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Page 1 C ATA L 0 G U E OF THE Paintings, Statuary, Casts, Bronzes, &c. OF THE OORCORAN -%ALLERY OF )RT. "When from the sacred garden driven Man fled before his Maker's wrath, An angel left her place in heaven, And cross'd the wanderer's sunless path.'Twas Art! sweet Art! new radiance broke Where her light foot flew o'er the ground, And thus, with seraph voice, she spoke:'The curse a blessing shall be found! "' -CHAIRLEs SPAGC;UE. PREPARED BY WM. MACLEOD, CURATOR. GIBSON BROTHERS, PRINTERS.
Page 2 INDEX. PAGE. History andt Description of the Corcoiran Gallery of Art............................... 5 FIRST FLOOR. YESTIBULE —-.Canova's bust of Napoleon, &c................................................ 9 RIGHT AND LEFT CORRIDORS-Busts and bas-reliefs from the antique.......1... 1(), 11 SIKETCH OF GREEK SSCUIPTURE................................................................ 13 FRIEZE OF THE PARTHENON; Casts froml the Elgin Marbles............................ 15 CASTS FROM THE ANTIQUE —Venusl of Milo, &e................................. 1 8 CASTS FROM MODERN ScULPTURE-Rinehart's Clytie, &c................................ 28 CASTS FROM SCULPTURE OF THE RENAISSANcE-Ghiberti Gate; M. Angelo's " David " and "Slaves," &c.............................................................. 29 HALL OF BRoNzEs-Hildersheinm Treasures, Kensington Museumn Reproductions, Majolica ware, Marble busts..................................................... 32 SECOND FLOOR. MAIN PICTURE GALLERY.............................39........................ 39 EAST SIDE GALLERY-Detaille's "Bavarian Prisoners," &c.............2............... 2 WEST SIDE GALLERY............................................................................. 53 OCTAGON RooM-Greek Slave, &c............................................... 55 SOUTHEAST CORNER GALLERY-Rilnehart's Endynlion, &c............................... (; SourH VrEST CORNER GALLERY-Ri-i ne h-art's Sleep)ing Children, &c.....5........... 56
Page 3 BOARD OF TRUSTEES. JAMES M. CARLISLE, PIESIDENT. JAMES C. HALL, M. D., VICE-PRESIDENT. GEORGE W. RIGGS, TREASURER. ANTHONY HYDE, SECRETARY. HENRY D. COOKE. JAMES C. McGUIRE. WILLIAM T. WALTERS, Baltimore. CHARLES M. MATTHEWS. PROF. JOSEPH HENRY. C O VIMI TT E E S. On Finance. MESSRS. RIGGS, COOKE, and McGUIRE. On the Bl&iiding. MESSRS. HYDE, HALL, and MATTHEWS. On Works oj' Art. MESSRS. WALTERS, HALL, and RIGGS. WM. MACLEOD..Issistant Ccvraior. F. S. BARBARIN. itVc, Ditor. B. V. DARRELL.
Page 4 DIAGRAM OF THE FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS OF THE CORCORAN GALLERY OF ART. SCULPTURE H-ALL. 95,:5,,' -,~:2. ill b MA 2 S | MAIN PI CTURE GALLERY........ ~ ~....'"~~"'-'~'~95:9L" X 44-: 6 _ _ ~ 42:4-' x'q:' - - Co "' c CD |jj -=:0 | r. I > CD c 2" I2I" M IJ EE TRUSTEES ROOM VESTIBULE L lSPGALLERY- OCTAGON. GALLERY. - 2 X4 27 0 X4 - RETIRING JANTR. I 22 LLENTRAY. I: —-------
Page 5 HISTORY OF THE CORCORAN GALLERY OF ART. THE CORCORAN GALLERY OF ART, including ground, building, its con — tents, and endowment fund, is the free gift of Mr. Winm. W. Corcoran to the public. In his own words to the Trustees to whom the property was deeded May 10, 1869, f"it was designed for the encouragement of the Fine Arts;" and in the deed the object-of the institution is stated as " the perpetual establishment and encouragement of Painting, Sculpture, and the Fine Arts generally," with the condition that " it should be open to visitors without charge two days in the week, and on other days at moderate and reasonable charges, to be applied to the current expenses of procuring and keeping in order the building and its contents." With these liberal purposes, the institution was chartered by act of Congress, May 24, 1870. By that act the building was declared exempt from all taxation, and authority given to settle the claim for rent during its occupancy by the Government. The building, planned by Mr. James Renwick, of New York, was begun in 1859. The civil war arrested the work, and early in 1861 the Government took it for the use of the Quartermaster-General's Department, retaining it -until four years after the close of the war. On the 10th of May, 1869, it was restored to its owner, who at once placed it in the hands of a board of nine Trustees, as already stated. After the Institution was incorporated by Congress, in 1870, the general work of reconstruction and adaptation of the building to its original purposes was begun, and, after much delay and labor, finished in 1871. On the 22d of February, 1871, Mr. Corcoran generously used the completed building for a grand ball, given in honor of the day, the proceeds of which he turned over, without deducting its expenses, to the fund of the Washington Monument Society. It was considered one of the most superb festivals ever seen in this country, every part of the building being thrown open and lighted. In 1873 one of the Trustees, Mr. Walters of Baltimore, went to Europe empowered to purchase works of art for the Gallery, and l~Mr. Corcoran's private collection of.pictures and statuary was then placed in it. On November 6, 1873, the Board of Trustees completed the organization of the Institution, by electing the proper officers for its management and care. On the 19th of January, 1874, the Picture Galleries, Octagon Room, and the Hall of Bronzes were thrown open for private exhibition by day and night. At this brilliant and crowded inauguration of the 5
Page 6 artistic purposes of the Institution, Mr. Corcoran received the congratulations of his friends upon the fulfilment thus far of his munificent plans. On April 29, 1874, the Halls of Sculpture and of Bronzes were opened to the public, and in December, 1874, the two side galleries of sculpture adjoining the Hain Hall; so that all the rooms of the Institution for exhibition purposes are now open to the public-thus realizing, within one year from the time of its first opening, the munificent founder's " hope that there will be provided, at no distant day, not only a pure and refined pleasure for residents and visitors at the national metropolis, but something useful accomplished in the development of American genius." DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING. The building stands on the northeast corner of Pennsylvania avenue and Seventeenth street, and opposite the War Department. It fronts on the Avenue 106 feet 9 inches, and runs back 125 feet 6 inches on Seventeenth street, with a vacant lot, 27 feet wide, extending across its rear. It is two stories in height, built of brick, in the Renaissance style, with brown-stone facings and ornaments, and a mansard roof rising 10 feet above the ordinary one, having a large central pavilion and two smaller ones at the corners. The front is of imposing style, divided by pilasters, having capitals of the Columbian style, representing Indian corn, into recesses, stone niches for statues, with trophies and wreaths of foliage finely carved, the monogram of the founder, and the inscription, " Dedicated to Art." The entrance is from Pennsylvania avenue into a vestibule, from which rises a noble stairway 10 feet wide to the picture galleries in the second story. On the right of the entrance are a ladies' retiring-room and janitor's rooms. On the left is the Trustees' room, 32 feet by 241 feet, which also is the office of the Curator and Assistant. This room is not open to the public. On each side of the stairway, a corridor, lighted from the open courts, leads to the vestibule of the Main Hall of Sculpture, with which the vestibule communicates through three arched entrances. This fine Hall, 95~x 24~ feet, is lighted by seven windows on the north side, and opens into two adjoining galleries of sculpture on the east side of the building. On the west side it opens into the Hall of Bronzes, &c., 61-x9l) feet. This last also communicates with the Trustees' room, and is the most elegant room in the building. The central portion of the ceiling, panelled and richly decorated, is supported by four Corinthian columns, with gilt capitals. It is lighted by three windows upon Seventeenth street, and as many looking into the open court. The height of this story is 20 feet. The Picture galleries are in the second story. The ascent to the main gallery is remarkably imposing. The stairway leads to an upper landing, with decorated arched ceiling, and Corinthian pilasters dividing the arched recesses over the eight windows, and with spaces between admirably adapted for statues and busts. * The dimensions of all the rooms are given in the appended diagrams of the building.
Page 7 7 The Main Picture Gallery is 95 feet 9 inches by 441 feet, with a height of 24 feet to the cornice of the arched ceiling, and 38 feet to the inner sky-light. All of the picture galleries are lighted from the roof. This is the only one of them lighted at night by an improved electrical apparatus and a range of 280 burners on a quadrangular gas-pipe, saspended from the ceiling, about the height of the cornice. All the other galleries in the building have chandeliers. On the east and west sides of the building the Main Gallery opens into smaller ones, and these again into two corner galleries in the front of the building. Between these corner galleries, and immediately oppoposite the entrance to the Main Gallery, is the Octaoon Room. It has a sky-light, but is chiefly lighted by a south window, suitably screened. The wall of tllis elegant room is covered with marroon paper, that richly relieves the choice statuary there-the Greek Slave being the central ornament. All the galleries communicate by high, arched doorways, wvalnutgrained, as is most of the wood-work. The floors are supported by brick arches, sprung from iron girders. In the basement are spacious and dry cellars, not only for fuel, but for the heavy boxes containing works of art, which are there opened and prepared for exhibition. The building is heated by three furnaces. The cost of the building and ground was $250,000. Mr. Corcoran's collection of pictures and statuary was valued at $100,009. The Institution is maintained by an endowment fund of $900,000, yielding an annual income at present of $62,000. The Board of Trustees is composed of nine members, who have the power to fill any vacancies in their number, by election. The Board holds annual meetings on the second Monday of January, when an election of officers occurs, and annual reports are received. The Gallery is open every day, (Sundays and certain holidays excepted,) from 10 A. M. to 4 P. MI., from October 1st to May 1st, and from 10 A. M. to 5 P. M. from May 1st to October 1st. Originally, according to the deed and charter, the free admission of the public to the Galleries was limited to twoo days in the week, but just before the first opening of the Gallery, the Trustees, at Mr. Corcoran's suggestion, increased the free days to three, so that at present the regulation is as follows: On TUESDAYS, THURSDAYS, and SATURDAYS, admission FREE. On MONDAYS, WmEDNESDAYS, and FRIDAYS, admission 25 cents. On MONDAYS, WEDNESDAYS, and FRIDAYS only, persons will be admitted, under certain printed regulations, to the privilege of drawing from the casts and copying the pictures. Children under six years of age will not be admitted to the Gallery, and none between six and fourteen years will be admitted unless accompanied by a parent or guardian.
Page 9 CATALO GUE. (FIRST FLOOR.) VEST I BULE. 1. COLOSSAL HEAD OF NAPOLEON I. Marble. By A. Canova. A copy by Canova of the head of the colossal statue of Napoleon I, which he modelled from the Emperor at Paris, in 1805. Antonio Canova was born in Passagno, Italy, in 1757, and died in 1822. He displayed his genius at an early age. He made his first statue, Orpheus, when in his nineteenth year, and four years after he astonished the world by his' Theseus and Minataur." Success and riches followed his subsequent works, embracing almost every kind of subject. Among them was a sitting statue of Washington, for the State of North Carolina. He had great simplicity of character, and towards the close of his life his chisel was devoted to religious subjects. 2. COLOSSAL BUST OF MARCUS AURELIUS. 2. in. The marble original is in the Villa Borghese. The "good Aurelius" was born 121 A. D., and reigned from 161 to 180 A. D. 3. LARGE BUST OF ARIADNE. 2-ff Marble. Capitol Museum. Often called the Young Bacchus; but it represents Ariadne as the joyous wife of the God of Wine. 4. BUST OF ANTINOUS AS BACCHUS. 2ft. Marble, in the British Museum, The original of this fine head was found in the Villa Pamfili, with some fragments of a wall-statue, of which it had been a part. 5, 6, 7. BAS-RELIEFS — PAINTING, SCULPTURE, AND ARCHITECTURE. By Butti. 185-. These personifications of the Fine Arts are the work of an Italian sculptor, who designed them for the Capitol, but they were never adopted. 8. CAST OF A BAS-RELIEF OF "PH(EBUS." 3Hin. xft.7in. From a marble found in the ruins of ancient Troy, in 1873, by Dr. Schliemann of Athens, Greece, the eminent archbeologist who has recently, by excavations, brought to light so miany of its architectural and sculptural remains. This cast was presented by him to the Smithsonian Institution, and thence transferred to this gallery. 9. JAGUAR DEVOURING A HARE. In bronze. IH. L2 16 in. x 3 ft. 2 in. By Barye, Paris. * The meaurementmsof the casts have been made with care, and give the hlight of the statues and busts exclusive of their plaster plinths or base>. 9
Page 10 10 RIGHT CORRIDOR. 10. CAST FROM A MIARBLE BAS-1tELIEF TN TIIE MUSEO BOTUIRBONICO NA PLES. According to the names on this cast it represents Antiopa between her sons, Zethus and Amphion, who released their niother frotl cruel bondage by slaying their uncle Lycus, her oppressor; but over the figures of the original bas-relief are the naines of Hermes, (AMercury,) Eurydice, and Orphets, indicating the meeting of the latter with his lost wife in the realm of Pluto. 1 la. CAST OF A FIRAG-MENT OF A WINGED FIGURE IN MARIBLE IN TIIE VATTICAN. lib. lETRUSCAN ArnI. Original, in bronze, in the Vatican. Found in the harbor of Civita Vecchia in 1835, and supposed to be part of a statute of Neptune. 12. BUST OF AGRIPPA DE G]AIIES Marble, in tle Louvre. The celebrated general to whom Augustus CTesar was indebted for his success in becomning Emperor of Rome. Agrippa was as great a hero on sea as on land, and it is conceded that thle battle of Actiumi was gained chiefly by his skill. Born B. C. 63. Died A. D. 12. 13. B3UST OF ANTINOUS. Marble, in the Louvre. A Bacchus-like character is imparted to this head by the wreath of ivy, but still it has the air of sadtness associated with lAntillous. 14. BUST OF ANTONINUS PIUS. Marble, in the Vatican. Emperor of Rome, and celebrated for his virtuous reign, A. D. 138-161. The original was found by Gavin Hamilton, in Hadrian's villa. 15. BUST OF Co(WIv:oDUs. Marble, in the British Museum. Emperor of Rome, A. D. 180-192. Though of revolting sensuality and of luxurious habits, his personal strength and courage made him victor in hundreds of gladiatorial combats. 16. BUST OF CARIACALLA. Marble, in the Louvre. Emperor of Rome, and, after a wicked reign of six years, was assassinated, A. D. 217. His ill-favored features declare his character. He carried his head on one side, in imitation of Alexander the Great. 17. BUST OF VITELLIUS. Marble, in the Louvre. Born A. D. 15, Aulus Vitellius was one of the worst of Rome's bad emperors. After a reign of less than a year, he was assassinated and his body thrown into the Tiber. 18. HIEIAD OF APOLLO. Marble, in the British Museum.. The original of this fine head was once in the Giustinani collection, at Rome, and was bought at the sale of the Pourtales collection in 1865, by the British Government for ~2,000. It is attributed to the school of Lysippus. 19. BUST OF DIANA DI GABIA. Marble, in the Louwvle. Remarkable for the graceful pose of the head, and its serene expression.
Page 11 LEFT CORRIDOR. 20. CAST OF A F1RAGMENT OF TILE MARBLE FRIEZE OF TRAJAN'S FoRUMr, ROME. In the Vatican. A fine blending of foliated decoration with the human form, represent. ing Cupid springing from the plant, and pouring out his never dying flame21, 22, 23. CASTS OF MARBL:E FRAGMIENTS IN TIlE V\ATICAN: A MASK, A HUNTER, AND A WALKING FIGURE. 24. BUST OF THE CROWNED AUGUSTUS, (CASAR.) Marble, in the Louvre. The second and greatest of Rome's emperors was adopted by his uncle, Julius Cwesar. He died A. D. 14, in his 76th year, after a reign of fortyfour years, marked with energy and ability that stamped it with the title of the Augustan Age; resplendent in arts, science, and letters. He justly claimed that " he had found Rome of brick, and left it of marble." Iis character is displayed in this bust. The head, expanding in the most intellectual mould, seems made for a crown, and the firm, resolute mouth shows ability to rule an empire. There is an obvious resemblance between these lines of character and those of Canova's Napoleon. 25. BUST OF TIE YOUNG AUGUSTUS, (CmESAR.) Marble, in the Vatican. The original is considered among the finest of antiques. The saying that "the boy is father to the man" is proved in comparing its facial indications of character with those of the emperor just described. There are the same intense expression of the brow and compression of the lips of one born to, and fitted for empire, which, when only nineteen years old, he struggled for successfully. 26. BUST OF SCIPIO AFRICANUS. Marble, in the Vatican. This great Roiman general foiled Hannibal's advance upon Rome by " carrying the war into Africa," and having defeated him in the decisive battle of Zarna, acquired the title of Afticanus. Born about 241 B. C., and died in his fifty-seventh year. 27. MARcUS AURELIUS. Marble, in the Louvre. Found at Acqua Traversa, and regarded as a good likeness. 28. BUST OF A BARBARIAN. Marble, in the British Museum. The original of this cast, so full of savage character, was found in Trajan's Forum, Rome, where many similar ones were discovered, fastened as trophies to the walls. 29. SENECA. Marble, in the Louvre. This philosopher was born in Spain, and became preceptor of Nero, who put him to death in his sixty-fourth year. 30. BUST OF EURIPIDES. Marble, in the Vatican. This eminent tragic poet of Greece was born at Salamis on the day when the army of Xerxes was defeated. Though a woman-hater, lie seems to have been married twice. He was torn to pieces by dogs, 407 B. C., in his seventy-eighth year. 31. HOlIER. Marble, in the British Museunm. The original of this bust was found at Baike in 1780. There are many copies, and all are of doubtful authenticity as portraits.
