station to Mr. Alex ander's mansion. Frankfort, the capital of Ken tucky, is situated on the east bank of the Kentucky River, 60 miles above its en trance into the Ohio. The site of the town is a deep valley, surrounded by pre cipitous hills. The river flows between deep limestone banks, the quarries of which yield a fine stone or marble, of which many of the houses are built. The heights on the northeast afford fine peeps at the beautiful scenery of the Kentucky waters. The ruins of the State Capitol occupy an eminence, midway between the river and the upper end of the valley. It was a fine structure, built of marble, quarried in the neighborhood. Here, too, is the State Penitentiary. The town is connect ed with the village of South Frankfort, across the river, bv a chain bridge. Pop ulation some 8,000. During the late rebel out in 1849, in what was known as Boswell's woods, and dedicated June, 1850. About 4,000 interments have b een made up to this time, 1866. The chief attrac tion of the pl ace i s the mo nument to Kentucky's illustrious statesman, HENRY CLAY. It stand s on an eminence near the centre of the ground, and c a n be seen for mil es around. The cor ner stone was lai d July 4, 185o, and the stru ct ur e ompleted in 1860, at a cos t of $50,000-the State subscribing -$20,000. A shla nd, the hom e of Clay, is in the immediate vicinity. The old Clay hom es tead sto od about a mile and a half from Lexington, and the locality is, of course, the chief obje ct of interest in th is neighborhood. "W alking slowly an d though tful up," s ay s Mr. Greeley, " a noble av enue that leads easterly from Lexington, the traveller finds the road terminating abruptl y in front of a modest, spacious, agreeable m ansion, o nly two stories in height, and of no great arc h i te ctural pretensions. Mr. Clay lived at Ash lan d b etwee n f orty and fifty years. T ena o the p lace bore the name when hewent to it, p robably, as he said himself, on acc ount of the a sh t imb er with which it abounds,,, and he m ad e i t one of the most delightful retreats in all the We st. The estate is abo ut 600 a cr es large, all under the hi ghest cultivation, except some 200 acres of park which is entirely cleared of underbrush and small trees, and is, to use the words of Lord Morpeth, who stayed at As hl and nearly a week, the nearest approach to an English park of any in this country. It serves for a noble pasture, and here Mr. Clay had some of the finest horses an d cattle in Ame rica. The larger part of the farm 4s devoted to wheat, rye, hemp, etc., and the crops look most splendid. Mr. Clay paid great attention to the ornamentation of the land with beautiful shade trees, shrubs, flowers, and fruit orchards. From the road which passes the place on the northwest side, a carriage way leads up to the house, lined with locust, cypress, cedar, and other rare trees, and the rose, jasmine, and ivy clamber about them, and peep through the grass and the boughs like so many twinkling fairies. The mansion is nearly hidden from the road by the surrounding trees; and is as quiet and secluded, save to the 128 ASHLAND.] [FRANKFORT.

Page  129 [THE MAMMOTH CAVE. lion the city was occupied by Confederate cavalry on the 6th September, 1862, but the damage to the capitol buildings was caused accidentally by fire in December, 1865. ]Hossersville, near Richmond, 50 miles south of Frankfort, was the scene of a fight between general Kirby Smith's forces and a small Federal force, in which the latter were routed. Hlarrodsburg, a town of over 3,000 people, and the oldest settlement in Kentucky, is upon an eminence near Salt River, about 30 miles below Frankfort. The first cabin built in the State was erected here by Captain James Harrod, in 1774. It is the seat of Bacon Colley e, founded in 1836, and of a Jfilitary Academy. The greatest attraction; however, of Harrodsburg, is its celebrated mineral springs, which make it the most famous summer resort in the State. Good roads extend throughout the neighborhood. (See Harrodsburgq Springs.) lunfordsville, on the right bank of Green River, 73 miles south of Louisville and 100 miles south of Frank fort, is a place often visited by tourists through this section. Near the village is a remarkable spring, and six miles east other natural curiosities. (See Sink-Holes of Kenttcky.) The neighborhood was the scene of numerous encounters be tween Generals Buell and Bragg, in the campaign of 1862. The fine bridge over Green River, destroyed during the war, has been replaced. Twelve miles south of Munfordsville is Cave City Station, the point of departure for the Mammoth Cave. Paducah is upon the Ohio, just be low the mouth of the Tennessee, 340 miles from Louisville, 473 miles from Cincin nati. Paducah bears the name of an Indian chief who once lived in the neigh borhood. On account of its favorable situation at the confluence of two great .rivers, it was a point of much importance during the war, for the shipment of am munition and supplies. Population 6,000. lTaysville, founded in 1784, is upon the Ohio River, 60 miles above Cincinnati, and 60 miles northeast of Lexington. At Portsmouth, Ohio, some 50 miles al)ove, on the Ohio River, railway lines come in from all parts of the country, north and east. Maysville is upon Lime stone Creek, whose name it formerly bore. The position of the town is in the midst of a varied hill-landscape. It is, in business and population, the fourth city of Kentucky, and its greatest hemp mart. This is the entrepot for the merchandise and produce imported and exported by the northwest section of the State. Among the principal public buildings are the City Hall, a Hospital, Jail, and several churches. Population 6,000. (For towns in Kentucky on the Ohio River, see Ohio -iver.) The Igamnmoth Cave.Among, the m a n y resort s and o bjects of interest with which Kentucky abou nds, the m ost notewor thy, as well as most frequented, is this fa mous cavern. The route thither is not difficult. Tourists from the Eastern cities will best reach it via Cincinnati and Louisville, thence by the Louisville and Nashville Rai lway to Cave City, 85 miles south of Louisville. This point is within 9 miles of the mouth of the cave. From the south and west, travellers will of course take the railway from Nashville for Cave City. Steamers ply on the Green River from Louisville to within the distance of a mile only of the cave. Parties arriving at Cave City. by the night trains can "lay over" (as the period of rest is technically known in this vicin i ty) a t th e hotel there, and proceed to the cave the following morning. A stage connects with each train during the season-fare, $1.00; carriages and horses for hire. The cave is believed to extend under the ground passed over in the route of nine miles from the railway station. Four miles from Cave City, the visitor will pass a small cave on the left of the road, known as the ll,dian Cave. It contains some of the most beautiful specimens of the stalactite and stalagmite formations to be found in the cave region. In size, however, it is a mere pigmy beside its gigantic neighbor, the Mammoth. The approaches have been sadly interfered with during the war. It is proposed to restore them and the cave to their original condition, and if possible to improve them. The proprietor, Sam. B. Young, resides at Cave City. Tl —e Cave Hotel, as before stated, is'.3 miles from the railway station, and is reached with ease in two hours when the roads 129 PADUCAH.] KENTUCKY.

