Sallust's history of the war against Jugurtha, & of the conspiracy of Catiline: with a dictionary & notes. By Prof. E. A. Andrews.
Sallust, 86-34 B.C., Andrews, E. A. ed. (Ethan Allen), 1787-1858.

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Page  [unnumbered] Ourxebs' $etits of Latin StooI ooa&s. PUBLISHED BY CROCKER AND BREWSTER, 47 WASHINGTON STREET, BOSTON. THE LATIN SCHOOL BOOKS prepared by Prof. E. A. AsDREWS, exclnsive of his' Latin-English Lexicon, founded on the Latin-German Lexicon of Dr. Freund, constitute two distinct series, adapted to different and distinct purposes. The basis of the First Series is Andrews' First Latin Book; of the Second, Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar. FIRST SERIES. This Series is designed expressly for those who commence the study of Latin at a very early age, and for such as intend to pursue it to a limited extent only, or merely as subsidiary to the acquisition of a good English education. It consists of the following works, viz.:1. Andrews' First Latin Book or Progressive Lessons in Reading and Writing Latin. This small volume contains most of the leading principles and grammatical forms of the Latin language, and, by the logical precision of its rules and definitions, is admirably ftted to serve as an introduction to the study of general grammar. The work is divided into lessons of convenient length, which are so arranged that the student will, in all cases, be prepared to enter upon the study of each successive lesson, by possessing a thorough knowledge of those which preceded it. The lessons generally consist of three parts:-lst. The statement of important principles in the form of rules or definitions, or the exhibition of orthographical or etymological forms; 2d. Exercises, designed to illustrate such principles- or forms; and 3d. Questions, intended to assist the student in preparing his lesson. In addition to the grammatical lessons contained in this volume, a few pages of Reading Lessons are annexed, and these are followed by a Dictionary comprising all the Latin words contained in the work. This book is adapted to the use of all schools above the grade'of primary schools, including also Academies and Female Seminaries. It is prepared in such a manner that it can be used with little difficulty by any intelligent parent or teacher, with no previous knowledge of the language. 2. The Latin Reader, with a Dictionary and Notes, containing explanations of difficult idioms, and numerous references to the Lessons contained in the First Latin Book. 3. The Viri Romae, with a Dictionary and Notes, referring, like those of the Reader, to the First Latin Book. This series of three small volumes, if faithfully studied according to the directions contained in them will not only render the student a very tolerable proficient in the principles of the Latin language and in the knowledge of its roots, from which so many words of his English language are derived, but will constitute the best preparation for a thorough' study of the English grammar. SECOND SERIES. NoTE.-The " Latin Reader" and the " Viri Romme," in this series, are the same as in the first series. This Series is designed more especially for those who are intending to become thoroughly acquainted with the Latin language, and with the principal classical authors of that language. It consists of the following works:1. Latin Lessons. This small volume is designed for the younger classes of Latin students, who intend ultimately to take up the larger Grammar, but to whom that work would, at first, appear too formidable. It contains the prominent principles of Latin grammar, expressed in the same language as in the larger Grammar, and likewise Reading and Writing Lessons, with a Dictionary of the Latin words and phrases occurring in the Lessons. 1

Page  [unnumbered] NEW SERIES OF LATIN SCHOOL BOOKS. 2. Latin Grammar. Revised, with Corrections and Additions. A Grammar of the Latin Language, for the use of Schools and Colleges. By Professors E. A. ANDREWS and S. STODDARD. This work, which for many years has been the text-book in the department of Latin Grammar, claims the merit of having first introduced into the schools of this country the subject of grammatical analysis, which now occupies a conspicuous place in so many grammars of the English language. More than twenty years have elapsed since the first publication of this Grammar, and it is hardly necessary to say that its merits-placing it in a practical view, preeminently above every other Latin -Grammar-have been so fully appreciated that it has been adopted as a Text Book in nearly every College and Seminary in the country. The present edition has not only been thoroughly revised and corrected (two years of continuous labor having been devoted to its careful revision and to the purpose of rendering it conformable in all respects to the advanced position which it aims to o(cupy,) but it contains at least one third more matter than the previous editions. To unite the acknowledged excellencies of the older English manuals, and of the more recent German grammars, was the splecial aim of the authors of this work; and to this end particular attention was directed:-1st. To the preparation of more extended rulesfor the pronunciation of the.language; 2d. To a clear e.pition of its inflectional changes; 3d. To a proper basis of its syntax; and 4th. To qreater precision in rules and definitions. 3. Questions on the Grammar. This little volume is intended to aid the student in preparing his lessons, and the teacher in conducting his recitations. 4. A Synopsis of Latin Grammar, comprising the Latin Paradigms, and the Principal Rules of Latin Etymology and Syntax. The few pages composing this work contain those portions of the Graimnar to which the student has occasion to refer most frequently in the preparation of his daily lessons. 5. Latin Reader. The Reader, by means of two separate and distinct sets of notes is equally adapted for use in connection either with the First Latin Book or the Latin Grammar. 6. Viri Romse. This volume, like the Reader, is furnished with notes and references, both to the First Latin Book and to the Latin Grammar. The principal difference in the two sets of notes found in each of these volumes consists in the somewhat greater fulness of those which belong to the smaller series. 7. Latin Exercises. This work contains exercises in every department of the Latin Grammar, and is so arranged that it may be studied in connection with the Grammar through every stage of the preparatory course. It is designed to prepare the way for original composition in the Latin language, both in prose and verse. 8. A Key to Latin Exercises. This Key, in which all the exercises in the preceding volume are fully corrected, is intended'for the use of teachers only. 9. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War, with a Dictionary and Notes. The text of this edition of Caesar has been formed by reference to the best German editions. The Notes are principally grammatical. The Dictionary, which, like all the others in the series, was prepared with great labor, contains the usual significations of the words, together with an explanation of all such phrases as might otherwise perplex the student. 10. Sallust. Sallust's Jugurthine War and Conspiracy of Cataline, with a Dictionary and Notes. The text of this work, which was based upon that of Cortius, has been modified by reference to the best modern editions, especially by those of Kritz and Geriach; and its orthography is, in 2

Page  [unnumbered] NEW SERIES OF LATIN SCHOOL BOOKS. general, conformed to that of Pottier and Planche. The Dictionaries of Caesar and Sallust connected with this series are original works, and, in connection with the Notes in each volume~ furnish a very complete and satisfactory apparatus for the study of these two authors. 11. Ovid. Selections from the Metamorphoses and Heroides of Ovid, with Notes, Grammatical References, and Exercises in Scanning. These selections from Ovid are designed as an introduction to Latin poetry. They are accompanied with numerous brief notes explanatory of difficult phrases, of obscure historical or mythological allusions, and especially of grammatical difficulties. To these are added such Exercises in Scanning as serve fully to introduce the student to a knowledge of Latin prosody, and especially of the structure and laws of hexameter and pentameter verse. In announcing the Revised Edition of ANDREWS AND STODDARD'S LATIN GRAMMAR, the Publishers believe it to be quite unnecessary to speak of the merits of the work. The fact that in the space of about Twenty Years, SIXTYFIVE EDITIONS, numbering above Two Hundred Thousand Copies, have been required for the purpose of meeting the steadily increasing demand for the work, sufficiently evinces the estimation in which it has been hel. In preparing this Revised and Enlarged Edition, every portion of the original work has been reconsidered in the light of the experience of twenty years spent by the present editor in studies connected with this department of education, and with the aid of numerous publications in the same department, which, during this period, have issued from the European press. The results of this labor are apparent on almost every page, in new modifications of the old materials, and especially in such additional information in regard to its various topics as the present advanced state of classical education in this country seemed obviously to demand. The publishers commend this new edition to the attention of Teachers throughout the country, and express the hope that in its present form it will be deemed worthy of a continuance of the favor which it has so long received. The following are extracts from a few of the many letters the Publishers have received from teachers from all parts of thecountry in commendation of this work:The revised edition of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar is without doubt the best published in America. I have no doubt that the time is near at hand when this series of works will, by all lovers of the classics, be considered as the' National Series.' The pronunciation is now by the same class considered the American Standard. I will hail with joy the day when every college and school in our country shall have adopted Prof Andrews' series as the foundation of true classic knowledge. As such I consider it. and for that reason have I used it since I first knew its existence.-Mfaritin Armstrong, Potomac Semiuary, Romney, Va. Allow me to say, after a careful examination, that, in my judgment, it is the best manual of Latin Grammar to be found in the English language. In revising it the author has preserved the happy medium between saying tpo much and too litle, so desirable for a Latin text-book for this country. In philosophical arrangement, simplicity of expression, and for brevity and fulness. it must entitle the author to the first rank in American classical scholarship. I shall use it in my classes, and recommend it to all teachers of Latin in this country. —. E. Cobleigh, Professor of Ancient Languages and Literature, in Lawrence University, Appleton, Wis. I most heartily concur in the above recommendation.-F. 0. Blair, Professor in Lawrence University. The Grammar, as revised, is, I think, for school purposes superior to any work of the kind yet published in America. Philosophic in its arrangement and definitions, and full and accurate in its details, it sets forth the results of the learned researches of the Germans in language easy of comprehension and suitable for reference in daily recitations.L. H. Deneen, Lebanon, Illinois. I am highly pleased with the Revised Edition, 4nd consider the additions as decided improvements In my opinion Dr. Andrews' works surpass all others in the market. I see no reason why the Grammar should not now supersede even Zumpt's, both in the study and recitation rooms.-Sidney A. Norton, Hamzilton, Ohio. 3

Page  [unnumbered] NEW SERIES OF LATIN SCHOOL BOOKS. I have reason to believe that the improvements, introduced into the last edition of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Gramniar by my respected and lamented friend Dr. Andrews. a little before his death, add very decidedly to the value of a work, which has done more to give the knowledge of that language to the youth of this country than any, perhaps than all others. —Theodore W. Woolsey, President of Yale College, New Haven. No book, probably, has done more to improve classical training in American schools than Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar. Its use is almost universal; and where it has not itself been adopted as a manual, it has made grammars of similar excellence necessary. The last edition, the sixty-fifth, was carefully revised by the lamented Dr. Andrews, not long before his death, by whom it was greatly enlarged by the incorporation of much valuable information, derived mainly from the last edition of the Latin Grammar of Professor Zumpt. It will therefore be found to be much improved as a repository of the principles and facts of the Latin language.- Thomas A. Thacher, Professor of Latin in Yale College, New Haven. It is unnecessary to commend a Latin Grammar, which has been for twenty years in common use in our Colleges, and has generally superseded all others. The Revised Edition contains the results of the labors of Dr. Andrews, during all that time, on various Latin Classics, and on his great Latin Lexicon; and cannot, therefore, but be greatly improved.-Edward Robinson, D. D., LL. D., Prof. of Biblical Literature in Union Theol. Seminary, New York City. 1I regard Andrews' and Stoddard's new Latin Grammar, as an exceedingly valuable work. It evidently contains the results of the Author's careful and long continued investigation, and from itz fulness, clearness, and accuracy, will undoubtedly become the Standard Latin Grammar of this Continent. In Western New York, we have for a long time been using the earlier editions, and they have rapidly won upon the public regard. This new edition will give it a stronger claim upon our favor. It must rapidly supersede all others. I can unhesitatingly recommend the New Grammar as the best in use.Lewis H. Clark, Principal of Sodus Academy, Wayne Co., N. Y. I have looked over the new edition of the Grammar with great interest. It is now eighteen years since I introduced it into this college, and I have never felt inclined to change it for any other. The revision, without changing its general character, has added greatly to its fulness and completeness. It is now fully equal to Zumpt's in these respects, and far superior to it in adaptation to the class room. There is no other school grammar that can pretend to compare I have introduced the new edition here, and have no idea I shall ever wish to substitute another. The services of Prof. Andrews in the cause of classical learning in the United States cannot be over estimated.-M. Sturgus, Professor in Hanover Co'lege, Indiana. I am willing to say that I am decidedly in favor of Andrews' Latin Series.- Geo. Gale, Galesville University, Wisconsin. Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar I consider decidedly the best Latin Grammar ever published.-Ransom Norton, North Livermore, Maine. Such a work as Andrews and Stoddard's Revised Latin Grammar needs no recommendation, it speaks for itself.-A. A. Keen, Professor of Greek and Latin, Tufts College, Medford, Ms. I have examined the revised edition of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, and think it a complete success. I see it has all of Zumpt's merits and none of his defects, and welcome its advent with great pleasure.-James M. Whiton, Hopkins Grammar School, New Haven, Conn. I have examined Andrews, and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, and say. without hesitation, that the principles of the Latin language can be more easily and systematically acquired from it than any work I have ever seen. The arrangement and simplicity of its terms are such as to make it easily comprehended by the beginner, while, at the same time, its copiousness is sufficient for the most advanced student. The author has evidently noted and profited by the defects in this respect of most of the Latin Grammars now in use. —C. W. Field4, Mauch Chunk. Pa. The superior merits of the original work. are too well known and appreciated to neel any commendation from me. I have had some means of knowing how great pains and labor Dr. Andrews has bestowed upon this final revision and improvement of the work, and. therefore, was not unprepared to find its acknowledged excellence materially increased, and I do not hesitate to say, that its value has been greatly enhanced, and that it has been brought as near as practicable to the present state, of philological science.John D. Philbrick, Superintendent of Public Schools, city of Boston. I have looked the Grammar through with much care and a great degree of satisfaction, and I unhesitatingly pronounce it superior to any Latin Grammar in method and manner of discussion, and happily adapted to the wants of both teachers and pupils. —J. W. Simonds, Principal of New England Christian Institute, Andover, N. H. 4

Page  [unnumbered] NEW SERIES OF LATIN SCHOOL BOOKS. We have lately introduced the Revised Edition, and regard it as a great improvement upon former editions. We shall use it exclusively in future.-E. Flint, Jr., Principal of Lee High School. After a due examination, I am happy to state that the Author has admirably accomplished the objects which he aimed at in making this last revision. He has added much that is in the highest degree valuable without materially changing the arrangement of the original work. The work appears to me well adapted to the daily use of our Classical Schools, and I shall hereafter direct my classes to use it.- C. L. Cushman, Principal of Peabody High School, South Danvers, Ms. The Revised Grammar seems to me greatly improved and to be every thing a scholar could wish.-Z. B. Sturgis, Charlestown, Indiana. I have subjected the Revised Edition to the test of actual use in the recitation room, and am persuaded that in its present form it decidedly surpasses every other Latin Grammar in point of adaptation to the wants of students in our Academies, High Schools and Colleges.-William S. Palmer; Central High School, Cleaveland, Ohio. I think Andrews' Series of Latin Works the most systematic and best arranged course I have ever seen,-and believe if our pupils would use them altogether, we should find them much better scholars. I shall use them wholly in my school.-A. C. Stockin, Principal of Monmouth Academy, Mlaine. The examination of the Revised Edition has afforded me very great pleasure, and leads me to express the deep and sincere conviction that it is the most complete Grammar of the Latin language with which I am acquainted, and best adapted for ready consultation upon any subject connected with the study of Latin Authors. The paper, the typography, and the binding,-the whole style of publication-are such as to commend the good taste and judgment of the Publishers.-J. R. Boyd, Principal of Mapleswood Young Ladies Institute, Pittsfield, Mass. I find the Revised Edition to be just what is needed for a Latin Grammar,-clear, comprehensive, yet concise, in the subject matter. I shall introduce it as a permanent textbook.-B. F. Dake, Principal of Clyde High School, Wayne Co., N. Y. I have carefully examined your Revised Edition throughout, particularly the Corrections and Additions. It now appears to me all that can be desired. It seems like parting with a familiar friend to lay aside the old edition, with its many excellencies, and adopt the neow. but I shall cheerfully make the sacrifice for the greater benefit that will accrue to those commencing the study of Latin from time to time.-J. H. Graham, Principal of Northfield Institution, Vermont. I thought before that the old edition was entitled to the appellation of " The Latin Grammar," but I perceive its value has been much increased by the numerous emendations and additions of Prof. Andrews. The Grammar is now fitted to be a complete hand-book for the Latin scholar during his whole course.-E. W. Johnson, Canton Academy, Canton, N. Y. I unhesitatingly pronounce the Revised Edition of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar the best Grammar of the Latin Language, and shall certainly use my influence in its behalf.-H. E. J. Clute, Edinboro', Pa. After a thorough examination, I have no hesitation in pronouncing it the best Latin Grammar for the purposes of the recitation room that I have Ever examined. In its present form it ought certainly to displace a large majority of the Grammars in common use. Its rules of Syntax are expressed with accuracy and precision, and are in fact, what all rules ought to be, reliable guides to the learner.-James W. Andrews, Principal of Ilopewell Academy, Penn. Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, in the arrangement and adaptation to the learner. has excelled all others, and the revised edition is certainly a great improvement, and I do believe is better adapted to the wants of the student than any other. The whole seems to be critically revised and corrected. Prof. Andrews Was truly the student's benefactor.-M. L. Severance, North Troy, Vermont. It gives me great pleasure to bear my testimony to the superior merits of the Latin Grammar edited by Professor Andrews and Mr. Stoddard. I express most cheerfully, unhesitatingly, and decidedly, my preference of this Grammar to that of Adam which has, for so long a time, kept almost undisputed sway in our schools.-Dr. C. Beck, Cambridge. I know of no Grammar published in this country, which promises to answer so well the purposes of elementary classical instruction, and shall be glad to see it introduced Into our best schools.- Charles K. Dillaway, Boston. Your new Latin Grammar appears to me much better suited to the use of students than any othergrammar I am acquainted with.-Prof. TWm. M. Holland, Hartford, Ct. 5

Page  [unnumbered] NEW SERIES OF LATIN SCHOOL BOOKS. I have adopted the Latin Grammar of Andrews and Stoddard in the school under my charge, believing it better adapted, upon the whole, for elementary instruction than any similar work which I have examined. It combines the improvements of the recent Ger. man works on the subject with the best features of that old favorite of the schools, Dr. Adam's Latin Grammar.-Henry Drisler. Professor of Latin in Columbia College. A careful review of the Revised Edition of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, shows that this favorite text-book still continues to deserve the affections and confidence of Teachers and Pupils, incorporating as it does the results of Prof. Andrews' own constant study for many years with the investigations of English and German Philologists. No other Grammar is now so well fitted to meet the wants of the country as the rapid demand for it will show beyond doubt.-A. S. Hartwell, University of St. Louis. This Grammar of the Latin Language. now universally pronounced the very best. is greatly improved by the corrections, revisions and additions of this revised edition. We do not believe a text-book was ever written which introduced so great an improvement in the method of teaching Latin, as this has done. We wish the revised edition the greatest success, which we are sure it merits.-Rhode Island Schoolnmaster. I have examined your revised edition with considerable care, and do not hesitate to pronounce it a great improvement upon the old editions, and as near perfection as we are likely to have. I have no doubt it will come into general use.-A. Williams, Professor of Latin, Jefferson College, Canonlsburg, Pa. I have been much interested in the Revised Edition. The improvement is very striking, and I shall no longer think of giving it up and putting Zumpt in its place. I am much pleased with the great improvement in the typography. You have given to our schools a book fifty per cent better in every respect, and I trust you will have your reward in largely increased sales.-William J. Rolfe, Master of Oliver High School, Lawrence, Ms. I can with much pleasure say that your Grammar seems to me much better adapted to the present condition and wants of our schools than any one with which I am acquainted, and to supply that which has long been wanted-a good Latin Grammar for common use.-F. Gardner, Principal of Boston Latin School. The Latin Grammar of Andrews and Stoddard is deserving, in my opinion, of the approbation which so many of our ablest teachers have bestowed upon it. It is believed that, of all the grammars before the public, this has greatly the advantage, in regard both to the excellence of its arrangement, and the accuracy and copiousness of its information.-H. B. Hackett, Prof. of Biblical Literature in Newton Theological Seminary. The universal favor with which this Grammar is received was not unexpected. It will bear a thorough and discriminating examination. In the use of well-defined and expressive terms, especially in the syntax, we know of no Latin or Greek grammar which is to be compared to this.-American Quarterly Register. These works will furnish a series of elementary publications for the study of Latin altogether in advance of any thing which has hitherto appeared, either in this country or in England.-American Biblical Repository. I cheerfully and decidedly bear testimony to the superior excellence of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar to any manual of the kind with which I am acquainted. Every part bears the impress of a careful compiler. The principles of syntax are happily developed in the rulestwhilst those relating to the moods and tenses supply an important deficiency in our former grammars. The rules of prosody are also clearly and fully exhibited.-Rev. Lyman Coleman, Manchester, Vt. This work bears evident marks of great care and skill, and ripe and accurate scholarship in the authors. We cordially commend it to the student and teacher.-Biblical Repository. Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar is what I expected it would be-an excellent book. We cannot hesitate a moment in laying aside the books now in use, and introducing this.-Rev. J. Penney, D. D., New York. Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar bears throughout evidence of original and thorough investigation and sound criticism. It is, in my apprehension, so far as simplicity is concerned, on the one hand. and philosophical views and sound scholarship on the other, far preferable to other grammars; a work at the same time highly creditable to Its authors and to our country.-Professor A. Packard, Bowdoin College, Maine. I do not hesitate to pronounce Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar superior to any other with which I am acquainted. I have never seen, any where, a greater amount of valuable matter compressed within limits equally narrow.-Hon. John Hall, Principal of EUington School, Conn. We have no hesitation in pronouncing this Grammar decidedly superior to any now in use.-Boston Recorder. 6

Page  [unnumbered] VALUABLE CLASSICAL WORKS. tr, abins n'is 0seiaus. Robinson's Hebrew Lexico. Sixth Edition, Revised and Stereotyped. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, including the Biblical Chaldee. Translated from the Latin of William Gesenius, late Professor of Theology in the University of Halle-Wittemberg. By EDWARD ROBINSON, D. D., LL. D. Professor of Biblical Literature in the Union Theological Seminary, New York. A new edition, with corrections and large additions, partly furnished by the author in manuscript, and partly condensed from his larger Thesaurus as compiled by Roediger. These corrections and additions were made by br. Gesenius, during an interval of several years, while carrying his Thesaurus through the press, and were transcribed and furnished by him expressly for this edition. They will be found to be very numerous. every page having been materially corrected and enlarged, and a large number of articles having been re-written. It is printed on a new type, the face and cut of which is very beautiful, and has been highly commended and approved. Dr. Robinson had already been trained to the business of lexicographical labor, when he began the translation of the present work. He is, in an uncommon degree, master of his own native tongue. He has diligence, patience, perseverance-yea, the iron diligence of Gesenius himself. For aught that I have yet been able to discover, all that can reasonably be expected or desired. has been done-by the translator; not only as to renderiag the work into English, but as to the manner and the accuracy of printing. The work will speak for itself, on the first opening. It does honor, in its appearance, to editor, printers, and publishers. I have only to add my hearty wish, that its beautiful white pages may be consulted and turned over, until they become thoroughly worn with the hands of the purchasers.-Prof. Stuart, in the Bibliosl Repository. There is no lexicon in English that can be put on a level with Robinson's. I recommend the present as the best Lexicon of the Hebrew and Biblical Ohaltee whieh an English scholar can have. —Rev. Dr. Samuel Davidson, of London. Gesenius' Lexicon is known wherever Hebrew is studied. On the merits of this work criticism has long ago pronounced its verdict of approval.-London Jewish Chronicle. This is a very beautiful and complete edition of the best Hebrew Lexicon ever yet produced. Gesenius, as a Hebrew philologist, is unequalled.-London Clerical Journal. This is decidedly the most complete edition of Gesenius' Manual Hebrew Lexicon.London Journal of Sacred Literature. ohItnson's 3atfrmon of thte tosaes, ina rtek. A Harmony of the Four Gospels, in Greek, according to the text of Hahn. Newly arranged, with Explanatory Notes, by EDWARD ROBINSON, D. D., LL. D., Professor of Biblical Literature in the Union Theological Seminary, New York. Revised Edition. This work of Dr. Robinson confines itself to the legitimate sphere of a Harmony of the Gospels; and we do not hesitate to say that in this sphere it will be found to be all that a Harmony need or can be. The original text is printed with accuracy and elegance. It is a feast to the eyes to look upon a page of so much beauty. Its arrangement is distinguished for simplicity and convenience. No one will ever be able to comprehend the relations of the Gospels to each other, or acquire an exact knowledge of their contents, unless he studies them with the aid of a Harmony. The present work furnishes in this respect just the facility which is needed; and we trust that among its other effects, it will serve to direct attention more strongly to the importance of this mode of study.Prof. Hackett, of Newton Theological Seminary. la lII r''s r'itl ttit. Arithmetic, Oral and Written, practically applied by means of Suggestive Questions. By THOMAs H. PALMER, Author of the Prize JEsst on Education, entitled the " Teacher's Manual," "The Moral. Instructor," etc. 7

Page  [unnumbered] VALUABLE CLASSICAL WORKS. &ohinsgn annrooni of the Mgspes, in Ingisk. A Harmony of the Four Gospels, in English, according to the common version; newly arranged, with Explanatory Notes. By ED)VARD ROBINSON, D. I)., LL. D. The object of this work is to obtain a full and consecutive account of all the facts of our Lord's life and ministry. In order to do this, the four gospel narratives have been so brought togetlier, as to present as nearly as possible the true chronological order, and where the same transaction is described by more than one writer, the different accounts are placed side by side, so as to fill out and supply each other. Such an arrangement affords the only full and perfect survey of all the testimony relating to any and every portion of our Lord's history. The evangelists are thus made their own best interpreters; and it is shown how wonderfully they are supplementary to each other in minute as well as in important particulars, and in this way is brought out fully and clearly the fundamental characteristics of their testimony, unity in diversity. To Bible classes, Sabbath schools, and all.vho love and seek.the truth in their closets and in their families, this work will be.found a useful assistant. I have used " Robinson's English Harmony " in teaching a Bible Class. The result, in my own mind, is a conviction of the great merits of this work, and its adaptation to impart the highest life and interest to Bible Class exercises, and generally to the diligent study of the Gospel. It is much to be desired that every one accustomed to searching the Scriptures should have this invaluable aid.-Rev. Dr. Skinner, New York. gobil sfn's ittitllarg of tt-e bible. Robinson's Bible Dictionary. A Dictionary for the use of Schools and Young Persons. By EDWARD RoBINSOX, D. D., LL. D. Illustrated with Engravings on wood, and Maps of Canaan, Judea, Asia Minor, and the Peninsula of Mount Sinai, Idumea, etc. etmfunts of 3strjmmg. The Elements of Astronomy; or The World as it is and as it Appears. By the author of " Theory of Teaching," " Edward's First Lessons in Grammar," etc. Revised in manuscript by George P. Bond, Esq., of the Cambridge Observatory, to whom the author is also indebted for superintending its passage through the press.,titt's Familg bibll. Scott's Family Bible. Boston Stereotype Edition. 6 vols. royal 8vo., containing till the Notes, Practical Observations, Marginal References, and Critical Remarks, as in the most approved London edition, with a line engraved likeness of the Author, Family Record, etc. This Edition is the only one that has, or can have, the benefit of the final Additions and Emendations of the Author. The extent of these may be judged from the fact that upwards of Four tHundred Pages of letter-press were addkled; and as they consist chiefly of Critical Remarks, their importance to the Biblical student is at once apparent. The Preface to the entire work contains an elaborate and compendious view of the evidences that the Holy Scriptures were given by inspiration of God. Prefixed to each Book, both in the Old and New Testament, is an Introduction, or statement of its purport and intent. There are also copious Marginal References, with various Tables, a Chronological Index, and a copious Topical Index. Orders solicited. 8


Page  2 Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1841, by DURRIE & PECK, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the District of Connecticut.

Page  3 PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. The first edition of Sallust by the present editor having been favorably received by the public, no alteration in its plan has been thought necessary In preparing a second edition, however, every part has been carefully revised. The text, in the former edition of the Jugurthine War was based upon that of Cortius. It was not until nearly the whole of that portion of the work was printed off, that the editor was able to obtain the highly valuable editions, which, within a few years past, have issued from the German press. Of these such use was made in the remainder of the work, as the brief time allowed for this purpose would permit. The text of Cortius was distinguished from those previously in common use by frequent ellipses, especially of particles, pronouns, and the substantive verb These ellipses gave to the author's style an appearance of peculiar harshness; and rendered the connexion at times obscure and difficult. Besides other valuable improvements in the text of this author, the German editors, after the most careful collation of manuscripts and early editions have in many instances restored the words omitted by Cortius. The text adopted in both parts of the present edition is, in general, that of Kritz. but modified by reference to the editions of Planche, Burnouf, Gerlach, Herzog and the Bipont editors. The alterations made in this edition will, it is believed, commend themselves to all, who shall examine them with care, as serving to remove many of the difficulties found in the common editions. The orthography of the first edition, which, with few exceptions, was that adopted by the Bipont editors and by Planche, has been retained. The following extracts from the preface to the first edition will sufficiently explain its general plan. "In arranging the two treatises of Sallust constituting the text of this work, the first place has been assigned to the War against Jugurtha. Such an arrangement seemed to be expedient in a work intended for the use of students not previously familiar with Roman history; inasmuch as the History of Catiline's Conspiracy, which occurred many years after the war against Jugurtha, contains numerous allusions to persons engaged in that war, and to political events connected with it. 3

Page  4 4 PREFACE. As some of the most prominent difficulties in Latin syntax arise from the use of the oratio obliqua, the occurrence of this construction has generally been denoted by means of single inverted commas, while direct quotations are distin guished by the usual marks. To the preparation of the accompanying Dictionary, much time and labor have been devoted. The design has been to unite, so far as a due regard to brevity would permit, the advantages of a Lexicon Sallustianum with those of a general dictionary." To this end the common significations of each word are given, whether occurring in Sallust or not, but in noting the constructions of words, those only are mentioned, which are found in this author. "The plan of the work did not permit the introduction of extended discussions relating to points of history or biography, customs or laws. For minute information on these and kindred subjects, it was thought better to refer the student to his Classical Dictionary and Roman Antiquities, and especially to some good Roman history; such, for example, as Ferguson's Roman Republic. In preparing the notes of this edition, it has been the aim of the editor to supply such information only, as could not properly be inserted in the Dictionary He has endeavoured to furnish precisely such aid as he supposed a diligent student would need, and to present it in such a form as would direct his mvestiga. tions, instead of superseding them. A free use has been made of the materials contained in the notes of Burnouf, Planche and Kritz, and such other notes have been added as the design of the work seemed to require. In explaining the grammatical constructions, the editor has generally contented himself with a simple reference to that part of the grammar in which a solution of the difficulty may be found, leaving it to the student's own reflection to make the application

Page  5 LIFE OF CAIUS CRISPUS SALLUSTIUS. SALLUST, the celebrated Roman historian, was born at Amiterum, a town, in the Sabine territory, in the year of Rome 668, 86 years before the birth of Christ, and in the consulship of Cinna and Carbo. While young he removed to Rome, where he devoted himself to literary pursuits, under the direction of Atteius Praetextatus, a celebrated Athenian grammarian, and an instructor in the art of rhetoric. At an early age, probably about the year of Rome 695, he obtained the questorship, and consequently became entitled to a seat in the senate. In the year 701, during a period of great civil commotion, he was made a tribune of the people; and in the dissensions consequent upon the death of Clodius, he took an active part in opposition to Milo. To this course he was probably moved not less by personal hostility to Milo, whom he had greatly injured, and from whom he had received a severe, but well merited chastisement, than by attachment to the party of Clodius. In the year 704 the censors, Appius Claudius and Calpurnius Fiso, degraded him from his rank as senator, on account of the infamy of his private character. It was probably about this time, that he wrote the Illstory of the Catilinarian Conspiracy, with the exception, perhaps, of the part relating to the characters of Caesar and Cato, though some ascribe to the whole work a later date. Of most of the events connected with this conspiracy, Sallust had been an eye witness, and, with few exceptions, lie appears to have recorded them with exemplary impartiality. Though at a later period, the bitter enemy of Cicero, he manifests no such hostility in his account of this conspiracy, unless it be found in the somewhat faint praise which he bestows upon that illustrious orator and patriotic statesman. Notwithstanding he expressed the determination in the introduction of this history, of spending the remainder of his days remote from the agitations of public life, he yet entered soon after with renewed ardor into the violent strug. gles which arose between the parties of Pompey and Caesar. In this contest he espoused the cause of Caesar, to whom he was personally attached, and through whose influence, in the year of the city 706, he was again made questor, and consequently reinstated in the senate. In the following year by the same influence he was raised to the pretorship, and about this time also he married Terentia, whom Cicero had recently divorced. 1* 5

Page  6 6 LIFE OF CAIUS CRISPUS SALLUSTIUS. Soon after these events the civil war was renewed in Africa, where the remnants, of the senatorial party had been assembled under the command of Scipio and Cato. To oppose these Sallust was directed to conduct a detachment of several legions, by the way of Capua to the shores of Campania, where they were to embark for Africa. On arriving at the port of embarkation, a mutiny arose among the troops on account of their unwillingness to leave Italy, and to encounter anew the hardships and dangers to which they had been so long exposed. Sallust found his authority of no avail to suppress the insurrection, and was compelled to secure his own safety by a precipitate flight to Rome, whither he was followed by a great number of the troops. Order being at length restored by the presence and authority of Caesar, the legions consented to embark, and shortly afterwards landed in Africa. Subsequently inan expedition entrusted to his command, against the island of Cercina, Sallust is said to have evinced considerable courage, military skill and prowess. After the close of this war, he was appointed to the command of the African province, where he acquired immense riches by oppressing the people. On his return home, he was accused by the Numidians, of mal-administration of the affairs of his province, but escaped punishment through the friendship of Caesar with whom he is reported to have shared his spoils. Scarcely, however, had he been acquitted, when Caesar, on whom all his fortunes depended, was assassinated, on the ides of March, in the year of Rome 710. With this event terminated the political career of Sallust, who thenceforward devoted himself wholly to the pursuits of private life. In his retirement, besides other historical works of which a few fragments now remain, he composed the History of the Jugurthine War, for which he had collected ample materials during his residence in Africa. He also erected a magnificent residence upon the Quirinal Hill, and laid out those beautiful gardens, which afterwards bore his name, and which were long considered as the pride and ornament of Rome. After his decease, which occurred in the year 718, his house and gardens became the favorite residence of successive Roman emperors. As a historian, Sallust has few equals. His style is in a high degree concise resembling in this and in other respects that of Thucydides, whom, he seens to have taken as his model. He is distingaished also for his uncommon talent at graphic description, and his masterly delineations of character. In his writings he is ever the advocate of virtue, and the stern, uncompromising foe of corruption in every form, whether exhibited in the renal administration of government, or in the obscurer vices of private ii'e. Unfortunately for his memory, the principles of virtue inculcated in his writings seem to have had but little influence in the conduct of his life; and posterity has shown the less indulgence to his faults, from the contrast which they exhibit to his own moral precepts

Page  1 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII JUGURTHA, 8EU BELLUI JUGURTHINUM. I. FALSO queritur de natura sua genus humanum, qu6d, imbecilla atque aevi brevis, forte potius quam virtute regatur. Nam contra reputando neque majus aliud neque prestabilius invenies, magisque natura industriam hominum quam vim aut tempus deesse. Sed dux atque imperator vitas mortalium animus est; qui ubi ad gloriam virtutis via grassatur, abund6 pollens potensque et clarus est, neque fortuna eget: quippe que probitatem, industriam aliasque artes bonas neque dare neque eripere cuiquam potest. Sin, captus pravis cupidinibus, ad inertiam et voluptates corporis pessum datus est, perniciosa libidine paulisper usus, ubi per socordiam vires, tempus, ingenium defluxere, nature infirmitas accusatur: suam quisque culpam auctores ad negotia transferunt. Quod si hominibus bonarum rerum tanta cura esset, quanto studio aliena ac nihil profutura multumque etiam periculosa petunt, neque regerentur magis, quam regerent casus, et eo magnitudinis procederent, uti pro mortalibus gloriA wterni fierent. 11. Nam uti genus hominum compositum est ex corpore et aninia, ita res cunct.e studiaque omnia nostra, corpo

Page  2 2 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII ris alia, alia animi naturam sequ"untur. Igitur praBclara facies, magne divitike, ad hoc vis corporis et alia omniahujuscemodi brevi dilabuntur; at ingenii egregia facinora, sicuti anima, immortalia sunt. Postremo corporis et fortunae bonorum ut initium, sic finis est, omniaque orta occidunt, et aucta senescunt: animus incorruptus, seternus, rector humani generis, agit atque habet cuncta, neque ipse habetur. Quo magis pravitas eorum admiranda est, qui, dediti corporis gaudiis, per luxum atque ignaviam wetatem agunt, ceterum ingenium, quo neque melius neque amplius aliud in natura mortalium est, incultu atque socordia torpescere sinunt, quum prwesertim tam multae variseque sint artes animi, quibus summa claritudo paratur. III. Veruim ex his magistratus et imperia, postremo omnis cura rerum publicarum minime mihi hac tempestate cupienda videntur; quoniam neque virtuti honos datur, neque illi, quibus per fraudem is fuit, utique tuti, aut eo magis honesti sunt. Nam vi quidem regere patriam aut parentes quamquam et possis, et delicta corrigas, tamen importunum est; quum preosertim omnes rerum mutatipnes coedem, fugam aliaque hostilia portendant. Frustra autem niti, neque aliud se fatigando nisi odium qu.erere, extremn dementite est: nisi forte queln inhonesta et perniciosa libido tenet potentiae paucorum decus atque libertatem suam gratificari. IV. Ceterum ex aliis negotiis, quoe ingenio exercentur, in primis magno usui est memoria rerum gestarum: cujus de virtute quia multi dixere, praetereundum puto, simul, ne per insolentiam quis existimet memet studium meum laudando extollere. Atque ego credo fore, qui, quia decrevi procul a republica aetatem agere, tanto tamque utili labori meo nomen inertiae imponant;. certe,

Page  3 JUGURTHA. 3 quibus maxima industria videtur salutare plebem et conviviis gratiam quearere. Qui si reputaverint, et quibus ego temporibus magistratus adeptus sim, et quales viri idem assequi nequiverint, et postea que genera hominum in senatum pervenerint, profecto existimabunt me magis merito quam ignavia judicium animi mei mutavisse, majusque commodum ex otio meo, quam ex aliorum negotiis,reipublicee venturum. Nam seepe ego audivi, Q. Maximum, P. Scipionem, praterea civitatis nostrae prseclaros viros solitos ita dicere,'quum majorum imagines intuerentur, vehementissime sibi animum ad virtutem accendi.' Scilicet non ceram illam neque figuram tantam vim in sese habere, sed memoria rerum gestarum eam flammam egregiis viris in pectore crescere, neque priuis sedari, quam virtus eorum famam atque gloriam adaequaverit. At contra quis est omnium his moribus, quin divitiis et sumptibus, non probitate neque industria cum majoribus suis contendat? Etiam homines novi, qui antea per virtutem soliti erant nobilitatem antevenire, furtim et per latrocinia potius quam bonis artibus ad imperia et honores nituntur; proinde quasi prastura et consulatus atque alia omnia hujuscemodi per se ipsa clara et magnifica sint, ac non perinde habeantur, ut eorum, qui ea sustinent, virtus est. Veruim ego liberius altiusque processi, dum me civitatis morum piget taedetque: nunc ad inceptum redeo. V. Bellum scripturus sum, quod populus Romanus cum Jugurtha, rege Numidarum, gessit: primum, quia mag. num et atrox variaque victoria fuit; dein, quia tune primum supe'biae nobilitatis obviam itum est. Quse contentio divina et humana cuncta permiscuit, e6que vecordim processit, uti studiis civilibus bellum atque vastitas Italiwa

Page  4 4 C. CRISPI SALLUSTI1 finem faceret. Sed priusquam hujuscemodi rei initium expedio, pauca supra repetam, quo ad cognoscendum omnia illustria magis magisque in aperto sint. Bello Punico secundo, quo dux Carthaginiensium Hannibal post magnitudinem nominis Romani Italiae opes maxima attriverat, Masinissa rex Numidarum, in amicitiam receptus a P. Scipione, cui postea Africano cognomen ex virtute fuit, multa et praclara rei militaris facinora fecerat, ob qure, victis Carthaginiensibus et capto Syphace, cujus in Africa magnum atque late imperium valuit, populus Romanus, quascumque urbes et agros manu ceperat, regi dono dedit. Igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit: imperii vitaque ejus finis idem fuit. Deinde Micipsa filius regnum solus obtinuit, Manastabale et Gulussa fratribus morbo absumptis. Is Adherbalem et Hiempsalem ex sese genuit; Jugurthamque, Manastabalis fratris filium, quem Masinissa, quod ortus ex concubin& erat, privatum reliquerat, eodem cultu, quo liberos suos, domi habuit. VI. Qui ubi primum adolevit, pollens viribus, decora facie, sed multo maxime ingenio validus, non se luxu neque inertia corrumpendum dedit; sed, uti mos gentis illius est, equitare, jaculari, cursu cum requalibus certare: et, quum omnes gloria antei'ret, omnibus tamen carus esse; ad hoc pleraque tempora in venando agere, leonem atque alias feras primus aut in primis ferire; plurimum facere, et minimum ipse de se loqui. Quibus rebus Micip. sa tametsi initio letus fuerat, existimans virtutem Jugur. thin regno suo glorive fore, tamen, postquam hominem adolescentem, exacta sua tetate, et parvis liberis, magis magisque crescere intellegit, vehementer eo negotio permotus, multa cum animo suo volvebat. Terrebat eum

Page  5 JUGURTHA. 5 natura mortalium avida imperii et praeceps ad explendam animi cupidinem, praeterea opportunitas suse liberorumque atatis, qua etiam mediocres viros spe praeda transversos agit, ad hoc studia Numidarum in Jugurtham accensa, ex quibus, si talem virum interfecisset, ne qua seditio aut bellum oriretur, anxius erat. VII. His difficultatibus circumventus, ubi vide* neque per vim neque insidiis opprimi posse hominem tam acceptum popularibus, quod erat Jugurtha manu promptus et appetens gloriaE militaris, statuit eum objectare periculis. et eo modo fortunam tentare. Igitur bello Numantino Micipsa quum populo Romano equitum atque peditum auxilia mitteret, sperans vel ostentando virtutem vel hostium sevitia facile eum occasurum, prmefecit Numidis, quos in Hispaniam mittebat. Sed ea res longe aliter, ac ratus erat, evenit. Nam Jugurtha, ut erat impigro atque acri ingenio, ubi naturam P. Scipionis, qui tune Romanis imperator erat, et morem hostium cognovit, multo labore multaque cura, praeterea modestissime parendo et saepe obviam eundo periculis in tantam claritudinem brevi pervenerat, ut nostris vehementer carus, Numantinis maximo terrori esset. Ac sane, quod difficillimum in primiS est, et prcelio strenuus erat, et bonus consilio; quorum alterum ex providentia timorem, alterum ex audacia temeritatem afferreplcrumque solet. Igitur imperator omnes fere res asperas per Jugurtham agere, in amicis habere, magis magisque eum in dies amplecti; quippe cujus neque consilium neque inceptum ullum frustra erat. Huc accedebat munificentia animi et ingenii solertia, quis rebus sibi multos ex Romanis familiari amicitia conjunxerat. VIII. Ea tempestate in exercitu nostro fudre complures novi atque nobiles, quibus divitiae bono honestoque potio

Page  6 6 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII res erant, factiosi domi, potentes apud socios, clari magis quam honesti, qui Jugurthae non mediocrem animum pollicitando accendebant,'si Micipsa rex occidisset, fore, uti solus imperii Numidias potiretur: in ipso maximam virtutem; Romee omnia venalia esse.' Sed postquam, Numantia deleta, P. Scipio dimittere auxilia et ipse reverti domum decrevit, donatum atque laudatum magnifice pro concione Jugurtham in praetbrium abduxit, ibique secreto monuit,' uti potius publice quam privatim amicitiam populi Romani coleret, neu quibus largiri insuesceret; periculose a paucis emi, quod multorum esset. Si permanere vellet in suis artibus, ultro illi et gloriam et regnum venturum; sin properantius pergeret, suamet ipsum pecunia prvecipitem casurum.' IX. Sic locutus, cum litteris eum, quas Micipse redderet, dimisit. Earum sententia hkec erat: "Jugurthae tui bello Numantino long6 maxima virtus fuit; quam rem tibi certo scio gaudio esse. Nobis ob merita sua carus est: uti idem senatui et populo Romano sit, summa ope nitemur. Tibi quidem pro nostra amicitia gratulor. Eni habes virum dignum te atque avo suo Masinissa." Igitur rex, ubi ea, quae fama acceperat, ex litteris imperatoris ita esse cognovit, quum virtute tur gratia viri permotus, flexit animum suum, et Jugurtham beneficiis vincere aggressus est; statimque eum adoptavit, et testamento pariter cum filiis heredem instituit. Sed ipse paucos post annos, morbo atque aetate confectus, quum sibi finem vitam adesse intelligeret, coram amicis et cognatis, itemque Adherbale et Hiempsale filiis, dicitur hujuscemodi verba cum Jugurtha habuisse. X. "Paivum ego te, Jugurtha, amisso patre, sine spe sine opibus in meum regnum accepi, existimans non

Page  7 JUGURTHA. 7 miniIs me tibi quam [liberis,] si genuissen, ob beneficia carum fore: nequde ea res falsum me habuit. Nam, ut alia magna et egregia tua omittam, novissime, rediens Numiantia, meque regnumque meum gloria honoravisti, tuique virtute nobis Romanos ex amicis amicissimos fecisti; in Hispania nomen familis renovatum est; postrerm, quod difficillimum inter mortales est, gloria invidiam vicisti. Nunc, quonianm mihi natura finem vitae facit, per hanc dextram, per regni fidem moneo obtestorque te, uti hos, qui tibi genere propinqui, beneficio meo fratres sunt, caros habeas; neu malis alienos adjungere, quam sanguine conjunctos retinere. Non exercitus neque thesauri praesidia regni sunt, verum amici, quos neque armis cogere, neque auro parare queas; officio et fide pariuntur. Quis autem amicior, quam frater fratri? aut quem alienum fidurn invenies, si tuis hostis fueris? Equidem ego vobis regnum trado firmum, si boni eritis; sin mali, imbecillum. Nam concordia parvae res crescunt, discordia maximae dilabuntur. Ceterum ante hos te, Jugurtha, qui aotate et sapientia prior es, ne aliter quid eveniat, providere decet; nam in omni certamine, qui opulentior est, etiam si accipit injuriam, tamen quia plus potest, facere videtur. Vos autem, Adherbal et Hiempsal, colite, observate talem hune virum; imitammni virtuter, et enitimini, ne ego meliores liberos sumpsisse videar, quam genuisse." XI. Ad ea Jugurtha, tametsi regem ficta locutum intelligebat, et ipse longe aliter animo agitabat, tamen pro tempore benigne respondit. Micipsa paucis post diebus moritur. Postquam illi more regio justa magnifice fecerant, reguli in unum convenere, uti inter se de cunctis negotiis disceptarent. Sed Hiempsal, qui minimus ex illis 2

Page  8 8 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII erat, natura fejox, et jam ante ignobilitatem Jugurtha3, quia materno genere impar erat, ldespiciens, dextera Adherbalem assedit, ne medius ex tribus, quod apud Numidas honori ducitur, Jugurtha foret. Dein tarnen uti etati concederet fatigatus a fratre, vix in partem alteram transductus est. Ibi quum multa de administrando imperio dissererent, Jugurtha inter alias res jacit,'oportere quinquennii consulta et decreta omnia rescindi; nam per ea tempora confectum annis- Micipsam parum animo valuisse.' Turn' idem' Hiempsal'placere sibi' respondit;'nam ipsum illum tribus proximis annis adoptatione in regnium pervenisse.' Quod verbum in pectus Jugurthae altius, quam quisquam ratus erat, descendit. Itaque ex eo tempore ira et metu anxius moliri, parare, atque ea rnodo animo habere, quibus Hiempsal per dolum caperetur. Quae ubi tardius procedunt, neque lenitur animus ferox, statuit quovis modo inceptum perficere. XII. Primo conventu, quem ab regulis factum supra memoravi, propter dissensionem placuerat dividi thesauros, finesque imperii singulis constitui. Itaque tempus ad utramque rem decernitur, sed maturius ad pecuniam distribuendam. Reguli interea in loca propinqua thesauris, alius alio, concessere. Sed Hiempsal in oppido Thirmida forte ejus domo utebatur, qui proximus lictor Jugurtha carus acceptusque ei semper fuerat.. Quem ille casu ministrum oblatum promissis onerat, impellitque, uti tamquam suam visens domum eat, portarum claves adulterinas paret, nam verse ad Hiempsalem referebantur; ceterum,' ubi res postularet, se ipsum cum magna manu venturum.' Numida mandata brevi confecit, atque, ut doc tus erat, noctu Jugurtha milites introducit. Qui post quam in aedes irrupdre, diversi regem querere, dormien

Page  9 JUGURTHA. 9 tes alios, alios occursantes interficere, scrutari loca abdita, clausa effringere, strepitu et tumultu omnia miscere; quum interim Hiempsal reperitur, occultans se in tugurio mulieris ancilk, qu initio pavidus et ignarus loci perfugerat, Numide caput ejus, uti jussi erant, ad Jugurtham referunt. XIII. Ceterum fama tanti facinoris per omnem Africam brevi divulgatur: Adherbalem omnesque, qui sub imperio Micipsae fuerant, metus invadit. In duas partes discedunt Numidee: plures Adherbalem sequuntur, sed illurn alterum bello meliores. Igitur Jugurtha quam maximas potest copias armat, urbes partim vi, alias voluntate imperio suo adjungit, omni Numidiae imperare parat. Adherbal, tametsi Romam legatos miserat, qui senatum docerent de eade fratris et fortunis suis, tamen fretus multitudine militum parabat armis'contendere. Sed ubi res ad certamen venit, victus ex prcelio profugit in provinciam, ac deinde Romam contendit. Turn Jugurtha, patratis consiliis, postquam omnis Numidiae potiebatur, in otio facinus suum cum animo reputans timere populum Romanum, neque adversus iram ejus usquam, nisi in avaritia nobilitatis et pecunia sua, spem habere. Itaque paucis diebus cum auro et argento muto legatos Romam mittit, quis kraecepit, primum' uti veteres amicos muneribus expleant, deinde novos acquirant, postremo quecumque possint largiendo parare, ne cunctentur.' Sed ubi Romam legati venere, et ex praecepto regis hospitibus aliisque, quorum ea tempestate in senatu auctoritas pollebat, magna munera misere, tanta commutatio incessit, uti ex maxima invidia in gratiam et favorem nobilitatis Jugurtha veniret, quorum pars spe, alii prxemio inducti singulos ex senatu ambiendo nitebantur, ne graviis in

Page  10 10 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII eum consuleretur. Igitur ubi legati satis confidunt, die constituto senatus utrisque datur. Turn Adherbalem hoc modo locutum accepimus: XIV. "Patres conscripti, Micipsa pater meus moriens mihi praecepit,' uti regni Numidime taritummodo procurationem existimarem meam, ceteruim jus et imperium ejus penes vos esse: simul eniterer domi militioeque quam maximo usui esse populo Romano; vos mihi cognatorum, vos affinium loco ducerem: si ea fecissem, in vestra amicitia exercitum, divitias, munimenta regni me habiturum.' Quae quum prrecepta parentis mei agitarem, Jugurtha, homo omniur, quos terra sustinet, sceleratissimus, contempto imperio vestro, Masinissae me nepotem, et jam ab stirpe socium atque amicum populi Romani, regno fortunisque omnibus expulit. Atque ego, patres conscripti, quoniam e6 miseriarum venturus eram, vellem potius ob mea quarn ob majorum meorum beneficia posse a vobis auxilium petere, ac maxime deberi mihi beneficia a populo Romano, quibus non egerem; secundum, ea si desideranda erant, uti debitis uterer. Sed quoniam parum tuta per se ipsa probitas est, neque mihi in manu fuit, Jugurtha qualis foret, ad vos confugi, patres conscripti, quibus, quod mihi miserrimum est, cogor prius oneri quam usui esse. Ceteri reges aut bello victi in amicitiam a vobis recepti sunt, aut in suis dubiis rebus societatem vestram appetiverunt: familia nostra cum populo Romano bello Carthaginiensi amicitiam instituit, quo tempore magis fides ejus. quam fortuna petenda erat. Quorum progeniem vos, patres conscripti, nolite pati me, nepotem Masinisse. frustra a vobis auxilium petere. Si ad impetrandum nihil causma haberem preiter miserandam fortunam, quod paulo ante rex genere, fama

Page  11 JUGURTHA. 1] atque copiis potens, nunc deformatus aeunlnis, inops, alienas opes exspecto, tamen erat majestatis populi Romnani prohibere injuriam, neque pati cujusquam regnun per scelus crescere. Verum ego his finibus ejectus sum, quos majoribus meis populus Romanus dedit; unde pater et avus meus una vobiscum expulere Syphacem et Carthaginienses. Vestra beneficia mihi erepta sunt, patres conscripti, vos in mea injuria despecti estis. Eheu me miserum! Huccine, Micipsa pater, beneficia tua evasere, uti, quem tu parem cum liberis tuis, regniqueparticipem fecisti, is potissimum stirpis tuse extinctor sit? Numquam ergo familia nostra quieta erit? semperne in sanguine, ferro, fuga versabimur? Dum Carthaginienses incolumes fuere, jure omnia saeva patiebamur: liostes ab latere, vos amici procul, spes omnis in armis erat. Postquam illa pestis ex Africa ejecta est, aeti pacem agitabamus: quippe quis hostis nulnls erat, nisi forte quem vos jussissetis. Ecce autem ex improviso Jugurtha intoleranda audacia, scelere atque superbia sese efferens, fratre meo atque eodem propinquo suo interfecto, primum regnum ejus sceleris sui praedam fecit: post, ubi me iisdem dolis nequit capere, nihil minus quam vim aut bellum exspectantem in imperio vestro, sicuti videtis, extorrem patria, domo, inopem et coopertum miseriis effecit, ut ubivis tutius quam in meo regno essem. "( Ego sic existimabam, patres conscripti, ut praedicantem audiveram patrem meum,'qui vestram amicitiam diligenter colerent, eos multum laborem suscipere, ceterum ex omnibus maxime tutos esse.' Quod in famili& nostra fuit, prsestitit, uti in omnibus bellis adesset vobis. nos uti per otium tuti simus, in manu vestra est, patres conscripti. Pater nos duos fratres reliquit; tertium, Ju2

Page  12 12 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII gurtham, beneficiis suis ratus est conjunctum nobis fore. Alter eorum necatus est, alterius ipse ego manus inipias vix effugi. Quid agam? aut quo potissimum infelix accedam? Generis presidia omnia exstincta sunt: pater, uti necesse erat, naturae concessit; fratri, quemr minirma decuit, propinquus per scelus vitam eripuit; affines, amicos, propinquos ceteros, alium alia clades oppressit: capti ab Jugurtha pars in crucem acti, pars bestiis objecti sunt; pauci, quibus relicta est anima, clausi in tenebris cum mcerore et luctu morte graviorem vitam exigunt. Si omnia, quae aut amisi, aut ex necessariis adversa facta sunt, incolumia manerent, tamen, si quid ex improviso mali accidisset, vos implorarem, patres conscripti, quibus pro magnitudine imperii jus et injurias omnes curse esse decet. Nunc vero exsul patria, domo, solus atque omnium honestarum rerum egens, qu6 accidam, aut quos appellem? nationesne an reges, qui omnes familie nostra ob vestram amicitiam infesti sunt? an qubquam mihi adire licet, ubi non majorum meorum hostilia monumenta plurima sint? aut quisquam nostri misereri potest, qui aliquando vobis hostis fuit? Postremo Masinissa nos ita instituit, patres conscripti,'ne quem coleremus nisi populum Romanum, ne societates, ne foedera nova acciperemus; abunde magna prsesidia nobis in vestra amicitia fore; si huic imperio fortuna mutaretur, un niobis occidendum esse.' Virtute ac dis volentibus, magni estis et opulenti, omnia secunda et obedientia sunt; quo faciiius sociorum injurias curare licet. Tantum illud vereor, ne quos privata ainicitia Jugurthae parum cognita transversos agat, quos ego audio rnaxima ope nlti, ambire, fatigare vos singulos,'ne quid de absente, incognita causa, statuatis: fingere me verba, et

Page  13 JUGURTHA. 18 fugarn simulare, cui licuerit in regno manere' Qubd utinam ilium, cujus impio facinore in has miserias projectus sum, eadem hec simulantem videam, et aliquando aut apud vos, aut apud deos immortales rerum- humanarum cura oriatur! Nme ille, qui nune sceleribus suis ferox atque praeclarus est, omnibus malis excruciatus, impietatis in parentem nostrum, fratris mei necis mearumque miseriarum graves poenas reddet. Jam jam frater animo meo carissime, quamquam tibi immaturo, et unde minime decuit, vita erepta est, tamen letandum magis quam dolendum puto casum tuum: non enim regnum, sed fugam, exsilium, egestatem et omnes has, qume me prerunt, erumnas cum anima simul amisisti. At ego infelix, in tanta mala przecipitatus ex patrio regno, rerum humanarum spectaculum praebeo, incertus quid agam, tuasne injurias persequar, ipse auxilii egens, an regno consulam, cujus vitar necisque potestas ex opibus alienis pendet. Utinam emori fortunis meis honestus exitus esset, neu vivere contemptus viderer, si defessus malis injuriae concessissem. Nune neque vivere libet, neque mori licet sine dedecore. Patres conscripti, per vos, per liberos atque parentes vestros, per majestatem populi Romani, subvenite misero mihi, ite obviam injuriae, nolite pati regnum Numidiae, quod vestrum est, per scelus et sanguinem familime nostrae tabescere." XV. Postquam rex finem loquendi fecit, legati Jugurthie, largitione magis quam causa freti, paucis respondent:'Hiempsalem ob saevitiam suam ab Numidis interfectum: Adherbalem ultro bellum inferentem, postquan superatus sit, queri, quod injuriam facere nequivisset: Jugurtham ab senatu petere, ne se alium putarent, ac Numantiae cognitus esset, neu verba inimici ante facta

Page  14 14 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII. sua ponerent.' Deinde utrique curia egrediuntur. Senatus statim consulitur. Fautores legatorum, praeterea magna pars gratia depravata, Adherbalis dicta contemnere, Jugurthae virtutem extollere laudibus; gratia, voce, denique omnibus modis pro alieno scelere et flagitio, sua quasi pro gloria, nitebantur. At contra pauci, quibus bonum et aequum divitiis carius erat,'subveniendum Adherbali, et Hiempsalis mortem severe vindicandam' censebant: sed ex omnibus maximae Emilius Scaurus, homo nobilis, impiger, factiosus, avidus potentile, honoris. divitiarum, ceteruim vitia sua callide occultans. Is postquam videt regis largitionem famosam impudentemque, veritus, quod in tali re solet, ne polluta licentia invidiam accenderet, animum a consueta libidine continuit. XVI. Vicit tamen in senatu pars illa, qume vero pretium aut gratiam anteferebat. Decretum fit,'uti decem legati regnum, quod Micipsa obtinuerat, inter Jugurtham et Adherbalem dividerent.' Cujus legationis princeps fuit L. Opimius, homo clarus et tune in senatu potens; quia consul, C. Graccho et M. Fulvio Flacco interfectis, acerrim6 victoriam nobilitatis in plebem exercuerat. Eum Jugurtha tametsi Romae in inimicis habuerat, tamen accuratissime recepit: dando et pollicitando multa perfecit, uti famae, fidei, postremo omnibus suis rebus commodum regis anteferret. Reliquos legatos eadem via aggressus, plerosque capit: paucis carior fides quam pecunia fuit. In divisione, quae pars Numidiae Mauretaniam attingit, agro virisque opulentior, Jugurthab traditur; illam alteram specie quam usu potiorem, quee portuosior et aodificiis magis exornata erat, Adherbal possedit. XVII. Res postulare videtur Africae situm paucis exponere, et eas gentes, quibuscum nobis bellumaut amicit

Page  15 JUGURTHA. 15 ia fuit, attingere. Sed quae loca et nationes ob calorem aut asperitatem item solitudines minuis frequentata sunt, de iis haud facile compertum narraverim; cetera quam paucissimis absolvam. In divisione orbis terrae plerique in partem tertiam Africam posuere: pauci tantummodo Asiam et Europam esse, sed Africam in Europa. Ea fines habet ab occidente fretum nostri maris et Oceani; ab ortu solis declivem latitudinem, quem locum Catabathmon incolae appellant. Mare seevum, importuosum; ager frugum fertilis, bonus pecori, arbore infecundus; ccelo terraque penuria aquarum. Genus hominum salubri corpore, velox, patiens laborum: plerosque senectus dissolvit, nisi qui ferro aut bestiis interiere, nam morbus haud saepe quemquam superat. Ad hoc malefici generis plurima animalia. Sed qui mortales initio Africam habuerint, quique postea accesserint, aut quomodo inter se permixti sint, quamquam ab ea fama, quae plerosque obtinet, diversum est, tamen, uti ex libris Punicis, qui regis Hiempsalis dicebantur, interpretatum nobis est, utique rem sese habere cultores ejus terram putant, quam paucissimis dicam: ceterum fides ejus rei penes auctores erit. XVIII. Africam initio Gaetuli et Libyes, asperi incultique, quis cibus erat caro ferinaatque humipabulum, uti pecoribus. Hi neque moribus neque lege, aut imperio cujusquam regebantur: vagi, palantes, qua nox coegerat, sedes habebant. Sed postquam in Hispania Hercules, sicuti Afri putant, interiit, exercitus ejus, compositus ex variis gentibus, amisso duce, ac passim multis, sibi quisque, imperium petentibus, brevi dilabitur. Ex eo numero Medi, Persae et Armenii, navibus in Afrlcan) transvecti, proximos nostro mari locos occupav6re, sed

Page  16 16 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII Persai intra Oceanum magis: hique alveos navium inversos pro tuguriis habuere, quia neque materia in agris, neque ab Hispanis emendi aut mutandi copia erat:,mare magnum et ignara lingua commercia prohibebant. Hi paulatir per connubia Gaetulos secum miscuere; et quia seepe tentantes agros, alia deinde alia loca petiverant, semet ipsi Nomadas appellavere. Ceterum adhuc adificia Numidarum agrestium, quse mapalia illi vocant, oblonga, incurvis lateribus tecta, quasi navium carinae sunt. Medi autem et Armenii, accessere Libyes; (nam hi propius mare Africum agitabant, Gaetuli sub sole magis, haud procul ab ardoribus:) hique mature oppida habuere; nam freto divisi ab Hispanih&mutare res inter se instituerant. Nomen eorum paulatim Libyes corrupere, barbara lingua Mauros pro Medis appellantes. Sed res Persarum brevi adolevit; ac postea, nomine Numidae, propter multitudinem a parentibus digressi, possedere ea loca, quae proxime Carthaginem Numidia appellatur. Deinde utrique alteris freti, finitimos armis aut metu sub imperium suum coegere, nomen gloriamque sibi addidere; magis hi, qui ad nostrum mare processerant, quia Libyes quam Gaetuli minus bellicosi. Denique Africa: pars inferior pleraque ab Numndis possessa est; victi omnes in gentem nomenque imperantium concessere. XIX. Postea Phcenices, alii multitudinis domi minuendae gratia, pars imperii cupidine, sollicitata plebe ct aliis novarum rerum avidis, Ilipponem, Hadrumetum, Iptim aliasque urbes in ora maritima condidere; hecque brevi multum auctas, pars originibus suis praesidio, aliae decori fuere. Nam de Cartllagine tacere melius puto quam parum dicere, quoniam alio properare tempus monet. Igitur ad Catabathmon, qui locus iEgyptum ab

Page  17 JUGURTHA. 17 Africa dividit, secundo mari prima Cyrene est colonia Therm6n, ac deinceps duam Syrtes, interque eas Leptis, deinde Philano6n are, quem locum rEgyptum versus finem imperii habuere Carthaginienses; post aliae Punice trl)es. Cetera loca usque ad Mauretaniam Numidra lenent: proxime Hispaniam Mauri sunt. Super Numidiam Gxetulos accepimus, partim in tuguriis, alios incultius vagos agitare, post eos _Ethiopas esse, dein loca exusta solis ardoribus. Igitur bello Jugurthino pleraque ex Punicis oppida et fines Carthagiensium, quos novissime habuerant, populus Romanus per magistratus administrabat: Gatulorum magna pars, et Numida uisque ad flumen Mulucham sub Jugurtha erant: Mauris omnibus rex Bocchus imperitabat, praeter nomen cetera ignarus populi Romani, itemque nobis neque bello neque pace antea cognitus. De Africa et ejus incolis ad necessitudinem rei satis dictum. XX. Postquam, diviso regno, legati Africa decessdre, et Jugurtha contra timorem animi proemia sceleris adeptum sese videt, certum ratus, quod ev amicis apud Numantiam acceperat, omnia Romae vepalia esse, simul et illorum pollicitationibus accensus, quos paulo ante muneribus expleverat, in regnum Adherbalis animum intendit. Ipse acer, bellicosus; at is, quem petebat, quietus, imbellis, placido ingenio, opportunus injuriae, metuens magis quam metuendus. Igitur ex improviso fines ejus cum magna manu invadit; multos mortales cum pecore atque alia praeda capit, aedificia incendit, pleraque loca hostiliter cum equitatu accedit: deinde cum omni multitudine in regnum suumn convertit; existimans dolore permotum Adherbalem injurias suas manu vindicaturum,

Page  18 18 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII. eamque rem belli causam fore. At ille, quod neque se parem armis existimabat, et amicitia populi Romani magis quam Numidis fretus erat, legatos ad Jugurtham de injuriis questum misit: qui tametsi contumeliosa dicta retulerant, prius tamen omnia pati decrevit, quam bellum sumere, quia tentatum antea secus cesserat. Neque eo magis cupido Jugurthae minuebatur; quippe qui totum ejus regnum animo jam invaserat. Itaque non, ut antea, cum praedatoria manu, sed magno exercitu comparato bellum gerere ccepit, et aperte totius Numidice imperium petere. Ceterum, qua pergebat, urbes, agros vastare, praedas agere; suis animum, hostibus terrorem augere. XXI. Adherbal ubi intellegit e6 processum, uti regnum aut relinquendum esset, aut armisretinendum,necessario copias parat, et Jugurthm obvius procedit. Interim haud longe a mari, prope Cirtam oppidum, utriusque consedit exercitus, et quia diei extremum erat, prselium non inceptum. Sed ubi plerumque noctis processit, obscuro etiamtum lumine, milites Jugurthini, signo dato, castra hostium invadunt; semisornnos partim, alios arma sumentes fugant funduntque. Adherbal cum paucisequitibus Cirtam profugit; et, ni multitudo togatorum fuisset, quae Numidas insequentes mcenibus pronibuit, uno die inter duos reges cceptum atque patratum bellum foret. Igitur Jugurtha oppidum circumsedit, vineis turribusque et machinis omnium generum expugnare aggreditur; maxime festinans tempus legatorum antecapere, quos, ante proelium factum, ab Adherbale Rornammissosaudiverat. Sed postquam senatus de bello eorum accepit, tres adolescentes in Africam legantur, qui ambos reges adeant, senatus populique Romani verbis nuntient, vello

Page  19 JUGURTHA, 19 et censere eos ab armis discedere; de controversiis suis jure potiuis quam bello disceptare: ita seque illisque dignum esse' XXII. Legati in Africam maturantes veniunt, eo magis, quod Romae, dum proficisci parant, de proelio facto et oppugnatione Cirtze audiebatur: sed is rumor clemens erat. Quorum, Jugurtha, accepta oratione, respondit:'sibi neque majus quicquam neque carius auctoritate senati esse; ab adolescentia ita se enisum, uti ab optimo quoque probaretur: virtute, non malitia P. Scipioni, summo viro, placuisse; ob easdem artes ab Micipsa, non )enuria liberorum, in regnum adoptatum esse. Ceterlum quo plura bene atque strenue fecisset, eo animum suum iljuriam minus tolerare. Adherbalem dolis vitee suae insidiatum; quod ubi comperisset, sceleri ejus obviam tsse. Populum Romanum neque recte neque pro bono facturum, si ab jure gentium sese prohibuerit. Postremo de omnibus rebus iegatos Romam missurum.' Ita utrique digrediuntur. Adherbalis appellandi copia non fuit. XXIII. Jugurtha ubi eos Africa decessisse ratus est, neque propter loci naturam Cirtam armis expugnare potest, vallo atque fossa mcenia circumdat,'turres exstruit, easque presidiis firmat: prmaterea dies noctesque aut per vim, aut dolis tentare; defensoribus moenium prcomia modo, modo formidinem ostentare; suos hortando ad virtutem arrigere; prorsus intentus cuncta parare. Adherbal ubi intellegit omnes suas fortunas in extremo sitas, hostem infestum, auxilii spem nullam, penuria rerum necessariarum bellum trahi non posse, ex his, qui una Cirtam profugerant, duos, maxime impigros delegit; eos multa pollicendo ac miserando casuni suum con3

Page  20 20 C. CRISPI SALLUSITI firmat, uti per hostium munitiones noctu ad proximun mare, dein Romam pergerent. XXIV. Numidce paucis diebus jussa efficiunt; litters Adherbalis in senatu recitatse, quarum sententia haec fuit. "Non mea culpa saepe ad vos oratum mitto, patres conscripti, sed vis Jugurthas subigit, quem tanta libido exstinguendi me invasit, uti neque vos necue deos immortales in animo habe'at, sanguinem meum quam omnia malit. Itaque quintum jam menseml socius et amicus populi Romani armis obsessus teneor, neque mihi Micipsae patris mei beneficia; neque vestra decreta auxiliantur: ferro an fame acritis urgear, incertus sum. Plura de Jugurtha scribere dehortatur me fortuna mea, et jam antea expertus sum parum fidei mriseris esse: nisi tamen intelligo ilium supra, quam ego sum, petere, neque simul amicitiam vestram et regnum meum sperare: utrum gravius existimet, nemini occultumn est. Nam initio occidit Iliempsalem, fratrem meum, deinde patrio regno me expulit. Quae sane fuerint nostree injuriae, nihil ad vos. Verum nunc vestrum regnum armis tenet, me, quemn vos imperatorem Numidis posuistis, clausum obsidet; legatorum verba quanti fecerit, pericula mea declarant. - Quid reliquum, nisi vis vestra, quo moveri possit? Nam ego quidem vellem, et hrec, quao scribo, et illa, qum antea in senatu questus sum, vana forent potiis, quam miseria mea fidem verbis faceret. Sed quoniameo natus sum, ut Jugurtha? scelerum ostentui essem, non jam mortem neque arumnas, tantummodo inimici imperium et cruciatus corporis deprecor. Regno Numidixe, quod vestrum est, uti libet, consulite: me manibusimpiiseripite, per majestatem imperii, per amicitime fidem, si ulla npud vos memoria remanet avi mei Masinissae."

Page  21 JUGURTHA. 21 XXV. His litteris recitatis, fuere, qui'exercitum in Africam mittendum' censerent,' et quam primum Adherbali subveniendum: de Jugurtha interim utl consuleretur, qloniam legatis non paruisset.' Sed ab iisdem illis regis fautoribus summa ope enisum, ne tale decretum ficret. Ita bonum publicum, ut in plerisque negotiis solet, privata gratia devictum. Legantur tamen in Africam majores natu, nobiles, amplis honoribus usi; in quis fuit M. Scaurus, de quo supra memoravimus, consularis, et tune in senatu princeps. Hi, quod res in invidia erat, simul et ab Numidis obsecrati, triduo navim ascendere: deinde brevi Uticam appulsi litteras ad Jugurtham mittunt,'quam ocissime ad provinciam accedat, seque ad eum ab senatimissos.' Ille ubi accepit homines claros, quorum auctoritatem Roma pollere audiverat, contra inceptum suum venisse, primo commotus, metu atque libidine diversus agitabatur. Timebat iram senati, ni paruisset legatis: porro animus cupidine caecus ad inceptum scelus rapiebat. Vicit tamen in avido ingenio pravum consilium. Igitur, exercitu circumdato, summa vi Cirtam irrumpere nititur; maxime sperans, diducta manu hostium, aut vi aut dolis sese casum victorise inventurum. Quod ubi secus procedit, neque, quod intenderat, efficere potest, uti priuis, quam legatos conveniret, Adherbalis potiretur, ne amplius morando Scaurum, quem plurimum metuebat, incenderet, cum paucis equitibus in provinciamn venit. Ac tametsi senati verbis graves minm nuntiabantur, quod ab oppugnatione non desisteret, multa tamen oratione consumpta, legati frustra discessere. XXVI. Ea postquam Cirte audita sunt, Italici, quorum virtute mcenia defensabantur, confisi, deditione facta propter magnitudinem populi Romani inviolatos sese fore

Page  22 ~22 ~ C. CRISPI SALLUSTII Adherbali suadent;' uti seque et oppidum Jugurthae tradat; tantum ab co vitam paciscatur, de ceteris senatui curoe fore.' At ille, tametsi omnia potiora fide Jugurtha, rebatur, tamen, quia penes eosdem, si adversaretur, cogendi potestas erat, ita, uti censuerant Italici, deditionem facit. Jugurtha in primis Adherbalem excruciatum necat; deinde omnes puberes Numidas et negotiatores promiscue, uti quisque armatis obvius fuerat, interfecit. XXVII. Quod postquam Romoe cognitum est, et res in scnatu agitari ccepta; iidem illi ministri regis interpellando, ac saepe gratia interdum jurgiis trahendo tempus, atrocitatern facti leniebant. Ac ni C. Memmius, tribunus plebis designatus, vir acer et infestus potentiae nobilitatis, populum Romanum edocuisset't agi, uti per paucos factiosos Jugurthae scelus condonaretur,' profecto omnis invidia prolatandis consultationibus dilapsa foret: tanta vis gratiam atque pecuniee regis erat. Sed ubi senatus delicti conscientia populum timet, lege Sempronia provinciae futuris consulibus Numidia atque Italia decretae, consules declarati P. Scipio Nasica, L. Bestia Calpurnius. Calpurnio Numidia, Scipioni Italia obvenit. Deinde exercitus, qui in Africam portaretur, scribitur: stipendium aliaque, quse bello usui forent, decernuntur. XXVIII. At Jugurtha, contra spem nuntio accepto, quippe cui Romae omnia venum ire in animo hleseiat, filium et cum eo duos familiares ad senatum legatos mit. tit; hisque, ut illis, quos Hiempsale interfecto miserat, pracepit,'omnes mortales pecunia aggrediantur.' Qui postquam Romam adventabant, senatus a Bestia consultus est,'placeretne legatos Jugurthm recipi mcenibus: iique decrevere,'nisi regnum ipsumque deditum venissent. uti in diebus proximis decem Italia decederent

Page  23 JUGURTHA. 23 Consul Numidis ex senati decreto nuntiari jubet: ita infectis rebus illi domum discedunt. Interim Calpurnius, parato exercitu, legat sibi homines nobiles, factiosos, quorum auctoritate, quxe deliquisset, munita fore sperabat: in quis fuit Scaurus, cujus de natura et habitu supra memoravimus. Nam in consule nostro multme bonaeque artes animi et corporis erant, quas omnes avaritia prepediebat. Patiens laborum, acri ingenio, satis providens, belli haud ignarus, firmissimus contra pericula et insidias. Sed legiones per Italiam Rhegium atque inde Siciliam, porro ex Sicilia in Africam transvecta. Igitur Calpurnius initio, paratis commeatibus, acriter Numidiam ingressus est, multosque mortales et urbes aliquot pugnando cepit. XXIX. Sed ubi Jugurtha per legatos pecunia tentare, bellique, quod administrabat, asperitatem ostendere ccepit, animus cager avaritia facile conversus est. Ceterurn socius et administer omnium consiliorum assumitur Scaurus; qui tametsi a principio, plerisque ex factione ejus corruptis, acerrime regem impugnaverat, tamen magnitudine pecunim. a bono honestoque in pravum abstractus est. Sed Jugurtha primo tantummodo belli moram redimebat, existimans sese aliquid interim Roma pretio aut gratia effecturum; postea vero quam participem negotii Scaurum accepit, in maximam spem adductus recuperandae pacis, statuit cumn is de omnibus pactionibus praesens agere. Ceterum interea fidei causa mittitur a consule Sextius qusestor in oppidum Jugurthm Vaccam; cujus rei species erat acceptio frumenti, quod Calpurnius palam legatis imperaverat, quoniam deditioms morli inducise agitabantur. Igitur rex, uti constituerat, in castra venit; ac pauca, preesenti consilio, locutus 3*

Page  24 24 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII de invidia facti sui, atque in deditionem uti acciperetur. reliqua cum Bestia et Scauro secreta transigit: dein postero die, quasi per saturam exquisitis sententiis, in deditionem accipitur. Sed, uti pro consilio imperatum erat, elephanti triginta, pecus atque equi multi cum parvo argenti pondere quaestori traduntur. Calpurnius Romam ad magistratus rogandos proficiscitur. In Numidia et exercitu nostro pax agitabatur. XXX. Postquam res in Africa gestas, quoque modo acte forent, fama divulgavit, Romte per omnes locos et conventus de facto consulis agitari. Apud plebem gravis invidia; patres solliciti erant; probarentne tantum flagitium, an decretum consulis subverterent, parum constabat: ac maxime eos potentia Scauri, quod is auctor et socius Bestia ferebatur, a vero bonoque impediebat. At C. Memmius, cujus de libertate ingenii et odio potentice nobilitatis supra diximus,i(inter dubitationem et moras senati concionibus popuium ad vindicandum hortari, monere, ne rempublicam, ne libertatem suam desererent; multa superba et crudelia facinora nobilitatis ostendere' prorsus intentus omni modo plebis animum accendebat. Sed, quoniam ea tempestate Romeo Memmii facundia clara pollensque fuit, decere existimavi unam ex tam multis orationem ejus perscribere, ac potissimum ea dicam, que in concione post reditum Bestia hujuscemodi verbis disseruit. XXXI. "Multa me dehortantur a vobis, Quirites, ni studium reipublica omnia superet, opes factionis, vestra patientia, jus nullum, ac maxime, quod innocentia plus periculi quam honoris est. Nam illa quidem piget dicere, his annis quindecim quam ludibrio fueritis superbias paucorum; quam foede quamque inulti perierint

Page  25 JUGURTHA. 25 vestri defensores; ut vobis animus ab ignavia atque so. cordia corruptus sit, qui ne nunc quidem, obnoxiis in. imicis, exsurgitis, atque etiam nunc timetis eos,quibus vos decet terrori esse. Sed quamquam haec talia sunt, tamen obviam ire factionis potentiae animus subigit. Certe ego libertatem, qua mihi a parente tradita est, experiar: verum id frustra an ob rem faciam, in vestra manu situm est, Quirites. Neque ego vos hortor, quod sepe majorcs vestri fecere, uti contra injurias armati eatis. Nihil vi, nihil secessione opus est: necesse est, suomet ipsi more praecipites eant. Occiso Tiberio Graccho, quem reg. num parare aiebant, in plebem Romanam quzestiones habitze sunt. Post C. Gracchi et M. Fulvii caedem, item vestri ordinis multi mortales in carcere necati sunt: utriusque cladis non lex, verutm libido eorum finem fecit. Sed sane fuerit regni paratio plebi sua restituere: quidquid sine sanguine civium ulcisci nequitur, jure facturn sit, Superioribus annis taciti indignabamini aerarium expilari, reges et populos liberos paucis nobilibus vectigal pendere, penes eosdem et summam gloriam, et maximas divitias esse: tamen hac talia facinora impune suscepisse parum habuere, itaque postrerno leges, majestas vestra, divina et humana omnia hostibus tradita sunt. Neque cos, qui ca fecere, pudet aut pcenitet, sed incedunt per ora vestra magnifici, sacerdotia et consulatus, pars triumphos sues ostentantes, perinde quasi ea honori, non praedw habeant. Servi were parati imperia injusta domino. rum non perferunt: vos, Quirites, imperio nati, equo animo servitutem toleratis? At qui sunt hi, qui rempublicanl occupavCre? Homines sceleratissimi, cruentis manibus, immani avaritia, nocentissimi iidemque superbissimi; quis fides, decus, pietas, postremo honesta atque inho

Page  26 26 C. CRISPI SALLUSTI! nesta, omnia qumstui sunt. Pars eorum occidlsse tribunos plebis, alii qusestiones injustas, plerique cdem in vos fecisse pro munimento habent. Ita quam quisque pcssime fecit, tam maxime tutus est; metum a scelere suo ad ignaviam vestram transtulere: quos omnes eadem cupere, eadem odisse, eadem metuere in unum coegit: sed haec inter bonos amicitia, inter malos factio est. Quod si tam vos libertatis curam haberetis, quam illi ad dominationem accensi sunt, profecto neque respublica, sicuti nunc, vastaretur, et beneficia vestra penes optimos, non audacissimos forent. Majores vestri parandi juris et majestatis constituende gratia bis per secessionem arrnati Aventinum occupavere: vos pro libertate, quam ab illis accepistis, non summa ope nitemini? atque eo vehementius, quod majus dedecus est parta amittere, quam omnino non paravisse. Dicet aliquis: "Quid igitur censes?" Vindicandum in eos, qui hosti prodidere rempublicam; non manu neque vi, quod magis vos fecisse quam illis accidisse indignum est, verum quaestionibus et indicio ip sius Jugurthae, qui si dedititius est, profecto jussis vestris obediens erit; sin ea contemnit, scilicet existimabitis qualis illa pax aut deditio sit, ex qua ad Jugurtham scelerum impunitas, ad paucos potentes maximae divitiae, in rempublicam damna atque dedecora pervenerint. Nisi forte nondum etiam vos dominationis eorum satietas tenet, et illa quam hEec tempora magis placent, quum regna, provinciae, leges, jura, judicia, bella, atque, paces, postremo divina et humana omnia penes paucos erant; vos autem, hoc est populus Romanus, invicti ab hostibus, imperatores omnium gentium, satis habebatis animam retinere; nar servitutem quidem quis vestrum recusare audebat? Atque ego, tametsi flagitiosissimum existimo impune injuriam

Page  27 JUGURTHA. 21 acceisse, tamen vos hominibus sceleratissimis ignoscere, quoniam cives sunt, sequo animo paterer, nisi misericordia in perniciem casura esset. Nam et illis, quantum importunitatis habent, parum est impune male fecisse, nisi deinde faciendi licentia eripitur, et vobis mterna sollicittdo remanebit, quum intelligetis aut serviendum esse, aut per rnanus libertatem retinendam. Nam fidei quidem aut concordise quze spes est? Dominari illi volunt, vos liberi esse; facere illi injurias, vos prohibere; postremo sociis vestris veluti hostibus, hostibus pro sociis utuntur. Potestne in tam diversis mentibus pax aut amicitia esse? Quare moneo hortorque vos, ne tantum scelus impunitum omittatis..-Non peculatus terarii factus est, neque per vim sociis ereptae pecunite; quse quamquam gravia sunt, tamen consuetudine jam pro nihilo habentur: hosti acerrimo prodita senati auctoritis, proditum imperium vestrum; domi militikeque respublica venalis fuit. Quae nisi quaesita erunt, ni vindicatum in noxios, quid erit reliquum, nisi ut illis, qui ea fecere, obedientes vivamus? nam impune qu3elibet facere, id est regem esse. Neque ego vos, Quirites, hortor, ut malitis cives vestros perperam quam rect6 fecisse, sed ne ignoscendo malis bonos perditum eatis. Ad hoc in republica multo praestat beneficii quam maleficii immemorem esse; bonus tantummodo segnior fit, ubi negligas, at malus improbior. Ad hoc si injuriae non sint, haud szepe auxilii egeas." XXXII. HaEc atque alia hujuscemodi scpe dicendo,.Memmius populo persuadet, uti L. Cassius, qui tune prUe. tor erat, ad Jugurtham mitteretur, eumque, interpositt fide publica, Romam duceret, quo facilius indicio regs, Scauri et reliquorum, quos pecunia captae arcessebant, delicta patefierent. Dum hlec Romae geruntur, qui in

Page  28 28 CC. CRISPI SALLUSTII Numidia' relicti a Bestia exercitui prveerant, secuti morenl imperatoris sui, plurima et flagitiosissima facinora fecire. Fuere, qui auro corrupti elephantos Jugurthae traderent: alii perfugas vendere, pars ex pacatis praedas agebant: tanta vis avaritime animos eorum veluti tabes invaserat. At Cassius, perlata rogatione a C. Memmio, ac perculs omni nobilitate, ad Jugurtham proficiscitur; ~Eque timido et ex conscientia diffidenti rebus suis persuadet,'quoniam se populo Romano dedidisset, ne vim quam misericordiam ejus experiri mallet.' Privatim prseterea fidem suam interponit, quam ille non minoris quam publicam ducebat. Talis ea tempestate fama de Cassio erat. XXXIII. Igitur Jugurtha, contra decus regium, cultu quam maxime miserabili cum Cassio Romam venit. Ac tametsi in ipso magna vis animi erat, confirmatus ab omnibus, quorum potentia aut scelere cuncta ea gesserat, quT supra diximus C. Baebium tribunum plebis magna mercede parat, cujus impudentia contra jus et injurias omnes munitus foret. At C. Memmius, advocata concione, quamquam regi infesta plebes erat, et pars'in vincula duci' jubebat, pars,' ni socios sceleris sui aperiret, more majorum de hoste supplicium sumi,' dignitati quam irme magis consulens, sedare motus, et animos eorum mollire; postremo confirmare'fidem publicam per sese inviolatam fore.' Post, ubi silentium ccepit, producto Jugurtha, verba facit; Romam Numidiaeque facinora ejus memorat, scelera in patrem fratresque ostendit.'Quibus juvantibus quibusque ministris ea egerit, quamquam intelligat populus Romanus, tamen velle manifesta magis ex illo habere. Si verum aperiat, in fide et clementia populi Romani magnam spem illi sitam: sin reticeat, non sociis saluti-fore, sed se suasque spes corrupturum.'

Page  29 JUGURTHA. 29 XXXIV. Deinde, ubi Memmius dicendi finem fecit, et Jugurtha respondere jussus est, C Baebius tribunus plebis, quem pecunia corruptum supra diximus, regem tacere jubet: ac tametsi multitudo, quae in concione aderat, vehementer accensa terrebat eum clamore, vultu, saepe impetu atque aliis omnibus, qume ira fieri amat, vicit tamen impudentia. Ita populus ludibrio habitus ex concione discedit: Jugurthae Bestiamque et ceteris, quos illa quaestio exagitabat, animi augescunt. XXXV. Erat ea tempestate Romm Numida quidam, nomine Massiva, Gulussae filius, Masinissse nepos; qui, quia, in dissensione regum Jugurthae adversus fuerat, dedita Cirta, et Adherbale interfecto, profugus ex Africa abierat. Huic Sp. Albinus, qui proximo anno post Bestiam cum Q. Minucio Rufo consulatum gerebat, persuadet,' quoniam ex stirpe Masinissee sit, Jugurthamque ob scelera invidia cum metu urgeat, regnum Numidie ab senatu petat.' Avidus consul belli gerendi moveri, quam senescere omnia malebat; ipsi provincia Numidia, Minucio Macedonia evenerat.'Que postquam Massiva agitare cepit, neque Jugurthe in amicis satis presidii est, quod eorum alium conscientia, alium mala fama et timor impediebat, Bomilcari, proximo ac maxime fido sibi, imperat,'pretio,' sicuti multa confecerat,'insidia. tores Massivae paret, ac maxime occultS, sin id parum procedat, quovis modo Numidam interficiat.' Bomilcar mature regis mandata exsequitur; et per homines talis negotii artifices itinera egressusque ejus, postremo loca atque tempora cuncta explorat; deinde, ubi res postulabat, insidias tendit. Igitur unus ex eo numero, qui ad caedem parati erant, paulo inconsultiis Massivamaggreditur, illum obtruncat; sed ipse deprehensus, multis hor

Page  30 30 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII. tantibus et in primis Albino consule, indicium profitetur. Fit reus magis ex equo bonoque quarm ex jure gentium Bomilcar, comes ejus, qui Romam fide publica venerat. At Jugurtha manifestus tanti sceleris non prius omisit contra verum niti, quam animum advertit supra gratiam atque pecuniar suam invidiam facti esse. Igitur, quamquam in priore actione ex amicis quinquaginta vades dederat, regno magis quam vadibus consulens clam in Numidiam Bomilcarem dimittit, veritus ne reliquos populares metus invaderet parendi sibi, si de illo supplicium sumptum foret, et ipse paucis diebus profectus est, jussus ab senatu Italia decedere. Sed postquam Roma egressusest,fertur smepe e6 tacitus respiciens postremo dixisse:' urbem venalem et mature perituram, si emptorem invenerit.' XXXVI. Interim Albinus, renovato bello, commeatum, stipendium aliaque, qume militibus usui forent, maturat in Africam portare; ac statim ipse profectus, uti ante comitia, quod tempus haud longe aberat, armis aut deditione aut quovis modo bellum conficeret. At contra Jugurtha trahere omnia, et alias, deinde alias moree causas facere; polliceri deditionem, ac deinde metum simulare; instanti cedere, et paulo post, ne sui diffiderent, instare: ita belli modo, modo pacis mora consulem ludificare. Ac fuire, qui tum Albinum haud ignarum consilii regis existimarent; neque ex tanta properantia tam facile tractumn bellum socordia magis quam dolo crederent. Sed postquam, dilapso tempore, comitiorum dies adventabat, Albinus, Aulo fratre in castris pro prcetore relicto, Romam decessit. XXXVII. Ea tempestate Romas seditionibus tribuniciis atrociter respublica agitabatur. P. Lucullus et L.

Page  31 JUGURTHA. 31 Annius, tribuni plebis, resistentibus collegis, continuare magistratum nitebantur: qute dissensio totius anni comitia impediebat. Ea mora in spem adductus Aulus, quern pro prietore in castris relictum supra diximus, aut confiieendi belli aut terrore exercitus ab rege pecunia capiendae, milites mense Januario ex hibernis in expeditionenl evocat, rrmagnisque itineribus, hieme aspera, pervenit ad oppidum Suthul, ubi regis thesauri erant. Quod quaniquam et saevitia temporis et opportunitate loci neque capi neque obsideri poterat; nam circum murum, situm in praerupti montis extremo, planities limosa hiemalibus aquis paludem fecerat; tamen, aut simulandi gratia, quo regi formidinem adderet, aut cupidine caocus ob thesauros oppidi potiundi, vineas agere, aggerem jacere, aliaque, quae incepto usui forent, properare. XXXVIII. At Jugurtha, cognita vanitate atque imperitia legati, subdolus ejus augere amentiam, missitare supplicantes legatos, ipse quasi vitabundus per saltuosa loca et tramites exercitum ductare. Denique Aulum spe pactionis perpulit, uti, relicto Suthule, in abditas regiones sese veluti cedentem insequeretur:'ita delicta occultiora fore.' Interea per horines callidos die noctuque exercitum tentabat; centuriones ducesque turmarum, partim uti transfugerent, corrumpere; alii, signo dato, locum uti desererent. Quae postquam ex sententia instruit, intempesta nocte de improviso multitudine Numidarum Auli castra circumvenit. Milites Romani, perculsi tumultu insolito, arma capere alii, alii se abdere, pars territos confirmare; trepidare omnibus locis vis magna hostium, celum nocte atque nubibus obscuratum, periculum anceps: postremo fugere an manere tutius foret, in incerto erat. Sed ex eo numero, quos 4

Page  32 32 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII paulo ante corruptos diximus, cohors una Ligurum cum duabus turmis Thracum et paucis gregariis militibus transierc ad regem, et centurio primi pili tertiee legionis per munitionem, quarn, uti defenderet, acceperat, locum hostibus introeundi dedit, eaque Numide cuncti irrupere. Nostri fceda fuga, plerique abjectis armis proximum collem occupavere. Nox atque prmeda castrorum hostes, quo.minus victoria uterentur, remorata sunt. Deinde Jugurtha postero die cum Aulo in colloquio verlba facit:'tametsi ipsum cum exercitu fame ferroque clausum tenet, tamen se humanarum rerum memorem, si secum fredus faceret, incolumes omnes sub jugum missurum: prmeterea, uti diebus decem Numidia dlcederet.' Quae quamquam gravih et flagitii plena erant, tamen, quia mortis metu mutabant, sicuti regi libuerat, pax convenit. XXXIX. Sed ubi ea Romie comperta sunt, metus atque mceror civitatem invasdre. Pars dolere pro gloria imperii, pars insolita rerum bellicarum timere libertati: Aulo omnes infesti, ac maxime, qui bello ssepe preciari fuerant, quod armatus dedecore potiuis quam manu salutem quaesiverat. Ob ea consul Albinus ex delicto fratris invidiam ac deinde periculum timens, senatum de fcedere consulebat; et tamen interim exercitui supplementum scribere, ab sociis et nomine Latino auxilia arcessere, denique modis omnibus festinare. Senatus ita, uti par fuerat, decernit,'suo atque populi injussu nullum potuisse fcedus fieri.' Consul impeditus a tribunis plebis, ne, quas paraverat copias, secum portarct, paucis diebus in Africam proficiscitur: nam omnis ex'ercitus, uti convenerat, Numidia deductus, in provincia hiemabat. Postquam eo venit, quamquam persequi Ju

Page  33 JUGURTHA. 33 gurtham et mederi fraterna invidiae anirus ardebat. cognitis militibus, quos praeter fugain, soluto imperio, licentia atque lascivia corruperat, ex copia rerum statuil sibi nihil agitandum. XL. Interea Romse C. Mamilius Limetanus tribunus plebis rogationem ad populum promulgat,' Uti quaereretur in eos, quorum consilio Jugurtha senati decreta neglexisset; quique ab eo in legationibus aut imperiis pecunias accepissent; qui elephantos, quique perfugas tradidissent; item, qui de pace aut bello cum hostibus pactiones fecissent.' Huic rogationi partim conscii sibi, alii ex partium invidia pericula metuentes, quoniam aperte resistere non poterant, quin illa et alia talia placere sibi faterentur. occulte per amicos, ac maxime per homines nominis Latini et socios Italicos impedimenta parabant. Sed plebes incredibile memoratu est, quam intenta fuerit, quantaque vi rogationem jusserit, decreverit, voluerit, magis odio nobilitatis, cui mala illa parabantur, quam cura reipublicae: tanta libido in pajtibus erat.ylgitur ceteris metu perculsis, M. Scaurus, quem legatum Bestir fuisse supra docuimus, inter lketitiam plebis et suorum fugam, trepida etiamtum civitate, qnum ex Mamilii rogatione tres qusesitores rogarentur, effecerat, uti ipse in eo numero crearetur. Sed quoestio exercita aspere violenterque, ex rumore et libidine plebis. Ut swpe nobilitatem, sic ea tempestate plebem ex secundis rebus insolentia ceperat. XLI. Ceteruim mos partium popularium et senati factionum, ac deinde omnium malarum artium, paucis ante annis Romae ortus est, otio et abundantia earum rerum, qurI prima mortales ducunt. Nam ante Carthaginem deletam populus et senatus Romanus placide modesteque inter se rempublicam tractabant: neque glorim neque

Page  34 34 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII dominationis certamen inter cives erat: metus hostilis in bonis artibus civitatem retinebat. Sed ubi illa fornido mentibus decessit, scilicet ea, quaw secundae res amant, lascivia atque superbia incessere. Ita, quod in advcrsis rebus optaverant otium, postquam adepti sunt, asperius acerbiusque fuit. Namque ccepere nobilitas dignitatem in dominationem, populus libertatem in libidinem vertere: sibi quisque ducere, trahere, rapere. Ita omnia in duas partes abstracta sunt; respublica, quas media fierat, dilacerata. Ceterum nobilitas factione magis pollebat; plebis vis, soluta atque dispersa in multitudine, minus poterat. Paucorum arbitrio belli domique agitabatur; penes eosdem zerarium, provincise, magistratus, gloriam triumphique erant; populus militia atque inopia urgebatur. Praedas bellicas imperatores cum paucis diripiebant: interea parentes aut parvi liberi militum, ut quisque potentiori confinis erat, sedibus pellebantur. Ita cum potentia avaritia sine modo modestiaque invadere, polluere et vastare omnia, nihil pensi neque salcti habere, quoad semet ipsa praecipitavit. Nam ubi primium ex nobilitate reperti sunt, qui veram gloriam injustapotentite anteponerent, moveri civitas, et dissensio civilis, quasi permixtio terrae, oriri cacpit. XLII. Nam postquam Tiberius et C. Gracchus, quorum najores Punico atque aliis bellis multum reipublicae addiderant, vindicare plebem in libertatem, et paucorurn scelera patefacere ccepere, nobilitas noxia, atque eo perculsa, rnodo per socios ac nomen Latinum, interdum per equites Romanos, quos spes societatis a plebe dimoverat, Gracchorum actionibus obviam ierat; et primno Tiberium, dein paucos post annos eadem ingredientem Caium tribunum alterum, alterum triumvirum coloniis deducen

Page  35 JUGURTHA. 35 dis, cum M. Fulvio Flacco ferro necaverat. Et sane Grracchis cupidine victoriae haud satis modoratus animus fuit: sed bono vinci satius est, quam malo more injuriam vincere. Igitur ea victoria nobilitas ex libidine suL usa, inultos mortales ferro aut fuga exstinxit; plusque in reliquum sibi timoris quam potentiae addidit. Quee res pleruimque magnas civitates pessum dedit, dum alteri alteros vincere quovis modo, et victos acerbiuis ulcisci volunt. Sed de studiis partium et omnis civitatis moribus si singulatim aut pro magnitudine parem diserere, tempus quam res maturiuis me deseret: quamobrem ad inceptum redeo. XLIII. Post Auli fcedus exercitusque nostri fcedam fugam, Q. Metellus et M. Silanus, consules designati, provincias inter se partiverant, Metelloque Numidia evenerat, acri viro, et, quamquam adverso populi partium, fama tamen equabili et inviolata. Is ubi primuim magistratum ingressus est, alia omnia sibi cum collega ratus, ad bellum, quod gesturus erat,'animum intendit. Igitur diffidens veteri exercitui, milites scribere, presidia undique arcessere, arma, tela, equos et cetera instrumenta militias parare, ad hoc commeatum affatim, denique omnia, quae in bello vario et multarum rerum egenti usui esse solent. Ceterum ad ea patranda, senatus auctoritate socii nomenque Latinum et reges ultro auxilia mittere; postrem6 ornis civitas summo studio adnitebatur. Itaque, ex sententia omnibus rebus paratis compositisque, in Nurmidiam proficiscitur magna spe civium, quum propter bonas artes, tum maxime, quod adversuim divitias invictum animum gerebat; et avaritia magistratuum ante id ternpus in Numidia nostrae opes contusae, hostiumque auctee erant. 4*

Page  36 36 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII XLIV. Sed ubi in Africam venit, exercitus ei traditur Sp. Albini proconsulis inert, imbellis, neque periculi neque laboris patiens, lingua quam manu promptior praedator ex sociis et ipse praeda hostium, sine imperio et modestia habitus. Ita imperatori novo plus ex malis moribus sollicitudinis, quam ex copia militum auxilii aut bonme spei accedebat. Statuit tamen Metellus, quamquam et eestivorum tempus comitiorum mora imminuerat, et exspectatione eventus civium animos intentos putabat, non prius bellum attingere, quam majorum disciplina milites laborare coegisset. Nam Albinus, Auli fratris exercitusque clade perculsus, postquam decreverat non egredi provincia, quantum temporis estivorum in imperio fuit, pleruimque milites stativis castris habebat; nisi quum odos aut pabuli egestas locum mutare subegerat. Sed neque muniebantur ea, neque more militari vigilise deducebantur: uti cuique libebat, ab signis aberat. Lixae permixti cum militibus die noctuque vagabantur, et palantes agros vastare, villas expugnare, pecoris et mancipiorum predas certantes agere, eaque mutare cum mercatoribus vino advectitio et aliis talibus; prrterea frumentum publice datum vendere, panem in dies mercari: postremo, qusecumque dici aut fingi queunt ignavia3 luxuriaeque probra, in illo exercitu cuncta fuere, et alia amplius. XLV. Sed in ea difficultate Metellum non minius quam in rebus hostilibus magnum et sapientem vil um fuisse comperior, tanta temperantia inter ambitionem scevitiamque moderatum. Namque edicto primum adjumenta ignavia sustulisse;'ne quisquam in castris panem aut quemn alium coctum cibum venderet; ne lixae exercitum sequerentur; ne miles gregarius in cas

Page  37 JUGURTHA. 37 tris neve in agmine servum aut jumentum haberet:' ceteris arte modum statuisse. Praeterea transversis itineribus quotidie castra movere, juxta ac si hostes adessent, vallo atque fossa munire, vigilias crebras ponere, et eas ipse cum legatis circumire: item in agmine in primis modo, modo in postremis, saepe in medio adesse, ne quisquam ordine egrederetur, uti cum signis frequentes incederent, miles cibum et arma portaret. Ita prohibendo a delictis magis quam vindicando exercitum brevi confirmavit. XLVI. Interea Jugurtha, ubi, que Metellus agebat, ex nuntiis accepit, simul de innocentia ejus certior Roma factus, diffidere suis rebus; ac tum demum veramdedit. ionem facere conatus est. Igitur legatos ad consulern cum suppliciis mittit, qui tantummodo ipsi liberisque vitam peterent, alia omnia dederent populo Romano. Sed Metello jam antea experimentis cognitum erat genus Numidarum infidum, ingenio mobili, novarum rerum avidum esse. Itaque legatos alium ab alio diversos aggreditur; ac paulatim tentando, postquam opportunos sibi cognovit, multa pollicendo persuadet,' uti Jugurtham maxime vivum, sin id parum procedat, necatum slbi traderent:' ceterfim palam, qume ex voluntate forent, regi nuntiari jubet. Deinde ipse paucis diebus, intento atque infesto exercitu, in Numidiam procedit; ubi, contra belli faciem, tuguria plena hominum, pecora cultoresque in agris erant; ex oppidis et mapalibus prefecti regis obvii procedebant, parati frumenturn dare, commeatum portare, postremo omnia, lque imperarentur, facere. Neque Metellus idcirco minus, sed pariter ac si hostes adessent, munito agmine incedere, lath explorare omnia, illa deditionis signa ostentui credere, et insidiis locum tentari. Itaque ipse cum expeditis cohorti

Page  38 38 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII bus, item funditorum et sagittariorum delecta manu apud primos erat; in posaremo C. Marius legatus curn equitibus curabat: in utrumque latus auxiliarios equites tribunis legionum et praefectis cohortium dispertiverat, uti cum his permixti velites, quacunque accederent equitatus hostium, propulsarent. Nam in Jugurtha tantus dolus tantaque peritia locorum et militiae erat, ut, absens an prsesens, pacem an bellur gerens perniciosior esset, in incerto haberetir. XLVII. Erat haud longe ab eo itinere, quo Metellus pergebat, oppidum Numidarum, nomine Vacca, forum rerum venalium totius regni maxime celebratum; ubi et incolere et mercari consueverant Italici generis multi mortales. Huc consul, sirnul tentandi gratia, et, si paterentur, opportunitate loci presidium imposuit; praeterea imperavit frumentum et alia, quce bello usui forent, comportare;: ratus, id quod res monebat,,frequentiam negotiatorum et commeatum juvaturum exercitum, et jam paratis rebus munimento fore. Inter haec negotia Jugurtha impensius modo legatos supplices mittere, pacem orare, praiter suam liberorumque vitam omnia Metello dedere. Quos item, uti priores, consul illectos ad proditionem domum dimittebat: regi pacem, quam postulabat, neque abnuere neque polliceri, et inter eas moras promissa legatorum exspectare. XLVIII. Jugurtha ubi Metelli dicta cum factis composuit, ac se suis artibus tentari animadvertit; quippe cui verbis pax nuntiabatur, ceterum re bellum asperrimum erat, urbs maxima alienata, ager hostibus cognitus, animi popularium tentati; coactus rerum necessitudine, statuit armis certare. Igitur explorato hostium itinere, in spem victoriae adductus ex opportunitate loci, quam maximas potest copias omnium generum parat, ac per

Page  39 JUGURTHA. 39 tramites occultos exercitum Metelli antevenit. Erat in ea parte Numidi., quam Adherbal in divisione possederat, flumen oriens a meridie, nomine Muthul; a quo aberat mons ferme millia viginti, tractu pari, vastus ab natura et humano cultu: sed ex eo medio quasi collis oriehatur, in immensum pertingens, vestitus oleastro ac myrtetis aliisque generibus arborum, ~qe humi arido atque arenoso gignuntur. Media autem planities deserta penuria aquae, prieter flumini propinqua loca; ea consita arbustis pecore atque cultoribus frequentabantur, XLIX. Igitur in eo colle, quem transverso itinere porrectum docuimus, Jugurtha, extenuata suorum acie, consedit: elephantis et parti copiarum pedestrium Bomilcarem prsefecit, eumque edocet, que ageret; ipse propior montem cum omni equitatu pedites delectos collocat: dein singulas turmas atque manipulos circumiens monet atque obtestatur,' uti memores pristine virtutis et victoria sese regnumque suum ab Romanorum avaritia defendant: cum his certamen fore, quos antea victos sub jugum miserint. ducem illis, non animum mutatum. Qume ab imperatore decuerint, omnia suis provisa; locum superiorem, uti prudentes cum imperitis, ne pauciores cum pluribus, aut rudes cum bello melioribus manum consererent. Proinde parati intenticque essent, signo dato, Romanos invadere: illum diem aut omnes labores et victorias confirmaturum, aut maximarum verumnarum initium fore.' Ad hoc viritim, uti quemque ob militare facinus pecunia aut honore extulerat, commonefacete beneficii sui, et eum ipsum aliis ostentare: postremo pro cujL'sque ingenio, pollicendo, minitando, obtestando alium alio modo excitare; quum interim Metellus, ignarus hostium, monte degrediens cum exercitu, conspica

Page  40 40 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII tur, primo dubius, quidnam insolita facies ostenderet, (nam inter virgulta equi Numideque consederant, neque plane occultati humilitate arborum, et tamen incerti, quidnam esset, quum natura loci, turn dolo ipsi atque signa militaria obscurati); dein, brevi cognitis insidiis, paulisper agmen constituit. Ibi commutatis ordinibus, in dextero latere, quod proximum hostes.erat, triplicibus subsidiis aciem instruxit; inter manipulos funditores et sagittarios dispertit, equitatum omnem in cornibus locat, ac pauca pro tempore milites hortatus, aciem, sicuti instruxerat, transversis principiis, in planum deducit. L. Sed ubi Numidas quietos, neque colle degredi animadvertit, veritus ex anni tempore et inopia aquae, ne siti conficeretur exercitus, Rutilium legatum cum expeditis cohortibus et parte equitum praemisit ad fumen, ut locum castris antecaperet; existimans hostes crebro impetu et transversis prceliis iter suum remoraturos, et, quoniam armis diffiderent, lassitudinem et sitim militum tentaturos. Deinde ipse pro re atque loco, sicuti monte descenderat, paulatim procedere: Marium post principia habere: ipse cum sinistrse alae equitibus esse, qui in agmine principes facti erant. At Jugurtha, ubi extremum agmen Metelli primos suos praetergressum videt, prassidio quasi duum millium peditum montem occupat, qua Metellus descenderat, ne forte cedentibus adversariis receptui ac post munimento foret; dcin repente, signo dato, hostes invadit. Numidae, alii postremos caedere, pars a sinistra ac dextera tentare, infensi adesse atque instare, omnibus locis Romanorum ordines conturbare; quorum etiam qui firnioribus animis obvii hostibus fuerant, ludificati incerto prcelio, ipsi rnodo eminus sauciabantur neque contra feriendi aut manum conserendi copia erat

Page  41 JUGURTHA. 41 Antea jam docti ab Jugurtha equites, ubicumque Rom. anorurn turma insequi cceperat, non confertim, neque in unum sese recipiebant, sed alius alio quam maxime divcrsi. Ita numero priores, si a persequendo hostes deterrere nequiverant, disjectos ab tergo aut lateribus circumveniebant: sin opportunior fugae collis, quam campi fuerant, ea vero consueti Numidarum equi facile inter virgulta evadere; nostros asperitas et insolentia loci retinebat. LI. Ceterim facies totius negotii varia, incerta, fceda atque miserabilis: dispersi a suis, pars cedere, alii insequi; neque signa neque ordines observare; ubi quemque periculum ceperat, lbi resistero ac propulsare: arma tela, equi viri, hostes atque cives permixti; nihil consilio neque imperio agi; fors omnia regere. Itaque multum diei processerat, quum etiamtum eventus in incerto erat Denique omnibus labore et sestu languidis, Metellus, ubi videt Numidas minus instare, paulatim milites in unum conducit, ordines restituit, et cohortes legionarias quatuor adversum pedites hostium collocat. Eorum magna pars superioribus locis fessa consederat Simul orare, hortari milites,'ne deficerent, neu paterentur hostes fugientes vincere: neque illis castra esse, neque munimentum ullum, quo cedentes tenderent: in armis omnia sita.' Sed nec Jugurtha quidem interea quietus erat; circumire, hortari, renovare prcelium,,et ipse cum delectis tentare omnia, subvenire suis, hostibus dubiis instare, quosfirmoscognoverat, eminus pugnando retinere. LII. Eo modo inter se duo imperatores, summi viri, certabant, ipsi pares, ceterum opibus disparibus: nam Metello virtus militum erat, locus adversus; Jugurth2e alia omnia praeter milites opportuna. Denique Ro

Page  42 42 C. CR1SPI SALLUSTII mani, ubi intelligunt neque sibi perfugium esse, neque ab hoste copiam pugnandi fieri, et jam die vesper erat, adverso colle, sicuti praceptum fuerat, evadunt. Amisso loco, Numidwe fusi fugatique: pauci interiere, plerosque velocitas et regio hostibus ignara tutata sunt. Interea Bomilcar, quem elephantis et parti copiarum pedestriurn praefectum ab Jugurtha supra diximus, ubi eum Rutilius praetergressus est, paulatim suos in sequum locum deducit: ac, dum legatus ad flumen, quo preemissus erat, festinans pergit, quietus, uti res postulabat, aciem exornat; neque remittit, quid ubique hostis ageret, explorare. Postquam Rutilium consedisse jam, et animo vacuum accepit, simulque ex Jugurthee prcelio clamorem augeri, veritus, ne legatus, cognita re, laborantibus suis auxilio foret, aciem, quam,: diffidens virtuti militum, art6 statuerat, quo hostium itineri officeret, latius porrigft, eoque modo ad Rutilii castra-procedit. LIII. Romani ex improviso pulveris vim magnam animadvertunt, nam prospectum ager arbustis consitus prohibebat; et primo rati humum aridam vento agitari; post, ubi equabilem manere, et, sicuti acies movebatur, magis magisque appropinquare.vident, cognitA re, properantes arma capiunt, ac pro castris, sicuti imperabatur, consistunt. Deinde, ubi propius ventum est, utrimque magno clamore concurriturA Numidae tantum modo remorati, dum in elephantis auxilium putant, postquam eos impeditos ramis arborum, atque ita disjectos circumveniri vident, fugam faciunt, ac plerique, abjectis armis, collis aut noctis quse jam aderat, auxilio integri abeunt. Elephanti quatuor capti, reliqui omnes, numero quadraginta, interfecti. At Romani, quamquam itinere atque opere castrorum et prcelio fessi lassique

Page  43 JUGURTHA. 43 erant, tamen, quod Metellus amplius opinione morabatur, instructi intentique obviam procedunt: nam dolus Numidarum nihil languidi neque remissi patiebatur. Ac prirno, obscura nocte, postquam baud procul inter se erant, strepitu, velut hostes, adventare, alteri apud alteros formidinem simul et tumultum facere: et pene imprudentia admissum facinus miserabile, ni utrimque preemissi equites rem exploravissent. Igitur pro metu repente gaudium exortum; milites alius alium laeti appellant, acta edocent atque audiunt; sua quisque fortia facta ad ccelum ferre. Quippe res humanae ita sese habent: in victoria vel ignavis gloriari licet; adversac res etiam bonos detrectant. LIV. Metellus, in iisdem castris quatriduo moratus, saucios cum cura reficit, meritos in preliis more militia donat, universos in concione laudat, atque agit gratias: hortatur,'ad cetera, quee tlevia sunt, parem animum gerant: pro victoria satis jam pugnatum, reliquos labores pro praeda fore.' Tamen interim transfugas et alios opportunos, Jugurtha ubi gentium, aut quid agitaret, cum paucisne esset, an exercitum haberet, uti sese victus gereret, exploratum misit. At ille sese in loca saltuosa et natura munita receperat, ibique cogebat exercitum numero hominum ampliorem, sed hebetem infirmumque, agri ac pecoris magis quam belli cultoreMi. Id ea gratia eveniebat, quod proeter regios equites nemo omnium Numidarum ex fuga regem sequitur; quo cujusque animus fert, eo discedunt, neque id flagitium militime ducitur; ita se mores habent. Igitur Metellus ubi videt etiamtum regis animum ferocem esse, bellum renovan, quod nisi ex illius libidine geri non posset, praeterea iniquum certamen sibi cum hostibus, minore detrimento 5

Page  44 44 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII illos vinci, quam suos vincere, statuit non prceliis neque acie, sed alio more bellum gerendum. Itaque in loca opulentissima pergit, agros vastat, multa castella ct oppida, temere munita aut sine prmesidio, capit incenditque; puberes interfici jubet, alia omnia militum praedam esse. Ea formidine multi mortales Romanis dediti obsides; frurnentum et alia, quae usui forent, affatim praebita; ubicumque res postulabat, presidium inpositum. Quaw negotia multo magis, quam prcelium inale pugnatum ab suis, regem terrebant: quippe cui spes omnis in fuga sita erat, sequi cogebatur; et, qui sua loca defendere nequiverat, in alienis bellum gerere. Tamen ex copia, quod optimum videbatur, consilium capit: exercitum plerumque in iisdem locis opperiri jubet; ipse cum delectis equitibus Metellum sequitur, nocturnis et aviis itineribus ignoratus Romanos palantes repente aggreditur. Eorum plerique inermes cadunt, multi capiuntur, nemo omnium intactus profugit; et Numidiae, priusquam ex castris subveniretur, sicuti jussi erant, in proximos coles discedunt. LV. Interim Romae gaudium ingens ortum, cognitis Metelli rebus; ut seque et exercitum more majorum gereret, in adverso loco victor tamen virtute fuisset, hostium agro potiretur, Jugurtham, magnificum ex Auli socordia, spem salutis in solitudine aut fuga coegisset habere. Itaque senatus ob ea feliciter acta dis immortalibus supplicia decernere; civitas, trepida antea et sollicita de belli eventu, leta agere; de Metello fama prae clara esse. Igitur eo intentior ad victoriam niti, omnibus modis festinare; cavere tamen, necubi hosti opportunus fieret; meminisse, post gloriam invidiam seqdi. Ita quo clarior eo magis anxius erat, neque post insidias Ju