Page 13 HALL OF SCULPTURIE. ifw'ne.'?y Ilcan be sickly, troubled, or cannot,sleep for gr'ief, alnd shall b'et sland overe oe (f'lPhidias' iaacseges, he willJor/et all care, or whatever else sv ay nlolest him, in ai, in,stasit." -CuIIRY SOSTOM. PRELIMINARY NOTICE OF GREEK SCULPTURE. The Art of ancient Greece has been to succeeding ages the inspiring source of all excellence in Sculpture and Architecture. Greek Painting may be said to be almost a mere tradition, for though lauded by historians and poets we have few vestiges of it beyond vase-painting, and nothing to attest the skill of Apelles or Zeuxis. Not so with the sister arts. Enough of sculpture and architecture exists to ptrove the genius of Phidias and Ictinus. We have not only well-preserved temples and statues, but even shattered fragments suggest their perfect glory when entire, and furnish models to artists for all time. Of these, the sculpture of Greece is her noblest legacy. As BeulI justly says, "the Greeks did not invent art; they invented beauty." Deriving from Egypt and Asia Minor the mechanical and technical means of art, they dropped the dogmas prescribed by priests and rulers. The mnaterials first use d were, successively, wood, bronze, ivory, with gold, (chryselaphantine,) and, finally, marble fromn Paros, one of the Ionian islands, whence came the verse of Homer, and the grace and beauty of Greek sculpture. The 1st Epoch of Greek art extended from Homeric times to 500 B. C. The stiff formality of the Egyptian style gradually gave way to naturalness, constantly aspiring to something above outward form. About 515 B. C. arose Ageladas of Argos, the tutor of Myron, Phidias, and Polycletus. Between 500 and 480 B. C. were executed the great groups of the Temple of Minerva at Egina, now in the Glypothek at Munich, rivalling the works of the Parthenon, which they preceded by some forty years. This epoch closes with Calamis and Myron of Athens, the last of whom greatly advanced the art of modelling the human form in free natural action. The 2d Epoch ushered in a new ideal style. It was originated by Phidias of Athens, born 501 B. C., who, combining the vigor of the Doric school with the grace of the Ionians, represented the incidents of mythology with the grandest types of the human form. Before his time, Beul1 asserts, there was " an ideal lower than nature," but now Phidias and his followers aimed at " an ideal higher than nature." The condition of the nation favored this great change. Emerging from the influence of Orientalism after her glorious repulse of the Persians, 470 B. C., Greece rapidly developed the vigor and splendor of her native genius in literature, science, philosophy, and the arts. In sculpture, a heroic and religious sentimnent blended witlh her perception of the beautiful. Casting aside the ideal monstrosities of Eastern worship, the Greek mind, through her sculptors, clad its deities with the form of man. Their habits of living developed their bodies into manly vigor, and their becoming dress gave to the forms of their gods and goddesses an august grandeur and grace founded upon nature, but sublimated by the genius of the sculptor. Hence it was said that " Phidias alone had seen the gods and revealed them to man." The Parthenon and its decorations were the chief mIon unlleDts of his genius, and he closed his career with his sublime statue of Jupiter at Elis. Athens, with her tutelar deity Minerva, became the centre of this rare Hellenic culture, that culminated in the reign of Pericles, about 400 B. C. Within the space of this second epoch (about seventy years) budded, blossomed, and began to fade what many consider the greatest civilization the world ever beheld. But, meanwhile, another school competed with Athens for the honors of sculpture. Polycletus of Argos,.a younger contemporary of Phidias, united the naturalness of Myron with the grand repose of Phidias, and established certain exact rules of proportion in modeling the human body that gained him the name of Canon. I-He was the first to make a statue rest upon one foot, with the other drawn back. 1:I
Page 14 14 With hinm also appeared Nancydes, his pupil, who executed a Discobulus, in which thought was blended with grace of form. 3d Epoch. The Peloponnesian war developed new phases of national character that powerfully influencetd Greek art. The solemn grandeur of Phidias gave way to the effects of excited passions of states opposed to each other. Great mlonumental works were seldom mIade, and private commissions succeeded. Bronze, ivory, and gold were succeeded generally by marble. In this period flourished Scopas and Praxiteles, of the Attic school, who infused grace and beauty into the Phidian style. Soft, mental emotions, and gentle, dreamy repose were the characteristics of their work. The more vigorous Argive school was represented by Lysippus, who followed the exact rules of Polycletus, and gave more grace and suppleness to the forms of Athletes, as is shown in his Apoxyomenos. At the close of this era the Attic school developed portraiture in such statues as the famous one of Sophocles. The 4th Epoch extends from the death of Alexaader to the conquest of Greece by the Romans, B. C. 146. The extension of the Greeks to the East affected the character of their sculpture, that now seemed chiefly dclevoted to the service of princes and the demands of luxury. In this era arose the school of Rhodes, under Cliares, pupil of Lysippus. There was a tendency to colossal statues, and dramatic subjects, of whichl the La)coo)n is an example. The school of Pergainus also appeared, devoted chiefly to themes of battles with the Gauls. " The Dying Gaul, or Gladiator," deficient in ideal expression or harmony of form, is a product of this school. The supremacy of Greek art raplidly gave way after the Roman conquest, when the freedom and the arts of the vanquished nation went to Rome to grace the triumph of the conqueror. For centuries the Greeks furnished the sculpture of Rome. Viardot says: "None of the Roman writers mention the name of a single native sculptor.' It took centuries to infuse into the hard practical Latin, disdainful of the ideal, the skill and genius for that style, and even the Greco-Roman sculpture was generally of an inferior form. The chief business seemed to be to deify Coesars and execute busts. As time rolled on the art was debased into a system of manufacture. It became a custom to make statues of emperors and statesmen in advance, on which heads were placed on demand. There were, however, intervals of better things; for between Nerva and Hadrian the imperial sculptors vied with the Greeks. Then followed the disruption of the Roman empire by internal strife and external foes; the outburst of Christianity, with its unsparing destruction of Pagan art; until under the death-shade of the Dark Ages the ancient treasures of art, broken, scattered, and hidden, disappeared for centuries. Fr)om this entombment suddenly sprang up the Renaissance, through the art discoveries of the fourteenth and succeeding centuries. Explorations unearthed the precious relies of ancient art, and the study of them. soon gave birth to that galaxy of genius whereof Ghiberti, Da Vinci, Angelo, and Raphael were fixed stars, recalling the glory of the old Greek firmament. The extent of these unburied treasures seems incredible. According to Pliny, Rome contained more statues than inhabitants. The Abb6 Barthelemy asserts that seventy thousand were dug out; and Pausanius says that Nero brought five hundred bronze statues from the Oracle of Apollo at Delphos. The Corcoran Gallery of Art has succeeded in importing authentic casts of the most notable examples of Greek and Greco-Roman scul pture in the British Museum, and the galleries of Paris, Rome, Florence, and Naples. Abundant examples of Roman, Mediseval, Gothic, and modern sculpture will be secured, so as to afford to the student and connoisseur an epitome of plastic art, ancient and modern. The most famous of these casts are taken from the Elgin Marbles, brought from the Parthenon, at Athens, by Lord Elgin, 1800, and afterwards sold to the British Government for $175,000. THE PARTHENON, (Virgin's Chamber,) a Doric temple of white marble, was erected 438 B. C., during the reign of Pericles, in honor of Minerva, (Pallas Athene,) the tutular deity of Athens. Ictinus was the architect, but Phidias was the Director of the Public Buildings, and decorated this famous temple with statues and bas-reliefs. It was'27 feet long and 101 feet in width, with 8 pillars in flront and 17 on each side. The height of these columns was 34 feet. A statue of Minerva, 40 feet high, made by Phidias, of ivory and gold, towered above her
Page 15 temple, so that the sheen of her spear-point and helmet could be seen by the mariner afar as he rounded Cape Suniumi. In later days the Partihenon was turned into a church of the Virgin. It resisted time and warfare until 1687, when, while in po'ssession of the Turks, it was besieged by the Venetians, and a bomb alighting upon the top rent and scattered its superb form, nearly destroying all the groups of figures in both pediments wrought there by Phidias. Fortunately, the French artist, Carrey, had visited the temple in 1672, fifteen years before the bombardment, and made careful drawings of the figures of both pedilnents. Tliey were accidentally found in the Royal Library at Paris in 1799, and fromn them we can form an excellent idea of the character, arrangement, and grandeur of these pediments as they originally stood. In the "Antiquities of Athens," by Stuart and Revett, may be found engraved copies of Carrey's interesting drawings. MIAIN SCULPTURE HALL. 1. FR'IEZE OF THE PARTHENON. Elgin Marble. British Museum. Ato0UND THE CORNICE of the Main Hall of Sculpture are placed 194 feet of casts froml the original marble slabs, 524 feet in length, that once formed the frieze of the cellra, or inner temple of the Parthenon. These slaibs were nearly four feet square, and represented in low relief, not greater than three and a half inches, the great Panathenaic Procession, a fCte held every fifth year in honor of Mi.inerva. At the head of it was borne aloft the sacred Peplos, or garment to be placed on the statue of the Goddess; then followed virgins with offerings, animals for sacrifice, chariots, and lastly the mounted young nobility of Athens. The windows of the north wall break the continuity of the casts of this procession, but the spectator will observe there the seated deities, and turning to the right will see on the east wall the vilgins with offerings. Fragmecntary groups of the sacrificial oxen and of charioteers follow, but the reliefs on the south and west walls present an unbroken line of the young horsemen, sweeping along, with here and there a dismounted group varying the action of the cavalcade. This last section of the reliefs is arranged precisely as the originals stood in the Parthenon. Mutilated as these reliefs are, it is impossible not to feel the amazing genius shown in the endless variety of attitudes of the human figures and of the rushingsteeds, which last, in accordance with the method of the Greek sculptors, when represented alongside of men, are much smaller than is strictly natural. Dr. Lubke says of this procession: " They present every grade, from solemn repose to ardent action; and yet there is a calm festivity, a breath of eternal cheerfulness and beauty, diffused over them. In it we see the noble bloom of maidenhood, the fresh strength of young manhood, and the solemn dignity of magistrates-a festive procession of the assembled citizens of Athens passing up to the Citadel, at the close of the Panathenaic games, to present to Minerva the sacred Peplos." We can imagine the effect of such a procession ascending the Acropolis, and passing along its classic fanes of Pentelican marble, under the bright sky of Attica. And yet, in spite of all these works, here and in other cities of Greece, Phidias fell a victim to the envy of his enemies. He was first accused of purloining part of the gold used in the colossal statue of Minerva, and was acquitted; but because he placed his name, with that of his patron Pericles, upon the shield of the goddess, he was accused of profanity, thrown into prison, and died there. The engraving on page 17, taken from Carrey's drawing, shows the east and west pediments of the Parthenon as they stood when sketched by him in 1672, and the arrangement in them of the chief figures of the Elgin Marbles, casts of which are described below. The west pediment represented the contest between Neptune and Minerva for the possession of Attica. Neptune, by a blow of his trident, caused a horse to spring from the rock; but Minerva a.t once caused the peaceful
Page 16 16 olive to shoot up, and was declared the victor. The group represented Neptune striding away in wrath, while the goddess mounts her car in tlriurnph. The sketch will show the principal figures, but sadly mutilated. In the left angle of this pediment reclines the figure of Ilissus, the river-god. The east pedimlent represented the birth of Minerva Its central portion vanished centuries since. On the left side is the recumbent figure of Theseus, and on the right the group of the Three Fates. In the left extreme angle alre the I-IHrses of Hyperion (Day) rising froin the sea, typifying the dawn of civilization with the birth of Minerva, and in the opposite angle the Horse of Night, descending, emblematic of the disappearance of ignorance. Such is the profound meaning of these groups and single figures. 2. TESEUS 4 ft. 2in x 5 ft. 9 Elgin Marble. British Museum. T.'I~IE4SEUS i. x 5 ft. 9 in. The original reclined in an angle of the east pediment of the Parthenon, and represents the reputed founder of Athens. As late as 1672 the left foot had not disappeared, nor was the head battered. The cast faithfully shows the flakiness caused by time and weather. The elaborate finish of the back part of this and other figures in the pediments is most remarkable. Placed at a height of sixty feet, it is not probable that human eye ever beheld those parts near the wall from the time Phidias raised them there until Lord Elgin took them down, and in view of this needless but conscientious finish, we feel the force of the reply made by Phidias to one who asked why he took such pains with what nobody would see-" The gods see them!" 3. ILISSUS. 2t.in.x in. Elgin Marble. British Museum. The correct name of this figure, that stood in the north angle of the west pediment of the Parthenon, is Cephisus. Both are names of streams that supplied Athens with water, and hence the G(reek mind personified them as river-gods. He is represented as raising himself from a recumbent position on one arm to listen to the announcement of the triumph of Minerva over Neptune. But whether Ilissus or Cephisus, this great figure and the Theseus, by the modelling of their massive chests, the lithe curvature of back and loins, and the anatomical knowledge displayed in every limb, will forever remain unequalled examples of heroic sculpture. 4. THIE Two FATES. H4ftin. x77in. 1gill Marble. British Museum. This cast represents two of the three sisters (Parcre) that once stood in the east pediment, and sloping towards the angle opposite Theseus. In Carrey's drawing the entire form of the third figure is seen seated beside them, and only one of the others is headless. They are supposed by some to represent the daughters of Cecrops. Depending upon no display of nude charms, these majestic forms-particularly the recumbent figure —iuprless us by the noble elegance of their pose and the graceful lines of their draperies. It is said these figures furnished the French painter Couture with one of the most striking groups in his picture of " A Roman Orgy." 5. HEAD OF A HORSE OF HYPERION, (the Sun.) Hft.5 in. Elgin Marble. British Museum. The original stood in the extreme angle of the peclinment of the Parthenon, representing the birth of Minerva, and in this steed of the Sun is personified the dawn of civilization following that event, while the retreating shade of barbarism was represented in the head of the Horse of Night (No. 6) in the opposite angle of the pediment. Though wofully battered, there renlains enough of correct modelling and spirited action in them to show the hand of a great master. 7. TtIE DISCOBOLUS, (Quoit-thrower.) 5. British Museum. The original statue was executed in bronze by Myron at the close of the first period of Greek sculpture-about 470 B. C. The discues was a round flat plate of metal or stone, about ten or twelve inches in diameter, and
Page 17 PEDIMENTS OF THE PARTHENON, ATHENS. Ilissus. Minerva. Neptune. WEST FRONT. Horses of the Sun. Theseus. Iris. The Fates. Horse ofNight. EAST FR1ONT.
Page 18 18 when thrown it took a rotary motion. There are several antique copies in marble of this figure, showing the head reverted, the finest of which' is in the Massimi Palace, Rome. The copy from which this cast is taken was found in 1791, near Hadrian's Villa. 8. DISCOBOLUS. 5. Marble, in the Vatican. 5 ft..5k in. The original of this cast is by Naucydes, pupil of Polycletus, who was a pupil of Phidias, and consequently the work is worthy of its age and author. The head is supposed not to have formed a part of the original figure-why, it is difficult to imagine; for its form and expression seem in harmony with the action of the body, that so well represents arrested purpose. This fine expression of thoughtful suspense shows the superiority of the work over that of Myron, his predecessor, whose Discobolus, great as it is, merely represents physical activity. The fillet round the head was the badge of victory. 9, VENUS OF MIILO. Marble, in the Louvre. 6 ft. sin. The original of this cast was discovered in 1820, in the island of Milo, the ancient Melos, by a peasant, while digging near some sepulchral grottoes. The earth suddenly gave way, and this Venus was found in a rocky cave with a Mercury and some pedestals. The French Consul tried to buy it, but a cunning monk, in disgrace with the Sultan, secured it as a peaceoffering to the Porte. While the statue was on its way to a ship, a French frigate arrived with a secretary of the French embassy, bearing orders to purchase and hurry it off. A fight occurred over it between the French sailors and natives, and the former carried off the prize. The peasant received six thousand francs for this invaluable statue, that went to Paris as a present to Charles X. It now stands in the Louvre, the pride of Paris, and the admiration of the world. Its sculptor is unknown, but by the grandeur of its style it is justly assigned to the era between Phidias and Praxiteles, and is considered the greatest statue of woman's form the world now holds. The plinth, the left foot, the tip of the nose, and a small part of the lips are the only parts restored. The arms also were found, but so mutilated, that, though casts have been taken with them attached, the glorious torso is declared by the world better as it is-the fulness of what is left, and its suggested action, being more satisfactory than any guess-work from an uninspired hand. When the Germans besieged Paris, this favorite statue was boxed and buried beyond reach of shot, under the Prefecture of Police; and on their withdrawal a new foethe Commune-arose and burnt the Prefecture to the ground, to the dismay of every admirer of the statue, which it was feared was turned into limedust. On searching for her, it was found a bursted water-pipe had saved her-she was uninjured. The moisture, however, had destroyed the cement at the junction of the two sections at her waist, and in it were discovered some wooden wedges, which had for fifty years given to the upper part of the figure an inclination not designed by the sculptor. These were removed, and the sections closely uniting, it is said a new and more agreeable position was given to the goddess. What was the action expressed by this noble figure when complete? There is nothing of the ordinary Cyprian Venus about it. From every point of view the form preserves its dignity and grace, and the majestic head and face are full of serene, earnest thought. Mr. Ravaisson, keeper of the Antiques at the Louvre, who discovered the wedges, and restored the statue to its original position, thinks it probable that the statue is part of a group of Venus and Mars-" Love disarming War "-woman taking from man the fiercer traits of character; and he has made a cast, with the arms attached, which it is said confirms his theory. Then, again, it is asserted that a small bronze copy of it has been discovered in Pompeii representing her as looking at herself in a mirror held in her left hand, and therefore the outrageous inference is drawn by some, that this august form was once engaged in such an act of coquetry! Mr. Millingen, a Dutch antiquary, thinks it is an imperfect copy of the
Page 19 19 Venus of Capua in the Museo Bourbonico, Naples, which is like the Venus of Milo in general form, but has the hlead bent down and the left arm and empty hand extended towards a Cupid, who, with his bow, stands before helr. All these theories, however, are set at naught, and the action of the Venus of Milo settled, if there be truth in the following evidence of its condition when found, as quoted by O'Shea, in his " Galleries of the Louvre." The eminent traveller, Dumont D'Urville, landed from the French frigate soon after its discovery, and after an inspection, says in his account of it published in 1821.: The statue was in two parts, and about six feet high, representing a nude femllale whose left haad (raised) held an apple, and the left one held up a tunic falling gracefully from the waist to the feet. However, they (the hands) were mutilated and separated from the body." An officer of the man-of-war, writing about the statue, says " When M. D'Urville and myself saw the statue it had the left arm raised in the air, and holding in its ha7n7 aln appce, and the left arm was broken at its narrow part —d Ia scaignee." O'Shea also states that the forearm and hand holding the apple are in the store-room of the Louvre. This contemporary evidence seems to prove conclusively that the statue is a Venus Victrix in the contest for the apple with Juno and Minerva. The august expression of her face and form may be explained as that of a proud consciousness that even thus much of her charms were more than enough to prove her supreme beauty-an expression and attitude showing neither the flutter of eager expectation, nor doubt of the result, nor vulgar triumph over her rivals. 10. VENUS DI MIEDICIS. Marble, in Florence. Presented by J. C. McGuire, Esq. This excellent cast of the Goddess of Love, though somewhat injured by exposure to the weather, is regarded as a perfect copy, its extreme fidelity having carried off a prize in Italy. The original stands in the Tribunal of the Uffizi, Florence. It was found in the 15th century and carried to Venice during the reign of Cosino di Medicis-hence its name. When found it was in thirteen pieces, and without arms. These were supplied, but it is supposed by many that the position of the original arms is not given in the substitutes. It, was executed by Cleomenes of Athens at a period when Greek art was rapidly declining. Though it has been characlerized as'the statue that enchants the world," there is no famous work of sculpture that has been more the subject of diverse criticism. 1f. VENUS OF THE CAPITOL.. in. Marble, in the Capitoline Museum, Rome. The back of this figure is particularly fine. The vase below the drapery is a symbol of the bath. 12. ARIADNE DESERTED. 5ft3 i. 1 Marble, in the Vatican. Ariadne, daughter of -Minos, King of Crete, was married to Theseus, who deserted her; while another story is, that she was loved by Bacchus, and deserted by him at Naxos. This superb recumbent figure was once supposed to represent Cleopatra, but the learned critic Visconti proved that the asp on the arm-the supposed proof of its being the Queen of Egyptwas only an armlet of serpent-like form. For three centuries it adorned a fountain in the Vatican. It now stands on an ancient sarcophagus, the sides of which represent, in bas-reliefs, giants destroyed by thunder-bolts. Lubke assigns the execution of this statue to the period of Augustus CTsar. 13. EUTERPE. a. Iarble, in the Louvre. 4~ ft. The Inventress of song and wind instruments is here crowned, and holding a pipe or flute in each hand. Though the face of the original seems to have been much injured, yet its pleasant air, easy attitude, and graceful drapery are remarkable. It was once in the Villa Borghese.