Page  130 [THE MAMMOTH CAVE. are in good order, which of late years has not been the case. Mr. Ouseley, the former proprietor, has disposed of the property to Messrs. Rogers and Proctor, who have made recent additions and improvements. Visitors will now find it a pleasant stopping-place. A short walk from the hotel brings us to the mouth of the cave. The journey through these stupendous vaults and passages is often long and toilsome, despite the marvels which everywhere beguile the way. As it takes days to see these wonderful scenes, so it would require many pages to describe them, which fact compels us to be content with the briefest catalogue of the chief points of interest. Accompanied by a guide (it is not safe to attempt the passage without one), and aided by a lighted flambeau or oil-lamp, the visitor may now set out on his underground journey. After exploring the narrows, ante-chambers, and the Audubon Avenue, which is a mile in length, 50 or 60 feet high, and as many wide, we return and pass through the vestibule for a second time, entering the main cave or Grand Gallery, a mighty tunnel of many miles extent. The Kentucky Cliffs passed, we descend some 20 feet to the Rotunda, and thence to another apartment immediately underneath it, known as the Church. This is a grand apartment, 100 feet in diameter, with a roof formed of one solid seamless rock, suspended 63 feet overhead. Nature has supplied these solemn halls with a natural pulpit, and a recess where a mighty organ and a countless choir could be placed. Religious services have been performed in the "dim religious light" of torches, under this magnificent roof. The Gothic Avenue is reached by a detour from the main cave, and a descent of some 30 feet. It is two miles in length, 40 feet wide, and 15 feet high. This place was once called the Haunted Chamber. Louisa's Bower, Vulcan's Stithy, and the new and old Register Rooms, are now passod in succession. The Gothic Chapel rivals all the marvels of the highest and nicest art, in the strength, beauty, and proportions of its grand columns, and its exquisite ornamentation. The Devil's Arm Chair is a large stalagmite pillar, in the centre of 130 which is a spacious seat, grand enough for the gods. After p assing n umero us other stalactites and stalagmit e s, we look, in succession, at Napoleon's Breastwork, the Elephant's Head, and the Lover's Leap. This last scene is a large pointed rock, more than 90 feet above the floor, and projecting into a grand rotunda. Just below the Lover's Leap, a detour may be made to the lower branch of the Gothic Avenue, at the entrance of which we see an immense flat rock, called Gatewood's Dining-.Room; and to the right, a beautiful basin of water, named the Cooling-Tub. Beyond is Flint Pit. Still pursuing our detour, we pass, one after the other, LVapoleon's Dome, the Cinder Banks, the Crystal Pool (Lake Purity), Salt Cave, and a wonderful place, still beyond, called _Annetti's Dome, through a crevice of which is a waterfall. Reentering the main or Grand Avenue, we arrive soon at the Ball-Room, where Nature has provided every necessary fitting of gallery and orchestra. Willie's Spring has its pleasant story, which will delight the wondering visitor until he is almost petrified with astonishment at the sight of the great rock, known as the Giant's Coffin. Here begin the incrustations, ever varied in form and character, which are so much the delight of all visitors. The Giant's Coffin passed, we sweep round the Great Bend. Opposite is the SickRoom. The Star Chamber is a splendid hall, with perpendicular arches on each side, and a flat roof. In the main avenue the side rocks are of a light color, and are strongly relieved against the dark ceiling, which is covered with countless sparkling substances, resembling stars. By a judicious display of lamps and Bengal lights in this apartment, an almost magical effect is produced. It forms one of the.most-to many, the most attractive feature of the cave. Wright's -Rotunda (the Cross Room) has a ceiling of 400 feet span, and vet not a single pillar to uphold it. The Black Chambers contain ruins which remind us of old baronial castle walls and towers. Through the Big Chimneys we ascend into an upper room, about the size of the main cave. Here are heard the plaintive whispers of a distant waterfall; as we come nearer, the sound swells into a grand roar, and we THE'hfAMMOTH CAVE.] KENTUCKY.

Page  131 THE MAMMOTH CAVE.] are, close to the cataract. To enter the place called the Solitary Chamber, by the way of the tumble Chiute, we have to crawl upon our hands and knees for 15 or 18 feet beneath a low arch. Here is the Fairy Grotto, the character of which admirably realizes the promise of its name. The Chief City (Temple) in the main cave (Grand Avenue) beyond the Rocky Pass, is 200 feet in diameter, and 40 feet high. The floors are piled with rock, which give it the appearance of a ruined city. Other localities, in the direct passage of the cave, as in some of the many ditours, are appropriately named the Seeps of Time, the Covered Pit, the SideSaddle, the Bottomless Pit, the Labyrinth, the Dead Sea, and the Bandit's Hall. The Long Route.-On entering upon the Long Route, the visitor leaves the main cave at the foot of the Giant's Coffin, and passes into the Deserted Chamber. The distance from the mouth of the cave to the Maelstrom, at the end of the Long Route, is 9 miles. Passing lrooden-Bowl Cave, Martha's Palace, Shelby's Dome, we cross the Bridge of Sighs, and enter another apartment, where those who frequent the cave, and are therefore supposed to know something of its mysteries, are in the habit of resting in a narrow, tortuous avenue, called and known as Revellers' Hall. Fat Man's Misery appropriately follows the Hall of Feasting and Revelling. Crossing the river Styx by a natural bridge, we reach Ldce Lethe, which visitors, desiring to extend their e xplorations further, cross in boats. From Lake Lethe the visitor is introduced to the Great lValk, at the termination of which he can take a boat on Echo River, which has a course of three quarters of a mile within the cave, and finally finds its outlet in Green River. Silliman's Avenue is still beyond. Parties visiting the cave in sufficient numbers, and accompanied by a band, frequently sojourn here and enjoy the festivities of the Ball-Room. Visitors, if they feel so disposed, may travel 200 miles in the different avenues and labyrinthine walks of this wonderful cave. Proper care will insure against all risk of danger. Colds, instead of being contracted, are more often cured by the visit. Nowhere is the air in the slightest degree impure. So free is the cave from reptiles of every kind, that St. Patrick might be supposed to have exerted his fabled annihilating power in its favor. Combustion is everywhere perfect. No decomposition is met with. The waters of the springs and rivers of the cave are habitually fresh and pure. The temperature is equable at all seasons, at 69 degrees Fahrenheit. W7ite's Cave is situated about half a mile from the Cave Hotel. It is remarkable for the beauty of its stalactite formations. It is easily explored, being but 500 yards long..Diamond(Richerson's) Cave lies on the road to Indian and Mammoth Caves, half a mile west of the railway. Its chief beauty are its stalactite formations. Harrodsburg Springs.-This is one of the most fashionable watering-places of Kentucky, and is, during the season, " the grand field of tournament for Western flirtation, and the gathering-point for politicians out of harness, and for such wealthy Westerners and Southerners as like to spend their money on the side of the Alleghanies that slopes toward home." The hotel here, with all its surroundings and appointments, is most admirable. Dr. Graham, the liberal proprietor, has already expended more than $300,000 upon the embellishment of the place; and so expended it, that it all sensibly contributes to the comforts and enjoyments of his guests. (For route, see Harrod8burg, ante.) Knob Liek is an interesting spot within excursion distance (15 miles) of the Har. rodsburg Springs. The knobs or hillocks here are from 100 to 200 feet high, more or less conical; some of them insulated, others connected by crumbling isthmuses; the whole forming a group of barren conoidal eminences, which are finely contrasted with the deep verdure of the surrounding plain. The Devils Pulpit is a wonderful passage in the bold landscape of the Kentucky River. It is accessible from Harrodsburg in a twenty-mile excursion. The.B!ue Lick Springs is a wateringplace of high repute, on the Licking River, in Nicholas County. These springs contain soda, magnesia, lime, sulphiiretted hydrogen, and carbonic acid, in combination with muriates and sulphates. A battle was fought here between the settlers 131 KENTUCKY. [SI —RINGS.

Page  132 I [NATURAL BRIDGE. and Indians, August 19,1782. (For route thither, see Paris, ante.) -Drennon Springs (black and salt sulphur) are upon the banks of the Kentucky, in Henry County. They may be reached by steamboat from Louisville. Poplar Mou?ntain Springs are upon the Poplar Mountain top, in Clinton County, four miles from Albany. The scenery in this vicinage is remarkable for its beauty. Upon Indian Creek, not far from the springs, there is a perpendicular waterfall of 90 feet. The White Sulphur Springs are in Graysoh County, four miles from Litchfield. They are very numerous, within a small area. The Tar and Breckenridge White Sulphur Springs are in Breckenridge County, four miles from Cloverport. They are readily accessible from the Ohio River. The Breckenridge coal is found in this vicinity. The Tar and Sul,phur Springs are upon Green River, in Davis County, near the " Old Vernon Settlements." There are other springs of reputation in this vicinity. The Esculapia Springs (chalybeate and white sulphur) are in a beautiful valley of Lewis County. The Fox and Phillips Springs are in the abundant spring region of Fleming County. The Lettonian Springs (sulphur) are upon the Bank Lick Road, near the Ohio River, and about four miles from Covington. This is a pleasant excursion point from Cincinnati. The Parroquet Springs are near Shepherdsville, in Bullitt County. The Sink-Holes of Kentucky. —Of these curious cavities or depressions in the surface of the ground, known as sinks, remarkable examples are found in Kentucky. Sinking Creek, in Breckenridge County, suddenly disappears, and is not seen again within a distance of half a dozen miles. Near Munfordsville, in Hart County, there is a strange spring connected with a mill-pond, the waters of which overflow the dam every twenty-four hours, rising 12 or 15 inches, and receding to their ordinary level with the precision of the tides. Six miles east of the same town there is a hole, in form like an inverted cone, which is 70 feet in diameter at the surface, and but 10 or 12 feet across 132 at a depth of 25 or 30 feet. Stones cast into this pit give no indication of touching the bottom. There is yet another extraordinary sink in this neighborhood, on the top of an elevation, called Frenchman's Knob. It has been descended, by means of a rope, 275 feet, but without finding bottom. NTatural Bridge.-There is a n e xtraordinary natural bridge in the romantic County of Christian. It is 130 feet high, with a span of 70 feet. Dismal Rock is a frowning precipice, 160 f eet high, in Edmonson County. Cumberland Gap.-This passage of the Cumberland River through the mountains, in Knox County, 150 miles south of Lexington, is an imposing scene. The waters make their way between huge cliffs, 1,300 feet in height. This famous gap gained considerable prominence during the recent campaign in Kentucky. It was surrendered to the Federal forces under General Shackleford, September 7, 1863. Waterfalls.-Besides the cascades of the Indian Creek, near Poplar Mountain, of which we have already made mention, there are numerous beautiful waterfalls among the hills of Kentucky. The Kentick Creek, in Cumberland County, presents some fine pictures of this kind. The traveller must not overlook, either, if his time serves for the exploration, the Rock Hou&se in Cumberland, the Indian Rock in Edmonson, Pilot Rock in Christian, and the At and the Anvil Rocks in Union County. The Mounds and Fortifications, which are numerous in Kentucky, afford employment enough for the antiquarian tourist. In Allen County, 17 miles from Bowling Green, there is a wall of solid limestone 200 yards in length, 40 feet high; at its base 30 feet thick, and at its summit six feet. It crosses a neck formed of a curve in Drake's Creek, and shuts in a peninsula of about 200 acres, elevated 100 feet above the river. Upon the crown of this eminence, an area of three acres is surrounded by a wall and ditch, making the place a fortress of immense strength. Other strange ancient works may be found in Warren, Spencer, Boone, La Rue, Montgomery, Barren, and Bourbon Coun. ties. The Big Bone Licks of Boone County exhibit the great bones of the mastodon SPRINGS.] KENTUCKY.

