American history: comprising historical sketches of the Indian tribes, a description of American antiquities, with an inquiry into their origin and the origin of the Indian tribes; history of the United States, with appendices showing its connection with European history: history of the present British provinces; history of Mexico; and history of Texas, brought down to the time of its admission into the American union. By Marcius Willson.
Willson, Marcius, 1813-1905.

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Page  II pENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846, W MARCIUS WILLSON, LT the Clerk's Oflice of the District Court of the United States, for tow Northern District of New York.

Page  III INTR TODU C TION. Tne design of the following work is to present the histories of all those countries of North America that are now of sufficient political importance to demand the attention of the scholar, and awaken the interest of the general reader. As an appropriate introduction to such a work, we have given the most important, of what little is known, of the history of the Aborigines of America. together with descriptive sketches of those rude mlemorials of a former civilization that were once so numerous throughout our own territory; and of others, magnificent even in their desolation, which now strew the plains, and crown the hill-tops, of Mexico, Yucatan, and Central America. The probable origin of these antiquities, and of the Indian tribes, has long been a subject of the antiquarian researches of the learned. Of the histories of the several political divisions of North:America, that of our own country claims our first attention, and to it we have given an appropriate space in the present work, commensurate with its importance. Its relations with European history, and with the history of England in particular, have been dwelt upon in the several appendices, at considerable length. To the article explanatory of the character and design of those appendices, see page 107, the reader is referred for our farther views on this subject. The third part of the volume, or, as it is called, Book III., gives the history of the present British Provinces in North America, from their earliest settlement to thle present period-both under the French and under the English dominion;-the early history of Louisiana, previous to the purchase of that territory by the United States in 1803;-the history of Mexico, from the conquest by Cortez, to the commencement of the war with the United States in 1846;-and the history of Texas, from its first settlement, to the time of its admission into the American Union. In relation to other features in the PLAN of the work, farther than the general divisions to which we have referred, a few remarks may not be inappropriate.It is a fact, not universally known, that all the French writers on Canadian hisLory-the writers upon Mexican history-and generally, all Catholic writers, give dates according to the New, or Gregorian Style, subsequent to the year 1582; while cotemporary English writers of American and European history retain the Old Style so late as the year 1751.* Hence discrepancies in dates, almost innumnerable, are found in the works of those compilers who have either been ignorant of this fact, or have disregarded it. In the following work the author has endeavored to give the dates, uniforom!l, in New Style. A minute MAROINAL ANALYSIS has been carried throughout the entire workeach subject being opposite that portion of the text to which it refers, and numBSee this subject examined in a " Critical Review of American Histories," by the author of thn workl, published in the Biblical Itepository of July, 1845.

Page  IV IV Y; INTRODUCTION..ered to correspond with similar divisions of the text. The design of this arrange ment is to give the work a better adaptation to the purposes of instruction —being better than questions for advanced pupils; while the teacher may easily convert each sulject, or head, in the analysis, into a question if thought desirable. It is believed that this feature in the plan of the work will also prove highly acceptable to the general reader. The marginal DATES and R.'EREmNCES are numerous, carrying along a minute chronology with the history. This plan avoids the necessity of encumbering the text with dates, and at the same time furnishes, to the inquiring reader, a history far more minute and circumstantil than could otherwise be embraced in a volume much larger than the present. The supposed utility of the Chart, (pages 16 and 17,) may be learned from the explanation of the same on page 18. The PROGRESSIVE SERIES of the three LARGE MAPS, on pages 20, 432, and 502, shows the state of the country embraced in the present United States at dlfierent periods. The First represents it as occupied by the Indian tribes, fifty years after the settlement of Jamestown, when only a few bright spots of civilization relieved the darkness of the picture. The Sccolnd as it was at the close of the Revolution, when almost the entire region west of the Alleghanies was a wilderness-showing how slowly settlements had advanced during the long period that the colonies were under the dominion of Great Britain. The Third represents the country as it now is, and as it has become under the influence of republican institutions. In place of the recent wilderness, we observe a confederacy of many states, each with its numerous cities, towns, and villages, denotilg the existence of a great and happy people. The GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL NOTES and SMALL 1MXAPS, at the bottoms of the pages, give the localities of all important places mentioned, and furnish that kind of geographical information respecting them, without which the history can ble read with little interest or profit. Maps of important sections of the country, the vicinities of large towns, plans of battle grounds and sieges, &c., are here given on the same pages with the events referring to them, where they necessarily catch the eye of the reader, so that they can hardly fiil to arrest his attention, and increase the interest that he feels in the history.'The ma[;.4 e.riro;. rpage 558, has been drawn with care, and being little more than an outline of the political divisions of that extensive country, is probably sufficiently accurate. Our knowledge of the geography of Mexico, however, is yet exceedingly imperfect, and little reliance can be placed upon maps for the distances between places. The map of Texas. page 620, and the several small maps of particular sections of that country, will be found a great aid to the reader in perusing the history of that portion of our Republic. In addition to what are properly "embellishments," nearly ninety maps and charts, large and small, have b-men introduced, seven of which occupy entire pages; and nearly six hundred locahties, mlentioned in the history, have been des. cribeu in the geographical notes. And unless the reader has as much knowledge of these localities as can be derived from the notes and maps, his knowledge of the history will be exceedingly vague and unsatisfactory. For if the names of places mentioned in history convey to our minds no meaning, they might as well be omitted entirely, and fictitious names would answer equally well. A familiarity with localities is indispensable to the ready acquisition, and the subsequent retention, of historical knowledge.

Page  5 CONTENTS ANgD PLAN OF THiE WORKI BOOK I.,NDIAN TRIBES O)F NORTH AMSERICA, AND ABIERIC&A ANTIQUITIES. CHAPTER I. INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTHI- AMERICA. EriOTTON I NoRTnERN\ TRIaES. Esquimaux and Athapascas.-Jurisdiction over their territor Tribes in the interior and on the coast. JECTION II. AI.GO0QUINS Tnlms. MiontatgnaTrs.-Algonquins.-IKnisteneaux.-Ottawas.-Pon, tiar. —Mississag uies.-S iclmacs.-Etclemins.-Abenakes.-New- England Indians, (3:TassF chusetts, Pawtucket;s, Nipmucks, E'okalokets, and Narragansetlts.) llassrsoki. — Casubi. talt.- Cannnozictss.- 3aato E or osh. —Ni ii'ret.- Sa.'sa.on..-Phlilip.- Can o chet. —A itsasson. MIolicg(an Tribes, (Pequods, Iontalks, Manhattans, Wabingas, &c.) Unca.s.-,r.ssaclts.Ienni Lenapes, (Minsi tand DelawarLes) —Viitle Eyres. —Captain Pipe.-Nantictokes. —Sues quehann ocks. —5.iI alloast(cks.-Powhiatan tribes.-Pon!'hatan -Poca/oll tas. —Shaw nees.-, Corza stalk. — TeCC?u7mtsPh. —tiamis and Pissckiihaws.-Liltle Tsertle.-Illinois.-Kickapoos.Sacs and Foxes. —Black Haivk.-Potowatomies.-Milenonoimies.,SeCTrION III. Inoquois Ti{tmEs. MIurons, (Wyandots, Neutrals, Erigas, Andastes,)-Adario. — Five Nations, (Mohalwks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.) Garangula.-s- - Herndrick.-Logtal.- Tha yendaznegra. —- a.-Red Tacket.-Facrmerr's Brother;Corn Planter.-Hlalf Toucn.-Big Tree.-Tuscaroras. SECTION IV. Catawbas.-Chero.kees. —Seqazoyah. -Speckled Sazake. —Uchees.-Natches. SaECION. MO0BILIA.N TRIBES. MIuscogees or Creeks, (Seminoles, Yamassees, &c.) — Me Gillivray. — s'eatleOrs'rd.-M3cIuztossL. — Osceoila.-Chickasas.- 1l1oncatch tape.-Choctas.2Mwtshaulat ubee.- Pzushan ata. SECTION' VI. UDAtCOTAn OR SIOUX TRItES. Winnebagoes.-Assiniboins, and Sioux Proper.-i Mlinetaree Group, (Minet-arees, Mandans, and Crows.) —Southcern Sioux Tribes, (Arkalnsas Osages, Kanzas, lowas, Missouries, Otoes, and Oniahas.)-Other Western Tribes, kBlac) Feet, lapids, and Pawnees.)-Petaleslarsoo. —Oregon Tribes. SECTION VII. Physical Character, Language, Government, Religion, and Traditions of thi Aborigines. - P -.P.ages,'21 —1 CHAPTER II. AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES.;SECTsTTO: I. ANTIQuITrEs FOUND IN THE UNITED STATeFS. Ornamenllts.-Warihke instrumenti Domestic utensils.-Earthen ware. —l'itcher found at Nashville.-Triune vessei. —] lols.bledals. —Mirrors. —TMural remains, &c., found at Marietta.-At Circleville.-Near Newarkc Near Somerset.-Near Chilicothe.-At the miouth of the Sciota It.-ln 5Missouri, &c.IMounds in various places. [;ECTI()N II. ANTIQUITIES FOUND IN OTIIER PORTIONS OF TtE CONTINENT. Blexican'Pyramni lsn. ]luins, &c. —Ruins of Palenque. —Of Copan.-Of Chichen.-Of Uxmal.-Of Labna ant *e-Pag.. aes, 62 —87T. CHAPTEPR ilL. SUPPOSED ORIGIN OF THE Ai2'NTIQUITIES, AND OF THE INDIAN TRIBES. The 5Mural Remains, MIounds, &c., found in the United States; and the ruined edifices of h'exieo, Yucatan, Central America, Rc., attributetl to the Aborigines.-Eividences of a Corn2Ion Origin of all the American Tribes.-The subject of the acquaintance of the Ancier ts with America exa:mined.-Probable Asiatic Origin of all the American Tribes. —Concluason -Early &American civilization. —Ison and Nature verscs Revelation. - - Pages, 87-95

Page  6 6 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. BOOK H. HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. INTRODUCTORY. I. The Public Seals or Coats of Arms of the several United States.-Engraved copies, an4 descriptions of the same. II. Character and design of the several Appendices to the IIistorx of the United States III. Geography of the United States. - - - Pages, 97 —11 PART I. VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. CHAPTER I. VOYAGES, CONQUESTS, AND I)ISCOVERIES, IN THE SOUTHERN PORTIONS OF NORTH AMERICA. D1vIsIONS. I. DISCOvERY OF AMERICA BY COLUIMBUS. Other claims to the Discovery.-Icelandic Claim.-Superior merit of the claims of Columbus.-Long a prevalent error respecting the Discovery.-Extent of the discoveries of Columbus.-The West Indies.-Yucatam Discovery of the Pacific. —II. JUAN PoaCE DE LEo-N. Tr:idition of the Fountain of Life Discovery of Florida by De Leon.-III. DE ATLION. Discovery of Carolina. —lospitality of the Natives, and Perfidy of the Spaniards.-IV. CONQUEST OF MaXIco. Yucatan ex, plored.-Discovery of Mexico.-Invasion by Cortez. —Final conquest of the Country.Magellan -First eircumnavigation of the Globe.-V. PAMIP1ILs) DBE NARVAEZ. IHis inva. sion of Florida.-VI. FEstDINAND DE SO(To. His landing in Florida.-Wanderings of the Spaniards.-Battles with the Natives.-Death of De Soto. —Fate of his Companions, Pages, 111-125 CHAPTER IIo NORTHERN AND EASTERN COASTS OF NORTH ABIERICA.,DrIISIONS. I. JOHN AND SEBASTIAN CABOT. Their first voyage to America and discovery of Labrador and Newfoundland.-Second voyage of Sebastian. —Iis subsequent Voyages II. GASPAR CORTEREAL. His voyages. —III. VERRAZANI. Explores the coast from n il ]mington, N. C. to Newfoundland.-Names the country 1etw France.-IV. JAMIEs CARTIER. His voyages to America.-Explores the St. Lawrenoe.-V. PROBERVAL. Appointed Viceroy of New France.-Sends Cartier on his third voyage. —The two voyages of Roberval.-VI. VOYAGES OF RIBAULT, LAUDONNIERE, AND MELENDEZ.-Founding of St. Augustine. —YII. GILBERT, RALEIGH, AND GRENVILLE. Amidas and Barlow.-Attempted settlements at Roanoke.-VIII. MARQuis DE LA ROCHE. Attempts to form a Settlement.-IX. BAtTHOLOMEW GOSNOLD. Attempted settlement at Martha's Vineyard.-M-artin Pring.-X. DE MoNTS. Extensive grant to him.-Founding of Port Royal.-Champlain sent to New France. —Founding of Quebec. —XI. NORTH AN]D SOUTT VIRGINIA. Plymouth and London Companies.-Attempted settlement at Kennebec. —Settlelment of Jamestown. —Pages, 125-138. APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. Importance of examining English History in connection with our own.-H-Ienry the Seventh. English claims to American territory.-Cabot —Early relations of England with America.Character of Henry the Seventh.-State of England at this Period.-Political policy of Henry and its Effects. —Feudal System.-Power of the Barons.-The Clergy, Religious Sanctuaries, &c.-Morals? Criminal Statistics, &c.-Attempts to regulate Commerce. Agriculture, Manufactures, &c —Usury -Monopolies.-Army and Navy of England.-Population -Judicial Tribunals.-Arbitrary Powers of the Tudor Princes.-Liberties of the People.-Mode of Living. Buildings.-Domestic Economy, &c.-Indebtedness of America to Europe.-The AFRICAN SLAVE TIrADE. History of the origin of the English branch of it. The REFORIMnATION. Luther, Zuinglius.-Spread of Protestautism.-The Rleforination in Eng'land, as connected with Englis~ Literature.-Connection of Henry the Eighth with the Reformation.-The Reformation completed under Edxward the Sixth.-Intolerance of the Re-formers.-Papacy reestablished under Queen Mary.-Persecution of the Reformers.-Suprenmacy of the Royal Prerogative at this period. Eliztabeth.-Protestantism restored.-Growing opposition to Episcopacy. —The Scottish Clergy' The Two Parties among the Reformers.-The PURITAN Party. Its Character.-Political aspect of the controversy.-The Puritans in Parliament.-The Brownists.-Treatment of the Puritans under Elizabeth.-Under James the First.-Emigration of the Puritans.-The Puritans in Holland, Political principles of the Puritans.-The Coempact entered into by them at Plymouth. —Indebtedness of England to the Puritans.-Their Intolerance.-Object in Emigrating. -The Quakers.-Conclusion. - Pages, 188-161

Page  7 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORKo 7 PART II. EARLY SETTLEMENTS AND COLONIAL HISTORY. CHAPTER I. COLONIAL HISTORY OF VIRGINIA. DIVSSIONs.-I. VIRGINIA UNDER THE FIRST CHARTER. Government.-Dissensions.-Character of the Emigrants.-The Natives. —Sufferings of the Colony.-Conspiracy.-Government of Smith.-Slllith taken Prisoner by the Indians.-His life saved by Pocahontas. —Condition of the Colony.-E-xploration of the Country by Smith.-II. VIRGINIA UNDER THE SECOND CHARTER. Changes in the Government.-Shipwreck of Emigrants.-Smith's Administration. —His Return to England.-The " Starving Time."-Lord Delaware.-Sir Thomas Dale. Sir Thomas Gates.-III. VIRGINIA UNDER THE TIIRD CHARTER. Changes in the Government.-Pocahontas. —Argall's Expeditions.-Sir Thomas Dale's Administration.-Argall's,. Yeardley's.-House of Burgesses.-Slavery.-Transportation of Females to Virginia. Written Constitutitln.-Indian Conspiracy and Massacre.-Dissolution of the London Company.-Royal Government.-IV. VIRGINIA FROM THE DISSOLUTION OF TIE LONDON COMPANY TO THE CCMMENCEMENT OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR -The new Government of the Colony. -Administration of IIarvey.-Of Berkeley.-Second Indian Massacre and War.-Virginia during the Civil War in England.-During the Commonwealth.-After the Restoration of Charles II.-Commercial Restrictions.-Liberties of the People Abridged. Indian War.-Bacon's Rebellion.-Cruelty of Berkeley.-Proprietary Government.Royal Government Restored. Pages, 161-178. CHAPTER II. COLONIAL HISTORY OF MASSACHUSETTS. EECTION I. MASSACIHUSETTS, FROM ITS EARLIEST HISTORY, TO THE UNION OF THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES IN 1643.-I. Early History. Exploration of the Country.-Smith's attempts to establish a Colony.-The Plymouth Company, and the Council of Plymouth.-Charter of the Latter.-II. Plymouth Compassny. The Puritans.-Emigration to America.-Sufferings, Samoset.-Massasoit.-Canonicus.-Weston's Colony.-The London partners of the Puri., tans.-III. lassachlmsetts Bay Colony. Attempted Settlement at Cape Ann.-Settlement of Salem.-Government —Changes in 1634. —Roger Williams.-Peters and Vane.-Emigration to the Connecticut. —Mrs. Hutchinson.-Pequod War.-Attempts in England to prevent Emigration.-Education.-IV. Union of the New England Colonies. Causes that led to it.-Terms of the Confederacy. V. Early Laws and Customs. SECTION II. MASSACHUSETTS FROM THE UNION OF THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES TO THE CLOSE OF KING AVILLIAM'S WAR IN 1697.-I. Events from the Union to lKing Philip's War - Massachusetts during the Civil War in England.-During the Commonwealth.-Early History of Maine.-Persecution of Quakers.-Restrictions upon Commerce.-Royal Commissioners.-II. King Philip's WVar. Causes of the War.-Attack apon Swanzey.-The Narragansetts. —Events at Tiverton.-Brookfield.-Deerfield.-I-adiey.-Bloody Brook.Springfield. —Iatfield.-Attack upon the Narragansett Fortress.-Death of Philip.-III. Controversies and Royal Tyranny. Andros.-IV. Massachusetts during lKing William's YTar. Causes of the War.-Inroads of French and Indians.-Expedition against Canada. New Charter, and Royal Government.-Salem Witchcraft.-Concluding Events of the War. BECTION III. MASSACHUSETTS FROM THE CLOSE OF KING WILLIAM'S W~AR, TO THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR IN 1754. —I. Massachusetts during Qiseen Anne's War. Causes of the War.-Indian Attack on Deerfield.-Conquest of Acadia.-Attempted Conquest of Canada. —Treaty of Utrecht.-II. King George's War. Causes that led to it.-Expedition against, and Conquest of Louisburg.-Treaty of Aix La Chapelle. Pages, 178-205. CHAPTER III. COLONIAL HISTORY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. History of New Hampshire intimately connected with that of Massachusetts.-Grant to Gorges and Mason.-First Settlements.-Union with Massachusetts.-Separation.-First Legissature.-Union.-Separation.-Union again.-Masonian Controversy.-Final Separation from Massachusetts.-Indian Wars. Pages, 205-208 CHAPTER IV. COLONIAL HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT. hv8isIONS. —I. Early Settlements.-Windsor, Hartford, Wethersfield, and Saybrook.-II. Peqzsod War. Alliance of the Pequods and Narragansetts.-Destruction of the Pequod Fort, and Dispersion of the Tribe.-III. New Hanven Colony. Settlement of New HIaven.-Go. vernment.-IV. Connecticut under her own Constitution. The Connecticut Towns withdrawn from the Jurisdiction of Massachusetts.-The Constitution adopted by Them.-Purchase of Saybrook. —V. Connecticut under the Royal Charter. Liberality of the Charter, - Connecticut during King Philip's WVar.-Andros in Connecticut.-Events during King Willam's War. —Fletcher's Visit to Hartford.-Yale College.-Laws, Manners, (ustoms, &c Pages 208-216

Page  8 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. CHAPTER V. COLONIAL HISTORY OF RHODE ISLAND. Roger Williams. —Founding of Providence.- Religious Toleration.-Mr. Williams's Mediatiou with the Pequods and Narragansetts.-Providence during the Pequod War.-Portsmouth and Newport.-Charter from Parliament.-Government and Early Laws of Rhode Island.-Chartel from the King.-Andros. Pages, 215-218. CHAPTER VI. COLONIAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK. STrTION I.-NEW NETHERLANDS, previous to its Conquest by the English in 1664. Voyages of Henry Hudson.-Dutch settlements at New York and Albany.-Dutch.-New Jersey." Charter of Liberties."-Colony of De Vriez in Delaware.-The Dutch in Connecticut. On Long Island.-Swedish Settlements in Delaware.-Indian Wars.-Kieft.-Stuyvesant. Subjugation of the Swedish Colony by the Dutch. Conquest of New Netherlands by the English. SECTION II. NEW YORK, from the Conquest of New Netherlands, to the Commencement of the French and Indian War.-Administration of Nichols.-Of Lovelace.-Reconquest of the Country by the Dutch.-Restoration to England.-Administration of Andros.-Of Dongan.-The French and the Iroquois.-Andros Again.-Leisler and Milborne -Destruction of Schenectady.-Expedition against Montreal.-Execution of Leisler and Milborne. Sloughter.-Fletcher.-Bellamont.-Lord Cornbury. —New York during Queen Anne's War.-The Tuscaroras.-French Forts, &c.-Administration of Gov. Cosby.-Negro Plot. Pages, 218-236. CHAPTER VII. COLONIAL HISTORY OF NEW JERSEY. Eartv Settlements. —Constitution of the Colony. —Difficulties with the Proprietors, and the Duke of York.-Division of the Province.-Government.-Conficting Claims of the Proprietors; New Jersey under the Royal Government. - Pages, 236-240. CHAPTER VIII. COLONIAL HISTORY OF MARYLAND. IEarly Exploration of the Country. —Settlements.-Lord Baltimore.-His Charter.-Settlewrent of St. Mary's.-Difficulties with Clayborne.-Laws.-IndianWar.-Insurrection.-Religi. ous Toleration.-Dissensions, and Civil War.-A Royal Government in Maryland.-Restoration of the Proprietor. - Pages, 240 —245. CHAPTER IX. COLONIAL HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA. Settlements of the Swedes.-Grant to Wm. Penn.-His Regulations for the Government of the Colony.-" The Territories."-Indian Treaty.-Founding of Philadelphia.-A " Charter of Liberties."-Withdrawal of Delaware.-Death of Penn, and subsequent History of the Colony. Pages, 245-250. CHAPTER X. COLONIAL HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. Raleigh's attempted Settlements.-Grant to Sir Robert Heath.-To Clarendon and Others. Albemarle Colony.-Clarendon Colony.-Locke's Constitution.-Dissensions.-Sothel.-Arch dale.-French and German Emigrants.-Indian Tribes.-War with the Tuscaroras.-Separa tion of the two Carolinas. - Pages, 250-255 CHAPTER XI. COLONIAL HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA. Charter of Clarendon.-Cartaret County Colony.-Founding of Charleston —Indian War.-Port Royal.-French Hugenots.-Colleton's Administration.-Sothel's. —Ludwell's.-Archdale.-Expedition against St. Augustine.-Indian War. —Religious Dissensions.-Spanish Invasion.War with the Yamassees — Domestic Revolution.-Royal Government. - Pages, 255 —261 CHAPTER XII. COLONIAL HISTORY OF GEORGIA. Oglethorpe.-First Charter of Georgia.-Settlement of Savannah.-Indian Treaty.-Regulations of the Trustees.-Preparations for War with the Spaniards.-Wesley.-Whitefield.-Exsedition against St. Augustine.-Spanish Invasion —Changes in the Government.-Slavery Pager, 261-26S

Page  9 CONTENTS AND PFLAN OF THE WORK. CHTAPT1ER XIIT. THEl FRENCII AN'D INDIAN NVARF. DsIIXONS. —1. CAUSES OFr THEo: wAR, AND EVENTS (F 1754. English Clanis to the Country French Clailns.-The Ohio Company. —\ltashington's Enibtasy.J —-Julinonville. — Fort Necessity. —Albany Convention, and Plan of tile Unlio. —II1. li5:,.rpeditions qf.2oncktoi, Braddock, Shirley and Joihnsoi. IReduction of Nova Scotia.-Briaddoci's Deteat. —Faiiurs of the Exaedition against Niagara.-Expedition ag.inst Crown Point. —Deli tt of Dieskau. ]II. 1756: Delays; Loss of Oswego; lndian Inzc'siols. Plan nf the C'anpaigu.- Abercrombie and Lord Loudono-Siontcalml reduces Oswe-o.-Arinstront's Expedition. —1, 175'7: Designs augainst Louisburg, and Loss of Fort 1:rn. Heiny. riPan of the Camlpaign Montcalm reduces Fort Winl. Iienry. —V. 175S: Reduction of Lonistoxig; Atbercrombie's Defeat; The Taking of lForts 1l'roIstenZc a.'l D. ( Tue.e. t Pitt iistry. —Siege and Conquest of Louisburg.-Abitreronlbie's Repulse at Ticondelogt. —Expedition against Fort Frontenac.-Agtinst Fort Du Quesne.-VI. 1759 to 17t3: Ticondeioga anzd Cro lwn Poins Abandoned; 1Niagara Takens; Colnquest of (.uebec; Of all Casula; War ZUith thle Chierokees; Peace of 17635. Pages, 2s66-285 APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. Design of the Appendix.-JAMES I. 1603 —125).-Political Aspect of Religious Controversies Rt this Period.-T'lhe Puritans. —Policy of Jamles.-lis Character.-Alnerican Colonization. Virgima Charters.-Popular Liberty.- The Plyimouth Conipany. —Ci\RLES I. 1625-164.9. I-is Character. -Controrersiss with Parliament, —lis Arbitrary Measures. — ampden. —Ecclesias. tical Policy of Charles.-Colmonotione in Scotland.-Strafford.-Civil War.-Execution of the King.-Relations of iEnglanud with her Americ:an Colonies during this Reigun. —Ts CotasioNWEALTH. 1649-1660. The Character of Religious Parties.-Supremacy of the Indepeundents Oliver Cjomwnvell.-1Tar with LIolland. —-Overthrow of the Long Parliamuent.-Barebone's Pariiament.-Cromwell installed as Lore Protector. —War with Spain.-Cromwell's Administra. tion and Deatlh.-R.ichard Cronmwell. —Restoration of Monarcl v. —lelations wvith the Amleican Colonies during the Commllonwealth. —Ciia.LEs Ii. 1660a-1665. Character of Charles 1I.Change in the Sentimr,ents and Feelings of the N~ation. —\War sithi Iollandl.-Treaty of lreda. Another War. — Treaty of NimSeguen -Domestic Administration of Charles.- l higs and To ries. —The various Navigation Acts. —-Bold Stand of Massachusetts in Defence of her Liberties. Rhode Isrland and ConnecticutC.-Controversy with the Royal Conuiissioners.-VW i th the King Subversion of the Dutch Power in lnmerica.-'rennsylvaL ia.-O Origin, Practices, and Principles of the Quakers.-Quaker Colorization in Amersica.. —JA:.4s Is. 16885-1688. General Chrtmacter of his Reign. —Monmouth's Rebel-lion. —Landing of WVilliam in England. and Fligt of limes Relations OI James with the American Colonies. —WVILLtAM AND NAiPMRY'. 1688 —1702. Character of the Revolution of 1688.-Rebeliolln in Scotiand. —War with France, —Treaty of ltyswick. Policy of Wiiiliam towards the Colo-ies. —Colonial Relatiosls during lis tReign. —ANNuE. 702 — 1714. 1W7ar of the Spanish Succesion.-Treaty of Utrecht.-Tllhe Slave'~rade. —CGEORaE 1. 1714-17'27. 1Rebellion in Scotlan.d.-GEooGE I. 1727-1750. Walpole.-War with Spain. War of the Austrian Succession.-Treaty of Aix la Chaspelle. —The "Seven Years War." Conclusion. Educlation; IMlauncrs; Morals; Religion, &c., in the American Colonies Pages, 2855 —85 PAR{T I I. A IERICAN REVOLUTION. CHAPTER [. CAUSES WOHICiH LED irO THIE REVOLUTION. Long Series of Aggressions upon the Colosies.-Design of Taxing the Colosles. —Thes Samp Act of 1765. —Its Effects upon the Colonies. —-'irst Colonial Conl-gress.-Repeal of the Statmp Act -Neow Scheme of Taxing Amllerica.-Excitement produced by it. —British Troops sent to Amegjca. —-Aflray in Boston.-it[oal Begunlation of 1772.-Destruction of Tea at Boston.-Boston'fort Bill -Massa.chusetts Charter subverted. —Second Colonial Congress. —Determlined Oppression.-Determined Resistance. ^ -. - Pagesg, 5 —847 CHIAPTER II. EVErNTS DuRIINGc THE YEAlR 1775. Battle of Lexington. —-Expedition of Allen and Arnold. —Battle of Bunker's Ifill.-Congress -Washington appointed to the Command of the Arlly.-The Royal Governors.-Invaslin of Canada. —Suarrender of St. Johns.-Of ItIontreal.-Assault of Quebec.-Repulse.-Retrt of the Army... Pag'es, 847 —55. CHAPTER III. EVENTS DURING THE YEARi 1776. Tho 8lege of Bosten coutinued.-Boston evacuated by the British. —Attck on Sulllvanu' 2

Page  10 10 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORKS Islast d. —Formid aible Warlike Preparations of England.-Declaration of Independence.-Battle o)f Long Island.-Of White Ilains.-Capture of Fort Washington.-Retreat of the Americana through New Jersey.-Capture of General Lee.-Battle of Trenton,-Situation of the Armiee at the Close of the Year. -Pages, 355 —366. CHAPTER IV. EVENTS DURING THE YEAR 1777. Battle of Princeton.-Other Successes of W'ashington.-Congress.-French Assistance.-La, fayette.-B- itish Expedition up the Iuclson. —Tryou's Expedition to Danbury.- Sag HIarbor, MIovements of the Armies in New Jersey.-Capture of General Prescott.-B-attle of Brandy, wine.-Wayne surprised.-Battle of Germantown. —Burgoyne's Expedition.-Battle of Ben, nington. —Siege of Fort Schuyler.-Battles of Stillwater and Saratoga.-Burgoyne's Surrender.-Forts litercer and IlilinD, on the Delaware.-Valley Forge.-Articles of Confederation. Pages, 366 —380, CHAPTER V. EVENTS DURING THE PEAR 1778. Conciliatory Measures of the British Government.-Treaty with France.-Count D'Estaing, Battle of Monmouth. —The Hostile Armies in Rhode Island.-The French and English Fleets Expeditions of Grey and Ferguson.-Attack on WVyoming.-On Cherry Valley. —Loss of Savan. nah. —lesult of the Campaign. - Pages, 38C —-385 CHAPTER VI. EVENTS DUEINGT THE YEAR 1779. The WVar at the South.-Defeat of the Tories under Col. Boyd.-Defeat of General Ash, Battle of Stono Ferry.-Tryon's Expedition against Connecticut.-Capture of Stony Point Paulus Hook.-Penobscot.-Sullivan's Expedition against the Six Nations.-Siege of Savannah, Spain Involved in the War.-Paul Jones. —lessult of the Campaign. Pages, 385-391. CHAPTER VII. EVENTS DURING TBE YEAR 1780. Siege of Charleston.-Americans surprised at Monk's Corner.-Surrender of Charleston. Other Successes of the British.-Sumpter and Marion.-Battle of Sanders' Creek. —Defeat of Sumpter.-Battle of King's Mountain.-Other Successes of the Americans.-Knyphausen's Expedition into New Jersey.-Admiral de Ternay.-Treachery of Arnold.-Fate of Andre. — Hl'olland involved in the War. -Pages, 391-397. CHAPTER VIII. EVENTS DURING THE YEAR 1781. Revolt of the Pennsylvania Troops. —Robert Morris. —Arnold's Depredations in Virginia.-Battle of the Cowpens.-Cornwallis's Pursuit of Morgan —Defeat of a Body of Loyalists. — Battle of Guilford Court House.-Of HIobkirk's Hill.-Assault of Ninety Six. —Fate of Colonel IIayne. Battle of Eutaw Springs.-Close of the Campaign at the South.-Arnold's Expedition to Connecticut.-Siege of Yorktown.-Surrender of Cornwallis. Pages, 397-407 CHAPTER IX. CLOSE OF TIIE WAIR AND ADOPTION OF THE CONSTITUTION. Changes in the Policy of the British Government.-Peace concluded with England. —Disbanding of the American Army.-Retirement of Washington to Private Life. —Condition of the Country.-National Convention.-Adoption of the Present Constitution.-Washington elected First President. Pages, 407 —411. APPENDIX TO THI-E REVOLUTION. The Struggle between England and her Colonies-how viewed by European Nations, gelerally.-By the People of England, &c. —Effects produced in London by Intelligence of the Battle of Lexington.-Discontents in the English ArSy.-Whigs and Tories.-Duke of Grafton. Mlarquis of Rockingham.-Violent Debates in Parliament.-Lord Mansfield. —Mr.!Eox.-Germall Auxiliaries.-Dukes of Richmond and Cumberland.-Perseverance of the Ministry.-American Privateers.-Openiug of Parliament in Oct., 1776.-King's Speech.-Ministerial Address.-Pro. test of the Peers.-Motion of Lord Cavendish.-War Expenses. —Lord Chatham's Motion Arrogance of the Court Party.-Opening of Parliament, Nov., 1777.-King's Speech.-M-inisterial Addresses -Earl of Chatham's Remarks.-Intelligence of the Defeat of Burgoyne.-New Measures for supplying the Army.-MIr. Fox.-Conciliatory Measures of Lord North.-Ameriran Treaty with France.-Divisions among the Whig Opposition.-Last Public Appearance of the Earl of Chatham.-Commencement of War between France and England.-War in toh West Indies.-In the East Indies.-War with Spain.-With Holland.-Armed Neutrality of the Northern Powers.-Siege of Gibraltar. —Surrender of Cornwallis. —Attack on Gibraltar.-Atieles of Peace.-Remarks on the Character of the War. - - Pages, 411 —43t

Page  11 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 1l PART IV. THE UNITED STATES. FPROM THE ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT UNDER THE FEIDERAL CONSTITUTION, IN 1789, TO THE YEAR 1845. CHAPTER I. WASHINGTON7S ADMINISTRATION. Washington's Inaugural Address. —Measures of the First Session of the Congress.-Of the Second Session.-Indian War.-Harmer's Defeat. —National Bank.-Vermont.-St. Clair's Defeat.-Kentucky.-The French Minister Genet-General Wayne.-Whiskey Insurrection. Jay's Treaty.-Treaty of GOreenville.-Treaty with Spain.-With Algiers.-Washington's FareWell Address. -..Pages, 432 —439. CHAPTER II. ADAMSIS ADMINISTRATION. Difficulties with France.-Death of Washington.-His Character.-Seat of Government. Mississippi Territory. —Treaty with France.-Alien and Sedition Laws. Pages, 439-443 CHAPTER III. JEFFERSON S ADMINISTRATION. Changes Introduced.-Ohio.-Purchase of Louisiana.-War with Tripoli.-Death of Hamil. ton.-Michigran.-Burr's Conspiracy.-Difficulties with England and France.-Anmerican Em. bargo. - Pages, 443-447 CHAPTER IV. MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION. SECTION I. 1809-10-11:-Continued Difficulties with England.-Battle af Tippecanoe. SECTION II. 1812:-Declaration of War Against England.-The Army.-General Hull -Loss of Mackinaw.-Colonel Miller.-Surrender of Detroit.-Battle of Queenstown.-The Consti. tution and Guerriere.-Wasp and Frolic.-United States and Macedonian.-Constitution and Java. SECTIoN III. 1813:-Positions of the American Forces. -Battle of Frenchtown.-Siege of Fort Meigs. —Defence of Fort Sandusky. —Battle of Lake Erie.-Of the Thames.-Fort Mims. Tohopeka.-Capture of York.-Attack on Sacketts HIarbor. —Events on the Niagara Frontier.-On the St. Lawrence.-Naval Battles.-Hornet and Peacock.-Chesapeake and Shannon.-Argus and Pelican.-The Boxer.-The Essex.-War on the Sea-board. SECTION IV. 1814:-Fort Erie.-Battle of Chippewa.-Of Lundy's Lane.-Of Plattsburg.-Of Bladensburg.-Burning of the Capitol.-Events near Baltimore.-At Stonington.-Cap. ture of Pensacola.-Battle of New Orleans. —IHartford Convention.-War with Algiers. Second National Bank. Pages, 447 —470. CHAPTER V. MONROE'S ADMINISTRATION. State of the Country.-Difficulties with the Creeks and Seminoles.-Capture of St. Marks and Pensacola. -Purchase of Florida.-The Missouri Question.-Lafayette's Visit. Pages, 470 —473. CHAPTER VI. J. Q. ADAMIS'S ADMINISTRATION. Controversy with Georgia.-Deaths of the Ex-Presidents, Adams and Jefferxa.-The Eleos Lion of 1828. -ages, 473-474 CHAPTER VII. JACKSON'S ADMINISTRATION. Removal from Office.-United States Bank.-Winnebago War.-Tariff, and State Righta The Cherokees.-Seminole War. -Pages, 474-478 CHAPTER VIII. VAN BUREN7S ADMINISTRATION. Condition of the Country.-Specie Circular.-Independent Treasury.-Seminole War Cox bnued. —Election of 1840. - - Pages, 479-4&e

Page  12 12 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. CHAPTER IX. HARRISON S ADMINISTRATION. Harrison's Inaugural Address.-His Cabinet.-His Sudden Death. - - Pages, 482, 483 CHAPTER X. TYLETR S ADMINISTRATION. Repeal of the Independant Treasury Bill.-North Eastern Boundary Treaty.-Difficulties in Rhode Island.-Annexation of Texas. Pages, 483, 481 CHAPTER XI. POLIR S ADMINISTRATION. War with Mexico. - Pages, 485-49.! CHAPTER XII. TAYLOR S ADMINISTRATION. _ Pages, 498-503 CHAPTER XIII. FILLMORE S ADMINISTRATION. - - Pages, 504 —08 APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD SUBSEQUENT TO THE REVOLUTION. The Government of the United States as Compared with Other Federal Governments. —The Early Federalists and Anti-Federalists.-Final General Approval of the Constitution.-The French Revolution.-Aggressions on the Part of England in 1693.-Jay's Treaty.-Renewed Aggressions of England. —Excited State of Public Feeling.-French Berlin Decree.-British Decree of Jan. 1807.-Pinckney and Monroe's Treaty.-British Orders in Council. —Milan Decree.-American Embargo.-Nonl-Intercourse Law.-The Erskilne Treaty.-Repeal of the Orders in Council.-Extent of British Depredations on American Commerce. —The "Peace Party" of 1812.-Declaration of War.-Federal Opposition.-Hartford Convention.-The Subject of Commercial Restrictions.-Imports and Exports.-The Different Eras of Federalism.Its Principles. —Political Questions Since the War of 1812.-Legal and MIoral View of the War with Mexico.-Ultimate Destiny of the American Confederacy. - Pages, 509-536 BOOK III. EARLY FRENCH SETTLEMENTS IN NORTH AMERICA; PRESENT BRITISH PROVINCES; MEXICO; AND TEXAS. PART I. EARLY FRENCH SETTLEMENTS, AND PRESENT BRITISH PROVINCES IN NORTH AMERICA. CHAPTER I. HISTORY OF CANADA UNDER THE FRENCH. Introduction to the History of Canlada.-Champlain's Discoveries, and Relations with the Hurons and Algonquins.-Various Expeditions Against the Iroquois.-De Caen Governor. Champlain Restored.-Conquest of New France by tlle English in 16i29. —Peace of 1632.-Alissionary Establishments.-Wars Between the Algonquins and Iroquois, involving the French. Administration of De Tracy.-Of De Courcelles.-Of Frontenac.-De La Barre and De Nonville.-Second Administration of Frontenac.-Canlada During King William's WVar. —During Queen Anne's YWar.-EncroachmnLts of the French on the Territory of the EnSlish. —Conquest of Canada. Pages, 3-15 CH-TAPTER II. EARLY IISTORY OF LOUISIANA. Jesuit Missionaries.-Discoveriy of the Mississippi. —Expedition and Discoveries of La Salle and his Companions.-La Salle's Colony in Texas.-Death of La Salle. —Settlements in Upper Louisiana.-lIn Southern Louisiana-rozat.ozat.-Te Mississiplpi Colnpany.-Destruction of the French Post at Natchez.-War with the Natches.-With the Cllickaasa.-The Treaty of 1793. Louisiana during the Allerican Revolution. —Treaty of 1795.-Violaled by thle Spaniards, Treaty of San Ildephonso.-Purchase of Louisiana by tlhe United States. Pages, 15-27 (',IT APTER III. IIS'TORY OF CANADA UNDER TIE EINGLISIi. The Chamlge of Dominion.-Cainada During thoe Amerlicaln Revolution.-Divisionl of Canlada. Government of the two Provinces.-Caniada During the War of 1812-14.-Administrlation of Sir Gordon Drummond.-Sir John Sherbrooke.-Duke of Richmonid.-Lord Dalhousie. —Cona troversies with the Assembly.-Sir James Kempt.-Lord Aylmer.-Inlcreasing Dissensions. Lord Gosford.-Sir Francis Bond Head.-The Crisis. —CANADIAN REBEsLLON.-Union of the two Canadas. Pages, 27-40

Page  13 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 13 CHAPTER IV. NOVA SCOTIA. Its Early Ilistory.-Domestic Dissensions.-Repeated Conquests of the Country by the Efng 1ish.-Final Conquest in 1710.-Nova Scotia during King George's War. —English Colonization ]Rebellion of the French Inhabitants.-Their subjugation, and balnishment.-Nova Scotia du ring and subsequent to the American Revolution. Pages, 40 —-48 CHAPTERS V, VI, AND VII. NEW BRUNSWICK PRINCE EDW'ARD'S ISLANDS AND NEWFOUNDLA1ND. PART II. IIISTORY OF M\IEXICO. CHAPTER I. ABORIGINAL MEXICO. HIistory of the Toltecs -The Chiehemecas.-The Aztecs or Mexicans.-Their Knowledge of the Arts.-Political Institutions.-The Court of Montezuma.-Wars, and Unuman Sacrifices, Pages, 57-68 CHAPTER II. COLONIAL HISTORY OF MEXICO. The Spanish Conquest.-Condition of the Aborigines.-General Policy of the Spanish Colonial Government.-Abuses Perpetrated under it.-Condition of Mexico at the Beginniug of the Present Century. - Pages, 69-72a CHAPTER III. MEXICO DURING THE FIRST REVOLUTION. Situation of Spain in 1808.-General Situation of the Spanish American Colonies at this Period.-Dissensions in Mexico.-Commencement of the Revolution.-Successes of IHidalgo. fIis Reverses and Death.-Rayon.-Career of Morelos.-Other Insurgent Chiefs.-Victoria. Mina's Invasion.-Close of the First Revolution in 1819. - - - Pages, 73-88 CHAPTER IV. MEXICO) FROM THE CLOSE OF THE FIRST REVOLUTION1 TO THE ADOPTION OF THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF 1824. Divisions among the Mexican Spaniards.-Designs of the Viceroy.-Revolt of Iturbide and Plan of Iguala. —Success of the Revolution.-Parties in the Congress.-Iturbide Proclaimed and Elected Emperor.-Overthrow of his Government.-Constitution of 1824.-Fate of Iturbide. Pages, 89 —- 95. CHAPTER V. MEXICO, FROSI TIIE ADOPTION OF THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF 1824, TO THE COMMENCEMENT OF TIHE WAR WITH TIHE UNITED STATES IN 1846. The Presidency of Victcria.-The Scotch and the York Lodges.-Presidential Election of 15826 Civil War.-Election of 1828.-Santa Anna heads a Rebellion. —Success of the lRevolutionists Pillaging of Mexico.-Guerrero becomes President.-Spanish Invasion.-B ustamente's hoebellion, and Overthrow of Guerrero.-Bustamente's Administration. —Rebellion and Death of Guerrero.-Santa Anna overthrows Bustamente's Administration.-Pedraza.-Santa Anna's Prosidency.-Durban.-Santa Anna Overthrows the Federal Constitution.-The Texans Refuse to Submit to his Usurpation.-Mexia.-Santa Anna's Invasion of Texas.-Bustamente's Presidency.-Mexia's Second Rebellion.-French Blockade of the Coast.-Insurrection in the Capital.-Yucatan.-Paredes at the head of the Revolution of 1841.-' Plan of Tucubaya." —Santa Anna at the head of the Government.-His Government Overthrown by Paredes. —Iis Banishment. —Difficulties with the United States. — Ierrera's Administration.-Revolt of Paredes, and Overthrow of Herrera.-Commencement of War between the United States and Mexico Santa Anna Restored to Power. -Concluding Remarks on Mexican History. Pages, 95-117

Page  14 14 4,ONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. PART III. HISTORY OF TEXAS. CHAPTER I. TEXASx As A PART OF MEXICO WHILE UNDER THE SPANISH DOMINION. [1521-1821.i Indian Tri es.-La Salle's Colony at Matagorda.-De Leon's Expedition. —First Spanish Settielmeuts. —-ostilities between the French and Spaniards.-WYestern Louisiana.-Spanish Missions. —Texas during the Mexican Revolution. —Expedition of Toledo and Guttierez.-Mins and Perry.-General Long's Expeclition.-French Colony in Texas Pages, 119 —12?9 CHAPTER Ii. EVENTS FROMI THE TIME OF THE ESTABLISHMIENT OF MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE7 TO THF TIME OF THE DECLARATION OF THE INDEPENDENCE lOF TEXAS. [1821-1836.] The Spanish Treaty of 1819.-The Founding of Xiustin's Colony.-Texas Annexed to Coahuila.-State Constitution. —Colonization Laws.-Character of the Texan Population.-The "Fredonian War." —Mexican Garrisons in Texas.-Propositions of the United States for the Purchase of Texas. —Mexican Decree of 1830.-Arbitrary Acts of Mexican Officers.-Difliculties at Anahuac and Yelasco. —Mexia sent to Texas.-Garrisolls Withdrawn. —Convention at San Felipe.-Austin's Imprisonment in Mexico.-The Two Parties in the State Legislature Among the Americans of Texas.-D)issensions.-Disturbances at Anahuac.-Adhlerence of Texas to the Mexican Constitution of 1824.-Affair at Gonzalez. —Capture of Goliad by the Texans.-Engagement near Bexar.-Convention at San Felipe and Declatration of Rights. —Pro visional Government.-Capture of Bexar by the Texans.-SantaL Anna's Invasion.-Fall of the Alamo.'Pages, 128 —l150 CHAPTER III. EVENTS FROMi TIlE DECLARATION OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF TEXAS) TO THE ANNEXATION OF TEXAS TO THE AMERICAN UNION. [1536-1845.] Convention. —Declaration of Independence.-Organization of the Government.-PresidenP s Address.-Advance of the Mexican Army.-Murder of King and his Party.-Fannin's Battie. Surrender.-Massacre of IIim and his Party.-Santa Anna Advances from Bexar.-Battle of San Jacinto, and Capture of Santa Anna —Retreat of the Mexican Forces.-Final Liberation of Santa Anna.-Recognitions of Texan Independence by the United States, France, and England.-Relations with Mexico.-The Santa Fe Expedition.-Departure from Austin.-Sufferingg of. the Partv.-Surrender to the Mexicans. —Sent to Mexico and Imprisoned.-Invasions of Texas in 1842.-Account of the Mier Expedition.-Admission of Texas into the American Union. —Concluding Remarks. - ~ Pages, 151 —170. EMIBELLISMDIENTS, MAPS, CHIARTS, PLANS, &C,, CONTAINED IN THIE FOLLOWVING WVORK. Pages. Pages. 1 CIART OF AIEERICAN IIISTORY 16-17 20 Doorway of a Building at Kewick 87 2 MAP OF THE INDIAN TRIBES - - 20 21 LANDING OF THE PILGRIBIS - - 96 3 Plan of Ruins at Marietta, Ohio - 66 22 Heraldric Colors - - - 97 4 Ruins at Circleville - - - 66 52 (30) Seals of the States and Territo5 Ruins near Newark - 67 ries- 98, 106 6 Rtuins near Somerset - 67 53 Seal of the United States - 106 7 On the North Branch of Paint Creek 67 54 Valley of Mexico - - 116 8 On Paint Creek, nearer Chilicothe - 69 55 Vicinity of Pensacola - - 122 9 At the Mouth of the Sciota River - 70 56 Vicinity of Montreal - 128 10 Map of Yucatan and the Adjoining 57 Port Royal Island and Vicinity - 129 Provinces - --- 74i1 58 Vicinity of St. Augustine - 130 11 Plan of the Ruins of Palene - 741 59 Harbor of St. Augustine - 130 12 Building called the Palace - - 751 60 Roanoke Island and Vicinity - 181 13 Plan of the Ruins of Copan 76 61 Vicinity of Jamestown - 136 14 Stone Altar found at Copan 71 62 POCATIONTAS SAVING THE LIFIE 15 Plan of the Ruins of Chichen i 79' OF CAPTrAIN SMITH - 161 16 Plan of the Ruins of Uxisal 3 63 Plymouth and vicinity -: 181 17 The " House of the Governor-' * 4 8 4 Vicinity of Bostoa - - - 184 18 Ground Plan of the Same 84 65 Valley of the Coonn. River, in )Mass. 194 19 Stone Building at Labnau,. o; 66 Na'ragansett, Fort and Swamp - 195

Page  15 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 15 Page. Page. 67 Vicinity of Pemaquid Fort - 198 101 Forts on the Hudson - ~ - 377 68 Vicinity of Portland - 198 102 Plan of Fort Mercer - - 378 59 Louisburg and Vicinity, in 1745 - 203 103 Battle of Monmouth - - * 381 70 Island of Cape Breton - - - 203 104 Seat of War in South Carolina 392 71 Vicinity of Portsmouth - - - 206 105 Battle of Sander's Creek - 393 72 Vicinity of Hartford - - O 208 106 SURaENDER OF CORNWALLIS - - 397 73 New Haven and Vicinity - - 211 107 Battle of Guilford Court House 401 74 Vicinity of Providence - - - 215 108 Battle of HI-obkirk's Hill - - - 401 75 New York and Vicinity - - 220 109 Plan of the Siege of Yorktown - 404 76 Albany and Vicinity - - - 221 110 New London and Vicinity - 405 77 Northern part of Delaware - - 223 111 Vicinity of Gibraltar - 429 78 Vicinity of Annapolis - - - 240 112 The Fortress of Gibraltar - 429 79 Philadelphia and Vicinity - - 248 113 MAP OF THE COUNTRY AT TUE CLOSE S0 Vicinity of Wilmington, N. C. - 251 OF THE REVOLUTION - - - 432 81 Charleston and Vicinity - - 256 114 Vicinity of New Orleans 438 82 Savannah and Vicinity - - 261 115 District of Columbia - - 442 83 Vicinity of Frederica, Geo. - 262 116 Vicinity of Detroit - - 449 84 DEATH OF GENERAL WOLFE - 267 117 Niagara Frontier - - - 451 85 Forts in New Brunswick - 272 118 Seat of the Creek War in Alabama - 456 86 Vicinity of Lake George - 273 119 Vicinity of Niagara Falls - 462 87 Forts at Oswego - - 275 120 Vicinity of Baltimore - 465 88 Vicinity of Quebec - 280 121 Seat of the Seminole War in Florida 478 89 BATTLE OF BUNKER'S HILL - 335 122 MAP OF THE UNIrED STATES IN 1845 502 90 Plan of the Siege of Boston - 349 123 Map of British America - - - 2 91 Battle of Long Island - - -359 " Forts in New Brunswick -. 4'5 92 Westchester County - - 362 124 MAP OF MEXICO - 56 93 Forts Lee and Washington - 362 125 Vicinity of the Capital - - 67 94 Seat of War in New Jersey - - 363 126 MAP OF TEXAS - 118 95 Trenton in 1776 - - - - 364 127 Vicinity of Bexar - - - 122 96 Places West of Philadelphia - 372 128 Map of the Bays of Matagorda, Espi97 Vicinity of Ticonderoga - - - 374 ritu Santo, Aransas, Copano, and 98 Fort Schnyler on the Mohawk - 376 Corpus Christi and their Viciolit 142 99 Towns of Saratoga and Stillvwater - 376 129 Galveston Bay and Vicinity - - 157'00 of Gates and Burgoyne at Saratogap - -

Page  16 , ________ ____ -- - T enxee. __ ____________,:,,,:,~,,_3j = f~l-K _aKentucky. -aO u n _UPPER _Indiana. 0 i~,cSS ~ LOUISLRP~d R~i:: Illinois. Wisconsiu. Alabama. I S=-~.T-_-7I.b-..-00,~ _k As==== _k ==:=Qlssisipp. __i| ~bt W. V and zzas Xoscrnved by Viceroys eppogznt- by, IO } 1 4~ -~ —- -' ~-,.Missouri Territory. Indian eorritory. ----— __ ____ ___ _ Oregon Ter, Texas. Q and woo governed by Vicerysy appointed by A jthe moth/cr country. y:.....~...... Mexico. ___~waqy ~ V1T P9Wa l Central j

Page  17 1500 HISTORY. iI ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L 0 Henry VIII. 305 Jili l l!! I I d0 ]9rded1V.' E lizabeth. I Ia 1 00. C.c.e... 0il~Ti i Os 1 amea 1. ~lnmn~~lllliltl ~ 20 1625 0 Hill 1et 1 60 6harles i. H 4 riP o 12 40 (Behaaded.) l''iflda'fd I 71 G 50 drme'rge 0'.l It. Cromwell. -) 0IS~ 111111111~ ~ ~,4L r, 50 1700 1 K Po 514.3s 172. 0 rR~~~~~~~~~0 65. C,'1 harles 11. C;,80 V1 c1~~~~F 0 1685 3 82 Jaines'If. WD'~"1 "11 0 ir- wia~- ~. M R A A Mary. 1702 asu ns I~~~~~~I 37640Ie1e00 A~laoe no~ 180 I 0 m q l Awl UP18810 M~ &~LS(Ii20'S 20.. ~181 07 VRO ~ J George 1. 1yooor8p es 101 ~ 1720 ~1 2... 30 293 ~~1eyfl16rtd 5 1 J K Polk e 1040~~~~~4 C~rg H 4,60~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~5 v2Pj FHDH r.C2HMCH O0 7 4 8' 03~~~~~~7 - - ----- --- - - ----- -- 0 1 t -11is t io rLnt. 182 as H s A Ini — Ii o r,~Valis'83 J. 30 W'iliiam'I9.~~~~~~~~10 9 0 5.e~~ea 471 ~ i 10 a 0 74toin T.a a g e. 44 J8 K. Polk 00 1 00H8 01ir e Is 20 George fV:18 0 -- - -,4"YUnied. 0 v t;,&..-.~~~- I ~ ~ ~ — ~~, ~~ i —........ --- -----

Page  18 EXPLANATION OF THE CHART. THE ". MINIATURE CHART OF AMERICAN HISTORY22 found on the two preceding pages, is a mere outline of a larger chart measuring about four feet by five and a half. The design of the small chart is, principally, to furnish, by its convenience for reference, additional aid to those pupils who may be studying the outlines of the history from the larger one; for as the small chart wants the coloring of the other, and many of its important features, it will be found, separately, of comparatively little importance. A brief explanation of the "Miniature Chart." however, may, in this place, be useful. The two divisions of the chart should be considered as brought together, so as to present the whole united on one sheet. The chart is arranged in the " downward course of time," from top to bottom, embracing a period of nearly 350 years, extending from the discovery of America by the Cabots, in 1497, to the year 1845. The dlark shading, extending entirely across the chart at the top, represents all North America as occupied by the Indian tribes at the time of the discovery; and following the chart downwards, the gradually increasing light portions represent the gradual increase of European settlements. The darkest shading represents the country as unexplored by the whites; —the lighter shading as having been explored, but not settled. Thus, Vermont was the last settled of the New England States; Upper Canada was settled at a much later period, and some of the Western United States still later. On the right is a column of English history; then a column of dates, corresponding with which the events are arranged on the chart from top to bottom; then follows the history of the present British Provinces north of the United States: then the histories of the several United States as their names are given at the bottom of the chart; after the territories, at the left, and adjoining Oregon, appear Texas, Mexico, and Central America. The large chart, of which this is a very imperfect outline, gives the prominent features, in the histories of all the settled portions of North America. The utility of well-arranged charts is very much the same as that of historical maps. Although maps give the localities of events,.they cannot give their sequezces, or order of succession; but as the eye glances over the chart, and follows it downwards in the stream of time, there is presented to the mind, instead of one local fixed picture% a moving panorama of events. In the map, the associations are fixed upon the proximity of locality; in the chart, upon the order of succession: and the two combined, in connection with the written history, give the most favorable associations possible for the attainment and retention of historical knowledge. One prominent advantage of the chart, however, separately considered, is, that it presents at one view a Comnparative History, of which books alone can give only a very inadequate idea, and that only to a well-disciplined memory of arbitrary associations. A view of the chart makes upon the mind as lasting an impression of the outlines of a country's history, as does the map of its topography, when the plans of both are equally understood; and the pIrom'ina t t.atures in a country's history may be recalleo to the mind, after a study of the chart, with the same facility that the geogra. phical outlines may be recalled, after a study of the map; for the principles upon which the mind acquires the knowledge, through the medium of the eye, are in both cases the same. The chart, the map, and the written history, should be used together; the chart, presenting at one view a comparative chronology of the events, being considered the frame-work of the structure and the map, giving the localities, the basis upon which it stan Is.

Page  19 INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA! AND AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. "They waste us; ay, like April snow In the warm noon, we shrink awayi And fast they follow as we go Towards the setting day,rill they shall fill the land, and we Are driven into the western Bea.? BXoaANT

Page  20 !California',. I eiI g li n ")'*gj"i e C N!,'''''~-llliB;;i i, A,, j~,::?... i i~~~~~~ i i':;~~~~~~~?? ~i! r?'r; iiS "'~~',,,~! ~I 5f.~.e[-i IC"'": Cll C'l iii m r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i a Ur~~~~~~~~~~~~~~17'nlTa, i jdl?ii,!....''3 I ai iii r ii;~ ~i"'"i L V'' ithe oet for the Year ieee ci CT1,,- t~ H~' cCC~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i,, rt.! J' neC!', h-iithe L.. le eo the!ii'C } IIRi BES.iI V.- JI!:!Ia' Nil ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~'/ L n. o \'F C/I ~~~~%BI iri~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ IA all 11 Of the Countryy~\\\ EATO H MSISPI V" Foi -en years, fter th S Llemseen t of Jamestownh abijlity1d Jln~O~l ishowingll th~e Loca~lifie, of "hpN' NDIAN TRIBES, A i r ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~and the commenice ment of Ei15ib~~~~9~i~ ~ ~~Buiopeanz SettZElemeW& Ii~ A~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~B ASCII........ 01,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Ii 0 ng. We s t -1,7 - 0 -7) I 111~~~~~~~7.16r~~~llyhm

Page  21 CHAPTER I. INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTHI AMERICA. [The brief notice. here given, of the Indian tribes of North America, is confined principally m those formerly and at present found within the United States and their Territories. For a more extended account the reader is referred to the numierous works on Indian HIistcry and Biograplhy, found in the public libraries of our cities; and especially to the able work of the lion. Albert Gallatin, published in volume second of the " Transactions of the Amnerican Antiqu:arian Society," and to Drake's " Biography and History of the Indian Tribes of North America," Edition of 1841. The IIistory of the more civilized tribes of early Mexico will be rbujnd under the head of Mexican liistory, see Book III., p. 57.] SECTION I. NORTHERN TRIBES. Tu- northern tribes of North America, embracing the ANALYSIS. great divisions known as the Esquirnmaux and the Atha-,. eo/,. r/ nascas, and some smlall tribes bordering on thle Paci.fic eZTo/beo. -- Ocean, are found north of the fifty-second parallel of lati- ity. tude. 2The Esqluimaux* Indians encircle the whole north- 2. Locality of ern portion of the continent, fr'om the southern point of nau.zAlaska on the west, to the Gulf of St. Lawrence on the east. 3The only Indians found in Greenland are Esqui- 3. Ind,, r:, o!f maux. 4A tribe of the same family is likewise found on 4G.Esquilma the western shore of Behring Straits; and it is believed in Asa. to be the only Asiatic tribe belonging to the race of any North American Indians. 5The Esquimaux are not found 5.Esqfmtaus far in the interior, but are confined mostly to the shores the coat.~ of the ocean, and of large gulfs and bays. 6There are two divisions of these people, the eastern 6. DiZis:oi and the western Esquimaux. The dividing line is a little Esot/a west of Mackenzie's River. 7The western Esquimaux 7. Dialecto. speak a dialect so different from the eastern, that it is, at first, difficult for them to understand each other. SThe s. Trade. two divisions have for some years past carried on considerable trade with each other; the western Indians dealing in iron tools and other articles of Russian manufacture, and the eastern in seal skins, oil, and furs. 9In the interior, extendi.ig fiom Churchill River ancl 9. T:ribes in Hudson's TBay to within about one hundred miles of the t crior. Pacific, is a large number of tribes speakinTg kindred languages.'~They have been grouped in one division, and 10 Toh. grouped, are called Athapascas, from the original name of the lake From EsRmanticekl" Faters of raw fish.

Page  22 22 IND AN TRIBES. [BOOK L ANALYSIS. since Ca, led " Lake of the Hills."'They are the heredc 1.. Their itary enemies of the Esquimaux, and are in a state of per2, Tr.I 0 petual warfare with them.'West of the Athapascas, on thecost. the sea-coast and islands, are several tribes which speak dialects different both fiom the Esquimaux and the Athapascas. 3. Jurisdic- 3The extensive territory occupied by the Esquimaux tion over the territory of and the Athapascas is claimed by the English, and the -z- and the whole is under the jurisdiction of the Hudson's Bay Com-.thpascas. pany, whose trading posts extend from James Bay, west, to the Pacific Ocean, and north, nearly to the Polar Sea..4. Character 4The Esquimaux are a dwarfish race, and obtain a preca. and occupation of the rious livelihood mostly by fishing. The Athapascas, and Northern alTrieB. some of their southern neighbors, are almost entirely employed in obtaining furs, for the purpose of selling them to the Company, or in conveying the provisions and stores of the Company to the different posts, and bringing back the furs there collected. SECTION II. ALGONQUIN TRIBES. o. ifontag-'At the first settlement of Canada, the St. Lawrence On-tang-r. Indians were generally designated by the name of Monyar. tagnars,e or Mountain Indians, from a range of hills or 6. Atgon- mountains west of Quebec. "The tribes found on the Ottawa River, however, speaking a different dialect, were 7. Distinction called Algonquins. 7The distinction between the Monbetween these n.cnes, and tagnars and the Algonquins was kept up for some time, aItent of the latter term. until the latter term finally prevailed, and was applied, by the French, to that great family of tribes extending throughout the eastern portions of North America, and s. or.'ia; speaking dialects of a common language. 8It is difficult of the termn. to ascertain whether the term Algonquin belonged, originally, to any particular tribe, or was used as a generic appellation. 9. Tke Knis-.The Knistenauxb Indians, the most northerly division tenauns Ingians. andthe of the Algonquin family, are a numerous tribe, and are[t-no. still found throughout a large tract of country, extending from Labrador to the Rocky Mountains. The Chlippewas, likewise a numerous Algonquin tribe, are now found on the western shores of Lake Superior. Io. The Otta. loTlhe Ottawas, found on the river of that name, were an Algonquin tribe, formerly residing on the western shores El. Theirjiu of Lake Huron. "1Their claims to the right of sovereignty i ~ioan. over the Ottawa River were generally recognized, and Ihey exacted a tribute from all the Indians going to or

Page  23 trHAP. I. INDIAN TRIBES. 23 conling from the country of the Hurons. 1The Algon- ANALYSIS. quin tribes of the Ottawa River were allied with the l. Theirci,Hurons in their wars with the Five Nations; and after athncewoith the almost total destruction of the Hurons in 1650, a part Ia7persoion, of the Ottawas, accompanied!~y a few Hurons, after some English, and wanderings, joined their kindred tribes at the south of tvande,'s. Lake Superior. The Ottawas subsequently, in 1671, removed to the vicinity of Michilimackinac, and finally returned to their original seats on the west side of' Lake Huron, and until ecently have continued to occupy a great portion of the Michigan peninsula. Under Pontiac, their chief, they were at the head of the great Indian confederacy of 1763, which in a short time captured nearly all the British posts on the western frontier. At the time of their dispersion, in 1650, portions of the Ottawas sought refuge among the French, and their descendants still reside in several villages of Lower Canada. PONTIAC, a chief of the Ottawa nation, was one of the most famous Indian warriors ever known to the English, not excepting even King Philip or Tecumseh. HIe is first brought to the notice of the English after the fall of Quebec in 1760, when Major Rogers was sent into the western country to takle possession of the posts stipulated to be surrendered by the French. Pontiac had previously been warmly attached to the French, and lead assisted them in their Indian wars. On his way Major Rogers was met by ambassadors from Pontiac, desiring him to halt until their chief could see him with his own eyes, atnd likewist informing him that Pontiac was the king and lord of that country. Pontiac soon ilet the English officer and demanded his business, and haughtily asked him how he dared enter the country of the Indians without permission from their chief. Finally, however, he smoked the pipe of peace with the officer, and gave him permission to pass through the country unmolested, with the assurance that he should be protected from the fury of those Indians who were hostile towards him and wished to cut him off. Major Rogers observes, that, during several conferences which he had with him, "1 Pontiac discovered great strength of judgment, and a thirst after knowledge." Soon after this Pontiac became hostile to the English, probably because he observed in them a design to extend their sovereignty over his country. He was willing to allow the English to settle in his dominions if they would acknowledge himn as their sovereign; but he declared, that if they did not conduct themselves according to his wishes, " he would shut up the way" and k.eep them out. He continued, however, with Indian craft and cunning, to express his friendship for the English until he had united the strength of many tribes to his own The Mliamis, Ottawas, Chippewas, Wyandots, Pottowattomies, Mississaguies, Shawnees, Outagamies or Foxes, and Winnebagoes, constituted his power, as they did, in after times, that of Tecumseh. WMith such secrecy and adroitness were the plans of Pontiac developed, that he dissipated the fears of the commandants of all the Western posts until the very moment that the blow was struck; and within fifteen days, in the summer of 1763, all the English garrisons and posts in the West, but three, fell into his hands. At Miclhilimackinac, the Ottawas, to whom the assault was intrusted, got into the fort by stratagem, while engaged in a great game of ball, to wvlich the officers wers invited. Only Niagara, Pittsburg, and Detroit escaped. Pittsburg was saved by the expedition of Colonel Boquet, who dispersed the besiegers at the point of the bayonet. Detroit was saved by information conveyed to the commandant by an Indian wom'an, tile iiglht before the premeditated attack, which was to be made while Pontiac and his warrlors should be holding a friendly council with the garrison. The Indians continued the siege ot the place until the spring of 1764, when General Bradstreet arriving with reenforcemen'es, the different tribes came in, and peace was established. Pontiac, however, took no part

Page  24 24 INDIAN TIRIBES. [BooK 1l In the negociatlons, but abandoned the country and repaired to Illinois, where he mu not long after assassinated by a Peoria Indian —but for -what cause has not been satisfac.. eorily shown. It is said that in the war of 1763, usually called " Pontiac's War," this chief appointed a commissary, and began to make and issue bills of credit, which were received by the Frenci inhabitants, and punctually redeemed by Pontiac. His bills, or notes, were made of bark, on which was drawn the figure of the commodity which he wished to obtain in exchange, witbh the shape of an otter, the insignia or arms of his nation, drawn under it. ANALYSIS. lThie Mississaguies, a tribe found south of' the River 1 Te:,iMsiss~- Ottawa, and adjoining the Hurons, appear to have sepasaginesg. rated their cause from that of their kindred tribes, and to have been either in alliance with the Five Nations, or permitted to remain neutral. Remnants of this tribe are still found in Canada. 2~.zit,~,m 2. 2The ]Iicmacs, first called by the French Souriquois, held possesssion of Nova Scotia and the adjacent isles, and were early known as the active allies of the French. 8. Etcheminzs. 3The Etchemins, or "Canoemen," embraced the tribes of the St. John's River, and extended westwardly along the sea-shore as far as Mount Desert Isle. 4. Alenaces. 4ABEINAKES. Next to the Etchemins were found the -Tpaltr,,e n Abenakes, extending to the Saco River, and consisting of several tribes, the principal of which were the Penobscots, 5. Converted the \Nor'ridgewooccs, and' the AncpJrscoyggins. rThe Mic..aiteJe suits. macs, the Etchemins, and the Abehnakes, we'e early con. ther enc.z- verted by the Frenclh Jesuits. They remained firmly attached to the French until the conquest of Canada in 1760, and were almost constantly in. a state of hostilities 6. Withdraw- with the British Colonies.'In the year 1754, ail the, alto Canada. Abenakes, with the exception of the Penobscots, who still reside on the river to which they have given their name, 7. Neutrality. withdrew to Canada. 7The Penobscot, the Passamaquoddy, and the St. John Indians, remained neutral during the wa, of' the Revolution. NEwr ENGLAND INDIANS. The New England Indians; ltnd Indians. as they have generally been called, embraced the tribes fAom the Saco River to the eastern boundary of Connec. 9. Principcl ticut. "Their principal tribes were, 1st, The Massachu..localitic. setts, adjoining the Bay of that name: 2d, The Paw. tuckets, north east of the Massachusetts, and embracing the Penacooks of New Hampshire: 3d, The Nipmnucks, north of the Mohegans, and occupying the central parts of Massachusetts: 4th, The EPokanokets, to whom the Wampanoags belonged, extending from the shores of Massachusetts Bay to Bristol in Rhode Island: and 5th. The NVarragansetts, in the remaining portion of Rhode Island. 1.1. subdfvt,'~These divisions, however, were subdivided into a 6oa8. number of petty cantons, or small tribes, each having its

Page  25 .own sahenm, or chief; who was in a great degraee inaepen- ANALYSIS. dent of the others. fir, nus, tl-e Po'kaoketies were divided E1..avp Ilto nine separate calltons or tribes, each havting its petty s a-amore or chiefi, u all su.lbect to one' gcrand saolhem, who was also chlOief' of tole W\_Vaaman-oagrs. 2'The population of if.he- N"Aow 4i..'i and Ibldians hlad 2.Popultios,. been greatly diiLLisLih ed by a fal epidemic whicl prevailed a short tiome bafioe thle arrival of the Puritans; but their number is supposed to have been much greater, in proportion to the extent of territory occupied by them, than wa:I found elsewhlaelre o,-' the shores of the Atlantic. For this, two causes Ihave been assigned. 3'First;-The Ne\w EIlan Ind ldians wvere supported a. cuuses of the increaed mostly by fishlig; and tlhe supply of food thus ob-ainedi is ep;oulatiZe o,,o s(reater, and more unilfbr tha hat atfforded by hunting. It tleesew ngwas ounod, accordling ly, that tie NarragansePts weri, in proportion to their tereiory, tit the most populous of the New England tribes. In the second place;-it appears probable that the New E-ngdland IndLians clad been obliged to concentrate thlemselves alone the sea-coast, in order to be able to re2sist the attacks of the Five Nations, with whom they were almost conilstenly at war. 4irle r Maquas, or Ao- 4. heL.fohawks, were tahe most feormidable of their adversaries, haiU@. and so great was tfle terror which they excited in the less warlike tribes of New England, that the appearance of' foiur or five Yohbawurks in tihe woods, would often frifglhten them firom their habitations, and drive them to seelk shelter in their forts, for safety.'The Indians east of the Connecticut River never were, 5. rndiain however, actually subjugated by the Five Nations; and eC.t o? the in 1671 a permanent peace was established between them, through the interference of the English, and the Dutch at Albany.'After the termination of KingT Philip'sI 6 The srvl. war,a in 1676, which resulted in the defeat of the hostile XPo..r c,,i., Indians, most of the survivors either joined the eastern a. Seep.196. tribes, or sought refi.uge in Canada, whence they continued to harass the fr'ontiers of rew Enogland, until the filnal overthrow of the French, in 1763.I 7Since that b. See p. 283. period, the eastern Indians have remained friendly, but 7.~E,,t#,rnin, their numbers are said to amount now to only a few hun- 1763. dred, and their languages, with the exception of the Narragansett, are nearly extinct. For the purpose of giving some fa rther infoirmation about the New Englanu. tribes, we sulj,, join a brief notice of' several of their principal chiefs. The first chief witlh whom the people of Plymouth became acquainted, wose:TASSCAS.or Frandl Sach.lem of the Wampanoags, whose principal residelce was at Pokanoket, nolw Bristol, Rhode slaLnd. Itt appears that, at one t:ime be-ore he was known to the wshites, Massasoit carried on successful ewars " against manlly nat.ions of Indians" whom he:'2;ade tributary to him; and. yet. with such kind. pttcernal authority did he rule over then, that all -appeared tl!