Page 20 20 14. DANA DI GABIA. ftin. Marble, in the Louvre. This statue takes its name from the place where it was found in 1792. It is also called Atlacntt adjusting herd r'obe. This is perhaps the most beautiful draped statue known. In point of maidenly grace, purity of expression, and the exquisite lines of the drapery, it has no equal. 15. GENIUS OF TIIE VATICAN. in Marble, in the Vatican. This beautiful work was found at Centicelli, between Rome and Palestrina, and has been by some pronounced an Eros, or Cupid, by Praxiteles. It represents that dreamy state when the form is passing into young manhood. 1C. ABUNDANCE, OlR PLENTY. in. Marble, in the Vatican. One of the noblest draped statues antiquity has left us. It has the cornucopia in the left hand, while the right holds a rudder resting on a globe, thus indicating Commerce as a source of Plenty. 17. MINERVA. Marble, in the Vatican. This imposing statue of the goddess of wisdom, of war, and all liberal arts, is often called Minerva Medica. The serpent is a special attribute of Minerva as an emblem of wisdom. The griffin is also sacred to her, and appears on her helmet. In surveying the austere dignity of her statue, there seems point in the Greek epigram, "that only a cow-keeper like Paris could have preferred Venus to Minerva! " [8. GENIUS OF ETERNAL REST. fi Marble, in the Louvre. The original of this impressive cast formerly belonged to Cardinal Mazarin. It is a perfect illustration of the Greek sentiment that always expressed death with types of beauty. The figure leans against a pine tree, the resin of which was used in funeral ceremonies. The left leg is considered perfect in design and delicate contour. 19. GERMANICUS5 ft. i in. Marble, in the Vatican. Germanicus was emperor of the eastern division of the Roman Empire, A. D. 19, and celebrated for his military genius, learning, and benevolence. Some consider it to be a statue of a Roman orator, in the character of Mercury, the god of eloquence, of whom the tortoise below the drapery is an emblem. It is inscribed, "Cleomenes, son of Cleomenes, made this." The head is supposed by some not to be the original one. The statue seems to represent the mature vigor of middle age, combining strength in the chest and arms, with light compactness of the legs. It is supported by a graceful fold of drapery, instead of a heavy tree-trunk, thereby leaving in full outline the contour of the lower limbs. No published authority seems to have explained the action of the right arm and uplifted hand, holding a small substance like a bean. It is supposed that the figure represents some solemn decision by the vote of the emperor. 20. ANTINOUS, OF THE CAPITOL. 5Marft.bein, i, in the Capitol. Antinous was a handsome youth, beloved by the Emperor Hadrian, to whom he was so much attached that he drowned himself in the Nile to save his imperial master from the death foretold to him, unless saved by such a sacrifice. Hadrian immortalized his favorite by raising temples and statues to his memory. He is generally represented with a pensive declination of his head, as though in sad foreboding of his early doom. This statue is considered a perfect embodiment of young, graceful manhood. 21. THE FIGHTING HERO, OR GLADIATOR. Marble, in the Louvre. H. 5 ft., and from head to foot, 6Y ft. This most spirited of all statues, ancient or modern, was found on the coast near Antium-very near the spot where, a century earlier, the Apollo Belvedere was found. The stern supporting it is inscribed in Greek letters, "Agasias, son of Dositheus, the Ephesian, made it," and therefore it is a
Page 21 21 specimen of Greek sculpture of the Fourth Epoch, that ended with the Roman conquest. It is now asserted that this statue does not represent a gladiator, but a foot soldier, defending hilself against a horseman; and that gladiators were principally slaves, who fought with more or less armor. Viardot insists that it is Greek, and represents an athlete of the Hellenic games, gladiators not being known to that people, but were of Roman origin. Whatever may be the character represented, the world agrees in the perfection of its bold, energetic style, the nervous tension of the whole body, the combined readiness for attack and defence, and the firm, defiant brow. 22. GROuP OF T-IE LAOCOON. Marble, in the Vatican. H. 6 ft. X in. to top of head. This magnificent cast was made from the original in the Vatican, and was presented to George the Fourth. The original work belongs to the 4th epoch of Greek sculpture, and in merit ranks in the second class. It was executed bty three sculptors-Agesalr drus, Atheod orus, and Polydorus. It was found in Rome in 1506, and tile Pope ordered a public festival in honor of its discovery. According to Pliny, it once stood in the palace of Titus. Laocoon was a priest of Apollo, and the god, being offended, sent two serpents, that killed hirn and his two sons at the altar, while offering sacrifice to Neptune. W\hen found, the right arm was wanting. One in terra cotta, by Bernini, was substituted. MIichael Angelo designed one in marble, but never finished it. Lubke and other writers insist that the right arm was not originally in the position given to it bly the great sculptor, but was bent down t)ehind the head, which was thus suppolrted by the hand in that moment of exhausted agony. This position of the arm is often given in engravings. Lubke thus conments upon this famous work: "From three different scenes one united and strictly connected group is formed, depicting the one moment of utmost suffering and horror petrified with fearful truth, and the whole pathos is concentrated in the mighty figure of the father. * - * Yet we see nothing here but pure physical suffering. The impression is entirely pathological, for no moral idea, no tragic conflict, no allusion to guilt and expiation, meets us; and in this lies the barrier, the contrast, between it and the Niobe, and other works of a former age. Nevertheless, the composition and the execution are masterly, and worthy of admiration." 23. APOXYOIMENOS. Mft'n. arble, in the Vatican. This cast represents an athlete scraping from his arm the dust of the arena. Athletes were contestants in the public games, and before entering the arena rubbed their naked bodies over with oil. The victors received great honors. The original was in bronze, and executed by Lysippus, of the Argine school. He was the leader of the physical style that succeeded the grand, solemn manner of Phidias. His works were numerous, and extended to the time of Alexander the Great, who would allow no one else to model his form. He was fond of depicting the labors of Hercules, and originated the style in which that demi-god is usually represented. Though his style was purely physical he followed the rules of Polycletus carefully, and gave a peculiar grace and suppleness to his figures. This statue is considered about the finest example of his work. It was found near Trastavere in 1846. Agrippa had placed it in front of the Thermise, near the Pantheon, and it was so popular that when Tiberius attenimpted its removal to his own residence, the people rose and forbade it. It is believed that the five-spot on the die (tessera) held out in the right hand signifies that the figure came out fifth in the contest. 24. BUST OF NEirco. Marble, in the Loutvre. On surveying this portrait of the most wicked of Rome's emperors, the general idiotic mould of fthe head almost disposes one to think that Nero could not ehave h)een MIortlly responsible for his cruelties, in spite of the cat-like expression of the eyes.
Page 22 22 25. AJAx. Marble, in the British Museum. This bust of one of the Greek leaders at the siege of Troy, Diomede, has been erroneously called Ajax. It was found in 1771 by Mr. Gavin Hamilton in the Pantinella, Hadrian's Villa. 26. SILENUS AND INFANT BACCIIUS. M6ft. 4 Marble, in the Louvre. The original of this superb cast was found in the 16th century, in the gardens of Sallust, at Rome. The hands, half of the right fore-arm, and right toes of Silenus, and left leg of Bacchus, are restorations. Notwithstanding the pointed ears and rude nose of the Faun, the expression of his face is btenevolently humlan, and reflects with lunminous kindliness the smiling face of the young Bacchus. The legs of Silenus are considered to be of remarkable excellence, and the close observer will not fail to perceive the goat-like sinewness towards the back of the ancles. Silenus, though a sylvan deity, and the tutor and friend of Bacchus, is more frequently represented as a fat, intoxicated old man, crowned with ivy and flowers, riding on an ass. 27. VENUs CALLIPYGOS. 5ftHin. Marble, in the Naples Museum, 5 ft. 1 in. So called fromn the Greek definition of its peculiar character. It was once in the Farnese Palace, Rome. Casts of it are in great demand. The back of the figure is particularly admired. It is said that the head and the right leg below the knee are restorations. 28. Boy WITHr GOOSE. 33H in. Marble, in the Vatican. Found in 1789, at Civita Vecchia, Appian Way. It is thought to be copied from a bronze work by Boetius, of Carthage. Heads of the child and goose, with the wing tips, are restorations. 29. YOUTH SUPPLICATING. ftin. Bronze, at Belin. The original of this exquisite statuette is said to have been found in the Tiber. From Clement XI it passed through several hands to the King of Prussia. Right hand and part of the forearm are restorations. 30. ACHILLES BORGItESE. Mft.9in. Marble, in the Louvre. The original of this cast was formerly in the Villa Borghese, whence its name. Its proper name is doubtful, as the figure is not of that heroic mould we associate with the Greek hero, in spite of the helmet, the lance once held in his right hand, and the anklet supposed to guard the only vital part of his body. Clarac thought it a copy of a bronze by Alcamenes, favorite pupil of Phidias. Visconti first gave it the name of Achilles, but Winkelmnan thinks it a statue of Mars, and that the ring or anklet indicated the custom of the Spartans of chaining up the God of War, "that he might never leave them." 31. MERCURY. 6 ft. Marble, in the Vatican. This statue was once called Antinous, but Visconti has proved it to be Mercury. It was found on the Esquiline Hill, near the baths of Titus. The right arm and left hand were never restored, but the right thigh and both lower legs are modern. The lower part of the statue is notably inferior to the bust and head, which show a blended strength and grace peculiar to the works of Lysippus, to whom Lubke attributes the work. 32. COLOSSAL BUST OF LUCIUS VERUS. Marble, in the Louvre. H. 2 ft. 10 in. From the original found in Roma Vecchia. Lucius Verus was the unworthy son-in-law of the " good Aurelius," and shared the throne of Rome from 161 A. D. to 169. He was wasteful and profligate. He fed his horse on alllonds, clothed him in royal purple, and had a statue of hini made of gold.
Page 23 23 33. CIROUCnING VENUS. 2. Marble, in the Vatican. 2 ft. 8V, in. The original statuette was found at Salone, on the road from Rome to Palestrina. The left hand, right forearm, and upper part of the head are modern. The antique base found with it is inscribed "Boupaz.los mcade." It is said, however, that sculptor lived in an earlier age, and that the statuette is supposed to be by DTedalus, of the Argive school. It is mentioned by Pliny as standing in the porch of Octavia, in the Temple of Jupiter, at Rome. 34. VENUS AT THE BATH. 27 Marble, in the Louvre. Much of this figure is of modern restoration. It is supposed to be a copy of the Venus of Polycharmes, which Pliny says was taken to Rome in his time. -35. BONE-PLAYER.t. Marble, in the Louvre. 2 ft.'A in. The original of this beautiful statue was found at Rome in 730. The right hand, neck, and left shoulder, are modern. The game of Tali, or playing with bones, was a favorite one with the ancients. 3(6. COLOSSAL BUST OF cuESCUTiLPIUS. H. arbe, in British Museum. 21 i1. 2Esculapius was supposed to be the son of Apollo, and was taught medicine by Chiron, the Centaur. He was the chief medicl officer to the famous Argonautic expedition, and saved so many lives that Pluto induced Jupiter to destroy him with a thunderbolt. Divine honors were paid him. The original of this cast was found in the island of Milo(Melos) in 1828, and is conjectured to have been made about 300 B. C. It evidently formed part of a statue, and is of the true Phidian grandeur in style. 37. JULIA. 4ft. EHin. Marble, in the Vatican. 4 ft. 52 in. The original of this statue was found on the coast of Barbary, at Ben Ghuzi, and is sometimes called A Young Roman Girl. Julia was the mother of the Emperor Caracalla, and, after his decease, through grief, starved herself to death. It is interesting as a study of drapery, and gives a corredt idea of the costume of that age. 38, DEMOSTIIHENES. H. Marble, in the Vatican. 6 ft. 5 in. This cast is from the finest statue known of the greatest Greek orator, whose denunciatory speeches against Philip of Macedon has given to that species of oratory the name of philippic. Ile is here represented as in the act of rolling up his speech at the close of an oration. Born 383 B. C. Died in his 62d year. 39. SOPHOCLES. Hft.5Min. Marble, in the Lateran Rome. The renowned tragic poet, soldier, and statesman of Athens, died 406 B. C., in his 91st year, from exultation over one of his prize poems read at the Olympian Games. This statue is considered an unequalled model of dignity and manly grace. 40. ARISTIDES. Rarft. Marble, in the Naples Museum. Found in Herculaneum. It is supposed to represent Aristides exhorting the Spartans to resist the Persians under Mardonius. Canova is said to have always paused before it when entering the Museum. Though Aristides was surnamed "The Just," on account of his virtues, he was banished from Athens. Subsequently recalled, he led in the battles of Salamis and Plat2ea, but dying in poverty was buried at the public expense. it. BUST OF SOCRATES. Marble, original in the Louvre. The ugliness of this portrait of the greatest of ancient philosophers was the occasion of a noted utterance of wisdom from him.; for when a physiognomnist said his features declared a nature depraved and licentious, Socrates restrained his disciples froml killing the supposed slanderer by saying his assertions were true, for he really was by nature all he was charged with, but that he had by wisdom subldued and kept under his
Page 24 24 vicious passions. He was also brave in battle, having once saved the lives of his pupils, Xenophon and Alcibiades. Notwithstanding his efforts to enforce virtue and temperance, he offended the authorities of Athens, and was condemned to death by drinking hemlock in his 70th year-400 B. C. 42. BUST OF HOMErt. MIarble, in the Louvre. This bust is very like the one in the British Museum. The original was found inserted in a garden wall in Rome. 43. COLOSSAL BTUST OF JUPITER. 32 in Marble, in the Vatican. The original in marble of this grand cast is in the Vatican, and was found at Otricoli, 40 miles from Rome. There are several copies, and all are supposed to be modelled after the heacd of the grand statue of Jupiter, by Phidias, at Elis, and which stood for eight hundred years, until it was destroyed in the fifth century of the Christian era. The grandeur of this head of the king of gods makes one exclaim, "The front of Jove himself " "He spoke, and awful bends his sable brows, Shakes his ambrosial curls, and gives the nod, The stamp of fate, and sanction of the god." Lubke says of it: "The mighty locks, raised in the centre, and falling clown on both sides, the compressed forehead, with the bold, arched brows, from under which the large eyes seem to glance over the universe, the broad projecting nose, express energy and wisdom, while mild benevolence rests on the full, parted lips, and the luxuriant beard and rounded cheeks show sensual power and imperishable manly beauty." We can imagine the grandeur of the original statue from this faint shadow of it. The tradition is that when Phidias finished it he prayed for a token from Jupiter whether his work was acceptable, and a flash of lightning through the roof attested the Thunderer's approval. 14. CAItYATID. M. Marble, in the Vatican. The original of this imposing columnar figure is from the Erectheum at Athens. It takes its name from Caryoe, in Arcadia, the citizens of which aided the Persians, and, after the defeat of the latter, the Greeks severely punished them by burning their cities, killing the men, and carrying off the women into captivity. To perpetuate the record of their being enslaved, images of their formns were used to support temples and porticoes. Trhe figure columns of men were called Atlantes. Many of these columns were brought to Rome after the conquest of Greece. 45. POLYHYMNIA. 5. Marble, in the Louvre. 5 It. 11 in. The muse of song is here represented leaning upon a rock of Helicon, listening to the mlelody around her. The statue was once in the Villa Borghese. Only the lower half is said to be antique, the remainder being restored by Augustino Penna from a bas-relief on a sarcophagus in the Capitol. In addition to its air of listening repose, the figure is an admirable model of drapery. 416. APOLLO SAUROKTONOS, (Lizard-Killer.) f. ft. 10Yin. Marble, in the Louvre. There are many copies of the original in bronze by Praxiteles, 3d or Alexandrian period. The young god is divining future events from the twistings of the lizard, which reptile was considered by the ancients a creature of presage. In this work Praxiteles has adopted the idea first embodied by Polycletus, of making his statue rest upon one leg. 47. FILORA. ft.i. Marble, Capitoline Museumn, Rome. The Roman Goddess of Flowers, and by its graceful drapery a fit pendant to the Diana of Gabi6. 48. PUDICITIA, Goddess of Modesty. 6,. Marble, il the Vatican. 49. CENTA-UR AND CUPID 4 ft in. Marble, in the Louvrle. When celebrating the battles between the Lapithbe and Centaurs the
Page 25 25 Greek sculptors represented the latter as half man and half horse, from their always being mounted on lhorses. The original of this cast was found at Villa Fonesca. There is another in the Vatican, and it is doubtful which is the copy. The winged figure is thought by Viardot to be a Bacchus, and not Cupid, as he has an ivywreath-showing that the Centaur is under the effect of wine, and not of love. 50. DAUGHTER OF NrOBE. Marble, in the Vatican. iN'iobe, proud of her seven sons and seven daughters, taunted Latona with having but two children, Apollo and Diana. The latter avenged the insult by slaying wit h arrows all of the children of Niobe, who, overcome with grief, turned to stone. The story simply means the punishment by the gods of human arrogance over good fortune. This cast, headless and armless, represents one of the daughters of Niobe fleeing froml the merciless arrows of Diana, and is considered the finest of the whole group of fourteen figures, by the fine portrayal of rapid flight in the action of the figure, and the breezy effect of the drapery. The original group was brought from Asia Minor by Sosius, and is supposed to be the work of either Scopas or Praxiteles in the third period of Greek art. It was found in Rome in 1583. Most of the figures, fourteen in number, are in Florence. 51. FAuN OF THE CAPITOL. 5t Marble, Capitoline Museum. The original was found at Civita Lavinia in 1701, and is supposed to have been copied from the bronze statue by Praxiteles called Periboetos. Fauns were rustic deities with pointed ears and a small tail, supposed to inhabit the woods, and embody the soft, dreamy influences of nature's sounds. The character of a sensuous sylvan life is well represented in the smiling repose of this figure. This beautiful work gave to Hawthorne the idea of his story of "The Marble Faun." 52. FAUN, WITH KID. H.inMarble, at Madrid. 4 ft. 5 in. The springy step and upward turn of the head of this faun, together with the struggling kid, make a rustic group of great spirit. 53. FAUN, a la Tc7he. Marble, in the Louvre. This bust of a laughing Faun takes its French designation from a spot or stain on the right cheek and shoulder of the original marble. 54 ATHLETE POURING OIL INTO HIS THAND. in. Taken from the original, in marble, in the Louvre, and represents an athlete preparing for a contest in the public games. It is said that the head, though antique, did not belong to this statue. The left lower leg, right arm, and parts of the feet are modern. 55. DYING GA UL OR GLADIATOR. 23Hn. 5 ft. l in. Marble, in the Capitoline Museum, Roiue. Like the Fighting Hero, this famous statue is no longer considered by critics to represent a gladiator, but a savage Gaul, who has stabbed himself to avoid captivity, and fallen upon his shield, his sword lying beside him. The rough suit of hair, the rugged figure, and knotty joints are submitted as proofs of this. It is supposed to be a copy of the bronze figure, by Ctesilaus, of the School of Pergamus, 246 B. C., who chiefly represented battles with the Gauls that invaded Asia Minor. It is also said that it represents a Greek herald, with his horn lying beside him upon the oval shield. However satisfactory these views may be to the learned critics, the world at large agrees with Byron, who saw before him"A gladiators lie: He leans upon his hand; his manly brow Consents to death, but conquers agony, And his droop'd head sinks gradually low, And through his side the last drops, ebbing slow