Page  133 MOUNDS.] KENTUCKY. [ROUTES and other extinct animals. Curious fossil ly described in the foregoing pages. For remains are found in Bourbon County. the convenience of those making the Impressions of the feet of men and of Southern Tour by water from Cincinnati animals may be seen in a rock near Mor- or St. Louis, the editor of the "Handganfield, in Union County. book" deems it important to incorporate Both the antiquarian and the geolo- in this portion of the work brief sketches gist have a fine field within the domains of these cities, and other points of interof Kentucky, in which to gratify their est on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. taste and prosecute their studies. For more extended descriptions of these The usually travelled routes from New cities and vicinage, the reader is referred York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Wash- to the chapters on Ohio and Mississippi. ington, southward, have been sufficient 133

Page  134 THE OHIO RIVER. THE OHIO RIVER. [See accompanying map.] the appropriateness of the title, of which the early French explorers gave it, ".La Belle Rivigre." The Ohio is formed by the junction of the Alleghany and Monongahela, the f o rmer being navigable for keel-boats as f a r as Olean, in the State of New York, a distance of about 250 miles; the latter is navigable f or steamboats to Brownsville, 60 i le s, i an d by keel-boats upwards of 175 miles. These two streams unite at Pittsburg and form the Ohio, which after a course of one thousand miles unites its waters with those of the Mississippi. No other river of the same length has such a uniform, smooth, and placid current. Its average width is about 2,400 feet, and the descent, in its whole course, is about 400 feet. At Pittsburg it is elevated about 1,150 feet above the ocean. It has no fall, except a rocky rapid of twenty-two and a half feet descent at Louisville, around which is a canal two and a half miles long, with locks sufficiently capacious to admit large steamboats, though not of the largest class. (See Louisville.) During half the year this river has a depth of water allowing of navigation by steamboats of the first class through its whole course. It is, however, subject to extreme elevations and depressions. The average range between high and low water is probably 50 feet. It lowest stage is in September, and its highest in March. It has been known to rise 12 feet in a night. Various estimates have been made of the rapidity of its current, but owing to its continually varying, it would be difficult to assign any very exact estimate. Between Pittsburg and its mouth it is diversified by many considerable islands, some of which are of exquisite beauty; besides a number of tow-heads and sand-bars, which in low stages of the ONE Of the most important points for the traveller to consider and determine upon before taking a trip down the Ohio, or indeed any river, is the choice of a boat. In vain are fine weather and pleas ant company, if the craft you have select ed be not seaworthy and comfortable; a leaky stateroom, a wheezy'scape-pipe or two, a defective boiler, are things to be avoided at all times, but especially so when starting on a voyage of a thousand miles or more, extending over a period of several days. If the traveller have the opporttmiaty, and is " posted" in such matters, it is always well to go aboard the day before starting, and examine for himself. If not, let him consult his landlord, or still better, some friend whose judgment may be relied on, and be thus guided in his choice. The regular packet lines are the most reliable, and these usually have one boat daily. The fare from Cincinnati or St. Louis to New Orleans, is usually about the same, varying from $25 to $40, according to the season of the year, the stage of water, and the probable duration of the passage. The distance from Cincinnati to Cairo, at the mouth of the river, is 500 miles, and the time usually occupied in making it, two days, though it is sometimes travelled by the regular packets in less. The traveller, as he descends this noble river in the spring of the year-when its banks are full, and the beautiful red-bud and Cormus Florida deck the declivities of the bluffs, which sometimes rise 300 feet in height, impend over the river, and cast their grand shadows into the transparent waters, and are seen at intervals in its luxuriant bottoms, while the towering sycamore throws its venerable and majestic arms, decked with rich foliage, over the othertrees-will readily acknowledge 134

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Page  135 THE OHIO RIVER. water greatly impede the navigation. The passages between some of the islands and the sand-bars at their head are among the difficulties of the navigation of the Ohio. In the infancy of the country, every species of water craft was employed in navigating this river, some of which were of the most whimsical and amusing description. The barge, the keel-boat, the Kentucky-flat or familyboat, the pirogue, ferry-boats, gondolas, skiffs, dug-outs, and many others, formerly floated in great numbers down the currents of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to their points of destination, at distances sometimes of three thousand miles. Owing to the difficulties of navigating the river between Pittsburg and Cincinnati, and the facilities of speedy communication between these cities by rail, the amount of travel, except between way points on the river, is very small. Hanging Rock, Ohio............... 18 88T Greenupsburg, Ky................ 6 848 Wheelersburg, Ohio...............8 851 Portsmouth, Ohio. 12 868 Scioto River, Ohio............... Rockville, Ohio................... 16 8T9 Rome, Ohio.......................10 889 Concord, Ky...................... 6 895 Manchester, Ohio.................. 7 404 Maysville, Ky. 12 414 Aberdeen, Ohio i............ 1 Charleston, yY.................... 7 421 Ripley, Ohio...................... 2 423 Higginsport, Ohio................. 7 430 Augusta, Ky...................... 4 484 Mechanicsburg, Ky................ 7 441 Neville, Ohio...................... 8 444 Moscow........................... 4 448 Pt. Pleasant, Ohio 4 452 Belmont. Ky............... New Richmond................... 5 457 Little Miami River, Ohio.......... 14 471 Columbia Jamestown, Ky................. Cincinnati, Ohio Newport & Covington, Ky.' * 5 4.T CINCINNATI. Table of distances on the Ohio, from Pitts burg to Cincinnati. The "Queen City of the West," as Cincinnati has not inappropriately been called, is pleasantly situated on the north bank of the Ohio, 500 miles from its mouth, and near the confluence of the Licking River, which enters from Kentucky just above Covington, on the opposite side of the river. Its central position, at the very heart of the railway and inland navigation system of the country, secures to the traveller easy and rapid access from every quarter of the Union. From New York the most direct route thither is by the Atlantic and Great Western Railway via Salamanca and Mansfield, distance 862 miles. The New York and Erie route, and the Hudson River or Harlem Railway to Albany, and thence by the Central to Buffalo or Dunkirk, and thence via Cleveland and Columbus, are not unfrequently taken. From Philadelphia, by the Pennsylvania Central Railway via Pittsburg, Crestline, and Columbus, distance 722 miles. The scenery of the Pennsylvania Central is much admired. From Baltimore the route is by the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, via Wheeling or Parkersburg, distance 636 miles. Adding the distance from New York to Baltimore, 186 miles, the entire distance from New York to Cincinnati, by this 135 T o Middletown, Pa................... 11 Economy, Pa.................... 8 Freedom, Pa...................... 6 Beaver, Pa........................ 5 Georgetown, Pa.............14 Liverpool, Ohio................... 4 Wellsville Ohio................... 4 Steubenville, Ohio................ 19 Wellsburg~ Va................ 7 Warrenton, Ohio.................. 7 Martinsville, Ohio................. 8 Wheel ing, Va. 1 Bridgeport, Ohio. Elizabethtown, Va. 1 Big Grave Creek, Va. New Martinsville, Va.............. 10 Sisterville, Va..................... 29 Newport, Ohio.................... 12 Marietta, Ohio.................... 18 Vienna, Va....................... 6 Parkersburg, Va. 6 Belpre, Ohio Blennerhasset's Island............. 2 Hockingsport, Ohio..............11 Bellville, Va..................... 4 Murraysville, ~a............. 5 Shade River, Ohio................. 1 Ravenswood, Va.................. 11 Letartsville, Ohio................. 22 Pomeroy.......................... 14 Coalport,1 Sheffield, Ohio............... Point Pleasant,... 1 Gt. Kanawha River, Va. f * —-—.. Gallipolis, Ohio.................... 4 Millersport, Ohio..................24 Guyandotte, Va.? 13 Proctorsville, ldhio f.............* Burlington, Ohio............. 8 Big Sandy River................ 4 19 25 30 44 49 52 71 78 85 93 94 107 11T 146 158 ITT 182 188 190 201 205 210 211 222 244 258 259 271 275 299 312 820 824