Page  26 g2d }INDIAN TRIBES, [Book A evere ilm, and to consider themselves happy in being under his authority. So long as hb lived hle was a f'riend to the English, although they committed repeated usurpations upon his lands and liberties. Before his' death, which is supposed to have occurred in 1662, he hlad been icdduced to cede away, at different times, nearly all his lands to the English. One of the most renowned captains, or war-chiefs, wit;hin the dominions of iMassasoit, was CiAtuxnTArT, whose residence was at a place in the present town of Sivwalzey. The English were alwxays viewedi by him as intruclers, and enemies of his race; and there is but little d,;ubl that he intended to wrest the country out of their hands on the first opportunity. l0oBosso, another of the chief captains of Massasoit, and greatly beloved by him, wrvs a fisa raenc oI the English, and also a professed Christian. The great Sachem of the iNrraragansetts at the time of the settlement of New England, wv AS,'oxNIcuS; who ruled in great harmony, in connection with a younger Sachemrr, his nephew, AieLx'TONoIOuI. It lwas Canonicus who, in 1622, sent into Plymouth a bundle of arrows wrapped in a rlattlesnaks's skin, as a challenge for war. Although the people of Plymlouth and Bost(-u were at times jealous of Canonicus, yet he is often mentioned with great respect by Roger WUVLiiams, who says, " Were it not for the favor that God gave me with Canonicus, none of these parts, no, not Rhode Island, had been purchased or obtained; for I never got anything (of Canonicus uut by gift." Under Canonicus and MIiantonomnoh, the Narragansetts assisted the English in the Pequod war; but, soon after, Miantonolmoh was accused of plotting against them, and he was repeatedly obliged to viit BIoston, to free himself from the suspicion excited againsi him by his enemies, and chiefly by Uncas, Sagamore of the Mohegans, agains' whom lie finally declared war. in this war, Miantonomoh was talken prisoner by Uncas, and being delivered into the hanuls of the English, the commissioners of the United colonies decided that " he ought to be put:o death," and that his execution should be intrusted to Uncas himself, by whom he was accorlingly slain. From all the accounts that we have of the relations between the English ar4d Miantonomoh, we arle forced to the conclusion, that, in the conduct of the former, there vwaas much deserving of censure. NINIacRET, a cousin of Bliantonomoh1, also a distingueished chief, was Sachem of the Niantici s, Narragansett tribe. As he was an enemy of Uncas and the MIohegans, the English were ovsr jealous of hin; and it is believed that he once endeavored to organize a plan for their exteomination; yet he tookr no part in Philip's war, being at that time very old, aud having witlxdrawn himself and tribe froml the nation to which they belonged. Joshn Saessasnson, a Pokanoket Indian5 and subject of Philip, became a convert to Chris. tianity,-learned the English language —was able to read and Iwrite-ancl translated some of the Bible into the Indian tongue. On account of his learning he was at one time employed by Philip as his secretary or interpreter. le wvas afterwards employed by the English, as san instructor and preacher amnong the converted Indians. WThen he learned that his country. men were plotting a war against the English, he communicated his discovery to the latter. For this he was considered by his countrymen a traitor and an outlaw, and, according to the laws of tlhe Indians, deserving of death Early in tie spring of 1675, Sassamon was found murdered. Three Indians were arraigned for the m urder, by the English, convicted and executed. Some authorities, however, state that Sassamon was murdered by his countrymuen for teacheng Christian doctrines; —that the Eniglish tried and executed the murderers,-and that Philip wvas so exasperated against the English for this act, that, from that time, he studied to be toveuged on thems. DIy some this has been assigned, erroneously we believe, as the principsl, cause of King Philip's war. PHILIP of Pokaneoket, whose Indian name was Poszetacom or u]letaconmet, was the most re nowned of all the chiefs of the New England tribes. Hle was a son of Massasoit, who is sup. posed to have died early in 1662, and who was succeeded by his eldest son Alexander ~ but the latter dying a few months after, Philip himself became, by the order of succession, head chi.e of the WVampanoags. We find the following account of the origin of the names of these chiefs: " After Massasoit was dead, his two sons, called UIramsutta and lhStacoveazet, came to the co-irl. at Plymouth, pretending high respect for the English, and therefore desired that Englisi' names might be given themz; whereupon the court there named Wanasutta, the elder brother, Alfxander; and Metacomet, the younger brother, Philip." Of the celebrated war which Philil waged against the New England Colonies, an account has elsewhere been given.* With the Se page 1o2.

Page  27 CHAPIrt.1.l INDIAN TRIBES. 27 soul of a hero, and the genius of a warrior, he fought bravely, although in vain, to stay the tide that was fast sweeping to destruction the nation and the race to which he belonged, CANONoCHET, or, as he was sometimes called, Aianuzn.tenloo a son of Miantonomsolh, took part in Philip's war against the English; although, but a short time previous, he had signed a treaty of peace with them. HIe is described by the early histoilans, as " the mighty sachem of the Narragansetts," and " heir of all his fateho,-r's pride and insolence, as well as of his malice against the inglish." When taken prisoner, in April, 1676. il is said that " his carriage was strangely proud and lofty," and that, at first, he would make no other reply to the questions put to linl, than this,-' that he was born a prirce, and if princes came to speak with him he would answer, but none present being such, he thought himself obliged, in honor, to hold his tongue.' When it was announced to hinm that he must be put to death, he is reported to have sid, " I like it wellc; 1 shall die before sney heart is soft, or have said any thing Unwecorthty of z/ssaeltf." One of Philip's most famous counsellors or captains was Annawone, a Wamnpanoag chief, who had also served under Massasoit, Philip's father. HIe was taken prisoner by Captain Church, through the treachery of some of his own company. It is said that Annawon confessed 4 that he had put to death several of the English that had been taken alive, and could not deny but that some of them had been tor-tured.' Although Captain Church entreated hard for the life tf the aged chief, yet he was remorselessly executed'MOHEGANS. To the many independent tribes extend- ANALYSIS ing fiom the eastern New England Indians to the Lenni,. Moegass Lenapes on the south, the term Mohegan, the name of' a tribe on the Hudson, has sometimes been applied; although all these tribes appear to have differed but little, in their languages, from the more eastern Indians. 2The Pequods were the most important, and, until the 2. Pequos. revolt of Uncas, the ruling tribe of this family, and their sovereignty was once acknowledged over a portion of Long Island. It is said that they, "being a more fierce, cruel, and warlike tribe than the rest of the Indians, came down out of the more inland parts of the continent, and by force seized upon one of the goodliest places near the sean and became a terror to all their neighbors." The peace of the New England colonies was early disturbed by a war with this tribe.'There were thirteen distinct tribes on Long Island, 3. Lon, Isover whom the ]/on:tauzks, the most eastern tribe, exer- lanod lEdiam7 cised some kind of authority; although the Montauks themselves had been tributary to the Pequods, before the subjugation of the latter by the English. 4From the Manhattans, the Dutch purchased Manhattan a. TPhe lr,,sIsland; but they appear to have been frequently in a hattans state of hostility with those Indians, and to have been reduced to great distress by them in 1643. In 16345, however, the Manhattans and the Long Island Indians were defeated- in a severe battle, which took place at a. eep. Horseneck.'In 1663, the W'abingtas, or Esopus Indians, a. tnra~8. commenced hostilities against the Dutch, but were soon defeated. 6Many of the Mohegan tribes were reduced 6. Wars beto subjection by the Five Nations, to whom they paid an itva,.bra anf annual tribute; but the Mohegans proper, or "River FiN, Nti.on',

Page  28 J' i-~ iA' N''i!5 [t;3 x.,$ i8993i A ANAL.rsIS. Indians,': carried on war against the Five Nations as late as 1673, when peace was established betvween them, through the influence of the Governor of New York. I. Resnasnat'In 1768 the remnant.t of the Mohcplecnr.s nwas settled in the of the Ms/oe-.tons. north east corner of New Lonlon, about five miles sout!h of Norwich, at which place they hlad a reservation. When the Mohegans were first known to the English, UNcxs was the head chief of that zation. He has received no very favorable character from the historians of New Englanld, being represented as wicked, wilfu!: intemperate, and otherwvise vicious, and an opposer of Christianity. Ie was originally a l'equod chief, bult, upon some contentions in that ill-iated nation, he revolted, and established his authority in opposition to his sachem Sassacus, thus causing a division in the Pequod territories. Uncas early courted the favor of the English, doubtless owing to the fear he entertained of his other powerful and warlike neighlbors. Iec joined the English in the war against the Pequods, his kindredl; but, after the war, he relented his severity against his countrymsen, and endeavored to screen souie of them from their more vindictive enemies, the English. He was oftesn accused, before the English commissioners, of committing the grossest insults on other Indians under the protection of the English, but the penalties adjudged against, him, and members of his tribe, were always more moderate than those imposed upon the less faivored Narraganlsetts, for which, the only reason that can be assigned is, that the safety of the English seemed to require that they should keep on friendly terms with the Moloegans, the most powerful of the tribes by which they were surrounded. Uncas lived to a great ago, as he was a sachem before the Pequod war of 1637, and was alive in 1680. His grave, surrounded by in inclosure, may be seen at this day in a beautiful and romantic spot, near the falls of Yantie iliver, in Norwich. The first great chief of the Pequod nation, with whoml thie Enslish were acquainted, was SAssAcus, whose name was a terror to all the neighboring tribes of Indians. Ile had aunder him, at, one time, no less than twenty-six sachems, and 4000 men fit for war, and his domninions extended from Narragansett Bay to the Hudson River. Saassacus was early involved in difficulties with the English, and also with the Narragansetts, and others of his Indian neighbors, l-len one of his princilpal forts was attacked and destroyed by the English in 1337, Sassacus himnself destroyed tle other, and then fled to the Alohawks, who treacherously slew him, alnd sent his scalp to the English. 2. lThe Len ni 2LENNI LENAPES. Next south and west of thle Mollhe Lepe an Ltr7ese. gans were the Lenlni Lenapes, consisting of two tribes, or divisions, the ]f'insi and the Delawares. The term Lennl Lenape has sometimes been used as a generic term, and 3 Their local- applied to all the tribes of the Alegonquin frna ily. 3The ties-. Minsi occupied the nor thern portion of New Jersey, north of the Raritan, extendin, across lthe Delaxvare into Penn. sylvania; aind the Delawvares the southern- pertio.-i of fenw 4. By ehat Jersey, and the entire valley of the Schluylkill. 4Both divisions are b-est known in in Ihlstory by the name of DelaIo' tsituatea. wales. tIl'nthe y were first known'to the Eniglish they were found in subjeuction to the Five Nations, by whonm thevy were r isti.uiislned by the scornful epithet of w" wo-. Theirase! men." Their 7fi 5' subection is supposed. to have t-lheiil aned tiosal plaeC a1blout th1e yealr 150, wihen they were reduced to a ge."- state of vassalage, boin-f prohibited friom carrying on war, or mkliing siales of land, wviChout the- consent of their con q t'13ors.

Page  29 Cgaa..1 INDIAN TRIBIES. 20 1The increase of the white population soon drove the ANALYSIS. Delawares fi'om their oricinal seats, and compelled them i. ThDelato take refuge on the waters of the Susquehanna and wares driven Juniata, on lands belonging to their conquerors, the Five oi-igial Nations.'Msany of the Delawares removed west of the 2. The reinoAlleghany Mountains between 1740 and 1750, and ob- vaer Of u Paert tained friom their ancient allies, the Hurons, the grant of a Alleyrhanies. tract of land lying principally on the Muskingum. 3The 3. rcours, great body of the nation, however, still remained in Penn- ptuzo e by sylvania, and, encouraged by the western tribes and by mnazned. the French, they endeavored to shake off the yoke of the Five Nations, and joined the Shawnees, against the English, in the French and Indian War.'Peace was made 4. Peace with with them at Easton, Pennsylvania, in 1758; and in 1768 t em. and they removed altogether beyond the Alleghanies. nmoval. 5Although a portion of the Dela wares adhered to the 5. Thei:r conAmericans during the war of the Revolution, yet the main duct uri2el body, with all the western tribes, took part with the British. tion.'The Delawares were at the head of the western confede- 6. Of the part they toole in racy of Indians which was dissolved by the decisive vie- thg,,rIeat tory of General Wayne in 1794; and by the treaty of ditan.ConfedGreenville, in 1795, they ceded to the United States the etscyvsusefl greater part of the lands allotted them by the Wyandots or qf theirltands. Hurons, receiving in exchange, from the Miamis, a tract of land on the White River of the Wabash. 7They re- 7. Their conduct during mained quiet during the second war with the British, and tlhe lst t7ar, in to. theirnuneber in 1819 ceded their lands to the United States. Their preirntsitube number was then about eight hundred. A few had pre- tion, -c. viously removed to Canada: most of the residue have since removed west of the Mississippi. The number of these, in 1840, was estimated at four hundred souls. A prominent chief of the Delawares, distinguished at the time of the American Revolution, was Captain WHITE EYES, called, by way of distinction, " the first captain among the Delawares." I-e became chief sachem in 1776, having previously been chief counsellor to Netawsatwees, the former chief. He belonged to that portion of the Delawares who adhered to the Americans during the war. He was a firm friend of the missionaries, and it is said that he looked forward with anxiety to the time when his countrymen should become Christians, and enjoy the benefits Df civilization. He died of the small pox, at Philadelphia, in 1780. Another Delaware chief, who lived at the same timne with White Eyes, was Captain PIPE, who belonged to the Wolf tribe. He secretly favored the British on the breaking out of the Revolution, but his plans for inducing his nation to take up arms against the Americans were for some time defeate4l by the vigilance of White Eyes; but the Delawares finally became divided, most of them, under Captain Pipe, taking part with the British. From a speech which Captain Pipe made to the British commandant at Detroit, it is believed that he regretted the course that he had taken, perceiving that the Indians, in taking part in the quarrels of their white neighbors, had nothing to gain, and much to lose. He remarked that the cause for which be was fighting was not the cause of the Indians-that after he had taken up the hatchet he did not do with it all that he might have done, for his heart failed him-he had distingtuished between the innocent and the guilty —he had spared some: and hoped the British would not destroy What he had saved,

Page  30 30 INDIAN TRIBES. [BooK L ANALYSIS.'NANTICOKES. The Indians of the eastern shore of. Locality of Maryland have been embraced under the general designas the anti- tion of Nanticokes.'The Conoys were either a tribe of cokes. 2. The Co- the Nanticokes, or were intimately connected with them. 3. Theirsub- 3The whole were early subdued by the Five Nations, and jugation. forced to enter into an alliance with them. 4During the 4. Their remo. Tl anrdem co- early part of the eighteenth century they began to remeve deLCtdauing up the Susquehanna, where they had lands allotted them tion. by the Five Nations, and where they remained until the commencement of' the war of the. Revolution, when they removed to the west, and joined the British standard. s. Theirpres-'They no longer exist as a nation, but are still found ent situation. mixed with other tribes, both in the United States and in Canada. 6. First dis- SUSQUEHANNOCKS.'The Susquehannock, or Canestagoe cSsqueeaen- Indians, were first discovered by Captain Smith, in his exnocks. ploring expedition up the Chesapeake and the Susquehanna 7. Their situ- in 1608.'They were found fortified east of the Susque. ateionsandsos- hanna, to defend themselves against the incursions of the Five Nations. They possessed the country north and west of the Nanticokes, from the Lenni Lenapes to the Poto8. Theirsub- mac.'They were conquered by Maryland and the Five iugation and 8ubgtqueant Nations in 1676, when it appears that a portion were carhistory. ried away and adopted by the Oneidas. What became of the remainder is uncertain. There is no remnant whatever of their language remaining. 9. The lan- 9MANNAHOACKS. The Mannahoacks were a confedetahoatcks, and their Co- racy of highland or mountain Indians, consisting of eight callties. tribes, located on the various small streams between the 10. Namne of head waters of the Potomac and York River. "~The most the confederacy,. powerful of these tribes gave its name to the confederacy.. Tl'heirsup. "They are supposed to have been an Algonquin tribe, posed origin. although no specimen of their language has been preserved. 12. The local- MONACANS. l2The Monacans were situated principally ities of the Monacaln, on the head waters of James River. The Tuscaroras their supposeedorigin, appear likewise to have been early known in Virginia unand toheir is der the name of Monacans, and it is uncertain whether the latter were of Iroquois or Algonquin origin. It is not improbable, however, that those embraced under the general designation of Monacans, were Algonquin tribes, and tributaries of the Tuscaroras; but as no remnant of their language remains, their origin cannot be satisfactorily de. nd3. Ectent termined. Of their history little is knownl. Qf the Poto- POWHATANS. "The Powhatan nation embraced a con. hliatan nation. federacy of more than twenty tribes, extending from the halno.os, most southern tributaries of James River, on the south, to nd Acc- the Patuxent on the north.'4The Accohannocks and the

Page  31 CHAe 1.] INDIAN TRIBES. $ Accomacs, on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, hlave A~NAL.w sS a]ko been a part of this nation. n lPwhPo lhatn L Tie geat was the great chiel' of tnis conlederacy, at the time of the c"i/1f oftfiE first settlemnent of Vrilrginia.'Soon after liS death the In- 2. T/i.web ai.S dians made an attempt, in 1622, to destroy the infant t/llhte. and colony, in which they nearly succeeded, but wvere finally v,~,'vz/ defeated. In 1644 they made another efort, wvhich terminated in a similar mannler; and in 1676, during'"Bacon's Rebellion," their total subjuoation was efiected. iFrom 3. T:eir-,sn'that time they had lands reserved to them, but they have to,.y. gradually dwindled away, and it is believed that not a single individual now remains whio speaks the Powhatan language. 4douth of the Powhatans, on the sea-coast, were several 4. Alg,;onquin petty Algonquin tribes, wh1ose history is little known. of te PoloThe principal were thlle Corees, and Cheraws, or Coramines, in the vicinity of Cape Fear River, which was probably the southern limit of the Algolnquin speech.'When POWmHATAN was first known to the English, he was abonti sixty year's of age, of a grave aspect, tall, and well proportioned-exceedingly vigorous —and capable of sustaining great hardships. ILis authority extended over many nations or tribes, most of which he had conquoered. The English at first erroneoasly supposed that his was the naume of the country, but the error has prevailed, and his people have ever since been called the PorciLtann. According to the law of succession in his nation, his dominions did not fall to his children, but first to his brothllers, then to his sisters, the eldest having precedency. He usually kept a guard of forty or fifty warriors around h1im, especially -whenl he slept; but after the English came into the country he increased the number of his guard to about two hundred. Powhlatan at first practiced much deception towards the English, and his plans for their destruction manifested great cunnings and sagacity. B3ut he fiound in Captain Smith an adversary even more wily thlan hiumself, and failing in all his plans to overreach hinm, he finally concluded to live in peace with the English, especially after the friendlship of the two people had been cemented by the marriage of his favorite daughter Pocrzhontas. When Pocahontas accompanied her husband to England, Powhatan sent with her one of his favorite counsellors, whom he instructed to learn the scate of the country-to note the number of tlhe people-and, if he saw Captain S$mitil, to illake himn showr him the God of the Esnglish, andi the king and queen. Whhen he arrived at PlymIsouth, lie began, accordingly, to ustenbec tcGe people, by cutting in a stick, a naotch fi)r every person whonm he saw. But, he was coon obliged to abandon his reckoning. On his return, being questioned by Pohalsatn about the nulmbers of the English, he gave the following well known answver, s " Cou.nt tihe stars iJ3 the slcy, the leaves ion the trees: and the scnds zl70n t2he sea-shore, for sitch is the nsitzZber of tle peo"le of Eng'land.; Of the descendsants of Pocahontas, the follo~wing is believed to be a correct account.-T'.he s(n of Pociahontas, whose name wirs'Thomass Rollfe, was cducated in 1nondon by his uncle, M,e. iteniy Rctif.'e aftecrwards came to Aslserica, were he becamne a gentlemians of conssierabk.) ius.s!ld;ctiosn) and possessed an "ample fortune. ile lefi as nly ldaught'er, lwho having married CoUlonel i'ohert Boiiing, died leaving iani only son, dajor Jololln Bolling, whlo wvas the fatlier of Colonesl JoL Bollins and several dlauhters; one of wIhoslm married Colonel Rtichard iandolph, from whom:w-ere descended the dis'inguishedl Jof/zn -tarelolp/, and tlsose hearingI that name in Virginlia at this day.-(Drakes Indcl. tist.) S>tIAWrNEES. *The history of the Shaw nees previous to 5 Party hisi. the year 168S0 is involved in much obscurity, and the difi-. St)h/intee ferent notieos of them are dificult to be reconciled. 6h Teir r. zt/e ros

Page  32 32 iNDIAN TRIIBES. [Boom A.NALYSIS. original seats, according to the Frelch accounts, were be. tween the Ohio and the Cumberlanld River, but it is sup. posed that they were driven awa7 by the Chickasas and I. The7i ds- t;he Cherokees early in the seventeenthl century. lThence Peesie. somne of themn penetrated as fair east as the country of the Susquehannocks, while others crossed the Ohio and occuS. Iasar wzth oied the country on and adjacent to the Sciota.'Here tion Fe -s7d they joined the neighboring tribes, the Eries and the Antler ceat. dastes, in the war against the Five Nations; but, with their allies, they were defeated and dispersed in 16'72. 3. 7Tileiset-'SoOn afir, a considerable portion of them formed a setamgong tile tlement in the vicinity of the Catawba country, but be(tatd Creets. ins driven away by the Catawbas, they found an asylum in the Creek country. 4. The Penn-'The Pennsylvania Shawnees, although not reduced to syzlvnees. the humiliating state in which the Delawares were found, 5. Their re- acknowledged the sovereignty of the Five Nations.'They of tile Alte- preceded the Delawares in renoving west of the Alleghagnes. ~naies, and received from the SW.yandots thle country about the Sciota, where their kindred had formerly resided, and who now returned from the Creek coultry and joined them. 6. TheZr con-'The Shawnees were among the most active allies of duct d'urin" theFrenci the French during the "French and Indian war;" and nl even after its termination, by the conquest of Canada, in connection with the Delawares they continued hostilities, a. See p. 23, which were terminated only after the successful carnpaign' account of Pontiac. of General Bouquet in 1763.'The first permanent settle7. Trheir h/.- ments of the Americans beyond the Alleghanies were imtilities -,orcinst the mediately followed by a new war with the Shawnees. ntoestcr settlenlents. which ended in their defeat, in a severe engagement at the b. See pp. 32, mouth of the Kanhawa, in 1774.b 8They took an active 33, Cornstalk and Zo.all part against the Americans during the war of the Revolu-. oTdlter tion, and also during the following Indian war, which was during eand terminated by the treaty of Greenville in 1795.'A part subselquent to theeuar of the of them also, under Tecumseh, fought against the AmeriRevolutio r.'. 0. Durlingtnre cans during the second war with England. i~Most of the Seconcl scar. tribe are now located west of the Mississippi. The numlis. Their-,reset loca.l- ber of these, in 1840, was estimated at fifteen hundred nsumzbers. souls. CoRIMsTALe was a noted Shawnee chief and warrior, who, although generally friendly to the Americans, and at all times the advocate of honorable peace, united with Logan in the wae of 1774, which was terminated by the great battle of Point Pleasant, on the Kanhawa, in Oetober of the saone year. During that battle the voice of Cornstalk was often heard above the din of strife, calling on his men in these words,' ie strong! be strong!l Iiis advice had bee-, against hazarding a battle, but whhen tshe other chiefs had decided against him, he said his warriors should fight, a&nd if any one should flinch in the contest,, oI aktemupt to run away, hei would kill him with his owin hIand. And he made good his word. For wben come of his wararies began to waver, he is said to have sunk his tomsahawk into thi, lhead of one wlho we?

Page  33 ~lAP i,,] INDIAN TRIBES. 3 eowardly endeavoring to escape from the conflict. After the battle, which was urnfortunate,f the Indians, Cornstalk himself went to the camp of the whites to solicit peace. This chief was remarkable for many great and noble qualities, and it is said that his powers of oratory were unsurpassed by those of any chief of his timle. His death was most melancholy no,,d deplorable. Ile was b0arbarously murdered by some infuriated soldiers, while he was a hostage at the fort at Point Pleasant, to which place he had gone voluntarily, for the purpose of preserving peace between the whites and some of the tribes that were desirous of continuing the war. As he saw the murderers approaching, and was made acquainted with their object, turning to his son, who had just come to visit him, he said, " )ly son, the Great Sioirit has seets fit that we shouldl die together, and has sent you to tShat end. It is his wrill, and let us Fetbmnit."7 Turning towards the murderers he met them with composure-fell-and died withDut a struggle. His son was shot upon the seat on which he was sitting when his fate was fist disclosed to him. While our histories record With all possible minuteness, the details of Indian barbarities, how seldom do they set forth, in their true light, those " wrongs of the Ind~ln" that made him the implacable foe of the white man. TECUMISEH, another celebrated chief of the Shawnee nation, whose name is as familiar to the American people as that of Philip of Miount HIope, or Pontiac, and which signifies a tiger croeiuching, for his prey, was born about the year 1770, on the banks of the Sciota, near the present Chilicothe. His father was killed in the battle of Kanulhawa, in 1774. The superior talents of Tecumseh, then a young chief, had nmade him conspicuous in the western war which terminated in the treaty of Greenville in 1795, and he appears soon after, In conjunction with his brother the Prophet, to have formed the plan of a confederacy of all the western tribes for the purpose of resisting the encroachnlents of the whites, and driving them back upon their Atlantic settlements. In this plan the Prophet wvas first distinguished, and it was some time before it was discovered that Tecumnseh was the principal actor. Tecumseh addressed himself to the prejudices and superstitions of the Indians-to their love of country-their thirst for war-and their feelings of revenge; and to every passion that could unite and influence them against the whites. HIe thtus acquired, by perseverance, b - assuming arts of popularity, by dispatching his rivals under charges of witchcraft, and by a fortunate juncture of circumstances, a powerful influence over his countrymen, which servehd to keep the frontiers in constant alarm many years before the war actually commenced. In 1807 messengers were sent to the tribes of Lake Superior, with speeches and the usual formalities, urging them to repair immediately to the rendezvous of the Prophet. They were told that the world was approaching its end; that that disteant part of the country would soon be withoult light, and the inhabitants would be left to grope their way in total darkness, and that the only spot where they would be able to distinguish objects, was the Prophet's station, on the'Wabash. Many cogent arguments were also used to induce them to refrain from the use of civilized manufactures, to resume the bow, to obtain fire by the ancient method, to reject the use of ardent spirits, and to live as in primitive times, before they were corrupted by the arts of the white man. Numerous bands of the credulous Indians, obeying this summons, departed for the Prophet's station, and the whole southern shore of Lake Superior was depopulated. Much suffering was occasioned, and numbers of the Indians died by the eway; yet in 1808 the Prophet had collected around his more than a thousand warriors from different tribes-designed as the nucleus of a mnighety nation. It was not so easy a matter, however, to keep these motley bands together, and they soon began to stray away to their former hunting grounds, and the plan of the brothers was partially defeated. In 1.809, during the absence of Tecumseh, General Harrison, by direction of the government, held ai treaty with several tribes, and purchased of them a large and valuable tract of land on the Wabash. When Tecumseh, on his return, was infornmed of this treaty, his indignation knew no bounds. Another council was called, when Tecumseh clearly and undisguisedly marked out the policy he was deternlined to pursue. lie denied the right of a fewe tribes to sell their lands-said the Great Spirit had given the country to his red chilidren in comnmon, for a perpetual inheritance —that one tribe had no riglht to sell to anothler, much less to strsangers. unless tll the tribes joined in the treaty. " The Americas,"'; said Le., " have drieen us frosi the searoast-they will shortly push us into the lake, and we are determined to make a stand whers wn, ore.:' He declared that lhe should adhlere to the old bsouendlary, and that ceuless the land i

Page  34 34 INDIAN' RIBES. rBooir i. purchased should be given up, and the whites should agree never to make another treaty without the consent of all the tribes, his unalterable resolution was wanr. Several chiefs of different tribes, —Wyandots, Kickapoos, Potowatomies, Ottawas, and Winnaeb'agoes, then arose, each declaring his determination to stand by Tecumseh, whom they had chosen their leader. When asked, finally, if it -were his determination to make war unless his terms were complied with, he said, " It is my determination; nor will I give rest to my feel, until I have united all the red men in the like resolution." When Harrison told him therae was no probability that the President would surrender the lands purchased, he said, "W ell, I hope the Great Spirit will put sense enough into the head of your great chief to induce hint to direct you to give up the land. It is true, he is so far off he will not be injured by the var IHe may sit still in his town, and drink his wine, whilst you and I will have to fight it out." The following circumstance, characteristic of the spirit which actuated the haughty chi<of. occurred during the council. After Tecumseh had made a speech to General Harrison, aned was about to seat himself, it was observed that no chair had been placed for him. One was immediately ordered by the General, and as the interpreter handed it to him he said, "Your lather requests you to take a chair." " 1d1y father?)) said Tecumseh, with great indignity of expression, " The6 S22 is sny fitther, and the earth is eay mother, and on her bosom owil 1 repose;" and wrapping his mantle around him, he seated himself, in the Indian manner, upon the ground. The exertions of Tecumseh, in preparing for the war which followed, were commensurate with the vastness of his plans; and it is believed that he visited, in person, all the tribes from Lake Superior to Georgia.-The details of that war have been given in another part of this work. (See p. 32.) It is believed that Tecumseh never exercised cruelty to prisoners. In a talk which he had with Governor Harrison, just before hostilities commenced, the latter expressed' a wish, that, if wax must follow:, no unnecessary cruelties should be allowed on either side; to lwhich Tccumseh cordially assented. It is known that, at one time, when a body of the Americana were defeated, Tecunmseh exerted himself to put a stop to the massacre of the soldiers, and that, meeting with a Chippewa chief, who would not desist by persuasion nor threats, he I uried his tomahavwk in his head. When Tecumseh fell, the spirit of independence, which for a while had animated the weteoru xibes, seemed to perish with him; and it is not probable that a chief will ever again arise to xnite them in another confederacy equally powerful. ANALYSIS. IVLIAMIS AND PINCKtISHA-aW. 1FThe Pinclkishaws are not 1. iiamnds mentioned by the French missionaries, who probably cot. anld Pincni- sidered them as part of the Mialamis. The territory claimed the territoy2l by these two tribes extended firom the Maumee River of claimted by ctl.Zt. i ake Erie to the high lands which separate the waters of the Wabash from those of the Kasl;kaskias River. The Miamis occupied the norlthern, and the Pinckishaws the 2. Theirrelta southern portion of this territory. "The Miatriis were tieos wait called Twightees by the Five Nations, against whom they the Five Nationsa. carried on a sanguinary war, in alliance with the French. a. WiTt the Tllhev have been one of tfne most active western tribes in s,4t,.e the Indian wars ag eainst the United States. 4They have 4. Tirer. ceded most of their lands, and, including tlhe Pinclishaws, lands aend numters. were said to nlumber in 18J0, about two thousand souls. LITTLE TaRTLE -was a distinguished chief of tie MIiamis durino the western Indian wars whieh followed the American Revolution. Ite was tle son of a lIiami chief and Mliheraza woman, and as, accordicng to the Indian law, the condeition of the wvola adheres to the offspring, he was not a chief by birth, but was raised to that sttanlding by his superior talents. Possessing great influence xvith the wvestern tribes, as oile of their leaders, he fought ths armies of General Itarslar; St. Clair, and General Wtayne: and, at least in one of the battlesr the disastrous defeat of St. Clair, hIe hasd t.le chie col-mand. t is said, however boa t sto F"

Page  35 CHA r..INDIAN TRHES. 1 not for fighting General Wayne at'ies rapids of the Ianumee, and that In a councfl held thlb night before the ba ttle he argued as fobilows: "e have beaten the enemy twice udner separate tommandlers. VsWe cannot expect the same good fortune alwayl s to attend us. The Amnericaus Tre now led by a chief who never sleeps: the. night and the day are alike to him. And during all. the time that he has been rarching upon our villages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of our young menl, we have never been able to surprise him. Think well of it. There is something whispers me it would be prudent to listen to his offers of peace." The other chiefs, however, decided against him, and he did his duty in the day of battle: but the result proved his anticipations correct. From his irresistible fury in. battle the Indians sometimes called him the Big- TIsind, or T'P,ido; and also Sukachgook, or the Blackc Sna/ke, because they said'he possessed all the art and cunning of that reptile. But he is said to have been as humane as he was courageous, end that " there have been few individuals among the aborigines who have done so much ta abolish the rites of human sacriiice."' When Little Turtle became convinced that all resistance to the whites was vain, he induced his nation to consent to peace, and to adopt agricultural pursuits. In 1797 he visited PtMidelphia, where the celebrated traveler Yolney became acquainted with him. -Ie gives us some interesting informnation concerning the character of this noted chief. Little Turtle also became acquainted, in Philadelpllia, ith the renro;ed Polish Datritc!tosciusko; who was so weil pleased wvith ]lim, that oni partinlug he presented the chief a paLof beautiful pistols, and an elegasnt and valuable robe mnade of sea-otter skin. L-tt:ie'Turble died at Fort Wayne, in the summer of 1812. ILLINOIS.'The Illinois, ftbrmerly tfhe most numtrous ANALYSIS. of the western Algonquins, nunmbering, when first known, l rm,.e.- m~,~ ten or twelve thousand souls, consisted of five tribes; the tre;s, s.n.a Kaskcaskias, Cahoki-is, Ttainarounas, -Peorias, and J1Iitchig.t- lio.'d Ir?zzs; the last, a foreign tribe friom the west side of the Mississippi, but admitted into the confederacy.'The 2.'Their,-. Illinois, being divided amon/g:hermselves, were ultimately sr,/ almost exterminated by the surrounding hostile tribes, and the Iroquois; and when, in 1818, they ceded all their lands te the United States, their numbers were reduced to about three hundred souls. KWIcKAPo os.'The Kickapoos claimed all the country a. The iCfk north of the mouth of the'Illinois, and betwveen that river aepOe and the Wh[abssh, the southern part of their territory having been obtained by conquest from the Illi)nois. In 1819 they made a final cession of all their lands to thle United States. SAcs ANID Fdxss. 4The Sacs:' anid thse Foxes or O uta- 4. eantIty;f gamies, are but one nation, spealking t he same language. othe Sacz asd'They were first discovered by the Fraenci, on Fox River, 5. Trheir ort at the southern extreiAity of -Green Bay, somewhat far- g-.isl sezs. ther east than the territory which a Iortion of thern have occupied until recently. 6The cLoxes swere particularly B Tasir hostile to the French, and in 1.7'21, in coniunction with tte itFe're.,i some other tribes, they attaciked tSoe fIreinch fort at De. seep. troit, then defended by only t,'Tenty nme n. The French were however relieved by the Ottawas, I Lrons, Potowato1ases, and other friendicy tribes, and a,rertt part of' tohe besieging force was either destroyed or captured.' or Sawks.

Page  36 36 INDIAN TRIBES, [B3 o.i ANaLYSIS.'The Foxes, united with the Kickapoos, drove the Illinois.-. tai te from their settlements on the river of that name, and comllinois. pelled them, in 1722, to take refuge in the vicinity of the 2. Withttie F'rench settlements.'The Iowas, a Sioux tribe, have Iowas- been partly subjugated by them and admitted into their alliance. During the second war with Great Britain, a part of the Sacs, under their chief Black IHawkl; fought B. Th2eir against the Americans.'In 1830, the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States all their lands east of the Mississippi, altlhough portions of these tribes, as late as 1840, were still found east of that river, and west of the terri. tory of the Chippewas. The treaty of 1 8380 was the cause of a war with a portion of the Sacs, Foxes, and Winne-. See p. 474. bagoes, usually called ":Black Hawk's war."One of the most prominent chiefs of the Sacs, with whom we are acquainted, was BAtcE IAiAvw, the leader in what is usually called "Black Ivawkts war." Fronm the account which he has given in the narrative of his life, dictated by himself, it appears thatl he was born on Itock River, in Illinois, about the year 1767;-that he joined tlhe British in the second war with Great Britain; and that he foughlt with them in 1812, near Detroit; and probably was engaged in the attack on the fort a; Sandusky. The war in which he was engaged in 1832, was occasioned, like most Indian wars, by dis putes about lands. In July, 1830, by treaty at Prairie du Chien, the Sacs, Foxes, and other tribes, sold their lands east of the Mississippi to the United States. JKeokuck headed the party of Sacs that made the treaty, but Black Hawk was at the time absent, and ignorant of the proceedings. I-e said that Keokluck had no right to sell the lands of other chiefs, —and KIeokuck even promised that he wouldc attempt to get back again the village and lands which Black Hawk occupied. In the winter of 1830, while Black Hawk and his party were absent, on their usual winter's nunt, the whites came and possessed their beautiful village at the mouth of lock Riiver. When the Indians returned they were without a home, or a lodge to cover them. They however declared that they would take possession of their own property, and the whites, alarmed, said they soousld live aced placnt stith tc/e itzdcianLs. But disputes soon follo-wed,-the Indians were badly treated, the whites complained of encroachments, and called upon the governor of Illinois for protection, and a force was ordered out to remove the Indians. B]lack Hawvk, however, agreed toa treaty, whiich was broken the same year by both parties. War followed, and Black IIawk was defeated and taken prisonen (See p. 475.) The followieng is said to be a part of the speech which he made when he surrendered himself to the agent at Prairie du Chien: (Pra-re doo She-ong.) " You have taken me prisoner, with all my warriors. I am manuch grieved, for I expected, if I did not defeat you, to hold out much longer, and give you more trouble before I c-arrendered. I tried hard to bring you, into ambunsh, but youcr last general understandcls Indian figllting. The first one was not so wise. W1heen I saw that I could not beat you by Indian fighting, I determined to rush on you, and fight you face to face. I fought hard. But your guns were well aimed. The bullets flew like birds in the air, and Whizzed by our ears like the wind through the trees in the winter. 3ly warriors fell around me; it began to look dismal. I saw my evil day at hand. The sun rose dim on us in the morning, and at night it sunk in a darkl cloud, and looked like a ball of fire. That was the last sun that shone on Black Hawk. TIig heart is dead, and no longer beats quick in his bosom. IIe is now a prisoner to the whits men; they will do with him as they wish. But he can stand torture, and is not afraid of death. IlE is no coward. Black Hawk is an Indian." 4. The Pnto- POTOWVATOMIES. 4The Potowatomies are intimately conatwone. ee nected by alliance and language with the Chippewas and fo Whered by the F o feound Ottawas. 5in [671 they were found by the French ov

Page  37 CHAP. I. INDIAN TRIBES. 37 the islands at the entrance of Green Bay. lin 1710 they ANALYSIS. nad remove l to the southern extremity of Lake Michigan, I In 1710. on lands previously occupied by the IMiamis.'The Chip- 2 Nlrrs pewas, Ottawas, and Potowatomies, numIberino more than oft/l~chitwenty thousand souls, are now the most numerous tribes aol. ai d Poof the Algonquin family.'All the other Algonquin 3. (ftheothet tribes were estimated in 1840, not to exceed twenty-five Atribes. thousand souls. MENONOMIES. 4The Menonomies,* so called from the 4. The26ie wild rice which grows abundantly in their country, are and teir,' found around the shores of Green Bay, and are bounded COntd,oOnl on the north by the Chippewas, on the south by the Win-'-t Visited. nebagoes, and on the west by the Sacs, Foxes, and Sioux. When first visited by the French Jesuits, in 1699, they occupied the same territory as at present.'They are 5Tieir.numsupposed to number about four thousand two hundred bers. souls. SECT!ON III. IROQUOIS TRIBES. "On the shores of the Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron, 6. Locatlits were found the Hurons and the Iroquois, speaking a lan quozr tribe. guage different firom the Algonquin; and, in the northern part of Carolina, bordering on Virginia, were found the Tuscaroras, also speaking a dialect of the same language.'These several divisions have been classed as the "' Iroquois 7. The ter. Tribes," although t-he term Iroquois has been generally "Iroquo restricted to the Five Nations, who resided south of Lake Ontario, in the present state of New Yorlk. IHuEoNs. 8The Hurons, when first known to the French, 8. Tie dfivi consisted of four nations:-the Wyacndots, or HIurons, con- Hurons. sisting of five tribes, who gave their name to the confederacy; the Attiouandirons, or Neutral Nation; the Erigas, and the Andastes.'The former two possessed the terri- 9. Loceutie tory north of Lake Erie, and adjoining Lake Huron; and ofthle titbe&. the latter two, a territory south of Lake Erie, in the present state of Ohio.'~When the French arrived in 10. Wars bSCanada, the Wyandots were founid at the head of'a con- twyandot Ibderacy of Algonquin tribes, and engaged in a deadly antze Fiv war with their kindred, the Five Nations. After a long series of wars, in 1649 the Five Nations, with all their forces, invaded the Huron country,-suc cessively routed their enemies, and massacred great numbers of them. In the following year the attack was re-. Fromn Mlononmotick, " wild rice."

Page  38 3S IN DIAN TRIBES. [Boom;. ANALYSXIS. newl\d and t-Lhet VyandotLs werae entirely dispersed, and -mlany of thell i vn fia >a n ta'ei eoltlty.'he restllt of lie samern war occasionid the o is"Delsionl of tihe Wyandol ipetso allies, th1e Algonquin tribes of tle Otawa aiv. A part ando.s )f thle WvyanaLots souglit the protection of the Fr:ench at Quebec; others tool retfuge among the Chippewas ot Lake Superior, and a few detaclheed banlds surrenderend and were incorporated among the Five Nations. 9. Thle Tio- 2'Amonn1g tle W\andots who fled to the Chippewa.s, the ae,?tltatss, and1l I g4eir liistory. tribe of the Tionontates was the most powerful. After an unnsuceess'ful war with the Sioux, in 1671 they removed to thle vicinity of 1MVichilimackinae, where they colleeted around tlem the remnants of their kindred tribes. They soon removed to Detroit, where they acted a conspicuous part in the ensuing conflicts between the Frencll and the Five Nations.. Influence'The Wyandots, although speaking a difibrent language, f othete y exertedc an extensive influence over the Algonquin tribes. 8Atoz4nqun2I Even the Delawares, who claimed to be the elder branch of the Alonqeuin nation, and called themselves the grand. ftthers of tleir kindred tribes, acknow!edged the supe.rioritl 4. Theirsor,- of' the Wvandots, whom they called their uncles.'iven. eregnstover after their dispersion by the Five Nations, the Wyandots aountry/ assumed the right of sovereignty over the Ohio country, where they granted lands to the Delawares and the Shawnees. 5. Over 7,art SEven Pennsylvania thought it necessary to obtain from Q,PesLa. the XVyandots a deed of cession for the north-western part of the state, although it was then in the actual possession s. COeson of of the Algonquins. 6Although the treaty of Greenville, in lands at the tre.att of 1795, was signed by all the nations which had taken part Greenville. in the wva, yet it was from the \WJyandots that the United 7. Tle T5Yanr States obtained the principal cession of territory.'About dots in 184. five hundred and seventy Wyandots were still remaining in Ohio in 1842. A still smaller part of the nation, which joined the British during the last war, resides in Canada. s. T.ocality'South of the'Wyandots, on the northern shore of Lake oXft. " nt,,- Erie, was a Huron tribe, which, on account of the stricl,lz Nztiosn." neutrality it preserved during the wars between the Five Nations and the other -tLurons, was called the "INeutral Nation." Notwithstanding their peaceful policy, how., ever, most of them were finally brought under the subjec. tion of the Five Nations not long after the dispersion of the Wyandots.* a rote.-What little is known of the " Neutral N.tion" is peculiarly interesting. "T The Wyandot tradition represents thlem as hatving separated friom the parent stock during tlh bloody wars between their own tribe and the Iroquois, and having fled to the Sandusky RItier, in Ohio, for safety. Here they erected two forts within a short distance of each other, and

Page  39 Cnai,. I.] INDIAN TR IBES. 3'The Erigas, or Eries, a Huron tribe, were seated on ANALYSIS..he southern shores of the Lake which still bears their Is hErie, ralmne. They were subdued bythe Five Nations in 1655, but little is liknown of their history.'The Andastes, another 2. LocalUy Huron tribe, more formidable than the Eries, were located tzre.zdansdt a little farther south, principally on the head waters of tle Ohio. The war whielh they sustained against the Five Nations lasted more than twenty years, but although they were assisted by the Shawnees and the Miamis, they were finally destroyed in the year 1672. Of the chiefs of the I-urons, whose history is known to us, the most distinguished is ADAsRao, or Kondiaronk; or, as he was called by the whites, Thle Rat. Charlevoix speaks of him as'; a man of great mind, the bravest of the brave, and possessing altogether the best qualities of any chief known to the French in Canada." During the war which De Nonville, the governor of Canada, -wvaged agaiust the Iroquois, during several years subsequent to 165, Adario, at the head of the HIurons, rendered him efflcient assistance, under the promise that the war should not be ternainated until the Iroquois, long the inveterate enemies of the Hurons. were destroyed, or completely humlbled. Yet such were the successes of the Iroquois, that, in 1688, the French governor saw himself under the necessity of concluding with them terms of peace. Adario, however, perceiving that if peace were concluded, the Iroquois would be able to direct all their power against the IHurons, took the following savage means of averting the treaty. Having learned that a body of Iroquois deputies, under the Onondag.a chief Dekanisora, were on their way to Montreal to conclude the negotiation, he and a number of his warriors lay in ambush, and killed or captured the whole party, taking the Onondaga chief prisoner. The latter, asking Adario: how it happened that he could be ignorant that the party surprised was on- an embassy of peace to the French. the subtle Huron, subduing his angry passions, expressed far greater surprise than Dekanisora-protesting his utter ignorance of the fact, an(d declaring that the French themselves hald directed him to make the attack, and, as if struck with remorse at having committed so black a deed, he immediately set all the captives at liberty, save one. In order farther to carry out his plans, he took his remaining prisoner to Miichilimackinac, and delivered hian into the hands of the French comuandant, vwho -was ignorant of the pending negotiation with the Iroqluois, and who was indlcecd, by the artifice of Adario, to cause his prisoner to be put to death. The newls of this affair the cunningl chief caused to be muade known to the Iroquois by an old captive whom he had lon, held in bond'age, and whoUl he now caused to be set at liberty for that purpose. The indignation of the Iroquois at the supposed treachery of the French knew no bounds, and although De Nonville disavowed, in the strongest terms, the allegations of the Huron, yet the flanle once kindled could not easily be quenched. The deep laid stratagem of the Huronu Bu'ceeded, and the war was carried on with greater fury than ever. The Iroquois, in the following year, twice laid waste the island of BMontreal with era and award, earrylng off several hundred prisoners. Forts Frontenac and Niagara -were blownvm up and abtandoned, and at one tme the very existence of the French colony was threatened. (See page 513.) Adario finally died at Montreal, at peace with the French, in the year 1701. He had accom —.ssignod one to the Iroquois, and the other to the Wyandots and their allies, ewhere their wax parties miglht find security and hlospitality, whenever they entered this neutral territory. c Why so unusual a proposition was made and acceded to, tradition does not tell. It is probable, however, that superstition lent its aid to the instit-ution, and that it may have been indebted, for its origin, to the feasts, and dreams, and juggling ceremonies, which constituted the religion of the aborigines. No other motive was sufficiently powerfult to stay the hand of violence, and to counteract the threat of venfrealnce. "But an intestine feud finally arose in this neutral nation; one party espousing the cause of the Iroquois, and the other of their enemnies, and like most civil wars, this was prosecuted titl relentless fury." Thuls the nation was finally broken up,-a pa';t uniting wvith the viei,.eous Iroquois, and the rest escaping westward with the fugitive WVanl. lots.- SchlooJcraft.

Page  40 40 iNDIAN TRIBES. [BooK arnted thit.her the heads of several tribes to make a treaty. At his funeral the greatest display was made, and nothiun was omitted which could insopire the Indians present with a convictioZ of the great respect in which he was held by the Fre2ch. ANALYSIS. TiEe FIVE NATIONS. (Ir'OqtOiS JProoper.) 1The confeJe. i.'he dif- racy generally known as the "' Five Nations," but called r/e',.,tf ),,:, by the French "Iroquois;" by the Algonquin tribes "Maair. d th e localiaes of tie quas"1 or "' Min:-oes;`'* and by the Virginians, " Massawoi eiks;" possessed the country south of the River St. Law.'eniee and Lake Ontario, extending from the Hudson to the upper branches of the Alleghany River and Lake Erie. 2. The _ser.a E 2'They consisted of a confederacy of five tribes; the lVIotribes of the coiffederacy. haw.k3, the Oneidclas, the Onondagas, the Cayugzs, and the Senecas. The great council-fire of the confederacy was in the special keeping of the Onondagas, and by them was always kept burning. a~. r01ig c 31'It is not kI.nown when the confederacy was formed, but eracyi. it is supposed that the Oneidas and the Cayvugas were the 4.l The net,- younger members, and were compelled to join it. 4When snersot c$oors ares7e-0 i toby the Five Nations were first discovered, tihey were at war Me Five.Natioezs. with nearly all the surrounding tribes. They had already carried their conquests as far south as the mouth of the Susquelhanna; and on the north they continued to wage a Withthe tHu- vigorous warfare against the H-urons, and the Algonquins tos, ~C. of the Ottawa River, until those nations were finally sub The Eries. dued.'he fries were subdued and 6almost destroyed by them in 1655. 5. Wlars with 5As early as 1657 they had carried their victorious arms the jM!iamins awnd Otta.zoas. against the Mliamis, and the Ottawas of Michiran and in TheAndacstes. 1672 the final ruin of the Andastes was accomplishebd. In 17 01 their excursions extended as far south as the waters of Cape Fear River; and they subsequently had reneated The Chero- wars with the Cherokees and the Catawbas, the latter of leess avd Catitzt w. whom were nearly exterminated by them. When, in 1744, they ceded a portion of their lands to Virginia, they absolutely insisted on thle continued privilege of a war-oath through the ceded territory. From the time of the first settlements in the country they uniformly adhered to t-he British interests, and were, alone, almost a counterpoise to the general influence of France over the otlher Indian nal6 cvoll- tions. 6In 1714 they were joined by the 7'lscarosras from lNv.eions.' North Carolina, since which time the confederacy has been called the SIX NATIONS. - Their rela The part they took during the war of the Revolution is Nlotz with thSe Uit.ed thus noticed by De Witt Clinton:-"' The whole confede. racy, except a little more than half of the Oneidas, took up arms against us. They hung like the scythe of death upon T* he t.erm " MaIcqtas" or 5' "Mingoes" was more particularly applied to tlh, Mohawks,

Page  41 Ceu-P.1 INDIAN I~RIBES. 41 the Tear of our settlements, and their deeds are irscribe4r. ANALYSIs, with the scalping-knife and the tomahhawk:, in charactrs -s bf blood, on the fields of Wyoming and Chlerry-Valley, and on the banks of the Mohawk." Since the close of that war they have remained on friendly terms with the States.'The Atohawks, however, were obliged, in 1780, 2 Ihemto abandon their seats and take refue in Canada.'In the 2. The sul.a beginning of the seventeenth century the numbers of the resent localIroquois tribes amounted to fbrty thousand. They are now 170q,7uois reduced to about seven thousand, only a small remnant of triba. whom now remain in the State of New York. The remnainder are separated, and the confederacy is broken up, a part being in Canada, some in the vicinity of Green Bay, and others beyond the Miississippi. 3For the ascendency which the Five Nations acquired e. Caues Of the ascen?denover the surrounding tribes, several causes may be assigned. ws sohich e They were farther advanced in the few arts of Indian life acquirecdover than the Algonquins, and they discovered much wisdom in in/,: trib" their internal policy, particularly in the formation and long Their intercontinuance ot their confederacy,-in attacking, by turns, natiscl. the disunited tribes by which they were surrounded; and instead of extending themselves, and spreading over the countries which they conquered, remaining concentrated in their primitive seats, even at the time of their greatest successes. 4Their geographical position was likewise favorable, for 4. Their geo they were protected against sudden or dangerous attacks, sition. on the north by Lake Ontario, and on the south by extensive ranges of mountains.'Their intercourse with Eu- 5. Their nropeans, and particularly with the Dutch, at an early with.uro. period, by supplying them with fire-arm s, increased their peans relative superiority over their enemies; while, on the other hand, the English, especially in New England, generally took great precaution to prevent -lhe tribes in their vicinity firom being armed, and the In lian allies of the French, at the north and west, were but partially supplied. One of the earliest chiefs of the Five Nations, with whorl history makes us acquainted, was GAtARoGULA, who was distinguished for his sagZacity, wisdom, and eloquence. t-Ie is first brought to our notice by a manly and magnanimous speech which he made to the French governor-general of Canada, M. De La Barre, who, in 1684, marched into the country of the Irocluois to subdue them. A mortal sickness having broken out in the French army, De La Barre thought it expedient to attempt to disguise his designs of immediate war; but, at the same time, in a lofty tone he threatened hostilities if the terms of future peace which he offered were not complied with. Garangula, an Onondaga clhief appointed by the council to reply to him, first arose, and walked several times around the circle, whien, addressing himself to the governor, he begsan as follows: "Yonnondio I; honor you, and the warriors that are wvith me likewise honor you. Your' The Iroquois gave the name Yonnonsdio to the governors of Canada, and (orlear to the governors of New York. 0

Page  42 42 INDIAN TRIBES. [Boom 1 Inte.rqreter has finished your speech. I now begin mine. My words make haste to reach yowu eass. Hearken to theIm. " Yoivmoncdio; you must have believed, wvhen you left Quebec, that the sun had burned up all the forests, which render our country inaccessible to the French; or that the lakes had so far overflown their banks, that they lail surrounded oulr castles, and that. it was impossible fbs us to get out of them. Yes, surely, you ln.ust have dreamed so, and the curiosity of seeing so great a wonder has brought you so far. Nosw you are unrdeceived, since that I and the wara-iors here present are comUe to assure you talal the Senecas, C(ayugas, Onondagas, Oneidase, anud Mohawks, are yet alive. I thank you in their name for bringing back into their countel" thl calmnet, which your predecessor received at their hands. It was happy for you that yoe left under ground that murdering hatches that has so often been dyed in the blood of thi, Indians. "' Hear Yonnonzdio; I do not sleep; I have my eyes open; and the sun which enlighte's me, discovers to me a great captain at the head of a company of soldiers, who speaks as if ihe were dreaming. He says that he came to the lake, only to smoke the great calumet with the Onondagas. But Garanguia says that lie sees the contrary; that it was to knock them on the head, if sickness had not weakened the arms of the French. I see Younondio raving in a camp of sick men, whose lives the Great Spirit has saved by inflicting this sickness on them." In this strain of indignant contempt the venerable chief continued at some lengthl-disclosing the perfidy of the French and their weakness-proclairming the freedom and independence of his people-and advising the French to take care for the future. lest they should choke the tree of peace so recently planted. De La Barre, struck with surprise at the wisdom of the chief; and mortified at the result of the expedition, immediately returned to Montreal. One of the most renowned warriors of the Mohawk tribe was a chief by the name of IEno DRICe, who, with many of his nation, assisted the English against the French in the year 1755. He was intimate with Sir William Johnson, whom he frequently visited at the house of the latter. At one time, being present when Sir William received from England some richly embroidered suits of clothes, he could not help expressing a great desire for a share in themn. I-le went away very thoughtful, but returned not long after, and with much gravity told Sir William that he had dreamed a dream. The latter very concernedly desireld to knosw what it was. Hendrick told him he had dreamed that Sir William had presented inm one of his new suits of uniform. Sir William could not refuse the present, and the chief went away much delighted. Some time after the General met Hendrick, and told him lhe had dreamed a dream. The chief, although doubtless mistrusting the plot, seriously desired to know what it was, as Sir W,;illian had done before. The General said he dreamed that Hendrick had presented him a certain tract of valuable land, which he described. The chief immediately answeredl, " It is yours;'; but, shaking his head, said, " Sir William, me no dream with you again.1" Hendrick was killed in the battle of Lake George in 1755. When General Johnson was about to detach a small party against the French, he asked Hendrick's opinion, whethier the force were sufficient, to which the chief replied, " If they are to fight, they are too few. If they are to be killed they are too many." When it was proposed to divide the detachmenr into three parties, Hendrick, to express the danger of the plan, takisng three sticks, and putc.ting them together, said to the General, " You see now that it is difficult to break these; butake them one by one and you may break them easily.' WFhen the son of Hendrick, who was also in the batle, was told that his flther was killed,putting his hand on his breast, and giving the usual indian groan, he declared that Lie tas still alive in that place, and stood there in his son. LOGAN was a distinguishe;d Iroquois (or Mlingo) chief, of the Caynuga tribe. It is said, that; "For magnanimity in war, and greatness of soul in peace, few, if any, in any nation, ever surpassed Logan." IIe was uniformly the friend of thie whites, until the spring of 1774, when all his relatives were barbarously murdered by them,i thout provocation. I-Ie thlen took u-t the hatchet, engaged the Shawvnees, Delawasres, and other tribes to act *with him, and a bloody war followed. The Indians however swere defeated in the battle of Point Pleasant, at the mlosth of the Great Kanhawa, in October 1774, and peace soon followved. When the proposals of peace were submitted to Logan, he is said to have made the follosCing memorable and weL known speech. "I appeal to any white man to say, if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gaeVhim no meat; if ever he came cold and naked, and he clothed hlim not.

Page  43 (lAP. 1.] INDIAN TRIBES. 43 " During the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan remained idla in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for the whites, that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said,' Logao is the friend of white men.' " I had even thought tc have lived with you, but for the injuries of one man. Colonel Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood, and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logane, not even sparing my women and children. " There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This called on me f'or revenge. I have sought it. I have killed many. I have fully glutted my vengeance. For my country, I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbor a thought that mine is,he joy of fear. Logas, never felt fear Ie will not turn on his heel to save life. Who is there to mourn for Logas,?-Not one!" Of this specimen of Indian eloquence Mr. Jefferson remarks, " I may challenge all the orz-.ions of l)emosthenes and Cicero, and of any more eminent orator, if Europe has furnished mCore eminent, to produce a single passage superior to the speech of Logan." THAYENDANEGA, known to the whites as Colonel Joseph Brant, was a celebrated Iroquois chief of the Mohawk tribe. He was born about the year 1742, and at the age of nineteen was sent by Sir William Johnson to Lebanon, in Connecticut, where he received a good English education. It has been said that he was but half Indian) but this is now believed to be an error, which probably arose from the known fact that he was of a lighter complexion than his countrymen in general. Hle went to England in 1775, and after his return took up arms against the Americans, and received a Colonel's commission in the English armly. 4 Combining the natural sagacity of the Indian, with the skill and science of the civilized man, he was a formidable foe, and a dreadful terror to the frontiers." tie commanded the Indians in the battle of Oriskana, which resulted in the death of General herkimer: he was engaged in the destruction of Wyoming,t and the desolation of the Cherry Valley settlements,$ but he was defeated by the Aluericans, under General Sullivan, in the " Battle of the Chemung."'~ Notwithstanding the numerous bloody scenes in which Brant was engaged, many acts of clemency are attributed to him, and he himself asserted that, during the war, he had killed but one man, a prisoner, in cold blood-an act which he ever after regretted; although, in that case, he acted under the belief that the prisoner, who had a natural hesitancy of speech, was equivocating, in answering the questions put to him. After peace had been concluded with England, Brant frequently used his exertions to prevent hostilities between the States and the Western tribes. In 1779 he was legally married to nn Indian daughter of a Colonel Crohan, with whom he had previously lived according to the Indian manner. Brant finally settled on the western shore of Lake Ontario, where he lived afer the English fashion. He died in 1807.-One of his sons has been a member of the Colonial Assembly of Upper Canada. An Oneida chief of some distinction, by the name of SHENAND)OA, was contemporary with the missionary Kirkland, to whom he became a convert. He lived many years of the latter part of his life a believer in Christianity. In early life he was much addicted to intoxication. One night, while on a visit to Albany to settle some affairs of his tribe, he became intoxicated, and in the morning found himself in the street, stripped of all his ornaments, and nearly every article of clothing. This brought him to a sense of his duty-his pride revolted at his self-degradation, and he resolved that he would never again deliver himself over to the power of ssrosg water. In the Revolutionary war this chief induced most of the Oneidas to take up arms in favcr of the Americans. Among the Indians he was distinguished by the appellation of' the white man's friend.'-He lived to the advanced age of 110 years, and died in 1816. To one who visited him a short time before his death, he said, " I am an aged hemlock; the winds of a'Hundred winters have whistled through my branches, and I am dead at the top. The genera-,ion to which I belonged has run away and left me: why I live, the great Good Spirit only knows. Pray to the Lord that I may have patience to wait for my appointed time to die."From attachment to Mr. Kirkland he had often expressed a strong desire to be buried near hinm, that he might (to use his own expression,)' Go sup with him at the great res1urrectton.' Ifis request was granted, and he was buried by the side of his beloved minister, there to wealn'he coming of the Lord in whom he trusted. S See page 376. r P age 388. $ Pag e 384, ~ P 9.age 389

Page  44 44 INDIAN TRIBES. [BOOK L One of the most noted chiefs of the Seneca tribe was SAGOYsEWATHA, called by the whites Red Jacket. Although he was quite young at the time of the Itevolution, yet his activity and intelligence then attracted the attention of the British officers, who presented him a richly embroidered scarlet jacket. This he wore on all public occasions, and from this circumstance originated the name by which he is known to the whites. Of his early life we have the following interesting reminiscence. When Lafayette, in 1825, was at Buffalo, Red Jacket, among others, called to see him. During the conversation, he asked the General if he recollected being present at a great council of all the Indian nations, held at Fort Schuyler in 1784. Lafayette replied that he had not forgotten that great event, and asked Red Jacket if he knew what had become of the young chief, who, in that council, opposed with such eloquence the burying of the tomahawk. Red Jacket replied, "He is bitfb2-e yms. The decided enemy of the Americans, so long as the hope of successfully opposing then remained, but now their true and faithful. ally unto death." During the second war with Great Britain, Red Jacket enlisted on the American side, and while he fought with bravery and intrepidity, in no instance did he exhibit the ferocity of the savage, or disgrace himself by any act of inhumanity. Of the many truly eloquent speeches of Red Jacket, and notices of the powerful effects of hi oratory, as described by eye-witnesses, we regret that we have not room for extracts. One who knew him intimately for more than thirty years speaks of him in the following terms. I" Red Jacket was a perfect Indian in every respect; in costume, in his contempt of the dress of the white men, in his hatred and opposition to the missionaries, and in his attachment to, and veneration for the ancient customs and traditions of his tribe. He had a contempt for the English language, and disdaikeed to use any other than his own. He was the finest specimen of the Indian character that I ever knew, and sustained it with more dignity than any other chief. IHe was second to none in authority in his tribe. As an orator he was unequalled by any Inclian I ever saw. His language was beautiful and figurative, as the Indian language always is,-and delivered with the greatest ease and fluency. Ilis gesticulation was easy, graceful, and natural. His voice was distinct and clear, and he always spoke with great animation. His memory was very retentive. I have acted as interpreter to most of his speeches. to which no translation could do adequate justice." A short time before the death of Red Jacket there seemed to be quite a change in his feelings respecting Christianity. I-Ie repeatedly remarked to his wife that he was sorry that he had persecuted her for attending the religious meetings of the Christian party,-that she was right and he was wrong, and, as his dying advice, told her, " Persevere in yousr religion, it is the 5igit sway.7" He died near Buffalo, in January, 1832, at the age of 78 years. Another noted Seneca chief was called FARMER's BRoTEas. He was engaged in the cause of the French in the "F rench and Indian war." He fought against the Americans during the Revolution, but he took part with them during iae second war with Great Britain, although then at a very advanced age. Ile was an able orator, although perhaps not equal to Red Jacket. From one of his speeches, delivered hn a council at Genesee River in 1798, we give an extract, containing one of the most sublime metaphors ever uttered. Speaking of the war of the Revolution he said, " This great contest threw the inhabitants of this whole island into a great tumult and confusion, like a raging whirlwind, which tears up the trees, and tosses to and fro the leaves, so that no one knows from whence they come, or where they will fall. At lengthi the Great Spirit spoke to the wholirlwinsd, and it zuas still. A clear and uninterrupted sky appeared. The path of peace was opened, and the chain of friendship was once more mades bright." Other distinguished chiefs of the Senecas were Coas PLANTEn, HI.LF ToweN, and BIG Tr,EE; all of whom were friendly to the Americans after the Revolution. The former was with th English at Braddock's defeat, and subsequently had several conferences with President Wash: ington on subjects relating to the affairs of his nation. lie was sn ardent advocate of tern per. rance. I-e died in March, 1836, aged upwards of 100 years. ANALYSIS. TUSCARORAS.'The southern Iroquois tribes, found on 1. Early seats, the borders of Pennsylvania and North Carolina, and ex. names, alzd tending from the most northern tributary streams of the

Page  45 AiA t. 1.J 4,, Chowa n to Cape Fear River, and bounded on the east by ANALYSIS. the Algonquin tribes of the sea-shore, have been generally divisions, O called Tascaroras, although they appear to have been theI so~.utl.. known in Virginia, in early times, under the name of trzb,. Monacans. The Monacans, however, were probably an Algonquin tribe, either subdued by the Tuscaroras, or in alliance with them. Of the southern Iroquois tribes, the principal were the Chowans, the Meherrins or Tteloes, the ATrottaways and the Tuscaroras; the latter of whom, by far the most numerous and powerful, gave their name to the whole group.'The Tuscaroras, at the head of a confederacy of south- 1. War of the Tuscaror'c ern Indians, were engaged in a war with the Carolina with the Car settlements from the autumn of 171 1 to the spring of 1713.a a. See p. 254.'They were finally subdued, and, with most of their allies, 2. Their e removed north in 1714, and joined the Five Nations, thus mnoratot.ta making the Sixtlh.'So late as 1820, however, a few of 3. The Notta. the Nottaways were still in possession of seven thousand tay' acres of land in Southampton County, Virginia. SECTION IV. CATAW-BAS, CHEROKEES, UCI-JEES AND NATCHES. CATATWBAS. 4The Catawbas, who spoke a language 4. LocaZty o different firom any of the surrounding tribes, occupied the t/Catawbco. country south of the Tuscaroras, in the midlands of Carolina.'They were able to drive away the Shawnees, who, 5. Their hossoon after their dispersion in 1672, formed a temporary the Shtiw-it settlement in the Catawba country. In 1712 they are nes, the To'o,found as the auxiliaries of Carolina against the Tuscaroras. soothrc.rn Colonies, and In 1715 they joined the neighboring tribes in the confede- theCherokees. racy against the southern colonies, and in 1760, the last time they are mentioned by the historians of South Carolina, they were auxiliaries against the Cherokees. 6They are chiefly known in history as the hereditary e. Wtr. swith foes of the Iroquois tribes, by whom they were, finally, the Iroquos. earxly exterminated.'Their language is now nearly ex- 7. Their -,ttinct, and the remnant of' the tribe, numbering, in 1840, g""'l:' ~'*""' less than one hundred souls, still lingered, at that time, on pr-sent setal. a branch of the Santee or Catawba River, on the borders of North Carolina. CHERsOxKEES.'Adjoining the Tuscaroras and the Cataw- 8. Locatity of bas on the west, were the Cherokees, who occupied the tkohtero. eastern and southern portions of Tennessee, as far west as the M.uscle Shoals, and the highlands of Carolina, Georgia, and A.labama.'They probably expelled the Shawnees fi'or a 9. T.ei~r cothe ourantry south of the Ohio, and appear to have been s;.n.:.2 n~,

Page  46 46 li i. iNma'i'VtIN,'1. 3BooK L ANALY-SIS. perpetually at war with some branch of that wandering. Thei, con- nation.'In ].712 they assisted the English againht the uctin 17172 Tuscaror as, but in 1715 they joined the Indian confede racy against the colonies. 2 Hostilities 2Tbhei r lono continued hostilities with tile Five Nations wOith tI'-e, ize In Zv~,ons, an..d were terminatecd, through the interference of the British alia.crce withz government, about the year 1750; and at the commence-'th'e st~. "ment of' the subsequent Freech and Indian war, they acted as auxiliaries of the British, and assisted at the capture of a. ierwoiah Fort Du Quesne.a.'Soon after their return from this ext., n?,g'isZnh. pedition, hcwever, a war broke out between them and the English, which was not effectually terminated until 1761. 4. Their con- 4They joined the British duringy the war of the Revolution, duzict d'nrisr dizct eu7iZ.r after the close of which they continued partial hostilities:st'Ir /,,ctilh, until the treaty of Holston, in 1791; since which time they G. Bcrtain. have remained at peace with the United States, and during the last war with Great Britain they assisted the Americans against the Creeks. 5. Their civil-'The Cherokees have made greater progress in civilizazt5con, PicU tion than any other Indian nation within the United States, and notwithstanding successive cessions of portions of their territory, their population has increased during the last fifty years. They have removed beyond the Mississippi, and their number now amounts to about fifteen thousand souls. One of the most renmarka.ble discoveries of modern times has been niade by a Cherokee Indian, named GEORGE GUES; 01'r Sequoyah. This Indian, who was unacquainted with any language but his ownl, had seen English books in the missionary schools, and was informed that tihe characters represented the words of the spoken language. Filled with enthusiasm, he then attempted to formn a written larguage for his native tongue. IIe first endeavored to have a separate character for each word, but he soon svaw the imspracticability of this method. Next discovering that ther sarize syllabhle, variously cobined, perpel;tually recurred in differeni words, he formed a c-haracter for each syllable, and soon completed a syllabic alphoabet, of eightyfive characters, by which he wias enabled to express all the words of the language. A native Cherokee, after learning these eighty-five characters, requiring the study of only a fewz days, could read acld write the language with facilityc; his education in orthography being theln complete; whereas, in our language, n and in obihers, an individual is obliged to learn the orthography of many thousandl words, requiring the stu dy of years, before he can write the lan-uae;, so different is the orthography from the pronunciation. The alphabet fornmed by th:is uneducated Cherokee soon superseded the English alplhabet in the bookls published for the use of the Cherokees, and in 1826 a nesrepaper called the C'ierokee _Pihesix, was established it the Cherokee nation, printed in the new chearacters, withi an English translation. At first, it appeared incredible that a language so copious as the Cherokee should have but eighty-five syllables, but this was found to be owing to a peculiarity of the language-the alnost uniform prevalence of vocal or nasal terminations of syllables. The plan adopted by Guess, would therefore, probably, have failed, if appliel to any other language than the Cherokee. We notice a Cherolkee chief by the name of SPZECKLED Sa-xrE, for the purpose of giving a speech which he rllade in a council of his nation which had keen convened for the purpose of hearing read a talk from President Jackson, on the subject of removal l1eyond the MississippL The speech shows in what light the encroaclhlents of the whites. were vi( ved by the Cherokees, Speckled Snake arose, and addressed the council as follows:

Page  47 Cix.v. I.j iDIdN TiR;t'it. t4' Brothers! WFe have heard the talk of our great fa;ther; it is very kind. He qays he loves Os red children. Brothers! When the white mnan first came to these shores, the Iluscogees gave him land, and kindled him a fire to make him comfortable; andl hen the pale faces of the southf4 nmade wvar upon him, their young men drew the tomhawk, an.l r potectedl his head from the scalping knife. Buit hen the wlite man ha.d warmedl himself before the Indhian', fire, and fitled himself with the Indian:s hominy, he becamle very large; he stopped not for the mountain tops, and his feet covered tile plains and the valleys. tIis hlands grasped the eastern alnl the western sea. Then he becanle our greas l.tiher. H:e loved his red children; but said,' You must move a little farther, lest I should, by accident, tread on you.' With one foot he pushed the red man over the Oconee, and with the other he trampled down the grw'es of his fathers. inut our great father still loved his red childrien, and he soon made them another talk. Ile said much; but it all mea.nt nothing, but' iiove a little fartiler; you are too near me.' I have heard a great many talks from our great father, and they all began and endecd the same. B: 1rothers! when he made us a talk on a former occasion, he said,' Get a little farther; go beyond the Oconee and the Oakmuligee; there is a pleasant country.' Ile also said, I It, shall be yours forever.' Now he says,' The land you live in is not yours; go beyond the M1ississippi; there is game; there you may renlain while the grass grows or the water runs.' Brotlers! will not our great father come there also? IIe loves his red children, and his tongue is not forked. " UCHEES.'The Uc'ees, whien first known, inhabited the ANALYSIS. territory embraced in the central portion of the present 1. Locality of State of Georgia, above and below Augusta, and extend- ztie Uchees. ing from the Savannah to the head waters of the Chatahooche. PThey consider themselves the most ancient in- 2. Ther,,)spies habitants of the country, and have lost the recollection of iant'0ifiqo tjity. ever having changed their residence. 1Tihey are little 3. Their hisknown in history, and are recognized as a distinct tor"t! taia s. family, only'on account of their exceedingly harsh and guttural languag'e. \Vihen first discovered,'they were 4. SCroesbut a remnant of a probably once powerful nation; and tiogcoiiz,cesthey now form a small ba nd of about twelve hunlldred and.p.rli, souls, in the Creek confederacy. situation. NATCHES. 5The Natchees occupied a small territory on 5 zocalty of the east of the Mississippi, and resided in a few small vil- the Secedes lages near the site of the town whilich has preserved their name. T'iley were long supposed to speak a dialect of 6. T'ir,ianthe Mobilian, but it has recently been ascertained that their lannuage is radically diffirent f-rom that of any other known tribe.'They vweree nearly exterminated iii a war 7. c rvor, witih the gFrench in 1730,a since which period thev aitve Fencth, ts.been Inon in history only as a feeble and incnsidlRa' le ~t sent 1., iLsd nation, and are now merged in the Creelk confederacy. pirse,..tbets. hn i84(0 they were supposed to number only a'.bout t'ree a. seop. 524. 1u nt'redfh souls.'idhe S&)aria'rds from t1,-zd..