Page 26 26 From the red gash, fall heavy, one by one, Like the first of a thunder-shower; and now The arena swims around him. He is gone Ere ceased the inhuman shout that hailed the wretch who won!" 56. VENUS ANADYOMENE. 4 ft Marble, in the Vatican. The title of this beautiful Venus signifies coming from the sec, and the goddess is represented nude to the waist, wringing the water from her locks. It was thought by Visconti to have been copied from a painting by Apelles, and a bronze statue found at Herculaneum in the Naples Museum resembles it. 57. MERCURY IN REPOSE. 3ftla. Museum, Naples. The original in bronze of this cast is classed among the finest of ancient date, and was found in Herculaneum in 1758. Its base is the only modern part. The left hand is supposed to have held the caduceus. Mercury was the messenger of the gods, and guarded the fortunes of shepherds, travellers, merchants, orators, and also of thieves. He was supposed to wear a winged cap, and also wings attached to his sandals. In this statue the bosses of these last under his feet would naturally prevent standing. He invented the lyre, and gave it to Apollo in exchange for the caduceus, or winged staff. He is generally represented nude and youthful. In the grace and naturalness of this statue Lubke recognizes the style of Lysippus. 58. APOLLO BELVEDERE. f. Marble, in the Vatican. The original of this very popular statue was discovered at Capo d'Anzo (Antium) early in the 16th century, and placed by Michael Angelo in the Belvedere Gallery, Rome, whence its name. The name of its sculptor is unknown. Canova and Visconti think it is a copy from an ancient bronze by Calamus. The arms below the elbow and part of the cloak were restored by Montorsolvo, pupil of Michael Angelo. Undoubtedly many copies of the original were made, and a bronze copy discovered in 1792 at Paramythia, and now at St. Petersburgh, in the judgment of sonme has changed entirely the meaning of the action of the figure. Apollo is here represented as holding a bow and discharging an arrow at the serpent Python, sent by Juno to destroy his mother, Latona. In the bronze statuette referred to, there is no tree trunk, (necessary to support a figure in marble,) but the left hand holds a shield bearing the head of Medusa, supposed to turn all gazers into stone, and which Homer, in the Iliad, xv, 318, says Jupiter lent to Apollo. Dr. Lubke accepts this explanation of the action of the figure, and says " not until now have we understood the statue." In either case the action of the figure is full of divine scorn, as with elastic step forward the proud head turns towards the object of his wrath. Winkelman says: " To realize its merits, the mind must soar to the realm of incorporeal beauty and imagine a celestial nature, for there is nothing mortal here." Thomas Campbell, the poet, has finely said in prose: " He looks as if he had just stepped from the sun-his limbs saturated with light, and buoyant with the spirit of Heaven!" In spite of all attempts of critics to explain away the time-honored impression of what this glorious figure is doing, the world will ever take Byron's description as the true one, and view him as-" The Lord of the unerring bow, The God of life, and poesy and lightThe Sun in human limbs arrayed, and brow All radiant from his triumph in the fight: The shaft has just been shot-the arrow bright With an immortal's vengeance; in his eye And nostril beautiful disdain, and might And majesty, flash their full lightnings by, Developing in that one glance the deity!" 59. COLOSSAL MASK OF JUNO. 3 ft. 3. in. This superb head is from the copy, in marble, in the Villa Ludovisi,
Page 27 27 Rome, of the original statue by Polycletus, the Argive sculptor, about 423 B. C. Nothing can be finer than its truly regal character, where the soft dignity of the woman blends with, and tempers the severity of the queen who could restrain even Jupiter himself. When Goethe first saw this head he exclaimed: " It is like a verse of Homer! " GU0. M(ELEAGER. 5 ft. Marble, in the Vatican. The original of this fine heroic figure was found in Rome, and is supposed to be of the time of Hadrian, A. D. 75-136. Meleager was a famous hero of antiquity, and one of the chiefs of the Argonantic expedition.'lThe hound -and boar's head signify his great exploit of slaying a boar that ravaged his fatler's dominions. The left fore-arm was never restored. 61. BUST OF MEENELAUIS. IT. Marble, in the Vatican. The original of this grand bust, so full of martiai character, was found at Hadrian's Villa Tivoli, and is commonly, but erroneously, known as Ajax. Visconti satisfactorily proved it to be Menelaus. Bas-reliefs of Hercules fighting with Centaurs are on the helmet. 62. BELVEDERE TORSO.. Marble, in the Vatican. The original of this famous torso was found near the end of the 15th century, at Pompey's Theatre: It represents Hercules in repose, and from an inscription on its base it was made by Appollonius, son of Nestor, Athens. It was ever a favorite study with Michael Angelo, and doubtless the inspiring source of much of his grand modelling, and it is said that in his dim old age he was often seen tracing with trembling hands the mighty mass. 63. JAsON. JASON.. Original, Marble, in the Louvre. s ft. 2 in. x 3 ft. This statue has been called Mercury and Cincinnatus, but is now considered to represent the famous leader of the Argonauts, hurriedly tying on but one sandal in his haste to seek his uncle Pelias, usurper of his father's throne, and who had been warned by an oracle to beware of the " one-sandalled man." The work is obviously of the same style of the Fighting Gladiator, showing similar muscular spareness of form, small head, and short hair. It is of the Alexandrian or third era of Greek sculpture. It once stood in the Villa Negroni, was bought with the Germanicus by Louis XIV, and placed at Versailles. 64. hirs. H. Original (Elgin) Marble, in the British Museum. The original of this statue (by Phidias) of the Messenger of the Gods once stood in the east pediment of the Parthenon, at Athens, as announcing the birth of Minerva. Though mutilated by time and war, the observant student of Greek sculpture will see in these remains of its broad, massive treatment, a contrast with the greater grace and more elaborate detail of the succeeding third epoch, as shown in the Daughter of Niobe, by Scopas. 65. BUST OF PERICLES. Marble, in the British Museumn. Pericles was of noble birth, a 1san of letters, warrior, statesman, and liberal patron of art. Under his rule, Athens eclipsed all other cities of Greece by her achievements in arms, sculpture, architecture, and the drama. His busts and statues always represented him with a helmet, owing to the odd shape of his head, which gained him from his enemies the nicknanne of " onion headed." Born 499-429 B. C. 66. BUST OF PERIANDER. Marble, in the British MuseumI. One of the Seven Sages of Greece. 67. B3UST OF JULIUS CLESA1R. Marble, in the British Museum. Decision of char-acter is in every line of this head of Rome's great Dictator, assassinated in the Senate House, A. D. 155, in his 56th year.
Page 28 28 68. BOY EXTRA\CTING A TrIO1-N FROM1) HIS FOOT.' 2 ft I. Original in Bronze. Capitol Rome. Said to have been found in the Tiber. Of the best period of Greek art. 69. UNKNOWN. Marble, in the British Mtluseum. 70. HEAD OF DIOGENES. Marble, in the British aMuseum.. The famous Cynic philosopher died in his 90th year, fifth century B. C. 71. 13UST OF DIONE. Marble, in the British Museum. Daughter of Nereus and Doris, and mother of Venus. It it not known where and when the original was discovered. The head is considered of the finest period of art. 72. BUST OF CLYTIE. Marble, in the British lMuseum. The artist is unknown. Clytie was enamored of Apollo, and followed him devotedly, like the sunflower, and this idea is represented in the leaves of that flower from which her bosom rises, while the delicate pensiveness of the head completes the sentiment. 73. BUST OF SEPTI3TIUS SEVERUS. Marble, in the British MIuseum. Emperor of Rome A. D. 193-211. He built the wall across Great Britain to repel the Caledonians. 74. BUST OFI TRAJAN. Marble, in the British Museum. Emperor of Rome A. D. 98-117, and celebrated for his virtuous and humane character, as well as for his military genius. The original of this bust was found in the Campagna of Rome in 1776. 75. BUST OF Isis. Marble. in the British Museum. The Egyptian goddess, with the lotus flower above her forehead, is here represented unveiled. 76. rTHE W7ESTLERS. 3. Marble, in Florence. The original of this spirited group is attributed to Cephissodotus, of the School of Rhodes, 5th period of Greek art. Having been found near the Niobe group, it was thought by many to have formed a part of it. Viardot says of it: " The head of the vanquished, purely antique, is gloomy and distorted, expressing impotent fury, while the head of the conqueror seems full of the pride of triumph." 77. DIANA HUNTRESS. Gft.Marble, in the Louvre. 6ft. 6 in. Also called Diana of Versailles, whither it was brought from Italy, for Francis I. The goddess is represented as snatching from Hercules the miraculous deer with golden horns and brazen feet, which he had chased for a year. It is of the same style of art with the Belvedere Apollo, of which it is properly the mate, and is considered to have been executed in the first Christian century. There is a maidenly severity of aspect in the chaste goddess, as though, to use the words of Viardot, " she were more ready to punish Acteon than to awaken the beautiful sleeper of Mount Latmos." SIDE GALLERY, (MODERN.) 1. VENUS VICTIIX. 5. Marble. By John Gibson. The calm self-possession in her victory of this Venus contrasts with the dainty, lively action of the same subject by Thorwaldsen. John Gibson was born in 1790 and died at Rome in 1866. He boldly used color upon his marble statues, saying that " whatever the Greeks did was right." He made a statue of Queen Victoria in classical costumie, with the diadem, sandals, and border of the drapery colored. The original in marble of this cast was also colored. The face and limbs were of flesh color, the drapery yellow, and the apple red.
Page 29 29 2. VENUS. 5 ft. Y in. Marble, in Rome. By Canova. It is but a modified copy of the Venus de Medici, with the addition of drapery, and the small difference that Canova's figure rests upon the right leg, and not upon the left, as does the great Medicean statue. 3. VENUS VICTRIn.. Marble. By B. Thorwaldsen. There is but one opinion of its exquisite symmetry, purity, and grace. Thorwaldsen was born in Copenhagen in 1757 and died in 1844. His genius more than that of any other modern sculptor inclined to revive antique sculpture, and hence he has been called " a posthumous Greek." t:. CLYTIE.H. Marble. W. H. Rinehart. 1. C:LYTIE. 4 ft 11Y ill. The original marble statue of this beautiful cast is in the Peabody Institute, Baltimore. It is the work of a sculptor who, from the humble position of a marble-cutter, rose to the highest rank as a sculptor. Matching, but not imitating, the pensive sweetness of the famous antique bust of Clytie, he has carried out the story of her ill-fated passion for Apollo in the drooping sadness of a delicate form, that puts this work of American genius not only in a proud position amid those of Thorwaldsen, Canova, and Gibson, but also of Greek sculpture. Mr. Rinehart died at Rome, in 1874, aged 46. GALLERY OF -THE RENAISSANCE. 1, CAST FRO3M THE WEST BIRONZE GATE OF THE BAPTISTRY AT FLORENCE. By Lorenzo Gbiberti, 1381-1455. This superb cast was brought from the South Kensington Museum, London, and consists of forty-six pieces. Similar casts at Philadelphia and at the Yale College School of Art are the only ones on this continent, and it is said the Italian Government has interdicted any more to be taken from the original. Ghiberti was a goldsmith, and from the Goldsmiths' Guild arose the great sculptors in bronze. He appeared before the world in that era of the Renaissance when the exhumation of the great mlodels of anc tien art inspired the whole race of painters, sculptors, and architects. He was only twenty years old when he competed for the work of making the bronze door of the north portal of the Baptistry, and got the commission, though his competitors were the famous veteran sculptors of that time. His success with that gate, which took him twenty-one years to execute, (1424,) at once obtained for him the order for the west gate-the original of this cast, which was completed in 1447, and upon it his fame chiefly rests. The designs for his first gate were from the New Testament, and were dictated to him by the Consuls, but in his last and greatest work he was allowed to select his own designs from the Old Testament. Michael Angelo said they were "' worthy of being the gates of Paradise." A farm and a seat in the Supreme Magistracy of Florence were voted to him as rewards for his genius. Ten square panels contain the designs from the Old Testament each design illustrating three or four incidents, and are surrounded by narrower panels, some of them upright, with niches containing historic per sonages, prophets, sybils, &c., in high relief, and enriched with birds, flowers, fruit, &c., delicately wrought. The left highest panel shows the Creation of Adam and Eve, the Forbidden Fruit, and the Expulsion from Eden. On the right panel opposite are Offerings of Cain and Abel, Killing of Abel, Man's Labor, and Cain with His Maker. The left panel below has the Ark after the Deluge, Noah's Sacrifice and Inebriation. On the right are the Sacrifice of Isaac, Servants at the foot of the Mount, and Abraham with the Three Angels. The left central panel contains Jacob and Esau, and on the right Joseph and his Brethren, their Cruelty, their meeting in Egypt, the Cup in Benjamin's Sack, &c.
Page 30 30 The left panel below the centre shows Moses Receiving the Law, and the People at the Foot of the Mount. On the right are Joshua before Jericho, and the Division of the Tribes. The lowest panel on the left contains David and Goliah, and on the right Solonmon and the Queen of Sheba. Among the statuettes in the upright panels are Sampson with the Pillar, Joshua in Armor, Judith with the Head of Holofernes, Jepthah's Daughter. Among the heads are two on a line with the top of the second panel representing the artist Ghiberti, (the bald one on the right,) and Bartoluccio, his father-in-law. The outer panels, bearing fruits and flowers, were finished by Ghiberti's son, the artist having died ere the completion of his work, at the age of seventy-four years —more than half of which was given to these two mlonumerits of his genius that after four centuries remain unimpaired wonders of art. Ghiberti boldlv departed from all preceding rules that confined bas-relief to the strict laws of the plastic art, and introduced perspective and landscape. This point in his work has been condemned by many, and among them Flaxman, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Westmacott; but such is the amazing relief and exquisite expression of distance in his groups, buildings, and landscape that such technical objections will find but little sympathy, and Dr. Lubke has well disposed of them' in the following comment: "Ghiberti revolutionized plastic art by his love for the picturesque, which forbids the former to enter the lists of the sister arts; yet in the hands of a master sculpture never trespassed upon forbidden soil with such inimitable grace and fulness of beauty and life, that, much as we protest against the tendency, we are carried away by the charml of the whole." The cast of this gate as it stands is 18 feet 2 inches high by 12 feet 6 inches wide-exclusive of the walnut frame, which makes it altogether 19 feet 7 inches high by 14 feet 6 inches wide. 2, 3, 4, 5, (;, 7. BAs-RELIEFS OF NY:II'HS OF THE FOUNTAIN OF TIIE INNOCENTS. Frolll the originals, in marible, in the Louvre. By Jean Goujon, (1530-1572. ) Jean Goujon was the leader of the Renaissance of French sculpture, and by the graceful flowing lines of his forms, was called the Corregio of sculpture; though in the extreme slenderness of their proportions he inclined too much to the style introduced by Primaticcio. He was slain by a stray shot while at work on the scaffold at the Louvre, during the massacre of St. Bartholome-w's Day. 8. TRITON AND NEREID. 9. AMIPIITIITEIT, WIFE OF NEPTUNE. 10. NYvPII OF TI-E SEX. Bas-reliefs, by J. Goujon. From the Fountain of the Innocents. Original, marble, in the Louvre. 11. TIIE FOUR EVANGELISTS. Bas-reliefs, by J. Goujon. 1541-44. Original, in marble, in the Louvre, from the Roodloft of St. Gerlmain l'Auxerrois. The small panels represent Religion, Faith, and Strength. 12, 13, 14, 15. FOUR LITTLE BAS-RELIEFS OF SEA-NYIPHS. Original, in marble, in the Louvre. By J. Goujon. Formerly in the Porte St. Antoine. 16. FouRz BAS-RELIEFS FROM THE TOMB OF CARDINAL AND CHI-ANCELLOR DUPRAT. Original, in marble, in the Louvre. By J. Goujon. 17. BAS-RELIEF OF HISTORY RECORDING TILE WORKS OF PIZRESIDENT J. A. DuTInou, Counsellor and Historian. By Fran9ois Anguier. 15.53-1617. Original, in bronze, in the Louvre.
Page 31 31 18. BikS-IlELIEF OF VICTORY. By Jacquet. Original in the Louvre. 19, 20. STATUETTES OF DAY AND NIGHT, AND OF DAWN AND TWILIGHT. From the reduced copies in bronze, from the original marble by M. Angelo, over the tombs of Guliano and Lorenzo de Medici, at Florence. 21. TIrE THIREE GRACES OR CHARITIES. 6 f. 6in. x 6 ft. 4 in. Marble, in the Louvre. By Germain Pilon. 1560. This curious example of the Renaissance of French sculpture was executed for Catharine of Medicis in memory of her husband, Henry 11 of France, whose heart was placed in the original urn, supported on the heads of the three female figures, standing back to back and with linked hands, upon a triangular pedestal of exquisite beauty. These figures represent Catharine herself, the Duchess d'Etampes, and Madame Villeroy, three of the fairest women of that time. This work is noted for the original treatment of the drapery, and was cut out of a single block of marble. The pedestal was made by a different hand, and bears on its three faces inscriptions in Latin, to the following effect: " Here Catharine has deposited the heart of the king, her husband, wishing she could bury it in her own bosom." "The united heart of both testifies before men enduring love-a subdued spirit before God." "The Three Graces (or Charities) rightfully bear on their heads a heart once the seat of the graces (or charities)-a heart that aspired to the highest things." This monument formerly stood in the Chapelle d'Orleans, Church of the Celestins. 222. COLOSSAL BUST OF DAVID. H2t.1in. By Michael Angelo. 1504. This grand cast is taken from the original colossal statue in marble, 19 feet high, in Florence, representing David about to hurl the stone at Goliah. The statue was cut out of one block of marble. A wonderful blending of inspired heroism with the beauty of young manhood is given in the terrible frown, the dauntless determination of the compressed lips, and the swollen veins and muscles of the neck. 23, 24-. TIHE PRISoNERS OR SLAVES H.' Michael Angelo. 7 ft. 3 in. The originals of these powerful forms were designed as wall statues for a grand monument to Pope Julius II, planned, but never executed, by M. Angelo. The artist gave them to a friend who had nursed him in illness, and he presented them to Francis I, who, in turn, gave them to the Constable AIiontmorency for his Chateau d'Ecouen. During the troubles of the Revolution in 1793, they were found in the stables of the Duc de Richelieu, and were bought for the Republic. They are now in the Louvre, and are the only great works of M. Angelo in France. They were taken to Florence in 1875 to swell the memorials of the sculptor's mighty genius at the centennial celebration of his birthday. No better examples exist of his power in depicting physical passion. The dignity of form and expression of drooping, slumberous suffering of one figure are in singular contrast with the contorted limbs and writhing, defiant air of the other; the unfinished head of which, showing the marks of the great master's chisel, illustrates the frequent fitful energy of his style.