Page  136 THE OHIO RIVER. at certain hours each day with a motley multitude of every class. Among the public buildings of the city worthy of notice are the Observatory on Mount Adams, in the eastern part of the city, the cornerstone of which was laid November 9, 1843, by John Quincy Adams. The telescope, by Mentz and Mahler of Munich, is a valuable instrument, and cost $10,000. The Jfasonic Temple, on the northeast corner of Walnut and Third, is an elegant structure. The Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Peters, at the intersection of Plum and Eighth Streets, has a powerful organ and some fine paintings. The altar is of Carrara marble, by Chiappri, of Genoa. The Custom House, adjoining the Burnet House at the corner of Vine and Fourth Streets, is a fine structure, in the Corinthian style. In it are also located the Post-Office and United States Courts. The City Hall is in Plum Street, between Eighth and Ninth. The Merchants' Exchange, on Walnut Street, near Fourthi, is a handsome edifice, with a front of 140 feet, in the Greco-Doric order. The rooms of the Mercan tile Libr ary Association are in th is building. The collection of books numbers 23,000. Strangers introduced by members have access to the shelves and to the files of newspapers. The principal places of amusement are Wood's Theatre, on Vine Street corner of Sixth, and the National Theatre, in Sycamore Street, below Fourth. Pike's Opera House, recently destroyed by fire, was considered, next to that in Philadelphia, the finest in the Union. The Suspension Bridge which spans the river below the foot of Vine Street will attract the stranger's attention. The towers are 1,006 feet apart and 230 feet high. It was commenced September 1, 1856, and is not yet quite complete. It is the work of John A. Roebling, the architect of the Niagara Suspension Bridge, and is a magnificent structure. Its entire cost will not fall short of one million dollars. The vicinity of Cincinnati abounds in beautiful drives; that to Spring Grove Cemetery is among the most attractive. This beautiful burying-ground is in the valley of Mill Creek, four miles northwest of the city. It embraces 220 acres, and is route, is 822 miles. The beautiful scenery an d other attractions of this fine road hold out strong i nduc eme nts to tourists and pleasure travellers. As remarked in the ch apt er on Ma ryland, parties making Baltimore their point of departure from the North At lantic seaboard, have a choice of routes: t h ey can either proceed directly south, by way of Washington and Richm ond, or t aking the route her e laid down they can pursue their journey from Cincinnati by s team er. T he traveller's own taste, and the time and h m ean s at hi s command, will decide a s to the best c ho ic e to makie. T he Cin cinna ti hotels, though by no means what they shoul d be either as regards style or comfor t, are sufficiently a ttractive to make a short stay des irable after th e fatigues of a journey from the E ast, and the stranger can profitably and pleasantly spend a few days in viewing t he city and its pretty environs. The Btirne! Hous e is centrally and ple asa ntly located on Vine and Third S treets. It is conduc ted by Ca ptain Silas F. Miller, formerly of the " Galt House," Louisville. The Sp enc er House, on Broadway, ne ar the steambo at landing, is an old and favorite stopping-place. The Broadway Ho tel, at the intersection of Broadway and Second Street, is a lso c on veniently located for travellers by the river. The IValnut Street House and M]~erchants' Hotel ar e among the b es t of their class. Among the various restaurants of the city, the St. Nicholas, at the corne r of Fourth and Race Streets, in the immediate neighborhood of the Burnet House, is the best worthy of patronage. Reading and billiard rooms attached. The city proper is compactly built upon two plateaus or terraces, ranging in altitude from 50 to 110 feet above low-water mark in the Ohio. The city occupies the river shore for more than three miles, and its area is rapidly extending. The streets are generally of good width, well paved and well lighted. The principal thoroughfares are Fourth, Broadway, Main, and Pearl Streets. The Lev6e, though by no means so extensive as that of New Orleans, forms a characteristic feature of the place. Fourth Street is the fashionable promenade. The markets and many of the retail establishments are located in Fifth Street, which is generally thronged 136

Page  137 RIVER. t Hanover Landing, Ind............. New London, Ind............... 4 Westport, Ky.................... 6 Utica, Ind....................15. 1 Jeffersoville, Ky.............. 9 Louisville, IK................t t 1 and tkom Pittsburg.......... 610 Shippingsport, Ky................ 2 Portland, Ky.2 1 New Alban, Ind............... Salt River, and................18 West Point, KY........... Brandenburg, ay................ 18 Northampton, Ind................. 10 Amsterdam, Ind.................. 8 Leavensworth, Ind............... 8 Fredonia. Ind.................... 5 Alton, Ind........................13 Concordia, Ky.................... 10 Rome, Ind., and Stevensport, Ky................ 11 Cloversport, Ky.................. 10 oCarmelton, Ind...................183 Troy, Ind................... 6 pc nLewisport, Ky................... 6 Rockport, Ind................... 12 Owensburg, Ky.................9.. Enterprise, Ind...............6.... Newburg, Ind................... 15 Green River, Ky..............6..... Evansville, Ind............... 9 Hendersonville, Ky............... 12 Mount Vernon, Ind............... 26 Uniontown, Ky...................15 Wabash River..................... 5 Raleigh, Ky................... 6 Shawneetown, Ill................. 5 Caseyville, Ky................. 9 Cave In Roc......... 14 Elizabeth, Ill................... 6 Golconda, Ill...................23 Cumberland River, and 1. 7 Smithland, Ky.. Tennessee River, and 12 Paducah, Ky Padu ahs y' ---................ Belgrade, Ill...................... 8 Fort Massac, Ill................... 2 Caledonia, Ill.................... 25 America, Ill....................... 3 Trinity, Ill........................ 5 Cairo, IlL, and 5 Mouth of the Ohio River, f........ and from Pittsburg.......... 999 Distances from Cineinnati to the mouth of the Ohio. Distces from Pittsbqurg and Cincinnati by boat. From Ci..........m From P'b'g. To St. LouiS, Mo........ 697 1174 Memphis, Tenn...... 767 1264 Vicksburg........... 1153 1680 Natchez.............. 1269 1746 New Orleans......... 1548 2025 Warsaw, Ky................12 60 [For descriptive sketches of places and objects of interest in the above list, see chapters on Kentucky etc.] 137 . 98 102 108 123 132 133 135 136 154 172 182 185 193 198 211 221 232 242 255 261 26T 279 288 294 809 315 324 336 362 3TT 382 388 393 402 416 422 445 462' 474 482 484 509 t5l2 - 51T ,522

Page  138 THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. [Se accompanying map.] around the northern sources of the latter river to the he adwa te r s of R ed River, a branch of the Assiniboin; around the source s of the Mississippi proper, to the headwaters o f th e Wisconsin and Illi. nois Rivers; between the confluent s of the lakes, and those of t he Ohio, to the extre me source of the Alleghany River; along the dividing line be tween th e sour ces of st r eams flowi ng into the Ohio River, andor those flowing t oward the At lantic; between the confluents of t he Tennessee, and those streams emptying into Mobile Bay; between the sources discharged into the Mississippi, and those into the Tombigbee and Pearl Rivers; to the mouth of the Mississippi, and from its mouth to the outlet of the Atchafala ya-the whole presenting an outline of more than 6,000 miles, or an area of about 1,210,000 square miles. The Mis sissippi River is navigable for steamboats with but partial interruption, as far north as the Falls of St. Anthony, a distance of 2,037 miles; its course, however, is extremely crooked, and not unfrequently a bend occurs from twenty to thirty miles round, while the distance across is not more than a mile or two. In some instances, however, these distances have been shortened by what are termed " cutoffs," which are made by opening a narrow channel across the neck of a bend, when, on admitting the water, the current, rnmning with such velocity, soon forces a channel both wide and deep enough for the largest steamboats to go through. The navigation is frequently rendered dangerous, owing to the mighty volume of water washing away from some projecting point large masses of earth, with its huge trees, which are carried down the stream. Others, again, are often imbedded in the mud, with their tops rising THn disappointment which the traveller feels in looking upon this famous river for the first time, is only exceeded by the counteracting impression which a journey down it leaves upon the mind. A more intimate acquaintance with the extent and resources of the country tributary to it, which repeated visits to points distributed along its entire course alone can give, only serve to heighten this impression, and "make this wonder greater grow." Discovered in 1672, its true source was not fully determined until its exploration by Schoolcraft, who, in 1832, ascertained that it took its rise in a small lake situated in 47~ N. latitudeund 94~ 54'W. longitude from Greenwich. This lake, called by the French Lac la Biel- by recent geographers Itasca (from Veritas Caput, the true head), is a beautiful sheet of water, of an irregular shape, about eight miles in length, situated among hills covered with pine forests, and fed chiefly by sp r ings. It is elevated above 1,500 feet above the ocean, and is at a dist anc e of more than 3,000 miles from the Gulf of Mexico. The river dra in s an extent of territor y which, f or fertility and vastness, is unequalled upo n the globe. This territory, term ed the " Mississippi Valley," extends from the sources of the Mississippi in the north to t he Gulf of Mexico in the south, and from the Alleghany Mountains o n the east to the Rocky Moun tai ns on the we st. A more correct estima te of its area may be formed thus: Take a position on the Gulf of Mexico, where it empties its accumulated waters, and run a line northwestward to the Rocky Mountains, from whence issue the sources of the Arkansas, Platte, and other smaller streams; from this point, along the Rocky Mountains to the sources of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers 188