Page  48 48 j.ui SECTION V. O1 BITLIAN TRIBES. ANAL"\i0S.. T.zecof. I~'With the exception of the Uchees and the!atche_,. eracie$s:knowoeastk, and a few small tribes west of the Mobile PRiver, the Trabe. whole country from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, south of the Ohio River and the territory of the Cherokees, was in the possession of three confederacies of tribes, speaking dialects of a common language, which the F'reich called MoBILIAN, but which is described by Gallatin as the Muscogee Chocta. S. Thecoun- MUSCOGEES orx CREExs.'The Creek confederacy exbythe Creea. tended from the Atlantic, westward, to the dividing ridge which separates the waters of the Tombigbee from the Alabama, and embraced the whole territory of Florida. -. le Seti- 3The Senminoles of Florida werel a detached tribe of the * Muscogees or Creeks, speaking the same language, and considered a palt of the confederacy until the United 4. supposed States treated withll them as an independent nation. 4The the Crleeks. Creeks consider themselves the aborigines of the country, as they have no tradition of any ancient migration, or union iwT+ith other tribes. 5. Origin Qf'The loazassees are supposed to have been a Creek the Ytartnsees,antdtheir tribe, mentioned by early writers under the name of Sa. history. vannas, or Serannas. in 1715 they were at the head of a confederacy of the tribes extending from Cape Fear River to Florida, and commenced a war against the southern colonies, but were finally expelled from their territory, and took refuge among the Spaniards in Florida. 8. Wers of the 6For nearly fifty years after the settlement of Georgia, Greeke qoith tiheAmerZ- no actual Nwar took place with the Creeks. They took part with the British against the Americans during the Revolution, and continued hostilities after the close of the war, until a treaty was concluded with them at Philadelphia, in 1795. A considerable portion of the nation also took part against the Americans in the commencement of' the second war with Great Britain, but were soon reduced 7. Sezinole to submission.'The Seminoles renewed the war in 1818, hostilities. and in 1835 they again commenced hostilities, whict, a. See pp. n 1 4-71and 477. were not finally terminated until 1842.a 8 Treaties,'The Creeks acnd Seminoles, after many treaties made; of lads. and broken, hlave at length ceded to the United States the whole of their territory, an(c have accepted, in exchange, 9. The pres- lands west of the Mississiopi.'The Creek confederacy, 0oe0i.,tCAy. which now includes the Crseeks, Seminoles, Hitchitties, Alibamrons, Coosadas, nd Natcthes. at present numbers

Page  49 Cl.,. 1.1 INDIAN TRIBES. about twenty-eight thousand souls, of whom twenty-three ANALYSIS. thonLst-nd are Creeks. lTheir num1bers have increased 1 seof luring the last fifty years. nugbcers. One of the most noted chiefs of the Creek nation was AtEXxaDER M'GnILLIVRtxrv, son of an Englisilman by that name, who married a Creek woman, the governess of the nation. He was born about tile year 1739, and at the early age of ten was sent to school in Charleston. Being very uond of books, especially histories, he acquired a good education. On the death of Lis mother he becanie chief sachem of the Creeks, both by the usages of his ancestors, and by the election of the people. During the ttevolutionary War he was at the head of the Creeks, and In the British interest; but after the war he becamne attached to the Americans, and renewed treaties with them. Ile died at Pensacola, Feb. 17, 1793. Another distinguished chief of the Creeks, conspicuous at a later period, was WEATERFORD, who is desc:ribed as the key and corner-stone of the Creek confederacy during the Creek war which was terminated in 181,1. His mother belonged to the tribe of the Seminoles, but he was born and brought up in the Creek nation. Iln person, WeTatherfosd was tall, straight, and well proportioned.; while his features, harmoniously arrang'ecd indicated an active and disciplined mind. Ite was silent and reserved in public, unless when excited by some great occasion; he spoke but seldom in council, but when he delivered his opinions; he was listened to with delight and approbation. He was cunning and sagacious, brave and eloquent; but he was also extremely avaricious, treacherous, anld revengeful, and devoted to every species of criminal carousal. I-He commanded at ti;e massacre of Fort IIilllsa which opened the Creek war, and was the last of his nation to uslbmit to the Americans. Wh'hen the otller chiefs had submitted, G-eneral JaVkson, in order to test their fidelity, ordlered them to deliver Weatherford, bound, into his hands, that he mlight be dealt with as he deserved. But Weatherford would not submit to such degradation, and proceeding in disguise to the head-quarters of the commnanding officer, under some pretence he gained adlmisdionc to his presence, when, to the great surprise of the General, he announced himself in the iellowsing words. I I auL WAeatherford, the chief who conmmanded at the capture of Fort Mimes. I desire peace for my people, and have come to ask it." rWhen Jackson alluded to his barbarities, and expres,sed his surprise that he should thus venture to appear before him, the spirited chief replied. "I am in your power. Do with me as you please. I am a soldier, I have done the whites all the harm I could. I have fought them, and fought them bravely. If I had an army I would yet fight.-I would contend to the last: but I have none. Mly people are all gone. I can only weep over the misfortunes of my nation." When told that he might still join the war party if he desired; but to depend upon no -quarter if taken afterwards; and that unconditional submission was his and his people's only safety, he rejoined in a tone as dignified as it was indignant. " You can safely address me in ouch terms now. There was a time when I could have answered you:-there was a tile when I had a choice:-I have none now. I have not even a hope. I could once animate my warriors to battle-but I cannot animate the dead. Their bones are at Talladega. TallushLatches, Ermuaefau, and Tohopeka. I have not surrendered myself without thought. While there was a chance of success I never left my post, nor supplicated peace BuLt my people are gone, and I ask it for my nation, not for myself. You are a brave man, I rely upon your generosity. You w-iil exact no terms of a conquerled nation, but such as they should accede to." Jackson had determined upon the execution of the chief, when he should be brougha in bomucd, as directed; but his unexpected surrender, and bold and manly conduct, saved his life. A Creek chief, of very different character from WVeatherford, was the celebrated but unfortunate General W'ri,,Isr sICeNTOSIt. Like M:Gillivray he was a hilf breed, and beloneged to the Coweta,ib-e. Ite owns a prominent leader of such of his countrymen as joined the Aumericans in thle var of 1312 u 13, and 14. Ile likewise belonged to the small par~ty who, in 1521, 23, and 25. were iL favor of selling their laCnds to the Aumericans. In February, of the latter year, he concluded a treaty for the sale of lanids, in opposition to the wishes of a large majority of his " See page'U56.

Page  50 50 EPINDIAAN TRFIBES. 31 o0 Ic nration For this act the laws of his people denouneced death upon him, and in MaTy, his hous~ was surrounded and burned, and Mlcintosh and one of his adherents in attempting to escape were shot. Ilis soll, Chilly Mlcintosh, wVas allowed to leave the house unl nled. Among the Selinoles, a branch of the Creek nation, the most distir gi.. iled chief with whom tle whites have been acquainted, was Powell, or, a, he was comlumounlly called, OSCEOLA. Ilis lothelr is said to have been a Creek wolman, and his tlther an Elnglishman. lie was not a chief by birth, but raised himiself to that station by his courage and peculiar abilities. Lie was opposed to the removal of his people west of the TMississippi, and it was principally through his influence that the treaties for removal werA violated, and the nation plunged in war. lIe was an excellent tactician, and as admirer of order and discipline. The principal events knownl in his history will be found narrated in another part of this wo!.k.* O)ther chiefs distinguished in the late Seminole war, -were 3lficsnopy, called the king of thd nation, Sams Jonles, Junper, Coa-ladjo (Alligator), Clharles Emathla, and Abbraham, a negro ANALYSIS. CHICKASAS.'The territory of the Chickasas, extending 1. Thi/e ter?.- north to the Ohio, was bounded on the east by the country tor of' the of the Shawnees, and the Cherokees; on the south by the iuhc,kasas "he 2 Charac:er Choctas. and on the west by the Mississippi River. "The qf the natnoz. ChIickasas wiere a warlike nation, and were often in a state 3. Their ela- of hostility with the surrounding tribes.'Firm allies of ingti'h azd the English, they were at all times the inveterate enemies the'resch, of the French, by whom their country was twice unsuccessfully invaded, once in 1736, and aogain in 1740. U. Wla th6ues. hey adhered to the British during the war of the Revolution, since which time they Ihave remained at peace with.Theirs nus. the United States.'Their numbers have increased during the last fifty years, and they now amount to between five and six thousand soulls. Du Pratz, in his lHistory of Louisiana, gives an account of a very intelligent Chickasaw In dian, of the Yazoo tribe, by the name of ltloncatchtape, who travelled many years for the purt pose of extending his knowledge, but, principally, to ascertain from what country the Indian race originally canae. Ite first journeyed in a northeasterly direction until he came upon the ocean, probably near the Gulf of St. Lawrence. After returning to his tribe, lie again set out, towards the northwest -passed up the Missouri to its sources-crcssed the mountains, and journeyed onwards until he reached the great Western Ocean. IIe then proceeded north, following the coast, until the days became very long and the nights very short, when he was advised by the old men of the country to relinquish all thoughts of continuing his journey. They told him that the land extended still a long way between the north and the sun setting, after which it ran directly west, and at length was cut by the great vwater from north to south. One of them added, that, when he was younIg, he knew a very old man who had seen that distant land before it was cut away by the great water, and that when the great water was low, many rocks still appeired in those parts. —Finding it therefore, impracticable to proceed any farther, Moncatchtape returned to his own country by the route by which he came. He was five years absent on this second journey. This famous traveller was well known to Du Pratz about the year 1760. By the French he was called the Interreter, on account of his extended knowledge of the languages of the Indians. " This man," says Du Pratz,'" was remarkable for his solid understanding, and elevation of sentiment; and I may justly compare him to those first Greeks, who travelled chiefly into the east, to examine the manners and customs of different nations, and to communicate t their fellow citizens, upon their return, the knowledge which they had acquired." The narrative of this Indian, which is given at considerable length, in his own words, appear* to have satisfied Du Pratz that the aborigines came from the continent of Asia, by way of Behring's Straits. * eSe pae5Os 477 and 481.

Page  51 CHAP. 1.] INDIAN TRIBES. 51 CIOCTAS.'The Choctas possessed the territory border- ANALYSIS. mg on that c "the Creeks, and extending west to the Mis- The terrsissippi Riverlv.-, 2Since they were first known to Europeans tCy of tah they have ever been an agricultural and a peaceable 2 Peaceable people, ardently attached to their country; and their wars, te jchoctae t. always defensive, have been with the Creeks. Although they have had successively, fbr neighbors, the French, the Spanish, and the English, they have. never been at war with any of them.'Their Numbers now amount to nearly 3. Their nineteen thousand souls, a great portion of whom have fnumbers, already removed beyond the Mississippi. We notice 1IUSHALATUBEE and PUSHAMrATA, two Choctaw Chiefs, for the purpose of giving the speeches which they made to Lafayette, at the city of Washington, in the winter of 1824. MIushalatubee, on being introduced to Lafayette, spoke as follows: "You are one of our fathers. You have fought by the side of the great TVashIington. We will receive here your hand as that of a friend and father. We have always walked in the pure feelings of peace, and it is this feeling which has caused us to visit you here. We present you pure hands-hands that have never been stained with the blood of Americans. We live in a country far from this, where the sun darts his perpendicular rays upon us. WTe have had the French, the Spaniards, and the English for neighbors; but now we have only the Americans' in the midst of whom we live as friends and brothers." Then Pushamata, the head chief of his nation, began a speech in his turn, and expressed himself in the following words: " Nearly fifty snows have passed away since you drew the sword as a companion of WlTasl/ington. With him you combated the enemies of America. You generously mingled your blood with that of the enemy, and proved your devotedness to the cause which you defended. After you had finished that war you returned into your own country, and now you come to visit again that land where you are honored and loved in the remembrance of a, numerous and powerful people. You see everywhere the children of those for whom you defended liberty crowd around you and press your hands with filial affection. We have heard related all these things in the depths of the distant forests, and our hearts have been filled with a desire to behold you. We are come, we have pressed your hand, and we are satisfied. This is the first time that we have seen you, and it will probably be the last. We have no more to add. The earth will soon part us forever." It was observed that, in pronouncing these last words, the old chief seemed agitated by some sad presentiment. In a few days he was taken sick, and he died before he could set out to return to his own people. Hie was buried with military honors, and his monument occupies a place among those of the great men in the cemetery at Washington. 40f the tribes which formerly inhabited the sea-shore 4. Tribes bebetween the Mobile and the Mississippi, and the western Mobeile and bank of the last mentioned river, as far north as the Ar- the MssssC. kansas, we know little more than the names. 50n the 5.'ThenmeRed River and its branches, and south of it, within the tribes on th territory of the United States, there have been found, until Reand sout recently, a number of small tribes, natives of that region, oi. who spoke no less than seven distinct languages; while, throughout the extensive territory occupied by the Esquimaux, Athapascas, Algonquins, and Iroquois, there is not found a single tribe, or remnant of a tribe, that speaks a dialect which does not belong to one or another of those fi.niCes.

Page  52 52 INDIAN TRIBES. [Booa I. ANALYSIS. I.'o account for this great diversity of distinct languages 1. The diver- in tile small territory mentioned, it bas been supposed that s8ty of lan- the impenetrable swamps and numerous channels by which guagesfound in thisre- the low lands of that country are intersected, have allbrded accounted places of refuge to the remnants of conquered tribes; and it is well known, as a peculiarity of' the Aborigines of America, that small tribes preserve their language to the last moment of their existence. SECTION V I. DAICOTAH, 011 SIOUX TRIBES. 2. Extent of 2On the west of the Mississippi River, extending from thenoahcotah, lands south of the Arkansas, to the Saskatchewan, a -Dr Sioux tribes. stream which empties into Lake Winnipeg, were found numerous tribes speaking dialects of a common language, and which have been classed under the appellation of 3. Theearli- DahcotaIs or Sioux. 3Their country was penetrated by edt knowl- French traders as early as 1659, but they were little edge we have of them. known either to the French or the English colonists, and it is but recently that they have come into contact with the 4. Situation Americans.'One community of the Sioux, the WTin. f theWin- nebaggoes, had penetrated the territory of the Algontribe. quins, and were found on the western shore of Lake Michigan. 5. Classifica- 6The nations which speak the Sioux language have been tion of the classed, according to their respective dialects and geogra. nations which opeakl phical position, in four divisions, viz., 1st, the lWinnebaZanguage. goes; 2d, Assiniboins and Sioux proper; 3d, the iMinetaree group; and 4th, the southern Sioux tribes. S. Early his- 1. WITNNEBAGOES.'Little is known of the early history to2nofethe of the Winnebagoes. They are said to have formerly ocgoes. cupied a territory farther north than at present, and to have been nearly destroyed by the Illinois about the year 1640. They are likewise said to have carried on frequent wars.The tinimts against the Sioux tribes west of the Mississippi. *The tf their terri- limits of their territory were nearly the same in 1840 as tory. they were a hundred and fifty years previous, and firom this it may be presumed that they have generally lived, during that time, on friendly terms with the Algonquin S. Thisir con. tribes, by which they have been surrounded. duct serinn'They took part vwith the British toainst the Americaans the secend wioth during the war of 1812-14, and in 1832 a part of the naGreat Britain; and tion, incited by the fameous Sac chief, Black Hawk, corn e.f gca atte menced an indiscriminate warfare against the border set U st3tes tlements by w hich they were surrounded, but were soon

Page  53 ChIAP. 1.1 INDIAN TRIBES. 53 obliged to sue for peace.'Their numbers in 1840 were ANALYSIS. estimated at four thousand six hundred.* l.Therns 2. ASSINIBOINS, AND Sioux PROPER.'The Assiniboins be.s in 1840. are a Dahcota tribe who have separated from the rest of 2' Taeibsiws. the nation, and, on that account, are called " Rebels" by the Sioux proper.'They are the most northerly of tle 3. Locality great Dahcota family, and but little is known of their his. and histor?. tory. 4Their number is estimated by Lewis and Clarke 4. Numbers. at rather more than six thousand souls.'The Sioux proper are divided into seven independent 5. Divisions bands or tribes. ThIey were first visited by the French aof tha,Sioux as early as 1660, and are described by them as being proper ferocious and warlike, and feared by all their neighbors.'The seven Sioux tribes are supposed to amount to about 6. Numbers. twenty thousand souls.t 3. MINETAREE GROUP.'The Mlinetarees, the Mandans, 7. Minetaree and the Crows, have been classed together, although they group speak different languages, having but remote affinities with the Dahcota.'The Mandans and the Minetarees 8. Character cultivate the soil and live in villages; but the Crows are oft triberan erratic tribe, and live principally by hunting.'The 9.Peczliarity Mandans are lighter colored than the neighboring tribes, the -ans. which has probably given rise to the fabulous account of a tribe of white Indians descended from the Welch, and speaking their language. "~The Mandans number about 10o. Numbers'fifteen hundredt souls; the Minetarees and the Crowsf the tribes. each three thousand.t 4. SOUTHERN SIOux TRIBES. "The Southern Sioux con- It.TheSouth. sist of eight tribes, speaking four or five kindred dialects. tr zstu; Their territory originally extended from below the mouth of hunting the Arkansas to the present northern boundary of the State grounds. of Missouri, and their hunting grounds westward to the Rocky Mountains. "2They cultivate the soil and live in 12. Thetr villages, except during their hunting excursions. 3"The character. n 3 13. The three three most southerly tribes are the Quappas or Arkansas, S Tthern on the river of that name, the Osages, and the Kanzas, all south of the Missouri River.'4The Osages are a nume- 14. The Osa rous and powerful tribe, and, until within a few years sars, territ, past, have been at war with most of the neighboring tribes, ry, ~'C. without excepting the Kanzas, who speak the same dialect. The territory of the Osages lies immediately north of that allotted to thle Cherokees, the Creeks, and the Choctas. 1"The five remaining tribes of this subdivision are the 15. The 0 "wib ~~~~~names of the lowas, the i1Iissouries, the Otoes, the Omahas, and the other tribes. Puncahs. "The principal seats of the lowas are north of`oo:he River Des Moines, but a portion of the tribe has joined * Estimate of the War Depsrtment. t Gallatin's estimate, 1836

Page  54 04 INDIAN TRIB;ES. [Bootk ANALYSI3. the Otoes, and it is believed thai both tribes speak the 1. The Mis same dialect.'The Missouries were originally seated at souries. the mouth of the river of that name. They were driven away from their original seats by the Illinois, and have since joined the Otoes. They speak the Otoe dialect. 2. The Otnes, 2The Otoes -are found on the south side of the Missouri and Ow*as. River, and below the mouth of the River Platte; and the a The Pun- Omahas above the mouth of the Platte River. 3The Puncahs. cahs, in 1840, were seated on the Missouri, one hundred and fifty miles above the Omahas. They speak the Oma. ha dialect. 4. The num- 4The residue of the Arkansas (now called Quappas) hers of the Southern number about five hundred souls; the Osages five thou]giouztribes. sand; the Kanzas fifteen hundred; and the five other tribes, together, about five thousand.* OTHER WESTERN TRIBES. s. The Blake 5'Of the Indian nations west of the Dahcotas, the most )eet; their territoryr numerous and powerful are the Black Feet, a wandering population, and hunting tribe, who occupy an extensive territory east of the Rocky Mountains. Their population is estimated at thirty thousand. They carry on a perpetual war with the Crows and the Minetarees, and also with the Shoshones or Snake Indians, and other tribes of the Rocky Mountains, whom they prevent from hunting in the buffalo country. 6. The Rapid GThle Rapid Indians, estimated at three thousand, are dheiArna, d found north of the Missouri River, between the Black Feet and the Assiniboins. The Arapahas are a detached and wandering tribe of the Rapids, now intimately con. nected with the Black Feet. 7. The Paw-'The Paiwnees proper inhabit the country west of the lees. Otoes and the Omahas. They bestow some attention upon agriculture, but less than the southern Sioux tribes. They were unknown to the Americans before the acquisition of Louisiana. One of the lates t attempts at human sacrifice among the Paownees was happily frustrated in the following manner: A few years previous to 1821, a war party of Pawnees had taken a young woman prisoner, and on their return she was doomed to be sacrificed to the " Great Star," according to the usages of the tribe. She was fastened to the stake, and a vast company had assembled to witness the scene. Among them was a young warrior, by the name of Petalestharoo, who, unobserved, had stationed two fleet horses at a small distance, and was seated among the crowd as a silent spectator. All were anxiously waiting to enjoy the spectacle of the first contact of the flames with their victim; when, to their astonishment, the young warrior was seen rending asunder the cords which bound her, and, with the swiftness of thought, bearing her in his arms beyond bhe * Gallatin's estimate

Page  55 CHAIP. I]d iNDIAN I'IBE. 5.5 mlazed multitude; where, placing her upon one horse, and mounting himself upon the other, he bore her off safe to her friends and country. The act would have endan-gered the life of an ordinary chi.ef; but such vas the sway of Petalesharoo in his tribe, that no one presumed tc celszure his iaterference. What more noble example of galant daring is to be found among all the tales of modern,hivalry?'Of the other western tribes within the vicinity of the ANALYSIS. Rocky Mountains, and also of those inhabiting the Oregon. ol-oe territory, we have only partial accounts; and but little erc tribee. is known of their divisions, history, language, or numbers. It is a known fact, however, that the Oreron tribes 2. ore,mon have few or no wars among themselves, and that they do trcs not engage in battle except in s!elf defence, and then only in the last extremity. Their principal encounters are with the Blackfeet Indianls, wvho are constantly roving about, on both sides of the mountains, in quest of plun. del', SE CTiOI VI1. PHUiSICAL CHARACTER, LANGUAGE, GOVERNBIENT, RELIGION, AND TRADITIONS OF THE ABORIGINES. PHYSICAL CHARACTErL. 1. 3il their physical Cncharac- 3. unter —their forlm, features, and color, and other natural tes r:..,7"Zt characteristics, the aborigines, not only within the boun- cic.,s-cf tedaries of the United States, but throughout the whole conu- a,~tdl t:, evifinent, presented a great uniformity; exlhibiting therety dnctcreyl, in IIC - -- -- --— ex/~ibited. the clearest evidence that all blongaed to the same great race, and rendering it improbable that they haId ever ino termni-gled with other varieties of the humani- l ealily. 2. q1n form, the Indian wvas generally tall, straigrla and 4,Th0fornm.f siender; his color was of a dull copper, or redcish hacolorc.,e., hytir, wnes, sbro,V19heis eyes black and piercincg,lis hair coalse, I~., cee.6 - tlatrk, alid glossg, and never curlihng,-l-te nose broad,- foreha. aZis lips large and thick, —-Cheel bones hihi and promiinnt,, -.e. lis beard liht, -his forellhead narrower than thle European, le as subject to few diseases, and natural deformity weas almost uklnown. 3. mind, the Indian was inferior to the European, 5. The.sncin, althoughn p3ossessed of the same- natural en-dowments; for ~ ti.e t..dian 1c h1ad cultivated hi-s perceptive faculties, to the great ti,.Eropteait. nl'le;t of his reasoning powers iand nm ral qualities,.'Tie sentes of t ilndlian were remarkabtl acute; — -he G -ICsecnse wzas apt at imitation, rather than invention; his lmemnory?a r', )":'t, w-as good: when aroused, his imax-ination was vivid, w)tl; Vvtt wild as nature: his knowled(e was limited bv his ex.c- tru.bstrft rence, and he was nearly destitute of abstract moral

Page  56 56 INDIAN TRIBES. [Boo;:n I ANALYSIS. truths, and of general principles. 1The Indian is warmly. The attach- attached to hereditary customs and manners, —to his an. meIs.ts of the cient hunting grounds and the graves of his fathers; he Indian, his -.oposition to is opposed to civilization, for it abridges his freedom; and, reptlgnance naturally indolent and slothful, he detests labor, and thus to labor, ~.c. advances but slowly in the improvement of his condi. tion.* 2. The prisn- LANGUAGE. 1.'The discovery of a similarity in some ciplte,which hgoverned of the primitive words of different Indian languages. sion of lle showing that at some remote epoch they had a common differ6es ito origin, is the principle which has governed the division of fassiliesorT the different tribes into families or nations.'3It must not, fations. 3. Caution therefore, be understood, that those which are classed as theapplica belonging to the same nation, were under the same tien of this government; for different tribes of the same family had usually separate and independent governments, and often waged exterminating wars with each other. 4. Diversity 2. 4There were no national affinities springing from a amof ditletse common language: nor indeed did those classed as be~. Classed as be- longing to the same family, always speak dialects of a longing to tfmly. Z common language, which could be understood by all; for the classification often embraced tribes, between whose languages there was a much less similarity than among many of those of modern Europe.. The differ- 3. "Although the Indian languages differ greatly in ences and the,similarities their words, of which there is, in general, a great profihberabe inn sion; and although each has a regular and perfect syslanguages- tem of its own, yet in grammatical structure and form, a great similarity has been found to exist among all the lanG. Concousion guages from Greenland to Cape Horn.'These circumdeduced from these ercunm- stances appear to denote a common but remote origin of alsoftonz the all the Indian languages; and so different are they from of the Indian any ancient or modern language of the other hemisphere, and theEu-a;n as to afford conclusive proof that if they were ever deriguages. -ved from the Old World, it must have been at a very early period in the world's history. 7. Character- 4. 7The language of the Indian, however, althcough istics of the asngsage of possessed of so much system and regularity, showed but the IndianI, and its des-' little mental cultivation; for although profuse in words to titutionof ab. rstsact terms. express all his desires, and to designate every object of his experience; although abounding in metaphors and glowing with allegories, it was incapable of expressing abstract and moral truths; for, to these subjects, the Indian had * Labor, in every aspect, has appeared to our Indians to be degradissg. " I have neveor, said an Indian chief at Mich;limackinac, who wished to concentrate the points of his hosnoer " I have never run before an enlemy. I have never cut wood nor carried, water. i have neo, been disgraced with a blow. I am as free as my fathers were before nCe."-/f'/.oolcraft.

Page  57 CHAP. I.] iNDIAN TRIBES. 57 never directed his attention; and he needed no termns to ANALYSIS. express that of which he had no conception. 5.'He had a name for Deity, but he expressed his at- i.iscstratributes lby a circumlocution;-he could describe actions, ti. and their effects, but had no terms for their moral qualities. 2'Nor had the Indian any written language. The 2. Theabsenco only method of communicating ideas, and of preserving ten language the memory of events by artificial signs, was by the use of, it hoa of knotted cords, belts of wampum, and analogous means; partial.ysupor by a system of pictorial writing, consisting of rude imitations of' visible objects. Something of this nature was found in all parts of America. GOVERNMENT. 1. 3In some of the tribes, the govern- 3. The govment approached an absolute monarchy; the will of the some of the sachem being the supreme law, so long as the respect of tribes. the tribe preserved his authority. 4The government of 4. Among the Five Nations. the Five Nations was entirely republican.'In most of 5. ndividuaa the tribes, the Indians, as individuals, preserved a great indepen. degree of independence, hardly submitting to any restraint. 2.'Thus, when the Hurons, at one time, sent messen- 6.Ilustration gers to conclude a treaty of peace with the Iroquois, a f this ple.n single Indian accompanied the embassy in a hostile char. acter, and no power in the community could deter him. The warrior, meeting one of his enemies, gratified his vengeance by dispatching him. It seems the Iroquois were not strangers to such sallies, for, after due explanation, they regarded the deed as an individual act, and the negotiation was successfully terminated.* 3. "The nominal title of chief, although usually for 7. Thetitle zn anauthor'ty life, and hereditary, conferred but little power, either in of a caiefY war or in peace; and the authority of the chieftain depended almost entirely on his personal talents and energy. "Public opinion and usage were the only laws of 8stt hat conthe Indian.t laos of the 4.'There was one feature of aristocracy which ap- 9. Prea,,nt pears to have been very general among the Indian tribes, afeatue of and to have been established from time immemorial. This adivision was a division into clans or tribes, the members of which were dispersed indiscriminately throughout the whole io. Principal nation. l0The principal regulation of these divisions, was, rethelat of that no man could marry in his own clan, and that every sons child belonged to the clan of its mother. lThe obvious this systenm. * Champlain, tome ii., p. 79-89. t In an obituary notice of the celebrated MI'Gillivray, emperor of the Creeks, who died, in 1793, it is said:-" This idolized chief of the Creeks stylecd himself king of kings. But alas, hte could neither restrain the meanest fellow of his nation from the commission of a crime, nor plnish him after he had committed it! Ie might persuade or advise, a11 the good an Indian king or chief can do " 8

Page  58 58 INDIAN TRIBES. [Booxs. ANALYSIS. design of this system was the prevention of mnarriages among near relations,-thereby checking the natural ten. dency towards the subdivision of the nation into independ. ent communities. 1. Ordinary 5,'Most of the nations were found divided into three snunmber of cznse, and clans, or tribes, but some into more,-each distinguished uhi,.ed by the name of an animal. 2Thus the Huron tribes were 2 Thejuron divided into three clans,-the Bear, the Wolf, and the 3. The Iro- Turtle. 3The Iroquois had the same divisions, except quoi. that the clan of the Turtle was divided into two others. 4. The Dela- 4The Delawares were likewise divided into three clans; was/e, sou;,S the various Sioux tribes at present into two large clans, and Chip- which are subdivided into several others: the Shawnees pewca clons. are divided into four clans, and the Chippewas into a larger number. 5. Ofthe7Tun- 6.'Formerly, among some of the southern tribes, if,natesamong an individual committed an offence against one of the some of the southern same clan, the penalty, or compensation, was regulated tribes. by the other members of the clan; and in the case of murder, the penalty being death, the nearest male relative of the deceased was the executioner. If an injury was committed by a member of another clan, then the clan of the injured party, and not the party himself, demanded reparation; and in case of refusal, the injured clan had the right to do itself justice, by inflicting the proper penalty upon the offender. s.Peculiar in- 7. An institution peculiar to the Cherokees was the crongthe setting apart, as among the Israelites of old, a city of rehe'okees. fuge and peace, which was the residence of a few sacred " beloved men," in whose presence blood could not be shed, and where even murderers found, at least a tempo. 7. An intitu- rary asylum. 70f a somewhat similar nature was once what sirilar the division of towns or villages, among the Creeks, into irgeehs. White and Red towns, —the fornner the advocates of peace, and the latter of war; and whenever the question of wai or peace was deliberately discussed, it was the duty of the former to advance all the arguments that could be suggested in favor of peace. B. Uniformity RELIGION. 1. 8The relisious notions of the natives, of r eli'ious belzneS throughout the whole continent, exhibited great uniformity. *Sp. iBee in nAmong all the tribes there was a belief, though ofter Supreme Be.. ing. and in vague and indistinct, in the existence of a Supreme Being. the immortality ofthe sozl. and in the i nmortality of the soul, and its future state: J0. Numero~'3But the Indian believed in numberless inferior Deities;deities and s,pitot be- in a god of the sun, the moon, and the stars; of the ocean tieved in by tO fnadin. and tli e storm;-and his superstition led him to attribute spirits to the lakes and the rivers, the valleys and the mountains, and to every power which he could not fathom

Page  59 $HAt. 1.1 INDIAN TR ES. 5. and which he could neither create nor destroy l'Thus ANALr.YSS. the Deity of the Indian was not a unity; the Great Sapiit r.i ntl- r that he worshipped was the emboldimeint of the material of flJsnoeati laws of the Universe,-the aggregate of the mysterious psp" it. powers by which he was surrounded. 2.'Most tribes had their religious fasts and festivals; 2. Fac, estc,~r their expiatory self punish-meints and sacrifices; and their c-a. priests, who acted in the various capacities of physicians, prophets, and sorcerers. 3'The Mexicans paid their chief 3. Xliea adoration to the sun, and offered hui-man sacrifices to that luminary. 4The Natches, and some of the tribes of 4. RnltZiou Louisiana, kept a sacred fire constantly burning, in a thp of tahe temple appropriated to that purpose. The Natches also worshipped the sun, from wlhom their sovereign and the privileged class claimed to be descended; and at the death of the head chief, who was styled the Great Sun, his wives and his mother were sacrificed. 5Until quite re-.Practice of cently the practice of annually sacrificing a prisoner pre. ri sa'ndaa. vailed among the Missouri Indians and the Pawnees. ne 3. 6A superstitious reverence for the dead has been 6. Re;erenca found a distinguishing trait of' Indian character. Under r ial of tlh its influence the dead ~were wrapped and buried in the choicest furs, with their ornaments, their weapons of war, and provisions to last them on their solitary journey to the land of spirits. Extensive mounds of earth, the only monuments of' the Indian, were osten erected over the graves of illustrious chieftains; and some of the tribes, at stated intervals collected the bones of the dead, and interred them in a common cemetery. 7The Mlexicans, and. m.odof bfZ some of the tribes of' South America, frequently buried ria,. their dead beneath their houses; and the same practice has been traced among the Mobilian tribes of North America.'One usage, the burial of the dead in a sitting 8. Buriaitaa posture, was found almost universal among the tribes from'stt uz;-'e. Greenland to Cape Horn, showing that some common superstition pervaded the whole continent. 9 ot7zetely TRADITIONS. I.'As the graves of the red men were'on fl03ti eni their only monuments, so traditions were their only his-.,, m. 10. Oral trtory. 10By oral traditions, transmitted fiom father to son, sdiom. The Indians possessed some little skill in medicine, but as all diseases of obscure oriliu were ascribed to the secret agency of malignant povers or spirits, the physician invested himself with his mystic character, when lie directed his efforts against these invisible enemies. By the agency of dreams, mystical ceremonies, and incantations, he attempted to dive into the abyss of futurity, and bring to light the hidden and the unknown. The same principle in human nature,-a dim belief in the spirit's existence after the dissolution of the body, and of numerous invisible powers, of good and of evil, in the universe around him,-principles whiela wrap the minld of the savage in the folds of a gloomy superstition, and bow him down, the tool of jugglers and knaves,-have, under the lightl of Reveiation, opened a pathcway of hope to a glorious immortality, and elevated mnan in the scale of being to hold converse with 1a Iiaker. i Arch3logla Americana, vol. ii., p. 132. See also p. 54, notice of Petalesharoo.

Page  60 60 INDIAN TRIBES. [Booic I. ANALYSIS. they preserved the memory of important events connected with the history of the tribe-of the deeds of illustrious chieftains-and of important phenomena in the natural 1. inportane world.'Of their traditions, some, having obvious refer and origin of some of the ence to events recorded in scripturie history, are exceed. traditiono. ingly interesting and important, and their universality throughout the entire continent, is conclusive proof that their origin is not wholly fabulous. 2. A preva- 2.'Thus the wide spread Algonquin tribes preserved a of tze Algon- tradition of the original creation of' thfe earth from water, qui Of. and of a subsequent general inundation.'The Iroquois B. Of the Iro. qoois. tribes likewise had a tradition of a general deluge, but from which they supposed that no person escaped, and that, in order to repeople the earth, beasts were changed 4. Tradition into men. 4One tribe held the tradition, not only of a delanre.f uge, but also of an age of fire, which destroyed every human being except one man and one woman, who were saved in a cavern. 5. Pecutiar 3.'The Tamenacs, a nation in the northern part of tradition of the Tame- South America, say that their progenitor Aamlivica, arrinace r ved in their country in a bark canoe, at the time of the great deluge, which is called the age of water. This tradition, with some modifications, was current among many tribes; and the name of Amlialivica was found spread over a region of more than forty thousand square miles, where he was termed the "' Father of Mankind." 6. Of the 4. ~The aboriginal Chilians say that their progenitors escaped from the deluge by ascending a high mountain, which they still point out. 7. Of the 7The Muyscas of New Grenada have a tradition that Neow Gran- they were taught to clothe themselves, to worship the sun, a-at and to cultivate the earth, by an old man with a long flowing beard; but that his wife, less benevolent, caused the valley of Bogota to be inundated, by which all the natives perished, save a few who were preserved onr the mountains. 8. Tradition 5. 8A tradition said to be handed down from the Tolthezyramid tees, concerning the pyramid of Cholula, in Mexico, relates, that it was built by one of seven giants, who alone escaped from the great deluge, by taking refuge in the cavern of a lofty mountain. The bricks of which the pyramid was composed were made in a distant province, and conveyed by a file of men, who passed them from hand to hand. But the gods, beholding with wrath the attempt to build an edifice whose top should reach the clouds, hurled fire upon the pyramid, by which numbers of the workmen perished. The work was discontinued,

Page  61 Ca&i. I.] INDIAN TRIBES. 61 and the monument was afterwards dedicated to the' GoD ANALYSIS OF THE AIR..' 6.'The Mexican ascribed all their improvements in 1. oQf t great:eachim the arts, and the ceremonies of their religion, to a white gofe the euaiand bearded man, who came from an unknown region, Gar and was made high priest of the city of Tula. From the numerous blessings which he bestowed upon mankind, and his aversion to cruelty and war, his was called the golden age, and the era of peace. Having received from the Great Spirit a drink which made him immortal, and being inspired with the desire of visiting a distant country, he went to the east, and, disappearing on the coast, was never afterwards seen.'In one of the Mexican pie- 2. Tradition..resex'.ved in ture writings there is a delineation of a venerable looking oneof the man, who, with his wife, was saved in a canoe at the time Mtureafiof the great inundation, and, upon the retiring of the tings. waters of the flood, was landed upon a mountain called Colhuacan. Their children were born dumb, and received different languages from a dove upon a lofty tree. 7.'The natives of Mechoacan are said by Clavigero, 3. Important Humboldt, and others, to have a tradition, which, if cor- t ohe ativesof rectly reported, accords most singularly with the scrip- Mlechoacaan. tural account of the deluge. The tradition relates that at the time of the great deluge, Tezpi, with his wife and children, embarked in a calli or house, taking with them several animals, and the seeds of different fruits; and that when the waters began to withdraw, a bird, called aura, was sent out, which remained feeding upon carrion; and that other birds were then sent out, which did not return, except the humming bird, which brought a small branch in its mouth. 8. 4These traditions, and many others of a similar 4. Nature of character that might be mentioned, form an important nyfurnishlink in the chain of testimony which goes to substantiate etradbthese the authenticity of Divine Revelation. TWe behold the 5. Thesiemunlettered tribes of a vast continent, who have lost all oihsfa they knowledge of their origin, or migration hither, preserving exhibit. with remarkable distinctness, the apparent tradition o. certain events which the inspired penman tells us happened in the early ages of the world's history. 6We C.CoiZcidenW readily detect, in several of these traditions, clouded ditions with though they are by fable, a striking coincidence with the ttra sacscriptural accounts of the creation and the deluge; while Coents in others we think we see some faint memorials of the destruction of the "' cities of the plain" by "' fire which came down from heaven," and of that "- confusion of tongues" which fell upon the descendants of Noah in the vlains of Shinar.

Page  62 B62 A'MIERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [0ooX I ANALYSIS. 9.'Ifthe scriptural account of the deluge, and the saving I Zc oty of Noah and his fImily be only a " delusive fable;"' at int the euptpio- what time. and under wliat circumstances, it may be asked. sc.i'pturil te- could sucil a fable have been inmposed upon the world fbo d.ege. ice., a fact, and with such impressive force that it should be is afable. universally credited as true, and transmitted, in many languages, through different nations, and successive ages, 2. The atter- by oral tradition alone? 2Those who can tolerate the n.ativeoftho-se Qoitolecrte supposition of such universal credulity, have no alterna., gw,:h a smv',?po- ^ eiethizupo tive but to reject the evidence derived firom all humar experience, and, against a world of testimony weighing against them, to oppose merely the bare assertion of infidel unbelief. CHAPTER I. A MERI C A AN T I QU r TIEs SECTION I. ANTIQUITIES FOUND IN THE UNITED STATES. 3. Antiquiti 1. "THE Antiquities of the Indians of the present race of the present are neither numerous nor important. 4'They consis; race. chiefly of ornaments, warlike instruments, and domestic 4. Consist of what. utensils; such as rude stone axes or tomahawks, knives and chisels, pipes, flint arrow-heads, an inferior kind of earthenware, and mortars that were used in preparing 5. Where maize or corn for food.'These specimens of aboriginal found, and Zevitcensn of art and ingenuity are frequently discovered in the cultivawhat. tion of new lands, in the vicinity of old Indian towns, and particularly in the Indian burying places; but they pre. sent no evidences of a state of society superior to what 6. Mrodern is found among the Indians of the present day.'Some.nunds' for,uoria n.; 110Sf tribes erected mounds over the graves of illustrious from sthe aZn- chieftains; but these works can generally be distinguishedi e nt toznuli. from those ancient tumuli which are of unknown origin; by their inferior dimensions, their isolated situations, and the remains of known indian fabrics that are found with. in them.. Mode-rn 2.'As articles of modern European origin, occasionally sozetintes found in the Western States, have sometimes been blended wzstalcen for with those that are really ancient, great caution is requi. ancient relibc. site in receiving accounts of supposed antiquities, lest out credulity should impose upon us some modern fraglneir

Page  63 r-~,,.. t 1 AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 63 for an ancient relic.'As the French, at an early period, ANA rYis had establishments in our western territory, it would be 1.r,pleene, surprising if the soil did not occasionally unfold some of French lost or buried remains of their residence there; and ture; F,'ench, accordingly there have been found knives and pickaxes, lRoan colu. iron and copper kettles, and implements of modern warfare, together with medals, and French and English coins; and even some ancient Roman coins were found in a cave in Tennessee; but these had doubtless been deposited there, and perhaps in view of the exploration of the cave, by some European since the country was traversed by the French.'But, notwithstanding some 2. Reported reported discoveries to the contrary, it is confidently be- azncientcomi lieved that there has not been found, in all North Amer- 4C, ica, a single medal, coin, or monument, bearing an inscription in any known language of the Old World, which has not been brought, or mrade here, since the discovery by Columbus. 3.'There are, however, within the limits of the United 3. Rsvzartna. States, many antiquities of a remarkable character, which ties, con/fescannot be ascribed either to Europeans or to the present ally i O Indian tribes, and which afford undoubted proofs of an origin from nations of considerable cultivation, and elevated far above the savage state. 4No articles of me- 4. Preservs chanical workmanship are more enduring than fragments tioofear.t of earthen ware, specimens of which, coeval in date with the remotest periods of civilization, have been found among the oldest ruins of' the world.'Numerous specimens, 5 Secsn-ens found inz the, moulded with great care, have also been discovered in the United stars. western United States, and under such circumstances as to preclude the possibility of their being of recent origin. 4. 6Some years since, some workmen, in diging a well 6 Z7,aethen near Nashville, Tennessee, discovered an earthen pitcher, at_ Nshville. containing about a gallon, standing on a rock twenty feet below the surface of the earth. Its form was circular, and it was surmounted atl; the top by the figure of a female head covered with a conical cap. The head had strongly marked Asiatic features, and large ears extending as low as the chin.* 5'Near some ancient remains on a fork of the Curn- 7. T7e " Tr, une Vessel" berland River, a curious specimen of pottery, called the foJtnd on or T~,~;,,,,,,,,,,1 ~~ re Trl~l ~~ fort of the Triune vessel," or "Idol," was found about four feet gca'be.tlada below the surface of the earth. It consists of three hollow heads, joined together at the back by an inverted bellshaped hollow stem or handle. The features bear a strong resemblance to the Asiatic. The faces had been painted' Archelogia Americana, vol. 1. p. 214.

Page  64 en 4 ~ AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. LBoos L ANALYSIS. with red and yellow, and the colors still retained great brilliancy. The vessel holds about a quart, and is composed of' a fine clay, which has been hardened by the action of fire. t. Idol of clay 6.'Near Nashville, an idol composed of clay and gypasd gypsuu r found,near. sum has been discovered, which represents a man without ashville. arms, having the hair plaited, a band around the head, and a flattened lump or cake upon the summit. It is said in all respects to resemble an idol found by Professor Pallas in the southern' part of the Russian empire.* 2. Ashes and 7.'In an ancient excavation at the State salt works in earthen Sare Illinois, ashes and fragments of earthen ware were found fSolnt. at great depths below the surface; and similar appearances have been discovered at other works; which renlers it probable that these springs were formerly worked by a civilized people, for the manufacture of salt.t S. Renmaiz Remains of fire-places and chimneys have been dis afaid chmes covered in various places, several feet below the surface.Zeys. cf the earth, and where the soil was covered by the heaviest forest trees; fi-om which the conclusion is probable that eight or ten hundred years had elapsed since these hearths were deserted.T 4. Medals re- 8. 4Medals, representing the sun, with its rays of light, the s.n; cop- have been found at various places in the Western States, Vc",'' together with utensils and ornaments of copper, someC-. times plated with silver: and in one instance, in a mound at Marietta, a solid silver cup was found, with its surface 5. ar.ioa.S ar- smooth and regular, and its interior finely gilded.~'Artitlile of cles of copper, such ias pipe-bowls, arrow-heads, circular medals, &c., have been found in more than twenty a. Mirors of mounds. ~Mirrors of isinglass have been found in many i:inlaSs; places. Traces of iron wholly consumed by rust have 7. Articles of been discovered in a few instances.'Some of the articles pottery. of pottery are skilfully wrought and polished, glazed and burned, and are in no respects inferior to those of modern manufacture. 1[ 8. 7'7se e.- 9. 8These are a few examples of the numerous articles,tnle.igr.l. of mechanical workmanship that have been discovered, and which evidently owe their origin to some former race, of far greater skill in the arts, than the present Indian 9. Mer ha- tribes possess. 9But a class of antiquities, far more integ,,is; thei2 resting than those already mentioned, and which afford c[haracter and' e-tlnt. more decisive proof of the immense numbers, and at least Areheelorla Americana, vol. 1. p. 11, and Pallas's Travels vol. 21ld.'n Some of ithe ndian tribes mnade use of roce salt, but it is not known that they un.dersto4 thle process of obtaining it by evaporation or boihing. Archcelogia Anm. vol. i. p. 202. Schooleraft s Yiew, p. 276. ii ehoolcrasft:'S Mississippi, vol. i. 2092, and Archcllogia Am. vol. i. p. 227.

Page  65 CHAPr. f1.] AITERICAkN ANT1QUITIES. 65 partial civilization of their authors, consists of embank- ANALYSIS. ments of earth, trenches, walls of stone, and mounds, which are found in great numbers in the states bordering upon the Mississippi and its branches,-in the vicinity of the Great Lakes and their tributaries,-and in the Southern States and Florida. 10.'Although upwards of a hundred remains of wnat.Rueeat. were apparently rude ancient fbrts or defensive fortifica- intf tions, some of which were of considerable dimensions, hlave been discovered in the state of New York alone, yet they increase in number and in size towards the southwest. Some of the most remarkable only can be described. 11.'At Marietta, Ohio, on an elevated plain above the 2. Ruins at present bank of the Muskingum, were, a few years since, 3Marietta. some extraordinary remains of ancient worksa which ap- a. see No. t, pear to have been fortifications. 3'They consisted, princi- 3. Consist page. pally, of two large oblong inclosures, the one containing 9 what. an area of forty, and the other of twenty acres, together with several mounds and terraces, the largest mound being one hundred and fifteen feet in diameter at the base, and thirty feet in altitude. 12.'The fortresses were encompassed by walls of 4. Description earth, from six to ten feet high, and thirty feet in breadth. o/th` lareer On each side of the larger inclosure were three entrances, at equal distances apart, the middle being the largest, especially on the side towards the Muskingum. This entrance was guarded by two parallel walls of earth, two hundred and thirty feet apart, and three hundred and sixty feet in length, and extending down to the former bank of the Muskingum. 13.'Within the inclosed area, near the northwest 5. Appear. corner, was an oblong terrace, one hundred and eighty the inclosid eight feet in length, and nine feet high,-level on the sum- area. mit, and having, on each side, regular ascents to the top. Near the south wall was another similar terrace; and at the southeast corner a third. Near the centre was a circular mound, thirty feet in diameter, and five feet high; and at the southwest corner, a semicircular parapet, to guard the entrance in that quarter. 14.'The smaller fort had entrances on each side, and 6*.Th7e trglr fort or inclo. at each corner; most of the entrances being defended by sure. circular mounds within.'The conical mound, near the 7. Conica smaller fort, was surrounded by a ditch, and an embank- itO. near ment, through which was an opening towards the fortification, twenty feet in width. This mound was protected, in addition, by surrounding parapets and mounds, and outworks of various forms. 8Between the fortresses were ions.

Page  66 66 AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [Boox L ANALYSIS. found excavations, one of which was sixty feet in diame. I. T'heirpr.ob. ter at the surface, wvith steps formed in its sides.'Thlese able. design. excavations were probably wells that supplied the inhabit. ants with water. - -_ No. 2. ANCIENT WVORKS i No. 1. ANCIENT...... /,;,, - WORKS AT MARI.ETTA. AT CIRCLEVILIE, OHIO. v Refrere nces / T-r7-~ _ fe4 m. Morllnc. lid ~ t7'I~ — W.V Walls of llqundou ~ d,, 9 e:artilh. tve arthen inclosures connected wit each othe; one an b d~~:. See P~7~,~c NoJIIC~g7C~S1~7~e~o.Ac\ 2. ct circe, act square; the diamete/ of the forac me bein sixty n i, and each side of the ar lattr fifty ine. The walls of ert h e square inclosc as ten feet height, havig seven openings or gate. Mound on. 2. IC ice8 at 15. At Circleville, near the Sciota River, were two. &clevitte. e~arthen inclosure was connected with each otheirty one in di. b. S e. act circle, and the otsum he an eact squreods at; the diametea of the foer beinpart siaty nine ods, and each side of' the 3. The square latter fifty nine.'The wall of the square inclosui-c ~cvae iucl intd. p r a tce. bout feet in heirodht, havins a severn oenings or gatef 4. T circpebble- ways, each protected by a mound of earth.'The cirnin iversure. lar inclosure was surounded bin two walls, with a ditc. between them ing the height from the bottom of the ditch tc 5. Central the top of the wails being twenty feet. 5'n the centre of feound. the nclosure was a mound ten feet lo ig, thirty feet inal surfcli.. Sec ofir- ameter at the summit, and several rods at the base. u Easl ua fire, an d f the mounde-partially and exa enis, an fiwv ilnclflned or six rods, was a sebuicirntalso a cular pave qnt, composed of pebbles, such as are found in the bed of the adjoinie ad river,-and an inclined plane leading to the summit.. Contents 16.'On removing the rtedh composand shoing the appenoud, thereof a blde f 1/se sneusd. were found, immediately below it, on the oriirinal surfahe of the earth, two human skeletons partially consumed Lv fire, and surrounded by charcoal and ashes, and a few bricks well burnt;-also a large quantity of arrow-heads, -the handle of a small sword or knife, made of elk-horn, having a silver ferule around the end where the blade had been inserted; and showing'the appearance of a blade which had been consumed by rust,-a large mirror of isinglass three feet in length and eighteen inches in width, and on the mirror the appearance of a plate of iion which

Page  67 CHAP. 11.1 A*MJERICAN ANTIQUrTIES. 67 had likewise been consumed by rust.'A short distance ANALYSIS. beyond the inclosure, on a hill, was another high mound, 1. Mol,,,d abe which appears to have been the common cemetery, as it yondtahe incontained an immense number of human skeletons, of' all c sizes and ages. 17.'Near Newark, in Licking County, on an extensive 2..AenIt and elevated plain at the junction of two branches of the tNork~ near Muskingum, were the remains of ancient works of a still Ohiomore interesting character.a At the western extremity of a. See No. 3 these works was a circular fort containing twenty two acres, on one side of which was an elevation thirty feet high, built partly of earth, and partly of stone. This circular fort was connected, by parallel walls of earth, with an octagonal fort containing forty acres, the walls of which were ten feet high. To this fort were eight openings or gateways, about fifteen feet in width, each protected by a mound of earth on the inside. 0.0 r... _ CIE.NWR __ No. - - - //// AN2 18. From the tbrt, parallel walls of earth proceeded. Pa to the former basin of the river: —others extended several eoth: othe miles into the country;-and others on the east to a square closures: fort containing twenty acres, nearly four miles distant.* mounds ~ From this latter fort parallel walls extended to the river, and others to a circular fort a mile and a half distant, containing twenty six acres, and surrounded by an emba nkm et ront y five to thity feet high. Farther north and east, on elevated ground protected by intrenchents, were mounds containing the remains of the dead. * The proportionate length of the parallel walls of earth in the enavedplae, has been dl nuiehed, for wvant of roollm. inbiisrhed, for ivant; of 1~oom.

Page  68 68 AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [Boox 1. ANALYSIS. south, connected these works with others thirty n. iles dis. tant. 1. Ancient 19.'Near Somerset, in Perry County, is an ancient uomerset, in ruin,a whose walls, inclosing more than forty acres, were a. see No. 4, built with rude fragments of rocks, which are now thrown pre.eing down, but which were sufficient to construct a wall seven feet in height, and five or six in thickness. The inclosure has two openings, before one of which is a large and lligh rock, protecting the passage. Near the centre of the work is a circular conical mound, fifteen or twenty feet in height; and in the line of the wall, and forming a part of it, is one of smaller dimensions. Near the southern extremity of the inclosure is a small work, containing half an acre, whose walls are of earth, but only a few feet in height. 2. Works on 20.'A short distance west of Chilicothe, on the North the North Bnach of Branch of Paint Creek, there are several successive natPudint C'reek. b. See No., ural deposites of the soil, called river bottoms, rising one preceding above the other in the form of terraces. Here are an. page. cient worksb consisting of two inclosures, connected with 3. TheZargest each other.'The largest contains an area of one hun. sre dred and ten acres, wholly surrounded by a wall of earth, and encompassed by a ditch twenty feet wide, except on the side towards the river. Within this inclosure, and encompassed likewise by a wall and ditch, were two circular works, the largest of which contained six mounds, 4. The smnal- which have been used as cemeteries. 4The smaller iner one. closure, on the east, contains sixteen acres, and is surrounded by a wall merely, in which are several openings or gateways. 5. Ruins at 21. 50n Paint Creek, alm, a few miles nearer ChiliPaint Creek. cothe, in the same state, were extensive ruins, on opposite e. See No 6, next page. sides of the stream. GThose on the north consisted of an I. Inclosures irregular inclosure, containing seventy seven acres, and sideo the two adjoining ones, the one square and the other circular, the former containing twenty seven and the latter seven7. tounds, teen acres.'Within the large inclosure were several wells, elevations, ac. mounds and wells, and two elliptical elevations, one of d. Seeain whichd was twenty five feet high and twenty rods long. [t}eengraving. This was constructed of stones and earth, and contained vast quantities of human bones. 8. Other 22.'The othere elliptical elevation was from eight to av Se.ks fifteen feet high. Another work,f in the form of a half f. See c. moon, was bordered with stones of a kind now found about a mile from the spot. Near this work was a mound five feet high and thirty feet in diameter, composed entirely of red ochre, which was doubtless brought from a hill at a great listance from the place.

Page  69 CHAP. II.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 69 23.'The walls of the ruins on the south side of the ANALYSIS. stream were irregular in form, and about ten feet high. 1. Ruinson The principal inclosure contained eighty four acres, and th southeside the adjoining square twenty seven. A small rivulet, ris- e ing without the inclosure, passes through the wall, and loses itself in an aperture in the earth, supposed to have been originally a work of art. ANOIENT WORKS..BreVLWs ON PAINT CREEK. No. 6. w'ell 7n l7l 24.'East of these works, on the summit of a rocky 2. Stone wall. precipitous hill, about three hImdred feet in height, rises a wall of unhewn stone, inclosing an area of one hundred and thirty acres. The wall was on the very edge of the hill, and it had two gateways, one opening directly towards the creek.'A large quantity of ashes and cinders, sev- 3.Aoshaenan eral feet in depth, was found within the inclosure, adjoin- aindero. ing the wall on the south side. 4Below the hill, in the 4. Ize slaterock which forms the bed of the creek, are four wells, several feet in depth. Each was found covered by a large stone, having an aperture through the centre. It is believed that the stream has changed its channel since the wells were excavated. 24.'At the m outh of the Sciota River, on both sides of. Ruan opthe Ohio, are ruins of ancient works several miles in e x- minotr of the tent.a On the south side of the Ohio, opposite Alexan-. SeeNo. 7. dria, is an extensive inc]osure, nearly square, whose walls nextrs.e. of earth are now fiom fourteen to twenty feet in height. At the southwest corner is a mound twenty feet in height, and covering about half an acre. Both east and west of tile large inclosuren re walls of earth nearly parallelh fif a mile or more in length-about ten rods apart-and at present fiom four to six feet in height. 26. O0n the north side of the river are similar ruins, o.s p.i:but more intricate and extensive. Wo ails of e arth, ms mouly,of the Ao on thdive patrallel, commencing near the Gioita, i after runig a dis- n oSt. o tanoe of nearly four miles, and ascending a high hoill, ter- teOao; rintate near foullr ounds, three of whih are six feet i n e at, height, covering nearly an acre each. The fourth and largest is twenty feet high, and has a raised walk ascend

Page  70 '0 IAiOiERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [Book L ANALYSIS. ing to its summit, and another descending fiom it.'Near I.Iound2s, this was a mound twenty five feet in height, containing weZi8, 6-c. the remains of the dead; and about a quarter of a mile northwest another mound bhad been commenced. On the brow of the hill is a well now twenty feet deep, and two others near, of less depth. From the summit of the hill Para.lle are parallel walls, nearly two miles in length, extending wual. eastwardly to a bend in the Ohio, and thus embracing an area of several square miles within the circuit of the work1s and the river. ANCIENT TWORKS (Ic 9 A' PORTSKOUT.1 OHlIO. / No. 7, 9 Af Alexandrna 0 2. Rcuins 27l. R]uins similar tol those already mentioned are four d s i0helik.sig'it. in great numbers tllroulhhout almost the entire valley of Pi valle- the Mississippi, but tlhose in the State of Ohio have been the most carefully surveyed, and the most accurately des. Stone walls scribed. 3In Miissouri are the remains of several stone in ois3lri. worlks; and in Gasconade county are'che ruins of an ancient town, regularly laid out in streets and squares. The walls of the ruins were found covered with large cotton 4. tz,/sfa(- trees, a species of poplar, of full growth. 4Similar re. ther est. mains have been discovered in the territory west of the State of Missouri, and also on the Platte River, the Kanzas, and the Arkansas. b. Mounds 28. MoModuns, likeiwise, of various forms, square, oh. sge Unitea long, or circular at the base, and flat or conical at the States- summit, have been found in great numbers throughout the United States; sometimes in isolated positions, but S. Terir mostly in the vicinity of the mural remains. 6Some were used as general cemeteries, anid were literally filled with human bones: others appear to have been erected as monuments over the a.snhes of th e (dead, h-heir bodies having

Page  71 CHAP..]3 AMIERICAN ANTI QUITI IES. 1 first been burned, a custom not usually prevalent with ANALYSIS. the Indians of the present day The object of others is -... not certainly known, but probably some were designed for defence, and others for religious purposes.'9. "There were several extensive mounds on the site.Mosunsat of Cincinnati. One of these, first described in 1794, had then on its surface thle stunps of oak trees several feet in diameter,* Beneath it were found the remains of a human body, and various ornaments and instruments of lead, copper, and of stone. 2Beneath an' extensive mound in 2 Mound at Lancaster, Ohio, was found a furnace, eighteen feet iong aOstzo. and six wide, and upon it was placed a rude vessel of earthenware, of the same dimensions, containing a number of hunman skeletons. Underneath the vessel was a thick layer of ashes and charcoal.t39. SNear Wheeling, Virginia, was a mound seventy 3 MIoozds feet in height, and sixty feet in diameter at the summit.,w/, VSrNear it were three smaller mounds, one of which has ginza. been opened. It was found to contain two vaults, built of pillars of wood supporting roofs of stone; and within them were human bones, together with beads of bone or ivory, copper wristlets, plates of mica, marine shells, and in one a stone marked with unknown characters. 4Neariy 4. 110u.oas opposite,-t. opposite St. Louis, in illinois, withiin a circuit of five or six Louis miles, are upwards of one hundred and sixty mounds; and in the vicinity of St. Louis they are likewise numerous. 31. 5About eleven miles from the city of Natches, in 5 MUounds Mississippi, is a group of mounds, one of which is thirty- i,7D 1tSSis/ five feet high, embracing on its summit an area of four acres, encompassed by an embankment around the margin. Some, however, have supposed that this is a natural hill, to which art has given its present fbrm. On the summit of this elevation are six mounds, one of which is still. thirty feet high, and another fifteen.j:'32.'Upon the north side of the Etowah River, in aG. ound i Georgia, is a mound seventy-five feet high, and more Gesr.ia. than three hundred in diameter at its base, having an inclined plane ascending to its summit. 7The lmounds 7. ound of' Florida are numerous and extensive, many of them zo.d. near the sea coast being composed of shells. 8. Charter 33. 8Such is the general character of the numerous itle,no-tn? ancient remains that have been found in so great num- s-~,is. * Transactions of the Amer. Philo. Soc. vol. iv., p. 78. Silliman's Journal, vol. i., p. 4.28. B Bradford's American Antiquities, p. 58. Silliman's Journal, vol. i., p. 322. It appears that some mounds of this description were onllstructed by the ancestors of the preset Incdians. See T. Irving's eloricda, vol i., pp. 148, 149.

Page  72 72 AMtERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [Boox I ANALYSIS. bers throughout the TTnited States. West of the Allegha. nies, the number of the mural remains alone has been estimated at more than five thousand, and the mounds, The awo2r at a much greater number.'T'hat they were the worJk otus,andi r.. of multitudes of the human family, who were associated tially civi- c ized, ub-t ue ill large communities, who cultivated the soil. and who no p.e- had arrived at a degree of' civilization considerably beyond that of the present Indian tribes, cannot be doubted. But the names and the history of these people we shall probably never with certainty learn. Curtained by the hand of time, which has left no written records, if any ever existed, their all but a few earth-embosomed relics have passed 2. Eviadence into oblivion. 2At the period of the first discovery of the of the antiquity of the continent, not only had this unknown but numerous peoso.cbed. ple passed away from their ancient dwelling places, but ages must have elapsed since their " altars and their fires" were deserted; for over all the monuments which alone perpetuate the knowledge of their existence, the forest had already extended its shades, and NATURE had triumphantly resumed her empire, cheating the wondering European with the belief that her solitudes had never before been broken but by the wild beasts that roamed here, or the stealthy footsteps of the rude Indian. SECTION il'. ANTIQUITIES FOUND IN OTHER PORTIONS OF THE CONTINENT.. Increasing 1.'Although the deserted remains that have beein ecvilization described, and others of a similar character-the work of,r wtoe proceed'arther south. a people apparently long extinct, were the only evidence of a former civilization within the limits of the United States; yet a far different spectacle was presented onl entering the regions farther south, where, instead of the buried relics of a former greatness, its living reality was found. 4. ieziceoand 2. 4When the Spanish invaders landed on the coast of Peru at the time of their Mexico and in Peru, they found there, instead of feeble discovery by the Span- wandering tribes, as at the north, populous and powerful iar d- agricultural nations, with regular forms of government, established systems of law and religion, immense cities, magnificent edifices and temples, extensive roads,* aqueu ducts, and other public works;,all showing, a high degree of advancement in many of the arts, and rivalllng, in A* "At the time when the Spaniards entered PerLu, no kingdom in Europe could boast ao any work of public utility that could be compared with the great roads formedt by the Incas." —.Robertson's A me? ica

Page  73 $I2AP. ILf. AIIMERICAN ANTTIQUITIES. 73 many respects, the regularly organized states of the Old ANALYSIS. World. 3.'The Mexicans constructed pyramids and mounds. a.ex.ic,.,~ far more extensive than those which have been discovered mnounds: in the United States.'Withlin the city of' Mexico alone, gziditythe, wvere mosre than two thousand pyramidal mounds, the ct of Melargest of wvliich, in the central square of the city, was constructed of clay, and had- been erected but a short time befbre the landing of Cortes. it had five stories, with flights of stairs leading to its superior platform; its base was three hundred and eighteen feet in length; its height was one hundred and twenty-one feet, and it was surroulnded by a wall of' hewn stone. This pyramid was dedicated to one of the Mexicanz gods, and sacrifices were offered upon its summit. 4. In Tezeuco was a pyramid constructed of enormous 2 Pyramid. mnasses of basalt, regularly cut, a:.d beautifully polished, work, in and covered with sculptures. There are still seen the Tezcuc. fbundations of large edifices, and the remains of a fine aqueduct in a state of sufficient preservation for present use. —Near the city of Cholula, was the largest pyramid 3. Pyramidtof in Mexico. This also was designed fbr religious purposes, and was sacred to the "6 God of the Air." It was constructed of alternate layers of clay and unburnt brick, ana was one thousand four hundred and twenty-three feet in length, and one hundred and seventy-seven feet in height. 5. 4Such was the character of some of the Mexican 4. General character and pyramids, the ruins of many of which, imposingly grand eant.ntof the even inm their desolation, still crown the hill-tops, and zefico. strew the plains of Mexico. The remains of extensive public edifices of a different character, devoted to the purposes of civil life, and many of them built of hewn and sculptured stone, are also numerous. 6The soil of Mexico 5. Aricutwas under a rich state of cultivation, and the cities were atud' eopu,-a not onl-, numerous, but some of then are supposed to have tion fico.contained one or two hundred thousand inhabitants. The city of Tezcuco, which was even larger than that of Mexico, was estimated by early writers to contain one hundred and forty thousand houses. 6'Extensive Lruins of cities, containing the remains of e. Natureaznd pyiramids and the walls of massive buildings, broken eruinbs/f,ud columns, altars, statues, and sculptured fragments, show- and Cei'uaZ ng tihas their authors had attained considerable knowledlge of the arts, and wAere a numerous, alt hough an idolatrous people, are likevwise found in greeat numbers throughout Chiapas and Yucatan; and in fithe neighboring Central American provinces of Honduras and Guatimala. Only 1 t)

Page  74 74 AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [Bocx L Thcaztan, auZd LiCe a few of these structures, and e-[-Y.Lo'ig 11 iU... 81 21, perhaps those not the most'r.1riZ t sho | interesting or important, can aj-cyeit's C~) C1 be described here; but this I47 V 0, 4i'~Ion,; Xi. 20 brief notice of them will con-'- A'" " " "vey a knowledge of their gen. 0eral character.* The annex. A, o' ~-rO:NnDT S ed map shows the localities of iTA3AS:C.....; _ the ruins that are described, I', z:~l.;. / /.- the most important of which dt~, Lhi~ha 7,.' -.o'-~ Ii are those of Palenque in Chi\\S.'S,.D /~_t. - o47 -O-rA"... "'Ctl"wua I apas, of Copan in Honduras, }!___x-.______-. __..-<_ _ v! and of Uxmal and Chichen in...... Northern Yucatan. ANALYSIS. RUINS OF PALENQUE. 1. Ruins of 1.'The ruins of Palenque, in the province of Chlapas, Palenque bordering upon Yucatan, are the first which awakened attention to the existence of ancient and unknown cities 2. Our frst in America.'They were known to the Spaniards as knowledgle of lheom. early as 1750; and in 1787 they were explored by oider of the King of Spain, under a commission from the government of Guatimala. The account of the exploration was however locked up in the archives of Guatimala until the time of the Mexican Revolution. In 1822 an English translation was published in London, which was the first notice in Europe of the discovery of these ruins. PLAAN -> gRNo. 6. OF THE RUINS OF PALENQUE. No.. 7j=jjN=o. 1. No.4 0 -, -5a see No.. 2. 4The principal of the structures that have been o. Thne eleva- described,% stands on an artificial elevation, forty feet lion on which * For the description of the Ruins of Palenque, Copan, Chichen, Uxmal, &c., we are mainly Indebted to the valuable works of Mr. Stephens. The illustrative engravings are likewise taken, by permission, from the same works, to which the reader is referred for the fullest de cription which has yet been published of the Ruins in this portion of Amerira. See Stephens'' Central America, Cheiapas, and Yucatan," 2 vols. 1841; and Stephens' " Incidents of Ta4ae, ~'n Yucatan," 2 vols. 1843.