Page 32 HALL OF BRONZES, CER:AMIC WARE, &C. 1, 2. PAIR OF VASES, from the famous factory at Sevres, France, with exquisite floral decorations. 3. TIIE HILDESIHEImI TREASURES. These are electrotype reproductions, by Christofle & Co., Paris, of ancient vessels found near the remains of a Roman camp, near Hildesheim, Hanover. On the 17th of October, 1868, some soldiers, while digging near their camp on the slope of Galgen, overlooking that town, found, at the depth of ten feet, some bits of metal that proved to be silver. Further search discovered two large bell-shaped vases or bowls, inverted, under which were other vessels and fragments. They were strangely heaped together; the feet and handles were detached from the vessels to which they belonged, and many were much corroded bv the infiltration of a wet soil. They were placed in the hands of an expert, who succeeded in rejoining the loose feet and handles. Being subsequentlvy taken to the Royal Museum at Berlin, they were reproduced in electrotype by German artists, but in a style far inferior to these by Christofie & Co. Their discovery made a great sensation, and it was at first supposed that the original Treasures were part of the dinner service of Varus, the Roman general, who was defeated by the Gauls near Hildesheim in the year 9 B. C., but the style of some of the pieces were so evidently of a later date that the idea is now abandoned. The design and workmanship of most of them certainly show their extreme antiquity; such as the four paterie or bowls, containing figures in such high relief, two of which-No. 3, said to be Dens Lunus, with a Phrygian cap, with a crescent behind him, and No. 4, a female with a mural crown and shield, said to be Cybele, or the Earthi-are apparently of an Oriental character. On the other hand, the high conical cup, No. 5, is pronounced by M. A. Darcel, author of a pamphlet accompanying these Treasures, to be of a much later date, from the rude shape of the cup and semibarbarous style of its chasings, so unlike the classical forms and decorations of the accompanying drinking cups. It is now believed by those who have investigated the character of these "Treasures" that they were the buried spoils of a robber of later times, and not the collection of some rightful owner who had hid them in a time of invasion. Those who wish to know more of these Treasures can find their character discussed at length in the pamphlet by M. A. Darcel, Paris. LIST OF THE "HILDESHEIM TREASURES." 1 LARGE MINERVA BOWL. 8 DRINKING CuP. (Patera.) (With ten masks, with scenic acces2 BOWL WITH HERCULES. series.) [Strangling the Serpents.) 19 DRINKING CUP. 3 BowL WITH DEUS LUNUS. (With garlands.) (Wearing Phrygian cap with horns of 10 DRINXING CUP. crescent.) (With laurels.) 4 BOWL WITH CYBELE. 11 A Cup. (With mural crown.) (With handle of leaves of acanthus 5 LARGE DRINKING BOWL. and flowers.) (Oxybaphon.) 12 EGG DISH. 6 DRINKING Cup. 13 SALT-CELLAR FOR EGG DIsH. (With four masks of Bacchants.) (With carved exterior.) 7 DRINKING CUP. 14 SAUCEPAN. (With six masks of Fauns.) (Handle with water lilies.) 32
Page 33 33 LIST OF THIE " HILDESHEIM TREASURES. "-Continued. 15 SAUCEPAN. 2 ] DUCK DISH. (Handle with leaf of ivy.) 25 TRIPOD. 16 SAUCEPAN. (Forming base of a candelabrum.) (With handle knotted.) 2(; SUPPORT. 17 SAUCEPAN. (With head of Bacchus; part of (With handle of palm leaves.) tripod.) 18 LADLE. 27 IANDLE OF A VASE. (With handle of palm leaves.) (Fragment.) 19 LADLE. 28 CLAW OF TRIPOD. (With handle of ivy branch.) (With head of Jupiter.) 20 SALT-CELLAR. 2.9 CONICAL CUP. (With ivy leaves.) (With rude carvings of animals.) 21 SALT-CELLAR. 30 LARGE ROUND DISH. (With ivy leaves ) (Bordered with foliage, birds, and 22 OLIVE BOWL. squirrels.) (With three carved feet.) 23 TURNIP DISH. 4,;5, (6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1, on the east wall, are variotus examples of FAIENCE WARE, after Bernard Palissy. 12. BUST OF TI1E LATE COrMMODORIE MORRIS, U. S. N. King. Boston. 13. 1BUST OF IEX-VICE-PRESIDENT JOHN C. BItECKENRIDGE. By H. K. Brown. 18-. Presented by Geo. Taylor, Esq. 14. MARBLE STATUETTE OF ECIIO. 2ftH. bin Larkin G. Meade. Mr. Meade is a native of Vermont, and his first effort in sculpture was an angel made of snow, that made quite a sensation, and led to his being befriended by Mr. Longworth, of Cincinnati. He afterwards went to Europe, and his first work was this statuette of "Echo." 15. BUST OF ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT. By Christian Rauch. Berlin. 1777-1857. This fine work was executed for Mr. Corcoran at the particular request of Humboldt. Rauch was one of the most eminent sculptors of his time. HIis greatest work is the statue of Frederick the Great, at Berlin. 1(i. PROMETHIEUS VASE. (Majolica.) By Minton. England. This superb turquoise vase, four feet high, represents the old Greek myth of Prometheus chained to a rock, with a black eagle, with distended wings, feeding upon his never-dying vitals, as a punishment for stealing fire from Heaven. Below him, on the swell of the vase, recline four figures, with manacled feet, and hands bound with ropes that extend to the handles of the vase, over which hang also the iron chain. The base is encircled with a wreath of laurel, round which are twisted four serpents, thus typifying throughout the gnawing cares of the soul lighted by genius caught from heaven, and tormented by the worm creeping among his laurels. 17,, 17b. MAJOLICA VASES, PAIR OF, with Japanese decorations. These vases, over four feet high, were made by Deck, of Paris, and are modern imitations of the pottery of the Moors, whose principal factory was in the Island of Majorca-in the Tuscan dialect, Majolica; hence the name of the ware. It is simply earthenware with a stlong, lustrous glaze, that remained a secret with the Moors until the Italians discovered it, and then the town of Faenza, in Italy, became famous for its ware. Hence the name Faience was given to it, and which is essentially the same as Majolica. The great artists of that era, even Raphael himself, often furnished designs for it.
Page 34 34 18, 19. Two VASES OF SvnRES PORCELAIN, that contrast the elegance of the modern French ware with the imitations of the semibarbarous style of Moorish pottery. 20, 21. Two PLAQuIES OF STONE-PORCELAIN, into which are burnt paintings of Poultry and Fish, by Schopin, of Paris. The process of baking these pictures is difficult and hazardous. The slightest mistake in the temperature or in cooling the slabs is apt to ruin the wvork. It often happens that forty of them are spoilt before a successful picture is secured. 22. BRONZES. By Antoine Louis Barye, Paris. This collection, by the late famous sculptor and professor of animal drawing in the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, is the largest one to be found, even in Europe. The dates on some of them will show how unimpaired was his skill at an advanced age. He was born in 1796, and died on the 25th of June, 1875. He was first an engraver, next a goldsmith, and finally a sculptor, and he successively studied under Fourier, Bosio, and Le Gros. He first exhibited in 1827. At one time he had to peddle his works through the streets of Paris in a basket. In 1848 he was appointed Keeper and Director of the Modelling Department of the Louvre, and in 1851 attained the post in the Jardin des Plantes held by him until his death. This position gave him his astonishing knowledge of the forms and habits, quiescent and ferocious, of the various animals there. Nor was his genius confined to them. The superb group of Roger and Angelique, (the old story of Perseus and Andromeda in the garb of a inedieval ballad,) the groups of Theseus slaying the Centaur and Minotaur, show his classical taste. His horses are remarkable for their modelling and varied action; and though perhaps over fond of showing the ferocious instincts of the brute creation, their gentler moods are quite as successfully represented. We turn from the furious leap of the Lion, the spring of the Hound, the deep-buried bite of the Tiger, and the terrible coil of the Serpent, and see the versatility of his genius in the quiet beauty of his groups of Deer, the timid, shrinking Gazelle, the grim dignity of his sitting Lion, the knightly air of his Gaston de Foix, and the ambling grace of his Amazon. The Lion of the Tuileries, the Lion of the Column of July, and his Theseus and Centaur are considered his great master-pieces. LIST OF BRONZES By BARYE, of Paris.) 1 General Bonaparte. 20 Wolf seizing a Stag by the throat. 2 The Duke of Orleans. 21 Two young Lions. 3 The Amazon. 22 Lion devouring a Hind. 4 Gaston de Foix. 23 Lion and Serpent. 5 Charles VII, the Victorious. 24 Lion sitting. 6 Tartar Warrior checking his Horse. 25 Lioness from Senegal. 7 Two Arab Horsemen killing a Lion. 26 Algerine Lioness. 8 African Horseman surprised by a 27 Lion walking. Serpent. 28 Tiger walking. 9 Indian mounted upon an Elephant 29 Tiger surprising an Antelope. crushing a Tiger. 30 Tiger surprising a Stag. 10 Angelique and Roger mounted upon 31 Tiger surprising a Garral, (species a Hippogriff. of Crocodile.) 11 Minerva. 32 Tiger devouring a Gazelle. 12 Juno. 33 Panther seizing a Stag. 13 Theseus slaying the Minotaur. 34 East India Panther. 14 Theseus slaying the Centaur. 35 Panther from Tunis. 15 Ape mounted upon a Gnu. 36 Panther surprising a Zibet. 16 Bear erect. 37 Jaguar walking. 17 Two young Bears. 38 Jaguar standing. 18 Bear sitting. 39 Jaguar sleeping. 19 Little Basset Dog. (English.) 40 Jaguar devouring a Crocodile.
Page 35 35 LIST OF BRONZES. (By BARYE, of Paris.)-Continued. 41 Ocelot carrying off a Heron. I 78 Group of Rabbits. 42 Asiatic Elephant. 79 Couching Roe. 43 African Elephant. 80 Couching Fawn. 44 Horse surprised by a Lion. 81 Axis, (a kind of Deer.) 45 Half-blooded Horse. 82 Stag of Java. 46 Turkish Horse. 83 Stag Axis. 47 Turkish Horse. 84 Deer of the Ganges. 48 Egyptian Dromedary. 1 85 Parroquet resting on a branch. 49 Elk surprised by a Lynx. i 86 Pheasant. 50 Deer dragged to earth by two Scotclh 87 Pheasant with tail closed. Hounds. i 88 Tortoise. 51 Group of Deer. 89 Leopard. (Bas-relief.) 52 Virginia Deer. 90 Panther. " 53 Ethiopian Gazelle. 91 Weasel carrying off a bird. (Bas54 Keval. (Resembling Gazelle.) relief.) 55 Bull. 92 Virginia Deer. (Bas-relief.) 56 Bull and Tiger. 93 Cup, with Fawn's feet. 57 Bulldragged to the earth by a Bear. 94 " with inverted sides. 58 Eagle holding a Heron. 95 Perfume Burner. 59 Crocodile. 96 Antique Candelabra. 60 Crocodile devouring an Antelope. 97 Cadelabra with figures. 61 Serpent Python swallowing a Hind. 98 Little Candlestick. 62 Serpent Python strangling a Gazelle. 99 Candlestick with Serpent. 63 Serpent Python crushing a Croco- 100 Greek Candlestick. dile. 101 Candlestick with bell-flowers. 64 Lion of July. (Bas-relief.) i 102 Candlestick with two branches. 65 Huntsman, Costume of Louis XV. 103 Candlestick with Hares' heads. 66 Caucasian Horseman. 104 Candlestick with vine leaves. 67 Bear overthrown by Bull-dogs. 105 Candlestick with bell-flowers. 68 Bear flying from Dogs. 106 Bear robbing a nest. 69 Greyhound and Hare. 107 Wolf caught in a trap. 70 Wolf walking. 108 Cat. 71 Peasant. (Mediteval.) 109 Sitting Hare. 72 Greyhound. 110 Frightened Hare. 73 African Buffalo. Ill Owl. 74 Deer, Hind, and Fawns. 112 Camel. 75 Sleeping Hound. t13 Marabout, or Argill. 76 Couching Panther. 114 Little Bull. 77 Jaguar holding an Alligator. ELECTROTYPE REPRODUCTIONS OF ARMOR, &c. (By LIONNET BRo., Paris.) 23. Shield from the Milan Museum. 24. Shield from the Turin Museum. 25. Bourgignotte Helmet, Musem of Artillery, Paris. 26. Cap of a Doge, " " 27. Helmet. French, 16th century. Muselum of Artillery, Paris. Reproductions 28. Shield. French, 15th century. " t by Elkington' & Co. Medallions of David and Judith. London. 29. Breast-plate, Milan Museum. 30. Suit of Armor of Henry II, France, Museum of the Louvre. 1547-'59. (Attributed to Germain Pilon, the sculptor.) 31. Shield of Henry II, Museum of the Louvre. 1547-59. 32. Statuette of Henry IV, France, when a boy. By Bosio. Museum of the Louvre. Original of silver. 33. Shield, Museum of Cluny. 34. Sword of the Duke of Savoy, Turin Museum. 35. Pieces of Horse Armor, Museum of Lyons. 36. Cannon, (Renaissance,) Museum of Artillery, Paris. (Attributed to Germain Pilon.)
Page 36 36 37. Axe of King John, France, Museum of Artillery, Paris. 1350-64. 38. COLUMN OF THE PLACE VENDOME, Paris. 5 Hin. Original was erected in 1806-10, by Napoleon I, in honor of his German campaign in 1805, modelled after Trajan's Column, Rome, and made of 1,200 pieces of Austrian and Russian cannon taken in that campaign. Its height was 135 feet, the shaft, covered with 276 brolize plates, spirally arranged, to a length of 840 feet, representing the victories of the French army, and containing 2,000 figures 3 feet high. It was the work of 31 sculptors. The original statue, by Chaudet, 11 feet high, represented the Emperor in a Roman mantle. The whole work cost $300,000. In 1814 the royalists removed the statue, had it melted down, and converted into the horse of the statue of Henry IV on the Pont Neuf. A flagstaff and fleur de lis took its place. These in turn were removed by Louis Philippe in 1833, and a statue of Napoleon, by Seurre, in the familiar cocked hat and overcoat, set up. In 1863 Napoleon III removed this statue to Courbevoie, and substituted afac simile of the original one. Before the Germans entered Paris the military statue was removed from Courbevoie and hidden in the bottom of the Seine. The Commune pulled down the whole column, except its base. It was rebuilt in 1874 and the broken statue repaired and restored; perhaps some day to be superseded by the cocked hat and overcoat, since fished up from the Seine. The changeful fortunes of this column and its statue seem to have been foreshadowed in the fact that part of its base formed the pedestal of the statue of Louis XIV, erected in 1699, and pulled down by the mob in the Revolution of 1792. 39. CASE OF ELECTROTYPE REPRODUCTIONS OF OBJECTS, CHIEFLY IN THE SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM. (By ELKINGTON & CO., London.) 1. Grand Cup and Cover. Copper-gilt; German, 16th century. Original of silver-gilt, in Gratz, Styria. Height, 3 feet 41 inches. 2. Salver. Italian, 16th century, illustrating the siege of Tunis by Charles V, 1535. Original in the Louvre, Paris. 3. Spiked Shield of Francis I. 16th century, silvered-oxydized. Original in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. Electrotyped by Lionnet, Paris. 4. Chalice. Spanish, 1540. Original, silver-gilt. 5. Tankard. German, 1605; a cock on the top. Original, silver-gilt. 6. Bedford Tankard. Italian, 16th century. Triumph of Bacchus. Original in ivory and silver. 7. Shrine or Cover of St. Patrick's Bell. Irish, 11th century. Original, in copper, gold, and jewels, in possession of Rev. Dr. Todd. The back is silver, perforated with crosses, surrounded with Irish characters. The bell, of sheet-iron, enclosed in the original, is reputed to be of the 4th century. S. Pyx or Pix. Portuguese, 17th century. For holding the consecrated wafer. Original, silver-gilt. 9. Tankard. German, 17th century. Original, silver-gilt. 10. Tazza or Cup. French, t7th century. Subject, Death of Meleager. Original, silver-gilt. 11. Tazza. German, 17th century; silver-oxydized. Subject, Judgment of Solomon. Original of silver. 12. Tankard. German, 17th century. Original, silver-gilt. 13. Tankard. German or French, 16th century. 14. Salt-Cellar. Italian, 15th century. Original, silver-gilt. 15. Salt-Cellar. German, 1580. Original, silver-gilt. 16. Salt-Cellar. German, 16th century. Original, silver-gilt. 17. Salt-Cellar. German, 16th century. Original, silver-gilt. 18. Salt-Cellar. German, 16th century. Original, silver-gilt. 19. Inkstand. Italian, 16th or 17th century. Original, silver-gilt. 20, 21, 22. Knife, Fork and Spoon. French, 17th century; gilt, handles in imitation of carved ivory; in the collection of R. Napier. 23. Candlestick. Italian, 16th century. Original in bronze. 24. Inkstand or Perfume-Burner. Copper-bronze; Italian, 15th century. With statuette of Hannibal. 25. Small Shield. By Benvenuto Cellini. Silvered-oxydized.
Page 37 37 26. Plate. German, 16th century; with medallions of Emperors. 27. Plate. German, 16th century; subject, Adarn and Eve. 28. Plate. German, 16th century; with arms of Swiss cantons. 29. Cup and Cover. English, 1638. Original of silver. 30. Cup and Cover. English; Hall-mlark 1676. Original of silver. 31. Incense-Holder. Spanish, about 1540-50. Inscribed with "Oratio mea dliriatur' sieut;ncensteo." Original in rock crystal, mounted in silvergilt. 32. Beaker. On three ball-feet. Augsburgh. Original, silver, parcel gilt. 33. Goblet. German, 17th century. Original, silver-gilt. 34. Tankard and Cover. German, 17th century. Man slaying a Centaur on top, with Bacchanalian group below. Original in carved ivory and silver. By Beinard Strauss. 35. Goblet. (Agate.) English; Hall mark 1567. Original, silver-gilt. 36. Goblet. Russian, 17th century. Medallions of the Seasons. Original, silver gilt. 37. Beaker. Russian, 16th or 17th century. Original in silver, parcel-gilt. 38. Cocoa Cup. German, 1585. Original, silver-gilt. 39. Augsburgh Ewer. Original, silver-gilt, in the Louvre. Commemorates the siege of Algiers by Charles V. 40. Pax. For communicating the kiss of peace, and representing the Virgin giving a vestment to St. Ildefonso. Spanish, 1540. Original silver-gilt. 41. Bottle. In form of Pilgrim's flask. French or German, 17th century. Original of silver. 42. Helmet of Francis I. Silvered-oxydized. 1545. Original in Museum of Artillery, Paris. 43. Head-piece. Italian, 16th century. Marine genii holding a warrior's head, whose body forms the crest. Silvered-oxydized. Original in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 44. Head-piece. Italian, 16t1 century. David and Goliah on one side. Silvered oxydized. Original in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. 45. EnItombment of Christ. Bas-relief after Donatello. Italian, 15th century. Original, in bronze, in Vienna. 46, 47. Bowls, with covers. Arab. Original in brass damascened. 48 Hannibal Dish. German, 1567, with Roman figures. 49. Plaque. Entombment of Christ. Spanish, 17th century. 50. Salver. Arab, with Moresco chasings. 51, 52. Bowls. French, about 1330. Original, silver. 53. Milton Shield. English, 1867. By M. Morel-Ladeuil. Bronzed and silvered-oxydized. Scenes from Paradise Lost. In the centre, Raphael recounts to Adam and Eve the defeat of the rebel angels, as seen on the sides. Below, Michael subduing Satan, Sin, and Death. 54. Salver. Italian, 16th century. Arabesque. Original in brass gilt. 55. Salver. Venetian, 16th century; with battles, sieges. Original in bronze gilt. 56. Salver. Italian, 16th century. Medallions. Original, brass gilt. 57. Plateau. Italian, 1820. Silver-oxydized. 58. Bowl. Arab, 14th century. Original, brass damascened. 59. Bucket. Arab, 14th century. Original, brass damascened. 60. Nautilus Shell. Mounted in metal. Italian, 16th century. Supported by seated Naiad; Sirens below. 61. Ewer. Dragon handle, with Roman subjects. Italian, 16th century. 62. Tazza. Representing the Deluge. Italian, 16th century. 63. Salver. Portuguese, 15th century. Figures in high relief. Original in silver gilt. 64. Salver. English, 1719-20. Original of silver. 65. Cup. English, 1720. Original of silver. 66. Tazza. Italian, 16th century. Classical figures. Attributed to Benvenuto Cellini. Original in the Louvre. 67. Ta-zza. Italian. Silvered-oxydized. By Lionnet, Paris. Same subject as No. 66, by B. Cellini.