Page  45 JUGURTIA 45 gurthae effuso exercitu preedari: ubi frumento aut pabulo opus erat, cohortes cum omni equitatu presldium agitabant: exercitus partem ipse, reliquos Marius ducehat. Sed igni magis quam praeda ager vastabatur. Duobus locis haud longe inter se castra faciebant: ubi vi opus erat, cuncti aderant; ceterim, quo fuga atque formido latiuts cresceret, diversi agebant. Eo tempore Jugurtha per colles sequi, tempus aut locum pugnm quaerere, qua venturum hostem audierat, pabulum et aquarum fontes, quorum penuria erat, corrumpere, modo se Metello, interdum Mario ostendere, postremos in agmine tentare, ac statim in colles regredi, rursus aliis, post aliis minitari,neque prcelium facere, neque otium pati, tantummodo hostem ab incepto retinere. LVI. Romanus imperator ubi se dolis fatigari videt, neque ab hoste copiam pugnandi fieri, urbem magnam et in ea parte, QU'& sita erat, arcem regni, nomine Zamam, statuit oppugnare; ratus, id quod negotium poscebat, Jugurtham laborantibus suis auxilio venturum, ibique prcelium fore. At ille, que parabantur, a perfugis edoctus, magnis itineribus Metellum antevenit; oppidanos hortatur,' mcnia defendant;' additis auxilio perfugis, quod genus ex copiis regis, quia fallere nequibat, firmissimum erat: proeterea pollicetur,' in tempore semet cum exercitu affore.' Ita compositis rebus, in loca quam maxime occulta discedit, ac post paulo cognoscit Marium ex itinere frumentatum cum paucis cohortibus Sic. cam missurnm; quod oppidum primum omnium post ma]am pugnam ab rege defecerat. Eo cum delectis equitlbus noctu pergit, et jam egredientibus Romanis, in pcrta pugnam facit: simul magna voce Siccenses hortatur uti cohortes ab tergo circumveniant: fortunam illis praT

Page  46 46 C. CIISPI SALLUSTII ciari facinoris casum dare. Si id fecerint, postea sese in regno, illos in libertate sine metu aetatem acturos.' Ac ni Marius signa inferre atque evadere oppido properavis set, profecto cuncti aut magna pars Siccensium fidem mutavissent: tanta mobilitate sese Numidoe agunt. Sed milites Juglrthini, paulisper ab rege sustentati, postquam majore vi hostes urgent, paucis amissis, profugi discedunt. LVII. Marius ad Zaram pervenit. Id oppidum, in campo situm, magis opere quam natura munitum erat, nullius idonee rei egens, armis virisque opulentum. Igitur Metellus, pro tempore atque loco paratis rebus, cuncta maenia exercitu circumvenit; legatis imperat, ubi quisque curaret; deinde, signo dato, undique simul clamor ingens oritur. Neque ea res Numidas terret; infensi intentique sine tumultu manent. Prcelium incipitur. Romani, pro ingenio quisque, pars eminus glande aut lapidibus pugnare, alii succedere, ac murum modo suffodere, modo scalis aggredi, cupere prcelium manibus facere. Contra ea oppidani in proximos saxa volvere; sudes, pila, prmeterea pice et sulphure tedam mixtam, ardenti mittere. Sed ne illos quidem, qui procul manserant, timor anrmi satis muniverat: nam plerosque jacula tormentis aut manu emissa vulnerabant; pariquepericulo, sed fama impari boni atque ignavi erant. LVIII. Dum apud Zamam sic certatur, Jugurtha ex improvise castra hostium cum magna manu invadit: remissis, qui in preesidio erant, et omnia magis quam proelium exspectantibus, portam irrumpit. At nostri, repentino metu perculsi, sibi quisque pro moribus consulunt: alii fugere, alii arma capere; magna pars vulnerati aut occisi. Ceteruim ex omni multitudine non

Page  47 JUGURTHA. 47 amplius quadraginta, memores nominis Romani, grege facto, locum cepere paulo qumrn alii editiorem, neque inde maxima vi depelli quiverunt, sed tela eminus missa remittere, pauci in pluribus minus fiustrati: sin Numidte propiiis accessissent, ibi vero virtutem ostendere, et eos maxima vi cmedere, fundere atque fugare. Interim letellus, quum acerrime rem gereret, clamorem hostilem ab tergo accepit: deinde, converso equo, animadvertit fugam ad se versum fieri; qum res indicabat populares esse. Igitur equitafum omnem ad castra propere mittit, ac statim C. AMarium cum cohortibus sociorum; eumque lacrymans per amicitiam perque rempublicam obsecrat,'ne quam contumeliam remanere in exercitu victore, neve hostes inultos abire sinat.' Ille brevi mandata efficit. At Jugurtha munimento castrorum impeditus, quum alii super vallum praecipitarentur, alii in angustiis ipsi sibi properantes officerent, multis amissis, in loca munita sese recepit. Metellus, infecto negotio, postquam nox aderat, in castra cum exercitu revertitur. LIX. Igitur postero die, prius quam ad oppugnandum egrederetur, equitatum omnem in ea parte, qua regis adventus erat, pro castris agitare jubet; portas et proxima loca tribunis dispertit; deinde ipse pergit ad oppidum, atque, ut superiore die, murum aggreditur. Interim Jugurtha ex. occulto repente nostros invadit. Qui in proxirno locati fuerant, paulisper territi perturbantur; reliqui cito subveniunt, neque diutius Numidme resistero. quivissent, ni pedites cum equitibus permixti magnam cladem in congressu facerent. Quibus illi freti, non, ut equestri prcelio solet, sequi, dein cedere, sed adversis equis concurrere, implicare ac perturbare aciem: ita expeditis oeditibus suis hostes pene victos dare. 5 *

Page  48 48 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII LX. Eodem tempore apud Zamam magna vi certabatur. Ubi quisque legatus aut tribunus curabat, eo acerrime niti; neque alius in alio magis quam in sese spem habere: pariterque oppidani agere. Oppugnare, aut parare onnibus locis: avidius alteri alteros sauciare, quam semet tegere: clamor permixtus hortatione, letitia,gemitu, item strepitus armorum ad ccelum ferri, tela utrimque volare. Sed illi, qui mcenia defensabant, ubi hostes paulum modo pugnam remiserant, intenti prcelium equestre prospectabant. Eos, uti qumeque Jugurthae res erant, ketos modo, modo pavidos animadvcrteres; ac sicuti audiri a suis aut cerni possent, monere alii, alii hortari, aut manu significare, aut niti corporibus, et ea huc illuc, quasi vitabundi aut jacientes tela, agitare. Quod ubi Mario cognitum est, (nam is in ea parte curabat), consulto lenius agere, ac diffidentiam rei simulare; pati Numida-s sine tumultu regis prcelium visere. Ita, illis studio suorum adstrictis, repente magna vi murum aggreditur; et jam scalis egressi milites prope summa ceperant: quum oppidani concurrunt, lapides, ignem, alia prseterea tela ingerunt. Nostri primo resistere; deinde, ubi unae atque alterne scale comminutme, qui supersteterant, afflicti sunt; ceteri quoquo modo potuere, pauci integri, magna pars confecti vulneribus abeunt. Denique utrimque prcelium nox diremit. LXI. Metellus postquam videt frustra inceptum, ne. que oppidum capi, neque Jugurtham nisi ex insidiis aut suo loco pugnam facere, et jam aestatem exactam esse, ab Zama discedit, et in his urbibus, quam ad se defecerant, satisque munitat loco ant mcenibus erant, praesidia imponit: ceterum exercitum in provinciam, qua; proxima est Numidise, hiemandi gratia collocat. Neque id tem

Page  49 JUGURTHA. 49 pus ex aliorum more quieti aut luxuriT concedit; sed, quoniam armis bellurn parum procedebat, insidias regi per amicos tendere, et eorum perfidia pro armis uti parat. Igitur Bomilcarem, qui Romae cum Jugurtha fuerat, et inde, vadibus datis, clam de Massivae nece judicium fugeiat, quod ei per maximam amicitiam maxima copia fallendi erat, multis pollicitationibus aggreditur. Ac prim6 efficit, uti ad se colloquendi gratia occultus veniat: deinde fide data,'si Jugurtham vivum aut necatum tradidisset, fore, ut illi senatus impunitatem et sua omnia concederet,' facile Numidae persuadet, quum ingenio infido, tum metuenti, ne, si pax cum Romanis fieret, ipse per conditiones ad supplicium traderetur. LXII. Is, ubi primum opportunum fuit, Jugurtham anxium ac miserantem fortunas suas accedit; monet atque lacrymans obtestatur' uti aliquando sibi liberisque et genti Numidarum optime merenti provideat: omnibus prceliis sese victos, agrum vastatum, multos mortales captos aut occisos, regni opes comminutas esse: satis saepe jam et virtutem militum et fortunam tentatam: caveat, ne, illo cunctante, Numida sibi consulant.'. His atque talibus aliis ad deditionem regis animum impellit. Mittuntur ad imperatorem legati, qui'Jugurtham imperata facturum' dicerent,'ac sine ulla pactione sese regnumque suum in illius fidem tradere.' Metellus propere cunctos senatorii ordinis ex hibernis arcessiri jubet: eorum atque aliorum, quos idoneos ducebat, consilium habet. Ita more majorum ex consilii decreto per legatos Jugurihee imperat argenti pondo ducenta millia, elephantos omnes, equorum et armorum aliquantum. Qure postquain sine mora facta sunt, jubet'omnes perfugas vinctos addueL' Eorum magna pars, ut jussum crat, adducti,

Page  50 hO C. CRISPI SALLUSTII pauci, quum primuim deditio ccepit, ad regem Bocchum in Mauretaniam abierant. Igitur Jugurtha, ubi armis virisque et pecunia spoliatus est, quum ipse ad imperandum Tisidium vocaretur, rursus ccepit flectere animurn suum, at ex mala conscientia digna timere. Denique multis diebus per dubitationem consumptis, quum modo taedio rerumn adversarum omnia bello potiora duceret, interdum secum ipse reputaret, quam gravis casus in servitium ex regno foret, multis magnisque praesidiis nequidquam per. ditis, de integro bellum sumit. Et Romae senatus de pro. vinciis consultus Numidiam Metello decreverat. LXIII. Per idem tempus Uticm forte C. Mario per hostias dis supplicanti magna atque mirabilia portendi' haruspex dixerat:'proinde, quae animo agitabat, fretus dis ageret; fortunam quam saepissime experiretur, cuncta prospera eventura.' At illum jam antea consulats ingens cupido exagitabat, ad quern capiendum praeter vetustatem familiae alia omnia abunde erant, industria, probitas, militia magna scientia, animus belli ingens, domi modicus, libidinis et divitiarum victor, tantummodo glorize avidus. Sed is natus et omnem pueritiam Arpini altus, ubi primum setas militiae patiens fuit, stipendiis faciendis, non G-raeca facundia neque urbanis Inunditiis sese exercuit: ita inter artes bonas integrum ingenium brevi adolevit. Ergo ubi primum tribunatum militarem a populo petit, plerisque faciem ejus ignorantibus, facile notus per omnes tribus declaratur. Deinde ab eo magistratu alium post alium sibi peperit, semper quo in potestatibus eo modo agitabat, uti ampliore, quam gerebat, dignus haberetur. Tamen is ad id locorum talis vir (nam postea ambitione prseceps datus est) consulatumi petere non audebat: etiamtum alios magistratus

Page  51 JUGURTIIA. 51 plebes, consulatum nobilitas inter se per manus tradebat: novus nemo tam clarus, neque tam egregius factis erat, quin is indignus illo honore et quasi pollutus habe. retur. LXIV. Igitur ubi Marius haruspicis dicta eodem intendere videt, quo cupido animi hortabatur, ab Metello petendi gratia missionem rogat. Cui quamquam virtus, gloria atque alia optanda bonis superabant, tamen inerat contemptor animus et superbia, commune nobilitatis malum. Itaque primum, commotus insolita re, mirari ejus consilium, et quasi per amicitiam monere,'ne tam prava inciperet, neu super fortunam, animum gereret: non omnia omnibus cupienda esse; debere illi res suas satis placere: postremoi caveret id petere a populo Romano, quod illi jure negaretur.' Postquam haec atque alia talia dixit, neque animus Marii flectitur, respondit, ubi primum potuisset per negotia publica, facturum sese, quae peteret;' ac postea sepius eadem postulanti fertur dixisse,'ne festinaret abire; satis mature illum cum filio suo consulatum petiturum.' Is eo tempore contubernio patris ibidem militabat, annos natus circiter viginti. Quee res Marium quum pro honore, quem affectabat, turn contra Metellum vehementer accenderat. Ita cupidine atque ira, pessimis consultoribus, grassari, neque facto ullo neque dicto abstinere, quod modo ambitiosum foret: milites, quibus in hibernis preErat, laxiore imperio quam antea habere: apud negotiatores quorum magna multitudo Uticne erat, criminose simul et Imagnifice de bello loqui:'dimidia pars exercitus sibi perinitteretur, paucis diebus Jugurtham in catenis habiturum: ab imperatore consulto trahi, quod homo inanis et regiae superbiae imperio nimis gauderet.' Quae orn

Page  52 52 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII nia illis eo firmiora videbantur, quod diuturnitate, belli res familiares corruperant, et animo cupienti nihil satis festinatur LXV. Erat pramterea in exercitu nostro Numida quidam, nomine Gauda, Manastabalis filius, Masinissae nepos, quem rMicipsa testamento secundum heredem scripserat, morbis confectus, et ob earn causam mente paulum imminuta. Cui Metellus petenti,,' more regum uti sellam juxta poneret,' item postea' custodiae causa turmam equitum Romanorum,' utrumque negaverat; honorem, quod eorum mod6 foret, quos populus Romanus reges appellavisset; praesidium, quod contumeliosum foret, si equites Romani satellites Numidme traderentur. Hune Marius anxium aggreditur, atque hortatur, uti contumeliarum imperatoris curn suo auxilio pcenas petat: hominem ob morbos animo parum valido secunda oratione extollit:' ilium regem, ingentem virum, Masinissre nepotem esse; si Jugurtha captus aut occisus foret, imperium Numidim sine mora habiturum; id adeo mature posse evenire, si ipse consul ad id bellum missus foret.' Itaque et illum, et equites Romanos, milites et negotiatores, alios ipse, plerosque spes pacis impellit, uti Romam ad suos necessarios aspere in Metellum de bello scribant, Marium imperatorem poscant. Sic illi a multis mortalibus honestissima suffragatione consulatus petebatur: simul ea tempestate plebes, nobilitate fusa per legeli Mamiliam, novos extollebat. Ita Mario ctncta procedere. LXVI. Interim Jugurtha, postquam, omissa deditione, bellum incipit, cum magna cura parare omnia, festinare, cogere exercitum; civitates, qume ab se defeceraht, forinidine aut ostentando praemia affectare; communire

Page  53 JUGURTli4. 53 suos locos; arma, tela, alia, quae spe pacis amiserat, reficere aut commercari; servitia Romanorum allicere, et cos ipsos, qui in presidiis erant, pecunia tentare; prorsus nihil intactum neque quietum pati, cuncta agitare. Igitur Vaccenses, quo Metellus initio, Jugurtha pacificante, praesidium imposuerat, fatigati regis suppliciis, neque antea voluntate alienati, principes civitatis inter se conjurant: nam vulgus, uti pleruimque solet,(et maxime Numidarum, ingenio mobili, seditiosum atque discordiosum erat, cupidum novarum rerum, quieti et otio adversum. Dein, compositis inter se rebus, in diem tertium constituunt, quod is festus celebratusque per omnem Africam ludum et lasciviam magis quam formidinem ostentabat. Sed ubi tempus fuit, centuriones tribunosque militares, et ipsur praefectum oppidi T. Turpilium Silanum, alius alium domos suas ihvitant: eos omnes preeter Turpilium inter epulas obtruncant: postea milites palantes, inermes, quippe in tali die ac sine imperio, aggrediuntur. Idem plebes facit, pars edocti ab nobilitate, alii studio talium rerum incitati, quis acta consiliumque ignorantibus tumultus ipse et res novte satis placebant. LXVII. Romani milites, improviso metu incerti ignarique, quid potissimum facerent, trepidare: ad arcem oppidi, ubi signa et scuta erant,praesidium hostium: portre,nte clausse fugam prohibebant: ad hoc mulieres puerique pro tectis edificiorum saxa et alia, quas locus prsebebat, certatim mittere. Ita neque caveri anceps malum, neque a fortissimis infirmissimo generi resisti pose: juxta boni malique, strenui et imbelles inulti obtruncari. In ea tantA asperitate, sevissimis Numidis et oppido undique clauso, Turpilius praefectus unus ex omnibus Italicis profugit

Page  54 54 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII intactus. Id misericordiane hospitis, an pactione aut casu ita evenerit, parurn comperimus; nisi, quia illi in tanto malo turpis vita integra fama potior fuit, improbus irltestabilisque videtur. LXVIII. Metellus postquam de rebus Vaccas actis comperit, paulisper mostus e conspectu abit; deinde, ubi ira et segritudo permixta sunt, cum maxima cura ultum ire injurias festinat. Legionem, cum qua hiemabat, et quam plurimos potest Numidas equites pariter cum occasu solis expeditos educit; et postera die circiter horam tertiam pervenit in quamdam planitiem, locis paulo superioribus circumventam. Ibi milites, fessos itineris magnitudine, et jam abnuentes omnia, docet'oppidum Vaccam non amplius mille passuum abesse: decere illos reliquum laborem equo animo pati, dum pro civibus suis, viris fortissimis atque miserrimis, poenas caperent:' praeterea predam benigne ostentat. Ita animis eorum arrectis, equites in primo late, pedites quam artissimeire, et signa occultare jubet. LXIX. Vaccenses ubi animum advertere ad se versum exercitum pergere, primo, uti erat res, Metellum esse rati, portas clausere: deinde, ubi neque agros vastari, et eos, qui primi aderant, Numidas equites vident, rursum Jugurtham arbitrati, cum magno gaudio obvii procedunt. Equites peditesque, repente signo dato, alii vulgum effusum oppido caedere, alii ad portas festinare, pars turres capere; ira atque presde spes amplius quam lassitudo posse. Ita Vaccenses biduum modo ex perfidia lhetati: civitas magna et opulens cuncta poene aut prsdee fuit. Turpilius, quem prmfectum oppidi unum ex omnibus profugisse supra ostendimus, jussus a Metello causam dicere, postquam sese parum expurgat, condemnatus

Page  55 JUGURTHA. 55 verberatusque capite pcenas solvit: nam is civis ex Latio erat. LXX. Per idem tempus Bomilcar, cujus impulsu Jugurtha deditionem, quam metu deseruit, inceperat, suspectus regi, et ipse eum suspiciens, novas res cupere, ad pturniciem ejus dolum qumerere, die noctuque fatigare animum. Denique omnia tentando, socium sibi adjungit Nabdalsam, hominem nobilem, magnis opibus, carum acceptumque popularibus suis, qui plerumque seorsum ab rege exercitum ductare et omnes res exsequi solitus erat, quam Jugurthze fesso aut majoribus adstricto superaverant; ex quo illi gloria opesque inventne. Igitur utriusque consilho dies insidiis statuitur:' cetera, uti res posceret, ex tempore parari' placuit. Nabdalsa ad exercitum profectus, quem inter hiberna Romanorum jussus habebat, ne ager, inultis hostibus, vastaretur. Is postquam magnitudine facinoris perculsus ad tempus non venit, metusque rem impediebat, Bomilcar, simul cupidus incepta patrandi, et timore socii anxius, ne, omisso vetere consilio, novum qumereret, litteras ad eum per hoinines fideles mittit, in quis mollitiem socordiamque viri accusare, testari deos, per quos juravisset, monere,'ne pramia Metelli in pestem converteret; Jurgurthwe exitium adesse; ceteruim suane an Metelli virtute periret, id modo agitari: proinde reputaret cum animo suo, praemia an cruciatum mallet.' LXXI. Sed quum hee litterae allatae, forte Nabdalsa exercito corpore fessus in lecto quiescebat, ubi, cognitis Bomilcaris verbis, primo cura, deinde, uti regrurn animum solet, somnus cepit. Erat ei Numida quidam, negotiorum curator, fidus acceptusque et omnium consiliorum, nisi novissimi, particeps. Qui postquam alla6

Page  56 56 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII tas litteras audivit, ex consuetudine ratus opera aut in. genio suo opus esse, in tabernaculum introiit: dormiente illo epistolam, super caput in pulvino temere positam sumit ac perlegit, dein propere, cognitis insidiis, ad regern pergit. Nabdalsa post paulo experrectus, ubi neque epis. tolam reperit, et rem omnem, uti acta erat, cognovit, primo indicem persequi conatus, postquam id frustra fuit, Jugurtham placandi gratia accedit; dicit'quae ipse paravisset facere, perfidia clientis sui preeventa:' lacrymans obtestatur'per amicitiam perque sua antea fideliter acta, ne super tali scelere suspectum sese haberet.' LXXII. Ad ea rex, aliter atque animo gerebat, placide respondit. Bomilcare aliisque multis, quos socios insidiarum cognoverat, inteifectis, iram oppresserat, ne qua ex eo negotio seditio oriretur. Neque post id locorum Jugurthae dies aut nox ulla quieta fuit: neque loco neque mortali cuiquam aut tempori satis credere, cives, hostes juxta metuere, circumspectare omnia, et omni strepitu pavescere, alio atque alio loco, sepe contra decus regium, noctu requiescere, interdum somno excitus, arreptis armis, tumultum facere; ita formidine quasi vecordia exagitari. LXXIII. Igitur Metellus, ubi de casu Bomilcaris et indicio patefacto ex perfugis cognovit, rursus, tarnquam ad integrum bellum, cuncta parat festinatque. Marium, fatigantem de profectione, simul et invisum et offensum, sibi parum idoneum ratus, domum dimittit. Et Romas plebes, litteris, qute de Metello ac Mario missae erant, cognitis, volenti animo de ambobus acceperant. Imper atori nobilitas, quse antea decori, invidise esse: at illi altnrl generis humilitas favorem addiderat: ceterum in utroque magis studia partium, quam bona aut mala sua

Page  57 JUGURTHA. 57 roderata. Preterea seditiosi magistratus vulgum exag. itare, Metellum omnibus concionibus capitis arcessere, Marii virtutem in majus celebrare. Denique plebes sic a censa, utl opifices agrestesque omnes, quorum res fidesque in manibus sitse erant, relictis operibus, frequentarent Marnum, et sua necessaria post illius honorem ducerent. Ita, perculsa nobilitate, post multas tempestates novo homini consulatus mandatur; et postea populus, a tribune plebis Manilio Mancino rogatus,'quem vellet cum Jugurtha bellum gerere,' frequens Marium jussit. Sed senatus paulo ante Metello Numidiam decreverat: ea res frustra. fiit. LXXIV. Eodem tempore Jugurtha, amissis' amicis, quorum plerosque ipse necaverat, ceteri formidine, pars ad Romanos, alii ad regem Bocchum profugerant, quum neque bellum geri sine administris posset, et novorum fidem in tanta perfidia veterum experiri periculosum duceret, varius incertusque agitabat; neque illi res, neque consilium aut quisquam hominum satis placebat: itinera preefectosque in dies mutare; m6od adversum hostes, interdum in solitudines pergere; smpe in fugh, ac post paulo in armis spem habere; dubitare, virtuti an fide popularium minus crederet: ita, quocumque intenderat, res adversve erant. Sed inter eas moras repente sese Metellus cum exercitu ostendit. Numide ab Jugurtha pro tempore parati instructique; dein prcelium incipitur. Qua in parte rex pugnme adfuit, ibi aliquamdiu certatum; ceteri omnes ejus milites primo concursu pulsi fugatique. Romari signorum et armorum aliquanto numero, hostium pnucoi ain potiti: nam ferme Numidas in omnibus prceliis nlagis pedes quam arma tuta sunt. 7.Y WV Ea fuga Jugurtha, impensius modo rebus suis

Page  58 58 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII diffidens, cum perfugis et parte equitatus in solitudincs dein Thalam pervenit, in oppidum magnum et opulentum, ubi plerique thesauri filiorumque ejus multus pueritihe cultus erat. Quse postquam Metello comperta sunt, quamquam inter Thalam flumenque proximum, spatio millium quinquaginta, loca arida atque vasta esse cognoverat, tamen spe patrandi belli, si ejus oppidi potitus foret, omnes asperitates supervadere, ac naturam etiam vincere aggreditur. Igilur omnia jumenta sarcinis levari jubet, nisi frumento dierum decem; ceterum utres modo et alia aquae idonea portari. Praeterea conquirit ex agris, quam plurimum potest domiti pecoris, e6que imponit vasa cujusque modi, sed pleraque lignea, collecta ex tuguriis Numidarum. Ad hoc finitimis imperat, qui se post regis fugam Metello dederant, quam plurimum quisque aquam portaret: diem locumque, ubi praesto forent, praedicit. Ipse ex flumine, quam proximam oppido aquam supra diximus, jumenta onerat: eo modo instructus ad Thalam proficiscitur. Deinde ubi ad id loci ventum, quo Numidis prEeceperat, et castra posita munitaque sunt, tanta repente ccelo missa vis aquae dicitur, ut ea modo exercitui satis superque foret. Preterea commeatus spe amplior, quia Numidae, sicuti plerique in nova deditione, officia intenderant. Ceterum milites religione pluvia magis usi, eaque res multum animis eorurn addidit; nam rati sese dis immortalibus cura esse. Deinde postero die, contra opinionem Jugurthae, ad Thalam perveniunt. Oppidani, qui se locorum asperitate munitos crediderant, magna atque insolita re perculsi, nihilo segnius belluin parare: idem nostri facere. LXXVI. Sed rex, nihil jam infectum Metello credens, quippe qui omnia, arma, tela, locos, tempora, dxenique

Page  59 JUGURTHA. 59 naturam ipsam, ceteris imperitantem, industria vicerat, cum liberis et magna parte pecunim ex oppido noctu profugit. Neque postea in ullo loco amplius uno die aut una nocte moratus, simulabat sese negotii gratia properare; ceterum proditionem timebat, quam vitare posse celeritate putabat: nam talia consilia per otium et ex opportunitate capi. At Metellus, ubi oppidanos prcclio intentos, simul oppidum et operibus et loco munitum videt, vallo fossaque mconia circumvenit. Deinde locis ex copia maxime idoneis vineas agere, aggerem jacere, et super aggerem impositis turribus, opus et administros tutari. Contra haec oppidani festinare, parare: prorsus ab utrisque nihil reliquum fieri. Denique Romani, iulto ante labore prceliisque fatigati, post dies quadraginta, quam eo ventum erat, oppido modo potiti: prteda omnis a perfugis corrupta. Ii postquam murum arietibus feriri resque suas afflictas vident, aurum atque argentum et alia, quve prima ducuntur, domum regiam comportant: ibi vino et epllis onerati, illaque et domum et semet igni corrumpunt; et quas victi ab hostibus poenas metuerant, eas ipsi volentes pependere. LXXVII. Sed pariter cum capta Thala legati ex oppido Lepti ad Metellum venerant, orantes,' uti praesidium prmefectumque e6 mitteret: Hamilcarem quemdam, horn. inem nobilem, factiosum, novis rebus studere, adversum quem neque imperia magistratuum neque leges valerent: ni id festinaret, in summo periculo suam salutem, illorum socios fore.' Nam Leptitani jam inde a principio belli Jugurthini ad Bestiam consulem et postea Romam nmiserant, amicitiam societatemque rogatum: deinde, ubi ea impetrata. semper boni fidelesque mansere, et cuncta a Bestia, Albino Metelloque imperata nave fecerant. Ita6*

Page  60 60 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII que ab imperatore facile, quse petebant, adepti, et missae e6 cohortes Ligurum quatuor, et C. Annius prafectus. LXXVIII. Id oppidum ab Sidoniis conditum est, quos accepimus profugos ob discordias civiles navibus ill os locos venisse: ceteruim situm inter duas Syrtes, quibus nomen ex re inditum. Nam duo sunt sinus prqe in extrema Africa, impares magnitudine, pari natura: quorum proxima terrae praealta sunt; cetera, uti fors tulit, alta, alia in tempestate, vadosa. Nam ubi mare magnum esse, et savire ventis ccepit, limum arenamque et saxa ingentia fluctus trahunt: ita facies locorum cum ventis simul mutatur. Syrtes ab tractu nominatae. Ejus civitatis lingua modo conversa connubio Numidarum: leges cultusque pleraque Sidonica, qume eo facilius retinebant, quod procul ab imperio regis metatem agebant. Inter illos et frequentem Numidiam multi vastique loci erant. LXXIX. Sed quoniam in has regiones per Leptitanorum negotia venimus, non indignum videtur egregium atque mirabile facinus duorum Carthaginiensium memorare: cam rem nos locus admonuit. Qua tempestate Carthaginienses plerarque Africe imperitabant, Cyferenses quoque magni atque opulenti fuere. Ager in medio arenosus, una specie: neque flumen, neque mons erat, qui fines eorum discerneret; qure res eos in magno diuturnoque bello inter se habuit. Postquam utrimque legiones, item classes smpe fusae fugataque, et alteri alteros aliquantum attriverant, veriti, ne mox victos victoresque defessos alius aggrederetur, per inducias sponsionem faciunt, uti certo die legati domo proficiscerentur: quo in loco inter se obvii fuissent, is communis utriusque populi finis haberetur.' Igitur Carthagine duo fratpes missi, quibus nomen Philkenis erat, maturavere iter perg6re

Page  61 JUGURTHA. 61 Cyrenenses tardius iere. Id socordiane an casu acciderit, parum cognovi: ceterum solet in illis locis tempestas haud secus- atque in mari retinere. Nam ubi per loca aequalia et nuda gignentium ventus coortus arenam humo excitavit, ea magna vi agitata ora oculosque implere solet: ita, prospectu impedito, morari iter. Postquam Cyrenenses aliquanto posteriores se vident, et ob rem corruptam domi pcenas metuunt, criminari Carthaginienses ante tempus domo digressos, conturbare rem, denique omnia malle, quam victi abire. Sed quum Pceni aliam conditionem, tantummodo sequam, peterent, Graeci optionem Carthaginiensibus faciunt,' ut vel illi, quos fines populo suo peterent, ibi vivi.obruerentur, vel eadem conditione sese, quem in locum vellent, processuros.' PhiIaeni, conditione probata, seque vitamque suam reipublicae condonavere: ita vivi obruti; Carthaginienses in eo loco Philenis fratribus aras consecravere: aliique illis domi honores instituti. Nunc ad rem redeo. LXXX. Jugurtha postquam, amissa Thala, nihil satis firmum contra Metelhum putat, per magnas solitudines cum paucis profectus, pervenit ad Gaetulos, genus hominum ferum incultumque, et eo tempore ignarum nominis Romani. Eorum multitudinem in unhm cogit, ac paulatim consuefacit ordines habere, signa sequi, imperium observare, item alia militaria facere. Praeterea regis Bocchi proximos magnis muneribus et majoribus promissis ad studium sui perducit; quis adjutoribus regeni aggressus impellit, uti adversum Romanos bellum suscipiat. Id ea gratia facilius proniusque fuit, quod Bocchus initio hujusce belli legatos Romam miserat, foedus et amnicitiam petitum: quam rem opportunissimam incepto bello pauci impediverant, caeci avaritia, quis onnnia, ho

Page  62 62 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII nesta atque inhonesta, vendere mos erat. Etiam antca Jugurthae filia Bocchi nupserat. Verum ea necessitudo apud Numidas Maurosque levis ducitur, quia singuli, pro opibus quisque, quam plurimas uxores, denas alii, alii plures habent, sed reges eo amplius. Ita animus multitudine distrahitur; nulla pro socia obtinet; pariter omnes viles sunt. LXXXI. Igitur in locum ambobus placitum exercitus conveniunt. Ibi, fide dat& et accepta, Jugurtha Bocchi animum oratione accendit:'Romanos injustos, profunda avaritia, communes omnium hostes esse: eandem illos causam belli cum Boccho habere, quam secum et cum aliis gentibus, libidinem imperitandi, quis omnia regna adversa sint: turn sese, paulo ante Carthaginienses, item Persen regem, post, uti quisque opulentissimus videatur, ita Romanis hostem fore.' His atque aliis talibus dictis, ad Cirtam oppidum iter constituunt, quod ibi Metellus praedam captivosque et impedimenta locaverat: ita Jugurtha ratus, aut, capta urbe, opera pretium fore; aut, si Romanus auxilio suis venisset, prcelio sese certaturos. Nam callidus id modo festinabat, Bocchi pacem imminuere, ne moras agitando aliud quam bellum mallet. LXXXII. Imperator postquam de regum societate cognovit, non temere, neque, uti, sepe jam victo Jugurtha, consueverat, omnibus locis pugnandi copiam facit ceterum haud procul ab Cirta, castris munitis, reges opperitur; melius esse ratus, cognitis Mauris, quoniam is novus hostis" accesserat, ex commodo pugnam facere. Interim Roma per litteras certior fit provinciam Numidiam Mario datam; nam consulem factum ante acceperat. Quis rebus supra bonum atque honestum perculsus, neque lacrymas tenere, neque moderari linguam: vir egregius

Page  63 JUGURTHA. 63 in aliis artibus nimis molliter agritudinem pati. Quam rem alii in superbiam vertebant, alii bonum ingenium contumelia accensum esse, multi, quod jam'parta victoria ex manibus eriperetur: nobis satis cognitum est, illum magis honore Marii quam injuria sua excruciatum, neque tam anxie laturum fuisse, si adempta provincia alii quam Mario traderetur. LXXXIII. Igitur eo dolore impeditus, et quia stultitia videbatur alienam rem periculo suo curare, legatos ad Bocchum mittit, postulatum,'ne sine causa hostis populo Romano fieret: habere tum magnam copiam societatis amicitiEeque conjungendae, qua potior bello esset: quamquam opibus suis confideret, tamen non debere incerta pro certis mutare: omne bellum sumi facile, ceterum aegerrime desinere: non in ejusdem potestate initium ejus et finem esse; incipere cuivis, etiam ignavo, licere; deponi, quum victores velint. Proinde sibi regnoque suo consuleret, neu florentes res suas cum Jugurthm perditis misceret.' Ad ea rex satis placide verba facit:'sese pacem cupere, sed Jugurthae fortunarum misereri; si eadem illi copia fieret, omnia conventura.' Rursus imperator contra postulata Bocchi nuntios mittit: ille probare partim, alia abnuere. Eo modo sepe ab utroque missis remissisque nuntiis tempus procedere, et ex Metelli voluntate bellum intactum trahi. LXXXIV. At Marius, ut supra diximus, cupientissima plebe consul factus, postquam ei provinciam Numidiam populus jussit, antea jam infestus nobilitati, tum vero multus atque ferox instare: singulos modo, modo universos ledere; dictitare'sese consulatum ex victis illis spolia cepisse;' alia prasterea magnifica pro se, et illis dolentia. Interim, quaE bello opus erant, prima habere:

Page  64 64 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII postulare legionibus supplementum, auxilia a populis et regibus sociisque arcessere: praeterea ex Latio fortissimum quemque, plerosque militiae, paucos faman cognitos, accire, et ambiendo cogere homines emeritis stipendiis secum proficisci. Neque illi senatus, quamquam adversus erat, de ullo negotio abnuere audebat: ceteruim supplementum etiam laetus decreverat; quia neque plebi militia volenti putabatur, et Marius aut belli usum aut studia vulgi amissurus. Sed ea res frustra sperata: tanta libido cum Mario eundi plerosque invaserat. Sese quisque praeda locupletem fore, victorern domum rediturum, alia hujuscemodi animis trahebant, et eos non paulunm oratione sua Marius arrexerat. Nam postquam, omnibus, quae postulaverat, decretis, milites scribere vult, hortandi causa, simul et nobilitatem, uti consueverat, exagitandi, concionem populi advocavit; deinde hoc modo disseruit. LXXXV. "Scio ego, Quirites, plerosque non iisdem artibus imperium a vobis petere, et, postquam adepti sunt, gerere: primo industrios, supplices, modicos esse; deinde per ignaviam et superbiam atatem agere. Sed mihi contra ea videtur: nam quo pluris est, universa respublica quam consulatus aut praetura, eo majore cura illam administrari, quam haec peti, debere. Neque me fallit, quantum cum maximo beneficio vestro negotii sustineam. Bellum parare simul, et verario parcere; cogere ad militiam eos, quos nolis offendere; dorni forisque omnia curare; et ea agere inter invidos, occursantes, factiosos, opinione, Quirites, asperius est. Ad hoc alii si deliquere, vetus nobilitas, majorum fortia facta, cognatorum et affinium opes, multma clientelme, omnia haec praesidio adsunt: mihi spes omnes in memet sitas, quas necesse est

Page  65 JUGURTHA. 65 et virtute et innocentia tutari; nam alia infirma sunt. Et illud intelfigo, Quirites, omnium ora in me cbnveT^ai esse: aequos bonosque favere, quippe benefacta mea reipublica procedunt; nobilitatem locum invadendi querere. Quo mihi acriuis adnitendum est, ut neque vos capiamini, et illi frustra sint. Ita ad hoc etatis a pueritia fui, ut omnes labores, pericula consueta habeam Qua ante vestra beneficia gratuito faciebam, a uti, accepta mercede, deser'am, non est consilium, Quirites. Illis difficile est in potestatibus temperare, qui per ambitionem sese probos simulavere: mihi, qui omnem eetatem in optimis artibus egi, bene facere jam ex consuetudine in naturam vertit. Bellum me gerere cum Jugurtha jussistis; quam rem nobilitas egerrime tulit. Quaesob reputate cum animis vestris, num id mutari melius sit, si quem ex illo" globo nbbilitatis ad hoc aut aliud tale negotium mittatis, hominem veteris prosapiae ac multarum imaginum^ et nullius stipendii, scilicet ut in tant& re ignarus omnium trepidet, festinet, sumat aliquem ex populo moniforem officii sui. Ita plerumque evenit, ut, quem vos imperare jussistis, is sibi imperatorem alium queerat. Atque ego scio, Quirites, qui, postquam consules facti sunt, acta majorum et Graecorum militaria praecepta legere cceperint; preposteri homines; nam gerere quam fieri ternpore posterius, re atque usu prius est. Comparate nunc, Quirites, cum illorum superbia me hominem novum. Quse illi audire et legere solent, eorumn partem vidi, alia egomet gessi: quoe illi litteris, ea ego militando didici. Nunc vos existimate, facta an dicta pluris sint. Contemnunt novitatem mearn; ego illorum ignaviam: mihi fortuna, illis probra objectantur. Quamquam ego naturam unam et communem omnium existi

Page  66 66 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII mo, sed fortissimum quemque generosissimum, Ac si jam ex patribus Albini aut Bestiae quari possef,' Mene an illos ex se gigni maluerint,' quid responsuros creditis, nisi,'sese liberos quam optimos voluisse?' Quod si jure me despiciunt, faciant idem majoribus suis, quibus, uti niihi, ex virtute nobilitas ccepit. Invident honori meo; ergo invideant labori, innocentize, periculis etiam meis, quoniam per hcec illum cepi. Verum homines corrupti superbia ita aetatem agunt, quasi vestros honores contemnant; ita hos petunt, quasi honeste vixerint. Ne illi falsi sunt, qui diversissimas res pariter exspectant, ignaviae voluptatem et praemia virtutis. Atque etiam quum apud vos aut in senatu verba faciunt, pleraque oratione majores suos extollunt; eorum fortia facta memorando clariores sese putant: quod contra est. Nam quanto vita illorum preclarior, tanto horum socordia flagitiosior. Et profecto ita se res habet: majorum gloria posteris quasi lumen est; neque bona eorum neque mala in occulto patitur. Hujusce rei ego inopiam patior, Quirites; verum, id quod multo praeclarius est, meamet facta mihi dicere licet. Nunc videte, quam iniqui sint. Quod ex aliena virtute sibi arrogant, id mihi ex mea non concedunt; scilicet, quia imagines non habeo, et quia mihi nova nobilitas est, quam certe peperisse melius est, quam acceptam corrupisse. Equidem ego non ignoro, si jam mihi respondere velint, abunde illis facundam et compositam orationem fore. Sed in maximo vestro beneficio, quum omnibus locis me vosque maledict'is lacerent, non placuit reticere, ne quis modestiam in consclentiam duceret. Nam me quidem, ex animi mei sententia, nulla oratio laedere potest: quippe vera necesse est bene praedicet, falsam vita moresque mei superant. Sed quoni

Page  67 JUGURTHA. 67 am vestra consilia accusantur, qui mihi summum honorcm et maximum negotium imposuistis, etiam atque etiam reputate, num eorum poenitendum sit. Non possum, fidei causa imagines, neque triumphos aut consulatus majorum meorum ostentare; at, si res postulet, hastas, vexillum, phaleras, alia militaria dona; praeterea cicatrices adverso corpore. Hau sunt mese imagines, hec nobilitas, non haereditate relicta, ut illa illis, sed quae egomet plurimis laboribus et periculis quaesivi. Non sunt composita mea verba; parum id facio; ipsa se virtus satis ostendit: illis artificio opus est, ut turpia facta oratione tegant. Neque litteras Greeas didici: parum placebat eas discere, quippe qume ad virtutem doctoribus nihil profuerunt. At illa multo optima reipublicae doctus sum, hostem ferire, prmssidia agitare, nihil metuere nisi turpem famam, hiemem et mstatem juxta pati, humi requiescere, eodem tempore inopiam et laborem tolerare. Iis ego preceptis milites hortabor, neque illos arte colam, me opulenter; neque gloriam meam laborem illorum faciam. Hoc est utile, hoc civile imperium. Namque, quum tute per mollitiem agas, exercitum supplicio cogere, id est dominum, non imperatorem esse. Haec atque talia majores vestri faciendo seque remque publicam celebravere. Quis nobilitas freta, ipsa dissimilis moribus, nos, illorum mmulos, contemnit; et omnes honores, non ex merito, sed quasi debitos, a vobis repetit. Ceterum homines superbissimi procul errant. Majores eorum omnia, qure licebat, illis reliquere, divitias, imagines, memoriam sui preciaram: virtutem non reliquere; neque poterant: ea sola neque datur dono, neque accipitur.' Sordidum me et incultis moribus' aiunt, quia parum scite convivium exorno, neque histrionem ullum, neque pluris pretii

Page  68 68 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII coquum quam villicum habeo. Qua mihi libet confiteri, Quirites, nam ex parente meo, et ex aliis sanctis vlris ita accepi, munditias mulieribus, viris laborem convenire; omnibusque bonis oportere plus gloriwequam divitiarum esse; arma, non supellectilem decori esse. Quil ergo, quod juvat, quod carum zestimant, id semper faciant; ament, potent: ubi adolescentiam habuere, ibi senectutem agant, in conviviis, dediti ventri et turpissimae parti corporis: sudorem, pulverem, et alia talia relinquant nobis, quibus illa epulis jucundiora sunt. VerAm non est ita: nam ubi se flagitiis dedecoravere turpissimi viri, bonorum preemia ereptum eunt. Ita injustissime luxuria et ignavia, pessimse artes, illis, qui coluere eas,nihilofficiunt, reipublicae innoxiae cladi sunt. Nunc, quoniam illis, quantum mores mei, non illorum flagitia poscebant, respondi, pauca de republica loquar. Primuim omnium de Numidia bonum habete animum, Quirites. Nam quae ad hoc tempus Jugurtham tutata sunt, omnia removistis, avaritiam, imperitiam, superbiam. Deinde exergitus ibi est locorum sciens; sed mehercule magis strenuus quam felix; nam magna pars ejus avaritia aut temeritate ducum attrita est. Quamobrem vos, quibus militaris est atas, adnitimini mecum, et capessite rempublicam: neque quemquam ex calamitate aliorum aut imperatorum superbia metus ceperit. Egomet in agrnine, in prcelio, consultor idem et socius periculi, vobiscum adero; meque vosque in omnibus rebus juxta geram. Et profecto, diis juvantibus, omnia matura sunt, victoria, preeda, laus' quee si dubia aut procul essent, tamen omnes bonos reipublicae subvenire decebat. Etenim ignavia nemo immortalis factus, neque quisquam parens liberis, uti eterni forent, optavit; magis, uti boni honestique vitam exige

Page  69 JGURTHA. 69 rent. Plura dicerem, Quirites, si timidis virtutem verba addererit; nam strenuis abunde dictum puto." LXXXVI. Hujuscemodi oratione habita, Marius postquam plebis animos arrectos videt, propere commeatu, stipendio, armis, aliis utilibus naves onerat: cuum his A Manlium legatum proficisci jubet. Ipse interea milites scribere, non more majorum, neque ex classibus, sed uti cujusque libido erat, capite- censos plerosque. Id factum alii inopia bonorun, alii per ambitionem consulis memoralbant, quod ab eo genere celebratus auctusque erat, et homini potentiam quaerenti egentissimus quisque opportunissimus, cui neque sua cura, quippe qua nulla sunt, et omnia cum pretio honesta videntur. Igitur Marius cum aliquanto majore numero, quam decretum erat, in Africam profectus, paucis diebus Uticam advehitur. Exercitus ei traditur a P. Rutilio legato: nam Metellus conspectum Marii fugerat, ne videret ea, quse audita animus tolerare nequiverat. LXXXVII. Sed consul, expletis legionibus cohortibusque auxiliariis, in agrum fertilem et praeda onustum proficiscitur, omnia ibi capta militibus donat, dein castella et oppida natura et viris parum munita aggreditur; prcelia multa, ceterum levia, alia aliis locis facere. Interim novi milites sine metu pugnse adesse, videre fugientes capi aut occidi, fortissimum quemque tutissimum, armis libertatem, patriam parentesque et alia omnia tegi, gloriam atque divitias quaeri. Sic brevi spatio novi veteresque coaluere, et virtus omnium requalis facta. At reges, ubi de adventu Marii cognoverunt, diversi in locos difficiles abeunt. Ita Jugurthae placuerat, speranti mox effusos hostcs invadi posse, Romanos, sicuti plerosque, remoto metu, laxius licentiusque futuros.

Page  70 70 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII LXXXVIII. Metellus interea Romam profectus, contra spem suam iletissimis animis excipitur, plebi patribusque, postquam invidia decesserat, juxta carus. Sed Marius impigr6 prudenterque suorum et hostium res par. iter attendere, cognoscere quid boni utrisque aut contra esset, explorare itinera regum, consilia et insidias antevenire, nihil apud se remissum neque apud illos tutum pati. Itaque et Gatulos et Jugurtham, ex sociis nostris praedas agentes, saepe aggressus in itinere fuderat, ipsumque regem haud procul ab oppido Cirta armis exuerat. Quae postquam gloriosa modo, neque belli patrandi cognovit, statuit urbes, qua viris aut loco pro hostibus et adversum se opportunissimse erant, singulas circumvenire: ita Jugurtham aut praesidiis nudatum, si ea pateretur, aut prcelio certaturum. Nam Bocchus nuntios ad eum saepe miserat,' velle populi Romani amicitiam, ne quid ab se hostile timeret.' Id simulaveritne, quo improvisus gravior accideret, an mobilitate ingenii pacem atque bellum mutare solitus, parum exploratum est, LXXXIX. Sed consul, uti statuerat, oppida castellaque munita adire; partim vi, alia metu aut praemia ostentando, avertere ab hostibus. Ac prim6 mediocria gerebat, existimans Jugurtham ob suos tutandos in manus venturum. Sed ubi ilium procul abesse, et aliis negotiis intentum accepit, majora et magis aspera aggredi tempus visum est. Erat inter ingentes solitudines oppidum magnum atque valens, nomine Capsa, cujus conditor Hercules Libys memorabatur. Ejus cives apud Jugurtham immunes, levi imperio, et ob ea fidelissimi habebantur; muniti adversum hostes non mcenibus modo et armis atque viris, verum etiam multo magis locorum asperitate. Nam, praeter oppido propinqua, alia omnia vas

Page  71 JUGURTHA. 71 ta, inculta, egentia aque, infesta serpentibus, quorum vis, sicuti omnium ferarum, inopia cibi acrior; ad hoc natura serpentium, ipsa perniciosa, siti magis quam alia. re accenditur. Ejus potiundi Marium maxima cupido invaserat, quum propter usum belli, turn quia res aspera videbatur, et Metellus oppidum Thalam magna gloria ceperat, haud dissimiliter situm munitumque, nisi quod apud Thalam non longe a ncenibus aliquot fontes erant, Capsenses una modo, atque ea intra oppidum, jugi aqua, cetera pluvia utebantur. Id ibique et in omni Africa, qum procul a mari incultius agebat, eo faciliuis tolerabatur, quia Numidae plerumque lacte et ferina carne vescebantur, et neque salem neque alia irritamenta gulae quaerebant: cibus illis adversum famem atque sitim, non libidini neque luxuriae erat. XC. Igitur consul, omnibus exploratis, credo, dis fretus; (nam contra tantas difficultates consilio satis providere non poterat; quippe etiam frumenti inopia tentabatur, qubd Numidae pabulo pecoris magis quam arvo student, et quodcumque natum fuerat, jussu regis in loca munita contulerant; ager autem aridus et frugum vacuus ea tempestate, nam estatis extremum erat); tamen pro rei copia satis providenter exornat: pecus omne, quod superioribus diebus prmdae fuerat, equitibus auxiliariis agendum attribuit: A. Manlium legatum cum cohortibus expeditis ad oppidum Lares, ubi stipendium et commeatum locaverat, ire jubet, dicitque'se praedabundum post paucos dies eodem venturum.' Sic incepto suo occultato, pergit ad flumen Tanam. XCI. Ceterum in itinere quotidie pecus exercitui per centurias item turmas aequaliter distribuerat, et, ex coris utres uti fierent, curabat: simul et inopiam frumenti 7*

Page  72 72 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII lenire, et, ignaris omnibus, parare, qums mox usui forent. Denique sexto die, quum ad flumen ventum est, maxi-'ma vis utrium effecta. Ibi castris levi munimento positis, milites cibum capere, atque, uti simul cum occasu solis egrederentur, paratos esse jubet, omnibus sarcinis abjectis, aqua modo seque et jumenta onerare. Dein, postquam tempus visum, castris egreditur, noctemque totam itinere facto, consedit: idem proxima facit. Dein tertia multo ante lucis adventum pervenit in locum tumulosum, ab Capsa non amplius duum millium intervallo, ibique, quam occultissime potest, cum omnibus copiis opperitur. Sed ubi dies coepit, et Numidas, nihil hostile metuentes, multi oppido egressi, repente omnem equitatum, et cum his velocissimos pedites cursu tendere ad Capsam, et portas obsidere jubet: deinde ipse intentus proper6 sequi, neque milites praedari sinere. Quae postquam oppidani cognovere, res trepidae, metus ingens, malum improvisum, ad hoc pars civium extra mcenia in hostium potestate, coegere, uti deditionem facerent. Ceterum oppidum incensum, Numidm puberes interfecti, alii omnes venum dati, preeda militibus divisa. Id facinus contra jus belli non avaritia neque scelere consulis admissum: sed quia locus Jugurtha opportunus, nobis aditu difficilis; genus hominum mobile, infidum'ante, neque beneficio neque metu coercitum. XCII. Postquam tantam rem Marius sine ullo suorum incommodo patravit, magnus et clarus antea, major et clarior haberi ccepit. Omnia,'non bene consulta modo, verum etiam casu data in virtutem trahebantur; milites modesto imperio habiti, simul et locupletes, ad ccelum ferre; Numidae magis quam mortalem timere; postremo omnes, socii atque hostes, credere illi aut mentem divinam

Page  73 JUGURTHA. 73 esse, aut deorum nutu cuncta portendi. Sed consul, ubi ea res bene evenit, ad alia oppida pergit: pauca, repug. nantibus Numidis, capit, plura, deserta propter Capsensium miserias, igni corrumpit: luctu atque casde omnia complentur. Denique multis locis potitus, ac plerisque exercitu incruento, aliam rem aggreditur, non eadem asperitate, cua Capsensium, ceteruim haud secuis difficilem. Namque haud longe a flumine Mulucha, quod Jugurthe Bocchique regnum disjungebat, erat inter ceteram planitiem mons saxeus, mediocri catello satis patens, in immensum editus, uno perangusto aditu relicto; nam omnis natura, velut opere atque consulto, preceps. Quem locum Marius, quod ibi regis thesauri erant, summa vi capere intendit. Sed ea res forte, quam consilio, meliius gesta. Nam castello virorum atque armorum satis, magna vis frumenti et fons aquse; aggeribus turribusque et aliis machinationibus locus importunus; iter castellanorum angustum admodum, utrimque praecisum. Vinee cum ingenti periculo frustra agebantur; nam quum ece paultum processerant, igni aut lapidibus corrumpebantur: milites neque pro opere consistere, propter iniquitatem loci, neque inter vineas sine periculo administrare: optimus quisque cadere aut sauciari, ceteris metus augeri, XCIII. At Marius, multis diebus et laboribus consumptis, anxius trahere cum animo suo, omitteretne inceptum, quoniam frustra erat, an fortunam opperiretur, qua saepe prospere usus fuerat. Qume quum multos dies noctesque aestuans agitaret, forte quidam Ligus, ex cohortibus auxiliariis miles gregarius, castris aquatum egressus, haud procul ab latere castelli, quod aversum prceliantibus erat, animum advertit inter saxa repentes cochleas: quarnim quum unam atque alteram, dein plures peteret. studio

Page  74 74 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII legendi paulatim prope ad summum montis egressus est. Ubi postquam solitudinem intellexit, more ingenii humanl cupido difficilia faciendi animum vertit. Et forte in eo loco grandis ilex coaluerat inter saxa, paululum modo prona, deinde flexa atque aucta in altitudinem, quo cuncta gignentium natura fert: cujus ramis modo, modo eminentibus saxis nisus Ligus, in castelli planitiem pervenit, qubd cuncti Numidoe intenti prceliantibus aderant. Exploratis omnibus, quae mox usui fore ducebat, eadem regreditur, non temere, uti escenderat, sed tentans omnia et circumspiciens. Itaque Marium propere adit, acta edocet; hortatur, ab ea parte, qua ipse escenderat, castellum tentet; pollicetur sese itineris periculique ducem. Marius cum Ligure, promissa ejus cognitum, ex prmesentibus misit; quorum uti cujusque ingenium erat, ita rein difficilem aut facilem nuntiavere. Consulis animus tamen paulum arrectus. Itaque ex copia tubicinum et cornicinum numero quinque quhm velocissimos delegit, et cum his, praesidio qui forent, quatuor centuriones, omnesque Liguri parere jubet, et ei negotio proximum diem constituit. XCIV. Sed ubi ex precepto tempus visum, paratis compositisque omnibus ad locum pergit. Ceterum illi, qui ascensuri erant, prmedocti ab duce, arma ornatumque mutaverant, capite atque pedibus nudis, uti prospectus nisusque per saxa facilius foret: super terga gladii et scuta verum ea Numidica ex coriis, ponderis gratia simu]l, et offensa quo leviis streperent. Igitur praegrediens Ligus saxa, et si quse vetustate radices eminebant, Jaqueis vinciebat, quibus allevati milites facilius escenderent: interdum timidos insolentia itineris levare manu: ubi paulo asperior ascensus erat, singulos pre se inermes

Page  75 JUGURTHA. 75 mittere, deinde ipse cum illorum.armis sequi: quam dubia nisu videbantur, potissimus tentare, ac smpius eadem ascendens descendensque, dein statim digrediens, ceteris audaciam addere. Igitur, diu multumque fatigati, tandem in castellum perveniunt, desertum ab ea parte, quod omnes, sicuti aliis diebus, adversum hostes aderant. Marius, ubi ex nuntiis, quae Ligus egerat, cognovit, quamquam toto die intentos prcelio Numidas habuerat, tur vero cohortatus milites, et ipse extra vineas egressus, testudine acta succedere, et simul hostem tormentis sagittariisque et funditoribus eminus terrere. At Numidm, ssepe antea vineis Romanorum subversis, item incensis, non castelli mcenibus sese tutabantur; sed pro muro dies noctesque agitare, maledicere Romanis, ac Mario vecordiam objectare, militibus nostris Jugurthae servitium minari, secundis rebus feroces esse. Interim omnibus Romanis hostibusque, proelio intentis, magnL utrimque vi pro gloria atque imperio his, illis pro salute certantibus, repente a tergo signa canere: ac primo mulieres et pueri, qui visum processerant, fugere; deinde, uti quisque muro proximus erat, postremO cuncti, armati inermesque. Quod ubi accidit, eo acriuis Romani instare, fundere, ac plerosque tantummodo sauciare; dein super occisorum corpora vadere, avidi gloriae certantes murum petere, neque quemquam omnium prseda morari. Sic forte correcta Marii temeritas gloriam ex cutpa invenit. XCV. Ceterum dum ea res geritur, L. Sulla questor cum magno equitatu in castra venit: quos uti ex Latio et a sociis cogeret,.Rome relictus erat. Sed quoniain nos tanti viri res admonuit, idoneum visum est, de natura ckiltuque ejus paucis dicere: neque enim alio loco de

Page  76 76 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII SullIa rebus dicturi sumus, et L. - Sisenna optima et diligentissime omnium, qui eas res dixere, persecutus parum mihi libero ore Jocutus, videtur. Igitur' Sulla gentis patriciae nobilis fuit, familia prope jam exstincta majorum ignavia: litteris Graecis ac Latinis juxta, atque doctissime, cruditus; animo ingenti, cupidus voluptatum, sed gloriee cupidior, otio luxurioso esse; tamen ab negotiis nunquam voluptas remorata, nisi quod de uxore potuit honestius consuli: facundus, callidus, et amicitia facilis: ad simulanda negotia altitudo ingenii incredibilis: multarum rerum ac maxime pecunine largitor. Atque illi felicissimo omnium ante civilem victoriam, nunquam super industriam fortuna fuit; multique dubitavere, fortior an felicior esset: nam, postea quee fecerit, incertum habeo, pudeat magis, an pigeat disserere. XCVI. Igitur Sulla, ut supra dictum est, postquam in Africam atque in castra Marii cum equitatu venit, rudis antea et ignarus belli, solertissimus omnium in paucis tempestatibus factus est. Ad hoc milites benigne appellare; multis rogantibus, aliis per se ipse dare beneficia, invitus accipere, sed ea properantius quam Wes mutuum, reddere, ipse ab nullo repetere, magis id laborare, ut illi quam plurimi deberent; joca atque seria cum humillimis agere; in operibus, in agmine atque ad vigilias multus adesse, neque interim, quod prava ambitio solet, consulis aut cujusquam bhni famam iedere, tantummodlo neque consilio neque manu priorem alium pati, plerosque antevenire. Quis rebus et artibus brevi Mario militibusque carissimus factus. XCVII. At Jugurtha, postquam oppidum Capsam aliosque locos munitos et sibi utiles, simul et magnam pecuniam amiserat, ad Bocchum nuntios mittit,'quam

Page  77 JUGURTHA. 77 primum in Numidiam copias adduceret; prcelii faciendi tempus adesse.' Quem ubi cunctari accepit, et dubium belli atque pacis rationes trahere, rursus, uti antea, proximos ejus donis corrumpit, ipsique Mauro pollicetur Numidire partem tertiam, si aut Romani Africa expulsi, aut, integris suis finibus, bellum compositum foret. Eo prmemio illectus Bocchus cum magna multitudine Jugurthar accedit. Ita amborum exercitu conjuncto, Marium jam in hiberna proficiscentem, vix decima parte die reliqua', invadunt, rati noctem, qum jam aderat, et victis sibi munimento fore, et, si vicissent, nullo impedimento, quia locorum scientes erant; contra Rornanis utrumque casum in tenebris difficiliorem fore. Igitur simul consul ex multis de hostium adventu cognovit, et ipsi hostes aderant; et priusquam exercitus aut instrui, aut sarcinas colligere, denique antequam signum aut imperium ullum accipere quivit, equites Mauri atque Gietuli, non acie neque ullo more prcelii, sed catervatim, uti qqusque foes conglobaverat, in nostros incurrunt. Qui omnes trepidi improviso metu, ac tamen virtutes memores, aut armaa capiebant, aut capientes alios ab hostibus defensabant: pars equos ascendere, obviam ire hostibus: pugna latrocinio magis quam proelio similis fieri: sine signis, sine ordinibus equites pedites permixti'cedere alios, alios obtruncare; multos, contra adversos acerrime pugnantes, ab tergo circumvenire: neque virtus neque arma satis tegere, quod hostes numero plures et undique circmfusi erant. Denique Romani veteres et ob ea scientes belli, si quos locus aut casus. conjunxerat, orbes facere, atque ita ab omnibus partibus simul tecti et instructi hostium vim sustentabant. XCVIII. Neque In eo tam aspero negotio Marius ter

Page  78 78 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII ritus, aut magis quam antea demisso animo fuit; sed cum turma sua, quam ex fortissimis magis quam familiarissimis paraverat, vagari passim, ac modo laborantibus suis succurrere, modo hostes, ubi confertissimi obstiterant, invadere; manu consulere militibus, quoniam imperare, conturbatis omnibus, non poterat. Jamque dies consumptus erat, quum tamen barbari nihil remittere, atque, uti reges praeceperant, noctem pro se rati, acriuis instare. Tumn Marius ex copia' rerum consilium trahit, atque, uti suis receptui locus esset, colles duos propinquos inter se occupat, quorum in uno, castris parum amplo, fons aqume magnus erat, alter usui opportunus quia magn. parte editus et?rmeceps pauca munimenta quarebat. Ceterium apud aquam Sullam cumequitibus noctein agitare jubet: ipse paulatim dispersos milites, neque minus hostibus conturbatis, in unum contrahit, dein cunctos pleno gradu in collem subducit. Ita reges, loci difficultate coacti, prcelio deterrentur; neque tamen suos longiuis abire sinunt, sed, utroqtie colle multitudine circumdato, effusi consedere. Dein crebris ignibus factis, plerumque noctis barbari suo more letari, exsultare, strepere vocibus, et ipsi duces feroces, quia non fugerent, pro victoribus agere. Sed ea cuncta Romanis, ex tenebris et editioribus locis facilia visu, magnoque hortamento erant. XCIX. Plurimum ver6 Marius imperitia hostium confirmatus, quam maximum silentium haberi jubet, ne signa quidem, uti per vigilias solebant, canere. Deinde, ubi lux adventabat, defessis jam hostibus et paulo ante somno captis, de improviso vigiles, item cohortium, turmarum, legionum tubicines simul omnes signa' canere, milites clamorem tollere atque portis erumpere. Mauri

Page  79 JUGURrHA. 79 atque Gaetuli, ignoto et horribili sonitu repente exciti, neque fugere, neque arma capere, neque omnino facere aut providere quidquam poterant: ita cunctos strepitu, clamore, nullo subveniente, nostris instantibus, tumultu, terrore, formido, quasi vecordia, ceperat. Denique omnes fusi fugatique: arma et signa militaria pleraque cap. ta; pluresque eo prcelio quam omnibus superioribus interempti: nam somno et metu insolito impedita fuga. C. Dein Marius, uti cceperat, in hiberna proficiscitur, que propter commeatum in oppidis maritimis agere decreverat: Neque tamen victoria socors aut insolens factus, sed, pariter ac in conspectu hostium, quadrato agmine incedere. Sulla cum equitatu apud dextimos, in sinistra A. Manlius cum funditoribus et sagittariis, praterea cohortes Ligurum curabat; primos et extremos cam expeditis manipulis tribunos locaverat. Perfugae, minime -cari et regionum scientissimi, hostium iter explorabant. Simul consul, quasi nullo imposito, omnia providere, apud omnes adesse, laudare, increpare merentes. Ipse armatus intentusque, item milites cogebat; neque secus, atque iter facere, castra munire, excubitum in porta cohortes ex legionibus, pro castris equites auxiliarios mittere, prmeterea alios super vallum in munimentis locare: vigilias ipse circumire, non tam difidentia futurum, quae imperavisset, quam uti militibus exoequatus cum imperatore labos volentibus esset. Et sane Marius illoque aliisque temporibus Jugurthini belli pudore magis quam malo exercitum coercebat: quod multi per ambitionem fieri aiebant, pars, quod a pueritia consuetam duritiam et alia, quoe ceteri miserias vocant, voluptati habuisset: nisi tamen respublica pariter ac savissimo imperio, bene atque decore gesta. 8

Page  80 80 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII CI. Igitur quarto denique die, haud longe ab oppido Cirta undique simul speculatores citi sese ostendunt, qua re hostes adesse intelligitur. Sed quia diversi redeuntes, alius ab alia parte, atque omnes idem significabant, consul incertus, quonam modo aciem instrueret, nuilo ordine commutato, adversum omnia paratus ibidem opperitur. Ita Jugurtham spes frustrata, qui copias in quatuor partes distribuerat, ratus ex omnibus aeque aliquos ab tergo hostibus venturos. Interim Sulla, quem primum hostes attigerant, cohortatus suos, turmatim et quam maxime confertis equis, ipse aliique Mauros invadunt; ceteri in loco manentes ab jaculis eminus emissis corpora tegere, et, si qui in manus venerant, obtruncare. Dum eo modo equites prceliantur/Bocchus cum peditibus, quos Volux filius ejus adduxerat, neque in priore pugna, in itir re morati, adfuerant, postremam Romanorum aciem invadunt. Turn Marius apud primos agebat, quod ibi Jugurtha cum plurimis erat., Dein Numida, cognito Bocchi adventu, clam cum paucis ad pedites convertit: ibi Latine (nam apud Numantiam loqui didiceiat) exclamat,'nostros frustra pugnare; paulo ante Marium sua manu interfectum:' simul gladium sanguine oblitum ostendere, quem in pugna, satis impigre occiso pedite nostro, cruentaverat. Quod ubi milites accepere, magis atrocitate rei quam fide nuntii terrentur, simulque barbari animos tollere, et in perculsos Romanos acrius incedere. Jamque paulum ab fuga aberant, quum Sulla, profligatis iis, quos adversuim ierat, rediens ab latere Mauris incurrit. Bocchus statim avertitur. At Jugurtha, dum sustentare suos et prope jam adeptam victoriam retinere cupit, circumventus ab equitibus, dextra, sinistra omnibus occisis, solus inter tela hostium vitabundus erumpit. Atque inter

Page  81 JUGURTHA. 81 im Marius, fugatis equitibus, accurrit auxilio suis, quos pelli jam acceperat. Denique hostes jam undique fusi Tur spectaculum horribile in campis patentibus: sequi, fugere, occidi, capi; equi atque viri afflicti, ac multi, ~rulneribus acceptis, neque fugere posse, neque quietem pati; niti modo, ac statim concidere: postremo omnia, qua visus erat, constrata telis, armis, cadaveribus, et inter ea humus infecta sanguine. CII. Postea loci consul, haud dubie jam victor, pervenit in oppidum Cirtam, quo initio profectus intenderat. Eo post diem quintum, quam iterum barbari male pugnaverant, legati a Boccho veniunt, qui regis verbis ab Mario petivere,' duos quam fidissimos ad eum mitteret: velle de suo et de popuK Romani commodo cum iis disserere.' Ille statim L. Sullam et A. Manlium ire jubet. Qui quamquam acciti ibant, tamen placuit verb,, apud regem facere, utl ingenium aut aversum flecterent, aut cupidum pacis vehementius accenderent. Itaque Sulla, cujus facundie, non etati a Manlio concessum, pauca verba hujuscemodi locutus: "Rex Bocche, magna nobis laetitia est, quum te talem virum di monuere, uti aliquando pacem quam bellum malles; neu te optimum cum pessimo omnium Jugurtha miscendo commaculares; simul nobis demeres acerbarn necessitudinem, pariter te errantem et illum sceleratissimum persequi. Ad hoc populo Romano jam a principio melius visum, amicos quam servos querere: tutiusque rati, volentibus quam coactis imperitare. Tibi vero nulla opportunior nostra amicitia: primum quod procul absumus, in quo offensse minimum, gratia par, ac si prope adessemus: dein, quod parentes abunde habemus, amicorum neque nobis neque cuiquam omnium satis fuit. Atque

Page  82 82 C. CRISPI SALLUSTIT hoc utinam a principio tibi placuisset! Profecto ex populo Romano ad hoc tempus multo plura bona accepisses, quam mala perpessus es. Sed quoniam humanarum reruin Fortuna pleraque regit, cui scilicet placuisse te et vim et gratiam nostram experiri, nunc, quando per illam licet, festina, atque, uti ccepisti, perge. Multa atque opportuna habes, quo facilius errata officiis superes. Postremo hoc in pectus tuum demitte, nunquam populum Romanum beneficiis victum esse; nam, bello quid valeat, tute scis." Ad ea Bocchus placide et benign6; simul pauca pro delicto suo verba facit:'Se non hostili animo, sed ob regnum tutandun arma cepisse: nam Numidie partem, unde vi Jugurtham expulerit, jure belli suam factam; earn vastari a Mario pati nequivisse: preterea, missis antea Romam legatis, repulsum ab amicitia. Ceterum vetera omittere, ac tur, si per Marium liceret, legatos ad senatum missurum.' Dein, copia facta, animus barbari ab amicis flexus, quos Jugurtha, cognita legatione Sullae et Manlii, metuens id, quod parabatur, donis corruperat. CIII. Marius interea, exercitu in hibernis composito, cum expeditis cohortibus et parte equitatus proficiscitur in loca sola, obsessum turrim regiam, quo Jugurtha perfugas omnes praesidium imposuerat. Tur rursus Bocchus, seu reputando, quae sibi duobus proeliis venerant, seu admonitus ab aliis amicis, quos incorruptos Jugurtha reliquerat, ex omni copia necessariorum quinque delegit, quorum et fides cognita, et ingenia validissima erant. Eos ad Marium, ac deinde, si placeat, Romam legatos ire jubet; agendarum rerum, et quocumque modo belli corn. ponendi licentiam ipsis permittit. Illi mature ad hiber

Page  83 JUGURTHA. 83 na Romanorum proficiscuntur: deind6 in itinere a Geetulis latronibus circumventi spoliatique, pavidi, sine de. core ad Sullam perfugiunt, quem consul in expeditionem proficiscens pro praetore reliquerat. Eos ille non pro vanis hostibus, ut meriti erant, sed accurate ac liberaliter liabuit; qua re barbari et famam Romanorum avaritiae falsam, et Sullam, ob munificentiam in sese, amicum rati. Nam etiamtum largitio multis ignota erat; munificus nemo putabatur, nisi pariter volens; dona omnia in benignitate habebantur. Igitur queestori mandata Bocchipatefaciunt; simul ab eo petunt, uti fautor consultorque sibi adsit: copias, fidem, magnitudinem regis sui, et alia, quTe aut utilia, aut benevolentiae credebant, oratione extollunt: dein, Sulla omnia pollicito, docti, quo modo apud Marium, item apud senatum, verba facerent, circiter dies quadraginta ibidem opperiuntur. CIV. Marius postquarm, confecto, quo intendert, negotio, Cirtam redit, de adventi legatorum icertior factus, illosque et Sullam Ab Utica venire jubet, item L. Bellienumpraetorem,praeterea omnes undique sertatorii' ordinis; quibuscum mandata Bocchi cognoscit, quis legatis potestas eundi Romam ib consule, interea inducie postulabantur. Ea Sullae et plerisque placuere: pauci ferocius decernunt, scilicet ignari humanarum rerum, qume fluxae et mobiles semper in adversa mutantur. Ceterum Mauri, impetratis omnibus, tres Romam profecti sunt, cum Cn. Octavio Rufo, qui quaestor stipendium in Africam portaverat: duo ad regem redeunt. Ex his Bocchus quum cetera, turn maxime benignitatem et studium SullIe libens accepit. Romm legatis ejus, postquam' errasse regern, et Jugurthme scelere lapsum,' deprecati sunt, amicitiam et foedus petentibus hoc modo respondetur. " Sen8*

Page  84 84 C. CRISPI SALLUSTIT atus et populus Romanus beneficii et injurie memor esse solet: ceterum Boccho, quoniam pcenitet, delicti gratiam facit: fcedus et amicitia dabuntur, quum meruerit." CV. Quis rebus cognitis, Bocchus per litteras a Mario petivit,'uti Sullam ad se mitteret, cujus arbitratu de communibus negotiis consuleretur.' Is missus cum presidio equitum atque peditum, item funditorum Belearium: praeterea iere sagittarii et cohors Peligna cum velitaribus armis, itineris properandi causa; neque his secus atque aliis armis adversum tela hostium, quod ea levia sunt, muniti.., Sed in itinere, quinto denique die, Volux, filius Bocchi, repepte in campis patentibus cum mille non ampliius equitibus sese ostendit; qui temere et effuse euntes Sullae aliisque omnibus et numerum ampliorem vero, et hostilem metum efficiebant. Igitur se quisque expedire, arma atque tela tentare, inteidere: timor aliquantus, sed spes amplior, quippe victoribus, et adversum eos, quos saepe vicerant. Interim equites exploratum prsemissi, rem, uti erat, quietam nuntiant. CVI. Volux adveniens questorem appellat dicitque'se a patre Boccho obviam illis simul, et praesidio missum.' Deinde eum et proximum diem sine metu conjuncti eunt P6st, ubi castra locata, et diei vesper erat, repente Maurus incerto vultu, pavens ad Sullam accurrit, dicitque sibi ex speculatoribus cognitum, Jugurtham haud procul abesse:' simul,' uti noctu clam secum profugeret,' rogat atque hortatur. Ille animo feroci negat' se totiens fusum Numidam pertimescere: virtuti suorum satis credere: etiam si certa pestis adesset, mansurum potius,quamproditis, quos ducebat, turpi fuga incertam ac forsitan post paulo morbo interiturae vite parceret.' Ceterimr ab eodem monitus,' uti noctu proficiscerentur,' consilium appro

Page  85 JUGURTHA. 85 bat: ac statim'milites ccenatos esse, in castris ignes quam creberrimos fieri, dein prima vigilia silentio egredi' jubet. Jamque nocturno itinere fessis omnibus, Sulla pariter cum ortu solis castra metabatur, quum equites Mauri nuntiant Jugurtham circiter duum millium intervallo ante consedisse. Quod postquam auditum est, turn vero ingens metus nostros invadit: credere se proditos a Voluce et insidiis circumventos: ac fuere, qui dicerent manu vindicandum, neque apud illum tantum scelus inul. tum relinquendum. CVII. At Sulla, quamquam eadem existimabat, tamen ab injuria Maurum prohibet. Suos hortatur,' uti fortem animum gererent: saepe ante paucis strenuis adversum multitudinem bene pugnatum: quanto sibi in proelio minus pepercissent, tanto tutiores fore: nec quemquam decere, qui manus armaverit, ab inermis pedibus auxilium petere, in maximo metu nudum et caecum corpus ad hostes vertere.' Deinde Volucem, quoniam hostiliafaceret, Jovem maximum obtestatus, ut sceleris atque perfidima Bocchi testis adesset, ex castris abire jubet. Ille lacrymans orare,'ne ea crederet: nihil dolo factum, ac magis calliditate Jugurthae, cui, videlicet speculanti, iter suum cognitum esset, Ceterum, quoniam neque ingentem multitudinem haberet, et spes opesque ejus ex patre suo penderent, credere illum nihil. palam ausurumn, quum ipse filius testis adesset: quare optimum factum videri, per media ejus castra palam transire: sese, vel premissis vel ibidem relictis Mauris, solum cum Sulla iturum.' Ea res, ut in tali negotio, probata: ac statim profecti, quia de improviso acciderant, dubio atque hzesitante Jugurtha, incolumes transeunt. Deinde paucis diebus, quo ire intenderant, perventum est.

Page  86 86 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII C VIII. Ibi cum Boccho Numida quidam; Aspar nom. ine, multium et familiariter agebat; praemissus ab Jugurtha, postquam Sullam accitum audierat, orator, et subdole speculatum Bocchi consilia: prseterea Dabar, Massugradae filius, ex gente Masinissue, ceterum materno genere impar (nam pater ejus ex concubina ortus erat) Mauro ob ingenii multa bona carus acceptusque. Quem Bocchus fidum esse Romanis multis ante tempestatibus expertus, illico ad Sullam nuntiatum mittit,'paratum sese facere, quse populus Romanus vellet: colloquio diem, locum, tempus ipse deligeret; consulta sese omnia cum illo integra habere: neu Jugurthte legatum pertimesceret; quo res communis licentius gereretur; nam ab insidiis ejus aliter caveri nequivisse.' Sed ego comperior Bocchum magis Punica fide, quam ob ea, quae predicabat, simul Romanos et Numidam spe pacis attinuisse, multinmque cum animo suo volvere solitum, Jugurtham Romanis. an illi Sullam traderet: libidinem adversum nos, metum pro nobis suasisse. CIX. Igitur Sulla respondit,'pauca coram Aspare locuturum; cetera occulte, aut nullo aut quam paucisslmis presentibus;' simul edocet, qua sibi responderentur. Postquam, sicuti voluerat, congressi, dicit'se missum a consule venisse quaesitum ab eo, pacem an bellum agitaturus foret.' Tum rex, uti preceptum fuerat,'post diem decimum redire' jubet;'ac nihil etiam nunc decrevisse, sed illo die responsurum:' deinde ambo in sua castra digressi. Sed ubi plerumque noctis processit, Sulla a Boccho occulte arcessitur: ab utroque tantummodo fidi interpretes adhibentur; praterea Dabar internuntius, sanctus vir et ex sententia ambobus: ac statim sic rex incipit:

Page  87 JUGURTHA. 87 CX. "Nunquam ego ratus sum fore, uti rex maximus in hac terra et omnium, quos novi, privato homini gratiam deberem. Et, mehercule, Sulla, ante te cognitum, multis orantibus, aliis ultro egomet opem tuli, nullius indigui. Id imminutum, quod ceteri dolere solent, ego laetor: fuerit mihi eguisse aliquando amicitiae tuse, qua apud animum meum nihil carius habeo. Id adeo experiri licet' arma, viros, pecuniam, postremo quidquid animo libet, sume, utere: et, quoad vives, nunquam tibi reditam gratiam putaveris; semper apud me integra erit: denique nihil, me:sciente, frustra voles. Nam, ut ego existimo, regem armis quam munificentia vinci minus flagitiosum. Ceterum de republica vestrY, cujus curator huc missus es, daucis accipe. Bellurn ego populo Romano neque feci, neque factum unquam volui: fines meos adversum armatos armis tutatus sum. Id omitto, quando vobis ita placet: gerite, uti vultis cum Jugurtha bellum.- Ego flumen Mulucham, quod inter me et- Micipsam fuit, non egrediar,:eque Jugurtham id intrare sinam. Prweterea, si quid meque vobisque dignum petiveris, haud repulsus abibis." CXI. Ad ea Sulla pro se breviter et modice; de pace et de communibus rebus multis disseruit. Denique regi patefecit,'quod polliceatur, seatum et populum Romanum, quoniam amplius armis valuissent, non in gratiam habituros; faciendum aliquid, quod illorum magis quam sua retulisse videretur. Id adeo in promptu esse, quoniam Jugurthae copiam haberet: quem si Romanis tradidisset, fore, uti illi plurimum deberetur; amicitiamln fcedus, Numidice partem, quam nunc peteret, tunc ultro adventuram.' Rex primo negitare:'affinitatem, cognationem, praeterea fcedus intervenisse: ad hoc metuere, ne, fluxa fide usus, popularium animos averteret, quis et Ju

Page  88 838 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII gurtha carus, et Romani invisi erant:9 denique ssepius fatigatus, lenitur, et ex voluntate Sullse' omnia se facturum' promittit. Ceterum ad simulandam pacem, cujus Numida, defessus bello, avidissimus, que utilia visa, constituunt. Ita, composito dolo, digrediuntur. CXII. At rex postero die Asparem, Jugurthm legatum, appellat, dicitque' sibi per Dabarem ex Sulla cognitum, posse conditionibus bellum poni: quamobrem regis sui sententiam exquireret.' Ille laetus in castra Jugurthme venit. Deinde, ab illo cuncta edoctus, properato itinere, post diem octavum redit ad Bocchum, et ei nuntiat'Jugurtham cupere omnia, qus imperarentur, facere, sed Mario parum fidere: saepe antea cum imperatoribus Romanis pacem conventam frustra fuisse. Ceteruin Bocchus, si ambobus consultum, et ratam pacem vellet, daret operam, ut una ab omnibus, quasi de pace, in colloquium veniretur, ibique sibi Sullam traderet. Quum talem virum in potestatem habuisset, tum fore, uti jussu senatus atque populi Romani fcedus fieret: neque hominem nobilem, non sua ignavia sed ob rempublicam in hostium potestate. Jelictum iri.' CXIII. Hsec Maurus secum ipse diu volvens tandem promisit. Ceterum dolo an vere cunctatus, parum comperimus: sed pleruimque regise voluntates, ut vehementes, sic mobiles, sepe ipsse sibi adversse. Postea, tempore et loco constituto, in colloquium uti de pace veniretur, Bocchus Sullam modo, modo Jugurthee legatum appellare, benigne habere, idem ambobus polliceri: illi pariter lketi, ac spei bonse pleni esse. Sed nocte ea, quae proxima fuit ante diem colloquio decretum, Maurus, adhibitis amicis, ac statim, immutata voluntate, remotis, dicitur secum ipse multa agitavisse, vultu corporis pariter atque animo

Page  89 JUGURTHA. 89 varius: qum scilicet, tacente ipso, occulta pectoris patefecisse. Tamen postremo Sullam arcessiri jubet, et ex ejus sententia Numidme insidias tendit. Deinde, ubi dies advenit, et ei nuntiatum est Jugurtham haud procul abesse; cum paucis amicis et questore nostro, quasi obvius honoris causa, procedit in tumulum facillimum visu insidiantibus. Eodem Numida cum plerisque necessariis suis inermis, uti dictum erat, accedit; ac statim, signo dato, undique simul ex insidiis invaditur. Ceteri obtruncati: Jugurtha Sulle vinctus traditur, et ab eo ad Marium deductus est. CXIV. Per idem tempus adversumn Gallos, ab ducibus nostris Q. Cppione et Cn. Manlio male pugnaturn: quo metu Italia omnis contremuerat. Ibique et inde usque ad nostram memoriam Romani sic 1 —buere:'alia omnia virtuti sum prona esse; cum Gallis pro salute, non pro gloria certare.' Sed postquam bellum in Numidia confectum, et Jugurtham vinctum adduci Romam nuntiatum est, Marius consul absens factus, et ei decreta provincia Gallia: isque calendis Januariis magna gloria consul triumphavit. Ea tempestate spes atque opes civitatis in illo site.

Page  90

Page  91 C. CORISPI SALLUSTII BELLUM CATILINARIUM, SIVE DE CONJURATIONE CATILINE. I. OMNES homines, qui sese student prestare ceteris animalibus, summa ope niti decet, ne vitam silentio transeant, veluti pecora, qusa natura prona atque ventri obedientia finxit. Sed nostra omnis vis in animo et corpore sita est: animi imperio, corporis servitio magis utimur: alterum nobis cum dis, alterum cum belluis commune est. Quo mihi rectius videtur ingenii quam virium opibus gloriam queerere, et, quoniam vita ipsa, qua fruimur, brevis est, memoriam nostri quam maxime longam efficere. Nam divitiarum et formae gloria fluxa atque fragilis est; virtus clara aeternaque habetur. Sed diu magnum inter mortales certamen fuit, vine corporis an virtute animi res militaris magis procederet; nam et, prius qu'am incipias, consulto, et, ubi consulueris, mature facto opus est. Ita utrumque per se indigens, alterum alterius auxilio eget. II. Igitur initio reges (nam in terris nomen imperii id. primum fuit) diversi, pars ingenium, alii corpus exercebant: etiamtum vita hominum sine cupiditate agitabatur, sua cuique satils placebant. Postea vero quam in Asia Cyrus, in Graecia Lacedmmonii et Athenienses 91 9

Page  92 92 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII ccepere urbes atque nationes subigere, libldinem dominandi causam belli habere, maximam gloriam in maximo imperio putare; turn demum periculo atque negotiis compertum est in bello plurimum ingenium posse. Qu6d si ra)gum atque imperatorum animi virtus in pace ita uti in bello valeret, mquabilius atque constantiuis sese res humanae haberent; neque aliud alio ferri, neque mutari ac misceri omnia cerneres. Nam imperium facile his artibus retinetur, quibus initio partum est. Verum ubi pro labore desidia, pro continentia et zequitate libido atque superbia invasere, fortuna simul cum moribus immutatur. Ita imperium semper ad optimum quemque a minis bono transfertur. Qume homines arant, naviganlt, aedificant, virtuti omnia parent. Sed multi mortales, dediti ventri atque /somno, indocti incultique vitam, sicuti peregrinantes, transiere; quibus profecto contra naturam corpus voluptati, anima oneri fuit. Eorum ego vitam mortemque juxtha astimo, quoniam de utraque siletur. Vertum enimvero is demum mihi vivere atque fruj anima videtur, qui, aliquo negotio intentus, praeclarifacinoris aut artis bony famam querit. Sed in magna copia rerum aliud alii natura iter ostendit. III. Pulchrum est bene facere reipublicae; etiam bene dicere haud absurdum est; vel pace vel bello clarum fieri licet; et qui fecere, et qui facta aliorum scripsere, multi laudantur.- Ac mihi quidem, tametsi haudqua quam par gloria sequitur scriptorem et auctorem rerum, tamen in primis arduum videtur res gestas scribere: primum, quod facta dictis sunt exsequanda; dehinc, quia plerique, qume delicta reprehenderis, malevolentia et invidia dicta putant; ubi de magna virtute et gloria bonorum memores, quse sibi quisque facilia factu putLt, vequo

Page  93 CATILINA. 93 animo accipit; supra ea, veluti ficta pro falsis ducit. Sed ego adolescentulus initio, sicuti plerique, studio ad Iempublicam latus sum, ibique mihi adversa multa fuere. Nam pro pudore, pro abstinentia, pro virtute, audacia, largitio, avaritia vigebant. Quee tametsi animus aspernabatur, insolens malarum artium, tamen inter tanta vitia imbecilla aetas ambitione corrupta tenebatur; a me, quum ab reliquis malis moribus dissentirem, nihilo minms honoris cupido eademque, quse ceteros, fama atque invidia vexabat. IV. Igitur ubi animus ex multis miseriis atque periculis requievit, et mihi reliquatm etatem a republics procul habendam decrevi, non fuit consilium socordia atque desidia bonum otium conterere; neque vero agrum colendo aut venando, servilibus officiis, intentum awtatem agere; sed a quo incepto studioque me arnfitio mala detinuerat, eodem rreressus, statui res gestas populi Romani carptim, ut queeque memoria digna videbantur, perscribere; eo magis, quod mihi a spe, metu, partibus reipublicee animus liber erat. Igitur de Catilina conjuratione, quam verissime potero, paucis absolvam. Nam id facinus in primis ego memorabile existimo sceleris atque periculi novitate. De cujus hominis moribus pauca prius explananda sunt, quam initium narrandi faciam. V. Lucius Catilina, nobili genere natus, fuit magna vi et animi et corporis, sed ingenio malo pravoque. i Huic ab adolescenti& bella intestina, credes, rapinse, discordia civilis grata fuere, ibique juventutem suam exercut. Corpus patiens inedie, vigili;e, algoris, supra quam ciquam credibile est. Animus audax, subdolus, varius. cujus rei libet simulator ac dissimulator, alieni appetens, sui profusus, ardens in cupiditatibus; satis eloquentire,

Page  94 94 C. CRISPI SAiLUSTII sapientia parum. Vastus animus immoderata, incredibilia, nimis alta semper cupiebat. Hune post dominationem Lucii Sullae libido maxima invaserat reipublica capiendae; neque id quibus modis assequeretur, dum sibi regnum pararet, quidquam pensi habebat. Agitabatui magis magisque in dies animus ferox inopia rei familiaris et conscientia scelerum; quee utraque his artibus auxerat, quas supra memoravi. Incitabant preeterea corrupti civitatis mores, quos pessima ac diversa inter se mala, luxuria atque avaritia, vexabant.' Res ipsa hortari videtur, quoniam de moribus civitatis tempus admonuit, supra repetere, ac paucis instituta majorum domi militiaeque, quomodo rempublicam habuerint, quantamque reliquerint, ut paulatim immutata, ex pulcherrirna pessima ac flagitiosissima facta sit, disserere. VI. Urbem Romam, sicuti ego accepi, condidere atque habuere initio Trojani, qui, Aenea duce, profugi sedibus incertis vagabantur; cumque his Aborigines, genus hominum agreste, sine legibus, sine imperio, liberum at — que solutum.. Hi postquam in una moenia convenrre, dispari genere, dissimili lingua, alius alio more vivntes, incredibile memoratu est, quam facile coaluerint. Sed postquam res eorum civibus, moribus, agris aucta, satis prospera satlsque pollens videbatur, sicuti pleraque mortalium habentur, invidia ex opulentia orta est. Igitur reges populique finitimi bello tentare, pauci ex amicis auxilio esse; nam ceteri metu perculsi a periculis aberant. At Romani domi militieque intenti festinare, parare, alius alium hortari, hostibus obviam ire, libertatem, patriam parentesque armis tegere. Post, ubi pericula virtute propulerant, sociis atque amicis auxilia portabant; magisque dandis quam accipiendis beneficiis

Page  95 CATILINA. 95 amicitias parabant. Imperium legitimum, nomen imperii regium habebant: delecti, quibus corpus annis imfirmum, ingenium sapientia validum erat, reipublicae consultabant. Hi vel aetate vel curve similitudine Patres appellabantur. Post, ubi regium imperium, quod initio conservandae libertatis atque augendea reipublicae fuerat, in superbiam dominationemque convertit, immutato more, annua imperia binosque imperatores sibi fecere. Eo modo minime posse putabant per licentiam insolescere animum humanum. VII. Sed ea tempestate cceplre se quisque magis extollere, magisque ingenium in promptu habere. Nam regibus boni quam mali suspectiores sunt, semperque his aliena virtus formidolosa est. Sed civitas, incredibile memoratu est, adepta libertate, quantum brevi creverit: tanta cupido gloriae incesserat. Jam primum juventus, simulac belli patiens erat, in castris per laboris usum militiam discebat; magisque in decoris armis et militaribus equis, quam in scortis atque conviviis, libidinem habebant. Igitur talibus viris non labos insolitus, non locus ullus asper aut arduus erat, non armatus hostis formidolosus: virtus omnia domuerat. Sed glorim maximum certamen inter ipsos erat: sic se quisque hostem ferire, murum ascendere, conspici, dum tale facinus faceret, properabat; eas divitias, eam bonam famam magnamque nobilitatem putabant; laudis avidi, pecunime liberales erant; gloriam ingentem, divitias honestas volebant. Memorare possem, quibus in locis maximas hostium copias populus Romanus parva manu fuderit, quas urbes natura munitas pugnando ceperit, ni ea res longius nos ab incepto traheret. VIII. Sed profecto fortuna in omni re dominatur; ea 9*

Page  96 96 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII res cunctas ex libidine magis quam ex vero celebrat obscuratque. Atheniensium res gestee, sicuti ego existimo, satis ample magnificemque fuere; verum aliquanto minores tamen, quam fama feruntur. Sed quia provenere ibi scriptorum magna ingenia, per terrarum orbem Atheniensium facta pro maximis celebrantur. Ita eorum, qui ea fecere, virtus tanta habetur, quantum verbis eam potuere extollere praeclara ingenia. At populo Romano nunquam ea copia fuit, quia prudentissimus quisque negotiosus maxime erat; ingenium nemo sine corpore exercebat; optirnus quisque facere quam dicere, sua ab aliis bene facta laudari, quam ipse aliorum narrare malebat. IX. Igitur domi militiseque boni mores colebantur: concordia maxima, minima avaritia erat; jus bonumque apud eos non legibus magis quam natura valebat. Jurgia, discordias, simultates cum hostibus exercebant; cives cum civibus de virtute certabant: in suppliciis deorum magnifici, domi parci, in amicis fideles erant. Duabus his artibus, audacia in bello, ubi pax evenerat, aequitate seque remque publicam curabant. Quarum rerum ego maxima documenta haec habeo, quod in bello saspius vindicatum est in eos, qui contra imperium in hostem pugnaverant, quique tardius, revocati, prcelio excesserant, quam qui signa relinquere, aut, pulsi loco, cedere ausi erant; in pace vero, quod beneficiis magis quam metu imperium agitabant, et, accepta injuria, ignoscere quam persequi malebant. X. Sed ubi labore atque justitia respublica crevit, reges magni bello domiti, nationes ferat et populi ingentes vi subacti, Carthago, aemula imperii Romani, ab stirpe interiit, cuncta maria terrceque patebant, ssevire fortuna ac miscere omnia ccepit. Qui labores, pericula, dubias

Page  97 CATILINA. 97 atque asperas res facile toleraverant his olium, divitie, optandae alias, oneri miserieque fuere Igitur primo pecuniae, deinde imperii cupido crevit: ea quasi materies omnium malorum fuere. Namque avaritia fidem, probitatem, ceterasque artes bonas subvertit; pro his superbiam, crudelitatem, deos negligere, omnia venalia habere edocuit. Ambitio multos mortales falsos fieri subegit; aliud clausum in pectore, aliud in lingua promptum habere; amicitias inimicitiasque non ex re sed ex commodo eestimare, magisque vultum quam ingenium bonum habere. Haec primo paulatim crescere, interdum vindicari: post, ubi contagio, quasi pestilentia, invasit, civitas immutata; imperium ex justissimo atque optimo crudele intolerandumque factum. XI. Sed primo magis ambitio quam avaritia animos hominum exercebat, quod tamen vitium propius virtutem erat. Nam gloriam, honorem, imperium bonus et ignavus aeque sibi exoptant; sed ille vera via nititur, huic quia bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit. Avaritia pecuniae studium habet, quam nemo sapiens concupivit: ea, quasi venenis malis imbuta, corpus animurnque virilem effeminat; semper infinita, insatiabilis est, neque copia neque inopia minuitur. Sed postquam L. Sulla, armis recepta republica, bonis initiis malos eventus habuit, rapere omnes, trahere; domun alius, alius agros cupere, neque modum neque modestiam victores habere, fkeda crudeliaque in cives facinora facere. Hue accedebat, quod L. Sulla exercitum, quem in Asia ductaverat, quo sibi fidum faceret, contra morem majorum luxuriose nimisque liberaliter habuerat. Loca amcena. voluptaria,,facile in otio feroces militum animos molliverant. Ibi primuim insuevit exercitus populi'Ro

Page  98 98 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII mani amare, potare, signa, tabulas pictas, vasa caelata mirari, ea privatim ac publice rapere, delubra spoliare, sacra profanaque omnia polluere. Igitur hi milites, postquam victoriam adepti sunt, nihil reliqui victis fecere. Quippe secunda res sapientium animos fatigant; nedum illi corruptis moribus victoria temperarent. XTI. Postquam divitice honori esse ccepere, et eas gloria, imperiurn, potentia sequebatur, hebescere virtus, paupertas probro haberi, innocentia pro malevolentia duci ccepit. Igitur ex divitiis juventutem luxuria atque avaritia cum superbia invasere: rapere, consumere; sua parvi pendere, aliena cupere; pudorem, pudicitiam, divina atque humana promiscua, nihil pensi neque moderati habere. Operoe pretium est, quum dotnos atque villas cognoveris in urbium modum exeadificatas, visere templa deorum, quae nostri majores, religiosissimi mortales, fecere. Verium illi delubra deorum pietate, domos suas gloria decorabant; neque victis quidquam praeter injurim licentiam eripiebant. At hi contra ignavissimi homines, per summum scelus omnia ea sociis adimere, quse fortissimi viri victores hostibus reliquerant; proinde quasi injpriam facere id demum esset imperio uti. XIII. Nam quid ea memorem, qua, nisi his, qui videre, nemini credibilia sunt, a privatis compluribus subversos montes, maria:constructa esse? Quibus mihi videntur ludibrio fuisse divitia; quippe, quas honeste habere licebat, abuti per turpitudinem properabant. Sed libido stupri, ganeae ceterique cultus non minor incesserat, * * vescendi causa terra marique omnia exquirere; doimire prius quam somni clupido esset; non fameni aut sitim, neque frigus neque lassitudinem opperrt,; sed ea omna luxu antecapere. HEec juventutem, ubi fa

Page  99 CATILINA. 99 miliares opesd4efecerant, ad facinora incendebant. Animus imbutus malis artibus haud facile libidinibus ca'lebat: eo profusius omnibus modis questui atque sumptui deditus erat. XIV. In tanta tamque corrupta civitate Catilina, id quod factu facillimum era-t, omnium flagitiorum atque facinorum circum se, tamquam stipatorum, catervas iabebat. Nam quicumque impudicuS, adulter, ganeo, x: bona patria laceraverat, quique alienum mes grande cbiflaverat, quo flagitium aut facinus redimeret; praeterea Qmnes undique parricidae, sacrilegi, convicti-judi6iis, aut pro factis judicium fimente's; ad hoc, quos manus atque lingua perjurio aut sanguine civili alebat; postremo omnes, quos flagitium, egestas, conscius animus exagitabat; hi Catilinae proximi' familiaresque erant. Quod si quis etiam a culpa vacuus in amicitiam ejus inciderat, quotidiano usu atque illecebris facile par similisque ceteris -efficiebatur. Sed maxime adolescentium familiaritates appetebat; eorum animi iogjes et retate fluxi dolis haud difficulter capiebantur. Nam uti cujusque studium ex retate flagrabat, aliis scorta prIebere, aliis canes atque equos mercari; postremo neque sumptui neque modestis sums parcere, dum illos obnoxios fidosque sibi faceret. Scio fuisse nonnullos, qui ita existimarent, juventutem, quse domum Catiline frequentabat, parum honeste pudicitiam habuisse; sed ex aliis rebus magis, quam quod cuiquam id compertum foret, hec famia valebat. XV. Jam primufm adolescens Catilina multa nefanda stupra fecerat, cum virgine nobili, cum sacerdote Vestas, alia hujuscemodi contra jus fasque. Postremo captus amore Aureliae Orestillae, cujus praeter formam nihil unquam bonus laudavit, quod ea niubere illi ctubitabat,

Page  100 100 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII timeng privignum adulta retate, pro certo crdilltir, necato filio, vacuam domum scelestis nuptiis fecisse. Quam quidem res mihi in primis videtur':causa fuisse facinoris nlaturandi. Namque animus impurus, dis hominibusque infestus, neque vigiliis neque quietibus sedari poterat: ita conscientia mentem excitam vastabat. Igitur colos exsanguis, fcedi oculi, citus modo, modo tardus incessus; prorsus in facie vultuque yegordia inerat. XVI. Sed juventutem, quam, ut supra diLiimus, illexerat multis modis, mala facinora edocebat. Ex illis testes signatoresque falsos commodare; fidem, fortunas, pericula vilia habere, post, ubi eorum famam atque pudorem a'ttriverat, majora alia imperabat. Si causa peccandi in prasens minus suppetebat, nihilo minus insontes sicuti sontes ciMrfTmvenire, jugulare; scilicet, ne per otium torpescerent manus aut animus, gratuito potius malus atque crudelis erat. His amicis sociisque confisus Catilina, simul quod ms alienum per omnes terras ingens erat, et quod plerique Sullani milites, largius suo usi, rapinarum et victorise veteris memores civile bellum exopta'bant, opprimendme reipublicae consilium cepit. In Italia nullus exercitus; Cn. Pompeius in extremis terris bellum gerebat; ipsi consulatum petenti magna spes; senatus nihil sane intentus; tutae tranquilleque res omnes; sed ea prorsus opportuna Catilinme. XVII. Igitur circiter calendas Junias, L. Cesare et C. Figulo consulibus, primo singulos appellare; hortari alios, alios tentare; opes suas, imparatam rempublicam, nmagna prmmia conjurationis d6ie're. Ubi satis explorata sunt, qum voluit, in unum omnes donvocat, quibus maxima necessitudo et plurirmum audacie inerat E6 conven1re senatorii ordinis P. Lentulus Sura, P. Autronius,

Page  101 CATILINA. 101 L. Cassius Longinus, C. Cethegus, P. et Servius Sullse, Servii filii, L. Yargunteius, Q. Annius, M. Porcius Laeca, L. Bestia, Q. Curius; praterea ex equestri ordine M Fulvius Nobilior, L. Statilius, P. Gabinius Capito, C. Cornelius: ad hoc multi ex coloniis et municipiis, domi nobiles. Erant praterea complures paulo occultius consilii hujusce participes nobiles, quos magis dominationis spes hortabatur quam inopia aut alia necessitudo. Ceteriim juventus pleraque, sed maxime nobilium, Catilinam inceptis favebat. Quibus in otio vel magnifice vel molliter vivere copia erat, incerta pro certis, bellumn quam pacem malebant. Fuere item ea tempestate, qui crederent M. Licinium Crassum non ignarum ejus consilii fuisse; quia Cn. Pompeins, invisus ipsi, magnum exercitum ductabat, cujusvis opes voluisse cpntra illius potentiam crescere, simul confisum, si conjuratio valuisset, facile aupd illos principem se fore. XVIII. Sed antea item conjuravere pauci contra rempublicam, in quibus Catilina fuit. De quo, quam verissime potero, dicam. L. Tullo, M. Lepido consulibus, P. Autronius et P. Sulla, designati consules, legibus ambitus interrogati pcenas dederant. Post paulo Catilina, pecuniarum repetundarum reus, prohibitus erat consulatum petere, quod intra legitimos dies' profiteri nequiverat. Erat eodem tempore Cn. Piso, adolescens nobilis, summme audaciae, egens, factiosus, quem ad perturbandam rempublicam inopia atque mali mores stimulabant. Cum hoc Catilina et Autronius circiter nonas Decembres, consilio communicato, parabant in Capitolio calendis Januariis L. Cottam et L. Torquatum consules interficere; ipsi, fascibus correptis, Pisonem cum exercitu ad obtinendas duas Hispanias mittere. Ea re cognita, rursus

Page  102 102 C. CRISPI SALLUSTIT in nonas Februarias consilium caedis transtulerant. Jam turn non consulibus modo, sed plerisque senatoribus perniciem machinabantur. Quodni Catilina maturassset pro curia signum sociis dare, eo die post conditam urbem Romanam pessimum facinus patratum foret. Quia nondum frequentes armati convenerant, ea res consilium diremit. XIX. Postea Piso in citeriorem Hispaniam quaestor pro praetore missus est, adnitente Crasso, quod eum infestum inimicum Cn: Pompeio cognoverat. Neque tamen senatus provinciam invitus dederat; quippe fcedum hominem a republica procul esse volebat; simul quia boni complures presidium in eo putabant, et jam turn potentia Cn. Pompeii formidolosa erat. Sed is Piso in provincia ab equitibus Hispanis, quos in exercitu ductabat, iter faciens occisus est. Sunt, qui ita dicunt, imperia ejus injusta, superba, crudelia barbaros nequivisse pati; alii autem, equites illos, Cn. Pompeii veteres fidosque clientes, voluntate ejus Pisonem aggressos; nunquam Hispanos preeterea tale facinus fecisse, sed imperia seva multa antea perpessos. Nos earn rem in medio relinquemus. De superiore conjuratione satis dictum. XX. Catilina, ubi eos, quos paulo ante memoravi, convenisse videt, tametsi cum singulis multa swpe egerat, tamen in rem fore credens universos appellare et cohortari, in abdita.m partem sedium secedit; atque ibi omnibus arbitris procul amotis, orationemr hujuscemodi habuit. "Ni virtus fidesque vestra spectata mihi forent, nequidquam opportuna res cecidisset; spes magna, dominatio in manibus frustra fuissent: neque ego per ignava aut vana ingenia incerta pro certis captarem. Sed

Page  103 CATILINA. 103 quia multis et magnis tempestatibus vos cognovi fortes fidosque mihi, eo animus ausus est maximum atque pulcherrimum facinus incipere; simul quia vobis eadem, quae mihi, bona malaque esse intellexi: nam idem velle atque idem nolle, ea demum firma amicitia est. Sed, ego quae mente agitavi, omnes jam antea diversi audistis. Ceterum mihi in dies magis animus accenditur, quum considero, quae conditio vitae futura sit, nisi nosmet ipsi vindicamus in libertatem. Nam postquam respublica in paucorum potentium jus atque ditionem concessit, semper illis reges, tetrarchae vectigales esse; populi, nationes stipendia pendere; ceteri omnes, strenui, boni, nobiles atque ignobiles, vulgus fuimus, sine gratia, sine auctoritate, his obnoxii, quibus, si respublica valeret, formidini essemus. Itaque omnis gratia, potentia, honos, divitime apud illos sunt, aut ubi illi volunt; nobis reliqu6re, pericula, repulsas, judicia, egestatem. Quae quousque tandem patiemini, fortissimi viri? Nonne emori per virtutem praestat, quam vitam miseram atque inhonestam, ubi alienae superbiae ludibrio fueris, per dedecus amittere? Veruim enim vero, pro deum atque hominum fidem! victoria in manu nobis est; viget atas, animus valet: contra illis annis atque divitiis omnia consenuerunt. Tantummodo incepto opus est, cetera res expediet. Etenim quis mortalium, cui virile ingenium inest, tolerare potest, illis divitias superare, quas profundant in exstruendo mari et montibus coequandis, nobis rem familiarem etiam ad necessaria deesse? illos binas aut amplius domos continuare, nobis larem familiarem nusquam ullum esse? Quum tabulas, signa, toreumata emunt, nova diruunt, alia aedificant, postremo omnibus nodis pecuniam trahunt, vexant, tamen summa libidine 10

Page  104 104 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII divitias vincere nequeunt. At nobis est domi inopia, foris as alienum; mala res, spes multo asperior. Denique quid reliqui habemus printer miseram animam? Quin igitur expergiscimini? En illa, illa, quam sepe optlistis, libertas, praeterea divitime, decus, gloria in oculis sita sunt! fortuna omnia ea victoribus prarnia posuit. ltes, teinpus, pericula, egestas, belli, spolia magnifica magis, quhm oratio mea, vos hortentur. Vel imperatore vel milite me utimini: neque animus neque corpus a vobis aberit. Haec ipsa, ut spero, vobiscum una' consul again; nisi forte me animus fallit, et vos servire magis quam imperare parati estis." XXI. Postquam accepere ea homines, quibus mala abunde. omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla, tametsi illis quieta movere magna merces videbatur, tamen postulare plerique, uti proponeret, quse conditio belli foret, quam prsemia armis peterent, quid ubique opis aut spei baberent. Tumr Catilina polliceri tabulas novas, proscriptionem locupletium, magistratus, sacerdotia, rapinas, alia omnia, quae bellum atque libido victorum fert. Praterea'esse in Hispania citeriore Pisonem, in Mauritania cum exercitu P. Sittium Nucerinum, consilii sui participes: petere consulatum C. Antonium, quem sibi collegam fore speraret, hominem et familiarem et omnibus necessitudinibus circumventum: cum eo se consulem initium agendi facturum.' Ad hoe maledictis indrepat omnes bonos, suorum unumquemque nominans laudare; admonebat alium egestatis, alium cupiditatis sure, complures periculi aut igrominia;, multos victorie Sullanme, quibus ea prmdae fuerat. Postquam omnium animos alacres videt, cohortatus ut petitionem suam curse haberent, conventum dimisit.

Page  105 CATILINA. 105 XXII,'uere ea tempestate, qui dicerent Catilinarn, oratione habita, quum ad jusjurandum populares sceleris sui adigeret, humani corporis sanguinem vino permixtum in pateris circumtulisse; inde, quum post exsecrationem omnes degustavissent, sicuti in solemnibus sacris fieri consuevit, aperuisse consilium suum; atque eo, dictitare, fecisse, quo inter se magis fidi forent, alius alii tanti facinoris conscii. Nonnulli ficta et haec et multa praaterea existimabant ab iis, qui Ciceronis invidiam, quae postea orta est, leniri credebant atrocitate sceleris eorum, qui pcenas dederant. Nobis ea res pro magnitudine parum comperta est. XXIII. Sed in ea conjuratione fuit Q. Curius, natus haud obscuro loco, flagitiis atque facinoribus coopertus; quem censores senatu probri gratia moverant. Huic homini non minor vanitas inerat quam audacia: neque reticere, quse audierat, neque suamet ipse scelera occultare; prorsus neque dicere neque facere quidquam pensi habebat. Erat ei cum Fulvia, muliere nobili, stupri vetus consuetudo: cui quum minius gratus esset, quia inopia minus largiri poterat, repente glorians maria montesque polliceri ccepit; minari interdum ferro, nisi obnoxia foret; postremo ferocius agitare, quam solitus erat. At Fulvia, insolentia Curii causa cognita, tale periculum reipublicae haud occultum habuit; sed, sublato auctore, de Catilinae conjuratione, quae quoque modo audierat, compluribus narravit. Ea res in primis studia hominum accendit ad consulatum mandandum M. Tullio Ciceroni. Namque antea pleraque nobilitas invidia estuabat, et quasi pollli consulatum credebant, si eum quamvis egregius homo novus adeptus foret. Sed ubi periculum advenit, invidia atque superbia post fuere.