Page  75 CHAP. II.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 75 high, three hundred and ten feet in length, and two hun- ANAL SIS. dred and sixty in width. This elevation was formerly stanids the faced with stone, which has been thrown down by the principal of the ruins of growth of trees, and its form is now hardly distinguisha- FPalenque. ble.'The building itself, which is called by the natives i. The bluitd 6 The Palace," is about twenty-five feet high, and meas- " l'zetla:E ures two hundred and twenty-eight feet front, by one hun- c dred and eighty feet deep. The front originally contained fourteen doorways, swith intervening piers, of which all but six are now in ruins. lAN OF PALENQUE No. 1, ALLED TE. The dark pars represent the walls that:0t [_E~r E_7-78 trees, and strewed with ruins. L;uX'' W E~f sala %7C~rd. he ]z! Y 4. n each side of ths re t h TE are Th e forms of gig allntic tha. are still sanding. The other walls are in r~uinnearly as I ard as stone, and painted.'The piers are 3. r i6-m covered with human figures, feet hieroglyphics, and orna-with head-dresses and necklaces; and on the farther side ments. 4The building has two parallel corridors, or gal- 4. Co7?rjdo7ts. leries, running lengthwise on all four of its sides, the floors of which are covered with an exceedingly hard cement, and the walls ornamented,'In the eastern part 5. Stone steps of' the building, a range of stone steps, thirty feet long, and rt leads from the inner corridor to a rectangular court yard, eighty feet long by seventy broad, now encumbered by'Erees, and strewed with ruins. 4. 60n each side of the steps are the forms of gigantic;. Sculpture4 human figures, nine or ten feet high, carved on stone, with 1zumarn5Ja9rice head dresses and necklaces; and on the, farther side

Page  76 76 AM3'ERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [BooK l ASALYSIS. of the court yard, on each side of a corresponding fligh. l. Stone of steps, are similar figures.'In one part of the building tooer. is a substantial stone tower of thiree stories, thirty feet square at the base, and rising far above the surrounding 2.ornanzents, walls.'The ornaments throughout the building are so athe roms. numerous, and the plan of the rooms so complicated, as to forbid any attelmpt at minute description.. Description 5. 3Immediately adjoining the building above described 0f the build- y j ing called is another,a but of smaller dimensions, although placed on the Tribunal of Jus- a more elevated terrace. Both terrace and buildino- are a. See No. 2, surrounded by trees, and completely overgrown with them. page 74 The front of' the building': richly ornamented in stucco, the corner piers are covered with hieroglyphics, and the intervening ones with human figures. The walls are very massive, the floors are paved with large square stones, and in one of the corridors, projecting from the wall, are two large tablets of hieroglyphics, each thirteen feet long and eight feet high. This building has been called, by the Spaniards, the " Tribunal of Justice;" and the tablets of hieroglyphics, the " Tables of the Law.". other 6.'The remainino buildings of Palenque are likevise buildinrgs. placed on elevated terraces, and in their general character are similar to those already described. 5. Bxtent of'Although it has been repeatedly asserted that these teruinsquef ruins cover a space of fiom twenty to sixty miles in extent, and although it is possible that in the dense surrounding forest other ruins may yet be discovered, yet it is believed that all those which have been explored are embraced within an area of less than an acre. RUINS OF COPAN. S. Situation 1o.'The ruins of Copan, in the western part of Hondu. fiCeopan. ras, adjoining, the province of Guatimala, are on the east, Etevated terl aces. | ~ ii 1r~e ~ ~ 3ei litso......!j i 8 < 0 [t C........... 1nl K2 ii LUC(P A. N I'':~, - -..... -IIil v.... l~~i! Ijl/Lir;~i~nj OP`j~l~li;::L:UC 0 _P jI i~~~ll~jl I n~~~ ~

Page  77 CHIAP. I.] A-MERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 77 ern bank of a small stream that falls into the Bay of hon- ANALYSIS. duras.'A wall of cut stone, from sixty to ninety fee,. a1,,,r. high, running north and south along the margin of thle roundang tah stream,-its top covered with furze and shrubbery, —is yet standing in a state of good preservation; and other walls of a similar character surround the principal r uins W1Vithin these walls are extensive terraces and pyramidal 2. Character of the ruins buildings, massive stone columns, idols, and aitLas, cov- withn the e-ed with sculpture; some of which are equal in work - manship to the finest monuments of the Egyptians, and all now enveloped in a dense and almost impenetrable forest. 2.'The description given by Mr. Stephens, of the im- 3. Th' depressions made upon him by the first view of these ruins, gi?by r.. is so graphic, that we present it here, although in a con- Stephelns densed form, yet as nearly as possible in the language of the writer. 4After working his way over the walls and 4Tnterior of ineclosure. through the thick wood to the interior of the inclosure, "we came," he says, "to an area so covered with trees, that at first we could not make out its form, but which, on clearing the way, we ascertained to be a square, with steps on all the sides, almost as perfect as those of the Roman amphitheatre. 3. 6' These steps, ornamented with sculpture, we as- 5. Broad an cended, and reached a broad terrace a hundred feet high, lofty terrace. overlooking the river, and supported by the wall which we had seen from the opposite bank. The whole terrace was covered with trees; and even at this height from the ground were two gigantic cotton trees, about twenty feet in circumference, extending their half naked roots fifty or a hundred feet around, binding down the ruins, and shading them with their wide spreading branches. 4. "I We sat down on the edge of the wall, and strove 6." Who built in vain to penetrate the mystery by which we were sur- thecity?" rounded. Who were the people that built this city? Historians say America was peopled by savages; but savages never reared these structures-savages never carved these stones. We asked our Indian attendants who erected these works, and their dull answer was,'VWho knows?' There were no associations connected with the place, none of those stirring recollections which hallow Rome, and Athens, and'The world's great mistress on the Egyptian plain. lut architecture, sculpture, and painting,-all the arts rts eparterl which embellished life,-had flourished in this overgrown glory forest. Orators, warriors, and statesmen,-beauty, am.. bition, and glory, had lived and passed away, and none could tell of their past existence.

Page  78 78 AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [BOOK I ANALYSIS. 5.'I The city was desolate. It lay before us like a 1. It edsola- shattered bark in the midst of the ocean, her masts gone, tion an mys- her name effaced, her crew perished, and none to tell whence she came, to whom she belonged, how long on her voyage, or what caused her destruction. All was mystery, —dark, impenetrable mystery; and every circumstance increased it. An immense forest shrouded the ruins, hiding them from sight, heightening the impression and moral effect, and giving an intensity and almost wildness to the interest." 2 Eztent of 6. 2The ruins extend along the river more than two the ruins. miles, but the principal portion of them is represented on a. See p. 76. 3. Terraces, the annexed Plan.a 3The numerous terraces and pyrafragments, mids are walled with cut stone; and sculptured fragments carved heads, abound throughout the ruins. Remains of carved heads, " idols," "altars,'" c. of gigantic proportions, ornament many of the terraces; and numerous colossal statues, or " idols," of' solid stone, from ten to fifteen feet in height, are found; some erect, others fallen. There are likewise many "altars," all of a single block of stone,-some richly ornamented, but each differing from all the rest,-many of them now much faded and worn by their long exposure to the elements. Some are in their places before the idols; others are over. thrown, and partially or wholly buried in the earth. n _ _ _ _ SOLID STONE ALTAR, FOUND AT COPAN; six feet square and four feet high, the top covered with hieroglyphics. 4. Descrtp. 7 4One of these sculptured altars, standing on four of eofar globes cut out of the same.stone, was six feet square and four feet high, with its top covered with hieroglyphics, and each side representing four individuals. The figures sit cross-legged, in the oriental custom;.-the head-dresses are remarkable for their curious and complicated forms;all have breastplates; and each holds some article in his

Page  79 6CAP. II.J AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 7 hand. The absence of all representations of weapons of ANALYSIS war, and the nature of the ornaments, induces the belief that the people were not warlike, but peaceable, idolatrous, and probably easily subdued. 8.'Two or three miles from the ruins, there is a stony 1. QuarrLea. range where are quarries from which the stones for the walls and buildings of Copan were evidently taken. There are huge blocks of stone of different degrees of finish; and others are found on the way to the city, where they were probably abandoned when the labors of the workmen were arrested. RUINS OF CHlICHEN. 1.'The ruins of Chichen, in the central part of north-!2. Sguotio, ern Yucatan>, are about thirty miles west of Valladolid; thae'.u.iUst' and as the high road passes through them, they are proba- ah.ceMape. bly better known than any other ruins in the country. 74 The buildings which are still standing are laid down on the annexed 1" Plan." The whole circumference occupied by them is about two miles, although ruined buildings appear beyond these limits. A - C SUc J66 o f 7iE73isEeer~ 4l "fee1 -> O7W''>, NO. UI orl-i',.... -..... (V. " _'. Following the pathway firom the "Modern Build-.ocr'o g', as denoted on the annexed Plan, at the distance of i'b.o thirty or forty rods we arrive at the building represented as No. 1. This buildin faces the east, and measures oe lhundred and forty nine feet in front, by forty-eight Geet deep. The whole exterior is rude and without ornea ment of any kind. In the centre of one side, a grand staircase, forty-five feet wide, now in ruins, rises to the roof of the building. The whole niurxber of apartments is eighteen; one of which, from its darkness, and from athe sculptulre on the lintnl of its doorway, has given a C~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'ulit Ilis:? asdentedon he aneedlPla, a th ditar ee N, i ~t~-~~v r fr~Tr n~n~np~ ~''iV~! lli]C~lr X1r17,ec ns: d~u.1. ~;, uildng acesthe as~, an meauJ1 olle Illwctred and ijrtylnine feet in fi~~~~~~oat, b~~s fo~ty-ei\gftk ~ietdepTle hoe xiri-t s'L~i ad it~p A Pll? men, o an ]ind Inthecetreof ne it-PI4 1an

Page  80 80 A IIERTICUIN ANTIQUI'TES. [Boo I L ANALYSIS. name to the whole buildin, —S:ignifying, in the Indian languag e, the " Writing in the dark." 1. Tihe 3. iLeaving this building, and following the pathway o,~ i2?is.," about thirty rods westward, we reacel a majestic pile of,. See No 2, buildins, called the "H Iouse of the Nuns;"'a remrarkable pregin~. for its good state of preservation, and the richness and.Eltecrior beauty of its ornaments.'On the left, as w;e approach, is a building measuring thirty-eight feet by thirteen; and on the rigiht is another which is twenty-six feet long, fourteen deep, and thirty-one high. The latter has three cornices, and the spaces between are richly ornamented. 3. he vin- 4.'The principal pile of buildings consists of three cipai pile of &ebeilclZego, structures, rising one above another. On the north side,'alstaircasees, a grand staircase, of thirty-nine steps, fifty-six feet wide pla72t fogs, and thirty-two feet high, rises to the top of the first range, upon which stands a second range of buildings, with a platform of fourteen feet in front extending all round. From the back of this platform, on the south side, the grand staircase rises again, fifteen steps, to the roof of the second range; which forms a platform in front of the third range. These several buildings rest on a structure solid from the ground, the roof of the lower range being 4. Circzumfe- merely a platform in front of the upper one.'The cirrence antd heig~ht of the cumference of the whole structure is six hundred and structure thirty-eight feet, and its height is sixty-five feet.. Ufoppera2ct- 5. 5The upper platform forms a noble promenade, and ments, inner commands a magnificent view of the whole surrounding infs, c. country. The apartments are too numnerous to be described. The inner walls of some had been covered witn painted designs, now much defaced, but the remains of which present colors, in some places still bright and vivid. Amnong these remains are detached portions of human figures, well drawn —the heads adorned with plumes of feathers, and the hands bearing shields and spears. G. The Car- 6. 6At the distance of four hundred feet northward from,b. Seo. 3'o the 4' House of the Nuns," stands a circular building,b preceding twenty-two feet in diameter, upon the uppermost of two page. extensive terraces. On account of its interior arrangements, this building is known as the Caracol or 6' Wind7. Stih.ccse ing staircase." 7A staircase forty-five feet wide, and contc7des. taining twenty steps, rises to the platfbrm of the first terrace. On each side of this staircase, forming a sort of balustrade, were the entwined bodies of two gigantic sculptured serpents, three feet wide,-portions of which are still in their places. a. Second 7. 8The platform of the second terrace is reached'by staaire. another staircase, and in the cenlre of the steps are the remains of a pedestal six feet high, on which probably

Page  81 CE: AP. LI.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 81 once stood an idol.'The inner walls of the building are ANALYSIS. plastered, and ornamented with paintings now much de- 1. In faced.'The height of the building, including the terraces, 2. H oit of is little short of sixty feet..he building. B.'A few hundred feet northwest from the building 3. other 0 build"ngs. last described, are two others,a each upon elevated ter- a. See4 &5, races. 4The most interesting object in the first of these, Pagie r9 which is yet in a state of good preservation, is a large glypios. stone tablet covered with hieroglyphics. The farther terrace and building are fast going to decay. —These are 5. Iounds, the only buildings which are still standing on the west side sneiUts, fce of the high road, but the vestiges of extensive mounds, with remains of buildings upon them, and colossal stones, and fragments of sculpture, strew the plain in great profusion. 9. 6Passing from these ruins across the high road, we 6. The come to the Castle or Tower,b the grandest and most con- b. See No. 6 spicuous object among the ruins of Chichen.'It stands page 79. upon a lofty mound faced with stone, measuring, at the on.7ohico it base, two hundred and two feet, by one hundred and otan ninety-six, and rising to the height of seventy-five feet.'On the west side is a staircase thirty-seven feet wide; 8. Staircases, and on the north is one forty-four feet wide, and contain- heads. ing ninety steps. At the foot of this staircase are two colossal serpents' heads, ten feet in length, with mouths open and tongues protruding. "The platform on the top of 9. Upper patthe mound measures sixty-one feet by sixty-four, and the building forty-three by forty-nine. 10. ~0Single doorways face the east, south, and west, lo.Doorwaey. having massive lintels of wood covered with elaborate carvings, and jambs ornamented with sculptured human figures. The principal doorway facing the north is twenty feet wide, and has two massive columns, eight feet eight inches high, with large projections at the base, entirely covered with elaborate sculpture. "The building itself is 11. Height of twenty feet high, forming, in the whole, an elevation of tIe uilding. nearly a hundred feet.-"A short distance east of this i2. Groups of structure is an area of nearly four hundred feet square, inclosed by groups of' small stone columns from three to six feet high, each consisting of several separate pieces, like millstones. 11.'"Several hundred feet northwest is another strue- J3. I mmensa ture,~c consisting of immense parallel walls, each two Liun- Poralo. dred and seventy-four feet long, thirty feet thick, and one c. See No. 7. page 79. hundred anld twelty feet apart. 14O)ne hundred feet from 14. Buildings each extremity, facing the open space between the walls, iatthteetr. are two buildings considerably in ruins,-each exhibiting the remains of two columns, richly ornamented, rising'I

Page  82 82 AM1ERICAN ANTIQUITIES. LBOOK j ANALYSIS. among the rubbish.'In the centre of the great stone walls, 1..Massive exactly opposite each other, and at the height of twenty stonerings. feet from the ground, are two massive projecting stone rings, four feet in diameter and thirteen inches thick, having on the border two sculptured entwined serpents. 2f Importance 12.'These stone rings are highly important, as a ray of f thrng historic light gleams upon them, showing the probable 3. Hetrrera's object and uses of this extraordinary structure. 3Herrera, tinzilaWzs,of in his account of the diversions of Montezuma, in describan, their ing a game of Ball, has the following language: " The place where they played was a ground room, —long, narrow, and high, but wider above than below, and higher on the sides than at the ends; and they kept it very well plastered, and smooth, both the walls and the floor. On the side walls they Jived certain stones like those of a mill, with a hole quite through the middle, just as big as the ball; and 4. Important he that could strike it through there won the game." 4If' ernom this the objects of this structure are identical with the Tennis stance. Court, or Ball Alley, in the city of Mexico, the circumstance establishes, with little doubt, an affinity between the people who erected the ruined cities of Yucatan, and those who inhabited Mexico at the time of the conquest. 5. Dtclription 13.'At the southern extremity of the most eastern of of a building adjoining these parallel walls, and on the outer side, is a building paft/lel consisting of two ranges; one even with the ground, and oailo. the other about twenty-five feet above it,-the latter being in a state of good preservation, and having conspicuous, on the cornice, a procession of tigers or lynxes. The rooms of both divisions abound with sculptures, and designs in painting, representing human figures, battles, houses, trees, and scenes of domestic life. RUINS OF UXTMAL.* S. Ruins orf! The ruins of Uxmal are about fifty miles south of (Tfmal. Merida, the principal city and the capital of Yucatan. 7. Thase'The most conspicuous building among the ruins is Governor." called the " louse of the Governor,"; so named by the a. Se2No.,e Indians, who supposed it the principal building of the sH ow situa- ancient city, and the residence of its ruler.'This buildted. ing stands on the uppermost of three ranges of terraces, 9. The frst each walled with cut stone. 9The first terrace is five and second terraces. hundred and seventy-five feet in length, and three feet high. Above this, leavingr a platform fifteen feet wide, rises a second terrace, twenty feet high, and five hundred forty-five feet longr,-having rounded corners instead of * Pronounced nox-mal. Thle t, in Spanish, when sounded, is pronounced like double o

Page  83 !InAP. Il. A;ttERIC AN A NTI QUITirES. S3S....',-' <':~:; -''-OF..... PLAN "'W Ci, ~C'<~~~~~ m OF TIIE RUINS OF w IUXMIAL. |@? o a rp1Z~ too Scale of Feet. 1 C1 ~.f -..::,-: 1' tt'rSt A e,, 100 300 500 600 with trees, which have beel cleared awv since t he exw-N.', pioratioon of the ruins. hosy covereo. 2.'in the middle of the second terrace is an inclined, 2. rloke, broken, round pillar, five feet in diameter and eight feet high.'Two hundred and fifty feet fiom the front of this 3. Stairc~s.. second terrace, rises a grand staircase, one hundred and thirty feet broad, and containing thirty-five steps, ascending to a third terrace nineteen feet above the second.'This uppermost terrace is three hundred and sixty feet l.Upemo. long, and nearly a hundred broad; and on its platform buid,,n on stands a noble stone building, of elegant proportions, three tspzlatform hundred and twenty-two feet in length, thirty-nine feet broad, and twenty-four feet high. The front view of a portion of this building is represented in the annexed engraving. (See next page.) 3.'This fiont has thirteen doorways, the principal of *' The/~o,~( which is in the centre, opposite the range of steps leading t1builtdinF. up the terrace. The centre door is eight feet six inches wide, and eight feet ten inches high. The others are of the same height, but two feet less in width.'The wails. Watt'~s of of the edifice are of plain stone up to the mouldings that teeOe. run along the tops of the doorways; above which, to the top of the building, are ornaments and sculptured work in great profusion, without any rudeness in the designs, out of symmetrical proportions, and rich and curious workmanship.'The building is divided into two ranges 7. Theron>> of rooms from front to rear.' The floors are of cement, a. see, the and the walls are of square stones smoothly polished, and ase. laid with as much regularity as under the rules of the best modern masonry. hioh.'Tw hnded ndfify ee frm hefrot f tis3.StarCWC loc, n eal hnrd ra; n o t pafrmbidilo

Page  84 R8 I4 AMJERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [Bouo 1. I l ap ping', an c oee V i'by 11layer o' fia tst. A tikIl 9t'' - I ITIEVF IRA - VIEF BUILDN T I I ga mould has aclao he r o, a I _ l GhROUND PLAN or: NBuILDIDO No I, UN AL. ANALSS 4. lThe roofs like ihof most of the uins in Yucar 1. Throof tan, fornms a triaeglar arch, constructed with stornesoverlapping, and covered by a layer of flat stones. A thichh falling of the walls may be attributed. Had the lintels at this day. 3..Description 5.'At the northwest corner of the second terradea there fthe Tur- iS a building which has been called the " House of the tles." Turtles," a name which originated froni a row of turtles a.eeND LAN BUILDING eTO,, Uh SIS,' p. The sculptu roof, lie os othe cornice. This bof the uins ninety-fou lap feet in fgont and thirtyed byou feet deep. It wants the ich and gorgeou das de cr ations of the "House of the Governor," but it is distingui shed for the justness and beauty of its proportions and the chf aste woodess an sipliy of them its ornaents. Thing itheir places, but othowevers perfast going to decay. The roof has fllen, and the walls are tottering, and with a few thmore re iturns of the ruainson the whole will be a mass of ruins.* 4. Dewo ruitin- 6. A shot distance no rth of this building are two runthere therortrh. ed edifng eices, s evenet apart, each being one hundred eet in fot, and tiry-fou feet deep.ns..Itwants menlts. This noble building is, however st I Ste~exhens. 1841.

Page  85 CHAP. II.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. ~5 and twenty-eight feet long, and thirty feet deep. The ANALYSIS. sides -facing each other are embellished with sculpture; and there remain, on both, the fiagments of entwined colossal serpents, which once extended the whole length of the walls. 7.'Continuing still farther north, in the same direction,. Foour rccrtnges of we arrive at an extensive pile of ruins,- comprising four reciicees. great ranges of edifices, placed on the uppermost of three a. See No. 2 terraces, nineteen feet high.'The Dlali of the buildings is 2. Plan of th0 quadrangular, with a courtyard in the centre. The en- The,.tbzalet ce trance on the south is by a gateway ten fbet eight inches on the south. wide, spanned by a triangular arch. 3The walls of the 3. ornanenfour buildings, overlooking the courtyard, are ornamented, ted ivalle. from one end to the other, with rich and intricate carving, presenting a scene of strange magnificence. 8.'The building on the western side of the courtyard 4. tBue.l^dng isone hundred and seventy-three feet long, and is distin- the cortyard, with its guished by two colossal entwined serpents, runnilg eoiossatlseup. through and encompassing nearly all the ornaments pe,,.z. throughout its whole length. These serpents are sculptured out of small blocks of stone, which are arranged in the wall with great skill and precision. One of' the serpents has its monstrous jaws extended, and within them is a human head, the face of which is distinctly visible in the carving.'The whole number of apartments opening 5. Apartupon the courtyard is eighty-eight. nets 9.'East of, and adjoining the range of buildings just corty. Aote described, is another extensive courtyard; passing through wo...nd, cand "lozse of which we arrive at a lofty mounldb faced with stone, eighty- the Doarf." eight feet high, and having a building seventeen feet high,b. sN,,o. 3 on its summit; making, in the whole, a height of one hundred and five feet. This building is called the "House >f the Dwarf," and the Indians have a curious legend concerning its erection. It presents the most elegant and tasteful arrangement of ornaments to be seen in Uxmal, but of which no adequate idea can be given but in a large engraving. 10. 7There are several other extensive buildings at 7. Other buildingrs Uxmnal; but a sufficient number have been described to Utmal.g give an idea of their general character. They cannot be Fully undenrstood without elaborate engravings accompanying the descriptions, for which the reader is again referred,o the highly valuable works of lMr. Stephens. 11. 8Another interesting feature of these ruins, how- s. Su bterrae ever, should not be overlooked. Subterraneous chambers e0risc, the are scattered over the whole ground covered by this ruin- vthe rutans ed city. They are lome-shaped-from eight to ten feet deep, and froml twelve to twenty in diameter,-lthe walls

Page  86 i6 n:AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [BooK 1 AnrAIYSS. and ceilings being piastered, and the floors of hard mortar. Their only opening is a circular hole at the top, barely large enough to admit a man. The object ofthese chambers is unknown. Some have supposed them intended as cisterns, or reservoirs; and others, that they were built for granaries, or storehouses. 1~. mi~,~, 12.'South and south-east of IUxmal is a large extent of south anrtd 6outvwest of country which is literally covered with ruins, but few of 8. AtLatbna. which have yet been thoroughly explored.'At Labnat a. SeeMap, there are several curious structures as extraordinary as those of Uxmal, one of which is represented by the fbllowi- ng e'nraving. BUILDING AT LABNA, 40 feet high, placed on an artificial elevation 45 feet high.. Description 13.'This buildinf, which stands on an artificial mound, of the building. faced with stone, forty-five feet high, rises nearly forty feet above the summit of the mound, making in all a height of more than eighty feet. The building is forty three feet in front, and twenty in depth; and the exterior walls were once covered with colossal figures and orna. ments in stucco, most of which are now broken and ini fragments. Along the top, standing out on the wall, is a row of death's heads; and underneath are two lines of human figures, of which scattered arms and legs alone remain. 1. Ruins at 14. 4At Kewick,'t a short distance south of Labna, are Kew, ick.!., See Map numerous ancient buildings, now mostly in ruins, but re. pae 74, markable for the neatness and simplicity of their archi. tecture, and the grandeur of their proportions. An engraving of the principal doorway of one of these build. ings is given on the opposite page.

Page  87 az:ahr. II.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. * i ~J'~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ll, I' t~'~ ~ P1'r'CIPAL Doom0vy.-lY 0F A IUILDINoG AT KIEWICI. C H A P T E R I I ANALYSIS. SUPPOSED ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN ANTIGQUITIES, AND OF THE INDIAN TRIBES. 1.'We have now closed our descriptive account of tC Oyec1t o American Antiquities, and shall proceed, in the same }Brief manner, to consider the question of their origin, and.he origin of the Indian tribes. 2X-With regard to most, if not all, of the ruined structures 2. Theruined edifices found found in Mexico, Yucatan, and Central Ame'ica; and iedieie.ico, also in Peru; there appears now but little difficulty in attributedec.o satisfactorily ascribing their origin to the aborigines who the abori5were in possession of those countries at the time of their discovery by Europeans.'It is known that, at the time 3. Knoon to have been in of the conquest of Mexico and the adjacent provinces, tiher posses edifices, similar to those whose ruins have been described, time of thee were in the possession and actual occupation of the native conquest. inhabitants. Some of these structures already bore the marks of antiquity, while others were evidently of recent construction. 2. 4The glowing accounts which Cortez and his comn-. TheacIpanions gave of the existence of extensive cities, and bycourtse magnificent buildings and temples, in the actual use and and hicort. occupation of the Indians, were so far beyond what could.ohy discred. ired by mod. be conceived as the works of "ignorant savages," that ern oritera. modern historians, Robertson among the number, have been inclined to give little credit to their statements.

Page  88 88 1AMERICAN ANTIQUITlES. [Boos L ANALYSIS.'But the wrecks of a former civilization which now strew Ev Esoences the plains of Yucatan and Central Anerica, confirm the infavor of accounts of the early historians; for these' uildings, whe. cotMZts. ther desolate or inhabited, were then there, and at least more perfect than they are noiw; and some of them were described as occupying the same localities where they have since been found. 2. First ei- 3. 3 VWhen the Spaniards first discovered the coast of Yucatan. Yucatan, they observed, along its shores, "villages in which they could distinguish houses of stone that appeared 3. HIerrera's white and lofty at a distance." 3aHerrera, a Spanish hisYoctaott. torianll, says of Yucatan, " The whole country is divided into eighteen districts; and in all of them were so many and such stately stone buildings that it was amazing; and the greatest wonder is, that having no use of any metal, they were able to raise such structures, which seem to have been tcm!pJles; for their houses were always of timber, and thatched." 4. The ac- 4. 4Another writer, Bernal Diaz, iwho accompanied the co'un t given bv Berncl expeditions of Cortez, speaks of the Indians of a large Diaz-, of the naiveo of town in Yucatan, as being "' dressed in cotton mantles,"Teccat.and of their buildings as being " constructed of lime and stone, with figures of se-penzts and of idols painted upon the f. of the walls." 5'At. another place he saw'; two buildings of lime bzbildin~s, wlidch/he and stone, well constructed, each with steps, and an altar satoithere. placed before certain figures, the representations of the 6. Of the gods of these Indians."'Approaching Mexico, he says, coeuntryoar - r appearances demonstrated tlat we had entered a new country; for the tenmples were very loftyi; and, together with the terraced obuildings, and the houses of the caciques, being plastered and whitewashed, appeared very well, anr resembled some of our towns in Spain." 7. Of the city 5.'The city of Cholula was said to resemuble Vallado. ofr hotzua. lid. It " had at that time above a hundred lofty white 8. towers, which were the temples of their idols."'The tle counte, o Spanish historians speak repeatedly of buildings of lime o'ivee?, by the,Spnish tean?d stone, painted and sculptured ornamnents, and plastered i/terts. swalis; idols, courts, strong wails, and lofty temples, with high ranges of steps,-all the work of the indians, the ins. The con- habitants of the country. 9In all these accounts we easily Cku.sion arri-,ed at. recognize the ruined edifices which have been recently discovered; and cannot doubt that they owe their origin to the ancestors of the Indians who now reside there-subdued -broken in spirit-and degraded, and still held in a sort of vassalage by the Spanish inhabitants. 0:. sp,plosed 6. "'Nor indeed is there any proof that the semi-civil. gar (1 azl the ized inhabitants of Mexico, Yucatan, and Central Amreri zli.ibwee ca, were a race different from the more savage tribes bo

Page  89 ,IZ.AP. 1II.3 AMIERICAN ANTIQUITIES~ 89 which th-ey were surrounded: but, on the contrary, there ANA:,YSIS. is much evidence in favor of their common origin, and in - proof that the present tribes, or at least many of them, are but the dismembered fragments of former nations. 7.'The present natives of Yucatan and Central Ameer- i. Theirsim ilar natural ica, after a remove of only three centuries from their capacitiew. more civilized ancestors, present no diversities, in their natural capacities, to distinguish them fiom the race of the common Indian. ~'And if the Mexicans and the Peru- 2. suppose vians could have arisen from the savage state, it is not imn- tJhroZuh probable that the present rude tribes nmay have remained zih theyav in it; or, if' the latter were once more civilized than at passed. present,-as they have relapsed into barbarism-so others may have done. 8. 3The anatomical structure of the skeletons found 3.z AntoOnica, Stru"~ ct'ure, wvithin the ancient mounds of the Unit d States, does not nlzp.asent hozysical apciiier more from that of the present Indians than tribes of p,-ctafncco the latter, admitted to be of t-e same race. differ from each other. In the physical appearance of all the American aborigines, embracing the semi-civilized Mexicans, the Peruvians, and the wandering savage tribes, there is a striking unifbrmity; nor calln any distinction of races here be made. 9. 4In their languages there is a general unity of struc- d. Great anti'y of thU ture, and a great similarity in grammatical forms, which pqeriod ofp eopitA A;nerprove their common origin; while the great diversity in ia. and the the words of the different languages, shows the great an- COgzo7 t7hei tiquity of the period of peopling America.'In the gene- abor.igine.S, b shown by the rally uniform character of' thleir religious opinions and lantgtzceso t Yhe tribes. rites, we discover original unity and an identity of origin; 5. By their while the diversities here found, likewise indicate the very opinionls. early period of' the sepairation and dispersion of tribes. 6Throughout most of the American tribes have been found 6. By their Pictorial detraces of the pictorial delineations, and hieroglyphical sym- lineations. bols, by which the Mexicans and the Peruvians communicated ideas, and preserved the melmory of events.* 10. 7The mythological traditions of the savage tribes, 7. By the sihn I rilaity of and the semi-civilized nations, have general features of their tradiresemblance,-generally implying a migration from some tons. other country,-containing distinct allusions to a deluge -and attributing their knowledge of the arts to some fabuious teacher in remote aes.'Throughout nearly the S. By their whole continent, the dead were buried in a sitting jos- mode of uo ture; the smoking of tobacco was a prevalent custom, ol;'~ striltf,; and the calumet, or pipe of peace, was everywhere deemed,ntnto~. sacred. And, in fine, the numerous and striking analogies * See Mexican IHistory, page 562. 12

Page  90 90 AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [BooK I ANALYSIS. between the barbarous and the cultivated tribes, are sufficient to justify the belief in their primitive relationship and common origin.. coneaition 11.'But whether the first inhabitants were rude and of the earliest isnhabitants barbarous tribes, as has been generally supposed, or were unknowon. more enlightened than even the Mexicans and the Peruvians, is a point which cannot be so satisfactorily deter2. A civiliza- mined.'But, whichever may have been the case, it is tion anterior to that of the certain that these nations were not the founders of civiliza Mexicans and the Peru- tion on this continent.; for they could point to antiquities vians. which were the remains of a former civilization. S. Ancient 12. 3The Incas of Peru, at the time of the conquest, ac9tructures t9srougilout knowledged the existence of ancient structures, of more South America. remote origin than the era of the foundation of their empire; and these were undoubtedly the models from which they copied; and throughout an extent of more than three thousand miles, in South America, ancient ruins have been discovered, which cannot be attributed to the Peruvians, and which afford indubitable evidence of the previous existence of a numerous, agricultural, and highly civilized people.. Ancient ed- 13. 4The Mexicans attributed many ancient edifices in ifces in aex- ico attribu- their country to the Toltecs, a people who are supposed to ted to the Toltees. have arrived in Mexico during the latter part of the sixth 5. Mayoeot century.'It, is said that the Toltecs came from the north; the Toltecs have been the and it is highly probable, although but mere conjecture. authors qf the toreksfo6nd that they previously occupied the valley of the Missisin the United p States?. sippi and the adjacent country, as far as the Alleghanies on the east, the Lakes on the north, and Florida on the south, and that they were the authors of the works whose remains have been found in the United States. 6. Auestionother 14. But still another question arises: when, how, and Witifirstset- by whom was America first settled?-and who were the ancestors of the present Indian tribes? We shall notice the most prominent of the many theories that have been advanced upon this subject, and close with that which appears to us the most reasonable. Believed by'It is believed by many that the ancients were not unmany that the ancients acquainted with the American continent; and there are were ac.. quaintedwith indeed some plausible reasons for believing that an extenAnerica. sive island, or continent, once existed in the Atlantic Ocean, between Europe and America, but which afterwards disappeared.. A dialoguTe 15.'In a dialogue written by Theopoompus, a learned by Theopom-n Pus. historian who lived in the time of Alexander the Great. one of the speakers gives an account of a continent of very. The, Cars great dimensions, larger than either Asia or Africa, and navigator. situated beyond these in the ocean. 9it is said that Han it,

Page  91 CHAP. 111.1 AMIERICAN AN'TIQ UITIES. 91 the great Carthaginian navigator, sailed westward, from ANAL-S1S. the Straits of Gibraltar, thirty days; and he-nce It isinferred by many that he must have visited Arlerica, or some of its islands.'Diodorus Siculus says, that' to- 1. Tiec ae wards Africa, and to the west of it, is an immense island coy Diodore in the broad sea, many days' sail from Lybia. Its soil is bS"icl very fertile, and its surface variegated with mountains and valleys. Its coasts are indented with many navigable rivers, and its fields are well cultivated." 16.'Plato's account, however, is the most full, and Prato,~. more to be relied on than that of any other of the ancients. The most important part of it is as follows: "In those early times the Atlantic was a most broad island; and there were extant most powerful kings in it, who, with joint forces, attempted to occupy Asia and Europe. And so a most grievous war was carried on, in which the Athenians, with the common consent of the Greeks, opposed themselves, and they became the conquerors. But that Atlantic island, by a flood and earthquake, was indeed suddenly destroyed; and so that warlike people were swallowed up." 17.'Again he adds, " An island in the mouth of the 3. Continua. sea, in the passage to those straits, called the pillars of tiaccount.lato' Hercules, did exist; and that island was larger than Lybia and Asia; from which there was an easy passage over to other islands, and from those islands to that continent, which is situated out of that region." Plato farther remarks that " Neptune settled in this island, and that his descendants reigned there, from father to son, during a space of nine thousand years. They also possessed several other islands; and, passing into Eu.rope and Africa, sub. dued all Lybia as far as Egypt, and all Europe to Asia Minor. At length the island sunk under water, and for a long time afterwards the sea thereabouts was full of rocks and shoals." 18. 4These accounts, and many others of a similar 4. Theimpor character, from ancient writers, have been cited, to prove tadeattachthat America was peopled from some of the eastern conti- to these acnents, through the medium of islands in the Atlantic, thgarioou which have since disappeared. Various writers have triu"tedtoths thought that they could perceive in the languages, customs, and religion of the Indians, analogies with those of the Greeks, the Latins, the Hindoos, and the Hebrews; and thus the Indians have been referred, by one, to a Grecian; another, to a Latin; a third, to a Hindoo, and a fourth, to Hebrew origin. Others, with equal show of argument, deduce their origin from the Phceniciano; and thus almost every country of the old world has claimed

Page  92 92 AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [Book. ANALYSIS the honor of being the first discoverer of the new, and.-..... hence the progenitor of the Indians. I The theory 19.'Others, again, among whom may be numbered _Lo1db Voltaire and Lord Kames, finding a difiiculty in reconciling the varieties of complexion and feature, found among the human family, with the Scriptural account that all are descended from the same pair, have very summarily disposed of the whole matter, by asserting, that " America has not been peopled from any part of the old world." 2. Noneces- 20. 2We believe, however, that in order to account for nast nzention. the peopling of America, there is no necessity for resorting eetheory. to the supposition that a new creation of human beings 3. No evi- may have occurred here.'And, with regard to the dence that dif-.. ferent Euro- opinion entertained by some, that colonies from different heav o~unesere European nations, and at different times, have been estabieed etab- lished here, we remark, that, if so, no distinctive traces of them have ever been discovered; and there is a uniformity in the physical appearance of all the American tribes, which forbids the supposition of a mingling of different races. 4. Navigation 21 4There is no improbability that the early Asiatics aoncie:ts. reached the western shores of Amrnerica through the islands of the Pacific. There are many historical evi. dences to show that the ancients were not wholly ignorant of of na-yiatin;. In the days of Solomon, the navy of Hiram, king of Tyre, brought gold from Ophir; and the navy of Solomon made triennial voyages to Tarshisbh. 5. Conmerce, 22.'The aromatic productions of the Moluccas were 6oage,, Ct.,t known at Rome two hundred years before the Christian ancienarth era; and vessels of large size then visited the ports of the f2an, Itn- Red Sea.t The British islands were early visited by the guesee, c. Phoenicians; and the Carthaginians are believed to have circumnavigated Africa. The ancient Hindoos had vessels, some of great size, but the commerce of the Indies was principally in the hands of the Arabians and the Malays. When the Portuguese first visited the Indian Archipelago they met with large Malay fleets, some of the vessels of which were large galleys. 6. Adventi- 23. 6But without attributing' to the Asiatics any greater iouS cauoses hmayhove maritime knowledge than the rude South Sea islanders brouht the Asiatics to were found to possess, yet, by adventitious causes, such the American' ceat. as the drifting of canoes, and adventurous voyages, it is highly probable that the people of Asia might, in progress of time, have reached the western shores of the American *1 Kings, ch. 10. I Crichton's Hist. Arabia

Page  93 ChIAP. II.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 93 continent. 1But the extensive distribution of the Red or ANALYSIS. Monoolian race, throughout nearly all the habitable islands,. Theextenof the Pacific, however distant from each other, or far re- tvoe,o 0stlibt moved from the adjoining continents, presentsfacts which rea race establishes the cannot be disputed, and relieves us from the necessity of probability ao arguing in support of probabilities. tion. 24.'That some of the northern, and rudest of the 2tot ssoble, American tribes, early migrated from Siberia, by Behring's tVWbo cameO by way of Straits, is not at all improbable. The near approach of Behrin,r's the two continents at that point, and the existence of intervening islands, would have rendered the passage by no means difficult.'But should we even trace all the S. The theory not aifected American tribes to that source, we still ascribe to them an by this sup Asiatic origin, and include them in the Mongolian race. positeon. CONCLUSION. 1.'From the circumstances which have been narrated, 4. ProbabiZity of the early it seems reasonable to conclude that the Red race, at an and etenaim early period, and while in a state of partial civilization, tae red.os e emerging firom Oriental Asia, spread over a large portion of the globe; and that through the archipelagos of the Pacific, and, perhaps, also by way of Behring's Straits, they reached the western continent,-leaving in their way, in the nume rous islands of the sea, evident marks of their progress; and bringing with them the arts, the customs, the religion, and the languages of the nations from which they separated,-traces of which, faint, indeed, through the lapse of ages, it is believed could still be recognized among the Mexicans and the Peruvians at the time of the discovery of those people. 2.'Whatever may have been the origin and history of'. rThe probable sodathe more savage tribes of the north, it is believed that the tin, poirts of western shores of this continent, and perhaps both Mexico can, civiliza. and Peru,-equally distant from the equator, and in regions tion. the most favorable for the increase and the support of human life, were the radiating points of early American civilization; from which, as from the hearts of empire, pulsation after pulsation sent fbrth their streams of life throughout the whole continent,'But the spread of civili- 6o The spread of that civ el. zation appears to have been restricted, as we imight reason- izatiioi hol ably expect to find it, to those portions of the continen't alnthe eiwhere the reiwards of agricuilture would support a numer- OC sus population. Hence, following the course of this civilization, by the rem sins it has left us, we find it limited bVy thle barren,egions of Upper Mexico, and the snows of

Page  94 94 AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [Book 1I ANALYSIS. Canada on the north, and the frosts of Patagonia on the' —--- south; and while in Mexico and Peru are found its grand. est and most numerous monuments, on the outskirts they dwindle away in numbers and in importance. i. TheL speeu. 3.'Considering the vast extent of these remains. spreadlotion into b wohieh ti, ing over more than half the continent, and that in Mexico grandeurof and South America, after the lapse of an unknown series thee, reisn. of ages, they still retain much of ancient grandeur which " Time's effacing fingers" have failed to obliterate, it is certainly no wild flight of the imagination to conjecture that in ancient times, even coeval with the spread of science in the east, empires may have flourished here that would vie in power and extent with the Babylonian, tile Median, or the Persian; and cities that might have rivalled Nineveh, and Tyre, and Sidon; for of these ema. pires and these cities, the plains of Asia now exhibit fewer, and even less imposing relics, than are found of the former inhabitants of this country. ~2. Morsl 4.'It appears, therefore, that on the plains of America,,ectio~n - surrounded by all that was lovely and ennobling in nature, and the human mind had for ages been left free, in its moral and social elements, to test its capacity for self-improveV~ELATONr. ment. Let the advocates of REASON, in opposition to REVELATION, behold the result. In the twilight of a civilization that had probably sprung from Revelation, but which had lost its warmth while it retained some portion of its brightness, mind had, indeed, risen at times, and, under favoring circumstances, to some degree of power;-as was exhibited in those extensive and enduring structures, which were erected for amusements and pleasure, or worship, or defence; but, at the time of the discovery, the greater portion of the continent was inhabited by savage hordes, who had doubtless relapsed from a former civilization into barbarism. Even in the brightest portions, deep ignorance brooded over the soul; and, on temples dedicated to the sun, human sacrifices were made, to appease the wrath of offended gods, or propitiate their favor. The system of NATURE had been allowed the amplest field for development; its capacities had been fully tried; and its inadequacy to elevate man to his proper rank in the scale of being, had been fully proved. It was time, then, in the wisdom of Providence, for a new order of things to arise; for Reason to be enlightened by Revelation, and for the superstitions of a pagan polytheism to give place to the knowledge of one God, the morality of the Gospel, and the religion of the Redeemer.

Page  95 B0K II.. HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES'Westward the star of empire takes its way; The first four aot, already past,The fifth shall cloge the drama with the day; Time7s nhl.uet er,pire is the last." EB HV TML -RY

Page  96 1 —~~~~~~~~ -~~:.-:.-..' —. —._,..,....:.: —:-.- ~ ~~~, --— ~.-, I~i- -' -~~~-T-~._:-'~'- -' —-_-_: — I. > -K- -, - > t- M\ %,... ON~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~N ____-_?_ ~ Y- ~k-~k14 — -- ----- -'-,~ —-= I~=-~iir== — 1 __ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~L If gI~ -4A'~~~i JK I Fiji~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~;!:t:.,~.,~___. _:_~__..,~~ ~.-J..... oizr~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ v~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~-~~~~ -T,~ ~Y]':ti D:E:iB:~~l;~,s~ 1:2 LA~DIN~ — O {._: T. LANDING OF THE PT1GI'T113 AT PTYiMCTI'lTii')iiCff~IE 2K?~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ f(~~~~~~~ L~

Page  97 THE PUBLIC SEALS, OR COATS OF AR2!:A. OF THIE SEVERAL UNITED STATES. As the engraved copies of the Public Seals, or Coats of Arms of the several United States would possess little interest without the appropriate Descriptions or Explanations accompany. ing them, and as the latter cannot be fully understood without a knowledge of the Heraldric terms, in which those descriptions are often worded, we deem it important to give a brief account of the origin, nature, and design, of these and similar emblematical devices. Ixn the early ages of the world, and even anmong the rudest people, various devices, signs, and mlarls of honor, were used to distinguish the great and noble from the ignoble vulgar. Thus we find in the writings of Itomer, Virgil, and Ovidl, that their heroes had divers figures on their shields, whereby their persons were distinctly kInown. Nations also adopted symbolical signs of distinction, which they displayed on their banners and arms. Thus the national emblem of the Egyptians was an Ox, of the Athenians an Owul, of the Goths a Beal-, of the Romeans an Eagle, of the Franks a Lios, alnd of the Saxons a Horse. Even the North American savages had their distinctive emblems. Thus the Otter was the emblem of the Ottawas; and the Wolf, the Bear, and the Turtle, of the divisions of tihe Iroquois tribes;-and these devices were often painted on the bodies of their warriors. It. is supposed that, in Europe, the Crusades and Tournaments were the cause of methodTzing and perfecting into a science the various national, family, and individual eumblems, to which was given the name of Heraldry; a term which embraced, originally, not only all that pertains to Coats of Arss, but also to the marshalling of armies, solemn processions, and all ceremonies of a public nature. The term " Coats of Arms" probably originated from the circumstance that the ancients embroidered various colored devices on the coats they wore over their armor. Also, those who joined the Crusades, and those who enlisted in the tournaments, had their devices depicted on their arsns, or armor-as on their shields, banners, &c.; and as the colore could not here be retained, particular marks were used to represent them. All coats of arms, formed according to the rules of Heraldry, are delineated on Shields or.Escuztcheons, which are of various forms, oval, triangular, heptagonal, &c. The parts composing the escutcheon, or represented on it, are Tinctures, Furs, Lines, Borders, and Charges. The description of the first and last only, is essential to our purpose. By TINCTURPES is meant the various colors used, the names and marks of which are as followOr, (golden or yellow,) is represented by dots or points... (See No. 1.) Argent, (silver or white,) is plain.. ( " No. 2.) Azz're, (or blue,) is represented by horizontal lines. ( No. 3.) Gzles, (or red,) by perpendicular lines.. ( " No. 4.)!ert, (or green,) by diagonal lines from the upper right corner to the lower left.* ( No. 5.) Psurpre, (or purple,) from upper left to lower right... No. 6.) Sable, (or black,) by horizontal and perpendicular lines crossing each other. ( " No. 7.) For the use of these, and other heraldric terms, see the copies of the recorded descriptione of the seals of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Missouri. No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4, No. 5, No. 6, No. 7. YELLOW. WHITE. LUE. ED. BLUE ED. GREEN PURPLE. BLACK. Sometimes, although seldom, the names of the precious stones are used to represent colors. See the recorded description of the seal of Massachusetts. CARtGEEs are whatever are represented on the field of the escutcheon; the principal of which, in addition to natural and celestial figesres, are the Chief, the Pale, the Bend, the Fess, the Bar, tlhe Cheveron, the Cross, and the Saltier: each of whizh, although occupying its a?propriate space and position in the escutcheon, and governed by definite rules, admits of a great variety of representations The external ornaments of the escutcheon are Crowns, Coronets, Mitres, Helmets, Mantlings, * In all heraldric descriptions, that which is (ualletd the right side, s ( opposite the. pectator's let kmnd; aclld vce resa.

Page  98 %%3C ~ THE PUDLIC SEALS, OR COATrS OF ARMS, [BOOK I mrents, and others nearly all of them. The last mentioned are placed on the side of the escutcheon, stanrding on a scroll, and are t ed bee tthey appear to s.pport or hold u Lhe shield. (See the seals of Maine, New York, New Jersey, Arkansas, MAlissouri, and Michigan It twill be seen that the Coats of Armes of many of the States do not strictly follow the rule Df l.':-..aly, inasmnuch tas they are not represented on shields, or escletcheons, unless the en eircular seals b hedeeed the escutcheons, of which there would be no impropriety, except th some would then contain the figures of shields within shields. Tie design and the effect hcwever are the same in both cases, whether the shield be or be not used. VWhere the heraldri terms are used in the recorded descriptions of the seals, we have written the descriptions anew, giving their purport in our own language, with the exception of the descriptions oft the sea of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Missouri, which, for the purpose of illustration, we have given in both forms. The seals of the sever which are delineated the Coats of Arms which they have adopted, are used by the proper authorities to attest and give validity to public records and documents; and to many public writingps the " Great Seal of State" is an essential requisite. In addition, these Coats of Arms of the States are interesting historical records, all having some peculiar signiflcancy of meaning-being enmblematical of what each State deemed appropriate to express the peculiar circumstances, character, and prospects of its peoplemalny of them enforcing, by significant mottoes, great moral and political truths, and shadowing forth, iby their vnrious representatives of agriculture, commerce, and the arts-liberty, justice, and patriotis t., the future greatness and glory of the ation. Viewed in this ligt, these devices convey many useful lessons,ti and are interesting and appropriate ebellishent for a History of our Country. Such is our apology for introducing them here. The engravings of most of the seals will be bfound different, inl many respects, from those hitherto presented to tthe public. In this matter we have studied ACCURACY, disregardin those additiois and changes which thefi cy of artists has substituted in the place of the original designs. In order to obtain correct copies, we have been at the trouble of procuring impressionsfross tthe oriiesnaol seals; and also, where they have been preserved, the recorded descriptions, found in tlhe offices of the secretaries of state. MAIN.-The Coat of Arms of the State of Maine, as delineated on the seal of the State, consists of a white or - 0silver shield, on which is represented a Pine Tree; and,?~_ _.- at the foot of the sauce a Moose Deer, in a recumbent pos-?~4Z~~~: ( _::ve_::_ ahiteld is ootaof the sa Bz Aa,ture. The Shield is supported, on the right, by a lInAl i? e 5- -gr..:=-bandman resting on a scythe, andi on the left, by a Seaman resting on an anchor. The moasts of a ship appear — _ s'0 f. l in the distance on the left. In the foreground are re-'-i:;,- {.- ~ -- h. m 1,, presented sea and land; and under the shield is the ___ —' k,.-~:~' ~ tbhX s lY Ename of the State, in lare e i toan capitals. Above the shield, for a " Crest," is the North Star; and between flJ4 M fthe star and the shield is the motto, Dinsio, " I direct. \g W"a W" S T"he Pine'Jee, represented on the escutcheon, called <,~._-'...the Mlast Pine-an evergreen of towering height and enormous size-the largest and most useful of American -,~'~-~~s although sell, ihe Apines, and the best timber for masts, is one of the staples of the commerce of Maineas well as the pride of her forests. The voose Dseer, thee largest of the native animals of the State, which retires before the proaching steps of human inhabitancy, and is thus and is s an emblem of liberty, is here represented quietly reposing, to denote the extent of uncultivated lands which the State possesses. As in the Arms of the nited States a cluster of stars represents the States composing the Nation, so the Nsorth Star may be considered particularly applicable to the most northern member of the confederacy, and as it is a directing point in navigation, (Dirigo,) and is here used to represent the State, so the latter may be considered the citizen's guide. and the o ject to which the patriot's best exertions should be directed. The Supporters" of the shield-a HIusbandman on one side representing Agriculture, a Seaman on the other representing Commerce and Fisheries-indicate that the State is oisrted by these primary vocations of its inhabitants.,_ _ j,\ NEW IIAMPSHIRE.-The seal of the State of Ne,, e 3 3 g \ Hampshire contains the following devic., aid inscription {>%', —i}\ - -;Around a circular field, encompassed ty a wreath of - t- - - Ad \laurels, are the words in Itonan capitals, SIoGILLUM EI~ -=- ~_.~? be rPUBLICm Nzo HANTONImESis, "The Seal of the State of...-_-_ —_-_'. New Hampshire," with the date "17S4," indicating th Z4 -g g n period of the adoption of the State Constitution. On the..~-?'-t-~. _ -' f/i eld in the foreground, are represented land and wateron the verge of the distant horizon a rising sun, (the r ____-~"~-'-~' ~ ~-f I sing destiny of the State,) and a ship on the stocks, th \ t the American banner displayed.

Page  99 PART I.] OF THE SEVERAL UNITED STATES. 99 VEDRMONT.-We are informed by thle Secretary of State &f Vermont that there are -no records in the secretary' 0 offce giving a description of the State Seal, or showing a the time of establishing it. IraAllen, however, the historian of Vermont, and her first secretary, states that the seal was established by the Governor and Council in 1778-that the tree on the seal,was an evergreen with \ fourteen branches, thirteen of them representing the thir- teen original States, and the small branch at the top repre- H. senting the State of Vermont supported by the others..In the distance is seen a range of hills representing the Green Mountains; and in the foreground a Cow and H..sheaves of wheat, indicating an agricultural and grazing's~' i country. Around the border of the seal, in Roman cap- —, itals, are the words, VERcMONT. PiREEDOMI AND UNITY.' MASSACHUSETTS.-The following is a copy of the re- A = corded description of the Coat of Arms of Massachusetts, as adopted December 13th, 1780. Sapphire: an Indian dressed in his shirt, moccasins, / belted, proper: in his dexter hand a bow, topaz: in his,,-, sinister an arrow, its point towards the base. On the / dexter side of the Indian's head a star, pearl, for one of /l'i/; the United States of America. Crest, on a wreath, a dex- a ter arm, clothed and ruffled, proper, grasping a broadsword, the pommel and hilt topaz, with this motto, " Ense 1' petit placidam, sub libertate quietem," and around the,6 _ seal, " Sigillum Reipublicce Massachusettensis." We give the following as a free translation of the same, with a few additions. S a,.~/// On the blue ground of an irregularly formed escutcheon, an Indian is represented, dressed with belted hunting shirt and moccasins. In his right hand is a golden bow, and in his left an arrow, with the point towards the base of the escutcheon. On the right side of the Indian's head is a white or silver star, denoting one of the United States of Amserica. For the crest of the escutcheon is a wreath, from which extends a right arm, clothed and ruffled, (the natural color,) grasping a broadsword, the pommel and hilt of whllich are of gold. Around the escutcheon, on a waving band or label, are the words Esnse petit placidain sucb libertate quieten; " By the sword she seeks peace under liberty.; Around the border of tlhe seal are the words, SIGILtInr REIPUBLICs io111ASSACHUSETTENSIS-' " The seal of the State of Massachusetts." RIHIODE ISLAND.-The Arms of the State of Rhode Island, as represented on the Seal of the State, consist of a white or silver shield, on which is an ianchor with two _ flukes, and a cable attached. Above the shield, in Roman capitals, is the word HOPE: and from each upper 7 corner of the shield is suspended an unlettered label. T'he white escutcheon, and the symbol represented on it, are designed as an allusion to those principles of civil eand religious liberty which led to the founding of the colony of Rthode Island, and in whichl the faith of the citizens of the State is still deeply anchor'ed. The motto HIoPrz, above the escutcheon, directs the mind to the uncertain future, anticipating the growing prosperity of the State, and the perpetuity of its free institutions; while the unlettered labels, denoting that events are still progressing in the narch of Time, wait the completion of History, before the destiny of the State shall be recorded on them. CONNECTICUT. - The Seal of Connecticut is of an oval form, plain, and without any ornamental devices, two inches and three eighths in length, and one inch and sevel-eighths in breadth. On it are delineated three Grape Vines, each winding around and sustained by an upright support, the whole representing the three set-? Ai tlements, Hartford, Windsor, ancid Wcthersfield, which formed the early Connecticut colony. In the lower part r 3 j 5 of the seal is the motto, Qus TRANT'ULIT SUSTINET- "i-'; He 5 who transplanted still sustains." Around the border are the words SIGILLU.I REIPUBLICcE CONTNECTICUTENSISc-" The'a Seal of the State of Connecticut." Formerly the seal had a hand on the le.;, pointing with the forefinger to the vines; but that seal has been broken, and the present seal substituted in its place.

Page  100 100 THE PUBLIC SEALS, OR COATS OF ARMS, [BOOK IL NEW YORK.-The followiun is a (escription of the / J2SE ~1;~.u,a ~ present seal of the State of New Yorlk, constructed ac. 46 >i -..cording to Act of March 2.: 1809. A shield, or escutch-.. -.-7~:__ — z:_=:_- econll, o0 which is representel a rising Stilunl, with a range of hills, ansd water in the foregrould. Above the shield - for the Crest, is representeld, on a wrleath, a half globe, on.' 2 f f i which rests a startled eagle, with outstretched pinions. /& 3, PFor the supporters of thie shiel(, on the right is repre4, sented the figure of.uhtstice, with the sword in one hand, and the scales in the other; and on the left the Goddesg of Liberty, with the wand and cap"A in her left hand, and the olive branch of peace in the right. Ilelow the shield'~- \ = S'tEL>T —5 is the motto, ExCELSIoRa " More elevated," denoting that \ <t/4 9 M/~r~v g the course of the State is oelnsasd and Jhigher. Around the 4+ < W, / IIE S1' O EYXIbborder of the seal is the inscription, THE GREAT SEAL OF TIE STAvE OF New YoaK. NEW JERSEY.-The Arms of the State of New Jersey, as represented on the Seal of the State) consist of a white shield or escutcheon, bearing three ploughs-re[~'!~ ~e O ~s presenting the agricultural interests of the State. The Crest fl<7~ i e a/)!i~ is a horse's head, supported by a full faced, six barred helmet, resting on a vase-thle latter resting on the top of K the escutcheon. The Supporters are Liberty on the right, ____.])C~ ~it~.ed$i and harvest, on the left, her right hand resting on the, escutcheon, and her left supporting the Corsucospia, or *v )ijsr!'4 ff L horn of plenty, filled with fruits and flowers. Around sttS 1 the border of the seal are the words, TruE GREAT SEAL'OP Y |':?.. 3...g TI-IE STATE OF NEW JERSEY, and at the base the date of its: I''//,, /~ adoption in numeral letters, MIDCCLXXVI. (1776.) DETLAWVARE.-The Arms of the State of Delaware consist of an azure shield or escutcheol, divided into two;~/ ci,: rr t~,?./~ ~ equal parts by a white band or girdle. On the base part of the escutcheon is representecd a Corw,and in the upper part are two symbols, designed probably to represent the agricultural interests of the State-the one appearing to 1j,%/ [~ g be a sheaf of wheat, and the other a stalk of tobacco. -,' B't The Crest consists of a wreath, supporting a ship under fisll sail, having the American banner displayed. Surrounding the escutcheon, on a white field, are wreaths of flowers, branches of the Olive, and other symbols. At the bottom of the seal is the date of its adoption, i MDCCXClII. (1793.) and around the border the words GREAT SEAL OF TIHE STATE OF DELAWARE. (NO description 5> MOccfe<i t-s of the seal can be found in the Secretary's office, and we 1';,,> have been obliged to describe it from a wax impression ) PENNSYLVANITTA.-The following is a copy of the recordcd description of the Seal of Pennsylvania.'lThe shield is parted per fess, Or: charged with a wyy, \ Psough, psoper. In (hief, onl a sea wavy, prolper, a ship A/>/vk==-z@ \i~ under full sail, surmounted with a sky, azure: and in - t / w / \ bi ia c, oil a field vert, three garbs, Or1: onl the slexter.a ~t 7~..~ff.~...X..~ 7-~ _..5 -l stalk of maize, and oil the sinister *tll olive bnih l;..l..' ~J, }.I flor the Crest, on a wreath of the flowers of the sair a bald IRAg\0t\ @-; a. ErLEle, iroper, percied, w-itll ings extenlded. d Iotto\' ( Virtue, Liberty and Inbmtndl len "e. AoUlid the mn.trg/ in, Seal of the State of Penn.sylvania.l. T reverse., s?.I~;-,Liberty, trimplin on a Lion, gules, the eliblemn of'y/t@ f ranly. Miotto-" lBoth canlt survive." e 5- -',: We give the following as qa free translation of the. Thie sl-lield is parted sy a yreii,w or golden band or girdle, on which is represesnte a Plouglh in its nitLuril (color. In1 the supper part of the escutchon. on the waves of the sea, is representel a ship unuder full sail, surmounted l)y an azure sky.' The iwndll or r!od. anad cap, are siymlb )ti of independence; ieca.use, amonr the anients, the formel' wvas uised t) tthe mnlgistrltes i!l thi celrenmony of minanlmitineg slaves; and the lattel was worn by the slavecs who wsere sooe t be etti) S:i l isll.

Page  101 PAIRT I.] OF''HE SEVERAL UNITED STATES 101 At the base of the escutcheon, on a green field, are three golden sneaves of wheat. On the right of the escutcheon is a stalk of maize, and on the left ass olive branch, and for the Cres:, on a wreath of the flouwners of the olive, is perched a Bald Eagle, in its natural color, with wings extended: holding in its beak a label, with the moto, "; Virtue, liberty, and Independence." Around the miargin of the seal are the words, SEAL O1 TIIE ST rTE OF PENNSYL.VVANIA. (The reverse side of the seal represents the Goddess of Liberty trampling on a Ited Lion, the emblem of Tyranny. Mtottri, " Both can't survive.") VIRGINIA.-On the Seal of Virginia, the Goddess of Virtue, the genius of the Connmmonwealth, is represented - -'u dressed like an Amazon, resting on a spear with one hand,: ~ and holding a sword in the other, and treading on Ty- A rannty, represented by a man prostrate, a crown fiallen /f from his head, a broken chain in his left handi and a' scourge in his right. Above Virtue, on a label, is the'/ word TIRGaINIA; aind underneath, the words. Sic senmper yrearezis, " Thus we serve tyrants." (This seal alsio has a reverse side, on which is representad a group, consisting of three figures. In the cen-' tre is Liberty, with her wand and cap; on the right side Ceres, with the cornucopia in one hand, and ain ear of wheat in the other; and on her left side Eternity, holding \, In one hand the Globe, on which rests the Phoenii, the fabulous bird of the ancients, that is said to rise again from its own ashes.) MARYLAND.-The device on the Seal of the State of Maryland, consists of the American Eagle with wings dis- A B played, having on its breast an escutcheon, the chief or upper part of which is azure, the remaining portion being occupied by vertical stripes of white and red. In the dexter talon of the Eagle is the olive branch of peace, and in the sinister a bundle of three arrows, denoting the three great branches of government, the Executive, the Legis- ( ) lative, and the Judiciary. In a semicircle, over the head,,f the Eagle, are thirteen stars, representing the thirteen original States. The inner border of the seal contains the words, SEAL OF THE STATE 01F MARYLAND. The outer border is ornamental, as seen in the engraving. NORTH CAROLINA.-The figures represented on the Seal of North Carolina are the Goddess of Liberty on the right, and on the left, Ceres, the goddess of corn and harvest. 1 Liberty is represented standing, with her wand and cap in her left hand, and in her right hand the scroll of the Declaration of American Independence. Ceres is represented having in her right hand three ears or heads of wheat, and in her left the cornucopia, or horn of plenty filled with the fruits of the earth. SOUTH CAROLINA.-We have not been able to obtain any " recorded description" of the Seal of South Carolina. The device appears to be a Date Tree, or the Great Palm, here emblematical of the State, and supported or guarded by two cross-pieces, to which it attached a scroll 0 or label. Branches of the Palm were worn by the an- / X cients in token of victory, and hence the emblem sightifies superiority, victory, triuzzmphl. On the border of the D seal is the motto, A nizs oPIBusQUE PARATC, " Ready (to | defend it) with our lives and property." This seal has a reverse side on which is the motto, DuoI SinRO, SPERO;; "while I live I hope." * The label and motto were never put on the original seal, for want of room. The seal of this state is generally represented with a Horse on each side of the escutcheon as supporters, but there is nothing of the kind on the original seal.

Page  102 102 THIE PUBLIC SEALS, OR COATS OF ARIiS, LBoox 11 GEORGIA.-On the Seal of the State of Georgia ars O> gi Em~~ represented three pillars supporting an Arch. on which is qt z*,< tengraven the word CONSTITUTION. The three pillars which support the " Constitution," are emblematical of 4,, " Ia X z <) the three departments of the State Government-the Legislature, the Judiciary, and the Executive. On a wreath P of the first pillar, on the right,* representing the Legisla\<~ E 9 ~ i r ~5 0 ture, is the word VWisdom; on the second, representing the Judiciary, is the word Jstzice; and on the third, reLb thn presenting the Executive, is the word Moderation. On the right of the last pillar is a man standing with a drawn sword, representing the aid of the military in defence of the Constitution. Around the border of the seal are the words STATE Or GEORGIA, 1799. (On the reverse side of the seal is the following device. On one side is a view of the sea-shore, with a ship riding at anchor near a wharf, bearing the flag of the United States, and receiving on board hogsheads of tobacco and bales of cotton-emblematical of the exports of the State. At a small distance is a loaded boat landing from the interior, and representing the internal traffic of the State. In the background a man is represented ploughing, and a flock of sheep reposing in the shade of a tree. ArounLd the border is the motto, _riculture and Commerce, 1799.)...~~ H, ~FLORIDA.-In the centre of the Seal of Florida is re presented the American Eagle, " the bird of liberty," grasping in the left talon an olive branch, and in the right a bundle of three arrows. In a semicircle above are thir>SN't eiSteen stars, representing the thirteen original States, while the ground is represented as covered with the Prickly Pear, a fruit common to the country, and which, from its being armed at all points, must be handled with great care. The appropriate motto of the Prickly Pear is " Let me alone." (This is the description of the Seal of the Territory of Florida, which is made the Seal of the State, until a new one shall be adopted:) ALABAMA.-The Seal of Alabama contains a neatly engraved map of the State, with the names of the rivers, I./ | rCy ~ 3 N\.sf \ \ and the localities of the principal towns that existed at lipidr.9 7 4 ~!, ~ the time of the establishment of the Territorial govern'J!'e ~ \G 0' ment in 1817. Around the border of the seal are the A~g/ * H, words ALABAMIA EXECUTIVE OFFICE.-(This was the Tert Q ritorial Seal, which has been adopted by the State GovObtt ~ jOernment.) MISSISSIPPI.-In the centre of the Seal of Mississippi is represented the American Eagle, grasping an Olive branch in the left talon, and a bundle of four arrows in the right. Around the border of the seal are the words, THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI. * Fronting the spectator, as usu

Page  103 PART I.] OF THE SEVERAL UNITED STATES. 103 LOUISIANA: —Or the Seal of Louisiana is represented a Pelican standing by her nest of young ones, in the atti- X -: --'J; tude of " protection and defence," anl, in the act of feeding them. All share alike her laternlal assiduity.'The / - / +,. mother bird is here emblematic of the geseral governmesce of the Unioe, while the birds in tle nest represent the several States. Above are the scales of JUSTICE, enibiema- 2,, esP i1tic of the device belowi, and deioting thatl such is toe If I * T i r watchful care and guardianship which the government of the Union is bound to bestow alike upon all the members "' of the confederacy.../, The semi-circle of eighteen stars represents thle number \\', of States at the time of the admission of Louisiana. la.Le, upper part of the border of the Seal are the words, \' STATE 0F LsOUISIArAN, and in the lower part, the wvir -s, szoiN AND CO TEXAS.-The Great Seal of Texas consists of a Whe'ite / Star of five points, on an iazure field, encircled by branches of the Live Oak and the Olive. 13efore thie anuexatioe of Texas to the United States, the Seal bore the device, tsEPUBLIC OF TEXAS. The Live Oalr, ( Quercls vi/enss,) w-%hich abounds in the forests of Texas, is a stroeg anlf dura ble unl;- / -- / timber, very useful for ship-building, and forming a most important article of export. \ AIRKANSAS.-The Arms of Arlkansas, as represented on the Seal of the State, consist of a shield or escutcheon,o 4. A p the base of which is occupied by a blue field, olr Wrhicl is a white or silver Star, representing the State. The' iss' part, or middle portioln, is occupied bLy a _e-leiLe, tle 00. emblem of industry, ad a Plouglh, representing agricul- - ture; while the;; chief," or upper part of the escutchle ol i is occupied by a Steam-Boat, the representative of the j i colmmnerce of the State. I' f For the " Crest" is represented the goddless of Liberty!, i. holding in one hand her wand and cap, and a wvre ath] o \ laurel in thle other. surrounded by a constellation of stars, representing the States of the Union. The " Sulpporters" of the escutcheon are two Elacties; s the one on the left grasping in its talons a: bundle of arrows, and the one on the right an olive branch —iand- extending from the talons of the one to those of the othler is a label containing the motto, Plegunanst Popildi,: The People rule." On each side of the base point of the escutcheon is a corzutcopia filled with fruits and flowers. Around the border of the seal are the words, SxAL OF THn STATE OF AnaRa.tSAS. At each extremity of the word Arkansas are additional emblems: on the left a shield, wald, musket wsith bayonet, and cap of Liberty; and on the right a sword, and the scales of Justice. MISSOURI.-The following is a copy of the recorded description of the Great Secal of Missc-uri. " Arms parted per pale; on the dexter side, gules, the White or Grizzly,__ }lear of Missouri, passant, guardant, proper: ocl a Chief, ____ elgrailed, azure, a crescent, argent:. on the sinister side, s argent, the Arims of the United States;-thle whole rwithin f / / - a, band iiscribed with tihe words,' United vwe stand, divided we fall.' For the Crest, over a helmet full fieced, grated. > /' e: with six bahrs, or, a clotud proper, from wihich ascend.s a l tar a-l ent, atnd stbove ii a conste.latioc of tIrrnty-three \wJ \ 1 -maller stars argent, on an azure field, surrounded by a cloud proper. Supporte s, on eacrl side a tWhite or Grizzly ik s Bear of Missouri,, guartidant, proper, standing on' g D, scroll inscribed with the motto, Sahills popili, slcprep zac \Q' > /,!ex esto, and under thle scroll -tie numerical letters s\ CC 4 acccxx, —tlie whole surrounded by a scroll inscribed with the words, TnE GRIE.AT SEAL OF THE STATE OF MISgouru." Tht following is a free translation of the above.