Page 38 38 68. Tazza. Italian. Silvered-oxydized. By Lionnet, Paris. Original, by B. Cellini, in the Louvre. 69. B)owl, or Plateau. Moorish. Original of brass. 70. Candlestick. (B tse only.) Arab, 14th century. Original, brass damascened. 71. Candlestick. Venetian, 16th century. Persian or Moresque design. Original in bronze. 72. Plateau. Dutch, about 1690. Original in silver. 73. Ewer. Venetian, 16th century. Original in brass gilt. 74. Tazza and Cover. French, 1851. Original, silver and jewelled, parcelgilt. 75. Candlestick. Italian, 16th century. Original of bronze. 76. Vase and Cover. English, 1772. A boy on the top; handles of Satyr heads. Original, silver-gilt. 77. Mirror-case, or Martelli Bronze. Italian, 15th century. Allegory of Productiveness, with a legend. Original of bronze, inlaid with silver. 78. Incense-burner. Belgian, 1851. Arabesque. Originalof iron damascened, by Falloise, of Liege. 79, 80. Pair of Bowls, with Covers. Arab. Original of brass damascened. 81. Sword of Francis I. Original in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. Electrotyped by Lionnet, Paris. 40. FIRE-DOGS, IN COPPER BRONZE. 4H. Italian, 16th century. Subject-Venus and Adonis. Reproduced by Elkington & Co., from the original in the South Kensington Museum. 41. COPPER-BRONZE KNOCKER. 14 jin. x1n. 17th century. Orignal in the Kensington Museum, and attributed to John of Bologna. 42, 43. STATUETTES OF CHRIST AND JOHIN TIlE BAPTIST. 3 ft. 5 in. In copper bronze, by Elkington & Co., London. From the original by John of Bologna, in the Cathedral of Pisa. 44. T11ESEUS SLAYING THE CENTAUR. 4 ft. 33 ft. 10in. L. Barye, Paris. A classical group, treated with immense power. The Centaurs were a savage tribe of Thessaly, and being great horsemen, the Greeks fancied them to be half man and half horse. To a feast, in honor of his marriage, Perithous, king of the Lapithe, invited the Centaurs and some of the gods; but Mars, not being invited, revenged the slight by filling Eurythion, the Centaur, with wine and love for the bride. Theseus resented the insult by putting Eurythion to death, and in the fierce war that followed, the Centaurs were vanquished by Theseus and his allies. 45. BRONZE BUST OF JOHN C. CALHOUN. By Clarke Mills. 1850. The original, in plaster, was taken from life by Mr. Mills in 1845, and is considered an admirable likeness. 46. SUIT OF ARIMOR IN NINETEEN PIECES. Italian, 16th Cen tury. Silver-oxydized. Original in the Museum of Artillery, Paris. Reproduced by Elkington & Co., London.
Page 39 MAIN GALLERY OF PAINTINGs. (SECOND FLOOR.)' Oh, thou, by whose expressive art,. Her perfect image Nature sees, In union with the Graces start, And sweeter by reflection please! In whose creative hand the hues, Fresh from yon orient rainbow, shine; I bless thee, Promethean Muse, And hail thee, Brightest of the Nine! " -THOMIAS CAMPBELL. 1. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM WV. CORCOR&N, Esq. 8 ft. i. x 5 ft. 1 in. By Charles L. Elliott. 1867. The artist of this magnificent work was born in 1812, and after studying his art in New York city, returned to practise portrait painting in the interior of that State. Soon after, he got possession of a head painted by Gilbert Stuart, which first opened his eyes to the dignity and splendor of true portraiture, and the constant study of which doubtless placed his fame alongside of that of Stuart himself. He died in 1868. I. W. 2, 3. THE DEPARTURE AND THE RETURN. 35 in. x 44in. By Thomas Cole. 1837. These pictures illustrate Cole's peculiar genius, in associating human incident with noble forms of scenery. In the first, a cavalcade of knights issue from an imposing castle on a bright summer morning on a warlike expedition. Hope and victory seem to animate them as they follow their leader mounted upon a white steed, in spite of the warning of a holy palmer, who waves a palm branch before them. Such is the Departure. The other picture shows the sad Return. At the close of an autumn day we see the wounded gay leader of the morning stretched upon a litter borne by some foot soldiers to an abbey, whence issue some monks to meet them, only one drooping cavalier following the riderless horse. The palmer is there again, but now raises his hands in pity. Thomas Cole was born in England in 1801, and came to this country when young. His tastes and professional skill were finely cultured by two tours in Europe, but he ever preferred the scenery of the New World -on one occasion writing that "neither the Alps, Appenines, nor fEtna itself, have dimmed in my eyes the beauty of the Catskills." Among his beloved hills he died, in his forty-eighth year. The moral and religious bent of his mind was displayed in the series of pictures illustrating " The Course of Empire" and a "Voyage of Life;" and he died while at work upon his " Pilgrim Entering Heaven." His immediate friends were men of the highest moral culture and intellectual distinction. 4. THE WATERING PLACE. 3 ft. in. i. By Adolphe Schreyer. The artist of this picture is famed for the spirited action he gives to his horses in a cavalry charge, or in the furious gallop of a storm-caught wagon team; but here we see a new phase of his power in the strife of rough, worn farm horses over a water-trough. The scene is supposed to be in Hungary, and shows Schreyer's peculiar broad, vigorous handling and vivid force of light. 39
Page 40 40 5. NEDJMA-ODALISQUE. ~ft. in. X5ft. By G. C. St. Pierre. 1874. The high reputation of the artist is shown in the words, " Exempt from examination," on the frame, as it was placed there when admitted to the Paris Exposition, 1874, in the catalogue of which it appears as No. 1628. This compliment is always paid to artists of established fame, and well does this picture support the honor. In rich transparency and harmony of color throughout it seems perfect. The flesh tints are nature's own, and the texture and surface of the various stuffs and other accessories are given with the highest finish. 6. EDGE OF THE FOREST. 6yft. ft.4i. BY A. B. Durand. 1871. A fine example of this veteran landscapist, the last of the trio that headed that branch of art twenty-five years ago-Cole and Doughty being his peers. Having neither the epic style of Cole, nor the poetic fancy and pastoral softness of Doughty, he equalled both in representing pure nature and his close study of her subtler details. His rocks, and particularly his trees, are always rendered with a characterization that leaves no doubt of their kind. From such elements as are combined in this picture- a simple outlook across the Hudson froml the skirt of a forest-he gives a picture full of feeling, of power, and of nature. Mr. Durand was born in 1796, and enjoys an honored old age, being still able to use his pencil. In early life he learned the art of engraving, and soon distinguished himself by his skill. His first work was on Trumbull's Declaration of Independence. His engraving of Vanderlyn's "Ariadne Sleeping " gained him an European reputation. From this art. he acquired the fine drawing shown in his pictures. He next took up painting, and portraits formed his first essays. Subjects of genre next occupied him, but finally his genius found its true field in landscape, with which his name and fanme are mostly identified. Mr. Durand was for many years president of the National Academy of Design. 7. THE VESTAL TUCCIA. 4 ft. x in. By Hector Leroux. This picture carried off a second-class gold medal at the Paris Exposition of 1871-on the catalogue No. 1194. The Vestal Tuccia, charged with want of chastity, stands on the brink of the Tiber with a sieve, which she raises above her head with both hands, and thus prays to Vesta: " Oh, powerful Goddess, if I have always approached thy altar with pure hands, allow me to fill this sieve with the water of the Tiber, and carry it into thy Temple! " In fine harmony with this incident, the artist has employed purity of design and cool, chaste coloring. The shores and wharves of the Tiber are given with strict local truth. The whole interest converges upon the form of Tuccia, while distant masses of the people, a near group of Vestals, and a solitary fisher-boy in the foreground, watch her in eager expectation of the issue of the miraculous test. 8. WINTER SCENE. 365in. X. By Regis Gignoux. 1850. A French artist, who, after a successful career in New York as a painter of American landscape, returned to his native country. 9. THE DROVE AT THE FORD. 4 ft. x3ft. iu. By James M. Hart. 1874. Considered the finest picture ever painted by Mr. Hart. The scene is such as every rambler along a wood-stream has met with, and therefore it steals over us with all the charm of a personal reminiscence. At the close of day the drove is leaving the dusty road to cross a cool, shadowy stream, overarched by trees. The leading animals and nearer trees of this picture are all painted from nature. James Hart is one of two brothers, born in Scotland, and coming to this country at an early age, were both apprenticed to a coach painter, and both soon took up landscape painting. James went to Dusseldorff in 1851, and, after a year's study, returned home, and is now successfully following his profession in New York city. He gives a special interest to his landscapes by the introduction of animals.
Page 41 41 10. SHEPHERD AND SHEEP. 34if. x 49) By Robbe. A bright, cheerful work, well colored and grouped. 11. LANDSCAPE..Companion to the above. 34 in. x 49 in. By Robbe. H. W. 12. THE AMAZON AND HER CHILDREN. 3 ft. 5 in. x 5 ft. 2 in. By Emanuel Leutze. 1851. This classical work is colored much in Leutze's early style, which was warni and florid —unlike his later mlanner, acquired at Dusseldorf, as may be seen by comparing " The Amazon " with his " Cromwell and Milton." 13. UNFINISHED HEAD OF A ROMAN GIRL. Oval. 22 in. 18 i. By Charles Elliott. H. A. 14. PADDY'S MARK. 24 in. 32n By Erskine Nicol, A. R. A. A brilliant specimen of genre of the British school, representing an Irish farmer about to put his mark to a lease, while he looks up with hesitating inquiry into the bland face of the attorney or steward, whose smooth manner assures Paddy that it is all right. The incident is admirably told, and every part of the work painted with great force and clearness. H. W. 15, 16. THE HAPPY AND UNHAPPY FAMILIES. 33 in. x 28 in. By F. De Brackeleer. These beautifully painted interiors are by an artist of eminence in Antwerp. 17. MERCY'S DREAM. 7 ft. in. x o ft. in.' By D. Huntington. 1850. The scene which this picture illustrates is from Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, and is as follows: "A sweet dream it was. * * * Methought I looked up and saw one coming with wings towards me. So he came directly to me, and said,'Mercy, what aileth thee?' Now, when he had heard me make my cornplaint, he said,'Peace be to thee!' He also wiped my eyes with his handkerchief, and clad me in silver and gold. He put a chain about my neck, and ear-rings in my ears, and a beautiful crown upon my head." This picture is an improved duplicate of the one owned by Mr. Carey, of Philadelphia, and has been engraved for the American Art Union. It made a great impression when first exhibited, being one of the first great pictures of its class painted by American artists, and it still justly holds a high position by the spiritual nobleness of the subject, and the style of its execution. The form of the angel is considered unsurpassed for buoyant grace and ethereal aspect, while its exquisite tints, play of light, and the lustrous sheen of the wings, are notable examples of that strong point, color, in the American school of painting. Mr. Huntington's pencil has embraced every branch of his art, being also distinguished in portraiture and landscape. He was born in 1816, studied his art in Italy, and, after a long career of success and honor, is now president of the Academy of Design. H. W. 18. SCENERY OF THE MAGDALENA RIVER, GRANADA. 24 in. x 36 in. By Frederick E. Church. 1854. This picture is by the painter of the " Heart of the Andes," and is his first landscape of South American scenery, painted after his return to New York from that region, for the late Abraham Cozzens. Perfect as a composition, it has Mr. Church's well-known truth of local color, and the foreground is worked up with the delicate detail and characterization of foliage that distinguishes all his works. Mr. Church was born in Hartford, in 1826. He studied under Cole, and at twenty-four was at the head of his profession. For awhile he adopted the epic style of subjects his master loved to paint, but soon settled down into the representation- of pure nature. After painting the most striking scenery of his native land, he visited South America, and thence brought materials for
Page 42 42 his greatest work, the "Heart of the Andes." He afterwards sought new trophies in the region of icebergs. Having exhausted all the material of the Western Continent, he visited Europe, Egypt, and Palestine. The Orient supplied him with new laurels, showing that his versatile genius could grapple with and master the distinguishing and opposite traits of the scenery of all lands. It is a general belief that no artist's powers can be fully developed until he visits Italy; but Church had attained the full maturity of his genius and skill long before he went to Europe. 19. THE YOUNG SAVOYARD MUSTCIAN. 36in x 24n. By A. Collette. 1873. An attractive work in monochrome. Its grave tone of color is in fine harmony with the subject, and the pensive beauty of the face of the young violinist. The picture is from the Paris Exposition of 1873. 20. NIGHT. ft. X ft. By A. Rebouet, Paris. 1873. This embodiment of the sable goddess ascending on the back of an owl, and dropping from her right hand poppies, to " seal the eyes of slumbering nlortals," is by a modern French artist, and was in the Vienna Exposition of 1873. 21. CfSAR DEAD. 7.ft2 in. x in. By Jean Leon Gerome. "But yesterday the word of Cnesar might Have stood against the world; now lies he there, And none so poor as do him reverence! " Gerome stands in the front rank of the painters of France, is a pupil of Delaroche, and member of the French Institute. His style is of the realistic, dramatic school, and his works show the profound study, knowledge of forml, perspective and color, that attest the great master. This picture is supposed to be the careful study of C-esar Dead, which he subsequently extended and used in his more elaborate picture of the Death of C-esar, (since photographed,) where the conspirators are represented retiring from their bloody work, and the interior of the Senate Hall is shown with imposing rows of columns, desks, and other accessories. Many, however, think that in this picture "the moral's truth tells simpler so." The transitoriness of human greatness is shown in the body of the world's late master lying stretched alone in the gloomy desolateness of the Senate Hall-all accessories kept out of sight, save the fallen curule chair, the base of Pompey's statue, and the stony stare of horror from the Medusa in the pavement, dabbled with the bloody footprints of the vanished conspirators. " O mighty Csesar! dost thou lie so low? Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, Shrunk to this little measure?" 22. WTooD SCENE, WITH HUNTERS.. W. By M. Bouquet. A quiet, unobtrusive picture that will well repay close study. 23 and 24. CABINET INTERIORS. 10 in. By DeMarne. These gems will repay a close examination, and they originally cost a large sum. H. W. 25. AUTUAMN SCENE ON THE HUDSON. 34 in. x 48 in. By Thomas Doughty. 1850. Thirty years ago Doughty divided the honors with Cole as the leading landscape painters of Anmerica. He was unrivalled in the exquisite tenderness of his style and color. His landscapes steal over and soothe the heart, as in this scene, whose soft hues and hazy breath contrast strikingly with the sharp, forcible drawing and epic style of Cole's "Departure and Return." Doughty was born in Philadelphia in 1793, and died in 185(;. He worked as a tanner until thirty years old, and then, after only one quarter's lessons in India-ink drawing, took up landscape painting as his profession. He made the tour of Europe in 1836. Skilful as he was in autumnal effects, he was the first American landscapist that adopted a grey, silvery tone in his general treat
Page 43 43 ment of scenery. The Annuals of forty years ago are filled with engravings from his works, that show the poetical feeling of his style. His latter years were clouded by poverty and neglect. H. W. 26. SEAPORT-STORM EFFECT. 29 in. x 36 in. This picture is said to be by Joseph Vernet, and is painted very much in his style. 27. ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS. 8 ft. 8 in. x 5. By Raphael Mengs. From the collection of Joseph Bonaparte, who brought it from Spain. Born in 1728, in Bohemia, Mengs studied his art in Italy, and after a prosperous career as artist and writer, died at Rome in 1779. Inspired by his Italian studies, he tried to infuse ideal conception into the decayed style of German art of his time. In this picture he has successfully imitated the beautiful and original idea of Correggio in his " Holy Night," by making the light of his picture emanate from the Holy Child. Mengs was an able writer on art, and a sound, judicious critic. His rank as an artist has ever been a matter of dispute. Winkleman and others are enthusiastic over his genius and ability, while by some he has been declared only a dull imitator of the Italian school,without soul or invention. Surely this picture is not only a worthy imitation of Correggio, but shows strength and fine color. The prostrate figure in the foreground, in foreshortening and color, seems thoroughly original, and worthy of any master. His best pictures were painted at Madrid, where he was a great favorite, and this work was brought away by the ex-King of Spain, Joseph Bonaparte, who had facilities in securing good pictures and removing them from his capital. 28. GIRL AND PETS. On panel. 24Y il. x28 in. By Eastman Johnson. 1856. Its simple naturalness in cool, subdued color, is in this fine artist's best nanner. In the beginning of his artistic career Mr. Johnston was distinguished for his excellent crayon portraits; but after visiting Europe he took up painting, and in the class of genre subjects is the most successful artist in America. One of his earliest and best, "The Savoyard Sweep," is in the possession of George W. Riggs, Esq., of Washington. 29. PORTRAIT OF A LADY. wn. Attributed to Sir Peter Lely. A work that certainly bears all the points of excellence in the female heads by that master. 30. AUTUMNAL CORN AND GRAPES. 1.7 i. x 21in, E. Perelli. 1875. An example of still-life, perfect in drawing, finish, and color. There is originality in the grapes being represented as partly withered. 31. REBECCA AT THE WELL. 39 i. 22By T. P. Rossiter. 32. LANDSCAPE..By Thomas Doughty. A simple but effective gem, in cool color, a contrast to his autumn scene, No. 25, just noticed. 33. FLOWER-PIECE.. By E. G. Couder. 1872. A gem from this eminent French flower-painter. 34. THE TALKING WELL. " Lepzlitts ui parle. 5 ft. in. x 3 ft. 2 in. By A. Vely. 1873. This charming picture is by one of the leading figure painters of France. The maiden is a model of rustic grace, and the coloring throughout is harmonious. Its sentiment is delicately expressed. The " talk " may come from the well, but it is evident, from the arch glance and smile of the maiden, that she suspects the whisper to be somewhat human. The picture has been made familiar to the public by the excellent photograph published by the Corcoran Gallery of Art.