Page  106 106 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII XXIV. Igitur, comitiis habitis, consules declarantur M. Tullius et C. Antonius; quod factum primo populares conjurationis concusserat. Neque tamen Catilinm furor nlinuebatur, sed in dies plura agitare, arma per Italiam locis opportunis parare, pecuniam sua aut amicorum fide sumptam mutuam Faesulas ad Manlium quemdam portare, qui postea princeps fuit belli faciendi. Ea tempestate plurimos cujusque generis homines adscivisse sibi dicitur, mulieres etiam aliquot, qum primo ingentes sumptus stupro corporis toleraverant, post, ubi Tetas tantummodo quzestui neque luxuriae modum fecerat, res alienum grande conflaverant. Per eas se Catilina credebat posse servitia urbana sollicitare, urbem incendere, viros earum vel adjungere sibi, vel interficere. XXV. Sed in his erat Sempronia, quoe multa sepe virilis audaciae facinora commiserat. Heec mulier genere atque forma, prmeterea viro atque liberis satis fortunata fuit: litteris Greecis atque-Latinis docta, psallere et saltare elegantius, quam necesse est probae, multa alia, quae instrumenta luxurie sunt. Sed ei cariora semper omnia quam decus atque pudicitia fuit: pecuniae an famme minus parceret, haud facile discerneres; libidine sic accensa, ut saepius peteret viros, quam peteretur. Sed ea ssepe antehac fidem prodiderat, creditum abjuraverat, csedis conscia fierat, luxuria atque inopia praeceps abierat. Verum ingenium ejus haud absurdum; posse versus facere, jocum movere, sermone uti vel modesto, vel molli, vel procaci; prorsus multe facetiae multusque lepos incrat. XXVI. His rebus comparatis, Catilina nihilo minuis in proximum annum consulatum petebat; sperans, si designatus foret, facile se ex voluntate Antonio usurum. Ne

Page  107 CATILINA. 107 que interea quietus erat, sed omnibus modis insidias parabat Ciceroni. Neque illi tamen ad cavendum dolus aut astutiae deerant. Namque a principo consulatus sui, multa pollicendo per Fulviam, effecerat, ut Q. Curius, de quo paulo ante memoravi, consilia Catilinae sibi proderet. Ad hoc collegam suum Antonium pactione provinciae perpulerat, ne contra rempublicam sentiret: circum se pracsidia amicorum atque clientium occulte habebat. Postquam dies comitiorum venit, et Catilina neque petitio neque insidia, quas consuli in campo fecerat, prospere cessere, constituit bellum facere, et extrema omnia experiri, quoniam quse occulte tentaverat, aspera fcedaque evenerant. XXVII. Igitur C. Manlium Faesulas atque in earn partem Etruriee, Septimium quemdam Camertem in agrum Picenum, C. Julium in Apuliam dimisit; praeterea alium alio, quem ubique opportunum sibi fore credebat. Interea Rom1 -. — nmul umnoliri; consuli insidias tendere, parare ince.., opportuna loca armatis hominibus obsidere, ipse cum telo esse, item alios jubere, hortari, uti semper intenti paratique essent, dies noctesque festinare, vigilare, neque insomniis neque labore fatigari. Postremo ubi multa agitanti nihil procedit, rursus intempesta nocte conjurationis principes convocat per M. Porcium Laecam, ibique multa de ignavia corum questus, docet'se Manlium procmisisse ad earn multitudinem, quam ad capienda arma paraverat, item alios in alia loca opportuna, qui initium belli facerent, sequc ad exercitum proficisci cupere, si prius Ciceronem oppressisset; eum suis consiliis multium officere.' XXVIII. ilgitur perterritis ac dubitantibus ceteris, C. Cornelius, eques Romanus, operam suam pollicitus, et 10 *

Page  108 108 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII cum eo L. Vargunteius senator, constituere ea nocte paulo post cum armatis hominibus, sicuti salutatum, introire ad Ciceronem, ac de improviso domi suas imparatum confodere. Curius ubi intelligit, quantum periculi consuli impendeat, propere per Fulviam Ciceroni dolum, qui parabatur, enuntiat. Ita illi, janua prohibiti, tantum facinus frustra susceperant. Interea Manlius in Etruria plebem sollicitare, egestate si-iul ac dolore injuria novarum rerum cupidam, quod Sulle dominatione agros bonaque omnia amiserat; praeterea latrones cujusque generis, quorum in ea regione magna copia erat; nonnullos ex Sullanis colonis, quibus libido atque luxuria ex magnis rapinis nihil reliqui feccrant. XXIX. Ea quum Ciceroni nuntiarentur, ancipiti male permotus, quod neque urbem ab insidiis privato consilio longiis tueri poterat, neque exercitus Manlii quantus aut quo consilio foret, satis' s:m habebat, rem ad senatum refert, jam rumoriuus exagitatam. Itaque, quod plerumque in atroci negotio solet, senatus decrevit,'darent operam consules, ne quid respublica detrimenti caperet.' Ea potestas per senatum, more Romano, magistratui maxima permittitur, exercitum parare, bellum gerere, coercere omnibus modis socios atque cives, domi militieque imperium atque judicium summum habere; aliter sine populi jussu nulli earum rerum consuli jus est. XXX. Post paucos dies L. Saenius senator in senatu litteras recitavit, quas Fasulis allatas sibi dicebat, in quibus scriptum erat'C. Manlium arma cepisse cum magna multitudine, ante diem sextum calendas Novembres.' Simul, id quod in tali re solet, alii porteiita atque

Page  109 CATILINA. 109 prodigia nuntiabant, alii'conventus fieri, arma portari, Capuse atque in Apulia servile bellum moveri.' Igitur senati decreto Q. Marcius Rex Faesulas, Q. Metellus Creticus in Apuliam circumque loca missi: ni utrique ad urbem irperatores erant, impediti, ne triumpharent, calumnia paucorum, quibus omnia, honesta atque inhonesta, vendere mos erat. Sed praitores Q. Pompeius Rufus Capuam, Q. Metellus Celer in agrum Picenum; hisque permissum,' uti pro tempore atque periculo exercitum compararent.' Ad hoc,' si quis indicavisset de conjuratione, qum contra rempublicam facta erat, praemium' decrevere'servo libertatem et sestertia centum, libero impunitatem ejus rei et sestertia ducenta;' itemque decrevere,'uti gladiatorive familiae Capuam et in cetera municipia distribuerentur, pro cujusque opibus; Rome per,totam urbem vigiliav haberentur, hisque minores magistratus prveessent.' XXXI. Quibus rebus pet Lnota civitas, atque immutata urbis facies erat; ex summa laetitia atque lascivia, que diuturna quies pepererat, repente omnes tristitia invasit; festinare, trepidare; neque loco nec homini cuiquam satis credere; neque bellum gerere, neque pacem habere; suo quisque metu pericula metiri. Ad hoc mulieres, quibus relpublic magnitudine belli timor insolitus incesserat, afflictare sese, manus supplices ad ccelum tendere, miserari parvos liberos, rogitare, omnia pavere, superbia atque deliciis omissis, sibi patriseque diffidere. At Catilinve crudelis animus eadem illa movebat, taretsi prasidia parabantur, et ipse lege Plautia interrogatus erat ab L. Paulo. Postremo dissimulandi causa et ut sui expurgandi, sicuti jurgio lacessitus foret, in senatum venit. Turn M. Tullius consul, sive praesentiam ejus

Page  110 110 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII tiniens, sive ira commotus, orationem habuit luculentam atque utilem reipublicae, quam postea scriptam edidit. Sed, ubi ille assedit, Catilina, ut erat paratus ad dissimulanda omnia, demisso. vultu, voce supplici postulare,'patres conscripti ne quid de se temere crederent: ea familia ortum, ita ab adolescentia vitam instituisse, ut omnia bona in spe haberet: ne existimarent, sibi, patricio homini, cujus ipsius atque majorum plurima beneficia in plebem Romanam essent, perdita republica opus esse, quum earn servaret M. Tullius, inquilinus civis urbis Romre.' Ad hec maledicta alia quum adderet, obstrepere omnes, hostem atque parricidam vocare. Tum ille furibundus: " Quoniam quidem circumventus," inquit, "ab inimicis proeceps agor, incendium meum ruina restinguam." XXXII. Dein se ex curia domurn proripuit. Ibi multa secum ipse volvens, quod neque insidiae consuli procedebant, et ab incendio intelligebat urbem vigiliis munitam, optimum factun credens exercitum augere, ac, prius quam legiones scriberentur, antecapere, que bello usui forent, nocte intempesta cum paucis in Manliana castra profectus est. Sed Cethego atque Lentulo ceterisque, quorum cognoverat promptam audaciam, mandat,'quibus rebus possent, opes factionis confirment, insidias consuli maturent, caedem, incendia, aliaque belli facinora parent: sese propediem cum magno exercitu ad urbem accessuruin.' Dum hrec Romee geruntur, C. Manlius ex suo numero legatos ad Marcium Regem mittit, cum mandatis hujuscemodi: XXXIII. "Deos hominesque testamur, imperator, nos arma neque contra patriam cepisse, neque quo periculum aiiis faceremus, sed uti corpora nostra ab injuria tuta forent, qui miseri, egentes, violentia atque crudelitate

Page  111 CATILINA. 11I fceneratorumrplerique patrise, sed omnes fama atque fortunis expertes sumus: neque cuiquam nostrum licuit more majorum lege uti, neque, amisso patrimonio, liberum corpus habere: tanta saeviia fceneratorum atque pratoris fuit. Smepe majores vestrum miseriti plebis Romanae, decretis suis inopiae opitulati,sunt: ac novissime memoria nostra, propter magnitudinem weris alieni, volentibus omnibus bonis, argentum aere solutum est7 Saepe ipsa plebes, aut dominandi studio permota, aut superbia magistratuum, armata a patribus secessit. At nos non imperium neque divitias petimus, quarum rerum causa bella atque certamina omnia inter mortales sunt, sed libertatem, quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittit. Te atque senatum obtestamur, consulatis miseris civibus; legis presidium, quod iniquitas praetoris eripuit, restituatis; neve earm nobis necessitudinem imponatis, ut quneramus, quonam mode, maxime ulti sanguinem nostrum, pereamus." XXXIV. Ad haec Q. Marcius respondit:'Si quid ab senatu petere vellent, ab armis discedant, Romam supplices proficiscantur: ea mansuetudine atque misericordia senatum populumque Romanum semper fuisse, ut nemo unquam ab eo frustra auxilium petiverit.' At Catilina ex itinere plerisque consularibus, praeterea optimo cuique litteras mittit:' Se falsis criminibus circumventum, quoniam factioni inimicorum resistere nequiverit, fortunta cedere, Massiliam in exsilium proficisci: non quo sibi tanti sceleris conscius esset, sed uti respublica quieta foret, neve ex sua contentione seditio oriretur.' Ab his longe diversas litteras Q. Catulus in senatu recitavit, quas sibi nomrine Catilince redditas dicebat: earum exemplum infra scripturn est.

Page  112 112 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII XXXV. "L. Catilina Q. Catulo. Egregia tua fides re cognita gratam in magnis meis periculis fiduciam commendationi nmee tribuit. Quamobrem defensionem in novo consilio non statui parare: satisfactionem ex nulla conscientia de culpa proponere decrevi: quam me dius fidius veram licet cognoscas. Injuriis contumeliisque concitatus, quod, fructu laboris industriaeque mere privatus, staturn dignitatis non obtinebam, publicam miserorum causam pro mea consuetudine suscepi: non quin Res alienum meis nominibus ex possessionibus solvere possem, quum et alienis nominibus liberaiitas Orestilhle suis filiaeque copiis persolveret; sed quod non dignos homines honore honestatos videbam, meque falsa suspicione alienatum esse sentiebam. Hoc nomine satis honestas pro meo casu spes relique dignitatis conservandae sum secutus. Plura quum scribere vellem, nuntiatum est vim mihi parari. Nunc Orestillam commendo, tueuque fidei trado: earn ab injuria defendas, per liberos tuos rogatus. Haveto." XXXVI. Sed ipse paucos dies commoratus apud C Flaminium in agro Arretino, dum vicinitatem, antea sollicitatam, armis exornat; cum fascibus atque aliis imperii insignibus in castra ad Manlium contendit. Haec ubi Rornae comperta sunt, senatus Catilinam et Manlium hostes judicat; ceterae multitudini diem statuit, ante quam sine fraude liceret ab armis discedere, prater rerum capitalium condemnatis. Preeterea decernit,'uti consules delectum habeant; Antonius curl cxercitu Catilinam persequi maturet; Cicero urbi prmsidio sit.' Ea temppstate mihi imperium populi Romani multo maxime miserabile visum est cui quum ad occasum ab ortu solis omnia domiita armis parerent, domi otium atque divitic, quae

Page  113 CATILINA. 113 prina mortales putant, affluerent, fuere tamen cives, qui seque remque publicam obstinatis animis perditum irent Namque duobus senati decretis, ex tanta multitudine, neque prmmio inductus conjurationem patefecerat, nequc ex c;stris Catilinae quisquam omnium discesserat: tanta vi^ morbi, uti tabes, plerosque civium animos invaserat. XXXVII. Neque solum illis aliena mens erat, qui conscii conjurationis fuerant, sed omnino cuncta plebes novarum rerum studio Catilinme incepta probabat. Id adeo more suo videbatur facere. Nam semper in civitate, quibus opes nulls sunt, bonis invident, malos extollunt; vetera odere, nova exoptant; odio suarum rerum mutari -omnia student; turba atque seditionibus sine cura aluntur, quoniam egestas facile habetur sine damno. Sed urbana plebes, ea vero prieceps ierat multis de causis. Primum omnium, qui ubique probro atque petulantia maxime prsestabant, item alii, per dedecora patrimoniis amissis, postremr omnes, quos flagitium aut facinus domo expulerat, hi Romam, sicuti in sentinam, confluxerant. Deinde multi memores Sullanre victoriae, quod ex gregariis militibus alios senatores videbant, alios ita divites, uti regio victu atque cultu aetatem agerent, sibi quisque, si in armis forent, ex victoria talia sperabant. Prseterea juventus, qua in agris manuum mercede inopiam toleraverat, privatis atque publicis largitionibus excita, urbanum otium ingrato labori prmetulerat: eos atque alios omnes malum publicum alebat Quo minus mirandum est homines egentes, malis moribus, maxima spe, reipublicae juxta ac sibi consuluisse. Preterea quorum victoria Sulla parentes proscripti, bona erepta, jus libertatis imminutum erat, haud sand alio animo belli eventurn exspectabant. Ad hoc qui

Page  114 114 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII cumque aliarum atque senati partium erant, conturbari rempublicam, quam nmius yalere ipsi malebant. Id ade6 malum multos post annos in civitatem reverterat. XXXVIII. Nam postquam, Cn. Pompeio et M. Crasso consulibus, tribunicia potestas restituta est, homines adolescentes, summam potestatem nacti, quibus aetas animusque ferox erat, ccepere senatum criminando plebem exagitare; dein largiendo atque pollicitando magis incendere; ita ipsi clari potentesque fieri. Contra eos summa ope nitebatur pleraque nobilitas, senati specie, pro sua magnitudine. Namque, uti paucisl eruim"'bsolvam, per illa tempora quicumque rempuibicam agitavere, honestis nominibus, alii, sicuti populi jura defen(lerent, pars, quo senati auctoritas maxima foret, bonum publicum simulantes, pro sua quisque potentia certabant neque illis modestia, neque modus contentionis erat; utrique victoriam crudeliter exercebant. XXXIX. Sed postquam Cn. Pompeius ad bellum maritimum atque Mithridaticum missus est, plebis opes imminutme, paucorum potentia crevit. Hi magistratus, provincias aliaque omnia tenere; ipsi innoxii, florentes, sine metu attatem agere, ceteros judiciis terrere, qui plebem in magistratu placidius tractarent. Sed ubi primuim dubiis rebus novandi spes oblata est, vetus certamen animos eorum arrexit. Quod si primo prcelio Catilina superior aut Mequa.manu discessisset, profecto magna clades atque calamitas rempublicam oppressisset; neque illis, qui victoriam adepti forent, diutius ea uti licuisset, quin defessis et exsanguibus, qui plus posset, imperium atque libertatem extorqueret. Fuere tamen extra conjurationem complures, qui ad Catilinam initio profecti sunt: in his erat A. Fulvius, senatoris filius,

Page  115 CATILINA. 115 quem retractum ex itinere parens necari jussit. Isdem temporibus Romse Lentulus, sicuti Catilina preeceperat, quoscumque moribus aut fortune novis rebus idoneos credebat, aut per se/aut per alios sollicitabat; neque solim cives, sed cujusque modi genus hominurn quod inodo bello usui foret. XL. Igitur P. Umbreno cuidam negotium dat, uti le~ gatos Allobrogum requirat, eosque, si possit, impellat ad societatem belli; existimans publice privatimque sere alieno oppressos, praeterea, quod natura gens Gallica bellicosa esset, facile eos ad tale consilium adduci posse. Umbrenus, quod in Gallia negotiatus erat, plerisque principibus civitatium notus erat, atque eos noverat: itaque sine mora, ubi primium legatos in foro conspexit, percontatus pauca de statu civitatis, et quasi dolens ejus casum, requirere coepit,'quem exitum tantis malis sperarent?' Postquam illos videt queri de avaritia magistratuum, accusare senatum, quod in eo auxilii nihil esset; miseriis suis remedium mortem exspectare: "At ego," inquit, " vobis, si modo viri esse vultis, rationem ostendam, qua tanta ista mala effugiatis." Hac ubi dixit, Allobroges in maximam spem adducti Umbrenum orare, uti sui misereretur:'nihil tam asperum neque tam difficile esse, quod non cupidissime facturi essent, dum ea res civitatem tero alieno liberaret.' Ille eos in domum D. Bruti perducit, quod foro propinqua erat, neque aliena consilii, propter Semproniam; nam turn Brutus ab Roma aberat. Praeterea Gabinium arcessit, quo major auctoritas sermoni inesset. Eo presente, conjurationem aperit; nominat socios, praeterea multos cujusque generis innoxios, quo legatis animus amplior esset: deinde eos pollicitos-operamn suam domum dimittit. 11

Page  116 116 c. CRISPI SALLUSTI! XLI. Sed Allobroges diui in incerto habuere, quidnam consilii caperent. In altera parte erat aes alienum, stu. dium belli, magna merces in spe victorire; at in altera inajores opes, tuta consilia, pro incerta spe certa prawmia. Hec illis volventibus, tandem vicit fortuna reipublica. Itaque Q. Fabio Sangae, cujus patrocinio civitas pluri. mum utebatur, rem omnem, uti cognoverant, aperiunt. Cicero, per Sangam consilio cognito, legatis praecepit, ut studium conjurationis vehementer simulent, ceteros adeant, bene polliceantur, dentque operam, uti eos quam maxime manifestos habeant~ XLII. Isdem fere temporibus in Gallia citeriore atque ulteriore, item in agro Piceno, Bruttio, Apulia rnotus erat. Namque illi, quos antea Catilina dimiserat, inconsulte ac veluti per dementiam cuncta simul agebant: nocturnis consiliis, armorum atque telorumn portationibus, festinando, agitando omnia, plus timoris quam periculi effecerant. Ex eo numero complures Q. Metellus Celer praetor ex senati consultu, causa cognita, in vincula conjecerat; item in ulteriore GalliC C. Murena, qui ei provinciae legatus praeerat. XLIII. At Roma Lentulus cum ceteris, qui principes conjurationis erant, paratis, ut videbantur, magnis copiis, constituerant, uti, quum Catilina in agrum Foesulanurn cum exercitu venisset, L. Bestia tribunus plebis, concione habita, quereretur de actionibus Ciceronis, bellique gravissimi invidiam optimo consuli imponere t; eo signo, proxima nocte cetera multitudo conjurationis suum quisque negotium exsequeretur. Sed ea divisa hoc modo dicebantur, Statilius et. Gabinius uti cum magna manu duodecim simul opportuna loca urbis in.renderent, quo tumultu facilior aditus ad consulem ceterosque, quibus

Page  117 CATILINA. 117 insidiae parabantur, fieret; Cethegus Ciceronis januam obsideret, eumque vi aggrederetur, alius autem alium; sed filii familiarum, quorum ex nobilitate maxima pars erat, parentes interficerent; simul, caede et incendio percullsis omnibus, ad Catilinam erumperent. Inter lihe parata atque decreta Cethegus semper querebatur dejgnavia sociorum:' illos dubitando et dies prolatando magnas opportunitates corrunipere; facto, non consulto in tali periculo opus esse; seque, si pauci adjuvarent, languentibus aliis, impetum in curiam facturum.' Natura ferox, vehemens, manu promptus erat; maximum bonum in celeritate putabat. XLIV. Sed Allobroges ex preecepto Ciceronis per Gabinium ceteros conveniunt; ab Lentulo, Cethego, Statilio, item Cassio postulant jusjurandum, quod signatum ad cives perferant:' aliter haud facile eos ad tantum negotium impelli posse.' Ceteri nihil suspicantes dant; Cassius semet eo brevi ventururn pollicetur, ac paulo ante legatos ex urbe proficiscitur. Lentulus cum his T. Volturcium quemdam Crotoniensem mittit, uti Allobroges, priusquam domum pergerent, cum Catilina, data et accepta fide, societatem confirmarent. Ipse Volturcio litteras ad Catilinam dat, quarum exemplum infra scriptum est. "Quis sim, ex eo, quem ad to misi, cognosces. Fec cogites, in quanta calamitate sis, et.memineris te virum esse; consideres, quid turn rationes postulent: auxilium petas ab omnibus, etiam ab infimis." (Ad hoc mandata verbis dat:'quum ab senatu hostis judicatus sit, quo consilio servitia repudiet? in urbe parata esse, quae jusserit; ne,cunctetur ipse propius cce.dere.'

Page  118 118 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII XLV. His rebus ita actis, constituta nocte, qua proficiscerentur, Cicero, per legatos cuncta edoctus, L. Valerio Flacco et C. Pomptino praetoribus imperat, uti in ponte Mulvio per insidias Allobrogum comitatus deprehendant; rem omnem aperit, cujus gratia mittebaiitur; cetera, uti facto opus sit, ita agant, permittit. Illi, homines militares, sine tumultu praesidiis collocatis, sicuti preceptum erat, occulte pontem obsidunt. Postquamn ad id loci legati cum Volturcio venerunt, et simul utrimque clamor exortus est, Galli, cito cognito consilio, sine mora prmtoribus se tradunt. Volturcius primo, cohortatus ceteros, gladio se a multitudine defendit; deinde, ubi a legatis desertus est, multa priuis de salute sua Pomptinum obtestatus, qubd ei notus erat, postremo timidus ac vitte diffidens, velut hostibus sese prsetoribus dedit. XLVI. Quibus rebus confectis, omnia propere per nuntios consuli declarantur. At illum ingens cura atque laetitia simul occupavdre: nam letabatur, intelligens, conjuratione patefacta, civitatem periculis ereptam esse; porro autem anxius erat, dubitans, in maximo scelere tantis civibus depxehe nis, quid facto opus esset; pdenam illorum sibi oneri, impunitatem perdendme reipublicae fore credebat. Igitur, confirmato animo, vocari ad sese jubet Lentulum, Cethegum, Statilium, Gabinium, itemque Cceparium quemdam Terracinensem, qui in Apuliam ad concitanda servitia proficisci parabat. Ceteri sine mor& veniunt' Cceparius, paulo ante dono egressus, cognito indicio, ex urbe profugerat. Consul Lentulum, quod praetor erat, ipse manu tenens perducit; reliquos cum custodibus in redem Concordia venire jubet. E6 senatum'dvocat, magnaque frequentia ejus ordinis, Volturcium cum legatis introducit; Flaccum pramtorem scrini

Page  119 CATILINA. 119 um cum litteris, quas a legatis acceperat, eodem afferre jubet. XLVII. Volturcius interrogatus de itinere, de litteris, postremo quid, aut qua de causa, consilii habuisset, prim6 fingere alia, dissimulare de conjuratione; post, ubi fide publica dicere jussus est, omnia, uti gesta erant, aperit; docetque'se paucis ante diebus a Gabinio et Ccepario socium adscitum nihil ampliu-s scire quam legatos; tantummodo audire solitum ex; Gabinio P. Autronium, Servium Sullam, L. Vargunteium, multos praeterea in ea conjuratione esse.' Eadem Galli fatentur, ac Lentulum dissimulantem coarguunt proeter litteras sermonibus, qubs ille habere solitus erat:'ex libris Sibyllinis regnum Roma tribus Corneliis pQrtendi; Cinnam atque Sullam antea, se tertium esse, cui fatum foret urbis potiri; pramterea ab incenso Capitolio illum esse vigesimum annum, quem sepe ex prodigiis haruspices respoirdissent bello civili cruentum fore.' Igitur perlectis litteris, quum prius omnes signa sua cognovissent, senatus decernit,' uti abdicato magistratu Lentulus, itemque ceteri in liberis custodiis haberentur.' Itaque Lentulus P. Lentulo Spintheri, qui turn edilis erat, Cethegus Q. Cornificio, Statilius C. Coesari, Gabinius M. Crasso, Cceparius (nam is paulo ante ex fuga retractus erat) Cn. Terentio senatori traduntur. XLVIII. Interea plebes, conjuratione patefacta, qua primo cupida rerum novarum nimis bello favebat, mutata mente, Catilina consilia exsecrari, Ciceronem ad ccelum tollere; veluti ex servitute erepta, gaudium atque laetitiam agitabat. Namque alia belli facinora pradaw magis quam detrimento fore, incendium vero cridele, immoderatum, ac sibi maxime calamitosum putabat; 11

Page  120 120 C. CRISPI SALLUST1I quippe cui omnes copise in usu quotidiano et cultu corporis erant. Post eum diem quidam L. Tarquinius ad senatum adductus erat, quem ad Catilinam proficiscentern ex itinere retractum aiebant. Is quum se diceret indicaturum de conjuratione, si fides publica data esset, jussus a consule, qute sciret, edicere, eadem fere, quae Volturcius, de paratis incendiis, de caede bonorum, de itinere hostium senatum docet: preterea'se missum a M. Crasso, qui Catilinm nuntiaret, ne eum Lentulus et Cethegus aliique ex conjuratione deprehensi terrerent; eoque magis properaret ad urbem accedere, quo et ceterorum animos reficeret, et illi facilius e periculo eriperentur.' Sed ubi Tarquinius Crassum nominavit, hominem nobilem, maximis divitiis, summa potentia, alii rem incredibilem rati, pars, tametsi verum existimabant, tamen quia in tali tempore tanta vis hominis lenienda magis quam exagitanda videbatur, plerique Crasso ex negotiis privatis obnoxii conclamant' indicem falsum esse,' deque ea re postulant, uti referatur. Itaque, consulente Cicerone, frequens senatus decernit,'Tarquinii indicium falsum videri, eumque in vinculis retinendum, neque amplius potestatem faciendam, nisi de eo indicaret, cujus consilio tantam rem mentitus esset.' Erant eo tempore, qui existimarent indicium illud a P. Autronio machinatum, quo facilius, appellato Crasso, per societatem periculi reliquos illius potentia tegeret. Alii Tarquinium a Cicerone immissum aiebant, ne Crassus, more suo suscepto malorum patrocinio, rempublicam conturbaret. Ipsum Crassum ego postea praedicantem audivi,' tantam illam conturneliam sibi ab Cicerone impositam.' XLIX. Sed isdem temporibus Q. Catulus et C. Piso neque precibus, neque gratia, neque pretio Ciceroncm

Page  121 CATILINA. 121 impellere potuere, uti per Allobroges aut per alium indicem C. Cesar falso nominaretur. Nam uterque cum illo graves inimicitias exercebant; Piso oppugnatus in judicio pecuniarum repetundarum, propter cujusdaln Transpadani supplicium injustum; Catulus ex petitione pontificatus odio incensus, quod extremr aetate, maximis honoribus usus, ab adolescentulo Caesare victus discesserat. Res autem opportuna videbatur, quod is privatim egregia liberalitate, publice maximis muneribus grandem pecuniam debebat. Sed ubi consulem ad tantum facinus impellere nequeunt, ipsi singulatim circumeundo, atque ementiendo, quae se ex Volturcio aut Allobrogibus audisse dicerent, magnam illi invidiam conflaverant; usque adeo, ut nonnulli equites Romani, qui prtesidii causa cum telis erant circum sedem Concordiae, seu periculi magnitudine, seu animi mobilitate impulsi, quo studium suum in rempublicam clarius esset, egredienti ex senatu Caesari gladio minitarentur. L. Dum hsec in senatu aguntur, et dum legatis Allobrogum et Tito Volturcio, comprobato eorum indicio, proemia decernuntur; liberti et pauci ex clientibus Lentuli diversis itineribus opifices atque servitia in vicis ad eum eripiendum sollicitabant; partfi exquireharit duces multitudinum, qui pretio rempublicam vexare soliti erant. Cethegus autem per nuntios familiam atque libertos suos, Jectos et exercitatos in audaciam, orabat, ut, grege facto, cum telis ad sese irruapereat. Consul, ubi ea parlari cognovit, dispositis prmsidiis, ut res atque tempus monebat, convocato senatu, refert,'quid de his fieri placeat, qui in custodiam traditi erant.' -Sed eos paulo ante frequens senatus judicaverat'contra rempublicam fecisse.' Tum D Junius Silanus, primus sententiam rogatus, quod

Page  122 122 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII eo tempore consul designatus erat, de his, qui in custodiis tenebantur, praterea de L. Cassio, P. Furio, P. Umbreno, Q. Annio, si deprehensi forent, supplicium sumendure decreverat: isque postea, permotus oratione C. Caesaris, pedibus in sententiam Tib. Neronis iturum se dixerat; quod de ea re, praesidiis additis, referendum censucrat. Sed Caesar, ubi ad eum ventum est, rogatus sententiam a consule, hujuscemodi verba locutus est. LI. "Omnes homines, patres conscripti, qui de rebus dubiis consultant, ab odio, amicitia, ira atque misericordia vacuos esse decet. Haud facile animus verum providet, ubi illa officiunt, neque quisquam omnium libidini simul et usui paruit. Ubi intenderis ingenium, valet; si libido possidet, ea daminatur, animus nihil valet. Magna mihi copia est memorandi, patres conscripti, qui reges atque populi, ira aut misericordia impulsi, male consuluerint; sed ea malo dicere, quae majores nostricontralibidinem animi sui recte atquo ordine fecere. Bello Macedonico, quod cum rege Perse gessimus, Rhodiorum civitas, magna atque magnifica, quw populi Romani opibus creverat, infida atque adversa nobis fuit: sed postquam, bello confecto, de Rhodiis consultum est, majores nostri, ne quis divitiarum magis, quam injuria causa bellum inceptum diceret, impunitos eos dimisere. Item bellis Punicis omnibus, quum saepe Carthaginienses et in pace et per inducias multa nefaria facinora fecissent, nunquam ipsi per occasionem talia fecere: magis, quid se dignum foret, quam quid in illis jure fieri posset, quaerebantlIoc idem vobis providendum est, patres conscripti, ne plus valeat apud vos P. Lentuli et ceterorum scelus, quam vestra dignitas; neu magis irae vestrae quam fama consulatis. Nam si digna pcena pro factis eorum reperi

Page  123 CATILINA. 123 tur, novum consilium approbo; sin magnitudo sceleris omnium ingenia exsuperat, his utendum censeo, qul legibus comparata sunt. Plerique eorum, qui ante me sententias dixerunt, composite atque magnifice casum reipublica miserati sunt: qume belli smevitia esset, qum victis acciderent enumeravere: rapi virgines, pueros; divelli liberos a parentum complexu; matres familiarum pati, quam victoribus collibuissent; fana atque domos exspoliari; cmdem, incendia fieri; postremo armis, cadaveribus, cruore atque luctu omnia compleri. Sed, per deos immortales! quo illa oratio pertinuit? an, uti vos infestos conjurationi faceret? Scilicet, quem res tanta atque tam atrox non permovit, eum oratio accendet! Non ita est; neque cuiquam mortalium injuriae sum parvm videntur: multi eas gravius equo habuere. Sed alia aliis licentia est, patres conscripti. Qui demissi in obscuro vitam habent, si quid iracundia deliquere, pauci sciunt; fama atque fortuna eorum pares sunt: qui magno imperio prmediti in excelso aetatem agunt, eorum facta cuncti mortales novere. Ita in maxima fortuna minima licentia est: neque studere, neque odisse, sed minime irasci decet: qume apud alios iracundia dicitur, ea in imperio superbia atque crudelitas appellatur. Equidem ego sic existimo, patres conscripti, omnes cruciatus minores, quam facinora illorum esse; sed plerique mortales postrema meminere, et in hominibus impiis sceleris eorum obliti de piena disserunt, si ea paulo severior fuit. D. Silanum, virum fortem atque strenuum, certo scio, qum dixerit, studio reipublice dixisse, neque illum in tanta re gratiam aut inimicitias exercere: eos mores, eam modestiam viri cognovi. Verum sententia ejus mihi non crudelis, (quid enim in tales homines crudele fieri

Page  124 l24 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII potest?) sed aliena a republica nostra videtur. Nam pro. fect t aut metus aut injuria te subegit, Silane, consulem designatum, genus pcenae novum decernere. De timore supervacaneum est disserere, quum praesertim diligentia clarissimi viri, consulis, tanta prsesidia sint in armis. De pcena possumus equidem dicere, id quod res habet, in luctu atque miseriis mortem aerumnarum requiem, non cruciatum esse, eam cuncta mortalium mala dissolvere; ultra neque curae neque gaudio locum esse. Sed, per deos immortales! quarmobrem in sententiam non addidisti, uti prius verberibus in eos animadverteretur? An, quia lex Porcia velat? At aliae leges item condemnatis civibus non animam eripi, sed exsilium permitti jubent. An, quia gravius est veyrberari quam necari? Quid autem acerbum aut nimis grave in homines tanti facinoris convictos? Sin, quia levius est; qui convenit in minore negotio legem timere, quum ear in majore neglexeris? At enim quis reprehendet, quod in parricidas reipublice decretum erit? Tempus, dies, fortuna, cujus libido gentibus moderatur. Illis merito accidet, quidquid evenerit; vos, patres conscripti, quid in alios sttuatais, considerate. Omnia mala exempla ex bonis orta sunt; sed ubi imperium ad ignaros aut minus bonos pertent, novum illud exemplum ab dignis et idoneis ad indignos et non idoneos transfertur. Lacedsemonii devictis Atheniensibus triginta viros imposuere, qui rempublicam corum tractarent. Hi primo ccepere pessimum quemque et omnibus invisum indemnatum necare: ea populus Ietari et merito dicere fieri. Post, ubi paulatim licentia crevit, juxta bonos et malos libidinos. interficere, ceteros mnetu terrere. Ita civitas servitute oppressa stulte lhetitiae graves pcenas dedit. Nostra memoria, victor Sulla

Page  125 CATILINA. 125 quum Damasippum et alios hujusmodi, qui malo reipublicae creverant, jugulari jussit, quis non factum ejus laudabat?'Homines scelestos et factiosos, qui seditionibus rempublicam exagitaverant, merito necatos' aiebant. Sed ea res magna initium cladis fuit: nam uti quisque domum aut villan, postremo aut vas aut vestimenturn alicujus concupiverat, dabat operam, uti is in proscriptorum numero esset. Ita illi, quibus Damasippi mors laetitiae fuerat, paulo post ipsi trahebantur; neque pri'is finis jugulandi fuit, quim Sulla omnes suos divitiis explevit. Atque ego huec non in M. Tullio neque his temporibus vereor; sed in magna civitate multa et varia ingenia sunt. Potest alio tempore, alio consule, cui item exercitus in manu sit, falsum aliquid pro vero credi. Ubi hoc exemplo per senati decretum consul gladium eduxerit, quis illi finem statuet, aut quis moderabitur? Majores nostri, patres conscripti, neque consilii neque audaciae unquam eguere; neque illis superbia obstabat, quo minis aliena instituta, si modo proba erant, imitarentur. Arma atque tela militaria ab Samnitibus, insignia magistratuum ab Tuscis pleraque sumpserunt: postremo quod ubique apud socios aut hostes idoneum videbatur, cum summo studio domi exsequebantur; imitari quam invidere bonis malebant. Sedeodem illo tempore, Grzeciae morem imitati, verberibus animadvertebant in cives, de condemnatis summum supplicium sumebant. Postquam respublica adolevit, et multitudine civium factiones valuere, circumveniri innocentes, alia hujuscemodi fieri ccepere, tum lex Porcia aliaque leges paratae sunt, quibus legibus exsilium damnatis permissum est. Hanc ego causam, patres conscripti, quo minus novum consilium capiamus, in primis magnam puto. Profecto virtus atque

Page  126 126 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII sapientia major in illis fuit, qui ex parvis opibus tantuin irmperium fecere, quam in nobis, qui ea bene parta vix retinemus. Placet igitur eos dimitti et augere exercituLn Catilin'e? Minime; sed ita censeo:'publicandas eo. rum pecunias, ipsos in vinculis habendos per municipia, quae maxime opibus valent; neu quis de his postea ad senatum referat, neve cum populo agat: qui aliter fecerit, senatum existimare eum contra rempublicam et salutem omnium facturum.'" LII. Postquam Caesar dicendi finem fecit, ceteri verbo alius alii varie assentiebantur: at M. Porcius Cato, rogatus sententiam, hujuscemodi orationem habuit. "Longe mihi alia mens est, patres conscripti, quum res atque pericula nostra considero, et quum sententias nonnullorum mecum ipse reputo. Illi mihi disseruisse videntur de pcena eorum, qui patrie, parentibus, aris atque fQcia suis bellum paravere: res autem monet cavere ab illis magis quam, quid in illis statuamus, consultare. Nam cetera maleficia tum persequare, ubi facta sunt: hoc, nisi provideris, ne accidat, ubi evenit, frustra judicia implores: capta urbe, nihil fit reliqui victis. Sed, per deos immortales! vos ego appello, qui semper domos, villas, signa, tabulas vestras pluris quam rempublicam fecistis, si ista, cujuscumque modi sunt quse amplexamini, retinere, si voluptatibus vestris otium prebere vultis, expergiscimini aliquando, et capessite rempublicam. Non agitur de vectigalibus, neque de sociorum inijuriis; libertas et anima nostra in dubio est. Saepenu1nero, patres conscripti, multa verba in hoc ordine feci, stepe de luxuria atque avaritia nostrorum civium questus sum, multosque mortales ea causa adversos habeo. Qui mihi atque animo meb nullius unquam de

Page  127 CATILINA. 127 licti gratiam fecissem, haud facile alterius libidini malefacta condonabam. Sed ea tametsi vos parvi pendebatis, tamen respublica firma erat; opulentia negligentiam tolerabat. Nunc vero non id agitur, bonisne an malis moribus vivamus, neque quantum aut quarn magnificum imperium populi Romani sit; sed cujus hae cumque modi videntur, nostra, an nobiscum una hostium futura sint. "Hic mihi quisquam mansuetudinem et misericordiam nominat. Jampridemn equidem nos vera rerum vocabula amisimus, quia bona aliena largiri liberalitas, malarum rerum audacia fortitudo vocatur; eo respublica in extremo sita est. Sint sane, quoniam ita se mores habent, liberales ex sociorum fortunis, sint misericordes in furibus eerarii: ne illi sanguinem nostrum largiantur; et dum paucis sceleratis parcunt, bonos omnes perditum eant. Bene et composite C. Cesar paulo ante in hoc ordine de vita et morte disseruit; credo, falsa existimans ea, quae de inferis memorantur;' diverso itinere malos a bonis loca tetra, inculta, fceda atque formidolosa habere.' Itaque censuit'pecunias eorum publicandas, ipsos per municipia in custodiis habendos;' videlicet timens, ne, si Romse sint, aut a popularibus conjurationis, aut a multitudine conducta per vim eripiantur. Quasi vero mali atque scelesti tantummodo in urbe, et non per totam Italiam sint, aut non ibi plus possit audacia, ubi ad defendendum opes minores sunt. Quare vanum equidem hoc consilium est, si periculum ex illis metuit;.sin in tanto omnium metu solus non timet, eo magis refert me mihi atque vobis timere. "Quare quum de P. Lentulo ceterisque statuetis, pro certo habetote vos simul de exercitu Catilinse et de om12

Page  128 128 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII nibus conjuratis deeernere. Quanto vos attentiius ea agetis, tanto illis animus infirmior erit: si paululum modo vos languere viderint, jam omnes feroces aderunt. Nolite existimare majores nostros armis rempublicar ex parva magnam fecisse. Si ita res esset, multo pulcherrimam ear nos haberemus: quippe sociorum atque civium, preterea armorum atque equorum major nobis copia quam illis. Sed alia fuere, quse illos magnos fecere, quae nobis nulla sunt; domi industria, foris justurn imperium, animus in consulendo liber, neque delicto neque libidini obnoxius. Pro his nos habemus luxuriam atque avaritiam, publice egestatem, privatim opulentiam; laudTrnus divitias, sequimur inertiam; inter bonos et malos discrimen nullum; omnia virtutis prsemia ambitio possidet. Neque mirum, ubi vos separatim sibi quisque consilium capitis, ubi domi voluptatibus, hic pecuniae aut gratiae servitis; eo fit, ut impetus fiat in vacuam rempublicam. Sed ego hasc omitto.:"Conjuravere nobilissimi cives patriam -incendere, Gallorum gentem infestissimam nomini Romano ad bellum arcessunt; dux hostium cum exercitu supra caput est: vos cunctamini etiam nune, quid intra mcenia deprehensis hostibus faciatis? Misereamini, censeo, (deliquere homines adolescentuli per ambitionem,) atque etiam armatos dimittatis. Ne ista vobis mansuetudo et misericordia, si illi arma ceperint, in miseriam vertet. Scilicet res ipsa aspera est, sed vos non timetis eam. Immo vero maxima; sed inertia et mollitia animi alius alium exspectantes cunctamini, videlicet dis immortalibus confisi, qui hanc rempublicam in maximis saepe periculis servavere. Non votis neque suppliciis muliebribus auxilia deorum parantur; vigilando, agendo, bene con

Page  129 CATILINA. 129 sulendo prospera omnia cedunt: ubi socordiee te atque ignavime tradideris, nquidquam deos implores; rati. infestique sunt. Apud majores nostros T. Manlius Torquatus bello Gallico filium suum, quod is contra imperium in hostem pugnaverat, necari jussit, atque ille egregius adolescens, immoderatse fortitudinis, morte pcenas dedit: vos de crudelissimis parricidis quid statuatis, cunctamini? Videlicet vita cetera eorum huic sceleri obstat. Verum parcite dignitati Lentuli, si ipse pudicitiae, si famca suae, si dis aut hominibus unquam ullis pepercit: ignoscite Cethegi adolescentie, nisi iterum patrim bellum fecit. Nam quid ego de Gabinio, Statilio, Ccepario loquar? quibus si quidquam unquam pensi fuisset, non ea consilia de republica habuissent. "Postremo, patres conscripti, si mehercule peccato locus esset, facile paterer vos ipsa re corrigi, quoniam verba comtemnitis; sed undique circumventi sumus. Catilina cum exercitu faucibus urget; alii intra mlcenia atque in sinu urbis sunt hostes; neque parari, neque consuli quidquam occulte potest: qu' magis properandum est. Quare ita ego censeo:'quum nefario consilio sceleratorum civium respublica in maxima pericula venerit, hique indicio T. Volturcii et legatorum Allobrogum convicti confessique sint caedem, incendia, aliaque se fceda atque crudelia facinora in cives patriamque paravisse, de confessis, sicuti de manifestis rerum capitalium, more majorum supplicium sumendum.'" IIII. Postquam Cato assedit, consulares omnes itemque senatus magna pars sententiam ejus laudant, virtutem animi ad ccelum ferunt, alii alios increpantes timidos vocant; Cato clarus atque magnus habetur; senati deeretum fit, sicuti ille censuerat. Sed mihi multa le

Page  130 130 C. CRISPI SALLUSTI1 genti, multa audienti, quae populus Romanus domi mi. litikeque, mari atque terra prmeclara facinora fecit- forte libuit attendere, qums res maxime tanta negotia sustinuisset. Sciebam sapenumero parva manu cum magnis legionibus hostium contendisse; cognoveram parvis copiis bella gesta cum opulentis regibus; ad hoc saepe fortunae violentiam toleravisse; facundia Graecos, gloria belli Gallos ante Romanos fuisse. Ac mihi multa agitanti constabat, paucorum civium egregiam virtutem cuncta patravisse; eoque factum, uti divitias paupertas, multitudinem paucitas superaret. Sed postquam luxu atque desidia civitas corrupta est, rursus respublica magnitudine sua imperatorum atque magistratuum viia sustentabat, ac, sicuti effeta parente, multis tempestatibus haud sane quisquam Romam virtute magnus fuit. Sed memoria. mea, ingenti virtute, diversis moribus fuere viri duo, M. Cato et C. Caesar: quos quoniam res obtulerat, silentio prmeterire non fuit consilium, quin utriusque naturam et mores, quantum ingenio possem, aperirem. LIV. Igitur his genus, mtas. eloquentia prope aequalia fuere; magnitudo animi par, item gloria, sed alia alii. Caesar beneficiis atque munificentia magnus habebatur; integritate vitae Cato. Ille mansuetudine et misericordia clarus factus; huic severitas dignitatem addiderat. Camsar dando, sublevando, ignoscendo; Cato nihil largiendo gloriam adeptus est. In altero miseris perfugium; in altero malis pernicies: illius facilitas, hujus constantia laudabatur. Postremo Caesar in animum induxerat laborare, vigilare; negotiis amicorum intentus, sua negligere; nihil denegare, quod dono dignum esset; sibi magnum imperium, exercitum, novum bellum exoptabat, ubi virtus enitescere posset. At Catoni studium

Page  131 CATILINA. 131 modestia, decoris, sed maxime severitatis erat. Non divitiis cum divite, neque factione cum factioso, sed curm strenuo virtute, cum modesto pudore, cum innocente abstinentia certabat; esse quam videri bonus malebat: ita, quo minus gloriam petebat, eo magis sequebatur. LV. Postquam, ut dixi, senatus in Catonis sententiam discessit, consul optimum factum ratus noctem, quae instabat, antecapere, ne quid eo spatio novaretur, triumviros, quae supplicium postulabat, parare jubet: ipse, dispositis proesidiis, Lentulum in carcerem deducit; idem fit ceteris per prsetores. Est locus in carcere, quod Tullianum appellatur, ubi paululum descenderis ad levam, circiter duodecim pedes humi depressus. Eum muniunt undique parietes, atque insuper camera lapideis fornicibus vincta, sed incultu, tenebris, odore fceda atque terribilis ejus facies est. In eum locum postquam demissus est Lentulus, vindices rerum capitalium, quibus praeceptum erat, laqueo gulam frege,. Ira ille patricius, ex clarissima gente Corneliorum, qui consulare imperium Romae habuerat, dignum moribus factisque suis exitium vitce invenit. De Cethego, Statilio, Gabinio, Ccepario eodem modo supplicium sumptum est. LVI. Dum ea Romm geruntur, Catilina ex omni copi;i, quam et ipse adduxerat, et Manlius habuerat, duas legiones instituit; cohortes pro numero militum complet: deinde, ut quisque voluntarius aut ex sociis in castra venerat, oequaliter distribuerat, ac brevi spatio legiones numero hominum expleverat, quum initio non amplius duobus millibus habuisset. Sed ex omni copia circiter pars quarta erat militaribus armis instructa; ccteri, ut quemque casus armaverat, sparos aut lanceas, alii praeacutas sudes portabant. Sed postquam Antonius cum 12 *

Page  132 132 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII exercitu adventabat, Catilina per montes iter facere, modo ad urbem, modo in Galliam versuis castra movere. hostibus occasionem pugnandi non dare: sperabat propediem magnas copias sese habiturum, si Roma socii incepta patravissent. Interea servitia repudiabat, cujus initio ad eum magna~ copi& concurrebant, opibus conjurationis fretus, simul alienum suis rationibus existimans, videri causam civium cum servis fugitivis communicavisse. LVII. Sed postquam in castra nuntius pervenit Romm conjurationem patefactam, de Lentulo, Cethego, ceteris, quos supra memoravi, supplicium sumptum; plerique, quos ad bellum spes rapinarum aut novarum rerum studium illexerat, dilabuntur: reliquos Catilina per montes asperos magnis itineribus in agrum Pistoriensem abducit, eo consilio, uti per tramites occulte perfug ret in Galliam. At Q. Metellus Celer cum tribus legionibus in agro Piceno presidebat, ex difficultate rerum eadem illa existimans, quav supra diximus, Catilinam agitare. Igitur, ubi iter ejus ex perfugis cognovit, castra propere movit, ac sub ipsis radicibus montium consedit, qua illi descensus erat in Galliam properanti. Neque tamen Antonius procul aberat, utpote qui magno exercitu locis oequioribus expeditus in fuga sequeretur. Sed Catilina, postquam videt montibus atque copiis hostium sese clausum, in urbe res adversas, neque fuga neque praesidii ullam spem, optimum factum ratus in tali re fortunam belli tentare, statuit cum Antonio quam primtum confligere. Itaque, concione advocata, hujuseemodi orationem habuit. LV~1I. " Compertum ego habeo, milites, verba virtutem non addere; neque ex ignayv strenuum, neque

Page  133 CA-TILINA. 133 fortem ex timido exercitum oratione imperatoris fieri. Quanta cujusque animo audacia natura aut moribus inest, tanta in bello patere solet: quem neque gloria neque pericula excitant, nequidquam hortere; timor animi auribus officit. Sed ego vos, quo pauca monerem, advocavi; simul uti causam mei consilii aperirem. Scitis equidern, milites, socordia atque ignavia Lentuli quantam ipsi cladem nobisque attulerit; quoque modo, dum ex urbe praesidia opperior, in Galliam proficisci nequiverim. Nunc vero quo in loco res nostrae sint, j!lxta mecur omnes intelligitis. Exercitus hostium duo, unus ab urbe, alter a Gallia obstant: diutius in his locis esse, si maxime animus ferat, frumenti atque aliarum rerum egestas prohibet. Quocumque ire placet, ferro iter aperiendum est. Quapropter vos moneo, uti forti atque parato animo sitis, et, quum prcelium inibitis, memineritis vos divitias, decus, gloriam, praeterea libertatem atque patriam in dextris vestris portaie. Si vincimus, omnia nobis tuta erunt, commeatus abunde, colonise atque municipia patebunt: sin metu cesserimus, eadem illa adversa fient: neque locus neque amicus quisquam teget, quem arma non texerint. Priterea, milites, non eadem nobis et illis necessitudo impendet: nos pro patria, pro libertate, pro vita certamus: illis supervacaneum est pugnare pro potentia paucorum. Quo audacius aggredimini, memores pristina virtutis. Licuit vobis cum sunmma turpitudine in exsilio vatatem agere; potuistis nonnullj Rome, arissis bonis, alienas opes exspectare. Quia illa fceda atque intoleranda viris videbantur, haec sequi decrevistis. Si haec relinquere vultis, audacia opus est: nemo, nisi victor, pace bellum mutavit. Nam in lfug't salutem sperare, quum arma, quis corpus tegitur,

Page  134 134 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII ab hostibus averteris, ea vero dementia est. Semper in prcelio iis maximum est periculum, qui maxime timent; audacia pro muro habetur. Quum vos considero, milites, et quum facta vestra vestimo, magna me spes victoria tenet. Animus, mtas, virtus vestra me hortantur, praeferea necessitudo, quwe etiam timidos fortes facit. Nam multitudo hostiumn ne circumvenire queat, prohibent angustie loci. Quod si virtuti vestre fortuna inviderit, cavete inulti animam amittatis; neu capti potius sicuti pecora trucidemini, quam virorum more pugnantes, cruentam atque luctuosam victoriam hostibus relinquatis." LIX. Hec ubi dixit, paululum commoratus, signa canere jubet, atque instructos ordines in locum aequum deducit: deinde, remotis omnium equis, quo militibus, exwequato periculo, animus amplior esset, ipse pedes exercitum pro loco atque copiis instruit. Nam, uti planities erat inter sinistros -iontes, et ab dextra rupes aspera, octo cohortes in fronte constituit, reliqua signa in subsidio artius collocat. Ab his centuriones omnes lectos et evocatos, prseterea ex gregariis militibus optimum quemque armatum in primam aciem subducit. C. Manlium in dextera, Feesulanum quemdam in sinistra parte curare jubet: ipse curn libertis et colonis propter aquilam assistit, quam bello Cimbrico C. Marius in exercitu habuisse dicebatur. At ex altera parte C. Antonius, pedibus aeger, quod prelio adesse nequibat, M. Petreio legato exercitum permittit. Ille cohortes veteranas, quas tunulti causa conscripserat, in fronte; post eas ceterum exercitum in subsidiis locat. Ipse equo circumiens, unumquemque nominans appellat, hortatur, rogat, uti meminerint se contra latrones inermes, pro patria, pro

Page  135 CATILINA. 135 liberis, pro aris atque focis suis cernere. Homo miiitaris, quod amplius annos triginta tribunus, aut prafectus, aut legatus, aut praetor cum magna gloria in exercitu fuerat, plerosque ipsos factaque eorum fortia noverat; ea commemorando militum animos accendebat. LX. Sed ubi, omnibus rebus exploratis, Petreius tuba signum dat, cohortes paulatim incedere jubet; idem facit hostium exercitus. Postquam eo vehtum est, unde a ferentariis prcelium committi posset, maximo clamore cum infestis signis concurrunt; pila omittunt; gladiis res geritur. Veterani, pristinse virtutis memores, cominus acriter instare; illi haud timidi resistunt; maxima vi certatur. Interea Catilina cum expeditis in prima acie versari, laborantibus succurrere, integros pro sauciis arcessere, omnia providere, multum ipse pugnare, sape hostem ferire: strenui militis et boni imperatoris officia simul exsequebatur. Petreius ubi videt Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magna vi tendere, cohortem praetoriam in medios hostes inducit, eosque perturbatos atque alios alibi resistentes interficit; deinde utrimque ex laternbus ceteros aggreditur. Manlius et Fmesulanus in primis pugnantes cadunt. Postquam fusas copias, seque cum paucis relictum videt Catilina, memor generis atque pristinae dignitatis, in confertissimos hostes incurrit, ibique pugnans confoditur. LXI. Sed confecto prcelio, tum vero cerneres, quanta audacia quantaque vis animi fuisset in exercitu Catilinne Nam fere quem quisque vivus pugnando locum ceperat, eum, amissa anima, corpore tegebat. Paucl autem, quos medios cohors pratoria disjecerat, paulo diversiuis, sed omnes tamen adversis vulneribus conciderant. Catilina vero longe a suis inter hostium cadavera repertus est

Page  136 136 C. CRISPI SALLUSTII CATILIN:. paululum etiam spirans, ferociamque animi, quar habuerat vivus, in vultu retinens. Postremo ex omni copia neque in prcelio neque in fuga quisquam civis ingenuus captus est: ita cuncti suse hostiumque vita juxta pepercerant. Neque tamen exercitus populi Romani latarn aut incruentam victoriam adeptus erat; nam strenuissimus quisque aut occiderat in prcelio, aut graviter vulneratus discesserat.' Multi autem, qui de castris visendi aut spoliandi gratia processerant, volventes hostilia cadavera, amicum alii, pars hospitem aut cognatum reperiebant; fuere item, qui inimicos suos cognoscerent. Ita varie per omnem exercitum laetitia, moeror, luctus atque gaudia agitabantur.

Page  137 DICTIONARY. A ABSTRAHO A., an abbreviation of the preno- away; to throw on the ground prosmen Aulus. trate; to lay by, throw aside, remove, A, Ab, Abs, prep. with the abl. S Abjiro, ire, ivi, dtum, a. (ab 4 195, R. 2. From; in regard to, in re- juro,) to deny falsely upon oath. Ab. spect of. Before the agent of a pas- jurare credituem, to forswear a debt, sive verb, by, Denoting relative posi- falsely to deny under oath one's intion, on, at, in: as, ab dextera parte, debtedness. on the right side. Denoting order of Abnuo, ere, ui, a. (ab 4f nuo, obs.), to cime, after. After verrsof requescing deny or refuse by countenance or gesor demandzng, of, from. In composi- ture; to express dissent by a nod or tion, see 6 196, 1, & 6 197, 1. shake of the head; with ace. and dat., Abdicatus, a, um, part., disinherited, to refuse, deny, decline, reject; Milidismissed, deposed: from tes fessi et abnuentes omnia,-declinAbdico, are, dvi, atum. a. (ab 4 dico, ing all farther efforts. are, to give,) to turn out of doors, dis- Aborigines, um, m. pl. (ab 4- origo), inherit; to depose; to lay down, re- a people of Italy who anciently inhasign, abdicate. bited the region where Rome was Abditus, a, um, part. 4, adj., hidden, afterwards built, and whose kings concealed, removed, secret, retired, were Saturn and Janus; the Aborigiprivate. Abditea regiones, unknown nes. C. 6. regions: from Absens, entis, adj. (abs f ens, ~ 154, Abdo, ere, vdi, Itum, a. (ab 4' do), to R. 1.), absent, abroad. remove from view, hide, conceal, se- Absolvo, ere, olvi, olitum, a. (ab 4' crete; to remove. solvo), to loose, unloose; to set at lib Abduco, ere, xi, ctum, a. (ab' duco), erty, discharge, release, liberate; to $ 225, IV, to take away, remove; to despatch, dismiss; to finish, complete. lead, lead away or off, lead aside, car- Absolvere paucis, to despatch in a few ry; to draw off, withdraw. words, declare briefly, speak briefly or Abeo, ire, ii, Itum, irr. n. (ab 4 eo), concisely. $ 242, R. 1. to go away, depart, go Abstinentia, e,f. (abstinens, tempeoff, go. escape, retire, withdraw. Prea- rate), abstinence, moderation; freeceps abire, to go headlong, to plunge dom from avarice, uprightness, disinheadlong into crimes. terestedness; temperance, sobriety. Abjectus, a, ur, part., cast off, Abstlneo, ere, ui, a. (abs f teneo), to thrown away, cast down, thrown abstain from, keep from, refrain from. aside: from Abstractus, a, ur, part.: from AbjIcio, ere, jeci, jectum, a. (ab 4 Abstriho, Ire, traxi, tractum, a. (abs jaco) to cast, throw, throw or cast 4l traho), ~ 242, R. 1. to draw or tear

Page  138 ABSUM 138 ACER away; taiee away by force, lead away, Accensus, a, um, part. <, adj (accenlead or draw aside; to tear, rend, divide. do), set on fire, &c. Fig. excited, enAbsum, esse,fui, irr. n. (ab 4 sum), kindled, inflamed, stirred up, animated. O 242, R. 1. to be absent, to be dis- stimulated, prompted; exasperated. tant; to be wanting in assistance, Acceptio, onis, f. (accipio), an acwithhold one's help, keep or stand cepting or receiving. aloof Paulum abesse, to be near, be Acceptus, a, urn, part. 4f adj. (acctupon the point, want but little. pio), received, accepted, heard, &c.; Absumo, ere, psi, ptum, a. (ab' grateful, pleasing, acceptable, O 222. sumo), to consume, destroy; to slay, Accedo, ire, cidi, n. (ad f cado), O cut off. 224, to fall, fall down at or before. Absumptus, a, um, part. (absumo). Quo accidam? i. e. ad cujus genua Absurdus, a, um, adj. (ab 4f surdus, supplex accidam? to whom shall I deaf), absurd, inconsistent, foolish, prostrate myself (in supplication?) To ridiculous, unapt, unbecoming; des- fall upon, come upon. Quo gravior picable, contemptible. Absurdum est, accideret, that he might fall (upon him) 1 269, R. 2. with greater weight or effect:-to hapAbundantia, As, f. (abundans, abun- pen, occur, befall. Si quid mali acctJant), abundance, plenty. disst, if any calamity had occurred. Abunde, adv. f indec. subs. Q 212, R. Accio, ire, ivi, itum, a. (ad 4 cio, to 4. (abundus, abundant), abundantly, move), to send for, call, call in, sumamply, sufficiently, plentifully; in abun- mon, desire to come, invite. dance, enough, plenty. Acclpio, ere, epi, eptum, a. (ad Abutor, i, usus sum, dep. (ab 4' capio), ~ 272, ~ 273, 230, R. 2. to reutor), to abuse, turn to an improper ceive, take; to bear, suffer, bear with; use, misuse. to hear, learn, be informed, compreAc, conj. the same as atque, uRe it is hend, understand; to admit; to obtain, used b0fore consonants only, ~ 198.1, R. gain, get; to accept of In regnum (b.) and. After alius, aliter,juxta, simi- accipere, to adopt as an heir to the liter, par, similis, etc. than or as, _ throne, to admit to a participation of 198, 3, R. Ac si, as if, $ 263. 2. Ac sovereignty. is sometimes used for et quidem. See Accitus, a, um, part. (accio), sumAtque. Like et, it sometimes connects moned, invited, Ire accitus, to go on udversative sentences, and may then be invitation. translated but. Accurate, adv. (accurdtus, accurate), Accedo, Lre, essi, essum, n. (ad 4, diligently, accurately, carefully, attencedo), O 233, &(Remark 2,) ~ 224, ~ 210. tively, cautiously. Habere accurate, to to draw near, approach, arrive at, treat with attention. Accuratissima come, come to, resort to, aceost; to recipere, to receive with every attcn go; to attack; to be added to, joined, tion. annexed; to accrue. Huc accedebat, Accurro, ere, curri 4f cucurri, cur to this was added. sum, n. (ad 4' curro, to run), to run to; Accendo, Ire, di, sum, a. (ad 4 can- to run. do, obs.), to set on fire, light up, kin- Accuso, are, avi, atum, a. (ad 4dle; to burn. Fig. to excite, inflame, causa), d 217, to accuse, arraign, imstir up, heighten, increase. Accendi peach; to blame, chide, complain of, ad dominationem, to be inflamed with find fault with, censure. a lust of power Acer, acris, acre, adj., sharp, sour,

Page  139 ACERBE 139 ADHERBAL acrid. Fig. sharp, brisk, powerful, gone by, spent. Acta edocere, to vehement; cruel, savage; fiery, im- make known what has been done. petuous, furious; severe; brave, bold, Ad, prep. with the ace., to, unto; at. enterprising, gallant, fierce, courage- near, hard by; in; even to; towards, ous; diligent, strenuous; acute, quick, about; against; according to; besides, keen, penetrating: violent, energetic, in addition to; after; for; in regard to, vigorous. in what pertains to. In composition, Acerbe, adv., sharply, severely, bit- see 196, 2. & ~ 197, 2. terly. harshly, cruelly: from Adcequo, are, avi, atum, a. (ad + Acerbus, a, um, adj., unripe, sour. ceque, to level), to equal, level; to Fig. cruel, inimical, bitter; hurtful, equal, make equal. troublesome, disagreeable, unpleasant; Additus, a, um, part. 4' adj., added; hard, severe, harsh; austere, mo- appointed; placed near or over: rose. from Acerrmne, see Acriter. Addo, ere, didi, ditum, a. (ad 4 do), $ Acies, ei,f., the sharp edge or point 224, to add; to throw or cast in or upon; of any thing; the organ of sight, the to appoint, give, put, impart, bestow pupil of the eye, the eye; a line of sol- Addere nomen gloriamque sibi, to acdiers, file, battalion. Prima acies, the quire, gain-. Addere multum reifirst rank or van of an army. Postre- publice, to aid, assist, benefit-. Adma acies, the rear rank, the rear:-an dereformidinemn alicui, to inspire with army; an army in battle array; force, fear, to intimidate. power; acuteness, shrewdness, talent. Addiuco, ere, uxi, uctum, a. (ad 4 Statuit non praeliis neque acie bellum duco), to conduct, bring, lead; to ingerendum,-not by pitched battles, nor duce, cause; to bring to, reduce; to by regular warfare. bring, persuade. Acquiro, ere, quiswvi, quisitum, a. Addctus, a,?um, part. (addico), (ad 4- quero), to acquire, get, procure, brought, brought to, led to, conductgain, obtain. ed; induced. Adductus in spem, led Acrlter, adv. comp. acrius, sup. acer- to hope or to entertain hopes. tme' (acer), vehemently, sharply, keen- Ademptus, a, um, part. (adimo), ta ly, eagerly, hard, closely; valiantly, ken away. stoutly, courageously; vigorously; Adeo, adv. (ad 4' eo), so, so far, to strenuously; exceedingly; studiously, such a degree, insomuch; too, indeed. diligently; severely, cruelly. Id adeo, and this or that indeed, and Acta, orum, n. pl. (actus), acts, ac- this too, and what is more; then, tions, deeds; glorious exploits, therefore, accordingly. Actio, 5nis, f. (ago), an act, action, Adeo, ire, ii, ~tum, irr. n. 4 a. (ad proceeding, measure, official conduct; 4 eo), ~ 233, to go to; to approach; an accusation, charge; an action at to review, reconnoitre; to come near; law, arraignment, judicial process or to approach in a hostile manner, atproceeding. Prior actio, the first tack; to undertake. stage of a judicial process or action. Adeptus, a, urn, part. (adipiscor) Actus, a, um, part. (ago), led, con- that has obtained, gained, acquired ducted, &c.; brought up or near. Acta Pass. obtained, acquired, gained, O testtadire, the testudo being brought 162, 17, (a.) up' —forced, compelled; finished, Adesse, Aderam, etc, see Adsum. achieved, performed, done; past, over, Acdherbal, tlis, m., a Numidian 1 3

Page  140 ADHIBEO 140 ADOLESCO prince, the son of Micipsa. J 5. 9, trare bellum, to have the management 10, &c. of, or to be the leader in a war. to Adhlbeo, ire, ui, Itum, a. (ad 4f ha- wage war, to carry on war. beo), to adopt, use, employ; to take, Admirandus, a, um, part. 4 mstj, admit, receive, call for; to apply; to admirable, worthy of admiration, to bring, bring on; to offer, pay; to treat, be wondered at, astonishing, amazing, use. wonderful: from AdhibYtus, a, um, part. (adhibeo), Admiror, ari, atus sum, dep. (ad 4 sent for, called for, admitted. miror), to wonder greatly, marvel, bex Adhuc, adv. (ad 4- huc), hitherto, astonished or surprised; to look at thus far, as yet, still, even yet. with admiration, admire, wonder at. Adigo, ere, egi, actum, a. (ad 4 ago), Admissus, a, um, part.: from to drive, thrust, impel; to force, corn- Admitto, ere, misi, missum, a. (ad 4 pel. Adigere ad jusjurandum, to mitto), to send to, or onward; to reoblige to make oath, to bind by an ceive, admit: Fig. to commit a crime, oath. perpetrate; to permit, allow. Adimo, are, emi, emptum, a. (ad 4 Admndum, adv. (ad 4 modus), very, emo), to take away, remove, deprive of. exceedingly, much, greatly, truly, Adipiscor, i, adeptus sum, dep. (ad about. f apiscor, to get), to acquire, get, ob- Admonco, ere, ui, Itum, a. (ad 4f mo. tain, gain, procure; to reach, over- neo), ~ 218, & R. 1., to remind, put in take; to undertake, assume, take upon mind, warn, admonish, advise, sug one's self. gest; to incite, encourage, stimulate Adituss,s, m. (adeo), a going to, ap- urge on. proach, access; an entrance. Admonitus, a, um, part. (admoneo). Adjumentum, i, n. (adjuvo), aid, Adnitens, tis, part., striving, exert help, assistance. Adjumenta-igavies, ing one's self, using one's interest the incentives to sloth, the means of from'idleness. Adntor, i, isus 4 ixus sum, dep Adjungo,?re,junxi,junctum, a. (ad (ad d nitor), to rest or lean upon; 1 4 jungo, to join), ~ 224, to add, join, 273, 1. to strive, aim at, exert one's annex, unite; to associate, take or self to reach or obtain. admit as an associate; to conciliate; Adolescens, entis, adj. 4- subs. m. to acquie, obtain. f. (adolesco), young; a young man oi Adjutor, oris, m., an aider, abettor, woman; a youth, one growing to ma helper, assistant: from turity. Adjuvo, are, jlui, jutum, a. (ad 4- Adolescentia, ea, f. (adolescens) juvo), to help, succor, aid, assist. youth, the period of life intervening Administer, tri, m. (ad 4 minister, a between one's fourteenth and twenty servant) a servant, inferior officer, eighth years, or, as others ray, bemanager; a laborer, workman; an tween one's fifteenth and thirtieth assistant, promoter, abettor. years. Administro, are, avi, atum, n. 4 a. Adolescentilus, i, m, dim. (adolcs(ad 4 millistro, to serve), to act, min- cens), a young man, youth, stripling ister, attend, serve, work, do work or Also adj., young, very young. service; to perform one's part; to ad- Adolesco, ere, olivi, adultum, n. (ad minister, operate, manage, conduct, 4 olesco, to grow), to grow, grow up, direct, govern, regulate. Adminis- increase. Fig. to advance, increase

Page  141 ADOPTATIO 141 JeDES Iecomc greater; to mature, ripen, Adventus, us, m. (advento), a corncome to maturity. ing, arrival, approach. Adoptatio, 5nis, f. (adopto), an Adversarius, i, m., an adversary, adopting, adoption. an enemy: from Adoptdtus a, um, part.: from Adversor, dri, Ctus sum, dep. freq. Adopto, are, avi, atum, a. (ad 4f (adverto), to oppose, resist. r(to), to choose, assume, take; to se- Adversus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (ad. lect; to adopt, take for a son. verto), 6 222, opposite, over against, Adscisco, ere, sczvi, scitum, a. (ad &f fronting, in front, Vulnera adversa, scisco, to inquire), to take, receive, ap- wounds in front. Adverso corpore, in prove, admit, unite; to gain over, en- front, in the fore part of the body;list in one's cause. adverse, hostile, contrary, opposing Adscdtus, a, um, part. (adscisco), re- Passively, that which is an object ot ceived, admitted. hostility or aversion to any one;-opAdsisto, see Assisto. posed, averse, unfavorable, disadvan Adstrictus, a, um, part., straitened, tageous, bad. Adversc res, calami. bound; occupied, engaged, engrossed, ties, misfortunes, adversity. Volunabsorbed, earnestly intent: from tates ipsce sibi adversc, —inconsistent, Adstringo, ere, nxi, ictum, a. (ad 4 -at variance with. In adversa mustringo, to bind), to bind close, tie, tari, to be changed to the opposites fasten. Adverso colle evadere, to ascend tho Adsum, adesse, adfui, irr. n. (ad 4 hill in front. Adversis equis concur sum), 8 224, to be present, be at hand, rere, to charge directly forward. Adbe here; to arrive, come; to defend, versus, i, m., an adversary, enemy, aid, assist, succor, stand by; to come opponent. Metello adverso popul upon, fall on, press on or upon; to partium. ~ 222, R. 2. be; to be near, be fast approaching; Adcerszts 4' Adversism, adv. 4 prep. to give attention. with the ace., against, in front of, opAdulter, eri, m., an adulterer; a de- posite to, over against, facing; unfabauchee, seducer. vorable to; towards. Cibus illis adAdulterinus, a. um, adj. (adulter), versumfamem erat, their food was for adulterous, spurious; adulterated, the removal of hunger: from forged, false. Adverto, ere, erti, ersum, a. (ad 4 Adultus, a, um, part. 4 adj., (ado- verto), to turn to or towards. Fig. to lesco), grown up; full grown, adult, advert to, apply one's thoughts to, atperfect, mature, ripe. tend, heed, observe, perceive, underAdvectitius, a, um, adj., brought stand; so, adverto animum, or Ant from abroad, foreign, imported: madverto, which see. from Advocatus, a, unm. part., being callAdvEho, ere, exi, ectum, a. (ad 4 ed, summoned, invited, called togeteho, to carry), to conduct, carry to, ther: from carry or remove; to import, convey, Adv~co, are, dvi, atum, a. (ad'f bring. voco), to call, call to; to summon, emAdvenio, ire, cni, entum, n. (ad 4 ploy, use. venio), to come, come to, arrive. AEdes 4'.Edis, is, f., in the sing., a Advento, are, dvi, n. freq. (advenio), room, chamber, apartment; a temple; to come frequently; to come on, in the pl., a house, habitation, dwellcome, approach, arrive at. ing, edifice; temples.

Page  142 JEDIFICIUM 142 X]STIVUS 3Edificium, i, n., an edifice, struc- val, coetaneous. Subs. a contempohire, building: frotm rary, one equal in years, of the same.Edifico, are,' az, atum, n. - a. age. (osdes 4' facio), to build; to erect or A:quattter, adv. (cequahls), equally; rear a building; to construct. proportionally..AEdilis, is, m. (cades), an edile, a Ro- lgEque, adv. (cequus), equally, in an man magistrate who superintended equal degree, similarly, alike, indif. the repairs of the temples and other ferently, as it happens. public buildings..?Equitas, iatis, f. (equus), equality..IEger, &cgra, cegrum, adj., ~ 250, Fig. equity, impartiality, regard to the weak, infirm, lame, diseased, corrupt- equal rights or natural equality of ed; faint, sick, ill; sorrowful, unhap- others; justice; moderation, equanimipy, troubled, afflicted. ty; moderation of affections, tranquil-.F'gre, adv. comp. asgrius, sup. ager- lity of mind. ermrn, (ager), unwillingly, discontent- GEquum, i, n., equity, justice: from edly; with inconvenience; hardly, AEquus, a, urnm, adj., level, smooth, scarcely, with difficulty, with much plain, equal, even; like, stmilar. Fig ado. Jtgre ferre, to bear ill, dislike, just, equitable, fair, impartial, honest, be offended with, displeased. upright; reasonable, right, fair, mode _/Egrttido, 7nis, f. (cager), sorrow, rate. Injurias graviits aquo thabere, grief, affliction, anguish, solicitude, to feel injuries too deeply, Q 256, R. 9; care, trouble. Nimis molliter asgritu- -moderate, calm, unruffled, comdinem pati, to take trouble too much posed, undisturbed. AEquo animo, pato heart, to feel affliction too sensi- tiently, calmly, with equanimity, with tively;-bodily infirmity, illness. indifference, without emotion. Ex ~Egyptus, i,f, Egypt, a large coun- aequo bonoque, in accordance with justry in the northeastern part of Affica; tice and equity. but, by some of the ancients, it was XE3rarium, i, n. (cas, S 100, 8.), the reckoned a part of Asia. J. 19. place where the public money was.,milius, i, m., a Roman name be- kept, treasury, exchequer; the public longing to the zEmilian gens. money, national revenue. mEniltus, a, um, adj. &4 subs., emu- Adrumna, a, f., labor, toil, hardship; lous; a rival, emulator, imitator. difficulty, calamity, trouble, misforAEnias, a, m., the son of Venus and tune, misery, adversity. Anchises, who, after the fall of Troy, As, eris, n., copper, brass, bronze; is said to have led a colony of Tro- any thing made of copper, &c.; mojans into Italy, and to have laid the ney, coin. XJs alienum, money owed foundations of the Roman state. C. 6. to another, a debt. -Es mutuum, a XEquabilis, e, adj. (eqquo, to level), loan, money borrowed or lent. equal; equable, uniform, always the JXstas, itis,f. (vestus), the summer; same, unchanged; consistent. Vir summer air, summer heat. fame aequabili,-of consistent charac-.,st'mo, are, avi, atum, a., to esti. ter. of unsullied reputation. mate, value, appreciate, regard; to set.Aquabstlter,'adv. comp. aptabiljits, a value on any thing. Fig. to esti,quabilis), equally, evenly, uniformly nate, rate; to think, hold, judge, becalmly, equably. lieve, determine; to consider, weigh..Aquralis, e, adj. (cequus), equal, like Astivus, a, urnm, adj. (estus), relat. similar; even, level, plain, flat; coe- ing to summer. summer. Atstiva,as

Page  143 fSTUO 143 AGGREDIOR tra, or simply estiva, brum, n. sum- go), to agitate, toss. Fig. to afflict. mer quarters, a stationary summer vex, torment, distress, harass. Affliccamp; a campaign. tare se, to be cast down or afflicted,.Estuo, are, avi, atum, n. (Cstus), to to sorrow, grieve, give a loose to disbe very hot; to boil with heat; to boil, tress, to beat one's breast or wring undulate, flow. Fig. to burn with de- the hands in grief. Bire; to be anxious, perplexed, unde- Afflictus, a, um, part. 4f adj., troucided, disturbed in mind. Invidi&, to bled, afflicted, ruined, prostrated, desbe inflamed-. perate: from AEstus, us, m., any burning or Affiigo, ere, ixi, ictum, a, (ad 4,fligo, scorching heat, hot weather; the ebb- to dash against), to dash against, ing and flowing of the tide; a boiling throw to the ground, overthrow. Fig. or bubbling up. Fig. force, violence; to harass, distress, vex, disquiet, troudoubt, uncertainty, perplexity. ble; to injure, hurt, ruin. XEtas, iais, f. (azvum), age, time of Affuo, ere, uxi, n. (ad ~4 fiuo, to life; life. JAatem qaere, or habere, to flow), to flow to or towards. Fig. to live; to pass one's life..Etas extre- run or flock towards; to have in abunma, old age. dance; $ 224, to abound, be abundant. AEternus, a, um, adj. (cevum), eter- Affore, def. verb (ad 4 fore), fut. nal, everlasting; durable, lasting, per- inf., to be about to be present: with a petual; immortal. suFject accusative, would be present, tEthiops, dpis, m., an Ethiopian. J. would assist. 19. Africa, ce, f., Africa, one of the lEvum, i, n., length of time, dura- three great divisions of the world, as tion; time, life, age. -Evi brevis, of known to the Greeks and Romans. short duration, short-lived;-an age, It is sometimes put for the Roman generation. province in Africa. J. 5,13,14,17-23, Afer, Afra, Afrum, adj., African. 39, &c. Afri. orum, m. pl., the Africans. J. 18. Africanus, a, um, adj. (Africa), AfAffatim, adv. (ad f fatim, sufficien- rican. Africanus, i, m., the agnomen cy), abundantly, largely, in abundance, of the two Scipios, by whom the Carcopiously, sufficiently. thaginians were conquered. J. 5. Affecto, are, avi, atum, a, freq. (affi- Afrtcus, a, um, adj. (Africa), Africzo, to affect), to seek after, aim at stu- can. Mare Africum, the Mediterradiously, solicit; to covet, desire, as- nean Sea. J. 18. pire to; to strive a/fter, try to gain Agendus, a, um, part. (ago), to be over. done. Agendarum rerum licentia, Affero, afferre, attuli, allatum, irr. a. power to negotiate.,ad 4' fero) to take, bring, carry; to Agens, tis, part. (ago) assert; to report, announce; to pro- Ager, agri, m., a field, farm; ground, duce, cause, occasion. land, soil; an estate; a territory, tract. Adm% *^ t-4. - s Aimid, w tkW,- cQULtry ous, adjoining; related by marriage. Agger, Mris, m. (agggro, to heap ilps Subs. a relation by marriage. a heap or pile, as of stones, earth, AffinYtas, atis, f. (affinis), vicinity, wood, 4c.; d mound, bulwark, bank. near union, connection; affinity, alli- rampart, dam, mole uice by marriage. Aggridior, i, essus sum, dep. (ad + Ajflicto, tre, avi, atum, a.freq. (afli- gradior, to step), ~ 233, (3.) ~ 271, to 13*

Page  144 AGGRESSITS 144 ALIBI go to, come near, approach; to attack, Ago,'re, egi actum, a., to copduct assail, assault, to accost, address, drive, lead; to pursue; to guide, dlmake court to. Fig. to undertake, rect, move. Animus agit cuncta,attempt, go about, prepare for, enter directs, moves, animates.' Agere vina upon, commence. Aggredi majora et eas, to push forward the mantelets; magis aspera, to attempt greater and -to do, perform, act, execute, transmore difficult enterprises. Aggredi or act; to be; to live; to abide, tarry, reatggredipecunia, to try to bribe or cor- main; to be employed, be engaged. iupf, to tamper with. Agere se, to conduct one's self, beAggressus, a, urnm, part. (aggredior). have. Agere cum aliquo, to hold inAgitditus, a, urn, part.: froa tercourse, treat with; to pass, spend. Aglto, 5re, divi, dtum, a. freq. (ago), consume; to procure; to treat, disto drive, conduct; to toss about, drive cuss. Agere cum populo, to treat to and fro, agitate, disturb, toss, put with or address a request to the peoin motion; to debate, discuss; to fol- ple, to apply to the people; —to manlow, pursue; to pass, spend; to be, live, age, conduct, direct. Agere pro vicdwell, remain; to deport or conduct toribus, to act the part or assume the one's self, behave, act; to make, exer- air of victors. Agerejoca atque seria, cise, be employed in, be engaged in. to converse sportively or seriously. Agttare imperium, to govern, adminis- Non agitur de vectigalibus, the quester the government. Agitare presi- tion is not concerning (our) revenues. dium or presidia, to mount or keep Dum heec aguntur, while these things guard, to guard, to do duty in a gar- are going on. Id agitur, this is atrison or escort. Agitare inducias, to tempted, the aim is this, ~ 273, 1. keep or observe a truce. Agitare pa- Agrestis, e, adj. (ager), belonging to cem, to be at peace; —to meditate, the fields, rustic, rural. Fig. unpothink of, weigh, ponder over, rev-lve!ished, savage, uncivilized, wild, rude. in the mind. Mente or animo agitare, Subs. a peasant, countryman, rustic. abs. to think; to think of, plot;-to Aio, ais, ait, def. verb, ~ 183, 4. 3 prepare, set about, attempt; to consi- 272, to say, speak; to affirm, assert, der. Id modo agitari, that this was testify, aver. the only question,' 265. Pass. imp. Ala, ac, f., a wing; the wing of an debates are had, there is conversation. army, flank; a squadron of horse staAgitaregaudium, laetitiam, luctum, etc., tioned on the flanks of an army. to manifest, exhibit or feel gladness, Alacer, cris, cre, adj., lively, spright&c. Maeror agitabatur,-was felt, pre- ly, cheerful, ready, active, prompt, vailed, was. Varius, incertusq7e agi- fierce, eager. tare, to be in doubt and perplexity. Albinus, i, m. (albus, white), a RoStatuit nihil sibi agitandum,-that man surname of the Posthumian gels nothing was to be done by him, that Sp. Albinus, a Roman consul, A. U. he must adopt no active measures.. C. 644. J. 35, 36, 44, 77. Paucorum arbitrio agitabatur, life was Algor, o,'is, m. (algeo, to be cold), passed, or affairs were conducted, ac- cold, chillness. cording to the will of the aristocracy. Alias, adv. (alius), in another way, Agmen, hnis, n., an army on the at another time; otherwise; somemarch, the act of marching, d march; times. an army, troop, multitude. Int agrine, Alibi, adv. (alius 5' ibi), cisewhere, on a march: fromn in another place. Alii —-ahb, in edif:

Page  145 ALIENATUS 145 ALLOBROX ferent places, some in one place, and some, somebody, some one, some others in other places. thing, any, any one. Alienatus, a, um, part., estranged, Aliquot, ind. adj. pl. (alius <4 quot, alienated, made the property of an- how many), someseveral, some cerother, transferred, set aside, cast off, tain, a few, not many. rejected, slighted, repulsed: from Alter, adv., in a different manner, Alieno, are, avi, atum, a., to alien- otherwise, in any other way, else. ate, cause to become the property of Aliter ac, otherwise than, different another, transfer, separate, cast off, from what;-moreover, however, neestrange: from vertheless. Alienus, a, um, adj. (alius), ~ 222, Alius, a, ud, adj. ~ 107, another. & R. 2, & R. 6. belonging to another other, another person or thing; dior others, of another, another's, fo- verse, different; alius-alius, onereign. Alieni appetens, greedy of the another, in which expression alius deproperty of others. -Es alienum, a notes one of many; alii-alii, partim debt;-averse from, opposed to, alien- -alit, pars-alii or alii-pars, some ated or estranged in affection, inimi- -others. Aliis alia licentia, what is cal to; unseasonable, inconsistent, in- lawful for some is not lawful for congruous, unsuitable, not adapted to others, all have not the same license. one's nature or genius; hurtful, disad- Reguli alius alib concessere, the prinvantageous, unfavorable. Neque alie- ces retired one to one place another na consilii, not unsuitable for the pur- to another, or, to different places. pose. Alienus locus, a place or posi- Alius alii assentiebantur, one agreed tion chosen by an opponent, and with one (leader) another with anhence, unfavorable, disadvantageous. other. Alia deinde alia loca petiveSubs. a stranger, one of another fa- raat,-first one place and then another. mily. PreiUa multa alia aliis locis facere,Alio, adv. (alius), $ 191, R. 1, to in various places, $ 207, R. 32. Alius another place, thing or person; to ab alio, one after another. Alius ac another subject; to another end or or atque, other than. With a comnpurpose. Alius-alib, one to one parative, any one or any thing else; place another to another, one hither- with the addition of a negative, no one another thither. or nothing else. In the plural it is Aliquamdiu, adv. (aliquis 4 diu), for sometimes usedfor ceteri, the rest, the some time. others. Aliquando, adv. (alius 4f quando), Allatus, a, um, part. (affero), at some time, sometimes; formerly; brought. at length, now at last. Allevatus, a, urm, part.: from Aliquantum, adv., somewhat, some, Allevo, are, avi, atum, a. (ad' levo), considerably, a little, rather: from to lift up, raise aloft, support. Aliquantus, a, um, adj. (alius 4 AllIcio, ere, exi, ectum, a. (ad 4 quantus), some, somewhat, considera- lacio, to allure), to attract, invite, aible. With a genitive, some part, a lure, entice, decoy, inveigle, wheedle considerable part. Aliquanto, abl. seduce. with comparatives, considerably, a Allobrox, ogis, pl. Allobroges, <gum, good deal..., the Allobroges, a people of Gallia Allquis, qua, quod 4f quid, gen. ali- Narbonensis, whose principal city was cujus. tndef. pro. ~ 138. (alius 4 quis), Vienna near the Rhone. C. 10-50.

Page  146 ALO 146 AMPLUS Alo, ere, alui, aiitum or altum, a., to by bribery, courting of popular lavor. support by feeding; to nourish, cher- Lex ambitus, a law concerning bribery ish, feed, support, maintain. Pass. to and corruption. be maintained, to live. Ambo, ce, o, adj. ~ 118,1. R. 1. both. Alte, adv. (altus), on high, high. Amentia, ce, f. (amens, mad), mad. highly; deeply, low. Liberius altiis- ness, insanity, folly. que processi,-too freely and too far. Amicitia, ce, f., friendship, amity, Alter, era, erum, adj. gen. alterius, an alliance, league of friendship: from Q 107 O 212, one of two, the other. Amicus, a, urn, adj. (amo), O 222, Alter — lter, the one-the other, the friendly, kind, cordial, benevolent. former-the latter, the one part-the Amicus, i, m, (amicus, a, urn), a other part;-the second, O 120, 1. friend; an ally. Unus et alter, one and the other, Amissus, a, urn, part.: from several, some, one after the other. Amitto, ere, isi, issum, a. (a 4' mitto), It is used to express reciprocal action; to send away, dismiss, let go; to lose, as, Alteri alteros sauciant,-one an- throw away. other, each other. Amo, dre, dvi, dtum, a., to love, be Altitudo, inis, f. (altus), highness, fond of, delight in; to fall in love; to loftiness, height; depth. Fig. depth, make love; to be in love, to have a inscrutableness, profundity. Aucta in mistress. Omnia qucv ira fieri amat, altitudinem,-in height, upwards. -delights to have done, is wont to do, Allus, a, um, part. (alo). 272. Altus, a, um, adj., high, tall, lofty; Amoenus, a, urn, adj. (amo), pleasant, deep. Fig. lofty, elevated, noble, delightful, charming, sweet. great; deep, profound. Amor, oris, m. (amo), love, desire, Alveus, i, m., the channel or bed of affection, passion. a river; a trough; the hull, bedy, or Amotus, a, um, part.: from hold of a ship. Amoveo, ere, 5vi, otum, a. (a - moAmbio, ire, ii, itum, a, (amb, $ 196, veo), to remove, take away, withdraw. (b). & 1, 4, eo), to go around; to sur. Amovere aliquem senatu, to expel from round, encompass, invest; to go about the senate. soliciting votes, canvass for an elec- Ample, adv. (amplus), amply, largetion; to solicit or endeavor to gain by ly, profusely. earnest entreaty, to endeavor to make Amplector, i, exus sum, dep. (am 4 interest with. plecto, to intertwine), to embrace, enAmbitio, onis, f. (ambio), a going circle, surround, clasp. Fig. to love, round; a soliciting or canvassing for cherish. ~ office; an eager desire of honor, popu- Amplexor, ari, &tus sum, dep freq. larity, power, &c., ambition; flattery, (amplector), to embrace. Fig. to love, adulation, seeking popularity, curry- cherish. ing favor. Ampliiis, adv. (comp. of ample), $ Ambitiosus, a, um, adj. (ambitio), 256, R. 6. more, further, longer; begoing or winding round; ambitious; side. Morari ampliis opinione, to tending or calculated to conciliate fa- tarry longer than is expected. Amplius vor, popular. posse or valuisse, to be more powerful Ambitus, us, m. (ambio), a going Amplus, a, unm, adj., large, spacious, round; a compass, circuit; an unlaw- ample, great, extensive. Fig. splen ful seeking or canvassing for office, as did, illustrious, magnificent, glorious,

Page  147 AN 147 ANTEEO high, honorable. Amplior, larger, noun; as, Fatigare animum, to weary greater, more abundant, higher, more one's self. See J. 11, 13, 39, 62, 70, honorable, &c. Amplior vero, larger 81, 110, &c. The genitive animi is than the reality, larger than it was. often annexed somewhat pleonasticalAn, adv. 4 conj., of doubt or inter- ly to words denoting qualities or attrirogation; in indirect questions, whe- butes of the mind, as, timor animi, ther; in direct questions it is not trans- judicium animi, virtus animi, munifit lated. An-an, whether-or: the first centia animi, instead of timor, judian is sometimes omitted, or its place cium, etc. supplied by ne or utrum, ~ 265, R. 2. Annitor, i, ixus or isus sum, dep. (ad Anceps, cipitis, adj. 6 111, (am'' nitor), to rest or lean upon; to strive, caput, ~ 112,2.), having two heads; dou- aim at, exert one's self to reach or ble, twofold; doubtful, uncertain, du- obtain. bious; faithless. Annius, i, m. (C.), a Roman praefect Ancilla, as, f., a maid-servant, fe- sent by Metellus to command the garmale slave. rison of Leptis. Angustia, ca, f., a narrow place, de- Annius, i, m. (L.), a tribune of the file; narrowness, straitness. It is used Roman people. J. 37. most frequently in the plural: from Annius, i, m. (Q.), a Roman senator Angustus, a, um, adj. (ango, to who was confederate with Cataline. strangle), strait, narrow, close, con- C. 17, 50. fined, limited. Annus, i, m., a year. Annis infirAnYma, as,f, air, breath; the living mus or confectus,-with age. principle, life; the soul, spirit, mind, Annuus, a, um, adj. (annus), lasting intellect. a year; recurring every year, yeary, Animadverto, ere, rti, rsum, a. (ani- annual. mus S4 adverto), ~ 272, to take heed, Ante, prep. with the acc., before, attend to; observe, take notice of, previous to; in advance of; opposite perceive; to punish, inflict punish- to; with persons, in a comparison, ment. Animadvertitur, imp., punish- more than, superior to. Ante te cogment is inflicted. nitum, before knowing you. ~ 274, Animal, alis, n. (anima), a living R. 5, (a). creature, animal. Ante, adv., before, formerly. Paulo Animus. i. m., wind, breath; the ante, just now, a little while ago, a mind, soul, intellect; the attention; short time since, just before;-forthe thoughts, will, purpose, desire, de- ward, in advance. sign; inclination, disposition, regard, Antea, adv. (ante 4- is), before, aforeaffection, feeling,' anger; courage, time, previously, formerly, heretofore spirit. Animum advertere, to turn AntecApio, Ore, cepi, captum, a. (ante one's mind to, observe, see Animad- <4 capio), to take possession of beforeverto. Vertere antmum, to turn one's hand, pre-occupy; to anticipate, premind, change one's purpose or de- vent; to provide beforehand. Ante. sign. Bonum animum habere, to have capere famem, sitim, etc., to excite good courage, be of good courage. hunger and other appetites premaVolvere, reputare or trahere cum ani- turely. no, to revolve in one's mind. Animo, Anteeo, ire, ii, irr. a. (ante 4' eo), ~ ahl., in mind, imagination, or purpose. 233, to go before, precede. Fig. to It may often be translated by a pro- surpass, outstrip, outdo, excel

Page  148 ANTEFERO 148 ARBITRATUS Antefero, ferre, tuli, litum, irr. a. to speak to, address, accost, hail, ap,ante 4 fero), Q 221, to carry before; ply or betake one's self to; to call:o set before. Fg. to prefer, give the upon, invoke, entreat, beseech; to acpreference to. cuse. Antehac, adv. (ante - hic), before, Appello, ere, ptli, pulsum, a. (ad beforetime, formerly; before that time, pello, ere), to drive to or towards; to previously. direct one's course to, arrive at, reach. Antpobno, ere, osui, ositum, a. (ante Appetens, entis, part. f adj., O 213, 4f pono), ~ 224, to set before. Fig. to desirous of, thirsting after, fond of, prefer, assign a higher place. eager for; covetous, greedy: from Antevenio, ire, eni, entunt, a. <4 n. Appelo, ere, r vi, itum, a. (ad. 4 peto),'ante 4 venio), O 233, to get before, to try to get or obtain, seek; strive get the start of, anticipate. Fig. to for, aim at; to approach; to attack; prevent, thwart; to excel, exceed, sur- to wish for, desire eagerly, covet. pass. Apprehendo, ere, endi, ensum, a. (ad Antonius, i, m. (C. Hibrlda), a Ro- 4 prehendo, to lay hold of), to catch man consul, and the colleague of or lay hold of, take, seize, apprehend, Cicero, was the son of M. Antonius catch. the oiator and the uncle of M. Anto- Apprehensus,a, um,part. (apprehennius the triumvir. He was the com- do). mander in chief of the army by which Approbo, are, avi, atum, a. (ad 4. Catiline and his followers were de- probo),to approve, commend, applaud; feated. C. 21, 36, 57. to prove, confirm, demonstrate, make Anxie, adv., anxiously. earnestly, evident. with concern, grief or pain: from Appropinquo, are, ivi, itum, n. (ad Anxius, a, um, adj. (ango, to stran- 4 propinquo, to approach), to draw gle), 6 213, R. 4, (1.) & 265, anxious, nigh, approach. disquieted, vexed, troubled, disturbed, Appulsus, a, um, part. tappello, ere), uneasy, apprehensive, solicitous, fear- driven to, guided, having reached or ful. put into, having made for. Aperio, ire, erui, ertum, a. (ad 41 Apud, prep. with the ace., at, close pario), to open, set open. Ferro iter by, near, with, among, in, before, by, aperire, to open a passage,-cut one's on the part of, at or in the house of, in way through with the sword:-to un- the possession of. cover, unveil. Fig. to open, display, Apulia, ae, f., Apulia, a country of discover, show, disclose, make known, lower Italy bordering upon the Adriexhibit, portray. atic sea. C. 27, 30, 42, 46. Aperti, adv., openly, clearly, dis- Aqua,,f., water. Hiemales aque, tinctly, manifestly, without disguise; the winter-rains. publicly: from Aquila, e, f., an eagle; the stand. Apertus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (aperio), ard of the Roman legion. open, standing open. Fig. clear, ma- Aquor, dri, atts sum, dep. (aqua), to nifest, evident. In aperto esse, to be get, draw or fetch water; to water. plain, evident or intelligible. Ara,,C, f., an altar; a monument. Appello, are, dvi, dtum, a. (ad 4- Fig. religion. pello, cbs. to speak), $ 230, to call, Arbiter, tri, m., an arbitrator, um name, term, entitle; to pronounce, de- pire, judge, mediator; a witness. clare; to denominate; to designate; Arbitratus, us, m. (arbitror), will

Page  149 ARBITRIUM 149 ARS judgment, opinion, pleasure, choice; used in battering down walls with a mediation, intervention. head like that of a ram, a batteringArbitrium. i, n. (arbiter), the sen- ram. tence of an arbitrator; award, deter- Arma, 5rum, n. pl., all kinds of war nilnation, decision, judgment; will, like arms offensive and defensive pleasure, inclination. weapons; war, warfare. Arma atque Arbitror, ari, atus sum, dep. (arbi- tela militaria, arms defensive and of: ter), O 272, to judge, think, imagine, fensive. Manus armare, to take arms be of opinion, suppose. in one's hands. Arbor 64 Arbos, oris,f., a tree. Armitus, a, um, part. (armo), armed, Arbustum, i, n. (arbor), a plantation, equipped. Armati, 5rum, m. pl., armshrubbery, thicket, orchard; brush- ed men, men in arms, soldiers, wood. troops. Arcesso, ere, ivi, ztum, a., to call, Armenius, a, um, adj., of Armenia, send for, invite, summon, to summon a country of Asia, lying between the to a court of justice; 9 217, accuse, Taurus and the Caucasus, Armenian arraign. Arcessere capitis, to accuse Armenii, orum, m. pl., the Armenians. of a capital crime. In the pres. inf. J. 18. pass. this verb is of either the 3d or Armo, rare, dvi, itum, a. (arma), to the 4th conjugation, arcessi or arces- arm, equip. siri. Aro, are, avi, atum, a. 4' n., to Arcis, see Arx. plough; to till, cultivate; to acquire by Arcte, or ArtO, adv. (arctus, strait), husbandry. straitly, closely, strictly, compactly, in Arpinum, i, n., a town of Latium, close order. near Campania, where Plautus, CiceArdens, entis, part. 4f adj., on fire, ro, and Marius were born. It is now burning. ~ 213, R. 4, (5.)' (4). called Arpino. J. 63. Fig. eager, ardent, impatient: from Arrectus, a, um, part. (arrigo). Ardeo, ere, arsi, arsum, n., to burn, Arreptus, a, um, part. (arripio). be on fire; to be ready, eager, impa- Arretinus, a, umr., adj., of or pertient. taining to Arretinum, a city of EtruArdor, 5ris, m. (ardeo), heat, burn- nia, now called Arezzo. C. 36. ing heat, fire. Fig. eagerness, irnpa- Arrtgo, Ore, exi, ectum, a. (ad 4' rego), tience, ardent desire, ardor. Haud to lift up, raise; to excite, rouse, aniprocul ab ardoribus, not far from the mate, encourage. burning heat, i. e. near the equator. ArrYpio, Ore, ipui, eptum, a. (ad' Arduus, a, um, adj., high, lofty, rapio), to take by force, seize, lay steep, difficult to reach. $ 222 Fig. hold of. difficult hard, laborious, arduous, Arrigo, are, avi, atum, a. (ad' troublesome. rogo),' 224, to arrogate, claim or Arena, e, f. (areo, to be dry), sand, attribute to one's self unjustly. gravel. Ars, artis, f., an art, faculty, quali Arenosus, a, um, adj. (arena), sandy. ty, endowment, character; method Argentum, i, n., silver; silver mo- way, trait of character, manner ney; money. means; profession, occupation, emArldus, a, um, adj. (areo, to be dry), ployment, habit, practice, pursuit dry parched, dried up, thirsty, arid. science; contrivance, skill, ability Aries, Vtis, m., a ram; an engine exertion, industry. In ai;s artibus

Page  150 ARTF 150 ATQTJE in other respects, in other points:- AsperItas, atis,f. (asper), roughness deceitful art, stratagem, artifice. ruggedness, harshness, unevenness, ArtO, articis, artissime, see Arcte. cragginess; sourness. Fig. trouble, ArtYfex, icis, m. 4 f. (ars 4 facio), difficulty, danger, peril, formidable naan artificer, artist. Adj. skillful, tried, ture or character. practised. Aspernor, ari, atus sum, dep. (ad 4f Artificium, i, n, (artifex), an art, sperno, to reject), to reject, avoid, trade; skill, science, contrivance, arti- shun, spurn; to slight, despise, disfice, artfulness, dain, contemn, scorn. Arvum, i, n. (aro), a ploughed field; Assentior, iri, ensus sum, dep. (.d a fallow field; arable land, glebe; a 4 sentio), to assent, consent, approve field. Fig. agriculture, tillage; stand- agree, express one's assent. ing corn. Assequor, i, catus sum, dep. (ad + Arx, arcis, f., a lofty place, top or sequor), $ 229, to come up with, reach, summit of a hill; a castle, fortress, overtake. Fig. to gain, obtain, prostrong hold, citadel, bulwark. cure, compass, accomplish. Ascendo, ere, di, sum, a. 4 n. (ad 4 Assideo, ere, edi, essum, n. (ad 4 scando, to climb), to ascend, mount, sedeo, to sit), ~ 233, to sit, sit down climb. Nravim ascendere, to embark. seat one's self, take one's seat near Ascensus, us, m. (ascendo), the act or by. of ascending; an ascent. Assisto, ere, sfiti, n. (ad 4' sisto, to Asia, c, f., Asia, one of the three stand), to stand near or by; to stand. great divisions of the earth as known Assimo, ere, psi, ptum, a. (ad 4' to the ancients, including also, accord- sumo), ~ 210, R. 4, to take, assume, ing to some writers, Egypt, or at choose, adopt, use; claim, arrogate. least that par. of it east of the Nile. Astutia, a, f. (astutus, shrewd), In a more limited sense, Asia Mior. craftiness, knavery; circumspection J. 17, C. 2, 11. wariness, address. A par, dris, m., the name of a Nu- At, conj. ~ 198,9, but, yet At enim, midian,sent by Jugurtha as ambassa- but, is used to mark strong opposition dor to Bocchus. J. 108-113. or dissent, and likewise serves to inAsper, a, um, adj., & 222, 3, rough, troduce an objection. So likewise at, rugged, harsh; craggy, uneven; sour, especially with a pronoun; as, at ego, acrid; unpleasant, disagreeable. Fig. C. 40. unpolished; cruel, savage, bloody; Athenau, irum, f. pl., Athens, the troublesome, difficult, calamitous; capital of Attica, and most celebrated dangerous, perilous, stormy; severe, city of Greece. rigorous, strict. Asperce res, difficult Atheniensis, e, adj. (Athena), Atheenterprises, also troubles, calamities, nian, belonging to Athens. Atheniperils. Mala res, spes multo asperior, enses, ium, m. pl., the Athenians. C. (our) circumstances are bad, (our) 2, 8, 51. prospects Si0 worse. Asperum foe- Alque, conj. l98,,1R.(b.)ana; but -lumque evenire, to terminate unsuc- but even, and even, certainiy. After tessfully and disgracefully. Asperum aliter, secus, alius, etc. than. It often et acerbum, dangerous and trouble- has the force of et quidem, and that some. too, and in truth, and serves to connect A.spre, adz. (asper), roughly, harsh- two words or propositions of which the t1, bitterly, severely, latter enhances or adds weight to the

Page  151 ATROCITAS 151 AUTRONIUS sZgnlfication of the former; as, atque regard. Auctoritas senatus, an ordiid, and that too. nance or decree of the senate. Atrocitas, dtis, f. (atrox), cruelty, Auctus, a, um, part. 4- adj. (augeo) atrocity, barbarity, severity; terrible- enlarged, increased, augmented ness, horribleness. grown, &c., advanced, promoted. Atrociter, adv., cruelly, fiercely, Moribus aucta, improvedatrociously, barbarously, severely, vio- Audacia, ce, f. (audax), boldness lently, harshly: from courage, intrepidity, spirit, valor; auAtrox, ocis, adj., raw, crude; savage, dacity, impudence, presumption. atrocious, barbarous, fierce, cruel; ter- Audaciter &4 Audacter, comp. auda. rible, horrible; perilous, dangerous. ciits, adv. boldly, courageously, auda. Attendo, ere, di, tum, a. (ad 4, tendo), ciously: from to stretch, extend. Attendere sc. an- Audax, acis, adj., bold, resolute, imum, to attend or give heed to, mind, confident, courageous; audacious, give or direct one's attention to, mark, daring, impudent: from observe, $ 233, Q 265. Audeo, ere, ausus sum, n. pass.. Attente, adv. (attentus, attentive), at- 142, 2, & $ 271, to dare, presume. It tentively, deliberately, diligently, care- may be followed by an accusative with fully, assiduously, vigorously, with facere,aggredi or the like understood, spirit. to attempt, endeavor to do, undertake. Atlero, ere, trivi, tritum, a. (ad - Audio, ire, ivi, itum, a., to hear, tero, to rub), to rub against; to chafe, hearken, listen to. It is construed wear away, impair; to wear, weaken, with the inf. and ace. or with an acc. wear out, destroy. and a present participle, ~ 272, & R. 5. Attineo, ere, inui, entum, a. (ad 4 Auditur, imp., it is reported, a report teneo), to hold, keep, detain; to occu- is heard, ~ 141 R. 2. py, keep possession of, keep in sus- Auditus, a, um, part.:audio). pense, amuse. Auge, ere, auxi, auctum, a. 4- n., to Attingo, ere, tgi, actum, a. (ad 4 tan- increase, augment, enlarge; to heightgo, to touch), to touch, come in con- en, exalt, dignify, advance, promote; tact with; to reach, arrive at, attain; to grow, increase. to border upon; to engage in, enter Augesco, ere, n. inc. (augeo), to inupon; to treat slightly of, touch light- crease, grow greater. ly upon, speak briefly of. Aulus, i, m., a Latin preenomen; a Attribuo, ere, ui, fitum, a. (ad f4 tri- brother of the consul Sp. Albinus. J. buo), to attribute, assign, bestow, 36-39, 55. give. Aurelia, se,f. (Orestilla), the wife of Attritus, a, um, part. (attero.) Catiline. C. 15, 35. Auctor, oris, m. 4f. (augeo), an au- Auris, is,f., the ear. thor, contriver, creator, maker, found- Aurum, i, n., gold; money. er, cause; a reporter, informant; an Ausus, a, un, part. (audeo). adviser, approver, instigator; a doer, Aut, conj., ~ 198, 2, or; aut-aut, performer. either-or; nbn-aut, neither-nor. AuctorYtas, atis, f. (auctor), authori- Autem, conj., ~ 198,4, but, yet, never ty, dominion, power, jurisdiction; pro- theless, however; also, likewise. perty in a thing; commission, autho- Autronius, i, m. (P.), a Roman sority to act; influence; force, weight, nator, who was an associate of Catiinterest credit, reputation, esteem, line. In his childhood he had been 14

Page  152 AUXILIARIUS 152 BENIGNITAS the school-fellow of Cicero. He was learic isles, were two m number, lying elected to the consulship, for the year in the Mediterranean sea; they are 689, in conjunction with P. Sylla, but now called Majorca and Minoica. they were both set aside on account Their inhabitants were anciently celeof bribery He was afterwards ban- brated as skillful slingers. J. 105. ished from his country on account of Barbarus, a, um, adj., barbaric, not the part he took in the conspiracy of Greek nor Roman, foreign; barbaCatiline, as were also Cassius, Laeca, rian, wild, savage, barbarous, rude, Vargunteius, Servius Sylla and C uncivilized. Barbari, 5rum, m. pl., Cornelius. C. 17. 18, 47. 48. barbarians; neither Greeks nor RoAuxiliarius, a, um, adj. (auxilium), mans; savages. aiding, helping, auxiliary. Bellicosus, a, um, adj. (belium), warAuxilior, ari, atus sum, dep.,' 223, like, valorous. R. 2, to assist, help, aid, succor: from Bellicus, a, um, adj. (bellum), of or Auxilium, i. n. (augeo), assistance, relating to war; warlike, martial. aid, help, succor: pi., auxiliary troops, Bellienus, i, m. (L.), the name of a auxiliaries. Roman praetor. J. 10-1. Avaritia, se,f. (avirus, avaricious), Bellua, cr, f, a beast. avarice, covetousness. Bellum, i, n., war. Belli, gen. 4 Ave, aveto, n. def.' 183, 8, hail, be hello, abl.,' 221, R. 3, in war, in time thou safe: farewell, adieu. It is often of war. Belli domique, see Domus. aspirated, have, haveto. Bene, adv. (benus, obs. for bonus), Aventinum, i, n., Mount Aventine, comp. meliis, sup. optim, well, largeone of the seven hills of Rome. J. 31. ly. Bene polliceri, to promise well, Aversus, a, um, part. 4 adj., ~ 222, make many and fair promises:-sucturned away, turned from, opposite cessfully, happily. Benefacere to act to; unfriendly, hostile, alienated, op- well, perform illustrious deeas, see posed: from Benefactum, under Factus, Bene diAverto, ere, erti, ersum, a. (a 4 ver- cere, to speak well or eloquently. to), 5242, R. 1, to turn away, avert, Benedico, ere, xi, ctum, a 4 n., to remove, divert, turn; to alienate, es- speak well of, commend. trange: to put to flight. Benefacio, ere, eci, actum, n. (bene 4 Avide, adv., eagerly, earnestly: from facio), to do good, benefit, confer a Av'dus, a, um, adj. (aveo, to desire), favor. 9 213, eager, earnest, ardent, desirous, Benefactum, i, n. (benefucio), a kindgreedy; avaricious, covetous; ambi- ness. benefit, favor; a good act or tious. deed. Avius, a, um, adj. (a 4 via), impas- Beneficium, i, n. (benefacio), a kindsable, inaccessible; unfrequented, so- ness, benefit, favor' an office, promo litary, lonely. tion. Avus, i, m, a grandfather. Benevolentia, a, f. (benevulens, benevolent), benevolence, good-will, kindB ness, favor. Bebazs, i, m. (C.), a tribune of the Benigni, adv. (benignus, kind), kind Roman people, A. U.C. 643; corrupt- ly, courteously, liberally, freely, wiled by Jugurtha. J. 33, 34. lingly. Balearis, e, adj., Balearic, of the Benignltas, atis,f (benignus, kind) Balearic isles. The Baleares, or Ba- kindness. liberality, bounty, benignity

Page  153 BESTIA 153 CAISAR courtesy. In benignitate habere, to Brevis, e, adj., short, of short duraattribute to kindness, to ascribe to tion, transitory, short-lived, brief. Bre. liberality. vi, abl., or brevi tempore, shortly, in a Bestia, c,f., a wild beast. short time. Bestia, e, m. (L. Calpurnius), a Ro- Brevzter, adv. (brevis), shortly, in man senator and tribune of the people, brief, in a word, briefly. A. U. C. 691, confederate with Cati- Bruttius, a, um, adj. of or belongline. C. 17, 43. Also, Q. Calpurnius ing to the Bruttii, a people inhabiting Piso Bestia, a grand-son of the former, a country at the southern extremity who was consul, A. U. C. 643. J. 27- of Italy, now called Calabria. Brut35. 77. tius ager, the country of the Bruttii Biduum, i, n. (bis 4 dies), the space C. 42. of two days. Brulus, i, m. (D. Junius), a Roman Btin, Ce, a, adj. pl. A 119, III, two by consul A. U. C. 677; he was the hustwo; two: from band of Sempronia, who favored the Bis, num. adv. ~ 119, twice, on two conspiracy of Catiline, but Brutus himoccasions. self does not appear to have taken Bocchus, i, m., a king of Mauritania part with the conspirators. C. 40. in alliance with Jugurtha. J. 19, 61,. &c. Bomnilcar, iris, m., a Numidian, in C., an abbreviation of the prceno. whom Jugurtha placed great confi- men Caius. dence. J. 35. 49, 53. 61, 70-73. Cadaver, eris, n., a corpse, carcass, Bonum, i, n., any good or blessing; dead body: from a good thing; right, rectitude, what Cado, ere, cecldi, n., to fall; to fall is riga t or proper; benefit, advantage; or die in battle; to be slain; to perish; profit; a favor; excellence, virtue, to fall out, happen, occur, turn out, equity. Bonum honestumque, virtue issue or result in. and honor;-an endowment, qualifi- CeCcus, a, um, adj., blind. Ccacum cation, good quality. Maximum bo- corpus, i. e. cceca pars corporis, the num, the chief good. Neque recte blind side, the back. Cupidine cacus, neque pro bono, i. e. neque recte nepue blinded by passion, or desire. bene. Bona orum, n. pl., goods, pro- Cades, is, f., a cutting; a woundperty, effects, advantages, good things: ing; murder, slaughter, massacre, carfrom nage: from Bonus, a, ur, adj. (comp. melior, C&edo, Lre, cceczdi, ccesum, a., to cut, sup. optimus), 5 250, good; brave, gal- cut down; to strike, beat; to kill, lant, resolute, energetic; valuable, pre- slay, slaughter, destroy. cious, useful, $ 222; virtuous, worthy; Caelatus, a, um, part., carved, sculpwell disposed, friendly. Boni, orum, tured, embossed: from m. pl., the opulent, prosperous; able, Caelo, are, avi atum, a. (ccelum a respectable, men of character or tal- graving tool), to carve figures in reent. Bona amicitia, faithful, steadfast, lief; to emboss. true- Boni fratres, affectionate-. Caepio, onis, m. (Q. Servilius), a IoAger bonus pecori,-suitaoie for,- man general who was defeated by tire adapted to. Imperium a minus bono Gauls and Cimbri A. U. C. 649. J transfertur,-from the less able or co, 114. pable, the less skillful or expert. Caesar, aris, m. (C. Julius), was the

Page  154 CAESAR 154 CAPITOLIUM son of L. Julius Caesar and Aurelia, Campus, i, m., a level surface; a the daughter of Aurelius Cotta. After plain, open field. Campus or Campus the conquest of the Germans, Gauls, Martius, the field of Mars, an open and Britains, he turned his arms field in Rome where the comitia were against Pompey, who had'espoused held. the cause of the senate, and having Canis, is, m. if., a dog. defeated him, established himself as Cano, ere, cecIni, cantum, n. 4 a., to sole monarch of the Roman empire. sing; to play upon a musical instruIn the conspiracy headed by Catiline, ment. With signum,canere is someCaesar was suspected of favoring the times active and sometimes neuter, and cause of the conspirators. C. 47, signum, accordingly, is either the ob50-54. ject or the subject. Tubicines signa Ccesar amrs, m. (L. Julius), was canere (i. e. canebant), the trumpeters consul with C. Figulus A. U. C. 690. sounded or gave the signal. Signa He was the uncle of the triumvir M. canunt, the signals sound or are given. Antony, and brother in law of Lentu- Capesso, ere, ivi, Rtum, a. intensive, lus. C. 17. ~ 187, II, 5, to take, catch at, lay hold Caius, i, m., a Roman precnomen. of, seize, take in hand, undertake, enCalamitas, atis,f., calamity, mishap, ter upon, take the management of. misfortune, disaster, adversity, loss, Capessere rempublicam, to engage injury, damage; distress. zealously in public affairs or in the Calamitosus, a, um, adj. (ctlamitas), service of the republic, take care of O 222, calamitous, ruinous, disastrous, the state: from pernicious, destructive. Capio, ere, cepi, captum, a., to take, Calende, iirum,f. pl., (calo, to call,) take up, receive, adopt; to hold, conO 326, the first day of the month; the tain; to seize, lay hold of, overtake, calends. catch; to make use of. Arma capere, Calld,, adv. (callidus), skillfully, to seize or take up arms. Consilium expertly, shrewdly, cunningly, art- capere, to form a design, adopt a plan, fully. conclude, determine, consult;-to acCalliditas, atis, f., skillfulness, art- quire, obtain, derive; to choose, sefulness, shrewdness, skill, craft, sub- lect; to enjoy, feel; to capture, take tilty: from possession of, occupy, overpower, opCalltdus, a. um, adj. (callum, callus), press; to charm, captivate, allure, gain skillful, tried, experienced, shrewd, over, attract; to take prisoner; to take crafty, sly, subtle, cunning. in, deceive, cheat, entrap, ensnare, Calor, oris, m. (caleo, to be warm), circumvent, get the advantage of. warmth, heat. Capere poenam or pcenas, see Po3na. Calpurnius, i, m., see Bestia. Capere detrimentum, to suffer-. Cilumnia, ce, f, false accusation, Rempublicam capere, to seize, usurp-. slander, calumny; wiles, chicanery, Capitalis, e, adj. (caput), relating to cabals. the head or life, capital, deadly. Res Cameira, Ce, f., a vault, arched roof, capitalis, a capital crime, a crime to or ceiling. be punished with death. Camers. ertis, adj., of or pertaining CapYto, onis, m., a Roman cogno. to Camerinum, now Camerino, a town men, see Gabinius. of Umbria Subs., a Camertian. C. Capitolium, i, n., (caput), the Cap) 27. tol, one of the seven hills of Rome

Page  155 CAPSA 155 CATILINA the citadel of Rome and the temple rival of Rome, founded oy a colony of of Jupiter Capitolinus, built upon the Tyrians under the direction of queen Capitoline hill. Dido. It was destroyed by the Ro. Capsa, C, f., a city of Numidia, mans under P. Scipio AEmilianus, A built in the midst of vast deserts, but U. C. 608. J. 18, 19, 414 79. C 10. taken and destroyed by Marius. J. Carus, a, um, adj. ~ 222, dear, pre 89-94, 97. cious, costly; beloved, valued. Carum Capsenses, ium, m. (Capsa), the in- cestimare, to reckon precious, value habitants of Capsa. J. 89, 92. highly. Captivus, a, urn, adj. (capio), cap- Cassius, i, m. (L.) a Roman praetor tive, taken prisoner. Subs- a pri- who was sent to invite Jugurtha to soner. come to Rome, A. U. C. 643. As a Capto, are, avi, atum, a. freq. (ca- judge he was distinguished for the pio), to catch at, catch, strive to ob- soundness and wisdom of his decitain, seek for or strive after eagerly. sions, and it is to him that Cicero asCaptus, a, um, part. (capio), seized, cribes the custom of enquiring, in jucaptured, taken, enslaved, caught, dicial investigations, cui bono fuisset. overtaken, captivated. Captus somno, See also Longinus. J. 32, 33. overtaken or overcome by sleep. Castellani, orum, m., soldiers in garCapuw,, c,f, a city of Campania, in rison; a garrison: from Italy. C. 30. Castellum, i, n, dim. (castrum, a Caput, ~tis, n., a head; a man, per- castle), a castle, fortress, fort, fortified son; life. Capite censi, the poorest place. class of Roman citizehs, who, in the Castra, 5rum, n, pl., a camp, enassessments, were rated at nothing, campment. Facere or locare castra, but merely numbered as citizens. to encamp, pitch. Fig. war, wa-fare. Supra caput, see Supra. CapitA pre- Casirus, a, um, part. (cado). was solvere, to suffer capital punish- Casus, us, m. (cado), a fall or fallment, be put to death. ing. Fig. misfortune, adversity, disasCareer, eris, m., a prison, gaol, ter, calamity; an event, case, circumplace of confinement. stance, situation, accident, fortune, Careo, ere, ui, n., ~ 250, & 2, (2.) chance. Casu, abl., by chance, accito be without, want, be in want of, be dentally;-occasion, opportunity. Pro free from, be destitute of; abstain meo casu, considering my situation, from. case or circumstances. Casum dare, Carina, ce,f., the keel or bottom of to afford an opportunity. a ship. Catabathmos, i, m. O 54, a declivity, Caro, carnis,f., flesh. gradual descent; a sloping valley be. Carptim, adv. (carpo, to pluck), by tween Egypt and Africa, the Catabathdetached parts; separately, in separate mus. J. 17, 19. parts. Catena, ce,f., a chain. Carthaginiensis, e, adj., of or be- Caterva, Ca, f., a troop, battalion, longing to Carthage, Carthaginian. band or company of soldiers; a muiCarthlaginienses, ium, m. pi., the Car- titude, concourse of people. thaglnians, inhabitants of Carthage. Catervatim, adv. (caterva), in corn J. 5, 14, 19, 79. C. 51.: from panics or troops; in crowds. Car.hiago, Ynis,f., Carthage, a cele- Catilina, ea, m. (L. Sergius), Catibrated maritime city of Africa, and the line, a Roman of noble birth but pro 14 *