Page  104 104 THE PUBLIC SEALS, OR COATS OF ARMS, [BOOK IL The Arms of Missouri are represented on a circular escutcheon, divided by a perpencliculas line into two equal portions. On the right side, on a red field, is the White or Grizzly Bear of Missouri, in its natural color, walking guardedly. Above this device. and separated from it by an engrailedv, line, is an azure field, on which is represented a white or silver crescent. On the left side of the escutcheon, on a white field, are tile Arms of the United States Around the border of the escutcheon are the words, " United we stand, divided we fall." For th. " Crest," over a yellow or golden helmet, full facedl, and grated with six bars, is a cloud in its natural color, fromn which ascends a silvery star, (representing the State of Missouri,) and above it a constellation of twenty-three smaller stars, on a blue field surrounded by a cloud. (The twenty-three stars represent the number of States in the Union at the time of the admission of Missouri.) For " Supporters,"' on each side of the escutcheon is a Grizzly Bear in the posture of attack, standing on a scroll inscribed with the motto, Salus poppldi, suplema lex esto -" The public safety is the supreme law;" and under the scroll the numerical letters PMDcccxx, the date of the admission of Missouri into the Union. Around the border of the seal are the words, THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. TEN>INESSEE.-The Seal of Tennessee contains the fol//- HXV eie lowingg device. The upper half of the seal is occupied by 4s, Ze >*S R A A a stalk of Cotton, a Sheaf of Wheat and a Plough, below Qg 2 4it,,K, r \lt which is the word AGRICULTUR E. The lower half is oc5; Aft\4xi ~cupied by a loaded Barge, beneath which is the word < AGR SICU i ~ COMMERCE. In the upper part of the seal are the numerical letters xvi, denoting that Tennessee was the sixteenth State admitted into the Union. Around the border are a V // the words, TuE GREAT SEAL OF TEE STATE OF TENNESSEE, / with the date 1796, the period of the formation of the 4~i~ ~Z state government, and admission into the Union. KENTUCKY.-On the Seal of Kentucky is the plalin and unadorned device of two friends embracing, with this motto below them-" United swe stand, divided wee fall." In the upper portion of the border are the words, SEAL or KENTUCKY. UNT:1CW S =S S 01OHIO.-.On the Seal of Ohio appears the following de-...... fi vice: In the central portion is represented a cultivated country, with a bundle of seventeen Arrows on the left, C~7& <and on the right a Sheaf of Wheat, both erect, and in the distance a range of mountains, skirted at their base by a X; X tract of woodland. Over the mountain range appears a V rising sun. On the foreground are represented an expanse of water and a IKeel-Boat. Around the border are the words, THE GREAT SEAL OF THE STATE OF OHI0, with i the date, 1802, the period of the admission of Ohio into - g X.-/ the Union. The bundle of seqeetteens ariozos represents 0*f9 f~the number of States existing at that time. * An engrailed line is a line indented with curves, thus

Page  105 PART I.] OF THE SEVERAL UNITED STATES. 105 INDIANA.-On the Seal of Indiana is represented a' scene of prairie and woodland, with the surface gently undulating-descriptive of the natural scenery r'f the State. In the foreground is a Buffalo, once a native mnimai of the Stavte, apparently startled by the axe of the Woodmran or Pioneer, who is seen on the left, felling the trees of the (. forest-denoting the advance of civilization westward. In the distance, on the right, is seen the sun just appearing on the verge of tle horizon. Around the upper portion of the seal are the words, INDIANA STATE SEAL. ILLINOIS. —In the centre of the Seal of Illinois is re /-k c.son, presented the American Eagle, grasping in its left talona a/ \',,i bundle of three arrows, and in the right an olive branch,' and bearing on its breast a shield or escutcheon, the lower rt half of which is represented of a red color, and the upper c half blue, the latter bearing three whise or silvery stars. From the beak of the Eagle extends a label bearing the motto, " State Soveretgnty; National Union." Around the border of the seal are the words, SEAL OF THE STATE oF ILIuNOIS, with the date,' Aug. 26, 1818.' MICHIGiAN. —The Arms of the State of Michigan, as exhibited on the Seal of the State, consist of a shield, or G a e escutcheon, on which is represented a Peninsula extend- (:N isg into a lake, with the sun rising, and a man standing; on the peninsula, with a gun in his hand. Below the escutcheon, on a band or label, are the words, Si qlceris / peninszlam amcenam, c irconmspice-' If you seek a de-; g o U 4 Iightful country, (peninsula,) behold it." On the upper I waoe part of-the escutcheon is the word Tuiebor-" I will defend 1 it." The' Supporters" of the escutcheon are, a Moose t t 8 7 on the left, and on the right, the common Deer, both natives of the forests of Michigan. For the "Crest," is re- presented the Eagle of the United States, above which is the motto, E phteribus unum. Around the border of the seal are the words, THE GREAT SEAL OF TIlE STATE OF g ) s/ MICHIGAN, with the numerals, A.D. AIDCCCXXXv, the date ~ ~X~" c of the formation of the State government. IOiVA. —The Seal of Iowa contains the following simpie devriose: An Eagle in the attitude of fligght. grasping in A its dexter talon a Bow, and holding in its beak an arrow. Around the border of the seal are the words, SEAL OF True aTE.RITO Y OF IowA. (No State, Seal has yet been %.dolgte.)' 14

Page  106 106 THE PUBLIC SEALS, OR COATS OF ARMS. [Book 11.,, S e~,~~ VWISCONSIN. The Seal of Wisconsin presents a view of land and water scenery, designed to represent the 19/~/',,, r ij agricultural, commercial, and mining interests of the F\j/ p 4* > - State. In the foreground is a man ploughing with a - span of horses: the middle ground is occupied by a L Ibarrel, a cornucopia, an anchor, a sheaf of wheat, a J Q~ prarakfte, and a pile of lead in bars-the latter, the most ilm-: portant of the mineral products of the State. The two great lakes that border the State-Lakes Michigan and _;4\3 r: Superior, have their representatives; on one of which is seen a sloop, and on the other a steamboat-and on the'N, shore an Indian pointing towards the latter. In the dis;\B 4<,l cance is a level prairie, skirted, on the horizon, by a FOURTH OF JULY' range of woodland, and having on the left a Light-house IFU 83, 6 and School Building, and in the centre the State-house of Wisconsin. In a semicircle above are the words:. "Civilitas Successit Barbarum," Civiliziation has sac ceeded 1Darbcrisen. At the bottom of the Seal is the date of the formation of the Territorial Government, FOURTH OF JULY, 1.836, and around the Seal, in Roman capitals, the words, TIE GREAT SEAL OF Tufe TERRITORIt OFr ViSCONSIN. UNITED STATES. The following is the recorded de scription of the device of the Seal of:/:::-:=_'__::~~i' -I=: the United States, as adopted by Congress on the 20th of June, 1782.:, —~-.-: Anise; —= - ~... " ARMs: Paleways of thirteen pieces, argent and gules; a chief azure; the escutcheon on the breast of the American Eagle displayed, proper, holding in his dexter talon an olive branch, and in his sinister a bundle of thirteen arrows, all proper, and in his beak a scroll inscribed with this motto,' pluribus unum.' "For the CraEsr: Over the head of the Ea-gle, -which appears above the l'i =;= D*' V'N' a~' a~~ prthrough a coud, proper, and sur_ rounding thirteen stars forming a States _are dmittedintotheIi)constellation, argent, on an azure field." EThis seal has a Reverse side, os _as_,vrthwhich the following is the descripdenoing..... "REVERSE: A Pyramid unfinished. (Representing the American Confederacy as still inconplete, —the structure to be carried upwards as new States are admitted into the Union.) In the zenith an Eye in a triangle, (representing the Allseeing Eye,) surrounded by a glory proper. Over the eye thcse words, I Annuit coeptist, (CGodl has favored the undertaking.) On the base of the pyramid the numlerical letters rhnccLxxVi, (1776,) and underneath the following morto, 6 Novui ordo soclorum,' "(A new series oe ages; -denoting that a new order of things has commenced in this western world.) NoTE: —Although we have made all the engraved copies of the Seals of the States of ensiformn size, yet the original seals are of different sizes. We give their diameters in inci, commencing with the smallest. Rhode Island and Texas, 1 1-2 inches; Iowa, 1 5-; Kentucky, Tennessee, Loui;iana, Arkansas, and M:Iaryland. 1 3-4; New Ihampshire, Massachusetts, Ohio, Indiana, Florida, Saortb Carolina, and Mlississippi, 2; New York and Yermont, 2 1-8; Pennsylvania, North Carolins Georgia, Illinois, and the Seal of the United States, (which is engraved the full size,) 2 1-4 i Connecticut, (oval,) 2 3-8 long, and 1. 7-8 broad; Delaware, Alabama, Maine, and Missotlro 2 3-8; New Jersey and Michigan, 2 1-2; Yirginia, f inches.

Page  107 UIIAPIACTER AND DESIGN OF THE SEVERAL APPENDICES 1O THE HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 1.'The mere detail of such events as most attract public atten- ANALYSIS. tion while they are occurring, embraces but a small portion of the instruction which History is capable of affortding. The actions of' Z1 Historicai, n I) IY -VV I riV \~V-~L~instrucion indlividuals do not occur without motives, nor.are national events National ever attributable to chance origin; and the latter are as much the er ubjecl t"Yo proper subjects of philosophical inquiry as the former. philosophzicl 2. iCould we ascertain the causes of all the prominent events z2istory which history relates, history would then become whatt it has been been styled, styled by an ancient writer,' philosophy teaching by examples." "aPiilosopiy Much may doubtlesvs be clone to make history accord more truly ea/plre,,' with this definition, for too often is this view of its design neglected Th/is vielo of its design ofeven in our more prominent anrid larger worls; and wars, tand revo- tem neglecled. lutions, and all great public even-ts, Ire describecl with minuteness, while the social, moral, and intellectual prongress of the people, and the causes that are working these changes, receive too little of that attention which their importance demands. 3. 3The former plan, however that of narrative principally, is 3. Proper plan essential in an elemenltary work, the object of which should be to ad object of interest the youthful mind by vivid representations of striking ta eesntoncharacters and incidents, and thereby to render the great events ca woork. and divisions of history familiar to it. 4The mind will thus be 4. Ihaltfar prepared to derive benefit from any accidental reading that is in ther sexpected to be an. any manner associated with the same subjects: it will have a ground- cosmpliised b work to build upon; for these famniliar localities, like points of mag- tie plan. netic attraction, will gather around them whatever comes within the circle of their influence. 4. 5Being thus prepared by a familiarity with our subject, we 5. 1W7hat ad. may advance a step, and enter upon the field of philosophical in- vcance mnigtt quiry. 6Let us suppose, for example, thait for every law found in 6. Itolo ilua.the history of a people, we should attempt to ascertain the reasons tratedf which induced the legislator to give it his s nction, and its probable effects upon the community. 7The entire soci i1 relations of a 7. Tvlat people might thus be developed, their manltnerss customs and opin- le~nitit ef arnedfrom ions, their ignorance and their knowledge their virtues and th thei system. vices; and the national progress would be traced far more clearly in those silently operating causes, than in the spectacle of the merely outward changes produced by them. Indeed, a Illere narrative of the ordinary events of history can be justly regarded a.s of utility, only so far as it furnishes the basis on which a more noble superstructure, the "philosophy of history,;: is to be reared. 5. 8The imnportance of historical knowledge should be estimated s. rtnportcne by the principles, rather than by the facts with which it furinishes oc h,o:tordti us; and the comparative value, to us, of the histories of different anti vate of nations, should be estimated by the same standard. iTherefora a diffent hiismere narrative of ancient dynasties and wars, which should throw. Certainhis, no light upon the character and circumnstances of the people, would tottial rel furnish no valuable information to reward the studelnt's toil. He parahtisly of may be moved by a curiosity, liberal indeed and commendable, to little Value. explore the uncertain anialls of fabulous ages, and attempt to trace

Page  108 108 INTRODUCTORY. [Book II. ANALYSIS. out the histories of the early Egyptians. the Chinese, the Persians, and the Hindoos; but from them he may expect to derive few pris. ciples applicable to the present state of the world. 1i Compaara- 6. Ancl indeed, after passing over the days of Grecian and Roof diftrent mal glory, we shall find little that is valuable, even in modern his por/ions of tory, until we come to the period of the discovery of America, when tory. various causes were operating to produce a great revolution in hu e. Important man affairs throughout the world. 2The period of the dark ages changesabout had passed and literature and science had begun to dawn again the time of the discovery upon Europe: the art of printing, then recently invented, greatly of America. facilitated the progress of improvements; the invention of gunpowder changed the whole art of war; and the Refoirmation soon began to make such innovations in religion as changed the moral aspect. not only of the states which embraced its principles, but of those even that adhered to the ancient faith and worship. 3. Causes that 7. 3Ameong modern histories, none is more interesting in its dercan history tails, or more rich in principles, than that of our own country; nor peculiarly does any other throw so much light on the progress of society, the np2ortant. science of public affairs. and the arts of civil government. In this particular we claim an advantage over even England herself,-the most free, the most enlightened of the states of the old world. For, since our destiny became separate from hers: our national advancemlent has been by far the most rapid; and before that period both formed but separate portions of one people, living under the same laws, speaking, as now, the same language) and having a common share in the same history. 4. Why the S. 4The study of Amierican history, therefore, in preference to Amercanofs- any other claims our first regard, both because it is our own history claims tory, and because of its superior intrinsic importance. 5But here our.first re- the question arises as we were colonies of Great Britain, when and 5. Period of where does our history commence? We answer, that although the the comrn- annals we can strictly call our own commence with our colonial ex9nencement of American istence, yet if we are to embrace also the philosophy of our history, history. and would seek the causes of the events we narrate, we must Co so far back in the annals of England as we can trace those principles that led to the founding of the American colonies, and influenced 6. To ohat their subsequent character and destiny. 6Viewing the subject in thise subj ctf this light, some acquaintance with English history becomes necesleads us. sary to a proper understanding of our own; and this leads us to a development of the plan we have adopted for the more philosophical portion of our work. 7. Wh7y the 9. 7Although the history of the " Uzited States" does not protermd tUni- perly extend back to the period when those states were dependent is applied to colonies, yet we have adopted the term " United States"7 for the title thzeftollowing of a work embracing the whole period of our history, because it is history. more convenient than any other term, and because custom sanctions 8. Part First it. 8This History we have divided into Four Parts. The first qf this hs- embraces the period of Voyages and Discoveries, extending from the discovery of this western world to the settlement of Jamestown in Virginia. We have given in this part a narrative of the promi. nent events that preceded the founding of the English American colonies, and this is all that could be given of what is properly Anzericoam history during this period. 9. Character 10. sin the i" Appendix to the period of Voyages and Discoveries," of the first appcndi. we have taken up that portion of the history of England contained between the time of the discovery of America, and the planting of the first English colonies in the New World, with the design of examining the condition of the people of Englan i during that pee

Page  109 PART 1.1 INTRODUCTORY. 109 riod) the nature of their institutions and laws, and whatever can ANALYSIS. throw light upon the character and motives of those who founded the American colonies, and who, we should naturally suppose, brought with them, to this then wilderness world, the manners, customs, habits, feelings, laws, and language of their native land. 1But it is the social) rather than the political history of England- 1. To swhat zn pZton of the internal, rather than the external, that is here important to us, _Enrgish hlf. and it is to this, therefore, that we have mostly confined our atten- tory we have tion. 2We hope thus to have prepared the advanced student to jned our atenter upon the study of our colonial history with additional inter- tentin. est, and with more definite views of the nature and importance of 2. The obecd to bes the great drama that is to be unfolded to him. gained by 11. 3At the close of Part Second, embracing the period of our this course. colonial history, and also at the close of Part Third, embracing the. APeditions period of the Revolution, we have given, in an Appendix, some far- ond and Part thor account of such European events as are intimately connected Thid. with our own history, and which serve to give us a more comprehensive and accurate view of it than we could possibly obtain by confining ourselves exclusively to our own annals; in connection with which we have examined the policy of England towards her colonies-the influences exerted by each upon the other-the difficulties of our situation-the various peculiarities exhibited among ourselves, and the germs of our subsequent national character. As, during the fourth period of our history, our relations with 4. At the close England were those of one independent nation with another, Eng- of Part iand no longer claims any special share of our attention, and at the close of this period we have examined briefly the character, tendency, and influences of our national government, and have also given an historscl sketch of some important political questions that hKve been but briefly noticed in the narrative part of the work. 12. 5The design of the several Appendices is, therefore, to ex- 5. General plain the influences which operated in moulding the character of chartacter na our early English fathers, to develop the causes which led to the several ap planting of the American colonies. and to illustrate the subsequent renQ;&$ social and political progress of the American people; or. in other words, to give a simple and plain) but philosophical history of AxEaICA.N CWIIZATWaN.

Page  110 GEOC;GAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY EMABRAC.ED WITHIN THE UNITED STATES AND THEIR TERRITORIES. The UNrrITED STATES an their territories, occupying the middle division of North America, lie between the 25th and the 54t;h degrees of North latitude, and the 6ith and the 125th degrees of WVest longitude, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, and containing an area of about 2,6010,000 square miles. They have a frontier of about 10,000 miles; a sea coast of 3.600 miles; and a lake coast of 1200 miles. This vast country is intersected by two principal franges of mountains, the Alleghany and the Rocky Mountains:-the former irn the East, running nearly parallel to the Atlantic coast, frorm GeorgiaL to New York: and the latter in the West, crossing the territory in a direction nearly parallel to the coast of the Pacific. The Alleghanies run in separate and somewhat parallel ridges, with a breadth of from 60 to 120 miles, and at a distance from the sea coast of from 0S to 250 miles. The general height of the Alleghanies is only from.1000 to 2000 feet above the adjacent country, and from 2000 to 3000 feet above the level of the ocean. The highest peak in this range is the Black Mountain, in the western part of Noth Carolina, which is 6,476 feet high. The Rocky Mountains, which may be regarded as a part of the great chain of the Cordilleras, are at an average distance of about 600 miles from the Pacific Ocean, and have a general height of about 8000 or 9000 feet above the level of the sea, but not more than 5000 feet above the surrounding country. Some of their most elevated peaks rise to the height of 10,000 or 12,000 feet. East of the Alleghany Mountains the rivers flow into the Atlantic: West of the Rocky Mountains they centre mostly in the Columbia, which flows into the Pacific; while between these great mountain ranges, the many and large streams centre in the valley which lies between them, and through the channel of the Mississippi seek an outlet in the Gulf of Mexico. The Atlantic coast is indented by numerous bays, and has a great number of excellent harbors. The soil of New England is generally rocky, and rough and better adapted to grazing than to grain, with the exception of the valleys of the rivers, which are highly fertile. South of New England, and east of the Alleghanies generally, the soil has but moderate fertility, being light and sandy on the coast, but of better quality farther inland. Throughout the extensive'valley of the Mississippi the soil is generally of excellent quality. the middle section, however, being the most fertile. WVest of Missouri,skirting the base of the Rocky Mountains, are extensive sandy wastes, to which has been given the name of the "Great American Desert.)" Oregon Territory, lying west of the Rocky Mountains, is divided into three belts, or sections. separated by ranges of mountains running nearly parallel to the coast of the Pacific. The western section, extending fiom the ocean to the Cascade Mountains, embracinbracig awidth of from 100 fo 150 miles, is generally fertile. and near the foot of the Cascade range the climate and soil are adapted to all the kinds of grain that are found in temperate climates. The soil of the second or middle section of Oregon, embraced between the Cascade range and the Blue Mountains, is generally a light sandy loam, the valleys only being fertile. The third or eastern section of Oregon, between the Blue and the Rocky Mountains, is a rocky. broken, and barren country. More particular Geographical descriptions of the several states embraced in the American Union, and of the most important lakes. bays, rivers, towns, &c., will be found in the Geographical Notes throughout the work. The Geo. graphical description of Texas, now a part of the Republic, will be found on pages 621, 622.

Page  111 HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES PART I. VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. ANALS YSl EXTENDING FROM THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA) BY CC'L YIIbUS, IN 1492; To THE SETTLEMENT OF JAMESTOWN, VIRPGINIA. iN Subject of 1607; EMBRACING A PERIOD OF 115 YEARS. Part L CHAPTER I. EARLY SPANISH VOYAGES, CONQUESTS, AND DISCOVERIES, Of Chapter. IN THE SOUTHERN PORTIONS OF NORTH AMERICA. DIVISIONS. I. Discovery of _dinericc1a by Columbus.-II. JTuan'Pon.ce de Leon in TlRe Dliv, Florida.-II. De Ayllonz in Carolinza.-IV. Conqzest of Arlexico. — ions of, CapV. ParepAlilo de Ararvaez. — VI. Ferdinand cle Solo. ter 1 I. DISCOVERY OF AMERICA BY COLUrlIBUS.-1.'The 1. Discovery discoverya of America by Christopher Columbus, may be by fColunbus. regarded as the most important event that has ever re- 92 ct. OI suited from individual genius and enterprise. 2Although Style; or, n. Oct 21. New other claims to the honor of discovering the. Western hemi- Style. sphere have been advanced, and with some appearance c,2lstoher of probability, yet no clear historic evidence exists in Discovery. their favor.'It has been asserted that an Iceland* bark, 3. Icelandip in the early part of the eleventh century, having been c driven southwest from Greenlandt by adverse winds, touchedb upon the coast of Labrador;-t that subsequent b. ooi. voyages were made; and that colonies were established in Nova Scotia,~ or in Newfoundland.ll -* GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES.-1. Iceland is an island in the Northern Ocean, remarkable for its boiling springs (the Geysers), and its flaming volcano, Mount Hecla. It was discovered by a Norwegian pirate, in the year 861, and was soon after settled by the Norwegians; but it is supposed that the English and the Irish had previously made settlements there, which were abandoned before the time of the Norwegian discovery. t Greenlanrd is an extensive tract of barren country, in the northern frozen regions; separated from the western continent by Baffin's Bay and Davis's Strait. It was discovered by the Norwegians thirty years after the discovery of Iceland, and a thriving colony was planted there; but from 1406 until after the discovery by Columbus, all correspondence with Greenland was cut off, and all knowledge of the country seemed to be buried in oblivion. r Labrador, or New Britain, is that part of the American coast between the Gulf of St. Law rence and Hudson's DBay; a bleak and barren country, little known, and inhabited chiefly by Indians. ~ Nova Scotia is a large peninsula, southeast from New Brunswick, separated from it by the I:ay of Fundy, and connected with it by a narrow isthmus only nine miles across. 11 Newfoztndltand is a hilly and mountainous island on the east side of the Gulf of St. Law

Page  112 112 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES: [Boox 14, ANALYSIS. 2.'But even if it be admitted that such a discovery. Superior Was made, it does not in the least detract frolm the honor clmerit o/ft so universally ascribed to Columbus. The Icelandic dis. Colunmbus. covery, if real, resulted from chance,-was not even known to Europe,-was thought of little importance, — and was soon forgotten; and the curtain of darkness again fell between the Old world and the New. The discovery by Columbus, on the contrary, was the result of a theory matured by long reflection and experience; opposed to the learning and the bigotry of the age; and brought to a successful demonstration, after years of toil against opposing difficulties and discouragements. 2. Prvtlevt 3.'The nature of the great discovery, however, was etror respectigngthe dis long unknown; and it remained for subsequent advencZveIryl b.Y Co. turers to dispel the prevalent error, that the voyage of Columbus had only opened a new route to the wealthy, but then scarcely known regions of Eastern Asia. 3. Extent of'During several years,a the discoveries of Columbus were his discoverzies. confined to the islands of the West Indies;* and it was not until August,b 1498, six years after his first voyage, b.Aug. rMth. that he discovered the main land, near the mouth of the Orinoco;t and he was then ignorant that it was any thing mnore than an island. 4. Tli 4. 4 The principal islands of the West Indies,-Cuba,t St. Domingo,~ and Porto Rico,ll were soon colonized, 5.Discovery and subjected to Spanish authority.'In 1506 the eastern of Yucatan, nd first coao- coast of Yucatanub was discovered; and in 1510 the first ly onf thse colony on the continent was planted on the Isthmus of Continent. i. Dicovery Darien.** ~Soon after, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, governor of the P- of the colony, crossed the Isthmus, and from a mountain a. 1513. on the other side of the Continent discovered an Oceanl, which being seen in a southerly direction, at first received the name of the South Sea. 7.De Leon. II. JUAN PONCE DE LEO IN IN FLORIDA.-1. 7'In 1512 Juan Ponce de Leon, an aged veteran, and former gov. enor of Porto Rico, fitted out three ships, at his own exrence; nearly a thousand miles in circumnfernce, deriving all its importance from its extensive fisheries. * The IVest Indies consist of a large number of islands between North and South America the most important of which are Cuba, St. )omingo, Jamaica, and Porto Rico. t The O'inoco is a river on the northeast coast of South America. I Cutba, one of the richest islands in the world. is the largest of the West Indies, being 760 miles in length from southeast to northwest, and about 50 miles in breadth. Its northern coast is 150 miles south from Florida. St. D)omingo. or Hayti, formerly called Hispaniola, is a large island, lying between Cuba and Porto Rico, and about equally distant from each. 11 Porto Rico is a fertile island of the West Indies, 60 miles southeast from St. Domingo. It is 140 miles long from east to west, and 35 broad. ~[ Yucatan, one of the States of MIexico, is an extensive peninsula, 150 miles S. W. from Cuba, and lying between the Bays of Honduras and Campeachy. ** The Isthmus of Darien is that narrow neck of land which connects North and South America. It is about 300 miles in length, and, in the narrowest part, is only about 30 miles ~ross.

Page  113 PART I.] VOYAGES AND DISCO0VERIES. 113 pense, for a voyage of discovery.'A tradition prevailed 151t2. among the natives of Porto Rico, that in a neighboring T7ardition island of the Bahamas* was a fountain which possessed of the Funithe remarkable properties of restoring the youth, and of perpetuating the life of any one who should bathe in its stream, and drink of its waters.'Nor was this fabulous 2. By whnam tale credited by the uninstructed natives only. It was crediLed. generally believed in Spain, and even by men distinguished for virtue and intelligence. 2. 3In quest of this fountain of youth Ponce de Leon 3 Accountof saileda friom Porto Rico in March, 1512; and after cruis- thof Floric ing some time among the Bahamas, discoveredb an un- a. March 13, known country, to which, from the abundance of flowers b. April6. that adorned the forests, and from its being first seen on Eastert Sunday, (which the Spaniards call Pascua Florida,) he gave the name of Florida-t 3. 4After landings some miles north of the place where 4. Erxtent St. Augustine~ now stands, and taking formal possession discovse'es. of the country, he explored its coasts; and doubling its c. April 18. southern cape, continued his search among the group of islands which he named the Tortugas:11 but the chief object of the expedition was still unattained, and Ponce de Leon returned to Porto Rico, older than when he departed. 5A few years later, having been appointed 5. Result of governor of the country which he had discovered, he voyage. made a second voyage to its shores, with the design of selecting a site for a colony; but, in a contest with the natives, many of his followers were killed, and Ponce de Leon himself was mortally wounded. III. DE AYLLON IN CAROLINA.-1.'About the time of 6. Enterprt*d the defeat of Ponce de Leon in Florida, a company of DeAyZllz seven wealthy men of St. Domingo, at the head of whom was Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon,d judge of appeals of that d. Pronounisland, despatchede two vessels to the Bahamas, in quest ced Ail-yon. of laborers for their plantations and mines. 7Being 7. De. 1520. driven northward from the Bahamas, by adverse winds, of eGrolia. to the coast of Carolina, they anchored at the mouth of the CambaheeT river, which they named the Jordan. The country they called Chicora. * The Bahamas are an extensive group of islands lying east and southeast from Plorida. They have been estimated at about 600 in number, most of them mere cliffs and rocks, only 14 of them being of any considerable size. Enasser (lay, a church festival observed in commemoration of our Savior's resurrretion, is the Sunday following the first full moon that happens after the 20th of March. v Florida, the most southern portion of the United States, is a large peninsula about two thirds of the size of Yucatan. The surface is level, and is intersected by numerous ponds, lakes, rivers, and marshes. See note and map, p. 130. ii The Tortugas, or Tortoise Islands, are about 100 miles southwest from the southern cap of Florida. ~ The Camnbahee is a small river in the southern part of South Carolina, emptying into S efloena Sound, 35 miles southwest from Charleston. (See map, p. 129.) 15

Page  114 14 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [BooK II ANALYSIS. 2.'Here the natives treated the strangers with great L. Hospitality kindness and hospitality, and being induced by curiosity otthesonna- freely visited the ships; but when a sufficient number tires, and pwr.fids of the was below the decks, the perfidious Spaniards closed the Spaniards. R. esult of hatches and set sail for St. Domingo.'One of the returnthe enter- ing ships was lost, and most of the Indian prisoners in prise. l the other, sullenly refusing food, died of famine and melancholy. i. Account of 3.'Soon after this unprofitable enterprise, De Ayllon, voyagees and having obtained the appointment of governor of Chicora, treswut sailed with three vessels for the conquest of the country. Arriving in the river Cambahee, the principal vessel was stranded and lost. Proceeding thence a little farther north, and being received with apparent firiendship at their landing, many of his men were induced to visit a village, a short distance in the interior, where they were all treacherously cut off by the natives, in revenge for th'e wrongs which the Spaniards had before committed. De Ayllon himself was surprised and attacked in the harbor;-the attempt to conquer the country was abandoned;-and the few survivors, in dismay, hastened back to St. Domingo. 1 iluorfeat IV. CONQUEST OF A/ExICO.* —-. 4In 1517 Francisco.exrapdea. Fernandez de Cordova, sailing from Cubaa with three b. March, small vessels, exploredb the northern coast of Yucatan.,1517.f As the Spaniards approached the shore, they were sur3. Wonder of the prised to find, instead of naked savages, a people decently iSpaniards excited. clad in cotton garments; and, on landing, their wonder was increased by beholding several large edifices built B. Chzaracter of stone. 6The natives were much more bold and war-.ties. like than those of the islands and the more southern coasts, and every where received the Spaniards with the most determined opposition., V. Result of 2.'At one place fifty-seven of the Spaniards were *,'ie, pe- killed, and Cordova himself received a wound, of which 8. Dscovery he died soon after his return to Cuba. 8But notwithstandof Mezico. ing the disastrous result of the expedition, anothler was planned in the following year; and under the direction of Juan de Grijalva, a portion of the southern coast of e. Ilay, June, Mexico was explored,o and a large amount of treasure 1518. obtained by trafficking with the natives. P. Desi oa6f 3. 9Velasquez, governor of Cuba, under whose aus. pices the voyage of Grijalva had been made, enriched by the result, and elated with a success far beyond his ex * Mexico is a large country southwest from the United States, bordering on the Gulf of Mex leo on the east, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. ] t is about two-tlhirds as large as the United States and their territories. The land on both coasts is lo, bhut in the interior is a large tracl of table lands 6 or 8000 feet above the level of the sea. (See also page 569.)

Page  115 PART 1.] CONQUEST OF MEXICO. 115 pectations, now determined to undertake the conquest of 3151. the wealthy countries that had been discovered, andhastily fitted out an armament for the purpose.'Not. Accozun -f being able to accompany the expedition in person, he tfhMeicon gave the command to Fernando Cortez, who sailed with Cortex. eleven vessels, having on board six hundred and seventeen men. In March, 1519, Cortez landed in Tabasco,* a southern province of Mexico, where he had several encounters with the natives, whom he routed with great slaughter. 4.'Proceeding thence farther westward, he landeda at a. April 2. San Juan de Ulloa,t where he was hospitably received, 2i Cortezr and where two officers of a monarch who was called Monte- officers of M.ontezuma. zuma, come to inquire what his intentions were in visiting that coast, and to offer him what assistance he might need in order to continue his voyage.'Cortez respect- 3. Assuranc fully assured them that he came with the most friendly request?nads sentiments, but that he was intrusted with affairs of such by Cortez. moment by the king, his sovereign, that he could impart them to no one but to the emperor Montezuma himself, and therefore requested them to conduct him into the presence of their master. 5. 4The ambassadors of the Mexican monarch., know- 4. Coue, TOursued by ing how disagreeable such a request would be, endeavored the Mexican to dissuade Cortez from his intentions; at the same time amnbasad'as making him some valuable presents, which only increased nis avidity. Messengers were despatched to Montezuma, giving him an account of every thing that had occurred since the arrival of the Spaniards.'Presents of great S. By Monte value and magnificence were returned by him, and repeated requests were made, and finally commands given, that the Spaniards should leave the country; but all to no purpose. 6.'Cortez, after destroying his vessels, that his soldiers 6. By Cortez. should be left without any resources but their own valor, commencedb his march towards the Mexican capital. b. August26.'On his way thither, several nations, that were tributary 7. Even.t, to Montezuma, gladly threw off their allegiance and joined onha themarch of Cortez the Spaniards. Montezuma himself, alarmed and irreso- towars the lute, continued to send messengers to Cortez, and as his capital. hopes or his fears alternately prevailed, on one day gave him permission to advance, and, on the next, commanded him to depart. 7. 8As the vast plain of Mexico opened to the view of 8.fAppearanca the Spaniards, they beheld numerous villages and culti- of Meicot * Tabasco, one of the southern Mexican States, adjoins Yucatan on the southwest. t Sanlt Juan de Ulloa is a small island, opposite Vera Cruz, the principal eastern seaport of Mexico. It is 180 miles south of east from the Mexican capital, and contains a strong tfrtress, The old Spanish fort was built of coral rocks taken from the bottom of the sea

Page  116 116 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [BooK ILt ANALYSIS. vated fields extending as far as the eye could reach, and in the middle of the plain, partly encompassing a large lake, and partly built on islands within it, stood the city* of Mexico, adorned with its numerous temples and turrets; the whole presenting to the Spaniards a spectacle sc novel and wonderful that they could hardly persuade themg. Monte- selves it was any thing more than a dream.'Montezuma toa's roecep- receiveda the Spaniards with great pomp and magnifi. lion of the Spaniards. cence, admitted them within the city, assigned them a a. Nov. spacious and elegant edifice for their accommodation, supplied all their wants, and bestowed upon all, privates as well as officers, presents of great value.. Embarrass- 8. 2Cortez, nevertheless, soon began to feel solicitude r' situeation for his situation. He was in the middle of a vast empire, rtez -shut up in the centre of a hostile city,-and surrounded by multitudes sufficient to overwhelm him upon the least 3. Seizure intimation of the will of their sovereign. 3In this emerand treatment of gency, the wily Spaniard, with extraordinary daring, Montemzua. formed and executedb the plan of seizing the person of the Mexican monarch, and detained him as a hostage for 1520. the good conduct of his people. H6 next induced him, overawed and broken in spirit, to acknowledge himself a vassal of the Spanish crown, and to subject his dominions to the payment of an annual tribute. 4. Cortez 9.'But while Cortez was absent,e opposing a force that calledfrov, the capital, had been sent against him by the governor of Cuba, who Mexicamnridee had become jealous of his successes, the Mexicans, innMas. cited by the cruelties of the Spaniards who had been left to guard the capital and the Mexican king, flew to arms. 6. Good for- oCortez, with singular good fortune, having subdued his Cortex. enemies, and incorporated most of them with his own a. July 4. forces, returning, entered- the capital without molestation. 6. His treat- 10'Relying too much on his increased strength, he mnent of the Mexicans- soon laid aside the mask of moderation which had hitherto what fol- concealed his designs, and treated the Mexicans like conquered subjects. They, finally convinced that they had. 0..~ i * The city of idexico, built by the Spaniards on the ruins of, ~:.* tgG..i. \ Fthe ancient city, was long the largest town in America, but is now inferior to New York and Philadelphia. It is 170 miles ~<,,~N ~j~ ~ ~~a g! frnom the Gulf of Miexico, and 200 from the Pacific Ocean, and < o' A: a~ is situated near the western bank of Lake Tezeuco, in the deI - a nne /Qlightful Yale of Mexico, or, as it was formerly called, the Plain of Tenochtitlan, which is 230 miles in circumference, and elevated a' sc//o z..7000 feet above the level of the ocean. The plain contains three lakes besides Tezcuco, and is surrounded by hills ofmoderate jr 0a -~ elevation, except on the south, where are two lofty volcanie "t~o~ b- 4 ximountains. Two of the lakes are above the level of the city, ~A.'~'''d whose streets have been frequently inmndated by them; but in K,,a kiic~b 1689, a deep channel, 12 miles long, cut through the hills on the fJfcyc, 5aL.. ~~ #~; north, was completed, by which the superfluous waters are con,....., -n ". i veyed into the river Tula, and thence to the Panuco.

Page  117 LRT. L.] CONQUEST OF MEXICO. 117 nothing to hope but from the utter extermination of their 152O. invaders, resumed their attacks upon the Spanish quarters with additional fury.'In a sally which Cortez made, 1. Lozoutwelve of his soldiers were killed, and the Mexicans ered by' the learned that their enemies were not invincible. 11. 2Cortez, now fully sensible of his danger, tried what 2. Interposieffect the interposition of Montezuma would have upon tezuma, and his irritated subjects. At sight of their king, whom they thich he almost worshipped as a god, the weapons of the Mexicans ree'ved. dropped from their hands, and every head was bowed with reverence; but when, in obedience to the command of Cortez, the unhappy monarch attempted to mitigate their rage and to persuade them to lay down their arms, murmurs, threats, and reproaches ran through their ranks;-their rage broke forth with ungovernable fury, and, regardless of their monarch, they again poured in upon the Spaniards flights of arrows and volleys of stones. Two arrows wounded Montezuma before he could be removed, and a blow from a stone brought him to the ground. 12. 3The Mexicans, on seeing their king fall by their 3. Remorse and flight of own hands, were instantly struck with remorse, and fled the Mexicans with horror, as if the vengence of heaven were pursuing them for the crime which they had committed. 4Mon- 4. Mondtezutezuma himself, scorning -to survive this last humiliation, rejected with disdain the kind attentions of the Spaniards, and refusing to take any nourishment, soon terminated his wretched days. 13. 5Cortez, now despairing of an accommodation with 5 Retreat o thie Mexicans, after several desperate encounters with fro, tMexieo them, began a retreat from the capital;-but innumerable hosts hemmed him in on every side, and his march was almost a continual battle. On the sixth day of the retreat, the almost exhausted Spaniards, now reduced to a mere handful of men, encountered,~ in a spacious valley, a. July 17. the whole Mexican force;-a countless multitude, extending as far as the eye could reach.'As no alternative 6. areabttMi remained but to conquer or die, Cortez, without giving Mexicansi his soldiers time for reflection, immediately led them to the charge. The Mexicans received them with unusual fortitude, yet their most numerous battalions gave way before Spanish discipline and Spanish arms. 14. The very multitude of their enemies, however, pressing upon them from every side, seemed sufficient to overwhelm the Spaniards, who, seeing no end of their toil, nor any hope of victory, were on the point of yielding to despair. At thlis moment Cortez, observing the great Mexican standard advancing, and recollecting to have

Page  118 118 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. fBooy I1 ANALYSIS. heard that on its fate depended the event of every battle, assembled a few of his bravest officers, and, at their head, cut his way through the opposing ranks, struck down the Mexican general, and secured the standard. The mo. ment their general fell and the standard disappeared, the Mexicans, panic-struck, threw away their weapons, and fled with precipitation to the mountains, making no farther opposition to the retreat of the Spaniards.. inal con. 15.'Notwithstanding the sad reverses which he had Mexicot. experienced, Cortez still looked forward with confidence to the conquest of the whole Mexican empire, and, after receiving supplies and reinforcements, in December, 1520, he again departed for the interior, with a force of five hundred Spaniards and ten thousand friendly natives. After various successes and reverses, and a siege of the capital which lasted seventy-five days-the king Guate1521. mozen having fallen into his hands,-in August, 1521, u. Aug. 23. the city yielded;a the fate of the empire was decided; and Mexico became a province of Spain. 2. Other in- 16. 2Another important event in the list of Spanish portant event'reirzn. discoveries, and one which is intimately connected with ournotice. American history, being the final demonstration of the theory of Columbus, requires in this place a passing notice. 3. Magellan, 17.'Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese by birth, who and lis planr of afnew had served his country with distinguished valor in the Ides. East Indies,* believing that those fertile regions might be reached by a westerly route from Portugal, proposed the. Emanuel. scheme to his sovereign,b and requested aid to carry it 4. nis f.rst into execution. 4Unsuccessful in his application, and applicat or oaPo air having been coldly dismissed by his sovereign without receiving any reward for his services, he indignantly ~-1517- renounced his allegiance and repaired to Spain.c 5. Saedi-s on 18.'The Spanish emperord engaging readily in the tion. scheme which the Portuguese monarch had rejected, a; d. charles v. c squadron of five ships was soon equipped at the public a. Ai. 20, charge, and Magellan set saile from Sevillet in August, S. Account of 1519.'After touching at the Canaries,4 he stood south, t.teacin. crossed the equinoctial line, and spent several months in nnagastrctr- exploring the coast of South America, searching for a lioof tize passage which should lead to the Indies. After spending the winter on the coast, in the spring he continued his 9 East Indies is the name given to the islands of the Indian Ocean south of Asia, together with that portion of the main land which is between Persia: aln China. t Se~ville is a large city beauLtifully situated on the left ba.nk of the Guada]quiver, in the southwestern part of Spain. It was once the chief market for the conunerce of America and the Indies.: The Canaries are a group of 14 islands belonging to Spain. The Peank of Teneriffe, on ona of the more distant islands, is about 250 miles from the northwest coast of Africa, and 800 miles southwest from the Straits of Gibraltar.

Page  119 PAR.] PAIVIPHILLO DE NARVAEZ. 119 voyage towards the south,-passing through the strait* 1f2O. which bears his name, and, after sailing three months — e and twenty-one-days through an unknown ocean, during which time his crew suffered greatly from the want of water and provisions, lie discovereda a cluster of fertile a. ah 1.6, islands, which he called the Ladrones.t 19. The fair weather and favorable winds which he had experienced, induced him to bestow on the ocean through which he had passed the name of PaciJic, which it still retains. Proceeding from the Ladrones, he s'on discovered the islands now known as the Philippines.t Here, in a contest with the natives, Magellan was killed,b b Mays and the expedition was prosecuted under other commanders. After arriving at the Moluccas~ and taking in a. cargo of spices, the only vessel of the squadron, then fit fobr a long voyage, sailed for Europe by way of the Cape of Good Hope,ll and arrived' in Spaiin in September, c. 17th Set. 1522, thus accomplishing the first circumnavigation of the globe, and having performed the voyage in the space of three years and twenty-eight days. V. PAMIPHILO Dr N rArVAEZ. —1.'In 1526, Pamphilo 1526. de Narvaez, the same who had been sent:! by the gover- d. Seep. 11. i. De Nhornor of Cuba to arrest the career of Cortez in Mexico, vaez,eand hEs scheme of solicited and obtained from the Spanish emperor, Charles coenqest. V., the appointment of governor of Florida,e with permis- e. Note p.113. sion to conquer the country.'The territory thus placeed 2. Territory at his disposal extended, with indefinite limits, from the disposal. southern cape of the present Florida to the river of Palms, (now Panuco~T) in Mexico.'Having made exten- ing in sive preparations, in April, 152S, Narvaez landedf in 1l28. Florida with a force of' three hundred imen, of whon f. April 22 eighty were mounted, and erecting the royal standard, took 4. Thes route possession of the country for the crown of Spain. and -wander-, 2. 4Striking into the interior with the hope of findiding Spaiagft. The Strait of 111agellto- is at the southern extremnity of the American continent, separating the islands of Terra del Fuego from the main ladtl. It is a dangerous passage, mlore than 300 miles in length, and in some places not more than a mile across. t The Ladrones, or the Islands of Thieves, thus named from the thievish disposition of the natives, are a cluster of islands in the Pacific Ocean ab(>ut 1600 mliles southeast from the coast of China. When first discovered, the natives were ignorant of any country but their own, and imagined that the ancestor of their race was forened fromi a piece of the rock of one of their islands. They were utterly unacquainted with ficre, lctd when Magellahn, provoked by repeated thefts, bturned one of their villages, they thought that the fire was a beast that fed upon their t wvellings. $ The Pilippeines, thus named in honor of Philip II. of Spain, who subjected them 40 years 2tfter the voyage of Magellan, are a group of more than a thousand islands, the largest of which Is Luzon, about 400 miles southeast from the coast of China. ~ The 1olleccas, or Spice Islands, are a group of small islands north from New Holland, diis covered by the Portugnuese in 1511. They are distinguished chiefly for the production of spices, particularly nutmegs and cloves. il The Cape of Good Ilope is the most important cape of South Africa, although Cape Laguluns;s farther south. The.'anrco is a small river which empties into the Gulf of MIexico 210 miles north froa the Mexican capttal, and about 30 miles norh fromn Tampico.

Page  120 120 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [BOOK I,. ANALYSIS. some wealthy empire like Mexico or Peru,* during two - -- onths the Spaniards wandered about through swamps and forests, often attacked by hordes of lurking savages, but cheered onward by the assurances of their captive guides, who, pointing to the north, were supposed to del. Their d- scribe a territory which abounded in gold.'At length appointed they arriveda in the fertile province of the Apallachians, a. Juno. in the north of Florida, but their hopes of finding gold were sadly disappointed, and the residence of the chief. tain, instead of being a second Mexico, which they had pictured to themselves, proved to be a mere village of two hundred wigwams. 2. Resmlt of 3.'They now directed their course southward, and h dea;-. finally came upon the sea, probably in the region of the Bay of Apallachee,t near St. Marks. Having already lost a third of their number, and despairing of being able to retrace their steps, they constructed five frail boats, in b. Oct. which they embarked,b but being driven out into the gulf by a storm, Narvaez and nearly all his companions perished. Four of the crew, after wandering several years through Louisiana,' Texas,~ and Northern Mexico, and passing from tribe to tribe, often as slaves, finally c. 1536. reachedo a Spanish settlement. 6. Prevalent VI. FERDINAND DE SOTO. —1.'Notwithstanding the belief with fegaS to tih melancholy result of the expedition of Narvaez, it was rFcheda. still believed that in the interior of Florida, a name which the Spaniards applied to all North America then known, regions might vet be discovered which would vie in t. Ferdinand opulence with Mexico and Peru.'Ferdinand de Soto, a s5oto,, and Spanish cavalier of noble birth, who had acquired distinc0~ design of Fq.ue'ring tion and wealth as the lieutenant of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru, and desirous of signalizing himself still farther by some great enterprise, formed the design of 1538. conquering Florida, a country of whose riches he had formed the most extravagant ideas. 5. His aPi.i 2.'He therefore applied to the Spanish emperor, and cation to the Spanish requested permission to undertake the conquest of Florida Monarch. at his own risk and expense. The emperor, indulging high expectations from so noted a cavalier, not only * Peru is a country of South America. bordering on the Pacific Ocean, celebrated for its mines of gold and silver, the annual produce of which, during a great number of years, was more than four millions of dollars. P'eru, when discovered by the Spaniards, was a powerful and wealthy kingdom, considerably adlanced isn civilization. Its conquest was completed by Pizarro in 1532. t Apallaclhee is a large open bay on the coast of Floricda, south of the western part of Georgia..,rt. Ifacsks is a town at the head of the bay. $ Lo7tisiana is as name originally applied to the whole valley of the Mississippi anid the coun try westward as far as M:Iexico and the Pacific Ocean. The present Louisiana is one of the Jlnited States, at the southwestern extremity of the Union. ~ 2'exas, embracing a territory as extensive as the six New England States together witia Nw York and Newi Jersey, adjobss Louisiana on the west. (See also page 621.)

Page  121 PART I.] FERDINANL DE SOTO. 121 granted his request, but also appointed him governor- _t53S. general of Florida for life, and also of the island of Cuba. N'De Soto soon found himself surrounded by adventurers a. No~tep.l2 1. Sails for of all classes, and in April, 1538, sailed for Cuba with a CuOa. fleet of seven large and three small vessels. 3.'In Cuba the new governor was received with great 2 rtsHrecep-. i i n tion in Cuba, rejoicings;-new accessions were made to his forces; and his lnea. and after completing his preparations, and leaving his gia Fowife to govern the island, he embarked for Florida, and early in June, 1539, his fleet anchoredb in the Bay of 1539. Espiritu Santo,* or Tampa Bay.'His forces consisted 3b. June 1o of six hundred men, more than two hundred of whom were mounted, both infantry and cavalry being clad in complete armor. 4Besides ample stores of food, a drove o41 upJlyS. S of three hundred swine was landed, with which De Soto for intended to stock the country where he should settle; and these were driven with the expedition throughout most of the route. 4.'After establishing a small garrison in the vicinity 5. Atcount of of Espiritu Santo, and sending most of his vessels back to itngsof7the Havanna,-t he commenced his march into the interior, the isnterio taking with him, as interpreter, a Spaniard found among the natives, who had remained in captivity since the time of Narvaez. After wandering five months through unexplored and mostly uncultivated. regions, exposed to hardships and dangers and an almost continued warfare with the natives, during which several lives were lost, the party arrived,e in the month of November, in the more c.,ov. 6 fertile country of the Apallachians, east of the Flint river,4 and a few leagues north of the Bay of Apallachee, where it was determined to pass the winter. 5.'From this place an exploring party discovered the 6. Discovery ocean in the very place where the unfortunate Narvaez a.dother had emnbarked. De Soto likewise despatched thirty fGnllowed horsemen to Espiritu Santo, with orders for the garrison to rejoin the army in their present winter quarters. The horsemen arrived with the loss of but two of their number, and the garrison rejoined De Soto, although with some loss, as, during their march, they had several desperate encounters with the natives. Two small vessels that had been retained at Espiritu Santo reached the Bay of Apallachee, and by the aid of these the coast was farther *.Tpiricu Saeto, now called Tampa Bay, is on the western coast of Florida, 200 miles south, east from St. Marks. There is no place of anchorage between the two places. t Haoanna, the capital of Cuba, a wealthy and populous city, is on the north side of the island. It has the finest harbor in the world, capable of containing a thousand ships. The entrance is so narrow that but one vessel can pass at a time. I The Flint river is in the western part of Georgia. It joins the Chattahoochee at the northse boundary of Fllorida, and the two united form the Apalachicola. 16

Page  122 122 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [BooK IL ANALYSIS. explored during the winter,~ and the harbor of Pensacola; a. 153940. discovered. a. 1538.40. a. sianer in 6.'The Spaniards remained five months in winter quar. Spaniards ters at Apallachee, supplying themselves with provisions by.t heiir. pillaging the surrounding country; but they were kept in constant alarm by the never-ceasing stratagems and as. 1540. saults of the natives.'At length, in the month of March, b. March 13. they broke up their camp, and set outb for a remote coun 2. course, try, of which they had heard, to the northeast, governed, in t/2esprinzg it was said, by a woman, and abounding in gold and sil-.. Orders ver.'De Soto had previously despatched his ships to De Soto to Cuba, with orders to rendezvous in the following October aisships. at Pensacola, where he proposed to meet them, having, in the mean time, explored the country in the interior. 4. Disap- 7. 4Changing his course now to the northeast, De Soto pointed tD expectation. crossed several streams which flow into the Atlantic, and probably penetrated near to the Savannah,t where he indeed found the territory of the princess, of whose wealth lie had formed so high expectations; but, to his great disappointment, the fancied gold proved to be copper, and the supposed silver only thin plates of mica. b. Route sq S.'His direction was now towards the north, to the thtrough head waters of the Savannah and tile Chattahoochee,4 Georgti. whence he crossed a branch of the Apalachian~ chain which runs through the northern part of Georgia, and came upon the southern limits of the territory of the e. Map,p.20. Cherokees. 2H.earing that there was gold in a region Couaty Of fatrther north, he despatched two horsemen with Indian the Cherotede guides, to visit the country. These, after an absence of was visited, and thlre ten days, having crossed rugged and percipitous mountains, returned to the camp, bringing with them a few specimens of fine copper or brass, but none of gold or silver. I. Wander- 9. 7During several months the Spaniards wandered eanrdl izn through the valleys of Alabama, obliging the chieftains, Aabamsa. through whose territories they passed, to march with them as hostages for the good conduct of their subjects. SPE.SACOLA AND VICINITY. * Pensacola is a town on the northwest side of Pensacola Bay near the western extremity of Florida. The bay is a fine sheet o; sob 19 itMflt water upwards of 20 miles in length from N.E. to S.W. (See Map. ) {` v*-.,zf~ ~ <~ ~ t A The Sarvannah river forms the boundary line between South.z>; Carolina and Georgia. I The Chattahoochee river rises in the northeastern part of Georgia, near the sources of the Savannah, and, after crossing the rEN. State southwest, forms the boundary between Georgia and Ala. OO5.A.~) t~A-%~? bama. ~ The Apalachian or Alleghany.Mouontai,-s extend from the northern part of Georgia to the State of New York, at a distancer of about 250 miles from the coast, and'early parallel to it. They divide the waters which flow into the Atlautic from those whici, flowinto the Mississippi.

Page  123 PART 13 FERDINAND DE SOTO. 123'In October they arriveda at Mauville,* a fortified Indian 5 40. town near the junction of the Alabamat- and the Tombeckbee. Here was foughta one of the most bloody a." ot..2,. Manville, battles known in Indian warfare.'During a contest of aned eat nine hours several thousand Indians were slain and their occurred there. village laid in ashes. 2. Account oj 10. The loss of the Spaniards was also great. Many rat olattle fell in battle, others died of their wounds,-they lost many of their horses, and all their baggage was consumed in the flames.'The situation of the Spaniards after the 3. Situation of the Spanbattle was truly deplorable, for nearly all were wounded, iardswfter and, with their baggage, they had lost their supplies of the battle. food and medicine; but, fortunately for them, the Indian power had been so completely broken that their enemies were unable to offer themn any farther molestation. 11. 4While at Mauville, De Soto learned from the 4. Infoerm natives that the ships he had ordered had arrived at ibDeSoto, Pensacola.l But, fearing that his disheartened soldiers novements. would desert him as soon as they had an opportunity of b. Note, p. 122 leaving the country, and mortified at his losses, he determined to send no tidings of himself until he had crowned his enterprise with success by discovering new regions of wealth. He therefore turned from the coast and again advanced* into the interior. His followers, accustomed c.Nov. 2 to implicit obedience, obeyed the command of their leader without remonstrance. 12.'The following winterd he passed in the country d. 1540-41 of the Chickasas, probably on the western banks of the 1541. Yazoo,: occupying an Indian village which had been'5 st"o deserted on his approach. Here the Indians attacked iarsa dm'ing their second him at night, in the dead of winter, and burned the vil- vwinter, and losses suffered lage; yet they were finally repulsed, but not till several by them. Spaniards had fallen. In the burning of the village the Spaniards lost many of their horses, most of their swine, and the few remaining clothes which they had saved from the fires of Mauville. During the remainder of the winter they suffered much from the cold, and were almost constantly harassed by the savages. 13.'At the opening of spring the Spaniards resumede 6. Theq cto their march, continuing their course to the northwest teppi. until they came to the Mississippi~ which they crossed, e. May 5. S Pronounced ills-veel, whence Mobile derives its name. t The Alabama river rises in the N.AV. part of Georgia, and through most of its course is called the Coosa. The Tomnbecklcbee rises in the N.E. part of Mississippi. The two unite 35 miles north from Mobile, in the State of Alabama, and through several channels empty into Miobile Bay: The Yazoo river rises in the northern part of the State of Mississippi, and running southwest, enters the Mississippi river 65 miles north from Natchez. ~ The Mississippi river, which, in the Indian language, signifies the Father of Waters, rises 16V miles west from alake Superior. Its source is Itasca Lake, in Iowa Territory. After a

Page  124 124 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES.!Boo: I[L ANALYMIIS. probably at the lowest Chickasaw bluff, one of the ancient crossing places, between the thirty-fourth and the thirty1. Course fifth parallel of latitude.'Thence, after reaching the St. Francis,* thev continued north until they arrived ill the vicinity of New Madrid, in the southern part of the State of Missouri. 2. Thefollowo 14.'After traversing the country,. during the summer, ing sumqner andlowiter. to the distance of two or three hundred miles west of the a. 1541-2. Mississippi, they passed the wintera on the banks of the 1542. Wachita.t'In the spring they passed down that river to 3Deaoto.of the Mississippi, where De Soto was taken sick and died.b 3 May 31. To conceal his death from the natives, his body, wrapped in a mantle, and placed in a rustic coffin, in the stillness of midnight, and in the presence of a few faithful fbllowers, was silently sunk in the middle of the stream. 1. Attempt of 15. 4De Soto had appointed his successor, under whom the Spaniards to reach the remnant of the party now attempted to penetrate by e lcand. land to Mexico. They wandered several months through the wilderness, traversing the western prairies, the hunting grounds of roving and warlike tribes, but hearing no tidings of white people, and finding their way obstructed by rugged mountains, they were constrained to retrace 5. Their- their steps.'In December they came upon the Mississippi fourth sionter. a short distance above the mouth of the Redt river, and c. 1542-3. here they passed the winter,' during which time they 1543. constructed seven large boats, or brigantines. ~In these 6. Their ob- they embarked on the twelfth of July, in the following sequent cos.ereuntil year, and in seventeen days reached the Gulf of iMIexico. Mexico. Fearing to trust themselves far from land in their frail barks, they continued along the coast, and on the twentieth of September, 1543, the remnant of the party, half naked and famishing with hunger, arrived safely at a d. Note, p. 119. Spanish settlement near the mouth of the river Panucod in Mexico. winding course of more than 3000 miles in a southerly direction, it discharges its vast flood o. turbid waters into the Gulf of Mexico. It is navigable for steam-boats to the Falls of St. Anthony, more than 2000 miles from its mouth by the river's course. The Mississippi and its tributary streams drain a vast valley, extending from the Alleghasnies to the Rocky Mountains, containing more than a million of square miles of the richest country in the world;-a territory six times grcater than the whole kingdom of France. * The St. Francis river rises in Missouri, and running south, enters the Mississippi 60 miles north from tihe muouth of the Arkansas. t The Tacrhita river rises in the western part of the State of Arkansas, and running S.E. receives many tributaries, and enters the lied river 30 miles from the junction of the latter with the Mississippi. $ The Redi river rises on the confines of Texas, forms its northern boundary, and enters thei Missippi 150 miles N.W. from Noew Orlean

Page  125 PART 1.4 JOHN AND SEBASTIAN CABOT. 125 1497. CHAPTER II. NORTHERN AND EASTERN COASTS OF NORTH ADMERICA, FROM 1. Subjeut of Chapter II. THE DISCOVERY OF THE CONTINENT BY THE CABOTS, IN 1497, TO THE SETTLEMENT OF JABMESTOWN, IN VIRGINIA, IN 1607. 110 YEARS. DIVISIONS. l. 2John and Sebastian Cabot. —I. Gaspar Corttreal. —II. Ver- (Pronounced razani. —IV. James Cartier.a- V. BRoberval.- VI. Ribaultb Lan- b. Re-bo. donnierec and Melendez. —VII. Gilbert, Raleigh, Grenville, &c.- e. Lo-don-eVill. Mfarquis de la Boche.d-IX. Bartholomew Gosnold.-X. De d. Roash.) Monts. —Xl. North and South Virginia. 2. Divisiosm of Chapter 1I. I. JOHN AND SEBASTIAN CABOT.-1.'Shortly after the 3. Account af return of Columbus from his first voyage, John Cabot, a atnd vdoyageVenetian by birth, but then residing in England, believ- #e mCabom, ing that new lands might be discovered in the northwest, applied to Henry VII. for a commission of discovery. Under this commissione Cabot, taking with him his son e. Dated March 5th, Sebastian, then a young man, sailed from the port of (0. S.) 1496. Bristol* in the spring of 1497. 1497. 2. On the 3d of July following he discovered land, which he called Prima Vista, or first seen, and which until recently was supposed to be the island of Newfoundland,f but which is now believed to have been the coast of Labrador.f After sailing south a short distance, and f. Note, p..ll probably discovering the coast of Newfoundland, anxious tb announce his success, Cabot returned to England without making any farther discovery. 3. 4In 1498 Sebastian Cabot, with a company of three 1498. hundred men, made a second voyage, with the hope of 4.,he seeoa. finding a northwest passage to India. He explored the Sebotian Ca. continent from Labrador to Virginia, and perhaps to the coast of Florida;g when want of provisions compelled g. Note, p. 113. him to return to England. 4. 6He made several subsequent voyages to the Ameri- 1500. can coast, and in 1517, entered one of the straits which 5. SuLequent leads into Hudson's Bay. In 1526, having entered the voYag'o! service of Spain, he explored the River La Plata, and part of the coast of South America. Returning to Engatlnd during the reign of Edward VI., he was made Grand * Bristol, a commercial city oftEngland, next in importance to LonIon and Liverpool, is on the River Avon, four miles distant from its entrance into the river Severn, where commencee -the Bristol Channel. It is 115 miles west from London and 140 south from Liverpool.

Page  126 126 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [Boo 11L ANALYSIS. Pilot of the kingdom, and received a pension for his ser. vices. 1. Account II. GASPAR CORTEREAL.-1.'Soon after the success. oft C6orvtereat.1 ful voyage of the Cabots, which resulted in the discovery 1500. of North America, the king of Portugal, in the year 1500, 1501. despatched Gaspar Cortereal to the coast of America, on a voyage of discovery. After exploring the coast of a.Note, p.l. Labrador- several hundred miles, in the vain hope of b. Note,p. 118. finding a passage to India,b Cortereal freighted his ships c. Aug. with more than fifty of the natives, whom, on his return,6 he sold into slavery.. The second 2.'Cortereal sailed on a second voyage, with a deter. mination to pursue his discovery, and bring back a cargo of slaves. Not returning as soon as was expected, his brother sailed in search of him, but no accounts of either ever again reached Portugal. 1504. III. VERRAZANI.-1.'At an early period the fisher. a. Newfoundc ies of Newfoundland began to be visited by the French and the English, but the former attempted no discoveries 4. decount of in America until 1523. 4In the latter part of this year the voyage df Verrazania Francis I. fitted out a squadron of four ships, the com. mand of which he gave to John Verrazani, a Florentine navigator of great skill and celebrity. Soon after the 1524, vessels had sailed, three of them became so damaged in a storm that they. were compelled to return; but Verrazani proceeded in a single vessel, with a determination to d. Jan. 27. make new discoveries. Sailingd from Madeira,* in a westerly direction, after having encountered a terrible e. March. tempest, he reachede the coast of America, probably in the latitude of Wilmington.t 5. 1 firnst 2.'After exploring the coast some distance north and inte,'coeRd south, without being able to find a harbor, he was obliged natives. to send a boat on shore to open an intercourse with the natives. The savages at first fled, but soon recovering their confidence, they entered into an amicable traffic with the strangers. 2. Events that 3.'Proceeding north along the open coast of New the coast of Jersey, and no convenient landing-place being discovered, Nesw Jersey. a sailor attempted to swim ashore through the surf; but, frightened by the numbers of the natives who thronged the beach, he endeavored to return, when a wave threw him terrified and exhausted upon the shore. He was, however, treated with great kindness; his clothes were * The 1Madeiras are a cluster of islands north of the Canaries, 400 miles west from the coast of Morocco, and nearly 700 southwest from the Straits of Gibraltar. Madeira, the principal Island, celebrated for its wines, is 54 miles long, and consists of a collection of lofty mvoutains on the lower slopes of which vines are cultivated. t Wilmington. (See Note and Map, p. 251.)

Page  127 PART t, CARTIER. 127 dried by the latives; and, when recoverea friom his 1,4 fright and exhaustion, he was permitted to swim back to the vessel. 4.'Landing again farther north, probably near the 1. Neear city of New York,* the voyagers, prompted by curiosity, kidnapped and carried away an Indian child.'It is supposed that Verrazani entered- the haven of Newport,t a. lay 1. where he remained fifteen days. Here the natives were 2 GCharacter liberal, friendly, and confiding; and the country was the if to;e.ic:nity of Neowrichest that had yet been seen. po0.7' 5.'Verrazani still proceeded north, and explored the 3. Fartlhr coast as far as Newfoundland.b The natives of the b. Note,p. ll northern regions were hostile and jealous, and would traffic only for weapons of iron or steel. 4Verrazani 4. The nams gave to the whole region which he had discovered the Neuw F'ace. name of NEW FRANCE; an appellation.which was afterwards confined to Canada, and by which that country was known while it remained in the possession of the French. IV. JAMEs CARTIER.-I1. 6After an interval of ten 1534. years, another expedition was planned by the French; 5. Account ac and James Cartier, a distinguished mariner of St. Malo,t vt.leafe.ts was selected to conduct a voyage to Newfbundland. After having minutely surveyede the northern coast of c. June. that island, he passed through the Straits of Belieisle into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and entered the mouth of the river of the same name; but the weather becoming boisterous, and the season being far advanced, after erecting a cross,d —taking possession of the country in the name d. At the bay of the king of' France,-and inducing two of the natives to acncompany him, he set saile on his return, and, in less e. Aug. 19. than thirty days, enteredf the harbor of St. Malo in safety. f. Sept. is. 2. 61n 1535 Cartier sailed' with three vessels, on a 13 5. second voyage to Newfoundland, and entering the gulf on g tlay 294 the day of St. Lawrence, he gave it the name of that secoft martyr. Being informed by the two natives who had voiaye. returned with him, that far up the stream which he had discovered to the westward, was a large town, the capital har bor. See of the whole country, he sailed onwards, entered the river'i. Spt, 29. St. Lawrence, and, by means of his interpreters, opened t7. E.xplore a friendly colnmunication with the natives. Lawrence, 3. *Leaving his ship safely moored,h Cartier proceededdi a"nt h2lppelz with the pinnace and two boats up the river, as far as the ed r'intthe: Noew York. (See Note anld Map; p. 220.) t Newport. (See Note, p. 215, and SIap, p. 217.) T St laloe is a small seaport town in the N. WV. part of Franct, in the ancient province o?' Britttany, or Bretagne, 200 miles west from Paris. The town is on a rocky elevation called St. Aaron, surrounded by the sea at high water, but connected with the mainland by a causeway the inhabitants were early and extensively engaged in the Newfoundland cod finery.

Page  128 128 VOYAG ES AND DISCOVERIES. [BooK 1i ANALYSIS. principal Indian settlement of Hochelaga, on the site of a. Oct. Ia the present city of Montreal,* where he was receiveda in a friendly manner. Rejoining his ships, he passed the b. 1535-6. winter'} where they were anchored; during which time 1536. twventy-five of his crew died of the scurvy, a malady until then unknown to Europeans. c. May 1 4. LAt the approach of spring, after having taken for. trefac/efyO. mal possessions of the country in the name of his sove. reign, Cartier prepared to return. An act of treachery, d. May 16. at his departure,d justly destroyed the confidence which the natives had hitherto reposed in their guests. The Indian King, whose kind treatment of the French merited a more generous return, was decoyed on board one of the vessels and carried to France. 2. Pre went V. ROBERVAL. —1. 2Notwithstanding the advantages regard to the likely to result from founding colonies in America, the value of new countries. French government, adopting the then prevalent notion that no new countries were valuable except such as produced gold and silver, made no immediate attempts at colonization. 3. Designs 2. 3At length a wealthy nobleman, the Lord of Roberand titles of?obDervat. val, requested permission to pursue the discovery and 1540. form a settlement. This the king readily granted, and e. Jan. Roberval receivede the empty titles of Lord, Lieutenantgeneral, and Viceroy, of all the islands and countries hitherto discovered either by the French or the English. 4. Account or f 3. 4While Roberval was delayed in making extensive the third voyCargeof preparations for his intended settlement, Cartier, whose 1541. services could not be dispensed with, received a subordif.June. nate command, and, in 1541, sailedf with five ships already prepared. The Indian king had in the mean time died in France; and on the arrival of Cartier in the St. Lawrence, he was received by the natives with jealousy and distrust, which soon broke out into open hostilities. 5re Fotd The French then built for their defence, near the present site of Quebec,t a fort which they named Charles1542. bourg, where they passed the winter..Roerivalt,. 4.'Roberval arrived at Newfoundland in June of the hes faie of following year, with three ships, and emigrants for foundMONTrEAL AND VIO. ollontreal, the largest town in Canada, is situated on the S. E. side of a fertile island of the same name about 30 miles long and 10 broad,,TmrdoJ33eka Rq> inclosed by the divided channel of the St. Lawrence. The city is about'' 140 miles S.'W. from Quebec, but farther by the course of the river, t Quebec, a strongly fortified city of Canada, is situated on the N. W. /'.' /' side of the St. Lawrence, on a promontory formed by that river and X r the St. Charles. The city consists of the Upper and the Lower Town,the latter on a narrow strip of land near the water's edge; and the for-, mer on a plain difficult of access, more than 200 feet higher. Cape Diamond, the most elevated point of the Upper Town, is 845 feet above "L..3l_2' the level of the river, and commands a 4rand view of an extensive tract of country. (See Alap, p. 280.)