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Page  139 THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER above the water, and not unusually causing the destruction of many a fine craft These are called, in river phraseology, "snags" and "sawyers." The whirls, or eddies, caused by the striking peculiarities of the river in the uniformity of its meanders, are termed " points " and "bends," which have the precision, in many instances, as though they had been struck by the sweep of a compass. These are so regular, that the flatboat-men frequently calculate distances by them; instead of the number of miles, they estimate their progress by the number of bends they have passed. A short distance from its source, the Mississippi becomes a tolerably-sized stream; below the Falls of St. Anthony it is half a mile wide, and below the Des Moines Rapids it assumes a medial width and character to the mouth of the Missouri. About 15 miles below the mouth of the St. Croix River, the Mississippi expands into a beautiful sheet of water, called Lake Pepin, which is 24 miles long, and from two to four miles broad. The islands, which are numerous, and many of them large, have, during the summer season, an aspect of great beauty, possessing a grandeur of vegetation, which contributes much to the magnificence of the river. The numerous sand-bars are the resort, during the season, of innumerable swans, geese, and water-fowl. The Upper Mississippi is a beautiful river, more so thanL the Ohio; its current is more gentle, its water clearer, and it is a third wider. In general it is a mile wide, yet, for some distance before commingling its waters with the Missouri it has a much greater width. At the junction of the two streams, it is a mile and a half wide. The united stream, flowing from thence to the mouth of the Ohio, has an average width of little more than three-quarters of a mile. On its uniting with the Missouri it loses its dis.tinctive character. It is no longer the gentle, placid stream with smooth shores and clean sand-bars, but has a furious and boiling current, a turbid and danger ous mass of waters, with jagged and di lapidated shores. Its character of calm magnificence, that so delighted the eye above, is seen no more. St. ]Louis occupies relatively to the Mississippi the same commanding position that Cincinnati does to the Ohio. It is the great centering and converging point of travel and traffic, while the extent and magnificence of its hotels places it far in advance of its more populous and more wealthy rival. The traveller from the East or from the Upper Mississippi will consult his comfort by staying at least three days to recruit, before taking a boat down the river. The most desirable hotels for families are the Lindel and the Southe rn. Both have been recently constructed, and furnished in a style equal to the best hotels on the continent. The Lindel occupies an entire square, fronting on Washington Avenue, and is easily reached from the railroad stations and steamboat landing. The Southern is built of Athens stone or marble, and presents a chaste and handsome appearance. Gentlemen unaccompanied by ladies will find the Planters', Olive Street House, and the Everett, pleasant stopping-places. The latter is convenient to the places of amusement. From Cincinnati and the East, St. Louis is reached directly by the Ohio and Mississippi Railway. Distance, 340 miles; time, 17 hours. From Chicago the most direct route is by the Chicago, Alton, and St. Louis Railway. Distance, 280 miles; time, 13 hours. The present site of the city was chosen by Pierre Laclede, in 1764. Authorities differ as to the precise date. It was named in honor of Louis XV. of France. It was settled as a trading-station, and until recently it continued to be the headquarters and depot of the great American Fur Company, under the management of the late M. Pierre Choteau. The stranger cannot but be struck with its situation, and its commercial greatness, present and prospective. Standing as it does on the bank of the greatest river of the conti nent, between its two most important tributaries, the Missouri and Ohio Rivers, its future cannot fail to be a marvel of progress. The first steamboat arrived at the Levee in 1817. The population in 1830 was but 6,600; it now numbers nearly 200,000. Its principal buildings are the Court House, City Hall, and Cus tom House. The first-named of these, since the completion of the dome, is one of the finest structures of the kind in the West. It cost $1,250,000. The 139

Page  140 THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. Planters' House, a time-honored institution, famous before the war for its cuisine, stands immediately north of the Court House on Fourth Street. The Cathedral, on Walnut Street, is worth visiting. The city is built mainly of brick. The streets parallel with and near the Levee are narnow, but further back are some fine thoroughfares. Fourth Street, north of the Planters' House, is the fashionable promenade. Washington Avenue, Chestnut, and Market Streets are also wide, handsome streets. The Levee, during the busy boating season, is one of the city "sights." The vicinage, though perhaps less attractive than that of Cincinnati, affords many pleasant drives. The Cemetery of Bellefontaine, five miles north of the Court House, embraces about 350 acres of land, beautifully shaded. It is reached by the Fourth Street and Broadway cars. Jefferson Barracks, 10 miles below the city, affords a pleasant trip. It is reached by the Iron JIoueatai7 PBailway. The Arsenal, in the southeast end of the city, and the JIfarine Hospital, are worthy the attention of strangers. If the visitor desires to prolong his stay in the neighborhood of St. Louis, he will find both profit and pleasure in a visit to the famous Iron Mountain, 81 miles south of the city. Pilot Kntob is six miles beyond. A train leaves St. Louis daily at 6.15 A. M., running through in 7 hours. Between St. Louis and the mouth of the Ohio River, a distance of 175 miles, there is nothing of special interest to attract the traveller's attention-a fortunate circumstance, as it is usually passed during the night when objects on shore, however interesting in themselves, would not be visible to the river tourist. Cairo, at the mouth of the Ohio River, is a place of considerable trade. The town was formerly below the level of the river at high stages of water, and was subjected to repeated inundations. It has been protected of late years by artificial lev6es and otherwise improved. It is the southern terminus of the Illinois Central Railway to Chicago. Packets up and dovwn the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers all call here. The St. CUlarles is the best hotel. Columbus, Kentucky, 18 miles below Cairo, is on the east bank of the river. It was occupied by Confederate troops 140 unde eer General Polk (September 4, 1861), and defended by from 80 to 100 M nnps. On the naval expedition down the river (March, 1862) it was found to have been evacuated shortly before. Islandelso. 10, near Obionville, Tenness ee, 51 miles below ColumNus, wa s the scene of a terrific bombardment from the Mississippi River fle et, exte ndin g from March 16 to April 17, 1862. The canal which was cut to assist in the investment of the island, and the remains of some of the earthworks, can still b e seen in passing the island. New Madrid, Mo., the scene of the great earth qua ke in 1811. I t was settled in 1780. A large shipping business is carried on here. The works constructed by the rebels for the defence of the town can be seen from the river. Point Pleasant, Missouri, 7 miles below, was occupied by General Pope preparatory to the attack on Island No. 10. Fort Pillow, situated on the first Chickasaw Bluff, near Island 33 and Plum Point, was evacuated by the rebels June 4, 1862. It was afterwards the scene of a horrible butchery by the troops under the Confederate General Forrest (April 12, 1864), known in history as the Fort Pillow massacre. Fort ]andolph, on the second Chickasaw Bluff, like Fort Pillow, is a rebel work. It was evacuated by them about the same time. The village of Randolph, which consisted of about forty dwellings, was burnt by General Shermail's orders. -J~einp7tis. (See chapter on Tennessee.) Helena, Arkansas, a thriving town before the war, with a population of 4,000, was occupied by the troops of General Curtis on their return from the interior of the State (July, 1862). It is in Phillips Coui-nty, 80 miles below Memphis. White R?iver, which enters the Mississippi 161 miles below Memphis, and 80 miles below Helena, was the scene of active operations during a great part of the war. Duvall's Bluff, lesia.rc, and Batesville, are on its banks. Napoleon, at the mouth of the Arkansas River, is next reached in the voyage downstream. This is a place of considerable trade during the boating season in the Q Arkansas. It is about 125 miles by land southeast of Little Rock. The United