Page  156 CATO 156 CEP1 fligate manners, who, with many to yield to, give place to, retire before others of the nobility, conspired retreat, fly; to happen, turn out, suagainst the republic, and collected an ceed, end, result. issue, go on. army in Etruria, intended to act Celebrdtus, a, um, part. 4 adj., cele. against his country. His conspiracy brated, extolled, distinguished, brought being brought to light by the vigi- into notice; solemnized, frequented. lance of M. T. Cicero, the consul, from Catiline took the command of his ar- Celebro, are, dvi, itum, a. (celeber, my, which he attempted to lead to frequented), to frequent, resort to; to Rome, but was defeated by C. Anto- celebrate, solemnize; to praise, extol, nius. the other consul, and, with most celebrate, honor, render famous, illusof his army, perished in a desperate trious, or distinguished. battle. C. 4, 5, &c. Celer, eris, m. (Q. Metellus), a RoCato, onis, m. (M. Porcius), was the man praetor, who commanded the grandson of Cato the censor, and like forces of the state in the country of him was distinguished for great strict- the Piceni, during Catiline's conspiness and severity of manners. After racy, A. U. C. 691. C. 30, 42, 57. the rest of Pompey's party had surren- Celeritas, atis,f. (celer, swift), swiftdered to Cwesar, Cato, who had com- ness, quickness, speed, celerity, actimanded the army in Africa, put an vity. end to his own life at Utica;'whence Censeo, ere, ui, censum, a., ~ 272, he has obtained the agnomen of Uti- i 273, 2, $ 262, R. 4, to think, judge, censis. C. 52-55. suppose, imagine, apprehend, be of Catulus, i, m. (Q. Lutatius), a Ro- opinion; to express one's opinion in man senator of great dignity and in- a deliberative assembly, to vote, adfluence. Hie was consul with M. vise; to ordain, decree, resolve; to Lepidus, A. U. C. 676. C. 34, 35, 49. rate, assess, tax, appraise; to make a Causa, ca, f., a cause, reason, census or an estimate of the property, ground. Cause with a genitive, on and an enumeration of the families account of, for the sake of, as; a of the citizens; to estimate, value. color, pretext, pretence, excuse; occa- Censor, oris, m. (censeo), a censor, sion, motive, provocation; a cause, a Roman magistrate appointed every suit or process at law. Causam di- fifth year to take the census. and to cere, to plead for one's self, to plead, inquire into the character of the citito defend, make a defence. Qua de zens. caus? from what motive? for what Census, a, urn, part. (censeo\. Capite reason? censi, see Caput. Caveo, ere, cavi, cautum, n. 4 a. O Centum, num. adj. pl. ind., a hun273, 1, O 262, R. 6. to beware or take dred. heed of, be aware, be on one's guard, Centuria, cp,f. (centum), a century avoid, shun; with prep. a or ab, to or hundred of any thing; a squadron. guard against; to take care, provide; consisting of a hundred horse; a hunto keep off, ward off dred foot soldiers; a division of the Cecldi, see Cado. Cecidi, see Ccedo. Roman people, a century, a hundred Cedo, ere, cessi, cessum, n. 4 a., to Centurio, anis, m. (centuria), a cap give place, give way, yield, withdraw, tain of a century or hupdrcd a celn retire, leave, depart; to cede, give up, turion. yield. concede, grant to submit; $223.! Cepi. see Capiao

Page  157 CERA 157 CIRCUMFUSUS Cera, ~B, f., wax; the material of Cethegus, i, m. (C.), a Roman scnawhich family images were formed. tor of the Cornel:an gens. He was Cerno, ere, crevi, crelum, a., to sift; put to death for the part he took in to consider, deliberate, distinguish, de- the Catilinarian conspiracy. C. 17 cide, judge, decree; O 272, to discern, 32,43, &c. see, perceive; to contend, fight. Cibus, i, m., food, nourishment, al Certamen, mhis, n. (cerlo), a contest, ment, victuals, meat. strife, contention, debate, dispute, dis- Cicatrix, icis,f., a cicatrice, scar. sension; a battle, engagement; com- Cicero, 5nis, m. (XlL Tullius), the petition, zeal. The adverse party is most illustrious of the Roman orators, in the abl. with cum. Certamen est. 9265. was born at Arpinum in the year B Certans, tis, part, (certo), contend- C. 103. In his consulship, A. U. C. ing, striving, vieing with one another. 691, occurred the celebrated conspi, Certatim, adv. (certo), earnestly, racy of Catiline, which was detected eagerly, emulously. and suppressed by his patriotic vigiCertg or Certo, adv. (certus), cer- lance. He was put to death during tainly, for certain, assuredly. the triumvirate of Antory, Octavius, Certo, are, Cvi, atum, n., to con- and Lepidus, at the age of sixty-four. tend, strive, vie, struggle, fight; to C. 23. 26, &c. strive emulously, try to outdo each Cimbricus, a, um, adj., Cimbrian other, strive to be first. Certatur, the pertaining to the Cimbri, a people ot contest is carried on, they contend, Germany. C. 59. $ 184, 2. The thing in which one con- Cinna, c, m. (L. Cornelius), an astends is in the abl. without a prep., and sociate of Marius in the civil wars, the person with whom he contends is in and distinguished for his acts of cruthe abl. with cum. elty. His daughter Cornelia was the Certus, a, um, adj., determined, re- wife of Julius Caesar. C. 47. solved; fixed upon, established, ap- CircYter, prep. with the acc. 4 adv, pointed; sure, well acquainted. Cer- about, near. tioremfacere, to inform, acquaint, no- Circum, prep. with the acc., around tify, apprise; Certiorfieri, to receive about; near. Adv., around, near. notice, be informed,-tried, faithful; Circumditus, a, um, part.: from safe, trust-worthy, certain, fixed; re- Circumdo, dare, dedi, datum, a. (ctrsolute, bold; clear, well-known, well- cum 4, do), to put, place or set round, ascertained, manifest, evident. Pro to surround, encompass, environ, incerto habere, credere, etc., to consider vest. as certain, be well assured, confident- Circumeo, ire, ii, itum, irr. a. (cir ly believe. Certa, n. pl., certainties. cum 4- eo), to go round; to surround. Cessi, see Cedo. Circumire vigilias, to visit the guards, Cetera, ceterum, adj. (not used in go the rounds. inom. inas.), other, the other, the rest, Circumfero, ferre, tuli, latum, irr residue, remainder. Cetera, ace. pl. a. (circum 4,fero), to carry round in other respects, as for the rest 234, Circumfundo, ere, idt, isum, a. II. (circum 4, fundo), to pour around. Cetruim, adv. 4f adversative conj. sprinkle about, circumfuse; to sur (cetera), as for the rest, in other re- round, encompass. bpects, otherwise; but, furthermore, Circumfuisus, a, um part. (circum moreover fundr', poured round; surrounding

Page  158 CIRCUMSIDEO 158 CLIENS Circumsldeo, ere, edi, essum, a. 4- n. zens living in the same place, and un circum e( sedeo, to sit), to sit or take der the same laws; a city, state, na one's stand round; to besiege, invest, tion, empire, government; the freedom lay siege to. of the city, citizenship. Circunmspecto, are, a. 4 n.freq., to Clades, is, f., loss, injury, misfortook round or about; to look upon or tune, disaster; overthrow, discomfitregard with suspicion: from ure; slaughter, destruction. Circumsptcio, ere, exi, eclum, a. - n. Clam, adv. 4 prep. with ace. and abl., (circum 4 specio, to see), to look round. privately, privily, secretly; without the Fig. to take heed, weigh, consider knowledge of carefully. Clamor, oris, m., (clamo, to cry Circumvenio, ire, eni, entum, a. (cir- aloud), a loud voice, cry, shout, shoutcum 4& venio), O 233, (3.) to come round; ing; a loud noise, din. to surround, encompass, enclose, in- Claritudo, mnis, f., clearness, disvest, blockade, beset. Fig. to oppress, tinctness; fame, character, reputation, crush, overthrow, take by surprise; to renown: from circumvent, defraud, deceive, betray, Clarus, a, um, adj., clear, bright, beset. Falsis criminibus circumvenire, splendid; loud, distinct. Fig. manito beset with false charges. fest, open, evident; famous, illustriCircumventus, a, um, part. (circum- ous, noble, renowned, distinguished, venio), surrounded, encompassed, be- celebrated. set on all sides; circumvented, op- Classis, is,f., a class, company, orpressed. der or rank of citizens. one of the five Cirta, e,f., a city of Numidia not or, including the capite censi, six divifar from the sea, the capital of the sions of the Roman people made by kingdom of Syphax, of Masinissa, and Servius Tullius, according to the comof his son Micipsa. It is now.galled parative value of their estates; a fleet Constantia. J. 21-26, &c. of ships of war, an armament. Ex Citcrior, adj. of the comp. degree, classibus, according to classes. sup. cilimus, $ 126, 1, (cis, on this side), Claudo, ere, si, sum, a., to shut, nearer, hither. close, confine, shut in, inclose; to surCito& adv. (citus), soon, quickly, round, encompass; to finish. speedily, shortly. Clausus, a, un, part. (claudo), shut Citus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (cieo, to up, inclosed, surrounded, hidden, conexcite), excited; swift, quick, rapid. cealed. Subs. clausum, i, n., an enSpeculatores citi sese ostendunt,-at closure, a place shut up. full speed. Clavis, is,f. (claudo), a key. Civ~lis, e, adj., of or belonging to a Clemens, entis, adj., quiet, placid, citizen, civil. Civilia studia, civil con- calm, gentle; mild, meek, merciful; tention, strife among the citizens. light, easy. Clemens rumor a mild Civilis victoria, a civil victory, a vic- report, i. e. extenuating the deed a tory in a civil war. Civile imperium, mild rumor, a doubtful, obscure, or a government befitting citizens, cour- vague report. teous or humane government: from Clementia, e,f. (clemens), mildness, Civis, is, m. -f., a citizen, free in- gentleness, calmness, stillness; kindhabitant of a town or city. ness, humanity, clemency, mercy, ma Civitas, atis, f., gen. pl. in um or deration. ihin, n 83, 4, (1.) (ciis), the body of citi- Cliens, entis, m., a client, one undei

Page  159 CLIENTELA 159 COGO the protection of a patron; a retainer, check; to repress, curb, control, stop, beneficiary, dependent. to chastise, punish. Clientela, e,f. (aliens), the relation Coercitus, a, urn, part. 4 adj. (coer. of clients to their patrons, clientship; ceo), restrained, controlled; capable protection; a train of clients, or de- of being restrained. pendents. Cogito, ire, dvi, atum, a. 4 n. (con Cn., an abbreviation of Cneus. 4 agito), 265, to revolve in the mind Cnceus, i, m., a Roman prconomen. think, ponder, consider, meditate, reCoactus, a, um, part. (cogo). flect, deliberate. Coaequo, are, ivi, a. (con 4 acequo, to Cognatio, 5nis,f. (con 4 nascor), re level), to make equal or even, to level. lation by blood, kindred. Coalesco, Ire, lui, litum, n. (con' Cognitus, a, urn, adj. (con 4 nas alesco, tb grow), to grow together, co- cor), connate; related by blood, nearly alesce, unite, blend or be blended, akin, closely allied, kindred. Subs., grow to, grow. Fig. to be or become a relative, kinsman, relation by blood. united; to agree. Cog'nitus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (cog Coarguo, ere, ui, a. (con intensive 4 nosco), ~ 222, ascertained, known, disarguo, to show), to prove, show, de- covered, tried, proved, understood, ex monstrate; to convince, convict; to amined. Causa cognit&,-the cause disprove, confute. having been tried, judicially investi Cochlea, ac,f., a snail, cockle, peri- gated. Hence it may be translated, afwinkle. ter trial. Cognitum est mihi, I have Coctus, a, um, part. (coquo). ascertained or learned. ~ 272. Coegi, see Cogo. Cognomen, inis, n. (con 4 nomen), a Coelum, i, n., heaven, the heavens; Surname, family name, name subjointhe air, skies. region of the air, atmos- ed to the nomen or name, as prcsnophere. Colo terr&que penuria aqua- men was prefixed to it; as P. Corne rum,-from the atmosphere and the ltus Scipio, ~ 279, 9. It is sometimes earth, i. e.-of rain and spring-water. used for the agnomen, the appellation, Cacnaitus, a, um, part. ~ 162, 16, hav- title; as, P. Cornelius Scipio Africaing supped: from nus. Coeno, are, ivi, dtum, n. 4 a. (cena, Cognosco, Ire, novi, nitum, a. (con 4' supper), to sup. Esse coenatus, to sup, nosco), ~ 265, ~ 272, to know; to learn, dispatch supper. hear, find, find out, make one's self Cceparius, i, m. (Q.), a Terracinian acquainted with, ascertain, discover; who was confederate with Catiline. hence, to know, understand, be inC. 46, 47, 52, 55. formed, be assured;-to study, examCcepi, def. verb, ~ 183, 2, ~271, I be- ine, investigate, explore, inspect; to gan, commenced. Perf. pass., cceptus try a cause; to find by experience; to est, which has an active signification, recognize; to acknowledge, confess; but is used in preference to ccepit be- to perceive, see. Promissa ejus cogfore a passive infinitive: see $ 183, nitumn misit, despatched (some) to ex2, N. amine his proposals, i. e. to ascertain Caeptus, a, um, part. (coepi), having the practicability of what he proposed. begun. Pass. begun. Cogo, Are, coegi, coactum, a. (con. C(oerceo, ere, ui, Itum, a. (con 4 ar- ago), to collect, assemble, gather, drive ceo, to ward off), to surround, em- or bring together; to drive, impel; to brace; to keep in, confine, restrain, constrain, compel, force, urge, neces

Page  160 COHOIS 160 COMMERCOR litate induce, prevail on; to confine, will not treat them rigorously and restrain, restrict. Cogere sub imperi- myself indulgently. urn, to reduce, bring —. Cogere in Colonia,,ff., a colony, plantation, unum, to bind or unite together. With settlement; a number of people emiinf. and ace. or subj with ut. The -grating by public authority to a dis' passive takes the inf. 3 271. tant settlement, colonists, emigrants: Cohors, tis,f, a pen or coop; a co- from hort, a band of soldiers consisting of.Colonus, i, m. (colo), a hustandman, the tenth part of a legion, and conse- tenant, farmer, cultivator; a colonist, quently containing at different peri- settler, emigrant. ods from 300 to 600 men. Cohortes Color, or colos, oris, m., a color, legionaric or ex legionibus, legionary complexion, tint, hue. Colos is used cohorts or cohorts of the legions. See by Sallust in preference to color. Legionarius. Comes, itis, m. 4,f., a companion Cohortatus, a, um, part.: from associate, attendant, assistant, comCohortor, ari, atus sum, dep. (con 4' rade, fiiend. hortor), 6 273, 2, to exhort, encourage. Cominus, adv. (con 4, manus), hand Collectus, a, um, part. (colligo). to hand, in close combat. Collega, rA, m., a colleague, copart- Comitatus, us, mn. (comntor, to acner in office. company), a number of followers, a Collibet, libuit or libitum est, imp. train, company, retinue, suit. verb, (con 4- libet), it pleases, is agree- Comitia, orum, n. pl. (comes), a pubable. It is sometimes used personally, lie meeting or assembly of the people as, quce victoribus collibuissent, what for the purpose of voting; a public should please the victors, what the election. Comitiahabere, to hold an victors pleased. assembly of the people. Colllgo, ere, egi, ectumn, a. (con 4c Commacilo, are, dvi, atum, a. (con lego), to gather together, collect, as- 4 maclo, to stain), to spot, stain, polsemble. lute, disgrace. Collis, is, m., a hill, hillock, rising Commeatus, us, m..(commeo, to go ground, and come), a passage; a furlough; a Colloco, are, avi, atum, a. (con 4 convoy; provisions, supplies, victuals. loco), to place, settle, dispose, arrange, Commemoro, are, avi, atum, a. (con set, set in order, station, post. 4- memoro), to mention, make mention Colloquium, i, n., conversation, con- of, call to mind, recount, relate. verse, discourse; a conference, inter- Commendatio, onis, f., commendaview: from tion, recommendation, praise: from Colloquor, i, cutus sum, dep. (con 4, Commendo, are, avi, atum, a. (con 4 loquor), to speak together, converse, mando), to commit to the charge of confer. any one, consign to any one's care, Colo, ere, colui, cultum, a., to exer- intrust with; to commend, recomcise, practise, pursue, study, labor me! d. upon, cultivate, attend to, tend, till, (Comercium, i, n. (con 4, merx. mercherish, take care of; to respect, chandise), commerce, trade, traffic, honor, regard, venerate, worship, love, ba: tering. esteem, favor, treat respectfully, culti- Commercor, art, dtus sum, dep. (con vate the friendship of;to inhabit. Ne- 4e mnercor), to buy together, purchase. gue illos artE colam, me opulenter, I buy up

Page  161 COMMINUO 161 COMPONO CommYnuo, ere, ui, itum, a. (con' the same, general, universal, belong iotnuo), to lessen, diminish; to crush ing to many or all, belonging to the or break to pieces. Fig. to weaken, public. Res commuanis, a joint or muimpair, wear away. tual interest, common concern. Comminiitus, a, urn, part. (comni- Commutatio, 6nis, f. (commute), a nue). changing, change, alteration. Committo, ere, ist, issum, a. (con. 4 Commut ltus, a, un, part.. from mitto), to join together, unite or bring CommUite, are, avi, atum, a. (con 4 together; to do, act, cause, perform, muto), to change, alter; to exchange, perpetrate, commit; to begin, com- traffic. mence. Committere proelium, pug. Comparatus, a, um, part.. from nam, etc., to begin a battle, to make an Compare, aire, avi, attum, a. (con 4 attack, to fight, engage. pare), to procure, get, furnish, preCommodo, are, avi, itulm, a. (corn- pare, provide, get ready; to collect; to modus, convenient), to adjust, adapt, establish, institute, ordain; to acquire; accommodate; to give, afford, allow, to connect; to compare. lend, furnish, supply. Comperio, Ire, peri, pertum, a. or Commodum, i, n. (commodus), ad- Comperior, iri, pertus sum., dep. (con vantage, profit, interest, utility, con- pario), 272, ~ 265, to discover, find venience. Ex commodo acstimare, to out, ascertain, learn, be informed estimate according to (its) profit. Ex know. Parum comperimus, I have commodopugnamfacere,-at a favora- not ascertained, I am uncertain. ble opportunity, under favorable cir- Compertus, a, um, part., (comperioi, cumstances. found out, fully ascertained, known Conzmonefacio, ere, fJcz, factum, a. for certain; discovered, detected. (commoneo, to remind, 4 facio), ~ 218, Narrare compertum, to speak with to put in mind, remind, advise. certainty. Compertum est mihi, or Commordtus, a, um, part.: fronm cmoIrtum habeo, ~ 274, R. 4, it has Commwror, ari, atus sum, dep. (con been made known to me, I have asm snoror), to stop, pause, stay, abide, certained, I know, I am certain, $ remain, tarry. 272. Commotus, a, urn, part., moved, Compleo, ere, ovi, etum, a. (con 4 troubled, disturbed, &c.: frrn pleo, obs., to fill), O 249, 1. to fill, fill up; Commniveo, ere, ovi, 5tum, a. (con 4 to complete, perfect, finish, perform. moveo), to move together, move, stir, Complexus, us, m. (complector), a remove; to move, touch, affect; to compassing, encircling; an embracdisquiet, trouble, alarm; to stir up, ex- ing, embrace. cite, provoke. Complires, ura, O 110, adj.,l. (coit Communicatus, a, um, part.: from 4 plus), many, a great many a conCommunlco, are, Ovi, itum, a. (con- siderable number. minis), to communicate, impart, share Compono, ere, osui, os'tum, a. (con 4with any one, commune, confer; to pone), to put or place together; to put join, unite, connect; to share, par- in order, arrange, dispose, order, to take, mingle. Causanm communicare, lay up; to bury; to end, bring to a to make common cause. close or conclusion; to settle, adjust, Commfnio, Ire, ivi, itum, a. (con 4' accommodate; to calm, still, appease, munio), to fortify, secure. tranquilize; to compound, compose, Commiinis, e, adj. p 222, 3, common, make up; to make, compose, contrive,

Page  162 COMPORTO 162 CONDITUS plan; to agree upon, arrange, concert; ConcYto, are, avm, dtum, a. (con 4 to compare. cito, to excite), to stir up, put in mo. Comporto, are, avi, atum, a. (con' tion, excite, stimulate, incite, rouse. porto), to carry or bring together, provoke, irritate, move, cause, raise. bring, carry, collect. Conclamo, arc, avi, atum, n. 4 a. Composite, adv., sedately, calmly, (con 4 clamo, to cry), ~ 272, to cry out quietly, orderly, neatly, handsomely; together, cry aloud, cry out with a in elegant language, in well turned loud voice, shout, exclaim. periods, in good set terms: from Concordia, e, f. (concors, concordComposttus, a, urn, part. 4f adj. ant), concord, agreement, union, har(compono), put together, arranged, mony, unanimity. Also the name of composed, made up, compounded; a Roman goddess, Concord. C. 46, elegant, regular, well arranged, in 49. good order, skillfully disposed,' et in Conc.ubna, ce, f. (concubo, to lie order, apt, fit, beautiful; ended, set- with), a concubine. tled. Concipio, ere, 4 Concupisco, Ore, Comprobatus, a, um, part.: from ivi, itum, a. (con 4f cupio), to desire Comprobo, are, avi, atum, a. (con 4' greatly, long for, covet. probo), to approve, prove, confirm; to Concurro, ere, curri, cursum, n. (con allow; to make good, verify. 4 curro, to run), to run together, Conatus, a, urn, part. (conor). meet, flock together; to fight, engage ConcEdo, ere, essi, essurm, n. 4 a. in fight, charge, rush to the fight, join (con 4 cedo), ~ 223, & ~ 225, IV. to re- battle, engage, contend, rush together; tire, yield, depart, withdraw, give to concur, agree. Concurritur, they place; to go, repair; to assent to; to rush together, charge, an onset or yield, give up; to grant, give, allow, charge is made. permit, concede, resign, relinquish. Concursus, ts, m. (concurro), a runConcedere natures, to pay theibt of ning or meeting together; a connature, to die a natural death. Inju- course; a conflict, charge, engageriac concedere, to submit to. In gen- ment, onset, shock. tem nomenque imperantium concessere, Concutio, ere, ussi, ussum, a. (con 4 were merged, sunk or lost in-. In quatio, to shake), to shake, move viojus atque ditionem concedere, to come lently, agitate, cause to tremble. Fig. under, become subject to, yield to-. to trouble, disquiet, alarm, terrify, put Concessum est, imp., it was yielded or in fear, agitate; to injure, weaken. accorded. Condemnatus, a, um, part.: from Concessus, a, um, part. (concedo), Condemno, are, Ldvi, atum, a. (con 4 permitted, conceded, granted, allowed, damno), ~ 217, to condemn. &c. Condidi, see Condo. ConcYdo, ere, tdi, n. (con 4 cado), to Conditio, 5nis.f. (condo), a making, fall down, fall to the ground. Fig. constructing, framing; a laying up, to fall, die; to perish, sink. preserving; a state, situation, condi Concio, onis, f. (concieo, to call to- tion, circumstances; a contract, stipu gether), a meeting or assembly of peo- lation, condition, promise, advantage. ple. Pro concione, in public, before terms of agreement. a public assembly:-an oration, ConditoT, oris, m. (condo), a marer harangue, public speech or address. builder, founder, inventor, author. Concitatus, a, um, part.: from Conditus, a, um, part., founled

Page  163 CONDO 163 CONFUGIO built Post conditam urbem, after or away, wear out, injure, weaken. Sit since the foundation of the city sc. confici, to perish with thirst. Rome: from Confido, ire, Jfsus sum, n. pass Condo, Ire, didi, ditum, a. (con.' $ 142, 1 & 2, (con 4 fido, to trust to, do), to lay or treasure up, hoard; to abs. to trust, feel confident; with dat. hide, conceal, bury; to finish, end; or abl. $ 223, R. 2, & ~ 245, II. or inf. to make, build, found, establish. with acc.l272. depend upon, believe Crundono, are, avi, alum, a. (con 4 confidently, confide or put confidence dono), to give freely, grant, present, in, trust to, rely upon. bestow; to remit, excuse, pardon, Confinis. e, adj. (con 4-finis),' 222, overlook, Pass over, forgive; with the R. 1. next to, adjoining, bordering up. accusative of the crime and the dative on, contiguous, near. of the person, it signifies to pardon the Confirmatus, a, urn, part.. from fault for his sake, on his account. Confirmo, are, ivi, itum, a. (con 4Altertus libidini malefacta condonare, firmo), to confirm, strengthen, estabto pardon crimes to gratify the lust of lish, reestablish, restore strength, to another;-to give up, devote, sacrifice, render efficient; ~ 273, 2, to encourConduico, re, xi, ctum, a. (con 4f du- age, animate, support; to persuade, co,) to bring or lead together, conduct, induce, inspire with courage, reasassemble, collect; to hire, bargain for. sure; to ratify, confirm; to prove, Conductus, a, urn, part. (conduco), show; to affirm, assert, assure, debrought together, collected; hired. clare. ~ 272. Labores et victorias con. Confectus, a, urn, part. (conficio), fin- firmare, to crown-. ished, ended, destroyed, injured; wast- Confisus, a, um,part. (confido), trusted, worn out. Confectus annis, su- ing to, relying or depending onb being perannuated. confident, trusting. Confercio, ire, si, turn, a. (con ffar- Confiteor, eri, essus, sum, dep. (con cio, to stuff), to stuff or cram to- 4.fateor), $271, & Rem. 4, to congether, crowd together; to stuff, or tess, acknowledge, own. fill full Confligo, Ire, xi, ctum, a. (con ffligo, CoLnfro, ferre, contuli, collatum, a. to beat against), to strike against; to irr. (con &4fero), to bring, carry, put fight, contend, engage, conflict. or lay together; to collect, gather. Conflo, ire auivi, atum, a. (con 4 fo, Confertim, adv., closely, in a heap to blow), to blow together, bring toor crowd, in a compact body: from gether; to make up, compound; to Confertus, a, urn, part. 4' adj. (con- raise, make, create, excite. iEs aliefercio), crammed full, crowded, fill; num conflare, to contract a debt, to thick, close, dense, in close array. run into debt:-to excite, stir up, CoTfessus, a, um, part. (confiteor), cause, occasion. having confessed. Subs. one who has Confluo, ere, xi, n. (con j fluo, to made confession. flow), to flow or run together; to flock Confdczo, Ire, eci, ectum, a. (con' or crowd together. fadcio), to make together; to make, Confodio, are, idi, ossum, a. (con' cause, effect, execute, prepare, per- fodio, to dig) to dig. Fig. to wound, form; to end, finish, terminate, ac- pierce, stab, thrust through. complish, complete, conclude; to kill, Conffgio, ire, igi, ugitum, n. (con slay, destroy, consume; to overpower, 4 fugio), to flee to for succor, flee or subdue, prostrate; to waste, wear Iave recourse to. 15

Page  164 CONGLOBO 164 CUNSERVO Conglobo, are, aiz, atum, a., (con 4 conscious), joint knowledge; con, globo, to make round), to gather into science, consciousness; conscioue a round body, conglobate, crowd to- ness of guilt, a bad conscience, an gether, gather together, collect. evil or guilty conscience; guilt, guil. CongrUdior, i, gressus sum, dep. (con tiness. 4' gradior, to step), to move or go to- Conscius, a, ur, adj. (conscio), ~ 213, gether, go with; to meet, come to- & 2 222, R. 3. conscious, privy to, acgether go up to, accost, address, speak cessary, witness of, partaking of, conto, converse with; to fight, engage. cerned in, in the secret of. The noun Congressus, us, m. (congredior), a denoting the crime is sometimes wantcoming together, meeting; a conflict, ing, and it is then translated guilty, encounter, contest, battle, engage- conscious of guilt. Alius alii-conscii, ment. being witnesses for one another, being Congressus, a, um, part. (congre- mutually privy. dior). Conscribo, ere, ipsi, iptum, a. (con + Conjtcio, Ire,jeci,jectum, a. (con 4 scribo), to write, write together. Conjacio), to throw together, throw, cast, scribere milites, to raise, levy, enlist, hurl, discharge, thrust, force, impel. enroll-. Conjicere in vincula, to put in prison, Conscriptus, a, urn, part. (conscribo), to imprison. written; enlisted, enrolled. Patres Conjunctus, a, urn, part. adj., con- conscripti, the senators, the conscript nected, united, attached: from fathers. The first Roman senators Conjungo, ire, nxi, nctum, a. (con' were called patres, and those subsejungo, to join), Q 224, to join or unite quently added to their number were together, connect, associate. denominated conscip. In process denominated conscripti. In process Conjuratio, nis, f. (conjuro), a of time it became customary to adswearing together, a confederacy or dress the whole body of senators by cojnbination confirmed by at dre se d patres crip plot, conspiracy;a the body of conspi, xhe tpatres conscripti. plot, conspiracy; the body of consp- onsecro, are avi, atum, a. (con r'ators. tConratss. a, urn, part., comn, sacro, to consecrate), to consecrate, leagued. Subs. onurpati, orum, in., dedicate, make sacred, devote to the leagued. Subs. conjurati, 5rum, m., appropriate. conspirators: fron gods; to devote, appropriate. conspirators: from Conjuro, are, avi, atum, n. (con 4 Consenesco, ire, senui, n. (con 4 sejurO), i271, to swear together, co- nesco), to grow old; to grow into dis bine, league together; to conspire, en use, become obsolete, or out of date; bine, league together; to conspire, a ter into a conspiracy. Fig. to grow weak or feeble fade, deo Connubium, i, aI (con 4 nubo), a cay, waste, lose energy or strength, lawful marriage,.-:dLck, marriage, be impaired. into~termarri-i~.,sConslro, ire, sevi, sltum, a. (con 4' Conor r, atus um, fp. 271, to sero, to sow), v249, I. to sow, set, strive, endeavor, -ry under- plant, fill take. Consgro, tre, ui, turn, a. (c~n 4' sero. Conquiro, gre,is;,i,';'., a. C.ia q' to join together), to join or knit toqucEro), to seek after, searc' i;: ie- gether, Conserere manum, to join gently, get together, tir to nrrowuc, battle, fight hand to hand, engage in collect. cl ose combat. Conscientia, s, f. (conscil: to t e Conservo, are, avi, atum, a. (con

Page  165 CONSIDERO 165 CONSUESCO servo), to preserve, keep, defend, pro- stans, firm), firmly, steadily, uniform tect, save, maintain. ly, evenly, regularly. Considero, are, avi, atum, a., ~ 265, Constantia, ea, f. (constans), firm to consider, meditate, think of, weigh. ness, steadiness, uniformity of con. Consdo, ere, edi, essum, n. (con 4 duct, constancy, consistency, perse sido, to sit), to sit down together; to verance. sit down, seat one's self; to settle, Consterno, ere, stravi, stratum, a. take up one's abode; to fall, sink; to (con 4. sterno, to strew), to strew or pitch, encamp; to sit in ambush. cover over. Consilium, i, n. ~ 275, III. R. 1, (1.) Constttuo, ere, ui, utum, a. (con 4 counsel, advice; deliberation, consi- statuo), to set up, erect; to found, deration, consultation, agreement, pre- build; to place, put, dispose, arrange, meditation; a notion, idea, design, in- station, post; to stop, cause to halt, tention, measure, aim, plan, scheme, to establish, appoint, fix, assign, setintent, purpose, end; determination, tle, vindicate, assert; ~ 271, ~ 273, 2, judgment, resolve Non est consi- to resolve, determine, decide, decree, lum, it is not (my) intention, ~ 273, 1. ordain, prescribe. Constituere in Consilium capere or trahere, to form diem, to agree upon, fix, appoint-. a design or resolution, adopt a plan or Iter constituere, to resolve to advance measures:-prudence, wisdomr dis- or march. Qum utilia visa cont-; cretion, skill, sagacity, forethought, tuere, to decide upon such measures penetration, reason; artifice, strata- as seemed proper, to adopt suitable gem, art, management; a council, measures. assembly of men in council. Pra- Constititus, a, urn, part. (constitUo) senti consilio, in presence of the coun- Consto, are, stiti, n. (con 4 sto, to cil. Quo consilio for what reason? stand), to stand together, stand; to be why? Habere consilium, to hold a consistent, correspond. Imp., constat, council. Non est consilium, may be; 223, it is evident, manifest, clear or followed by quin for ut non. ~ 262, certain; it is agreed, it is the common R. 10, 2. opinion, ~ 269, R. 2. ~ 265. Consisto, ere, consfti,n. (con 4 sisto, Constratus, a, un, part. (consterno) to place), to stand firmly, stand fast, Constructus, a, un, part. from make a stand, stand, stand still, stop, Construo, ere, xi, ctum, a. (con - post one's self, stay. struo, to build), to put together, to ConsYtus, a, urn, part. (consero), construct, fabricate, build, form. Conplanted, sown, set, filled, overgrown. struere maria, to form seas, i. e. fish Conspectus, us, m., the act of see- ponds of vast extent. ing; a sight, view, observation: from Consuefacio, ere, fed, factum, a. Consplcio, Are, exi, ectum, a. (con 4 (consuesco 4 facio), ~ 272, to accusspecio, to see), to see, behold, look at, tom. train by use or practice, inure, observe, discern, perceive; to look at habituate. with admiration, look upon, mark. Consuesco, ere, evi, etum, n. a. (con Conspici, to be admired, to attract at- 4 suesco, to become accustomed), J tention, to gain admiration, to render 271, to become accustomed or used to one's self conspicuous. a thing, acquire a habit by practice, ConspYcor, ari, atus sum, dep. (con 4 to accustom, inure Consuevi, I am specio, to see), to see, behold, descry. accustomed, am wont or used. ConConstanter, ins, issimi, adv. (con-I suevit, imp., is wont, customary.

Page  166 CONSUETUDO 166 CONTEMPTUS Consuetido, Ynis,f. (consuesco), cus- Consultd, adv. (consultus), designedtom, usage, use, habit; intercourse, ly, on purpose, deliberately. familiarity, intimacy. Stupri consue- Consulto, are, avi, atum, n. 8f a.freq tudo, a criminal intercourse. (consulo), ~ 265, to advise, consult, deConsuetus, a, urn, part. 4 adj., ac- liberate; to take care of, provide for, customed, habituated, inured; usual, look to, consult for, constitute a coun ordinary, wonted. Pericula consueta cll for. habere, to be inured to-. Consultor, oris, m. (consulo), one Consul, ulis, m. (consulo), a consul, who asks counsel or advice, a client, one of the two supreme magistrates one who gives counsel, a counsellor, annually elected at Rome. Consul adviser, counsel. destgnatus, consul elect, one who had Consultum, i, n1. (consultus, part.) been elected consul, but had not yet deliberation, consideration; a decree, entered upon the duties of his office. statute, ordinance, resolution; counThe Romans marked the year by the sel, advice; a measure, plan, design; names of the consuls then in office, a subject of deliberation, consultation as L. Cesare et C. Figulo consulibus, or discussion, a question. Consulto, in the consulship of L. Caesar and C. abl., by design, on purpose. Figulus. Consultus, us, m. (consulo), a decree, Consularis, e, adj. (consul), of or be- ordinance, statute, resolution. longing to a consul, consular. Subs. Consultus, a, um, part. f4 adj. (conconsularis, is, m., one who has been sdlo), deliberated upon, considered; consul, an ex-consul, a man of consu- asked, consulted. Consulto opus est, lar rank or dignity. there is need of deliberation. ConConsulatus, us, m. (consul), the of- sulta sese omnia cum illo integra ha. fice of consul; the consulship or con- here, that every thing deliberated upon sulate. with him, was (still) unchanged. Consilo, tre, ui, tum, n. 4 a., to con- Consimo, ere, umpsi, unptum, a. suit, deliberate; to deliberate upon, (con 4- sumo), to eat, devour, consume, discuss, take counsel, ask one's opi- destroy; to kill, slay; to waste, spend, nion, ask advice, consider, consult squander, exhaust, use up, lose, lay about, judge, ~ 265. Male consulere, out, employ, use, make use of. Multo adopt wrong measures. De aliquo tam orationem consumere, ti waste consulitur, a discussion or delibera- many words, to debate a long time. tion is had, we, they, &c., deliberate, Consumptus, a, ur, part. (consumo) ~ 248, I. R. 1. Senatus consulitur, the Contagio, onis, f. (contingo, to opinion of the senate is asked:-with touch), contact, touch; contagion, the dative, to provide for, take care of, infection, disease. Fig. moral contalook to, consult for, regard, respect, gion or infection. serve, aid. Consultum est mihi, my in- Contemno, ire, empsz, emptum, a. terests have been provided for, my (con 4 temno, to despise), to make no safety has been consulted. Consulere account of, contemn, despise, slight, iraB,famce, etc., to be influenced by or hold in contempt, make light of, treat by a regard for-. Gravius in aliquem with contempt. consulere, to adopt severe measures Contemptor, oris, m. (contemnc), a towards-. despiser, contemner. Adj. disdainfil, Consiltatio, onis, f. (consulto), a haughty, contemptuous. consultation, deliberation. Contemptus, a, um, part. 4 adj. tcon

Page  167 CONTENDO 167 CONTUSUS temno), despised, contemned, slight- est, it is exactly the reverse, or the reed; contemptible, abject, vile, despica- verse of this is true. ble. Contriho, are, xi, ctum, a. (con 4 traContendo, ere, die tum, a. 4f n. (con 4' ho), to draw together, assemble, unite tendo), to stretch, strain; to exert, put together, collect. forth, employ, to strive, attempt, en- Contremo, ere, ui, a. (con 4 tremo, to deavor; to seek for earnestly, urge, tremble), to tremble,, tremble greatly. solicit; to compare; to go to, shape quake through fear, f' greatly agitaone's course, hasten; to contend, dis- ted. pute, fight, engage. Controversia, xf. (controversus, disContentio, onis, f. (contendo), a puted), a controversy, debate, dispute. straining or stretching; an effort, ex- Contubernium, i, n. (con &4 taberna, ertion, endeavor; a contention, con- a hut,) a certain number of soldiers test, dispute, debate, controversy. living in the same tent; a tent; a livContero, ere, trivi tritum, a. (con' ing together, intimacy, companiontera, to rub), to break or bruise small, ship, intimate familiarity, constant inpound, grind; to wear out; to spend, tercourse, company. Also, a company employ, waste, consume. of noble youth, who followed a geneContinentia, ae,f, a holding, check- ral into his province, and continued ing, restraining; probity; moderation, near him, in order to learn the art of temperance, continence, abstinence, war, and the management of the self-control:from affairs of a province. These served Contineo, ere, tinui, tentum, a. (con 4' in the pretorian cohort. s contuberteneo), to contain, hold or keep to- nio patris militabat,-was serving in gether; to hold, keep, retain; to keep the cohort of his father. in, restrain, curb, check. Contili, see Confero. Continuo, are, avi, atum, a. (con- Contumelia, ar,f., an affront, an intinuus, continued), to continue, pro- jury coupled with contempt, outrage, long, join one to another, connect, insult, contumely, reproachful lanunite. Continuare nlagistratum, to pro- guage. long a magistracy, to continue it be- Contumeliosus, a, unm, adj. (contu. yond its proper term. melia), reproachful, abusive, insolent, Contra, prep. with the acc., against, outrageous, injurious, contumelious, contrary to, in opposition to. Facere insulting. contra rempublicam, to act against the Contundo, are, Audi, isum, a. (con, state, to be guilty of treason. Contra tundo, to beat), to beat, batter, break, ea, in opposition to these things, on the bruise, crush. Fig. to lessen, weaken, other hand, on the contrary: followed impair; to quell, subdue; to check, by ac, atque, etc., contrary to what, baffle, thwart. otherwise than. Contra postulate, in Conturbatus, a, um, part: from reply to-. Contra inceptum suum Conturbo, Are, avi, ltum a.'con 4 venisse, had come for the purpose of turbo, to disturb,) to disturb, disquiet, opposing his design. Adv. against, disorder, confuse, throw into confu. in opposition, on the contrary, on the sion. other hand, in return, Contra fertre Contusus, a, ur, part. (contundoi, to return blows. With sum, the broken, bruised, reduced, weakened, contiary, the opposite. Quod contra impaired. 15*

Page  168 CONVENIO 168 CORN EL1US Convinio, 2re, veni, ventum, n. 4 a. Coorior, Zri, ortus sum, ~ 177, dep. tcon 4- venio), to come together, meet, (con 4- orior), to rise together; to riie flock, assemble, collect. Convenire arise. alsquem, to meet, meet or have an in- Coortus. a, ur, part. (coorior). terview with, go up to, speak to, ac- Copia, ca, f. (con 4- ops), plenty, cost, visit-;-to agree, correspond. abundance, supply, store, number; efharmonize, consent; to be agreed or fects, substance, wealth, riches, resettled. Pax convenit, a peace is sources, property; - 275, III, R. I, agreed upon, and in the passive, Pax power. opportunity, ability, means, conventafuerat,-had been concluded: facilities, leave, permission. Est milh -- 2231 to suit, agee, fit, be adapted copia, or habeo topiam, I have it in my to, belong to; to become or be be- power, I am able, I can. Magna miht coming to. Imp., convenit, it is fit, pro- copia est memorandi, I could easily reper, suitable, becoming; it is agreed, late. ~ 259, R. 3. Habebat magnam it is settled; it is consistent. copiam societatis conjungende, he had Conventio, onis,f. (convenio), a meet- great facilities for forming, or he could ing or assembling together; an assem- easily form an alliance. Facere cobly, meeting; an agreement. piam, to give or afford opportunity. Conventus, a, um, part. (convenio). Populo Romano nunquam ea copia Conventus, us, m. (convenio), a meet- fuit,-that advantage. Jugurtlhc coing either public or private, assembly, piam habcbat, he had Jugurtha in his convention; a council, assembly for power. Ex copia, or ex copiA rerum, consultation. Primo conventu, at the from or in the existing state of things, first sitting or meeting. Facere con- in present, or under existing circumventus, to hold meetings. stances, all things considered, on the Conversus, a, um, part., turned, whole. Pro rei copia, considering his changed, altered: from circumstances. Rarely in the singuConverto, ere, ti. sum, a. (con 4- lar, a multitude of men, also, an armed verto), to turn about, wheel, turn; to force, especially an undisciplined multurn back, return; to betake one's titude; in the plural copiuc, an army, self; to change, transform, alter, con- forces, troops. vert; to apply, turn, direct. Regium Coquo, Ire, coxi, coctum, a., to cook imperium in superbiam convertit, sc. se, or dress victuals, to boil, roast, toast, turned, changed, ~ 229, R. 4, 1. bake. Convictus, a, um, part.:from Coquus, i. m. (coquo), a cook. Convinco, Ire,vci, victum, a. (con C Coram,prep. with the abl., before, vinco), ~ 217, to convict, convince, in presence of, before the eyes of, in overcome by argument, prove clearly. view of. Convivium, i, n. (con vtivo), a feast, Corium i, n., the skin or hide of a banquet, entertainment. beast; leather. (onvico, tre, ivi, atum, a. (con 4 Cornelius, i, m., a Roman name beooco), to call together, assemble, sum- longing to persons of the gens Cor mon, convoke. nelia. C. 47, 55. The Cornelian Cooplrio, ire, ui, turn, a. (con 4 ope- gens contained many families, among rio, to cover), to cover over, envelop. which were the Lentuli, Scipiones, Coopertus, a, um, part. (cooperio), ~ Cinnce, Rufini and Sulle. C. Corne249, 1, covered over. Fig. overwhelm- lis a Roman knight confederate with ed, covered, plunged, or sunk in. Catiline. C. 17,28.

Page  169 CORNICEN 169 CRUCIATUS CornYcen, Ynis, m. (cornu 4 cano), Creber, bra, brum, adj., frequent, oft he that blows a horn, a horn-blower, repeated, thick, close, numerous. conieter. Credibllis, e, adj. (credo), ~ 222, creCornificius, i, m. (Q.), a distinguish- dible, probable, likely, that may be ed Roman, the colleague of Cicero in believed. the office of augur. C. 47. Creditum, i, n., any thing comCornu, n. indec. in sing. in pi. cor- mitted to one's trust, a trust, debt, n'ua, uum, ~ 87, a horn; sail yards; the loan, credit: from wing of an army. Credo, ere, Ydi, Ttum, n. 4 a., ~ 223 Corpus, oris, n., a body, solid sub- R. 2, ~ 272, to credit, believe, trust, stance; the body, the person; cor- to think, suppose, imagine. Credo, poreal or physical powers. Vis cor- when interposed between the parts of poris, bodily strength. a sentence, may be translated, I supCorrectus. a, urn, part. (corrigo), set pose, I imagine, I should think, or, right, corrected, remedied, repaired. perhaps, probably;-to confide in, Correptus, a, urn, part. (corripio). trust, rely on; to confide or consign Corrrgo, ere, exi, ectum, a. (con 4 to one's care, commit to one's trust, rego), to set right, make straight, intrust, commend. order, regulate. Fig. to amend, cor- Creo, are, avi, atum, a., to make, rect, reform, remove, remedy. create, form; to cause, occasion; to CorrYpio, ere, ipui, eptum, a. (con 4, appoint, elect, create. rapio), to snatch, lay hold of hastily, Cresco, Ire, crevi, n., to increase, seize; to attack; to carry off. grow; to extend, spread; to be proCorrumpo, Ire, ipi, uptur, a. (con moted, advanced, rise; to become ~4 rumpo, to break), to waste, impair, greater, thrive. mar, debase, spoil, damage, hurt, in- Cret'cus, i, m. (Q. Metellus) a Roman jure, destroy, ruin, corrupt. Res.fa- consul, A. U. C. 684, and a general miliares corrumpere, to impair-. Op- in the war with Catiline. C. 30. portunitates corrumpere, to lose, throw Crevi, see Cresco. away. Fig. ~ 273,2, to bribe, seduce, Crimen, inis, n., a charge, accusacorrupt, mislead, deceive. tion. crimination, impeachment, reCorruptus, a, urn, part. 4' adj. (cor- proach; a crime, fault. Falsa crimirumpo), spoiled, ruined, corrupted; na, false accusations, slanders, calumbad, corrupt, depraved; misled, de- nies. ceived, seduced, bribed. Ob rem cor- CrimYnor, ari, atus sum, dep. (criruptamn, on account of the ruin of the men), ~ 272, to accuse, charge with a affair, or, of their failure in the busi- crime, blame, reproach. ness, (entrusted to them). ~ 274, R. 5. Criminosl, adv. (criminosus, accuCotta, ae, m. (L. Aurelius), a Roman satory), reproachfully, slanderously, in consul in the year of the city 689. an accusatory manner, severely, cenC. 18. seriously. Crassus, i, m. (M. Licinius), sur- Crotoniensis, e, adj. (Croton), of named Dives or the Rich, on account Crotona, now Crotone, a town in the of his immense wealth, was a member south part of Italy, Crotonian. Subs of the first triumvirate in connexion a Crotonian. C. 44. with P mpey and Caesar. He perish- Cruciatus, us, m.- (cruaio, to torod in a war with the Parthians, A. U. ment), torment, torture, pain, agony C. 700. C. 17, 38, 47, 48 anguish.

Page  170 CRUDELIS 170 CURA Crudilis, e, adj. (crudus, bloody), sures, delicacies, indulgences. Libido cruel, fierce, savage, barbarous. stupri, ganeae, ceterique cultus,-other Crudelitas, atis, f. (crudelis), cruel- sensual indulgences. Cultus mrsera. ty, inhumanity. bilis, a sorry plight, a mean garb. SCrudeltter, adv. (crudelis), in a cruel Cim and Quum, adv., see Quum manner, cruelly. Cum, prep. with abl., with, along Cruento, are, avi, atum, a., to make with, together with, in conjunction or bloody, stain, imbrue, sprinkle with company with. So simul cum or cum blood: from simul:-provided with. With verbs Cructdus, a, um, adj., bloody, cruel, and phrases denoting contention, with, fierce, ferocious: from against. With' the ablative of accom. Cruor, oris, m., blood from a wound, paniment it may often be translated gore. and. In composition, see 9 196, 5. Crux, crucis, f, a cross. In crucem Cunctans, tis, part.: from grere, to crucify. Cunctor, ari, atus sum, dep., to de. Cuiquam, see Quisquam. lay, stay, linger; to hesitate, be perCujuscumquemindi, or cujuscumque plexed or at a loss, doubt, scruple. mrodi, (gen. of quicumque 4' modus), of ~ 265. whatever kind or sort, whatsoever i Cunctus, a, un, adj., all, all togemay be. ther, the whole. It either agrees with CijuslTbet, see Quilibet. its noun or governs it in the genitive. Cujusmidi, or cujus modi, of what ~ 212, R 2. N. 6. kind or sort, of whatever kind. CupWdi, adv. (cupidus), eagerly CujusquemUdi, or cujusque modi, gladly. (gen. of quisque mnodus), of what Cupidttas, atis, f. (cupidus), desire, kind; of each or every kind, every. fondness; eager or inordinate desire, Culpa, ca, f., a fault, blame, guilt, lust, passion; thirst for gain, avarice, offence, crime. excessive love of money, covetous. Cultor, bris, m. (cole), a cultivator, ness. tiller, husbandman; an inhabitant. Cupido, Ynis,f. 4 m. (cupio), desire, Exercitus agri ac pecoris magis quam eagerness, appetite, thirst, cupidity, belli cultor,-skilled in, conversant passion. Cupido honoris, the desire with fields and herds of cattle-. of preferment, ambition. Cultus, fis, m. (colo), cultivation, cul- CupVdus, a, ur, adj. (cupio), ~ 213, ture. Fig. culture, care, attention, im- ~ 275, III, R. 1. (2.) desirous, fond, provement, education; attire, dress, eager. clothing, apparel, habit. Cultus cor- Cupiendus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (cut poris, dress, apparel;-style; manner pie), to be desired, desirable. of living, habits of life; elegance in Cupiens, tis, part. 4 adj., desiring, dress, furniture, &c.; provision or sup- desirous, wishing, willing, favoring, plies of the necessaries and conve- friendly, eager, ardent: from niences of life, things necessary or Cupio, Fre, ivi, itum, a., ~ 271, to convenient for sustenance, education, covet, desire, be willing, wish, long &c. Filiorun ejus multus pueritice for. cultus, large supplies for the childhood Cura, C, f, care, concern, anxiety, of his sons, i. e. supplies of whatever solicitude, trouble, sorrow, affliction. was requisite for his sons during their diligence, attention, study, thought, childhood;-luxuries, delights, plea- regard; management, charge. Haie

Page  171 CURATOR 171 DECEDO re cure,, ~ 227, & R. I & 2, to pay regard to, attend to, aid. Est mihi cure, D I have a care or regard, I take care D., an abbreviation of the praenoof, attend to. Cum cur&, carefully, men Decimus. diligently. Curam habere, to be con- Dabar, aris, m.. a Numidian, the cerned or anxious, to care for. grandson of Masinissa. J. 108,Curator, oris, m. (curo), an overseer, 112. agent, manager, superintendent. Damasippus, i. m., (L.)'was cityCuria, a, f., one of the thirty parts pretor, A. U. C. 671. He was attachinto which Romulus divided the Ro- ed to the party of Marius, and put to man people, a curia or ward; the con- death great numbers of the nobility secrated place where the curie assem- belonging to the opposite faction. He bled; the place where the senate met, was himselfdultimately put to death the senate-house. - by Sylla. C. 51. Curius, i, m. (Q.), a profligate Ro- Damnatus, a, um, part.: from man senator who conspired with Ca- Damno, are, avi, atum, a., to con tiline. C. 17, 18. demn, doom, sentence: from Curo, are, avi, atum, a. (cura), ~ 273, Damnum, i, n., loss, hurt, damage, 1. to take care of, look to, cause, injury, disadvantage. order, attend to, provide, regard; also, Datus, a, um, part. (do). either with or without an accusative, to De, prep. with the abl., of, from; by; have the superintendence, care, or after; about, concerning; because of control,todotheduties ofacommander, on account of, owing to; among. to manage, preside over, govern, coin- De with the abl. is sometimes used inmand. stead of the accusative after an active Cursus, us, m. (curro, to run), a run- verb, but in a sense somewhat different; ning, the act of running; a course, presenting the object not as one thing journey, way. Cursu, abl., quickly, but as resolved into parts; and may be speedily, in haste; also, in running. translated simply concerning, respectCustodia, te, f., the act of keeping ing, or the things, the circumstances, or guarding; a guard-house, a prison. the particulars, the facts, &c. relating Libera custodia, free custody, when a to; as, indicare de conjuratione; do. criminal of high rank was committed cere de ccede; de casu alicujus cognoto the charge of some responsible indi- scere, etc. This form of expression vidual, to be kept safely until he was is equivalent to the Greek ra repi or tried, but without being committed to rT, followed by the genitive. For its prison:-a guard, watch: from force in composition, see ~ 197, 7. Custos, 5dis, m. 4 f., a keeper, pre- Debeo, ere, ui, itum, a. (de 4 habeo), server, guard, watch; a guardian, de- to owe, be in debt, be indebted to, be fender, protector. obliged to. With the infinitive, it deCyrene, es, f. 4 Cyrene, a Gre- notes duty, it is proper, it is indispencian city in the north part of Africa. sable, one ought. 271. J. 19. I Debltus, a, um, part. (debeo), owing, Cyrenensis, e, adj. (Cyrene), Cyre- due, merited, deserved. nian, relating to Cyrene. Cyrenenses, I Decido, ere, cssi, essum, n. (de 4 ium, m., the Cyrenians. J. 79. cedo), $ 242, & R 1. to depart, go Cyrus, i, m, Cyrus the Great, the away, withdraw, retire, retreat; to founder of the Persian empire. C 2. abate, die away, subside; to retire

Page  172 DECEM 172 DEFENSO from, depart from, qui; to give place, hCc parata atque decreta, during these yield preparations and resolves. D)sci, num. adj. ind., ten. Decus, oris, n. (decet), an ornament, December, bris, m. (decem), the month grace; credit, reputation, character, December, the tenth month from honor; what is becoming. Contra March, which was the first month of decus regium, contrary to, or in derothe Roman year. It is also used as gation of regal dignity. Sine decore, an adjective, of December. in sorry plight. Dfcerno, ire, crevi, cretum, a. (de 4 Dedecuro, are, avi, a., to dishonor cerno), ~ 271, ~ 272,'273, 2, $ 262, R. disgrace, render infamous: from 4, to think, judge, conclude; to delib- Dedecus, uris, n. (de 4' decus), discrate, determine, resolve; to decide, grace, dishonor, shame, infamy; a pronounce, settle; to decree, vote, or- disgraceful action. Per dedecus or der, appoint, assign, grant; to fight, per dedecora, dishonorably, disgracecontend. fully, in disgraceful ways. Decet, decere, uit, imp., it becomes, Dedi, see Do. is becoming or proper, beseems, be- Deditio, onis, f. (dedo), a yielding hooves, is right, fit, suitable or meet, up, surrender, submission, capitulaone ought. With a nominative, Quca tion. Facere deditionem, to surrendab imperatore decuerint, such things er, capitulate. In deditionem accipere, as it behooved a commander (to pro- to receive on surrender. vide). For its construction, see ~ 223, Dedititius, a, um, adj. (deditio), one & ~ 269, & R. 2, & ~ 209, R. 3. (5), and who has surrendered. Dedititius est, (a). he has surrendered. Decemus, a, um, num. adj. (decem), Deditus, a, um, part. 4' adj., given, the tenth. given up; devoted, addicted, attached Decrmus, i, m. (decem), a Roman to: from prtrnomen. Dedo, gre, deddi, deditum, a. (de in. Declaro, are, avi, atum, a. (de 4 tensive 4 do), 223, to give, give up, claro, to make clear), to declare, show submit, surrender, capitulate; to apclearly, evince, tell, manifest; to de- ply or devote one's self to. dare, proclaim. Deduco, are, uxi, uctum, a. (de 4 Declivis, e, adj. (de 4 clivus, an as- duco, ~ 197, 7), to bring or lead down; cent), bending downwards, steep, slop- to convey, conduct, remove, withing, declining. draw, bring or lead forth, lead DecorS, adv. (decorus), becomingly, out; to accompany; to bring, lead, fitly, properly. move. Decoro, are, avi, atum, a. (decus), to Deductus, a, urn, part. (deduce,) led, adorn, beautify, grace, embellish, de- conducted, brought, removed. ~ 242. corate. Defendo, ere, di, sum, a (de 4 fenDecorus, a, urn, adj. (decus), come- do, obs.), abl. with ab. to keep or ward ly, graceful, beautiful; proper, becom- off, repel; to defend, keep, protect, ing, fit, seemly, decorous. guard, preserve; to maintain, assert, Decritum, i, n, (decerno), a decree, support. act, ordinance, statute. Decretumfit, Defensio, onis, f. (defendo), a dowith ut. J. 16. fending, defence. Decretus, a, urn, part. (decerno), de- Defenso, are, a. freg (defendo), to tennried, resolved, appointed. Inter defend.

Page  173 DEFENSOR 173 DEMO Defcnsor, rris, m. (defendo), a de- prtmum-dehinc, in the first placefender, advocate, preserver, in the second place. Defessus, a, um, adj. (de 4-fessus), Deinceps, adv. (dein 4r capio), suc weary, tired, worn out, fatigued, faint, cessively, after that, next, in the next languid, exhausted. place. DefIcio, ere, eci, ectltm, n. 4- a. (de Delectus, a, urn part. 4 adj. (deligo;, Scfacio), to fail, be wanting; to lose chosen, selected, elected. Delecti, strength or power, become feeble; to orum, m. pl., men chosen or selected; perish, cease; to be discouraged or a select band of soldiers. disheartened, give up, give over; to Delectus, us, m. (deligo), a choosing end; to forsake; with a and abl. to selecting, choice; a levy of soldiers. rebel, revolt. Habere delectum, to make a levy, draft Dejfuo, Ire, uxI, n. (de 4 fluo, to soldiers. flow), to flow down; to fall off. Fig. Deleo, ere, evi, ltum, a., to blot out, to escape, vanish, pass away, cease, efface, expunge, erase. Fig. to overperish, go to waste or decay. throw, destroy. Deformitus, a, um, part., deformed, Deletus, a, um, part. (deleo). disfigured, marred. Fig. changed, Delicit, arurn,f. pl. (delicio, to enhumbled, brought low, shorn of one's tice), delights, pleasures, pastimes, deglory: from licacies, luxuries. Deformo, are, avi, atum, a. (de 4 Delictum., i, n. (delinquo), a fault, formo, to form), to form, fashion; to crime, guilt, offence, sin. Delicta cordeform, disfigure, spoil. rigere, to rectify abuses, correct evils. Degredior, i, gressus sum, dep. (de Deltgo, ere, egi, ectum, a. (de 4 lego), gradior, to step), ~ 242, to descend, to choose, pick out or select, in refe. go down. rence to a particular use or purpose. Degusto, are, avi, atum, a. (de 4 Delinaqu, ere, liqui, lictum, a. 4- n. gusto, to taste), to taste, taste of. (de 4- linquo, to leave), to fail, be wantDehinc, adv. (de 4 hinc), henceforth, ing; to fail in duty, offend, trespass, hereafter; afterwards, after this or transgress, do wrong, do or act amiss. that, next, then, in the next place. Es, que delinquo, the faults which I See Deinde. commit, my crimes or faults. Dehortor, ari, atus sum, dep. (de 4 Delubrum, i, a., a shrine, temple. hortor), to dissuade, discourage, ad- Dementia, ae,f. (demens, mad), madvise to the contrary, dissuade from. ness, folly. Per dementiam, through An infinitive following it is translated madness, madly. by the English gerundive, as, Scribere Demissus, a, um, part. 4 adj., low dehortatur me fortuna mea,-from let down, sunk. Fig. cast down, diswriting. Dehortari ab aliquo, to heaitened, dejected, sad, melancholy, discourage from espousing one's downcast, discouraged; low, humble, cause, or engaging in one's de- in humble life, in a private station: fence. from Dein, or Deinde, adv. (de 4- in, or Demitto, ere, isi, issum, a. (de 4 tnde), then, after that, afterwards, mitto), to send down, cast, thrust or again, thence, from thence; hereafter, let down, lower. Fig. to fix, fasten, in future; in marking the divisions of impress. In pectus demittere, to ima subject, next in order, in the next press deeply on tlie mind. place. Ptrmum-deinde, and rarely| Demo, Ire, dempsi, demptum, a.'de

Page  174 DEMUM 174 DETRECTO r emo), ~ 224, R. 2, to take-away, take scando, to climb), to go down, desoff, subtract, withdraw, remove. cend, descend from. Fig to pene. Dezmum, adv., at length, at last, trate, sink into, pierce, make an imfinally, only, alone, exclusively. Turn pression. demum, then at length, not till then;- Descensus, us, m. (descendo), a detruly, certainly, indeed, in truth, espe- scent. cially. Ea demumfirma amicitia est, Desero, ere, serui, sertum, a. (de. that indeed-. sero), to abandon, leave forsake, deDenego, are, avi, atum, a. (de 4 sert. Tempus deserat, time would nego), to deny, not suffer; not to give, fail. Desesere labores, etc., to cease refuse to give; to refuse.> to perform, discontinue, leave off Deni, aE, a. num. adj. ~ 119, III, (de- Desertus, a. um, part 4 adj. (desero, cem), ten by ten, ten, ten each. abandoned, deserted, {4c.; desert, lone Denique, adv., to conclude, in fine, ly, uninhabited. at last, finally, in short; at length. Desidero, dre, avi, atum, a., to deo Depello, ere, puli, pulsum, a. (de 4 sire, wish, long for; to regret, need, pello), to drive, put or thrust down; require. to drive away, expel, remove, repel. Desidia, B, f. (deses, idle), sloth, Depono, are, posui, posltum, a. (de 4. slothfulness, idleness, inactivity, pono), to lay or put down, lay, put; to Designatus, a, ur, part. 4 adj., lay by, throw aside; to cast away, lay consul, prcetor, etc. designatus, consul, aside, abandon; to leave, leave off, &c. elect:from give up. Designo, are, avi, atum, a. (de 4 Depravo, are, avi, atum, a. (de &4pra- signo), to mark, mark out; to signify vus), to deprave, spoil, corrupt, vi- denote, mean; to choose, elect, ap. tiate. point. Depricor, ari, atus sum, dep. (de 4 Desino, gre, sivi, strum, n. 4 a. (de precor, to pray), to pray for earnestly, 4. sino), to cease, leave off, give over supplicate, beseech, beg; to deprecate, desist, to end, terminate. avert by prayer, beg to be freed or Desisto, ere, sttit, sStum, n. (de. saved from, pray that some evil may sisto, to stand); $ 242, R. 1. to cease, be averted; to avert, remove, drive or give over; desist from, leave off. turn away, avoid, escape; to allege in Despectus, a, um, part.:from deprecation or plead in excuse, offer Desplcio, ere, exi, ectum, a. (de 4 as an apology. ~ 272. specie, to see), to look down upon. Deprehendo, ire, di, sum, a. (de 4 Fig. to despise, contemn, look upon prehendo, to take), to seize, catch, ar- with contempt; to disdain. rest, take unawares, overtake; to take Desum, deesse, defui, irr. n. (de 4' in the act, detect, surprise; to find, sum), with dat. ~ 224, R. 1. to fail, be discover, perceive, discern. wanting or lacking. Deest mihi, it is Deprehensus, a, um, part, (depre- wanting to me, I lack. hendo). Deterreo, ire, vi, ltum, a (de 4 ierDepressus, a, un, part., depressed, reo), 5 242, & R. 1. to deter, frighten, sunk:from scare, discourage. Deprlmo, ire, pressi,pressum, a. (de Detlneo, ire, ui, entum, a. (de 4f 4 premo), to -press or weigh down, de- teneo), to detain, keep, hold, hinder. press, sink. Detrecto, are, dvi, alum, a. (de 4. Dr.scetdo, ere, di, sum, n. (de 4 tracto), to decline, refuse; to speak ill

Page  175 DETRIMENTUM 175 DILIGENTER 3f, disparage, diminish, lower, sink, die noctuque, $ 253, day and night. In impair the reputation of. dies, daily, from day to day, every l)etrtmentum, i, n. (detero, to wear), day. Diem statuere, to appoint or fix detriment, disadvantage, damage, loss, a day;-time, length of time. harm. Difficlis, e. adj. (dzs 4 facilis), $ Deus, i, m. S 53, a god, deity, divi- 222, 3, hard, difficult. Difficilis aditu, nity. Per deos immortales, in questions hard to approach, of difficult'access, and exhortations denotes earnestness, 250, 1. really, pray tell, &c. Difficultas, atis, f. (difficilis, ~ 101, Devictus, a, um, part., conquered, 2), difficulty, trouble. overcome, made to yield, overruled: Difficulter, adv. (difficilis), difficulty from with difficulty. Haud dificulter, withDevinco, ere, vici, victum, a. (de 4 out difficulty, vinco), to conquer, vanquish, subdue, Diffidentia, ce, f., mistrust, distrust, overcome, make to yield. want of confidence, diffidence:from Dexter, tera, terum, 4 tra, trum, adj. Diffido, ere, diffisus sum, n. pass. $ ~ 125, 4, right, on the right hand. 142,1 & 2, (dis fido, to trust to), and Dextera 4 Dextra, cf. (sc. manus), ~ 223, R. 2, to distrust, mistrust, lack the right hand; the right side. Dex- confidence, despair, give up as, hopeIra, sinistra, on the right and left. less, despair of, fear. Dextlmus, a, um, adj. sup. of dexter, Dignitas, dtis,f., merit, desert; dig125, 4, farthest to the right, on the nity, greatness, authority, rank, repuextreme right. tation, standing, honor, nobility, exDico, ere, ixi, ictum, a., ~ 272, ~ 271, cellence, eminence, worth; office: & R. 2, I 265, to speak, say, tell. Dicere from sententiam, to give one's opinion as a Dignus, a, um, adj. ~ 244, worthy, senator, to vote;-to set forth, recount, deserving, either in a good or bad sense. narrate, relate, record, write, write of, Non dignus, unworthy;-convenient, celebrate, report; to appoint; to agree meet, fit, suitable, proper, deserved. to, determine, fix upon; to mention; Digna timere, to fear condign or meritto speak in public, harangue, plead. ed punishment. Dictito, are, dvi, atum, a.freq. (dico), Digredior, edt, gressus sum, dep. I 272, $ 276, III. to speak or tell often, (dis 4 gradior, to step), to go or step give out, say commonly; to pretend. aside, turn aside; to depart, set off, Dictum, i, n. (dico), a word, saying, separate, part. expression; a command; a proverb; Digressus, a, um, part. (digredior). the response of an oracle; an answer, Dilabor, i, lapsus sum, dep. (dis 4 reply; a prediction, prophecy. labor), to slip or glide different ways, Dictus, a, um, part. (dico), said, to flee, run away, disperse, be scatterspoken, narrated, related, recorded, ed; to decay, go to ruin, fade or melt mentioned, determined. away, waste, come to nothing, pass Dideci, see Disco. away. Didueco, ere, xi, ctum, a. (dis. 4 duco, Dilaceratus, a, urn, part.:from I 196 (b.)), to lead or draw aside, sepa- Dilacero, are, avi atum, a. (dts 4 rate, sever, part, divide. lacero), to tear or rend in pieces, deDiductus, a, um,part. (diduco). stroy, waste, make havoc of. Dies, diei, m. f., in pl. m. only, I Dilapsus, a, um, part. (dilabor). 90, a day. Dies noctesque ~ 236, and Diligenter, adv. (diligens, diligent), 16

Page  176 DILIGENTIA 176 DISSERO diligently, carefully, attentively, indus- separate, divide; to determine, judge, triously. ~ 265. Diligentia, C,f. (diligens), diligence, Disciplina, aC, f. (disco), discipline, carefulness, attention, industry. instruction, learning, education; sciDimidius, a, um, adj. (dis, medi- ence, skill; an art, profession; mill us), halved, half. tary discipline; use, custom, habit. Dimitto, Ire, misi, missum, a. (dis 4 Disco, ere, didici, a. 4 n., ~ 271, to mitto), to send different ways or to learn, acquire a knowledge of; to different places, send off or away, dis- study; to understand, know. patch; to dismiss, discharge, let go, Discordia, Ce, f. (discors, discordsend away, discard; to lay aside; to ant), discord, dissension, disagreeleave, omit, forego, pass over; to re- ment, variance, debate, strife, broil. mit, forgive. Discordiosus, a, um, adj. (discor. Dimoveo, ire, mmv, mbtum, a. (dis dia), prone to discord, quarrelsome. 4, moveo), to move, stir; to put aside, Discrimen, inis, n. (discerno), a diremove, separate. Fig. to alienate. vision, separation; a difference, dis Dirlmo, ere, emi, emptum, a. (dis 4^ tinction. emo), to part, divide, separate; to in- Disjectus, a, um, part. 4, adj., dis terrupt, put an end to, put a stop to, persed, routed, scattered: from break off; to render n.ll, frustrate. Disjlcio, ere, jeci, jectum, a. (dis 4 Diripio, ere, ripui, reptum, a. (dis 4 jacio, to cast), to cast asunder, to rapio), tc tear asunder or in pieces; overthrow, disperse, scatter, rout, dis to plunder, spoil, pillage, rob, seize, comfit, put to flight. carry off. Disjungo, ere, xi, ctum, a. (dis 4 Diruo, ere, ui, itum, a. (dis 4, ruo, jungo, to join), to disunite, disjoin, to overthrow), to pull down, over- separate, divide. throw, destroy, demolish. Dispar, aris, adj. (dis 4 par), uneDis see Deus. qual, dissimilar, unlike, different. Discedo, Ire, cessi, cessum, n. (dis 4 Dispergo, ere, si, sum, a. (dis 4 sparcedo), to part, divide, open; to depart, go, to scatter), to scatter on all sides, go away; to go, betake one's self. disperse. Fig. to spread abroad, disDiscedere, abire, etc. are used to mark seminate, scatter. the result of a contention, to come off; Dispersus, a, urn, part. (dispergo). as, discedere aqua manu, see Manus. Dispertio, ire, ivi, itum, a. (dis 4 Discedere victus, to be vanquished or partio), to divide, distribute. worsted. In alicujus sententiam dis- Dispono, ere, posui, positum, a. (dis cedere, to go over to his opinion, to f pono), to place here and there, to vote with him on a division of the distribute; to place or set in order, senate, to approve of or assent to his dispose, arrange; to station. opinion. Ab armis discedere, to lay DisposTtus, a, um, part. (dispono). down one's arms. Profugus disce- Dissensio, onis,f., a disagreement, dere, to flee. dissension, difference, variance - from Discepto, are, avi, atum, a. (dis 4 Dissentio, ire, si, sum, n. (dis 4 sen. capto) with de and abl. to contend, tio), to be of a contrary' opinion, disdispute, debate, discuss, confer, rea- sent, disagree. Fig. to differ, be difson; to judge, decide, determine. ferent or dissimilar. Dtscerno, ere, crevi, cretum, a. (dis Dissero, ere, serui, sertum, n. (dis 4 4 cerno) to distinguish, discern; to sero, to join together), with de and the

Page  177 DISSIMILIS 177 DO abl. rarely with acc. and sometzmes der or in pieces, separate, disjoin; to with both acc. 4- abl to discourse, talk, tear away, separate by violence. converse, debate, reason, argue, dis- Diverse, adv., in different parts, dipute, speak, treat or speak of, discuss; versely; different ways. Pauci pau. to declare, relate, 0 265. lo diversiius conciderant,-in places Dissin1ilis, e, adj. (dis 4- similis), slightly different,-a little removed: $ 250, unlike, dissimilar, different. from Dissimiltter, adv. (dissimilis), differ- Diversus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (diver. ently, in a different manner. to, to turn aside), turned another way Dissimulator, oris, m., a dissembler; turned different ways, in different dione who conceals the truth, one who rections, from different quarters, at pretends that that is not which is, different places, separate. Omnesjam skillful in dissimulation: from antea,diversi audistis,-have already Dissimulo, are, dvi, atum, a. (dis 4 heard separately, or some in one simulo), to dissemble, cloak, disguise, place, some in another;-opposite, conceal, counterfeit, feign. contrary; different, unlike, of a differDissolvo, ere, solvi, solitum, a. (dis ent character, having different views 4- solvo), to dissolve, loose, untie, un- or tastes, inconsistent, diverse, variloose, disunite; to dissipate; to re- ous. Diversus agitabatur, was varimove, terminate, end, put an end to, ously agitated, was agitated by oppodestroy. Dissolvi senectute, to die of site feelings. Reges diversi, pars inold age. genium, alii corpus exercebant,-purDistraho, ere, axi, actum, a. (dis 4- suing opposite courses. traho), to draw or pull asunder, divide, Dives, itis, adj., rich, wealthy, opuseparate; to perplex, distract. lent. Distrtbuo, ere, ui, fitum, a. (dis - Divido, ere, vsi, vZsum,a., to divide, tribuo), to divide, distribute. part, separate; to distribute, portion Ditio, 5nis,f., rule, power, donlin- out, allot. ion, empire, authority. Divinus, a, um, adj. (divus, divine), Diu, adv. comp. diutius, sup. diutis- divine, heavenly. srme, (properly the abl. of dins, obs. a Divisio, bnis,f. (divido), a dividing, day), in the day-time, by day; long, division, separation; a distribution. for a long time. The comparative, Divisus, a, um, part. (divido). diutius, is sometimes used for the DivitiaC, arum,f. pl. (dives), riches, positive, diu. wealth. Dius Fidius, i.e. Jovisfilius, the son Divulgo, are, dvi, atum, a. (dis 4 of Jupiter, see Fidius. Dius, in this vulgo, to publish), ~ 265, to make pubcombination, is by some supposed to lie, publish, divulge, spread abroad. be a Greek genitive, by others the no- Do, dare, dedi, datum, a., -223 to minative for Deus. give, bestow, grant, afford, offer, preDiuturnitas, atis,f., length of time, sent, furnish, confer, impart, make. long continuance, long duration: occasion. Darefidem, to give a profrom mise, promise. Darefidem publicamn Diuturnus, a, um, adj. (diu), of long to pledge the public faith, to give asduration or continuance, long, last- surance of impunity. Darejusjuran. ing long continued, protracted. dum, to take an oath, to swear. Dare Divello, ere, velli, 4- vulsi, vulsum, operam, to endeavor, labor, strive, a, (dis - vello, to pluck), to pull asun- take care, be at pains. Dare cngoe

Page  178 DOCEO 178 DONUM tium, to give in charge, to charge, deceit, treachery, cunning, fraud, arti commission, direct. Dare ponas, to fice, craftiness; subtlety, dexterity give satisfaction, hence, to suffer pun- adroitness, address, acuteness. Dole ishment, be punished. Dare se, to an ver}, in pretence or in reality. yield, submit, give up to, resign. Dare Dominatio, onis, f., dominion, rule, hostes victos, to conquer the enemy, ~ authority, government, power, sove274, R. 4, fin. Dare senattm legatis, to reignty, tyranny, despotism, dominagive an audience of the senate-, to tion: from admit the ambassadors to plead their Dominor, ari, dtus sum, dep., to be cause before the senate. PrcEcipitem lord and master, rule, bear rule, reign, dare, to throw, plunge or carry head- govern, domineer. long, to precipitate. Dare litteras, to Domrnuis, i, m. (domus), a master of deliver-. Dare dono aliqutd, to give a house, master of slaves, proprietor, anything as a present, to present, ~ possessor, owner, lord, ruler, master, 227. Dare provinciam, to commit, tyrant. allot, assign-. Domntus, a, um, part. 4. adj., tamed, Doceo, ere, ui, turn, a., ~ 231, & R. subdued; tame: from 3, ~ 272, ~ 271, ~ 265, to show, inform, Domo, are, ui, ztum, a., to subdue, tell, declare; to teach, instruct. Doc- conquer, overcome, vanquish, break tus sum, I have been taught, hence, I or tame wild animals; to obtain the know. mastery over, gain the ascendency, Doctr, adv. (doctus), learnedly, skill- surmount; to render easy or practicafully. ble. Doctor, oris, m. (doceo), a teacher, Domus, us, 4 i, f., ~ 89, a private instructor, master. house, a house, home, habitation, Doctus, a, urn, part. 4 adj. (doceo), dwelling, place of abode. Domi, at O 250, ~ 271, R. 1, taught. instructed; home, 2 221, R. 3, in one's own house, learned, skilled, well versed. ri 6oine's own country. Doimi ilitie. Documentum, i, n. (doceo), adocu- que or belli, in peace and in war ment, example, pattern, lesson; a Domi-foris, at home-abroad. Do. proof, instance, specimen. mum, after a verb of motion, home; Dolens, tis, part. 4 adj., grieving, se domum proripere, to hasten home, sorrowing, deploring, lamenting, occa- $ 237, R. 4. Domo, from home; domo sioning vexation or chagrin, painful, egressus, leaving home, O 255. R. 1. afflictive, offensive, ~ 222, 3: from. Extorrem patria, domo, an exile from Doleo, ere, ui, n. 4 a., ~ 232, (2.) to my country and my home. grieve, sorrow, be sad or sorry, be in Donatus, a, urn, part., presented, pain, be grieved or afflicted; to mourn, honored. rewarded, loaded with pretake to heart, grieve or be sorry for, sents: from deplore, Jament. Dono, are, avi, ttum, a. (donum), to Dolor, oris, m. (doleo), pain, grief, give liberally, bestow freely, present; distress, sorrow, anguish, a painful with an accusative of the person, to sense or feeling, indignation, chagrin, honor, reward, distinguish by revexation, resentment, anger, mortifi- wards. cation. Dolor injuric, indignation or Donum, i, n. (do), a gift, free gift resentment on account of-. present, offering, bribe. Milztaria Dolus, i. m., a devi.-; crafty pur- dona, military rewards, honorary repose, artifice, stratage:, -ik; i iile. wards bestowed publicly upon merito

Page  179 DORMIO 179 EDICO rious soldiers. Dignum dono, worth 1263, 2, & 4. Dum pararet, provided the giving. he could-so he could but obtain. Dormio, ire, ivi, itum, n., to sleep, Duo, a, o, hnum. aij., two, S 118, 1. be asleep, slumber. Duodecim, num. adj. ind. (duo -4 deDubie, adv. (dubius), doubtfully, du- cem), twelve. biously. Haud dubie, without doubt, Duritia, ce, f, (durus, hard), hardundoubtedly, unquestionably. ness, callousness, roughness, hardi Dubitatio, onis, f., a doubting; ness, austerity, self-denial, power of doubt, uncertainty, hesitation, sus- endurance. pense, irresolution, indecision. Per Duum, see Duo, & $ 118, 1, R. 1. dubitationem, in indecision: from Dux, ducis, m. d4f., a leader, guide, Dubito, are, avi, atum, n., ~ 271, conductor, general. O 265, to doubt, be in doubt, be uncertain, hesitate, scruple, waver, de- E. lay, be backward, be reluctant. Dublium, i, n., doubt, uncertainty. E or Ex, prep. with the abl. $ 195, In dubio, in doubt, in danger: R. 2, from, out of. Denoting the mafrom terials of which any thing is made, of, Dubius, a, um, adj. (duo), ~ 265, out of. Denoting time, from, since, doubtful, dubious, uncertain, danger- after.-Of; on account of, in conseous; hesitating, wavering; dark, quence of; partitively, of, among;threatening, gloomy. Dubie res, according to, in accordance or controubles, difficulties, perils, perplexi- formity with; in, on. Ex altera parte, ties, adverse or untoward circumstan- on the other side. Pendere ex aliquo, ces: also, subjects of doubt or perplex- to depend upon-. E or ex with the ity. Hostes dubii,-wavering, on the ablative is often used to denote a repoint of giving way. mote cause. With its noun it is often Ducenti, cT, a, num, adj. (duo 4 cen- uwed instead of an adverb; as, Ex imturn), two hundred. proviso, unexpectedly. Denoting a Duco, ere, xi, ctum, a., to draw, lead, change of condition, from, in place of, conduct, take along; to protract; to instead of, from being, after: E; sumlead, command, as a general; to at- ma lctitia, tristitia invasit. Ex vo. tract; to take, assume, acquire; to es- luntate, according to one's pleasure, teem, hold, think, consider, account, wish, desire, as one pleases. Ex copi& reckon, regard, place, put, ~ 214, ~ 227, rerum, literally, from the store of $ 230, ~ 272; to ascribe, impute, attri- things, plans, or measures; i. e. from bate, construe. When joined with which a choice could be made, in pretrahere and rapere which denote the sent circumstances. Ex sententia, acact of acquiring by violence, ducere is cording to one's wishes. Ex senten. supposed to mean, to obtain by cun- tia ambobus, acceptable to both. In sing and deceit, to enrich one's self composition, see ~ 196, 6, & ~ 197, 9. by fraud. Ea, see Is. Ducto, are, ivi, atum, a.freq. (duco), E., adv, (is), sc. parte, or vat, that to lead frequently, lead, conduct, com- way, through that place, in that way. mand as a general. Eadem, adv. (properly abl. fern. of Dum, conj. 4 adv., while, whilst, idem, sc. via), the same way. whilst that, during the time that or in Ecce, int., lo! see! behold! which, as long as; until; provided, Eldico, ere, xi, ctum, a. 4 n. (e & 16*

Page  180 EDICTUM 180 EJECTUS dico) ~ 265, to declare publicly, speak (ex - fugio), to fly, fly away, escape. out, relate, tell, publish, order. flee: ~ 229, to avoid, shun, evade, Edictulm, i, n. (edico), an edict, pro- escape from. clamation, order, charge, injunction, Ejfundo, re,fjidi,fiisum, a. (ex 4 general order. undo), O 242, to spill, pour out, shed' Edltus, a, um, part. 4 adj., publish- to spread, scatter, disperse; to pour or ed; raised, elevated; high, lofty. Edi- rush forth in crowds. tus in immensum, of vast height: from EffUse', adv., in a scattered manner Edo, lre, edidi, editum, a., to utter without restraint, loosely, scatteringly or put forth, speak; to declare, show, irregularly:from tell, relate, set forth, exhibit; to pub- Effsus, a, um,part. 4, adj. (efftndo), lish, put out, spread abroad, make poured out; let loose, scattered, disknown; to raise, elevate. persed, in disorder, spread abroad. Edoceo, ere, ui, tum, a. (e 4 doceo, poured forth. Effusi consedere,-irreO 197, 9), O 231, & R. 3, ~ 265, ~ 271, to gularly, in a disorderly manner. teach, instruct carefully; to direct, Egens, tis, part. 4 adj. (egeo), needshow, inform, make known. ing, wanting, demanding, requiring; Edoctus, a, urnm, part. (edoceo), ~ needy, in want, poor, destitute of. 234, I. Egentissinus quisque, the most needy: Educo, ere, xi, ctum, a. (e - duco), from to draw or lead forth, draw out, draw. Egeo, Ire, uz, n.. 250, 2, (2.) & i Effectus, a, urnm, part. (efficio), made, 220, 3, to need, want, be in want of, done, finished, completed. stand in need of, require, be destitute Effemnno, are, ivi, itutm, a. (ex 4- of, lack, be lacking in. femina, a female), to make feminine; Egestas, atis, f. (egeo), want, poto enervate, render soft or effeminate. verty, indigence, beggary; destitution. Efflro, ferre, extili, elatum, irr. a. Ego, mei, pro. ~ 132, & ~ 133, m. 4ex 4-fero), to bring forth, carry forth. I; pl. nos, we. Mecum, with myself, or out; to produce, yield; to publish; in my own mind. to say, speak; to raise, exalt, advance, Egomet, intensive pro. m. 4-f., ~ 133, promote. Se efferre, to boast one's R. 2, I myself. Nosmet, we ourselves. self, pride one's self, be elated, puffed Egridtor, Idi, gressus sum, dep. (e up. Pecunia aut honore efferre, to &4 gradior, to step), ~ 242, & R. 1, & distinguish by pecuniary rewards or R. 3, last clause, ~ 276, II. to go out, promotion. depart, depart from, set forth from; to Effltus, a, urnm, adj. (ex &4fetus, hav- ascend, mount, climb; to pass over, ing brought forth), having brought go beyond. Scalis egressi, having asforth young; past bearing; worn out, cended by means of ladders. exhausted, decayed, weak, feeble. Egregius, a, um, adj. (e f- grex), exE fficio, ere,fleci,fectum, a. (ex 4-fa- cellent, remarkable, eminent, surpasscio), O 273, 1, to bring to pass, do, ing, egregious, notable, noble, singucflict, accomplish, complete, finish, to lar, rare, extraordinary. make, perform, execute; to render; to Egressus, us, m. (egredior), a going cause, occasion. out. Effrtn e, a:re, fregi,fractu.m,~ ac: EEgressus,, urnm, part. (egredior% 4-frango), to break, break open, break Eheu, int. ~ 238, 2. & ~ 240 ah! in pieces alas! Effdgio, Ire, Rigt, ugttum n., 4- a.. Ejectus, a, utl, part.: fom

Page  181 EJICIO 181 EQUES EJticio. Ore,jeci, jectunm, a. (e $ jacio), with a subj. or inf., ~ 273, 1, to make Q 242, & R. 1, to cast or throw out, an effort, strive, struggle, endeavor eject, expel; to banish, drive out. try, exert one's self Enisum est Elegaiter, adv. (elegans, elegant), pass. impers., an effort was made elegantly, choicely, nicely, gracefully. they exerted themselves. Elephantus, i, m. 4 f., an elephant. Enumero, ire, avi, atum, a. (e 4- nuEloquentia, ce, f., (eloquens, elo- mero, to number), ~ 265, to enumerate, quent), eloquence, recount, reckon up, recite. Ementior, iri, itus sum, dep. (e 4 Enuncio, aire, avi, atum a. (e &4 nunmentior), to lie; to pretend falsely, cio), to pronounce, proclaim, declare, feign, falsify, state or report falsely. express, divulge, disclose, reveal. Emereo, ire, ui, itum, a., and Eme- Eo, ire, ivi, itum, irr. n., ~ 182, 210, ieor, erz, itus sum, dep. (e 4f mereo), to to go, travel, march, proceed. Venum merit, deserve; to serve out. ire, see Venus. Perditum ire, to be Emeritus, a, urn, part. pass. 4- act. going to destroy, to be bent upon de- adj. (emereo 4- emereor), merited, de- stroying, ~ 276, II. Eunt ereptum served. Homines emeritis stipendiis, prcemia, ~ 276, II. R 2. Contra in-'211, R. 6, men who have completed jurias armatus ire, to go in arms-, their term of military service. to take up arms-. Ire pedibus in Eminens, tis, part. f adj., rising up, sententiam, to agree, or go over to any standing out, eminent, high, lofty, pro- one's opinion. In the Roman senate, jecting:from when two or three of the senators had Emineo, ere, ui, n. (e 4j mineo, to expressed their opinions, the rest were hang over), to rise or grow up, be accustomed to go over to the seats of raised above, stand out, project. those of whose opinions they approved. EmInus, adv. (e 4 manus), from a Obviam itum est, see Obviam, distance, at a distance, afar off. E, adv. (is), Eb is used either for Emissus, a, urn, part.: fron tlhe d dative of is, orfor the ablative, Emitto, ere, misi, missum, a. (e 4- (a), thither, to that place, to this. mitto,) to send forth or out, let go; to When followed by ut, quo, or a geni sling, hurl, throw, discharge. tive, so far, to such a pitch or degree. Emo, ere, emi, emptum, a., to buy, to that degree, to such a pass, $ 212, purchase. R. 4, N 3. (b) For ibi or in eo loco, Emorrior, i, mortuus sum, dep. (e 4 there, in that place. With comparamorior), to die, die outright, utterly tives, by so much, so much, the. perish. Emori per virtutem, to die Also, either with or without the parbravely. ticles, quo, quod, quia, &c. on that acEmptor, oris, m. (emo), a buyer, pur- count, for that reason, for that, therechaser. fore; for this or that purpose. En, int., lo! see! behold! Eo, see Is. Enim, conlj. 279,3, (c.) for, indeed, Eodem, adv (idem) to the same but, now. At enim, but, indeed. Enim place, thither, to the same end or obtero, or enimvero, indeed, truly. ject, to the same purpose, Enisus, a, urn, part. (enitor). Epistila, e,f., a letter. epistle. Enitesco, Ore, nitui, n. inc. (eniteo, to Epulae, irum,f. pl., food, victuals, shine), to shine forth, become famous, a feast, banquet. become distinguished. Eques, Itis, m. 4 f. (equus), a horseEnitor, i, nisus bum, dep. (e 4 nitor), man, trooper; a knight. Equttes

Page  182 EQUESTER 182 EVADO knights, a title of rank amongst the Eruditus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (eruRomans. The knights constituted an dio), taught, instructed, learned, skilorder of citizens between the patricians ful, versed, skilled. and plebeians. Also, cavalry, horse, Erumpo, ere, ipi, uptur, a. 4' n. (e horsemen. - rumpo, to break). $ 242, to break or Equester, tris, tre, adj. (eques), per- burst forth, sally forth. taining to a horseman, equestrian. Escendo, ere, di, sum, n. (e 4- scanEquestre proelium, a battle of cavalry; do, to climb), to mount, ascend. -belonging to the Equites or knights. Et, conj., and, even: et-et, bothEquester ordo, the order of knights. and, not only-but also. The clause Equtdem, conj. (ex or e intensive, 4- introduced by et is sometimes explana. quidem), indeed, truly, in truth, for my tory of the preceding one. Et like ac part. This word in most authors is or atque has sometimes the force of et usuallyjoined with verbs of the first quidem: see Atque, and is sometimes person singular. used instead of sed. See Ac. Et is Equitatus, us, m., riding; the cav- sometimes omitted, at the close of an airy, a body of horsemen, troop of enumeration, before alius, cetera, relihorse: from quus, omnes, etc. Equyto, are, Evi, atum, n. (eques), to Etenim, conj. (ct 4 enim), for, truly, ride on horseback. because that. Equus, i, m., a horse, steed. Equo Etiam, conj. 4 adv., also, likewise, citrosire, to ride round. besides, even; yet, still, as yet. EtiErectus, a, urn, adj., part. (erigo), am atque etiam, again and again, over erect, elevated.-'Fig- confident, en- and over again, repeatedly. Etiam couraged, attentive, roused, excited, nunc, even now, still, yet. Etiam turn, awakened. even then, down even to that time, Ereptus, a, um, part. (eripio). already. Etiam si, even if, although, Ergo, illative, conj., therefore, then. though. Etiamtum, adv. (etiam 4 ErIgo, ere, exi, ectum, a. (e 4 rego), tur), still at that time, still. This to raise, erect, set upright; to lift or particle denotes that somethingformer set up,-build up, elevate; to cheer ly existed which has now ceased to exist up, encourage; to rouse, excite. Etruria, mc,f., Etruria,' not TuscaErlpio, ere, ipui, eptum, a. (e 4 ra- ny, a country of Italy lying on the pio), ~ 224, R. 2, & ~ 242, R. 1, to take right of the Tiber. C. 27. away by force; take away, extort, Eundo, gerund, (eo, ire). wrest from; to free, liberate, rescue, Eur&pa, e,f., Europe, one of the withdraw, extricate, save, deliver from. three great divisions of the eastern Ire ereptum, to be bent upon taking continent. It is said to have been away, strive to take away. named from Europa the daughter of Erratum, i, n., a mistake, error; a Agenor king of Phoenicia. J. 17. fault, cffence: from Evado, ere, si, sum, n. 4, a. (e 4 vaErro, are, avi, atum, n., to wander do), ~ 242, & R. 1. to go out, get a ay, up and down, wander about, stray, go escape from; to make one's way astray Fig.toerr,mistake, gowrong, penetrate, pass; to ascend, mount, be mistaken. climb; to run away, escape Fig. to Eriidio, ire, ivi 4, ii, Itum, a. (e 4- end, turn out, terminate become, rudis), to teach. instruct, inform, di- prove. Evadere huc to end in this, rect; to bring up, educate. come to this.

Page  183 EVENIO 183 EXISTIMO Eovenio, ire, in,, entum, n. (e 4 ve- Excio, ire, ivi, itum, and Exczeo 1io), 223, 260, R. 3, to come out, ere, ivi, Ytum, a. (ex 4 cio or cteo come, proceed; to happen, fall out, S 242, to move), to raise, excite, rouse occur, turn out; to fall by lot, fall to to call out, incite, induce, lead, disthe lot of. turb. Eventus, us, m. (evenio), an event, Exclpio, ere, epi, eptum, a. (ex 4f caaccident, issue, effect, result, conse- pio), to receive, take up; to except quence, end. Excito, are, avi, atum, a.freq. (ex Evocatus, a, ur, part., called out, cio), to call out, rouse, to move, stir summoned, invited. Evocati, orum, up, excite, incite, spur on, stimulate. m. pl., in military language, were vete- Excitus, and Excitus, a, urn, part. ran soldiers, who after completing their (excio and excieo). term of service were induced to enlist Exclamo, are, avi, atum, a. (ex 4 again, and to whom a more honorable clamo, to cry aloud), $ 272, to cry; or station was assigned, re-enlisted vete- call out, exclaim; to call or say with rans: from a loud voice. Evoco, are, avi, atum, a. (e f voco), Excriicio, are, avi, atum, a. (ex 4-'242, R. 1, to call out, invite, sum- crucio, to torment), to torture. Fig mon; to reienlist. to afflict, torment, distress, disquiet, Ex, see E. harass, fret, vex, disturb. Exactus, a, urn, part. - adj. (exigo), Excibo, are, ui, ltum, n. (ex &4 cubo, driven away; past, finished, spent. to lie), to sleep out of doors; to watch, Excdijicatus, a, unm, part., built: keep watch, mount guard, stand senfrom try. Excedifico, are, avi, atum, a. (ax 4 Exemplum, i, n. (extmo, to take out), edifico), to build up, build, finish, a copy, transcript; an example, inExcequatus, a, urn, part., shared stance, precedent. equally, made equal: from Exerceo, ere, ui, Itum, a. (ex 4 arExequo, are, avi, atum, a. (ex 4 ceo, to keep off), to practice, train, c.quo, to level), to make equal or even, exercise, employ, use, make use equalize, equal; to make to tally with of, occupy, indulge, gratify; to conor agree. Facta dictis sunt exccquan- duct, carry on, prosecute. Exerda, deeds must be truly represented cere inimicitias cum aliquo, to be on by words, must be faithfully narrated. terms of enmity with-. Fxagitatus, a, urn, part.: from Exercitatus, a, urn, part. 4 adj., exExaglto, are, avi atum, a. (ex 4f agi- ercised, versed, trained, practiced, hato), to harass, vex, agitate, disturb; to bituated: from rouse, stir up, irritate, move, excite; Exerclto, are, iavi, atum, a. freq. (exto inveigh against, censure, reproach; erceo), to exercise. to debate, agitate, discuss, bruit, noise Exercitus, us, m. (exerceo), an army abroad. Exercetus, a, urn, part. (exerceo), ex Excedo, ere, essi, essum, n. (ex 4- ercised; wearied, tired; conducted cedo), ~ 242, & R. 1, to depart, go forth, carried on. retire, withdraw. Exigo, ere, egi, actum, a. (ex - ago). Excelsus, a, um, adj. (excello, to be to lead out, to send fortn or out, to high), high, lofty. In excelso cfatem drive out; to pass, lead, spend; to agere, to live or pass one's life in an finish, complete, perform. elevated station. ExisCdmo, are, avi, atum, a. (etx 4 s

Page  184 EXITIUM 184 EXSANGUIS time), O 272, to judge, think, esteem, experience; to find. Ertrema omnia account, reckon, suppose, imagine; to experiri, to try all desperate measures, decide, determine; to estimate, consi- to go to all extremes. der, weigh, $ 265. Experrectus, part. (expergiscor). Exitium, i, n. (exeo, to go out), ruin, Expers, tis, adj. (ex 4- pars), ~ 213 mischief, destruction; issue, end, R. 5, (2.) not concerned in, free from, death. without, destitute of, void of. ExItus, us, m. (exeo), a going out, Expertus, a, urn, part. (experior). exit; an event. issue, end, close, ter- Expilo, are, avi, atum, a. (ex e pilo mination, result. to pillage), to rob, plunder, pillage. Exopto, are, dvi, dtum, a. (ex 4 Expldno, are, dvi, dtum, a. (ex 4 opto), to wish or desire greatly, covet, piano, to make plain), to make plain desire; to choose. or smooth. Fig. to explain, interpret, Exorior, mri, ortus sum, dep. $ 177, shew, relate, tell. (ex r. orior), to rise, arise, spring up. Expleo, ere, evi, itum, a. (ex' pleo, Exornatus, a, um, part. 4 adj., obs.) 249, I., to fill, fill up; to satisfy, adorned, furnished, embellished:from satiate, gratify; to complete, accomExorno, are, dvi, dtum, a. (ex 4- plish, supply. Muneribus explere, to orno, to fit out), ~ 249, I, to adorn, load with gifts. embellish, deck out, dress; to furnish, Explordtus, a, urn, part. 4- adj., cersupply, equip; to arrange, prepare, tainly known, ascertained, explored, provide, dispose, make preparations. sure: front Exortus, a, um, part. (exorior). Exploro, are, avi, dtum, a. (ex - Expedio, ire, ivi f4 ii, itum, a. 4 n. ploro, to cry), ~ 265, to search dili(ex 4 pes), to free, discharge, liberate; gently, search, scrutinize, explore, exto disentangle, free from difficulties, amine, spy out, seek out, ascertain, disengage, unloose, extricate; to des- reconnoitre. patch, finish, put an end to, accom- Expono, ere, osui, ositum, a. (ex plish, bring about, bring to a happy pono), to put out, set forth, expose; to conclusion; to get ready, put in readi- explain, tell, relate, declare; to disness, prepare; to explain, relate, tell, play. set forth. Expugno, are, avi, atum, a. (ex Expeditio, onis, f. (expedio), a mili- pugno), to conquer, vanquish, subdue, tary expedition. overcome. Expugnare or expugnare Expeditus, a, un, part. - adj. (expe- armis, to storm, carry or take by dio), freed, liberated, disengaged; storm; to assault. light armed, unencumbered; free from Expulsus, a, urn, part. (expello). baggage, prepared, equipped, ready. Expurgo, are, dvi, dtum, a. (ex 4 Expello, ire, pili, pulsum, a. (ex 4- purgo, to cleanse), to purge, cleanse, peUo), ~ 242, to drive out or away, ex- purify. Fig. to clear, justify, exculpel. pate, excuse. ERpergiscor, i. experrectus sum, dep. Exquiro, ere, quisivi, quisitum, a (ezpergo, to awaken), to awake, rouse (ex 4 quaro), to search out, examine one's self, rouse up. ask, explore, inquire into, seek out. Experimentum, i, n., an experiment, Exquirere sententias, to take the votes trial, proof; experience: from or opiniops. Experior iri, expertus sum, dep., to Exquisitus, a, um, part.'exqutro). try, make trial of, use, attempt, prove. Exsanguis, e, adj. (ex - sanguis)

Page  185 EXSECRATIO 185 EXUO without blood, bloodless, pale, lifelss, Exsupero, are, dvi, datum, n.' a feeble, weak, exhausted. (ex 4' supero), to surpass, excel, ex Exsecratio, 5nis, f., imprecation, ceed, go beyond, overcome. execration, curse; an oath: from Exsurgo, ere, surrexi, surrectum, n Exsecror, iri, atus sum, dep. (ex 4 (ex' 4 surgo, to rise), to rise, rise up sacro, to make sacred), to curse, exe- rouse one's self; to recover strength crate, detest. take courage. Exsequor, t, cutus sum, dep. (ex 4 Extenuatus, a, urn, part.: from sequor), to follow, pursue; to copy, Extenuo, are, dvi, dtum, a. ex 4' imitate; to prosecute, continue; to tenuo, to make thin), to make small execute, accomplish, do, perform. or slender, to attenuate, thin Ex Exsilium, i, n. (ex 4' solum, the soil), tenuare aciem, to diminish the depth banishment from one's native soil, of the line by extending it in length exile. to draw out, extend. Exspectatio, 3nis, f., an expecting, Exter or Exterus, a, urn, adj. $ 125 expectation, desire: from 4, (ex), of another country, foreign, Exspecto, are, avi, atum, a. 4' n. (ex comp. exterior, sup. extremus, which 4 specto), to look for, wait for, expect; see. to long for, hope or wish for, de- Extollo, ire, a. (ex 4 tollo), to lift or sire. hold up, raise up, elevate; to raise to Exspolio, are, ivi, atum, a. (ex 4f high honors or offices; to praise, mag spolio), to spoil, rob, strip, plunder, nify, exaggerate. Extollere se, to pillage. raise up one's self, assume import Exstinctor, oris, m. (exstinguo), an ance, feel one's importance. Extolextinguisher, destroyer. lere verbis, laudibus or laudando, to Exstinctus, a, urn, part. 4 adj., ex- praise, extol. tinguished, cut off extinct, destroyed; Extorqueo, ire, orsi, ortum, a. (ex 4 decayed, sunk into obscurity: from torqueo, to turn), to extort, wrest, take Exstinguo, gre, nxi, nctum, a. (ex 4' away by force. stinguo, to extinguish), to put out, ex- Extorris, c, adj., exiled, banished. tinguish, quench; to cut off, kill, de- It is construed with the ablative like stroy, remove. Exsul, which see. Exstruo, ere, uxi, uctum, a. (er 4 Extra, prep. with the ace., without, struo, to build), to build up, raise, rear, out of. neap or pile up, construct. Exstruere Extremum, i, n., the end, close, exmare, to build up a sea, i. e. to fill and tremity. Esse, or situm esse in extre. build upon the sea, fill the sea with mo, to be reduced to the last extremibuildings. ty. Eo in extremo, in so critical a' Exsul, ulis, m. &4 f. (ex 4 solurn, the situation: from soil) one banished from his country, Extremus, a, um, adj., sup. of an exile. It is followed by the ablative Exter; extreme, last, latest final. of the place, from which one is banish- farthest, very or most remote, utmost, ed, depending on ex in composi- greatest, outermost. Extrema demention. tia, the height of madness. Primos Exsulto, are, avi, iatum, n. freq. (ex- et extremos locare, to station in front stIZo, to leap out), to leap, frisk, bound, and rear. Extremum agmen, the rear leap with joy. Fig. to rejoice great- rank, the rear, ~ 205, R. 17. ly, exult. Ezuo,?re, ui, utum, a., ~ 251 to

Page  186 EXURO 186 FACTUS strip off, put off. Fig. to deprive of, of catervc facinorosorum homtnum dispossess, strip. ~ 324, 2. ExUro, ere, ussi, ustum, a. (ex 4- uro, Facio, ere, feci, factum, a. 4 n., to to burn), to burn. make, do, form; absolute, to act, perExustus, a, um, part. (exuro), burnt, form deeds or exploits;-to elect, scorched, parched, burnt up. choose, create, constitute, excite, cause,render; to commit, perform, exe-"~F. cute; to pretend, feign; to value, esFabius, i, m. Q. Fabius Maximus teem, care for, ~ 214. Facere versus, to Verrucosus Cunctator, a descendant compose-; with the accusative it often from the illustrious family (gens) of forms a periphrasis, as, facere inju the Fabii, was appointed dictator in riam, to injure: deditionem, to surren the war against Hannibal, and by der; verba, to speak, converse. Bene wisely protracting the war, at length facere, see Bene. Parum facere, to freed Italy from her formidable inva- value little. Gloriam meam laborem ders. illorum facere, to turn or convert Fabius, i, m., see Sanga. their toif to my glory. Dilicti graFacetiwc, arum, f. pl. (facetus, face- tiamfacere, to pardon, forgive, excuse tious), facetiousness, pleasantry, wit, -. Facere optionem, to give a choice, humor. give liberty of choice: modum, to set Facies, ei,f. (facio), the face, coun- bounds: insidias, to lay snares: nihil tenance, visage; the form, figure, ap- reliqui, to leave yothing fidem verbis, pearance, sight, aspect, mien, look. to give assurance to, cause to be beFactle, adv., easily, readily, without lieved-: periculum alicui, to cause difficulty; willingly, contentedly; cer- danger to: qucestionem, to institute tainly, indisputably, evidently: Haud a prosecution. Imperativefac, ~ 162, facile, not easily, not readily, rarely, 4. Fac cogites, reflect, consider, ~ 267, seldom: from R. 3. Factlis, e, adj., ~ 125, 2, (facio),' Factio, bnis,f. facio), a making, do222, ~ 276, III. easy, ready, without ing; a faction, party, side; union or difficulty. Amicitiafacilis, easily con- combination, for the purpose of gainciliating friendship, ~ 250. ing or retaining undue power. Faciltas, atis, f. (facilis), easiness, Factibsus, a, um, adj. (factio), facfacility, readiness. Fig. gentleness, tious, seditious, addicted to faction, courteousness, courtesy, kindness, devoted to party, influeficed by party good humor, complaisance, sociabili- spirit. ty, conversableness. Factum, I, n., a deed, action, enterFacinorosus, a, um, adj., wicked, prise, exploit, act, occurrence, provillainous, atrocious: from ceeding, conduct, achievement, fact, FacYnus, oris, n., an action, deed, circumstance. Optimumfactum est, it exploit, affair or enterprise (either is the best way, it is best:from good or bad); a bold or audacious act. Factus, a, um, part. (fio), made, Ingcnii egregia facinora, the great done, elected. Bene factum, a thing achievements-, choice products-. done well, a well performed act, a Rei militaris facinora, military ex- noble or illustrious deed. Facto opus ploit. Belli facinora, warlike mea- est, there is need of action, one must sures;-wickedness, villainy, guilt, act. Quidfacto opus est, what needs crime. Caterv&c facinorum, instead to be done. Utt facto opus sit, ita

Page  187 FACUNDIA 187 FAUX agznt, as should need to be done, as ly, familiar. Resfamiliares, and opes circumstances should require-. familiares, family estate, private pro. Facundia, ae,f., eloquence:from perty, property. Familiaris, is, m., a Facundus, a, urnm, adj. (fari, to say), friend, acquaintance. eloquent. Familiaritas, atis, f. (familiarZs), I'a$siil, arum,, a town of Etru- familiarity, acquaintance, familiar ria, now Fiezoli. C. 24, 30, &c. friendship, intimacy. It is found in Fa;sulanus, a, um, adj., of or belong- the plural, C. 14, when an intimacy ing to Feesulae, Fasulan. Subs. A. with several persons is spoken of. Famsidan, an inhabitant of Foesule. FamiliarVter, adv. (familtaris), faC. 53, 60. miliarly, intimately, on terms of iltiFallacia, a,,f. (fallax, deceitful,) de- macy. ceit, trick, artifice, craft. Fambsus, a, um, adj. (fama), famous, Fallo, ere, fefelli, falsum, a. 4- n., to much talked of, celebrated, notorious; deceive, delude, mislead; to violate infamous. one's promise; to act treacherously, Fansm, i, n., consecrated ground, a disappoint, betray. Nisi me animus temple, fane. fallit, unless I am mistaken;-to be Fas, n. ind. ~ 94, divine law, justice, concealed, escape the notice of, elude. equity, right. Jusfasque, human and Nec me fallit, I am not ignorant, I divine law. well know. Fallor, I am deceived or Fascis, is, m., a bundle of wood mistaken. twigs, &c., a faggot; the fasces, a Falso, adv., falsely, without reason, bundle of rods, containing an axe, unjustly:from carried by the lictors before certain Falsus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (fallo), Roman magistrates, especially before deceived, mistaken, misled, deluded; the consuls. Fasces corripere, to deceitful, treacherous, faithless, hypo- seize upon the fasces, and by metonyme, critical, insincere, false; pretended, to seize upon the consular power, to feigned, untrue; unfounded, ground- make one's self consul by force. less. Habere falsum, to deceive, dis- Fateor, Eri,fassus sum, dep., to conappoint. Pro falsis ducere, to con- fess, own, grant, acknowledge; to sider as untrue. show, manifest, discover. Fama, w, f., fame, report, rumor; Fatigo, are, avi, &itum, a., to tire, fame, reputation, character, renown; weary, fatigue; to vex, trouble, harass FamnA cognitus, known by reputation; to importune, press with solicitation, -fama or mala fama, ill fame, oblo- urge importunately, ~ 273, 2; to rouse, quy, censure, calumny, infamy, scan- incite, stimulate, push on; to weaken, dal;-opinion, belief. impair, corrupt. Fames, is,f., hunger, fasting. Fatum, i, n. (for, to say), a pro Familia, cr,f, (familus, a servant), phecy, oracle, prediction; fate, des. the slaves belonging to one master; tiny. Cuifatumforet, who was desa family; a company, band. Filius tined. familias, and mater familias, see Fi- Fautor, bris, m. (faveo), a favorer, lius and Mater: for the genitive fa- promoter, partisan. milia.s see ~ 43, 2. Faux, cis,f. Q 94, the larynx, gullet, Famdliaris, e, adj. (famzlia), of or throat, jaws; a narrow passage, pass belonging to the same retinue of or defile. Faucibus urget, is close dlates, ot to a family, intimate, friend- upon (us), has (us) in his jaws. 17

Page  188 FAVEO 188 FIDES Faveo, ire,fam, fautum, n., ~ 223, Ferrn studio, to be moved or carried R. 2, to favor, countenance, befriend. away by ardor of feeling. Favor, oris, m. (faveo), favor, good Ferocia, a, f. (ferox), ferocity, fierce will, kindmass, popularity. ness. Februar:us, a, urn, adj. (februus, FerocYter, adv., fiercely, savagely, fopurifying), of or pertaining to the rociously, insolently, violently, harshmonth February. ly: from Feliceter, adv., happily, fortunately; Ferox, 6cis, adj. (fero), insolent, luckily, prosperously, successfully: fierce, headstrong, violent; bold, infrom trepid, brave, warlike, gallant; cruel, Felix, icis, adj. (leo, obs. to create), savage, ferocious, untamed, unsubhappy, fortunate, felicitous; rich, opu- dued. Multus atque ferox instare,lent; prosperous, successful; fruitful, incessantly and furiously. fertile. Ferrum, i, n., iron. Fig. a sword. Fenerator, oris, m. (fenero, to lend Fertilis, e, adj, ~ 213. R. 5, (2.) money on interest), a money lender, (fero), fertile, fruitful, productive; one who lends money on interest, a abundant, copious, rich. usurer. Ferus, a, urn, adj., wild, rude, unculFera, e,f. (ferus), a wild beast. tivated, uncivilized; fierce, cruel, barFere, adv., almost, nearly, well nigh, barous, savage. about; for the most part. Fessus, a, urn, adj. (fatiscor, to Ferentarii, orum, m. pl. (fero), light grow tired), wearied, tired, fatigued;. ained troops. weary, exhausted, worn out, enfeeFerinus, a, um, adj. (fera), of or be- bled. longing to a wild animal. Festino, are, avi, atum, n. 4, a. (festi. Ferio, ire, a., to strike, smite, beat, nus, quick), ~ 271, to hasten, make cut, wound, to encounter hand to haste, bestir one's self, be in a hurry; hand. Ferire arietibus, to batter, to hasten. accelerate, hurry, do speediFerme, adv. (fere), almost, nearly, ly, hasten to accomplish; to hurry to about; for the most part, generally, and fro, be agitated. usually. Festus a, um, adj., festival, festive; Fero, ferre, tuli, latum, a. 4 n., to joyful. Festus dies, a holiday, fescarry, bear, bring, carry away; to pro- tival. duce; to carry off, plunder; to cause, Fictus, a, urn, part. S4 adj. (fingo), occasion; to exhibit, show; to gain, made, formed, contrived; false, feignattain; to suffer, endure, sustain; to ed, fictitious, imaginary, fabulous. say, tell, relate, report, represent. Ficta loqui, to dissemble, speak inFertur, is said, ~ 271;-to lead, con- sincerely. duct, tend; to move, incite, incline, Fidglis, e, adj. (fides), faithful, sindispose; to extol, exalt; to propose, cere, trusty, sure. report, represent. Ferre opem alicui, Fideelter, adv. (fidelis), faithfully, to give assistance, to assist-. Utifors sincerely, honestly. tulit, as chance has brought about, as Fides, i,f. (fido, to t ut to), fait\. it happens. Fert animus,-inclines, is truth, honesty, hono-, veracity, faith disposed. Neque aliud al'oferri cer- iulness, fidelity, devoted attachment, neres, you would not see (lit.) one friendship; a promise, assurance, word, thing carried one way, another an- obligation, engagement; a promise of other, i e. perpetual commotion pardon; public faith, security, pro

Page  189 FIDIUS 189 FLECTO tcction, help, aid, assistance; credit; ere finem, to make an end, to end, faith, belief, confidence, trust; credi- terminate. Finern statuere, to fix a bility, certainty, truth. Resfidesque, limit, set boundaries. property and credit. Fidei causa, for Finitimus, a, um adj., (finis), neigh credit's sake, to maintain appearan- boring, bordering upon, adjoining. ces, also, for the purpose of inpiring Finitimi, orum, m., neighbors, neighconfidence. Pro deum atque hoiinum boring people. fidem! in earnest asseverations, wit- Fio, fieri, factus sum, irr. pass. of ness gods and men! Per regnifidem, facio, $ 180, S 210, to be made or done, by royal faith, by the honor of a king. to become, happen, come to pass, to Datu et acceptafide, having exchanged be conducted or carried on; to be promises of fidelity. Fide nuntii, con- elected, to be. Fit, imp. it happens, fidence in-. Punica fides, Cartha- $ 262, R. 3. For other significations, see ginian faith, i. e. bad faith, perfidy. Facio. Fide publica dicere, to speak under a Firmo, are, ivi, atum, a., to make public pledge of impunity. firm, strengthen, establish, confirm, Fidius, i, m., the same as filius, a secure, fortify, guard: from son. It is found only in the combi- Firmus, a, um, adj., firm, steady, nation Diusfidius, or Medius fidius; constant, stable, sure, resolute, intreme Diusfidius, sc. juvet, so help me pid, determined, solid, strong, secure, the son of Jupiter, i. e. Hercules, or, robust, durable, lasting, substantial, to by Hercules. Others takefidius to be be depended upon, faithful, certain. properly an adjective signifying faith- Flaccus, i, m. (L. Valerius), alRDful, and Diusfidius to be, the god of man prator, who adhered to the cause faith. of the senate during the conspiracy Fiducia, a, f. (fido, to trust to), of Catiline. A. U. C. 691. C. 45,46. trust, confidence, reliance. Flaccus, i, m. (M. Fulvius), a friend Fidus, a, um, adj. (fido, to trust to), of C. Gracchus. J. 16., 31.42. Q 222, faithful, trusty, to be relied on; Flagitibsus, a, um, adj., infamous,'safe, secure. flagitious, wicked, profligate, dissoFigulus, i, m. (C. Marcius Figulzs lute, disgraceful, dishonorable: from Thermus), was consul with L. Caesar, Flagitium, i, n. (flagito, to dun), a A. U. C. 690. C. 17. disgraceful or shameful crime, profliFigura, a,f. (fingo), a figure, form, gacy, dissoluteness, lewdness; shame, shape; image, likeness, disgrace, dishonor, infamy, reproach. Filia, ae,f., a daughter: from Caterve flagitiorum, instead of jlaiFilius, i, m., a son. Filiusfamilias, tiosorum hominum, the abstractfor the a son who is under his father's autho- concrete, ~ 324, 2. rity. lagro, are, avi, atum, n. (flo, to Fingo, 4re,finxi,fictum, a., to form, blow), to burn, be on fire. Fig. to be fashion, make; to suppose, feign, pre- inflamed, enkindled, excited. tend; to imagine, conceive; to' de- Flaminius, i, m., (C.), a confederate vise, contrive. Fingere verba, to con- ofCatiline of whom nothing is known. trive a fictitious narrative, set up false C. 36. pretences. Flamma, ca,f., a flame, blaze. Fig Fzmrs, is, m. ff., the end, conclu- ardor, desire. sin: a boundary, limit. Fines, lim- Flecto, Are, xi, xum, a., to bend, bow its, tounds; a country, territory. Fac- turn. Fig. to move, touch, persuade

Page  190 FLEXUS 190 FRATER prevail upon, appease, to change, alter, Formtdolbsus, a, um, adj. (foimido) influence. timorous, afraid;. 222,3, causing fear, Flexus, a, urn, part. (flecto). fearful, terrible, formidable, fright Florens, tis, part. - adj., flourishing, ful. blooming. Fzg. prosperous: from Fornix, Ccis, m., an arch or vault. Floreo, ere, ui, n. (flos, a flower, Fors, tis,f., chance, luck, hap, for. $ 187, I, 1), to flourish, bloom, blossom. tune. Forte, abl., by chance, by forFluctus, us, m. (Jluo, to flow), a tune, casually, accidentally, peradven wave. ture. After si, nisi, ne, etc., perhaps, Flumen, Ynis, n. (fluo), a stream, a perchance. nver. Forsltan, adv. (fors, sit, an), per. Fluxus, a, um, adj. (fluo), flowing, haps, perchance, peradventure. running. Fig. fleeting, transient, un- Fortis, e, adj., brave, valiant, galsteady, inconstant, not to be depend- lant, courageous, bold, firm, resolute, ed upon. Fluxa fide uti, to be trea- intrepid, fearless. Fortiafacta, gloricherous;-pliant, weak, feeble. ous deeds, gallant achievements. Focus, i, m. (foveo), a hearth. Fig. FortitUdo, Inis,f. (fortis), fortitude, a house, home, fireside. bravery, courage, resolution, magnaFoed, adv., basely, cruelly, disgrace- nimity, intrepidity, boldness, fearlessfully: from ness. Feedus, a, um, adj., ugly, deformed, Fortina, re, f. (fors), fortune, unseemly, unsightly, ghastly, foul, chance, hazard, hap, luck; the godloathsome, filthy; Fig. base, shame- dess Fortune; good fortune; bad forless, disgraceful, vile, mean, dishon- tune, misfortune; state or condition orable; cruel, barbarous. in life, rank, fortune, situation, lot, Ftedus, Uris, n., a league, covenant, circumstances; the favor, smiles or treaty, alliance. interposition of fortune. MaximaforFons, tis, m., a fountain, spring tuna, the highest rank:-fortunce, pl., well, fount. property, possessions, riches, wealth, Forem, es, et, etc. def. (~ 154, R. 3), an estate, fortune; also, lot, fortune. 227, I might be, &c.; inf.fore, the fate, condition, circumstances. same as futurus esse; with a subject Fortunitus, a, um, adj. (fortuno, to accusative, would or should be. Imp. prosper), happy, fortunate, lucky, proswith ut and the subjunctive. ~ 262, R. perous, blest. 3. Nunquam ego ratus sumfore, uti. Forum, i, n., a market place, marI never thought it would come to ket, mart; the Forum, a place in pass- Perdend: reipublica fore, Rome where assemblies of the people see Sum. were held, justice was administered, Foris, adv., without, out of doors, and other public business transacted. abroad, away from home, in foreign Oppidum, forum rerum venalium, a parts or countries. market-town, mart. Forma, a,f., a form, shape, figure, Fossa, ac,f. (fodio, to dig), a ditch; person; beauty, comeliness, a trench, moat. Formuido, Ynis,f., fear, terror, dread; Fragilis, e, adj., brittle, weak, frail that which produces fear, a terror, in- fragile. Fig. frail, perishable: from timidation; aih object of apprehen- Frango, ere, fregi, fractum, a., to sion. Facere or addere formidinem, break, break in pieces. to excite fear inspire fear. Frater, tris, m., a brother.