Page 44 44 35. SCENE AT FONTAINEBLEA-U-COSTUME OF LOUIS XI. 2i. W. 21il. x 31. in. P. C. Compte. 1874. The artist resides at Fontainebleau, and he has here called up in harmlonious color, and finished graceful form, a vision of such a court-beauty, in rich quaint attire and attended by a favorite hound, as was wont in the olden time to sweep with silken train along the bosky lanes of that royal demesne. 36. THE DROUGHT IN EGYPT. 9 ft. x 7 ft. 3 in. By F. Portaels, Belgium. 1873. " How he had wrought his signs in Egypt, and his wonders in the field of Zoar; and hath turned their rivers into blood; and their floods, that they could Inot drink."-Psalm lxxviii, 43, 44. This picture took the special gold medal, awarded at the Exhibition of the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, for the best picture, without regard to school, style, or subject, by a living artist. Aside from the power displayed in portraying such fearful suffering, the finely drawn groups and single figures furnish abundant examples to the student of historical composition. 37. THE FORTUNE-TELLER. 12 x 16 i. On panel. C. Maccari. A work of Roman genre, by a Roman artist. The aged prophetess, seated in her "curiosity shop" of ancient and curious wares, foretells by the cards on her chair-arm the fortune of the fashionable lady, who, with downcast eyes, listens with an expression evidently not dissatisfied. The face and form of the fortune-teller is executed in a style worthy of a Flemish master. 38. LEISURE AND LABOR. 15. x 2in. By F. B. Mayer. 1853. The hackneyed subject of a village blacksmith shop is here treated with great originality, fine color, and contrast in the figures, which well illustrate the aptness of the title. Mr. Mayer is a Baltiniore artist of high repute. This picture has been engraved. 39. SNow SCENE-MOONRISE. 21' in. 33w in. By Emile Breton. 1873. The ruddy disk of the rising moon glows through the mist of a winter evening over an ordinary landscape, a cottage, a bridge, and some leafless trees, in which turkeys roost. Such are the simple materials, simply treated, of an effective picture. 40. THE LONG STORY. An Interior on panel. 16 in. x in. By William S. Mount. One of the best pictures of an artist who may justly be termed the Wilkie of America, by his close observation and portrayal of rustic incidents, and his success in making them essentially American in character. It represents a real scene witnessed by the artist, who knew all the characters in it. When engraved, it furnished the theme of a story by Seba Smith. It occurred in a country bar-room-perhaps a railway station, as a time-table is affixed to the wall-and the sitting figures seem to be taking "something hot " until the train arrives. The man on the left with a bandage around his head, a bandana handkerchief bound over his knee, and a crutch lying across his lap, looks rather like a hard character; an impression confirmed by the " deck" of cards slipping out of his big hat lying on the floor. He is evidently a bar-room lounger, and perhaps has called for the purpose of getting up "a little game " with any stray traveller. The standing figure is a country doctor, who has dropped in with his smoking friend, and, directing the latter's attention to the lame man, makes a bet with him that their rough companion cannot answer the simplest question in a half-hour's time. The smoker then asks the lame man whether the hurt on his bandaged leg is above or below the knee. The latter, at once, with eager eyes and pointed finger, goes into a long, discursive account of how he got hurt. As the half-hour expires, the smoker bored, and somewhat serious over the lost wager, puffs his
Page 45 45 smoke towards the narrator, while the doctor looks down sideways at him, and, though his eyes are concealed by the cap, his lips evidently say, " Didn't I tell you so?" In this, as in all of his comic illustrations, Mount never overstepped the barrier between genuine humor and caricature. He was the son of a farmer on Long Island, and was in early life a sign-painter. He had a studio on wheels, with a plate-glass front, in which, drawn by a pair of horses, he could select any point of view he wished, and thus protected from the weather, leisurely make his careful studies. 1 W. B Paul Weber. 1873. 41. SCENE IN THE CATSKILLS. 21 in. x By Pul 1873. A fine example of the artist, with remarkable translucency in the middle ground foliage, and a fine aerial effect in the far-ascending mountain slopes. 42. LOST DOGS. " Ci au perd! 4 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 11 4ft.9 in. x 3 ft. 11M4 in. By 0. Von Thoren. 1873. Here is an animal picture, equal to Landseer's in point of close adherence to nature. The contrast between the two dogs, the active distress of one and the mute resignation of the other, lost at the close of a wintry day, is forcibly depicted. The picture was exhibited at the Vienna Exposition in 1873, and elicited great praise. 43. VASE OF FLOWERS. 33 H.X 24 W. By G. C. Jeannin. 1873. A fine example of the new and difficult style of color in flower pieces, so much in vogue with the artists of France. In the hands of an indifferent artist the prominent blue curtain would have been fatal to the work; but here it is safely grouped with the simple flower and the gilt vase, in one mass of harmonious color. 44. THE EMIGRANT'S LETTER. 20in. x06n. By Howard Helmick. 1868. Mr. Helmick is a native of Washington city, now following his art in London, where he has met brilliant success in painting subjects of Irish rustic life. This picture represents a French peasant's family listening to a letter from an emigrant brother. H. W. 45. THE FETE OF ST. JOHN IN DALECARLIA, SWEDEN. 3 ft. 10 in. x 7 ft. 6 in. By Hugo Salmson. 1874. The artist of this interesting work is a native of Sweden, so that it may be received as a true picture of a village festival in that iron-mining region. Here, at twilight, while the last red streak of sunset and the young moon are seen through the murky cloud of smoke and mist, the miners are in the height of their enjoyment. A band of dancing musicians heads the procession, bearing a pole covered with evergreens, which they are about to set up; behind them a group of girls are dancing; a man on a barrel fires a feu de joie with a pistol; while beyond are seen other groups in the dance, or seated at tables near the public-house. The great point in the picture is the group on the left, where the miners, with their wives and children, are seated feasting and smoking, while their pastor, meerschaum in hand, stands near, with face radiant with kindly jollity. There is a wonderful diversity of character in these numerous figures, in all positions, and of all ages and complexions. This admirable picture was numbered 1,639 in the catalogue of the Paris Exposition of 1874, and was one of a lot selected by the French Government, but their fund being too limited for them all, the work, fortunately for the Corcoran Gallery of Art, was returned to the artist. 46. COUNT EBERHARD, Of WIRTEMBERG, (" The Weeper.") ft 5 in. By Ary Scheffer. The subject of this picture is as follows: Ulrich, son of Count Eberhard, had lost the battle of Reatlingen, and was dangerously wounded. Many of the nobility were slain. On his recovery he leisurely sought his father,
Page 46 46 at Stuttgard, and found him over his solitary meal. He was coldly received. Not a word was spoken. With downcast eyes he placed himself opposite his father. Fish and wine were served to him. The old count seized a knife, and cut the table-cloth between them. Frenzied by this insult, Ulrich rushed into the middle of the next fight, gains the battle of Doffingen, and is slain.-Ballad of Uhiland. "And while we were celebrating the victory in our camp, what was our old count doing? Alone in his tent, weeping over the dead body of his only son!" -Ballad of Schiller. There has been much useless discussion about the sex of the dead figure in this picture, on account of its girlish features, and some persons even insist it represents Joan of Arc; but any one referring to the spirited translation by the late Lord Lytton of Schiller's ballad upon this theme will see that the count's son was but " a stripling," and that the hair parted in the middle (just as the count's is) would naturally give to delicate features after death that appearance of effeminacy which puzzles so many observers. A copy of this picture is in the Rotterdam Museum, and another, illustrating the scene at the table, called "Cutting the Table-Cloth." The French Government has also a copy of "The Weeper;" but the one in this catalogue is the original picture, and far superior to all others. There is also a copy in the Boston Athenmeum. The deep, solemn tone and transparent richness of color in this picture are remarkable, and completely refute Ruskin's absurd sneer, " that two muleloads of earth represent Ary Scheffer." The portrait of Lafayette in the House of Representatives is by Ary Scheffer. There is in Washington also a portrait of Commodore Morris, painted in 1826. Scheffer was born at Dordrecht, Holland, in 1795, and died in 1858. 17. CROMWELL AND MILTON. By E. Leutze. 1857. This picture, painted for Mr. Corcoran, portrays the intimacy between Oliver Cromwell and his Latin secretary, John Milton, poet. The latter is represented as entertaining, by his skilful performance upon the organ, the Protector, his family, and friends. The children were painted from the artist's own. Leutze died in 1868. Leutze was a German by birth, but came to this country when young. In the early part of his career, as a wandering portrait painter in Virginia, he astonished good judges by his brilliant color and dashing style. His success took him to Dusseldorff, where, under Lessing, he soon displayed his power as a historical painter, sending home-chiefly to Philadelphia-picture after picture of great dramatic power and picturesque treatment. Several of these were of noble heroic sentiment, such as his "Landing of the Norsemen." He is more popularly known by his " Washington crossing the Delaware." 48. SUNSET. 3 ft. 7 in. 5 ft. 6 in. By Emile Breton. 1873. The same artist of the simple but effective winter scene at moonrise (No. 35) here shows with what power he can render the ruddier glow of sunset, and the solemn repose of river, road, and groves under approaching twilight. 49. A SPRING LANDSCAPE. ft. in. x 5 ft. 3 i. By Louis Japy. 1873. The production of a distinguished French landscapist, full of tender color and vernal freshness. 50. TWILIGHT. 3 ft. 3in. x6 ft. 3in. By Louis Japy, 1873. A pendant to the above, and, contrasted with it, the versatility of the artist is shown in the grave colors of the landscape at the close of day, as its level plain stretches away to the twilight sky. 51. A MONK FISHING.. W By L. A. G. Loustenau. 1874. A humorous subject, in the vein of Hogarth. Beside the shallow stagnant mloat of an old ruin, a monk, fat, oleaginous, and contented, is seated fishing. He has much tackle and a huge scoop-basket, for a great day's sport, but the three bull-frogs on the bank by his side show the extent of his sucess. From the Paris Exposition of 1874. No. 1,239.
Page 47 47 52. THE DISPUTED SHOT. 36 in By J. M. Stanley. This artist is generally known by his Indian portraits and scenery, many of which were in the Smithsonian Institution when it was burnt in 186(5. H. w. 53. PORTRAIT OF EX-PRESIDENT JOHN TYLER, OF VIRGINIA. 29 in. x 36 in. By G. P. H. Healy. 18-. 54. PORTRAIT OF M LASTEYRIE. 28I x in. By Rembrandt Peale. This picture is marked on the back as the portrait of a "distinguished French economist and author-the first to establish a museuma of natural history, and writer on cotton and merino sheep," and that it was painted in wax in Paris, (no date,) by Rembrandt Peale, for the Philadelphia Museum. Rembrandt Peale, son of Charles Wilson Peale, was born 1787, and died in 1860. Washington sat to him for his portrait when the artist was only eighteen. In later life, by careful use of the studies made of his illustrious sitter, Peale painted the portrait of Washington bought by Congress in 1832, which hung for a long time in the old Senate chamber, and is now in the room of the President of the Senate. Chief Justice Marshall and others always declared it the best likeness of Washington ever painted. 55. GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON. 7 fta 11 i. x 5 ft. By Thomas Sully. Mr. Sully excelled chiefly in female heads, but this is a vigorous portrait of a subject of strongly-marked masculine character. 56. PORTRAIT OF THOMAS SULLY. H. Ar. (Painted by himself.) Mr. Sully was born in England in 1783, came to this country in 17)92, and resided in Philadelphia. He died in 18. His portrait of Queen Victoria in her coronation robes, painted for the St. George's Society of Philadelphia, was his greatest work. H. W. 57. PORTRAIT OF JOHN RANDOLPH OF ROANOKE, VA. 30 in. x 25 in. By Chester Harding. All who remember Mr. Randolph will pronounce this a striking likeness of that personage, so singular in aspect and eccentric in character. Of his tall, spare frame, small, thin face, clear, bright eye, petulant caprice, and caustic, ready repartee, the old citizens of Washington have abundant memories. The portrait was recently secured by Mr. Corcoran as a valuable historical addition to the Gallery, and was painted over forty years ago. Mr. Randolph was born in 1773, and died in 1833. His grandfather married the great-granddaughter of Pocahontas. He was a representative in Congress from 1799 to 1829, with an interval of two years-1825-27 —in the Senate. His boyish face and voice made him look so young that when first sworn in, being asked if he was of the legal age, he characteristically retorted, " Go ask my constitutents!" He went as Minister to Russia in 1830, but ill-health caused his death shortly after his return. The artist of this portrait was born in Massachusetts in 1792,and died in Boston in 1866. His early life was a heritage of poverty and hard field-labor. Going to the West, he was first a chairmaker, then a sign-painter, until the work of a stray portrait-painter called forth his talent in that way. After some study in Philadelphia, and years of successful pursuit of his new art in St. Louis, he went to Boston, where he attained a brilliant reputation as a fit successor to Gilbert Stuart, then passing away. He next visited London and enjoyed the support and society of the British nobility. On his return, he first visited Washington in the winter of 1829-30, memorable for the great encounter of Webster and Hayne in the Senate, and his studio was filled with the portraits of the statesmen, judges, and chief citizens of that day. This portrait was probably painted at that time. He lacked early training in his art, and his drawing was often defective; but his fine luminous color and aptness in seizing the natural aspect of his sitters made all his portraits agreeable and striking.
Page 48 48 58. THE I)EATH OF MOSES. 9 ft4'in.j sxWft. By Alexander Cabanel. 1851. The early work of a French artist, now eminent, painted when studying in Rome. It seems to be the ambitious effort of a young genius-strong, but immatu're-upon a theme of the greatest dignity and difficulty. The artist's purpose was to illustrate the death of Moses, as described in the following passage of Holy Writ: "And the Lord said unto him:'This is the land which I sware unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying, I will give unto thy seed. I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither.' " So Moses, the servant of the Lord, died there, in the land of Moab, according to the word of the Lord." —Deuteronomy, xxxiv: 4, 5. Jehovah is represented as pointing to the Promised Land, and at the same time indicating with the other hand that Moses is not to "go thither." Groups of angels support the majestic form of the Jewish leader, who turns towards his Maker a countenance full of reverence, resignation, and faith, as the angels lift him from the earth heavenward. The form and face of Moses are of the grandest type and expression. The fans of light spreading from the forehead are owing to the artist having adopted the error into which Michael Angelo and all the artists of Catholic Europe fell, in representing Moses with horns in sculpture, and with fans of light in painting. A learned critic has recently shown that this error of the artists arose from Jerome having wrongly translated into the Latin Vulgate as cornuta or horned the Hebrew and Greek word signifying "rayed" or "radiant," descriptive of the light on the face of Moses when he descended from the presence of Jehovah. 59. CHARLOTTE CORDAY IN PRISON. 3 ft. 6 in. 2 ft. in Charles Louis Muller. 1875. This impressive picture is by an eminent French artist known by his " Rollcall" of the victims of the guillotine during the first French Revolution. He has won three medals, is an officer of the Legion of Honor, and a member of the Institute of France. Chailotte Corday, descended from a noble family, though a republican, determined to rid the republic of the blood-thirsty Marat, who sent to the guillotine all opposed to him. She managed to get an audience with the monster while in his bath, and as he was in the act of taking the names of some of her countrymen as fresh victilms, she stabbed him to the heart. After a trial she was guillotined on the 17th of July, 17793, aged 25 years. She never repented the deed, and displayed firmness and composure to the last, except when the executioner removing part of her dress brought the blush of modesty to her fair face. The artist has depicted her in the garb of a rustic, with tri-color ribbons ona her cap, resting languidly upon the rusty iron bars of her prison window. Her right arm is braced against the stone wall, the hand holding a pen, supporting the drooping head.'The left hand clasps the iron bars-a touching contrast between its delicate, slender fingers and the rusty metal. The pose of the form shows weariness, as does also the noble pale face looking through the grating with a thrilling, earnest mournfulness. She appears as if, weary with writing, she had sought the window for air untainted by prison walls. Her mouth shows unfaltering firmness, and her eyes show watchfulness and sadness-but not the sorrow of private grief. There is in themn no sign of remorse, nor of regret, unless over the necessity of her terrible act. Their introverted expression speaks of a heart brooding over the fate of her country. The picture is free from the tragic treatment the subject is too apt to receive from French artists. Its color throughout is grave and subdued. The clear, pale face, the plain gray garb, the stone wall, and rusty bars, are all in solemn keeping. Even the rosy tips of the exquisitely moulded tinted fingers harmonize with the prevailing gravity of color. This noble picture is recently from the hand of the artist, and has never before been publicly exhibited. 60. PORTRAIT OF CHIEF JUSTICE SHIPPEN, OF PENNSYLVANIA, (under the Crown.) 2tI~n.x 24Hn. By Gilbert Stuart. There can be no finer example than this of the skill of perhaps the greatest portrait-painter of modern times.
Page 49 49 Gilbert Stuart was born in Rhode Island, in 1756, and died in 1828. Acquiring some knowledge of painting at home, at an early age he went to England, and studied with West, and his ability in portraiture soon showed itself in portraits of distinguished Englishmen. At the close of 1794 he returned to Amierica, for the chief purpose of painting the likeness of Washington for the Marquis of Lansdowine. He painted but three portraits of Washington fron life. One he destroyed; the second he made life-size for his noble patron, and the third is now in the Boston Atheniium. Fronl these he painted twentysix copies. Though some considered his lmale portraits his strong point, the portrait of Mrs. Washington, also in the Boston Athenemunl, is a proof that he could successfully adapt his pencil to the softer lines and complexion of wo-nrian. 61. PORTRAIT OF M. F. P. G. GUIZOT. 7 ft. 10 i. 5 ft 8 in. By G. P. A. Healy. 1841. This portrait of the late PIrimie-Minister of Louis Philippe, and historian, deceased in 1874, is pronounced one of Healy's best works, and was painted in Paris, 1841, to the order of sonme Alnerican residents there, in complimlent to the French statesman for his memoir of George Washington. The picture was presented by them to the National Institute, a scientific association then existing in Washington. When that body no longer existed, the painting was turned over to the Smlithsonian Institution, and it is now transferred to the keeping of the Corcoran Gallery of Art. Mr. Guizot was born in 1787, and died in 1874. As a likeness the picture was considered a great success, and is remarkable for its refined, statesmanlike dignity, propriety of color, and the rich arrangement of the accessories. Mr. Healy was born in 1808, has studied and practised his art many years in Paris, and is one of the most industrious and prosperous of our portraitpainters. G2. PORTRAIT OF HENRY CLAY. 26 in. x 21_ in. Attributed to Henry Irnian. -03. PORTRTAIT OF THE LATE HON. WM. C. PRESTON, S. C. (Froim the Snlithsolnian Institution.) 29 i By G. P. A. Healy. Another strong portrait from the pencil of Mr. Healy, the likeness of which all friecnds of that Senator must recognize. Mr. Prestonl was brother to General Preston, the great friend of Powers, the sculptor, and was among the first that recognized the nlerits of the latter, and introduced him to his brother. 64. PORTRAIT OF BERNARDINE SAINT PIERRE. 28 i. x 23 in. Presented by G. WV. Riggs, Esq. This portrait of the author of " Paul and Virginia" was painted in wax, fromn life, by Relhbrandt Peale, in Paris, in 1808. St. Pierre, born in 1737, was an engineer officer, who, after an adventurous life in the West Indies, returniied to France, and there wrote his charming books. The materials of his story of Paul and Virginia were gathered during his sojourn of some years in the island of Mauritius. 6C5. TIE FARM-HoUSE. 2 ft. in. x 3 ft. 8 in. By George Morland. Perhaps the finest picture by this artist in America. Morland was born in 1763, and died in 1801(). He was the son of an unsuccessful painter. It is said he drew well when only four years old, gained1creputation by sketches exhibited in the Royal Acadenly when in his eleventh year, and at nineteen began his career as a great artist and a dissolute man. By his intenLperate habits he fell into the hands of mlen who plied himn with drink to rob him of his pictures. One of these wretches kept him so long in this bondage that he actually obtained enough of Morland's pictures to exhibit them publicly-"admllittance half-acrown." He subsequently led a careless, roving life among the rural districts of Englaind, paying his tavern bills by sketches and finished pictures. Perhaps it was of this picture the story is told that, when finished, a rustic staring at it, being asked how he liked the work, replied, " They be deadly like pigs, but who ever saw one eating fromn a trough without one leg in it?" Morland took the hint, as here represented.