Page  141 THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. is perhaps 30 miles wide, yet, finding its way through deep forests and swamps, that conceal all from the eye, no expanse of water is seen but the width that is curved out between the outline of woods on either bank, and it seldom exceeds, and oftener falls short of a mile. But when he sees, as he must, in descending its entire length, that it swallows up one river after another, with mouths as wide as itself, without affecting its width at all; when he notes the mighty Missouri, the broad Ohio, the St. Francis, White, Ar kansas, and Red Rivers, all of them of great depth, length, and volume of water, swallowed in rapid succession; when he sees this mighty river absorbing them all, and retaining a volume apparently un changed, he begins to estimate rightly the increasing depths of current, that must roll on in its deep chamnel to the sea. Steaming out at the Balize, homeward bound, and sailing with a good breeze for hours, the traveller sees nothing on any side but the turbid waters of the Missis sippi, long a fte r he is out of sight of la nd. But we anticipate-we have reached New Orleans, and our journey, for the present, is ended. Once comfortably domiciled at the St. Charles or the St. Louis, the trav eller will have ample time to lay out his own plans for the future. After playing the part of Guide so long, we part company with our reader with no little regret. We leave him in the midst of a people conspicuous alike for their hospi tality and their courteous attention to strangers, wishing him, however or wher ever he may go, a bon voyage, and a safe return from his Southern Tour. States Marize Hospital, with all the supplies it contained, was seized by the Confederate authorities upon the secession of the State (Mlay 6, 1861). (For points oil the A rkans as River, see chapter on Arkansas.) Gra,nd:Lake, in Chicot County, is on the Arkansas side of the river. Steamboats usually land here with supplies for the neighboring planters. There is fine gunning in the neighborhood. Vicksburg. (See chapter on 3~issssippi for description of the city and military operations.) Gr an d Gulf contains a Town Hall, market house, and num erous stores. iNsatchez. (See chapter on M issis sippi.) Port aHudson, 25 miles above Baton Rou ge, was the scen e of an attack during the summer of 1863, by G en e ral Banks from New Orleans. It surrend ered to the U. S. forces (Julv 9), after the news of the fall of Vicksburg. Baton Rouge. (See ch ap. on Louisiana.) PlaquesbloB,e in Iberville Parish, Lou isiana, is the next landing of any im portance. It is situate d near t he m outh of the Plaquemin e Bayou, 23 miles south of Baton Rou ge. Prev ious to the w ar large amounts of cotton were shipped to New O rleans from this point. Fifty miles south of Plaqu emine the old Jeffers on College r ises in view on th e left bank of the river, and, in a couple of hours more, the quaint old church of Bonnet Carr6 is passed. We are now rapidly approaching the end of our lon- journey. Thirty-five miles below Bonnet Carr6 the boat passes in sight of the pleasant village of Carroll ton, beyond which, in a big bend of the river, lies the Crescent City of the South. As the boat steams to her landing on the spacious Lev4e, the traveller will have a fine opportunity afforded him of seeing not only the business portion of the city but the young town of Algiers and other neighboring points. He will also note a material change in the aspect of the river. No one who descends the Mississippi River for the first time, receives clear and adequate ideas of its grandeur, and the amount of water it carries. If it be in the spring of the year, when the river, be low the mouth of the Ohio generally Tlows its banks, although the sheet of water that is making its way to the Gulf Distaznces from thee mout of the Ohio Piver to -Yew Orleans. To Island No. I...................... 6 Columbus, Ky.....................12 18 Wolf's Island, or No. 5............. 1 19 Hickman, Ky..................... I1S 87 Island No. 10......................82 69 New Madrid, Mo..................10 79 Point Pleasant, M o.......7 86 Little Prairie, Mo.................27 113 Needham's Island, and Cut-off.....25 138 Ashport, Tenn....................8 146 Osceola, Ark......................12 158 Plum Point'.............. 8 16l 1st Chickasaw Bluff.............. 5 166 Fulton, Tenn..................... 2 168 Fort Randolph, 10 178 2d Chickasaw Bluff i. *1'*-..'*8. 141 .A - I.-1. -,...:. " . I.

Page  142 THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. Walnut Hills, Miss................10 629 Vicksburg, Miss................... 2 681 Warrenton, Miss.................. 10 641 Carthage Landing, La............ 19 660 Point Pleasant, La................. 10 670 Big Black River.................. 14 634 Grand Gulf, Miss.................. 2 686 St. Joseph's, La, and 10 696 Bruinsburg, Miss....... 10 6 Rodney, Miss............. 10 706 Natchez, Miss.....................41 747 Ellis Cliff, Miss...................18 765 Homochitto River, Miss...........26 791 Fort Adams.......................10 801 Red River Island..................11 812 Raccourci Cut-off and Bend...... 10 822 Bayou Sara, St. Francisville, 80 852 and Pt. Coup6e, La }.... Port Hudson, La...............11 868 Baton Rouge, La..................25 888 Plaquemine, La...................28 911 Bayou La Fourche, and 84 945 Donaldsonville, La........ Jefferson College..................16 961 Bonnet Carry Churc h............24 985 Red Church, L a...................16 1001 Carrollton, La..................... 19 1020 Lafayette, L a.....................4 1024 New Orleans, L a. 2 1026 8d Chickasaff Bluff................ 17 Greenock, Ark.................... 0 Wolf River,........ 20 Memphis, Tenn. g A.......4 5 oad e. Norfolk, Miss..................... 10 Commerce, Miss.................. 17 Peyton, Miss...................... 31 St. Francis River, and [ Sterling, Ark........... Helena, Ark...................... 10 Yazoo Pass, or Bayou,......... and Delta, Miss. Horse-shoe Bend.................. 8 Montgomery's Pt., Ark 5 Victoria, Miss. I.......... White River, Ark................. 4 Arkansas River, 16 Napoleon, Ark................. Bolivar Landing.................. 13 Columbia, Ark.................... 53 Point Chicot...................... 4 Greenville, Miss................... 4 Grand Lake Landing, Ark......... 40 Princeton, Miss................... 5 Lake Providence, Ia.............. 19 Tompkinsville, La................ 15 Campbellsville, La................16 Millikinsville, La................. 10 Yazoo River, Miss., and 8 Sparta, La. 142 195 225 245 255 272 803 816 826 886 844 402 406 422 435 488 492 496 $36 570 b85 601 641 619 I r "!a-*.v.....

Page  143 STATIONERY. D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, IMPORT STATIONERS, 448 & 445 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. STATIONERY, FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC, In all its Branc~es. BLkANK BOOKS, OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS, FROM STOCK OR MADE TO ORDER. FRENCH PAPERS, From the Celebrated D'Angouleme Miills. ALEX. PIRIE & SON'S EXTRA SUPERFINE NOTE PAPERS AND ENVELOPES. <0nitial Sifampgtng I)tRtoot anybZ For Colored and Plain Stamping. P RKERIS TREASURY BLOTTING, 60, 80, 100, and 120 pounds, both White and Colored. ARNOLD'S FLUID AND COPYING INK. GUYOT'S FRENCH VIOLET COPYING INK. Whatman's Drawing Papers. ENGLISH ROLL DRAWING PAPERS.-DITTO MOUNTED ON CLOT. REYNOLDS & SONS' BRISTOL BOARDS. VISITING CARDS. WEDDING ENVELOPES. MONOGRAMS DESIGNED and ENGRAVEM in the Best Style of the Art. MOURNING STATIONERY, Cards, Paper, and Envelopes, in any width of Border required.

Page  144 D. APPLETON & CO. 43 and 445 Broadway, NEW YORK, PUBLISHERS, STATIONERS, AND IMPORTERS. LIBRARIES FURNISHED, WHETHER FOR Public Institutions or for Private Use. ~CaeaZoguev sent to any address on applieation. W: PUBLISHI A LARGE VA.RIETY OF STANDARD SCHOOL BOOKS, AMONG WHICH ARE TO BE FOUND Webster's Speller, Quackenbos' Series of Books, Harkness' Latin Books, Perkins' Arithmetics. ALSO, T E X T-B 0 0 K S In all the Jfrodern -anquage#.