Page  191 FRATERNUS 191 FUNDO Fratenus, a, um, adj. (frater), of a discedere, to depart without accombrother, fraternal. plishing one's purpose. Fraus,fraudis,f, fraud, deceit, guile, Frustrdtus, a, um, part., frustrated, treachery, dishonesty; punishment, disappointed. Pauci in pluribus loss, damage, detriment, harm, injury. minus frustrati, a few among many Sine fraude, without hurt or harm, being less disappointed (in their aim,) with impunity;-a fault, crime. i. e. missing less; (i. e. than did the Fregi, see Frango. enemy): from Frequens, tis, adj., frequent, con- Frustro, are, avi, atum, a. and Frusstant; numerous, many, in great num- tror, ari, atus sum, dep., (frustra), to bers; crowded, full, populous, in full deceive, disappoint, frustrate. Spes assembly. Frequentes incedere, to mefrustratur, I am disappointed in my march in a body. Frequens Numidia, expectation. the populous parts of Numidia. Frux, frugis, f. ~ 94, the fruit or Frequentatus, a, um, part. &4 adj. produce of the earth, corn, pulse, fruit.'frequento), frequented, much used, Fudi, see Fundo. resorted to, visited. Fuga, ca, f., flight; exile, banish Frequentia, e,f. (frequens), a crowd, ment. Fig. dismay, consternation throng, press, concourse, multitude, Facerefugam, to flee. assembly. Fugitus, a, umpart. (fugo), routed. Frequento, are, avi, atum, a. (fre. discomfited, put to flight. quens), to frequent, go often to, attend Fugiens, tis, part. d, adj., flying, tryupon, resort much to, haunt; to go in ing to escape, fugitive: from great numbers; to fill with inhabitants, Fugio, ere, fugi, n. ~4 a., to flee or crowd, fill, O 249, I. fly, run away, escape; to avoid, Fretum, i, n., a strait, narrow part shun. of the sea. Fretum nostri maris et Fugitivus, a, urn, adj. (fugio), fugioceani, i. e. the straits of Gibraltar. tive. Fugitivus servus, a runaway Fretus, a, un, adj. ~ 244, trusting to, slave. relying or depending on. Fugo, are, ait, 4tum, a., to put to Frigus, Uris, n., cold. flight, rout. Frons, tis, f., the front of the head, Fui, etc., see Sum. the forehead, brow; the front of any Fulvia, a, f., a woman of noble thing, Frons aciei, the front or family but profligate character, by van. whom the conspiracy of Catiline war Fructus, us, m. (fruor), the fruits of first brought to light. C. 23. the earth, income, profits; profit, ad- Fulvius, i, m. (A), the son of a Rovantage, benefit, use. man senator, put to death by his father Frumentor, ari, atus sum, dep., to for adhering to the party of Capline. collect corn, purvey, forage: from C. 39. Frumentum, i, n., corn or grain of Fulvius, i, m, (M.) see Nobilior. all kinds, wheat, barley: from See also Flaccus. Fruor, i, Itus or ctus sum, dep Fundtor, ri, ri, m. (funda a sling), 245 1, to enjoy, reap the fruits of. a slinger. Frustra, adv., to no purpose, in Fundo, re,fudi,fusum, a., to pour, vain. Frustra esse, to be frustrated, to scatter abroad, discomfit. rout, disdisappointed; to be in vain, to fail, to perse; to pour'out, shed, to overbe unsuccessfll. See Sum. Frustra throw, lty prostrate. 17

Page  192 FUR 192 GERO Fur, furls, m. 4 f., a thief, pilferer, er of brothels, rioter, reveller, gluttorn plunderer. Fur wrarii, a peculator. debauchee. Furibundus, a, urn, adj. (furo, to be Gauda, A, m., a Numidian, the son mad), raging much, furious, mad, out- of Manastabal, and grandson of Ma rageous. sinissa. J. 65. Furius i, m. (P.), an associate of Gaudeo, ere, gavisus sum, n. pass Catiline, and one of the colonists es- ~ 142, 2, &. 247, 1, (2.) to rejoice, be tablished by L. Sylla at Fwsule. C. 50. glad; to delight in. Furor, oris, m. (Juro), fury, mad- Gaudium, i, n. (gaudeo), joy, gladness, rage. ness, pleasure. Corporis gaudia, sen Furtim, adv. (fur), by stealth, se- sual pleasures. Gaudium denotes an cretly, furtively, emotion less violent than lstitia. Fusus, a, um, part. (fundo), scatter- Gemltus, us, m. (gemo, to groan), a ed, routed; defeated, worsted. groan, sigh. Futirus, a, um, part. (sum), about to Generosus, a, um. adj. (genus), nobe, future. ble, born of a noble race; generous, brave, excellent, noble. G. Gens, tis, f., a clan among the Romans, containing many families deGabtnius, i, m., a Roman name. scended from a common ancestor. P. Gabinius Capito, a Roman knight, From the gens each individual of the who was put to death as an accom- Romans derived his name (nomen); plice of Catiline. C. 17, 40, 43, from the family (familia), his cogno&c. men, as M. Porcius Cato, C. Julius Gatiilus, a, um, adj., Getulian, of Cacsar, from the Porcian and Julian or belonging to Getulia, a large coun- clans: also, those who have a comtry of Africa south of Numida,. G<- mon origin and language, a race, tili, brum, m. pi., Getulians. J. 18, stock, people, nation, tribe. It is 19, 80,88, &c. often synonymous with natio, but Gallia, v,f., Gaul Gallia citerior, strictly includes it, being of wider sig. hither Gaul, otherwise called Cisalpine niJication. Ubi gentium, see Ubi. Gaul, that part of Italy lying between Genus, eris, n., a race, descent, kind, the Alps and the Rubicon. Gallia family, stock, lineage, kindred, breed; ulterior, farther Gaul, also called a race, tribe, nation, people; a kind Transalpine Gaul a large country of sort, quality, class. Maternum genus, Europe nearly commensurate with the the maternal, side. Genus humanum modem kingdom of France. J. 114. or hominum, the human race, manC. 42, 56-58. kind; a race of men. Gallicus, a, um, adj. (Gallia), of or Gero, ere gessi, gestum, a., to bear pertaining to Gaul, Gallic. C. 52. carry, have; to show, exhibit. Gerere Gallus, i, m., an inhabitant of Gaul, se, to act, carry or conduct one's self, a Gaul. J. 114. C. 47, 52. behave;-to do, execute, perform, desGanea, a, f., a place appropriated patch, carry on. Dum hcec geruntur, to revelry and debauchery, a brothel, while these things are going on:-to bagnio; a sumptuous feast, luxurious administer, manage, conduct, sustain, banquet, debauchery, riot, revelling, regulate, rule, govern; to practice, drunkenness, gluttony. pursue, exercise, entertain, to treat. Ganeo, 6nis, m. (ganea), a frequent- Gerere bellum, to wage or carry on

Page  193 GESTUS 193 GRATUITO war. Gerere consulatum, to bear or daughter of Scipio Africanus the el execute the office of consul. Animo der. They were educated with great gerere. to bear in mind, think, feel. care by their mother, and became Alsteratque animo gerebat, at variance distinguished orators, but in consewith his real sentiments. Remgerere, quence of espousing the cause of the to fight a battle, to conduct an attack. people in a factious manner, and pass. Res geritur, the affair is carried on, ing laws odious to the nobility, they the battle is fought. Gerere animum were put to death. J. 16, 31, 42. super fortunam, to cherish desires Gradus, us, m., a step, stair. Pleno above one's rank. gradu, at full speed, rapidly. Gestus, a, um, part. (gero), done, Grcecia, cc,f., Greece. C. 2, 51. performed. Res geste, things done, Grecus, a, um, adj., of Greece, actions, deeds, exploits, warlike Greek, Grecian. Graci, m. pl. the achievements, illustrious deeds, feats, Greeks, the Grecians. C. 53. undertakings. Grandis, e, adj., large, big, great. Gignentia, ium, n. pl., plants, herbs, Grandis pecunia, a large sum of moshrubs, trees, vegetables: from ney. Gigno, ere, genui, genitum, a., to Grassor, ari, atus sum, dep. freq. generate, beget, produce, bring forth. (gradior, to step), to go on, advance, So, ea sese gignere, to beget, to have proceed, press forward. Ad gloriam offspring of one's own, in distinction grassari, to advance, to pursue, aim from adopted children. Gigni, to be at-. Cupidine atque ira grassari, to produced, be born, to grow, spring. proceed or act with vehemence under With abl. without a prep. J. 48, like the influence of-. genitus, ~ 246. Gratia, cc,f. (gratus), grace, favor, Gladiatorius, a, um, adj. (gladiator, benevolence, good-will, good graces, a gladiator), of a gladiator, pertaining friendship; popularity, favor with othto gladiators, gladiatorial. Familia ers; in&ence, intrigue, interest, augladiatoria, a company or school of thority, power; a kindness, favor, obgladiators. ligation; a requital, return, gratitude, Gladius, i, m., a sword. thanks. Agere gratias, to give thanks. Glans, dis,f., mast, an acorn, chest- Facere gratiam, to grant pardon, fornut; a leaden ball or bullet, such as give. Gratia, with a genitive, often was discharged from the slings or of a gerund $275, III, R. 1. (1,) or other military engines. with an adj. pronoun, for the sake of, Globus, i, m., a globe, ball, sphere; on account of, in reference to, for the n troop, squadron, crowd, body. Glo- purpose of. Ea gratia, for this or bus nobilitatis, a body of nobility. that reason, on this or that account. Gloria, e,f., glory, renown, fame, Colloquendigratia,'275, III, (1.) Gra splendor. Gloria belli, military glory. tiam debere, to owe thanks, be under Glorior, ari, atus sum, dep. (gloria), obligations to. Gratiam reddere, tore to glory, boast, brag, vaunt, pride quite, recompense-; In grattam haone's self. bere, to consider as a favor. Gloriosus, a, um, adj. (gloria), glo- Gratificor, ari; atus, sum, dep. (grarious, renowned, illustrious. tus 4' facio), to gratify, oblige; to Gracchus, i, m., Tiberius and Caius yield. sacrifice, give up, 9 223. Gracchus were the sons of Tib. Semi- Gatuitl, adv. (gratuitus, gratuitpronius Gracchus and Cornelia, the ous), ~ 223, R. 2, without a recom

Page  194 GRATULOR 194 HIAREO pense gratuitously; wantonly, with- is true or certain. Habere occulium, out cause. to keep secret. Habere intentum, to Gratilor, ari, atus sum, dep., to keep intent upon. Jugurtham eodem congrctulate, wish one joy: from cultu, quo liberos suos, domi habutt, Gratus, a, um, adj., grateful, pleas- brought up-. In incerto habere, to ing, acceptable, agreeable. be uncertain. Parum habere, to acGravis, e, adj., heavy, weighty. Ftg. count or think it little, reckon it not important; violent, vehement, great; enough. Aliquem manifestun habere, severe, sore, bitter, oppressive; griev- to bring one out to the light, to make ous, sad, calamitous. Morte gravior the evidence of one's guilt clear. In vita, worse than-. spe habere, see Spes. Rempublicam haGraviter, adv. (gravis), heavily, bere, to administer —. Habere silenstrongly, forcibly, vehemently, great- tium, to keep, preserve or maintain ly, exceedingly, violently, much, se- silence. Habere ludibrio, to make a verely, grievously. mock of, befool, ~ 227, R. 2. QucasGregarius, a, urm, adj., of a flock. tionem habere, to make or carry on-. Gregarius miles, a common soldier, Avaritia pecunica studium habet,-imprivate: from plies, comprehends. Habere vitam, to Grex, gregis, m., a flock, herd, live, pass life. Habere in amicis, to drove; an assembly, company. Grege reckon among one's friends, to treat facto, having formed a band, in a as a friend. Animus habet cuncta, the body. / mind holds all things in subjection. Gula, c, f., the gullet, windpipe; Haberi, to be had or held; to be kept, the neck; gluttony, appetite. preserved or retained, hence, to conGulussa, e, m., a brother of Micip- tinue, to be; also, to be held, reckonsa king of Numidia. J. 5, 35. ed, accounted, considered, thought. Virtus clara (eterna-qte habetur,-is, Ha^ ~ continues; $210. Egestasfacile haHabeo, Ire, ui, itum, a.' n., to have. betur sine damno,-ispreserved or conhold, entertain, enjoy, possess, retain; tinues easily unharmed; i. e. is very to make; to assemble; to obtain, get, safe from loss. Audacia pro muro occupy; to keep, detain; to bear, to- habetur,-serves for-, is instead of-. lerate, endure, support, sustain; to Sicuti pleraque mortalium habentur treat; to pass, spend; to account, as most human affairs are, as for the judge, esteem, think, reckon, hold, most part happens in human affairs. estimate, consider, $ 272; to use, wear; Halbtus, a, um, part. (habeo), had, to give, bestow; to occupy, inhabit; held, reckoned, accounted, treated, to deliver, pronounce, utter, speak. kept, controlled, restrained, governed. In promptu habere, to manifest, dis- Habitus, us, m. (habeo), habit, conplay; with certain participles habeo dition, state, dress; disposition, chaforms a periphrasis,' 274, R. 4, as, racter, manners, habits. compertum habeo, I have ascertained, Hadrumetum, i, n., a city of the I know -Habere animo or in animo, Roman province in Africa, founded to have in mind, to intend; to think by the Phenicians. J. 18. of, regard. Post principia aliquem Hecreo, ere, hwsi, hwsum, n., to be habere, to place, station-. Se habere, fixed, adhere, stick; to remain fixed to be. Dicere id quod res habet that stick fast. Alicui in animo herere, to which the thing has, i. e. that which stick fast in one's mind, I 22.

Page  195 HLSITO 195 HONESTE Hcesto, are, 5vi, atum, n.freq (hce- nect two expressions which are thus do ree), to hesitate, be at a loss, be per- dared to be of similar import. plexed. Hie adv.,here, in this place. HIamzlcar, aris, m., a factious noble- Hicce, hcecce, hocce. adj. pro., this, ~ man of tne town of Leptis. J. 77. 134, R. 4. Hannibal, dlis, m., a Carthaginian Hiemalis, e, adj. (hiems), cf winter, genera., celebrated for his hatred to wintry, the Romans. J. 5. Hieino, are, dvi, atum, n. (hiens), to Haruspex, icis, m., one who fore- winter, pass the winter. told future events by inspecting the Hiempsal, alis, m., the youngest son entrails of victims, a soothsayer, di- of Micipsa, king of Numidia, Also a viner. son of Gulussa and the successor of Hasta, ce f., a spear, lance, pike, Jugurtha, and father of Juba. J. 5, 9, javelin. The hasta pura, or headless 12, 15, 17, 24, 28. spear, was sometimes given to soldiers Hiems, emis, f., winter; stormy as a reward of valor. weather. Haud, adv. ~ 191, R. 3, not. Hippo, 5nis, m., a seaport town of Haudquaquam, adv. (haud 4 qua. the Roman province in Africa. J. 19. quam, sc. ratione), by no means, not Hispania, s, f., Spain; Hispanie, at all. arum, the two divisions of Spain, viz. Haveto, see Ave. Citerior, or the division nearest to Hebes, etis, adj., blunt, dull, obtuse, Italy, and Ulterior, or that most reheavy, stupid. Hebes exercitus, new, mote. J. 7, 10, 18, 19. C. 18. raw, undisciplined-. Hispinus, a, um, adj. (Hispania), Hebesco, ere, n. inc. (hebeo, to be pertaining to Spain, Spanish. Hilwpblunt), to grow blunt, dim or languid; ni, orum, m., the people of Spain, the to languish, lose its lustre, be ob- Spaniards. J. 18. C. 19. scured. Histrio, onis, m., a stage-player, a Hercle, adv., by Hercules, truly: play-actor, buffoon, mimic. from Hoc, see Hic. Ad hoc, besides this, Hercules, is, m., a Theban hero, the besides, add to this, moreover. son of Jupiter and Alcmena; also a Homo, Inis, m. 4- f., a man or Phoenician and Libyan hero, the son woman, a person; homines, pl., men, of Jupiter and Astcrie. J. 18, 89. persons, people, folks. Novus homo, Hereditas, itis,f., inheritance, heir- a new noble, one who was the founship; an inheritance: from der of his own honors, the first of his Heres, edis, m. 4 f., an heir or heir- family that obtained the office of coness. Heredem instituere or scribere, sul, prmtor, censor, or curule edile, to name or appoint as heir. Heres and consequently, the right of placing secundus, second heir, one who suc- a waxen image of himself in tho ceeded to the inheritance on failure atrium of his house, which right conof the first heir. stituted nobility. Homo militaris, an Iliberna, arum, n. pl. (hibernus, experienced warrior, a brave soldier. wintry), winter quarters. Agere hiber- HonestY, adv., (honestus), decently, ha, to hold or make-. virtuously, honorably, becomingly Hie, hce, hoc, adj. pro., $ 134, this, creditably. Parum honestg pudic-t this man; he, she; that, the same, tiam habere, to have too little regard such. Hoc est, that is, is used to con- for-.

Page  196 HONESTO 196 IBI Honesto are, avi, atum, a., to make Hostia, a,f., a victim, animal eacrihonorable, adorn, dignify, grace. ficed, a sacrifice. Hlunestatus honore, elevated to office, Hostilis, e, adj. (hostis), of or per 249, I.: from taniing to an enemy, hostile Ho.tilis Honestus, a, urn, adj. (honor), honor- metus, fear of the enemy Hostile, n., able, noble, dignified, respectable; a hostile act or deed. Hostilia fAcediscreet, virtuous; right, fit, correct. re, to commit hostilities, or acts of Omnium honestarum rerum egens, des- hostility. titute of every thing befitting (my Hostilter, adv., in a hostile manner: rank). Honesta! divitice, respectable, from moderate-. Amicitia honesta, corn- Hustis, is, m. & f., ~ 222, R. 2, (c.) mendable, inviolable, true, faithful. an enemy, a public enemy. It i8 used Honestum., i, n., what is honorable, both actively and passively;. he who fit, decent, proper or becoming, honor, is an enemy to us or to whom we are virtue. Supra bonum atque honestum, enemies. beyond what is proper or becoming. Huc, adv. (hic ~ 191, R. 1.), hither, Honor 4- Honos, oris, m., honor, to this place, here; to this, to this respect, reverence; a public office, thing. Huc illuc, hither and thither, magistracy, preferment, post, dignity. this;,ay and that. Honoris causa, out of respect, in token Hucclne, adv. (hue, ce, intensive, ( of respect. Est or ducitur honori,- 134, R. 4, & ne interrogative), hither? as an honor, honorable. Honores, to this? Huccine beneficia tua evahonors, marks of distinction. Impe- sere? have your favors ended in this ria et honores, military and civil offi- Hfujusce, see Hic. ces. Hujuscemodi, -f Hujusmodi, (hic 4 Honoro, are, avi, dtum, a. (honor), to modus, Q 134, R. 5), of this kind or honor, respect; to dignify, exalt. Glo- sort, of the following kind, such, ot ria aliquem honorare, to confer glory the same character. upon, Q 249, I. Humanus, a, um, adj. (homo), huHora, ce, f., an hour, the twelfth man. of or belonging to a man; hupart of a day or night; a space of time, mane, kind; polished. Humana s res, period; a season of the year. human affairs. HorribIlis, e, adj. (horreo, to trem- Humilis, e, adj., low, near the earth. ble), to be dreaded, dreadful, horrible, Fig. humble, poor, mean. frightful, terrible. HumilTtas, atis, f. (humilis),. low. Hortamentum, i, n. (hortor), an en- ness, shortness. Fig. baseness, meancouragement, incitement, stimulus. ness, poverty. Hortatio, onis, f., an encourage- Humus, i,f., the ground, earth, soil. ment, exhortation: from Humi, gen., on the ground, in the Horton, ari, atus sum, dep., ~ 273, ground, ~ 221, R. 3. Humo, from the 2, ~ 262, R. 4, to exhort, encourage, ground, ~ 255, R. 1. excite, cheer; to incite, utir up, stimulate, spur on; to prompt, suggest. I Pauca hortari, to exhort briefly. Hsspes, itis, m f., one who is en- Ibi, adv. (is), there, in that place, tertained in one's house, a guest, then, at that time; also for in illo or stranger, sojourner, visitor; also, one in illis, in that, in these, in or among who entertains, a host, entertainer. them, therein;-then, thereupon.

Page  197 IBIDEM 197 IMAGO Ibidem, ald. (ibi 4 dem), in the same Ignoro, are, avi, atum, a. - n. (ignao place. rus), to be ignorant of, not to know Id, see Is. to be unacquainted with. tdcirco, adv. (id 4- circa), on that Ignosco, Ore, ovi, otum, a. 4 n. (in account, therefore, for that reason. f nosco), 223, R. 2, to pardon, exIden, ecdem, idem, pron. (is - cuse, overlook, forgive, be indulgent. demnum, S 134, R. 6), the same, the It commonly takes the dative ether of same person or thing. Idem qui, et, the person or thing, sometimes the accte ac, etc., the same as,-also, at once, sative of the thing. yet, O 207, R. 27. Idem ille, that same, Ignotus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (ignosco) the same. Isdem for iisdem. ~ 222, not known, unknown. Idoneus, a, um, adj., ~ 222, fit, meet, lex,'cis, J:, the ilex or great scarproper, suitable, convenient; good, let oak, holm-oak, evergreen oak. worthy, deserving, either in a good Ille, illa, illud, gen. illius, adj. pro. or bad sense; sufficient, trust-worthy, O 134, he, she, that, that man, &c., safe; in a fit condition, ready for, pre- this, this man, &c. In Sallust ille in pared for. Non idoneus, unsuitable, oratio obliqua usually takes the place not deserving. of hic and tu in oratio directa. In leram, etc., see Eo. Ccsar is is more commonly used for Ig'tur,illative, conj., ~ 198, 6, there- the same purpose.-For the distinction fore, then, accordingly, of course, con- in the use of ille and hic, see ~ 207, R. sequently; after a parenthesis, then, as 23. Ille at the beginning of a sen-, I was saying, I say; at length, finally, tence often relates to the noun next preat last, in conclusion. ceding, when the latter is in an oblique Ignarus, a, um, adj., ~ 213, $ 272, case, and ille in the nominative: some$ 265, (in 4- gnarus, skillful), ignorant, times also when an adversative parunskillful, not knowing, unacquainted tile or a relative precedes ille. with, inexperienced in, uninformed, Illecebra, e,f., an enticement, allureunaware, unapprised; unknown, ~ 222. ment, attraction, charm, inducement. Ignavia, ca, f., inactivity, sluggish- from ness, sloth, idleness, cowardice. Per Illectus, a, um, part.: from ignaviam, in sloth, slothfully: from Illicio, ere, exi, ectum, a. (in - lacio, Ignavus, a, um, adj. (in 4 gnavus, to allure), to draw in, allure, entice, active), inactive, slothful, remiss, slug- decoy, attract, invite, induce. gish; cowardly, dastardly, irresolute; Iltico, adv. (in 4- locus), there, in worthless. that place; straightway, instantly, imIgnis, is, m., fire; a watch-fire. Ig- mediately, presently. nemfacere, to kindle a fire. 1luc, adv. (illic, ~ 134, R. 3 & $ 191, Ignobllis, e, adj., (in 4& nobilis), un- I, R. 1), to that place, thither. Hue known, mean, ignoble; of mean ex- et illuc, see Huc. traction, of low birth, base-born. ulustris, e, adj. (in 4- lustro, to illuIgnobil-tas, atis, f., meanness of minate), clear, bright, luminous; manibirth, low birth, humble extraction. fest, clear, evident, plain. Ignominia, C, f, (in 4 nomen), ig- Imgo, inis, f., an image, figure, llominy, disgrace, reproach, dishoror, likeness, picture. Imagines, pl., is of. infamy. ten:sed in reference to nobility, the Ignordtus, a, um, part., not known, images of one's ancestors, the posses unknown, undiscovered: from sion of which was evidence of inherited

Page  198 IMBECILLUS 198 IMPERANS nobility, see Homo novus. Ilomo mul- Immo, adv., nay, yes, yea. Immo tarum irnaginum, one descended from vero, yes indeed, nay rather. a long line of noble ancestors. Ima- Immoderatus, a, um, adj. (in <4 mo. gines non habeo, I am not of a noble deratus), immoderate, excessive, in family. temperate, irregular, unregulated, cxImbecillus, a, um, adj., weak, feeble, travagant, indiscriminate, undistinimbecile. Imbecilla etas, tender years, guishing; vast, boundless, immense. youth. Immortalis, e, adj. (in 4 mcrtalts), Imbellis, e, adj. (in 4 bellum), not immortal, everlasting, undying: never suited to war, unwarlike, effeminate, to be forgotten. weak; cowardly, dastardly, faint- Immunis, e, adj. (in - nmunus,, free hearted. or exempt from a public office, burden Inbuo, ere, ui, utum, a., to wet, mois- or charge; free or exempt from taxes, ten, steep, soak, imbue; to initiate, in- privileged. struct. Immutatus, a, um, part.:from Imbutus, a, um, part. (imbuo), wet, Imnmto, are, avi, atum, a. (in - steeped, imbued, tainted, infected; in- muto), to change, alter. itiated, instructed, trained, inured, ex- Impar, aris, adj. (in 4-par), uneven, ercised. unequal, inferior, ~ 250. Imitor, iri, dtus sum, dep., to imi- Imparatus, a, um, adj. (in 4- paratate, seek to resemble, copy after. tus), not ready, unprepared, unawares, Immanis, e, adj. (in 4 magnus), off his guard. Imparata respublica, huge, vast, boundless, excessive, en- the unprepared condition of the state. ormous; hurtful, cruel, fierce, sa- Impedimentum, i, n., hindrance, imvage. pediment, obstacle; the baggage beImmaturus, a, um, adj. (in 4 ma- longing to an army:from turus), unripe, unseasonable, imma- Imprdio, ire, ivi, itum, a. (in 4 pes), ture, not fully grown, before the time, to entangle, hamper, embarrass; with untimely. prep. a or subj. with ne, to hinder, reInmmemor, cris, adj. (in 4- memor), tard, prevent, stop, debar, obstruct, unmindful, forgetful, heedless, regard- impede, keep back, check. Impedio less, neglectful. ne, see NIe. Immensus, a, um, adj. (in 4 mensus, Impeditus, a, um, part. (impedio.) measured), immense, vast, huge, im- Impello, Ore, pili, pulsum, a. (in 4 measurable. In immensum, to a vast pello), to push, press or drive forward, extent or distance, immensely. In urge on, impel; to lead, lead on, incite, immensum editus, see Editus. induce, constrain, compel, move: with ImmYnuo, ere, ui,'itum, a. (in 4- min- ad and the acc. or with uti to denote a uo), to lessen, diminish, shorten; to purpose, $ 273, 2. impair, weaken, debilitate; to violate, Impendeo, ire, n. (in 4- pendeo), Q infringe. Pacem inmminuere, to dis- 224, to overhang, hang over, impend, turb, hinder, prevent-. threaten. Imminutus, a, um, part. (imminuo). ImpensE, adv. (impensus, expended) Immissus, a. um, part., sent in, in- at great charge or cost. Fig. greatly troduced; suborned: from exceedingly, earnestly, eagerly, zealImmitto, ere. isi, issum, a. (in' 4 ously, much. Impensius modo legatos tto), to send or let in, cast, throw; mittere,-with very great earnestness. to suborn I Inmprans, tis, part. (impero), order

Page  199 IMPERATOR 199 IMPONO ing governing, ruling, command- quered people to furnish military ing. stores, troops, &e. ~ 223, (1) (b.) to Imperaitor, iris, m. (impero, ~ 102, order one to furnish or supply, to de6;(, a commander, leader, general; the mand, require of. Imperatur mihi, commander in chief of an army, a I am ordered. name given by the army or senate to a Impetro, are, avi, atum, a. 4 n. (in victorious general, and retained by l- patro), to obtain, get, accomplish; him until he had triumphed; a ruler, to procure by request or entreaty; to governor, director. Imperator ad ur- obtain one's request, gain one's suit. bern, see Urbs. Impetus, us, m. (imp~to, to assail), Imperatum, i, n., an order, corn-an attack, assault, onset. mand. Facere imperata, to do what Impigtas, dtis, f. (impius), impiety, is ordered, to obey orders. Faciam undutifulness, undutiful behavior tozmperata, or que imperarentur, is a wards the gods, one's parents, counform of submission by one who ac- try, &c. knowledges himself vanquished. ImpIger, gra, grum, adj. (in df piger, Imperitia, ce, f. (imperitus), igno- inactive), diligent, active, prompt rance, unskilfulness, inexperience quick, ready, strenuous. Imperlto, are, dvi, atum, a. 4 n. Impigre, adv. (impiger), quickly, freq. (impero), ~ 223, R. 2, to com- readily, promptly, actively. nland, rule, govern. ~ Impius, a, um, adj. (in - pilus, pi Imperitus, a, urn, adj. (in 4- peritus, ous), wanting in duty to parents or skilful), unskilful, ignorant, inexpe- other relatives, to rulers, one's counrienced. try, or the gods; impious, irreligious, Inmperium, i, n., a command, order; wicked; undutiful, unkind, disloyal; authority, power, control, sway, direc- barbarous, savage, cruel. tion, discipline, government, rule; em- Impleo, ire, Evi, Rtum, a. (in 4 pleo, pire, dominion, office, station, corn- obs.), to fill. mand, supreme power; military power Imptco, are, avi, atum, or ui, Itum, or authority (in distinction from ma- a. (in 4plico, to fold), to inwrap, ingistratus, civil magistracy). Civil ma- fold, envelop, involve, entangle, ingistrates, whether of the city or of a twine; to perplex, throw into disorder. province, were said to be in imperio. Implbro, are, dvi dtum, a. (in - plo. Military officers, to whom was given TO, to cry out), to beg for, cry out for, the power of making war, were said beseech earnestly, implore, invoke, to be cum imperio.-Also, an empire, entreat. a realm. Contra imperium, contrary Impdno, gre, posui, posItum, a. (in 4 to orders. Natus imperio, born to pono), ~224, to place, put, set or'lay command. Legitimum imperium, a upon or in; to set or place over; to government founded on laws, a regu- impose, give, assign. confer, bestow; lar government: from to throw upon, charge to, impute, lay Imnpero, are, dvi, dtum, n. 4- a., ~ upon, cast upon. Invidiam imponere, 2~3, R. 2, ~ 265, ~ 262, R. 4, ~ 273, 2, to cast the odium, lay the blame;to command, enjoin, order, direct, presidium, to place, or station-. In appoint, give directions; to rule, go- stead of the dative after this verb, or vern With an accusative of a thing the accusative or ablative with in: 2'24) and dative of a person, it is employed Sallust sometimes uses an adverb of to denote the orders given to a oon- place as hue, eb, qub, &c. J. 47, 66C 18

Page  200 IMPORTUNITAS 200 INANIS 75: and sometimes uses the verb abso- Impuin, adv. (impiinis, with out pun lutely. J. 100. ishment), without punishment, loss or Importunetas, atts, f., importunity, damage, with impunity, safely; with eagerness, unreasonableness; bold- out restraint, freely; quietly, tamely ness, audacity, insolence: from without resentment. Importunus, a, um, adj., ~ 222, dan- ImpunYtas, atis,f. (impunis), impugerous, perilous; unseasonable, in- nity, security or exemption from punconvenient, unadapted, unfavorable, ishment; remission of punishment unsuitable, inopportune; troublesome, pardon. painful, grievous, vexatious. Impunitus, a, um, adj. (in 4, punitus, Importuosus, a, um, adj. (in 4F por- punished), unpunished. tuosus), without harbors. Impurus, a, um, adj. (in' purus Impositus, a, um, part. (impono), pure), foul, filthy, impure. Fig. base, laid or put upon, imposed, cast upon, flagitious, debauched, wicked, vile, set over, put in charge; placed, sta- contemptible, abandoned. tioned. In, prep. with acc. 4' abl.,. 235, (2). Imprimis, or Inprimis, adv. (in 4' With the acc. into, to, unto, towards, primus, the same as in primis), above till, until, for, as, against, according all, chiefly, especially, in the first to, through, on account of, in regard place, first of alL to, respecting. In potestatem habere, Imprubus, a, um, adj. (in 4' probus,) to have in one's power: the same as wicked, dishonest, knavish, depraved, in potestate habere, with the superadbad, unprincipled; vile, infamous; au- ded idea in the former case of getting dacious, impudent. into one's power. The accusative Improvisus, a, um, adj. (in 4' provi- therefore in such cases depends not on sus), unforeseen, unlooked for, un- the verb expressed, but on a verb of thought of, unexpected. De impro- motion understood, as in this case upon viso, or ex improviso, unexpectedly, accipere, or the like. With the abl. in, suddenly, on a sudden. upon, among, amidst, within, at, near, Imprudentia, ce,f. (impridens, not in the number of, over, notwithstandknowing), want of knowledge, igno- ing, in the case of, for; concerning, rance, error, inadvertence, mistake, respecting, in regard to. In with ternmisapprehension. pus, tempestas, aetas or dies signifies ImpiUdens, tis, adj. (in 4 pudens, mo- not simply a particular time, but also dest), shameless, impudent, barefaced. the condition of things then existing; Impudentia, c, f. (impudens), shame- as, Quippe in tali die, because the day lessness, impudence, effrontery. was such. It may sometimes be transImpudicus, a, um, adj. (in 4fpudi- lated by when or since, with the addicus, modest), unchaste, immodest, tion of the substantive verb, the abla. lewd. tive being translated as its subject; as Impugnr, are, ivi, atum, a. (in 4f Novorumfidem in tanta perfidia vete. pugno), to attack, assail, thwart, op- rum experiri periculosum duceret, — pose, impugn. since such had been the perfidy of Impulsus, us, m. (impello), an im- his former friends. In composition pulse Fig. impulse, instigation, in- see 196, 7, & 197,10. In —ersus citement, persuasion. see Versus. Impulsus, a, um, part. (impello), dri- Inanis, e, adj., empty, void. Fig. vain ven impelled; moved, influenced. frivolous ostentatious, boastful, proud

Page  201 INCEDO 201 INCREPO Incedo, ere, cessi, cessum, n. (in 4 Incessus, us, m. (mncedo), a gait, cedo), to walk, go, proceed; to come, pace, walking. arrive; to approach, advance, march; Incido, ere, cidi, n. (zn &4 cado), to to walk with an air of consequence fall into or upon; to chance, happen. or dignity, strut, go in state; to be, It is used especially concerning evils appear; O 224, to come on, come upon; and misfortunes. In amicitiam ejus quibus-belli timor insolitus incesserat, inciderat, had been so unfortunate as to -the fear of war had rarely occur- form a friendship with him, ~ 233, red, had been unusual, —to arise, be- R. 2. come prevalent, occur, take place. Incypio, ere, cepi, ceptum, a. - n. (in Incendium, i, n., a fire, conflagra- - capio), to commence, begin; to attion. Fig. a vehement emotion or tempt, undertake. passion; danger, calamity, ruin. In- Incito, are, ivi, alum, a.freq. (incieo, cendium meum, the flame which sur- to incite), to incite, hasten or put forrounds me, the fire raised about me: ward; to stir up, excite, provoke; to from encourage, stimulate, incite. Incendo, ere, ndi, nsum, a. (in 4 Incognitus, a, um, adj. (in 4f cogni. candeo, to glow), to kindle, set fire to, tus), unknown. Causa incognita, withburn, consume. Fig. to inflame, stir out trial, without.hearing. up, instigate, incite, encourage, ani- Incola, aB, m. d4f., an inhabitant; a mate, excite; to vex, incense, irritate, resident foreigner: from provoke. Incolo, ere, colui, cultum, a. 4 n. (in Incensus, a, um, part. (incendo), 4 colo), to inhabit, abide, dwell or reburnt, consumed, inflamed, side in a place. Inceptum, i, n. (incipio), a begin- Incolimis, e. adj. (in 4- columis, ning, attempt; enterprise, undertak- safe), safe, sound, whole, entire, uning, design, purpose. changed, in its original condition. Inceptus, a, um, part. (incipio), be- uninjured, unhurt, unharmed, unsubgun, commenced, entered upon, en- dued. gaged in, attempted, projected. Incommodum, i, n. (in 4- commoIncertis, a, um, adj. (in 4 certus), dum), inconvenience, disadvantage, ~ 265, uncertain, doubtful, dubious; detriment, loss, damage. not manifest, clear or certain; at a Inconsult, adv. (inconsultus, inconloss, undecided. In incerto esse or siderate), inconsiderately, imprudenthabere, or incertum habere, to be un- ly, rashly, injudiciously, foolishly, incertain, know not. Eyui Numideque discreetly. incerti, quidnam esset, they were not Incorruptus, a, um, adj. (in 4 cormanifest, what they were; instead of ruptus), incorrupt, incorruptible, imincertum erat, quidnam essent, it was perishable, pure, uncorrupted, undoubtful, &c. Maurus incerto vultu, bribed, uninjured. -with anxious looks, disturbed coun- Incredibiis, e, adj. (in 4 credibilis), tenance. Vagari incertis sedibus,- 5 276, III. $265. incredible, improbawithout a fixed residence. Incertum, ble, wonderful, strange. Incedibile in, an uncertainty, an uncertain thing. memoratu, wonderful to tell or relate Incessi, see Incedo and Incesso. $ 276, III. R. 3. Incesso, ere, cessivi or cessi, a. freq. Incripo, are, avi, atum, s4 ui, tum, sncedo), to attack, assail, assault, a. (in 4 crepo, to sound), to sound, reseize, take possession of; to appear. sound. Fig. to chide, blame, rebuke,

Page  202 INCRUENTUS 202 INFECTUS reprove, upbraid, censure, assail, re- Indignus, a, urn, adj. (in 4 dzgnus) proach; to urge on, stimulate. unworthy, undeserving; unbecoming Incruentus, a, ur, adj. (in 4 cruen- shameful, unsuitable, unfit, inapprotus), bloodless, without bloodshed or priate, improper. In connection with slaughter. Exercitu incrucnto, with- words denoting crime or suffering, inout loss. nocent, not deserving punishment. IncultO, adv., plainly, rudely Agere worthy. deserving better things. inculte, to live rudely: from Inditus, a, urn, part.: from Incultus, us, m. (in 4f cultus), ne- Indo, ere, didi, ditum, a. (in 4 do), to glect, want of cultivation; filth. put, put into, set upon; to give, apply. Incultus, a, urn, adj. (in 4 cultus, Indoctus, a, ur, adj. (in 4 doctus), cultivated), uncultivated, uninhabited, untaught, unlearned, ignorant, unedudesert. Fig. rude, uncouth, unpolish- cated, without learning. ed, without cultivation or refinement. Inducice or Indutia, irum, f. pl. (in. Incurro, ere, curri 4 cucurri, cur- duo, to put on), a truce or cessation sum, a. 4 n. (in 4' curro, to run), O from hostilities, suspension of arms, 233, & (2.) to run into, upon or against; armistice. Inducias agitare, see Agito rush, rush upon, attack. to. Per inducias, during an armisIncurvus, a, um, adj. (in 4' curvus, tice. crooked), crooked, bending, curved. Indico, ere, xi, ctum, a. (in 4 duco), Inde, adv. ~ 191, R. 1, thence. from to lead or bring in, lead into, introthence, from that, therefrom, from duce. Fig. to induce, persuade. In that place; from that time, then, next, animum inducere, to make it a princi afterwards, thenceforth. ple, to propose, resolve, $ 271. Indemnatus, a, um, adj. (in 4' dam- Inductus, a, um, part. (induco). natus), uncondemned, untried, un- Industria, a, f,, 101, 1, industry heard, without a trial. diligence, activity: from Index, Icis, m. 4 f. (inlico), a disco- Industrius, a, um, adj., industrious, verer, discloser, informer, witness. prompt, active, assiduous, diligent. Indicium, i, n. (index), a discovery, Inedia, e, f. (in 4 edo, to eat), want evidence, proof, information, disclo- of food, hunger. fasting. sure, testimony. Indicium profiteri, Ineo, ire, ivi, Btum, irr. n. 4 a. (in 4 to make a disclosure, turn informer or eo), to go into, enter; to commence, state's evidence. Indicium pateface- begin, enter upon. re, a pleonastic expression, instead of Inermis, e, 4' Inermus, a, um, adj. indicium facere. (in airma), without arms, unarmed, Indtco, are, avi, atum, a. (in 4' dico, defenceless. to give), ~ 265, to show, discover, dis- Iners, tis, adj. (in 4 ars), without close, inform, give evidence or infor- art or skill; slothful, indolent, inactive, ination, reveal, tell. lazy, spiritless, without energy, cowIndtgens, tis, part., wanting, indi- ardly. gent, needy, defective, deficient: from Inertia, Cc,f. (iners, 1(0 i, unskillIndageo, ere, ui, n. (in, $ 197,10. 4' fulness; sloth, idleness, laziness, inaoegeo), to want, need, stand in need of, tivity, sluggishness, indolence. require, S 250, R. 1. & 220, 3. Infectus, a, um, adj.'in 4 factus), Indignor, ari, atus sum, dep. $ 272, not done, undone, not made, unac to scorn, disdain, be displeased with, complished, unperformed; ~ 222, imincensed, indignant: from practicable. Infecto negotio, or infee

Page  203 IN'ECTUS 203 INIMICUS tis rebus, without accomplishing one's Infirmus, a, unm slj. (in, farmus), purpose. weak, feeble, infirm; faint-hearted. Infectus, a, un, part. (inficio), 249, Inrrmissirnum geaus, the feeblest r. dyed, stained, colored. class, sc. the women and children. lIfecundus, a, um, adj. (in 4, fecun- Infra, prep. with acc. 4 adv., below, dus, fruitful), with abl.. 213, & 250, un- under, beneath. fruitful, barren, unproductive. Ingenium, i, n. (in f geno, to beget), Infclix, izis, adj. (in, felix), un- nature, genius, quality; natural dispohappy, miserable, wretched, unfortu- sition, character, feelings, temperanate; barren, unfruitful. ment, heart, temper, manner, way; Infensus, a, urn, adj., angry, dis- natural capacity, genius, understandpleased, enraged, hostile. ing, talents, parts, abilities, ingenuInftro, ferfe, intuli, illctum, irr. a. ity, mind, intellect, intellectual pow(in 4 fero), to bring or carry into, in- ers or faculties; counsel, advice. Introduce; to bring upon. Inferre bel- tendere ingenium or animum, to apply lum, to wage war, carry on war, make the mind, employ the understanding, war upon. Inferre signa, to carry the exercise the judgment. standards against (the enemy), ad- Ingens, tis, adj., great, large, huge, vance or march against the enemy, vast; prodigious, immense, enormous; to advance. powerful, mighty, great, important. Inferus, a, um, adj., below, beneath, Ingenuus, a, um, adj., (ingeno, to underneath; Infri, arum, m., the in- implant by nature), native, natural; fernal regions, the world of spirits; the free-born, born of parents who had infernal gods, the shades, the dead, never been slaves, liberal, honorable, who were supposed to live in a lower gentlemanly. world, spread out beneath the surface Ingero, Ore, gessi, gestum, a. (in + of the earth. Comp. Inferior, lower, gero), to carry or put into; to throw, inferior. Sup. Inf mus, lowest; last; cast, hurl or heap upon. meanest, poorest, basest, humblest, Ingratus, a, um, adj. (in 4 gratus), worst. unpleasant, disagreeable, offensive; Infestus, a, um, adj., act., ~ 222, hos- ungrateful, unthankful. tile, unfriendly, inimical, at enmity Ingredior, i, gressus sum, dep. (ti with, bitter, implacable; pass., hateful, 4, gradior, to step), ~ 233, to enter, go odious; exposed to, infested wlth. into; to walk, go, advance, proceed; It is followed by the dative. Infesta to enter upon, set out; to commence, signa, hostile standards, standards di- begin. Eadem ingrediens, commencrected against the enemy. ing the same course, pursuing the Inficio, ere, feci, fectum, a. (in, same measures. facio), to stain, dye, color, tinge. Inhonestus, a, urn, adj. (in 4, hones. Infidus, a, um, adj. (in 4 fidus), ~ tus), dishonorable, disgraceful, shame222, unfaithful, faithless, false, treach- ful, base, inglorious. erous, perfidious. Inimicitia, e. f., enmity, hostility: Inf mus, see Inferus. from Infinitus, a, um, adj. (in 4, fihitus, Inimlcus, a, unm, adj. (zn 4 amicus), limited), infinite, endless, immense, inimical, hostile, unfriendly. InTmtboundless. cus, i, m., an enemy, a private enemy, InfirmItas, atis,f., weakness, feeble- in distinction from 4ostis, a public ness, infirmity, frailty: from enemy. 18 *

Page  204 INIQUITAS 204 INSTANS Iniquitas, atis, f., inequality, un- Insatiablis, e, adj (in 4 sa tio, to saevenness, steepness, disadvantageous tiate), insatiable. nature; difficulty, disadvantage; injus- Insequor, i, cutus sum, dep. (in 4 tice, oppression, unfairness from sequor), to follow, pursue, follow close InZquus, a, um, adj., (in 4f eequus), after, press upon, urge. unequal, uneven; hard, difficult; dis- lnsidice, drum, f. pl (insideo), an advantageous, unfavorable; unjust, un- ambush, ambuscade; lying in wait, fair partial, unreasonable. snares, treachery, a plot, conspiracy. Initium, i, n. (ineo), a commence- Insidias alicui tendere orfacere, to lay ment beginning, origin. Initio, abl., snares for, form plots against, prein the beginning, at first, in the first pare an ambuscade for. place, originally. Initium agendi fa- Insidians,tis,part. (insidior),lyingin cere, to commence action. wait, lying in ambush. Injuria, rc,f., (iljurius, unjust), in- Insidiator, oris, m., a lier in wait, jury, wrong, injustice; damage, detri- lier in ambush: from ment, hurt, harm. Facere injuriam, Insidior, ari, dtus sum, dep. (in. to inflict injury. sidia), ~ 224, to lie in wait, lie in amInjussu, abl. $ 94, (in 4 jussu), with- bush, lay snares for, plot against. out orders, without leave. Insigne, is, n. (insignis, distinguishijuste, adv., unjustly, wrongfully, ed), a badge, mark of distinction, sign, injuriously: from!ensign. Insignia, pl., badges or inInjustus, a, uwu, un adj. (in justus), signia of office; e. g. the axes and unjust, wrongful, unreasonable; op rods, ivory seat, the pratexta or robe pressive. of office, &c. Innocens, tis, adj. (in 4' nocens), in- Insblens, tis, adj. (in 4 soleo), unacnocent, faultless, harmless, guiltless, customed to, ignorant of; insolent. blameless; disinterested, upright, free arrogant, haughty, presumptuous. from rapacity or avarice Insolentia, cc, f. (insolens), unusual Innocentia, Es, f. (innocens), inno- ness, uncommonness, unusual nature cence, purity, integrity, probity; dis- or character, novelty, strangeness, interestedness, feeedom from rapacity strange behaviour, want of acquaintor avarice. ance with; excess, extravagance; Innoxius, a, um, adj. (in 4 noxius), pride, haughtiness, insolence, arroact., harmless, innocent, inoffensive, gance, vanity. Per insolentiam, exblameless, innoxious; pass., safe, un- travagantly, excessively, beyond meahurt. sure. Inopia, ai,f., want, indigence, need, Insolesco, ~re, n. inc. (in 4' soleo), to poverty, scarcity, lack:from grow haughty or insolent. Inops, (pis, adj, (in 4 ops), poor, Insoltuts, a, um, adj., (in 4 solitus) needy, indigent, necessitous, destitute, ~ 213, R. 1, (2), ~ 222, unaccustomed helpless, powerless. to, unacquainted with; strange, exInprimis, see Imprimis. traordinary, unusual, unwonted. Inquam or inquio, inquis, inquit, Insomnia, ce,f. (insomnis, wanting &c. dej. verb, $ 183, 5, I say. sleep), want of sleep, watching, wdkInquitinus, i, m. (incolo), one who ing lodges in a hired house; a renter, ten- Insons, tis, adj., (in 4 stms), inlo. ant; a stranger, denizen. Also adj. cent, guiltless, unoffending. immigrant, naturalized. Instans tis part. (insto).

Page  205 INSTITUO 205 INTER Inqttuo, Ore, ui, utum, a. (in &4 Integer, gra, grum, adj., whole, enstatuo), to plant, place, appoint, insti- tire, undiminished; strong, vigorous lute; to construct, build, make, form; new, fresh, unimpaired; pure, spot to pronounce, declare, make, appoint;. less, unsullied; unhurt, uninjured; to establish, introduce, ordain, deter- untouched, undetermined, open; upmine, ~ 271, to begin, commence; to right, honest, virtuous. De tntegro, teach, instruct, bring or train up, edu- afresh, anew. cate, direct; to decree; to order, regu- Integrltas, jitis. f. (integer), soundlate; with ut or ne and the subj. or with ness; integrity, uprightness, probity inf. honesty. Institutum, i, n. (instituo), a purpose, Intellgo, ere, exi, ectum, a. (inter 4 object, subject, plan, design, principle; lego), ~ 272, & ~ 265, to understand, a custom, practice, institution, fash- comprehend, know, perceive, see. ion, manners. Intempestus, a, um, adj. (in 4 tern Insto, are, sttti, n. (in 4f sto, to stand), pestus, seasonable), unseasonable. In224, to stand in, over, or upon; to tempesta ntx, midnight, the dead of be near or at hand, draw nigh, im- night. pend, approach, threaten; to push or Intendo, ere, di, turn 4 sum, a. (in 4 press upon, urge, harass, assail, be tendo), to bend, stretch; to increase, earnest or pressing, pursue, pursue augment. Intendere officia, to go bewith reproaches, inveigh against. yond or exceed one's duty, to do more Instructus, a, um, part. (instruo), set than is required:-to direct, turn, apin order, arranged, marshalled; ~ 249, ply. Intendere or intendere animum, R. 1. furnished, equipped, accoutred, to turn one's self, turn one's mind or provided, prepared, in battle array. thoughts, direct one's attention or enInstrumentum, i, n., furniture, an ergies, set one's-heart upon; $ 271, to utensil, implement, instrument; bag- intend; to strive, exert one's self; to gage, apparatus; means, assistance, aim, point. Intendere or iter intenaid. Instrumenta militia, munitions dere, to bend, turn or direct one's of war: from course. Intendere ire, to design to go. Instruo, ere, uxi, uctum, a. (in 4 Intendere aliquid, to propose, aim at, struo, to build), to construct, build; to wish, intend. Intendere arma, atque set in order, dispose, arrange; to tela, to hold forth, present-. draw up in battle array,'marshal; to Intentus, a, um, part. 4- adj. (intenprepare, furnish, provide, equip, fit out, do), stretched, bent; intent upon, fixaccoutre. ed, attentive, eager, intent, occupied Insuesco, ere, evi, itum, a. 4 n. (in with, bent on; vehement, forcible; 4 suesco, 271, to become accustom- watchful, careful, cautious, on the ed), to be accustomed, be in the habit alert. It is followed by the dative or of. by the ablative, either with or without Insum, esse,fui, irr. n. (in 4 sum), in, and sometimes by the accusative O 224, 4- abl with in, to be in. with ad or in. Insuper, adv. (in 4 super), upon, Inter, prep. (in), with the ace ~ 235 above; from above; besides, more- R. 2, between, betwixt, among over. amongst, amid, amidst; in, at, dur Intactus, a, um, adj.'in 4- tactus, ing, within; above, before. Inter se touched), untouched, unhurt, unat- mutually, to or with one another or tempted. Bellum intactum, —-not begun. each other, together, between them.

Page  206 1NTERDUM 206 INVERSUS jointly. Procul or longe inter se, far rogo), ~ 265, to ask, question, inquire from each other, far apart. Diversi interrogate; to examine, accuse, inter se, opposite to one another. charge, prosecute, impeach, try. Interdum, adv. (inter 4, dum), some- Intervallum, i, n. (inter 4 vallus, a times, now and then, occasionally. palisade), a space, interval, distance. Interemptus, a, um, part. (interimo), Intervenio, ire, veni, ventum, n. (znslain, killed, destroyed. ter 4, venio), to come upon or between; Intereo ire, ii, Itum, irr. n. (inter 4f to interfere, intervene; to interrupt, eo), to perish, be destroyed, be slain, come or stand in the way, be opposed. die. IntestabIlis, e, adj. (in 4, testabilis Interfectus, a, un, part.: from that may testify), not permitted to Interficio, ere,flci,fectum, a. (inter give evidence in a court of law, exe& facio), to kill, slay, murder, put to crable, detestable, odious, infamous. death, destroy. Intestinus, a, unm, adj. (intus, withInterim, adv. (inter), in the mean in), internal, inward, intestine, civil, time, meanwhile, in the meanwhile, domestic. in the interim. Intolerandus, a, um, adj. (in 4, toleIntertmo, ere, emi, emptum, (inter 4 randus), not to be borne or endured, cmo), to take away; to kill, slay, mur- intolerable, insuflfrable. der, destroy. Intra, prep. with the ace., within, in. Interiturus, a, urn, part. (intereo). Also adv., within. Internuntius, i, m. (inter 4, nuntius), Intro, are, avi, itum, a., to go into, a messenger that goes between two enter, penetrate; to come over, pass parties, an internuncio, interposer, within. go-between, common or mutual friend Introduco, ere, xi, ctum, a. (intro, or adviser. within, -4 duco), to bring or lead in, Interpello, are, avi, attti,'a. (iOter conduct within, introduce., pello, obs.), to interrupt; to hinder, Introeo, ire, ii, irr. n. (intro 4, eo), disturb, prevent, stop, obstruct; to pre- ~ 276, II. to enter, go into. vent as tribune by a veto. Intueor, eri, itus sum, dep. (in 4, Interp6no, ere, posui, positum, a. tueor), ~ 233, to look at, gaze upon, (inter, pono), to interpose, put in be- behold. tween. Interponere fidem, to pledge Inultus, a, um, adj. (in 4 ultus), unone's credit, to engage one's word or revenged; unpunished, with impunity. honor, pledge his faith or word of Invado, ere, si, sum, n. 4 a. (in 4, honor. vado), ~ 233, (3,) to go into, enter, fall Interpositus, a, un, part. (interpono), upon, invade, attack, assail, rush interposed, pledged. against or upon; to seize, seize upon, Interpres, etis, m. 4 f, a mediator, lay hold of, takepossession; absolute, umpire, arbitrator, agent; an explain- to prevail, spread, extend. er, translator, interpreter, dragoman. Invenio, ire, veni, ventum, a. ktn m Interpretatus, a, um, part. pass., in- venio), to find, find out, meet with. terpreted, explained, translated, ~ 162, discover, ascertain; to contrive, de17: from. vise, invent; to acquire, gain, get, proInterpreter, iri, atus sum, dep. (in- cure; to detect, bring to light. terpres,, to interpret, expound,.explain. Inventus, a, um, part. (invenio). lnterrogitus, a, um, part.: from Inversus, a, um, part., turned upside Interr-go, are, avi, atum, a. (inter 4, down, inverted: from

Page  207 INVERTO 207 ITAQUE Inverto, ere, ti, sum, a. (in <4 verto), ble), hastiness of temper, irascibility to turn upside down, invert. anger, wrath, passion. Invictus, a, um, adj. (in - victus), Irascor, i, dep. (ira), tc be angry unconquered, unsubdued, invincible, displeased, influenced by anger or reunconquerable. sentment. Jnvldeo, ere, vidi, visum, n. 4' a. (in Irdtus, a, um, adj. (ira), angry, dis4 video), ~ 223, R. 2, to envy, grudge, pleased, enraged. deny, refuse. Fortuna virtuti invidet, Ire, pres. inf. of Eo. -denies success-. Irritamentum, i, n. (irrzto, to irriInvidia, aE,f., envy, jealousy, hatred, tate), an incitement, incentive, induceill-will, spite, malice, odium, blame, ment, encouragement, provocation. dislike, dissatisfaction, popular odium, Irrumpo, ere, ripi, ruptum, n. (in,' unpopularity. Invidice alicui esse, to rumpo, to break), ~ 233, & Rem. 2, to serve as a reproach, to cause one to break in or into, enter or rush in by be odious. In ifividia esse, to be force, burst in or into. odious: from Is, ea, id, gen, ejus, adj. pro. ~ 134, InvIdus a, um, adj. (invideo), en- he, she, it; this or that man, &c., the vious, invidious, malignant, spiteful. same; such, so great, such a one, that Inviolatus, a, um, adj. (in 4 viola- kind of person or thing. Id loci or tus, injured), inviolate, unhurt, unin- locorum, see Locus. Eo, abl. in., with jured, irreproachable, unimpeachable, comparatives, so much,' by so much, pure, immaculate, unpolluted, unbro- the. Id quod, the thing which, which ken. indeed, what, as, ~ 206, (13.) (b.) Is Invisus, a, um, adj. (in 4 visus), not with et, atque, etc. and that indeed, seen, unseen. Also, from invideo, ~ and that too. In the oratio obliqua, is 222, odious, hateful, hated, offensive, sometimes takes the place of tu in the disliked, detested. oratio directa. See Ille in Dict. Invito, are, avi, dtum, a., to invite, Asdem the same asiisdem. See Idem. ask, bid. Isse, perf. inf. of Eo. Invitus, a, um, adj., unwilling, re- Iste, ista, istud, gen. istius, dem, pro. luctant, against one's will. $ 134, & ~ 283, I, Exc. 4, this, that, he, Ipse, a, um, gen. ipsius, ~ 135, & she, it, ~ 207, R. 25. 283, 1, Exc. 4. adj. pro., himself, her- Ita, adv, (is), so, even so, so truly, self, itself; or, he himself, &c.; also, so certainly, thus, in this manner, in he, she, it; with ego or tu, expressed such a manner; so much, to such a or understood, myself, thyself. Is ipse, degree, such, so constituted; therehe himself, even he. Of its use when fore, consequently, accordingly. It i, joined with substantive pronouns used sometimes used redundantly, or by wa3 reflexively, as, parum tuta per se ipsa of apposition, before a clause, in a probitas, see ~ 207, R. 28. Ipse some- manner similar to id, Q 206, (13), times signifies, in himself, &c., person- Italia,,f., Italy. J. 5, 2 28. C ally, as, Duo imperatores,-iip pares; 16, &c. also, in itself, of itself; as, Natura ser- Italcus, a, um, adj. (Italia), Italian pentium ipsa pernicosa, siti accendi- Italaci, orum, m., Italians, the inhabi tur. tants of all parts of Italy, except GalIra, c, f., anger, displeasure, wrath, lia Cisalpina, and Latium. J. 47, 67 passion, ire, rage, resentment. Itque, illative conj. ~ 198, 6, (ita 4 Iracundia, C, f. (iracundus irasci, que), therefore, then; and so, and thus

Page  208 ITE 208 JUGUM Ite, etc., see Eo. Jampridem, adv., see Jam. Item, adv., also, likewise, in like Janua, ae,f a gate,door, entrance. manner. Item often denotes the re- Januarius, a, um, adj. (Janus), of o petition of a preceding predicate; as, pertaining to the month of January Ipse armatus, intentusque, item milites Januarice Calender, the first of Janucogebat, sc. ut armati inteutique essent, ary. -to be armed-. Jocus, i, m. in pl. joci m, f joca, n. Iter itinleris,., a going along; a 92, 2, a joke, jest; wit, raillery; hujourney, way, march, rout, road, path, mor, pleasantry. Movere jocum, to course, progress, method, plan. Ex joke, jest, excite mirth, cause merri. itinere, in itinere, and itinere, on the ment. way, on the journey or march. Iter Jovis, see Jupiter. facere, to go, march, travel. Iter Jubeo, ere, jussi, jussum, a., $ 272, pergere, to continue, pursue, prose- ~ 273, 2, (d.) to order, bid, comcute-. Magnis itineribus, byforced mand, charge, direct, enjoin; to marches, with all speed. Iter trans- choose, elect, appoint; with the accuversum, a cross road, a transverse satie of the thing, and the dative of course or direction, a march across t,, th. i er e trnvre athe person, to vote, decree, assign;the country. Itinere transverso, at t r i right angles. to ratify, approve. Rogalionemjubere, Itrumadv., agai to vote for a bill, to enact a law. anItgrum, a n, secd te, Pass. impers, ut jussum erat, as had anew. Itun., see Eo. been commanded. Ituus, a, etm part. (eo). Jucundus, a, um, adj. (juvo), $ 222, lU, a, smprt. pleasant, agreeable, delightful, grate-,~~~J ful, pleasing, joyful. Judicium, i, n. (judex, a judge), Jacio, ere,jei, jactum, a., to throw, judgment; a trial, sentence, decision; cast, fling, hurl; to throw or cast up, judicial power; a court of justice; a raise, erect, place. Fig. to throw out suit or action at law, a law-suit, legal a remark, say, remark casually, ob- process, legal remedy or redress; serve, ~ 272. judgment, opinion, belief. Mutare Jaciilor, dri, dttus, sum, dep., to judicium animi, to alter one's purthrow ajavelin, throw, dart, cast, fling, pose or design. Judicium summum, hurl, shoot: from supreme or unlimited jurisdiction. Jaccllum, i, n. (jacio), javelin, dart. Judco, are, avi, atum, a. (jus 4 Jam, adv., now, immediately, pre- dico), O 210, R. 3, (3,) (c.) & ~ 230, R. 1. sently, instantly, directly; even; be- to judge, give judgment, pass sen:oethald Ja ae, a' to judge, give judgment, pass senfore; then; already. Jan antea, aml tence, determine, decide; to declare, ante or antca jam, long before, long onounce ago, some time ago, already, previous- pronounce. ly. Jam inde, all along. Jam inde a Jug,, adj., perpetual, continual principio, from the vesy beginning, never ailing, perennial. Jugis aqua, as far back as the beginning. Jam a fountain, spring. jam, just now, instantly, now truly, JuTzlo, are, av, atum, a. (jiiulum, now indeed. Jam pridem, long, long the throat), to cut the throat, butcher, ago, long since, for a long time. Jam kill, slay, murder. primum, now, in the first place, now, Jugum, i, n., a yoke. In milhtery first of all. Jam turn, even then, al- language, a yoke, a frame consisting ready. of two spears placed erect, and a

Page  209 JUGURTHA 209 LABOR third laid transversely upon them, un- the rights of freedom, or the privi der which vanquished enemies were leges of free citizens. Jus nullum sometimes made to pass in a crouch- the total absence of justice. ing posture, as a mark of disgrace. Jusjurandum, i, n., ~ 91, (jus e ju Jugurtha, w, m., a son of Manasta- randum, an oath), an oath. bal, and adopted son of Micipsa king Jussu, abl., ~ 94, (jubeo), by corn of Numidia. After murdering Ad- mand. Sinejussu, without command herbal and Hiempsal, sons of Micipsa, Jussum, i, n. (juheo), an order, corn he became sole king of Numidia, and mand, charge. Jussa eficere, to exe for a long time waged war with vari- cute-. ous success against the Romans. He Jussus, a, um part. (jubeo). was finally taken captive by Marius, Justitia, cs,f., justice, impartiality, and after gracing the triumph of the clemency, mercy, uprightness, probiconqueror, perished in the same pri- ty: from son in which the associates of Cati- Justus, a, um, adj. (jus), just, upline were subsequently put to death. right, virtuous; mild, clement; just, A. U. C. 649. J. 5, &c. equitable; suitable, merited, due, reaJugurth'nus, a, um, adj. (Jugurtha), sonable, proper; lawful; justa, 5rum, of or relating to Jugurtha, Jugurthine. n., funeral rites, obsequies. J. 19, 56. Juvaturus, a, um, part. (juvo), $ 165 Julius, i, m. (C.), a confederate of Juventus, &tis,f., (juvenis, a youth) Catiline. C. 27. youth, younger days, the age of youth, Jumentum, i, n. (jungo, to join), a a period of life, which appears strictly beast of burden, pack-horse.' to have extended onlyfrom thirty to Junius, a, um, adj., of or pertaining forty-five, but which is often made to to the month of June. Calendw Ju-'embrace also the preceding period of nice, the Calends of June. fifteen years, properly called adolesJunius, i, m., a Roman name, see centia. It is also used in a vague Silanus. mannerfor the period immediatelyfolJupIter, Jovis, m., ~ 85, Jupiter or lowing childhood. The youth, young Jove, a son of Saturn, and chief of persons, young men. Juvenlus nobilthe Greek and Roman gods. J. 107. ium, the young nobles or nobility. Jurgium, i, n. (jurgo, to quarrel), a Juvo, are, jhvi, jiitum, a., to help, dispute, quarrel, altercation, strife, aid, assist, succor, profit, benefit; to contention, slander, scandal, defa- please, delight, amuse; imp., it dematory speeches. lights. Diisjuvantibus, with the blesJuro, are, avi, dtum, n. f a., to sing of heaven. swear, take an oath, make oath: from Juxta, adv., nigh, near, by, hard by; Jus, juris, n., right, law, reason, equally, alike. Juxta ac, just as, justice, that which is conformable to equally as. Juxta ac si, just as if law; the laws; a court of justice; a just as though, ~ 263.2. Juxta mecu'n, sentence, judgment; state, condition; equally with me, as well as I. power, authority; leave, license. Jure, justly reasonably, of course, also, by L law, according to law. Jus bonumque, what is just and useful, rectitude L., an abbreviation of the preno and public interest. Jus fasque, hu- men Lucius. man and divine laws. Jus libertatis, Labor, i, lapsus sum, dep., to fall

Page  210 LABOR 210 LARGIOR gently, glide down, descend. Fig. to Lotitia, cc, f. (letus), joy, gladness, mistake, err, falter, go wrong, miss. mirth, joyfulness, exultation. See Labor 4 Labos, oris, m., labor, toil, Gaudium. fatigue, activity, industry. Fig. dis- Lctor, dri, atus sum, dep. ~ 273, 5, tress, hardship, trouble, misfortune, to rejoice, be glad or joyful; i 232, (3.) difficulty. The form labos occurs to rejoice at or on account of; to be morefrequently in Sallust than labor. delighted with, take delight in: from Laboro, are, dvi, atum, n. 4 a. (labor), Letus, a, um, adj. ~ 213, R. 5, (4.) to labor, be oppressed with toil or fa- glad, joyful, cheerful, joyous; ready, tigue; to be in want, trouble, difficul- willing; pleasing, acceptable; favoraty or distress; to be hard pressed; to ble; fruitful. Lcotus aliquA re, to be maintain one's ground with difficulty; pleased or satisfied with. Lceti pacem' 273, 1, to strive, struggle, labor for, agitabamus, we enjoyed the delights do one's utmost to efiect, try to ob- of peace. Agere lastus, to be joyful. tain, strive to accomplish; to work, ^ Lcsvus, a, urn, adj., left, on the left labor, toil, exert one's self. side. Lava, ca, f., sc. manus, the left Lac, lactis, n., milk. hand, the left side. Ad laovam, on or Lacedacmon, onis, f., Lacedemon, towards the left. otherwise called Sparta, a celebrated Lancea, ce, f., a lance, spear, javecity of Peloponnesus, the capital of lin, pike, dart. Laconia. Langueo, ere, ui, n., to languish, be Lacedcemonius, a, um, adj. (Lacedcc- sick, feeble or faint, fade, droop, bemon), Lacedemonian, Spartan. La- come weak or languid, grow dull or cedcmonii, orum, m., the Lacedemo- heavy, remiss, inactive or listless; to nians or Spartans. C. 2, 51. be wanting in spirit or energy. Lacero, are, avi, atum, a. (lacer, Languldus, a, un, adj. (langueo), maimed), to maim, mangle; to rend, faint, languid, weak, feeble, listless, tear, lacerate; to waste, squander, con- inactive, remiss, dull, sick. sume, dissipate; to revile, defame, rail Lapideus, a, um, adj., of stone, at, asperse, censure; to torment, af- stony: from flict. Lapis, Idis, m., a stone. Lacessitus, a, un, part., provoked, Lapsus, a, um, part. (labor). roused, irritated, exasperated: from Laqueus, i, m., a noose, halter, cord, Lacesso, ere, ivi, itum, a., to pro- snare, Laqueo gulam frangere, to voke, challenge, irritate, exasperate, strangle. excite; to rouse, stimulate, assail. Lar, laris, m., a household god, a Lacryma, a,f., a tear. god who presided over the house and Lacrymo, 4 Lacrimo, are, avi, atum, family, and to whom the hearth was n. (lacryma), to weep, shed tears. consecrated, a guardian god who preLceca, a, m. (M. Porcius), a Roman sided over all inhabited places Fig. senator, confederate with Catiline. lar or larfamiliaris, a house, home. C. 17, 27. Lares, ium,f. pl., a town of Africa Lcedo, ire, si, sum, a., to hurt, harm, J. 90. injure, offend, annoy; to asperse, slan- Largior, i-i, itus sum, dep. (largus der, defame, reproach, rail at, censure, abundant), to give in abundance, be inveigh against, assail. stow largely, lavish; to give, grant, Loetandus, a, um, part. pass. (lator) give away; to make presents, give tobe rejoiced at. Ilargesses, bribe.

Page  211 LARGITER 211 LEGIO Largiter, adv. (largus), largely, commend, extol, so, laudando extol. plentifully, freely, lavishly. lere; to esteem, prize, value: from Largitio, onis, f. (largior), a giving Laus, dis,f., praise, commendation; freely, bountifulness, liberality; lar- glory, honor; fame, renown. gesses; bribery, corruption, a bribe; Laxe, adv., loosely, slackly, widely, profusion, prodigality, openly. Sperans Romanos laxis fuLargitor, Oris, m. (largior), a profuse turos,-would be more free from respender, liberal giver; a briber. straint, disorderly. For this use of the Lascivia, a?, f. (lascivus, wanton), adverb in thepredicate, see Sum: from petulance, licentiousness; wanton- Laxus, a, urn, adj., loose, large, ness, playfulness, relaxation, gayety, open, spacious, wide, slack, lax. sportiveness, love of amusement; las- Laxius imperium, less severe, less civiousness. strict, more indulgent. Lassitudo, Inis, f., weariness, fa- Lectus, i, m., a bed or couch. tigue, lassitude: from Lectus, a, urn, part. 4- adj. (lego), Lassus, a, urn, adj., weary, tired, chosen, selected, choice. faint. Legatio, onis, f. (lego, ire), an emLate, adv. (latus, wide), widely, ex- bassy, lieutenancy, legation, the office tensively, far and wide. Late ire, to of an ambassador or lieutenant; permarch widely extended. sons sent on an embassy, ambassa Latine, adv., after the manner of dors. the Latins in the Latin tongue, in Legatus, i, m. (lego, are), an ambasLatin: from sador, envoy, legate, commissioner; a Latinus, a, urn, adj. (Latium, a lieutenant, deputy, lieutenant-general; country of Italy), of or belonging to the governor of a conquered province. Latium, Latin. Nomen Latinum, La- Legio, onis,f. (lego, ere), a legion, a tins, inhabitants of Latium. J. 39, body of Roman soldiers consisting of 42, 43. ten cohorts. The number of soldiers Latitido, Tnis, f. (latus), breadth, in a legion was different at diferent width, large extent; a broad tract. periods of the Roman state, having Declivis latitudo, a gradually descend- originally consisted of three thousand ing tract of great extent, a broad de- foot and three hundred horse, which rJivity. number was gradually enlarged to Latro, 5nis, m., a life-guard; a mer- four, five, or six thousand exclusive cenary; a marauder, bandit, highway- of cavalry. In every legion there were man, robber. three classes of soldiers called the Latrocinium, i, n. (latroclnor, to hastati, principes and triarii or pilani rob), robbery, highway-robbery, pira- Each class contained ten companies cy; fraud, artifice, stratagem,violence; (ordines), and the same number of cenan attack of banditti, a contest with turions. The centurion who led the robbers. first company of the principes, as well Latus, a, um, part. (fero). as the company itself, was called priLatus, Uris, n., the side, flank, ribs. mus princeps, the second secundus, Ab latere, from the side; also, in the t4c. In like manner among the hasflank; near, at-one's side, at one's el- tati and the pilani, the first centurion bow. Ex or a lateribus, on the sides was called primus hastatus and prior flanks. mus pilus or ccnturio primi pili. As Laudo, are, dvi, atum, a., to praise, the triarii constituted the class highest 19

Page  212 LEGIONARIUS 212 LIBERALITER i rank, the centurio primi pili held Lepldus, i, m. (M. AEmilius), a Ro. the first rank among the centurions of man consul, A U. C. 688. C. 18. a legion. It is sometimes used in a Lepor, 4 Lepos, oris, m., mirth, wit general sense for an army and even humor, facetiousness, grace, elegance for the army of a foreign nation. C. Jeptis, is, f., ~ 79, 1. Leptis, the 53. name of two towns in Africa, one Legionarius, a, um, adj. (legio), of a near Hadrymetum, sometimes called legion, legionary. Cohors legionaria Leptis minor, the other between the or ex legionibus is used in distinction Syrtes, called also Leptis major and from cohors auxiliaria. Neapolis. J. 19, 77. Legit'mus, a, um, adj. (lex), accord- Leptitani, orum, m. pl., the inhabi ing to law, appointed or regulated by tants of Leptis. J. 77, 79. law, legal, lawful, right, just, legiti- Levis, e, adj., light, of little weight; mate. Legitimi dies, the legal time, small, little, slight: trifling, trivial, the days prescribed by law. Candi- inconsiderable, of small moment; dates for office were required to offer easy, mild, gentle. themselves seventeen days before the Levlter, adv. (levis), lightly, slightly, day of election. softly; comp. leviis, less. Levius streLego, are, avi, ltum, a., ~ 264, 5, to pere, to ring less, make less noise. send as an ambassador, depute, de- Levo, are, avi, atum, a. (levis), ~ 251, spatch; to appoint as lieutenant. Le- to lift up, raise; to make lighter, lightgare sibi aliquem, to choose for one's en, ease, relieve. deputy or lieutenant. Lex, legis, f., law; a law, statute Lego,?re, legi, lectum, a., to collect, ordinance. Leges etjura, the constigather, cull, pick up; to run over, tution and laws. read, peruse; to choose, select, elect. Libens, tis, adj. (libel), willing, pleasLenio, ire, ivi, itum, a. (lenis, soft), ed, glad; merry, cheerful, joyful. Lito soften, mitigate, calm, alleviate, bens accipere,-gladly, with pleasure, assuage, allay, appease, propitiate, pa- ~ 205, R. 15, (a). cify, lessen, diminish, soothe, extenu- Liber, bri, m., the inner bark of a ate, prevail upon, persuade. Lenire tree; a book. inopiam frumenti, to compensate, Liber, era, erum, adj. (libet), free, in make amends for, cause to be less a state of liberty; open, bold, frank, felt. unrestrained, uncontrolled, uninflu. Lenlter, adv. (lenis), gently, softly, enced, unshackled; void of, exempt sweetly, mildly, placidly, calmly; re- from. missly, inactively. Lenius agere, to Liberalis, e adj. (liberT, 213, libeact (i. e. to prosecute the attack) with ral, befitting a freeman or gentleman less vigor. genteel, well bred, ingenuous; bounLentilus, i, m. (P. Cornelius Lentu- tiful, generous, munificent, liberal, lus Sura), a Roman senator who took free. a prominent part in the conspiracy Liberalltas, atis,f. (liberalis), ingenot Catiline. He was at that time a uousness, civility; bounty, liberality, praetor, and had once been consul. munificence, generosity. He married the sister of L. Caesar. LiberaTiter, adv. (liberalis), ngenuC. 17, 32, 39, 43, &c. See also Spin- ously, liberally, honorably, prother fusely, bountifully, liberally, munifi leo. Wnis, m., a lion. cently.

Page  213 LIBERE 213 LITTERA Libere,adv.(liber), ingenuously,libe- of Africa between Getulia and the rally, honorably, freely; largely, copi- Atlantic; pl. Libyes, Libyans. J. 18, ously. Liberiis processi,-too freely. 89. Lib ri, orum, m. pl. (liber), children Licenter, adv. (licens, free), too free(freeborn,'not slaves). ly, without due restraint; freely, with Libero, are, Evi, atum, a. (liber), to freedom. Sperans Romanos licentiis set at liberty, free, make free; to de- futuros,-more remiss in their disci liver, release, extricate. pline. Libertas, atis, f. (liber), liberty, free- Licentia, Cw,f. (licens), ~ 275, III. R. dom, the state and condition of a free- 1, (1.) licence, liberty, permission, inman. independence, fearlessness. Jus dulgence, leave, power, ability, freelibertatis, see Jus. dom from restraint, opportunity; liLibertus, i, m. (libero), a freed man, centiousness, insubordination. Polslave made free. This appellation is luta licentia, shameful corruption. used when reference is made to the for- Licet, licuit 4 licitum est, imp. S 169, mer master; as, liberti Lentuli, the ~ 223, ~ 269, R. 2, ~ 262, R. 4, ~ 273, it freed-men of Lentulus; otherwise the is lawful, it is permitted or allowed, freed-man is called libertinus; but one may. Licet mihi, illi, etc., I may libertus appears to be sometimes used or can, he may, &c.:-it is possible. for libertinus, C. 59. Licinius, i, m. (M.), see Crassus. Libet, libuit or libltum est, 169, Lictor, bris, m., a lictor, an officer imp., ~ 223, & ~ 269, R. 2. it pleases, who attended on the principal Roman it is agreeable. Uti libet, sc. tibi or magistrates, going before them, bearvobis, as you please. Libet mihi con- ing the fasces. They preceded the fiteri, I am willing to confess, free to magistrates in single file; hence the own. one who led the file was called priLibidinosW, adv. (libidinbsus, wan- mus lictor, the one in the rear, and ton), according to one's pleasure or next to the magistrate, was called proxcaprice, wantonly, arbitrarily, capri- imus. ciously. Ligneus, a, um, adj. (lignum, wood), Libido, Ynis,f. (libet), $ 275, III, R. of wood, wooden, ligneous. 1, will, inclination, feelings, fancy, Ligur, - Ligus, Uris, m. -f., of humor, caprice; extravagance of de- Liguria, a country of Italy, a Ligurisire, wantonness; desire, propensity, an. The Ligurians were subdued by inclination, passion, lust, cupidity, sen- the Romans under L..Emilius Scausuality, inordinate or ungoverned ap- rus, A. U. C. 571, and became allies petite. In a good sense, pleasure, sat- of the Romans. J. 38, 77, 93, &c. isfaction, delight. Habere libidinem, Limetanus, i, m. (C. Mamilius), a to take pleasure, to delight. Libido tribune of the people, A. U. C. 644. dominandi, the lust of dominion. Li- J 40. bido animi, the same as libido, inclina- Limosus, a, um, adj., miry, muddy. tion, passion. Ex libidine, as one from pleases, arbitrarily, according to one's Limus, i, m., mud, slime. pleasure, humor or caprice, in pursu- Lingua, e, f., the tongue. Fig. lanance of one's wishes. guage, words, speech, conversation, Libys, yos, adj., Libyan. Also, discourse; a tongue, language eubs. m.. a Libyan, an inhabitant of Littera, ac,f., a letter of the alphaLibya, a country in the western part bet. Fig. littera, a writing, compo

Page  214 LIXA 214 LUXUS sition book; a letter, or letters, epis- space or time: lasting, durable, ot long tle, or epistles; literature, letters, continuance. learning. Loquor, i, citus sum, dep., to speak, Lixa, ce, m., a suttler, victualler in say, tell, declare, discourse, talk, utter a camp. The acc. is sometimes omitted, 229 Locatus, a, umn, part.: from R. 4, 2. Loco, are, avi, atum, a. (locus), to Lucius, i, m., a Roman prcnomen place, set, lay, dispose, arrange, sta- Luctuosus, a, um, adj., mournful tion; deposit, store, put. Locarepri- sorrowful, lamentable, sad, dolefil, nmos et extremos,-in ifont and rear. calamitous: from Locuples, etis, adj. (locus 4 pleo, Luctus, us, m. (lugeo, to mourn,) la. obs., to fill), rich, wealthy, opulent; mentation, mourning, sorrow, afflic well stored, well furnished. tion, grief. Locus, i, m., pl. loci, m. 4 loca, n. Luculentus, a, unm, adj. (lux), bright, 92, 2, a place, room, situation, re- clear. Luculenta oratio, elegant, splen gion, part, station, post, position; na- did-. tural situation. Fig. a place, room, Lucullus, i, m. (P.), a tribune of the cause, opportunity, time; reason, people in the Jugurthine war. J. ground, pretext; condition, state, fa- 37. mily, rank, station, dignity. Omni- Ludibrium, 2, n. (ludo, to play), a bus locis, in all places, every where, mock, mockery, laughing stock, jest, ( 254, R. 3. Loco cedere, to give way, sport, derision. Habere ludibrio, to abandon one's post, retire. Pelli loco, mock, make a mock of, make sport to be driven from one's post. Urbes with, make game of, to impose upon, munitce loco,-strong by situation or trick, befool. Esse ludibrio alicui, to nature. Pro loco, according to the serve as a laughing stock, to be the situation, or the nature of the ground. sport of. Id loci, that place, ~ 212, R. 3. Id lo- LudifYco, are, avi, atum, a. 4 n., or corum, that time. Postea loci, or, as Ludificor, ari, itus sum, dep. (ludus some think it should be written, post 4ffacio), to mock, deceive, make a ea loci, corresponding in form with fool of, trifle with, baffle. id loci, after that, afterward, ~ 212, R. Ludus, z, m., play, sport, diversion, 4, N. 4. Peccato si locus esset, if error pastime, amusement. were admissible, if a mistake were Lumen, inis, n., (luceo, to shine), allowable, or of little consequence. light; a light, day-light. Fig. an orLocus difficilis, in military language, nament, honor. a place of difficult approach. Cogna- Lux, lucis,f., light, day-light. torum loco ducere, to reckon in the Luxuria, e, f. (luxus), luxury, explace of-put instead of-esteem as-. cess, riot, profusion, extravagance, Locitus, a, um, part. (loquor). waste. LongS, adv. (longus), far off, at a Luxuriose, adv., luxuriously, sump distance, far; very, very much, much, tuously: from exceedingly: of time, long, far. Lon- Luxuriosus, a, um, adj. (luxuria), gius, farther; too far, ~ 256, R. 9, (a). luxurious, excessive, wasteful, prodi Longinus, i, m. (L. Cassius), a Ro- gal, extravagant, voluptuous; rank man senator confederate with Cati- luxuriant. line. C. 17, 44, 49. Luxus, us, m., luxury, excess, riot Longus, a, um, adj., long, either in Per luxum, in luxury, luxuriously.

Page  215 M 215 MALEDICTUM M. Magnificus, a, un, adj. (magnus 4y facio), magnificent, splendid, noble; M., an abbreviation of the prceno- boastful, proud, glorying, ostentatious, men Marcus. sumptuous, rich, costly; great, gloMacedonia, c,,f., Macedonia or Ma- rious, exalting, conferring honor. cedon, a large country between Thes- Magnifica pro se dlctitare,-self-glorisaly and Thrace. J. 35. fying. Macedonicus, a, um, adj., pertaining Magnitido, inis,f., (magnus), greatto Macedonia, Macedonian. C. 51. ness, bulk, magnitude, extent; multiMachina, c(, f., a frame, fabric, tude, quantity; weight, importance, work; a machine, engine; a military dignity. Magnitudoitineris, thelength machine, warlike engine. of the march. Magnitudo animi, Machinatio, onis, f. (machinor), a greatness of soul, loftiness of spirit, contrivance, device, artifice; a ma- magnanimity. Post magnitudinem chine, engine. nominis Romani, after the Roman Machlindtus, a, urn, part., with a name or nation had become great. passive signification, O 162,17, planned, Magnitudo pecunicc, a great sum,- a devised, contrived: from great amount-. Pro, magnitudine, Machlnor, dri, atus sum, dep. (ma- considering the importance, accordchina), to contrive, devise, plan, de- ing to the importance. sign, project, plot. Magnium, adv., ~ 192, 4, (b.) very, Magis, adv., more; rather; especial- greatly, extensively: from ly. It is often joined with eo, quo, Magnus, a, um, adj. (comp. major, tanto, quanto, &c., as, eo magis, and sup. maximus, ~ 125, 5.), ~ 250, great, that the more, so much the more or large, powerful, mighty, excellent; the more; magis magisque, more and much, considerable; momentous, immore. Its superlative degree is max- portant, valuable. Magna vox, a loud ime, which see. Magis is not unfre- voice. Ubi mare magnum esse ccepit, quently omitted before quam. Cat. 8, when the sea begins to swell. Cele48, etc. brare in majus, to exaggerate, to enMagistratus, us, m. (magistro, to hance, to extol beyond due bounds, rule), an office either civil or military, magnify. but especially a civil magistracy: also, Majestas, atis,f., (majus, ohs., great), a civil or military officer, but particu- greatness, majesty, grandeur, dignilarly a civil magistrate. The ordina- ty. ry Roman civil magistrates were di- Major, see Magnus. Major natu, vided into two classes, the majores, or see Natu. greater, and the minores or less. In Majores, um, m. pl. (major), forethe former were included the consuls, fathers, ancestors; the ancients. praetors and censors; in the latter, the Male, adv., comp. pejus, sup. pes. cdiles, quaestors and tribunes of the sIme, (malus), badly, ill, wrongly, people. amiss, disastrously, wickedly. Male Magniffce, adv., magnificently, pugnatum, unsuccessfullysplendidly, nobly, grandly, pompously, Maledico, ere, dian, dictum, a. (mate in a lofty strain, in a style of enhance- 4- dice), ~ 225, I. to speak ill of, rail or ment or amplification, boastfully, carp at, revile, slander, asperse, abuse, sumptuously, haughtily, pathetically: reproach. from Maledictum, i, n., tnaledico), a re19 *

Page  216 MALEFACTUA 216 MANUS proach, opprobrious or abusive lan- chaser,) property, right of perpetual guage; an imprecation, curse. possession, dominion; a slave. Malefactum, i, n. (malefacio, to in- 3andaturm, i, n., a commission, jure), evil deeds, crimes, injuries, order, command, charge, message. Mlaleficium, i, n., a bad action, mis- Mandata efficere or conficere, to exedeed, wickedness; hurt, harm, wrong, cute, perform-. Dare mandata verinjury: from bis, to give a verbal message: from:Malaficus, a, um, adj. (malefacio), Mando, are, avi., atum, a., ~ 223, hurtful, ill-disposed, mischievous, in- R. 2, ~ 273, 2, O 262, R. 4, to commit jurious, pernicious. to one's charge, bid, enjoin, order, Malevolentia, (e, f. (malevulens, ill- command; to commit, consign, cornnatured), ill-will, envy, spite, malice, mend, confide, entrust. malevolence. Maneo, ere, si, sum, n. 4a a., to stop,.Malitia, c,f, malice; bad qualities, stay, tarry, abide, remain, wait; to demerit, perversity, villainy, wicked- last, endure, continue; to remain ness, vice. firm. Malo, malle, maluz, irr. n. 4' a. (ma- Manifestus, a, uon, adj., manifest, gis 4 volo), (O 178, 3,) ~ 229, ~ 271, $ clear, evident, plain, apparent; ~ 213, 273, 4, to be more willing, choose clearly convicted, evidently guilty. rather, desire more, prefer. It is often Manifestum habere, see Habeo. followed by quam, referring to magis Manilius, i, m., see MIancinus. in composition. Manipulus, i, m. (manus, pleo, obs. Malum, i, n., an evil, mischief, mis- to fill), a handful; a band of foot solfortune, calamity, harm, punishment; diers, a company, maniple, the third a fault, bad quality: from part of a cohort. Malus, a, um, adj. (comp. pejor, sup. Manlianus, a, um, adj., Manlian, of pessinmus), bad, evil, wicked, corrupt, or pertaining to Manlius. vicious; worthless, mean, despicable, 3Manlius, i, m., (T.), see Torquatus. vile, unprincipled; unsuccessful, un- Manlius, i, m (A.), a lieutenant of favorable, adverse, unfriendly, unfor- Marius in the war against Jugurtha. tunate, mischievous, pernicious, un- J. 86, 90, 100, 102. lucky. Fratres mali,-wanting in af- Manlius, i, m. (C.), a confederate of fection, contentious, quarrelsome. Catiline, to whom was intrusted the Mamilius, a, um, adj., of or relating command of a large part of the forces to Mamilius, Mamilian. Mamilia lex, raised by the conspirators. C. 24, &c. a law introduced by C. Mamilius Manlius, i, m. (Cn.), a Roman geneLimetanus for the trial of those who ral who was defeated by the Gauls, had favored the cause of Jugurtha. A. U. C. 649. J. 114. J. 40, 65. Mansi, see Mlaneo. Mamilius, i, m. (C.), see Limetanus. Mansuetudo,'nis, f., (mansuetts, Manastabal, alis, m., a Numidian tame), gentleness, mildness, tameness, prince, a son of Masinissa, brother of lenity, clemency, humanity. Micipsa, and father of Jugurtha. In Mansurus, a, um, part. (maneo). some editions it is written Mastana- Manus, us, f., a hand; art, labor bal. J. 5, 65. skill, workmanship; a body of men, Mancinus,,, m. (Manilius), a tribune an armed force, army, band. Conse of the Roman people, A. U. C. 646. rere manum, see Consero. Mlanu, by Mancipium, i, n. (manceps, a pur- hand. forcibly, by force of arms, vio

Page  217 MAPALIA 217 MAXIME lently. Consulere alicui manu, to aid account of the learning and refineby fighting. Neque consilio neque ment of its inhabitants. C. 34. manu,-in action, in feats of arms. MIassiva, cc, m., a Iumidian, the.Equa manu discedere, to come off grandson of Masinissa, assassinated with equal advantage. Manu promp- by order of Jugurtha. J. 35, 61. tus, prompt in action. In manu or in Massugrada, cc, m., the name of a manibus esse, to be in one's power, to Numidian prince, the son of Matidepend on one, with ut and the subj., nissa by a concubine. J. 108. also, to be at hand, to be near or close, Mater, tris,f., a mother. Mater fa. in distinction from eminus. Facere milias, ~ 43,2, the mistress of a family prclium manibus, to come to close lady, wife. quarters, fight hand t) hand. Per Materia, c, 4' Materies, ei, f. (mater), manus, by force, by main force, forci- matter, stuff, materials; wood, timber. bly, also, from hand to hand. Res Fig. occasion, cause, source. fidesque in manibus sitcc erant, their Mlaternus, a, unm, adj. (mater), of a property and credit depended upon mother, motherly, maternal. their manual labor. In manus venire, IMatire adv. (maturus), in time, sea to come within one's reach, come to sonably, opportunely; quickly, promptblows, come to an engagement. ly, early, speedily, soon, hastily. Mapalia, ium, n. pl., the name given MaiFro, dracvi, aturn, m aj n., to ri by the Numidians to their cottages or pen, make ripe,'nature; to accelesate, cabins; also villages, hamlets. hasten, quicken, despatch, expedite, Marcius, i, m., (Q. Rex), see Rex. make haste, O 271; to do a thing beMarcus, Z, m., a Roman preenomen. fore the time, anticipate, be precipiMare, is, n., the sea. Terra mart- tate. WIith an infinitive it may often que, or mari atque terr&, ~ 254, R. 3, be translated, swiftly, speedily, rapidly, rmed., by land and sea. Nostrum with haste, &c.; as, Maturare iter permare, our sea, i. e. the Mediterranean. gere, to pursue a journey with rapiMaria et montes polliceri, to promise dity; so Legatz maturantes veniunt: seas and mountains, to promise bound- from less wealth, to make extravagant pro- Maturus, a, um, adj., ripe, mature, mises. ready; seasonable, timely, opportune; Miaritimus, a, um, adj. (mare), of the early, speedy, quick. sea, lying near the sea, maritime. Mauritania 4- Mauretania, cE,f., a Maritima ora, the sea-coast. large country in the western part of Marius, i, m. (C.), a celebrated Ro- Africa, now Morocco and Fez. J. 16, man general, who conquered Jugurtha 19, 62. C. 21. and the Cimbri, and afterwards en- Maurus, a, um, adj., Moorish Maurigaged in a bloody civil war in oppo- tanian. Maurus, i, m., an inhabitant sition to Sylla. He was first appointed of Mauritania, a Moor, Mauritanian. consul A U. C. 647. J. 46, 63, &c. J. 18, 19, 80, 82, 97, &c. Masinissa, cc, m., a king of Nu- Maxime, adv. (sup. of magis), 5 127 nlidia, and grandfather of Jugurtha. very greatly, in the highest degree J 5, 9, 14, 24, 35, 65. most, most of all, eminently, much Massilia, ee,f., a maritime city in very, for the most part, very much the southern part of Gaul, now Mar- above all; particularly, chiefly. espeecilles. It was founded by the Pho- cially, principally, in the first place. ceaus and was long distinguished on Quam maxime, very much, as much as

Page  218 3MAXIMUS 218 MEN rIOR possible Quam maxime longus, $.Mlehercule, adv., by Hercules, truly, 127, as lasting as possible. Si maxime in truth. animus ferat, if (our) minds (i e. if we) ][elior, 6ris, adj. (comp. of bonts), were ever so much disposed. Mlaxime better, superior, more excellent, pre— secun(dt n, most of all-next to that; ferable. Belle melior, more warlike, in t he first place-in the second place. braver. 3ultio lmaximc, most especially, in the Aelius, ade. (comp.of bene), better. very highest degree. Menmet, see Egomnet. M1aximus, a, urn, adj. (sup. cf mag- leniini, def. pret, 183, 3,. 272, nus;, greatest, very great, largest, ut- remember, keep in mind, bearin mind, most, chief, highest, most important. recollect, call to mind; mention. It Maxim;c a c,nicitia, very intimate friend- isfollowed by a genitive or accusattve ship. Maxima documenta, the strong- of the object, $ 216 and R. 1-3. est proofs. Maximum silentium, the Memmius, s, m. (C.), a tribune of the most profound silence. people in the war with Jugurtha- J. Maximus, i, m., see Fabius. 127, 30, 32..Mecumn, see Ego - Cam. Memor, oris, adj. (memtnzi, 9 213 Medeor, eri, dep., O 223, R. 2, to mindful, remembering. cure, heal, remedy; to correct, relieve, Memorabilis, e, adj. (memoro), worobviate. thy of memory, worthy of being reMediocris, e, adj. (medius), middling, membered or mentioned, memorable, moderate, tolerable, ordinary, indif- remarkable. ferent, common, of moderate extent or Memorla, AB, f. (memor), memory, size; moderate, calm, temperate, well remembrance, recollection; time, so balanced, unambitious. Non medi- far as its events are remembered; as, ocris animus, not moderate, t. e. ar- mea memori&, within my memory, in dent, ambitious. Mediocria gerere, my time;-a record, report, narrative. to engage in moderate enterprises, or Memoria rerum gestarum, a narrative in hostilities of little moment. of past events, history, the composiMedium, i, n., the middle, midst. tion of history. In medio relinquere, to leave undeter- Memoro, are, avw, Mtum, a. (memor), mined or undecided. In medio, in 5 272, ~ 265, to mention, make menthe middle, between; also, in the cen- tion, recount, tell, relate, say, speak of. tre: fron Capsac conditor Hercules Libys memoMedius, a, um, adj., mid, middle, rabatur,-was said to be, ~ 210, N. 1. middle of, 205, R. 17, in the middle Mens, tis,f., the mind, soul, underor midst, the middle one, between; standing; thought; a design, plan; as, medias ex tribus, ~ 212, R. 2, N. 4, intention; will, purpose, memory, reintervening; common to all; mode- collection, wisdom, skill; reason, judgrate; neutral, taking,part with neither, ment, opinion; nature, disposition. inclined to neither side feelings. Me Dius Fidius, or as some prefer Mensis, is, m., a month. writing it in one word, mediusfidius, Mentior, ir, itus sum, dep., to lie, see Dius &4 Fidius speak falsely, assert falsely; to deMedus, a, um, adj., pertaining to ceive; to feign, counterfeit, pretend, Media, a country of Asia; of Media. invent. Cutus consilio tantam rem Medus, t, m, a Mede, an inhabitant menfitus esset,-had devised such a of Media J, 18. falsehood.

Page  219 fMERCATOR 219 MILLE Mercator, oris, m. (mercor), a mer- Mletuens, entis, part. 4 adj., fearing, chant, trader. afraid, afraid of: from Merces, edis,f. (mereo), hire, wages, Mletuo, ere, ui n. 4 a., to fear, be pay, reward; fruit, profit, gain, a de- afraid, apprehend, be afraia of: from airable object. Manuum merces, the Mletus, us, n., fear, dread, care, conwages of manual labor. cern, apprehension, afright, alarm; a Mercor, ari, 5tus sum, dep. (merx, terror, something feared. See Timor. merchandise), to trade, traffic; to buy, Mle:s, a, um, adj. pro. ~ 139 (mei, purchase \gen. of ego), belonging to me, my, Merens, entis, part. 4 adj., deserv- mine, my own: meamet, the same as ing, worthy of, either in a good or bad mea, or mea ipsius. sense: froma Mlicipsa,,, m., a king of Numidia Mereo, ere, ui, Itum, a. 4' n. 4 Me- who died A. U. C. 636, after a reign reor, eri, itus stum, dep., to deserve, of thirty years. He was the son of merit, earn. Masinissa and uncle of Jugurtha. J. Meridies, ei, m. (medius 4' dies), 5, 6, 8, 9, &c. mid-day, noon; the south. Miles, 1tis, m. 4'f. (mille), a soldier, Merito, adv. (meritus), deservedly, a foot soldier, a common soldier, in with reason. distinction from an officer. Milites Merttum, i, n., merit, desert; a kind- scribere, to levy or enlist soldiers. ness, favor; worth. Ex merito, on Militaris, e. adj. (miles), of or beaccount of merit: from longing to a soldier, pertaining to Meritus, a, urn, part. 4 adj. (mereo war, military, warlike, martial. Res' mereor), having merited or deserved, militaris, the art of war, military afdeserving well; merited, deserved; fairs, war. Homo militaris,-experifair, reasonable, suitable, fit, right, enced in war, a good soldier. Milijust. MNeritus in prcclio, distinguish- taris actas, the military age, the age at ed-. which the Romans were bound to Metellus, i, m. (Q. Ccecilius), a Ro- serve in war, viz. from the seventeenth man consul who commanded in the to the forty-sixth year. Mlilitaria war against Jugurtha, A. U. C. 645 & signa, standards. Militaris equus, a 646, but was superseded by Marius. war-horse. Militaria facere, to perHe was subsequently honored with a form military duties. Militaris rei triumph, and received the surname of faeinora, military exploits. Numidicus on account of his success Militia, ee, f. (miles), military serin the war against Jugurtha. J. 43-88. vice, warfare; war. The genitive miliMetellus, i, m., see Celer and Cret- time often signifies in war, or abroad, tcus. in service, especially when joined with Metior, mri, mensus sum. dep., to domi; Militia patiens, able to bear mete, measure, take measure of; to arms. Militic flagitium, a disgrace estimate, judge of in war, a military disgrace or ofMetor, ari, atus, sum, dep. (meta, a fence. bound), to measure; to plan, arrange. MilUto, are, avi, dtum, n. (miles), to Metari castra, to measure out the serve as a soldier, be a soldier, serve. ground for a camp, to pitch a camp, Mille, num. i7j. ind., a thousand. to encamp. Also a noun, ind. in sing., in pi. midiMetuendus, a, um, part. (metuo) to lia, ium, etc., n. Q 118, 6.'lle he teared, formidable passuum, a thousand Roman paces,

Page  220 MIN E 220 MITTO or one Roman mile; passuum in this throw into confusion, fill with, con construction, is often omitted. found, embroil. Miscere se cum ahlt Minze, arum.f. pl., threats, menaces. quo, to unite or make common cause MIinmne, adv. (sup. of parum), least with one. of all, least; in negation, not at all, Miser, a, um,adj., miserable, wretchnot in the least, by no means. ed, unfortunate; distressing, sad, af Minimus, a, um, adj. (sup. of par- flicting. vus), least of all, the least or smallest, Miserabhlis, e, adj. (miseror), to be very small or little. Minimus, or more pitied, pitiable, deplorable, sorry, misfrequently minimus natu, the young- erable, lamentable, wretched. est. Miserandus, a, um, part. (miseror), Minister, tri, m., a servant, attend- pitiable, deplorable. ant; an aider, abettor, accomplice, Misereor, eri, ertus 4 eritus sum, tool; a helper, assistant. dep. (miser), 215, to pity, commiseMinitor, iri, itus sum, dep. freq. rate, compassionate. (minor), $ 223, R. 2. to threaten often Miseria, e,f. (miser), trouble, misor much, menace. fortune, calamity, misery, wretchedMinor, us, gen adj. (comp. of ness; affliction, distress. Alicui in parvus), less, smaller, inferior, less miseriam vertere, to result in one's important. Minoris, n. with sum and ruin. Quoniam eb miseriarum ventuverbs of valuing, 214, for less, at a rus eram, since I was destined to less price, cheaper, of less value. Mi- come to such an extremity of misery. nores magistratus, see Magistratus. Misericordia, c,f., mercy, compasMinor, tri, dtus sum, dep., ~ 223, sion, pity. from R. 2, (1,) (b.), to threaten, menace. MIiserlcors, dis, adj. (misereo, to Minari alicui aliquid, to.menace one pity, 4- cor, the heart), merciful, comwith-. Fig. to overhang, project. passionate, pitiful. Minucius, i, m., the name of a Ro- Mliserttus, a, umnpart. (misereor). man gens. Q. Minucius Rufus, see Mistror, ari, atus sum, dep. (miser), Rufus. to pity, commiserate, lament, deplore. Mfinuo, ere, ui, uitum, a., to lessen; Mlissio, bnis,f. (mitto), a sending, make less, diminish, abate, impair; to mission; a sending away, dischargrestrict, stay, check, restrain. ing; dismissal, discharge from office Minus, adj (n. comp. of parvus), or from military service; in J. 64 it see Minor. seems to signify a temporary leave of Minis, adv (comp. of parum), less; absence, a furlough. not. Si minus, if not. Quo minus, Misslto, are, avi, atun, afreq. (mitthe less. to), to send frequently. Mirahtlis, e, adj., wonderful, mar- Missus, a, um, part. (mitto). vellous, strange, astonishing: from MithridatIcus, a, um, adj., pertainAMiror, ari, atus sum, dep., to won- ing to Mithridates, king of Portul, der, marvel, be amazed or astonished Mithridatic. C. 39, at; to esteem. prize, value, admire. Mitto, ere, misi, missum, a., to send Mirus, a, um, adj., wonderful, despatch, depute, ~ 230, R. 2, to throw strange, extraordinary. away, lay aside, dismiss; to omit, Misceo, ere, miscui, mislum r' mix- pass over, let alone, to throw, cast. turn, a, S 245, II, 2, & R. 1, to mix, min- hurl, discharge. The purpose after gle, blend, unite; to confuse, disturb, mitto is expressed by the former su,

Page  221 MIXTUS 221 MOLLITIA pine or the stdj. with qui. $ 276, I. & only, provided that. Modo or dum64, 5. or a dative, ~ 227. modo, provided, ~ 263,2. Quod modo, Mixtus, a, urn, part. (misceo), mixed, provided it. Non modo, not only. mingled, tempered, blended. from Mob)lis, e, adj. (moveo), easy to be Modus, i, m., a measure, manner, moved, moveable; fleet, swift, quick; way, method, means, fashion, rule, inconstant, fickle, flexible, pliant, mode; limits, bounds; order, rule, mochangeable, variable. deration. Facere or statuere modum MAobilias, atis,f. (mobilis), mobility, to set bounds or limits. Sine modo, activity. Fig. inconstancy, fickleness, without measure, boundless. In molevity, mutability, changeableness. dum, in the manner of, like. OmnModeratus, a, urn, part. f- adj., go- bus modis, in every way. Habere verned, guided; directing or regulat- modum, to regard, observe-. Impening one's self, moderate, discreet, tern- sius modo, very vehemently or greatperate. Tantcl temperantia inter am- ly, beyond measure, very earnestly. bitionem scevitiamque moderatus, di- Menia, ium, n, pl., the walls of a recting his course in so happy a me- city, taken as a whole or surrounding dium between courting popularity and the whole city. Any portion of the the practice of excessive severity. moania is called murus; and sometimes Nihil pensi neque modera!i habere, to the whole is so called, but a part of the have no consideration or self-control: wall is never called moenia; the fortifrom ficatiorrs of a city; a city. Modiror, dri, atus sum, dep. (mo. Moeror, oris, m., (maoreo, to mourn) dus), - 223, R. 2, & (1.) to moderate, lamentation, sorrow, sadness, grief. restrain, govern, regulate, rule, guide, mourning. manage, steer, direct. MaEstus, a, um, adj. (maereo), sad ModestW, adv. (modestus), moderate- sorrowful, afflicted, melancholy. ly, with moderation, temperately, dis- Molior, iri, itus sum, dep. (moles, a creetly; modestly, humbly. mass), to attempt something difficult, Modestia, ae, f., moderateness; mo- struggle, strive, labor, toil; to attempt, deration, dispassionateness, discretion, undertake; to contrive, plot, meditate, sobriety, modesty, decorum, shame, prepare. subordination; honor, dignity, charac- Mollio, ire, ivi, tum, a., to soften, ter; lowliness, humility: from mollify; to appease, pacify, calm; to Modestus, a, urn, adj. (modus), mo- enervate, make effeminate: frorm derate, modest, temperate, sober, dis- Molis, e, adj., soft, -tender, delicate, ereet, gentle, unassuming, kind. pliant, flexible, gentle, weak, feeble, ModOc, adv., moderately, modestly: susceptible; smooth, kind, pleasing. from Mollis sermo, tender, voluptuous. ModYcus, a, ttm, adj. (modus), mode- amorou. —. late, modest, temperate, sober MollZter, adv. (mollis), softly, gentModo, adv., just now, now, lately, iy, calmly, easily; delicately, luxuri but this moment. Modo-modo, modo ously, efleminately; weakly, feebly -inlterdl7, modo-deinde, now- sensitively. now, sometimes-sometimes, at one Mollitia, a,, and Mollities, ei,f. (moi moment-at another moment, now- Is), softness, tenderness; effeminacy, then, at first-afterwards. Only, voluptuousness; gentleness, mildness alone, merely simply. Si m odo if weakness, imbecility, irresolution.