Page  129 PART I.J RIBAULT, LAUDONNIERE, MIELENDEZ. 126 ing a colony; but a misundeistanding having arisen be- I542. tween him and Cartier, the latter secretly set sail for France. Roberval proceeded up the St. Lawrence to the place which Cartier had abandoned, where he erected two forts and passed a tedious winter.' After some un- a. 15,23. successful attempts to discover a passage to the East Indies,b he brought his colony back to France, and the b. Nole, p.ll design of forming a settlement was abandoned. In 1549 1549. Roberval again sailed on a voyage of discovery, but he was never again heard oi: VI. RIBAULT, LAUDONNIERE, AND [MELENDEZ.-1. 1CO- 1. Attempts of ligni, admiral of France, having long desired to establish forma settlein America a refuge for French Protestants, at length obh- America. tained a commission fiom the king for that purpose, and, 1562. in 1562, despatched' a squadron to Florida,d under the c. Feb. 28. command of John Ribault. 2Arriving on the coast in d. Note, p. ll M'ay, he discovered the St. Johns River, which he named ries made. the river of May; but the squadron continued north until it arrived at Port Royal* entrance, near the southern boundary of Carolina, where it was determined to establish the colony. 2.'Here a fort was erected, and named Fort Charles, el.cted in and twenty-six men were left to keep possession of the carolna. country, while Ribault returnede to France for farther e. July. emigrants and supplies. 4The promised reinforcement 4. The settglo not arriving, the colony began to despair of assistance; donded. and, in the following spring, having constructed a rude 1563. brigantine, they embarked for home, but had nearly perished by famine, at sea, when they fell in with and were taken on board of an English vessel. 3.'In 1564, through the influence of Coligni, another 1564. expedition was planned, and in July a colony was estab- 5. sesnb lished on the river St. Johns,t and left under the com- lishod. mand of Laudonniere.'Many of the emigrants, however, 6. Ch!:a'taterI beingo dissolute and improvident, the supplies of food were tile wasted; and a party, under the pretence of desiring to f. Dec. escape from famine, were permitted to embarkf for France; 1565. but no sooner had they departed than they commenced a career of piracy against the Spanish. vIsIeITY OF PORT ROYAL. The remnant were on the point of embarking i oolr France, when Ribault arrived and assumed Por-t Royal is an island 12 miles in length, on the coast of South Carolina, on the east side of which is sitrtated the town,0 of Beaufort, 50 miles S. WV. from Charleston. Between the island' 7 J and the mainland is an excellent harbor.:' g)) f The St. Johso's, the principal river of Florida, rises in the eastern part of the territory, about 26 miles from the coast, and A runs north, expanding into frequent lakes, until within 20 miles of its mouth, when it turns to the east, and falls into the Atlantic, A 85 miles north from St. Augustine. (See Map next page.) 17

Page  130 130 VOYAGES ANiD DISCOVERIES. [BooK IL ANALYSIS. the command, bringing supplies, and additional emigrants - with their families. a. Note, p.13. 4. 4 Meanwhile news arrived in Spain that a company o. ccErrnt ethat of French Protestants had settled in Florida,p within the spaniards Spanish territory, and Melendez, who had obtained the l ear eof the appointment of governor of the country, upon the condi. tion of completing its conquest within three years, depart. ed on his expedition, with the determination of spe'edily extirpating the heretics. b. Sept. 7. 5.'Early in September,b 1565, he came in sight of L Arrit}l zqfo Florida, and soon discovering a part of the French fleet aelendez, ondin thet gave them chase, but was unable to overtake them. On St. Augus- the seventeenth of September Melendez entered a beauti. tine. a. Sept. 18. ful harbor, and the next day,c after takling formal possession of the country, and proclaiming the king of Spain monarch of all North America, laid the foundations of St. Augustine.* 8. The French 6.'Soon after, the French fleet having put to sea with fleet. the design of attacking the Spaniards in the harbor of St. Augustine, and being overtaken by a furious storm, every ship was wrecked on the coast, and the French settlement 4.Destruction was left in a defenceless state. 4The Spaniards now of thlonyc made their way through the forests, and, surprising" the d. ct. 1. French fort, put to death all its inmates, save a few w1ho fled into the woods, and who subsequently escaped on board two French ships which had remainied in the harbor. Over the mangled remains of the French was placed the inscription, "' We do this not as unto Frenchmen, but as unto heretics." The helpless shipwrecked men being soon discovered, although invited to rely on the clemency of Melendez, were all massacred, except a S. Manner in few Catholics and a few mechanics, who were reserved vwhich the French nwere aS slaves. aveng d. 7.'Although the French court heard of this outrage with apathy, it did not long remain unavenged. VICINITY OF ST. AUGUSTINE,. hain AND ST. JOHn'S RIVER, De Gourgues, a soldier of Gascony;t having fittede out three ships at his own expense, sur~~, ~. IIARIEnOR OF ST. AUCUSTINE. a~ St. A'!gustilne is a town on c thunale zthle eastern coast of Florida, 350 imiles north from the southern K;~ X JiS t t4;%t~~ point of Florida, and 35 miles south from the mouth of the St. Johns Rliver. It is situated on on~ ~,~yte ~' ___ the S. side of a peninsula, hay, i![F w C, S 1;qing on the east Miatanzas Sound, which separates it from Anas-'.,~ Q-~*r~. ~ tatia island. The city is low, but' ~"''''. >~ healthy and pleasant. [ l f l ~, t Gascony was an ancient province in the southwest of France1 I ing chiefly between the Garoune and the Pyrenees. " Thtf G ascons are a spirited and a fiery race, blt their habit of exag. St. AUGUSTINE geration, in relating their exploits, has made the term gasconade -8 2 Anas-ltz ~ iproverbial.:

Page  131 PART I.] GILBERT, RALSEIGH, GRENVILLE. 131 prised two )f the Spanish forts on the St. Johns river, 156S. early in l568, and hung their garrisons on the trees, placing over them the inscription, "I do this not as unto Spaniards or mariners, but as unto traitors, robbers, and murderers." De Gourgues not being strong enough to maintain his position, hastily retreated,a and the Spaniards a. May. retained possession of the country. VII. GILBERT, RALEIGH, GRENVILLE, &C. —.'In 1583 1583. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, under a charter from Queen Eliz- 1. Account 4j abeth, sailedb with several vessels, with the design of / sG,1rt. forming a settlement in America; but a succession of b. June disasters defeated the project, and, on the homeward voyage, the vessel in which Gilbert sailed was wrecked,' and c. SeptL all on board perished. 2. 2His brother-in-law, Sir Walter Raleigh, not dis- 1584. heartened by the fate of his relative, soon after obtainedd 2. Patentof for himself an ample patent, vesting him with almost un- d. April 4. limited powers, as lord proprietor, over all the lands which he should discover between the 33d and 40th degrees of north latitude.'Under this patent, in 1584, he despatched, 3. voyage f for the American coast, two vessels under the command Barslowz. of Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow. 3. Arriving on the coast of Carolina in the month of July, they visited the islands in Pamlico,* and AlbemarleSound, took possession of the country in the name of the queen of England, and, after spending several weeks in trafficking with the natives, returned without attempting a settlement. 4The glowing description which they gave of 4. eame, that the beauty and fertility of the country, induced Elizabeth, the countrtt who esteemed her reign signalized by the discovery of and why these regions, to bestow upon them the name of VIRGINIA, as a memorial that they had been discovered during the reign of a maiden queen. 4.'Encouraged by their report, Raleigh made active 1585. preparations to form a settlement; and, in the following e. April 19. year, 1585, despatchede a fleets of' seven vessels under the theftrstatthe npt to for'tn command of Sir Richard Grenville, with Ralph Lane as asettlsement governor of the intended colony. After some disasters atRanooke. on the coast, the fleet arrived at Roanoke,' an island X5 PamTlico So, td is a large bay on the coast of N. Carolina, ro.ANoKE I. AND VICINITY. nearly a hundred miles long from N. E. to S. W., and from 15 to 25 miles broad. It is separated from the ocean throughout its! whole length by a beach of sand l rdly a mile wide, near the middle of which is the dangerous Cape IHatteras. Ocracock Inlet,% 85 miles S. W1:. from Cape Ifatteras, is the only entrance which admits ships of large burden. - Albemarle Sond is north of and connects with Pamlico Sound, and is likeiwis3 separated from the ocean by a narrow sand beach. It Is about 60 males long from east to vest, and from 4 to 15 miles wide.:, $ Roanoke is an island on the coast of North Carolina, between Pamlico and Albemarle sounds. The north point of the island is 5 - F:t o miles west from the old Itoanoke Inlet, which is now closed. The EngUish fort and colony were at the north end of the island. (See Map.)

Page  132 132 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [BooK IL ANALYSIS. in Albemarle Sound, whence, leaving the emigrants una. Sept. der Lane to establish the colony, Grenville returned" to England. 1586. 5.'The impatience of the colonists to acquire sudden 1. The con- wealth gave a wrong direction to their industry, and the duact of the colonists. cultivation of the earth was neglected, in the idle search after mines of gold and silver. Their treatment of the natives soon provoked hostilities:-their supplies of pro. visions, which they had hitherto received from the Indians, were withdrawn:-famine stared them in the face; and they were on the point of dispersing in quest of food, b. June. when Sir Francis Drake arrived' with a fleet from the e. Note,p. 112. WVest Indies.c 2. Under 6. 2He immediately devised measures for furnishing stances the the colony with supplies; but a small vessel, laden with eai aban- provisions, which was designed to be left for that purpose, donefd being destroyed by a sudden storm, and the colonists be. coming discouraged, he yielded to their unanimous request, and carried them back to England. Thus was the d June29. first English settlement abandoned," after an existence of little less than a year. 3. Events 7.'A few days after the departure of the fleet, a ves. thathappened sel, despatched by Raleigh, arrivede with a supply of coon after the deartture stores fbr the colony, but finding the settlement deserted, of the colony. e. July. immediately returned. Scarcely had this vessel departed, when Sir Richard Grenville arrived with three ships. After searching in vain for the colony which he had planted, he likewise returned, leaving fifteen men on the Island of Roanoke to keep possession of the country. 1587. 8.'Notwithstanding the ill success of the attempts of 4. Account of Raleigh to establish a colony in his new territory, neither the second attempt toform his hopes nor his resources were yet exhausted. Detera8ettlement. mining to plant an agricultural state, early in the following year he sent out a company of emigrants with their wives and families,-granted a charter of incorporation for the settlement, and established a municipal government for his intended'" city of Raleigh." f. Aug. 9. 60n the arrivalf of the emigrants at Roanoke, where 5. Dzappont-,, they expected to find the men whom Grenville had left, appe, ca to they found the fort which had been built there in ruins; on their ar- the houses were deserted: and the bones of their former r. occupants were scattered over the plain. At the same qf Captain place, however, they determined to establish the colony; g. eipt. 6. and here they laid the foundations for their " city." 7. Under 10. 6Soon finding that they were destitute of many ohat circcrn- stancesthe things which were essential to their comfort, their gov. abado.ned, ernor, Captain John White, sailedg for England, to obtain and the necessary supplies.'On his arriv&a he found the

Page  133 PART L.] LA ROCHE, GOSNOLD. 13;3 nation absorbed by the threats of a Spanish invasion; and 15S7o the patrons of the new settlement were too much engaged - in public measures to attend to a less important and remnote object. Raleigh, however, in the following year, 158s, despatched- White with supplies, in two vessels; 1588. but the latter, desirous of a gainful voyage, ran in search a. Maya of Spanish prizes; until, at length, one of' his vessels was overpowered, boarded, and rifled, and both ships were compelled to return to England. 11. Soon after, Raleigh assignedb his patent to a corn- b. March 17, pany of merchants in London; and it was not until 1590 1589. that White was enabled to return0 in search of the colony; 15. ug. and then the island of Roanoke was deserted. No traces of the emigrants could be found. The design of establishing a colony was abandoned, and the country was again leftd to the undisturbed possession of the natives. d. Sept. VIII. MARQUIS. DE LA ROCHE.-1.'In 1598, the Mar- 1598. quis de la Roche, a French nobleman, received from the l. Attempt of king of France a commission for founding a French colo- toDe Rachetny in America. Having equipped several vessels, he tlen'nt sailed with a considerable number of settlers, most of whom, however, he was obliged to draw from the prisons of Paris. On Sable* island, a barren spot near the coast of Nova Scotia, forty men were left to form a settlement. 2.'La Roche dying soon after his return, the colonists 2. rate f/ At were neglected; and when, after seven years, a vessel,0~onu. was sent to inquire after them, only twelve of them were living. The dungeons from which they had been liberated were preferable to the hardships which they had suffered. The emaciated exiles were carried back to France, where they were kindly received by the king, who pardoned their crimes, and made them a liberal donation. IX. BARTHOLOMrOEW GOSNOLD.-1.'In 1602, Bartholo- 1602. imew Gosnold sailede from Falmouth,t England, and Accot tof abandoning the circuitous route by the Canariesf and the Gosnozd. West Indies,g made a direct voyage across the Atlantic, f. Ap. i18 and in seven weeks reachedh the American continent, prob- g. Note, p. 1li ably near the northern extremity of Massachusetts Bay.: h May.'Not finding a good harbor, and sailing southward, he 4 Discover2i discovered and landedi upon a promontory which he called i. May 24. -' Sable island is 90 miles S. SE. from the eastern point of Nova Scotia. i- Falmouth is a seaport town at the entrance of the English Cha-nnel, near the southwestern extremity of England. It is 50 miles S. W. from Plymouth, has an excellent harbor, and a roadstead capable of receiving the largest fleets. $ 3lassaclhusetts.Bay is a large bay on the eastern coast of Massachusetts, between the headlaacs of Cape Ann on the north, and Cape Cod on the south

Page  134 134 V~)OYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [Boor II. ANALYSIS. Cape Cod.* Sailing thence, and pursuing his course along a June.4. the coast, he discovereda several islands, one of which he named Elizabeth:.t and another AMartha's Vineyard.' t. xt:.,wnpt to 2.'Here it was determined to leave a portion of the form a:.ItleoizenCt.. rew for the purpose of formling a settlement, and a store. house and fort were accordingly erected; but distrust of the Indians, who began to show hostile intentions, and the despair of obtaining seasonable supplies, defeated the deb, June 2s. sign, and the whole party embarkedb for England. 2The,h Leng'th return occupied but five weeks, and the entire voyage only four months.. Account of 3. 3Gosnold and his companions brought back so favorand disco,- able reports of the regions visited, that, in the following etriesifilar- year, a company of Bristol~ merchants despatchedd t wo tf~n Pringf. 1603. small vessels, under the command of Martin Pring, for c. Note,p. 125. the purpose of exploring the country, and opening a trafd. April 2o. fic with the natives. Pring landede on the coast of' June Maine,-discovered some of its principal rivers,-and examined the coast of Massachusetts as far as Martha's Vineyard. T['he whole voyage occupied but six months. In 1606, Pring repeated the voyage, and made a more accurate survey of' Maine. 4. Grant of X. DE MONTS. —1. 4In 1603, the king of France lande Mot grantedf to De Monts, a gentleman of distinction, the f. Nov. 8. sovereignity of the country from the 40th to the 46th degree of north latitude; that is, from one degree south of g. Note, p. 220. New York city,g to one north of Montreal.h h Sailingi h Notep.28. with two vessels, in the spring of 1604, he arrived at i. 1 Noarch7 Nova ScotiaJ in May, and spent the summer in trafficking j. Note, p. ll.. with the natives, and examining the coasts preparatory to 5. voylageof a settlement. De Monts. 6. HisJirst 2. 6Selecting an island near the mouth of the river St. canter. Croix,~ on the coast of New Brunswick, he there erected k. 1604-5. a fort and passed a rigorous winter,k his men suffering 1605. much from the want of suitable provisions.'In the follow-. Settloemeyt ing spring, 1605, De Monts removed to a place on the Bay of Fundy;lj and here was formed the first permanent *'Cape Cod, thus named from the number of co taken there by its discoverer, is 50 miles S. E. from Boston. t Elizabeth Islands are a group of 13 islands south of Buzzard's Bay, and from 20 to 30 miles E. and S. E. from Newport, lthode Island. Nashawn, the largest, is 7 and a half miles long. Cattahunk, the one nanled by Gosnold Elizabeth Island, is two miles and a half long and three quarters of a mile broad. $ Martha's Vine?yard, three or four miles S. E. from the Elizabeth Isiands, is 19 miles in length from E. to W., and from 3 to 10 miles in width. The island called by Gosnold Martha's Vineyard is now called No Man's Land. a small island four or five miles south from Martha's Vt leyard. When or wly the name was changed is not knowsn. ~ The St. Croix river, called by the Indians Schoodic, empties into Passamaquoddy Ba.y at the eastern extremity of Maine. it was the island of the same name, a few miles up the river, on which the French settled. By the treaty of 1783 the St. Croix was made the eastern boundary of the United States, but it was uncertain what river was the St. Croix until the remains of the French fort were discovered. P The Bay of Fusndy, remarkable for its high tides, lies between Novta Scotia and New Bruns,

Page  135 PART I.] NORTH AND SOUTH VIRGINIA. 135?renich settlement in America. The settlement was j605, iamed Port Royal,* and the whole country, embracing the present New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the adja-.lent islands, was called ACADIA. 3.'In 1608, De Monts, although deprived of his former 1608. commission, having obtained from the king of France the a, Farther grant of the monopoly of the fir trade on the river St. De Monts. Lawrence, fitted out two vessels for the purpose of formng a settlement; but not finding it convenient to command in person, he placed them under Samuel Champlain, who had previously visited those regions. 4. 2The expedition sailed, in April, and in June arri- 2. Accountof the'voyage o(f ved, at Tadoussac, a barren spot at the mouth of the Sa- Charsyplairn, andc the guenayt river, hitherto the chief seat of the traffic in furs. settlement of Thence Champlain continued to ascend the river until he aQuebec: - April 13. had passed the Isle of Orleans,t when he selectede a b. June 3. commodious place for a settlement, on the site of the pres- c. July 3. ent city of Quebec,d and near the place where Cartier d. ro:e,p.2sL had passed the winter, and erected a fort in 1541. From this time is dated the first permanent settlement of the French in New France or Canada. XI. No'rTH AND SOUTTH VIRGINIA.-l.'In 1606 James 1606. the 1st, of England, claiming all that portion of North 3.Agnrta Vt. America which lies between the 34th and the 45th degrees South Viar of north latitude, embracing the country from Cape Fear~ to Halifax,ll divided this territory into two nearly equal districts; the one, called NorTH VIRGINIA, extending from the 41st to the 45th degree; and the other, called SOUTrI VIRGINIA, from the 34th to the 38th. 2. 4The former he grantede to a company of " Knights, e. April 20. England, andr~4. To what gentlemen, and merchants," of the west of England, 4coTaonie called the Plyymouth Company; and the latter to a com- hee pany of " noblemen, gentlemen, and merchants," mostly granted. resident in London, and called the London Company. The intermediate district, from the 38th to the 41st degree, was open to both companies; but neither was to form a settlement within one hundred miles of the other. wick. It is nearly 200 miles in length from S. W. to N. E., and 75 miles across at its entrance, gradually nnarowing towards the head of the bay. At the entrance the tide is of the ordinary height, about eight feet, but at the head of the bay it rises 60 feet, and is so rapid as often to overtake and sweep off animals feeding on the shore. 5 Port Royal (now Annapolis) once the capital of French Acadia, is situated on the east bank of the river and bay of Annapolis, in the western part of Nova Scotia, a short distance from the Bay of Fundy. It has an excellent harbor, in which a thousand vessels might anchor in security. t The Sagelexay river empties into the St Lawrence from the north, 130 miles N. E from Quebec. $ The Isle of Orleans is a fertile island in the St. Lawrence, five miles below Quebec. It is about 25 miles long and 5 broad. (See Map, p. 280.) ~ Cape Fear is the southern point of Smith's Island, at the mouth of cape Fear River, on the coast of N. Carolina, 150 miles N.' E. from Charleston. (See Map, p. 251.) I Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, is situated on the S. XV. side of the Bay of ChebuctoA which is on the S. E. coast of Nova Scotia. The town is 10 miles from the sea, and has an ex-,ellent harbor of 10 square miles. It is about 450 miles N. IE. from Boston.

Page  136 186 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES [BooKx AI aNALYSIS. 3.'The supreme government of each district was to be 1. The gov- vested in a council residing in England, the members of erneitzts of which were to be appointed by the king, and to be rethese districts, moved at his pleasure. The local administration of the affairs of each colony was to be committed to a council residing within its limits, likewise to be appointed by the 2. Effects of king, and to act conformably to his instructions.'The Asese regulations. effects of these regulations were, that all executive and legislative powers were placed wholly in the hands of the king, and the colonists were deprived of the rights of selfgovernment,-and the companies received nothing but a simple charter of incorporation for commercial purposes.. AuLg. 22. 4. "Soon after the grant, the Plymouth Company desNov. 22. patcheda a vessel to examine the country; but before the Attempts of Pt2emouth voyage was completed she was capturedb by the Spanmpon'y to iards. Another vessel was soon after sent out for the same,;a~mine the country. purpose, which returned with so favorable an account of the country, that, in the following year, the company sent out a colony of a hundred planters under the command 1607. of George Popham. A Aug. 21. 5. 4They landed' at the mouth of the Kennebec,* Attempted ctetenment at where they erected a few rude cabins, a store-house, and e. De. 15. some slight fortifications; after which, the vessels sailedd for England, leaving forty-five emigrants in the plantation, which was named St. George. The winter was intensely cold, and the sufferings of the colony, from famine and hardships, were extremely severe. They lost their storehouse by fire, and their president by death; and, in the following year, abandoned the settlement and returned to England. 5. Expedition 6.'Under the charter of the London Company, which sent out by tle London alone succeeded, three small vessels, under the command. DPec. 30 of Captain Christopher Newport, sailede for the American coast in December, 1606, designing to land and form a f. Note, p. 13. settlement at Roanoke.f Pursuing the old route by the g. Note, p. 118. Canaries,g and the West Indies,h Newport did not arrive i. Neay 6. until April; when a storm fdrtunately carriedi him north of Roanolke into Chesapeake Bay.t Bca77ity r,.fi J'i The Kennebec, a river of Maine, west of the 2~illiamsburg %~~'). )t] Penobscot, falls into the ocean 120 miles N. E. from o Jarn-csto'v. t - Boston. —The place where the Sagadahoc colony'74'-_g~? g-~ A,~.}: (as it is usually called) passed the winter, is in the,*>r ~(~?E %..'4~. 0miW present town of Phippsburg, which is composed of - ~74,~~~(.1~,,!';:cA [y~""-o' a long narrow peninsula at the mouth of the Ken0 r > \W~Lta't nebec River, having the river on the east. Hills ICY/lW/'i%.-'>t,Y e," *?)]Point, a mile above the S. E. corner of the peninaes iiLeon';1 sula, was the site of the colony..- a~ —STO':'S! Fi.,~,'' i The Chesapealre Bay, partly in Virginia, andt rA S. TV OWS\k partly in Maryland, is from 7 to 20 miles in width, vI5iga h. 180 miles in length from N. to S., and 12 miles wide at its entrance, between Cape Charles otn the ~~ ~o r:- -~ ~- N. and Cape Henry on the 3

Page  137 PARUT KI. NORTH AND SOUTH VIRGINIA. 337 7. "Sailing along the southern shore, he soon entered a 160 noble river which he named James River,* and, after - - I. Account of passing about fifty miles above the mouth of the stream, theset lement through a delightful country, selecteda a place for a settle- of -n. ment, which was named Jacmestoown.t Here was formed a. May23. the first permanent settlement of the English in the New World,-one hundred and ten years after the discovery of the continent by Cabot, and forty one years from the settlement" of St. Augustine in Florida. b. See p. 130. s The James River rises in the Alleghany Mountains, passes through the Blue Ridge, and hlls into the southern part of Chesapeake Bay. Its entrance into the bay is called Hampton Roads, having Point Comfort on the north, and Willoughby Point on the south. t Jamestouwn is on the north side of James River, 30 miles from its mouth, and 8 miles S. S. W. fr~-; Williamnsburg. The village is entirely deserted, with the exception of one or two old bufigs and is not found on modern maps. (See Map.)

Page  138 APP E NDIX TO THE PERIOD OF VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. A.NALYSIS. 1. In the preceding part of our history we have passed over a -1. Thi re period of more than one hundred years, extending from the end of ceding part the fifteenth to the beginning of the seventeenth century As this of our hi- portion consists of voyages and discoveries merely, made hy navitory. gators of different nations, with no unity of action or design, we find here little or nothing that can throw light on the subsequent character of the American people. 2. Impor- 2. 2In the meantime, however, our fathers, mostly of one nation. tance of ez:- were already on the stage of action in another land and causes English his- and influences were operating to plant them as colonists on this tory in con- then wilderness coast, and to give them those types of individual our oson. and national character which they afterwards exhibited. To England therefore, the nation of our origin, we must look, if we would know who and what our fathers were, in what circumstances they. had been placed, and what characters they had formed. WVe shall thus be enabled to enter upon our colonial history with a preparatory knowledge that will give it additional interest in our eyes, and give us more enlarged views of its importance. Let us then. for a while, go back to England our father-land; let us look at the social, the internal history of her people, and let us endeavor to catch the spirit of the age as we pass it in review before us. 8. Henry the 3.Se 3enrth the Seventh, the first king of the house of Tudor, 3eventh. was on the throne of Enlgland at the time of the discovery of 4. Inteni- America. 4Whben intelligence of that important event reached gdene of the England, it excited there, as throughout Europe, feelings of surAmerica. prise and adnliration; but in England these feelings were minglecd with the regret that accident alone had probably depriv,d that g. Colmtbus country of the honor which Spain had won. WFor while Columbus, deprivea of with little prospect of success, was soliciting aid from the courts otelt,sary. of Portugal and Spain, to enable him to test the wisdom of his schemes, he sent his brother Bartholomew to solicit the patronage of' the king of England, wrho received his propositions with the greatest favor. But Bartholomew having been taken prisoner by pirates on his voyage, and long detained in captivity, it was ascertained soon after his arrival that the plans of Columbus had al ready been sanctioned and adopted by Ferdinand and Isabella ngtish when the patronage of Henry was no longer needed...At America 4. 6Although the English were thus deprived of the honor of * So called because he was a descendant from Edmund Tudor. Before his accession to the throne his title waas Earl of RIichmond. The five Tudor sovereigns were Henry VII.. Henry VII., Edward VI., Mary, land Elizabeth. On the death of the latter the throne came into the possession of the Stuasrts in the following manner. Margaret, eldest daughter of HIenry VII., married James Stuart, King of Scotland, whose title was Jamzes V. They left one daughter, the unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots. On the death of Elizabeth the Tudor race was extinct, and James VI. of Scotland, son of Mary of Scots, was the nearest heir to the throne of England, to which he acceded with the title of Janmes I.; the first English sovereign of th, house of Stuarts. As the Tudor princes were on the throne of England. dusing the first period of our history, and as this Appendix frequently refers to them individually, it will be well for the reader to learn the order of their succession by referring to the Chart, page. This will also serve to fixin the mix d a comparative view Ml the two histories-English and American.

Page  139 PART 1.4 OYAGES AND DISCOVERIES, 139 discovering A merica, they were the second nation to visit its shores, ANALYSIS. and the first that reachefi the continent itself. Little immediate benefit was derived to England from the two voyages of Cabot, andfound, except the foundation of a claim to the right of territorial pro- to territorial perty in the newly discovered regions.'Cabot would willingly ropCerby. have renewed his voyages under the patronage of Henry, but finding him so occupied with civil dissensions at home that he could not be interested in projects of colonial settlements abroad, he transferred his services to the Spaniards, by whom he was long reverenced for his superior skill in navigation. 5.'From the reign of Henry the Seventh to that of Elizabeth, 2. Early rethe English appear to have had no fixed views of establishing col- Fnrlan onies in America; and even the valuable fisheries which they had dis- vith nAmercovered on the coast of Newfoundland, were, for nearly a century, ica. monopolized by the commercial rivalries of France, Spain, and Portugal, although under the acknowledged right of English jurisdiction. 6. 3Henry the Seventh was a prince of considerable talents for 3. Character public affairs, but exceedingly avaricious, and by nature a despot, aed power of although his sagacity generally led him to prefer pacific counsels. Seventh. His power was more absolute than that of any previous monarch since the establishment of the Great Charter,* and although his reign was, on the whole, fortunate for the nation, yet the services which he rendered it were dictated by his views of private advantage, rather than by motives of public spirit and generosity-a signal instance in which the selfishness of a monarch has been made to contribute to the welfare of his subjects. 4The state of England 4. Importance at this period requires from us more than a passing notice, for here the, knstate of commenced those changes in the condition of her people, the influ- England at ences of which have affected all their subsequent history, and, con- this period. sequently, essentially modified the character of our own. 7. 5At the accession of Henry, which was at the close of the 5. state of long and bloody wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, thEngnland at which had ruined many of the nobility of the kingdom, there was accession of no overshadowing aristocracy, as under former kings, sufficiently Henry the united and powerful to resist the encroachments of royal authority; and the great body of the people, so long the sport of contending factions, were willing to submit to usurpations, and even injuries, rather than plunge themselves anew into like miseries. 6In the 6. Policy of zeal of the king however to increase his own power and give it ad- Henry the ditional security, he unconsciously contributed to the advancement its effecls. of the cause of popular liberty. In proportion as the power of the nobility had been divided and weakened by the former civil wars, so had the power-of the Feudal Systemt been diminishcd,-a far more * The Great Charter, [Magna Charta,] was obtained from King John, by the barons, arms In hand, in the year 1215. It limited and mitigated the severities of the feudal system, diminished the arbitrary powers of the monarch, and guarantied important liberties and privileges to all classes-the barons, clergy, and people. Yet it was not till after a long and bloody struggle, during many succeeding reigns, that the peaceable enjoyment of these rights was obtained, The Great Charter was signed June 15th, 1215, at a place called Runnymede, on the tanks of the River Thanmes, between Staines and Windsor. t Feudal System. At the time of the Norman conquest, in the year 1066, the people of England, then called Anglo-Saxons, from their mixed English and Saxon origin, were divided into three classes:-the nobles or thanes; the freemen; and the villains, or slaves. The lat ter, however, a very numerous class, were of several kinds, and reduced to different degrees of servitude. Those who cultivated the land were transfered with it from one proprietor to another, and could not be removed from it. Others, taken in war, were the absolute property of their masters. The power of a master however over his slaves, was not unlimited among the Anglt-Saxons, as it was among their German ancestors. If a man maimed his slave the latter recovered his freedom; if he killed him he paid a fine to the kilng; but if the slave did

Page  140 140 APP ENDIX'TO THE PERIOD OF';Boost IL ANALYSIS. odious instrument of tyranny than was ever wielded by a single despot. It was the selfish policy of Henry, as we shall learn, that did the world the valuable service of giving to this system its death-blow in England. 1. Former S. lit had long been a practice among the nobles, or barons, for Pobarcyof t.e each to engage as many men in his service as he was able, giving them badges or liveries, by which they were kept in readiness to assist him in all wars. insurrections, and riots, and even in bearing evi2. Nature of dence for him in courts of justice. 2The barons had thus estabtheir power. lished petty despotisms of the most obnoxious kind, hostile alike to the power of the sovereign, and to the administration of justice 3. The course among the people. 3Jealous of the power thus exercised by the which Henry barons, and which, at times, had been the severest restraint upon en it. the royal prerogative, the king sought to weaken it by causing severe laws to be enacted against engaging retainers, and giving badges or liveries to any but the menial servants of the baron's household. An instance of the severity of the king in causing these laws to be rigidly enforced is thus related by Hume. not die within a day after the injury, the offence went unpunished. These ranks and conditions of society constituted the feudal system of England in its immature state. The conquest by William of Normandy, however, was the cause of establishing this system in its more perfect state as it then existed on the continent. William distributed large tracts of the lands of the kingdom among his Norman followers yet to all these grants a variety of obligations was annexed. Those Saxon landholders also, who were permitted to retain their estates, were required first to surrender them to the crown, and then to receive them again on the same conditions that were exacted of the Normans. The most important of these conditions was the requirement of military service; together with certain payments, of various kinds, which constituted a considerable part of the royal revenue. Upon the non-fulfilment of the conditions on which the lands were granted, they reverted back to the sovereign. In consequence of this change in the tenures by which land was held, it became a fundamental maxim in English law, " that the king is the universal lord and original proprietor of all the lands in his kingdom." The wordfeud signified "an estate in trust," hence the propriety of calling this the " Feudal System." Nearly the same conditions which the sovereign exacted of the barons, the latter imposed upon their vassals or tenants, who were a species of subordinate landholders; so that a feudal baron was a king in miniature, and a barony was a little kingdom. These vassals or tenants were entitled to the services of the Anglo-Saxon serfs or villains, who were annexed to the land which they cultivated. These serfs, called also predial slaves, possessed an imperfect kind of property of their own, in their houses, furniture and gardens; and could not be removed from the land; but the household or domestic slaves, the same as with the Saxons, were the personal property of their masters, who sold them at their pleasure, and even exported them, as articles of commerce, into foreign countries. The numbers of this latter class'were greatly increased by the Norman conquest, as those who were taken prisoners at the battle of Hastings, and in subsequent revolts, were reduced to slavery. During the fifteenth century the number, both of domestic and predial slaves, was greatly diminished, as the proprietors of land found that their work was performed to better purpose, and even at less expense. by hired servants. The numerous wars, also, in which the English were engaged during this period, contributed to the decline of slavery, by obliging the nobles to put arms into the hands of their serfs and domestics. Yet so late as the reign of Henry the Eighth, we read of English slaves, the absolute property of their masters, although at this time it was a prevailing opinion among people of all ranks, that slavery was inconsistent with the spirit of Christianity, and the rights of humanity. In the year 1514 Henry the Eighth granted an act of manumission to two of his slaves and their families, for which he assigned this reason in the preamble: " That God had at first created all men equally free by nature, but that many had been reduced to slavery by the laws of men. We believe it therefore to be a pious act, and meritorious in the sight of God, to set certain of our slaves at liberty from their bondage." It is asserted by one who wrote during the reign of Edward the Sixth, that neither predial nor domestic slaves were then found in England, although the laws still admitted both. The most obnoxious features of the Feudal System had then become extinct; although the military tenures, with their troublesome appendages, were not abolished until 1672, in the reign of Charles the Second. Even now, some honorary services, required of the ancient barons, are retained at coronations, and on other public occasions. The effects of the feudal system are also still seen in the existence of some portions of that powerful landed aristocracy which it created; and also in many peculiarities in the government and laws of England. The latter cannot be understood with any degree of accuracy without a general acquaintance witl the system in which they originated. On this subject, see all the important Histories of England: also, Blackstone's Commertfa riss, Book II., chapters 4, 5, and O

Page  141 PAR7 I.] VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 141 9. 1', The earl cf Oxford, the king's favorite general, in whom he ANALYSIS. always placed great and deserved confidence, having splendidly entertained him at his castle of Heningham, was desirous of making the king's sea parade of his magnificence at the departure of his royal guest, verity, illusand ordered all his retainers, with their liveries and badges, to be tfavor hite drawn up in two lines, that their appearance might be more gallant policy. and splendid.' My lord,' said the king, I I have heard much of your hospitality; but the truth far exceeds the report. These handsome gentlemen and yeomen, whom I see on both sides of me. are, no doubt, your menial servants? The earl smiled, and confessed that his fortune was too narrow for such magnificence. They are, most of them,7 subjoined he,'my retainers, who are come to do me service at this time, when they know I am honored with your majesty's presence2 The king started a little, and said)'By my faith, my lord, I thank you for your good cheer, but I must not allow my laws to be broken in my sight. My attorney must speak with you.' Oxford* is said to have paid no less than fifteen thousand marks, as a composition for his offence." 10. 2Such severity was highly effectual in accomplishing its object, 2. Beneficial and the emulation of the barons. and their love of display and mag- efects of the king's policy nificence gradually took a new'direction. Instead of vieing with upon the each other in the number and power of their dependents or retain- character oef ers, they now endeavored to excel in the splendor and elegance of Teonple. their equipage, houses, and tables. The very luxuries in which they indulged thus gave encouragement to the arts; the manners of the nobility became more refined; and the common people, no longer maintained in vicious idleness by their superiors, were obliged to learn some calling or industry, and became useftil both to themselves and to others. Such were some of the beneficial effects of a law originating merely in the monarch's jealousy and distrust of the power of the nobility. 11. SAnother severe but covert blow upon the power of the barons 3. Aboition was the passage of a law,t giving to them the privilege of selling of the ancient law of entails or otherwise disposing of their landed estates, which before were -new policy. inalienable, and descended to the eldest son by the laws of primogeniture. 4This liberty, not disagreeable to the nobles themselves, 4. Effects of and highly pleasing to the commons, caused the vast fortunes of this new the former to be gradually dissipated, and the property and infiuence of the latter to be increased. The effects of this, and of the former law, gradually gave a new aspect to the condition of the common people, who began to rise, only with the waning power of the Feudal System. 12. 5With the clergy, however, Henry was not so successful. At 5. The clergy. that time all convents, monasteries, and sanctified places of wor- saRnctigaries ship, were general asylums, or places of refuge, to which criminals vain attempts might escape, and be safe from the vengeance of the law. This to have theing was little less than allowing an absolute toleration of all kinds of abolished. vice; yet Henry, induced principally by a jealousy of the growing power and wealth of the monastic body, in vain exerted his influence with the pope to get these sanctuaries abolished. All that he could accomplish, was, that if thieves, robbers, and murderers, who had fled for refuge to the sanctuaries, should sally out' Lingard, copying from Bacon, says, " The Earl of Essex." Lingard states tlhe tne at sO,000 pounds.' According to Hallam, this was merely the re-enactment of a law passed during the reign of Richard III. If so, the law had probably fallen into disuse, or doubts of its validity may existed.

Page  142 142 APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF [BooeK IIL ANALYSIS. and commit new offences, and escape a second time, they might...`-. — then be taken and delivered up to justice. 1. " Benefit 13.'The beizefit of clery/, however% was somewhat abridged the of Cler:"ents criminal, for the first offence being burned in the hand, with a let. abridg-ments of, and also of ter denoting his crime; after which he was liable to be punished the pr?'ivlle esg capitally if convicted a second time. But in the following reign, tuary. when the Reformation had extended over England, the benefit of clergy was denied to any under the degree of sub-deacon, and the privileges of the sanctuary, as places of refuge for crimimals, were abolished; but it was long before all distinctions in the penal code were removed between the clergy and other subjects. 2. Laws rela- 14. 2The laws relative to murder, however. even at the commence Tive to ur — rder. ment of the sixteenth century, exhibited a spirit little less enlightened than that found among some of the savage tribes of North America. Prosecutions for murder were then, as now, carried on in the name of the sovereign, yet a limited time was specified within which the prosecution was to be commenced, and often, in the interval, satisfaction was made by the criminal, to the friends or relatives of the person murdered, and the crime was suffered to go unpunished. But now. in all civilized nations, public prosecutors are aappointed, whose dtuty it is to bring to justice all offenders against the peace and safety of society. 3. State of 15. 30f the state of morals during this period, we may form some morals, crim- idea from the few criminal statistics that have been handed down nal statistics, qPc. to us, althouglh the numbers are probably somewhat exaggerated. It is stated in an act of parliament passed in the third year of the reign of Henry the Eighth, that the nl-umber of prisoners in the kingdom, confined for debts and crimes. amounted to more than sixty thousand, an assertion which appears to us scarcely credible. One writer asserts *that during the same reign, of thirty-eight years, seventy-two thousand persons were executed for theft and robbery-amlounting to nearly two thousand a year. 4, Graduat 16. 4But we are told that during the latter part of the reign of dof apiti n Elizabeth the number punished capitally was less than four hundred offences. c in a year. and that, about the middle of the eighteenth century, this 5. Ascribedto number had diminished to less than fifty. 5This diminution is owhat. ascribed by Hume to the great improvement in morals since the reign of Henry the Eighth, caused chiefly, he asserts, by the increase of industry, and of the arts, which gave maintenance, and, what is of almost equal importance, occupation to the lower 6. The prin- classes. s6f these be facts, they afford an illustration of the princple illtstra t ciple, that, in an ignorant population, idleness and vice almost infacts. separably accompany each other. 7. Foreign 17. 7lDuring the time of Henry the Seventh, foreign commerce was commnersce: ct cttmelcps carried on to little extent, although the king attempted to encouregulate the rage it by laws regulating trade; yet so unwise were most of these same. laws that trade and industry were rather hurt than promoted by o By " benefit of clergy," is understood a provision of law by which clergymen and others set apart to perform religious services were exempted from criminal process in the ordinary courts of law, and delivered over to the ecclesiastical judge; so that the chturch alone took cognizance of the offence. Under this regulation, a corrupt priesthood might be guilty of the greatest enormities, with no human power to bring the offenders to justice. Originally the benefit of clergy was allowed to those only who were of the clerical order; but in process of time it was extended to all who could read; such persons beiug accounted in those days of Ignorance, worthy of belonging to the clerical order. A large number of petty offences were then punishable with death to those who were not entitled to plead the benefit of clergy. -(For the various modifications and chang's which the laws relating to benefit of clergy haw undergone, and their influences in forming the present penal code of England, see Blaektoue Blook IV, chap. xxviii.)

Page  143 PART 1, VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 143 the care and attention bestowed upon thenm. Laws were made ANAlY~SIS. against the exportation of gold and silver, and agajinst the exportation of horses: prices were affixed to woollen cloth. to caps and hatsi and the wages of laborers were regulated by law. In the Other ismolfollowing reign these unlljust regulations were greatly extended, al- iti s. though in many instances it was impossible to enforce them. Laws were made to prohibit luxury in apparel, but without much effect: a statute was enacted to fix the price of beef, pork, mutton, and veal: and laws were passed to prevent the people from abandoning tillage and throwing their lands into pasturage. 18. IThe apparent necessity for this latter law arose from the ef- 1. Lawn to pre. fects of former partial and unjust enactments, which forbade the dvent tanoexportation of grain and encouraged that.of wool. So pernicious tiIla, e, end to the great mass of the people was this system, although lucra- ts e~fects. five to the large landholders, owing to the increasing demand for wool, that the beggary and diminished population of the poorer classes were its consequences. 2During the reign of Edward VI., 2. Ltaw re7a a law was made by which every one was prohibited from making atifacture cloth, unless he had served a-n apprenticeship of seven years. This of cloth law, after having occasioned the decay of the woollen manufactures, and the ruin of several towns, was repealed in the first year of the reign of Mary. but it is surprising that it was renewed during the reign of Elizabeth. 19. 3The loan of capital for commercial uses was virtually prohibit- 3. Lawts res, lating eile ed by the severe laws which were enacted against taking interest for loan of money, which was then denominated usury; all evasive contracts, toney. by which profits could be made fiom the loan of money, were carefully guarded against, and even the profits of exchange were prohibited as savoring of usury. It was not until 15453 during the reigrn of HIenry the, that the first legal interest was known in England, but so strong were the prejudices of the people against the law that it was repealed in the following reign of Edvward the Sixth x and not firmly established until 1571, in the reign of,lizabeth, when the legal rate of interest was fixed at ten per cent. 4An evidence of the increasing advance of commercial prosperity 4. Reduction is exhibited in the fact that in 1624 the rate of interest was redu- of the rate o/' ced to eight per cent.; in 1672 to six per cent.; an.d finally, in 1714, the last year of the reign of queen Annen it was reduced to five per cent. 20.'One of the greatest checks to industry during most of the 6. InWurious sixteenth century was the erection of numerous corporations, which monopolies. enacted laws for their own benefit without regard to the interests of the public, often confining particular manuiactures, or branches of commerce, to particular towns or incorporated companies, and excluding the open country in general. GAs an example of the 6. Example powers which these monopolies had been allowed to exercise, it of the owerac mav be mentioned that the company of merchant adventurers in were allowed London, had, by their own authority, debarred all other merchants to exercise. from trading to certain foreign ports, without -the payment, from each individual, of nearly seventy pounds sterling for the privilege, 21. 7Many cities of England then imposed tolls at their gates; 7. Various and the cities of Gloucester and WVorcester, situated on the river corporate govern. had assumed and long exercised the authority of exacting Cities a tribute on the navigation of that stream. Some of these corpo * Notwithstanding the laws against usury, money was secretly 1 Daned at this time —the cora mon rate of interest during the reign of Edwcard the Sixth being fourteen per cent.

Page  144 144 APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF [B'oOK II ANA.LYSIS. rate powers were abrogated by Henry VII.,. and, as a partial check --— t —--- to farther abuses, a law was enacted by parliament that corporations should not make any by-laws without the consent of three of the chief officers of state. But during the reign of Edwlard VI. the city corporations, which, by a former law, had been abolished so far as to admit the exercise of their peculiar trades beyond the city limits, were again closed, and every one who was not a member of'the corporation -was thus prohibited from follow. ing the trade or profession of his choice. Such restrictions would now be deemed exceedingly tyrannical under any government, and totally at variance with sound principles of political economy. I Archery, 22. 1Several laws passed during the reigns of Henry VII. and. fence,.fire- Henry VIII. for the encouragement of archery, show on what the arme, ~c. defence of the kingdom was then thought to depend. Every man was required to have a bow: and targets, to exercise the skill of the archers, were ordered to be erected in every parish, on grounds set apart for shooting exercises. In the use of the bow the English excelled all other European nations. Fire-arms, smaller than cannon, were then unknown in Europe, although gunpowder had been used during two centuries., 2. The Eng- 23. 2The beginning of the English navy dates back only to the lh navy mn time of Henry the Seventh. It is said that Henry himself expended fourteen thousand pounds in building one ship, called the Great ala.rry. Before that timie, when the sovereign wanted a fleet, he had no expedient but to hire or press'the ships of the mnerchants. Even Henry the Eighth, in order to fit out a navy, was obliged to hire ships froam some of the German cities and Italian B. Greatly im- States. 3But Elizabeth, early in her reign, put the navy upon a,rzaved by better footing, by building several ships of her own, and by encouraging the merchants to build large trading vessels, which. on occasion. were converted into ships of war. So greatly did Elizabeth increase the shipping of the kingldom, that she was styled by her subjects the "Restorer of naval glory, and Queen of the northern seas."7 4. Its conde- 24. 4Yet at the time of the death of Elizabeth, in 1603,a only two tion at the and a half centuries ago the entire navy of England consisted of death of - E'lizabeth. Only forty-two vessels. and the number of guns only seven huna. March o4, dred and fifty-four. 5But the population of England, and indeed old stlyle. of all European states at that period, was probably much less than of5. EnPoland. at the present day. Although some writers assert that the population of England, in thle reign of Elizabeth,' amounted to two millions, yet Sir Edward Coke stated, in the house of commons, in 1621, that he had been employed. with chief-justice Popham, tc take a survey of all the people of Englaid,. and that they found the entire population to anmount to only nine hundred thousand Two centuries later the entire population of England numbered more than twelve millions. 0. Prerogna- 25. 6The nature and extent of the prerogatives claimed -and exer tires of the cised by the sovereigns of England during the first period otf out Enzgiand. history, present an interesting subject of inquiry; as, by compa-' It is bellsved that gunpo.wder -wats known in Ohina at a very early period, but it wga invented in Europe in the year 1.320 by sBartholomew Scllvhwartz, a tGerman molnk. It is known, however, that the composifito of gunpocwder was described( by Roger BatLon in a treatise writ. ten by him in 1280. —ihlgt Edwar;l th'Thirda m.lie use of cannon at the battlt of Cressy i 1346, and at the siere o',tilis is 1347. 1i'he first use of shells thrown from mor'tars was in 1495, arwhen Naples was besiegmed by C(hrIles tha e Eiglhth of Franlce. Muskets were first useid MA the siege of Rheve in 1521. At first m4usses. e(re rerLy heavy —could inot be used wit'hour a ra,-and were firecl by match-locks. Fire-locks were fia: used in Englali during the civil wars [ the rei-n of ChNarles tlhe First.

Page  145 P:ARal 11 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 145 rinrg them with the powers of succeeding princes, we are enabled NALYSIS. to trace the gradual- encroachmLents upon the kingly authority, anll the corresponding adclvlcemenl of civil rights, and liberal )rinciples of governmenlt. ine of the most obnoxious instruaerts of I. Court of tyranny during the whole of the sisteenth century was the court chamben" of the Star'C.ib, oa r an.ncienot court, founded on the principles of the commo;l l1 iw buut the poweors of which were increased by act of patrl.iament, in the reign of Heonry the Seventh, to a degree wholly incomp atible with the liberties of the people. 26. 2This conurt one of the highest in the realm. and entirely unn- 2. Composition, jurisdicder the influence of the mionairch consisted of the privy counsellors tiorc, and of the kino, together with two judges of the courts of common law, characte? of who deciued cases without the intervention. of a jury. Its chanrac- th c't ter is well described by lord Clarendon, who says that "its power extended to the assertino of all proclamationls and orders of state; to the vindicating of illegal collmmissions andc grants of molopolies holding for honorable that which pleased, and for just that which profited; beingo a court of law to dcete rmine civil rights, and a court of revenoue to e:irnch the treasury enjoining obedience to arbitrary ecnactments, by fines aInt inmprisonnients, so that by its numerous aggressions on the liberties of the people, the very foundations of righ wore in danger of being destroyed." 27. lYet ntivith.standing the arbitrary jurisdiction of this court, 3 Hozw view ed duringa and the immiense power it gave to the royal prerogative it was long long period. deemed t necessary appendage of the govermnent, aund, at a later day: its utilty was higlhly extolled by such men as Lord Bacon. 4This court conrtiyLued, with gradually increasing,authority, for 4. Its abolimnore tbuin acentuiy after the reign of Henry the Seventh, when it tion. was finally abolished in 164.L, during the reign of Charles the First, to the general joy of the whole nation. 28. sl)ur- ing the reign of Henry the Eighth, the royal prerogative 5. The roieao was carried to its greatest excess, and its encroachments were legal- reoa. ttive ized by an act of Parliament, which declared that the king's pro- reirn of clamation should have all the force of the most positive law. sLin- Henry the gard, the Catholic historian of England, asserts, that, although at' 6. Assertion the time of th;e accession of Henry the Eighth there existed a spirit mqade by Lingaid in relaof freedom, which, on several occasions, defeated the arbitrary tion to this measures of the court yet before the death of Henry, the king had subject. grown into a despot, and the people had sunk into a nation of Blaves. 29. 7The causes of this changre are ascribed to the obsequiousness 7. The caosis' of this of' the parliaments; the assumption, by the king, of ecclesiastical change. supremacy, as heLad of the church: and the servility of the two religious parties which divided the nation, each of which, jealous of the other, flattered the vanity of the king, submitted to his caprices, and becane the obsequious slaves of his pleasure. sEdward the 8.TheoPrezroSixth, Mary, and Elizabeth, possessed nearly the same legal powers ctised by E. as their father Henry the Eighth; but Elizabeth had the policy 7oaord the not to exert all the authority vested in the crown, unless for impor- Stond Larzta.t purposes. All these sovereigns, however, exercised the nmost beth. arbitrary power in religious matters, as will be seen when we come to the subject of the Reformation. 30. o91 should be remembered that Henry the Seventh, Henry the i. The Tzdar Eirghtl1h Edward the Sixth, Mary, and Elizabeth, were the five sovereigns. eoverlcoins of the house of Tador. I:A comparative view of the state to. Comtrara of the Engbisb h governme nt durino their reigns, emibracin, the whole tgee viptv of nf the sixteenth century, the first period of American histor%, may ring their be agtunered fr om the followino statement.

Page  146 9146 APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF ANAXLrYSIS. 31.'All the Tudor princes possessed little less than absolute power a — - hover the lives, liberty, and property of their subjects, because all 1. Aeofites lawss were inierior to the royal prerogative, which might at any 8overeig,02. time be exerted, in a thousand different ways, to condemn the in2. Restraints 11ocent or screen the guilty.'The sovereigns before the Tudor soponJtr'uer apr'd.sue- princes were restrained by the power of the barons; those after lquent them by the power of the people exercised through the H-louse of a8 Compara.- iO0ommons, a branch of the English Parliament. 3Yet under the;ire liberities baronial aristocracy of the feudal system, thep)eople had less liberty eoylo le.y than under the arbitrary rule of the Tudor princes. This may reconcile the apparently conflicting statements, that Henry the Seventh. and the succeeding Tudor princes, greatly extended the powers of the royal prerogative, and yet that their reigns were more favorable than those of former princes to the liberties of the 4. Absolute people. 4An absolute aristocracy is even more dangerous to civil aristoorsacy, liberty than an absolute monarchy. The former is the aggregate and absolute monarciy. power of many tyrants: the latter, the power of' but one. S. AIodeofliv- 32. 5Of the plain, or rather rude way of living among the people she cc021z~1ong of England during the first period of our history, we shall give a ePeople of sketch from an historian* who wrote during the reign of Elizabeth. 6. nland. e GThis wriler speaking of the increase of luxuriesr and of the many of luxuries." good gifts ibr which they were indebted to the blessings of Providence) says: There are old men yet dwelling in the village -where I remain, who have noted three things to be marvelously altered in 7. " him- England within their sound remembrance. 70ne is the multitude begs-) of chimneys lately erected; whereas, in their young days, there were net above two or three, if so many, in most country towns,the fire being made aga ifist the wall, and the smoke escaping through an opening in the roof. 8. " Amen.d- 33. 8' The second thing to be noticed is the great amendnmsnt of ment of lodg- lodgings; for, sa id they, our fathers, and we ourselves, have lain full oft upon straw pallets, with a light covering, and a good round log under our head, instead of a bolster. If the good man of the house had a mattrass, and a sack of chaff to rest his head upon, he thought himself as well lodged as the lord of the town. Pillows were thought meet only for sick women; and as for servants, if they had any sheet above them it was well, for seldom had they any under their bodies to keep them fr-omn the pricking straws that oft ran through the canvass on which they rested. a, Drntestic 34.:' The third thing of which our fathers tell us is the exchange teeZlse. 0of wooden platters for pewter, and wooden spoons for silver or tin. For so common were all sorts of wooden vessels in old time, that a man should hardly find four pieces of pewter in a good farmer7s:io. "'a ken house? lOAgain we are told that' In times past men were con1~"wTuSi4zov tented to dwell in houses of willow, so that the use of the oak was, a.en">' in a manner, dedicated wholly to churches, princes' palaces, navigation, &c.; but now willow is rejected, and nothing but oak any where regarded: and yet, see the change: for when our houses were built of willow, then had we oaken men; but now that our houses are come to be made of oak, our men are not only become wilow, but a great many altogether of straw, which is a sore alteration. M1. Personal 35. nL I-n former times the courage of the owner was a sufficient de-. courage. fence to keep the house in safety; but now the assurance of the ~3 odly timber must defend the house from robbing. 12Now have we many.Saired. chimneys, and yet our tender bodies complain of rheums, colds and

Page  147 PARIT I.] VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 147 catarrhs: then our fires were made in recesses against the walls, ANAL~YSS. and our heads did never ache. For as the smoke, in those days, was supposed to be a sufficient hardening for the timber of the house, so it was reputed a far better medicine to keep the good man and his family friom rheumatisms and colds, wherewith, as then, very few were acquainted.' 36.'By another writer of the samte period we are informed that 1. City buil&'the greatest part of the cities and good towns of England then con- tgs andth sisted only of timber. cast over with thick clay, to keep out the onobility. wind.' The same author adds that the new houses of the nobility were commonly built of brick or stone. and that glass windows were then beginning to be used in England. The floors of tie best houses were of clay, strewed with rushes. 37. eWe are informed that ": in the time of Elizabeth, the nobility, 2. ou8rs cf gentry, and students, ordinarily dined at eleven, before noon, aned diningn supped at five. The merchants dined, and supped, seldomn before twelve, at noon, and six, at night, especially in London. The husbandmen dined also at high noon, as they called it, and supped at seven or eight.;" We are told by Hume, that Froissard mentions waiting on the Duke of Lancaster at five o'clock in the afternoon. when the latter had supped. 38. 31n reference to the growing lateness of the hours in his time, 3. Growing Hume has the following renmarks: " It is hard to tell, why, all over lthe nosurB the world, as the age becomes more luxurious) the hours become later. Is it the crowd of amusements that push on the hours gradually? or are the people of fashion better pleased with the secrecy and silence of nocturnal hours, when the industrious vulgar are gone to rest? In rude ages men have but few amusements and occupations, but what daylight affords them." 39. 4It was not until near the end of the reign of Henry the Eighth 4. Apricots, that apricots, melons, and currants, were cultivated in EnglaLnd, elor, ants when they were introduced from the island of Zante. 5Hume as- 5. Edible serts that salads, carrots, turnips, and other edible roots, were first roo7 introduced about the same period; but from other and older writers i't appears that these fruits of the garden had been formerly known and cultivated, but afterwards neglected. sThe first turkeys seen 6. Turkey in Europe were imported from America by Cabot. on his return from his first voyage to the western world. 40. 7Some of the early colonists sent to Virginia by Raleigh. having 7. Tobacco in contracted a relish for tobacco, an herb which the Indians esteemed England. their principal medicine, they brought a quantity of it to England, and taught the use of it to their countrymen. The use of the'filthy weed" soon became almost universal; creating a new appetite in human nature, and forming, eventually, an important branch of commerce between England and her American colonies. It is salid that Queen Elizabeth herself, in the close of her life, became one of Raleigh's pupils in the accomplishment of smoking.* 8The 8. The potato.. One day, as she was partaking this indulgence, Raleigh betted with her that he could ascertain the weight of the smoke that should issue in a given time from her mtajesty's mouth. For this purpose, he weighed first the tobacco, and afterwards the ashes left in the pipe, and assigned the difference as the weight of the smoke. The queen acknowledged that he had gained his bet; adding that she believed he was the only alchemist who had ever succeeded in turning smoke into gold.-Stith. It appears that the smoking of tobacco, a custl;om first observed among the natives of America, was at first called by the whites, " drinking tobacco." Thus in the account iven by the Plymouth people of their first conference wilh Massasoit, it is said, " behind his back hung a little bag of tobacco, which he drink, and gave us to drink." Aimonu the records of the Plymouth colony for the year 1646 is found,an entry, that a committee was appointed " to drai up an order concerning the disorderly drinking of tobacco."

Page  148 148 APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF [BooK II, ANALYSIS. potato, one of the cheapest and most nourishing species of vegetable food, was first brought from America into ireland in the year 1565; but it was fifty years later before this valuable root was much cultivated in England. 1. ndlebted- 41. lN0or should we neglect to mention the indebtedness which essca of Ame- America owes to Europe. Besides a race of civilized men. the former rope. has received from the latter a breed of domestic animals. Oxen, horses, and sheep were unknown in Anmerica until they were intron duced by the English, French, D utch and Swedes, into their respeetive settlements. Bees were imported by the English. The Indians, who had never seen these insects before, gave them the name of English.flies, and used to say to each other, when a swarm of bees appeared in the woods, " Brothers, it is time for us to depart, for the white people are coming." 2. Pocket 42. 2About the year 1577, during the reign of Elizabeth, pocketwatches. watches were first brought into England from Germany. 3Soon 3. Coaches. after, the use of coaches was introduced by the Earl of Arundel. Before this time. the queen. on public occasions. rode on horseback, 4. carrying behind her chamberlain. 4The mail began to be regularly carried of thenmal. on a few routes, during the reign of Elizabeth, although but few post offices were established until 1635, in the reign of Charles the First,-fifteen years after the founding of the Plymouth colony. b. African 43. 51it was during the reign of Elizabeth that the African slave slave trade. trade was first introduced into England; and as that inhuman traffic afterwards entailed such evils upon our own country, it may not be uninteresting to givae in this place a brief account of its origin. 6. Early in- 6As early as 1503 a few African slaves were sent into the Ilew roaduction of World fronm the Portuguese settlements on the coast of Africa; slaves into America by and eight year s later Ferdinand of Spain permitted their importathe Spaan- tion into the Spanilsh colonies in greater nnumbers, with the design of substituting their labor in the place of that of the less hardy natives of America. But on his death the regent, cardinal Ximenes: discarded this policy, and the traffic ceased. 7. Policy of 44. 7A few years later, after the death of the cardinal, the worthy Las COas, Las Casas, the friend and benefacior of the Indian race, in the a ct. warmth of' his zeal to s ave the abooriginal Americans fronm the yoke of bondage which his countrymen had imposed upon them, but not perceiving the iniquity of reducing one race of mena to slavery, un der the plea of thereby restoring liberty to another urniged upon his naonarch, Charles the Fifth, then ling of Spain, the imaportation of negroes into America, to supply the Spanissl plantations. Unlfortunately, the plan of Las Casas was adoptedl, and the trade in slaves between Africa anld Amnerica was broughlt into a regular form by t'he royal sanction. 8. Noble at- 45. sCharles however lived lons enougnh to relent of what he had Cerles tofe thus inconsiderately done, and in his later years he put a stop to Fifth, howo the slave trilde by an ordler that all slaves in his American dolmindefecaed ionls should be fi ee,. This order was subsequently defeated by his a. 1a56. volunta.ry s urre:dera of the crosin to his son, and his retiresment into a monltery and utnder liS successors thle trdie was carried D. The slave Oln writh rei cewed vior. SLoe s the Thirteenth of' France, who at ade encor- filst opposect thoe slave trade from conscientious scrupies, was J'rance. finally iniducdl to encourage it unsder the persuasion that the rce.dies,;t ay'7 of converting; tle Iledroes was by transplanting them tc.o. r F5,;- tlle colonies':a pleat by waliCh all the early apologlistts of the slave tand. ti ae atteCilptecd to vilndicate its practice. 10li Englan d's: also, the It t hts since been urged in justiflcation of this trade, tlhat those nlade slaves wser ge.em. lli

Page  149 PAltT I.] VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 149 iniquity of the traffic was at first concealed by similar pious pre- ANALYSIS tences. 46.'The celebrated seaman, Sir John Hawkins. afterwards created 1. comnmenc6e admiral and treasurer of the British navy, was the first English- ment of th man who engaged in the slave trade. HavIing conceived the pro- branch of r-) t/0o sl~ave ject of transplanting Africans to America, ho communicated his t plan to several of his opulent countrymen, who, perceiving the vast emnolument that might be derived from it. eagerly joined him in the enterprise. 2In 1.562 he sailed for Africa, and having reached 2. First voySierra Leone he began to traffic with the natives, inthe usual articles age of Htoof barter. taking occasion in the meantime to give them glowing descriptions of the country to which he was bound, and to contrast its beauty and fertilitywith the poverty and barrenness of their own land. 47. 3Finding that they listened to him with implicit belief, he as- 3.Thenatives sured them that if any of them were willing to accompany hiin on teceived by his voyage, they should partake of all the advantages of the beau- him. tiful country to which he would conduct them, as a recompense for the moderate and easy labor which they should give in return. Three hundred of these unsuspecting negroes, ensnared by the artifices of the white strangers, and captivated by the European ornaments and luxuries spread before them, were thus persuaded to consent to embark for Hispaniola. 48. 40n the night previous to their departure they were attacked 4. Night atby a hostile tribe, and Hawkins, hastening to their assistance, re- tack. pulsed the assailants. and took a number of them prisoners, whom he conveyed on board his vessels. 5The next day he sailed with 5. The soyhis mixed cargo, and during the voyage, treated his voluntary cap- age. tives with much greater kindness than he exercised towards the others. 61n Hispaniola he disposed of the whole cargo to great 6. Disposition advantage, and endeavored to inculcate on the purchasers of the of the cargo. negroes the same distinction in the treatment of them, which he himself had observed. But he had now placed the Africans beyond his own supervision, and the Spaniards, who had paid for all at the same rate treated all as slaves, without any distinction. 49. 70n the return" of Hawkins to England, the wealth which he 7. Return of brought with him excited universal interest and curiosity re- Halkins to sngt land. specting the manner in which it had been obtained. sWhen it a In 1563. was known that he had been transporting Africans to America, 8. Publieexthere to become servants or slaves to the Spaniards, the public citemnent against the feeling was excited against the barbarity of the traffic, and Haw- tragaic. kins was summoned to give an account of his proceedings before the queen, who declared, that, "if any of the Africans had been carried away without their own consent, it would be detestable, and call down the vengeance of Heaven upon the undertakers." 9Hawkins assured her that none of the natives had been carried 9. Holw alaway by him by compulsion, nor would be in fuiture, except such layed as should be taken in war: and it appears, that he was able to convince her of the justice of his policy; declaring it an act of nurmtnity to carry men from a worse condition to a better; from a captives taken in battle by their countrymen, and that by purchasing them the lives of so umany human creatures were saved, who would otherwise have been sacrificed to the implacable revenge of the victors. But this assertion is refuted by the fact that it was not until long after ttt! commencement of the African slave trade that we read of the different negro nations making war upon each other and selling their captives. Mr. Brue, principal director of the early French African slave Company, says, " The Europeans were far from desiring to act as peacemakers among the negroes; which would be acting contrary to their interests; since, the greater the wars, the more slaves were procured.:" Bozman, another writer, director of the Dutch Company, says, " One of the former directors gave large sums of money to the negroes of one nation, to induce them to attack some of the neighboring tribes "

Page  150 150 APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF [Boos II, ANALYSIS. state of pagan barbarism, to the enjoyment of thc blessings of Christianity and civilization. 1. seconad 50.'In 1564 Hawkins saileda with two vessels on a second voyage v0yage of to the coast of Africa, and during the passage an English ship of.Rsawsein$. a. Oct. s, war joined the expedition. 2On their arrival at Sierra Leone, the old style. negroes were found shy and reserved. As' none of their compan2. Suspicion ions had returned from the first voyage, they began to suspect ofthe natives. that the English had killed and devoured them, and no persuasion 3. Resort to could induce a second company to embark. 3The crew of the ship, ures. of war then proposed a resort to violent measures, and in this they were seconded by the sailors under the command of Hawkins himself, and notwithstanding the protestations of the latter, who cited the express commands of the queen, and appealed to the dictates of their own consciences against such lawless barbarity, they proceeded to put their purpose in execution; observing probably, no difference between the moral guilt of calm treachery and undisguised violence. 4. The result. 51. 4After several attacks upon the natives, in which many lives were lost on both sides, the ships were at length freighted with cargoes of human beings, who were borne away to the Spanish colonies, and there, for no crime but the misfortune of their weakness, and with no other motive, or plea of excuse. than the avarice of their 5.Remarks. captors, were consigned to endless slavery.-5Such was the commencement of the English branch of the African slave trade. The infamy of its origin rests upon the Old World: the evils which it has entailed are at this day the shame and the disgrace of the New. B. Importance 52. 6The importance of the REFORMATION. aS connected not only oEF th/e with the history of England at this period, but with the advance of REFORMATION civilization, true religion, and republican principles, throughout all subsequent history, requires from us some account of its origin, nature, and progress. 7. Religious 53. 7At the beginning of the sixteenth century, not only was the aspect of Eu' Catholic religion the only religion known in England, but also rope at the beginning of throughout all Europe; and the Pope, as the head of that religion, the sixteenth had recently assumed to himself both spiritual and temporal power over all the kingdoms of the world,-granting the extreme regions 8. Last of the earth to whomsoever he pleased. 8The last exercise of his cise of the, supreme power in worldly matters, was the granting to the king pope's su- g premse tem- of Portugal all the countries to the eastward of Cape Non in Africa; poral power. and to the king of Spain, all the countries to the westward of that limit; an act which, according to some, completed in his person the character of Antichrist, or I" that man of sin, sitting in the temple of God, and showing himself as God."' 9. Universal 54. 9At this time there was no opposition to the papal power; all supremacy of heresies had been suppressed-all heretics exterminated; and all pap1acy; by wohunnfirst Christendom was quietly reposing in a unity of faith, rites, and interrupted. ceremonies, and supinely acquiescing in the numerous absurdities inculcated by the " head of the church," when, in 1517, a single in. dividual dared to raise his voice against the reigning empire of superstition, —the power of which has ever since been declining. This person was MARTIN LUTHER, a man of high reputation for sanctity and learning, and then professor of theology at Wittemr berg on the Elbe, in the electorate of Saxony, a province of Germany. * 2 Thess. 2d, 3d, 4th.-At this period the popes feared no opposition to their authority in atny respect; as the commotions of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, raised by the Albi. genses, Waldenses, &c., had been entirely suppressed.

Page  151 PART I.] VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 151 55. 1The occasion that first enlisted Luther in opposition to the ANALYSIS. church of which he was a member wats the auLthorized sale of in — dlulgences, or, a remission of the punishment duce to sins a scheme,o Th, occawhich the pope, Leo X., h;id adopted- as in expedient for replen- thcr'sfrst ishinge an exliausted treasury. 2Luther at first inveighed agatinst o2.stio,. the doctrine of indulgences only; still prolessing a high respect uag priogr-ss for the apostolic see; Land implicit submission to its authority; but tei, ricctc.tig as he enlargeoe his observation and readino, and discoverecd new a oft rzes f abuses and errors, he bogan to doubt of the Pope;s divine autho- piry. rity; he re3ected the doctriine of his infallibilit;y gr aldually abolisised the use of 1mass,1 auricular confessions~ and the worship of imiages 1i denied the clocerine of purgatory,:[ and opposed the fastin1gs in the Romish church, mo1-10lstic vows, and the celibacy of the clergy. 31%. 31n 150, Zauinglius, a iran not inferior in understanding and 3. Zulngt'iu. knowl edge to Luther himself' raised the standard of reform in Switzerland auiming his doctrines at once to the overthrow of the whole fobric of popery. 4Notwithstanding the most strenuous ef- 4. Spread o forts of tliw Pope andi the Catholic clergy to resist the new fii-th, Pr~otestantthe fminds of men were aroused ftromr that lethargy in which they hi-ad so iong slumbeeled, and Protestantism:'*t spreacl rapidly into every king-dom of Europe. 57. 5in Enigland the principles of the Reformation secretly gained 5. cageg many partisans. as there were still in that kingdom some remains et/ r of the Lollardst-i a sect whose doctrines resembled those of Luther. duction of ha Blut another: and perhaps more important cause, which favored'the liefim'iitio r Reifrmation in En1land, was the increased attention which then i This porpe was exceeciingly profligate, and is known to have been a disbeliever in Chris tli,c ity itself, wisich lie called 1 Avesj'y prqoitable f;/ble foir huiez acid his predecessors." t The doc rine of intfilibtlity, is that of" Lentire exemption from liabiiity to err." IT Ma(ss consists of the ceremonies and prayers used in tie ItRoishl church at the celebration of the eucharist, or sacrament of the Lorcl's supper; —embracing the supposed consecration of -lie biead an.d wine into the real body and blood of Christ, and offering theni, so transsbstantiatedl. as an expiatory sacrifice for the livinig and the dead. Hig/s nass is that sung by the choir, and ceieibrated iwitl the assistance of the priests: low inass s that in which the prayers are barely rehearsed wiuhout singing. ~ A/icidar cowfessif osi, in the Romlish church, is a private acknowledgment of sins to a pliest, with a view to their absolution or pardon. II Tile?orsip of inages crept into the -iomish church very gradually. Its source origi nated, about the latier endl of the fourth century, in thle custonl of admitting pictulres of saints anlL in.ari.,rs into sth echlrches; but. although then considereld ilerely as ornlaments, the practice me, w!it'i very consisderable opposition. About the beginening of the fifth century isiages were introlucer, also by way of ornasment; and it continuel to be the doctrine of the church r:iudi the ibe-inning of the seventh century, that they were to be used only as helps to deveotioe., tanl nou s object, if irooship). Proteslnt writers assert that iniages were sorshiled, by the m1lonkos and the rpopulace, as early as the beginning of the eighth century. The second conmminll.llent firbids the sworship of images.` The doctrine of pi-a ory, vwhich has often been misrepresented, is believel in by Catheolies -s as lloibs: ist. All sins. however slight, will be punished hereafter, if niot csancelled by 1csen:taLnc e ilere. 2I. Thiose ltlavin:g the stains of the smaller sins only upon them, at Cleath, ewill not receive eternal punishmlent. ul-. Bu t as none cae1 be adnmitted into heaven %who are soe) piurified from all sins? bothil reat and small, the Catholic btrie-ies that there nlilst, of necessicty se so0 liM place or statle, whee souls,, not irrecoverably lost, slay be purified before their aiiittance in'o nheaven. This st-.e or plice, though not professing to know what or vwhere it iso t1ie Cathtcolic cCals m'?-=,-rl'ory. 4th. Ieu a.lo believes that those that are in this place, beingl the living mlen mber s of Jesus Christ,. re relieved by the prayers of their fellow ulenlbers here ons eartil, as also by allsss andl mlsses,. offered up to (ocd, for their souls. l- Ti'e slame.sPltpes asls iw-as lirst given in Germlany to the adherents of bLuther, because, in 1529. a numlLuer oi the German princes, sld thirteen imsperial towvns, protested against a decree of Chiarles V. and tlie diet of Spires. T'le terstl Protestants has since been applied to all who 2paor:ir.e foes t,-le commiunion of tie church of h of Rlle. ft''hse Lollards were a religious sect wvhich arose in Germany about tile beghinning of the tiulrteenth -entury. They rejected the sacrifice of the nmass, extreme unction, and penance; sf' sin. —anl in oSher respects, differed from the church of Rome. The follovers of the Yeformer Wicflife, who also lived in the foursnth century, swere sometimes term l Loliards.