Page  B001 MONUMENT SQUARE,. ~ BARNUM & CO. Proprietors. 1 Ir

Page  B002 BENBANN BROTHERS' GALLERIES OF PHOTOGRAPHY, NEW YORK AND BALTIMORE. ORPW YQRdK. SAlTEKQlllfRR. Corner 5th Avenue and 17th St. 207 Baltimore Street. An ineresting CollZZeeion of Pietures alipays on FR EES 0 Photography in all its Branches. 2

Page  B003 OANFIELD, BROTHER & ao., DEALERS IN Watchs, Fnie Jewlry, Silver War#; SILVER PLATED GOODS OF BEST STYLES; RICH PARIS IF ACY GOODS; Clocks, Bronzes, Vases, Fans, Opera Classes, &C. ALSO, MILITARY GOODS FOR ARMY AND NAVY, 229 Baltimore Street, BALTIMORE. COLEMAN'S UTAW HoUS$E, BALTIMORE, Md. R. B. COLEMIAN. 3

Page  B004 Mi/i etroc:(po8!ittan 2[818ot1;~,lI I" tiiii"1iiti 11111 iI 1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.llllllllI lllr - I]lllllllll. / PENNS Y VA NIA A VENUE, WASHINGTON CITY. This fine establishment, with accommodations for three hundred persons, has been newly fitted and furnished. Visitors will find it a most desirable Hotel to sojourn at. 4 FOR~IERLY BX3it O.W-I'StI,

Page  B005 EBBITT HOUSE, Corner F and 14th Streets, WASHINCTON, D.C. C. C. WILLARD, Many years Proprietor Hiygeia Hotel, Old Point. (kmfort, Va., 5 PRi}PttTOR.

Page  B006 ff _gai r tr IRICHMOND, VA., FORMERLY KEPT BY JOHN P. BALLARD. This Leading Fashionable Hotel Has been newly and elegantly furnished, and is now ready to extend "An Old Virginia WVelcome" to its patrons. J. L. CARRINGTON & CO., Formerly of Bollingbrook Hotel, Petersburg, Va. J. L. CARRINGTON, A. J. FORD, Late of American Hotel, Richmond, Va. 6

Page  B007 ImILLS it Uk SE9 Corner of Meeting and Oueen Streets, CHARLESTON. S. C. Built in 1853 and furnished equal to any in the United States. Entirely Refurnished in 1866. JOSEPH PURCELL, Proprietor. 7

Page  B008 ESTABLISHED IN 1838. JOHN K. RANDALL, Printer & Blank Book Manufacturer, No. 5 (old No. 44) NORTH WATER STREET, r. S. BIDGOOD, B pks ll r Satt ion er AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURER, Corner Water and St. Francis Streets, MOBILE. 8

Page  B009 TIT'OMB$'S BOgK 8TSt Southeast Corner Dauphin and Royal Streets. The undersigned will keep constantly on hand and for sale, BOEK-$ ANCD STATI6NIEAR:Y, COXSISTI.-G OF LAW, MEDICAL, THiEOLOGICAL, SCIIOOL, AND MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS OF THIIE LATEST EDITION. STATIONERY, Consisting of PAPER and ENVELOPES of every description, size, and color. Also, a full assortment of BLA X K BO O I S. INKS-Black, Blue and Red. SEALING WAX- Red, Blue and Fanev. Fairchild's GOLD PENS. Lead PENCILS and Steel PENS, of various makes. WRAPPING( PAPER and TWINE. Photographic ALBUMS from 50 cents to $50. Photographic PICTURItE FItANIES,25 cents to $1. School Books and Pocket Books. POCKET KNIVES. Gold and Silver PENCIL CASES. PORTFOLIOS, WRITING DESKS, &c. Together with a fine assortment of ALL OF WHICH WILL BE SOLD AT THIE LOWEST CASH PRICES. F. TITCiM)B, Southeast corner Dauphin and Royal Streets, MobUile. PUTNAM & MALONE, 52 Dauphin Street, Mobile, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS I Baosks and Sta tin OtE4y7, MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. Publishers' Trade Lists Wanted. 9)

Page  B010 DENECHAUD'S RESTAURANT ANB SALONN, 17 NORTH RO YAL STREET, (OPPOSITE THE BATTLE HOUSE,) BRANCH HOUSE: CORNER GROVE AND WALNUT STS., VICKSBURG, MISS. Ed. DENECHAUD, Proprietor. Private Rooms for Private Parties in Both Houses. LUNCH AT ALL HOURS FOR TRAVELLERS. Mulberry Street, Macon, Ca. GEO. M. LOGAN, Proprietor. Omnibus and Baggage Wagon at each Train to convey Passen gers and Baggage to the House. FREE OMNIBUS TO AND FROM THE RAILROAD. 10 KQBELE,, L,Llilzr7u EE trsz

Page  B011 LITERA RY RAMrIRIBtv J. W. BURKE & CO., MACON, Ca., Have established in this City A FIRST-CLASS BOOK STORE, Where they keep on hand and sell as low as possible, FOR CASH ONLY, ALL KINDS OF SCHOOL, MISCELLANEOUS, RELIGIOUS, JUVENILE, AND SABBATH SCHOOL 3B OOC. FOOLSCAP, LETTER, AND NOTE PAPERS; INKS, PENS, AND ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF PLAIN AND FANCY STATIONEIRY. Photograph Albums in great variety, Card Photographs of Generals, Works of Art, &C. SPECIAL AGENTS FOR SALE OF PUBLICATIONS OF D. APPLETON & CO.,.......N..... ew York, SIIELDON & CO.,........................ New York, II. S. BARNES & CO.,.......... " IVISON, PIIINNEY, BLAKEMAN & CO. " They also have an extensive B~o k and Pria g IH Sasi Where all kinds of work can be done. BINDING in every style neatly executed. Give theie a call. a1'0tSE~u M, BOARDM MAN$ WAASH INGT ON MACON, CA. LAW, MEDICAL, SCHOOL, AND MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS9 BLANK BOOKS, STATIONERY, AND 11 BLOC KY Tr'awiag, Material.

Page  B012 ST. CHARLES HOTEL, NEW ORLEANS. O. E. HALL, Proprietor. t Z. D~

Page  B013 mH t~ H 0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ____________ 0 I 13

Page  B014 BOYS' CLOTHINC EMPORIUM. - ~! -- -r PARIS, LONDON, AND NEW YORK FASHIONS. 14 I

Page  B015 SOUTHERN CLOTHING ESTABLISHMENT. 'IL.. LW. IYONS & CoO., NEW ORLEANS, LA. WHOLESALE DEPARTMENT, 131 aled 133 CO]M/ION ST.BEE~F. RETAIL DEPARTMENT, 26, 28 and 30 St. Charles Street, corner Comanon. LATEST STYLES CLOTHING, FURNISHING GOODS, Shirts, Trunks, Travelling Bags, Valises, UMBRE IELLAS, WATER-PROOF GOODS, &c., &c. MANUFACTORY OVER STORES. X large assortment oj''rench, -Engish, German, and Ameri can -iece Goods. Latest styles, sttiablZe o the seasons, aZliays on hanrd. Clothing made to order in the most durable manner and approved styles, with despatch. L. W. LYONS & CO., New Orleans. 15

Page  B016 Magazine, between Gravier and Natchez Sts., CHARLES E. SMEDES, Proprietor. It is newly furnished from the kitchen to the roof. Spring Beds, Hair Mattresses, Linen Sheeting, etc. The Furniture and Table Ware all netw, of the latest style and most costly Material. The Table is furnished with every luxury the Market affords. The Bars with Liquors equal to any used in private families, and the comforts and pleasures of a home, as far as possible, guaranteed to its Guests. The House itself may be said to be entirely new and fresh. The undersigned will spare neither labor nor expense to merit a continuance of the liberal support with which he has thus far been honored. CHARLES E. SHEDES. 16 an i fir(oh Now QXrleans La.