Page  222 AtoNEO 222 MULTUS Agere per mollitiem, to live voluptu- ture, kind;pl. morals, character, man. ously, delicately or effeminately. ners. Sibi quisque pro moribus con. Moneo, ere, ui, itum, a. $ 218, & R. sulunt,-according to their (several) 1, & R. 2. to put in mind, remind, ad- characters. More, or ex more, accord. monish, advise, warn; to teach, in- ing to custom; also, after the manner struct, counsel, suggest. It takes the of, like. Natura aut moribus, natu subjunctive, and more rarely the infin- rally or by custom, by practice. Mere itive, ~ 273, 2. militari, or miltica, according to miliMonitor, oris, m. (moneo), an advi- tary usage. Illi mos est, he is wont ser, counsellor, admonisher, monitor, or accustomed. Ita se mores habent, prompter, teacher. such is the custom or fashion. Monitus, a, urn, part. (moneo). Motus, us, m. (moveo), a motion, Mons, tis, m., a mountain, high hill. moving, movement; a commotion, tuFig. a great quantity. mult, disturbance, sedition, mutiny. Monumentum, i, n. (moneo, $ 102, 4), Moveo, ere, movi, motum, a. 4 n., $ a monument, memorial, record. Mo- 251, to move, stir, impel, agitate, put numenta hostilia, monuments of hos- in motion, attempt, prosecute, pursue; tility to remove, drive away. eject, turn out, Mora, a, f., a delay, stay, stop, hin- degrade, expel; to excite, promote, drance; an impediment, obstacle, ob- stir up, cause, occasion; to affect, instruction. Sine mora, without delay, fluence; to disturb; to incite; to perimmediately, instantly. Agitare mo- form. Movere castra, to remove one's ras, to frame delays. camp, to decamp. Moverejocum, see Moratus, a, um, part. (moror). Jocus. Marbus, i, m., a disease, distemper, Mox, adv., by and by, presently disorder, malady, sickness. Fig. a quickly, immediately, soon. bad passion, vice, weakness, failing. Muliebris, e. adj., of or pertaining Mlorior, i, mortuus sum, dep. $ 174, to a woman, feminine, female, woman(mors), to die, expire. ish, soft, effeminate: from AMoror, ari, atus sum, dep. (mora), Mulier, &rzs,f., a woman, lady. to delay, tarry, stay, linger, loiter; to Multitidlo, Inis,f. (multus), a multistay, abide, remain, dwell, live; to re- tude, great number, crowd; the multitard, detain, hinder, impede, delay, tude, rabble, populace. Plebis vis in stop, prevent, check. multitudine minus poterat,-notwithMors, tis,f., death. standing their number. Duces multiMortalis, e, adj. (mors, ~ 128, 2.), tudinum, the ringleaders of the popumortal, perishable. Mortalia, human lace. affairs. Mortalis, is, m., a mortal, a Multuim, adv, (comp. pluis, sup. plu. mortal man, pl., men, mankind, per. rimim,? 192, II, 4, (b.)), much, very sons, mortals. Mortales is often used much, very, greatly, far. Multum et instead of hc/mines when joined with familiariter agere, to have frequent multi or omnes, as including more and familiar intercourse.-in many emphatically many or all of all ages respects, in many cases, often: f-om and of both sexes. Omnes mortales, Multus, a, um, adj. (comp. n. plus all persons, every body. sup. plurimus, which see), many AMos, moris, m., a manner, custom, much, a great deal, numerous, ireway, fashion, usage, conduct, man- quent, too frequent; great, considera nert, behaviour, practice, habit, na- ble. Multus adesse, to be assiduous

Page  223 MULUCHA 223 MUTUUS lligent, intent, to be continually pre- bulwark. Fig. security, protection sent. Multus instare,-constantly, in- defence, preservation, preservative. cessantly. Multi, many, many per- from sons; also, the many, the multitude. Munic, ire, ivi, itum, n. 4 a., to en Multa, n., much, many things, many close with walls, fortify, secure, prowords. Disserere multis, sc. verbis, tect, defend, strengthen. ccIiously, at length, at large. Mul. Munitio, onis,f. (munio), the act of turn, n., much, a great part, a consider- fortifying, a strengthening, defending; able part. Multo, n. abl.,joined often a fortification, defence, rampart, bulwith comparatives, superlatives, 4c. $ wark. 256, R 16, & ~ 127, (3,) greatly, Munitus, a, urn, part. 4 adj. (mu. much, by much, far, by far, a great nio), fortified, defended, guarded, prodeal, considerably. Multi —pars, tected, secured. many-some. The conjunction et or Munus, eris, n., a gift, present, boon, atque after multi, when another adjec- reward, favor; an office, part, duty, tivefollows, may commonly be omitted charge, trust, employment; a show, in translating into English; as, Multa spectacle, entertainment, exhibition, atque opportuna habes. J. 102. Multa public games. bonaeque artes. J. 28. Multis et mag- Murena, e, m. (C. Licinius), a Ro. nis tempestatibus. man general commanding in TranMiulucha, a,f., a river of Africa se- salpine Gaul, A. U. C. 692. C. 42. parating Numidia from Mauritania. Murus, i, m., the wall of a town or J. 19. 92, 110. city. See Mlenia. Fig. a defence, Mulvius or Milvius, a, num adj., protection, security. Mulvius pons, now Ponte Molle, a Mutatio, 6nis,.f. (muto), a changing, bridge over the Tiber, three miles altering, change, alteration; an innofrom the middle of Rome upon the vation, revolution. Mutationes or MuFlaminian road, which led to Etruria. tationes rerum, changes of governC. 45. ment, political changes. Munditia, a,f. (mundus, ornament), Muthul, is, m., a river of Numidia. cleanness, neatness, cleanliness, neat- J. 48. ness in dress or habit, attention to Muto, atre, dti, atum, a.? 252, R. 5. dress; elegance, polish, refinement. to change, remove from its place, alMunicipium, i, n. (munlceps, a bur- ter, exchange, turn; to barter, traffic. gess), a town, particularly in Italy, Mutare fidem, to violate one's enenjoying its own laws, while its in- gagements, be treacherous, change habitants possessed the rights, in sides, break one's word. Mutare is whole or in part, of Roman citizens, sometimes used for mutare se, to a free town, a municipal town. change, alter, Gr. $ 229, R. 4. Qua, quiu Munificentia, ea, f., munificence, mortis metu mutabant, (sc. se) because, bountifulness, liberality, generosity. through fear of death, they changed, Munificentia animi, see Animus: i. e. assumed a different character, or from appeared differently from what they Munificus, a, ur, adj. (munus 4fa- would have done in other circumcio), liberal, oountiful, bounteous, gen- stances,-did not appear to be grama crous, munificent. et flagitii plena. Munimentum, i, n., a fortification, Mutuus, a, urn, adj., that is borrow. snelter, protection, defence, rampart, ed or lent, borrowed, lent. Sumere 20

Page  224 MYRTETUM 224 NECESSARIUS muttam pecuniam, to borrow money. or fit for, suited. Annos natus circter Reddere ws mutuum, to repay a loan: viginti, about twenty years old. mutual, reciprocal. Navtgo, are, dvi, atum, a. 4 n.'navis Myrtttum, i, n. (myrtus, a myrtle), I4 ago), to steer or navigate a ship; to a myrtle grove, grove of myrtles. sail, sail in or upon, navigate; to ob. tain by navigation. N Navis, is,f. ~ 79, 3, a ship, vessel Nabdalsa,, m., a Numidian gene- bark, boat. lal. J. 70, 71. Ne, adv. 4 conj. S 262 & ~ 267, R. 1, Nactus, a, um, part., (nanciscor). not, that not, lest: also for nedum, Na or Ne, adv., certainly, truly, much less; and for dummodo non surely, indeed, provided that not. Ne quidem, not Nam, or Namque, causal conj. $ 198, even, they are usually separated by an 7, for; but, then. As a causal con- emphatic word or words, ~ 279, 3. Afjunction it often relates to something ter verbs of hindering, from, with the implied rather than fully expressed. English gerundive; as, Impedire ne See J. 19, 28, 31, 63, 82 & 87. triumpharent, to hinder from triumph Nanciscor, i, nactus sum, dep., to ing. It is used instead of non before meet with, find, light upon; to get, imperatives and subjunctives used as gain, obtain, imperatives, ~ 267, R. 1, & ~ 260, R. 6, Narro, are, avi, atum, a., ~ 265, to (b.) (c.). See also Ne. tell, recount, relate, report, recite, set Ne, enclitic conj. ~ 198, N. 1. In diforth, declare, narrate. Initium nar- rect questions it is commonly omitted randifacere, to commence a narra- in translating into English; in indition. rect questions, whether; ne-an, or Nasica, C, m., see Scipio. ne-ne, whether-or. Nascor, i, natus sum, dep., to be Nec or Neque, conj. S4 adv. (ne' born; spring, arise, grow, be pro- que), neither, nor, and not; also not; duced. but not, not; nec-nec, or neque — Natio, onis,.f. (nascor), abeing born; neque, neither-nor. Neque-neque a stock, race; a race of people, na- sometimes stand for et non-et non, tion, people, country. and in translating, the first que may Natu, abl. of the defective noun na- often be neglected. Neque tamen tus, us, m. 0 94, (nascor), ~ 250, by or neque alone, referring to a conces birth, in age. Major natu, older, ~ 126, sive clause, and still or but still-not, 4, R. 1. Majores natu, men advanced nor yet. Neque alone has sometimes in years. the same force as neque tamen. NeNatira, ee,f. (nascor, 102,, R. 2), que-et, and not-and; or, not-and, nature, the creative power; the nature, neglecting the que. natural property, character or consti- Necatus, a, urn, part.-(neco). tution of any thing; inclination, dis- Necessari6, adv., necessarily, of ne position, genius. Concedere nature, cessity: from. to pay the debt of nature, to die. Ver- Necessarius, a, um, adj, necesary tere in naturam, to become natural. needful, unavoidable, indispensable, Natura and ab nature, by nature, na- urgent; friendly, favorable; Necessaturally. rius, i, m., a relation, particular acNatus, a, um, part. (nascor), ~246, quaintance, intimate friend, confi born, sprung; born to or for, intended dant:from

Page  225 NECESSE 225 NIHIL Necesse, adj. n. ind., necessary, of Negotibsus, a, urn, adj., full of bunecessity, needful. ~ 273, 4, ~ 262, R. siness, busy, actively engaged in bu4, Necesse est, it is necessary, it must siness, occupied with public affairs needs be, one must. from Necessitrido,'nisf. (necesse), neces- Negotium, i, n. (nec 4' otium), a bu sity; want, need; the tie of relation- siness, office, employment, part, ocship or friendship, relation, connex- cupation, pursuit; an affair, measure, ion, acquaintance. transaction; enterprise; difficulty, trouNeco, are,avi, atum,necui, nectum, ble, burden, task, charge; a matter, a. (nex), to put to death in a cruel thing, fact. Dare negotium alicui, to manner, to slay, kill, destroy, murder. commit, confide, intrust; with ut, 4'c., Necibi, adv. (ne 4 alicibi, some- S 273, 2, to commission, order, charge, where), lest any where, nowhere, that Culpam ad negotia transferre,-to the nowhere. course of events, to circumstances. Nedum, adv., not to say, not only, Nemo, lnis, m. 4 f. (ne 4 homo), no much or still less, much more. one, no body, no man, no. Neno Nefandus, a, urn, adj. (ne 4fandus, omnium, no one, no man. to be spoken), not to be named, impi- Nepos, otis, m., a grandson. -ous, base, heinous, execrable, abom- Neque, conj. ~ 198, N. 3, see Nec. inable, atrocious. Nequeo, ire, ivi, Itum, irr, n., ~ 271, Nefarius, a, um, adj. (nefas, unlaw- not to be able, to be unable, I cannot, ful), wicked, impious, base, heinous, imp. it is impossible. It is commonly abominable, execrable, nefarious. used as a deponent verb whenfollowed Neglto, are, a.freq. (nego), to deny by a passive infinitive. often or strongly, persist in denying; Nequicquam, 4 Nequidquam, adv., to refuse positively. in vain, to no purpose. Negligentia, a, f. (negltgens, negli- Nequis, Ne quis, or Neu quis, qua, gent), negligence, neglect, careless- quod or quid, adj. pro. (ne g guis, ~ ness, heedlessness, supineness. 137, R. (3.), 4 ~ 138), les: any one, lvst Negligo, Zre, lexi, lectum, a. (nec 4 some, lest a, that no, that no one, nor lego), to neglect, disregard, slight, any one. make light of, take no notice of, not Nero, 6nis, m. (Tib.), a Roman senato care for or regard, scorn, contemn, tor during the conspiracy of Catiline. despise. C. 50. Nego, are, avi, atum, a. 4. n., ~ 272, Neve, by apocope, Neu, (ne 4. ve, to say no or not, deny, refuse. With or), nor, neither, or not, and not, and the infinitive active, to declare that that not. Neu quis, see Nequis. one is not, does not or will not. Nex, necis, f., violent death, murNegotiator, oris, m., one who trades der. or traffics, a merchant, factor, trader; Ni, conj. (by apocope for nisi), in particularly a Roman citizen residing the protasis, ~ 261, if not, unless. Nz in a province, and lending money on multitudo togatorum fuisset, if there interest to the inhabitants of the pro- had not been, or had it not been for vince, a banker, usurer: from the multitude-. Negotior, ari, atus sum, dlep. (nego- Nihil, n. ind. (nihilum, by apocope), hum), to trade, traffic, transact busi- nothing. It is often used in the ace. ness; to loan money in the provinces, with a prep. understood, instead of to be a banker or broker. non, or nullus, not, in no respect, in

Page  226 NIHILUM 226 NOMEN nothing, not at all, no. With a geni- Roman knight confederate with Cati tive, no; as, nihil causce. Nihil reliqui line. C. 17. or reliquumfacere, to leave nothing, Nobtlis, e, adj., (nosco), known, well omit nothing. Nihil pensi, no con- known, noted; famous, remarkable sideration or care, ~ 212, R. 3, N. 3. noble, illustrious, glorious, celebrated Nihil languidi, no inactivity or listless- distinguished; noble, high-born, of ness. Nihil remissi. no negligence. high birth Nobilis, is, m., a noble Nihil ad me, te, 4c. sc. pertinet or est, man. Nobiles, nobles, the nobility. is no concern of mine, does not con- NobilTtas, atis,f., (nobilis), fame, re cern me, &c. putation, renown; excellence, noble Nihilum, i, n. (ne 4' hilum, the least), ness; high-birth, nobility; greatness nothing. Pro nihilo habere, to make of soul, magnanimity, generosity. By no account of, to account as nothing. metonomy, the nobles, the nobility, Nihilo, abl. with comparatives, not a the Patricians. Magna nobilitas,high whit, not at all, in nothing, no. Ni- birth. hilo minus, nihilomYnus, or nihilo seg- Nobis, see Ego. nius, no less, notwithstanding, never- Nocens, entis, part. 4 adj., (noceo, to theless, ~ 256, R. 16. hurt), hurtful, mischievous, pernicious, Nimis, adv., too much, too, ex- destructive, baneful; bad, wicked, critremely, exceedingly. minal. Nisi, conj. ~ 198, 8, (ne' si), used Noctu,f. abl. sing. ~ 94, (nox), by in theprotasis, ~ 261, if not, unless, but night, in the night time. Die nocthat, except, save only, but, and yet, tuque, day and night, ~ 253. however. Nisi quod, except that, Nocturnus, a, um, adj. (noctu), of only, but, but still. Nisi tamen, marks night, nocturnal, in the night. an ellipsis, which is commonly to be Nolo, nolle, nolui, n. 4 a. irr. (non supplied from that which has gone 4 volo, ~ 178, 2), ~ 271, 273, 4, to be before;but still, but however that may unwilling or averse. The imperative i, but yet. Nisi forte, unless per- of nolo, with an infinitive, is transchance, used ironically, and com- lated by not, and the infinitive, by an monly with the indicative. ~ 261, R. 6. imperative; as, nolite existimare, do Nisus, us, m., an attempt, endea- not suppose. Idem velle atque idem soT, effort, exertwo; a trea, step. noile, to like and dislike the same Dubia nisu, perilous to attempt or thing, to have the same desires and dangerous to tread upon, ~ 250: from aversions. Nisus, a, um, part., from. Nomades, urn, m.' f. nomads, a Nitor, i, nisus 4' nixus sum, dep, ~ name given by the Greeks to the wan245, II., 1. { 271, & ~ 273, 1, to lean dering tribes of Asia and Africa, who upon, rest upon, be supported by, de- lived by pasturage. The same peopend upon, trust to, to strive, strain, ple were called by the Romans Nu labor, endeavor, attempt, exert one's midas. J. 18. self; Niti ad, to strive for:-to make Nomen, inis, n., a name, appellation one's way with effort, move, rise, title. Nomine, by name, in the name, mount, advance, climb. Niti cor- and it may sometimes be translated by pore to make gestures or motions, the participles called or named, s 250 nake signs, gesticulate. Servants, among the Romans, had Nobilior, oris, m. (M. Fulvius), a but one name, but men who were free

Page  227 NOMINO 227 NUCERINUS born were distinguished by three our relatives, friends, fellow-country. names; the nomen, or name of their men, soldiers, troops, &c. gens or clan, the cognomen, or name Notus, a, um, part. - adj. Incscoi, of their familia or family, and the known, well known. prenomen, or name of the individual. Nova, adv. (novus), newly; sup. noTo these was sometimes added the vissimP, lately, very lately, last of all, agnomen, on account of some exploit, lastly, finally. &c. of the individual, O 279, 9.-A fa- November, 4 Novembris, bris, bre, mily, stock, race, nation; as, Nomen adj. (novem, nine), of or belonging to Latinum, the Latin nation, the La- November. November, bris, m., the tins;- reputation, dignity, renown, month November. fame, character, name; as, memores Novitas, ntis, f. (novus), newness, nominis Romani,-a pretext, pretence, freshness, novelty, strangeness; newaccount, reason, excuse. Meo no- ness of family, want of noble ancestry mine, in my name, on my account. see Hormo. Meis nominibus, on my own, personal, Novo, are, avi, atum, a., to introprivate or individual account. Alienis duce as new, invent; to change, alter. nominibus, on account of others, in Novare, or novare res, to effect a revothe name of others. Hoc nomine, on lution or change in government, to this account, for this reason. make an insurrection: from Nomino, are, dvi, dtum, a, (nomen), Novus, a, ur, adj., new, fresh, to name, call by name, to speak of, recent, novel, unusual, uncommon, to accuse. strange, extraordinary; inexperienced, Non, adv. $ 191, R. 3, not, no. Non unaccustomed to. Novus homo, see quo, not that, not as if. Et non and Homo. Novi milites, new recruits, ac non following quasi serve to cor- raw soldiers. Novi atque nobies, new rect the preceding proposition, " and and old nobility. Res nova, innovanot rather." tions or changes in the state of afNonr, arum, f. (nonus, the ninth), fairs, a revolution, sedition, rebelionn; the nones, the ninth day inclusive be- change. Nove tabulac, a remission fore the ides. The nones occurred on of debts, in whole or in part. See thefifth day of each month except in Tabula. Novisstmus, a, urn, sup., March, May, July, and October, when last, extreme. theyfell upon the seventh, ~ 326. Nox, noctis, f., night, night-time, Nondum, adv. (non 4' dum), not yet, the night. Noctes atque dies, night not as yet. Nondum etiam, not even and day. Noctem agitare, to pass tho yet. night. Nonnullus, a, urn, adj. (non f nullus), Noxius, a, um, adj. (noceo, to hurt), some; pl. some, some persons. hurtful, injurious, noxious; bad, wickNos, Nostrum, Nosmet, etc., see ed, guilty, criminal. Ego, 4 Egomet. Nubes, is,f., a cloud. Nosco, ere, novi, notum, a., to be- Nubo, ere, nupsi, 4 nupta sum, come acquainted with, learn. Novi, nuptumn, a. 4 n. $ 223, R. 2, to cover, I have learned, and hence, I know, veil. Hence, as brides, in ancient understand, am acquainted with, ~ times, were accustomed to put on a 183, N. 3. veil, to marry, be married, spoken cf Noster, tra, trum, adj. pro. $ 139, the bride only.,nos), our, ours, our own. Nostri, Nucerinus, i, m. (P. Sittius), a Ro20

Page  228 NUDO 228 OBEDIENS man, whose cognomen is derived the northern part of Africa, between from Nuceria, a city of Campania, Africa Proper and Mauritania, corn, where he was born. To avoid a prehending the modern territories of prosecution, he fled from Rome just Algiers, Tunis, and a part of Tripoli before the conspiracy of Catiline, J. 8, 14, 16, &c. and having collected an army from Numidicus, a, um, adj., Numidian. Italy and Spain, he passed over Numquam, see Nunquam. into Africa, where he engaged in Nunc, adv., now, at present. Nuno the service of various native princes. commonly denotes a time actually preC. 21. sent to the speaker. In speaking of a Nudo, lre, avt, atum, a. ~ 251, to past time as then present, tune is used. make naked, strip bare; to deprive, In arguments, now, such being the bereave, strip, spoil: from fact, in this state of things. In this Nudus, a, um, adj., ~ 213, naked, sense it is frequently connected with bare, uncovered, unprotected, unde- the imperative. fended; destitute, without. Nunquam or Numquam, adv. (ne e Nullus, a, um, adj. $ 107, (ne 4, unquam), at no time, never. ullus), not any, none, no, nobody, no Nuntio or Nuncio, are, avi, iturm, a. one. Alia fuere, quee nulla sunt, — 273, 2, ~ 272, to announce, bear none of which. tidings, tell, report, declare, relate, inNum, adv. In direct questions it is form, give notice, make known, signinot translated, in indirect questions fy; warn, charge; pass. imp. nunciawhether, whether or no. turn est, word was brought, notice was Numantia, a, f., a city of Spain, an- given: from ciently of great celebrity, built upon Nuntius or Nuncius, i, m., news, rising ground near the Duero. It was tidings, intelligence, advice, a mesdestroyed by Scipio Africanus the sage; a messenger, reporter. younger, A. U. C. 621. J. 15, 20. NuptiaC, arum, f. pl. (nubo), a wed&.Nt7mantinus, a, un, adj. (Numantia), ding day; a marriage, wedding, nupNumentine, of or belonging to Nu- tials. mantia. Subs. a Nummitine. J. Nusquam, adv. (ne 4 usquam), in no 7. 9. place, no where. Numerus, i, m., a nuroier,,:a;ity, Nutus, us, m. (nuo, obs.), a nod, multitude. Numero, abl., us fr,:; es beck, sign made by a motion of the added to numerals, as, numer:..;ra- head. Fig. will, pleasure, consent. ginta, forty in number, to tr i:; m:-r of forty, or simply forty, v 2:i..i; 0. numero, among, one of. E:r::f,; takes a demonstrative or po,: -..: )b, prep. with ace., for, on account pronoun in the same number aii;O:'e:i. a consequence of; for the purpose by attraction, instead of the ger, it i r the sake of; for, instead of plural as, Ex eo numero, insteed I (::', to the purpose, with advan ex eorum numero.:Ex suo num' r:,'-s f I'ofitably, usefully. Ob ea, fou instead of ex suorum numero,' 2c.-t!' i s!sons, therefore, on this ao R. 20.:o-n Numlda, es, m., a Numidian, an in- O):e,- - tis, part. 4, adj. g 222, obe habitant of Numidia. J. 5, &c. j;-; Ai ant, yielding, subject, sub Numidmz aw, f., a large country ini n:,iw v - bjection to, devoted or

Page  229 OBEDIO 229 OBTINEO enslaved to; prosperous favorable, in ignoble, mean. In obscuro vitam accordance with one's wishes: from habere,-in obscurity, in privacy. Obedio, ire, ivi, itum, n. (ob 4 audio), Obsecro, are, avi, atum, a.' n. (ob6 $ 223, R. 2, to obey, give ear to, com- sacro, to consecrate), $ 273, 2, to enply with, listen to, serve. treat or pray earnestly, beseech imObjecto, are, avi, atum, a.freq. (obji- plore, supplicate, conjure, importune. cto), ~ 224, to throw in the way of, ex- Observo, are, avi, atum, a. 4 n. (ob 4pose; to object, charge, upbraid, cast servo), to observe, watch, note, mark, in one's teeth Objectare aliquid ali- mind, heed, attend to; to obey, comcui, to charge one with-. ply with, submit to, regard; to look up Objectus, a, urn, part., thrown to, to, esteem, honor, respect, reverence. exposed: from Obses, idis, m. 4 f. (ob 4 sedeo,) a Oyilcio, ere,jici,jectum, a. (ob 4'ja- hostage; any person who is a pledge cio), ~ 224, to throw before, throw to, or security. give, expose. Obsessus, a, um, part. (obsideo 4 ob. Oblatus, a, um, part. (offero). sido). Oblino, ere, levi, litum, a. (ob lino, ObsYdeo, ire, idi, essum, n. 4 a. (ob' to smear), to daub or smear over, be- sedeo), to sit around, beset; to take daub, besmear, stain. possession of, occupy; to besiege, Oblitus, a, um, part. (obliviscor), blockade, invest, surround. having forgotten, forgetful, unmindful Obsido, ere, edi, essum, a. (ob sido, Oblitus, a, um, part. (oblino), ~ 249, 1, to settle down), to beset; to besiege, smeared, stained. Occupy, take possession of, surround, Obliviscor, i, oblitus sum, dep. ~ 216, environ. to forget. Obstinatus, a, um, adj. (obstino, to Oblongus, a, um, adj. (ob 4E longus), resolve firmly), obstinate, stubborn, oblong, having greater length than perverse, inflexible, resolute, deterbreadth. mined. Obnoxius, a, um, adj. (ob 4 noxius), Obsto, are, stiti, statum, n. (ob 4' sn i 222, liable, subject, obnoxious; sub- to stand), O 224, % 262,.. 9, to stand ject, dependent upon, obliged, be- in the way, oppose, withstand, hinder, holden, or under obligations to, sub. obstruct, be inconsistent or at variance missive, in one's power, responsible, with. devoted, influenced, swayed; abject, Obstrpo, are, pui, pitum, n. (ob 4 sordid, fearful; exposed, liable to. strepo), to make a noise at or against, Esse obnoxia alicui, to humor or gra- interrupt by noise, prevent from being tify any one, to comply with his heard. wishes. Obtestatus, a, um, part.: from Obruo, ere, ui, Uitum, a. (ob 4f ruo, to Obtestor dri, atus sum, dep. (ob 4 throw down), to cover over, over- tester), to call solemnly to witness, whelm, bury, sink. protest; to conjure, supplicate, enObrutus, a, um part. (obruo). treat, beseech, ~ 273, 2, ~ 262, R. 4. Obscuro, are, avi, atum, a., to ob- Multa prius Pomptinum obtestatus, scure, darken; to cover, hide, conceal; having first on many grounds into render obscure, cause to be un- plored Pomptinus, ~ 231, R. 5. known, cover with obscurity: from Obtineo, ere, tenui, tentum, a. 4 n Obscurus, a, un, adj., obscure, dark, (ob f teneo), to hold, have, possess; to faint, dim, shady; obscure, hidden, keep, retain, preserve; to occupy ob

Page  230 OBTRUNCATUS 230 OFFENSUS tain, get possession of, acquire, gain. cado), to fall, fall down; to go down, Ea fama, quce plerosque obtinet,- set; to die, perish, be lost. which holds possession of most per- Occisus, a, ur, part. (occido), sons, i. e. which generally prevails,- Occilo, lre, cului, cultum, a., to COis currently received. Nulla pro socia ver over, hide, conceal. obtinet,-occupies as a partner, holds OccultS, adv. (occultus), secretly, the place of a partner or companion. closely, privately, in private. Obtruncitus, a, um, part.: from Occulto, are, avi, atum, a. freq. (ocObtrunco, are, avi, atum, a. (ob 4 culo), to hide, cover, conceal. trunco, to maim), to cut off the head Occultus, a, um, adj. (occulo), hidor limbs, dismember, cut to pieces, den, secret, concealed, private. Ocslaughter, slay. cultum habere, to keep secret. OcculObtuli, see Offero. turn, i, n., a secret place, a secret, a Obvenio, ire, veni, ventum, n. (ob 4 hiding place, concealment. Esse in venio), ~ 224, to meet by chance; to occulto, to be concealed. fall to one's lot, fall to; to fall out, Occipo, are, avi, atum, a. (ob 4 happen, occur, offer itself. capio), to seize, take possession of, Obvidm, adv. (ob 4 via), ~2'28, 1, in invade, occupy, fill, engross; to atthe way, so as to meet. Obviam'pro- tack. cedere, prodire, 4c., to go to meet, Occurso, are, avi, atum, n.freq. (ocadvance to meet. Obviam mittere, to curro, to meet), to meet, fall in with; send to meet. Obviam ire periculis, to oppose. to expose one's self to, encounter-. Oceanus, i, m., the ocean or main Obviam ire, to go to meet, resist, op- sea. pose, go against, encounter. Obviam Ocis, comp., ocissYmn, sup. adv. itum est, opposition was made. (ocior, swifter), more quickly or swiftObvius, a, um, adj. (ob 4- via), ~ 222, ly, more speedily, sooner. Quam meeting in the way; going against, ocissime, as speedily as possible, with -,posing; offering itself, obvious. all speed. Obvius procedere, to go to meet; also Octavius, i, m., a Roman gentile to march against. Obvius esse, to name, see Rufus. meet. Ocdlus, i, m., the eye. In oculis Occasio, fnis, f. (occ'do, ~ 102, 7), situm esse,-before the eyes, in one's an occasion, opportunity, fit or con- view. venient season. Per occasionem,when Odi, or osus sum, def. preteritive opportunity offers, on a convenient verb, ~ 183, 1, I hate, detest, abhor. opportunity. Odium, i, nt (odi), hatred, ill-will, Occasirus, a, um, part. (occYdo). spite, animosity, dislike, aversion. Occasus, us, m. (occddo), fll, ruin, Odor 4- Odos, oris, m., a scent, destruction; the going down or set- smell, odor; a stench, offensive smell ting of the heavenly bodies. Solis Ofendo, Are, di, sum, n. 4 a. (ob + occasus, sunset, the west. fendo, obs.), to hit, strike or run Occldens, entis, m. (occtdo), the west, against. Fig. to offend, give offence the setting-sun. to, displease. Occido, ere, cidi, cisum, a. (ob 4- Ofensa, ac, f. (ofendo), a striking cado), to beat, strike; to kill, slay, against; disgust, displeasure; an of murder, slaughter, destroy. fence, injury; liability of offence. OccIdo,?re, cMdi, casum, n. (ob 4 OCfensus, a, um, part. 4' adj. (often

Page  231 OFFERO 231 OPPORTUNITAS do), being struck; offensive, disliked, R. 5, (4,) laden, burdened, loadea, odious; offended, displeased, averse, freighted. Ager onustus prced, full angry, hostile. of, filled with, abounding in-. Offero, ferre. cbtuli, oblatum, irr. a. Opera, a,f. (opus), work, labor, ser(ob f fero), to bring before, present, vice, assistance, aid, pains, exertion. show, offer, give, hold forth. Quos, Dare operam, ~ 273,1, to manage, conquoniam res obtulerat, as the subject trive, effect, cause, strive, exert one's had brought them before (us). self, take care, see to it. Opercepretium O.ffcio, ere, fici, fectum, n. (ob 4 est, there is a reward for one's labor, facio), ~ 224, to hinder, stop, obstruct, one's labor is repaid, it is worth the oppose, stand in the way; hurt, be while, it is profitable or advantageous. hurtful or injurious to. Operio, ire, erui, ertum, a., to cover, Oficium, i, n., a duty, office, charge, to close; to conceal, hide. trust, engagement; business; kind- Opes, see Ops. ness, obligingness; service, attention; Oplfex, icis, m. 4 f. (opus 4facto), employment, part. a workman, maker, framer, artificer; Oleaster, tri, m. (olea, the olive), the an artist, artisan, mechanic. oleaster or wild olive-tree. Opimius, (L.), L. Opimius Nepos, a Omissus, a, um, part.: from Roman senator, (A. U. C. 633,) by Omitto, ere, isi, issum, a. (ob 4 mit- whom C. Gracchus and more than to), 271, to lay aside, leave off, omit, three thousand of his adherents were let alone, let go, give over, cease, pass slain, and who is said to have been over, say nothing of, leave, make no subsequently corrupted by the bribes use of. Deditionem omittere, to give of Jugurtha. Being brought to trial over thoughts of surrender. for this, he was banished to DyrraOmnino, adv. (omnzs), wholly, en- chium where he died in poverty. J. 16. tirely, altogether, utterly, at all; in Opinio, 6nis, f, opinion, imaginaall, in the whole, but, only; univer- tion, belief, conjecture, expectation. sally, generally. Opinione asperius est, is more difficult Omnis, e, adj., all, every, the whole, than is generally imagined. of all kinds; omnia, all things, every Opitilor, ari, atus sum, dep. (ops 4, thing. Honesta atque inhonesta, di- tulo, obs. to bring, whence tuli), 5 223, vina et humana, are annexed to omnia I R. 2, to help, aid, assist, succor, refor the sake of emphasis, every thing lieve. of whatever nature, every thing what- Oportet, uit, imp., ~ 269, R. 2, it ever. Omnia haec, after an enumera- behooves, it is meet, fit or proper, it tion, are used for the purpose of em- ought. } 273, 4, (a.) & (b.). phasis. Sometimes in the predicate Opperior, iri, oppertus 4 opperitus of a sentence omnis signifies only, sum, dep., to wait, wait for, tarry for, solely, purely; as, Perfugas omnes expect. prCesidium imposuerat,-a garrison Oppidanus, a, um, adj., of or beconsisting of deserters only, or de- longing to a town. Oppidani, 6rum, serters only as a garrison, ~ 230, tR 2. townsmen, inhabitants of a town, Onlro, are, ivi, aturm, a., $ 249, I. town's-people: from to load, burden, lade, fill, gorge: from Oppldum, i, n., a walled town, town. Onus, Uris, n., a burden, load, weight. Opportunltas, atis, f., fitness, conFig. a trouble, burden. venience, advantageousness, opportuOnustus, a, urn, adj. (onus), 213. nity; benefit, advantage; a favorable

Page  232 OPPORTUNUS 232 ORBIS circumstance, lucky chance. Magna ficent, best of all, excellent, most opportunitas, a rare or favorable op- eligible, most useful; bravest. Opportunity. Ex opportunitate, in con- timus quisque, every man of high dissequence of opportunity: from tinction or merit, of high standing: Opportunus, a, um, adj., $ 222, com- also, the most capable, the ablest, the modious, fit, convenient, suitable, pro- bravest. per, adapted to the purpose, advanta- Optio, fnis, f., choice, liberty to geous, favorable, seasonable, oppor- choose, option. Facere optionem, see tune; useful, serviceable; compliant, Facere: from subservient; exposed, subject, liable, Opto, are, dvi, atum, a. 4 n., $ 273, obnoxious. Multa atque opportuna 4, (a.) to wish, choose, prefer; to wish habes,-many facilities or advantages. for, long for, desire; to wish, pray, reOpportuna res, a favorable conjunc- quest, ask. ture, an advantageous state of affairs. Opulenter, adv. (opulentus), richly, Oppressus, a, urn, part., pressed abundantly, splendidly, magnificently, down, loaded, oppressed, borne down, sumptuously, generously, bountifully. crushed, depressed: from Opulentia, a, f. (opulens, rich), opuOpprmo, ere, pressi,pressum,a. (ob lence, wealth, riches, abundance, 4 premo), to press, press or bear down, power, greatness. oppress; to cover, hide, conceal, stifle, Opulentus, a, urn, adj. (ops), rich, suppress; catch, surprise; to over- wealthy, opulent, abundant; powerful, power, rout, crush, subdue, make one's fertile. With the abl. rich or aboundself master of, seize upon, put down, ing in, well supplied with, ~213, R. 5, (3.) conquer, overcome, overthrow, kill, Opus, eris, n., work, labor; a work, slay. task; toil, fatigue, hardship; military Oppugnatio, onis, f, a fighting works, fortifications, engines. In disagainst, attacking, assaulting, storm- tinctionfrom natura or locus, it signiing; an attack, assault: from ies, an artificial work, and hence Oppugno, are, avi, atum, a., (ob - opere may often be translated, by art. pugno), to fight against, assail, as- Opus, indeclinable noun Q4 adj. ~ sault, attack, storm. Fig. to attack, 243, & R. 1, ~ 222, need, occasion, neoppose, prosecute, harass, trouble. cessity; needful, necessary. TantumOps, opis, f. ~ 94, strength, power, modo ineepto opus est, we need but to means, resource, might; aid, assist- begin. ance, succor, protection, help, sup- Ora, ae,f., the extremity, edge, marport: pl. apes, opum, riches, wealth, gin, border, boundary; the coast, opulence, substance, property, estate, shore. treasure; power, weight, influence, Oratio, onis, f. (oro), speech, disinterest, authority; forces, resources, course, language, speaking; a speech, means, strength; help, aid, assistance. oration, harangue; eloquence. HaSumma or maxima ope, with all one's here orationem, to deliver, pronounce, might or power. speak or make a speech address, &c. Optandus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (opto), Ori or. oris, m. (oro), a speaker, orato be wished for, desirable. tor; an ambassador, deputy. Optdma, adv., (sup. of bene), very Orbis, is, m., a circle, ring, orb, well, excellently, best of all, best. globe, sphere. Orbis terrae or terraOptimus, a, um, adj. (sup. of bonus), rum, the circle of the earth, the earth very good, best, kindest, most bene- the world. Orbemfacere, to draw up

Page  233 ORDO 233 PACISCOR troops in the form of a circle, to make Inceduntper oa vestra.-before your a circle. faces. Omnium ora in me conversa Ordo, Inis, m., order, arrangement, sunt, the eyes of all-. disposition, regularity; a series, course, Ostendo, ere, di, sum 4 trum, (ob H. train: a rank, row; a rank or file of tendo), to show, hold forth or expose soldiers; a battalion, band, company; to view, point out, indicate, betoken an order, rank, degree, state, condi- mean, manifest, display, discover, tell, tion. Ordo senatorius, equester and declare, make known. Ostendere se, to plebeius, the senatorial, equestrian and show or manifest one's self, to appear. plebeian orders, the rank of a senator, Ostento, are, avi, atum, a. freq. knight, &c. Ordine, according to (ostendo), to show, to show often, point law vr custom, regularly, rightly, out, display; to make show of, exhibit, wisely, properly, justly, ~ 249, II. O- hold out, offer, promise; to threaten, servare or habere ordines, to keep or menace; to show vainly, vaunt, mind the ranks, to remain in line. boast of. Ordine egredi, to leave the line or Ostentus, us, m. (ostendo,) a show, ranks. Commutare ordines, to alter appearance, display. Esse ostentui, the arrangement, or to change the to serve to display; also, to be a front (of an army). show, pretence or trick. Orestilla, e,f., see Aurelia. Otium, i, n., ease, leisure, freedom Oriens, entis, part. (orior). from business, want of employment, Origo, Tnis, f., a beginning, head, idleness, retirement from public busource, origin, original, cause, stock, siness, private life; quiet, repose, tranfountain, root; founder; a parent city quillity, rest, peace. Per otium, in or state, mother-country:from peace, during leisure; through want Orior, iri, ortus sum, dep. $ 177, to of employment. rise, arise, grow up, spring, spring up, commence, begin, appear. p Ornatus, us, m. (orno, to adorn), ornament, embellishment, decoration;, an abbreviation of the prsnodress, garb, attire; trappings, accou- men Publius. trements... Pabulum, i. n, (pasco), food for catOro, are, ats, alum, n. a. os, oris), tie, herbage, grass, pasture, fodder, 273, 2, to speak, utter; to beg, ask, forage, pasturage. HIumi pabulum, entreat, pray for, request, beseech, the herbage of the fields, the producmake supplication. tions of the soil, as herbs, roots, &e. Ortus, us, m. (orior), a rising; origin, Paedtus, a, urm, part. & adj. (paco), birth. Ortus solis, the rising of the peaceful, peaceable, quiet, tranquil, ean, the east. Ab ortu solis, on the reducedto peaceable subjection, coneast. quered, subdued. Ex pacatisprcedas Ortus, a, urn, part. (orior), with ab. agere,-from those who were at peace either alone or with ex., ~ 246, & R. 2, (with the Romans). risen, sprung up, born, descended. Pacifico, are, dvi, atum, a. & n. Os, oris, n., the mouth. Fig. lan- (pacif cus, pacific), to treat about or guage, speech; the face, countenance; make proposals of peace, make or presence, sight. Loque parum libero desire peace. ore, to speak with too little boldness, Paciscor, i, pactus sum, dep. n. & a. with too much caution or reserve, to bargain, covenant, agree, stipulate;

Page  234 PACTIO 234 PARTICEPS to promise or demand by covenant, to appear, be seen; to be in waiting stipulate for. or attendance; to obey, submit to Pactio, 6nis,f. paciscor), an agree- comply with; to indulge, gratify, nument, bargain, contract, covenant, en- mor, follow, be guided by, give way to gagement, condition, stipulation; a listen to, yield to; to depend upon, be corrupt bargain; a promise. Facere subject to, be ruled or governed by. pactionem, to bargain or agree. Paries, Ltis, m., the wall of a house 1Pene or Pene, adv., almost, nearly. or other edifice. Ialam, adv., openly, manifestly, pub- Pario, ere, peperi, partum, a., to licly. bear or bring forth young, produce; to Palans, tis, part., wandering, strag- occasion, cause, make, produce; to ling, dispersed:from acquire, procure, get, gain, obtain. Palor, ari, atus, sum, dep., to wan- Pariter, adv. (par), equally, in like der to and fro, wander up and down, manner, alike, just as much, at the rove, ramble, straggle, be dispersed. same time, together. Pariter ac, Palus, udis, f., a marsh, morass, atque, 4c., just as, equally as, as much bog, fen, swamp, pool, lake. as. Pariter ac si, just as if. Pariter Panis, is, m., bread. cum, at the same time with, at; equalPar, paris, adj., ~ 222, and R. 2 & ly with, jointly with. 6, O 250, equal, even in number, like, Paro, are, avi, atum, a. ~ 271, to similar. When followed by et, ac fr make ready, provide, put in readiness, atque, the same as. Par est, it is con- prepare, make preparations, undervenient, meet, proper, suitable, right. take, attempt, go about, contrive, Par esse alicui, to be equal to, to be order, dispose, furnish, equip; to aca match for-. quire, procure, get, obtain, im at, Paratio, onis, f. (paro), an aiming strive to obtain; to buy, purchase, seat, getting, procuring. cure. Parare insidias alicui, to plot Pardtus, a, um, part. 4- adj. (paro), against-. It is also used absolutely with the inf. $ 270, R. 1, and rarely for parare se. with the sulj., prepared, ready, pro- Parricida, ea, m. 4rf. (pater 4- cedo), vided, furnished, fitted, equipped; in a parricide, murderer of parents or readiness; procured, bought. near relations; a murderer, assassin; Parco, ire, peperci, 4 parci a. - n. a miscreant, villain; a rebel, enemy. (parcus), 5 223, R. 2, to cease, give Pars, tis, f., a part, portion, piece. over, abstain, let alone, omit, spare; share, side; some, part; pars-pars. to regard, favor, consult, respect, re- pars-alii, alii-pars, some-others. frain from hurting or injuring, be care- Magna pars, many. Maxima pars. ful of; to pardon, forgive; to use mo- most. Magna parte, in a great meaderately, be sparing of, save, keep, sure, for the most part. Pars and preserve, reserve. partes, a party, side, faction. Studza Parcus, a, urn, adj., sparing, frugal, partium, party zeal, party spirit. Parthrifty, economical, moderate. tium invidia, party-rancor. Ab omni. Parens, tis, m. - f. (pario), a parent, bus partibus, on all sides. father or mother. Partaceps, cdpis, adj. (pars 4 capioj, Parens, tis, part. 4 adj., obedient. $ 213, partaking of, participating or Subs., a vassal, subject, dependent: sharing in, privy to. Subs. a sharer from partaker, associate, accomplice, partPareo, ire, ui, ~tum, n.,' 223, R. 2, ner.

Page  235 PARTIM 235 PAUCI Partim, adv. (pars), partly, in part, open, extend, stretch; to be accessisome, some part. It is often used as ble; to be plain, evident, manifest, be cn indeclinable noun, and is frequent- known, appear; to be subject to one's ly repeated or followed by alii; partim power. -partim, or partim-alii, some- Pater, tris, m., a father. Also, a others. term of respect applied to Roman senPcrtio, ire, ivi, itum, a. (pars), to ators; see Conscriptus. Iart, divide, distribute. Patera, Ca, f. (pateo), a goblet a Partus, a, umn, part. (pario), acquir- broad cup or bowl. ed, gained, obtained. Patiens, tis, part. 4 adj. (patior) Parum, adv. (comp. minus, sup. with ace., enduring, suffering; with minime, which see), little, but a little, gen., $ 213, able to bear or endure, catoo little, not enough. Parum muni- pable of enduring, ready to endure, ta, feebly-. Paorumn valere, to be patient. wanting in strength, to be feeble. It Patientia, a,f., a bearing, suffering. is also used for minus or non, not. enduring, patience, forbearance, tameParum habere, see Habere. Parum ness under injuries: from cognovi or comperi, I have not satis- Patior, i, passus sum, dep. $ 273, 4. factorily ascertained. Parum facere, to bear, undergo, suffer, endure, brook, to value little, to think little of. Pa. tolerate, support; to submit to, bear rum seems sometimes to be a noun or contentedly, to permit, allow, suffer adjective in the nominative or accusa- let. tive; as, Parum sapientice. llzs pa- Patria, ac, f. (patrius), one's native rum est impune male fecisse, it is not country or city, native soil or land, enough for them-. Parum habere. one's country. See i 212, R. 4, & N. 1. Patricius, a, urn, adj. (pater), of or Parvus, a, urn, adj. (comp. minor, belonging to a patrician, of patrician sup. minimus, which see), little, small; rank, patrician, noble. Patricius, i, young. Parvipendere, see Pendo. m., a patrician, a descendant of the Passim, adv., here and there, up first senators, a nobleman of the first and down, at random; every where, rank at Rome. every way. Patrimonium, i, n. (pater), a paterPassus, us, m. (pando), a pace, step; nal estate, inheritance, patrimony; an a pace, a Roman measure of five feet. estate. Mille passuum, a mile. See Mille. Patrius, a, um, adj. (pater), of or bePatefacio, ere,feci,factum, a. (pateo longing to a father, fatherly, paternal; 4 facio), to open, set or lay open, of one's country, native. throw open. Fig. to manifest, de- Patro, ire,'avi, atum, a., to effect, care, disclose, discover, detect, bring perform, execute, perpetrate, commit, to light, show, explain, make known. achieve, bring to a conclusion, end, Patefactus, a, urn, part. (patefa- finish, accomplish. cio). Patrocinium, i, n. (patrbnus, a pa Patefis, eri,factus sum, irr. pass. of tron), protection, patronage, support. Patefacio, O 180, N. Pauci, cE, a, adj. pl., few, a few; Patens, entis, part. 4c adj., open, ly- pauci, a few men; also, the few, the lng open, extending, stretching, ex- aristocray; a clique, cabal, junto. tended wide: from Pauci, or paucissimis, sc. verbis, in Pateo, ere, ut n., to be open, lie few words, briefly. Pauca mi7ites hr 21

Page  236 PAUCITAS 236 PENSUS tar;,-briefly, in few words, S 205, R. bezzle), the crime of stealing or em. 10, & ~ 231, R. 5. bezzling the public money or proper Paucltas, itis, f. (pauci), fewness, ty, peculation, embezzlement. scarcity, smallness or paucity of num- Pecunia, aB, f., money, a sum of bers, paucity; a small number. money; goods, property, wealth, rich. Paulatim, adv. (paulus), by little es. Pecunia sumpta mutua, borrowed and little, by degrees, gradually. money. Pecunia magna, a great sum Paulisper, adv., for a little while, a of money: from little while. Pecus, oris, n., tame animals; as Pauliulum, adv. (paulilus, very lit- oxen, horses, swine, sheep, goats, &c, tie), a little, a very little, somewhat; a cattle, a herd. Pecora, pl., in distinclittle distance; a short time. tion from man, the brutes, brute Paulim, adv., a little. beasts. Paulus, a, urn, adj., little, small: Pedes, itis, m. (pes), on foot; a foot paulo, abl. with comparatives, &4c. ~ soldier; collectively, the foot, foot sol256, R. 16, (2); by a little, a little, diers, infantry. somewhat. Paulo post or post paulo, Pedester, tris, tre, adj. (pes), on just after, a little after, soon. Paulo foot, going on foot, pedestrian. Peante, see Ante. Paulum procedere, destres copiae, the infantry, foot sol -a little way. diers. Paulus, i, m. (L. AEmilius Lepidus), Pelignus, a, um, adj., of or belonga Roman senator, who commenced a ing to the Peligni, a people of Italy. prosecution against Catiline, under the J. 105. Plautian law. C. 31. Pello, Ore,pepiili,pulsum, a., $251, Paupertas, atis, f. (pauper, poor), to drive or chase away, discomfit, poverty, need, indigence. rout; to remove forcibly, expel, disPaveo, ere, pavi, n., ~ 232, (2.) to possess. tremble or be alarmed at, to fear, be Pendeo, ire, pependi, n., to hang Efraid; dread. from, to be suspended; to hang, rest Pavesco, ere, n. inc. (paveo), to be or or depend upon. begin to be much afraid, show signs Pendo, ere, pependi, pensum, a., to of fear be alarmed, tremble. weigh; to weigh or ponder in one's Pavidus, a, ur, adj. (paveo), timid, mind, think of, consider, deliberate timorous, afraid, fearful, alarmed, af- on; to esteem, value, appreciate, refrighted. gard; to pay, liquidate, discharge. Pax, pacis, f., peace, quiet, tranquil- Pendere parvi, to value little, care litlity. Agitare pacem, to live in a state tle for, ~214. Pendere pccnas, to sufof peace, be at peace.' Pace, and in fer punishment. pace, in peace, in time of peace. Pene, adv., almost, nearly. Pecratum, i, n., a fault, error, of- Penes, prep. with ace., with, in the fence sin: from power of, in the hands or possession Pecco, are, at'-.. 4& a., to do of.' Fides ejus rei penes auctores erit, wiong or a;: -:. fault, err, the credibility of this account will mistake, trail. rest with the writers, i. e. the writers Pectus, oris,.'est. must be held answerable for its truth. Fig v 324, 2, the. r;' Pensus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (pendo). memory, thoughts. -eighed, considered, esteemed prized, Peculatus, us, m. (nec.": i::. -:d; valuable, precious, dear. Ni

Page  237 PENURIA 237 PERGO hil, or nec quidquam pensi habere, or dispirited, disheartened, surprised, asducere, 5 265, $ 271, not to care or re- tonished, filled with consternation, gard, not to mind or consider, to have dismayed. no consideration, regard nothing, re- Perdatus, a, urn, part. 4, adj. lost, spect nothing, to reckon nothing pre- ruined, spoiled, desperate, abandoned cious. from Penuria, ac, f., want, need, lack, Perdo, are, dldi, ditum, a. (per 4, scarcity. do), to destroy, ruin. Perditum co, Peperci, see Parto. see Eo, and $ 276, II, R. 2. Peperi, see Pario. Perduco, ere, xi, ctum, a. (per Per, prep. with ace., along, over, duco), to bring through, conduct, lead, through, throughout; for, during, convey, accompany; to bring or draw about, in, at, by; between; with, by, over, persuade, gain over. through, by means of, on account of. Peregrinans, tis, part., going or livIn prayers, d4c., for the sake of, in ing abroad. Subs. a traveller in a fot the name of. Per me, se. etc. of my- reign country, a sojourner. self, himself, &c. by myself, himself, Peregrinor, ari, atus sum, dep. (per&c. singly, without assistance, of egrinus, foreign), to go abroad, live in one's own accord, without solicita- foreign countries. tion, as far as depends on me, him, Pereo, ire, ii, irr. n. (per 4, eo), to &c. as far as I, he, &c. are concerned, perish, be lost or ruined, be destroyed; as far as I, he, &c. can effect; intrin- to die. sically. So Ubiprimum potuissetper Perftro, ferre, tili, latum, irr. a negotia publica,-so far as public bu- (per 4fero), to bear or carry through; siness was concerned, For its use to bear, carry, bring, convey; to supwith words denoting the means: See port, suffer, bear patiently, bear or put ~ 247, R. 4. With an abstract noun ittup with, brook. Perferre legem, or often supplies the place of a corre. rogationem, to carry a bill through. sponding adverb; as, per luxum, per get a law passed. ignaviam, per scelus, per moUitiem, per Perflcio, ere, fci, fectum, a. (per 4, superbiam, perdedecus, &c.; seeluxus, facio), ~ 273, 1, to finish, complete. &c. With the name of a person it often accomplish, effect, perform, execute signifies, by the intervention of, by dispatch; to bring about, cause. the means or instrumentality of. In Perfidia, aw, f. (perfldus, perfidious), composition, see ~ 197, 13. perfidy, treachery, perfidiousness,false. Perangustus, a, urn, adj. (per, ~ 197, hood, faithlessness. 13,t angustus), very strait or narrow. Perfiga, ac, m., a runaway, fugiPercello, ere, culi, culsum, a. (per, tive; a deserter: from cello, to impel), to thrust or strike Perfugio, re,fugi,fugitum, n. (per aside, move forcibly, overthrow, over-,rfugio, to fly or flee for succor or turn; to strike, hit, smite; to cast shelter, take refuge. down; to astonish, amaze, stun, sur- Perfugium, i, n. (perfugio), a refuge, prise, strike with consternation. shelter, sanctuary, asy.nm, a place of Percontor, ari, atus sum, dep. $ 231, safe retreat. fper 4 contor, to explore), to ask, in- Pergo, Are, perrext perrectum, n. quire, question, interrogate. (per 4 rego), to go, proceed, go on, Perculsus, a, urn, part. (percello), come, pass on, go forward, advance, struck, strongly affected, disquieted, continue on one's way. Pergeie iter

Page  238 PERICULOSE 238 PERTURBATUS to prosecute, pursue, proceed on,- Pernicibsus, a, um, adj. (perncie., ~ 232, (1). Pergere festinans, to pernicious, hurtful, baneful, mischievhasten. ous, destructive, deadly. Periculos, adv., dangerously, with Perpello, ere, puli, pulsum, a. (per danger, hazardously: from 4f pello), to move, force; to move, af. Penculosis, a, um, adj., dangerous, fect, touch; to drive, induce, per hazardous, perilous: from suade, lead, prevail upon,' 273, 2. Periculum, i, n., a trial, experiment, Perperam, adv. (perperus, wrong) proof; risk, danger, hazard, peril. wrong, amiss, preposterously; falsely Facere periculum alicui, to occasion, incorrectly. cause-. Periculo suo, at his own risk. Perpetior, i, pessus sum, dep. (per 4 Perinde, adv. (per 4 inde), similar- patior), to suffer, endure, bear, abide, ly, just the same. Perinde ac, atque, undergo, submit to. ut, just as, as, just so. Perinde ac si Persa, a,, m., a Persian. J. 18. or quasi, as if, as though, just as if. Perscrzbo, ere, psi, ptum, a. (per 4 Peritia, e, f. (peritus, skillful), skill, scribo), to write, write out, write fully skillfulness, knowledge, expertness. or at large, report, record, copy out, Perjurium, i, n. (pejiiro, to swear narrate. falsely), a false oath, perjury. Persequor, i, cutus sum, dep. (per 4 Periitus, a, urn, part. (perfero). sequor), to follow, come after; to folPerlego, ere, legi, lectlum, a. (per 4 low close, pursue, press upon; to lego), to read through, read over. revenge, avenge, punish; to overtake; Permaneo, ere, mansi, mansum, n. to execute, perform, do, accomplish; (per 4 maneo), to remain, endure, to recount, relate, narrate, treat of. continue, last, hold out, persevere. Perses, ae, 0 44, 4 Perseus, i, m., Permisceo, ere, miscui, mixtum or the last king of Macedonia. He was mistum, a. (per 4 misceo),.245, IL2,& conquered by the Romans under the R. 1. to mingle, mix or blend together, command of.Emilius Paulus, A. U. throw into confusion, confound. C. 586. J. 80. C. 51. Permitto, Are,,si, issum, a. (per 4 Persolvo, ere, solvi, solutum, a.. n. mitto), to dispatch, send away; O 273, (per 4 solvo), to pay, pay completely. 4, to permit, give, grant, allow, suffer; Persuadeo, ere, suasi, suasum, a. to commit, intrust. Iis permissum (per 4 suadeo), 223, R. 2,' 273, 2. est, it was permitted them, they were to persuade, advise, induce, prevail allowed or empowered. upon. Permixtio, onis, f. (permisceo), a Perterreo, ere, ui, Htum, a., (per 4 mixing or mingling together, mix- terreo), to frighten greatly, terrify. ture, confusion, convulsion. Permix- Peterritus, a, un,part. (perterreo). tio terra, a convulsion of the ele- Pertimesco, ere, ui, a. 4. n. (per 4f ments. timesco, to become afraid), to fear Permixtus, a, um, part. (permiseeo). greatly, be greatly afraid. Permotus, a, um, part.: from PertYneo, ere, tinui, n. (per 4 teneo;, Permoveo, ire, mbvi, motum, a. (per to reach, extend, stretch; to tend, aim.. moveo), to move, move greatly, stir Quo illa oratio pertinuit? whither did up, stir, affect. influence, lead, induce. it tend? what was its aim? Pernicies, ei, f. (perneco, to kill), Pertingo, re, n. (per di ad,~ the death, destruction, nuin; disaster, ca- same as Pertineo. lamity. Perturbatus i ^^

Page  239 PERTURBO 239 PISO disturbed, disquieted, confused, thrown reach, go or repair to, make for, travel into confusion: from to, advance to. Perturbo, are, avi, atum, a. (per - Petreius, i, m. (M.), the lieutenant turbo, to disturb), to disturb greatly, of C. Antonius in the war with Catithrow into confusion, trouble, dis- line. C. 59, 60. quiet, discompose. Petulantia,., f. (petiUans, petulant), Pervenio, ire, veni, ventum, n. (per wantonness, insolence, petulance, imf venio), O 225, IV, to come to, arrive pudence, lasciviousness. at, reach, come. Imperium pervenit Phalgrae, arum, f. pl., trappings for ad ignaros, falls into the hands of-. horses; ornaments of men or women Perventum est, imp. sc. a nobis, illis, Phileni, brum, m. pl., the Philaeni, &c., we, they, &c., arrive, ~ 184, 2, & two Carthaginian brothers employed $ 248, R. 1. as commissioners to settle the bounPes, pedis, m., the foot Also the daries of the Carthaginian and Cyremeasure of a foot. Irepedibus in sen- nian territories. J. 19, 79. tentiam, see Eo. Phoenix, icis, m., a Phoenician, an Pesslme, adv. (sup. of male), very ill, inhabitant of Phoenicia. J. 19. very badly, worst. Quam quisque Picenws, a, urn, adj., Picene, perpessime fecit, tam maxime tutus est, taining to Picenum, a region of Italy the worse any one has behaved, the on the Adriatic sea. Ager Picenus safer he is. Picenum. C. 27, 30, 42, 57. Pesslmus, a, um, adj. (sup. of malus), Pictus, a, um, part. (pingo), painted. very ill, very bad, the worst, most vi- Picta tabula, a painting. cious, depraved or corrupt. Pietas, atis, f. (pius, pious), piety, Pessum, adv., down, to the bottom. veneration, respect, duty, love, affecPessum do or Pessumdo, ~ 225, IV, tion, devotion, religion. to send or throw to the bottom, sink, Piget, uit, Itum, est, imp., with acc. plunge; to ruin, destroy, undo. Ad of the person and gen. of the thing, ~ inertiamn pessum datus est, has sunk 229, R. 6, & ~ 215, (1,) & R., it grieves, into sloth. repents, pains, it is irksome or troublePestilentia, ta, f. (pestlens, pesti- some. Me piget, I am sorry, grieved, lent), a plague, pestilence. pained, ashamed, &c. Pestis, is, f., a pest, plague, infec- Pilum, i, n., a javelin or dart. tion, contagion; mischief, calamity, Pilus, i, m., a company of soldiers destruction, ruin; a pestilence, di- armed with the pilum, a company of sease. the triarii or third line of Roman solPetitio, onis, f., a canvassing or diers, the first line consisting of the soliciting for an office, suit; a petition, hastati,and the second of the principes. demand, desire, request Petitionem Primus pilus, the first company of the alicujus curva habere, to strive to pro- triarii: see Legio. mote one's election: from Pingo, ere, pinxi, pictum, a., to dePeto,?re, tivi, fitum, a., ~ 231, R. 4, pict, delineate, paint, draw. 273, 2, ~ 262, R. 4, to ask, seek, re- Piso, onis, m. (C. Calpurnius), a quest, desire, entreat; to seek, sue, personal enemy of Casar, and a colstand or apply for an office, to be a league of M. Glabrio in the consulcandidate; to seek after, covet, desire, ship, A. U. C. 687. C. 49 solicit court, woo; to aim at, assail, Pise, onis, m. (Cn.), a profligate attack. aim a blow at; to desire to young nobleman, who was an associ21

Page  240 rISTORIENSIS 240 PLUS ate of Catiline and Autronius in a from the patricians; the mob, rabble treasonable conspiracy, A. U. C. 688. populace. C. 18. Plenus, a, nm, adj. (pleo, obs., to Pistortensis, e, adj., of or pertaining fill), 2 213, full, replete, filled, rich, to Pistorium, a town of Etruria, now abounding in. Pleno gradu, with a Pistoia. C. 57. quick step, at a quick pace. Pix, picis,f., pitch. Pleriumque, adv., for the most part, Placeo, ere, ui, Itum, n. ~ 223, R. 2, commonly, generally, often. Utz ple~ 269, R. 2, to please, give satisfaction, rutmque solet, as usually happens: be agreeable. Satis placere, to satis- from fy Placet, imp., it pleases:-mihi, Plerusque, aque, umque, adj. (plerus, tibi, 6'c. it seems good to me. it is my most, 4r que), most, the greatest part. pleasure, I like, I choose, decide, de- It occurs more frequently in the plural, termine, resolve; also, it i} my opi- and has in both numbers a partitive nion. The dative of the person is translation, like primus, medius, etc. sometimes wanting. ~ 205, R. 17: as, Pleraque nobilitas, Placide, adv., softly, gently, mildly, the greatest part of the nobility, many, quietly, peaceably, calmly, placidly: many persons, a great part, the greatfrom er part, most, most persons or things. Placidus, a, um, adj. (placeo), quiet, Plerique, most men, ~ 205, R. 7. (1.) N. gentle, soft, mild, calm, easy, still, 1. The neuter gender is followed by the placid. genitive; as, Plerumque noctis, ~ 212, Placztus, a, ur,part. & adj. (placeo) R. 3. So the other genders with a? 222, 3, agreeable, pleasing, grate- relative; as, quorum plerisque. ful; agreed upon. PlurTmizm, adv. (sup. of multum), Placo, are, avi, dtum, a., to appease, very much, most, especially, principalpacify, make calm, soften, reconcile, ly, chiefly, for the most part, generalquiet. ly, commonly. Plane, adv. (planus), openly, mani- Plurimus, a, urn, adj. (sup. of mulfestly, clearly; altogether, totally, en- tus), very many or much, most, the tirely greatest part. Plurimum, the most, Planities, ei,f., a plane, smooth or very much: with a genitive, ~ 212, R. even surface, a plain, level ground. 3. Quam plurimum, or qulm pluriErat inter ceteram planitiem mons,- mum potest, as many or as much as in the midst of what was otherwise a possible. plain: from Plus, pluris, adj. (comp. of multus, Planus, a, urn, adj., plain, even, flat, $ 125, 5), pl. plures,plura, ~ 110, more, level, smooth. Planum, i, n., a pluris or pluris pretii, of more value, plain. higher, of a higher price, dearer, worth Plautius, a, urn, adj. of or belong- more, ~ 252. Facere pluris, to value ing to the Plautian gens, Plautian. higher, esteem more, ~ 214. Plures, Plautia lex, the Plautian or Plotian more, a greater number, a majority law, a law introduced by P. Plautius, Quam plures, see Quamplures. Plus, A. U. C. 665, for the punishment of in the singular is used with a noun tn those who should be guilty of either the genitive expressed or understood O open or secret violence. C. 31. 212, R. 3. Plebes, ei, or Plebs, is, f., the com- Plus, adv. (comp.. of multhm) mon people, plebeians, in distinction more.

Page  241 PLUVIUS 241 PORCIUS Plusnus, a, um, adj. (pluo, to rain), Great, the distinguished rival of Julius rainy. Pluviaaqua, rain-water. Cesar. C 16, 17, 38 39. See also Pcena, Ca, f., punishment, satisfac- Rufus. tion, a penalty, fine. Dare,reddere or Pomptinus, i, m. (C.), a praetor who solvere pcenas, to give satisfaction, was faithful to the state during the to suffer punishment. Capere poenam, conspiracy of Catiline. He was Ci to take satisfaction, to inflict punish- cero's lieutenant in Cilicia, A. U. C ment. Peterepoenas, to seek satisfac- 711. C. 45. tion, try to inflict punishment. Esse Pondo, abl. ~ 94, (pendo), in weight poenc., 6 227, to serve for or to be de- It is often used as an indeclinable voted to punishment. noun, a pound. Pceni, orum, m. pi., the Carthagi- Pondus, eris, n. (pendo), weight nians. J. 79. gravity, heaviness; a load, burden; a Penitendus, a, um, part., to be re- sum. pented of, be sorry for: from Pono, ere, posui, posYtum, a., to put, Pveniteo, ere, ui, n. 4 a. (pacna), to place, set, lay; to lay aside, lay down, repent, be sorry, Q 229, R. 6. Imp., Pe.- put off terminate; to propose, offer; nitet me, etc., it repents me, &c., I re- to think, repute, judge, esteem, reckon, pent, regret, am sorry. account; to speak of, mention, set Pollens, tis, part. 4, adj.. O 213, down; to make, constitute, ~ 230, R. R. 5, (4.), having great power, able to 2. Ponere vigilias, to post, station-. do much, powerful, strong, potent, ex- Ponere castra, to pitch a camp, encelling, surpassing: from camp. In partem tertiam ponere, to Polleo, ire, n., Q 250, to be able, be set down as a third part. Ponere ante, very strong or mighty, be of great to place before; to value more, allow force or power, prevail much, excel, more weight or influence to. exceed, be powerful, great or strong. Pens, tis, m., a bridge. Polliceor, eri, ltus sum, dep., ~ 272, -Pontificatus, us, m. (pontdfex, a pop to promise, assume, hold forth, offer. tiff), the office or dignity of a pontiff Multa polliceri, to promise many or high priest, the pontificate. things, make great promises. Populdris, e, adj., of or belonging Pollicitatio, onis,f., a free or volun- to the people, popular; one's country tary promise, promising frequently: man, a fellow-countryman, one bori from in the same town or country; one of Pollicitor, ari, atus sum, dep. freq. the same party, an associate, partner, (polliceor), to promise, assure, hold accomplice; one acceptable to the forth, promise often Pollicitando, by people, a popular man, one who courts oft repeated assurances. the favour of the people: from Pollicltus, a, um, part. (polliceor), Popilus, i, m., those who compose having promised. In other authors one state under the same laws, a peoit is sometimes passive. pie, state, nation, community. It is Polluo, ere, ui, Ditum, a., to pollute, used with less extent of signification infect, defile, corrupt, contaminate, than natio and gens. Also in the sense violate, dishonor, disgrace. of plebs, the common people, comPollutus, a, um, part.' adj. (polluo), mons, the people, in distinction from polluted, defiled, unchaste, debauched, the magistrates or nobles. foul, detestable, shameful. Porcius, i, m., a Roman cognomen Pompeius, i, n. (Cn.), Pompey the or family name.

Page  242 PORCIUS 242 POSTLRIO, Porcius, aC um, adj., Porcian, of or sess, have, hold, enjoy, be. master of, relating to Portius. Porcia lex, the have possession of. Porcian law, a law introduced by P. Possido, are, edi, essum, a., to take Porcius Lteca, when tribune of the possession of, take into possession. people, requiring that no magistrate Possum, posse, potui, irr. n. (potis S4 should scourge a Roman citizen or sum, g 154, R. 7), ~ 271, to be able, have put him to death, but should permit power, I can; to have authority, power such as were condemned to go into influence, ability, weight. Possum is exile. C. 51. joined with quam and the superlative Porrectus, a, um,part. 4 adj., stretch- degree, in the sense of, as possible, &c. ed out, extended: from See Quam. Possum is often followed Porigo, ere, rexi, rectum, a. (porro by the accusative of a neuter adjective t rego), to stretch, reach or spread or pronoun, ~ 234. Quantum ingenio out, extend, lengthen. possem, as far as I should be able, Porro, adv., right onward, farther, as far as my talents would perafar off; then, moreover, besides, mit. Plus or amplius posse, to be next. It often continues a discourse more powerful or efficient. Possepluin such a manner as to connect some- rimum, to be most efficient or serthing which is the opposite of that viceable, of most avail. Quibus rebus which had preceded it, and may then possum, by all the means in my power, not improperly be translated, on the by all practicable means. Potest, imp., other hand, on the contrary. it is possible, it can be. Potuit hoPorta, e, f., the gate of a city or nestius consuli, one might have purcamp; a door, port, portal. sued a more reputable course, or a Portatio, onis,f. (porto,) a carrying, more reputable course might have carriage, conveyance, transportation. been pursued, ~ 209, R. 3, (6). Portendo, ere, di, turn, a. (porro' ten- Post, prep. with the acc., after, since, do), to presage, portend, forebode, fore- behind, in the rear of, next in order, tll, foreshow, betoken, augur, reveal. back of, subsequently to. Post eum Portentum, i. n. (portendo), an omen, diem, the day after. Post diem ocprodigy, portent, miracle. tavum, the eighth day after. Ducere Porto, are, dvi, atum, a., properly post, to reckon of less importance. to bear or carry something heavy, and Postfuere, were dropped or laid aside, this meaning may be traced even in its gave place. In most editions, the figurative use, to carry, bear, convey, words are united, postfuere. With bring, take, conduct, transport. names of persons, in expressions de. Portuosus, a, um, adj. comp. ior. noting time, it supplies the place of a (portus, a harbor), abounding in har- clause; as, Qui proximo anno post Besbors, having many good havens. tiam consulatum gerebat; instead of,Posco, ere, poposci, a., to ask, de- post annum, quo Bestia consulatum mand, pray earnestly, importune, re- gesserat. Also adv., after, afterwards. quire, call for. Postea, adv., (post 4 is), afterward, Posltus, a, urn, part. (pono). after that or this, subsequently, herePossessio, 6nis,f., possession; a pos- after. Postea loci, the same as postea. session, an estate, property:from ~ 212, R. 4, N. 4. See Locus. Possessus, a, um, part., possessed, Posteaquam, or Postea quam, adv owned, held in possession. (postea 4 qutam), after that, after, JPossideo, ire, edi, essum, a., to pos-' Posterior, us, gen, bris, adj. (comp.

Page  243 POSTERUS 243 PRECEPTUM of pisterus), that comes after, poste- Potis, indecl. adj., able, possible. rior, later, too late. Potissmium, adv. (yotior), most of Posterus, a, um, adj. (post), comp. all, especially, chiefly, principally, in posterior, sup. postremus, which see; preference to others, first of all, above coming after, following, next, ensu- all. ing. Posteri, orum, m., posterity, de- Potissimus, a, um, adj (sup. of scendants. potis), most of all, first of all. Igna Postfui, see Post. ri quid potissimum facerent,-what Postquam, adv., (post' quam), ~ 259, they had best do. R. 1, (2.) (b.) after, after that, when, as Potiundus, a, ur, part. (potior), soon as. ~ 162, 20. Postrlem, adv., lastly, ultimately, Potiis, adv. comp. (potior), rather, finally, at last. After an enumeration of preferably. It is sometimes omitted particulars, in fine, in short, in a word. before quam. Postremus, a, um, adj. (sup. of pos- Poto, are, avi, atum 4, potum, n. 4 terus), last, hindmost. Postrema acies, a., to drink; to drink to excess, tipple, the rear. In postremo or in postremis, indulge one's self in drinking. hi the rear. Potui, f4c., see Possum. Postulctum, Z, n., a demand, re- Prc, prep. with the abl., before; for, quest, desire: from by reason of, on aecount of; in compaPostilo, are, dvi, atum, a. (posco), rison of. In composition, see J 197,15. 9 272, 273, 2, to demand, ask, desire, Prccacuo, Zre, ui, itum, a. (prao 4require; beg, implore, urge. acuo, to sharpen), to make very sharp; Potens, tis, adj. (possum), $213, R. to sharpen, sharpen at the end or point. 5, (3.) able, having power, capable, Praaciitus, a, un, part. (preacuo). strong, efficacious, powerful, mighty, Prwcaltus, a, urn, adj. (prea, ~ 197,15, vigorous, rich, having great weight or I4 altus), very high or lofty, very deep. influence. Prrebeo, ere, uir Btum, a. (prao 4 Potentia, al, f., (potens), power, habeo), to give, supply, afford, minisforce, efficacy; might, authority, in- ter, offer, furnish, provide. fluence, sway; empire, rule, domin- Praebltus, a, um, part. (prabeo), ion, power not granted by the laws, given, supplied, furnished, provided. usurped power.. Praceps, cipltis, adj. (pros 4 caput) Potestas, atis, f. (possum), ~ 275, headlong, rapid; downhill, steep, preIII, R. 1. (1.) ability, power, leave, li- cipitous. Fig. rash, hasty, sudden, cense, liberty permission, opportuni- inconsiderate, precipitate, headlong, ty; power granted by the laws and hastening. Agere prcccipitem, to drive constitution, dominion, rule, empire, headlong, to drive to desperation. authority, command; an office, post, Dari preceps, to be plunged headmagistracy Potestatem facere, to long. precipitated, rush headlong, to give liberty, afford opportunity. be ruined. Ire praceps, to rush head Potior, iri, tus sum, dep. (potts), long, plunge inconsiderately; to go s 245, I, & R. to be or become mas- to destruction or ruin, to fall, be ruter of, gain possession of, conquer, ined. acquire, get, obtain, possess Prccceptum, i, n. (prancipio), an or Potior, us, gen. oris, adj. (comp. of der or direction; a precept, rule, max potis), better. preferable, more excel- im; advice, counsel, instruction; a lent, dearer, more esteemed. command

Page  244 PRAECEPTUS 244 PR.iRUPTUS Prceceptus, a, um, part. (precipio). foretell, forewarn, predict; to admon. Praccido, ere, cidi, cisum, a. (praw 4 ish, charge, order, direct, enjoin; to (axdo), to cut off; to shorten, abridge. make known, appoint, give notice of, Precipio, ere, cepi, ceptum, a. (prce ~ 265. - capio), to take before; 0 223, R. 2; Preditus, a, urn, adj. (pro 4- datus), & 273, 2, to instruct, teach, direct, S244, having, possessed of, endued charge, enjoin, order, command. PrC-e with. ceptum est mihi, I have been ordered, Prcdo'ceo, ire, cui, ctum, a. (pro tc instructions have been given to me. doceo), to teach beforehand.'Prc, ipitatus, a, um, part.: from Prccdoctus, a, urn, part. (presdoceo), Preecipto, are, avi, atum, a. (pre- previously instructed. ceps), to precipitate, plunge, throw Prccdor, ari, atus sum, (preeda), to headlong, hurry, drive. Fig. Se pre- rob, plunder, pillage, spoil, ravage. cipitare, to hasten to ruin; to ruin or Prccfectus, a, um, part. (prEfido), destroy one's self, accomplish one's set over, appointed to the command. own destruction. Prefectus, i, m. (praeficio), a superProecisus, a, um, part. 4 adj. tpre- intendent, overseer, director, presicido), cut off; steep, broken, precipi- dent, governor, prefect, a general, tous. commander, a general of cavalry, the Pracclarus, a, urn, fdj. (pre 4 cla. general commanding the cavalry of rus), very clear or brig.t; noble, illus- the allies in the wing of the army. trious, brilliant, conspicuous, famous, Prccfro, ferre, tuli, latum, irr. a. celebrated, excellent, distinguished; (praee fero), $ 224, to bear or carry beautiful. before; to show; to prefer, give the Prceda, ca,f., prey, booty, plunder, preference to, choose rather. spoil, pillage; plundering, pillaging; Preeflcio, ere, feci,fectum, a. (pra gain, profit, advantage. Agere pre- 4-facio), ~ 224, to set over, appoint to dam or predas, to drive off captured the command. cattle and captives as booty; collect' Prcegredior, Mdi, gressus sum, dep. booty, plunder, take booty. Bellice (proc 4 gradior, to step), to go before, prcadae, the spoils of war. precede. Preedabundus a, um, adj. (preodor), Pracmissus, a, um, part.: from $ 129, 1, ravaging, pillaging. Dicit se Prcemitto, ere, misi, missum, a. (pros preadabundum eodem esse venturum, 4 mitto), to send before. The purpose -after going on a predatory excur- is expressed by qui and the subj. 264, sion. 5, or by the former supine,. 276 II. Preedator, oris, m. (pracdor), a rob- Premium, i, n., money; utility, prober, pillager, plunderer. fit, advantage; a reward, recompense, Prcadatorius, a, um, adj. (pr&dator), premium, prize; a promised reward robbing or plundering, predatory. offer. Predico, are, ivi, atum, a. (prce f- Praepdio, ire, Zi, itum, a. (prea 4'ico, are), to spread abroad, proclaim, pes), to impede, hinder, obstruct; to report, publish, declare, give out, pre- bind, shackle. tend, say, tell, relate; to praise, com- Preeposterus, a, urn, adj. (pra 4mend, extol, celebrate.Bene predi- posterus), having that first which care, to speak well of, extol. ought to be last, preposterous, abPreodico, ire, xi, ctum, a. (pra 4- surd. ico, ire), to tell before, premise; to Praeruptus, a, um, adj. (p'rarumpo,

Page  245 PR1ES~NS 245 PREX to break off), broken, steep, craggy, (prater 4 eo), ~ 182, R. 3. to go or pasb rugged, hard to climb. by, pass along; to pass over, leave out, Presens, tis, adj. (prae 4 ens, $ 154, pass over in silence, let slip, omit R. 1), present, at hand, in person; vig- Pratergredior, edi, gressus sum, orous, active, ready, prompt, resolute. dep. (preter 4' gradior, to step), ~ 233, In prasens, sc. tempus, at present, for to go past or beyond, pass by. tne present, now. Prvctor, oris, m. (prceo, to go bePrcesentia, a,f. (prrsen4 presence, fore), a pretor, chief commander or sight, appearance. magistrate, a general. Pretor or Prcesertin, adv., especially, chiefly, Pretor urbanus, a civil magistrate particularly. Quumpresertim orpra- next in rank to the consul, a judge. sertim quum, especially since. Pro pratore, one invested with the Presldeo, ire, edi, essum, n. (prce 4 power of a pretor or commander in sedeo), to preside over, superintend, chief; sometimes temporarily, as durdirect, command, have the command. ing the absence of the general. Presidium, i, n. (prases, a presi- Pratorium, i,,n., the pretorium, the dent), a guard, garrison, escort; a de- general's tent or pavilion in the camp: fence, protection, security, guard; aid, from succor, help, assistance, support, re- Pratorius, a, um, adj. (prator), of source, refuge, relief, reinforcement. or belonging to a pretor, pretorian. Prestabilis, e, adj. (presto, are, Pretoria cohors, the pretorian cohort $ 129, 4), excellent, distinguished, no- or general's guard. ble: from Pretuira, w,f., the pretorship, office Presto, adv., present, ready, at of pretor. hand: joined with sum it signifies to PravEnio, ire, veni, ventum, a. (prea be ready, be present, be in attendance. 4' venio), to come before. prevent, anPresto, are, Iti, Itum, a. 4' n. (pre ticipate. 4 sto), $ 224, & R. 5, to stand before; Prcventus, a, un, part. (pravenio). ~ 250, to be superior to or better than, PravItas, atis, f., crookedness, deexcel, surpass, be distinguished; rare- formity. Fig. perverseness, depravily also in a bad sense, to be distin- ty, wickedness, knavery: from guished or notorious; to do, execute, Pravus, a, um, adj., crooked, disperform, cause, make, effect, $273, 1. torted. Fig. wrong, bad, wicked, Pracstat, imp., it is better. vicious, depraved, evil, unprincipled. Praesum, esse, fid, irr. n. (prve 4 perverse, improper, unsuitable. Pra sum), $ 224, to be set over, preside vlum, i, n., depravity, villainy, vice over, have the charge or command error. of, rule over, direct Premo, ere, pressi, pressum, a., to Prater, prep. with the acc., before, press, press upon; to oppress, over close by, near, past, besides, in addi- whelm, press hard upon. tion to; except, save. Also adv., ex- Pretiun, i, n., a price, worth, value cept, save only. a reward, meed; pay, hire, wages, Preterea, adv. (prater 4' is), be- gain, profit, gold, money, wealth, eides, moreover; then, next; at any riches. Pretiwn est, the same as other time, in any other instance. As opera pretium est, see Opera. Cum a connective, before a noun, and also, pretio, with gain, gainful, profitable. before a noun and adjective, and other. Prex, dat. preci, ~ 94, a prayer, supPraetcreo, ire, ii,'tum, irr. n. 4 a. plication, entreaty.

Page  246 PRIDEM 246 PROBRUM l' idem, adv., long ago, long since. F Priis, adv. (prior), first, at first, ePrimB, adv. (primus), at the first, at fore, previously, sooner; with quam first, in the first place. following, before that, before, sooner Premium, adv., first, in the first than, rather than. For the mood after place, for the first time. Primum priusquam, see Q 266, 3. omnium, first of all, ~ 212, R. 4, N. 7. Priusquam, adv., see Prius. Uhi primum or quum primum, when Privatim, adv., privately, in private, first, as soon as: from in a private capacity, as a private citiPrimus, a, urn, adj. (sup. of prior), zen, in private life. Privatim capere first, foremost, in the van, in front; or rapere, to take from private citiprincipal, chief, excellent, distinguish- zens, or on one's own private aced, best, most important, most valua- count;-as an individual, individually. ble,; earliest. In primis or imprimis, Privatim amicitzam populi Romani above all, chiefly, especially, pecu- colere,-by purchasing the favor of inliarly, first, in the first place, first of dividuals, by private favor: from all; also, among the first, in the van; Privatus, a, urn, part. 4 adj. (privo), so, in primo, and apud primes. Pri- deprived of, ~ 251; private, one's own, ma habere, to reckon of first import- particular; belonging to an individual ance. or individuals;subs. a private person, Princeps, Ypis, m. 4 f. (primus &4 one not in any public office. capio), first, foremost; an author, ad- Privignus, i, m., a step-son. viser, promoter, encourager, leader, Privo, are, avi, atum, a. (privus, head; chief, principal, head-man, single), ~ 251, to take away from, deprince, first in rank. Princeps sena- prive, bereave. tus, or princeps in senatu, the prince Pro, prep. with the abl., before, in or leader of the senate, the senator front of, opposite to, in presence of; whose name was first marked by the in, on; according to, in proportion to, censors in the list of senators. Prin- conformably with; as is suitable to, cipes, heavy armed soldiers, who were as becomes; for, on account of, by stationed in the second line; see reason of, in consideration of; for, in Pilus. Princeps belli faciendi, the the place of, instead of, from being; first to commence hostilities. as, for, as if; in favor of, on the side Principium, i, n. (princeps), a be. of, in behalf of, to the advantage of; ginning, commencement. Principia, for; in comparison of; considering. -in military language, the first line Pro tempore respondit, as became the of an army in order of battle, the front. occasion-. Pro tectis, on the verge Principiis transversis, the front hav- of the roofs. ing been formed at right angles, hav- Pro or Proh! int., 0! ah! Pro ing converted the flank into the front. deum atque hominum fidem, S 238, 2, A principio, from the beginning, first, see Fides. first of all, at first, in thefirst place. Probltas, atis, f. (probus, Q 101, 1,, Prior, us, gen. oris, adj. $ 126, 1, goodness, probity, rectitude, honesty'sup. primus, which see), ~ 250, form- virtue. er first, antecedent, previous, prior, Probo, are, avi, atum, a. (proous), superior. to approve, praise, commend, assent Pristinus, a, um, adj., former, first, or agree to. accustomed, wonted, pristine, origi- Probrum, i, n., a snameful or wick nal ed action, loose or disorderly conduct,

Page  247 PROBUS 247 PROFLIGO any heinous or detestable offence, vil- out, bring forth, bring before the peo. lainy, wickedness; disgrace, infamy, ple. dishonor, reproach, shame. Probro Productus, a, um, part. (produco), habere, to consider disgraceful, ~ 227. lengthened; brought out, brought forProbri gratia, as a mark of dis- ward before the people. grace. Prcelians, tis, part., fighting. PrceProbus, a, um, adj., good, honest, liantes, pl., combatants: from virtuous, upright, worthy, modest, Prcelior, ari, atus sum, dep., to fight, chaste. engage, join battle, combat, contend Procax, acis, adj. (proco, to ask), in fight: from petulant, pert, saucy, wanton, bold, Prcelium, i, n., a fight, battle, enforward, lascivious. gagement, combat, contest, attack; a Procdo, ere, cessi, cessum, n. ~ 276, pitched battle, regular warfare. PrsII, to proceed, go forward, advance, lium committere orfacere, to join batgo forth, go; pass, elapse; to happen, tle, engage. Prcelium manibusfacere, turn out, eventuate; to go on well; to engage hand to hand or in close succeed, prosper; to be aided, pro- combat. Ante prcelium factum, bemoted or advanced; to be favorable fore the engagement. to, be useful or serviceable, ~ 224. Profanus, a, urn, adj. (pro 4 faEo vecordiaf processit, advanced to num), profane, not sacred or consesuch a pitch of madness. Adherbal crated. ubi intelligit eb processum,-that it Profectio, onis, f. (proficiscor), a had come to this. going or setting out, departure, jourProconsul, is, m. (pro 4f consul), a ney. proconsul, one who governed a pro- Profect, adv. (pro 4 factus), cervince or commanded an army with tainly, surely, truly, indeed, in truth, consular power. doubtless. Procul, adv., far, far off, at a dis- Profectus, a, urn, part. (prociscor). tance, remote; very much, grea6y. Profjro, ferre, tuli, latum, a. (pro 4. Procuratio, 5nis.f. (prociiro, to take fero), to carry or bring out; to pubcare of), the administration of a thing, lish, make known, spread abroad, management, charge, care. manifest, reveal; to defer, put off, Prodigium, i, n., a prodigy, portent, postpone, adjourn. miracle, omen. Proficiscor, i, profectus sum, dep. Proditio, 6nis, f. (prodo), a dis- (pro 4facio), $ 276, II, to set out on covery, manifestation, indication; a journey, go, go away, depart; to treachery, faithlessness, treason. journey, travel; to go on, proceed. Prodltus, a, um, part., betrayed: Profiteor, eri,fessus sum, dep. (pro from 4.fateor), to profess, declare openly, Prodo, Ere, dtdi, dttum, a. (pro, own, acknowledge, avow; to declare do), to declare, disclose, manifest, one's self a oandidate. P-ofiteri inshow, discover, betray; to yield or tra legitimos dies, to declare one's surrender perfidiously, desert, forsake self a candidate within the appointed treacherously, deceive, betray. Pro- time, i. e. three market days, or sevdere fidem, to betray confidence, vio- enteen days before the election. late one's engagements. Profligdtus, a, um, part., routed, dis. Produco, Ore, xi, ctum, a. (pro 4 comfited: from duco, to draw out, extend; to lead Proqqigo, are, iavi, atum, a. (pro g 22

Page  248 PYROFUGIO 248 PROPE fligo to strike against), to throw or eject. In has miserias projectus sum dash to the ground, cast down; to -plunged into these misfortunes. rout, put to flight, defeat, overthrow. Prolato, are, avi, atum, a. (profero) Profugio, ere,fugi,fugitum, n. (pro to extend, lengthen, prolong, dilate 4-fugio), to flee, fly, run away, es- to defer, put off, delay, protract, post cape. pone. Profiigus, a, um, adj. (profugio), Promiscue, adv., confusedly, pio fleeing without knowing whither, es- miscuously, indifferently, without or. caping by flight, fugitive; put to flight, der or distinction, indiscriminately: driven away, banished, exiled. Abire from or discedere profugus, to flee. Promiscutus a, um, adj. (promisceo, Profundo, &re,fudi,fusum, a. (pro to mix), promiscuous, confused, com4S fundo), to shed copiously, pour mon, mingled. Pudorem, pudicitiam, forth; to throw away; to lavish, divina atque humana promiscua habere, squander, waste, consume. to reckon common, to regard as inProfundus, a, urn, adj., deep, pro- discriminate, to make no difference found. Fig. profound, boundless, in- between, to contemn alike-, pay no satiable. regard to-. Profusg, adv., profusely, lavishly, Promissum, i, n. (promitto), a proextravagantly, immoderately, exces- mise, pledge, vow, proposition, prosively:from posal, engagement, something proProfusus, a, urn, part. -f adj. (pro- mised. Promissa expectare, to wait fundo), ~ 213, immoderate, excessive, for the fulfilment of promises. profuse; prodigal, wasteful, lavish. Promnissus, a, urn, part.: from Profuturus, a, um, part. (prosum). Promitto, ere, misi, missum, a. (pro Progenies, ei,f. (progigno, to beget), 4, mitto), to fling, hurl or dart forward, a progeny, offspring, descent; a line, send before; to promise, engage, lineage, race; children, descendants. $272. Prohibeo, ire, ui,'tum, a. (pro 4 Promptus, us, m. (promo, to draw kRoeo), $251, & R. 2. to keep off or out), in the abl., in promptu, in readiaway, keep or ward off, debar, hinder, ness, at hand, visible, manifest, preimpede, stop, prevent, prohibit, ob- sent, evident, clear, easy. Ingenium struct; to keep, preserve, defend, pro- in promptu habere, to bring out or tect; to check, curb, restrain, repress; display one's talents or abilities. to prohibit, forbid, ~ 251, & R. 2: some- Promptus, a, um, adj. (promo), clear, times also, instead of the ablative of a manifest, evident, open; ready, prenoun, it takes a verb in the infinitive pared; practicable, easy; prompt acor subjunctive. Prohibere ne, etc., see tive, ready, bold, brave, valiant, quick, Ne. zealous, ardent, 250. Proinde, illative conj. &4 dv. (pro Promulgo, are, avi, atum, a., to pub. 4 inde), therefore, for that reason, on lish, proclaim, propose, promulgate. that account; just so, equally, the Pronus, a, unm, adj., inclined or bend same as, in like manner. Proinde ing forward, bending down, stooping quasi, just as if. looking towards the earth, groveling, Projectus, a, um, part.: from prone. Fig. easy, practicable,'222,3. Proj'cio, ere,jeci,jectum, a. (pro 4 Prope, adv. (comp. propiis, sup. jacio), to throw or fling forth or away; proxime), near, nigh, almost, nearly to throw; to cast or drive out, expel. Alsoprep. r,,ith acc., near, nigh, be

Page  249 PROPEDIEM 249 PROSUM side, close by, near to, almost. nearly. Proprector bris, m. (pro 4 prcntor), Proxime Hispaniam, ~4c. 235,-R. 11. a propretor, one sent to govern aproPropediem, adv. (prope 4 dies), vince with the authority of pretor, shortly, after awhile, within a few one invested with the authority of days, in a short time, presently. pretor. Propello, Ore, pili, pulsum, a. (pro Propter, prep. (prope), with the ace., i pello), to drive forward, propel; to near, hard by, close to; for, on acdrive away, repel, repulse, keep or count of, by reason of, owing to, ward off. through; for the sake of. Adv., near Properans, tis,part.. adj. (propero), Propulso, are, avi, atum, a. freq. hastening, in haste, quick. (propello), to drive away or back, repel, Properanter, adv. (propero), hastily, keep or ward off. quickly, speedily. Properantius per- Prorlpio, ere, ripui, reptum, a. (pro gere,-too precipitately, too rashly, 4 rapio), to snatch away. Proripere S 256, R. 9, (a.). se, to hurry or hasten away, rush out, Properantia, w, f. (propero), a mak- escape quickly. ing haste, haste, dispatch, expedition. Prorsus, adv.(pro d4 versus), straight Propere, adv. (properus, hasty), in on or along, directly, right onward; haste, in a hurry, hastily, speedily, altogether, entirely, utterly, wholly, at quickly. Propere adire, to hasten to. all, totally; exactly; at the end of an Propero, are, ivi, atum, n. 4 a. (pro- enumeration of particulars, in a word, perus), to make haste, hasten, accele- in short; in fact. rate, to prepare with haste; 0 272, to Prosapia, a,f., a race, lineage, stock, be eager, desire. Properandum est, progeny, pedigree, family. there is need of dispatch. Proscribo, ere, psi, ptum, a. (pro 4 Propinquus, a, ur, adj. (prope), scribo), to publish any thing to be sold; 222, R. 1, neighboring, near; near to confiscate one's property; to proof kin, allied, nearly related. Subs., scribe or outlaw one; to doom to a kinsman, relation, intimate friend, death and confiscation of property. Propinqui inter se, near to one an- Proscriptio, inis,f. (proscribo) dad other. Oppido propinqua, sc. loca, vertising a thing to be sold; a prothe parts or places near the town. scription of one's effects; a proscrip. Propinqui genere, nearly related by tion or outlawry, dooming to death birth. and confiscation. Propior, us, gen. oris, adj. ~ 126, 1, Proscriptus, a, urn, part. proscribo), (prope), sup. proximus, which see; proscribed, outlawed. nearer, nigher, closer; more nearly Prospecto, are, avi, atum, a. freq. related or allied; more like. It isfol- (prospicio), to view, behold, see afar lowed by either the dative or the accu- off, gaze upon. sative, $ 222, R. 1, & R. 5, & Q 235, R. 5. Prospectus, us, m. (prospicio), a look Propiiss, adv. (comp. ofprope), near- ing forward, view, prospect, sight. er, more nearly, nearer to. Propiis Prosper 4 Prcsplrus, a, urn, adj., mare Africum, ~ 235, R. 11. favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate Prop6no, ere, posui, posltum, a. (pro Prospere, adv. (prosper), happily, 4 pono), ~ 265, to set out or expose to prosperously, fortunately, luckily, suo view set forth or display, offer, pre- cessfully. sent; to publish, make known; to Prosum, desse, fui, 154, R. 6, irr. tell, explain, show pLint out, declare. n. (pro & sum), ~ 224, to do good,

Page  250 PROVENIO 250 PULCHER profit, be profitable or serviceable, Psallo, &re, i, n., to play on a string avail, conduce, be of use. ed instrument; to sing to the sound Prov~nio, ire, veni, ventum, n. (pro of the lyre. -. venzo), to come forth, appear, be Pubes 4- Puber, eris, adj. of ripe born, spring up, arise. years, arrived at the age of puberty ProvYdens, tis, part. 4 adj. (provi- adult. PubSres, um, m. pl., youth, deo), provident, foreseeing, circum- young men, persons of mature age; spect, careful, prudent. adults. Providenter, adv. (providens), pro- Publce, adv. (publicus), publicly, in vidently, with foresight or precaution, public, in the state, in the name or bewisely, prudently. half of the public, by public authority, ProvIdentia, se, f, foresight, fore- on the public account, on the part of cast, forethought, providence, caution, the public; collectively. Publice raprudence, carefulness: from pere, to take from the public. Uti Provideo, ere, vidi, visum, a. & n. publice amicitiam, populi Romani co(pro 4. video), to look forward, fore- leret,-by public services. see; ~ 273, 1, to provide or guard Publico, are, avi, atum, a., to conagainst, shun, avoid, take measures fiscate, make public property of: to prevent, take care; to prepare, pro- from vide, make provision, see to, look Pubticus, a, urn, adj. (populus), comafter, take care of, provide for, ~ 224, mon, public, belonging to the public; ~ 273, 1; to perceive, discern. general. Provincia, aE, f., a conquered coun- Publius, i, m., a Roman prcenonen. try governed by a magistrate sent Pudet, uit, pudatum est, imp., ~ 229, from Rome, a province. Provincia R. 6, to be ashamed. Ilum pudet, he or provincia Romana, in the Jugur- is ashamed. thine war, signifies the Roman pro- Pudicitia, a,, f. (pudicus, modest), vince in Africa, consisting of the chastity, modesty, virtue. former possessions of the Cartha- Pudor, bris, m. (pudeo), shame, moginians. desty; respect, reverence; reputation, Provisus, a, urn, part. (provideo). fame, a sense of honor, character. Proxima, adv., nearest, next; see Pudor refers to the mind, pudicitia Prope. Iather to the body. Prox'mus, a, urn, adj., (sup. of pro- Puer, eri, m., a male child, boy; pior), ~ 222, R. 1, f 5, 4 0 235, R. 11, a boy, slave, servant. very near, nearest, next, last; nearly Pueritia, ee,f. (puer), boyhood, childrelated, closely allied, intimate. Proxi- hood. mus, i, m., a relation, familiar or Ptgna, ae,f. (pugnus, a fist), a batintimate friend, partisan, associate. tle, fight, encounter, engagement, comProximum, i. n., neighbourhood, vici- bat. Facere pugnam, to join battle, nity. fight. Prudens, tis, adj. (for promdens), Pugno, are, avi, itum, n. (pugnaa, prudent, sagacious, provident, wise, to fight, combat, engage, contend. considerate; s&illful, expert, able, Capere urbes pugnando, to take by learned, experienced. assault-. Male pugnatum est an unPrudenter, adv. (for providenter), successful battle was fought. prudently providently, wisely, dis- Plc7her, chra; chrum, adj.,fair, beaucreetly tiful, handsome; excellent, glorious,

Page  251 PULSUS 251 QUAMQUAM splendid, honorable, noble, magnifi- need, to plan, devise, contrive. Dolum cent. Pulchrum est, ~ 269, R. 2. querere, to seek to devise or contrive Pulsus, a, urn, part. (pello). some stratagem. Imp. Qu-ritur zn Pulvtnus, i, m., a cushion, pillow, aliquem, a prosecution is instituted bolster. against-, he is tried, or prosecuted. Pulvis, eris, m. 4 f., dust, powder. Qucesitor, oris, m. (quero), a seeker, PunLcus, a, um, adj., Punic, Cartha- a searcher; a judge, examiner, conginian; perfidious, false. The Cartha- missioner. gznians were accused by the Romans Quccso, ere, a. def. verb, ~ 183, 7 to of frequent violations of their corn- seek, pray, entreat ask, beg, beseech, pacts, and hence Punicafides, signifies desire, request. treachery, perfidy. Punicum bellum, Quccstio, onis,f. (quCero), a seeking, Punic war. The wars of the Romans inquiring, searching; a question, subwith the Carthaginians were caled ject of inquiry; an examination, inPunic wars, and were three in number. quiry, inquisition, trial, prosecution. J. 17, 19, 108. C. 51. Exercere qucestionem, to conduct an Puto, Tare, avi, atum, a., to lop, prune; investigation or trial. to adjust, settle or liquidate one's ac- Quacstor, bris, m. (qucero), a'questor. counts; to weigh, ponder, consider, a Roman magistrate who had the care revolve in mind, ~ 272; to think, ac- of the public money; a treasurer; a count, esteem, judge, hold, reckon, paymaster. Qucestor pro pretore, a imagine, suppose. In the passive it questor with pretorian power. takes the inf., O 271. Qucstus, us, m. (quero), a trade, ~~Q ~ employment, occupation, profession; gain, profit, advantage, interest. Quis Q., an abbreviation of the preano- omnia qucrstui aunt, ~ 22', & R. 3. men Quintus. Qualis, e, adj., of what kind or sort, Qua, adv. (abl. fern. of qui, sc. vii what manner of, what..or parte), which way; where; whence; Quam, conj. 4 adv., how, how much, in what way; wherever, whereso- as much. Tam —uam, so-as, or ever. quam-tam, as-so. It is often omitQudcunque, adv., (quicunque sc. ted after plus, minus and amplius, parte or vi&), wheresoever, whence- ~ 256, R. 6. With superlatives or possoever, from whatsoever side. sum, as possible,. 127, 4. Quam Quadraginta, num. adj (quatuor), primum, or quamprimum, as soon as forty. possible. Quam sacpissime, as freQuadratus, a, urn, part. 4 adj. (quad- quently as possible, With compararo to square), squared, square, quadrate. tives, and words implying comparison, Quadratum agmen, an army formed as, than. So after alius, alits, caque, into a paralellogram or hollow square, secus, contra, etc., with its baggage in the centre. Quamobrem, illative conj. (quis, ob QucCro, ere, sivi, situm, a., $ 231, R. res), why, wherefore, therefore, for 4, ~ 265, to seek, seek after, look for; which cause or reason. In questions, to provide, procure, get, gain, find, ac- why? wherefore? for what reason? quire, obtain; to make inquisition, in- Quamplires, adj. pl. (qu&m 4 pluvesrigate, search, examine into, try; res), very many, a great many. to ask inquire, interrogate; to desire, Quamprimum, see Quam. aim at, purpose; to demand, require, Quamquam, concessive coij., al 22*

Page  252 QUAMVIS 252 QUIES though, though. Before tamen, quam- Queo, ire, ivi, itum, irr. n., (Q 182, quam or quamvis must sometimes be R. 3, N.) ~ 271, to be able, I can. supplied. Queror, i, questus sum, dep. with Quamvis, adv. &4 conj. (quam 4 vis, acc. with de 4 abl. and with qubd <4 from volo), as much as you will, very subj. to lament, bewail, bemoan; to much, greatly, never so-, however; complain, complain of. although, though. Questus, a, unm, part. (queror). Quando, adv. 4 conj., when; since, Qui, quca, quod, pro. rel., O 136, wno seeing that. which, that, what: 4 int. ~ 137, who I Quantum, adv., how much, as much which? what? Quo, abl. n., with cor as. After tantus, as: from paratives, by that, so much, the, ~ 256, Quantus, a, urn, adj., how great, R. 16. quo-eo, by how much-by so how much, so much; with tantus ex- much, the-the. Qui is much used pressed or implied, as great-as, as as a connective instead of is, hic, etc. much-as, ~ 206, (16.) Quanti? gen. with a conjunction. In translating $ 214, at what price? how dear? how such relative by a demonstrative the much? Quanto, abl., i 256, R. 16, by proper conjunction must be supplied, how much, by as much. Quanto- as, and, but, for, therefore, hence, &c. tanto, by how much-by so much, the With the subjunctive it often supplies more-the more, the-the. Quantum the place of ut and a demonstrative negotii sustineam, how weighty a pronoun, 264, 5. charge-. ~ 212, R. 3. Qui, abl. of qui 4 quis, % 136, R. Quapropter, adv. 4 illative conj. (qua 1, 4 137, R. (2), how, in what way; why 4 propter), for what reason why? Quia, conj., ~ 198, 7, because, inasfor which reason, wherefore, on which much as. Qubd and quia are said to account. be distinguished by qubd referring to Quare, illative conj. 4' adv. (quis 4' afact as a cause, and quia to an inferes), for which reason, wherefore, rence. therefore. Quibuscum, i. e. cum quibus. Quartus, a, um, num. adj. (quatuor), Quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumthe fourth. que, rel. pro., 136, 3, (qui 4 cumque), Quasi, conj. (for quamsi), as, as if, whoever, whatever; whosoever, whatas it were, just as if; as, just as, ~ 263,2. soever; all, every. It often serves as a kind of apologyfor Quid, see Quis. the apparent boldness of a figurative Quidam, quedam, quoddam or quidexpression; as, Majorum gloria pos- dam, indef. pro., $ 138, (qui 4( dam), a teris quasi lumen est. With nmerals certain one, one. With the name of a or with adjectives of time or place, person quidam usually implies that about, almost. Ex monte medio quasi he is little known, and hence it is collis oriebalur, from about the middle often used in contempt. of the mountain arose a hill. Quasi Quidem, conj., indeed, truly, in truth vero, as if indeed, ironically. certainly, at least, even. Ego quidem, Quatriduum, i, n. (quatuor 4 dies), I for my part. Ne-quidem, see Ne. the space of four days, four days. Quidem usually follows an emphatic Quatuor, ind. num. adj., tour. word, ~ 279, 3, (d.). Que, enclitic conj., ~ 198, N. 1, and; Quies, Rtis, f., rest, repose, ease also; que-et, et-que, both-and. For quiet, peace, sleep. Neque vigilhis the position of que, see 279, 3, (c.). neque quietibus, neither in watchings

Page  253 QUIESCO 253 QUISQUE nor in slumbers. neither waking nor Quintus, a, um, num. adj. (qutnque; sleeping. the fifth. QuZesco, are, evi, etum, n. (quies), to Quintus, t, m., a Roman prenomen rest, repose, take rest, be quiet, be at Quippe, causal conj., for, because, rest, sleep. forasmuch as, since, inasmuch as, as, Quiltus, a, um, adj. (quiesco), quiet, as being; in fact, indeed. Quippe calm, tranquil, peaceable, undisturbed, qui, quCe, quod, inasmuch as he, beeasy, at rest, still, without noise, con- cause he, since he, she or it. Quippe tented. Equites rem quietam (esse) quis (sc. nobis) hostis nullus,-sinco nuntiant,-that the affair is peaceable, we had no enemy. Quippe cui (se that no danger is to be apprehended. plebi) omnes copice in usu quotidiano Quieta movere, to disturb the (public) et cultu erant, as all their property-. tranquillity. Quippe cui in animo hceserat, as it had Quillbet, queetbet, quodtlbet 4 quid- been deeply impressed upon his mind. libet, indef. pro., ~ 138, 5, (qui 4, libet), Quirites, ium, m. pl. properly, the whosoever will, any one whom you inhabitants of Cures, a town of the please, any person or thing, any one, Sabines. Hence, after the union ot any. Quidlibet, subs., any thing, any the Romans and Sabines, the united thing you please. people were called Quirites, i. e. RoQuin, adv. 4 conj. (qui 4' ne), after mans, Roman citizens. J. 31. 85. verbs of doubting, <4c. ~ 262, R. 10, 2, Quis, dat.& of Qui, ~ 136, R.2. for ut non, that not, but that, so as not. Quis, quw, quid, int. pro. ~ 137, who? It may be translated "without" fol- which? what? Quid, what? why lowed by the English gerundive of wherefore? 0235, R.11. Quis morthe following verb, as, quin aperirem, talium, what man? $ 212. Quis 4- qui, without portraying. It is sometimes after si, ne, neu, nisi, num, etc. have used instead of a relative and non, the sense of aliquis, $ 137, 1, R. (3). 262, R. 10, 1, who-not. Quin? Quisnam 4f quinam, quecnam, quidtwith the indicative, why not? This nam or quodnam, int. pro. $ 137, i, is used in earnest remonstrance and who? which? what? exhortation. Quin, yet, however, but, Quispiam, qucepiam, quodpiam, quidnay, even, moreover; indeed, truly. piam or quippiam, indef. pro. $ 138, Qutn ergo, well then, come then. Non (quis), any one, some one. quin, not but that, not that-not. Ne- Quisquam, queequam, quidquam or que illis diutius ea (victoria) uti licu- quicquam, indef. pro. $ 138, (quis 4 isset quin, (i. e. ita ut non) qui plus quam), 212, any one, any, any thing. posset, imperium atque libertatem ex- Ne quisquam, etc., no one, nothing, torqueret, nor could they have enjoy- no. Ne quisquam hominum or mored the victory very long, without some talium, or ne quisquam omnium, no one more powerful wresting from man, no person. them, &c. Quisque, qucaque, quodque, quidque Quindlcim, num. adj. (quinque 4 or quicque, indef. pro. $ 138, (quzs 4 decem), fifteen. que), 212, every man, every one Quinquaginta, num. aaj., fifty: from each, all, every; any one. It is often Quinque, num. adj., five. connected with superlatives to express Quinquennium, i, n. (quinquennis, universality, 207, R. 35, as, pruden. of five years', the space of five years, tissimus quisque negotiosus maxnme live years. erat, the ablest men were the most

Page  254 QUISQUIS 254 RAPIO engrossed in public affairs. Optimus to, in regard to or as to this, that quisque, every man of high standing, but, now; ~ 206, (14); though, although or of distinguished excellence. that, why, wherefore; that, because. Quisquis, quidquid or quicquid, rel. in that. pro. $ 136, (quis 4 quis), whoever, Quodni or quod ni, conj., but if not, whosoever, whatever, whatsoever. Its but unless, $ 206, (14.) antecedent is always indefinite, and Quodsi or quod si, conj., but if, if hence, like what whoever, &c. in now, if then, but then, now, 206, (14.) English it appears often to imply both Quominus, see Quo. relative and antecedent. Quoquo modo, Quomodo or Quo modo, adv. 4 conj. in whatever manner, in what way (qui 4 modus), in what manner, in soever, as. what way, how. Quivi, see Queo. Quoniam, conj. ~ 198, 7, (quum, Quivis, quacvis, quodvis or quidvis, jam), seeing that, since, as; with inzndef. pro. $ 138, (qui 4 vis, from volo), dicative, in oratio directa. any one you please, whoever, whoso- Quoquam, adv. (quo 4 quam), any ever, any one, any, any whatever, whither, to any place. every one, every. Quoque, conj., also, likewise, too. Quo abl. See Qui. Quoque, pro., see Quisque. Also the Quo, adv. 4 conj. (qui), $ 191, R. 1 abl. of Quis or Qui, with the conjuncwhither, to what place, to what per- tion que annexed. son or thing, to whom? where, in or Quoquo, see Quisquis. to which person, place or thing, to Quotidianus, a, um, adj., daily; orwhich. Vaccenses, quo Metellus dinary, common, ustal, familiar: from — presidium imposuerat,-among Quotidie, adv (quot f4 dies), every whom:-why; for which reason or day, daily. cause, wherefore, on which account; Quousque, adv. (quo 4- usque), how because; that, as if; to or at which. long, how far.,With comparatives especially it signi- Quum or Cim, adv. 4^ conj. ~ 263, fies, that by this or that by this means; 5, when, while; though, although. to the end that, in order that, that, Quum-turn, not only-but also, both and is equivalent to ut eo, or ut ea re. -and, both-and especially, as-so Quo minus, after clauses denoting also, as well-as also. it this conhinderance, $ 262, R. 9, is translated, struction, the clause introduced by tur that not, from, or for not, with the is usually most prominent:-since, as. English gerundive of the verb following it; as, Quo minus victoria uteren- R. tur, from using or making use of the victory. Quo minus-eo magis, the Radix, icis, f.. a root; the foot or less-the more. See Qui. Non quo, bottom of a hill or mountain. Sub followed by sed, not that, not as if. radicibus montium, at the foot of the Quo, abl. of Qui, which see. mountains. Quoad, adv. 4 conj. (quo 4- ad), as Ramus, i, m., a branch, bough an long as, whilst, till, until, 0 263, 4. arm of a tree. Quocumque, adv. (quo 4 cumque), to Rapina, ca, f., robbery, rapine, pil whatsoever place, whithersoever. lage, depredation; also, prey, plunder QuM, conj. (qui), for ad quod or from propter quod,' 273, 6, with respect Rapio,?re, put, ptum, a., to snatch,

Page  255 RATIO 255 REGIUS take or carry away by force, carry off, causa), to refuse, deny, reject, be uni ravish; to plunder, pillage, take away, willing. seize forcibly, take forcible possession Redditus, a, um, part: from of; to hurry, hurry forward, hasten. Reddo, ere, dcli, ditum, a. (re 4 do), Ratio, 5nis,f. (reor), reason, the ra- to give back, render, restore, return tional faculty; a design, plan, purpose, to give, render, deliver;,' pay, remeasure; a cause, motive; a method, quite, recompense. Reddere paInas manner, way, means; a matter, busi- see Pcena. ness, concern, affair, advantage, inter- Redeo, ire, ii, ltum, irr. n. (re' eo) est, circumstances; an account, reck- to return, come back, come again. oning, calculation; respect, considera- Redire ad rem, to return to the subtion, regard, concern, care. Belli ject. atque pacis rationes trahere, to weigh Rediens, untis, part. (redeo). deliberately the advantages of peace Redimo, -re, emi, emptum, a. (re 4 and war. Alienum suis rationibus, emo), to buy back or again, repurchase, inconsistent with his policy or inter- recover, redeem; to buy, purchase; ests. to acquire, get, procure; to rescue, Ratus, a, urn, part. 4 adj. (reor), ransom, redeem; to repel, avert, ward thinking, judging, believing, suppos- off, by means of money,'c. Rediing, considering; established, fixed, mere culpam, jfagitium, facinus, etc., determined, firm, stable, valid. to make amends for, atone for, comRe, inseparable prep., back, again, pound for-. $ 196, (b.) & 3, & 197, 18. Reditfirus, a, um, part. (redeo). Receptus, us, m. (recipio), a retreat- Red'tus, us, m. (redeo), a return. ing, retreat; a place of refuge, retreat. Refiro, ferre, tili, latum, irr. a. (re Receptu4 a, um, part.: from 4' fero), to bring or carry back or Recipio, ere, cepi, ceptum, a. (re 4 ca- again; to return, restore, deliver; to pio), to take again, get back, receive; tell, relate, report, say, mention. Reto retake, regain, recover. Recipere ferre ad senatum, to propose to or lay se, to come back, return, retreat, re- before the senate, consult, ask, r-otire:-to take, receive, accept, admit. pose for deliberation. Imp. Postulant Recipi mcenibus, to be admitted into uti referatur, sc. ad senatum,-that the the city, entertained within the opinion of the senate should be taken. walls. Refert, retulit, imp. (res 4 fero), ~ RecYto, are, avi, atum, a. (re 4' cito, 219, & R. 3, it concerns, imports, proto call by name), to recite, read aloud, fits, is the interest of. rehearse; to repeat from memory. Refteio, Ore, feci, fectum, a. (re 4Recta, adv. (rectus), directly, in a facio), to make again or anew, repair, straight line; rightly, properly, well, rebuild, renew, refit; to rekindle, recorrectly. cruit, refresh, recover, reanimate, reRector, oris, m. (rego), a ruler, go-...'. vemor, director...; is, f. (rego), a region, counRectus, a, urn, part. 4' adj. (rego'.;:: territory; a border, limit, right, straight, direct; right, prop:. reasonable., a, um, adj. (rex), of a king Recupero are, avi, atum, a.,. s, kingly royal, regal, princely again, regain, recover.. -Archical. Homo regice superbias Recuiso, are, avi, atum, n. ^ * -as proud as a king.