Page  152 152 APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF [Bootr I. ANALYSIS, began to be paid to classical learning. 1At the time of the disco -. th very of Anmerica English literature was at a very low ebb, a',though Eratureisat in almost every foromer age some distinguished men had arisen to the time of dispel the gloom by which they were surrounded, and render their lf diocoveryc names illustrious. At the period of which we are now speaking the art of plinting had been but recently introduced into Englandc books were still scarce instructors more so. and learning had not yet become the road to preierment. The nobility in general were illiterate, and despised rather than patronized learning and learned men.: It is enouogho remarked one of them.' for noblemen's sons to wind their horn, and carry their hawk flair, and leave study and learning to the children of mean people." 2. rlevival of 58. 2About the commuenceme nt of the sixteenth century, howevar, abount ttze learning began to revive in England. The study of the Latin lantoWmen1ce- gu ge first excited public attention, and so diligently was it cultisizteenthl vated by the eminent men of the time that the sixteenth century centusry. m-ay very properly be called the Latin age Both Henry the Lighth, and his distinguished minister, cardinal Wolsey, were emi3. Th2esezdy nIlulo patrons of classical learlning. 3At first the study of Greek Poosed by the met with great opposition fronm the Catholic clergy, and when, in Catholic 1.515, the celebrated Erasmus published a copy of the NIew Testaclergy. ment in the original, it was denounced with great bitterness as an impious and dangerous book, and as tending to lmake heretics of those who studied it. 4. Probable 59. 4And? indeed, it probably had that tendency; for before this thendsency of time very few of the English theologians had made the Bible their the Bible in study, and even the professors of divinity read lectures only on thanguage. certain select sentences from the Scriptures, or on topics expounded by the ancient schoolmen. But the study of the Bible aroused a spirit of inquiry even among the few who were able to read it in the original; as its real doctrines began to be known, the repatation of scholastic divinity diminished; the desire of deducing religious opinions from the word of God alone began to prevail; and thus the iminds of men were somewhat prepared for the Reformation, even before Luther began his career in Germany. 5. Henry the 60. 5But Henry the Eighth having been educalted in a strict at,ighthwrites tachment to the church of Rome amnd being informed that Luther against the' doctrines of spoke with contempt of the writings of Thomas Aquinas,-? a teacher the Rzeform- of theology; and the king's favorite author, he conceived so violent a ation. prejudice against the reformer, that he wrote a book in Latin against\ 6. "Defender the doctrines which he inculcated. 6A copy of this work he sent of the Fait." to the pope, who, pleased with this token of Henry's religious zeal, conferred upon hism the title of defender of the faith; an appellation 7. Progress of still retained by the kings of England. 7To Henry's book Luther the contl0- replied with asperity; anld the public were inclined to attribute to the latter the victory; while the controversy was only rendered more important by the distinction given it by the royal disputant. S. Cames that 61. 8But still, causes were operating in England to extend the prinoperatead o ciples of the Reformation, and Henry himself was soon induced to extend the.principiesof lend his aid to their influence. Complaints of long standing the, Reform- auainst the usnrpations of the ecclesiastics had been greatly in creased by the spirit of inquiry indclucedl by the Lutheran tenets, and the house of coemons, finding the occasion favorable, passed ThLomas Aqiiznas, styled the'"A ngelic(.dl octor " a teacher of scholastic divinity in most of the universities of Italy, was born about the er; 1.225. I-Ie left an aniazing n amber of writings,. and his authority has always been of great imnportance in the sohools of the Roman Catholics te was canonized as a saint by Pope John XXII. in the year 1323.

Page  153 PAsRT 1. VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 153 several bills for restraining the impositions of the clergy, and re- ANALYSIS. ducing their power and privileges while the king, although ab- -- horring all connection with the Lutherans, was gratified with an opportunity of humbling the papal power in his dominions. and showing its dependence on his authority. 62.'Laws more tand more stringent continued to be enacted and i. Encroa cenforced against, the ecclesicastics; long standing abuses. and oppres- Wnen1ts upon sions of the ecclesiastical courts, were remedied; the revenues tical pozoer. which the pope had received from England were greatly diminished; and a severe blow was struck against the papal power, by a confession," extorted by Henry from the clergy of the reallm a. 1531. that "' the king was the protector and the supreme head of the church and clergy of England." 63. PHenry hdl married his brother's widow, and. either really 2. Ilenry's entertaining, as he pretended, conscientious scruples about the va- IlaCror es,00c lidity of his marriage, or estranged from his consort by the charms breach with of a new favorite. had appealed to the pope for a divorce: which thelort of the latter not granting, HIenry, in defiance of his holiness, put away his first wife Catharie, and marriedb another, the afterwards b. Nov. 1532. unfortunate Anne Boleyn. The result of this affair was a final breach with the court of Rome. and a sentence of excomlnunication was passede against the khin. c. March 64. 3Soon after, Henry was declaredi by parliament the only 3 The king's supreme head on etarth of the church of England; the authority of supremacy in the pope was formally abolished; and all tributes paid to him were ioatnso. rdeclared illegal. 4But d!though the king thus separated from the d. Nov. 1534 church of Rome, he professed to maintain the Catholic doctrine in 4. HIs reiiits purity, and persecuted the reformers most violently; so tlat, h ga is plOsn while many were burned as heretics for denying the doctrines of conduct. Catholicism, others were executed for maintainigno the supremacy of the pope. 5As therefore the e:rnest adherents of both religions 5. Effects pro were equally persecuted and equally encouraged: both parties were duced by ths induced to court the favor of the kino, wlho was thus enalbled to.a s- sae. sume an absolute authority over the nation. and to impose upon it his own doctrines, as those of the only true churich. 65. sStill the ambiguity of the king's conduct served to promote 6. The mona spirit of inquiry and innovation 1atvorable to the progress of the asteries abolised Reformation. Jealous of the influence of the lonlks. Henry abelished the moonasteries, and confiscated their immense revenues to his own uses; and the better to reconcile the people to the destruction of what had long been to them objects of the most profound veneration, the secret enormities of imnay of these institutions were mnade public?,-, 7The most that could be uroecd in fiawor of these 7. Viet oo establishments was that they were a support to the poor; butL; at these estabthe same time, they tended to encourage itdleness and beggary. 66. 8When news of these proceedings reached Reonle, the most. ter- 8. The prorible fulminations were hurled by the pope angainst the kinn of Eng- ceedin.ts of land, whose soul was delivered over to the devil, and his dominions ate inpotS'e to the first invader; all leagues with Catholic princes were de- ing.:lared to be dissolved nhis subjects were freed fonio their oaths "f allegiance. and the nobility were commanded to takle up arms agiinst him. 9But these missives. wvhich. hallf a century before, 9. Effect f would have hurled the mnonarch from his throne and made him a ihese. ic2n sives. despised outcast among his people, were now utterly harmless. Irhe papal supremacy was forever lost in Englan~d. * The measures of Henry in abolishing the nmonasteries were exceedingly arbitrary and oppressive. For a just view of these transactions the reader should compare tle account given ry ringard, the able Catholic historian, with that by IHume. 20

Page  154 154 APPEENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF rBOoK N ANALYSIS. 67. IFew other events of importance connected with the Refornal Geeral tion. occurred during the reign of Henry, who, disregarding the opin course pur- ions both of Catholics and Protestlants, labored to make his own sued by the ever-chalging doctrines the religion of the nation. 2The Bible. aingg. 2. Tle people was then scarcely known to the great mass of the people, and al. zgnorant of though its general dissemination was strongly urged by the rethe Bible; formers, it was as zealously opposed by the adherents of popery controversy respecing its The latter openly and strenuously maintained that the clergsy dissemina- should have the exclusive spiritual direction of the people, who. they said, were totally unqualified to choose their own principles. and that the Scriptures involved so much obscurity, acnd gave rise to so many difficulties, that it was a mockery to-place them before the ignorant, who could not possibly make any proper use of them. 3. Decree of 68. 3in 1540, however, a copy of the Bible in English was ordered 1540 repecte- to be suspended in every parish church for the use of the people: ing the Bible; evr repealed in but two years later the king and parliament retracted even this 1542. concession, and prohibited all but gentlemen and merchants from perusing the Scriptures, and these persons were allowed to read 4. Reason of them, only "so it be done quietly, and with good order." 4The the repeal. preamble to the act sets forth "that many seditious and ignorant persons had abused the liberty granted them of reading' the Bible; and that great diversity of opinion, animosities, tumults, and schisms, had been occasioned by perverting the sense of the scrip5. The clergy tures. 5sEven the clergy themselves were at this time wofully iggenerally ihe norant of that against which they declaimed so violently, as itmany uiorant of the Bible. of them, particularly those of Scotland, imagined the New Testament to have been composed by Luther, and asserted that the Old Testament alone was the word of God. 1547. 69. 6After the death of Henry the Eighth, which occurred in 1 547, 6. The refor- the restraints which he had laid upon thle Protestants were remadion car- moved, and they soon became the prevailing party. Edward the.ied forwoard t and cons- Sixth~ the successor of Henry, beino in his iminority. the earl of?leleted Unde Hertford, afterwards duke of Somerset, long a secret partisan of Sixth. the reformers, was nlade protector of the realm; and under his direction, and that of archbishop Cranmer, the Reformation was 7. A litur7gy, carried forward and c0ompleted. 7A liturgy was composed by a end religious counsel of bishops and divines, and the parliaml ent ordained a uniunifornity- formity to be observed in all the rites and ceremonies of the church. N. Intolerance 70. 8The reformers, however, inow that they were in the ascendant, of the re- disgraced their principles by the severity which they exerciised towards those who differed froni them. They thought themselves so certainly in the riiht, ncl the establishment of their religious views of such importzncec that they would suffer no contradiction in regard to them and they proculred'a commission to search after and examine all anabaptists(~ heretics, and contemners of' the book of common prayer with s authority to reclaim them if possible, but. if they should prove obstinate, to excommnunicate and imprison them: and deliver them over to the civil authorities for punish., men t. 9. Thefate tf 71. sAmong those found guilty under this commission was one Joan oan oyfKent-. Boucher, commonly called Joan of Kent, who was condenlned to be burned as a heretic for mnaintainino some metaphysical notions concerning the reaIL nature of Christ. But the young king, who waa of a ild andcl humane disposition, at first refused to sign the The term..Anabaptist has been indiscriminately applied to Christians of very different prin. lples and practices, including, however, all who maint-ain that baptism so:ght to be performd, ey immersion, and not administered before the age of discretion

Page  155 PART 1.] VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 1 death-watrant: bnt at l.list being overcoime by the imnportu-:ities of 0 NALYSI5 Cran-er, he reluctantly complied, thougil with tears in his eyes, - declaring that if any wrtong were clone, the guilt should be on the head of those who persraidced him to it. iSome time after orne i. Of va Van Paris was condelmned to de:oth for Arianism.* He suffered Par' with so much satisfactioni that he hugged and claressed the fagots that were consuming him. 72. 2Edward Vi., a prince of many excellent qualities, dying in the 1553. sixteenth year of his age, and in the seventh of his reign, Mary, 2. Death qf often called the bloody MtLry, daughter of Henry the Eighth by EtEoacd. aen accession of his first wife Catherine. ascended the throne. IMary was a pro- 3ary. fessed Catholic, yet befbre her accession she had agreed to main- 3. Ielogius tain the reformled religion, and, even after, promised to tolerate pr0nciples, prermises, ad those who differed fromn her, but she no sooner saw herself conduct of firmly established on the throne, than she resolved to restore the Mary. Catholic worship. The Catholic bishops and clergy who had been deprived of their sees during the former reign, were reinstated, and now triumphed in their turn. 73. 40n pretence of discouraging controversy, the queen, by her 4. Exercise qf own arbitrary authority, forbade any to preach in pusblic except aZrbit'rary, a those who should obtain her license and to none but Catholics was that license given. 5Many foreign Protestants, who had fi-ed to 5. 3Many Pro. England for protection during the former reign. and had even been thets lea,. invited by the government beting now threatened with persecution, took the first opportunity of leaving the kingdom, ancl many of the arts and manaftctures, which they had successfully introduced, were thereby lost to the nation. 6PariLament showed itself ob- 6. Oisequ.sequious to the designs o' the queen: all the statutes of the for- zoune5sse of parliament. mer reign were repealed by one vote; and the national religion was thus placed on the sanme footir in which it had been left at the death of Henry the Eighth. 74. 7Soon afcer, the mass was restored, the pope's authority cs- 7. Comp ets tablished the former sanguinary laws against heretics were revived. reestablsh.— ~ —--- -— 7 ---- -------- --- -n stzmeet of paand a bloody persecution followed, filling the lLnd with scenes of pertofilopohorror. which long rendered the Catholic religion the object of geln- ed by a blootd eral detestation. sThe persecution began by the burning of John pe Rosectios. 8. Rogers. Rogers at Smithfield, a man eminent for virt-ue as well as for learning. Hooper, This was quickly followed by the execution of HIooper, bishop of crlnmer.yad Gloucester; archbishop Cranmer; Ridley, bishop of London; Lat- Latimer. imer, bishop of NWorcester; and large numbers of the laity. Slt 9. Number of was computedI that during this persecution, two hundred and sev- v'ci6li2. enty-seven persons were burned at the stake, of whonm fifty-five were womeno and four Nwere children;: and large numbers, in addition, were punished by confiscations, fines, and imprisonments.-i The Arians wermollowers of Arius, a presbyter or elder of the church of Alexandria about the year 315. lie maintained that Jesus Christ was the noblest of those beings whom Gorlod had created, but inferior to the Father, both in nature and dignity; and that theE Holy Ghost was not God, but created by the power of the Son. In modern times the appellation Ari:s?,a has been indiscriminately applied to al who reject the doctrine of the Trinity, and consider Jesus Christ as inferior and subordinate to the Father. The modern Usitarokzns are Arians. ~ Yet this cruelty is much inferior to what was practised in other countries. " A great author computes that, in the Netherlands alone, from the time that the edict of Charles V. was promulgated against the Refornlers, there had been fifty thousand.persons hanged, beheaded, buried alive, or bursed, on account of religion; and that in France the number had also been considerable. Yet in both countries, as the same author subjoins, the progress of the new opinions, instead of being checked, Nwas rather forwarded by these persecutions."-Ilume. During the horrid massacre of St. Bartholomew, which occurred- in France at a later period, In August, 1572, the victims were p;obably far more numerous. lumne computes, that in Paris alone ten thousand Protestants were slain in one day. Dr.. Lingard thus speaks of the number *fvictims who fell ini this barbarous transaction. " Of the number of the victims In all the

Page  156 156 APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF [BOOK 1t ANALYSIS. 1The sufferers generally bore their tortures with the most inflexi; Condlct ble constancy; singing hymnis in the midst of the flames. and glory. sf the sif- ing that they were found worthy of suffering martyrdom in the *ferers. cause of Christ. 2 Marriage 75. 2Masry, having formed a marriage with Philip, a Catholic of8tal/, aendt prince son of the emperor of Spain, and heir to the Spanish of a" court throne was next urged on by him and her own zeal to establish a of OqlZ- court similar to the Spanish Inquisition. 3Among the arbitrary tiont." S. Powers of powers exercised by this court, it issued a proclamation against this court. books of heresy, treason, and sedition declaring " that whosoever had any of these books. and did not preselntly burn them, without readinlg themn or showing them to any other person, should be es. teemed rebels and without any farther delay, be executed by marI4.. Supremacy tial law." 4All ideas of civil and religious liberty, expressed of the royal prerogative either in word or action, seemed. at this period, to be extinguished at this period. in Englandl; parliament madce little or no opposition to the will of the queen. former statutes were disregarded by the royal prerogative, and the common law, deemed secondary to ecclesiastical enactments, was scarcely known to exist. 1558. 76. 5Mary died in.1558,unregretted by the nation, after a reign of 5. Death of little more than five years, and the princess Elizabeth. daughter of M1ary, and ac- Henry the Eighth and the unfortunate Anne Boleyn, succeeded to Elizabei. the throne. 6,She had been brought up in the principles of the 6. Change of Reformation, and a general change of religion, from popery to Proreligion, and testantism, almost immediately followed her accession. This wa.s Elizabeth. effected without any violence, tumult. or clamor; for the persecutions in the preceding reign had served only to give the whole nation an aversion to popery, and Elizabeth had the wisdom to adopt a course of moderation and to restrain the zeal and acrimony of the most violent of her party. 7. Reforma- 77. 7Thus the Reformnttion was firmly and finally established in tion establish- England: but as the spirit of change is ever progressive. it dclid not ed, buot still progressive. stop with merely the overthrow of one religion and the substitution 8- Germsof of another. 8Other important principles, arising out of the liew anaedpartes religion itself. had already begun to be seriously agitated among ples seen in its supporters; and it is to this period, the age of Elizabeth, that ihe neso religion. we can trace the germs of those parties and principles which after wards exerted an important influence on our own history. 9. Antipathy 78. 9Some among the early reformers, even during the reign of against those Edcward VI., had conceived a violent antipathy to all the former tholicison re- practices of the Catholic church, many of which the early Reforaipiced pbc mlation had retained.'IEven Hooper, who afterwards suffered for 10o. Hooper's his religion, when promoted to the office of bishop at first refusec opposition to to be consecrated in the Episcopal habit which had formerly, he this Episcopaol habit. said, been abused by superstition, and which was thereby rendered ii. Objections unbecoming a true Christian.'iObjections of thi's nature were of others. made by the most zealous to every form and ceremonial of Catholic 12. Resmon- worship that had been retained by the Church of England. 12The etrance of ttsh same spirit dictated the national remonstrance made afterwards by clergy. the Scottish clergy, in which are found the following words. "What has Christ Jesus to do with Belial? What has darkness to do with light? If surplices; corner caps, and tippets, have been badges of idolaters, in the very act of idolatry, why should the towns it is Impossible to speak with certainty. Among the HTuguenot writers Perifix reckona 100,300, Sully 70,000, Thuanus 30,000, La Popeliniere 20,000, the reformed martyrologist 15,04 and Mason 10,000." The estimate of Lingard himself, however, notwitstanding these start mnents, is less than 2,000.

Page  157 PART 1.1 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES, 15 preacher of Christian liberty, and the open rebuker of all supetr ~ st. stition, partake of the dregs of the Romish beast?" 79.'After the accession of Elizabeth, this spirit rapidly increase~ 1. The two and the friends of the Reformation became radically divided among aprg the themselves, forming the two active parties of the country-the one'ej'.rmers afe t the acces party, the advocates of the church system as already established; ion. of Eliz-:nd the other, then first called the Puritan rarty, desiring to reform abeth. the established religion still more. 80. 2The great points of agreement among the members of the 2. Points of established church system, consisted in rejecting the doctrine of agreemnent papal supremacy, and in asserting the paramount national autho- bers of the rity in matters both spiritual and temporal, and in recognizing the established church. king or queen as the head of the church. 3This was, at its origin, 3. Thissystem the liberal, or democratic system, and at first united, in its support, at its origin. all lovers of liberty in thought and action-all those to whom the rigid discipline of Catholic ceremonials and Catholic supervision was irksome. 4The members of this party, although differing 4. Why ythees greatly on minor subjects, were generally disposed to rest satisfied tablished church party with the changes already made in faith and worship, thinking it a cvas disposed matter of justice and policy, not to separate more widely than tc restsatiswas necessary from the ancient sytem; while the bishops and clergy chanees alforesaw, in any farther attempts at innovation, a tendency to strip reaty nide. them of all their professional authority and dignity. 81. 5The establishment of these medium principles between 5. To ohsom popery on the one hand, and puritanism on the other, is probably these mnedium principles attributable to Elizabeth herself, for it is asserted by Hallalcm that are attribat the accession of that princess to the throne, all the most eminent uted. reformers, or Protestants, in the kingdom, were in favor of abolishing the use of the surplice, and what were called popish ceremonies, and that the queen alone was the cause of retaining those observances, which finally led to a separation from the Church of England. 82. 6The Puritan party, professing to derive their doctrines di- 6. Professions rectly from the Scriptures, were wholly dissatisfied with the old ad wishes Pz. the Puritan church system, which they denounced as rotten, depraved, and de- party. filed by human inventions, and they wished it to undergo a thorough reform, to abandon everything of man's device, and to adopt nothing, either in doctrine or discipline, which was not directly authorized by the word of God. 7Exceedingly ardent in their feel- 7. Character ings, zealous in their principles, abhorring all formalism, as de- of this party. structive of the very elements of piety, and rejecting the regal as well as papal supremacy, they demanded, in place of the liturgical service, an effective preaching of the gospel, more of the substance of religion, instead cf what they denominated its shadow; and so convinced were they of the justness of their views and the reasonableness of their demands, that they would listen to no considerations which pleaded for compromise or for delay. 83. SThe unsettled state of exterior religious observances contin- 1565. uecl until 1565, when Elizabeth, or perhaps the archbishop by her S. Attempts to sanction, took violent measures for putting a stop to all irregulari- formicty ion ties in the church service. Those of the puritan clergy who would religious not conform to the use of the clerical vestments, and other matters 2555t/eP. of discipline, were suspended from the ministry, and their livings, or salaries. taken from them. SThe puritans then began to form 9. Treatment separate oonventicles in secret, for they were unable to obtain, apart of the Prifrom the regular church, a peaceable toleration of their particular worship. Yet their separate assemblages were spied out and invaded" by the hirelings of government, and those who frequenterd a. 567. them sent to prison.

Page  158 158 APPEINDIX TO T1IE PERIOD OF [BUok 11 N.ALYSIS. 84. IHitherto the retention of popish ceremonies in the church' — ----- had been the only avowed cluseo of' complaint with the puritans, but, Thae Pull- when they found themselves persecuited with the most unsparing;-grher rigor instenad of relaxing in their plppositioni they began to take higher grounds —to cl'in ain ecclesiastical independence of the Englisa chur'chl-to question the tauthority that oppressed themandc with Cartwrioht, one of their mlost ble leaders, to inculcate the zlafiyctlntess of any fbrm of church govelrnment, except what the apostles hadcl instituted, namely, the presbyterian.'2. Polttical 85'. Thus a new feature in the controversy wlas developed, in the spect of the introduction of political principles: and, in the language of Halcntroversyl. lam) "the battle was no.longer to be fought for a tippet and a surplicc, but for the whole ecclesiatstical hierLrchy, interwoven, as it was, with the temporal constitution of England." The principles of civil liberty that thus began to be pronlulgated, so totally incompatible with the exorbitant prerogatives hitherto exercised by the English sovereigns, rendered the puritans, in a peculiar manner, the objects of the queen's aversion. 3. Puritan- 86. 3Some of the puritan leaders in Parliament having taken ocsgeninPawlia- casion to ailudae. although in terms of great mildness, to the restraints which. the queen had imposed upoll freedom of speech in the house, especially in ecclesiastical matters, they were imprisoned for their boldness, and told that it did not become them to speak upon subjects which the queen had prohibited from their consideration. And when a bill for the amendment of the liturgy was introduced into Parl.1iament, by a puritan member. it was declared to be an encroachment on the royal prerogative, and a temerity which!.Pretensions was not to be tolerated. 4As head of the church, Elizabeth deof the queen clatred that she was fully empowered, by her prerogative alone, to and powers of parli- decide all questions that might arise with regard to doctrine, disciae-n-t pline, or worship. And, in fact, the power of Parliament, at this time, extended little farther than to the regulation of the internal police of the kingdom: it did not presume to meddle with any of the great questions of government, peace and war, or foreign negotiations. 5. The 87. 5The most rigid of the early puritans were a sect called 3'~.on'ist.'" Bronninsts, from Robert Brown.,a young clergyman of an impetuous tits," or"'n- and illiberal spirit, who, in 1586, was at the head of a party of gepelndents." zealots or a "Separattists,/ who vwere vehement for a total sepatration from the established church. The Brownists -were also known as " Independents," because they renounced communion, not only with the church of England, but with every other Protestant church 6. Their that was not constructed on the samne model as their own. 6Against treat2lent. this sect the whole fury of the ecclesiastical law was directed. Brown himself exulted in the boast that he had been committed to thirty-two prisons, in some of which he could not see his hand at noon-day. Several of his followers perished by the hand of the executioner, great numbers were imprisoned, and numerous faimi-. lies were reduced to poverty by heavy fines. 7. Severe 88. 7Yet these severities tended only to increase the numbers and awsC agoainst the zeal of these sectaries, and although Elizabeth, even with tears,'.s Puritans, nt ant their' bewailed their misfortunes, yet she caused laws still more severe to e*ctsu. be enacted against the hope of finally overcoming their obstinacy. In 1593 a law was passed, declaring that any person, over sixteen years of age; who obstinately refused during the space of a month, to attend public worship in the established church, should be committed to prison; that if he persisted three months in his refusal he should abjure the realm' and if he either refused

Page  159 L'ART 1 J VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 159 this condition, or returned after banishment, he should suffer ANALYSIS. death. This act contributed as little as former laws to check the growth of Puritan principles, although it induced greater secrecy in their promulgation. 89. 10n the accession of James the First to the throne, in 1603) 1. Treatm rat the ecclesiastical policy of Elizabeth was adopted, and even in- of the Puricreased in rigor so that, during the second year of the reign of James the James, three hundred Puritan ministers were deprived of their Fi7st. livings, and imprisoned or banished. 2Thus harassed and op- 2. They repressed in England, an emigration to some foreign country seemed solve on ermi the only means of safety to the Puritans. and. they began to retire graton. in considerable numbers to the Protestant states of Europe. 90. 3Among those who afterwards became prominent in our his- s. Robinsones tory, as the founders of New England, were several me.mWbers of a ttrong Puritan congregiltion in the north of England, which chose for its pastor John Robinson. The members of this congregation, extremely harassed by a rigid enforcement of the laws against dissenters, directed their views first to Holland, the only European state in which a free toleration.of religious opinions was then admitted. But after leaving their homes at a sacrifice of much of Forbizden their property, they found the ports of their country closed against to esnigrate. them, and they were absolutely forbidden to depart. 91, 4After numerous disappointments, being betrayed by those 4. Afternuin whom they had trusted for concealment and protection, har- eresacesiasln assed and plundered by the ofbicers of the law, and often exposed sterdam. as a laughing spectacle to their enemies; in small parties they finally succeeded in reachino A.msterdam. where they found a a. 1608. Puritan congregation of their countrlymen already established. 5After one year spent at Amsterdam, the members of the church of 5. Removes t Robinson removed to Leyden where they continued eleven years, L during which time their numbers had increased, by additions from England, to three hundred communicants. 92. 6When Robinson first went to Holncland he was one of the 6. Character most rigid separatists from the church of England: but after a few of Robinson. years farther experience he became more mnoderate and charitable in his sentiments, allowing pious members of the Episcopal church, and of other churches, to communicate with him; declaring theat he separated from no denomination of Christians. but fronm the corruptions of all others. THis liberal views gave offence to the 7. The nsdrigid Brownists of A.msterdcam. so that the latter would sca-rcely hend Cntt, ad hold communion with the church at Leyden. The church at Am- gational sterdam here became known as the Ildependeent church. anld that at Chr1ch. LeydenT under the charge of Robinson, as the Coeegregattieoal church. SMost of the latter emigrated to Anmerica in 1620, where they laid s. 3embers oJ the foundation of the Plymouth colony. The church which they thIre to ethere planted has been the prevailing church in New England to America. the present day. 93. sBut the Pulitans brought with them, and established in the 9. Political New World, important principles of civil liberty, which it would principles of the, Puritans, be unjust here to pass unnoticed. 1OBefore they effected a landing 10 The "sat Plymouth, they embodied these principles in a brief, simple. but e7on, concomprehensive conlpact, which was to form the basis of their fiuture fra:" enter. government. In this instrument we have exhibited a perfect the ptlgrns equality of rights and privileges. In the cabin of the Mayflower, at itl louEII the pilgrims nmet together as equals and as freemen. and, in the name of the God whom they worshipped, subscribed the first charter of liberty established in the New World-declaring themselves the source of all the laws that were to be exercised over themn-andl

Page  160 160 VOYAGES AIND DISCOVERIES. [BookK IL ANALYSIS. promising to the same due subjection and obedience. Here was laid the foundation of American liberty. ~Indebted- 94.'That England herself is greatly indebted to the Puritans ness of Eng- for the present free government which she enjoys, we blave the Zand to the voluntary admission of her most able historians. It is remarked by Puritan. Hume) that "so absolute indeed wias the authority of the crown during the reign of' Elizabeth, that the precious spark of liberty had been kindled, and was preserved by the puritans alone;" and that " it was to this sect that the English owe the whole freedom of their constitution." Again Humne remarks, " It was only during the next generation that'the noble principles of liberty took root, and spreading themselves under the shelter of puritanical absurdities. became falshion.lable amnong the people". 2. Other',- 95. 2The other New Englald colonies, planted by puritans also, rican colonies adopted principles of free government similar to those of the Plyo dtew Eng- mouth colony and if they sometimes fell into the prevailing error erance of the of the times, of persecuting those who differed from them in reliPtittans. gious sentiments, it was because their entire government was but a system of ecclesiastical polity, aind they had not yet learned the ne3. Their oh- cessity of any government separate from that of the church. 3They ject int emi- came to plant. on principles of equality to all of similar religions gati7ng to views with themselves, a free church- in the wilderness; and the -_oerica. toleration, in their midst. of those entertaining different religious sentiments, was deemed by them but as the toleration of heresies 4. The errors in the church. 41t was reserved for the wisdom of a later day to into tehich complete the good work which the Puritans began, and by separahzoe cor- tino' the chur ch' from " the state to extend toleration and proteccroted. te r cteit. tion to all, without the imputationi of inculcating, by the authority of law,v what ilight be deemed heresies by any. 5. Our dotty 96. aWhile therefore we concede to the Puritans of New Engin relation to land the adoption of principles of government greatly in advance the history of the Purt7-ans. of the age in which they lived, it is our duty to point out, also. the errors into which they fell, and the sad consequences that resulted 6. The Qua- fronl them. GA few years later, the Quakers of Pennsylvania also kes of Penn-, pyluritan sect) but persecuted even among their brethren, made sytnaoin. a agreat advance in those republican principles which succeeding time has perfected, to the glory and happiness of our nation, and 7. Other the admiration of' the world.'Other Anerican colonies and indiAmerican viduals, at different periods, by resisting arbitrary encroachments colooies. of power, lent their aid to the cause of freedom. 8. What2forms 97. 8To follow the advance of this cause through all the stages sthe iost in- of its proggriess,-from its feeble beginnings. when the foot of the tiono of our oppressor would have crushed it, had he not despised its weakness, hlstory. -through long periods of darlmess, enlivened by only an occasional gliln.mering of hope, until it shone forth triumphant in that redemption from foreign bondage, which our fathers of the Revolution purchased for us, forms the most interesting and the most in 9. l-Vha.t,'we strnctive portion of our history. 9Andlc while we are perusing our should keep early annals, let us constantly bear in mind" that it is not merely tiet rat tu-in with the details of casual events, of wars and sufferings, wrongs dying oiur and retaliations, ineffective in their influences, that we are engaged orty histoy. but that we are studying a n';tion's progress from infancy to manhood-and that we are tracing the growth of those principles of civil and religious liberty, which have rendered us one of the hapo. piest, most enlightened, and most powerful of the nations of tho earth.

Page  161 t'AIrI 1V i'! 61 I Mi i i li:Li6 POCAHIONTAS SATING THE LIE OF CAPTAIN SMITH. (See p. 164) PART II 10.'EARLY 2ETTLEE1IENTh AND COLONIAL 11I9TORY; a. Subject of EXTENDING FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF JAMESTOWN7 IN 1607, TO THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE WAR OF TIHE REVOLUTION7 IN 1775; EMBRACING A PERIOD OF 168 YEARS. CHAPTER I. 2HISTORY OF VIRGIN1A.* 2. Chap. DIVISIONS. L 3irginia under the first charter.-II. Virginia wzder the second 3. D'i4omf charter.-III. Virginia under the third charter.-I V. Virginia from of g hap. I. the dissolution of the London Company to the commencement of the French and Indian War. I. VIRGINIA UNDEr THE FIRST CHARTER.-l. 4The adlin- me Governistration of the government of the Virginia colony had Vir',nia * VIRGINIA, the most northern of the southern United States, and the largeet in the Unioni often called the Ancient Domivion, from its early settlement, contains an area ot nearly 70,000 lquare miles. The state has a great variety of surface and soil. From the coast to the head of tide water on the rivers: incluldirg a tract of generally more than 100 miles in width, the country is low, sandy, covered with pitch pine, and is unhealthy from August to October. Between the head of tide water andl the PBlue Ride, t1e soil is better, and the surface of the country becomes uneven and hilly. The interior of the State, traversed by successive ridges of the Alleghany, running N. E. and S. W. is a healthy region, and in the valleys are some of' the best and most pleasant lads in the St te. The country wvest of the mountains, towards the Ohio., is rough and wild, with occasional SIrtile tracts, but rich as a mineral region 21

Page  162 162 COIONIAL HISTORY, [Boos IL ANALYSIS. been intrusted to a council of seven persons, whom the superior council in England had been permitted to name, with a president to be elected by the council from their 1. Early ds- number.'But the names and instructions of the co-incil im.plrison- having been placed, by the folly of the king, in a sealed Stirf box, with directions that it should not be opened until she 1607. emigrants had arrived in America, dissensions arose during the voyage; and John Smith, their best and ablest man, was put in confinerment, upon the absurd accusation of an intention to murder the council, usurp the government, and make himself king or Virginia. 2. WingfieZd- 2.'Soon after their arrival, the council chose Edward Snith on the Wingfield president,-an ambitious and unprincipled man, aCiv of thmpany. -and finding that Smith had been appointed one of theirh number, they excluded him from their body, as, by their instructions, they had power to do, but released him from confinement. As Smith demanded a trial upon the charges brought against him, which were known to be absurdly fakLe, his accusers thought best, after a partial hearing of the case, to withdraw the accusation; and he was soon restored to his station as a member of the council. 3. character 3.'Of the one hundred and five persons on the list of of the emigrants. emigrants, destined to remain, there were no men with families,-there were but twelve laborers, and very few mechanics. The rest were composed of gentlemen of for tune, and of persons of no occupation, —mostly of idle and dissolute habits —who had been tempted to join the expedition through curiosity or the hope of gain;-a company but poorly calculated to plant an agricultural state 4. Theirre- in a wilderness. 4The English were kindly received by ception by the natives. the natives in the immediate vicinity of Jamestown, who. when informed of the wish of the strangers to settle in tihe country, offered them as much land as they wanted. a. Note,. 7 4.'Soon after their arrival, Newport, and Smith, and 5. Powhatan and lhis ub- twenty others, ascended the Jamesa river, and visited the jects. native chieftain, or king, Powhatan, at his principal residence near the present site of Richmond.* His subjects murmured at the intrusictl of the strangers into the country; but Powhatan, disguising his jealousy and his fear, manifested a friendly disposition. 6. Events that 5.'About the middle of June, Newport sailed for Eng; aftur trhede- land; and the colonists, whose hopes had been highly ex. partureof cited by the beauty and fertility of the country, beginning Newport. to feel the want of suitable provisions, and being now left * Richmond, tihe capital of Virginia, is on the north side of James River, 75 milles from tsa mouth. Immediately above the river are the falls, and directly opposite is the village of MYiau, ehaster.

Page  163 PART l.] VIRGINIA. 163 to their own resources, soon awoke to the reality of their 160,. situation. They were few in number, and without habits surering of industry;-the Indians began to manifest hostile inten- ofy /w colony. tions,-and before autumn, the diseases of a damp and sultry climate had swept away fifty of their number, and among them, Bartholomew Gosnold, the projector of the settlement, and one of the ablest men in the council. 6.'To increase their misery, their avaricious president, 2. CosPiraCj. Wingfield, was detected in a conspiracy to seize the public stores, abandon the colony, and escape in the company's bark to the West Indies.'He was therefore de- 3. Govern. posed, and was succeeded by Ratcliffe; but the latter into the hants possessing little capacity for government, and being sub- of Snmith. sequently detected in an attempt to abandon the colony, the management of affairs, by common consent, fell into the hands of Smith, who alone seemed capable of diffusing light amidst the general gloom. 7. 4Under the management of Smith, the condition of 4. msranthe colony rapidly improved. He quelled the spirit of agett"'. anarchy and rebellion, restored order, inspired the natives with awe, and collected supplies of provisions, by expeditions into the interior. As autumn approached, wild fowl Nov. and game became abundant; the Indians, more friendly, from their abundant harvests made voluntary offerings; and peace and plenty again revived the drooping spirits of the colony. 8.'The active spirit of Smith next prompted him to 5. Smith explore the surrounding country. After ascending the er byt t Chickahominy* as far as he could advance in boats, with two Englishmen and two Indian guides he struck into the interior. The remainder of the party, disobeying his instructions, and wandering from the boat, were surprised by the Indians and put to death. Smith was pursued, the two Englishmen were killed, and he himself, after dispatching with his musket several of the most forward of his assailants, unfortunately sinking in a miry place, was forced to surrender. 9.'His calmness and self-possession here saved his life. e. In whae Showing a pocket compass, he explained its wonderful rsawceldh properties, and, as he himself relates, "by the globe-like Ife. figure of' that jewel he instructed them concerning the roundness of the earth, and how the sun did chase the night round about the earth continually." In admiration of his superior genius the Indians retained him as their prisoner. u The Chickahominy River rises northwest from Richmond, and, during most of Its coarse runs nearly parallel to James River, which it enters five or six miles above Jamestown See Map, p. 136.)

Page  164 164 COLONIAL IIlST'ORY. L[ook 11, 1608. 10.'Regarding him as a being of superior order, but,___- uncertain whether he should be cherished as a friend, or I. Hoa the dreaded as an enemy, they observed towards him the garded him, utmost respect as they conducted him in triumph from.hey did with one village to another, and, at length, brought him to the residence of Opechancanough, where, for the space ot three days, their priests or sorcerers practiced incantations and. ceremonies, in order to learn from the invisible world the character and designs of their prisoner. 2. Decision of 11.'The decision of his fate was referred to Powhatan f@ate. and his council, and to the village of that chieftain Smith was conducted, where he was received with great pomp 1608. and ceremony. Here it was decided that he should die. 3. His lie'He was led forth to execution, and his head was laid P'ocahontas. upon a stone to receive the fatal blow, when Pocahontas, the young and favorite daughter of the king, rushed in between the victim and the uplifted arm of The executioner, and with tears and entreaties besought her father to save 4. Sent to his life. 4The savage chieftain relented; Smith was set Jamestown. at liberty; and, soon after, with a guard of twelve men, was conducted in safety to Jamestown, after a captivity of seven weeks. 5. Benefits 12.'The captivity of Smith was, on the whole, bene-.&erived from hiscaptivity. ficial to the colony; for he thereby learned much of the Indians,-their character, customs, and language; and was enabled to establish a peaceful intercourse between 6. Conation the English and the Powhatan tribes. ~But on his return on hisretorn. to Jamestown he found disorder and misrule again prevailing; the number of the English was reduced to forty men; and most of these, anxious to leave a country where they had suffered so much, had determined to abandon the colony and escape with the pinnace. This was the third attempt at desertion. By persuasion and threats a majority were induced to relinquish the design; but the remainder, more resolute, embarked. in spite of the threats of Smith, who instantly directed the guns of the fort upon them and compelled them to return..Arrival of 13.'Soon after, NI ewport arrived from England with emigrants. supplies, and one hundred and twenty emigrants. The hopes of the colonists revived; but as the new emigrants were composed of gentlemen, refiners of gold, goldsmiths, jewellers, &c., and but few laborers, a wrong direction a searh for was given to the industry of the colony.'Believing that Vold. they had discovered grains of gold in a stream of water near Jamestown, the entire industry of the colony was directed to digging, washing, refining and loading gold; and notwithstanding the remonstrances of Smith, a ship

Page  165 PArT I.] VIRGINIA. 165 was actually freighted with the glittering earth and sent ioO~. to England. 14.'During the prevalence of this passion for gold, t. Fjp7rvaSmith, finding that he could not be useful in Jamestown, country by Smdith. employed himself in exploring the Chesapeake Bay' and a. Notehp: 13. its tributary rivers. In two voyages, occupying about three months of the summer, with a few companions, in an open boat, he performed a navigation of nearly three thousand miles, passing far up the Susquehanna* and the Potomac;;t nor did he merely explore the numerous rivers and inlets, but penetrated the territories, and established friendly relations with the Indian tribes. The map which he prepared and sent to England is still extant, and delineates, with much accuracy, the general outlines of the country which he explored. 15. 2Soon after his return from this expedition, Smith was formally made presidents of the council. By his b. Sept. 20energetic administration, order and industry again pre- 2 Smmith's vailed, and Jamestown assumed the appearance of a gtovei,0 nt, thriving village. Yet at the expiration of two years from andcOfndithe time of the first settlement, not more than forty acres colony after an existence of land had been cultivated; and the colonists, to prevent of teeo yeareo themselves from starving, were still obliged to obtain most of their food from the indolent Indians. Although about seventy new emigrants arrived, yet they were not suitable t.o the wants of the colony, and Smith was obliged to write earnestly to the council in England, that they should send more laborers, that the search for gold should be abandoned, and that " nothing should be expected except by labor." If. VIRGINIA UNDER THE SECOND CHARTER.-1. 3In 1609. 1609, a new charter was givene to the London Company, e. Jule 2. by which the limits of the company were enlarged, and 3. Theseeoaru the constitution of Virginia radically changed. The territory of the colony was now extended by a grant of all the lands along the sea-coast, within the limits of two hundred miles north, and two hundred south of Old Point Comfort;4 that is, from the northern boundary of Maryland, to the southern limits of North Carolina, and extending westward fr'om sea to sea. e The Susqueehanna is one of the largest rivers east of the Alleghanies. he eastern branch rises in Otsego Lake, New York, and running S. WV. receives the Tioga nefri the Pennsylvania boundary. It passes through Pennsylvania, receiving the West Bragr^ in the interior of the State, and enters the head of Chesapeake Bay, near the N. E. corner of; Maryland. The navi gation of the last 50 miles of its course is obstructed by numerous rapids. - The Potomac river rises in the Alleghany Mountains, makes a grand and magnificent pas satge through the Blue Ridge, at Iarper's Ferry, and throughout its whole course is the bonn.. ditry line between Virginia and Maryland. At its entrance into Chesapeake Bay it is seven and a half miles wide. It is navigable for tlhe largest vessels to Wlashington City, 110 nailea by the river-70 in a direct line. Above Washington the navigation is obstructed by numserous falls. Point Comfort is the northern point of the entrance of James River into Ch ease.ake Beoy -See Janes Riiv,,, Note, p. 187.)

Page  166 166 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book UI ANALYSIS. 2.'The council in England, formerly appointed by the'. Chance king, was now to have its vacancies filled by the votes of matde in the a majority of the corporation. This council was authorf thencolony. ized to appoint a governor, who xwas to reside in Virginia, and whlose powers enabled him to rule the colonists with alrnJst despotic sway. The council in England, it is true, coJuld make laws for the colony, and give instructions to the governor; but the discretionary powers conferred upon the latter were so extensive, that the lives, liberty, and property of the colonists, were placed almost at his arbitrary disposal.. Nel ar- 3.'Under the new charter, the excellent Lord Delaware 2ea gernents mn.ade.n was appointed governor for life. Nine ships, under the a. June 12. command of Newport, were soon despatched- for Virginia, with more than five hundred emigrants. Sir Thomas Gates, the deputy of the governor, assisted by Newport and Sir George Somers, was appointed to administer the S. Oisasters government until the arrival of Lord Delaware. 3When to tAjtgieet. the fleet had arrived near the West Indies, a terrible stormb dispersed it, and the vessel in which were Newport, Gates, and Somers, was stranded on the rocks of the Bermudas.* c. Aug. A small ketch perished, and only seven vessels arrived' in Virginia. 4. 4. 40'n the arrival of the new emigrants, most of whom we situation t5Sm it 4h. were profligate and disorderly persons, who had been sent off to escape a worse destiny at home, Smith found himself placed in an embarrassing situation. As the first charter had been abrogated, many thought the original form of government was abolished; and, as no legal authority existed for establishing any other, every thing tended to the wildest anarchy. s. His man-' 5. "In this confusion, Smith soon determined what agement. course to pursue. Declaring that his powers, as president, were not suspended until the arrival of the persons- appointed to supersede him, he resumed the reins of govern6. Hit return meint, and resolutely maintained his authority.'At length, Dt Enlad. being disabled by an accidental explosion of gunpowder, and requiring surgical aid, which the new settlement could not afford, he delegated his authority to George Percy, brother of the Earl of' Northumberland, and embarked for England. 5 The.Bermudas are a group of about 400 small islands, nearly all but five mere rocks, conWining a surface of abrout 20 square mniles, and situated in the Atlantic Ocean, 580 miles E. fronm Cape Hatteras, iwhich is the nearest land to them. They wvere discovered in 1515, by a Spanish vessel commuanded by Juan Bermudes, firom whom they have derived their name. Soon after the shipwreck above mentioned, Sonmers formed a settlenment there, and from him they were long known as the'" Summer Islands," but the original namne, Bermudas, has since prevailed. They are well fortified, belong to the English, and are valuable. principally as a na~val station

Page  167 PAlrV 11.] VIRGEINIA. 167 6.'On the departure of Smith subordination and in- ]1610. dustry ceased; the provisions of the colony were soon -.consmlned; the Indians became hostile, and withheld their - Situcltion customary supplies; the horrors of famine ensued; and, jetar,4.,the in six months, anarchy and vice had reduced the number time-" of the colony from four hundred and ninety to sixty; and these were so feeble and dejected, that if relief had been delayed a few days longer, all must have perished. This period of suffering and gloom was long remembered with l-orror, and was distinguished by the name of the starving time. 7.'In the mean time Sir Thomas Gates and his com- 2. Fate f Sir panions, who had been wrecked on the Bermudas, had T-D7ho.scaa reached the shore without loss of life,-had remained nine Sanded months on an uninhabited but fertile island,-and had found means to construct two vessels, in which they embarkeda for Virginia, where they anticipated a happy a. May 2 welcome, and expected to find a prosperous colony. 3.'On their arrivalb at Jamestown, a far different 1. June2. scene presented itself; and the gloom was increased by 3. T'h sett~le the prospect of continued scarcity. Death by famine r o toed;awaited them if they remained where they were; and, colonyh as the only means of safety, Gates resolved to sail for Newfoundland, and disperse the company among the ships of English fishermen. With this intention they embarked,o but just as they drew near the mouth of the c. June 17. river, Lord Delaware fortunately appeared with emigrants and supplies, and they were persuaded to return.d d. June 18. 9. 4The return of the colony was celebrated by reli- 4. Account of Lord Dc lagious exercises, immediately after which the commission war, of Lord Delaware was read, and the government organized. Under the wise administration of this able and'virtuous man, order and contentment were again restored; 1611. but the health of the governor soon failing, he was obliged to return to England, having previously appointed Percy to administer the government until a successor should arrive.'Before the return of Lord Delaware 5. Of Sir Thor72n Dateg was known, the company had despatched Sir Thomas Dale with supplies. Arrivinge in May, he assumed the e. Mayv0. government of the colony, which he administered with moderation, although upon the basis of martial law. 10.'In May, Dale had written to the company, stating 6. Ofth earthe small number and weakness of the colonists, and re- vtalofGate. questing new recruits; and early in September Sir Thomas Gates arrived with six ships and three hundred emigrants, and assumed the government of the colony, which then numbered seven hundred men. *New set- 7. Foreg tlements were now formed, and several wise regulations aopted. flements were now formed, Z:~~~~~~~~~~acfped

Page  168 168 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BooK I1, ANALYSIS. adopted; among which was that of assigning to each man a few acres of ground for his orchard and garden... boir I 1.'Hitherto all the land had been worked in common, frc, -c and the produce deposited in the public stores. The good effects of the new regulation were apparent in the increased industry of the colonists, and soon after, during the administration of Sir Thomas Dale, larger assignments of' land were made, and finally, the plan of working in a common field, to fill the public stores, was entirely abandoned. 1612. III. VIRGINA UNDER THE THIRD CHARTER.-1.'In 1612, i. The thira the London Company obtaineda from the king a new charcharter. a. March 22. ter, making important changes in the powers of the corporation, but not essentially affecting the political rights of the colonists themselves. BChanges in 2.'Hitherto the principal powers possessed by the the government%.ficted company had been vested in the superior council, which, *by "t under the first charter, was appointed by the king; and although, under the second, it had its vacancies filled by the majority of the corporation, yet the corporation itself could act only through this medium. The superior coun. cil was now abolished, and its powers were transferred to the whole company, which, meeting as a democratic assembly, had the sole power of electing the officers and establishing the laws of the colony. 1613. 3. 41n 1613 occurred the marriage of John Rolfe, a 4. Account ofyoung Englishman, with Pocahontas, the daughter of Powhatan;-an event which exerted a happy influence upon the relations of the colonists and Indians. The marriage receivu:d the approval of the father and friends of the maiden, and was hailed with great joy by the English. In 1616, the Indian wife accompanied her husband to England, and was received with much kind ness and attention by the king and queen; but as she was preparing to return, at the age of twenty-two she fell a victim to the English climate. She left one son, from whom are descended some of the most respectable families in Virginia. b. In 1613. 4.'During the same year,b Samuel Argall, a sea cap. rg-,l, tain, sailing from Virginia in an armed vessel for the purpose of protecting the English fishermen off the coast of Maline, discovered that the French had just planted, a colony near the Penobscot,* on Mount Desert Isle.t- Consideringy this an encroachment upon the limits of Nortl' hse Penobscrot is a river of Maine, which falls into Penobscot Bay, about 50 mIllies LN. E. frcm the mouth of the Kennebec.'- M. fount Desert island is about 20 miles S. E. from the mouth of the Penobscot,-a peninsal ltervening. It Ls 15 iuiles long, and 10 or 12 broad.

Page  169 PARST I l VTIRGINIA. 169 Virginia, he broke up the settlement, sending some of 16]3. the colonists to France, and transporting others to Vir — - ginia. 5. Sailing again soon after, he easily reduced the feeble settlement at Port Royal,' and thus completed the con- a. Note, p. I35 quest of Acadia. On his return to Virginia he entered the harhbor of' ew York,b and comlpelled the Dutch trad- b. Note and ing establishment, lately planted there, to acknowledge Ma',.220. the sovereignty of England. 6.'Early in 1614, Sir Thomas Gates embarked for 1614. England, leaving the administration of the government LDal d.To, in the hands of Sir Thomas Dale, who ruled with vigor ministra.tionand wisdom, and made several valuable changes in the land laws of the colony. After having remained five years in the country, he appointed George Yeardley 1616. deputy-governor, and returned to England.'During the 2. The culadministration of Yeardley the culture of tobacco, a native tobacco plant of the country, was iptroau ced, which soon became, not only the principal export, but even the currency of the colony. 7.'In 1617, the office of deputy-governor was intrusted 1617. to Argall, who ruled with such tyranny as to excite 3,Arga l1'ad universal discontent. He not only oppressed the colonists, but defrauded the company. After numerous complaints, and a strenuous contest among rival factions in the company, for the control of the colony, Argall was dis- 1619. placed, and Yeardley appointed governor. 4Under the 4. aeinrst* administration of Yeardley, the planters were fully tion. released from farther service to the colony, martial law was abolished, and the first colonial assembly ever held in Virginia was convened' at Jamestown. c. June 29. 8. 6The colony was divided into eleven boroughs; and 5. Origin and powers of the two representatives, called burgesses, were chosen from House of each. These, constituting the house of burgesses, deba- Irgesoc ted all matters which were thought expedient for the good of the colony; but their enactments, although sanctioned by the governor and council, were of no force until they were ratified by the company in England. 61n the month 1620. of August, 1620, a Dutch man-of-war entered James a Undern river, and landed twenty negroes for sale. This was the slaStes commencement of negro slavery in the English colonies. onatrodzuced. 9.'It was now twelve years since the settlement of 7. State oftha Jamestown, and after an expenditure of nearly four hun- lO2;oand addred thousand dollars by the company, there were in the /a colony only six hundred persons; yet, during the year 1.6:20, through the influence of Sir Edwyn Sandys, the treasurer of the company, twelve hundred and sixty-one additional settlers were induced to emigrate. But as yet 00

Page  170 170 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Boox IL ANLLYSIS. there were few women in the colony; and most of tire planters had hitherto cherished the design of ultimately returning to England. 1. Measures 10. nll order to attach them still more to the country, taken. to at- and to render the colony more permanent, ninety young lach the i- women, of reputable character, were fitrst sent over, arind countryy in the following year, sixty more, to become wives to the planters. The expense of their transportation, and even more, was paid by the planters; the price of a wife rising from one hundred and twenty, to one hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco. 1621. 11.'In August, 1621, the London Company granteda a. Aug. 3. to their colony a written constitution, ratifying, in the. Acounttenof main, the form of government established by Yeardley. constitution It decreed that a governor and council should be appointed the coqipanvy. by the company, and that a general assembly, consisting hoocost- of the council, and two burgesses chosen by the people tued. from each plantation, or borough, should be convened Powersof yearly. The governor had a negative voice upon the governor, proceedings of the assembly, but no law was valid unless ratified by the company in England. Laws. 12. With singular liberality it was farther ordained Orders of the that no orders of the company in England should bind the Trzal by colony until ratified by the assembly. The trial by jury Jury. xwas establ;shed, and courts of justice were required to Bcsis of con conform to the English laws. This constitution, granting tittion. privileges which were ever after claimed as rights, was'the basis of civil freedom in Virginia. D. oct. 13.'The new constitution was broughtb over by Sir 3. Arrivat of Francis Wyatt, who had been appointed to succeed Sir Franci' Wyatt; and Governor Yeardley. He found the numbers of the colony the condition of the cotony. greatly increased, their settlements widely extended, and every thing in the full tide of prosperity But this pleas. ant prospect was doomed soon to experience a terrible reverse. A. Acczunt of 14. 4Since the marriage of Pocahontas, Powhatan had co spiacny. remained the firm friend of the English. But lhe being now dead, and his successor viewing with jealousy and 1622. alarm the rapidly increasing settlements of the English, the Indians concerted a plan of surprising and destroying the whole colony. Still preserving the language or friendship, they visited the settlements, bought the arms, and borrowed the boats of the English, and, even on the morning of the fatal day, came among them as freely as usual.. Massacre 15.'On the first of April, 1622, at mid-day, the attack wara which commenced; and so sudden and unexpected was the on~fotowed. set, that, in one hour, three hundred and forty. seven mlen,

Page  171 PART 1I.] VIRGINIA. 171 women, and children, fell victims to savage treachery and R62. cruelty. The massacre would have been far more extensive had not a friendly Indian, on the previous evening, revealed the plot to an Englishman whom he wished to save; by which means Jamestown and a few of the neighboring settlements were well prepared against the attack. 16.'Although the larger part of the colony was saved, I. Ditress of yet great distress followed; the more distant settlements tCony. were abandoned; and the number of the plantations was reduced from eighty to eight.'But the English soon 2. Theresuu., aroused to vengeance. An exterminating war against the Indians followed; many of them were destroyed; and the remainder were obliged to retire far into the wilderness. 17.'The settlement of Virginia by the London Com- 3. The eaus, pany had been an unprofitable enterprise, and as the'the issolushares in the unproductive stock were now of little value, rLondon Ofnand the holders very numerous, the meetings of the com- pany pany, in England, became the scenes of political debate, in which the advocates of liberty were arrayed against the upholders of royal prerogative. 4The king disliked 4. Whattdsthe freedom of debate here exhibited, and, jealous of the king. prevalence of liberal sentiments, at first sought to control the elections of officers, by overawing the assemblies. 18.'Failing in this, he determined to recover, by a dis- 5 Whathe solution of the company, the influence of which he had determined. deprived himself' by a charter of his own concession,'Commissioners in the interest of the king were therefore 6. How the appointed to examine the concerns of the corporation. As cmplished. was expected, they reported in favor of a change; the judicial decision was soon after given; the London Company was dissolved; the king took into his own hands the 1624. government of the colony; and Virginia thus became a royal government. 19.'During the existence of the London Company, the 7. GractuaGG government of Virginia had gradually changed from a ad o.ccur.ed royal government, under the first charter, in which the,2t.f Vi.s-' king had all power, to a proprietary government under nia. the second and third charters, in which all executive and legislative powers were in the hands of the company. 20. SAlthough these changes had been made without 8. Efect of consulting the wishes of the colonists, and notwithstand- both~ onViring the powers of the company were exceedingly arbi- thaeoh,` trary, yet as the majority of its active members belonged colonm to the patriot party in England, so they acted as the successful friends of liberty in America. They had conceded the right of trial by jury, and had given to Virginia a representative government. These privilfges, thus early

Page  172 172 COLONIAL HIISTORY. [Boor 11 ANALYSIS. conceded, could never be wrested from the Virginians, - -—' —- and they exerted an influence favorable to liberty, throughout all the colonies subsequently planted. All claimed as extensive privileges as had been conceded to their elder sister colony, and future proprietaries could hope to win emigrants, only by bestowing franchises as large as those enjoyed by Virginia. IV. VIRGINIA FROM THE DISSOLUTION OF THE LONDON COMPANY IN 1624, TO THE COiIMENCEMIENT OF THE 5. The nature FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR IN 1754.-1.'The dissoluof t0 r, no govwrnmnt. tion of the London Company produced no immediate change in the domestic government and franchises of the colony. A governor and twelve counsellors, to be guided by the instructions of the king, were appointed to administer the government; but no attempts were made to sup1625. press the colonial assemblies. 2On the deaths of James a. April. the First, in 1625, his son, Charles the First, succeeded 2-Chari'ei. him. The latter paid very little attention to the political lgirnoair-a. condition of Virginia, but aimed to promote the prosperity of the colonists, only with the selfish view of deriving profit from their industry. He imposed some restrictions on the commerce of the colony, but vainly endeavored to obtain for himself the monopoly of the trade in tobacco. 1628. 2.'I2. n 1628, John Harvey, who had for several years 8. John Har- been a member of the council, and was exceedingly unpopular, was appointed governor; but he did not arrive in 1629. the colony until late in the following year. He has been charged, by most of the old historians, with arbitrary and tyrannical conduct; but although he favored the court party, it does not appear that he deprived the colonists of any of their civil rights. 4. His ad- 3. 4His administration, however, was disturbed bv dismiinistration. putes about land titles under the royal grants; and the colonists, being indignant that lie should betray their in1635. terests by opposing their claims, deprived him of the gov. ernment, and summoned an assembly to receive complaints against him. Harvey, in the mean time, had consented to go to England with commissioners appointed to manage his impeachment; but the king would not even admit his 1636. accusels to a hearing, and Harvey immediately returnedL I. Jan. to occupy his former station. 1642. 4.'Duriny the first administration of Sir William Berket5. Accountys ley, from 1642 to'52, the civil condition of the Virgiaduniwta- nians was much improved; the laws and customs of En?:. land were still filrther introduced; cruel punishnernts were abolished; old controversies were adjusted; a more eruitable systern of taxation was introduced; the rights of propertyv and the fieedomt of inldustry were secured

Page  173 PART rII. VIRGINIA. 173 and Virginia enjoyed nearly all the civil liberties which 1;642. the most free system of government could have conferred. 5.'A spirit of intolerance, however, in religious matters, i. RPelious in accordance with the spirit of the age, was manifested "intoieranc. by the legislative assembly; which ordereda that no min- l1643. ister should preach or teach except in conformity to the Church of England. 2While puritanism and republican- 2. Singular contrast of ism were prevailing in England, leading the way to the principles. downfall of monarchy, the Virginians showed the strongest attachment to the Episcopal Church and the cause of royalty. 6.'in 1644 occurred another Indian massacre, followed 1644. by a border warfare ultil October, 1646, when peace was 3a.T hesecond again established. J)uring several years the Powhatan sacre and war in which the tribes had shown evidences of hostility; but, in 1644, Virginians hearing of the dissensions in England, and thinking the involved. opportunity favorable to their designs, they resolved on a general massacre; hoping to be able eventually to exterminate the colony. 7. On the 28th of April, the attack was commenced on the frontier settlements, and about three hundred persons were killed before the Indians were repulsed. 4A vigor- 4' The re~sult ous war against the savages was immediately commenced, and their king, the aged Opechancanough, the successor of Powhatan, was easily made prisoner, and died in captivity. Submission to the English, and a cession of lands, were the terms on which peace was purchased by the 1646. original possessors of the soil. 8.'During the civil war* between Charles the First 5. State of and his Parliament, the Virginians continued faithful to during the the royal cause, and even after the executions of the king, England. his son, Charles the Second, although a fugitive from Eng- b. Peb. 9. land, was still recognized as the sovereign of Virginia.'The Parliament, irritated by this conduct, in 1652 sent a 6. How vn g.inia was naval force to reduce the Virginians to submission. Pre- treantedby the vious to this (in'1650) foreign ships had been forbidden to Parlasenl. trade with the rebellious colony, and in 1651 the celebrated navigation act, securing to English ships the entire * NoTE. —The tyrannical disposition, and arbitrary measures of Charles the First, of England, opposed as they were to the increasing spirit of liberty among the people, involved that klngdom in a civil war; arraying, on the one side, Parliament and the Republicans; and on the other, the Royalists and the King. Between 1642 and 1649, several important battles were fought, when the king was finally taken prisonec, tried, condemned, and executed, Jan 30, (Old Style) 1649. The Parliament then ruled; but Oliver Cromwell, who had been the principal general of the Republicans, finally dissolved it by force (April, 1653,) and took into his swn hands the reins of government, with the title of " Protector cf the Commonwealth." He administered the government with energy and ability until his death, in 1658. Richard Cromwell succeeded his father, as Protector, but after two years he abdicated the government;, and quietly retired to private life. Charles the Second, a highly accomplished prince, but arbitrary base, and unprincipled, was then restored (in 1660) to the throne of his ancestors, by the gene ial wish of the people. (See also the Appendix to the Colonial History.)

Page  174 174 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BOOK II, ANALYSIS. carrying trade with England, and seriously abridging the freedom of colonial commerce, was passed. 1652. 9.'On the arrival' of the naval force of Parliament in a. March. 1652, all thoughts of resistance were laid aside, and al-,nanether though the Virginians refused to surrender to force, yet 8bmis:on,, to they voluntarily entered into a compactb with their in. wa, ected. vaders, by which they acknowledged the supremacy of b. March 22. 2. Nature of Parliament. 2By this compact, which was faithfully obo the aCPomt, served till the restoration of monarchy, the liberties of a4 how observed. Virginia were preserved, the navigation act itself was not enforced within her borders, and regulated by her own laws, Virginia enjoyed freedom of commerce with all the world. 3. Slate of 10.'During the existence of the Commonwealth, Virduring thei ginia enjoyed liberties as extensive as those of any Eng. Cowm,`. lish colony, and from 1652 till 1660, she was left almost entirely to her own independent government. CromweL, never made any appointments for Virginia; but her govc.Bennet. ernors,c during the Commonwealth, were chosen by the DigMs, ana Matthews. burgesses, who were the representatives of the people. 1658. 4When the news of the deathd of Cromwell arrived, the d. Sept. 13. assembly reasserted their right of electing the officers of 4. Events that government, and required the governor, Matthews, to conoccurred ofthe dnwS firm it; in order, as they said, " that what was their privi of C1romwetel lege then, might be the privilege of their posterity." 1660. 11.'On the death of governor Matthews, which hap 5. At the time pened just at the time of the resignation of Richard, the of th. ra nsuccessor of Cromwell; the house of burgesses, after enactRichar. ing that "the government of the country should be resi. dent in the assembly until there should arrive from Eng. land a commission which the assembly itself should adjudge to be lawful," elected Sir William Berkeley governor, who, by accepting the office, acknowledged the authority to C. Theishes which he owed his elevation.'The Virginians hoped for ogfitrhe hv"- the restoration of monarchy in England, but they did not regard to immediately proclaim Charles the Second king, although the statement of their hasty return to royal allegiance has been often made. 7. Events that 12. XVWhen the news of the restoration of Charles the the atine ofthl Second reached Virginia, Berkeley, who was then acting as restorationf oby Charles I. governor elected by the people, immediately disclaimed the popular sovereignty, and issued writs for an assembly in the name of the king. The friends of royalty now came into power, and high hopes of royal favor were en. tertained. 8. Cornmercia 13. 8But prospects soon darkened. The commercial restrictions imsreaed policy of the Commonwealth was adopted, and restrictions the colonies. upon colonial commerce were greatly multiplied. The

Page  175 PJART II. VIRGINIA. 175 new provisions of the navigation act enjoined that no corn- 1661. modities should be imported to any British settlements, nor exrported friom them, except in English vessels, and that -the principal product of the colonies should be shipped to no country except England. The trade between the colonies was likewise taxed for the benefit of England, and the entire aim of the colonial system was to make the colonies dependent upon the mother country. 14.'Remonstrances against this oppression were of no t. Discontenta avail, and the provisions of the navigation act were rigor- nd gr.nt, to ously enforced. The discontents of the people were farther Culpepper increased by royal grants of large tracts of land which be- Ar ngtsor longed to the colony, and which included plantadons that had long been cultivated; and, in 1673, the lavish sover- 1673. eign of England, with his usual profligacy, gave away to Lord Culpepper and the earl of Arlington, two royal favorites, " all the dominion of land and water called Virginia," for the space of thirty-one years. 15.'In the mean time, under the influence of the 2. In what -manner, the, royalist and the aristocratic party in Virginia, the legisla- libe tioesf the ture had seriously abridged the liberties of the people. ab[riiged. The Episcopal Church had become the religion of the state, In m1aters of -heavy fines were imposed upon Quakers and Baptists, riyinen. -t4he royal officers, obtaining their salaries by a perma- Salarie. nent duty on exported tobacco, were removed from all dependence upon the people,-the taxes were unequal and op- Taxes. pressive,-and the members of the assembly, who had been Reprexsenta chosen for a term of only two years, had assumed to them- tive2. selves an indefinite continuance of power, so that, in reality, the represenltative system was abolished. )1.'The pressure of increasing grievances at length'3'.Eect of produced open discontent; and the common people, highly arwesexasperated against the aristocratic and royal party, began to nmnifest a mutinous disposition. 4An excuse for ap- Inian war I'eariinr in arms was presented in the sudden outbreak of cztewad tttitS indian hlostilities. Thie Susquehanna Indians, driven froin a"e. tl eir hunrting grol unds at the head of the Chesapeake, by thle lcostile Senecas, had come down upon the Potomac, and wvith their confekderates, were then e.ngaged in a wvar with Maryland. Turders hIad been committed on the soil 1675. of Vi inia, andm.wnen six of the hostile chief-tains presented tlheiselves to treat fbr peace, they were cruelly put to!deatth. The Indians aroused to vengeance, and a desolating warfare ravaged the fiontier settlements. 17.'Dissatisfied with the measures of' defence 5 Demanas ]lerkleley had adopted, the people, with Nathaniel Bacon for their leaderl demanded of the governor permission to rise and 1676. wotect themselves.'Berkeley, jealous of the increasing 6- ~onauet aj

Page  176 176 COLONIAL HIlSTORY. lBoosc IL ANALYSIS. popularity of Bacon, refused permission. BAt length, the 1. comnene. Indian aggressions increasing, and a party of Bacon's own Bacon't men having been slain on his plantation, he yielded to the 2ebellion. common voice, placed himself at the head of five hundred men, and commenced his march against the Indians. He a. May. was immediately proclaimeda traitor by Berkeley, and troops were levied to pursue him. Bacon continued his expedition, which was successful, while Berkeley was obliged to recall his troops, to suppress an insurrection in the lower counties.. Suc,,cessof 18.'The great mass of the people having arisen, tha0 opuar Berkeley was compelled to yield; the odious assembly, of long duration, was dissolved; and an assembly, composed mostly of the popular party, was elected in their places. Numerous abuses were now corrected, and Bacon was apa vaillatin pointed commander-in-chief.'Berkeley, however, at first cBdeuctiof refused to sign his commission, but Bacon having made his appearance in Jamestown, at the head of several hundred armed men, the commission.was issued, and the governor united with the assembly in commending to the king the zeal, loyalty, and patriotism of the popular leader. But as the army was preparing to march against the enemy, Berkeley suddenly withdrew across the York* river to Gloucester,t summoned a convention of loyalists, and, even against their advice, once more proclaimed Bacon a traitor. 4. eEents of 19. 4Bacon, however, proceeded against the Indians, which and Berkeley having crossed the Chesapeake to Accomact followed, county, his retreat was declared an abdication. Berkeley, in the mean time, with a few adherents, and the crews of some English ships, had returned to Jamestown, but, on the approach of Bacon and his forces, after some slight resistance the royalists were obliged to retreat, and Bacon took possession of the capital of Virginia. 20. The rumor prevailing that a party of royalists was approaching, Jamestown was burned, and some of the patriots fired their own houses, lest they might afford shelter to the enemy. Several troops of the royalists soon after joined the insurgents, but, in the midst of his sucb. Oct. 11. cesses, Bacon suddenly died.b His party, now left without a leader, after a few petty insurrections, dispersed, and the authority of the governor was restored. * Yorlk River enters the Chesapeake about 18 miles N. from James River. It is navigable for the largest vessels, 25 miles. It is formed of the Mattapony and the Pamunky. 9The former which is on the north, is formed of the Mat, Ta, Po, and Ny rivers. t Gloucester county is on the N.E. side of York River, and borders on the Chesapeake. The toiwl is on a branch or bay of the Chesapeake, $ Accomac county is on the eastern shore of Chesapeakle Bay. This county and Northlua tor. oounty, on the south constitute what is called the Eastern shore of Virginia.