Page 50 650 66. MOONRISE IN MADEIRA.. in. By E. Iildebrandt. The force of color and intensity of light in this picture are quite dazzling. It was painted for Mr. Corcoran, through Baron Humboldt, with whom the artist (now deceased) was on terms of close personal intimacy. 67. SHIAKESPEARE AND HIS CONTEMPORARIES. 4 ft 5 in. x 5 ft. 7I in. By John Faed. This picture, so interesting from the various groups of statesmen and authors in the picturesque and rich costume of their time, gathered round the great central figure of Shakespeare, is by one of the leading modern artists of England, and has been finely engiaved, with a key indicating the names of those represented. John Faed is a Scotchman, and one of three brothers eminent in art. Thomas Faed is the famous painter of " Sir Walter Scott and his Friends at Abbotsford," and also of subjects of Scottish genre, such as " The Mitherless Bairn." James Faed is the engraver of the excellent print of this picture, dedicated to Mr. Corcoran. H. W. 68 " LE REGIMENT QUI PASSE." 0 iT. x 50 io. By Edouard Detaille. Paris, 1875. The artist of this fine work is but twenty-six years old, a pupil of the famous Meissonier, and has already attained the highest rank as a painter of military subjects, in a style worthy of his great master. He has won three medals and the badge of the Legion of Honor. This picture first appeared in the Paris Exposition of 1875, and was afterwards exhibited in Brussels, where it was bought for the Corcoran Gallery of Art. It represents a regiment of the line passing along the Boulevard of St. Martin at the close of a wet, snowy day in December. The street is filled with a solid mass of soldiery vanishing in the nisty distance, and headed by a drumcorps, before which strides a stalwart drum-major. On the sidewalks are pedestrians, some with children in their arms, watching the pageant, and on either side of the muddy street, and in advance of the military, tramp motley groups of school-boys, apprentices, and sturdy workmen, all stepping out in sympathy with the music, through the slushy ruts of yellow Parisian mud. The movement of these groups is admirably rendered. On the extreme right is a portrait of Meissonier himself. On the opposite side is a capital lounging figure of a sergent-de-ville, and near him a more masterly one of a man tugging along a hand-cart. The crowd of boys affords an endless study of character; nor must be overlooked the muddy little dog in front, looking aside at the drum-major. Beyond, are omnibuses and fiacres, filled and piled up with passengers, cloaked and umbrellaed, and over them loom up the grand forms of the Portes St. Martin and St. Denis, which, with other lofty buildings, snow-covered, recede in dim perspective in the muffled air. The architectural grandeur of this picture is one of its strongest points of merit. 69. FUN AND FRIGHT. 3. X4,i. Chierici, Gaetano. 1874. This popular work is by a Milanese artist who has won distinction by subjects similar to this, painted in broad masses of fine color with great imitative skill and perception of serio-comic humor. The story is seen at a glance. The mischievous boy at the kitchen door has just lowered from his grinning face the ugly mask that has frightened the little girl from her meal of macaroni on the chair, and caused her to tumble over and cling to the dress of her buxom mother, who, with a face of startled anger and with uplifted wooden ladle, threatens the urchin. Though the boy enjoys the fun of his trick, he is evidently doubtful of its result to him, as he has planted his legs in a way to show he is ready for a rapid retreat. The picture acquires more interest from the fact that the kitchen, with its various accessories painted with such realistic finish, represents the one in which Chierici lived when a poor struggling artist; that the boy and girl are his own children, and the cook a relative. 70. BEACH AT SCHEVENINGEN, Holland.. 4 ft 6ill. F. H. Kaemmerer. 1874. This remarkable work is by a native of Holland, but now one of the resi
Page 51 dent artists of Paris, where it was exhibited in the Exposition of 1874, No. 100(. The fashionably-dressed young man with gray hat on the right of the picture is a portrait of the artist. The subject is painted with a peculiar open-air effect, startling at first, but true to nature. A cold, slaty sky bends over gay groups assembled on the beach of a Dutch watering-place, and brings all the finely-pencilled details into clear relief. The artificiality of the fashionably-dressed seaside loiterers is balanced by the summer sea and the groups of children wading and sporting near the light waves breaking upon the sand. This happy contrast has its climax in the group in the left foreground, where the gaily attired city miss bends over the coarse garb and brown face of the fisher-girl that holds up her shells for sale. Other fine te tit; of haract3r are seen in the exquisite languor depicted in the form of the fair invalid, with dainty feet supported on a stool, and the placid content of the worthy priest listening to the chat of a belle. The technical skill of the artist is successfully shown in his way of grouping together so many objects of the lightest color-the white dresses, white chairs, and white wagons, without confusion, and in proper relief. 71. SOUVENIRS OF THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES. 40 i. x 36. in. By B. Des Goffe. The curious objects in this picture are grouped in the lower open part of a credence, or carved ebony cabinet of the 17th century, which was sent from Spain to Admiral Nelson, to Paris, for repair, and is now in the Musee de Cluny. The pistols are of Italian manufacture of the 1lth century. The dark enamelled cup and the white Faiince cup are of the time of Henry II, and are also in the same museum. The chief object in the picture is the large boat-shaped cup of lapis laizuli, of the 17th century, now in the Louvre, where its designation is Nacelle. Neptune, with trident, silver gilt, is seated on a shell at the stern; and at the prow is the head of a sea-monster with open jaws. Below there are large grotesque masks, while smaller ones support the base. The careful drawing and delicate finish of this example of still life are only equalled by the refined selection of the objects and subdued propriety of the coloring. 72. A FAMILY OF SATYRS. H, W. By Louis Priou. 1874. a t. Gin. x ift. 2 n. This great work is by a pupil of Cabanel, and took a gold medal of the first class at the Paris Exposition, 1874. No. 1,522 on the Catalogue. The prodigious vigor of the composition and its fine color are equal to the artist's thorough classical conception of the subject. The whole scene is replete with the spirit of the wild, joyous sylvan life, associated with those imaginary wood-deities of the ancients. 73. THE HEIR PRESUMPTIVE. ft. By G. H. Boughton, 1873. A scene in an English park about a century since, when its young heir is taking a morning walk on a cool autumnal day with a stately matron, caressing his noble dog, while a pet poodle trots alongside the lady. Behind them a black servant in livery leads his young master's pony, and in front an old rustic stops his work of sweeping up the autumnal leaves to pay his obeisance to the promenaders. The picture was first exhibited in the British Royal Academy, and combined the excellences of the artist's peculiar style, being siumple in composition, of cool and subdued color, of quiet delineation of character, with a subtle refinement pervading the whole work. Not the least merit of it is the admirable treatment of the landscape, and the exquisite vista through the group of beeches. Mr. Boughton was born in England, but camne to this country at an early age. After growing up in his brother's hat store in Albany, his love for art took him to New York for instruction. His talent for painting first inclined to landscape, and in 1857 his first picture was exhibited. He soon acquired reputation and the means of studying his art in Europe, where his success as an eminent painter is now established. He resides in England, and his pictures are eagerly sought at high prices. His subjects have been chiefly devoted to the illustration of the Puritan settlement of New England.
Page 52 52 74. SUNDAY MORNING IN AUVERGNE. 2 ft. i in. x 3 ft. 10 in. By J. H. Bail. Paris. 1874. This picture of the interior of a French cottage is full of interest. The gladsomle light in the child's eyes as her mother puts the last pin in her dress; the patient attitude of the grandmother, waiting, prayer-book in hand; the girl descending the stairs, the natural air of the old womall arranging her cap, and the two men taking a cup of wine before leaving for church, are all told with marked character. Also froml the Exposition of 1874. 75. CONSTANTINOPLE, from the Golden Horn. Felix Ziem. 1874. A powerful example of an artist faymous for his glowing pictures of Venice, and other cities near the borders of the Mediterranean. Its rough, expressive handling, seen at a proper distance, is lost in a softness that steeps the nmass of the city in a voluptuous haze, while the walls, dolmes, anld minarets are flushed with the orange light of an Oriental sunset. 76. 1ILOWER-PIECE. 3 ft. W in. by 4 ft ill By E. G. Couder. 1873. A superb example of one of the leading flower-painters of France. The wealth of color in the vase of flowers, the angry terror of the cat that has upset the vase, the delicate iimitation of the water upon the table, show the comlprehensive ability of a true rmaster. 77. TROUT BROOK IN THE CATSKILLS. 2 ft.. 10 i. x I4 ft. W. Whittredge. 1875. A burst of sunlight through the trees falls upon their stems and the green margin of the stream, bringilg out the coffee-colored hue of the water very truthfully. Mr. Whittredge is a native of Ohio, and after years of study in Europe follows his art in New York city. 78. FRENCH CUIRASSIERS BRINGING IN ]BAVARIAN PRISONERS. In water-colors. H Eclouoard Detaille. 1875. This fine aqcuarelle shows Detaille's skill in water-colors to be fully equal to his work in oil-colors. In this example we hacve the literal detail of a photograph, comlbined with the finest perception of military character and rich color. It represents a scene after a battle at Orleans; one of the few encounters where the French had the advantage. The national characteristics of captors and captives are well rendered, as also the contrast tetween the careless attitudes of the officers, the stiff, stolid forms of the watchful guards, and the unconcern of the rustic-looking prisoners. Detaille is a patient student of every branch of his art to the simplest details. The chief trooper in the foregroulnd was painted froml a cuirassier, who with his horse stood for days in the artist's yard. EAST SIDE GALLERY. 79. IDEAL HAD.. B Geo. A. Baker: 79. 11)EAL HEAD. 27 in. x22 l. BY. 80. JUSTICE TO LIEVIN PYN, 1541.. By F. Paunwels. Lievin Pyn, First Magistrate of Ghent, was wrongly accused by his aimhbitious colleagues, and beheaded by order of Charles V. Afterwards, the emperor, convinced of his innocence, ordered solemn mass, and a proclamation to be read by the priest declaring Pyn's innocence, in the presence of his mourmning family and four of his accusers. There is fine disclimination of character in the faces of these last. The first shows the ulnrepentaint haughtiness of a bigot, there is a disturbed convictioll in the downward look of the second, a fixed nervous apprehension in the third, ald a imeek penlitence, real or dissembled, in the fourth. PIauvels is an eminent artist of the Netherlands, and has woni several gold medals. He is Professor of Historical Painting at Weimar. The picture is from the Strousberg Collection, Berlin.
Page 53 WEST S I) E GAXLLERY. 1. TlE BLONDE, BRUNETTE, AND MEDIUI. 29 in x 3 in. By T. P. Rossiter. 2. LANDSCAPE. (Oval.) n inBy R. Gignoux. 3. BALL-PLAYING AMONG THE SIOUX INDIANS. 28 I. x 40 in. By Col. Eastman. 4. LAKE SCENE NEAR LENOX, MASS. 36in.x'9in. By W. M. Oddie. 5. OUT-DOOR CONCERT. 2.' i. By E. T. Eckout. 6. SWISS LANDSCAPE. 2. By Seefisch. 1850. Brought from Berlin by Baron Gerolt. 7. ALLEGRO AND PENSEROSO. 811iL. n1il. By J. G. Brown. 8. SKETCH OF M[T. WASHINGTON. 11. n. By J. F. Kensett. 1851. Subsequently painted on a larger scale for an engraving by the American Art Union. 9. PORTRAIT OF NAPOLEON I. 10 ill. x. ill. This portrait was painted in Paris, from life, by a brother-in-law of Tallla, the actor, and once belonged to General Winfield Scott, who brought it from Europe. 0F By W. Brown. 10. PRETURN FROM MARKET. 25 in. x'318in, y in. Brown. The artist was an Englishman, and imitated the style of Morland. 11. PORTRAIT OF BARON HUMBOLDT. ill. x By MaCLae G. Richadl. 12. SwISS LANDSCAPE. 27 ill x38in. By C. Fribel. 1849. 13. CascADE. 1 in.x By Robbe, after Achenbach. A masterly copy of a genl by a great master. 14. FLEMISH PICTURE. I. Artist unknown. 15. BATTLE-PIECE, (on copper.) 4rin. x 7in. It is signed on the back " Velvet Brueghel"-a Flemish artist that lived in 1560 -1(2. 16. CASTLE GONDOLFO, LAKE ALBANO.. By C. P. Cranclh. i. w. 17. THE VILLAGE DOCTOR. 8n. x 24in By Venneman. 1850. 18. CHILD READING. 1 x13i. (A copy.) By J. G. Meyer. 19. IRIS, (oval.) 25 i. x 0 in. (A copy.) 20. * 21. CROSSING THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 30n. 1. By Brewerton. 22. FROM THE BATH. 2i.1in. 23. GREAT FALLS OF THE POTOMAC. 3'liln x Q>i'l. By Wm. MacLeo. 1873. 24. }MOONLIGHT IN ITALY. By Tavernier. 1849. ~ Witlldrawn 53
Page 54 54 25. WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS ON THE HUDSON. 22.x 37 i. By J. F. Cropsey. 185-. 26. VIRGIN AND CHILD.. Attributed to Mu'illo. 27. CHRIST BOUND. 2. W. Attributed to Vandyc k. 28. AUTUM~NAL SLANDSCAPE, WITH INDIANS. I. x ll. By A. Fisher. This artist once held a high position as a landqscape painter, and showed a g.ood eye for color and poetica;l feeling in his pictures. 29. CHILD AND NURSE, (a copy well executed.) 27 By Begas. 30. THE HUGUENOT'S DAUGHTER. 391n.x.-.5 in. By W. D. Washington. 1854. Represents a Huguenot father and his armed attendants surprising his daughter when about to be wedded to her Catholic lover. The artist was a native of Washington City, studied at Dusseldorff, under Mr. Leutze, and died a few years ago at Lexington, Va. 31. A DUTCH SCHOOL. 21. X 2y De Block. 32. THE BEGGAR GIRL, (painted from life.) 32. By Begasse. 33. FANNY ELLSLER AS LA SYLPHIDE.; Gt. 1i. x t. il in. By Prof. Begas. The artist of this portrait was a professor of painting at Berlin, and the picture is considered a good likeness of the famous danseuse when painted. 34 and 35. SEA-PORTS. 1211. W. Attributed to Canaletti. 36. NORMA.. 34~.2...8 ~n. By Louis Lang. 3. w. 37. THE TROJAN HORSE. 3 ft. T. x ft-. By Henri Motte. 1874. A bold effort by an artist of Firance to represent a very difficult theme, where the vast mechanism of the wooden horse could not but interfere with the prominent action of the human objects in this grand epic incident. The stealthy action of the Greeks is well given, and the drawing and prospective of the temples, turrets, &c., learned and well executed. The picture is from the Paris exposition of 1874. 38. ON THE COAST OF CALABRIA. 29 in. x 22 in. 39. ITALIAN Ox-CART. 22. By A. Roveara. 1860. 40. LANDSCAPE. 19 i. By George Inness. An early effort of an artist who has since won eminence as a landscape painter. 41. THE COQUETTE, (oval.) 3 ft. 4 i. x 2 ft. 10 in.,. w. 42. ON CATSKILL CREEK. 27 i. in. By.. Boggs. 43. FLEMISH SEAPORT-MOONLIGHT, 29Hin x 30l. BY J. M. Culver. 1841. 44. DOG AND PARROTS. 3. x3. By F. Lachenwitz. 1847. 45. DUCK-SHOOTING. 30 in. x 40in. By Wnm. Ranney. 1850. A thoroughly American scene, in the Jersey Flats, full of vigor and truth to nature. SOUTHWEST GALLERY. iI.'V. 112. PORTRAIT OF PRESIDENT GEORGE oWASHINGTON. 8 ft.l in. x 5 ft. 2 in. Copied from Gilbert Stuart's portrait by his daughter, Miss Stuart.
Page 55 OOCTAGON ROOM. Sta,tuary in lc~arble. 1. THE GREEK SLAVE. 5 ft.2 in. In marble. By Hiram Powers. 1846. The sculptor of this beautiful work was born in Vermont in 180,5. He went to Ohio when young, and, after trying various ways of earning a living, he attached himself to a museum of wax-work, and there showed his genius for modelling in wax. Having been taught by a German how to model in clay and plaster, his skill in bust-making soon attracted the notice of many friends, among whom was Mr. Longworth, of Cincinnati. He caine to Washington city in 183.5, and here his life-like busts of distinguished men-particularly that of Chief Justice Marshall, now in the United States Supreme Court-at once established his fame. Senator Preston, of South Carolina, introduced him to his brother, General Preston, of Columbia, S. C., a gentleman of fortune and refined taste, who at once furnished Powers with the means of going to Italy. and subsequently, on joining him there, befriended him, and in his own carriage took the artist for the first time to Rome in 1846. In Italy the merits of his busts were at once recognized, and very soon he displayed his genius in ideal works. The Greek Slave was his first statue. It placed his name at once among the leading sculptors of Europe, and its exbibition throughout the United States was very popular. Five copies of the original have been made by the sculptor and though it was followed by other ideal statues of a national character, the Greek Slave has ever held the first place in the estimation of his countrymen. His statue of Eve was also made for his patron, General Preston. It now belongs to A. T. Stewart, Esq., of New York. Much has been said and written of over-wrought praise and sharp condeuonation of this work. In his own words, the artist designed it to represent "a beautiful woman in a position of humiliation and sorrow, but elevated above it by conscious faith. Her father and mother are destroyed. Gather all this affliction together, add to them fortitude and resignation, and there is no room for shame." Whatever may be the final judgment upon the work, there is no statue that breathes a finer sentiment of purity, while its exquisite execution appears faultless. Mr. Powers never returned to America, but closed his long life of industry and honor at Florence in 1873. 2. GENEVRA. Bust in marble. By Hiram Powers. This was the first ideal bust made by Powers, and was executed in Florence for Mrs. Preston, as a token of gratitude for the assistance given by her husband to the sculptor. The name also is ideal. Powers described it as representing " a passionless woman, a woman with a heart and soul, and all the finer attributes of humanity, but unacknowledged by herself, and not developed by any prevailing expression." It was modelled and chiselled by the sculptor's own hands, and the face is considered as having much more latent strength of expression than is given in most of his ideal heads. It has been somewhat defaced, but not fatally so. The arrangement and execution of the hair is nobly beautiful. 3. PROSERPINE. Bust in marble. By Hiram Powers. As the Genevra showed the dawn of Powers' ideal genius, so the Proserpine represents its full meridian, as it was made twenty years after the former, and sent as another testimonial of gratitude to Mrs. Preston. It is a duplicate of the Proserpine in the possession of Mr. Carey, of Philadelphia, -with this 55
Page 56 56 difference, that the latter represents the lovely bosom imbedded in tube-roses, in keeping with the story of Proserpine when Pluto found her "Gathering flowers, Herself a fairer flower." The pedestals of both busts were designed by Mr. Powers. 4. BACCHANTE. Bust in marble. By Galt. This work is by a native of Virginia, who, had he lived longer, must have attained the highest honors in ideal sculpture. In early manhood, while in the Confederate service, he died near Richmond. It shows a fine conception of the subject, and the treatment of it is simple and natural. The charlYm of the head consists in the just limit which the artist has put to its bacchanalian expression. Here is no wild look nor leering grimace peering aunder a mass of grape-leaves. A simple wreath of the vine crowns the lovely head, and a subdued vinous joyousness mantles the face, and shines il the mirthful eyes and smiling lips. 5. PENSEROSO. Bust in marble. By W. H. Rinehart. An early work of this sculptor. 6. THE VEILED NUN. Bust in marble. A good copy of a work that shows how delicately marble may be wroughlt to imitate the human features under a gauzy veil. 7. BUST OF SHAKESPEARE. In marble. Copy of a good ideal bust of the Bard of Avon. SOUTHEAST GALLERY. 8. ENDYMION. 4 ft.I.y in. x 2 tMarble.. H. H Rinehart. One of the mlany versions of the story of Endymlion, the young herdlsman, is that Zeus, (Jupiter,) his reputed father, gave him illmmortal youth and eternal sleep. Enamnored of the sleeping boy, the Moon (Selene) had hill conveyed to Mount Latmos, where she could privately gaze upon and kliss his unconscious cheek. To illustrate this fable the sculptor has given us a comely shepherd-boy stretched in repose upon a sheepskin covering a sloping rock. The careless, easy posture of the limbs, and the expression of calht repose of the perfectly mlodelled form, stamp this work ill the estillation of mlany as Rinehart's great master-piece. It was executed in 18714. SOUTHWEST GALLERY. 9. SLEEPING CHILDREN. 3 f ft. arble. W. H. Rinehart. A copy of a touching group rmtade for a monumlnent in the early part of the scuelptor's career, which first called publlic attention to his geniutvs, and led to his being sent to Italy for study of his art.