Page  256 REGNUM 256 REPERIO Regnum, i n. (rex), a kingdom, re- Remaneo, ere, mansi, mansum, n. gal government, the dominion of a (re 4 maneo), to tarry behind, stay, raking, sovereignty, sovereign power; a main, continue, abide. kmgdom, realm, country subject to a Remedium, t, n. (re'4 medeor) a king. Pervenire in regnum, to be- medicine, remedy, cure. come a king. Parare regnum, to as- Remissus, a, urm, part. 4 adj., sent pire at sovereignty, aim to be a king. back; slackened, relaxed, neglected: Regni paratio, aspiring at sovereignty. remiss, careless, negligent, inattentive. Rego, Ore, xi, ctum, a., to keep Nihil remissi, see Nihil. Missis restraight, guide, manage, direct, regu- missisque nuntiis, in sending to and late, moderate, govern, rule, sway, fro, or backwards and forwards: control. from Regredior, &di, gressus sum, dep. (re Remitto, Ore, misi, missum, a. (re 4 4 gradior, to step), to go back, re- mitto), $ 271, to send back, return; to turn. slacken, let loose, relax; to interrupt, Regressus, a, ur, part. (regredior). leave off, discontinue, intermit, cease, Regulus, i, m. dim. ~ 100, 3, (rex), give over, omit. the king of a small country, a petty Remoratus, a, urn, part.:from king, prince. Remoror, dri, atus sum, dep. (re 4Relictus, a, ur, part. (relinquor). moror), ~ 262, R. 9, to stop, delay, obReligio, inis, f. (relego, to retrace), struct, hinder, keep back, stay, retard; the fear of God, religion, devotion, to tarry, stay, linger, delay piety, religious or superstitious feel- Remotus, a, urn, part., removed: ing; religious rites and ceremonies; from a religious scruple; superstition. Removeo, ere, ovi, otum, a. (re f Religiosus, a, ur, adj. (religio,) fear- moveo), to remove, withdraw, take ing God, pious, devout, holy, religi- away, send away, dismiss. ous; faithful, scrupulous, conscien- Renovo, are, avi, aitum, a. (re 4 tious; sacred, venerable; superstitious. novo), to make anew, remake, renew; Relinquo, ire, liqui, lictum, a. (re 4f to refresh, relieve, recreate, revive. linquo, to leave), with subj. of purpose, Reor, reri, ratus sum, dep., ~ 272, to leave behind, leave; to leave at to suppose, judge, think, conclude, one's death; to forsake, desert, aban- imagine, believe, conjecture, anticidon; to leave as an inheritance, be- pate. queath; to let alone. RepeUo, are, pfli, pulsum, a. (re Rellquus, a, urn, adj. (relinquo), pello,) to drive or beat back, repel, remaining, the rest, the residue, the drive or turn away, keep off; to reject, other. Reliqui, orum, m, the rest, refuse. Repelli ab amicitia, to be rcthe others. Reliquum, i, 4- reliqua, pelled from friendship, i. e., to have orum, n, the rest, residue, remainder, one's proffered friendship rejected. Reliquum est, it remains, with ut and 1F ep7s, tis, part. 4 adj. (repo). subj., ~ 262, R. 3. Nihil reliqui, or P'epentO, adv. (repens, sudden), sudreliquum facere, to leave nothing, de:lly. on a sudden, unawares, unexleave nothing remaining or undone. pectedly. So, Quid reliqui habemus? what have Repentinus, a, urn, adj. (repens), we left? ~ 212, R. 3, N. 3, see Nihil. unlooked for, unexpected, sudden In reliquum, in future, for the futfre, Ileperio, ire, peri, pertum, a. (re 4 benceforward. pa io,) to find, find out, discover, im

Page  257 REPETO 257 RES vent, contrive, devise. Pass. Reperi- quieted or composed, lie at ease, rountur, qui etc. $ 264, 6. pose, take rest. RepUto, are, ivi, itum, a. (re 4' pete), Requiro,'re, sivi, situm, a. (re 4'to ask or demand again; to demand quaro), to seek again, seek out, look back, demand as one's right, claim, for, seek after; to seek, ask, demand. demand payment; to resume, go on require; to interrogate, inquire after. with again; to go back, trace back. Res, rei,f., a thing, affair, matter Supra repetere, to go or trace farther concern, fact, deed, act, measure, cirback or to a remoter period. cumstance, proceeding, subject, busiRepetundae, arum,f. pl., or Pecunice ness, occasion; the result, event, isrepetunda?, (properly the participle of sue; method, course. Res militaris, repeto, for repetends, ~ 162, 20), the art of war. Res or res geste, see money to be demanded back; extor- Gestus:-the fact, the truth. Uti rem tion, the taking of money or other sese habereputant, as they suppose the property contrary to law, while one fact to be. Re or re vera, in fact, in commanded in a province; illegal truth, in reality;-experience, use; exactions made by governors of pro- a cause, reason, purpose. Res and vinces. res familaris, property, substance, Repo, ere, psi, ptum, n., to creep. effects, goods, chattels; commodities. Reprehendo, ere, di, sum, a. (re' Res fidesque, property and credit:-a vrehendo, to take), to catch again, lay state, case, condition, or circumhold of, seize; to reprove, blame, cen- stances. Res secundes, prosperous sure, find fault with. circumstances, success, prosperity. Repudio, are, avi, atum, a. (repu- Res adversce, adversity. Mala res, dium, a divorce), to reject, refuse, cast broken fortunes. Bona res, a prosoff, repudiate. perous condition. In tali re, in such Repugno, are, arv, atum, n. (re 4, a case; utility, profit, interest, benefit, pugno), to fight against, make a resist- advantage. Ob rem facere, usefully. ance, resist, oppose. with advantage or profit. In rem Repulsa, cE,f. (repello), a repulse, de- esse, to be usefl' for one's advantage. nial, refusal, defeat, failure of being Pro re, accord o circumstances:elected to a magistracy when one is an event, c:'s e. Res followed a candidate. by public',' -:five relating to Repulsus, a, um, part. (repello), re- country. - e., or the name pulsed. Repulsus abire, to be denied of a p.e..:..: the state, governor refused. men' -: I lth, power, see ResRepiito, are, avi, atum, a. (re 4 puto), pul;s.eject or matter of $ 265, to consider, weigh over, revolve v * rs. Id quod res habet, in one's mind, reflect upon; so repu- 1.-.rue or certain. Ex re tare cum animo,-to compute, calcrl, regard according to the late, reckon. Reputando, on cr,; I:,{ value intrinsica iy or on its sidering, on careful considerat...:,ount. Res nova, see Novus. also, in consequence of core':; s pitalis, see Capitalis. Nomen mig..,.; inditum, a name bestowed upon Requies, ei, 4 etis,f. (re.- -:. em) in consequence of (their) narest, repose, quiet, ease, re' oure or peculiar character. With a Requiesco, ere, evi, iet'.,. relative or demonstrative pronoun res quiesco), to rest, beco:-.i; te often supplies the place of a preceding

Page  258 RESCINDO 258 RGGITO noun or clause, as ea res, Cat. 7 Retractus, a, um, part., brought S 8. back: from Rescindo, ere, scldi, scissum, a. (re Retraho, ere, xi, ctum, a. (re ~4 traho), 4 scindo, to rend), to cut, cut off, cut to draw or pull back, bring back. or break down, destroy; to annul, dis- Reus, i, m., a person accused or imannul, make void, abrogate, cancel, peached, a culprit, criminal, defenabolish, revoke, repeal. dant. Fieri reus, to be accused or Resisto, ere, stiti, n. (re 4 sisto, to prosecuted. stand), to stand still, halt, stop, stay; Reverto, Ore, ti, sum, a., 4' Revertor, to withstand, resist, hold out against, i, sus sum, dep. (re 4' verto), Q 225, IV, oppose, make resistance, O 223. Non to turn back or over, come back, repotest resisti, resistance cannot be turn. made. Huic rogationi quoniam apertg Revocitus, a, urn, part.: from resistere non poterant quin faterentur, Revoco, are, avi, atum, a. (re 4 voco), as they could not openly oppose to call back, recall. this bill so as not to profess. ~ 262, Rex, regis, m. (rego), a king, soveR. 9. reign, monarch. Respicio, O re, exi, ectum, a. 4 n. (re Rex, Regis, m., a cognomen belong4 specio, to see), to look back, look ing to a plebeian family of the Marback upon. cian gens, who claimed descent from Respondeo, ire, di, sum, a. 4 n. (re Ancus Marcius, the fourth king of 4 spondeo, to promise), ~ 272, to pro- Rome. Q. Marcius Rex, a Roman mise in return, to answer, reply, re- general, sent by the senate to oppose spond, declare as by an oracle or by Catiline's forces in Etruria. C. 30, divination, predict. Respondetur,imp., 32, 34. it is replied, a reply is given. Rhegium, I, n., now Reggio in CalaRespublica 4 Res publica, reipub- bria, a city in the southern part of licca,f. 91, (res publicus), the state, Italy, opposite to Messama in Sicily. commonwealth, republic, government, J. 28. politics, public affairs. Tractare or Rhodius, a, um, adj., Rhodian, of habere rempublicam, to administer the Rhodes, an island containing a city government. Facere contra rempub- of the same name, near the coast of licam, to act against the state,-to be Caria, in Asia Minor. Rhodii, orum, guilty of treason. m. pl., the Rhodians, inhabitants of Restinguo, ere, inxi, inctum, a. (re Rhodes. C. 51. 4 stinguo, to extinguish), to extin- Rogatio, onis, f. (rogo), a demand, guish, quench, put out. desire, prayer, request; a question; a Restltuo, ere, ui, iitum, a. (re' law proposed to the people, a bill, an statuo), to put or set up again,rcplace, ordinance, resolution. Rogationem restore to its former condition, rein- promulgare, to propose a bill or law state, restore, revive, give back. for the approbation of the people. Retlceo, ere, ui, r. 4 a. (re 4 taceo), Perferre rogationem, see Perfero. to hold one's peace, be silent; to con- Rogationemjubere, see Jubeo. ceal, keep secret. Rogdtus, a, urn, part. (rogo), ~ 234 Retlneo, Ore, tinui, tentum, a. (re 4 I., aked. Sententiam rogatus, being teneo), to hold or keep back, stop, de- asked his opinion, questioned as to tain, hinder; to retain, keep, preserve; his opinion. to coerce, restrain, check, repress. Rogltr- are, avi, a'tum a. freq., to

Page  259 ROGO 259 SALUS ask frequently, make frequent lnqui-S. ries, inquire anxiously, inquire, interrogate, ask: from S., an abbreviation of the preno. Rogo, are, dvi, atum, a. 4 n., to ask, nem Sextius. desire, request, pray, demand, ques- Sacer, era, crum, adj., consecrated, tion, inquire, entreat, beg, sue for. holy, sacred, divine. Rogare magistratum, to take the votes Sacerdos, otis, m. Sf. (sacer), a priest of the people on the appointment of a or priestess. magistrate, to elect a magistrate, Sacerdotium, i, n. (sacerdos,) the of. cause to be elected. fice of a priest, priesthood Rmna, a, f., Rome, a city of La- Sacril~gus, a, um, adj. (sacer 4f lego), tium, in Italy, on both sides of the guilty of stealing sacred things, sacriTiber, the capital of the ancient Ro- legious; impious, wicked, profane. man empire. J. 8, &c. C. 6, &c. Senius, i, m. (L.), a Roman senator. Romanus, a, um, adj. (Roma), of or C. 30. belonging to Rome, Roman. Romani, Sepe, sepius, seapiesime, adv.. orum, m. pl., the Romans. 194, 5, often, oftentimes, oft, many Rudis, e, adj., unwrought, unculti- times, frequently. The comparative vated, unpolished, rude; $ 213, igno- of this word is frequently used for the rant, inexperienced, raw, untaught, positive. Numero is often added reilliterate. dundantly to sepe. Rufus, i, m. (Cn. Octavius), a Ro- Scvpenumzro, adv., see Sacpe. man questor, sent into Africa, A. U. Savio, ire, ii, itum, n. (sevus), to C. 649. J. 104. rage, chafe, be fierce or cruel, be anRufus, i, m. (Q. Minucius), a Ro- gry, frown. man consul with Sp. Albinus, A. U. Savitia, a, f, cruelty, severity, C. 644. J. 35. fierceness, ferocity, barbarity, inhuRufus, i, m. (Q. Pompeius), a Ro- manity. Savitia temporis, the incle. man pretor, A. U. C. 691. C. 30. mency of the season: from Ruina, a~, f. (ruo, to fall down), a Savus, a, um, adj., rigorous, severe; fall, downfall; ruin, destruction, ca- cruel, fierce, barbarous, savage, inhulamity, overthrow. Incendium ruinr man. Mare savum, boisterous, storrestinguere, properly, to extinguish a my, turbulent, tempestuous-. Omw fire by pulling down the neighboring nia sacva patiebamur,-every species houses, see Incendium. of cruelty. Rumor, oris, m., a rumor, flying or Sagittarius, i, m. (sagitta, an arrow), common report, hearsay, report. Ex an archer, bowman. rumore, according to common fame Sal, salis, m. 4f n., pl. sales, m., salt. or report. Salto, are, dvi, itum, n. 4f a. freq. Rupes, is,f., a rock, crag, cliff, steep. (salio, to leap), to dance. Rursum, Rursus, adv. (reversus, Saltuosus, a, um, adj. (saltus, a returning), backward; again, on the forest), full of woods or forests, woody. other hand; again, a second time,, Salfiber, bris, bre, adj. $ 108, R. 1, afresh, anew. It is sometimes appa- healthful, wholesome, salubrious, rently redundant. sound, healthy, robust: from Rutilius, i, m., P. Rutilius Rufus, Salus, itis. f. (salvus, safe), safety the lieutenant of Metellus in the war preservation, health, life, quiet, cornwith Jugurtha. J. 50, 52, 86. fort. 23

Page  260 SALUTO 260 SCILICET Saliito, Are, dvi, itum, a. (salus), to Satisfactio, onis, f. (satisfacto, to salute, greet, pay one's respects to, satisfy), a satisfaction; amends, repa send compliments to; to visit, call ration; excuse, plea, apology, satisfac upon. tory explanation. Samnis, itis, m. f., Samnite, of Satius, see Satis. Samnium a country of Italy, now Satur, ira, ierum, adj. (satzs) full Abrazzo Citeriore. Samnites, um 4 sated; plentiful, abundant. ium, m., the Samnites. C. 51. Satura,,f. (satur), a platter or charSanctus, a, urn, part. 4 adj. (sancio, ger filled with various fruits to be preto decree), decreed, established; sa- sented as an offering to Ceres and cred, inviolable, holy, divine; virtuous, Bacchus. Per saturam, by the gross upright, incorrupt. or lump, without order or distinction, Sane, adv. (sanus, sound), soundly, confusedly. soberly, discreetly; certainly, truly, Saucio, are, avi, atum, a., to wound, indeed, very. hurt: from Sanga, ac, m. (Q. Fabtus), a Roman Saucius, a, um, adj., wounded, hurt. senator, the patron of the Allobroges. Saxeus, a, um, adj., of stone, stony, He was descended from that Fabius rocky; from who from his conquest of the Allobro- Saxum, i, n., a stone, rock, crag, ges was surnamed Allobrogicus. C. 41. cliff. Sanguis, Inis, m., blood. Fig. Scalea, arum, f. pl. (scando, to climb), death; kindred, offspring, stock, pa- a ladder,* stair. Aggredi scalis, to rentage, race, descent, blood, relation- scale. ship, consanguinity. Scaurus, i. m. (M. AEmilius), a RoSapiens, tis, part. 4 adj. (sapio), man Consul, A. U. C. 639, and leader wise, learned, sage, judicious, discreet. of the senate, A. U. C. 640, during the Subs. a wise man. war with Jugurtha. J. 15, 25, 29, Sapientia, a, f. (sapiens), wisdom, 30, 32. good sense, judgment, discretion, pru- Sccler&tus, a, um, adj. (scelero, to dence, knowledge. pollute), wicked, bad, impious, vicious, Sarc'na, ce, f. (sarcio, to mend), a flagitious, nefarious. bundle, burden, load, pack, baggage. Scelestus, a, urn, adj., wicked, misSatelles, Itis, m. 4 f., a life-guard, chievous, unprincipled, impious, infabody-guard, attendant. mous, detestable: from Satietas, atis, f., satiety, fulness. Scelus, eris, n., wickedness, villainy, Fig. a glut, disgust. Satietas me guilt, crime, impiety. Per scelus, netenet, I am tired or sick of, satiated fariously, wickedly. Per summum with: from scelus, iost wickedly or villainously. Satis, adv., and also an indecl. subs. Sciehs, tis, part. 4- adj. (scio), 213, and adj. S 212, R. 4, N. 1, enough, suf- knowing, acquainted with, having a ficient; with adjectives and adverbs, knowledge of; skillful, well skilled or tolerably, passably, enough, pretty, versed, expert. Me sciente, with my sufficiently; (comp. satior, us, better, knowledge, if I know it. more useful or advantageous. Satius Scientia, ca, f. (sciens), knowledge, est, it is better). Satis habere, to be science, skill, expertness. content or satisfied, to account suf- Scilcet, adv. (for scire or sciasdlicet), ficient. Satis credere alicui, to put it is evident, clear or manifest, it is fill confidence in. plain, you may be sure; truly, in truth,

Page  261 SCIO 261 SED certainly, indeed, doubtless, assured- Scutum, i, n., a buckler, shield, ]y; forsooth; to-wit, that is to say. target. I; is often used ironically. It is some- Se, insep. prep., without, apart, aside, times followed by an infinitive depend- ~ 196, (b.) & 4. ing on scire or scias in composition, Se, pro., see Sui. 272. Secedo, ere, cessi, cessum, a. (se - Scio, ire, ivi, itum, a., ~ 272, ~ 265, cedo), to go apart, retire, withdraw, to know, understand, be aware; to retreat, secede, separate. learn, hear. Secessio, inis,f. (secedo), a retiring, Scipio, onis, m., P. Cornelius Scipio withdrawing, separation, secession; a Africanus, an illustrious Roman gene- secession of the plebeians from the ral by whom Hannibal was defeated patricians. at the battle of Zama. He is some- Secrito, adv., separately, apart, aside, times called Africanus Major. J. 4, 5. secretly, in secret, in private:from Scipio, onis, m., P. Cornelius Scipio Secretus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (seAEmiliiinus Africanus, by whom Car- cerno, to separate), separated, severed, thage and Numantia were destroyed, remote, apart, separate, alone; secret, was the son of Paulus /Emilius, and private. grandson by adoption of P. Cornelius Secum, for cum se, see Cum i4 Sui. Scipio Africanus major. J. 7, 8,22. Secundum, prep. with the acc., and Scipio, onis, m., P. Cornelius Scipio adv., nigh, near, after, behind, next Nasica, was the great-grandson of to, in the second place, in the next that Scipio whom the Roman senate place. adjudged to be the best man in Rome, Secundus, a, um, adj. (sequor), and the son of him who slew Tiberius second, following, going or coming Gracchus. He was consul, A. U.C. after; favorable, favoring, prosper643. J. 27. ous, lucky, successful. Secundo mari, Scitg, adv. (scitus, skillful), skillfully, along the sea-coast. Secundus heres, dexterously, nicely, exactly; ingeni- see Heres. Secunda oratio, a laudaously; elegantly, tastefully, genteelly. tory or flattering speech. SecundEa Scortum, i, n., a skin, a hide; a har- res, see Res. lot, courtezan, mistress, prostitute. Secus, adv. (sequor), otherwise, difScribo, ere, psi, ptum, a., to mark, ferently. Haud, non or nec secus, cut or imprint lines; to draw; to not otherwise, not less, equally, just write; to draw up, write, compose, as though:-it is often followed by ac, treat of in writing, commit to writing, atque or quam, than, and may be record; ~ 230, to designate, or appoint translated, otherwise than; non secus Scribere milites, exercitum, 4c., to en- ac, or atque, not otherwise than, just list, enrol, levy-. as:-unsuccessfully, unfortunately, ilL Scrinium, i, n., a casket, coffer, Secus cedere or procedere, to turn out trunk,' chest, case, desk, escritoire, otherwise than one hopes or expects bookcase. to turn out ill, fail of success. Scriptor, oris, m. (scribo), a writer, Secutus, a, um, part. (sequor), scrivener, author, narrator, historian. Sed, adversative, conj., but, now. It Scriptus, a, um, part. (scribo.) is commonly used to denote distinction Scrutor, ari, atus sum, dep (scruta, or opposition, but is sometimes only old clothes), to feel, search, explore, continuative or marks a transition examine, investigate, from one subject to another. Sed is

Page  262 SEDES 262 SEPTIMIUS sometimes equivalent to sed etiam and.Senator, oris, n., a senator, (senar, as also sometimes omitted. old). Sedes, is, f. (sedeo, to sit), a seat, Senatorius, a, ur, adj. (senator), of chair, bench; a seat, abode, dwelling or belonging to a senator, senatorial. place, residence, settlement, habita- Sendtus, us or i, m. (senex), a soe tion. nate, council, the Roman senate. Seditio, 5nis, f. (sedeo), dissension, Senectus, stis, f. (senex, old), age. discord, strife; a popular commotion old age. or insurrection, civil discord, sedi- Senesco, ere, senui, n. incept. (seneo tion. to be old), to grow or become old; to Seditiosus, a, um, adj. (seditio), tur- fade, pine or waste away, decay, wear bulent, tumultuous, seditious, treason- away, fail, decline, decrease; to beable, factious, mutinous. come torpid or languid; to be comSedo, are, dvi, atum, a., to allay, ap- posed, settled. pease, mitigate, calm, soften, assuage, Sententia, a, f. (sentio), opinion allay, pacify, quiet, soothe, check, judgment, resolution, mind, purpose, quench, extinguish. intention, will. Ex sententia, prosSegnis, e, adj., dull, heavy, slothful, perously, successfully, according to slow, inactive, sluggish, lazy, cow- ones wish or desire, satisfactorily, to ardly. one's mind. Vir ex sententia amboSegntter, adv. (segnis), slowly, slug- bus, agreeable, acceptable. Mea sengishly, slothfully, negligently. Nihilo tentia, in my opinion or judgment, as segnius, O 256, R. 16, with the same I conceive, as I think or imagine. Ex activity or eagerness, with undiminish- animi sententia, truly, sincerely, seed zeal; nevertheless, notwithstanding. riously, positively, in my opinion, on Sella, e,f. (sedeo), a seat, chair. my conscience-:-a'vote, suffrage, Semet, see Sui. sentence, decree, judgment. SentenSemisomnus, a, um, ad]. (semi, half, tiam dicere, to give one's opinion or somnus), half-asleep, half-awake. vote:-sense, signification, meaning, Semper, adv., always, ever, forever, purport; a thought, sentiment, sencontinually. tence. Sempronia, a, f., a profligate wo- Sentina, ce, f., the bilge-water and man who was concerned in the Cati- filth in the bottom of a ship; the botlinarian conspiracy. She was the tom of a ship where the bilge-water wife, of D. Junius Brutus, and had a is; a sink, sewer. Fig. the rabble. son, D Brutus, who subsequently took Sentio, ~re, sensi, sensum, a., to dispart in the conspiracy against Caesar. cern by the senses, perceive, feel, see, C. 25, 40. discover, observe, find out, know, be Sempronius, a, um, adj., of or re- sensible or aware; to think, judge, lating to Sempronius, Sempronian. suppose, entertain an opinion or senSempronia lex, a law introduced by timent. Set' )ntra rempublicam, Sempronius Gracchus, A. U. C. 630. to be he government. requiring twoprovinces to be annually Seors - s verto) apart assignedfor the consuls, by the senate, asunder,.. ith a. apart before the consular election. These from. wi provinces the consuls subsequently took Separ'separdtus, sepaby lot or otherwise, as they pleased. rate), sep;'t, severally J. 27. Septimni:oman name, a

Page  263 SEQUOR 263 SIGNATOR Camertian, confederate with Catiline. Severe, adv. (severus), gravely, seC. 27. riously, severely, rigidly. Sequor, i, citus sum, dep., to go or Severitas, atis, f., gravity, seriouscome after, walk behind, follow, at- ness, severity, strictness, austerity: tend, wait upon, accompany; to be from consequent upon, connected with; to Severus, a, um, adj., grave reserv lollow after, seek for, pursue, aim at; ed, serious, severe, rigorous strict, to favor, take the part of; to regard, harsh. obey; to folloW, imitate; to accord Sextius, i, m., a Roman name. The with, correspond to, partake of. Hac name of a quwestor under Bestla. sequi decrevistis,-to pursue these Sextus, a, urn, num, adj. (sex six), measures or this course. Inertiam the sixth; also, a Roman prasnosequi, to indulge, practice-. men. Serius, a, urn, adj., grave, serious, Si, conj. $ 261, if, provided, in case; in earnest; of weight or importance. since; although, even if. Si modo, Seria, orum, n. pl., serious affairs, see Modo; quod si, see Qubd. matters of weight. Sibyllinus, a, urn, adj. (sibylla, a Sermo, onis, m. (sero, to connect), sibyl or prophetess), of or pertaining common discourse, talk, speech, con- to a sibyl, sibylline. There were ten versation. sibyls who lived at different periods Serpens, tis, m. 4f. (serpo, to creep), and in various countries. Among a serpent. these the Cumoean sibyl was highly disServZlis, e, adj. (servus), of or per- tinguished, and the books containing taining to a slave or slaves, slavish, her prophecies were preserved with servile. great respect by the Romans. C. 47. Servio, ire, ivi, itum, n. (servus), ~ Sic, adv., so, thus; accordingly. 223, R. 2, to be a slave, serve, obey, Sic ut, so that, so as;-hence, therebe subservient to, have regard to, aim fore. Sic like ita is sometimes used in at, be devoted to. anticipation of a proposition. See Servitium, i, n. (servus), slavery, Ita, and J. 114. servitude, bondage, service, subjec- Sicca, ce, f., a city of Numidia, in tion. Servitia, pl., slaves, a body of which was a celebrated temple of slaves. Venus. J. 56. Servitus Otis, f. (servus), slavery, Siccenses, ium, m. pl., the inhabiservitude, service, bondage, thraldom. tants of Sicca.J. 56. Servius, i, m., a Roman prcenomen. Sicilia, ae,f, Sicily. J. 28. Servo, are, avi, atum, a. 4 n., to Sicut 4' Sicuti, conj., (sic ut, 4 sic save, preserve; to observe, keep, main- uti), so as, just as, as, acccording as; tain; to guard, watch. as it were, as if, like. Servus, a, um, adj., serving, subject. Sidonius, <4 Sidoncus, a, um, adj., Servus, i, m., a slave, bondman, ser- Sidonian, Tyrian, Phoenician of or vant. belonging to Sidon, a city of PhceniSestertius, i, m. (semis, half, 4f ter- cia. Sidonii, 5rum, m. pi., Sidonians, tius, O 327), a sesterce, of the value of inhabitants of Sidon. J. 78. two asses and a half, or one fourth of Signator, oris, m. (signo), a sealer a denarius, or about 3 1-4 cents of our signer, one who attests a writing by money. Sestertium, i, n., a thousand affixing his seal. Signator falsus a sesterces. false signer, a forger. 23*

Page  264 SIGNATUS 264 SINGULATIM Signatus, a, um,part. (signo), mark- Simrilts, e, adj. O 222, like, resem, ed, signed, sealed. bling, similar. Significo, are, avi, atum, a. (signum Similitudo, ants, f. (similis), likef, facio), to give notice or warniig, ness, resemblance, similitude, simi signify, indicate, intimate, notify, larity. show, declare. Signijicare manu, to Simul, adv. (similis), together, in beckon-. company, at once, together with, Signo, are, avi, atum, a., to mark, along with, at the same time; likcmark out; to seal, sign: from wise, also, besides. As a connective it Signum, i, n., a mark, sign; a to- serves to unite that which is of less, to ken; a statue; a seal, impression; a that which is of greater moment. Sistandard, ensign, banner, flag; by mul ac, simulac or simply simul, as metonomy, troops, forces; a signal in soon as, as soon as ever. Simul et, war; a watchword, i. e. a word given at the same time-and, at the same to the soldiers of an army or to a senti- time-and also, both-and. nel on duty, by means of which friends Similans, tis, part. (simulo). could be distinguished from enemies. Simulator, oris, m., a feigner, preDare signum, to give a signal. Eo tender, counterfeiter, one who presigno, on this signal, ~ 247. Signa tends that to be which is not, skillful canere, to give the signal by sound of in simulation. Cujuslibet rei simulatrumpet, to sound the trumpets for tor ac dissimulator, skilled in every battle. See Cano. Relinquere sig- species of simulation and dissimulanum, to desert one's standard. Ob- tion:from servare signa, to mind or heed the Simulo, are, avi, atum, a. (similis),' standards. The standard was usually 272, to feign, make like the reality, the figure of some animal; the princi- pretend, counterfeit, simulate; to be pal standard of a whole legion was the like to, resemble, imitate. Ad simufigure of an eagle, but besides this landa negotia altitudo ingenii increevery maniple had its own standard. dibilis,-in the arts of simulation, Silanus, i, m. (T. Turpilius), a Ro- in giving to things a false appearman governor of the town of Vacca, ance. in the Jugurthine war. J. 66, 67, Simultas, atis, f. (similis), a dis69. guised malice or hatred, secret grudge, Silanus, i, m. (D. Junius), a Roman dissembled animosity, enmity, hatred, consul, A. U. C. 692. C. 50, 51. animosity. Silanus, i, m. (M. Junius), a Roman Sin, conj., but if, if however; si, if, consul, A. U. C. 645. The province is often found in a preceding clause. of Gaul was assigned to him where Sin has the force of sed si, being both he was defeated in battle by the Cim- adversative and conditional. bri. Sine, prep. with the abl., without. Silentium, i, n., a being silent; si- Sine with the noun following it, in lence. Silentio, abl., in silence, si- stead of depending on a verb, has often lently, in obscurity;-quietness, inac- the force of a negative adjective or a tivity, sloth, stillness: from genitive of quality, limiting the mean. Sileo, ere, ui, n. 4- a., to be silent, ing of a preceding noun; as, oppida keep silence, be still, say nothing. sine prcesidio,-ungarrisoned. Siletur, imp., silence is maintained, Singulitim, adv., one by one, seve: nothing is said. rally, singly, particularly, individually,

Page  265 SINGULUS 265 SOLLICITO Singulatin circumire, to go about companion, associate, fellow, sharel from one to another: from partner; an ally, confederate. Socis Singilus, a, um, adj., single, one by or socii Italici, Italian allies, allies one, each, every, every one, one at a from all parts of Italy south of the time. Singulos appellare, laidere, etc., Rubicon except Latium. -separate, single; or separately, sing- Socordia, a(, f., foolishness, folly ly, individually. dullness; carelessness, indolence, Sinister, tra, trum, adj., left, on the sloth, sluggishness, inactivity: from left, on the left hand or side. Sinis- Socors, dis, adj. (se, cor), sensetra, e, f., sc. manus, the left hand. less, thoughtless, foolish, silly, dull Sino, ere, sivi, situm, a., ~ 273, 4, to stupid; sluggish, inactive, slothful, lapermit, suffer, allow, let alone. zy, careless, negligent, indolent. Sinus, us, m., the bosom; the lap; Sol, solis, m., the sun. Magis sub the innermost part, the heart; a bay, sole, more under the sun, nearer the creek, gulf. equator. Siquis 4, siqui, siqua, siquod 4 si- Solemnis, e, adj. (sollus, the whole, quid, or separately, si quis, etc., indef. 4, annus), solemn, performed at cerpro. Q 138 & ~ 137, R. (3), if any one, tain times and with certain rites, fesif any. It may often be translated, tive, celebrated, appointed, stated; acwhoever, whatever. customed, ordinary, usual, customary. Sisenna, ce, m. (L.) a historian be- Solemne, is, n., a solemnity, solemn longing to the Cornelian family, who festival, solemn rite or ceremony. wrote a history of the social war and Soleo, ere, Ytus sum, neut.pass. O 142, of that waged by Sylla. J. 95. & 2, ~ 271, to use, be accustomed or Sitis, is, f. O 79, 2 & ~ 82, Ex. 2, wont; to be usual or customary. It thirst. Fig. drought, dryness, sultri- may sometimes be translated "frequentness. ly, often;" as, Docetque se audire soliSittius, i, m., see Nucerinus. tum,-that he had often heard. Ut Situs, us, m. (sino), site, situation, solet, as is usual. Solet sc. facere, is local position; a region, country, tract. wont to do. The pluperfect of this Situs, a, urn, part. 4 adj. (sino), situ- verb has often the force of an imperfect. ated, situate, placed, set, put, lying, Solers, tis, adj. (sollus, the whole, 4 built. Situs esse, to rest, depend, be ars), ~ 213, ingenious, skillful, expert, placed, ~ 265. accomplished. Sive, conj. (si 4, ve, or), or if, or in- Solertia, e, f. (solers), ingenuity, sadeed if, and if, or; sive-sive or seu, gacity, genius, quickness, shrewdness; whether-or wheth6r; whether-or craftiness, subtlety, cunning. rather; whether-or. Solitudo, mnis, f. (solus), a lonely or Soda, re, f. (socius), a wife, partner, solitary place; a desert, wilderness; associate. solitude; solitariness. Ubi postquam Socigtas, atis,f., partnership, union, solitudinem intellexit,-the solitariconnexion, company, society, fellow- ness of the place. ship, association, alliance, participa- Solltus, a, um, part. (soleo). tion; a league, confederacy, alliance: Sollicitatus, a, um, part.: from from Sollicito, are, avi, atum, a., to move, Socius, a, um, adj., united, associ- stir; to disturb, trouble; to allure, enated, joining or sharing in, partaking, tice, gain over, invite, excite; to allied, confederate. Socius, i, m., a tempt, instigate, stir up, urge to rebel

Page  266 SOLLICITUDO 266 SPOLIUM lion, induce, urge, rouse, press, solicit. pearance; a pretext, color, pretence Writh ad. cloak, show; an image, picture, like. Sollicitudo, nis,f., solicitude, anxie- ness; beauty. Specie, in appearance. ty, disquiet, trouble, uneasiness of Ager una specie,-of a uniform ap. mind, care. pearance, Sollicitus, a, um, adj., solicitous, Spectaculum, i, n. (specto), a spectaanxious, uneasy, troubled, disquieted, cle, public sight or show; a sight, specperplexed. tacle. Solim, adv., only, alone: from Spectatus, a, um, part. 4 adj., seen, Solus, a, um, adj. O 107, alone, only; beheld;. 222, 3, known, proved, aplonely solitary, desert, retired, unfre- proved, tried: from quented; destitute of kindred or Specto, are, avi, atum, a. freq. (spe. friends. cio, to see), to behold, look or gaze Solutus, a, um, part. 4 adj., loosed, upon, view; to see, observe, mark, unbound, released, relaxed, loose, lax; regard; to try, prove, examine. free, independent, unrestrained; dis- Speculator, 5ris, m. (speculor), a spy, united, dissevered, divided, uncom- scout. pacted; paid, settled, liquidated, dis- Speculutus, a, um, part.: from charged: from Speculor, uri, atus sum, dep. (specila, Solvo, ere, solvi, solui4m, a., to loose, a watch-tower), to view, espy, observe, loosen, unloose, untie, unbind; to explore, watch. weaken, relax, enervate, enfeeble; to Speratus, a, um, part., hoped for, solve, explain; to pay, discharge; to looked for, expected: from atone for. Solvere penas, to suffer Spero, are, ivi, atum, a. ~ 272, to punishment. hope, trust, feel confident, expect. Somnus, i, m., sleep, slumber, rest, Spes, ei,f., hope, confidence. expecrepose. Fig. sloth, laziness. Captus tation, reliance, prospect. Contra somno, overtaken or overpowered by spem, contrary to expectation. Prosleep. ficiscitur magna spe civium,-with SonItus, us, m. (sono), a sound, high expectations on the part of his noise, din. fellow citizens. Spas maxima, confiSons, tis, adj., hurtful, noxious; ac- dent hope, the most sanguine expeccused; guilty, criminal. tations, the most extravagant hopes. Sordidus, a, um, adj. (sordes, filth), Bons spes, a firm hope, confidence. filthy, dirty, squalid, sordid, penurious, Habere spem in aliquo, to put confiniggardly, foul, base, mean, low, des- dence, rest one's hopes, depend upon-. picable. In spe habere, to have in prospect, to Sp., an abbreviation of the prano- hope for. A mplior spe, more than men Spurius. was expected. Sparus, i, m., a dart, lance, spear. Spinther, ebis, m. (P. Cornelius LenSpatium, i, n., a course, race- tulus), a Roman edile during the conground; a running, race, course; sulship of Cicero. C. 47. space, room, extent; distance, inter- Spiro, are, avi, atum, n., to breathe. val; time, an interval or space of time. Spoliatits, r um, part.: fronz Brevi spa*io, in a short time. Spolio, 7 vi, atum, a. S 251, to Species, ei,f. (specio, to see), a form, strip, I -. eprive of, rob, plunfigure. fashion, shape, appearance, der, s from a sight, spectacle; semblance, ap-i Spo' i. he skin stripped off

Page  267 SPONSIO 267 STULTUS a beast; spoil, plunder, pillage, booty, Stirps, pis, m. 4- f., the root of a prey. tree, the trunk, stump or body of a Sponsio, onis, f. (spondeo, to pro- tree, the stem or stock of a tree or mise), a promise, engagement, bond, plant. Fig. the origin or foundation; stipulation, bargain. Sponsionen fa- a beginning, rise, source; a stock, cere, to agree, stipulate. family, kindred, race, lineage; offSpurius, i, m., a Roman pranomen. spring, progeny, posterity. Ab stipfe, Statilius, i, nI. (L.), a Roman knight from the root, utterly; also, from one's confederate with Catiline. C. 17, 43, origin or ancestors, in virtue of one's &c. ancestry. Statim, adv. (sto, to stand), firmly, StrenuO, adv., strenuously, vigorousimmediately, forthwith, straightway, ly, bravely: from without delay. Strenuus, a, um, adj. ~ 126, 5, (a.) $ Stativus, a, urn, adj. (sto, to stand), 250, active, strenuous, energetic, rea standing.;Stativa castra, a standing dy, prompt, quick, vigorous, stout; or stationary camp, station, quarters. brave, valiant. Statuo, ire, ui, itum, a. (sto), to set StrepItus, us, m., a harsh or conup, raise, erect; to put, place, set, sta- fused noise, hurly-burly, rustling, rattion, draw up, post, establish, fix; $ tling, clashing, din, clattering, clamor, 272, to hold, judge, conclude, make up shouting, uproar, loud noise: from one's mind, be of opinion, firmly be" Strepo, ere, ui, Itum, n., to make a lieve; ~ 271, to resolve, determine, de- noise or harsh sound, rustle, roar, ratcide, appoint, fix, assign, ordain, de- tle, ring, resound. Strepere voce, to cree; to give sentence, pass sentence shout, yell. or judgment, condemn. Studeo, ire, ui, n., ~ 223, $ 272, $ Status, us, m. (sto), a standing, 271, R. 4, to study, attend to, apply the standing still; a state, station, condi- mind to, take delight in, be devoted to, tion, situation, rank. fancy, labor or exert one's self for, be Stimiilo, are, jivi, atum, a. (stimulus, bent on, be ambitious of, pursue; to a goad), to prick, goad; to torment, be attached to, favor, be partial to; to vex, trouble, disturb; to urge or drive desire, aim, wish, be anxious. Novis on, impel, rouse, incite, instigate, rebus studere, to plot a revolution in stimulate; to provoke, stir up, excite. the state. Stipitor, oris, m. (stipo, to stuff), an Studium, i, n., study, care, diligence, attendant, companion; a guard, body- attention; eagerness, zeal, ardor of guard. mind, fondness, desire, inclination, Stipendium, i, n. (stips, a small coin, propensity, taste, will, humor, fancy; 4 pendo), the pay of soldiers, the pay favor, partiality, attachment, regard, of an army, wages; a stipend or sala- affection; pursuit, employment, prory. Stipendia facere, to serve as a fession, favorite study. Studiacivilia, soldier. Stipendiis faciendis sese ex- civil dissensions, contentions among ercuit,-in actual service. Miles em- the citizens. Summo studio or cutm eritis stipendiis, a soldier who has summo studio, with the greatest zeal, completed his term of service, and re- very zealously, very eagerly. ceived his discharge. Homo nullius Stultitia, ae, f., folly, foolishness. stzpendii, one who has seen no ser- from vice, of no military experiene;-a Stultus, a, um, adj., foolish, unwise, tribute or tax. silly.

Page  268 STUPRUM 268 SULLA Stuprum, i, n., seduction, violation, after; to come to one's assistance. fornication, adultery, lewdness, de- assist, aid, help, succol relieve Pribauchery. Stuprum corporis, prosti- usquam subveniretur, before assist tution. Multa nefinda stuprafecerat, ance could be given. Subveniendum had committed many atrocious acts est, assistance must or should be given. of lewdness. Subverto, ere, ti, sum, a. (sub 4- ver Suadeo, ere, si, sum, n. 4 a. $ 223, to), to turn upside down, overturn. R. 2, ~ 273, 2, to advise, exhort, re- overthrow, demolish, subvert, annul, commend, suggest, counsel, urge. reverse, make void, destroy, put an Sub, prep. with acc. or abl. ~ 235, end to; to corrupt, impair. (2.) under; beneath, at the foot of; on; Succido, ere, cessi, cessum, n. (sub 4, at, during; towards.,near, by. cedo), to approach something elevated, Subactus, a, um, part. (subigo). as the walls of a town, &c., to go unSubdall, adv., deceitfully, cunning- der, go to, approach, advance. It is ly, craftily, subtly, slyly, artfully: followed by the'dative, ~ 2'1, or by the from accusative with ad. Subdolus, a, um, adj. (sub 4, dolus), Succurro, ere, curri, cursum, n. (sub cunning, crafty, deceitful, sly, subtle. 4 curro, to run), ~ 224, to run under; Subdiico, ere, xi, ctum, a. (sub 4, to run to one's assistance, succor, aid, duco), to draw up, lift or raise up, assist, help, relieve. raise, withdraw, take away, remove, Sudes, is,f., a stake. draw off, lead away. Sudor, oris, m., sweat. Fig. labor, Subigo, ere, egi, actum, a. (sub d fatigue, toil, difficulty, pains, exertion. ago), to bring, lead or conduct under; Suffldio, ere, fodi,fossum, a. (sub 4, to urge on, lead, impel, drive, force, fodio, to dig), to dig under, underconstrain, compel, oblige, necessitate; mine. to subject, subjugate, reduce, van- Suffragatio, onis, f. (suvfrigo) to quish, conquer, subdue. In Sallust vote for), giving one's vote or influwith inf. and ace. ence to get a person elected, a voting Subliatus, a, um, part. (sustollo), rais- for one, earnestness or zeal to promote ed; taken away, removed. Sublato one's election, interest in one's favor, auctore, concealing the (name of her) recommendation. informant. Sui, sibi, se, subs, pro. m. f. 4 n., $ SublEvo, are, avi, atum, a. (sub 4, 133, of himself, herself, itself, themlevo), to lift, raise or hold up, support; selves, &c. In the ace. 4 abl. it is to help, aid, succor, relieve, assist, fa- often doubled, sese. The prep. cum vor, protect, defend; to ease, lighten, when used with se is annexed to it, as lessen, diminish, soften. secum. The particle met is often anSubsidium, i, n. (Isubsideo, to lie in nexed intensively; $ 133, R. 2. wait), a body of troops in reserve, a Sulla, ~, m. (P. Cornelius), a consul reinforcement; a line or rank of elect, A. U. C. 688, who was convicttroops; aid, help, assistance, succor. ed of bribery. C. 17, 18. Locare or collocare in subsidio or sub- Sulla, ae, m. (Servius Cornelius), a sidiis, to station as a reserve. The confederate of Catiline, and brother name of subsidium was especially ap- of P. Sulla. C. 17, 47. plied to the triarii, see Pilus. Sulla, eC, m. (L. Cornelius), L. Cor. Subvenio, ire, veni, ventum, n. (sub 4 nelius Sylla or Sulla, a Roman gene vemio), 6 224, to- come on, to come ral of the Cornelian gens, distinguish

Page  269 SULLANUS 269 SUPERVACANEUS ed for his military talents, and still mere supplicium de aliquo. to punish, more for his enmity to Marius, and his inflict punishment upon:-to choose, cruelties during the civil wars. He select. Bellum sumere, toenterupon was the uncle of Publius and Servius engage in, undertake:-to procure Cornelius Sylla. J. 95, &c. C. 5, &c. Liberos sumere, to adopt-. Sullanus, a, unm, adj., of or relating Sumptus, us, m. (sumo), charge, exto Sylla, Sylla's. C. 21. pense, cost. Sulphur, uris, n., sulphur, brim- Sumptus, a, um, part. (sumo) stone. Submet, see Suus. Sum, esse, fui, irr. n. O 153, to be; Supellex, lectilis, f., household furto exist, live; to stay, remain, con- niture or goods, movables, chattels. tinue, abide. With two datives,' 227, Super, prep. with acc. or abl. $ 235, to bring, confer, be, serve, constitute, (3); with acc., over, above, on, upon, become, be accounted, prove, afford. beyond, more than; with abl., of, on, Esse in conjuratione, to be engaged about, concerning. Super esse, to or concerned in-. Esse extra con- surpass. Also adv., over, above, over jurationem, not to be engaged in-. and above. Satis superque, enough Supra esse, to exceed, surpass. Post and more than enough. esse. see Post. Esse pluris, etc. to be Superbia, wa, f., pride, haughtiness, worth, — 214. With a dative of the insolence, arrogance. Per superbiam, possessor, ~ 226, to have. With a proudly, haughtily: from genitive or ablative of character, &c., Superbus a, um, adj., proud, haugh~ 211, R. 6 & 8, to be of, to possess. ty, vain-glorious, arrogant, insolent, To rest in, be placed upon. To be scornful. the part, property, &c. to become, ~ Superior, us, adj. (comp. ofsuperus), 211, R. 8,(3). It often takesan adverb higher, upper; past, gone by, precedin the predicate where an adjective is ing, former, first; superior. Discedere used in English; as, Mala abunde superior, to come off victorious. omnia erant,-were abundant. Frus. Supero - -; vi, itum, a. S4 n. (sutra esse, to be urluccessful or fruitless; per), to e: T;i, to, outstrip, suras, Cujus consilium frustra erat. Ita pass, i-,:,, outweigh, be suresum, for talis sum.-Fuere qui dice- rior,,alance, more than rent, some said,' 264, 6:-to tend, c-. o' T overcome, conquer, serve, contribute, with the genitive ofa' i::. e gAdue, destroy;- to refute, gerund or gerundive.::,;., i;pel; to abound, be abunSummus, a, um, adj. (sup. of.:',-,i: i,!., superfluous or redundant; to rus), highest, at the top, topn-,:, ap-i fei: I i. Superare alicui, to be too permost; last, greatest, very r reai,:-i- i r,; h for-, to be more than one can prqme, utmost, consummr.;::rcelt' rform, ~ 223. glorious. Summus vir o'.: *, Supersto, are, n. (super c sto), to eminonL, illustrious, e': i. —.: *7-n stand over or upon. nw op' or vi, with r ni-iwt or Superus, a, um, adj. (super), comp. power with mig' Sum- superior, sup. supremus or summus, 1nim, i,,, the: O -.t of any above, upper. tYing. Supervacaneus, a, um, adj. (superm-, umo, -; in,.ptum, a., to vaco, to be superfluous), $ 222, above ya ta'' o - ctive. Pecuniam what is necessary, usual or ordinary -! i -.i:,re;: t'o borrow-. Su- that is not strictly necessary, tran

Page  270 SUPERVADO 270 SUUS scending the limits of necessity, su- Susceptus, a, urn, part., taken up, perfluous, needless. undertaken: from Supervado, ere, n. (super 4 vado), O Suscipio, ere, cepi, ceptum, a. (suw 233, to go, climb or pass over, sur- sum, up, 4 capio), to take or lift up, mount. receive, catch; to bear, suffer; to unSuppeto, ere, ivi, Itum, a. (sub S4 dertake, take in hand, take up, enter peto), to occur, suggest itself, come upon, begin, engage in, encounter into one's mind; to be near or at take upon one's self, incur, undergo. hand. Minus suppetere, not to oc- Suspectus, a, urn, part. &4 adj. (suscur. picio), $ 222, suspected, mistrusted Supplementum, i, n. (suppleo, to suspicious. Habere suspectum, to sussupply), a supply, filling up, supple- pect. ment; supplies, reinforcements, re- Suspicio, onis, f., suspicion, miscruits. Supplementum scribere, to trust, distrust, jealousy: from levy or enlist recruits. Suspicio, ere, pexi, pectum, n. 4, a Supplex, Icis, adj. (sub, plico, to (sursum, up, or sub 4 specie, to see), fold), suppliant, begging or entreating to look up or upwards; to look up to, on one's knees, kneeling, prostrate, admire, honor, respect; to mistrust, humble, submissive. Subs. a suppli- suspect. ant, humble petitioner. Suspicor, ari, atus sum, dep. (suspiSupplicium, i, n. (supplex), a suppli- cio), to suspect, apprehend, fear, miscation, prayer, humble entreaty, soli- trust; to think, imagine. citation; supplicatory offerings or sa- Sustento, are, avi, aIum, a. freq., to crifices, a public thanksgiving, wor- sustain, bear or hold up, uphold, feed, ship; capital punishment, condign support, maintain; to hold out, bear, punishment, torture, any severe pun- suffer, endure; to withstand, oppose, ishment. Summum supplicium, capi- resist; to check, stop, restrain, keep tal punishment. Supplicio cogere, to back: from govern with severity, impel to duty by Sustineo, ere, tinui, tentum, a. (surpunishment sum, up, 4 teneo), to hold up, sustain, Supplico, are, avi, atum, n. (supplex), uphold, support, undertake, bear, car-' 224, to kneel before, make supplica- ry, hold, discharge; to defend, support, tion to, pray or beg humbly, beseech, protect, preserve, maintain, nourish; implore, entreat, supplicate, worship. to suffer, bear, undergo, endure, hold Supra, prep. with ace. (superus), out against. above, over, upon, beyond, more than. Sustollo, ere, sustuli, sublatum, a. Supra esse, to surpass. Supra bonum (sursum 4, tollo), to raise or lift up; to atque honestum, beyond what is proper take away, remove, suppress. The and becoming. Supra caput esse, to second and third roots of this verb are be over the head, to be near, to be at taken fsw suffero. hand, to menace. Also, adv. above, Suthul, iul.n., a town o-N'Sumidia. before, farther. Supra repetere, to go J. 37, 38. farther back, to carry one's narration Suus, a, um, poSs. adj. pro.' 139, farther back. Patiens inedice supra (sui), O 208, one's Own, its own, his or quaim credibile est, more than, above her own, their own; his, hers, i', or beyond what, higher or farther their. Suum or pl. sua, n. one's o'c, than. property, possessions or rights. S.. Sura, a, mn., see Lentulus locus, the place of 3oe's -''

Page  271 SYPHAX 271 TANTUS and hence favorable. Sui, one's Taceo, ere, ui, Itum, n., to be silent, friends, party, side, people, soldiers, hold one's peace, say nothing. &c. O 205, R. 7, (1) N. 1. The enclitics TacYtus, a, um, part.' adj. (taceo), met and pte are sometimes annexed silent, mute, in silence, silently; still, to it. quiet; without notice, unobserved. Syphax, acis, m., a king of Numi- Tada, c, f., a tree producing pitch, dia, who was conquered by Scipio, the torch-tree, pitch-tree; a torch; with the aid of Masinissa. J. 5, chips or pieces of the pitch or pine 14. tree; a fire ball made of pieces of the Syrtis, is, f. (arpc, to draw), sands, pitch-tree. shelves, quicksands, a syrtis or place Tadet, duit, or tasum est, imp., it is of movable sand-banks in the sea, irksome to, it wearies. Tadet me I which were so called because the am weary of, tired of, disgusted with. sands were drawn to and fro by the Taedium, i, n. (tadet), weariness, violence of the winds and tides. Of irksomeness. this kind are two tracts in the Mediter- Talis, e, adj., such, of this or that ranean near the coast of Africa, which kind, such like, so distinguished, so are called Syrtis Major and Syrtis great, so eminent, of such magnitude. Minor, now the gulf of Sidra and the 7'am, adv., so, so much, so very. gulf of Capes. J. 19, 78. Quam-tam, with comparatives or superlatives the-the, as-so. T. Tamen, adversative, conj. ~ ]98, 9, notwithstanding, nevertheless, for all T., an abbreviation of theprcnomen that, however, yet, still. In the apodoTitus. sis of a sentence it corresponds to ta Tabernacilum, i, n. (taberna, a metsi, quamvis, quamquam, si, quum, shed), a tent, pavilion. etc., in the protasis, and is sometimes Tabes, is, f. (tabeo, to melt away), a to be supplied. melting or wasting away; poison, in- Tametsi, concessive, conj. ~ 198, 4, fection; a wasting disease, consump- (tamen 4 etsi), though, although, nottion, pestilence, plague, contagion, withstanding that. It is used in the disease. protasis. Tabesco, ere, tabui, n. incept. (tabeo), Tana, a, m., a river of Numidia beto melt, dissolve, be dissolved or melt- tween the towns of Lares and Capsa ed; to waste or pine away, be con- J. 90. sumed, decline, languish, decay, fade, Tandem, adv. (tam 4' demum), at decrease. length, at last, finally, in the end. In Tabila, a, f., a board or plank. urgent interrogation, pray. Tabula or tabula picta, a picture, Tanquam, or Tamquam, adv. (tam painting; —a table or tablet covered 4' qucim), as, just as, as it were, as if. with wax for writing on, a writing, Tantium, adv. (tantus), only, alone, book. Tabula, writings, account- but, merely. books, records bills, bonds, instru- Tantummodo, or Tantum modo, adv ments. Tabula novc, new accounts, only; provided only. bills, &c., by which the whole or a t Tantus, a, um, adj., so great, so,art of his debt due on the old ac- much, such. so important, as great. unt, was remitted to the debtor. It is often followed by ut, that, or Novui quantus, as, ~ 262, R. 1.-Tantum 24

Page  272 TARDE 272 TENEO modab remorati,-so long only, ~ 236. tates, a long time, a long course of Tanto, abl., by so much, so much, the, years, many years, many occasions or with comparatives, S4c. $ 256, R. 16, (2.) times; many perils, commotions, difTardY, adv., slowly, tardily: from ficulties or trials. Paucce tempestates, Tardus, a, urm adj., slow, tardy, a short time, a brief space. Alia in sluggish, slack. tempestate, at another time. Tarquinius, i, m. (L.), a confederate Templum, i, n., an open space; conof Catiline, who, being arrested, be- secrated ground; a temple. came a witness against the conspira- Tempus, oris, n., time, space of tors. C. 48. time, duration, a season; an occasion, Tectum, i, n. (tego), a roof. Pro opportunity, convenient, proper or aptectis, see Pro. pointed time; the state or condition Tectus, a, un, part.: from of any one, circumstances; danger, Tego, ere, texi, tectum, a., to cover, difficulty, exigency; an event, occurhide, conceal, disguise, cloak; to de- rence, conjuncture, the times. Ad fend, protect, shelter. tempus or in tempore, in time, seasonTelum, i, n., a missile weapon, a ably, at the appointed time, in proper dart, javelin, lance, spear, arrow. time, in good time, opportunely, in Esse cum telo, to go armed, to carry good season. Ad hoc tempus, hitherarms about one, to be in arms. to, to the present time. Ex tempore Temere, adv., without cause, casu- or pro tempore, as time permits, acally, by chance, inconsiderately, light- cording to circumstances, as occasion ly, rashly, hastily, thoughtlessly, in- requires. Ex tempore, immediately, discreetly; carelessly, confusedly, without premeditation. Tempore, in without order, irregularly. Temere time, in point of time. munita, hastily, slightly-. Tendo, tre, tetendi, tensum or tenTemeretas, atis,f. (temere), rashness, tum, a. 4 n., to stretch out, extend; to inconsiderateness, hastiness, thought- go, advance, travel towards, direct or lessness, temerity, foolhardiness, in- shape one's course or march; to condiscretion, imprudence. tend, strive, try, exert one's self, enTemperantia, cA, f. (temperans, tem- deavour, fight, contend, oppose, resist. perate), moderation, temperance, ab- Tendere insidias, see Insidiac. stinence. Tenebrac, arum,f. pl., darkness; ob-'empero, are, dvi, tum, a. 4 n. (tem- scurity, gloom. pus), to temper, mix in due propor- Teneo, ere, ui, tentum, a. 4 n. (tendo), tion; to mitigate, soften, temper; to to hold, hold fast, keep, have; to posregulate, moderate, set bounds to, sess, hold, occupy; to detain delay, check, restrain. Temperare, or temrn- check, curb, restrain; to keep, refrain perare sibi, to govern one's self, to abstain; to retain, keep, hold, preserve; practice moderation, be moderate. to hold out, last, endure, continue; to Temperare victoriae, to use'a victory rule, direct, sway, govern, move. with moderation, to be temperate in Magna me spes tenet, great hopesposvictory. sess me, I have great hopes:-to cap. Tempestas, atis,f. (tempus), time; a tivate, charm, delight. Imbecilla atas year, season, period; good or bad ambitione corrupta tenebatur,-wasseweather, stormy or boisterous weath- duced or captivated-. Tenere tn cu.s er, a storm, tempest Fig. trouble, todia or in custodiis, to keep in custody calamity, misfortune. Multe tempes. or in prison, to detain in free custody.

Page  273 TENTATUS 273 TIMOR Tentatus, a, um,part., tried, essayed, declare solemnly, protest; to call to proved, attempted; tempted, solicited, witness, appeal to. sounded, tampered with: from Testudo, znis,f., a tortoise; in mllzTento, dre, Fivi, atum, a.freq. (tendo tary affairs, a testudo, a covering ot or teneo) to explore by touching, feel, shields held over the heads of a body examine. Fig. to seek, try, essay, of soldiers to protect them from fallattempt; to make attempts, prove, ing darts, &c. Also, a movable shed explore, sound, tempt, tamper with, or pent-house under which besiegers entice to revolt, put to the test; to at- advanced to the walls. tack, harass, invade; to assail, prac- Teter, tra, trum, adj., foul, offensive, tice upon; to irritate, provoke, excite, noisome, horrid, hideous, gloomy. incite. Lassitudinem tentare, to try Tetrarcha, a, m., a tetrarch or gothe effect of-. Bello tentare, to make vernor of a fourth part of a country; war upon. Tentari aliqua re, to be a governor of a part or division of any brought into peril by, exposed to, country, without regard to the numthreatened with, in danger from-. ber of parts into which it is divided. Terentius, i, n. (Cn.) a Roman sen- Thala, ca,f., a town in the southern ator. C. 47. part of.Numidia, the exact situation Tergum, i, m., the back of a man or of which is unknown. J. 75, 77, 80, beast. A or ab tergo, from behind, 89. behind, in the rear. Therai, orum, m. pi, inhabitants of Terra, ce, f, the earth; a country, Thera, an island of the XEgean Sea. region, land. Terra marique, by land J. 19. and sea, in all places. Terre or orbis Thesaurus, i, m., a treasure, collec. terraruml, the earth, the world. Fig. tion of money; a repository, storemen, mankind. house, magazine, treasury. Terracinensis, is, m., a Terracinian, Thirmlda, as,f., a town of Numidia an inhabitant of Terracina, an an- the situation of which is uncertain. cient city of Latium, still called by the J. 12. same name. C. 46. Thrax, acis, adj., Thracian. Subs Terreo, ere, ui, Itum, a., to affright, a Thracian, an inhabitant of Thrace frighten, alarm, terrify, inspire with a large country of Europe on the east terror; to attempt to frighten. of Macedonia. J. 38. Terribilis, e, adj. (terreo), dreadful, Tiberius, i, m., a Roman presnomen, terrible, shocking, horrid, horrible, often written by abbreviation Tib. frightful. Timeo, ere, ui, a. 4 n., $ 262, R. 7, Territus, a, urn, part. (terreo), alarm- to fear, be afraid of, dread, apprehend, ed, affrighted, frightened, dismayed. regard; with dat. to fear for or on acTerror, oris, m. (terreo), great fear, count of; to be averse to, dislike. terror, affright, dread. TimIdus, a, um, adj. (timeo), full of Tertius, a, um, num. adj. (ter, fear, fearful, timorous, timid, afraid, thrice), third, the third. cowardly. Testamentum, i, n. (testor, $ 102, 4), Timor, oris, m. (timeo) fear, approa testament or last will. hension, dread, affright. Timor is proTestis, is, m. rf., a witness. perly dastardly fear, metus, a reasonTestor, ari, atus sum, dep. (testis), ~ able and well grounded apprehension 272, to testify, witness, bear witness, of coming evil. Hence the former is attest, show, declare; to affirm, aver, always disgraceful, the latter is often

Page  274 TISIDIUM 274 TRANQUILLUS excusable. Timor animi, see Ani- to treat, conduct towards. Tractare mus. rempublicam, to direct, govern-. Tisidium, t, n., a town of Africa. Tractus, us, m. (traho), a drawing or J. 62. dragging; a direction, course, extent, Titus, i, m., a Romar proenomen. a tract, region, country. Pari tractu at Togdtus, a, um, adj. (toga), clothed an equal or uniform distance, parallel in a toga or Roman gown, gowned, Tractus, a, um, part. (traho). togated, toged. Togati, irum, m. pl., Tradltus, a, um, part.: from Romans, since the Romans were dis- Trado, ere, didi, ditum, a. (trans C4 tinguished by the use of the toga. do), to give, consign, deliver, give Also, Roman citizens, in distinction over. In custodiam tradere, to comfrom soldiers, as the latter did not mit to custody or to prison;-to give, wear the toga. bequeath; to recommend, commit to Tolero, are, dvi, itum, a., to bear, one's care or protection; to give up bear patiently, brook, submit to, suf- surrender, commit, devote; to transfer, support, endure, tolerate, allow; mit, hand down. Per manus tradere, to maintain, support, sustain, allevi- to transmit from hand to hand, hand ate, lighten. down. Tollo, Ore, a., to raise, lift or take Tradico, or Transdico, ere, xi, up, elevate. Fig. to set up, send up, ctum, a. (trans 4 duco), to bring or cause to ascend; to extol, praise. carry over, lead or convey through Tollere animum, to take courage; to transport, transfer. inspire with courage. Traho, ere, xi, ctum, a., to draw Toreuma, atis, n., a vase or any drag. Trahere, or trahere ad suppli. piece of plate engraven, chased, em- cium, to drag to execution. Trahere bossed or adorned with bas-relief. pecuniam, to squander, waste, throw Tormentum, i, n. (torqueo, to hurl), a away;-to draw to one's self; to conwarlike engine for throwing stones, ceive, get, receive. Trahere, rapere, darts, &c. to rob, plunder;-to protract, draw Torpesco,?re, pui, n. inc. (torpeo, to out, spin out, delay, defer, put off, conbe numb), to grow numb or torpid, sume, retard, prolong; to lead away, become languid or dull, grow faint, withdraw, divert; to weigh, consider, listless, sluggish, inactive or indo- conceive, imagine, revolve, reflect on, lent. to ascribe, attribute; to interpret, exTorquatus, t, m. (L. Manlius), a Ro- plain, construe; to form, take, direct, man consul, A. U. C. 689. C. 18. order. Trahere consilium, to form a Torquatus, i, m. (T. Manlius), a ce- decision or determination. Trahere lebrated Roman dictator who put his omnia, to interpose delays of all kinds. son to death for engaging with the Trahere animo, or cum animo, to imenemy contrary to orders, A. U. C. agine, figure to one's self, have ever 415. C. 52. in mind, revolve or deliberate within Toties or totiens, adv., so often. one's self, ~ 272, ~ 265. Totus, a, um, adj. gen. ius, ~ 107, all Trames, Ytis, m. (trameo, to go together, whole, total, entire, the through), a cross-way, cross-road, )by whole. path. Tracto, are, avi, atum, a. freq. Tranquillus, a, um, adj., calm, still, (traho), to drag forcibly; to touch, smooth, tranquil, quiet, peaceful handle, feel; to exercise, manage; placid.

Page  275 TRANSDUCO 275 TRIPLEX Transduco, see Traduco Trepidus, a, urn, adj., hastening Transeo, ire, ii, utum, trr, n. 4 a. with fear and trembling, trembling or (trans, over, beyond, 4 eo), ~ 182, R. hastening tfr fear, in disorder or -tre3, ~ 233, to go or pass over or beyond; pidation, confounded, dismayed, alarmto desert, go or pass over to the ene- ed, frightened, afraid, anxious, solicitmy; to pass, pass through. ous, fearfil, hurried, unquiet, disturb. Tran.sfro, ferre, tuli, latum, irr. a. ed, agitated, full of anxiety; causing (trans 4 fero), to carry or bring over, alarm, alarming, anxious. Res tretransfer, transport. Transferre suam pide, alarming or dangerous circumculpam, to transfer one's own fault, stances, a perilous state or condition, charge the blame due to one's self:- agitation, commotion. to turn. apply, adapt; to defer, post- Tres, tria, num, adj. $ 109, three. pone, put off: Transferri, to be trans- Tribunatus, is, m. (tribus), the triferred, to pass. buneship, the office and dignity of a Tranzsfiga, ea, m., a deserter, fugi- tribune. tive, runaway, one who goes over to Tribunicius, a, um, adj., of or perthe enemy: from taining to a tribune, tribunicial:from Transfigio, ere, fugi, fugltum, n. TribFnus, i, m. (tribus), a tribune, (trans 4 fugio), to fly over, go over properly one who presides over a to the enemy, desert, revolt. tribe, a president. Tribuni militares, Transigo, ere, egi, actum, a. (trans tribunes of the soldiers, military tri4 ago), to drive right through. Tran- bunes; at first, they were commanders sigere vitam, to lead, pass, spend:-to of the third part of a legion, afterfinish, despatch, accomplish, perform, wards, as the legions were enlarged, conclude, transact, settle, adjust. the number of tribunes was increased. Transpadinus, a, um, adj. (trans f4 Tribuni plebis, tribunes of the people Padus, the Po), beyond the Po. Subs. or of the plebeians; inferior magisone living beyond the Po. C. 49. trates elected by the people for their Transvectus, a, aum, part.: from defence against the senators. They Transveho, ~re, vexi, vectum, a.) trans had the power of forbidding all pro4 veho, to carry), to carry or convey ceedings, even of the consuls and of over, transport. Transvehi, to pass the senate, if in their view they were over, travel or sail over. injurious to the common people. Seo Transversus, a, um, part. 4 adj., J, 39. turned away or across, placed cross- Tribuo, Ire, ui, utum, a., to give, aswise or at right angles; athwart, cross- sign, attribute, grant, impart, bestow, wise, transverse, oblique. Transversa lend. prcelia, attacks upon the flank. Trans- Tribus, ks, f. (tres), a tribe, a diviversum agere, to lead aside or astray: sion of the Roman people, whom from Romulus divided into three parts Transverto, ere, ti, sum, a. (trans f The tribes were gradually increased verto), to change, turn, turn away. in number to thirty-five. Trepido, iare, avi, tlum, n., to be in Triduum, i, n. (tres 4 dies), the space a hurry or confusion, make haste for of three days, three days. fear, run up and down in a state of Triginta, nunl, adj. ind., thirty. trepidation; to be agitated, flurried; Triplex, ~cis, adj. (tres 4 plica, to to tremble for fear, be afraid or alarm- fold), threefold, triple. Triplices, nun, ed: from pl., three. 24*

Page  276 TRISTITIA 276 TURMA'ristitia, A,f. (tristis, sad), sadness, Tullius, i, m., see Cicero. sorrow, grief, melancholy, care. Tullus, i, m., (L. Volcattus), was Triumpho, are, avi, dtum, n. 4 a., to consul with M. Lepidus, A. U. C. 688 triumph, celebrate a triumph. C. 18. Triumphus, i, m., a triumph, an Tur, adv. 4 conj., then, next, in the honor bestowed upon such generals next place, hereupon, again; turn doe as had gained important victories, in mum, or turn vero, then indeed, il consequence of which they were per- which sense, turn alone is sometimes mitted to enter the city with great used. Also then, at that time. As a pomp. conjunction it is repeated, or, when the Triumvir, nri, m. (tres 4 vir), one latter clause is intended to be promi. of three men jointly employed to exe- nent, quum takes the place of the formcute any public office, a triumvir. er tum. Turn-turn, both-and, not Triumviri capitales, three magistrates only-but also, as well-as. See who had charge of the prison, and Quum. For the distinction between who inflicted capital punishment on the adverbs Turn and Tune, see condemned criminals; jailers, sheriffs, Tunc. executioners. Triumviri coloniis de- Tumulosus, a, um, adj. (tumulus, a ducendis, magistrates appointed to hill,; 128, 4), full of hills or hillocks, distribute lands taken from the ene- hilly. my, and to conduct colonists to their Tumultus, us, or I, m., a tumult, place of settlement. bustle, disturbance, commotion, upTrYanus, a, um, adj. (Troa, Troy), roar, hurly-burly, sedition, insurrecTrojan, of or belonging to Troy. tion, a sudden insurrection or war, Trojani, m. pl., the Trojans. C. 6. especially such as originated in Gaul Trucido, are, avi, atum, a. (trux, or Italy, and in which all without disgrim, 4 ccado), to cut in pieces, cut tinction were called to take up arms; down, slaughter, murder, massacre, alarm, confusion, disorder, disquieassassinate, butcher, destroy. tude, uneasiness. Tu, tui, subs. pro. m. - f., thou, you: Tumuluts, i, m., (tumeo, to swell), a pi. vos, vestrum or vestri, you, ~ 133. hill, hillock. The enclitic syllables te 4 met, are Tune, adv., then. Tune is properly often joined to this pronoun in an in- used in connection with events octensive sense, you yourself, ~ 133, R. 2. curring at the same time, turn in Tuba, e,f., a trumpet. speaking of successive events; but Tubcen, icdnis, m. (tuba 4f cano), a turn is sometimes used for tunc. In trumpeter. the oratio obliqua, tune and turn are Tueor, eri, tuftus d4 tutus sum, dep., substituted for nunc in the oratio di. to see, view, behold; to look to, keep. recta. preserve, take care of, support, main- Turba, ca, f, a disturbance, tumult, tain, defend, protect, favor, assist. uproar; confusion, disorder; a conTugurium, i, n., a cottage, hut, shed. fused multitude of people; a crowd Tuli, see Fero. throng, press, troop. Tullianus, a, un, adj., pertaining to Turma, ac,f, a troop or squadron of Tullius. Tullianum, i, n., the lower horse, consisting of thirty, or, with part or dungeon added by Servius their officers, thirty-three horsemen. Tullius to the prison built at Rome by Ten turmce were attached to each Ancus Martius. C. 55. legion.

Page  277 TURnMATIM 277 UNQUAM Trmdtim, adv. (turma), by troops Ubique, adv., every where, m every or squadrons. place, wheresoever. Also for et ubi, Turpilius, i, m. (T.}, see Silanus. and where. Turpis, e, adj., ugly, unsightly, fil- Ubivis, adv. (ubi 4 vis, from volo), thy, foul. Fig. shameful, base, dis- where you please, any where, in any honorable, disgraceful, infamous, scan- place. dalous. Turpis fama, a bad reputa- Ulciscor, i, ultus sum, dep., to chastion, infamy tise, punish, revenge, be revenged on, Turpitudo, Inis, f. (turpis), deform- avenge. Ultum ire, to proceed to reity. Fig. baseness. dishonor, disgrace, venge, to revenge, avenge, 276, R. 2. infamy. Per turpitudinem, shame- It seems sometimes to be used passively, fully, disgracefully, infamously. as, Qidquid ulcisci nequitur. Turrts, is, f. ~ 79, 3, a tower, tur- Ullus, a, um, adj. O 107, any, any ret, citadel. Also, a movable tower one; non ullus, no one. used in besieging cities. Ulterior, us, adj. comp. O 126, 1, Tuscus, a, unm, adj., Tuscan, Etrus- (sup. ultimus), farther, on the farther can, Etrurian. Tusci, orum, m. pl., side, ulterior. Gallia ulterior, farther the Tuscans. C. 51. Gaul, Gaul beyond the Alps. See Tutdtus, a, um, part. (tutor). Gallia. Tute for Tu, see Tu. Ultra, prep. with the acc., 4' adv., beTutg adv. (tutus), safely, securely. yond, on the farther side of, past, beTutor, ari, atus sum, dep. freq. yond that, farther, besides, more(tueor), to defend, protect, guard, pre- over. serve, maintain, take care of. Ultro, adv.. of one's own accord, Tutus, a, um, part. 4 adj. (tueor), voluntarily, spontaneously, unasked, free from danger, secure, protected, unsought, of one's own motion, unsafe. provoked, without provocation; more. Tuus, a, um, adj. pro. (tu), thy, over, besides. thine, thine own, your, yours, your own. Ultus, a, um, part. (ulciscor). Umbrenus, i, m. (P.), a freedman U. employed by Catiline to treat with the ambassadors of the Allobroges. C. Ubi, adv., where, in what or which 40, 50. See also Cic. in Cat. III. 6. place, in which, in what. Ubi and Una, adv. (unus), together, along ibi or eo are sometimes used like rela- with, at the same time, together with. tive and demonstrative pronouns; as, It is sometimes annexed emphatically Ubi adolescentiam habuere, ibi senectu- to cum. tem agant, for in quibus-in iis. Ubi Unde, adv. ~ 191, R. 1, whence, from gentium, where in the world, in what which; also for a quo, from whom, by part of the world;-when, after, as whom. soon as. For the construction of ubi Undque, adv. (unde 4' que), from all with the perfect tense, see ~ 259, R. parts or places, from all quarters; on 1, (2), (d). Apud illos aut ubi illi all sides, on every side. voluntt, i. e., apud quos, with whom. Universus, a, um, adj. (unus 4' verUbi primutm, see Primurm. sus), whole, universal, all, all togeo Ubicumque, adv. (ubi & cumque), ther, entire, together, all collectively. wheresoever, in what place soever; Unquam or Umquam, adv., at any wherever. time, ever

Page  278 UNUS 278 UXOR Unus, a, urn, gen. unius, num, adj. O in tali negotio, since circumstances 107, & ~ 283, 1, Ex. 4, & $ 15, one. were such, considering the circumUnus et alter, one and another, a few, stances:-how, in what way or mansome:-one only, alone, a single one. ner. In this sense ut like quomodo is In unum, after a verb of motion, to- followed by the subjunctive in indirect gether, into the same place. Ager questions, O 265, and Note 2. II. urha specie,-of a uniform appearance. After talis, &c. ~ 198, 8, & $ 262, R. It is used particularly with a gen. or 1, that, so that, with the subjunctive the abl. with ex. ~ 212, R. 2, N. 4. mood, O 262; in explanations, that, Unusquisque, unaquaque, unum- namely, to wit. Ut is sometimes quodque or unumquidque, ind. adj. omitted before the subjunctive, ~ 262, pro. ~ 138, (unus 4f quisque), each, R. 4. each one, every, every one. Uter, tris, m., a bag of skin or leathUrbanus, a, um, adj., of or belong- er, a leathern bottle, a wine-bag. ing to a city; refined, polished, ele- Uter, tra, trum, adj. $ 107, whether gant: from or which of the two, which. Urbs, bis, f., a city; a walled town. Uterque, utraque, utrumque, gen. Also the city, i. e. Rome. Imperator utriusque, adj. (uter 4 que), O 107, ad urbem,-near Rome. Command- both the one and the other, both, ers, while waiting the honors of a tri- each. Qua utraque, both of which umph, were forbidden to enter the city. Ut', see Ut. Ad urbem, with verbs of motion, to or Utica, a,f., a town of Africa on the towards Rome. shore of the Mediterranean sea, near Urgeo, ere, ursi, a., to press upon, the river Bagrada. J. 25, 63, 64, 86, harass; to press hard, weigh down, 104. bear down, oppress, distress, pursue; Ul7lis, e, adj. (utor), $ 222, & R. 4, to be near at hand. (1.) useful, fit, profitable, advantageUsquam, adv., in any place, any ous, good, suitable, salutary, serviceawhere, at any place, in any thing, to ble. any place. Utlnam, adv. (nttl & nam), ~ 263, 1, Usque, adv., even, as far as, right on, 0! that, I wish that, would that. constantly, without ceasing. Usque Utique, adv. (uti S que), certainly eo, to such a degree, so far, to that ex- surely, at all events. tent. Utor, i, usus sum, dep. ~ 245, I, to Usus, us, m. (utor), use; frequent use, make use of, manage; to conduct exercise, practice, habit; utility, use- one's self towards, to treat; to enjoy fulness, use, advantage, profit, benefit, have. Lege uti, to have the benefit good, interest. Usui esse, to be of of-. Domo uti, to occupy-. Honouse or service, $ 227, & R. 2:-inti- re uti, to enjoy a post of honor, to fill macy, familiarity. Usus belli, things a public office. necessary for war, recruits, supplies, Utpite, adv. (ut), as, seeing cr con&c sidering, inasmuch as, namely. It is Usus, a, um, part. (utor), having often followed by qui, quae, quod, as used, practiced, enjoyed. he, &c. Ut or Ut}, adv. 4 conj., I. as, like Utrinque or Utrimque, adv. (uter), as, just as, even as, as if. It is often on both sides or parts, from both preceded or followed by sic or ita, so: sides. -according as; considering that. Ut Uxor, oris,f., a wife, spouse.

Page  279 VACCA 279 VASTUS V. tification composed of the earth dug from the ditch, and of sharp stakes or Vacca, ~, f, a town of the Numi- palisades stuck into it, a rampart, indians, not far from the Roman pro- trenchment, bulwark. vince. In some editions of Sallust Vanitas, atis, f., emptiness, inconthis town is called Vaga, and its in- siderateness, giddiness, weakness, levhabitants Vagenses. J. 29, 47, 68. ity, vain-glory, vanity, falsehood, osVaccenses, ium, m. pl., the inhabi- tentation: from tants of Vacca. J. 66, 69. Vanus, a, urn, adj., vain, empty, Vacuus, a, um, adj. (vaco, to be void; idle, futile, fruitless, without efempty), with gen. or abl. $ 213, R. 5, feet, unfounded, groundless, unmean(3.) also with prep. a. B 213, R. 4, (4.) ing, untrue, false, lying, deceitful, faithempty, free from, vacant, bare, desti- less. tute, without. Vacuum facere, to Vargunteius, i, m. (L.), a Roman empty, clear. Animo vacuus, 5 250, senator who was engaged in the Catisecure, free from care or apprehen- linarian conspiracy. He was probasion, quiet, at ease, unconcerned, un- bly of the equestrian order. Compare occupied. Vacua respublica, sc. de- Cat. 28, and Cic. in Cat. I. 4. C. fensoribus, unprotected-. 17, 47. Vades, urn, pl. of Vas, a surety. Varie, adv., variously, diversely, in Vado, ere, si, sum, n., to go, walk. different ways: from Vadosus, a, urn, adj. (vadum, a ford), Varius, a, urn, adj. ~ 250, of divers having frequent fords or shallows, colors, variegated. Fig. various, difshoaly, shallow. ferent, diverse, full of vicissitudes, Vagor, ari, atus sum, dep. to go or changeful. Varia victoria, shifting, pass to and fro, wander, move or varying, of various success, inclining course up and down, rove, ramble, now to one side, now to the other-. roam, stray, wander about: from Animus varius, versatile, changeable, Vagus, a, um, adj., wandering, ram- variable, light, fickle, inconstant, wabling, roving, strolling, roaming. vering, in doubt or perplexity-. Valens, tis, part. - adj., sound, well, Vas, vadis, m., a surety, bail, espein good health; strong, stout, robust; cially in criminal prosecutions. powerful, mighty, strong; available, Vas, vasis, n.; pl, vasa, brum, $ 93, efficacious: from 2, a vessel, utensil, all kinds of furniValeo, ere, ui, n., to be well, in a ture. In military language, the bagsound or healthy condition; to have gage of an army. strength or power, be strong, be able, Vastttas, atis,f. (vastus), desolation, be able to do, be powerful or vigorous, devastation. have force or effect, have weight, in- Vasto, are, avi, Vtum, a., to lay terest or influence, prevail, succeed; waste, ravage, desolate, pillage, desto be exerted; to avail, be effectual, troy, spoil, strip; to trouble, disturb, exert one's power. Valetfama,-pre- haraPq. torment, disquiet, perplex: vails. fr Valerius, i, m., see Flaccus.:>'?>',', t, adj., vast, large, am7-aOi.s,, a, em, aej. (vaeo,), 2-f t c:'aif-.s immenase, hruge, eaorsound, healthy; strong, stout, rob:, -: zimoderate, insatiable; waste, vigorous, powerful, mighty. i.' f astus ab humano cultu, un alluum, i, n (vallus, a stake',. fo;, c'.l tivaed.

Page  280 VE 280 VEREOR Ve, inseparable prep.' 196, (b.) de- Vendo, ere, idzd, dttum, a. (venus 4 noting negation, opposition or depri. do), to sell, vend, set or expose to sale vation; as, Vecors, mad, from cor, the exchange. Omnia honesta atque inmind, the understanding. honesta vendere, to sell every (mark Vecordia, ea, f. (vecors, mad), mad- of) honor and disgrace, i. e. to confer ness, phrenzy, insanity, fury; folly, honor or disgrace for reward. dotage, fatuity. Venenum, i, n., a drug or medicine. Vectigal, alis, n., a tax, toll, impost, Venenum, or venenum malum, poirevenue, duty: from son, venom. Vectigalis, e, adj. (veho, to carry), Venio, ire, veni, ventum, n., ~ 225, tributary, subject to the payment of IV. & R.. 2, & 3,' 227,' 276, II., to taxes. come, arrive; to happen; to accrue, Vegeo, ere, a. 4, n., to excite, move; befall. Ventum est, we, they, &c. to be lively, flourish, thrive, prevail, came or have come. be vigorous, prosper. Venor, dri, atus sum, dep., to hunt, Vehemens, tis, adj., vehement, im- chase, pursue. petuous, violent, ardent, eager. Venter, tris, m., the belly, stomach. Vehementer, adv. (vehemens), vehe- Fig. appetite, gluttony, sensuality. mently, ardently, eagerly, strongly, Ventum 4 Ventirus, a, um, part. forcibly, strenuously, very much, ex- (venio). ceedingly. Ventus, i, m., the wind. Vel, conj., or; vel-vel, either-or; Venus, ius or i, m., sale. It isfound -even. in the dat. acc. and abl. Venum iri, Veles, ~tis, m., a light-armed soldier, or dari, sc. ad, to be exposed or set to skirmisher. The velites often fought sale, to be sold to be venal. mingled with the cavalry, and in ad- Verber, eris, n., a scourge, lash, vancing and retreating mounted be- whip, rod; a stripe, blow. Verberibus hind the horsemen. animadvertere, to scourge. Velitaris, e, adj., (veles), of or per- Verbero, are, avi, dtum, a. (verber), to taining to the velites. Velitaria arma, beat, strike, scourge, whip. light arms, such as were carried by Verbum, i, n., a word, expression, the velites, consisting of a sword, a saying, remark. Verba facere or hasmall round shield or buckler, carried here, to hold a discourse or conversain the left hand, and seven javelins in tion; to make a speech, to speak, disthe right, course, utter, deliver, pronounce-; to Velocitas, atis, f., velocity, swift- reply. Verbo or verbis, abl., by word ness, fleetness, rapidity: from of mouth, orally; also, in words, in Velox, 5cis, adj. (volo, to fly), swift, pretence. Verbo, in a word, in a few quick, nimble, fleet, rapid, speedy, words, briefly. Nuntiare, f-c. verbis agile, active. a7iujvs, in the name of, in behalf Veliti or Velut, adv. (vel 4- ut' or of-. tt), as, like, like as, as if, as it were. 1 ere, adv. (verus), truly, in truth, Venalis, e, adj. (venus), exposed or wiih eason, correctly; sincerely, honset to sale, to be sold, venal, merce- estly, seriously, really, in earnest. nary, to be purchased for money. Vereor, eri, Itus, sum, dep.' 262, R. Forum rerum venalium, a mart for the 7, to fear, reverence, respect, revere purchase and sale of commodities, a be afraid of, apprehend, be apprehenmarket-town. sive.

Page  281 ERITUS 281 VICTOR VerYtus, a, urn, part. (vereor). the daughter of Saturn and Ops Thle Verb, adv. <4 conj. (verus), ~ 279, 3, vestal virgins were consecrated to her (a.) & (c.): in truth, indeed, truly, cer- service. C. 15. tainly; but. Vester, tra, trum, adj. pro. (vos), Verso, are, avi, atum, a.freq. (verto), your, yours. to turn often, turn, roll, turn about. Vestimentum, i, n., clothes, a garVersor, dri, ditus sum, pass. (verso), ment, vest, vestment:from to frequent, haunt, stay, remain, live, Vestio, ire, ivi, ltum, a. (vestis, a gardwell, be; to be occupied, busied, ment), ~ 249,, to clothe, cover, array, exercised, engaged; agitated, dis- deck, adorn. turbed, harassed. Vestztus, a, um,part. (vestio), clothed, Versus, us, m. (verto), a line; a covered. verse; poetry. Facere versus, to com- Veterinus, a, um, adj. (vetus) old, pose verses, veteran. Veterani milites, veteran solVersits or versim, adv. (verto), to- diers, veterans. wards or toward. It is often used with Veto, are, ui, itum, a., to forbid, proa verb of motion after ad or in; as, In hibit, dissuade, hinder, prevent. Galliam versus, castra movere,-to- Vetus, iris, adj., old, ancient, of wards Gaul; and it sometimes takes long standing or duration, antique; the accusalive without ad or in, and former, of former days. Vetera, old always stands after its accusative, things, by-gones. Veteres milites, old O 235, R. 9. or veteran soldiers, soldiers who have Verto, Ire, ti, sum, a. 4 n., to turn, seen much service. turn round; to change, transform, Vetustas, atis, f. (vetus), antiquity, alter; to impute, ascribe; to con- oldness, age. vert, appropriate. V~ertere or vertere Vexillum, i, n., a flag, banner, ense, to turn out well or ill, terminate, sign, standard. issue, result, become. Vexo, dre, avi, atum, a., to agitate; to Verinm, conj. (verus), but, however. trouble, molest, disquiet, vex, harass, Veriim enimvero, but indeed, but truly. torment, disturb, annoy, distress, pain, Verum, i, n.Tverus), the truth. Ex hurt. When applied to things, to invero, from regard to truth, truly, jure, impair, corrupt. Pecuniam vexfitly; reasonably;-rectitude, right, are, to waste, squander-. virtue, integrity. Absolvere verum, to Via, c,f., a way, road, passage, state or declare the fact. path, track; a method, rule, manner, Verus, a, um, adj., true, real, actual, way, course. certain; of persons, true, sincere, VicesYmus or Vigesimus, a, um, veracious, speaking the truth. Verum num. adj. (viginti), the twentieth. est, it is right, proper, fit. Vici see Vinco. Vescor, i, dep. ~ 245 I, to live or feed Vicinitas, atis, f. (vicinus, near), upon, be fed or supported by, subsist nearness of place, neighbourhood, viupon, eat. Vescendi causa, on account cinity; those living in the neighbour of food, to gratify the palate. hood, the neighbours. Vesper, Iris, 4 Sri, m., the evening Victor, oris, m, (vinco), a, star or the planet Venus; the evening, vanquisher, victor.. 4?eventide, eve. P Vesta, c,f., Vesta, a goddess worshipped by the Greeks and Roman'

Page  282 VICTORIA 282 VINEA Victoria, B,f. (vinco), victory. Vic- Vigzntz, num. adj. ind., twenty. toriamadipisci, to obtain a victory, Vilis, e, adj., cheap, of small price conquer. or value. Fig. vile, despicable, conVictus, us, m. (vivo), every thing temptible, of no value or account necessary to support life; food, rai- paltry, worthless, mean. Vile habere ment, sustenance, provisions, fare, to hold cheap, reckon of no account. meat and drink; manner or style of despise. living. Villa,e,f., a country-seat, countryVictus, a, um, part. (vinco), van- house, a farm-house with its appurquished, conquered. Victus abire, dis- tenances, a villa. cedere, etc. See Discedere. Villicus, i, m. (villa), the overseer Vicus, i, m., a village; a street, ham- of a farm, a steward. let, division or quarter of a city. Vincio, ire, vinxi, vanctum, a., to Videlicet, adv. (videre licet), for cer- bind, tie, bind about, fetter, fasten, tain, certainly, truly; it is evident, strengthen, secure, make fast. clear or manifest, to be sure; forsooth; Vinco, ere, vici, victum, a. rf n., to indeed; to wit. It is often used conquer, vanquish, overcome, overironically. power, defeat, subdue; to outstrip, exVideo, ere, vidi, visum, a., ~ 272 & ceed, outdo, excel; to constrain, mas265, to see, behold, look at, mark, ob- ter, soften, gain over, move, wini serve, perceive, take notice, under- to be victorious, obtain the victory, stand, learn. Abs. to look on, be a prevail, carry the day. Divitias vin. spectator. Instead of the inf. pres. cere, to exhaust-. wzth the ace. a pres. part. and acc. are Vinctus, a, ur, part. (vincio), bound, often used, ~ 272, R. 5. fettered, in chains, secured, made fast, Videor, eri, visus sum, pass 4 dep. strengthened. (video), to be seen, $ 223, 271; to seem, Vinciilum, i, n. (vincio), a bond or appear; imp. to seem, seem good, fit, band. Vincula, fetters, the stocks, a or proper. I, he, &c., resolve or deter- prison or gaol. In vincula ducere, to mine, ~ 269, R. 2. conduct to prison, to imprison. Vigeo, ere, ui, n., to be in force, be Vindex, Icis, m. 4 f., an avenger strong or vigorous; to flourish, pros- punisher. Vindex rerum capitalium, per, be in estimation, prevail. an executioner: from Vigesymus, a, urn, see Vicesimus. Vindico, are, avi, atum, a. &4 n., to Vigil, Wlis, adj. (vigeo), watchful, punish, chastise, inflict punishment; waking, vigilant. Vigiles, um, m. pl., to avenge, resent, revenge; to claim, watchmen, sentinels, assert, lay claim to; to preserve, jusVigilia, ae, f. (vigil), a watching, tify, vindicate. Vindicatum est in aliwaking, want of sleep; a military quem, punishment was inflicted upon watch, a fourth part of the night; a -. Vindicandum est, punishment guard by night; watchmen, guards, must or should be inflicted, ~ 162, 15: sentinels. Crebre vigilice, guards ~ 209. R. 3, (3:) ~ 225, III, R. 1. Vinat short intervals. Vigilias dicare aliquem in libertatem, to assert r-ep or maintain guards. one's freedom, defend one's liberty., "; atum, n.' a. (vigil), to defend, protect. B-~' -I Vinea, ce,f., a vineyard; a vine; at arbor; a warlike machine under cover'which besiegers assailed the walls

Page  283 VINUM 283 VOLO of a town, a shed, mantelet, covered nate ferocity, native malignityway Summa vi, see Summus. Vinum, i, n., wine. Viso, ere, si, sum, a.freq. (video), to Violenter, adv., (violens, violent), by go or come to see, visit, call upon; to force, with violence, violently, forcibly, see, look at, view, behold. furiously, vehemently. Visus, a, ur, part. (video.) Violentla, ar, f. (violens), violence. Visus, us, m. (video), the faculty force. Violentia fortune, the buffet- sense or act of seeing; the sight, visings of fortune. ion; an appearance, sight, vision. Vir viri, m., a man; a husband; a Qua visus erat, as far as the sight man of fortitude, a brave man, a hero. could reach.; iri atque arma, men and arms, i. e. Vita, a, f., life; the life, conduct, men fit for war, soldiers. morals, actions of life. Vires, ium, f. pl. of vis, force, Vitabundus, a, um, adj. (vito), ~ 129, strength, especially bodily strength, 1, & ~ 233, N. avoiding or shunning, power, vigor, trying to escape, escaping, carefully Virgultum, i, n. (virgula, a little rod), avoiding. a shrub, bush, small tree; a thicket, Vitium, i, n., injury, hurt; a defect, shrubbery, brushwood. fault, blemish; a vice, error. Virilis, e, adj. (vir), of or pertaining Vito, are, avi, atum, a., to shun, to a man, manly, becoming a man, avoid; to escape. manful, not effeminate, valiant, brave, Vivo, ire, vixi, victum, n., to live, requiring the courage of a man. have -life; to live or pass one's life in VirZtim, adv. (vir), from man to a certain manner, pursue a certain man, severally, singly, separately, course of life; to live well\ enjoy life. apart, by one's self. Vivere obediens, to be always obediVirtus, itis,f. (vir), virtue, the vir- ent. tues; bravery, valor, prowess, forti- Vivus, a, um, adj. (vivo), living, alive. tude, courage, firmness, resolution, Vix, adv., scarcely, hardly, with energy; good qualities, goodness, ex- difficulty. cellence, merit, worth, importance, Vocabiilum, i, n., a word, term, exvalue. Virtus or virtus animi, mental pression, name: from endowments, intellectual excellence, Voco, are, avi, atuM, a. (vox), ~ 230, talent, genius, mental powers. See / 210, to call, name; to cite or sumfarther under Aninmus. Emori per mon. virtutem, to die bravely. Volens, tis, part. 4 adj. (volo, to Vis, vis,f., 0 85, force, vigor, strength, will), willing; of one's own accord, might, power, efficacy, energy, virtue, ready, of one's own free will, willing vehemence, zeal, ardor, fury, violence, ly, spontaneously; favorable, propieffort, exertion, effect, potency, influ- tious, wishing well, benevolent. Voence, efficiency, ability. Vi or per lenti animo, with willing mind, eagervim, by force, forcibly:-a quantity, ly, gladly. Dis volentibus, by favor multitude, number, abundance, plen- of the gods. ty; Vis pulveris, a cloud of dust:- Volo, are, avi, atum, n., to fly, move tile powers or faculties of the body or swiftly. mind, ability. Vis serpentium etfera- Volo, velle, volui, irr. a. c n. (~ 178, rum, dangerous or savage nature, in- 1,) ~ 271, R. 4, & 273, 4, & $ 262, R. 4, 25

Page  284 VOLTURCIUS 284 ZAMA to will or be willing, wish, desire, turn about or around, roll or tumble choose; to command, ordain, appoint. down. Fig. to revolve in one's mind, It is used to express the will of the ponder, meditate, think'upon, reflect people in respect to the passage of a consider, think over, $ 265. law, &c. L while the will of the senate Vos, see Tu. was expressed by the verb censeo, to Votum, i, n. (voveo, to vow), a vow enact. or promise made to some deity; that Volturcius, i, m. (T.) a Crotonian, which is promised, a prayer, wish. confederate with Catiline. C. 44-50. Vox, vocis,f., a voice; a word, sayVoluntarius, i, m., a volunteer, a ivg, sentence; speech, language. soldier who serves willingly: from Vulgus, i, n. <4 m., the common Voluntarius, a, un, adj., voluntary, people, the vulgar, populace, rabble, willing: from herd; the people collectively, the mul Voluntas, atis,f. (volo, to will), will, titude. inclination, wish, choice, desire, mind, Vulnero, are, avi, atum, a., to wound. purpose; love, affection, good will, hurt: from benevolence, favor. Tozbntate, in af- Vulnus, eris, n., a wound, hurt fection, in feeling, voluntarily, wil- Confecti vulneribus, disabled by lingly, of one's own accord. Volun- wounds, covered with wounds. tate or ex voluntate, according to one's Vultus, ts, m., the countenance, wish or desire; at one's instigation. look, aspect, visage, features, mien, Voluptarius, a, un, adj. pleasant, the face. Vultus corporis, the coundelightful, pleasurable; voluptuous: tenance, looks, aspect Vultus bonus, from a fair outside. Voluptas, atis,f, pleasure, joy, delight, enjoyment, sensual pleasure; so, Z voluptas corporis. Volux, ucis, m., the son of Bocchus, Zama, K,f., a town of Africa, disking of Mauretania. J. 101, 105, &c. tant five days journey from Carthage Volvo, Are, volvi, volitutm, a., to roll, J. 56-61. *., The section marks (&) in the preceding Dictionary and in the Notes, with their accompanying letters and figures, refer to the sections and subordinate divisions of Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, and of Andrews' Latin Manual.

Page  285 NOTES ON THE JUGURTHINE WAR. I. Falso queritur. The four introductory sections of each of the treatises of Sallust have no direct connection with the histories to which they are prefixed, and, with only slight alterations, might have served equally well as prefaces to any other works. In both, the train of thought is nearly the same, and they each contain a defence of the author for choosing to devote his talents to literary employments, rather than to a participation in public affairs. Imbecilla, sc. natura sua, instead of imbecillum, agreeirg with humanum genus, or imbecillus, agreeing with homo, ~ 824, 2. iEvi brevis, $ 211, R. 6.-Regatur, ~ 266, 3. Vim aut tempus deesse. Vim relates to imbecilla in the preceding sentence, anct tempus, to cevi brevis. So below, vires and tempus. Invenies is here construed first with the accusative, and then with the infinitive and accusative. Instances of double constructions are common in Sallust. Sed dux. This sentence contains a reply to the complaint mentioned in the first sentence, and sed, serving to introduce a different view of the nature of man, is strictly adversative. Eripere cuiquam potest, sc. fortuna. Sin, captus, sc. mortalis animus, i. e. homo or quisquam. In its adversative character sin serves to introduce a clause which is opposed to ubi ad gloriam virtutis vi& grassatur. Perniciosa libidinepaulisper usus,-naturce infirmitas accusatur. An anacoluthon, $ 323, 3, (5). The regular termination of the sentence would have been, naturce infirmitatem accusat. Suam quisque, i 204, R. 10, & $ 209, R. 11, (4). Auctores, sc. culpce.-Tanta cura esset, ~ 261, 1. Quanto studio-petunt, i. e. quantum est studium, quo-petunt, ~ 206, (6),(b). Neque regerentur, i. e. et non regerentur; sc. casibus. Eo magnitudinis, ~ 212, R. 4, N. 3. II. Corporis alia, sc. naturam sequuntur. r.. 204, R. 10. Res cunctce, sc. nostre.-Habet cuncta, "possesses," " controls"-. Prcesertim, sc. pravitas eorum admiranda est. 1I. Verum ex his, sc. artibus.-Cupienda, sc. esse, $ 270, R. 3. Quomnam neque virtuti honos datur. The remainder of this chapter is occupied with the author's reasons for declining to take part in public affairs; first, that offices were not bestowed upon the deserving; and 285

Page  286 286 NOTES ON THE secondly, that those engaged in the contest for office, and who are divided into three classes, were neither happier nor more respectable on account of their success. Bli quibus per fraudem is (sc. honos) fuit, —" who have acquired office by deceptive arts;" these constitute the first class. Vi quidem regere. The second class is described as obtaining power by force. Parentes, from pareo, " subjects," though some interpret it "parents." Possis, sc. regere patriam, &c. Frustra autem niti, sc. regere patriam, &c., et delicta corrigere. Dementiwc est, $ 211, R. 8, (3). Nisi forte quem. The third class, whom Sallust ironically excepts from the number of those whom he dissuades from the pursuit of office. Nisi quem, O 137, R. (3.) 1V. Praetereundum, i. e. praetereundum esse mihi de cujus virtute dicere. Memet, the subject of extollere.-Imponant, $ 264, 6. Certe, quibus, i. e. ii quibus, &c. imponent nomen inertiac, &c. Maxima industria, $ 210, N. 1.-Quz si reputaverint, Q 206, (17.) Quibus ego temporibus. Sallust was questor soon after the suppression of the Catilinarian conspiracy, and tribune of the people subsequently to the victory of Caesar, at the time when Clodius was slain by Milo. Quales viri. Cato, about this time, was an unuccessful candidate for the pretorship. Quce genera hominum. Reference is here made to a large body of senators created by Caesar. Reipublicc venturum, $ 225, IV. Rem. 2. P. Scipionem, sc. Africanum majorem. Sibi animum, $ 211, R. 5, 1. So egregiis viris, below. In sese habere; habere depends on scilicet, i. e. on scire or scias, one of its component parts, $ 272. Rerum gestarum, sc. majorum. Egregiis viris, sc. Maximo, Scipioni, &c. $ 211, R. 5, (1.) Quam virtus, i. e. ipsorum virtus, sc. Maximi, &c. Eorumfamam, sc. majorum. Adequaverit, ~ 263, 3. His moribus, "of these manners," "of the present manners," 2211, R. 6, i. e. possessing the manners of the present day. Contendant, $ 262, R. 10, 1. 3Iagnifica sint, 5 263, 2. Civitatis morum piget tcedetque, $ 209, R. 3, (4). V Bellum scripturus sum, $ 162, 14. Varia victoria, 211, R. 6. The genitive or ablative of character or quality is often thus used in the predicate, instead of a simple adjective, and usually for the want of it; and in such cases is found united in construction with adjectives, as here, bellum magnum et atrox variaque vio toria. See in regard to this connection $ 278. Turn primum, i. e. after the death of the Gracchi. Quas contentio, sc of the popular and aristocratic parties.

Page  287 JUGURTHINE WAR 287 Studiis civilibus bellum atque vastitas Italica finemn faceret; * war, &c made the end, i. e. were the end, the issue or result of the civil dissensions." Ad cognoscendum, $ 275, I, R 1. The gerund may often be translated either actively or passively. Maxime attriverat, " more than any other one"-. Receptus a. P. Scipione, i. e. the elder. Africano cognomen, ~ 204, R. 8. Rei militaris facinora, i. e. militarzafacinora. Imperii, i. e. his empire as enlarged by the grant of territory made by the Romans. Micipsafilius. Masinissa is said to have had many children, but of these four only are mentioned by Sallust; viz. Micipsa, the father of Adherbal and Hiempsal, Gulussa, the father of Massiva; Manastabal, the father of Jugurtha and Gauda, and Massugrada, the father of Dabar. VI. Qui ubi, ~ 206, 17.-Decorafacie. See Chap. V. note 2d. Non, se luxu, ~ 89, R. 3. Equitare. The present infinitive is of very frequent occurrence in Sallust, instead of the imperfect of the indicative, ~ 209, R. 5, & ~ 269, (a.) fin.: "he practised riding," &c. 145, II. 1. Opportunitas-quae. The author seems to have referred the relative quaz not to opportunitas as modified by sue et liberorum aetatis, but to opportunitas alone. Ex quibus, ~ 206, (13): from which circumstances. VII. Neque per vim neque insidiis, ~ 247 & R. 4, & ~ 278, R. 2. Quod erat Jugurtha. This clause contains the reason of the succeeding one, statuit eum objectare, 4'c. Profecit, sc. eum. Naturam, P. Scipionis, sc. the younger. Romanis imperator, sc. erat, ~ 211, R. 5. Quod difficillimum, $ 206, (13).-Difficillimum in prmzus. This expression is nearly equivalent to a double superlative. Quorum alterum-alterum, " the latter-the former"Quis rebus, & 136, R. 2. VIII. Non mediocrem, ~ 324, 9. Si Micipsa etc.-fore. Fore depends on dicendo implied in pollicitando, # 270, R. 2, (b.)- See also note on Prcterea ease, Cat. XXI.- Occidiseet, ~ 266, R. 4.-Solus, sc. is, i. e. Jugurtha. In ipso maximam virtutem. Before this clause a causal particle is implied. Neu quibus, ~ 137, 1, R. (3.) A paucis emi, sc. id, % 206, (4.) Et gloriam et regnum, 0 278, R. 7.- Venturumr, 205, R. 2, (2.) IX. Quas J1icipasc redderet, ~ 264, 5. Longe maxima, ~ 127, 3.-Quam rem.. 206, (13,) (c.) Uti idem, sc. carus, ~ 207, R. 27, & ~ 222, R. 7. Avo suo, 208, (6,) (c.) X. In meunm regnum. In this passage, Micipsa professes that he had intended from the first to admit Jugurtha to a share of the kingdom, 25*

Page  288 288 NOTES ON THE though in fact he had adopted him three years only before his death and then sorely against his inclination. Si genuissem, O 266, 2, R. 2, 5 R. 4.-Liberis, though found in all the manuscripts, appears to be an interpolation: if this be omitted, te is to be supplied with genuissem. Ea res, " this belief, this expectation." Ut omittam, S 262, R. 8. Egregia tua, sc.facta. Nomenfamiliac renovatum. Masinissa had acquired great reputation by his military exploits in Spain. Quod dificillimum, $ 206, (13.) Per hanc dextram, sc. tuam. See Virg. WEn. IV. 314. Si tuis, sc. cognatis orpropinquis. Boni-mali, the precise meaning of words having so general significations as these, may be ascertained by their connection. Ne aliter, i. e. otherwise than harmoniously,-that no discord arise. Facere videtur, sc. injuriam- Men naturally favor the weaker party. YI. Et ipse, i. e. Jugurtha. Postquam illi, ~ 223. Fecerant. The construction of postquam with the pluperfect is rare, { 259, R. 1, (2.) (d.); but is occasionally found in other passages of Sallust, as in J. 44 & 108. Materno genere impar, see Chap. V Dextera, sc. a. Adherbalem assedit, ~ 233. Ipsum ilium, sc. Jugurtham. In the oratio directa this would be tu ipse Concerning the change of tu into ille in the oratio obliqua, see ille and Is in the Dictionary. Moliri, parare, —habere; historical infinitives. See note on equitare, Chap. VI. Tardius, $ 256, R. 9, & (a.) XII. Placuerat, sc. illis, i. e. regulis. Alius alio, ~ 204, R. 10. Utebatur-referebantur. The imperfect here is to be referred to O 145, II, 4, as denoting preparation to act, or that which was about to be done. Proximus lictor. The Romans often applied to other nations names of office which were peculiar to themselves, as here that of lictor. Ille, sc. Jugurtha. Referebantur, "were about to be delivered" to Hiempsal. See above on Utebatur, etc. Se ipsum venturum, 2 270, R, 2, (b.) Numida-confecit, atque-introducit. The perfect indefinite with the historical present. See Cat. xx. Quum interim Hiempsal reperitur. For the use of the present and perfect tenses of the indicative in the second part of a compound sentence, see note on Chap. CI. Prcecepit,-ut} expleant. The present depending on the perfect indefinite which is not common. See note Cat. XLI. Mulieris ancillae, 204, R. 1.

Page  289 JUGURTHINE WAR. 289 XIII. Ilium alterum, sc. Jugurtham. In provinciam, sc. Romanam. This province consisted of the former pots sessions of the Carthaginians. Iram ejus, i. e. populi Romani.-Ne cunctentur, sc. parare. Hospitibus aliisque-magna munera misere, ~ 225, IV. R. 2. Quorum pars, sc. nobilium, ~ 206, 11. Ubi satis confidunt, i. e. when they were confident of having secured a sufficient interest in the senate. Utrisque datur, i. e. legatis Jugurthe et Adherbalis. XIV. Si eafecissem, ~ 266, R. 4 & $ 270. R. 2, (b.) Quibus non egerim, ~ 266, 1. Vellem. A double construction here follows this verb. Neque mihi, ~ 211, R. 5, (1.) In manufuit, $ 202. III. R. 2, & 3. Jugurtha qualisfuit, $ 265. Ceteri reges,-familia nostra. Adherbal urges the disinterested character of Masinissa's friendship. In suis dubiis rebus, i. e. quum res suCe dubice essent. Fides ejus, sc. populi Romani. Quorum progeniem, sc. majorum, implied infamilia nostra, $ 206, 11. Ad impetrandum, sc. auxilium, ~ 275, III. R. 2, (3.) Tamen erat majestatis, ~ 259, R. 4, & ~ 211, R. & (3). Mihi erepta sunt, ~ 224, R. 2. Mea injuria, ~ 211, R. 3, (c.) In sanguine, ferro;fuga versabimur, $ 323, 1, (2). ilia pestis, sc. Carthaginienses. Quem vosjussissetis, sc. esse, i. e. haberi hostem. Intoleranda audacia, ~ 211, R. 6. Atque eodem, ~ 207, R. 27. Post, ubi me. The protasis ends at capere; exspectantem agrees with me understood; "he caused that I, expecting nothing less, &c., should be exiled," &c., ut ubivis, &c., " so that I should be safer anywhere," &c. Ut ubivis tutiis-essem. See Sum in Dictionary, for this use of the adverb. Quod infamilia nostra fait, prestitit, sc. id; "our family have done what was in their power." Tn omnibus bellis, especially in the wars against the Numantines and the Carthaginians. Tertium, sc.fratrem. Quem minime decuit, sc. ei vitam eripere. Quem relates to propinquus. Pars in crucem acti,;205, R. 3, (1.) Cum mcerore et luctu, ~ 247, 2. Adversafacta sunt, sc. quc, ~ 209, R. 2, (1), (b). Ex necessaries. Reference is here made both to his changed fortune and alienated friends, especially to Jugurtha, and necessariis is consequently neuter Nationesne. i. e. vicinas nationes.

Page  290 290 NOTES ON THE Hostilia monumenta, memorials of wars undertaken by the ancentors of Adherbal in aid of the Romans. Undc nobis occidendum, ~ 225, III. Una sc. cum imperio Romano. Dis volentibus, i. e. Deorum voluntate. Sociorum injurias, the objective genitive, ~ 211, R 2. Licet sc. vobis. Illud vereor, $ 207, R. 22.-Ne quos, see 2Nequzs in Dict. Fingere me verba, $ 270, R. 2, (b.) Quod utznam, $ 206, (14).- Videam, ~ 263, 1. Eadem hcec simulantem, "practising the same dissimulation," i. e. suffer ing evils as real as those I suffer. Unde minime decuit, sc. tuam viiam eripi. Non enim regnum, sed fiugam, exsilium, egestatem et mrumnas-amisist., zeugma, ~ 323, 1, (2). Rerum humanarum, " of human affairs," that is of their instability. Tuasne injurias, $ 211, R. 3, (c.) Cujus vitee; cujus relates to ego understood, the subject of consulam. Sucb a construction is unusual. Utinam emori, ~ 269; fortunis, S 211, R. 5; neu vzvere. Adherhal wishes for one of two things. See the next sentence. Per scelus et sanguinem familiae nostre. Familie limits sanguinem only. XV. Postquam rexfinem loquendifecit, ~ 259, R. 1. (2.) (d.) Quam causa, "than to the justice of their cause." Postquam superatius sit, S 266, 2.-Putarent, ~ 209, R. 11. Ante facta sua ponerent, S 208, (1.) & $ 266, R. 3. Utrique curia egrediuntur, i. e. Adherbal et Jugurthee legati. Slubveniendum Adherbali, ~ 209, R. 3, (3.) & ~ 239, R. 4.-For the omission of the agent, see ~ 225, III, R. 1. Xfmilius Scaurus. A high character is attributed to this nobleman by Cicero as well as by Valerius Maximus. Is postquam videt. The historical present occurs frequently in Sallust after postquam. VI. Vicit tamen, i. e. notwithstanding the oppcIttion of XEmilius Scaurus and others. Quwa consul,;. e. quia quum consulfuit. In plebem. Opimius had slain more than three thousand of the common people who had followed C. Gracchus. Quce pars, ~ 206, (3.)-Quam ustl, sc. potius. XVII. Res postulare videtur-exponere. The purpose after verbs signifing to request, demand, &c. is usually expressed by the subjunctive with ut, ~ 273, 2. Sed quce loca-de iis, ~ 206, (3,) & (a.)-Item, i. e. et item ob. Quam loca et nationes-.minusfrequentata sunt, ~ 205, R. 2, (2). Pauci tantummodo Asiam et Europam esse, sc. dzxerunt or voluerunt. Eajines habet, sc. Africa. Pronouns often relate, not to the nearest antecedent, but to that which is the principal object of attention in the senr tence. Fines, $ 230, R. 2. Arbore infecundus, ~ 250, 2, (1.)

Page  291 JUGURTHINE WAR. 291 Salubri corpore, see note on Varia victoria, chap. V. Interiere, i. e. solent interire or intereunt. The perfect often occurs in this sense. Habuerint,-accesserint,-permixti sint,' 265. XVIII. Multis sibi quisqhe imperium petentibus The regular construction would have required quoque instead of quisque, or quum, amisso duce, multi sibi quisque-imperium"peterent, $ 204, R. 10, last clause, & 209 R. 11. (4.) & Q 323, 3, (5). Eo numero, instead of eorum numero, $ 207, R. 20. Intra oceanum magis. Some explain this to mean "more within,' or " farther on this side of the ocean," i. e. in the Mediterranean, farther east than the colonies of Medes and Persians. Others with perhaps more probability, suppose intra oceanum magis to mean " farther out in the ocean," and mare magnum, to refer not to the wider parts of the Mediterranean, but to the Atlantic. On this latter supposition, the Persians must have settled at first on the shores of the Atlantic south of the straits of Gibraltar. Semet ipsi Numidas appellavere, $ 207, R. 28. Accessere Libyes, ~ 233. Sub sole magis, i. e. farther south. Hique mature oppida habuere, i. e. the Medes and Armenians. See note. Chap. XVII, on Eafines habet. Proxime Carthaginem, 235, R. (11.) QuCe-Numidia appellatur, $ 209, R. 9. Utrique alterisfreti, i. e. the two divisions of the Numidians, those who had originally settled intra oceanum magis, and who subsequently removed farther into the interior, and the colony which returned to the neighborhood of the sea, not far from Carthage. Africac pars inferior, the northern part of Africa, bordering upon the Mediterranean. XIX. Nam de Carthagine. Nam relates to something understood; as, "1 say nothing of Carthage," nam. Ad Catabathmon, "next to" or "after the Catabathmos." Secundo mari, "following the coast," i. e. towards the west. TherBen, —Philcenn, Greek genitives, instead of the usual Latin form in orum, $ 54, 4. Post aliea Punicca urbes, after post supply Philanon aras. Super Numidiam, "beyond Numidia," i. e. farther in the interior.Ethiopas, $ 80, I, and ~ 85, fxe. 2d. Fines Carthaginiensium, quos novissime habuerant, i. e. the territories possessed by the Carthaginians immediately before the destruction of their city. Cetera ignarus, ~ 234, II, & R. 2. Neque bello neque pace antea cognitus $ 247. XX. Regno diviso, $ 257, R. 5. The narrative is resumed from Chap. XVI. CTertum ratus, quod, $ 205, R. 9, & $ 206, (13.) Esse is to be supp.ied with certum; its subject being the clause, omnia Romwa venalia esse, t 239, RI4.

Page  292 292 NOTES ON THE Convertit, sc. se, ~ 229, R. 4. Injurias suas, ~ 211, R. 3, (c.) Neque se parem armis existimabat, ~ 230, R. 1. De injuriis qucestum misit, % 276, 1I. Suis animum-angere, $ 211, R. 5. 1. XXI. Eo processum, ~ 239, R. 3, & 209, R. 3, (2.) Utriusque consedit exercitus; sc. Adherbalis et Jugurtha. Tempus legatorum antecapere, i. e. tempus reditPs legatorum. Ubi plerumque noctis processit, ~ 259, R. 1, (2.) (d.) Senatus de bello eorum accepit, sc.famam, nuntium, &c. ~ 229, R. 4, 2. Velle et censere, sc. se, i. e Senatum populumque Romanum. Ita seque illisque dignumfore, i. e. itafacere et Romanis et regibus dignum fore. XXII. Quorum, Jugurtha, accepta oratione respondit, instead of quorum oratione, &c. Abjure gentium, i. e. in this place, the right of avenging injuries, which right belonged to every sovereign state. Sese, ~ 208, (1.) Ita utrique, sc. Jugurtha et legate Romani. XXIII. Africa decessisse, ~ 242, & ~ 268. Aut per vim aut dolis, $ 278, R. 2. Confirmat uti-pergerent, 258, 2, R. 1, (a.) XXIV. Litterce Adherbalis in senatu recitata, sc. sunt. The verb sum, especially as an auxiliary, is often to be supplied. Nisi tamen. See Diet. Nisi refers to plura de Jugurtha scribere dehortatur mefortuna mea: "this only I will write." Quintumjam mensem, 2 236, R. 2. Micipsac patris beneficia, i. e. his favors to Jugurtha. Etjam antea. Et sometimes introduces a ciause explanatory of a preceding one, and may be then translated " as,since." Antea expertus sum; see Chap. XVI. QuC sane fuerint, ~ 260, R. 3.-Unaforent, ~ 262, R. 4. XXV. Fuere, qui-censerent, 5 264, 6.-Censerent has here a double con struction, first with the accusative and infinitive, and then with the subt junctive, ~ 273, 3. Adherbali subveniendum, ~ 209, R. 3, (3), & ~ 239, R. 3. Ab Numidis obsecrati, i. e. by the Numidians sent to Rome with the letter of Adherbal, Chap. XXVIII. Ad provinciam accedat, sc. ut, an order being implied in litteras mittunt, 262, R. 4. Seque ad eum-missos, sc. dicentes, which also is implied in litteras nit tunt, ~ 272. Diducta manu hostium, i. e. dispersed to various parts of the wall, in con sequence of an attack being made on every side at the same time Quod oppugnatione non desisteret, $ 266, 3. X XVI. Italici. These appear to be the same persons who were previously called negotiatores and togati, including not only the Italici properly so called, but Roman citizens also.