Page  B017 P/i I~~ HORBACH & KERR, Proprietors. Broad Street, Corner Crawford Street, COLUMBUS, GA., SHIVERS, WYNNE & CO, Proprietors. This House is centrally located, and the proprietors will spare no pains or expense for the comfort of their guests. QQUM1 b!sm GaL. SHIVERS, IWYNNE & CO. 17

Page  B018 SLA,S F. M ILLER, P-rap r't a r (Late of GALT HOUSE, Louisville, Ky.) CORNER of THIRD and VINE STREETS, CINCINNATI. 18

Page  B019 R. WV. CARROLL & CO., I17 West 4th Street, CINCINATAT I, PUBLISHERS, BOOKSELLERS & STATIONERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL, KEEP CONSTANTLY ON HAND THE LARGEST AND BEST ASSORTED STOCK OF BOOKS AND STATIONERY, OF EVERY IMAGINABLE KIND, TO BE FOUND IN ANY HOUSE IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. By the recent fire at Pike's Opera House Building we lost our entire stock, but have purchased an entirely new, fresh, and well-selected one, which we offer at REDUCED PRICES, and will always sell on as favorable terms as the market will permit, or as any other house can give. Among the great variety of articles sold by R. W. CARROLL & CO., ARE THE FOLLOWING: SCHIOOnL BOOKS OF EVERY KIND, USED IN THE WEST, Law Books, Medical Books, Scientific Books, Theological Books, Agricultural Books, and all Varieties of Miscellaneous Books, including Histories, Biographies, Travels, Novels, and Illustrated Works; Photograph Albums and Cards, Plain and Fancy Letter and Note Paper, Foreign and Domestic Stationery, Foolscap and Flatcap Paper, Gold Pens, Inkstands, Steel and Quill Pens, Lead Pencils, Chess Boards, Cribbage Boards, Paper Weights, Paper Cutters, Card Cases, Pocket Books, Portfolios, Writing Desks, Pocket Cutlery, Diaries, Memorandum, Scrap, and Blank Books. In fact, their stock includes every variety of Books and Stationery, which they invite Dealers to examine before purchasing, as they are confident they offer the greatest facilities, and can give satisfaction. R. W. CARROLL & Co., 1I17 West 4th Street, CINCINNATI. 19

Page  B020 SOUTRN nOTaLt StTHEODORE LAEILLE. CHAS. P. AREB. T-UEODOE )LA VEXI,L-ID. CITAS. P. IVARSVER. WALKER BR. CARTER. LAVEILLE, WARNER & CO., PROPRIETORS. 20 GEO. IV. FORD. 4

Page  B021 E. JACCARD & CO'., WHOLESALE AND RETAIL WATCHI DAEER9 SILVER WARE MANUFACTURERS. DEALERS IN FINE JEWELRY AND FANCY GOODS, PLATED WARE AND CUTLERY. MILITARY GOODS. LINE OFFICERS, STAFF, MEDICAL, PAYMASTERS, & GENERAL OFFICERS United States Regulation SWORDS, BELTS, SABRES, ETC., ETC. GOLD TRIMMINGS, PASSANTS, WREATHS, BUGLES, BUTTONS, REGIMENTAL FLAGS, ETC., Of all qualities, constantly on hand. 75 garble Building, Fourth Street, ST. LO0 UIS. 21 ZEIVELLE.RSID AND

Page  B022 C H I C A G O, This Hotel is located on the Corner of Clark and Randolph Streets, OPPOSITE CO URBT HOUSE SQ UARE; Was first opened to the public in July, 1861; is the largest Hotel in Chicago, and one of the finest in the Unked States; and has all the modern improvements, including a Passenger Elevator. GAGE, WAITE & 00., Proprietors. 22 4Z - k ~~~/ _TTvi__

Page  B023 A. H. MILLER, Southeast Corner of Bandolph and Clark Streets, CH ICAGO. WATCHES, DIAfMONDS, FINE GOLD JEWELRY, A larg assrten A fine Seleetion A large assortment OF SILVER-WARE, Constantly on hand AN-D MADE TO ORDER IN Any StyZe. Bronze Statuettes, With Ch oice Church and Opera lmusIc, OR Made to Order; OPERA GLASSES, Writing Desks, CANES, Marble Clocks, VANS, &C. Western Agent for the Celebrated PATEK, P H I L I P P E & CO. -WAT CII. These Watches are universally acknowledged to be the strongest and most durable Fine Watches sent to America. They have all the latest improvements, such as Fifth Seconds, Independent or Double Time, Repeating, Stem-Winding, or plain movements. Fine Watches carefully repaired by the most competent Workmen. PRESENiTA TION JEWELR Y, of the newest and richest patterns, made to order in my own Factorv over the Store. 23 OF I ltt;,

Page  B024 OUR GOODS ARDE ALL FIRI2ST-CLASS, DRAPER, TAILOR, AND GENTS' FURNISHER, 98, 100, & 102 DEARBORN, cor. WASIIINGTON STREETS Midway between Tremont and-Sherman House and Post Office, C H I CA G 0. WE WARRANT EVERYTHING AS REPRESENTED. 24

Page  B025 This Hotel is located on the corner of CLARK and RANDOLPH STREETS, oppofite Court House Square; was firft opened to the public in July, i86i; is the largeft Hotel in Chicago, and one of the fineft in the United States; and has all the modern improvements, including a Paffenger Elevator. GAGE, WAITE & CO., PROPRIETORS. 25 I - 9 I I_el% I I 9v 9 C -HICAGQ.

Page  B026 t'1 c) LINDELL HOTEL, ST. LOU Fronting on Washington Ave., Sixth, Seventh, & Green Sts.

Page  B027 4 7 ~~*=I ow 0 VI ;3 1. i -t .1 p t4 m ii r.) Eq I..;q

Page  B028 NATIONAL STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY, (LIMITED.) NEW YORK TO LIVERPOOL, Calling at Queenstown to Land Passengers. BSIP. TONS. COMMANDERS. ENGLAND......................3,450......................Grace. SCOTLAND......................3,698...................... Hall. VIRGINIA......................3,310......................Prowse. HELVETIA.....................3,315......................Ogilvie. THE QUEEN.................. 3,517......................Grogan. ERIN............................3,310......................Cutting. PENNSYLVANIA...............2,872.... L.................Lewis. LOUISIANA...........2,166...........2,166..... Thompson. DENMARK......................3,117......................Thompson. FPRANCE.......................3,200......................(Building). GERMANY.....................3100.......................(Building). Leaving Pier No. 47 Xorth River every SATURDAY avil( Alternate IWEDNESDA Y. These steamers were build under inspection, dnd are classed Lloyd's A 1 for twenty-one years. The accommodations for Passengers are unsurpassed, and they are supplied with every comfort and luxury-with lower rates for passage than any other Line. The State Rooms open directly into the Saloon. Steerage Passage includes an unlimited supply of Fresh Provisions cooked and served up by the Company's Stewards. An experienced Surgeon on each ship free of charge. Cabin Passage $100: Steerage, $30. Payable in Currency. Steerage Passage tickets to bring parties from Liverpool or Queenstown for $40, Currency Drafts for any amount issued on any Bank in Great Britian and Ireland, at the lowest rate. The owners of these vessels will not be accountable for specie or valuables, unless bills of lading, having their value expressed thereon, are signed therefor. Apply in Liverpool at the Office of the National Steam Navigation Company (Limited), W. B. Macalister, Manager, No 14, the Albany, Old Hall-street, and 57 and 58 Waterloo-road. For Freight or Cabin Passage apply at the Office of the Company, No. 57 Broadway, and for Steerage Tickets at the Passage Office of the Company, No. 27 Broadway, or No. 275 Pearl Street. F. W. J. HURST, Manager. 28

Page  B029 LA^~~ 6 Paji~L, tL t ~6I, &A - k~6 BROAD AND CHESTNUT STREETS, PHILADELPHIA. The undersigned, having leased the above favorite house, and having REFITTED AND REFURNISHED IT THROUGHIIOUT IN TIIE MOST ELEGANT MiANNEIR, will spare no pains to maintain the character it has always enjoyed, as ONE OF THE BEST FIRST-CLASS HOTELS Of the Country. 29

Page  B030 JAMES E. CALDWELL & CO., No. 822 CHESTNUT STREET, (Adjoining Continental Hotel), PHILADELPHIA, IMPORTERS, MANUFACTURERS, AND DEALERS IN DIAMONDS and PRECIOUS STONES, SUITES OF RICH JEWELR Y, Fine Watches, Traveling Timepieces, MANTEL CLOCKS, REAL BRONZES, CANDELABRAS, STATUARY AND FASES, SILFER WA,RES OF EXQUISITE DESIGNS, RARE NOVELTIES, FANCY ARTICLES, And every produ&ion of Induftry and Art appertaining to the businefs of GOLDSMITHS AND SILVERSMITHS. FIXED PRICES IN PLAIN FIGURES. S/i'angers are cordiaclly inzited to risit lltis Establishment, ihe/lher their object be go pzrel,ase or o!herwipse. 30

Page  B031 PHILADELPHIA. J E. EImIGSLEY & CO-, Proprietors. 31

Page  B032 CHARLESTON, S. C. This popular and well-known Hotel, situated in MEETING STREET corner of HAYNE, has been newly furnished throughout, and cannot be excelled by any in the country. WM. WHITE, Proprietor. S. F. STORM, FAS:gItNABLE HATTER, HOWAR_D.HOTEL, 178 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. Lates S8tyle of Gents' ffials and Caps alpays on hrand, zand .7cade to Order i; l/,ie est.1ianner. EVERY DESORIPTION OF FURS IN THEIR SEAKSON. 32