Page  293 JUGURTHINE WAR.. 293 Defensabantur. Frequentatives are often used by Sallust instead of their primitives. Deditionefact,. The ablative absolute is here used instead of a c3nditional clause, " that should a surrender be made," 6 257, R. 1. Adherbalem excruciatum necat, —" after torturing," or "when he had tor. tured." The construction of the perfect passive participle is often owing to the want of a perfect participle of the active voice, ~ 274, 3. Utz quisque armatis obvius, sc. fuerat. X KVII. Agitari ccepta, sc. est, ~ 183, 2, N. 2. Sepe gratia, interduam jurgiis, " often by the exertion of their influence, sometimes by altercation." Leniebant. The imperfect here, as well as in some other places, denotes " striving" or " endeavoring" to do. Edocuisset id agi, —" that the plan was," or " that this was the design," 27i3, 1. XXVIII. Contra spem nuntio accepto, i. e. the intelligence respecting the dangers which threatened him. Prwacepit-aggrediantur. See Note on Pr&ecepit ut simulent. Cat. XLI. Quippe cui in animo halserat, ~ 211, R. 5, (1.) lique decrevere, synesis, ~ 323, 3, (4.) Deditum venissent, ~ 276, II. Legat sibi. The legati or lieutenants were chosen by the generals whom they were to assist, but the choice was confirmed by the senate. Homines nobiles, factiosos, O 205, R. 16. Siciliam-tranrsvecte, ~ 237, R. 5. XXIX. Assumitur Scaurus, see Chap. XV. Belli morar redimebat, "attempted to purchase." See Chap. XXVII, on Lenzebant. Dedttsonts mor&, ~ 253. Preesenti consilio, i. o. the council of war called by the Roman consul Locutus de invidia facti sui, viz. in putting to death Adherbal and the Italians, see Chap. XXVI. Locutus is here construed with the accusative, and also with a subjunctive clause. With the latter it has the sense of - asking, requesting, ~ 323, 1, (2.) Secreta transigit, instead of secreth, &c. ~ 205, R. 15. Calpurnius Romam. Scipio the colleague of Calpurnius was now dead. XXX. Quoque modo, for et quo modo. The accusative res, as well as the subjunctive clause, depends on the verb divulgavit -Acte forent, O 265. Agitari, for agitabatur, impersonally; "discussions were had." Parum constabat, sc. patribus or iis, "it was not clear to them," "they were at a loss." Supra diximus. See Chap. XXVII. XXXI. Dehorlantur, instead of dehortentur, this construction in the apodesis of a sentence is more common with past tenses than with the present, ~ 260, R. 4. The subjects of this verb in apposition with multa, ~204, R. 10 are singularly varied, including the clause qubd innocentiae, &c# 202, III. R. 2, & 3; and jus nullurn, in the sense of quad juas nulum est. Opes factionis, se. tnobilium.

Page  294 294 NOTES ON THE?znocentic& plus periculi-est, O 226. INam illa quidem. The three subsequent clauses are in apposition with illa. His annis quindecim, " for these fifteen years," i. e. last past. Quam ludibriofueritis, O 265. Quamfcede quamque inulti perierli. An adjective is here connected with an adverb. See O 205, R. 15,/ A 278. Vestri defensores, sc. the Graccti and others. Vobis animus, O 211, R. 5, (1.) Ab ignavia atque socordia corruptus, ~ 248, II, Note. Obnoxiis inimicis. The nobles were many of them liable to punishment for the part they had taken in respect to the affairs of Jugurtha. Quibus decet, sc. vos. Certe ego libertatem, ~ 209, R. 1, (b.) Quod scepe majores, O 206, 13.-Necesse est-eant, 5 262, R. 4. Sed sanefuerit,-jurefactum sit, t260, R. 3.-Plebi sua restituere, ~208, (7.) Superioribus antis. The author having in the preceding sentence grant ed, for the sake of argument, that the violence of the nobles in punish ing the adherents of the Gracchi might be justifiable, proceeds to enu inerate other injuries inflicted by them on the common people. Imperzo nati, 223, instead of the gerund, ad imperandum, denoting a purpose. Iidemque, "'and yet." See Dict. Pars eorum occidisse tribunos, quastiones injustas. Two constructions are united, ~ 229, R. 5, 2d par. Metum-transtulere, instead of metum a se sceleratis ad vos tgnavos trans. tulere. Eadem cupere, &c. ~ 269.-Sed hcac, sc. eadem cupere, &c. ~ 206, (10.) Quam illi ad dominationem accensi sunt, the regular construction of this clause, in order to correspond with the preceding one, would be, quam illi dominationis. Beneficia yestra, i. e. the offices and honors in the gift of the people. Quod magis vosfecisse, i. e. vindicasse in eos manu, &c. Verum quoastionibus, &c. sc. vindicandum est in eos. Et illa-tempora, sc. the times immediately subsequent to the death of the Gracchi. Quis vestrim, ~ 212, R. 2, N. 2, & 133, R. 3. Quantum importunitatis, instead of pro tanta importunitate, quantum, &c. " such is their inrsolence," ~ 226, (3), (a.) Faciendi licentia eripitur, i. e. male faciendi licentia illis eripitur. Id est regom esse, supply, eum or hominem, ~ 239, R. 3, & ~ 209, R. 3, (5), (a.) fin., & ~ 207, R. 22. Ut malitis, &c. i. e. I would not advise you to become so fond of punishing the evil, as to desire occasions for doing it, but only to exercise this power sufficiently for the protection of the good. Bonos perditum eatis, ~ 276, R. 2. Auxilii egeas, sc. bonorum. XXXII. Interpositafide publica, sc. for his safety.

Page  295 JUGURTHINE WAR. 295 Pecuni&- capte, ~ 274, R. 5. Fuere qui traderent. See Sum in Diet. Plurima etfiagitiosissima. For this use of et see Multus in Diet. —lel phantos, see Chap. XXIX, near the end. Alii —vendere, pars-agebant, ~209, R. 11. In this and other instances Sallust unites the present infinitive with the imperfect indicative, as of similar force, ~ 209, R. 5, Note 7.-Perfugas, sc. Numidicos. Dedidisset, ~ 266, 3. XXXIII.-Confirmatus ab omnibus. The sense requires tamen before confir matus, and with this the apodosis of the sentence begins. Cujus, i. e. ut ejus, ~ 264, 5. Contrajus et injurias omnes. Justice was even more formidable to Jugurtha than injustice. De hoste supplicium sumi, sc.jubebat, " that he should be put to death as a public enemy," 268, R. 3. Irce, magis consulens, sc. Memmius. Romve Numidiceque, S 221, R. 1. Quibus juvantibus, ~ 229, R. 5. Egerit, 265.-Intelligat, 266, 3.-Velle, sc. ilium, i. e. populum Romanum.-Fore, sc. se, ~ 239, R. 2. XXXIV. Terrebat eum, sc. tribunum, "tried to terrify him." See Chap. XXVII, on Leniebant. XXXV. Quoniam ex stirpe Masinissa sit, $ 266, 3.-Petat, ~ 262, R. 4. Invidti cum metu, i. e. public odium and his own fears, ~ 249, III. Massiva agitare coepit. The perfect indefinite is here, as in other passages of Sallust, followed by the historical present. Mala fama, i. e. the infamy consequent upon such a crime as the murder of Massiva. Maxime occulte, ~ 194, 6. -These words seem to be connected with Numidam interficiat, rather than with paret. Egressus, sc. extra urbe aut domo. Ex eo numero, qui, instead of ex eorum numero qui, i 207, R. 20, & $ 206, (11.) Ex cequo bonoque. By the law of nations the persons of ambassadors and of their attendants were inviolable. To bring Bomilcar to trial, therefore, was not strictly in accordance with this law. Regno magis. Before these words tamen is to be supplied, and with this the apodosis begins. Urbem venalem, ~ 238, 2. XXXVI. Ante comitia, quod tempus, ~ 206, (8.) Instanti, sc. Albino. Acfuere qui-existimarent, ~ 264, 6. X XXVII. Totius anni comitia. Not only the election of tribunes, but that of all the other magistrates, was delayed. Potiundi, ~ 162, 20. XXXVIII. Imperitia legati, i. e. of Aulus. Ita deltta, i. e. of Aulus and of his army. Before ita delicta, supply dixit, 1 270, R. 2, (b.) 26

Page  296 296 NOTES ON THE Occulttora, " would be better concealed," i. e. from the senate an., ~' people. The object of Jugurtha was to render treason in the i s.of Aulus easy by rendering it difficult of detection. Corrumpere for corrumpebat. On this transfugerent and desererer:. pend. Confirmare. See the note on Leniebant. Chap. XXVII. Trepidare; the historical infinitive. Sed ex eo numero, quos. See note Chap. XXXV. on Ex eo numero, qui. Paucis gregariis militibus, ~ 205, R. 16, (c.) Nox atqueprceda-remorata sunt, $ 205, R. 2, (2.) Fameferroque clausum. Zeugma, the participle being properly connected withferro only, $ 323, 1, (2.) Tenet. In the oratio obliqua the indicative is employed to denote the certainty of the thing in the mind of the author, in distinction from a fact resting upon the assertion or opinion of another. Uti-decederet, S 273, 2, & 3. A verb of requiring or commanding is implied in verbafacit. XXXIX. Timere libertati, "were apprehensive for their liberties," i. e. they feared lest the state should become the prey of its enemies Infesti, sc. era,.. Ab sociis et nomine Latino. The socii are the same as the 11alici, i. e. all the Italians except the Latins. Utiparfuerat. The pluperfect is here used instead of the imperfect to denote that which had long been, and still was. Uli convenerat, " as had been agreed," i. e. in the treaty between Aulus and Jugurtha. Cognitis militibus. Supply tamen, with which the apodosis will begin. XL. In legationibus aut imperils. Aulus the lieutenant of Albinus, Scaurus the lieutenant of Calpurnius Bestia, and Calpurnius himself were especially aimed at by this law. Per amicos, ~ 247, R. 4.-Odio nobilitatis, ~ 247, R. 2. Cui mala illa, sc. prosecutions, banishments, &c. Supra docuimus. See Chaps. XXVIII & XXIX. XLI. Rerum, quaprinsa, ~ 206, (11.). The general idea of things is denoted either by neuter adjectives or by res. Here both constructions are united. Metus hostilis, ~ 211, R. 4, (a.) Asperius acerbiusque, sc. rebus adversis. Repcrti sunt, qui anteponerent, ~ 264, 6. The Gracchi are especially intended. See the next chapter. XLII. Quorum majores. The paternal ancestors of the Gracchi had ren dered important services to the state, especially in the Punic wars, and on their mother's side they were descended from the elder Scipio Africanus. Spes societatis, i. e. of alliance with the nobles. Tribunum alterum, sc. Tiberium. Triumvirum coloniis deducendis, sc. Caium, ~ 275, IIL R. 2, (2.) Sed bono mnci satins est, etc. Bono, sc. homini. This remark is understood by some commentators as a censure upon the Gracchi, by others

Page  297 JUGURTUINE WAR. 297 as a reflection upon the nobles, on account of the unlawful and violent means resorted to by each for accomplishing their purgoses. Ferro autfitga exstinxit, slew or banished, ~ 323, 1, (2.) Timoris. The fear felt by the nobility, not that inspired by them. Acerbius ulcisci, O 256, R. 9, (a.) Parem disserere, O 261, R. 3. XLIII. Alia omnia, sc. mnlnera, " all the duties" of the consulship. Sibi cum collega, sc. ege, —" belonged jointly to him and to his colleague. While Metellus carefully assisted his colleague in all the joint duties of their office, he considered the care of the war in Numidia as devolving especially upon himself. Reges ultro auxilia mittere, i. e. the kings in alliance with the Romans. Proconsulis. Albinus is here called proconsul, because he continued for some time to perform the duties of a consul as commander in chief of the army in Africa after the expiration of his year, while waiting the arrival of the new consul. XLIV. Predator ex sociis, 6 211, R. 2, (d.) Majorum discipline, ~,)49, II. Non egredi provinei.. See Chap, XXXIX, at the end. Quan,.l. temporis acstivorum in imperiofuit; " as mucL;,of the time of the campaign as he continued in command." Palantes, sc. milites. Frumentum publice datum. Corn was usually distributed to the soldiers every month; to each foot-soldier a little more than one bushel of our measure. XLV. Tantl temperanti&. The construction is here interrupted, but tanta relates to the following paragraphs, not less than it would have done, had they been made to depend upon ut, instead of namque. Ignavie sustulisse, sc. comperior. Ne quisquam, sc. dicens or edicens, " ordering," implied in edicto, ~ 273, 2, 3d par. Quem alium, i. e. aliquem alium. SeeAlius in Diet. Ceteris, to other irregularities or indulgences. Art$, "1 strictly," but some consider it as the ablative of ars, " by skill or contrivance, wisely." XLVI. Certiorfactus Rom&, S 255. Qui-ipsi liberisque vitam peterent, ~ 208, (4.) Legatos, alium abaliisdiversos,-separate one from the other. Alium, sc. diversum. Qua ex voluntate, sc. regis-Forent, ~ 266, 1. Intento atque infesto exercitu, Q 249, III, Remark. Ostentui, sc. esse. Insidiis locum tentari, sc. ab Jugurtha or ab hostibus. Propulsarent, sc. eos, i. e. equitatus. Pacem an bellurn gerens, ~ 323, 1, (2.) XLVII. Huc consul, simul tentandi gratia, etc. The true reading is heze doubtful, and the sense uncertain. Those who adopt the reading in the text interpret it as follows, " Here the consul, both for the purpose of

Page  298 298 NOTES ON THE enticing (the inhabitants) to revolt, and on account of the advantageouness of the place, if they would suffer (themselves to be thus enti'r d; placed a garrison." Id quod res monebat, $ 207, R. 22, & 206, (13.), (b.) Etjamparatis rebus, i. e. the supplies of provisions, &c. previously provided (for the army.) Munimento fore, "would be a preservative," " would help to preserve' lMetello dedere,-" surrendered," i. e. offered or sought to surrender. See note on leniebant, Chap. XXVII. XLVIII. Urbs maxima, sc. Vacca. Quam Adherbal in divisione (sc. regni) possederat. See chap. XVI. Quwa humi arido,' 205, R. 9. XLIX. Extenuata suorum acie, ~ 205, R. 7, N. 1. QuaE ageret, $ 265. Propior montem, ~ 235, R. 11. Turmas atque manipulos See note, Chap. XII. Monet atque obtestatur. The subjunctive, defendant, may depend upon either of these verbs;the accusatives with the infinitive, certamen fore; and ducem non animum mutatum can refer only to monet. Subjugum miserint..See Chap. XXXVIII. Quce ab imperatore decuerint, sc. provideri. Omnia suis provisa. A double construction, the infinitive and accusative, and the subjunctive with uti. Parati-essent, $ 266, 2, R. 1. Locum superiorem, sc provisum esse. Pecunia aut honore extulerat. Zeugma, S 323, 1, (2.) Conspicatur, sc. eos, i. e. hostes. Humilitate arborum, i. e propter humilitatem arborum. See note on reipublicce magnitudine. Cat. XXXI. Agmen constituit, sc. Metellus. Incerti, quidnam esset. Incerti agrees with Numida. Quidnam esset, instead of quidnam essent, the verb agreeing with the predicate nominative, - 209, R. 9. Quidnam is in the neuter to denote the uncertainty attending the appearance, ~ 205, R. 7. (2.) Ipsi atque signa-obscurati, ~ 205, R. 2, (3.) Pauca-milites hortatus, ~ 231, R. 5. L. Et quoniam armis diffiderent, ~ 266, 3. Principesfacti erant. Principes is not to be understood here of the rank of soldiers called principes, but simply of the troops in front. Primos suos, i. e. the left wing of Jugurtha's army, or that nearest to the mountain. DuLim militum, ~ 118, 1, R. 1. Ipst mnoda, i. e. ipsi soli. Ita numero priores, sc. Numtdce. Hostes deterrere, sc. Romanos. Hostis is continually used by Sallust not in reference to the opponents of the Romans only, but of that party who ever it may be which happens to be the subject of discourse. Consueti, i. c. accustomed to such places.

Page  299 JUGURTHINE WAR. 299 LI. Dispersi, sc. milites Romani. Arma tela. See note on Cat. 11, bonus ignavus. Eorum, sc. militum Romannorum, implied in cohortes legionarias, ~ 206, k11.) Quum etiam turn eventts in incerto erat. The imperfect and pluperfect indicative after quum are of rare occurrence in Sallust. The historical present and grf.ect indefinite of the indicative mood, and likewise the historicalinfinitive after quum are of frequent occurrence in the apodosis of a sentence. Superioribus lois. The abl. of place without a preposition, ~ 254, R. 3, med. Orare, i. e. orabat, sc. Metellus.-Ne deficerent, $ 273, 2. Neque illis castra esse, i. e. Romanis. llis; in the oratio directa, vobis, See Ille in Diet. LII. Etjam die vesper erat, $ 90, Exc. 2. Adverso colle-evadunt, ~ 254, R. 3, med. - Tutata sunt. The participle is here neuter, although both of the nominatives are feminine and in the singular number.-Prcefectum, sc. esse. In cequumlocum, i. e. in planitiem. See Chap. XLVIII LIII. AEquabilem, sc. pulverem. Imperabatur, sc. illis. Auxilium, sc. esse. Obviam procedunt, sc. Metello. Nihil languidi neque remissi, $ 212, R. 3, N. 3. Admissum, sc. erat, $ 259, R. 4. Facinus miserabile, sc. an engagement between the two divisions of the Roman army. LIV. Quatriduo moratus. The ablative denoting duration of time is not of very common occurrence, $ 236.-Cum cura,. 247, 2. - More, ~ 249, I. QueB levia sunt. The writer has here made the reason given by Metellus his own, and has accordingly employed the indicative, not the subjunctive mood, 6 266, 3, 2d clause..Sua quisque, t 279, 14. Agit gratias, sc. iis referring to universos. Two verbs belonging to the same subject, but requiring different cases after them, are frequently connected in such a manner, that the case depending on one of them is expressed, and that of the other is to be supplied. Gerant, ~ 262, R. 4. Satis jam pugnatum, sc. ab illis, $ 184, 2, & 248, R. 1. Tamen, i. e. though Metellus represented the war as virtually ended," still.' Uti sese victus gereret. Uti, i. e. quomodo. Agri ac pecoris magis quam belli cultorem, ~ 323, 1, (2.) Id ea gratia eveniebat. Id relates to the clause cogebat exercitum, $ 206, (13) Geri non posset,' 26~, 3. —E formidine, ~ 207, R. 20. Sequi cogebatur, sc. is. This omission of is occurs not unfrequently in Saliust. For the usual construction, see ~206, (3), (a). Romanos palantes, i. e. eos Romanos qui palabantur. LV. Ut seque-gereret. This and the following subjunctive clauses are in apposition with rebus, 204, R. 9; & ~ 257, R. 8. 26

Page  300 300 NOTES ON THE Victor tamen Tamen relates to quamquam implied in the pL d es, ii.?, verso loco. Niti-festinare; historical infinitives. Effuso exercitu predari, ~ 249, III, Remark. So, Chap. LVI -; 1, circumvenit. LVI. Ratus, id quod, ~ 206, (13), (b.) Hortatur mania defendant, ~ 262, R. 4. Quod genus ex copiis regis, ~ 212, R. 2, N. 4. Quiafallere nequibat. The deserters from the Roman army fearing to fall into the hands of the Romans, would, for their own sakes, be faithful to Jugurtha. Stccam-quod oppidum, ~ 206, (8.) Post malam pugnam, sc. near the river Muthul. Chaps. 50-53. Si idfecerint-sese ctatem acturos. In this sentence the tenses are tile same as they would have been in the oratio directa, the persons of the verbs only are changed. Si idfeceritis-ego etatem agam. Illos in libertate. Illos in the change from the directa to the obliqua is used for vos, i. e. Siccenses: So, fortunam illis. Hostes urgent, i. e. Romani. LVII. Marius ad Zamam, $ 237, R. 2. Cuncta mcenia, a pleonastic expression for mania alone. See Mania in Diet. Exercitu circumvenit, ~ 249, III, Remark. Ubi quisque curaret, ~ 265. Pari periculo, aedfama impari-erant, 247. LVIII. 3fagna pars vulnerati, ~ 205, R. 3. Sin Numida propius accessissent. Sin is opposed to tela eminus missa. Accessissent, ~ 260, I. Non amplius quadraginta, ~ 256, R. 6. Propere-statim, " speedily-immediately." The proper use of these adverbs denotes that Marius was first sent, and that the cavalry followed as soon as possible. LIX. Portas, sc. castrorum.-Proxima loca, sc. portis. In angustiis, sc. portarum. Qui in proximo, i. e. those whose station was nearest to Jugurtha, as he advanced to the attack. Ni pedites, sc. Numidarum. Cladem facerent. The imperfect subj. is here equivalent to the English form, "had made and continued still to make." Quibus illifreti. Quibus, sc. peditibus. Illi, sc. equites; illi referring to the last antecedent on account of the relative quibus, see Ille in Diet. Expeditis peditibus suis,' 247, R. 4, mred. Hostes pene victos, sc. Romanos. LX. Ubi quisque-eo acerrime niti. Eo and ubi are here used like a relative and demonstrative pronoun, and are equivalent to in quo loco-in eo Niti, sc. Romani milites. Oppugnare aut parare. Some refer th6 former verb to the besiegers and the latter to the besieged; and others, connecting them to agere, apply them to the besieged only.

Page  301 JUTGURTHINE WAR. 301.')i::..'s. sc Romani.-Animadverteres, Gr. ~ 260, II. hVtiw',hw:s —.tela, ~233, R. 2, Note. Df'fiid nitai rei, i. e. of taking the city by force.''e:,o So,,.;.,,~ 211, R. 12. une arqute uicrz scala?, $ 118, 2, R. 2. Magna pars confecti, ~ 205, R. 3. LXI. Frustra inceptum, sc. esse. Ab Zama discedit; i. e. from the neighborhood of Zama. This is implied in the use of the preposition. Quc ad se defecerant, instead of quc ad eum, etc. ~ 208, (6.); (b.) In provinciam, sc. Romanam, into that part of the Roman province which bordered upon Numidia. Sua omnia, " all his effects" which had been forfeited by his crime; see Chap. XXXV. LXII. Ubiprimum opportunum fuit, sc. tempus. Monet atque obtestatur, uti provideat, ~ 273. 2.-Liberis. The children of Jugurtha are again mentioned, Chap. LXXV, & LXXVI. Sese. In oratio directa, nos. —Victos, sc. esse, ~ 270, R. 2, (b.) Caveat. In oratio directa, cave or caveto, the imperative being changed in the oratio obliqua into the subjunctive, $ 266, 2, R. 1, (b.) Facturum (esse), ac tradere are properly connected; the former denoting what he will at all times thereafter do, the latter what he now does. Cunctos senatorii ordinis, ~ 212, R. 2, N. 6, & ~ 205, R. 12, (c.) More majorum. The custom here alluded to is that of being directed by the opinion of a council of war. Ad imperandum, ~ 275, I, R. 2. " to be directed, i. e. to receive orders or directions." Although the gerund may sometimes be translated passively, it is probably always active in its signification, referring to an indefinite subject understood. Omnia bello potiora duceret. For the omission of esse, see note on Posteriores se vident, Chap. LXXIX. LXIII. Agitabat. For the reason of the ind. mood, see note on Quoa do. mum Catilina frequentabat, Cat. XIV. Ageret, in oratio directa, agas, or age. See note on caveat, LXII. Alia omnia abunde erant. See Dict. article Sum. Animus belli ingens, domi modicus, ~ 221, R. 3. Per omnes tribus declaratur, sc. tribunus, ~ 210, R. 3, (3), (b.) Etiam turn alios magistratus plebes, sc. habebat or gerebat, implied by Zeugma in per manus tradebat. LXIV. Optanda bonis, $ 225, III. Primum, connect with mirari and monere. Commotus insolita re,-" by the novelty of the thing." An adjective, like a perfect participle, is sometimes used instead of an abstract noun, ~ 274, R. 5. So Res trepidcs, metus ingens, malum improvisum. J. 91. Debere illi res suas satis placere, ~ 209, (7). For the use of ille in the oratlo obliqua. see Ille in Dict. Postguam hcc-dixit, neque animus Mariiflectitur, two constructions, the

Page  302 302 NOTES ON THE perfect and historical present, depending on the same particle, posquam. See 1st note on Cat. XX Potuisset, O 266, R. 4. Nefestinaret. In oratio directa, nefestina or nefesttnes, $ 266,2, R. 1, (b.) Cumfilio suo, ~ 208, (1). Annos natus circiter viginti, by the Roman law a consu:. as required to be at least forty-three years old. Accenderat. The tense of this verb refers to that of the following verbs grassari, etc. Quod modo ambitzosumforet, ~ 263, 2. Criminose, has reference to Metellus: magnifice, to Marius. Sibi permitteretur, sc. si, so in English, " were half the army entrusted to him." Habiturum, sc. se, $ 239, R. 1. Ab imperatore consulto trahi, sc. bellum or res. LXV. Uti sellam juxta poneret, sc. sellam Metelli. —Poneret, sc. Gauda. Petenti is followed first by a clause and then by a noun in the accusative, Eorum modoforet, sc. honos, " it belonged to those only," ~ 266, 3 Contumeliosumforet, sc. in equites Romanos. Equites Romanos, milites et negotiatores, ~ 204, R. 10 Sic illi, referring to Marium. See lle in the Dictionary. Novos extollebat, sc. homines. LXVI. Omissa deditione. See the end of Chap. LXII. Cum magnk curA, ~ 247, 2. e Et eos ipsos, i. e. Romanos ipsos. Igitur Vaccenses, quo,-" where" instead of quibus, " among whom," ~ 224. Principes civitatis. In the course of this period the author has changed the subject of conjurant, from Vaccenses, with which he began, to principes, ~ 323, 3, (5). Domos suas, ~ 237, R. 4, Note, (a.) In tali die. In is used with nouns denoting time when they are employed to mark, not merely the time, but the condition of things then existing. See In in Dict. Sine imperzo, "without control." Tumultus ipse. See Ipse in Dict. LXVII. Improviso metu, on account of the suddenness of the alarm. See note on commotus insolita re, Chap. LXIV. Presidium hostium, sc. erat. Caveri, sc. posse, i. e. poterat.-Resisti posse. These verbs are used impersonally, $ 209, R. 3, (6.) Obtruncari, i. e. obtruncabantur.-Scevissimis Numidis, ~ 257, R. Z Misericordiane hospitis, an pactione, ~ 265, R. 2. Parum comperimus, nisi, i. e. nisi hoc comperimus, "only I am certain of this.' that whereas be preferred a dishonorable life, &c., he appears infamous and detestable. LXVIII. Ubi ira et cegritudo permixta sunt. His first feelings were those of grief, with these anger was soon mingled.

Page  303 JUGURTHINE WAR. 303 i'on a 7:Tr mille passuum abesse. MiUe is in the acc., ~ 236: see also?2 I?.ft b. prima, s~. loco or agmine, "in front." LJYX' -,a.t cos, sc. esse.-Jugurtham, sc. esse. uncia Y.pnp out prcedafufuit, —" served for," i. e. " was wholly given up to puriiMhhrit;A plunder," $ 227, R. 2. Nam is civis ex Latio erat. The Porcian law was expressly limited in its operation to Roman citizens. See Porcius in Dict. IXX. Quam metu deseruit. See Chap. LXII.-Ejus, sc. regis. Omnia tentando, " in resorting" or "< while resorting to every expedient." Utriusque consilio, sc. Bomilcqris et Nabdalsae. Uti res poscerit, ~ 26J,1 2. Hiberna Romanorumjussus, sc. a. Jugurth&. Inultis hostibus, ~ 257, R. 7. Timore socii anxius; the subjective genitive denoting the fear felt by his associate, 211, R. 2; timore, i. e. timoris causa, or propter timorem. Per quos juravisset,. 266, 3. Reputaret, ~ 266, 2, R. 1, (b.) In oratio directa reputes or reputa Ceteritm su8ne, i. e. Nabdalsme. LXXI. Uti egrum animum solet, sc. capere. Somnus cepit, sc. eum, i. e. Nabdalsam. Super tali scelere su.pectum, ~ 213, R. 4, (4). LXXII. Quos socios insidiarum cognoverat, sc. esse. Iram oppresserat. The author assigns this reason for the life of Nab. dalsa being preserved, that Jugurtha, after putting to death Bomilcar and many others, had smothered his resentment. LXXIII. Sibi parum idoneum, sc. esse, "unserviceable to him, or unsuited to his service." The reason is contained in the words, simul et invisum et offensum. Litteris-cognitis, see Chap. LXV. Volenti animo de ambobus acceperant, "with ready mind received (what was written) respecting both." In utroque, "in regard to each," i. e. Metello et Mario. Bona aut mala sua, i. e. plebis. Moderata, sc. sumt, "governed," "influenced," sc. plebem. Seditiosi magistratus, sc. tribuni plebis. Post multas tempestates, " after a long time." See Chap. LXIII, near the end. Ea res, i. e. this decree of the senate. LXXIV. In tanta perfidia. See In in Diet. Amorum aliquanto numero, hostium paucorum potiti. Two constructions here follow potiti, ~ 245, I, & 220, 4. LXXV. EA fugi, i. e. propter eamfugam, "in consequence of" Thesauri-cultus erat, ~ 209, R. 12, (3J Quam plurimum potest domiti pecoris, ~ 212, R. 3 Eb imponit, instead of ei pecori, " upon these.' Quisque aqueportaret, ~ 262, R 4. Quamproximam, $ 206, (10.)

Page  304 304 NOTES ON THE Qub Numidis prceceperat, sc. veniant. In nova deditione. See In tanta peridi&. Chap. LXXIV. LXXVI. Nihiljam infectum. Participles of the perfect tense when they become adjectives, and adjectives derived from perfect pmrtlciples are, not unfrequently, used in the sense of adjectives in bilis; as here, znfectus impracticable; J. 43, invictus, invincible; J. 91, coercitus-, restrainable-, J. 2, incorruptus, incorruptible. Quippe qui omnia, arma, tela, etc. ~ 204, R. 10. Locos, places; in which sense loca is more common. Ceteris, sc. hominibus or ducibus Ceterum, "but, i. e. but in fact.' Quam vitare posse celeritate putabat, sc. se,' 239, R. 2 Post dies quadraginta quam, $ 253, R. 1, Note 3. LXXVII. Capta Thal&, ~ 274, R. 5. Hamilcarem quemdam, $ 273, 3, (b.) Novis rebus, " a revolt," i. e. from the Romans. Hominem nobilem,factiosum. Asyndeton, $ 323; 1, (1), & $ 205, R. 16, (b.) Suam salutem, sc. Leptitanorum, $ 208, (1). Ilorum socios, i. e. by synesis, ~ 323, 3, (4) Romanorum. Societatemque rogatum, ~ 276, II. Deinde, ubi ea, sc. amicitia societasque, ~ 205, R. 7, (2). LXXVIII. In extrema Africa, (~ 205, R. 17,) i. e. towards the eastern extremity. Proxima terre, "the parts nearest the land." Alia in tempestate, " at another time." See In in Dict. Leges cultusque pleraque, $ 212, R. 3, N. 4. Procul ab imperio regis, "they were remote from the dominion of the king," i. e. the king of Numidia, "far from the seat of government," and consequently were permitted to enjoy their own laws. Some however interpret it, "far from regal government." LXXIX. Per Leptitanorum negotia, "on account of"-. Earn rem nos locus admonuit, $ 218, R. 1, & ~ 231, R. 5. Qu& tempestate. When the antecedent would be in the same case as the relative it is often omitted, ~ 206, (3) Una specie, ~ 211, R. 6. Quifines eorum discerneret, ~ 264, 7. Nomen Philenis erat,, 204, R. 8, (a.)-Hutno excitavit, ~ 255, R. 1. Morari iter, sc. solet. Posteriores se vident, sc. esse, which is usually omitted after video and after verbs of saying,judging, &c. So at the beginning of this chapter, non indignum videtur. Criminari Carthaginienses-digressos sc., " accused the Carthagmians of having left home before the time," 2239, R. 5, & 217, R. 5, (a.) Ctnturbare rem, sc. Cyrenenses, ~ 209, R. 5. Greeci, i. e. the Cyrenians, who were a Grecian colony. Vel illi, in the oratio obliqua. See Ille in Dict. Ibi, i. e. in zisfinibus or locis. Quem in locum vellent, sc. essefines populo suo, i. e. Cyrenensibus

Page  305 JUGURTHINE WAR. 305 LXX A 4Z-.t.~ FiCt, se. eum..:g:;:i eplius, i. e. "by so much the more," as they surpassed other 7L XXi{. kH(rsr. -, ~ 270, R. 2, (b.) Quis omnia regna adversa sint. Adversa is here used passively, and in like manner hostem at the close of the sentence. Turn sese, sc. Romanis hostem esse.-Paulo ante Cartkaginienses sc.,fuisso Aliis talibus dictis, ~ 205, R. 16, (c.) Ad Cirtam oppidum. A proper name denoting a town, river, or mountain, usually follows the appellatives oppidum,flumen and mons. Ita Jugurtha ratus. For this use of ita, see Ita in Dict. Si Romanus, sc. imperator. A patrial noun is often thus used to denote a leader or commander belonging to that nation. Sese, sc. Jugurtham et Bocchum. LXXXII. Copiam facit, sc. regibus. Cognitis Mauris; i. e. quum _Mauros cognovisset. Nam consulem factum, sc. eum. Alii bonum ingenium, sc. censebant or dicebant, which are implied in vertebant. Qudd jam parta victoria ex manibus eriperetur. This clause has the same relation to accensum esse as the ablative contumeli&.-Ex manibus eripe. retur, ~ 266, 3. Injuria su&, ~ 211, R. 3, (c.) Laturumfuisse, ~ 268, R. 5.-Traderetur, ~ 260, II. R. 2, fin. LXXXIII. Stultities videbatur, sc. esse, ~ 211, R. 8, (3). Alienam rem, sc. Marii. —Periculo sub. Suo relates to illi understood, ~ 208, (3.) Hostispopulo Romano, $ 211, R. 5. Incipere cuivis-licere. Incipere is here the subject of licere, $ 269, R. 3, and cuivis depdnds on licere. Deponi, sc. bellum. Deponi like sumi depends on dixit understood. Ille probare, sc. Bocchus. See Ille in Dict. LXXXIV. Multus atqueferox, ~ 205, R. 15. Consulatum ex victis illis spolia cepisse, ~ 230, R. 2. A populis et regibus, i. e. from subject states and kings out of the limits of Italy.-Sociis, sc. Italicis. Fam& cognitos, sc. _Mario. Neque plebi militia volenti (esse) putabatur. A Greek idiom equivalent to neque plebs militiam velle putabatur.-Et Marius, sc. putabatur, ~ 271, R. 2. Sese quisque-trahebant. Two constructions here follow trahebant, $ 272, & $ 229. Non paulium. The figure Litotes, ~ 324, 9. Omnibus-decretis, sc. by the senate. LXXXV. Scio ego, $209, R. 1, (b.) - Iisdem artibus-gerere. The clause et gerere may be translated before the other,-" that most men, after they have obtained power, do not administer it in the same manner in which they sought to obtain it from you."

Page  306 306 NOTES ON THE Mitht contra ea vmdetur. "It seems to me otherwise,:' or " the opposite to this appears to me proper." Illam administrari debere, sc. mihi videtur. Cum maximo beneficio vestro, "in connexion with the highest office in your gift," sc. the consulship.-Sustineam, O 265. Quos nolis offendere, O 209, R. 7, (a.) &. 264, 1. Et ea agere. Et has here the force of 1" and what is more." Omnia hcecpresidia adsunt, ~ 227, R. 2, & 3. —.V7ihi, O 211, R. 5, (1.) Nam alia, sc. nobilitas, majorumfactafortia, &c., infirma sunt (milt), i. e. " in other things," as nobility, &c., "I am weak." Et illud intelligo, O 207, R. 22.-Favere, sc. mihi. Locum invadendi, sc. me et vos, qui mihifavetis. Ut neque vos capiamini, sc. ab illis, that they may not get the advantage of you. La/bores, pericula, Asyndeton, ~ 323, 1. (1). Ita —fu, for talisfui.-Ad hoc eatatis, Q 212, R. 3. Ante vestra beneficia. See above, Cum maximo beneficio vestro. Non est consilium, sc. mihi. Uti deseram, ~ 273, 1. Per ambitionem, " on account of"-. Num id mutari; id. i. e. your choice of me as leader in the war against Jugurtha.-Sit, S 265. I'llo globo nobilitatis. The term globus is used to denote the close union of the faction of the nobles. Scilicet ut; ironically, "so that forsooth." Coeperint, Q 264, 1, (b.) Nam gerere quamfieri tempore posterius, re atque usu przus est. "To exeZute is in point of time subsequen. to being elected (to an office,) but really and practically it is antecedent." The expression is rendered designedly paradoxical by the use of gerere without an accusative expressed. In the first clause, gerere. quam fieri tempore posterius (est) magistratum or the like is to be supplied; and the clause imports that the discharge of the duties of an office is subsequent to one's election to such office; but in the second clause, gerere quam fieri re atque usu prius est, rem or the like is to be supplied with gerere, and the. meaning is, that one must be practised in affairs before he is qualified for election to an office, or, in other words, that experience is a necessary qualification for office. Comparate nunc cum illorulm superbia me ho/minem novum. The Latin idiom often permits a comparison to be made, not only between two persons, or the properties or actions of two persons, but between a person and an attribute or action of another person; " me and the pride of these men," instead of, 1" me and these proud men." Facta an dicta. Beforefacta an or num is to be supplied. See An in Dict. Sedfortzssimum. Sed in this passage, following quamquam, appears to. have the sense of tamen, " still, notwithstanding." Ac sijam quaeri posset, ~ 261, 1. Faciant idem majoribus suis, 1250, R. 3. Hujusce rei, sc. majorum gloria.-Id quod multo, ~ 206, (13,) (b.)

Page  307 JUGURTHINE WAR. 307 Peperisse, sc. meA virtute.-Acceptam, sc. a majoribus. Si jam mihi respondere velint, 9 261, 2. In maximo vestro beneficio. See above Cum maximo beneficio vestro. Vera, sc. oratio.-Bene prcedicet, Q 262, R. 4. Vestra consilia-gui, O 206, (12). IHastas, sc. puras. Hcl sunt mecw imagines, hac nobilitas, $ 206, (10). Relicta, 9 205, R. 2, N. 1Ut illa, sc. imagines, triumphi et consulatus majorum. Ad virtutem doctoribus nihitprofuerunt. By doctoribus is meant the Grecian nation in generalai4 had received from their literature no such addition to their prowess, as to prevent the conquest of their country by the Romans. Gloriam meam is the predicate accusative, but placed before the subject for emphasis, 210, & l 279, 16. Id est, O 209, R. 3, (5), (a.) fin. - Dominum esse, sc. te, O 239, R. 2. Seque remque publicam, l 278, R. 7. Double connectives occur frequently in Sallust in sentences resembling this. See Cat. IX & XXXVI, & J. XXI & LXXIX. Quc licebat-neque poterant. With each of these verbs supply relinquere. Coquum quam villicum7habeo. Habeo does not here signify to value, but " to have," " pogss," "'own." Ubi-ibi. See Dict. Metus ccperit, $0, R. 6, 2d clause and (b.), and ~ 278, R. 3. Idem, "at once."-Quce si, " but even if this." See Qui in Diet. LXXXVI. Hujuercemodi oratione. See note'on hujuscemodi in Cat. LI. Reipublicac subvenire decebat, 9 259, R. 4. Non more majorum. The anciel -istom here alluded to, was to summon the people to the Campus Martius, and having called them by centuries. to select from each such as were fit for military service. Ex classibus. The classes here intended are the first five, who alone were obliged to serve in war, as the sixth class, the capite censi, were by law excused, and in respect to military service were not considered as a class. Uti cLjusque libido. From this it appears that the levy made by Marius consisted of such as voluntarily enlisted. Inopia bonorum, sc. hominum,-" of the better classes." LXXXVII. At reges,'sc. Jugurtha and Bocchus.'. LXXXVIII. Ex sociis, i. e. ex agro socierum. Armis exuerat. Jugurtha had fled leaving his arms behind him. Quea postquam gloriosa modo-cognovit, "but after he had found that these things-." See Qui in Dict.-Gloriosa modo, sc. esse. Neque belli patrandi, "and not to tend to the terminating of the war," 275, III, R. 1, (5). See also 211, R. 8, (3.) Viris aut loco-opportunissimca, $ 250. Pta Jaugrtham, supply putavit or some verb of similar signification, implied in statuit. Nudatum. The sense requires us to consider nudatum as a supine with iri understood, forming a future infinitive passive, but such an ellipsis is unusual. 27

Page  308 308 NOTES ON THE Nam Bocchus. Nam serves to explain the difference made by Marius in his treatment of Jugurtha and Bocchus. Vellepopulz Romani amicitiam, sc. se, O 239, R. 2, & 5 270, R. 2, (b.) Ne quid ab se hostile timeret, t 273, 3.-Solitus, sc. sit. LXXXIX. Aggredi tempus,' 270, R. 1. Tempus, i, e. opportunum tempus. Apud Jugurtham, "under the government of Jugurtha."-Immuncs so erant. Levt imperio, ~ 211, R. 6.-Ejus, sc. oppidi.-Potiundi, ~ 162, 20. Cetera pluvici, sc. aqua, " the rest of the water which they use is rain wa ter," or, "for the rest they use rain water." Id ibique, i. e. this scarcity of water, O 206, (13). Quc procul a mari incultius agebate The predicate here applied to Africa is strictly applicable not to the country, but to its inhabitants. XC. lIgitur consul. The verb of the predicate is exornat. Quod cumque, sc.frumenti. XCI. Castris levi munimento, ~ 211, R. 6. Capere depends on jubet, and egrederenturonparatos esse. Onerare is connected by et understood to paratos esse. Proxima-tertia, sc. nocte. Et cum his. His refers by synesis to equitatum, ~ 323, 3, (4). Aditu difficilis, ~ 276, III. XCII. Locupletes, sc. prced&. Ad ccelumferre, sc. Marium. Socii atque hostes. The socii here spoken of appear to have been the inhabitants of the Roman province in Africa, which comprehended the former possessions of the Carthaginians. Ac plerisque, " and most (of them) too." See Atque in Diet. Nonl eadem asperitate, " not equally perilous," " not attended with equal danger," ~ 211, R. 6. Qua' Capsensium. Capsensium depends on res understood, for which in English the pronoun that can be supplied. Summa vi, though placed before capere, qualifies intendit. Nam Castello, 226. Pro opere, i. e. vineis. Inter in the sense of intra, "within" "under cover of." XCIII. Promissa ejus cognitum, (5 276, II), ex prcesentibus misit, sc. quosdam. Quorum uti cujusque ingenium erat,-nuntiavere; instead of qui, uti cujus* que eorum ingenium erat,-nuntiavere. Quorum depends on cujusque as the sentence is now constructed, and nuntiavere agrees with ii under stood. Quatuor centuriones. These centurions were attended by their companies XCIV. Sed ubi ex pracepto, se. Marii. Pcrgit, sc. Ligus. Succedere, sc. muris. Capite atque pedibus nudis, ~ 257, R. 7. Faciliusforet, instead offaciliorforet. See in Diet., Sum. Ponderis gratia. This kind of shield was of less weight than metallic ones Saxa et si quce vestustate radices eminebant, laqueis vincicbat. Radices is

Page  309 JUGURTHINE WAR 309 in the nominative by attraction, ~ 206, (6), tb), instead of Saxa et radices, si qua, vetustate eminebant-vinciebat. Tormentis, sagittariisque etfunditoribus, ~ 247, R. 4, last part. Omnibus, Romanis' hostibusque, ~ 204. So below, Cuncti, armati inermesque. Ilis, sc. Romanis,-illis, sc. castellanis, ~ 207, R. 23, 2d par. XCV. Equitatu, quos, by synesis, ~ 323, 3, (4.) N2eque enim alio loco de Sulkl rebus dicturi sumus, O 274, R. 6. It appears, however, that at a subsequent period Sallust was induced to change his purpose, and in his history, fragments only of which now remain, he treated more at large of the affairs of Sylla. Optinze et diligentissimen omnium, S 212, R. 4, N. 7. Persecutus, although treating of, ~ 274, 3. De uxore potuit honestius consuli. Sylla was five times married, and it is uncertain to which of his wives reference is here made. His wife Me tella he divorced when she was at the point of death, that a feast which he was celebrating might not be broken off by the occurrence of a death in his family. In his old age he married Valeria, a woman of infamous character, and during the whole of his life he addicted himself to open debauchery. Some therefere understand uxore in a general sense as r,ferring to his matrimonial affairs. Potuit, ~ 259, R. 3. 7li felicissimo, O 226. Ante civilem victoriam, i. e. over the party of Marius. Fortior anfelicior esset, ~ 123, R. 2. Pudeat magis, an pigeat disserere, sc. me, whether I am more ashamed or pained —. XCVI. Per se ipse,' 207, 28, of his own accord, "without solicitation," in distinction from what he gave to multis rogantibus. Ut illi, instead of ut sibi, which the construction regularly requires, the writer putting himself in the place of Sylla, whose thoughts and purposes were to be represented, ~ 208, (7). Multus adesse, ~ 205, R. 15. XCVII. Postquarn oppidum Capsam —amiserat. Respecting the eonstrction ofpostquam with the pluperfect, see note on Chap. XI. Magnampecuniam. Reference appears to be made to the treasures of the king lost at the fortress mentioned in Chap. XCII. ubi regis thesauri erant. In Numidiam copias adduceret, ~ 258, R. 1, O 262, R. 4, & Q 273, 2. Tempus adesse, ~ 273, 3, last clause. Ipsique Mauro, sc. Boccho. See note on Numida, Chap. CI. I'ollicetur Numidice partem tertiam. These words contain the apodosis of the sentence in substance, but not in form; as they are equivalent to, Pollicetur' sc. Numidia? partim tertiam daturum;' the protasis of which is Si aut Romani Africa expulsi (forent,) &c., ~ 266, 2, R. 4. Integris suisfinibus, ~ 257, R. 7, (a.) Vix decima parte die, ~ 90, Exe. 2. NuUo inpedimento, ~ 227. Nullo, an ancient form for nulli, 107, R. 3.

Page  310 310 NOTES ON THE Sarcinas colligere. Before an engagement the baggage was collected into one place. Signum is probablyto be understood as comprehending both the signal by sound of trumpet and the watchword. Romani veteres, sc. milites. XCVIII. Quum tamen barbari nihil remittere. The construction of quum with the historical infinitive is rare in Sallust, but less so in Livy and Tacitus. Neque minus hostibus conturbatis. Que " also" refers to hostibus, ne, i. 6 non, to minus. XCIX. Uti per vigilias solebant. Per, "on account of." In the camp the night was divided into four equal parts or watches, the termination of each of which was usually announced by sound of trumpet. C. Sulla cum equitatu. " Sylla attended by the cavalry." Apud dextimos curabat, " commanded on the extreme right." Both here and in the next clause, curabat is used absolutely, but in the following clause its accusative is expressed; prccterea cohortes Ligurum curabat, 1 and also commanded the cohorts of the Ligurians." Quasi nullo imposito, instead of quasi nullus impositus esset, 5 257, R. 10. Laudare, increpare merentes sc. laudationem aut vituperat;onem. Neque secus, atque iterfacere, castra munire. &c <" he fortified the camp, &c., in the same manner as he performed the journey," i. e. with equal care and circumspection. Non tam diffidentia,futurum, quce imperavisset. Futurum is here used as indeclinable, a 162, 13, (1.):-" not so much through distrust of thoso things being done which he had ordered." Dffidentia futurum (csse) 2 270, R. 1. Uti militibus excequatus cum 2mperatore labos volentibus esset i. e. uti milites exequatum cum imperatore laboremferre vellent. Pudore magis quam malo. Pudor here signifies the shame which the soldiers would have felt in failing to imitate the laborious and selfdenying example of their general. Pars, sc.fieri aiebat.-Consuetam, customary (to him) i. e. to which he had been inured.-Habuisset,' 266, 3. CI, Speculatores citi, 8 205, R. 15, (a.) Adversum omnia paratus. He was marching quadrato agmine and consequently presented a front on every side. Ratus ex omnibus cvque aliquos ab tergo hostibus ventures, "thinking that some (i. e. one of the four divisions) equally, from among them all, i. e. with an equal chance (of effecting this object), would come upon the rear of the enemy:" in other words, " thinking that some of his troops (thus divided) would come upon the rear of the enemy, and that to each division the chances of doing this were equal." Ipse aliique, i. e. Sylla and the other leaders of the cavalry on the right wing. See Chap. C. Ceteri, i. e. the other three divisions of the army (quadrati agmtnzs) consisting of infantry.

Page  311 JUGURTHINE WAR, 311 In loco, sc. suo. See Chap. C..Bocchus cum peditibus-invadunt,' 209, R. 12, (6). Neque in priore pugna-adfuerant; instead of et qui in priore pugna —non adfuerant, $ 206, (5). Concerning the former battle, see Chaps. XCVII -XCIX. Marius apud primos; i. e. among the infantry in the front of the army. Dein Numida, sc. Jugurtha, a patrial being used, as in many other places, for the name of the leader or head of the nation. So Maurus for Bocchus, king of the Moors: Chaps. XCVII, CVIII and CXIII. Ad pedites. It has been doubted whether the infantry here spoken of was the Roman or the Numidian; the former appears probable for many reasons, and especially as Jugurtha is said to have addressed them in Latin. Apud Numantiam. See Chaps. VII-IX.-Loqui, sc. Latine. Nostrosfrustra pugnare. Nostros, if the speech of Jugurtha was directed to the Romans- would have been in the oratie directa, vos; if to the Numidians, isti or Romani. Mearium sua manu interftctum, $ 208, (1). Quos adversum. An anastrophe, $ 323, 4, (1.) & ~ 279, 10, (f.) Quum Sulla-Mauris incurrit. Cum, though relating to time, takes the indicative especially of the present and perfect tenses when, in animated narration it is found, not in the former but in the consequent member of the sentence, In such case jam, vix, or nondlu is often found in the former member. Zumpt. Lat. Gr. Circumventus ab equitibus, sc. Romanis. Omnibus occisis, sc. equitibus regiis. See Chap. LIV. Niti modo, sc. surgere. CII. Post diem quintum, quam, ~ 253, Note 3. Legati-veniunt, qui-petivere: the historical present, followed by the perfect indefinite. Petivere-mitteret, O 262, R. 4,-velle, ~ 273, 3, (b.) Aversum-cupidum, i. e. si aversum-si cupidum esset. An adjective may thus, like a participle, (Q 274, 3, (a.) ), supply the place of a conditional, &c., clause. Cujusfacundia. See Chap. XCV. Rex Bocche. When an appellative and a proper noun are in apposition the appellative is usually placed last, ~ 279, 9 & 16. It is customary also to place the vocative in addresses after one or more words. Magna nobis letitia est, $ 227, R. 3, & R. 4. Qtuum te —d monuere, $ 263, 5, " since the time when, or ever since." Neu te. As te is the object both of miscendo and of commaculares it is omitted before the latter, S 229, R. 4. Demeres, sc. dz monuere ut. Persequi, g 270, R. 1. A principio, sc. imperil suz. Tutiusque rati, sc. sunt. For the number of rant referring to populus, see S209, R. 11. In quo, 206, (13), (a.) 27'

Page  312 312 NOTES ON THE Sattsfuit, i. e. solet esse. See note on interiere, Chap. XVII Humanarum rerum-pleraque, $ 212, R. 3, N. 4. Cui scilicet placuisse. This infinitive depends on scilicet, i. e. scire icet. Per illam licet, "it is allowed so far as depends on her." See Per in Dit. Nam refers to something to be supplied, as, I do not say that they are never vanquished in war, for, &c. bocchus placide et benigne, sc. respondit. Unde vi Jugurtham expulerit, O 266, 3. This claim on the part of Bocchus to that portion of Numidia, which was the seat of the war was probably destitute of any valid foundation. MIissis antea legatis. See Chap. LXXX. Omittere-missurum (esse). These infinitives, together with those in the preceding sentences, refer to verba facit. Dein copiafacta, i. e. of sending ambassadors. CIII. Quce sibi-venerant. In this, and in some similar passages, two constructions are blended. The writer in presenting his own thoughts would have said, Quc ei-venerant; in presenting those of Bocchus he would have said, Quc sibi-venissent. He has retained the reflexive pronoun with the indicative mood. Si placeat, sc. Mario. Non pro vaiis hostibus —7abuit. In this clause habuit signifies " to reckon or consider," in the next clause accurate ac liberaliter habuit, it is made by Zeugma to signify " to treat," Ut meriti erant. " As they were fit to be treated," i. e. considering their appearance, sine decore. Nisi pariter volens, sc. putabatur, " but he was thought equally benevolent.' Quce aut utilia, aut benevolentice (esse) credebant, O 227, R. 2, & 3. " Which they thought useful or fitted to gain good will." Sulla omna pollicito, $ 257, R. 6. CIV. Quis legatis potestas eundi Romam ab consule, interea inducic postulabantur: i. e. quis mandatis, &c., "by which commission leave for the ambassadors to go to Rome was requested of the consul,-and in the mean time a truce." Ea, " these things, these requests."-Plerisque, i. e. the other members ot the council of war. Impetratis omnibus, " having obtained every thing (they asked for.)" Mauri-tres-duo. This kind of apposition is common, instead of Maurorum tres, etc. when the word denoting the whole is to be distinguished from some other word, as here the Mauri' are opposed to the Romans previously mentioned, 204, R. 10. CV Cujus arbitratu, t 249, II. Cum velitaribus armis. It is implied that such were not the customary arms of the Peligni. Quod ea, sc tela hostium. Quinto denique die. Denique may imply that the Romans had expected Bocchus to send a guard previously to this time. Cum mille non amplius equitibus, instead of, cum non amplius mille equzttz bus, ~ 256, R. 6.

Page  313 JUGURTHINE \' AR. 313 Numerum ampliorem vero, et hostilem metum efficiebant. In the first clause efficicebant is to be translated, " rendered or caused to appear," in the second, "caused or occasioned." Timor aliquantus, sc. illisfuit.-Adversum eos, since opposed to those. Uti erat. The use of the indicative in Latin to denote that which actually exists, renders the addition of such words as re vera, "in fact, in reality," &c. unnecessary. CVI. Volux adveniens. The present participle here as elsewhere denotes an unfinished action, "on coming up." A patre Boccho. As Sylla was unacquainted with Volux, the latter, in introducing himself as the son of Bocchus, very properly places the appellative patre before the proper name Boccho, for the purpose of pointing out his connexion with him. Obviam illis simul, et presidio missum. Obviam and prcesidio have each the same relation to missum, and may therefore be connected by et, ~ 278. illis, for vobis in oratio directa. See ile in Diet. Post, " afterwards," i. e. post proximum diem. Satis credere. Credere depends on negat, which after a negative is often construed with an affirmative clause, "declares that he does not fear," &c. "that he has full confidence in the valor of his soldiers," &c. Mansurum potius, quam-parceret. The regular construction would be, quam parsurum. When in such cases the subjunctive follows, there appears to be an ellipsis as here, quam (id commissurum ut) parceret. Quos ducebat. This verb, considered as the language of Sylla in the oratio obliqua, should be in the subjunctive,' 266, 3: but here, as in many other examples, the writer puts himself in'the place of him whose language he is quoting, and believing the truth of what is alleged adopts the language as his own. Ceterum ab eodem, sc. Voluce. Ceenatos essejubet. Jubeo like volo often takes the infinitive of the perfect passive to denote an eager desire that something should be instantly accomplished. See Zumpt Lat. Gr. Quum equites Mauri nunciant. See note on Quum Sulla, etc. Chap. CL Vindicandum, sc. in Volucem.-Apud ilium, i. e. in illo. CVII. Eadem existimabat, sc. se proditos a Voluce, etc. Hortatur uti gererent, Q 258, 2, R. 1, (a.) Pepercissent, ~ 266, 2, R. 4.-Armaverit, $ 266, 2. Faceret, ~ 266, 3.- Videlicet speculanti, "doubtless on the watch." Cognitum esset, " had become known." Multitudinem haberet, sc. Jugurtha.- Patre suo, $ 208, (1.) Credere, sc. se, i. e. Volucem. Solum cum Sulla, i. e. undoubtedly with Sylla and his Roman guards Paucis strenuis-bene pugnatum, $ 225, II. CVIII Prcemissus-orator, et subdole speculatum Bocchi consilia. The purposes of prcemissus are denoted by orator and speculatum, ~ 204, R: 1, and. 2i6, II, and these are therefore properly connected by et' PS?,8 as they have each the same relation to prccmissus.

Page  314 314 NOTES ON THE Postquam audierat. See note on Postquam, etc. Chap. XI. Practerea Dabar, sc. multum etfamiliariter agebat. Diem-tempus. As tempus follows diem it must be taken in a more limited sense for t" the time of day, the hour." Deligeret, 6 273, 3, & O 266, R. 1. Consulta, "deliberated upon," viz. between Sylla and Bocchus during the former visit of Sylla.-Sese habere, i. e. esse. See Habeo. Integra, "unchanged," i. e. unaffected by the influence of Jugurtha or other causes. Neu pertimesceret. See note above on deligeret. Quo res communis licentius gereretur. The true reading is here doubtful Some suppose that admissum or accitum is to be supplied, and that quo denotes the purpose for which he had been invited by Bocchus, viz. lest Jugurtha should suspect the purpose of the conference, if conducted without the presence of an agent sent by him. For quo Gronovius proposes to read quin. Kritz suggests the supplying of remoto after quo. The passage will then signify, that the presence of this agent of Jugurtha at the public audience of Sylla would allay his suspicions, and that afterwards their affairs might be discussed more freely in his absence, and without his knowledge. Caveri nequivisse, $ 209, R. 3, (6.) CIX. Pauca coram Aspare locuturum, sc. se, ~ 239, R. 2. Edocet-responderentur,' 258, 2, R. 1, (a.) Quce sibi responderentur: i. e. by Bocchus in the presence of Aspar, for the purpose of misleading Jugurtha. Sicuti voluerat. It had been left to Sylla to determine the time and place of meeting. Chap. CVII. Ab eo. In oratio directa a te. See Is and fle in Dict.-Jubet sc. illun. Etiam nunc. The oratio obliqua seems to require etiam tune. See Tune in Diet. Decrevisse, sc. se, ~ 239, R. 2. Jubet containing the general idea of saying governs decernere. In sua castra, i. e. castra SulleO et Bocchi. These were doubtless distinct, though probably not very remote from each other. Ex sententia ambobus, $ 211, R. 5. CX. Nunquam ego ratus sum, "I could never have anticipated," i 259, R. 4, The protasis would be, si quis talis rei me admonuisset. In hac terra, sc. Africa. Fore ut —deberem, ~ 268,. 4, (b.) Et omnium, sc. regum. Privato hominz, a private citizen, in the vocabulary of Bocchus, is one not possessing supreme power. Id imminutum, "that this (ability) is impaired," ~ 206, (13.) Fuerit mihi, "let it be my fortune," ~ 260, R. 6, 2d clause. Aliquando, "at last," i. e. after so long a period of prosperity and independence. Sume, utere. As these verbs govern one the accusative and the other the ablative, a pronoun as iis must be supp ied with the latter.

Page  315 JUGURTHINE WAR. 315 Futaverzs, ~ 260, R. 6, 2d clause. Fines meos. Bocchus again alludes to his claim to a part of the territories of Jugurtha. See Chap. CII. Id omitto,i.e. fines meos tutari. CXI. Breviter et modice, sc. respondit. Patefecit, quod polliceatur. The present here depends on the perfect indefinite. See Cat. XLI. Precepit ut simulent. Ilorum'magis quam sua retulisse, 219, R. 1. Sua, c 208, (3). Nunc peteret, tune ultro. Nunc is here used in the oratio obliqua in marked distinction from tune which follows. Affinitatem. Jugurtha was his son-in-law. Cognationem. Of their relationship by blood nothing is known. Intervenisse. This verb can be connected to cognationem only by Zeugma. Ad simulandam pacem, i. e. with Jugurtha CXII. Conditionibus, "upon conditions (previously stipulated;") in distinction from an unconditional surrender. Regis sui; i. e. Jugurthae. Frustrafuisse. These words constitute the whole predicate. Jugurtha alludes to such treaties as that made with Aulus, which was disannulled by the senate. Chap. XXXIX. Consultum et ratam (esse) pacem vellet. Volo often occurs with the perfect infinitive. See Chap. CVI, Ccanatos essejubet, and note. Una ab omnibus veniretur, instead of omnes una venirentur, 6 184, 2, (a.)'uumfore uti-fcedusfieret, O 268, R. 4, (b.) Neque hominem nobilem-relictum iri. The construction of the former clause would seem to require that this which is connected with it, should have been et homo nobilis-non relinqueretur. The author, however, has resolved the first infinitive future, (Jactum iri,) into fore with the imperfect subjunctive, and left the other unresolved. Non sua ignavia sed ob rempublicam in hostium potestate. This is equivalent to the relative clause, Qui non sua ignavia sed ob rempublicam in hostium potestate esset. The remaining words, neque hominem nobilem relictum iri, require, in order to constitute a complete proposition, the repetition of the words, in hostium potestate. CXIII. Secum ipse,. 207, R. 28. So Ipses szbi adverse. Cunctatus, sc, sit. In colloquium uti, by anastrophe for ut} in colloquium, 6 323, 4, (1.) Quec, i. e. quas res.-Scilicet-patefecisse. The infinitive with its accusative here, as Chap. CII, depends. on scilicet. Uti dictum erat, i. e. lt constitutum erat. Vinctus traditur. Sylla thought so highly of this service done by him to the state, as to cause it to be represented on his seal; thereby occasioning great offence to Marius. CXIV. Per idem tempus. The capture of Jugurtha took place in the 648th year of the city, 106 years before the Christian era, and Caepio and Manlius were defeated in the following year

Page  316 316 NOTES ON TIE Gallos. The enemies here mentioned viz. the Cimbri and Teutones wero in reality German tribes who entered Italy by the way of Gaul. Quo metu, 3 207, R. 20. Certare. sc, e,, 239, R. 2. Marius consul absens factus. To elect as consul one who was absent from the election was very unusual. Ea tempestate. Sallust intimates that public opinion respecting Marius was afterwards greatly altered. See Chap. LXIII.

Page  317 NOTES ON THE CATILINARIAN CONSPIRACY. L Omnes homines. In most editions of Sallust and occasionally in editions of other Latin works, the accusative plural in is or in eis is found in many words of the third declension whose genitive pi. ends in ium; as, here omnis homines,' 85, Exc. 1, & ~ 114, 2. Quz sese student prcestare, 2 271, R. 4, med. Sese student praistare is used rather than student sese praestare, as a substantive pronoun seldom stands at the beginning of a proposition, unless it is intended to be emphatic.-Decet, $ 269.Ne vctam transeant, 5 273, 1. Velutt pecora, i 278, R. 1. Sed nostra. Sed marks a distinction about to be made between our powers, (nostra vis), and those of other animals, which are naturally incapable of any thoughts or efforts but such as have relation to the body. Omnis vis, "whole powers, entire nature." A part of our natural powers, viz. the corporeal, are the same as those of the other animals, but our whole nature includes the mental as well as the corporeal powers. Animi imperio-utimur. We make use of the dominion of the mind, i. e. from the mind we derive dominion.-Corporis servitio magis utimur. But we use rather the servitude of the body, i. e. to the body we are rather in servitude. The meaning of the whole is, From the mind we derive dominion; but that which we derive from our corporeal nature is rather servitude than dominion. Utimur is connected with servitio by Zeugma. Alterum-alterum, the former, i. e. animi imperium, the dominion of the mind,-the latter, i. e. corporis servitio, the servitude of the body. Quo, "by so much," i. e. by as much as the nature of the gods is superior to that of the beasts, ~ 256, R. 16, & (2.) Videtur. For the ellipsis of esse with videtur, see note on i-osteriores se vident, J. 79. Memoriam nostri, "the memory of us," memoria nostra would signify'" our memory," "the memory which we exercise," $ 211, R. 3, (a.) Incipias, 5 263, 3. See also 5 209, R. 7. Consulto-mature facto, the former belongs to the mind, the latter depends especially on the body, O 243, R. 1, (a.) Utrumque-alterum alterius, sc. vis corporis, et virtus animi, $ 205, R. 7, (2.) For the construction of utrumque and alterum with eget, see Gr. $ 204, R 10. 317

Page  318 318 N OTES ON THE 1. Igitur, " accordingly," refers to the sentence Diu magnum inter mortales certamen fuit. Reges-pars-alii, $ 204, R. 10. Sine cupiditate, sc. alieni, " of what belonged to others." Agitabatur. Sallust often makes use of frequentative verbs in place of their primitives. Sua cuique, O 208, (7), & 279, 14. In Asia Cyrus. Sallust appears to have considered as fabulous the accounts of earlier conquerors. Causam belli, ~ 230, R. 1. Maximam gloriam, sc. esse, " to be, to consist;"; 270, R. 3, & note J. 79, on Posteriores se vident. Pejiculo atque negotiis, "by danger and difficulties." Imperatorum animi virtus, ~ 211, R. 10. Valeret-/haberent, ~ 261, 1. Cerneres, ~ 209, R. 7, (a.) Fortuna, sc. regum atque imperatorum. Ad optimum quemque. Power has thus been transferred not only from one prince or chieftain to another, but from kingdom to kingdom, as for example, from the Assyrians to the Persians, from the Persians to the Greeks, and from the Greeks to the Romans. Quce homines arant, navigant adificant, lit, "what men plough, navigate and build," an uncommon form of expression equivalent to, " what men do in cultivating, navigating and building," or mpre con cisely, " agriculture, navigation and architecture," in a wordl "the arts of peace." Virtuti omnia parent, "are all subject to, i. e. depend upon the intellectual powers." Quibus refers to multi mortales. Quibus-voluptaii, 2227. In magna copia. See in Diet. article in near the end. Iter ostendit, i e. to acquire reputation. III. Benefacere reipublicce, ~ 223. Hand absurdum est, i. e. by litotes, est magnce laudi, O 324, 9. Vel pace vel bello, ~ 253. Clarumfieri licet, sc. homini or alicui; with clarum supply se, 239, R. 1. Dicta putant, sc. esse. De magna virtute-memores. See De in Diet. Supra ea, i. e. quce putat esse supra ea, "what he supposes to be beyond that," i. e. beyond what he thinks easy for himself to do. Sicuti plerique, sc. adolescentuli, " as most persons are while in their youth." Ibique, " and there." i. e. in my political career. 7amelsi animus, sc. meus. Me-nihilo minus honoris cupido eademque, quceceteros,fama atque invmdta vexabat, " still the desire of preferment and (as a consequence) the same calumny and hostility, which is wont (in such case) to disquiet others, disquieted me (also.) In most editions the que which follows eadem is wanting, and in that casefama and invidia are by some supposed to be

Page  319 (;ATILINAR[AN CONSPIRACY. 3.19 in the nominative, and by others in the ablative. The sense is in each case essentially the same. The reading in the text was suggested by Cortius and adopted by Kritz. IV. Nonfuit consilium-conterere, ~ 209, R. 3, (5.) Agrrttm colendo-intentum, i 275, III, R. 2, (1.) Seivilibus officiis, in apposition with agrum colendo aut venando. % 204, & 148, 2, (a.) 4 (b.) Intentum, sc. me. Eo'dem, instead of ad idem inceptum studiumque. De conjuratione-absolvam. See De in Dict. Novitate, i. e. propter novitatem, on account of the novelty. See note on Reipublicce magnitudine, Chap. 31. V. Nobili genere. The gens Sergia was accustomed to trace back its descent to Sergestus, a companion of IEneas. Magna vi, ~ 211, R. 6, & R. 8, (2.) Huic-bella intestina, codes, etc. grata, ~ 205, R. 2, (2.) Cujus rei libet, for cujuslibet rei, ~ 323, 4, (5.) Supra quam. Supra gives to a positive degree the force of a comparative, ~ 127, 6. Satis eloquentice, sc. illi fuit, " he had eloquence enough," i. e. he was tolerably eloquent. In most editions we find loquentiwc, but in almost all the manuscripts eloquentice is read, ~ 212, R. 4. Post dominationem, "ever since-." Quce utraquie. The plural relative is here neuter, although both the antecedents are feminine and in the singular number, "both which things." Di.pari genere, etc. ~ 211, R. 6.-Coaluerint, ~ 265. Hortari-admonuit, sc. me.-De moribus, S 218, R. 1. Majorum, sc. nostrorum. Disserere. The subjunctive clauses introduced by quomodo, quantum, and ut, as well as the accusative instituta depend on disserere, ~ 229, R. 5. VI. Sicuti ego accepi. Sallust here relates the traditions, respecting the origin of the Roman empire, without vouching for their:ruth. In una menia, 6 118, 2, Rem. 2. Res eorui*, i. e. Romanorum, the same as res Romana. See Res in Dict. Aucta, increased, improved, enlarged, O 323, 1, (2.) (a.) Invidia, sc. regum et populorum.-Ex opulentiu, sc. Romanorum. Tentare, O 209, R. 5, & O 269, (a.) fin. Auxilio esse, % 227, R. 2, & 3. Annis infirmumv ~ 247.-Sapientia validum, ~ 250. Veel state vel curce similitudine, i. e. propter etatem, etc. See note on No'itate, Chap:IV. Conservanda! libertatisfuerat, had tended to the maintenance of liberty, ~ 275, III, R. 1, (5.) Bziosque zmperatores, sc. consules. Eo modo. The causal particle nam. is here omitted. VII. Sed ea tempestate. Sed in this and in other parts of this chapter denotes transition. Coepere se qulisque, % 209, R. 11, (4.) 28

Page  320 320 NOTES ON THE Juventus-patiens erat,-discebat, habebant, ~ 209, R. 11, (2.) Sic se quisque. Properabat is here construed like cupio, 4-c., 271, and R. 4. Eas divitias, earn bonam famam-putabant, "this" (viz. this eagerness to encounter the enemy, &c.) "they accounted riches," &c. 206, (10)) When, as in this case, the pronoun refers to a sentence as its antecedent, it always agrees with the following noun. Possem —ni traheret, O 261, 1. Fuderit-ceperit, $ 265. VIII. Sed profecto. Sed is here adversative, and marks the want of correspondence between the merits and fame of the ancient Romans. Quam. For the omission of magis before quam. See Magis in Dict. Ego existimo, ~ 209, R. 1, (b.) Scriptorum magna ingenia, " great talents of writers," instead of " writers of great talents:" by metonymy of the property for the substance, ~ 324, 2. So in the next sentence, Preclara ingenia..Ear, sc. vi)'At. The more common reading is ea, sc.facta. IX. Igitur dome, ir marks a return to the subject of the seventh chapter. Jurgia, discordias, simultates, these words denote domestic or civil contentions, and the meaning of the author is, that the malevolent feelings often exercised in civil society, were by the ancient Romans, turned against the public enemies. In amicisfideles. In with the ablative here signifies " in regard to," and consequently does not differ essentially from in amicos, "faithful to their friends." Ubi pax evenerat aequitate. Exact correspondence with the preceding clause would have required cquitate in pace. Heec habeo, "these facts" or "circumstances,"-viz. those mentioned in the subsequent part of the chapter, ~ 230, R. 1. Quique tardius, ~ 256, R. 9, (a.) Quam qui, i. e. quam in eos qui: quam relates to sepius. Inoscere quam persequi, sc. earn. X. Sed, nbi —respublica crevit, ~ 259, R. 1, (2), (d.) All the verbs in this period, from crevit to patebant inclusive, forming the protasis of the period, depend upon ubi; the apodosis commences at sccvre. In the protasis the imperfect is properly connected with the perfect, since the latter is used for the pluperfect. R. ges magni, sc. Syphax, Phillip, Antiochus, Perses, Pyrrhus and Mithridates. Optundcr, ~ 205, R. 2, Exc. Alias. These things, which in themselves are good and desiiable, proved at that time a source of evil to the Romans. Ea quasi. Ea " these things," " these vices refers to pecunice cupido, and imperii cupido, avarice and ambition. Materies omniunz mnalorum, i. e. of all the evils of which the author is speaking,-the evils which came upon the Roman empire in consequence of the general corruption of manners.

Page  321 OATILINARIAN CONSPIRACY. 321 Superbiam-omnia venalia habere. Two constructions are here united $ 229, R. 5 & 2d clause. Ingenium bonum as opposed to vultus bonus signifies "a good heart' Hac primo, "these vices"-. XI. Bonus ignavus. In uniting things opposite, when they are said to occur equally or to be mingled promiscuously, the conjunction is often omitted. See in Jug. 51, arma tela, equi viri, hostes cives permixti. Bonis znitiis, 257, R. 7. i. e. quum ejus initia bona essent. Huic quia bonce artes desunt,-contendit: i. e. hic, quia ei bonae arte desunt, -contendit. Hic, which in reference to ei may be considered as its antecedent, is attracted into the case of its relative ei, and the latter is omitted, ~ 206, (6), (b), & 209, R. 2, (1), (b). Ea, sc. avaritia. Corpus animumque virilem, ~ 205, R. 2, Exc. L. Sulla, armis recepta republica. L. Sylla freed the state from the domination of Marius, Cinna and Carbo, but became in his turn a cruel tyrant. Huc accedebat, qu3d, ~ 273, 6. Huc, i. e. ad hoc _li, sc. milites Sullani. Corruptis moribus, ~ 211, R. 6. KII. Postquam divitie honori esse ccepere. In the protasis of this period the imperfect is connected with the perfect, because the latter is used in the sense of the pluperfect after postquam, ~ 259, R. 1, (2), (d.) See the first note, Chap. X. Sequebatur,'209, R. 9. Innocentia pro malevolentia. Innocentia is here the opposite of avaritia. Malevolentia; i. e. as evidence of malice towards those who had acquired wealth by their rapacity. Ex divitiis, "in consequence of-." The ablative without a preposition commonly denotes the immediate cause, with ex a remote cause. Cum superbia, 249, III. Victores hostibus, i. e. victis. Id demum, ~ 207, R. 22.-Esset, ~ 263, 3. XIII. Nam quid ea memorem, ~ 260, II, R. 5.Ea. 207, R. 22. Subversos montes, etc. Reference seems to be made especially to the fish-ponds of Lucullus, which were supplied with water by means of tunnels cut through mountains, and were so large that they might well be called seas. Honeste habere, i. e. honeste uti, in opposition to abuti. Abutz, sc. iis. Libido ganeca. Their love of luxurious feasts, is illustrated by the subsequent clause vescendi causa-exquirere. Ceteri cultus. This is illustrated in a variety of particulars by the clauses, dormire prius-luxa antecapere. Exquirere, dormire, etc. historical infinitives. XIV. Id quodfactu, ~ 206, (13), (b.) Alienunm es grande, ~ 205, R. 16, (c.) Quos manus atque Iwngua; this relates to such as were employed as assas sins and false witnesses.

Page  322 322 NOTES ON THE -Pejurio aut sanguine civili.. Perjurio refers to lingua, and sanutlne civili to manu by the figure chiasmus, which consists in such an airangement of four words that the third corresponds to the secoind and the fourth to the first, like the extremities of the letter chi X Alebat-exagitabat, O 209, R. 12, (2.) Ex aetate. See note on ex divitiis, Chap. 12. Qui ita-existimarent, 6 266, 1. Quae domum Catilincefrequentabat, S 266, R. 5. Ex aliis rebus, " from other circumstances," especially from the profligate character of Catiline, of which the author treats at large in the next chapter. XV. Cum virgine nobili, cum sacerdote Vestee, the name of the former is unknown, the latter was Fabia, the sister of Terentia, the wife of Cicero, and subsequently of Sallust. Nihil unquam bonus laudavit, " a good man never," —or, " no good man ever"-. Privignum, a son of Catiline by a former marriage, who would have become the step-son of Orestilla, on her marriage with Catiline. Vacuam domum. Cicero, Cat. I. 6, charges Catiline with the crime of murdering his wife also for the same purpose. Facinoris, sc. the crinle of conspiracy against his country. XVI. Ut supra diximus, see Chap. XIV. Commodare, sc. iis, quibus testes filsi, etc. opus essent. Habere-majora alia imperabat. A double construction,. 229, & R. 5. The historical infinitive commodare in this period is followed by the imperfect indicative imperabat. Sometimes the order of these constructions is reversed, as in the first period of Chap. XXI. Circumvenire,jugulare, i. e. by the agency of these associates, ~ 209, R. 5. Victoriae veteris memores, sc. over the party of.Marius. In extremis terris, sc. in Pontus and Armenia, where he was engaged in the Mithridatic war. Ipsi, sc. Catilince. Nihil sane intentus. VNiil for non. See Dict. XVII. Quibus in, otio. The demonstrative ii is here omitted though commonly expressed when its case would be different from its relative S 206, (3,) (a.) Quibus is in the plural referring to the collective noun juventus. Vivere copia erat, O 270, R. 1. FFuere-qui crederent, ~ 264, 6. Quia Cn. Pompeius. Before this clause the causal particle tam, as in many other cases, is omitted, for this clause contains the reason of the opinion mentioned in the preceding one. Voluisse, i. e. crederent eum (sc. Crassum) voluisse. Apud illos, sc. conjuratos, Gr. ~ 323, 3, (5,) & ~ 206, (11.) XVIII. Antea. The conspiracy here spoken of occurred A. U. C. 688, three years before the principal Catilinarian conspiracy..De quo. The reading in most editions is de qua, referring to conjuratio supposed to be implied in the verb conjuravere. 6 206. (11.) The neuter

Page  323 CA'TILINARIAN CONSPIRAt Y. 323 quo which is found in several manuscripts is adopted by the Bipont editors and by Kritz, and exhibits a more common Latin idiom, > 206, (13.) Designati consules, the consuls were elected in July, and entered upon the duties of their office in the January following. Legibus ambitus, by the Calpurnian law, enacted A. U. C. 686 those who were convicted of bribery were removed from the senate, excluded from the consulship, and subjected to a fine. Pecuniarum repetundarum. Catiline was accused of extortion after his return from Africa, where he had been a praetor. While he stood accused of this crime the laws did not permit him to become a candidate for the consulship. Calendis Januariis, sc. at the inauguration of the consuls, Cotta and Torquatus, who had been elected after Autronius and Sylla were set aside. Ipsi, sc. Catiline and Autronius. Ea re cognita, "this plot"-. Ea res, "this circumstance," i. e. Catiline's giving the signal prematurely XIX. Adnitente Crasso, see Chap. XVII, near the end. Infestum inimicum Cn. Pompeio, $ 211, R. 5, (1.) Invitus dederat, O 205, R. 15, (a.) Presidium in eo, i. e. a security against the formidable power of Pompey. Etjam turn. Et here introduces an explanatory clause, "and even then," i. e. " for already." Sunt qui ita dicunt. Est qui is followed by the indicative whenever the writer would represent the person referred to as well known to him, ~ 264, 6, Rem. 4. XX. Catilina-videt-secedit-habuit. In Sallust the historical present ~ 145. 1, 3, is often connected with the perfect indefinite. Paulo qlte memoravi, see Chap. XVII. Multa sape egerat, "had often discussed many topics" relating to the conspiracy. Ni virtus-spectataforent,-res cecidisset, S 261, 1. Per ignava aut vana ingenia, by metonymy for per ignavos aut vanos homines, " by means of cowardly or faithless men," in which reference is made to virtusfidesque, in a preceding clause, or to fortes jidesque, in a subsequent one. 1ultis et magnis tempestatibus. For this use of et see Multus in Diet. Idem velle atque idem nolle. Ea, ~ 206, (13), (c.) - See a corresponding passage Jug. 31, Quos omnes eadem cupere, eadem odisse, eadem metuere in unum coegit; sed hacC inter bonos amicitia, inter malos factio est, ~ 324, 13. Sed ego qua mente agitavi. As this clause contains the past thoughts of the speaker indirectly referred to, its verb nright have been in the subjunct. (Q 266, 3, & 2, R. 2,) had it not been the intention of Catiline to imply that he had really entertained such designs, ~ 266, R. 5. Ceterum miht, ~ 211, R. 5, (1.) Qula conditio vitacfutura sit, ~ 265. 28*

Page  324 324 NOTES ON THE Nosmet tpsi, ~ 207, R. 28. In constructions of this kind zpse agrees with the subject or with the object of the verb, according as either is em phatic. Vulgusfinmus, "were accounted the rabble."-Ubi illi volunt, sc. eas esse A nns atque divitiis, " in consequence of age and riches," i. e. of luxury induced by riches. Omnia,'all their powers." Cetera res expediet, "the rest the thing itself will bring about,' i. e. the revolution, which we contemplate, needs but to be begun, and it will of itself go on to a successful termination. Cetera, ace. pl. Montibus coasquandis. See Chap. XIII, at the beginning. Nova diruunt, alia cdificant, sc. ccdificia. En illa, illa. An example of the figure epizeuxis, ~ 324, 20. Prcemta posuit, ~ 230, R. 2. Vel imperatore, vel milite me, ~ 204, R. 1. Nisi forte me animus fallit: i. e. in regard to the opinion which I have formed respecting your preference of power to servitude. Et vos servire. Et here introduces an explanatory clause. XXI. Magna merces videbatur. See note J. 79, on Posteriores se vident. The subject of videbatur is quieta movere. Quac bellum atque libido victorum fert, —" bring with them." Prcaterea esse,- 270, R. 2, (b.) - This omission of dico, &c., is most common when a verb which may imply it has preceded, as in this place, polliceri. Petere consulatum C. Antonmum. Antonius was indeed elected consul, but as colleague of Cicero, and instead of aiding Catiline, he commanded the army by which the conspirators were defeated. Hominem etfamiliarem. The poverty as well as profligacy of Antonius were such as might have rendered him a fit associate of Catiline. Increpat-laudare-admonebat. This historical present is here connected with the historical infinitive and with the perfect indefinite. XXII. Inde, i. e. deinde, "then," an adverb of time. Degustavissent, sc. sanguinem vino permixtam. Dictitare,fecisse; dictitare for dictitabant, referring to the same persons as fuere qui dicerent, " some"-. Fecisse, sc. Catilinam. Alii tantifacinoris conscii, 6 222, R. 3. Conscii, $ 204, R. 10. Tanti facinoris, i. e. the crime of drinking human blood. Ciceronis invidiam, ~ 211, R. 12. XXIII. Natus haud obscuro loco, $ 324, 9. Neque dicere, neque facere quidquam pensi habebat, instead of neque in dicendo, neque infaciendo.Quoque modo, i. e. et quo modo..Estuabat et-credebant,' 209, R. 11, (2). XXIV. Comitus habitis, "the election being over, i. e. at the close of the election." Concusserat. The pluperfect is here used where the perfect indefinite was to have been looked for. The author appears to have been led to the use of this tense, by comparing in his mind the subsequent perseverance

Page  325 CATILINARIAN CONSPIRACY. 325 of the conspirators, with the check at first felt by them, in consequence of the election of Cicero to the consulship. Plura agitare, " he set on foot new plans." XXV. Litteris Gredcis-docta, O 250. Multa alia, "many other accomplishments." Alia is in the ace. ($ 234, 1) depending, together with the abl. litteris, and the infinitives psallere and saltare, upon docta. A variety of constructions, depending upon the same word, is not unusual in Sallust. Qua instrumenta luxuria: sunt, " which contribute to luxury." Cariora semper omnia, quam decus atque pudicitia fuit, 9 209, R: 12 (3). Haudfacile decerneres, ~ 209, R. 7, (a.) XXVI. Nihilo minus-consulatum petebat. Nihilo minus appears to refer to the defeat, which he had suffered the preceding year, when a candidate for the consulship, and against the recurrence of which he had now made great preparation. See Chaps. XXIV and XXV. In proximum annum, i. e. A. U. C. 692. Pactione provincie. It was customary to assign by lot, the province which each consul was to govern the year after the expiration of his consulship. On this occasion Cisalpine Gaul had fallen to Antonius and the rich province of Macedonia to Cicero. The latter, in order to secure to the state the fidelity of his colleague, made a voluntary ex 4 change of provinces. Dies comitzorum. The day originally appointed for this election was the 21st of October, but a postponement was afterwards made until the 28th of the same month. See Cic. in Cat. I. 3. On the day last mentioned D. Julius Silanus and L. Licinius Murena were chosen consuls. In campo, sc. Martio. See Cic. in Cat. I. 5. XXVII. C. Manlium Facsulas. Manlius had probably come to Rome, to assist Catiline in the consular election. Item, aliosjubere, sc. cum telo esse Agitanti, sc. illi. Per AM Porcium Lcccam. It was at the house of Laeca that the heads of the conspiracy assembled. See Cic. in Cat. I. 4. Ibique, i. e. in illo conventu.. Paraverat, O 266, R. 5.-Facerent, $ 264, 5. XXVIII. Domi su&C, $ 221, R. 3, (1.) Egestate simul, ac dolore injurice, "as well from poverty, as from resentment on account of injury." Ex Sullanis colonis. Sylla had distributed to his soldiers the land of those Etrurians who had favored the cause of Marius. XXIX. Ancipiti malo, i. e. by the danger to be apprehended from the conspirators remaining in the city, and from the army of Manlius. Prvato consilio. In opposing the designs of Catiline, Cicero had hitherto relied upon his own resources and those of his friends, and had made no use of his consular power. Quo consilio, O 211, R. 6.-Quod plerumque, ~ 206, (13), (a.) -Darent operam, 5 262, R. 4.-Per senatum, $ 247 R 4

Page  326 326 NOTES ON THE Maxima permittitur, i. e. est maxima qua permittitur. Ea potestas-bellum gerere, coercere, etc. ~ 204, R. 9. Null, earum rerum consuli jus est, " no consul has authority to do these things." XXX. Facsulis, see Chap XXVII. Allatas sibi dicebat, sc. esse. See note J. 79, on Posteriores se vident. Scriptum erat, ~ 205, R. 8. Ante diem sextum calendas, i. e. in diem sextum ante calendas, ~ 326, (8.) "on the 27th of October." Simul, id quod, $ 206, 13, (b.) Portenta. These are mentioned by Cicero, 3d oration in Cat. 8, and by Pliny, Hist. Nat. II, 51. Conventusfieri, arma portari, ~ 145, N. 3. Servile bellum moveri, sc. by C. Julius; see Chap. XXVII. Sed pretores, sc. missi sunt. Praemium-servo libertatem, $ 204, R. 1, & ~ 230, R. 2. Ejus rei, $ 211, R. 12. XXXI. Lcetitia atque lasczvia, que, d 206, (15), (a.) Diuturna quies. The last civil commotions in Rome, previous to the conspiracy of Catiline, were those excited by Sylla, nearly twenty years before. Reipublica magnitudine, "on account of the greatness-." The ablative without a preposition in the sense of propter with the accusative occurs frequently in Sallust. Eadem illa, " the same designs." Et ut, "and as if." In senatum venit. This occurred on the 8th of November, A. U. C. 691. Orationem habuit, sc. the first oration against Catiline. Eafamilia ortum, sc. se, ~ 239, R. 2.-Perdita republica, ~ 274, R. 5. Inquilinus civis. Cicero had removed from Arpinum to Rome. Quum eam servaret —" was trying to preserve it." See note Jug. XXVII on Leniebant. Ruina restinguam,-" by the destruction of the commonwealth.' XXXII. Neque insidica consuli-et, ~ 278, R. 7. Insidica consuli, ~ 211, R. 5 Optimum factum, instead of optimum, sc. esse, the subject of which is e.ercitum augere, etc., and the predicate optimum factum, ~ 210. Priusquam legiones scriberentur, ~ 263, 3. QuCe bello usuiforent, ~ 266, 1.-Opesfactionis eonfirment, $ 262, R. 4. Sese propediem, sc. dicit, which is implied in mandat. Ex suo numero, instead of, ex suorum numero, $ 207, R. 20. Marcium Regem, see Chap. XXX. XXXIII Qui miseri, ~ 206, 12. I'lerique patrice, sed omnes fama atquefortunis expertes. Expertes is here limited first by the genitive patrice, and afterwards by the ablativesfama and fortunis, ~ 213, R. 5, (2), & ~ 278, R. 2. Cuiquam nostrum, ~ 212, R. 2, N. 2. Legs uti, reference appears to be made to a law enacted, A. U, C. 429 in

Page  327 CATILINARIAN CONSPIRACY. 327 consequence of the shameful oppression exercised by a usurer named Papirius, by which law it was provided that the persons of debtors should not be subject to restraint on account of their debts. Pretoris, sc. urbani, the judge before whom civil causes were tried. Argentum rre solutum est, i. e. instead of a silver sesterce, an as of copper of one fourth the value of the former, was paid, 6 327, R. 3. Sacpe ipsaplebes-secessit, a secession of the common people is said to have thrice occurred. Ipsa plebes, "the people on their part,' in dis tinction from majores vestrum, the patricians. Measures designed for public relief had originated sometimes with the senate and sometimes with the common people. XXXIV. Si quid ab senatu petere vcllent, ab armis decedant. The imperfect followed by the present is an uslusual construction. Ab eo; eo it will be observed is in the singular, though referring both to senatum and populum, which appear to be here spoken of collectively as one body. Discedant-proficiscantur, Q 266, R. 1. Not only the mood but the tense of the oratio directa is-here retained. Ea mansuetudine atque misericordia, O 211, R. 8, (2.) Litteras mittit is followed by the infinitive with the accusative, in the same manner that scribit would be, O 272. Non quo sibi tanti sceleris, conscius esset, $ 262, R. 9. XXXV. Re cognita, " ascertained" or " proved by deeds" or " actual services," ( known by experience." Catiline had been defended by Catulus when accused of a capital crime in reference to Fabia. See Chap. XV. Gratam-fiduciam, "a pleasing confidence." In magnis meis periculis, " while exposed to great perils." Commendationi mew, i. e. to his commendation of Orestilla to the care of Catulus. See the close of this letter. The common reading of the whole sentence, is, Egregia tua fides, re cognita, grata mihi magnis in meis periculis fiduciam commendationi mea: tribuit. If for re cognita, we were allowed to read recognita, "recollected," the passage might be translated, the recollection of your faithful attachment (so) pleasant to me while exposed to imminent perils, gives, &c." In this way, magnms periculis, might be understood either of his present dangers, or of those in which Catulus had formerly assisted him. Quamobrem, i. e. on account of his reliance upon the friendship of Catulus, In novo consilio, "in my new enterprise." Non statui parare, for statui non parare, as non, though modifying an infinitive, is placed before the verb on which the infinitive depends. Sattsfactionem. Supply sed. De culpa, instead of the gen. culpe. Quam, sc. satisfactionem. Licet cognoscas, ~ 262, R. 4, "you may be assured "- Veram, sc. esse. Statum dignitatis, i. e. the consulship.-Meis nominibus, sc. facturn, sive contractum.-Ex possessionibus, sc. meis. Alienis nominibus, sc. es alienum. Quum et, i. e. quum etiam.

Page  328 328 NOTES ON THE Ncn dignos hominles. He probably refers especially to Cicero, a nomus homo. Pro meo casu, " considering my unfortunate condition." Plura quum scriberem. The pretence of personal danger, on account of which this letter closes thus abruptly, appears to have been intended by Catiline to serve as an apology, for not opening his heart more fully to one, in whom he professed to place implicit confidence. XXXVI. Condemnatis, is in the dative connected by preter in the sense of preterquam to iis understood referring to multitudini, which depends on liceret, 6 278, R. 1. Duobus senati decretis, ~ 257, R. 7, "notwithstanding two decrees of the senate," for the former of these, see Chap. XXX. Neque-quisquam omnium, ~ 207, R. 31. Tanta vis morbi, the moral malady here referred to, was the excessive desire of a change in public affairs. See the beginning of Chap. XXXVII. XXXVII. Aliena, ( alienated," sc. from the government. Quibus opes nulle sunt, bonis invident sc. ii. When the demonstrative would differ in case from the relative it is commonly expressed. See a similar example in Chap. XIII, quippe quos,etc. Ea vero; ea in this passage, though pleonastic in its construction, serves to distinguish emphatically the populace of the city from the common people of the empire in general, whose disaffection is mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. Prveceps ierat, i. e. into the revolutionary designs of Catiline. Primum omnium, the principal classes into which the populace of the city was divided, and the causes of dissatisfaction in each are mentioned under the five general divisions, marked by primim omnium, deinde, prccaerea, preterea, ad hoc.The first general division is subdivided into three classes by qui ubique, item alii and postremo Alios senatores, sc. esse or fieri. Privatis atque publicis largitionibus, a monthly distribution of corn was made to the populace at the public expense, in addition to the largesses of wealthy and ambitious citizens. Juxta ac, "just as," i. e. "as badly as," " no better than." Praeterea quorum, sc. ii, S 206, (4). Jus libertatis imminutum. Sylla had ordered that the children of those whom he had proscribed, should be held ineligible to office, and in this respect they were still deprived of the common rights of citizens. Aliarum partium erant, ~ 211, R. 8, (2.) "who belonged to another party." Atque senati, i. e. atque senati partium. Qudm minis valere ipsi, "than to have less power themselves." Before valere supply se, O 239, R. 2. Ipsi, ~ 207, R. 28. Id aded malum. The alarming evil here spoken of arising frcm the bitterness of party spirit, had on many previous occasions threatened the ruin of the state. XXXVIII. Tribunicia potestas, the power of the tribunes had been greatly restricted by L. Sylla, but was restored in the consulship of Pompey and Crassus. A, U. C. 684.

Page  329 CATILINARIAN CONSPIRACY. 329 &9ummam potestatem nacti. The tribunicial power is here referred to, though this power in its proper use was not the highest power in the state. Senati specie, i. e. senati magnitudinis specie, " for (the advancement of) their own power, under the semblance (of promoting that) of the senate." XXXIX. Bsllunz maritimum, this war, called also bellum piraticum, was carried on by Pompey, A. U. C, 687, against the Cilicians, who had filled every sea with piratical vessels, and had even plundered some of the Italian cities. In forty days the war was brought to a successful termination. In consequence of this eminent success, Pompey was appointed to the command of the war against Mithridates. Ceteros, i. e. other patricians who were supposed to court the favour of the people or to belong to the popular party, as Crassus, Caesar, &c. Quiplebem. The readingofKritz. Others read Quoplebem. Tractarent, ~ 266, 3. Animos eorum sc. plebis. Neque illis, i. e. neque tamem illis. See Neque in Diet. Tamen, "notwithstanding" these considerations. Parens necarijussit, under the Roman law fathers had the power of putting to death their children. XL. Bellicosa esset, 8 266, 3. Facile eos. The subject ofadduci posse was understood with oppressos, but after the parenthesis prceterea quod etc. is repeated. So in Chap. XXXVII. ea vero. Plerisque principibus civitattum, sc. Gallicarum. Atque eos noverat, ~ 183, 3, N. 3.-Civitatis, sc. Allobrogum. —Ejus, so. civitatis. Quem excitum tantis malls, $ 211, R. 5. Postquam videt. Postquam is often found in Sallust with the historical present. Mliseriis suis remedium. The objective dative, $ 211, R. 5. Exspectare. Before this verb, which depends on dicentes understood, we must supply se. Viri esse vultis, Q 210, R. 6. Hec ubi dixit, $ 259, R. 1, (2), (d.)-Tamn difficile esse,. 270, R. 2. Dum ea res. Ea res is used here and in other places instead of id; the general idea expressed in English by thing, being expressed in Latin sometimes by res, and sometimes by adjectives in the neuter gender, and hence a transition is often made from one of these modes to the other. Ab Roma aberat, ~ 255, R. 2.-Pollicitos operam suam, S 208, (7). Domum dimittit. Domus here signifies not their native country, but their place of residence at Rome. XLI. In incerto habue-e. quidnam, &c., ~ 229. R. 5. In altera parte. The motives on the part of the ambassadors and their countrymen to engage in the conspiracy are first mentioned. In spe victori,, " in the hope of victory," i. e. in the victory hoped for. At in altera. The advantages of betraying the conspiracy are next con

Page  330 330) NOTES ON TIHE sidered., and these appear to be personal to the ambassadors, rather thlan to their countrymen in general. Majores opes, "greater power and influence," to be enjoyed by the ambassadors, as a reward from the Romans for betraying the con spiracy. Cerlta prcmia. Specific rewards had been offered by the senate to any one who would give information respecting the conspiracy (see Chap. XXX,) but these are probably not referred to in this place. Cijuspatrocinio. Most nations subject to the Romans had some one among the senators who took the oversight of their affairs, and whom they called their patron.' This patronage was hereditary. Prctcepit ut-simulent. The historical perfect followed by the present is unusual, ~ 258, 2, (2). See J. XIII, & CXI. XLII. Quos antea Catilina dimiserat. See Chap. XXVII. Fix eo numero. See Numerus in Dict. Item in ulteriore Gallia C. Mureana, sc. complures in vincula conjecerat. See Item in Diet. Ut vzdebantur, " as they appeared," instead of paratis copiis, qu&a videbantur magnma, i. e. satis magnae. The impersonal videbatur is more commonly employed in this sense. XLIII. Lentulus cum ceteris-constituerant, 6 209, R. 12, (6). Cetera multitudo t.Iuarationis, " the rest of the multitude concerned in the conspiracy." Hoc modo, i. e. tali modo. Quo tumultu, i. e. ut eo tumultu, " that by the tumult which this would occasion,", 207, R. 20. Alius autem alium, sc. aggrederetur. Inter lhec parata atque decreta, ~ 274, R. 5. X LIV. Ex praccepto Ciceronis. See Chap. XLI, near the end. Quod signatum ad cives perferant, O 264, 5. Dant. sc.jusjurandum signatum. Eo brevi venturum,i. e. into the country of the Allobroges. Mittit uti confirmarent. The imperfect depending upon the historical present, ~ 258, 2, R. 1, (a.) Quis sim. Cicero, who had the intercepted letter in his possession, has given it in 3d Cat. 12, as follows: Qui sim, ex eo quem ad te mist, cognosces. Cura ut vir sis, et cogita quem in locum sis progressus, et vzde quidjam tibi sit necesse. Cura ut omnium tibi auxilia adjungas, etiam infimrorum. Fac cogites, 6 2;2, R. 4, & ~ 267, R. 3. —Et memineris, i 183 3, N. 3. XLV. Cetera, "as for the rest," i. e. in regard to details. Ita agant, sc. ut, ~ 262, R. 4. Iomznines militares, sc. Flaccus and Pomptinus. 1'rcsidiis collocatis. See 3d oration against Catiline, Chap. V. Ad id loci, ~ 212, R. 3. —Et simul, i. e. et sinmul ac. XLVI. Quibus rebus confectis, these events occurred on the night between the 2d and 3d of December, A. U. C 691. C7onsdli, sc. Ciceroni.

Page  331 CATILINARIAN CONSPIRACY. 331 Pwenam zllorum, sc. videbat or verebatur, the latter of which may beo inlplied in anxius erat. Sibi oneri, "would bring a weight of odium upon him." Perdendce reipublice, S 275, III, R. 1, (5). Ipse meanus tenens. This was intended as a mark of respect to the official character of Lentulus..Atdem Concordie. In this temple, built by Camillus, upon the side of the Capitoline mount, the senate that day assembled, and in a private apartment of this temple the conspirators seem to have been detained, until they were introduced into the senate. Magnafrequentia, t 257, R. 7, (a.) Volturcium cum legatis. Cure in this place does not imply any very close connection of time, as it appears from Cicero, (Or. in Cat. III, 4,) that Volturcius was introduced apart from the Gauls. It is equivalent to et. XLVII. Quid, aut qua de causa, consilii habuisset, "what design he had entertained, or for what reason he had entertained it." Fingere alia, i. e. other than what pertained to the conspiracy. 2Nihil amplius scire quam legatos. This expression is thought by some to be ambiguous. Its more obvious meaning is that "he knew nothing more than the ambassadors knew." Kritz and Herzog however interpret it to mean that "he knew nothing more than," or taking nihil for neminem that A" he knew none besides the armuas~,Jors:" i. e. none of the conspirators besides. If we translate docet, "he shows," the common translation may perhaps be sustained, for it is obvious from Chap XLVIII, that he disclosed many things relating to the conspiracy, though most of them may have been known to the'ambassadors also. Cinnam atque Sullam antea, sc. urbis potitos esse. Ab incenso Capitolio. The burning of the Capitolhere referred to occurred A. U. C. 671. Decernit uti-haberentur, ( 258, R. 1. —C. Cesari, i. e. C. Julio Ccesari. XLVIII. Alia belli facinora prdacc, sc. sibi, 1 227. Quum se diceret indicaturum. Respecting this position of se, consult note on Sese student prestare, Chap. 1. Indicaturum (esse,)-data esset, ~ 266, 2, R. 4. De itinere hostium, i. e. of the conspirators, towards Rome. Missum a M. Crasso. See Chap. XVII. Lentulus, Cethegus, aliique deprehensi, "the arrest of Lentulus," &o ~ 274, R. 5, (a.) Terrerent, sc. eum, i. e. Catilinam. Et illi-eriperentur sc. Lentulus, Cethegus, alii. 7Ianta vis hominis, instead of homo tantce vis. Deque ea re, i. e. concerning the truth or falsehood of the testimony of Tarquiniu~. Consulente Cicerone, sc. senatum. Neque amplius potestatem, i. e. indicandi, " of giving testimony." Qui existimarent, ~ 264, 6. More sue. This custom of Crassus, of patronizing the meanest and vilest, is mentioned by Plutarch also. 29

Page  332 332 NOTES ON THE XLIX Sed iisdem temporibus. In what follows, Sallust appears to aim at defending Cicero from the charge brought against him by Crassus; but in doing this he brings a very improbable charge against Catulus and Piso, for the purpose of screening from censure Caesar, his personal friend. Nam uterque exercebant, $ 209, R. 11. (4.) Piso oppugnatus injudicio, etc. sc. inimicitiam exercebat. Oppugnatus sc a Cacsare. Propter cujusdam Transpadani supplicium. These words are to be con nected to oppugnatus, not to pecuniarum repetundarum. In a prosecu tion against Piso for extortion Caesar made an attack upon him for unjustly punishing a certain individual. Pontificatus, sc. maximi. Ab adolescentulo Ccesare. Caesar, though at this time thirty-six years old is called adolecentulus in reference to the more advanced age of Catulus Opportuna videbatur, i. e. for Caesar, on account of the magnitude of his debts, and this consideration caused the accusation to be more readily believed. Privatim-publice. These adverbs belong not to debebat, but to liberalitate and muneribus. QueB se —udisse dicerent, instead of quce audissent ut dicebant, O 266, 3, 3d clause. Qu6 studium suum, etc. These words relate to Carsari gladio minitarentur. L. Qui in custodiam traditi erant,' 266, 2, R. 5. Primus sententiam rogatus, $ 205, R. 17. Sententiam Tiberii Neronis. Tiberius Nero had proposed that the conspirators then in custody should be strictly guarded, until Catiline and his army were vanquished, and that the whole subject should then be referred to the senate. Hujuscemodi verba. From the use of this expression, in relation to the speeches of Caesar and Cato, it is evident that we have their sentiments only, and not their language. LI. Haud facile, etc. This sentence contains the reason of the preceding but the causal particle nam or enim is here as in many other places omitted. Valet, sc. animus. Male consuluere, sc. sibi ac reipublicce, i. e. " pursued an injudicious course, adopted wrong measures." Populi Romani opibus creverat. The Rhodians had received from the Romans, in recompense for services rendered the latter in the war against Antiochus, a large part of Lycia and Caria. Impunitos eos dimisere. The Rhodians were however deprived of tho provinces previously bestowed upon them. Quid in illis, —" in their case," " in respect to them." Novum consilium. The new measure here alluded to, was the punishment of a Roman citizen with death, as proposed by Silanus. His utendum, sc. pcenis,. g. imprisonment, exile, &c.

Page  333 CATILINARIAN CONSPIRACY. 333 Qua belli savitia esset, quca victis acciderent enumeravere. Enumeravere can be connected with sevitia only by zeugma, but it is appropriate to quac victis acciderent; " have shown what would be the savage character of the war, and enumerated the evils which would befall the vanquished.' Rapi Virgines, sc. dixerunt, which is implied in enumeravere. An, uti vos; after an supply eo pertinuit. Injuriae sueT; 208, (7), (a.), & ~ 211, R. 3, (c.) Gravius aequo, 0 256, R. 9,-habuere, i. e. solent habere. The perfect is often found in this indefinite sense, in Sallust as well as in other writers. In imperio, i. e. in those who command. Paulo severiqr, ~ 256, R. 9, (a.), med. Eos mores-cognovi, " such I know to be"-. Injuria, i. e. ( the wrong," " the nature of the wrong," " the enormity of the crime." Consulis, i. e. Ciceronzs. Ultra, sc. mortem. An, quia gravius est, i. e. in sententiam non addidisti, uti, etc., quia gravius est? Sin, quia levius, i. e. sin in sententiam non addidisti, etc4 quia levius, sc. est verberari, etc. Tempus, dies, fortuna, sc. reprehendent, literally, "a time, a day," i. e. " some future time, some future day, will censure (the decree) and so likewise will fortune."-" Will censure," i. e will show to have been unwise. Tempus, dies, ~ 324, 22. Quid in alios statuatis, i. e. other than these conspirators. Ex bonis, sc. exemplis.-Ab dignis, sc. poen&. Devictis Atheniensibus triginta viros imposuere, ~ 224. Invidere bonis. According to Cortius and Kritz, institutzs is to be supplied; according to Gerlach and Herzog, hominibus. With the latter boni will signify those excelling in knowledge of any kind. Invidere which requires a dative is here connected with imitari requiring an accusative. In such a connection the noun or pronoun is in general repeated in that case which each verb requires. Tractarent, $ 264, 5.-Ea populus latari, ~ 232, (2.) Merito dicerefieri, sc. ea, from the preceding clause. Ubi paulatim licentia crevit, $ 259, R. 1, (2,), (d.) Stultce lItitis, 211, R. 12. Tur lex Porcia. Here the apodosis of the sentence begins, the protasis commencing with postquam. Quibus legibus. The noun is repeated with the relative, sometimes for the sake of perspicuity, and sometimes for emphasis. In primis magna, ~ 127, 2. Qui ea bene parta. The reader might expect, instead of ea, id referring to imperium. Sallust has made use of the plural " these things," to de. note separately what was previously expressed collectively by imperium. Publicandas eorum pecunias,-neu quis referat, a double construction fol

Page  334 334 NOTES ON THE lowing censeo, O 273, 3. In the following clause senatum existtmare the original construction is resumed. LII. Postquam Cacsar-fecit, ~ 259, R. 1, (2,) (d.) Alius alii varie assentiebantur, i. e. they signified their agreement in sen timent with Silanus, Nero or Caesar. Verbo assentiebantur. The opinion of the senators was given either viva voce or by a division, (discessione.) Sallust has omitted all notice of the speeches of Catulus and Cicero, delivered on this occasion. Eli mihi disseruisse videntur. Cato states the real question to be, not what punishment is suitable for the conspirators, but what means shall be resorted to, to prevent the success of their conspiracy. Persequare, O 209, R. 7, (a.) Si tsta cujuscumque modi sunt. The severity of Cato's manners led him to speak contemptuously of the luxuries prized so highly by many of his hearers. De sociorum injuriis: an objective genitive, ~ 211, R. 2. In hoc ordine, i. e. in senatu. Sed ea, sc. verba. Non id agitur, 6 207, R. 22. Cujus hcec cumque modi; tmesis, ~ 323,4, (5,) for cujuscumque modE hcec (videntur.) Hostiumfuttura sint, l 211, R. 8, (3). Hic, "here," i. e. "in this state of things," " such being the facts." Hic mihi quisquam. Reference is here very evidently made to Caesar, but the reference is the'more severe from the use of the indefinite pronoun quisquam, " some one." Miller reads it interrogatively, "does any one?" Malarum rerum audacia, $ 211, R. 12. Sint sane, $ 209, R. 2, (2), & ~ 260, R. 6. Misericordes infuribus. In this sense of in, it is commonly followed by the accusative, but see Chap. LI, quid in illis, and In in Diet. Perditum eant, ~ 276, II, R. 2. Diverso itinere malos, &c., i. e. existimansfalsum esse diverso itinere malos a bonis, etc.-" that the wicked, their rout being different from (that of) the good, inhabit," &c. Before diverso, etc. nempe, " to wit," may be supplied, $ 207, R. 22. St periculum ex illis metuit, se. C. Carsar. Sin-solus non timet. If Caesar alone entertained no apprehension, he might well be suspected of having a connection with the conspirators. Iulto pulcherrimam, ~ 127, 3. Quo nobis nulla sunt, "none of which,"-. Omnia virtutis prwnmia. Such as civil and military offices, and other public honors. Hic pecunice, i. e. in senatu. Apprehensis hostibusfaciatis, $ 250, R. 3. Misereamini censeo, O 262, R. 4, spoken ironically. Scilicet res aspera est, etc. The matter in itself is formidable. Non votiq, supply sed.

Page  335 CATILINARIAN CONSPIRACY. 335 Prospera omma cedunt, $ 210, R. 1. Bello Gallico. According to Livy and other historians, this event occur red in'tle war against the Latins. Nisi iterum patrice bellumfecit. Cethegus had been concerned in the civil wars, first as a follower of Marius, and afterwards of Sylla and of Lepidus. Si-peccato locus esset, "if there were any room for error." More majorum, i. e. according to the custom in use before the enactment of the Porcian law. LII. Alit alios increpantes timidos vocant, "chiding they call each other"Sustinuisset, "had sustained," i. e. had enabled the Roman people to sustain. Contendisse, se. populum Romanum. Fortunce violentiam. Reference appears to be made to the great disasters which had occasionally befallen the empire. Sicuti effeta parente, multis, &c., as if the parent (viz. Rome) was no longer capable of producing offspring, S 257, R. 10. The common reading is Sicuti effeta parentum, multis, &c. Others read effetce parentum-. The reading adopted in the text is that suggested by Miiller. LIV. Igitur his genus, cetas, eloquentia prope equalia fuere, ~ 205, R. 2, (2). The Porcian gens was plebeian, the Julian patrician, but both had en joyed in an equal degree the honors of the state. -itas. At this time Cato was thirty-three, and Cesar about thirty-seven years of age. Sed alia, sc. gloria.-Alii is used though referring to two persons only,on account of the preceding alia, that the words might correspond. Caesar dando, sublevando, ignoscendo, i 275, III, R. 4. Intentus, sua negligere; the historical infinitive, ~ 209, R. 5 Novum bellum exoptabat, "was always wishing for some new war," i. e. a perpetual succession of wars. Eo magis sequebatur, i. e. gloria eum sequebatur. LV. Idem fit ceteris, ~ 250, R. 3. Est locus-quod, ~ 206, (10). LVI. Pro numero militum, " according to the number of his soldiers," i. e. he put an equal number into each maniple, &c., intending to fill up the legion as new recruits joined his standard. Ex sociis, se. conjurationis, "of the conspirators." Numero hominum, sc.justo. Hostibus, i. e. to Anttnius and his army. Servitia repudiabat, cujus, sc. generis hominum, $ 206, (11). Videri, sc. se, ~ 239, R. 2. LVII. Nuntius pervenit, i. e. nuntiatum eat, and hence it is construed with the inf. and ace. ~ 272. De Lentulo, Cethego, ceteris. For the omission of et, ac, &c. before ceter etc., see Et in Diet. In Galliam; probably into the country of the Allobroges. Eadem illa existimans-Catilinam agitare, i. e. a retreat into Gaul. Urpote qui-sequeretur, Gr. 264, 8, (2.) 29*

Page  336 336 NOTES ON THE &C. Qui magno exercitu, ~ 249, III, Remark. Infuga, sc. Catilince ejusque militum. LVIII. Causam mei consilii aperirem, i. e. of his resolution to risk an engagement with Antonius. Quoque modo, i. e. et quomodo. Unus ab urbe sc. Antonii.-Alter a Gallia, sc. Metellz. Utiforti atqueparato animo sitis, $ 211, R. 6, & R. 8, (2.) Commeatus abunde, sc. erunt. For this use of abunde, see Sum in Dict. Non eadem nobis et illis necessitudo impendet. The meaning is, " they are not under the same necessity as we," or, they are under no necessity, as we are. Nos pro patria, etc. These words express the necessity imposed on the conspirators, and are contrasted withthe words following, which denote the circumstances under which the troops of the state would fight. Supervacaneum. This word stands opposed to necessitudo, in the preceding sentence. Quia illa, i. e. the degrading conditions mentioned above. Viris, is used emphatically. Hec sequi decrevistis, " these measures,"-" this course"-. Ea vero, ~ 206, (13), (c.) Me hortantur, sc. ut magnam spem habeam Cavete-amittatis, S 262, R. 6. LIX. Ab dexlera, rupes aspera. An anacoluthon, ~ 323, 3, (5), the regular construction of the sentence requiring, rupem asperam. Ab his, i. e. ab reliquis signis.-Armatum, see Chap. LVI. Et colonis, sc. from the colonies planted in this region by Sylla. Propter aquilam, etc. See Cic. in Cat. I. 9. Bello Cimbrico. See Jug. Chap. 114. Pedibus ceger, ~ 250. Dio represents Antonius as feigning sickness, that he might avoid a personal encounter with those whom he had once favoured. See Chap. XXI. Ile-Ipse, sc. Petreius. See Ile in Dict. Amplius annos, ~ 256, R. 6, (a.) Plerosque ipsos-noverat, "knew most of them personally." See Ipse in Dictionary. LX. Veterani, i. e. the veterans under the command of Petreius. Ili, i. e. the troops of Catiline. Haud tildi. Litotes, ~ 324, 9. LXI. Sed confecto proclio. The ablative absolute here serves as the protasis of the sentence, the apodosis beginning at tun. Turn cerneres, ~ 260, II. Quos medios, ~ 205, R. 17. See above Chap. LX, Cohortem praetoriam in medios hostes inducit. Juxta pepercerant, "had spared equally," i. e. "had spared neither," "had equally disregarded." Multi autem-alii, pars, ~ 204, R. 10. Pars reperiebant, ~ 209, R. 11. TIHE END.

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