Page  177 PAT 1I.] VIRGINIA. 177 21.'The vengeful passions of Berkeley, however, were t6e7e'. not allayed by the submission of his enemies. Fines and -- confiscations gratified his avarice, and executions were con- Beruelty of tinued till twenty-two had been hanged, when the assembly intelfered, and prayed him to stop the work of death. The conduct of Berkeley was severely censured in England, and publicly by the king himself, who declared " the old fool has taken away more lives in that country than I for the murder of my father." 22. 2Historians have not done justice to the principles 2. Character and character of Bacon. He has been styled a rebel; and tyranny and has been described as ambitious and revengeful; but of the gnt. if his principles are to be gathered fromn the acts of the assembly of which he was the head, they were those of justice, freedom, and humanity. At the time of the rebellion, " no printing press was allowed in Virginia; to speak ill of Berkeley or his friends was punished by fine or whipping; to speak, or write, or publish any thing in favor of the rebels, or the rebellion, was made a high misdemeanor, and, if thrice repeated, was evidence of treason. It is not strange then that posterity was for more than a hundred years defrauded of the truth." 23. SThe grant of' Virginia to Arlington and Culpepper 3. A ropriehas already been mentioned. In 1677 the latter obtained tarYgovtern the appointment of governor for life, and thus Virginia be- establshea came a proprietary government, with the administration vested in one of the proprietors. In 1680 Culpepper 1680. arrived in the province, and assumed the duties of his office. 4The avaricious proprietor was more careful of 4.Czulpepper his own interests than of those of the colony, and under his admtn. administration Virginia was impoverished. 1In 1684 the s. Royal grant was recalled,-Culpepper was deprived of his office, grverrednt although he had been appointed for life, and Virginia again became a royal province. Arlington had previously surrendered his rights to Culpepper. 6The remaining por- B. Remainng tion of the history of Virginia, down to the period of the virginia. Prench and Indian war, is marked with few incidents of imnportance. c2n

Page  178 178 [Boo IR.X ANALYSIS. CHAPTER II. suo.ecr of M A S S A C H U S E T T S, OiAN). II. SECTION I. QfSection. MASSACHUSETTS, FROM I'11 EARLIEST IIISTORY, TO TIlE l7NF[2iO OF THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES IN 1643. Divsion of DIVISIONS.-I. Early History. —IL Plymouth Colony. —IH. iMa~:ss htrction I. chusettFs Bay Colony.-I V. Unrion of the New England Colonies.V. Early Laws and Cust oms. 1607. I. EARLY HISTORY.-1.'An account of the first attempt a. See. 136. of the Plymouth Company to form a settlement in North atterlnpted set Virginia has already been given.a Although vessels anPlement in nually visited the coast for the purpose of trade with the North Virginia, and Indians, yet little was known of the interior until 1614, pxploration of the country. when Captain John Smith, who had already obtained dis1614. tinction in Virginia, sailed with two vessels to the territories of the Plymouth Company, for the purposes of trade and discovery.?. Expedition 2.'The expedition was a private adventure of Smith Smaith. and four merchants of London, and was highly successful. After Smith had concluded his traffic with the natives, he travelled into the interior of the country, accompanied by only eight men, and, with great care, explored the coast b.Note, p. 16s from the PenobscotL to Cape Cod.'H-Ie prepared a map c. Note,p 131. of the coast, and called the country NEw ENGLAND,-a a. The map name which Prince Charles confirmed, and which has ever which he prepared. since been retained. 4. Thomast 3. After Smith's departure, Thomas Hunt, the master of the second ship, enticed a number of natives on board his vessel and carried them to Spain, where they were sokl d 1615. into slavery.'In the following" year, Smith, in the emst Snith'e ploy of some members of the Plymouth Company, sailed to establish a with the design of establishing a colony in New England. cotony. In his first effort a violent tempest forced him to return, e. Jaly 4. GAgain renewinge the enterprise, his crew became mutin6. His secon d on he was at last intercepted by French pirates, who * MASSACHUSETTS, one of the Neow England States, is about 120 miles long from east to west, 90 miles broad in the eastern part, and 50 in the western, and contains an area of about 7,500 square miles. Several ranges of muountains, extendtling from Vermont and New 11ampshire, pass through the western part of this state into Connecticut. last of these mountains the country is hilly, except in the southern and south-eastern portions, where it is low, and generally sandy. The northern and western portions of the state have generally a strong soil, welt adapted to graszing The valleys of the Connecticut and Housatonic are highly fertile. The marble quarries of West Stockbridge, in the western part of the state, and the granite quarries of Quincy, nine miles S. E. from Boston, are celebrated.

Page  179 PtanT 11.] MASSACHUSETTS. 179 seized his ship and conveyed him to France. He after- 1oli. wards escaped alone, in an open boat, from the harbor of - Rochelle,* and returned to England. 4.'By the representations of Smith, the attention of the I. Plan, of Plymouth Company was again excited; they began to tnP~,aouyt form vast plans of colonization, appointed Smith admiral of the country for life, and, at length, after several years 1.620. of entreaty, obtaineda a new charter for settling the coun- a. Nov. 13. try.'The original Plymouth Company was superseded 2. Councl of Piymoutho by the Council of Plyinouth, to which was conveyed, in and atteir absolute property, all the territory lying between the 40th charter. and 48th degreesb of' north latitude, extending fiom the b. see maps. Atlantic to the Pacific, and comprising more than a million of square miles. 5.'This charter was the basis of all the grants that 3. TaO charwere subsequently made of the country of New England. trofiebai't:The exclusive privileges granted by it occasioned dis- 4. Its exsclu uive;rivi: putes among the proprietors, and prevented emigration letgs under their auspices, while, in the mean time, a permanent colony was established without the aid or knowledge of the company or the king. II. PLY~IOUTH COLONY.-1.'A band of Puritans, dis- A. rB Pzuritaa~ senters from the established Church of England, persecuted for their religious opinions, and seeking in a fobreign land that liberty of conscience which their own country denied them, became the first colonists of New England.'As early as 1608 they emigrated to Holland, and settled, G-6. hr:~C: r "''..^J "'' ""' ""J' —— il, dence at first, at Amsterdam,t and afterwards at Leyden,t where, Anmsterdam during eleven years, they continued to live in great harmony. under the charge of their excellent pastor, John Hobinson. 2. 7At the end of that period, the sabme religious zeal 7. cacuses that had made them exiles, combined with the desire of dceadt, rimprovinfr their temporal welfare, induced them to under- reoveafn/ro2 take a more distant migration.'But, notwithstanding 8/ Thctr they had been driven from their early homes by the rod attachnenttnd. of persecution, they loved England still, and desired to retain their mother tongue, and to live under the government of their native land. 3.'These, with other reasons, induced them to seek an 9. eg asylum in the wilds of America. They obtained a grant gre.catl' of land from the London or Virginia Company, but in ob:ined. f* Rochelle is a strongly fortified, town at the bottonm of a small gulf on the coast of the AMan tie (or Bay of Biscay) in the west of France. T Arzsterdani is on a branch of the Zuyder Zoe. a gulf or bay in the west of IIolland. Ian the 17th century it was one of the first colmmercial cities of tEurope. The soil being marshy, the city is built mostly on oaken piles driven into the ground. Numerous canals run through the city in every direction t Leyden, long farnous for its University, is on one of the branches or mouths of the Rhine T miles from the sea, and 25 miles S. W. from Amsterdam.

Page  180 180 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BooK 11I ANALYSIS. vain sought the favor of the king.'Destitute of sufficient i. Partner- capital, they succeeded in forming a partnership with some shtpformed. men of' business in London, and, although the terms were exceedingly severe to the poor emigrants, yet, as they did not interfere with civil or religious rights, the Pilgrims 2. Prepare- were contented.'Two vessels having been obtained, tins'o the Mayflower and the Speedwell, the one hired, the other purchased, as many as could be accommodated prepared to take their final departure. Mr. Robinson and the main body were to.remain at Leyden until a settlement should be formed. a. Aug. 1. 4.'Assembleda at Delft Haven,* and kneeling in pray3. Scene at er on the sea-shore, their pious pastor commended them to the protection of Heaven, and gave them his parting bless4. Events ing. 4A prosperous wind soon bore the Speedwell to thatoccurred Southampton,t where it was joined by the Mayflower, fimend tithe with the rest of the company from London. After several,e o0thfe delays, and finally being obliged to abandon the Speedwell from Eng- as unseaworthy, part of the emigrants were dismissed, and the remainder were taken on board the Mayflower, which, with one hundred and one passengers, sailed from Plymoutht on the 16th of haeinr tho-e 5.'After a long and dangerous voyage, on the 19th of destination. November they descried the bleak and dreary shores of Cape Cod, still far from the Hudson,~ which they had selected as the place of their habitation. But the wintry storms had already commenced, and the dangers of navigation on that unknown coast, at that inclement season, induced them to seek a nearer resting-place. 7. Proceed- 6.'On the 21st they anchored in Cape Cod harbor, but, irgs before landing. before landing, they formed themselves into a body politic, by a solemn contract, and chose John Carver their gover7. Their lead- nor for the first year.'Their other leading men, distinguished in the subsequent history of the colony, were. Parties.Bradford, Brewster, Standish, and Winslow.'Exploring parties were sent on shore to make discoveries, and select a 9. Hardships place for settlement.'Great hardships were endured from endured. the cold and storm, and from wandering through the deep snow which covered the country. * Delft HIaven, the port or haven of Delft, is on the north side of the river Maese, in Holland, 18 miles south from Leyden, and about fifteen miles from the sea. t Southamnptoe, a town of England, is situated on an arm of the sea, or of the English Channel. It is 75 miles S. W. from London. I Plymousth, a large town of Devonshire, in England, about 20( miles S. W. from London, and 130 from Southampton, stands between the rivers Plym and Tamar, near their entrance into the English Channel. Plymouth is an important naval station: and has one of the best harbors in England. ~ The Hudson River, in New York, one of the best for navigation in America, rises in the mountainous regions west of Lake Champlain. and after an irregular course to Sandy Iill its direction is nearly south, 200 miles by the river, to New York Bay, which lies between Long Island and New Jersey. The tide flows to Troy, 151 miles (by the rive' I from New York.

Page  181 PART II.] MASSACHUSETTS. 181 7.'A few Indians were seen, who fled upon the dis- 1620. charge of the muskets of the English; a few graves were -- discovered, and, from heaps of sand, a number of baskets of corn were obtained, which furnished seed for a future harvest, and probably saved the infant colony from famine.'On the 21st of December the harbor of Plymouth* was 2. Landingoj sounded, and being found fit for shipping, a party landed, pth Plgouims examined the soil, and finding good water, selected this as the place for a settlement. 3The 21st of DecemDer, cor- Anniverresponding with the 1lth of December Old Style, is the event. day which should be celebrated in commemoration of this important event, as the anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers. 8. 41n a few days the Mayflower was safely moored in 4. Commence the harbor. The buildings of the settlers progressed settlement, and s'u.bslowly, through many difficulties and discouragemnents, ings dil for many of the men were sick with colds and consump- winte tions, and want and exposure rapidly reduced the numbers of the colony. The governor lost a son at the first landing; early in the spring his own health sunk under a 1621. sudden attack, and his wife soon followed him in death. The sick were often destitute of proper care and attention; the living were scarcely able to bury the dead; and, at one time, there were only seven men capable of rendering any assistance. Befbre April forty-six had died.'Yet, with the scanty remnant, hope and virtue sur- 5. How the,, aflictions rived;-they repined not in all their sufferings, and their were borne. cheerful confidence in the mercies of Providence remained unshaken. 9. 6Although a few Indians had been seen at a distance 6. Account e novering around the settlement, yet during several months Indianesuit none approached sufficiently near to hold any intercourse colony re with the English. At length the latter were surprised by cived the appearance, among them, of an Indian named Samoset, who boldly entereda their settlement, exclaiming in " March26. broken English, Welcome Englishmen! Welcome Englishmen! He had learned a little English among the fishermen who had visited the coast of Maine, and gave the colony much useful information. 7. Informa 10. 7He cordially bade the strangers welcome to the tiongivenby soil, which, he informed them, had a few years PLYMOUTH ANDV C. before been deprived of its occupants by a dreadful I e pestilence that had desolated the whole eastern seaPlymourt, thus named from Plymouth in England, is now a vil- lage of about 5000 inhabitants. It is pleasantly situated on Plymouth ha'bor, 38 miles S. E. from Boston. The harbor is large, but shallow, and is formed by a sand beach extending three miles N. W. from the mouth of E(l River. In 1774 a part of the Rock on which the Pilgrims Landed was;onveyed from the shore to a square in the centre of the *:.. 71"Ahtg~r

Page  182 8 z2 COLONIAL HiS ulRY. jBooKa; t ANALrYSiS. board of New England.'Samoset soon after visited the. sq7ano colony, accompanied by Squanto, a native who had been carried away by Hunt, in 1614, and sold into slavery, but who had subsequently been liberated and restored to his country. 2. Mases0oit. 2'By the influence of these fiiendly Indians, Mas sasoit, the great Sachern of' the Wampanoags, the principal of the neighboring tribes, was induced to visit the cola. April 1. ony, where he was received- with much formality and paa.Treatyw0ith fade. "A treaty of friendship was soon concluded,, the Measas t parties promising to deliver up offenders, and to abstain from mutual injuries; the colony to receive assistance if attacked, and Massasoit, if attacked unjustly. This treaty was kept inviolate during a period of fifty years, until the breaking out of King Philip's War. 4. Other 12. 40Other treaties, of a similar character, soon after t followed. A powerful chieftain within the dominions of 1622. Massasoit, who at first regarded the English as intruders, and threatened them with hostilities, was finally compel6 Canonicwu. led to sue for peace. 5Canonicus, the chief of the Narragansetts, sent to Plymouth a bundle of arrows wrapped in a rattlesnake's skin, as a, token of his hostility. The governor, Bradford, filled the skin with powder and shot and returned it; but the chieftain's courage failed at the sight of this unequivocal symbol, which was rejected by cvery community to which it was carried, until at last it was returned to Plymouth, with all its contents. The Narragansetts were awed into submission... lWeston's 13. I6n 1622, Thomas WVeston, a merchant of London, sent out a colony of sixty adventurers, who spent most of the summer at Plymouth, enjoying the hospitality of the inhabitants, but afterwards removed to Weymouth,* where 7. character they began a plantation.'Being soon reduced to necesand conduct of the settler. sity by indolence and disorder, and filaving provoked the Indians to hostilities by their injustice, the latter formed a plan for the destruction of the settlement. 1623. 14. 8But the grateful Massasoit having revealed the desaoetrudfon. sign to the Plymouth colony, the governor sent Captain Standish with eight men to aid the inhabitants of Weymouth. With his small party Standish intercepted and killed the hostile chief, and several of his men, and the I Fate 6,the. conspiracy scwas defeated.'The Weymouth Plantation lantaton. was soon after nearly deserted, most of the settlers returning to England. It. cctrductacf 15. 10The London adventurers, who had furnished the advenwuels. Plymouth settlers with capital, soon beconming discouraged * W'e1omrnfutA, called by the Indians W7essagussett, is a small village between two branehes of the outer harbor of Boston, 12 miles S. E. from the city. (See Map, p. 184.)

Page  183 PART II.] MASSACHUSETTS. 183 oy the Emall returns from their investments, not only de- 16124. serted the interests of the colony, but did much to injure —.. its prosperity. They refused to furnish Robinson and his friends a passage to America, attempted to enforce on the colonists a clergyman more friendly to the established church, and even despatched a ship to injure their com-n merce by rivalry.'At last, the emigrants succeeded in 1626. purchasing- the rights of the London merchants; they a. Nov. made an equitable division of their property, which was meit. nagd before in common stock; and although the progress of with thens. population was slow, yet, after the first winter, no fears were entertained of the permanence of the colony. III. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY.-1.'In 1624, Mr. 2. Arttempted setlement Of White, a Puritan minister of Dorchester,* in England, Cape Ann. having induced a number of persons to unite with him in the design of planting another colony in New England, a small company was sent over, who began a settlement at Cape Ann.t This settlement, however, was abandoned after an existence of less than two vears. 2.'In 1628, a patent was obtainedb from the council of 162&. Plymouth, and a second company was sent over, under b. March 29 Settlem esnt the charge of John Endicott, which settlede at Salem,$ to of Salenz. which place a few of the settlers of Cape Ann had pre- c. Sept. viously removed. 4ln the following year the proprietors 1629. receivedd a charter from the king, and were incorporated d. Events by the name of the " Governor and Company of the Mas- that occurred sachusetts Bay in New England." About 200 additional in fllea0 settlers camee over, a part of whom removed to and e. July. founded Charlestown.~ 3.'During the year 1630, the Massachusetts Bay colony 1630. received a large accession to its numbers, by the arrival f 5. AcfSssi, of about three hundred families, mostly pious and intelli- collony in gent Puritans, under the charge of the excellent John f. July. Winthrop.'At the same time the whole governument of 6. Other the colony was removed to New England, and WVinthrop occurretd at was chosen governor. time. 4.'The new emigrants located themselves beyond the 7. Location oJ limits of Salem, and settled at Dorchester,lI Roxbury,~7 enigiltants.' Dorchester, in England, is situated on the small river Froom, 20 miles from its entrance into the English Channel, six miles N. from WYeymouth, and 120 S. W. from London. t Cape Ann, the northern cape of Massachusetts Bay, is I0 miles N.E. from Boston. The cape and peninsula are now included in the town of Gloucester. Gloucester, the principal village, called also the Harbor, is finely located on the south side of the peninsula. $ Satlesm, called by the Indians NVa-um-keag, is 14 miles N.E. from Boston. It is built on a Sandy peninsula, formed by two inlets of the sea, called North and South Rivers. The harbor, which is in South River, is good for vessels drawing not more than 12 or 14 feet of water. (See Map, next page.) ~ See Note on page 187. MIap, next page, and also on p. 349. II That part of Dorchester which was first settled, is Dorchester Neck, about four miles S lI. from Boston. (See Map, p. 349.) IT Roxbuery village is two miles southf from Boston. Its principal street may be considered Rs the continuation of Washington Street, Boston, extending over Boston Neck. A great parx of the town is rocky land: hence the name, Rock's-bury. (See Map, next page.)

Page  184 184 COLONIAL HISTORY. IBooN A ANALIYSIS. Cambridge,* and Watertown.t'The accidental advans etttlenzet tage of a spring of good water induced a few families, and of Boston with them the governor, to settle on the peninsula o, Shawrout; and Bostont thenceforth became the metropolis of' New England. 2. sefrinrtss 5. 2Many of the settlers were from illustrious and noble,of he settlers and retetrn,of families, and having been accustomed to a life of ease and sssne to REngeoland enjoyment, their sufferings from exposure and the failure of provisions were great, and, before December, two hun. dred had died. A few only, disheartened by the scenes 3. Character of woe, returned to Encland. 3Those who remained were of those who remainwed. sustained in their afflictions by religious faith and Christion fortitude;-not a trace of repining appears in their records, and sickness never prevented their assembling at stated times for religious worship. 1631. 6. 41n 1631 the general court, or council of the people, 4, Regulation ordained' that the governor, deputy-governor, and assist1631. ants, should be chosen by the freemen alone; but at the a. May28. same time it was declared that those only should be admitted to the full rights of citizenship, who were members S. Intolerlane of some church within the limits of the colony.~'This law has been severely censured for its intolerance, by those who have lived in more enlightened times, but it was in strict accordance with the policy and the spirit of the age, and with the professions of the Puritans them. 1634. selves, and originated in the purest motives. made Chnge 7. 6In 1634 the pure democratic form of government, gover632ent which had hitherto prevailed, was changedb to a represenb. May. tative democracy, by which the powers of legislation were 7Rilliams.e intrusted to deputies chosen by the people. 7In the same _......}f:so Cnambritce, formerly called Newtown, is situ Xo,-~ is ated on the north side'of Charles River, three miles a olo01o UT N.eer. from Boston. The courthouse and jail are,> \h nlcz: at East Cambridge, formerly called Lec/hmere's aexins one Sos Point, within a mile of Boston, and connected with -~ ~, 8'/:l; Em,9 Eit and Charlestown by bridges. Harvard,ollege, riec i' -'rIsi..O/ d the first established in the United States, is at.5f[ IIeCambridge. (Map.) (See also Map, p. 349.) ~oq.'Cl1,.f1S.Woa/5 Vn tesrtow7n village is on the north side of N 4j1< e t1 A am"Charles River, west of Cambridge, and seven miles from Boston. (Map.) g2))&)1 IBostoh, the largest town in New England, -.;4 ) -so,0' ~ and the capital of Massachusetts, is situated e I on a peninsula of an uneven surface, two miles i o -.iX <long and about one mile wide, connected with "~O,.: 3 Y, S, the mainland on the south, by a narrow neck Q "'i ~'/~ ~~~~ ~ about forty rods across. Several bridges also nox, -ok 4, - a connect it with the mainland on the north, west,.. Q.iiys..o.... and south. The harbor, on the east of the city, ~. viCIeN'xm'"~ITd —~ 1' V': 1 J is very extensive, and is one of the best in the or United States. Solsth Bostosn, formerly a part of 330Sd;9TON: Y } Dorchester, and oEast Boston, form-rly Noddies Island, are now includec within the limits of the city. (Also see Map on p. 849.) ~ NoTE.-But when New Hampshire united with Massachusetts in 1641, not as a province, but on equal terms, neither the fieemen nor the deputies of New Hampshire were required t~ tes church me mbers.

Page  185 PART 1.1 [l lASSACiIUSETTS. 185 year the peculiar tenets of Roger Williams, minister of 1,63g, Salem, began to occasion much excitement in the colony. -- A puritan, and a fugitive from English persecution, Roger'Williams had sought, in New England, an asylum among whose of his own creed; but finding there, in matters of religion, the same kind of intolerance that prevailed in England, he earnestly raised his voice against it. 8.'He maintained that it is the duty of the civil magis- 1. Hs/ios trate to give equal protection to all religious sects, and p that he has no right to restrain or direct the consciences of men, or, in any way, interfere with their modes of worship, or the principles of their religious faith.'But with 2 Other these doctrines of religious tolerance he united others that vancel b!/ were deemed subversive of good government, and opposed to the fundamental principles of civil society. Such were those which declared it wrong to enforce an oath of allegiance to the sovereign, or of obedience to the magistrate, and which asserted that the ring had no right to usurp the power of disposing of the territory of the Indians, and hence that the colonial charter itself was invalid. 9.'Such doctrines, and particularly those which related 3. Bai.ent to religious toleration, were received with alarm, and Roger Williams. Williams, after having been in vain remonstrated with by the ruling elders of' the churches, was summoned before the general court, and finally, banisheda from the colony. a. Autumn el He soon after becam,; the founder of Rhode Island.b b. See p. 215. 10. 4During the same year, 1635, three thousand new 4. Additional settlers came over, among whom were Hugh Peters and 1635; Pete'a Sir Henry Vane, two individuals who afterwards acted and Vane. conspicuous parts in the history of England. Sir Henry Vane, then at the age of twenty-five, gained the affections of the people by his integrity, humility, and zeal in religion; and, in the following year, was chosen governor. 11. Already the increasing numbers of the colonists 5.'n"~igr.a began to suggest the formation of new settlements still Connecticut. farther westward. The clustering villages around the Bay of Massachusetts had become too numerous and too populous for men who had few attachments to place, and who could choose their abodes from the vast world of wilderness that lay unoccupied before them; and, only seven years from the planting of Salem, we find a little colony branching' off from the parent stock, and e. Oct. 55 wending its way through the forests, nearly a hundred miles, to the banks of the Connecticut.* * Connecticut River, the largest river in New England, has its source in the highlands on the northern bordler of New Hampshire. Its general course is S. by W., and after forming the boundary between Vermont and New Hampshire, and passing through Massachusetts and Connettieut, it enters Long Island Sound, 100 miles N.E. from New York. It is not navigable for the largest vessels. Hartford, fifty miles from its mouth, is at the head of sloop nas;igatio Ad.

Page  186 186 COLONIAL HISTORY.'Boor, I, ANALYSIS. 1 2.'Severe were the sufferings of the emigrants during'1636.- the first winter. Some of them returned, through the Suri,'ng~s snow, in a famishing state; and those who remained suboftgreni- sisted on acorns, malt, and grains; but, during the sum. mer following, new emigrants came in larger companies, a. Remarcs and several settlements were firmly established.'The upon this 7nterprise. display of Puritan fortitude, enterprise, and resolution, exhibited in the planting of the Connecticut colony, are diis tilnguishing traits of New England character. From that day to the present the hardy sons of New England have been foremost among the bold pioneers of western emigration. 3. Other reli- 13.'Soon after the banishment of Roger Williams, giouw desen-. oseoz other religious dissensions arose, which again disturbed ooniCtar te the quiet of the colony. It was customary for the mem. b~an/ih,,t bers of each congregation to assemble in weekly meetings, and there debate the doctrines they had heard the previous Sunday, for the purpose of extending their sacred influence through the week. As women were debarred the privilege of taking part in these debates, a Mrs. Hutchinson, a woman of eloquence and ability, established meetings for those of her own sex, in which her zeal and talent soon procured her a numerous and admiring audience. 4. Course 14. 4This woman, from being aa expounder of the doeKaken by Mrs. Hutchiynson. trines of others, soon began to teach new ones; she assumed the right of deciding upon the religious faith of the clergy and the people, and, finally, of censuring and con. demning those who rejected, or professed themselves un.,. Byrohom able to understand her peculiai tenets.'She was supported suhepra. by Sir Henry Vane the governor, by several of the magristrates, and men of learning, and by a majority of the people 1637. of Boston. 4She was opposed by most of the clergy, and by 6. By whom the sedate and more judicious men of the colony.'At ropposed. length, in a general synoda of the churches, the new aent. opinions were condemned as erroneous and heretical, and a. Aug. the general court soon after issued a decree of banishment against Mrs. Hutchinson and several of her followers. s. Pequod 15.'During the same year occurred an Indian ward in See pr. 2f9 Connecticut, with the Pequods, the most warlike of the S. TheNarra- New England tribes.'The Narraganselts of Rhode -anetts-. Island, hereditary enemies of the Pequods, were invited tc unite with them in exterminating the invaders of their country; but, through the influence of Roger Williams, they rejected the proposals, and, lured by the hope of gratifying their revenge for former injuries, they deter mined to assist the English in the prosecution of the war Ao. Resultt of "~The result- of the brief contest was the total destruction y tcontest. of the Pequod nation. The impression made upon the e. See p. 211.

Page  187 PARt? I.] MASSACHUSETTS. 187 other' tribes secured a long tranquillity to the English 1637. settlements. 16.'The persecutions which the Puritans in England nA ttznlapt suffered, during this period, induced large numbers of etmgwation.'hem to remove to New England. But the jealousy of he English monarch, and of the English bishop, was at ength aroused by the rapid growth of a Puritan colcny, in which sentiments adverse to the claims of the established church and the prerogatives of' royalty were ardently cherished; and repeated attempts were made to put a stop to farther emigration. As early as 1633, a proclamation to that effect was issued, but the vacillating policy of the king neglected to enforce it. 17.'In 1638 a fleet of eight ships, on board of which 1638. were some of the most eminent Puritan leaders and 2E Eventstleat patriots, was forbidden to sail, by order of the king's coun- 1638e cil; but the restraint was finally removed, and the ships proceeded on their intended voyage.'It has been asserted, 2 As*er.ions and generally believed, that the distinguished patriots John reatioen to Hampden and Oliver Cromwell were on board of this anad Cromfleet, but were detained by special order or the king. 41f 4 1wti the assertion be correct, this assumption of arbitrary power seaidoftzis by the king was a fatal error; for the exertions of Hampden and Cromwell, in opposing the encroachments of kingly authority, afterwards contributed greatly to the furtherance of those measures which deprived Charles I. of his crown, and finally brought him to the scaffold. 18.'The settlers of Massachusetts had early turned 5. Education their attention to the subject of education, wisely judging land; founding of Harthat learning and religion would be the best safeguards of vard College, the commonwealth. In 1636 the general court appropriated about a thousand dollars for the purpose of founding a public school or college, and, in the following year, directed that it should be established at Newtown. In 1638, John Harvard, a worthy minister, dying at Charlestown,* left to the institution upwards of three thousand dollars. In honor of this pious benefactor the general court gave to the school the name of Harvard College; and, in memory of the place where many of the settlers of New England had received their education, that part a. Note and of Newtown in which the college was located, received 1643. the name of Cambridge.' 6. Uniols of IV. UNION OF THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES.-i.'In the, N'eto,Eng: ~ Chatlestown is situated on a peninsula, north of and about half as large as that of Bostonl formed by Mystic River on the N., and an inlet from Charles River on the S. The channel between Charlestown and Boston is less than half a mile across, over which bridges have been thrown. The United States Navy Yard, located at Charlestown, covers about 60 acres of land, s's one of the best naval depots in the Union. (See Map, p. 184, and also Map, p. 349.;

Page  188 18 i3 COLONIAL HISTORY. iBeoo3 11 ANALYSIS. 1643 the colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Ply mouth, and New Haven, formed' themselves into one con federacy, by the name of THE UNITED COLONIES OF NEW a. MIay 9.* ENGLAND.'The reasons assigned for this union were,. The reasons the dispersed state of the colonies; the dangers appre. union. hended from the Dutch, the French, and the Indians; the commencement of civil contests in the parent country; and the difficulty of obtaining aid firom that quarter, in any 2. Why Rhode emergency. 2A few years later Rhode Island petitionedb Island coas not admitted. to be admitted into the confederacy, but was refused, beb. 1648. cause she was unwilling to consent to what was required of her, an incorporation with the Plymouth colony. 3. Terms of 2.'By the terms of the confederacy, which existed the confederacy. more than forty years, each colony was to retain its separate existence, but was to contribute its proportion of men and money for the common defence; which, with all matters relating to the common interest, was to be decided in an annual assembly composed of two commissioners from 4. Natuere of each colony. 4This transaction of the colonies was an ast/is tran. cootion. sumption of the powers of sovereignty, and doubtless con. tributed to the formation of that public sentiment which prepared the way for American Independence. 5. Early laws V. EARLY LAWS AND CUSTOMS.-1.'As the laws and and customs. customs of a people denote the prevailing sentiments and opinions, the peculiarities of early New England legislae. Afunda- tion should not be wholly overlooked. 6By a fundamental mtental lazo of Massao law of Massachusetts it was enacted that all strangers chSetts. professing the Christian religion, and fleeing to the country, from the tyranny of their persecutors, should be supported at the public charge till other provisions could be 7. How made for them. "Yet this toleration did not extend to inmited. Jesuits and popish priests, who were subjected to banishment; and, in case of their return, to death. 8. " War," 2. 8Defensive war only was considered justifiable; "blasp.hemy," blasphemy, idolatry, and witchcraft were punishable with 4.'c death; all gaming was prohibited; intemperance, and all "itmorali- immoralities, were severely punished; persons were for. "Aloney bidden to receive interest for money lent, and to wear exoaned." pensive apparel unsuitable to their estates; parents were "Instruction commanded to instruct and catechise their children and ef children."I servants; and, in all cases in which the laws were found "TheBible." defective, the Bible was made the ultimate tribunal of appeal.. Comparson 3.'Like the tribes of Israel, the colonists of New Eng. observed here. land had forsaken their native land after a long and severe * Nonr.-The Plymouth commissioners, for want of authority from theh general court, did not sign the articies until Sept. 17th

Page  189 PART 11.] MASSACHUSETTS. 189 bondage, and journeyed into the wilderness for the sake 1643. of religion.'They endeavored to cherish a resemblance of condition so honorable, and so fiaught with incitements el1,'hiats t hen to piety, by cultivating a conformity between their laws cherish, and and-customs, and those which had distinguished the people how. f God. tHence arose some of the peculiarities which 2. what pecu. nave been observed in their legislative code; and hence hencearose. arose also the practice of commencing their sabbatical observances on Saturday evening, and of counting every evening the commencement of the ensuing day. 4. "' The same predilection for Jewish customs begat, or 3. Name o. at least promoted, among them, the habit of bestowing sig- chtlren. nificant names on children; of whom, the first three that were'baptized in Boston church, received the names of Joy, Recompense, and Pity.' This custom prevailed to a great extent, and such names as Faith, Hope, Charity, Patience, &c., and others of a similar character, were long prevalent throughout New England. SECTION II. MASSACHUSETTS, FROMI THE UNION OF THE NEW ENGLAND Subject of COLONIES IN 1643, TO THE CLOSE OF KING WILLIAM'S WAR Section II. IN 1697. DIvisions.-I. Events from the " Union" to Klinfg Philip's War.- Divisions of II. King Philip's War.-IlI. Controversies and Royal Tyranny. — Section II IV. Massachusetts during King William's War. I. EVENTS FROM THE " UNION " TO KING PHILIP'S 4. Change in government WAR.-1. 4In 1644 an important change took place in gneo1644. the government of Massachusetts. When representatives were first chosen, they sat and voted in the same room with the governor's council; but it was now ordained that the governor and his council should sit apart; and thence commenced the separate existence of the democratic branch of the legislature, or house of representatives. 5During the same year the disputes which had long 5. iputecE, existed between the inhabitants of New England and the French settlers in Acadia were adjusted by treaty.a a. Oct. 18. 2.'During the civil warb which occurred in England,. Note, p. 173 6. Massachu. ile New England colonies were ardently attached to the setts al?.rint cause of the Parliament, but yet they had so far forgotten in England their own wrongs, as sincerely to lament the tragical fate of the king. 7After the abolition of royalty, a requisitiond C. 1651. was made upon Massachusetts for the return of her char- 7aboi2tir! ter, that a new one might be taken out under the au- ThY lti/. thorities awhich then held the reins of government. Probably thlrough the influence of Cromwell the requisi

Page  190 190 COLONIAL HISTORY. Llso0 I11 ANALYSIS. tion was not enforced. iVWhen the supreme authority t. Duringthe devolved upon Cromwell, as Protector of the CommonCotmmzo wealth of' England, the New England colonies found in him an ardent friend, and a protector of their liberties. 1652. 3.'In 1652 the province of Maine* was taken under 2. xEarytOlya the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. As early as 1626 a few feeble settlements were commenced along the coast of Maine, but hardly had they gained a permanent existence, before the whole territory, from the Piscataquat to the Penobscot, was granted away by the Plymouth Company, by a succession of conflicting patents, which were afterwards the occasion of lonfg-continued and bitter controversies. a. April 13. 4.'In 1639 Ferdinand Gorges, a member of the 3. Grres Plymouth Company, obtained' a royal charter, constituand haif goc;rnament. ting him Lord Proprietor of the country. The stately scheme of' government which he attempted to establish was poorly suited to the circumstances of the people; and they finally sought a refuge from anarchy, and the contentions of opposing claimants to their territory, by taking into their own hands the powers of government, and b. 1652. placingt0 themselves under the protection of a sister colony. 16.56. 5. 4In 1656 occurred the first arrival of Quakers in 4. First ar- Massachusetts, a sect which' had recently arisen in EngQuak'ers in land. The report of their peculiar sentiments and actions ilassachusetts. had preceded them, and they were sent back by the vesaainst. tto sels in which they came. 5The four united colonies then c. a657. concurred in a lawrv prohibiting the introduction of Quakers, but still they continued to arrive in increasing numbers, although the rigor of the law was increased against 1658. them. At length, in 1658, by the advice of the commissioners of the four colonies, the legislature of Massachusetts, after a long discussion, and by a majority of a single vote, denounced the punishment of death upon all Quakers returning from banishment.. Avowed 6.'The avowed object of the law was not to persecute laeof 1t6h8. the Quakers, but to exclude them; and it was thought 7.Its.eoct. that its severity would be effectual. ABut the fear of death had no influence over men who believed they were M iAINE, the northeastern of the United States, is supposed to contain an area of nearly 35,000 square miles. In t;l. north and northwest the country is mountainous, and has a poor soil. Throughout the interior it is generally hilly, and the land rises so rapidly from the seacoast, that the tide in the numerous rivers flows but a short distance inland. The best land in. the state is between the Penobscot and Kennebec rivers, where it is excellent. The coast is lined with islands, and indented with numerous bays and inlets, which furnish more good harbors than are bfoud in any other state in the Union. t The Piscataquca rises between Maine and New Hampshire, and throughout its whole course, of forty miles, constitutes the boundary between the two states. That part of the stream abovs. Berwick Falls is called Scalwons Falls River. Great Bay, with its tributaries, Lamprey, Exeter, Oyster River, and other streams, unites with it on the south, five miles abe te Portsmouth (See Map, p. 206.)

Page  191 PAcT 11.1 MASSACHUSETTS. 191 divinely commissioned to proclaim the sinfulness of a 1659. dying people; and four of those who had been banished, were executed according to the law,-rejoicing in their death, and refusing to accept a pardon, which was vainly urged upon them, on condition of their abandoning the colony forever. 7.'During the trial of the last who suffered, another, 1660. who had been banished, entered the court, and reproached t,wlatq aof the magistrates for shedding innocent blood.'The pris- &Suffrec ons were soon filled with new vic;tims, who eagerly 2Ziat of the crowded forward to the ranks of martyrdom; but, as a -roceedinsr natural result of the severity of the law, public sympathy was turned in favor of the accused, and the law was repealed.& The other laws were relaxed, as the Quakers al661, gradually became less ardent in the promulgation of their sentiments, and more moderate in their opposition to the usages of the people. 8.'Tidings of the restoration of monarchy in England 3. Judge of aIIVI~UVII ~I~ u —i Charles I. were brought by the arrival,b at Boston, of two of the b. Aug. G judges who had condemned Charles I. to death, and who 1660. now fled from the vengeance of his son. These judges, whose names were Edward Whalley and William Goffe, were kindly received by the people; and when orders were sent, and messengers arrived' for their arrest, they c1661. were concealed from the officers of the law, and were enabled to end their days in New England. 9. 4The restrictions from which the New 4. Restrict'iorw qtpon England colonies were exempt during the time of the Kwao EngCommonwealth, were renewed after the restoration. The merce. harbors of the colonies were closed against all but English vessels; such articles of American produce as were in demand in England were forbidden to be shipped to foreign markets; even the liberty of free trade among the colonies themselves was taken away, and they were finally forbidden to manufacture, for their own use, or for foreign markets, those articles which would come in competition with English manufactures. 5These restrictions 5. Not stt.el were the subject of frequent complaints, and could seldom "forced. be strictly enforced; but England would never repeal them, and they became a prominent link in the chain of causes which led to the revolution. 10. qn 1664 a royal fleet, destined for the reduction of 1664. dV~ 411 -he Hudson, arr ~us vedd d. Aug. 2.:he Dutch colonies on the Hudson, arrivedd at Boston, Arrival < bringing commissioners who were instructed to hear and royal coindetermine all complaints that might exist in New England, ew1 -~ and take such measures as they might deem expedient.Englandfor settling the peace and security of the country on a 7. Hto thia solid foundation. "Most of the New England colonies, rme",v'T

Page  192 192 BCOLONIAL HISTORY. [Book II. ANALYSIS. ever jealous of their liberties, viewed this measure with alarm, and considered it a violation of their charters.,. i fiMte 11.'In Maine and New Hampshire the commissioners and N H. In eCnt,H occasioned much disturbance; in Connecticut they were,and o t. received with coldness; in Plymouth with secret opposition; but, in Rhode Island, with every mark of deference o. Conduct of and attention.'Massachusetts alone, although professing etats. the most sincere loyalty to the king, asserted with boldness her chartered rights, and declining to acknowledge the authority of' the commissioners, protested against its 3. The resuel. exercise within her limits.'In general, but little attention was paid to the acts of the commissioners, and they were at length recalled. After their departure, New' England enjoyed a season of prosperity and tranquillity, unltil the breaking out of King Philip's war, in 1675. 4. Treaty II. KING PHILIP's W7AR. —. 4The treaty of friendship t6athlMIaoSa- which the Plymouth colony madeo with Massasoit, the a. See p. 182. great sachem of the Wampanoags, was kept unbroken b. 1662. during his lifetime. 5After his death,b his two sons, sonse of Alexander and Philip, were regarded with much jealousy Maawoott. by the English, and were suspected of plotting against c. 1662. them. The elder brother, Alexander, soon dying,e Philip succeeded him. 6. What hc 2. 6It is said by the early New England historians, Philp by t2f that this chief, jealous of the growing power of the whites, Englandl and perceiving, in it, the eventual destruction of his own htotortans. race, during several years secretly carried on his designs of uniting all the neighboring tribes in a warlike confede7. By later racy against the English. 1By later, and more impartial writers, it is asserted that Philip received the news of the death of the first Englishmen who were killed, with so much sorrow as to cause him to weep; and that he was forced into the war by the ardor of his young men, against his own judgment and that of his chief counsellors. 8. conmmence- 3. 8A friendly Indian missionary, who had detected mPits wan r. the supposed plot, and revealed it to the Plymouth people, d. i674. was, soon after, found murdered." Three Indians were arrested, tried, and convicted of the murder,-one of whom, at the execution, confessed they had been instigated by Philip to commit the deed. Philip, now encouraged by the general voice of his tribe, and seeing no possibility of avoiding the war, sent his women and children to the 1675. Narragansetts for protection, and, early in July, 1675, e. July 4. made an attacke upon Swanzey,* and killed several people. ~ Suwarrey is a small village of l3assachusetts, on a northern branch of MIount Hope Bay, mart of Narragansett.Bay.) It is twelve miles S.I1'. from Providence, and about thirty f-ra,'fV. from Plymouthl. (See Mcap, p. 215.)

Page  193 PAlT 11.1 MASSACHUSET'TS. 193 4. lThe country was immediately alarmed, anct the _67,. troops of Plymouth, with several corlpanies from Boston, marched in pursuit of tile enemy. A few Indians were of lhe enemzy. killed, the troops penetrated to Mount Hope,* the resi- July. dence of Philip, but he and his warriors fled at their apDroach. 2It being kno1wn that the Narragansetts favored 2. The,'IseVtaShe cause of Philip, and it being feared that they would join him in the war, the forces proceeded into the Narragansett country, where they concluded a treatya of peace a. July 25 with that tribe. 5. 3During the same month the forces of Philip were b. July 28. attackedb in a swamp at Pocasset, now Tiverton,-t but the 3. TEvnts, whites, after losing sixteen of their number, were obliged andligt of to withdraw. They then attempted to guard the avenues leading from the swamp, in the hope of reducing the Indians by starvation; but, after a siege of thirteen days, the enemy contrived to escape in the night across an arm of the bay, and most of them, with Philip, fled westward to the Connecticut River, wher.e they had previously induced the Nipmucks,4 a tribe in the interior of Miassachusetts, to join them. 6. 4The English, in the hope of reclaiming the Nip- 4.EventstZlat mucks, had sent Captains Wheeler and Hlutchinson, with Brookefield. a party of twenty men, into their country, to treat with them. The Indians had agreed to meet them near Brookfield;~ but, lurking in ambush, they fell upon them as they approached, and killed most of the party.5 c. Aug. 12. 7. 5The remainder fled to Brookfield, and alarmed the s siege at inhabitants, who hastily fortified a house for their protection. Here they were besieged during two days, and every expedient which savage ingenuity could devise was adopted for their destruction. At one time the savages had succeeded in setting the building on fire, when the rain suddenly descended and extinguished the kindling flames. On the arrival of a party to the relief of the d. Sept. 5. garrison the Indians abandoned the place. 6. Events 7. "A few days later, 180 men attackedd the Indians thatoccurrea ounset tHope, or Pokanoket, is a hill of a conical form, nearly 300 feet high, in the present town of Bristol, Rhode Island, and on the west shore of Mount Hope Bay. The hill is two miles N.E. from Bristol Court-house. The view from its summit is. highly beautiful. (See 3lap, p. 215.) T1iverton is in the State of Rhode Island, south from Mount Hope Bay, and having on the west the East Passage of Narragansett Bay. A stone bridge 1000 feet long connects the village, on the south, with the island of Rhode Island. The village is thirteen miles N.E. from New port, and sixteen in a direct line S.E. from Providence. The Suvawsls on Pocasset Neclk is seven miles long. (See Map, p. 215.) $ The 1Nis7?2LUCcks occupied the country in the central and southern parts of Worcester county. ~ B'soofildt is in Worcester count-.:,assachusetts, sixty miles TW. fromnt Bostol, and twentyfive E. from Connecticut rliver. Thiis town was long a solitary settlement, being about half way between the old towns on Connecticut River, and those on the east towards the Atlantic coast. The place of asnvlsctate wus two or three miles west from the village, at a narrow pasrage between a, steep hill and a thick swamp, at the head of W-ie.kaboag Pond.

Page  194 l9o COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL ANI.YSIS. in the southern part of the town of Deerfield,* killing...... — twenty-six of the enemy, and losing ten of their own numbhes. On tihe eleventh of Seotem-.ber Deerfield was burned 5. AtHadley. by the Indians.'On the same day Hladiyt was alarmed in time of public worship, and the people thrown into the utmost confusion. Suddenly there appeared a man of venerable aspect In the midst of the aifrighted inhabitants, who put himself at their head, led them to the onset, and, after the dispersion of the enemy, instantly disappeared. The deliverer of Hadley, then imagined to be an angel, a."ep. 9I.- was General Goffe,a one of the judges of Charles I., who wvas at that time concealed in the town. 2. At Boody 9.'On the 28th of the same month, as Captain Lathrop and eighty young men, with several teams, were transporting a quantity of grain from Deerfield to Hadley, nearly a thousand Indians suddenly surrounded them at a place since called Bloody Brook,4 and killed nearly their whole number. The noise of the firing being heard at Deerfield, Captain Mosely, with seventy men, hastened to the scene of action. After a contest of several hours he found himself' obliged to retreat, when a reinforcement of one hundred English and sixty fiiendly Mohegan Indians, came to his assistance, and the enemy were at length repulsed with a heavy loss. S. At Spring- 10.'The Springfield~ Indians, who had, until this period, remained friendly, now united with the, enemy, with whom they formed a plot for the' destruction of the town. The people, how- ever, escaped to their garrisons, although - b.oct. i. nearly all their dwellings were burned. b i. a L.lttHat.field. 4With seven or eight hundred of his men,: ct..- Philip next made an attack' upon Hatfield,fl the head-quarters of the whites in that re- ti gion, but he met with a brave resistance and - was compelled to retreat. * The town of Deerfield is in Franklin county, Massachusetts, on the west i. bank of Connecticut liver. Deerfield River runs through the town, and at its N.E. extremity enters the Connecticut. The village is pleasantly situated on a plain, bordeimng on Deerfield River, separated from the Connecticut by o a range of hills. (See Map.) t Hadley is on the east side of Connecticut River, three miles N.E. from - Northampton, with which it is connected by a bridge 1080 feet long. (See ~ Map.) $ Bloody Brook is a small stream in the southern part of the town of /' —. Deerfield. The place where Lathrop was surprised is now the small village i / of l'tcddy Brook, four or five miles from the village of Deerfield. (See Map )' Springfield is in the southern part of MIassachusetts, on the east side of. t the Connecticut River, twenty-four miles N. from Ilartford, and ninety S.IW. "'X from Boston. The main street extends along the river two miles. Here is l the most extensive public armory in the U. States. The Chickapee River,:Of passing through the town, enters the Connecticut at Cabotsville, four miles 4Z n north from Springfield. (See Map.) 4 snq' H aetfledcl is on the west side of the Connecticut, four or f ve miles N. - i.erlo", fmn Ncrthraptor. (See Map.)

Page  195 PART II.] MASSACHUSETTS. 195 11.'Having accomplished all that could be done on the 1675. western frontier of Massachusetts, Philip returned to tile -m - Narragansetts, most of whom he induced to unite with. ment movef him, in violation of their recent treaty with the English. Paizlip.'An army of 1500 men fiomn Massachusetts, Plymouth, tr Eorts Qf and Connecticut, with a number of friendly Indians, was ther fore sent into the Narragansett country, to crush the power of Philip ill that quarter. 12. 3In the centre of an immense swamp,* in the 3. Account of the Nard'asouthern part of Rhode Island, Philip had strongly forti- gansettJbrfled himself, by encompassing an island of several acres tress. with high palisades, and a hedge of fallen trees; and here 3000 Indians, well supplied with provisions, had collected, with the intention of passing the winter. 4Befobre this 4. Ofthe fortress the New England forces arriveda on a cold stormy attnglish. day in the month of December. Between the fort and the a Dec. 29. mainland was a body of water, over which a tree had been felled, and upon this, as many of the English as could pass rushed with ardor; but they were quickly swept off by the fire of Philip's men. Others supplied the places of the slain, but again they were swept from the fatal avenue, and a partial, but momentary recoil took place. 13.'Meanwhile a part of the army, wading through 5. Destruc the swamp, found a place destitute of palisades, and al- Narragtnthough _many were killed at the entrance, the rest forced 8etts. their way through, and, after a desperate conflict, achieved a complete victory. Five hundred wigwams were now set on fire, although contrary to the advice of the officers; and hundreds of women and children,-the aged, the wounded, and the infirm, perished in the conflagration. A thousand Indian warriors were killed, or mortally & EXPLANATION OF THE MAP.-The Swamp, NARRAGANSETT FORT AND SWAMP. mentioned above, is a short distance S. W. from the village of Kingston, in the town of O r. e/ South Kingston, Washington county, Rhode Island. - SThe Fort was on an island containing four O -,-' — w - - or five acres, in the N.W. part of the swamp. T / ~ -2 -,. ~.- _a_ go' a. The place where the English formed, - whence they marched upon the fort. _ ~ - b. A place at which resided an English.. _ / family, of the name of Babcock, at the time of the fight. Descendants of that family have a resided on or near the spot ever since. * c. The present residence (1845) of J. G..'' - Clarke, Esq., whose father purchased the island on which the fort stood, in the year 1775, one hundred years after the battle. On ploughing the land soon after, besides bul- f ~, A d z'?' lets. bones, and various Indian utensils, several bushels of burnt corn were found,-the reliques of the conflagration. It is said the Indiana had 500 bushels of corn in the stack. dt. A piece of upland of about 200 acres. e. The dep6t of the Stonington and Providence Rail Road. The Rail Road crosses the swamp in a S. W direction.

Page  196 196 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BooK II, ANALYSIS. wounded; and several hundred were taken prisoners. 1. The Eng-'Of the English, eighty were killed in the fight, and one n1a8h los.t hundred and fifty were wounded. 2The power of the 2. Remnant of th/e ~Narra- Narragansetts was broken, but the remnant of' the nation nsetts. repaired, with Philip, to the country of the Nipmucks, and still continued the war. 1676. 14. 31t is said that Philip soon after repaired to the 3 Philip country of' the Mohawks, whomn he solicited to aid him 3MohawCS. against the English, but without success. 4His influence 4. Hecr/flU- was felt, however, among the tribes of Maine and New Hampshire, and a general Indian war opened upon all the S. Continu- New England settlements.'The unequal contest concontest. tinued, with the ordinary details of savage warfare, and with increasing losses to the Indians, until August of the following year, when the finishing stroke was given to it in the United Colonies by the death of Philip. a. Pnlip's 15.'After the absence of a year from the home of his dose of the tribe, during which time nearly all his warriors had fallen, war. and his wife and only son had been taken prisoners, the heart-broken chief, with a few followers, returned to Pokanoket. Tidings of his arrival were brought to Captain Church, who, with a small party, surrounded the place where Philip was concealed. The savage warrior a. Aug. 22. attempted to escape, but was shota by a faithless Indian, an ally of the English, one of' his own tribe, whom he had previously offended. The southern and western Indians now came in, and sued for peace, but the tribes in Maine and New HIampshire continued hostile until 1678, when b. April 22, a treaty was concludedb with them. 1678. 111. CONTROVERSIES, AND ROYAL TYRANNY. —.'In 167ai 1677, a controversy which had long subsisted between AMasachuseits Massachusetts and the heirs of Gorgres, relative to the province of Maine, was decided in England, in favor of v. May 16. the former; and Massachusetts then purehased~ the claims of the heirs, both as to soil and jurisdiction.'in 1680, 1680. the claims of Massachusetts to New Hampshire were des. To New cided against the former, and the two provinces were separated, much against the wishes of the people of boths New Hampshire then became a royal province, over which was established the first royal government in New England. 9. Opposition 92. Massachusetts had ever resisted, as unjust and calr?-estric- illegal, the commercial restrictions which had teen imd. RIandolph; posed upon the colonies; and when a custom-house officer 1i 1681. was sent' over for the collection of' duties, he was defeated,.o Pavorite in lhis attempts, and finally leturnede to England vithout ptoject of thei accomplishing his object.'lThe hing seized the occasionI kin.T if.

Page  197 PART IL.1 iASSACHUSETTS. 197 for carrying out a project which he had long entertained, l6S2. that of taking into his own hands the governments of all the New England colonies.'Massachusetts was accused 1. Howthis of disobedience to the laws of England, and English judges, accotimlisla& who held their offices at the pleasure of the crown, declareda that she had forfeited her charter.'The king a. June28, diedb befbre he had completed his scheme of subverting b. Feb. 26, t.e charter governments of the colonies, but his plans 2168h5. Death of were prosecuted with ardor by his brother and successor, the king. James II. 3. 3In 1686 the charter government of Massachusetts 1686. was taken away, and a President,e appointed by the king, CDdJosePyh was placed over the country from Narragansett to Nova 3. Change of Scotia. 4In December of the same year Sir Edmund in 1686. Andros arrivedd at Boston, with a commission as royal 4. Arrval of governor of all New England.'Plymouth, Massachu- d. Dec. 30. setts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island, immediately 5. Hs.juris. submitted; and, in a few months, Connecticut was added diction. to his jurisdiction. 4.'The hatred of the people was violently excited 6. Histyran. against Andros, who, on account of his arbitrary proceed- nY'eta'nd return to ings, was styled thle tyrant of New England; and when, Eng land. early in 1689, tidings reachede Boston that the tyranny e. April 14. of James II. had caused a revolution in England, and that the king had been driven from his throne, and succeeded by William of Orange, the people arose in arms, seizedf f. April 28. and imprisoned Andros and his officers and sent them to England, and established their former mode of government. IV. MASSACHUSETTS DURING KING WILLIAM'S WAR.I.'When James II. fled from England, he repaired to 7' Ca,,,,of France, where his cause was espoused by the French ianm's war. monarch. This occasioned a war between France and England, which extended to their colonial possessions in America, and continued from 1689 to the peace of Ryswick* in 1697. 2.'The opening of this war was signalized by several 8s. nros o successful expeditions of the French and Indians against and Indians. the. northern colonies. In July,g 1689, a party of Indians g. July7. surprised and killed Major Waldron and twenty of the garrison at Dover,t and carried twenty-nine of the inhabitants captives to Canada. In the following month an Indian war party, starting from the French settlement on B* yswtck is a small town in the west of Holland, two miles S. E. from Hague, and thfrtysue S. W. front Amsterdaam. (8lee page 206.)

Page  198 198 COLONIAL HISTORY. [ BooK II ANALYSIS. the Penobscot, fell upon the English fort at Pemaquid,* a. Aug. 12. which they compelled to surrender.a 1690. 3. Early in the following year, 1690, Schenectadyt is. Feb 18, was burned;b the settlement at Salmon Falls,T on the Pis. e Maprch230. cataqua, was destroyed; and a successful attack was M!. May 27. maded on the fort and settlement at Casco Bay.~'In an.. succes4o~* ticipation of the inroads of the French, Massachusetts had aitc.nst th&' hastily fitted out an expedition, under Sir William Phipps, e. May. against Nova Scotia, which resulted in the easy conquest" of Port Royal. 3. Expedition 4.'Late in the same year a more important enterprise, Canada. the conquest of Canada, was undertaken by the people of New England and New York acting in concert. An armament, designed for the reduction of Quebec, was equip. ped by Massachusetts, and the command of it given to Sir William Phipps; while a land expedition was to proceed from New York against Montreal. The fleet proceeded up the St. Lawrence, and appeared before Quebec about the middle of October; but the land troops of New f. See p. 230. York having returned,f Quebec had been strengthened by all the French forces, and now bade defiance to the fleet, 3. Debts in- which soon returned to Boston.'This expedition imposeuteditios~ ed a heavy debt upon Massachusetts, and, for the payment of troops, bills of credit were issued;-the first emission of the kind in the American colonies. 4. Phlipssent 5. 4Soon after the return of Sir William Phipps from gan this expedition, he was sent to England to request assistance in the farther prosecution of the war, and likewise VIc. OF PEIMAQUID FORT. * The fort at Pemaqucid, the most noted place in the early history of Maine, was in the present town of Bremen, on the east't. F4 H } >side of, and near the mouth of Pemaquid River, which separates S..3 j t: the towns of Bremen and Bristol. It is about eighteen miles N. E. from the mouth of Kennebec River, and forty N.E. from Portland..; B, ~' The fort was at first called Fort George. In 1692 it was rebuilt of stone, by Sir William Phipps, and named Fort William Henry. In 1730 it was repaired, and called Fort Frederic. Three miles and a quarter south from the old fort is Pemaquid Point. (See Map.) t Schenectady, an early Dutch settlement, is on the S. bank of Mohawk River, sixteen miles N. WT. from Albany. The buildings of Union College are pleasantly situated on an eminence halfa mile east from the city. (See Map, p. 221.) $ The settlement formerly called Salmon Falls, is in the town of South Berwick, Maine, on the east side of the Piscataqua or Salmon ralls River, seventeen miles N. W. from Portsmouth. The Indian name VICNrrITY OF PORTLAND. by which it is often mentioned in history, is Newichawannoc. (See Map, p. 206.) 6' 5-' —-- /,//E ~ Casco Bay is on the coast of Maine, S. W. from the mouth of tho, 41T.?a "' (< Kennebec River. It sets up betwveen Cape Elizabeth on the S. W. an4 Cape Small point on the N. E., twenty miles apart, and contains 300 islandsp mostly small, but generally very productive. In 1690 the settlements extended around the western shore of the bay, and were embraced in what was then called the town of Falmouth. The fort and settlement mentioned above, were on a peninsula called Casco Necc, the SiA l. site of the present city of Portland. The fort, called Fort Loyal, was on the southwesterly shore of the Peninsula, at the end of the present King Street (See Map.)

Page  199 PART [I.- IASSACHUSET'FS. 199 to aid other deputies of Massachusetts in applying for the G}9gI. restoration of the colonial charter.'But in neither of these oblects was he successfil. England was too much 1 u v1 t engaged at honwe to expend her treasures in the defence of her colonies; and the king and his counsellors were secretly averse to the liberality of the former charter. 6,'Early in 11692 Sir William Phipps returned- with a 1692. new charter, which vested the appointment of governor in o- riy.ti. the king, and united Plymouth, Massachusetts, Maine, and,n.,,t ofroyal N'ova Scotia, in one royal government. Plymouth lost governwot her separate government contrary to her wishes; while ofan. New Hampshire, which had recentlyb placed herself un- b. Secp. 7. der the protection of Massachusetts, was now forcibly severed from her. 7.'While Massachusetts was called to mourn the deso- 3. General belie~ in lation of her frontiers by savage warfare, and to grieve witchcraft. tlhe abridgment of her charter privileges, a new and still more formidable calamity fell upon her. The belief in witchcraft was then almost universal in Christian countries, nor did the Puritans of New England escape the delusion. The laws of England, which admitted the existence of witchcraft, and punished it with death, had been adopted in Massachusetts, and in less than twenty years fioom the founding of the colony, one individual was tried c In 1,48, at and executed~ for the supposed crlime. Charlestowa 8. 4In 1692 the delusion broke out,' with new violence d. Feb. and firenzy in Danvers,* then a part of Salem. The 4 First apo daughter and niece of the minister, Mr. Parris, were at th saejam first moved by strange caprices, and their singular conduct was readily ascribed to the influence of witchcraft. The ministers of the neighborhood held a day of fasting Macak. and prayer, and the notoriety which the children soon acoquired, with perhaps their own belief in some mysterious influence, led them to accuse individuals as the autlhors of t1heir sufferings. An old Indian servant in the family was whipped until she confessed herself a witch; and the truth of the confession, although obtained in such a marnner, was not doubted. 9.'Alarm and terror spread rapidly; evil spirits wvere,. Spreadof the delu.ion. thouhllt to overshadow the land; and every case of ner- antd it. vouls daelranflement, atggravtted by fear; and every unu- nture. sual symnptom of diseasase, was asclibed to the influence of wicked d(rmons, who were supposed to have entered the bodies of those who had sold themselves into the power' Satan. 1: Dacnvers is two miles N. WT. from Salem. The principal village is a continuation of th cteeta of Salem, of which it is, virtually, a suburb.

Page  200 200 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BOOK 11 ANALYSIS. 10. 1Those supposed to be bewitched were mostly chil. -. wer dren, and persons in the lowest ranks of life; and the zrsst oseuposed accused were at first old women, whose ill-favored looks to be bezoitchet, and wLo seemed to marlk the the fit instrumener'.s of unearthly the accused. 2. Who zwere wickedness.'But, finally, neither age, nor sex, nor a.c ndl. station, afforded any safeguard against a charge of witchacuqed. i a. Burroughs. craft. Magistrates were condemned, and a clergyman, b. Aug. 29. of' the highest respectability was executed.b Edtent of'1. 5The alarming extent of the delusion at length opened the eyes of the people. Already twenty persons had suffered death; fifty-five had been tortured or terrified into confessions of witchcraft; a hundred and fifty were in prison; and two hundred imore had been accused.. Its endang. 4When the legislature assembled, in October, remonstrances were urged against the recent proceedings; the spell which had pervaded the land was suddenly dissolved; and although many were subsequently tried, and a few 1693. convicted, yet no more were executed. The prominent actors in the Iste tragedy lamented and condemned the delusion to which they had yielded, and one of the iudges, who had presided at the trials, made a frank and futll confession of his error. 1694. 12. 5The war with the French and Indians still conc. July 28. tinued. In 1694, Oyster River,* in New Hampshire, 5. Events in thehwar with was attacked,e and ninety-four persons were killed, or the French and Indians. carried away captive. Two years later, the English fort 1696. at Penmaquidd was surrenderede to a large force of French d. Note, p. 198. and Indians commanded by the Baron Castine, but the e. July 25. garrison were sent to Boston, where they were exchanged for prisoners in the hands of the English. 1697. 13.'In March, 1697, Haverhill,t in Massachusetts, f. March25. was attacked,f and forty persons were killed, or carried 8. At Haver- away captive.'Among the captives were Mrs. Duston 7. Accoutt o and her nurse, who, with a boy previously taken, fell to Mrs. Dtston. the lot of an Indian family, twelve in number. The three prisoners planned an escape from captivity, and in one night, killed ten of the twelve Indians, while they were asleep, and returned in safety to their friends-fills. The war ing the land with wonder at their successful daring. n. Sept.. During the same year King William's war was terminah. See p. 197. ted by the treaty* of Ryswick.h Oyster Rivzer is a small streamn, of only twelve or fifteen miles in length, which flows from the west into Great Day, a southern arm, or branch, of the Piscataqua. The settlement mentioned in history as Oyster River, was in the present town of Durham, ten miles N. W. froir Portsmouth. (See Mtap, p. 206.) f [Hverhill, in MIassachusetts, is on the N. side of the Merrimac, at the head of navigation,thirty miles north from Boston. The village of Bradford is on the opposite side of the rivor

Page  201 PanT IL.1 201 16197. SECTION III. XASSACIHUSETTS, FROBI THE CLOSE OF KING WILLIAMI S WAR, Sect io f eI IN 1t69", TO TfIE COMIMENCEMENT OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR, IN 1754. (57 YEARS.) DivisioNs -1. Massachusetts during Queen Aline's MWar. —II. iingt Its Dzotm. George's War. I. MASSACHUSETTS DURING QUEEN ANTNE'S WAR.- 1701. 1.'After the death of James II., who died' in France, in Causepts 1701, the French government acknowledged his son, then which lec to Queen Anm a an exile, as king of England; which was deemed an un- war. pardonable insult to the latter kingdom, which had settled the crown on Anne, the second daughter of James. In addition to this, the French monarch was charged with attempting to destroy the proper balance of power in Europe, by placing his grandson, Philip of Anjou,* on the throne of Spain. Theaje causes led to a war between England, on the one side, and France and Spain on the other, which is commonly known in America as " Queen Anne's War," but, in Europe, as the "' ~War of the Spanish Succession." 2.'The Five Nations had recently concluded a treatyb b. Aug. i. of neutrality with the French of Canada, by which New 2. Where the York was screened from danger; so that the whole weight oeight of thi, of Queen Anne's war, in the north, fell upon the New v ohy. England colonies.'The tribes from the Merrimact to 3. Indian the Penobscot had assented to a treaty' of peace with the Merrimac New England; but, through the influence of the French, So th.eenobvseven weeks after, it was treacherously broken;d and, on c. July 1, one and the same day, the whole friontier, from Cascot to da. Aug. 20. Wells,~ was devoted to the tomahawk and the scalpingicnife. 3. 4In the following year, 1704, four hundred and fifty 1704. French and Indians attacked Deerfield, burnedad the vil- e. March l1. lage, killed more than forty of the inhabitants, and took 4D ettaDried. one hundred and twelve captives, among whom were the minister, Mr. Williams, and his wife; all of' whom were immediately ordered to prepare for a long march through the snow to Canada.'Those who were unable to keep 5. nFate ofth Anjozte was an ancient province in the west of Fra-nce, on the river Loire. 1 The in1errisnac River, in Nevw Hampshire, is formed by the union of the Pemigewasset and the Winnipiseogee. The former rises near the Notch, in the White Mountains, and at Sanbornton, seventy miles belowv its source, receives the WVinnipiseogoe from lWinnipiseogee Lake. The course of the Merrimac is then S. E. to the vicinity of Lowell, Massachusetts, when, turning to the N. E., after a windincg course of fifty miles, it falls into the Atlantic, at Newburyport. $ Ca;co. See Casco tany, p. 198. W Te.:ls is a town in Maine, thirty miles S.WV. from Portland, and twenty N. E, from Ports-,south. 26

Page  202 202 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Boos RI, ANALY IS. up with the party were slain by the wayside, but most of ------ - the survivors were afterwards redeemed, and allowed to return to their homes. A little girl, a daughter of thl minister, after a long residence with the Indians, became attached to them, adopted their dress and customs, and afterwards married a Mohawk Gnerat 4. eDuring the remainder of the war, similar scenes thkewaronthe were enacted throughout Maine and New Hampshire, and Xf-er8. prowling bands of savages penetrated even to the interior settlements of Massachusetts. The firontier settlers abandoned the cultivation of their fields, and collected in buildings which they fortified; and if a garrison, or a family, ceased its vigilance, it was ever liable to be cut off by an enemy who disappeared the moment a blow was struck. The French often accompanied the savages in their expeditions, and made no effort to restrain their cruelties. 1707. 5. 2In 1707 Massachusetts attempted the reduction of June. Port Royal; and a fleet conveying one thousand soldiers 2. Expeditionr against Port was sent against the place; but the assailants were twice jR~tconl e=at obliged to raise the siege with considerable loss. Not of Acadia. disheartened by the repulse, Massachusetts spent two years more in preparation, and aided by a fleet fiom Eng1710. land, in 1710 again demanded- the surrender of Port a. Oct. 12. Royal. The garrison, weak and dispirited, capitulatedb b. Oct. 13. after a brief resistance; the name of the place was changed to Annapolis, in honor of Queen Anne; and Acadia, or Nova Scotia, was permanently annexed to the British crown. 1711. 6.'In July of the next year, a large armament under c. July 6. Sir Hovenden Walker arrivede at Boston, and taking in 3d. additional forces, sailed,d near the middle of Augusi, for conqetnaof the conquest of Canada. The fleet reachede the mouth Canada. e. Aug. 25. of the St. Lawrence in safety, but here the obstinacy of WTalker, who disregarded the advice of his pilots, caused the loss of eight of his ships, and nearly nine hundred f. Sept. 2, 3. men. In the nightf the ships were driven upon the roclks on the northern shore and dashed to pieces. Weakened by this disaster, the fleet returned to England, and the g. See p. 233. New England troops to Boston. agaist Mon- 7. 4A land expedition," under General Nicholson, treal. which had marched against Montreal, returned after h. April1, 1, 1713. learning the failure of the fleet. 5Two y-ea-rs later the 5. Ctoseofthe treaty'h of Utrecht* terminated the war bets\een France * trecht is a rich and handsome city of HIollard, sitnated on one of the mouths of the Rthine, twenty miles S. E. from Amsterdam. From the top of its lofty cathedral, three hundred and eighty feet high, fifteen or sixteen cities may be seen in a clear day. The place is celebrated for the " Union of Utrecht," formed there in 1579, by which the tTcited Provinces eclaored their Independence of Spain; —and likewise for the treaty of 1713.

Page  203 AltT 11. I rASSACt-1USETTS 203 Ind England; and, soon after, peace was concludeda 17.1.l. oetween the northern colonies and the Indians. 8.'During the next thirty years after the close of imAtPh July Queen Anne's war, but few events of general interest 24,.ll occurred in Massachusetts. Throughout most of this oftlyrest tn ccured period a violent controversy was carried on between the t.n'"ijtsaucrah representatives of the people and three successive royal setztue.z1e governors,b the latter insisting upon receiving a permanent thinty tearm. -alary, and the former refusing to comply with the de. Burlnett, and Biccher. aind; prei.rrinag to graduate the salary of the gove'rnor lecording to their views of the justice and utility of his administration.'A compromise was at length effected, c2. Howo ti and, instead of a permanent salary, a particular sum was sas settled. annually voted. II. KING GEORGE'S WAR. —. "In 1744, during the 1744. reign of George II., wvar again broke out' between France 3 oirige/5g and England, originating in European disputes, relating George's. c. War deprincipally to the kingdom of Austria, and again involvilg clared by. hlfe French and English possessions in America. This France,lth war is generally known in America as "King George's Ap. Britainh. War," but, in Europe, as the'" War of the Austrian Succession." 2. 4The most important event of the war in America, 4. Loususurfg was the siege and capture of Louisburg.* This place, situated on the island of Cape Blreton,t had been fortified by France at great expense, and was regarded by her as the key to her American possessions. 5William Shirley, Pproiato Louisburg is on the S. E. side of the Island of Cape Breton. It has an excellent harbor, of very deep water, nearly six miles in length, but frozen cduring the winter. After the capture of Louisbur, in 1758, (see p. 278,) its walls were demlolished, and the materials of its buildings were carried away for the construction of Ialifax, and other towns on the coast. Only a few fishermen's huts are now found within the environs of the city, and so complete is the ruin that it is with difficulty that the outlines of the fortifications, and. of tihe prinicipal bu:ldings, an be traced. (See Map.) re called by e Frech se oy isla on th ne of 17anseau. I is settled mostly y Scotchighlaners together i o th anint Fienro Acaidans. lSec 3Iap,) Q~-g~; /1/1 j Pr clles s r ay d a boeoteufft rne ndSch P.. brdr o te Glfof. awrnc. ad epaate fom ov Scti byth nardvch'n

Page  204 204 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book Hi ANALYSIS. the governor of Massachusetts, perceiving the importance _ "- of the place, and the danger to which its possession by the 1745. French subjected the British province of Nova Scotia, a. Jan. laida before the legislature of the colony a plan for its capture. to. repar-e 3.'Although strong objections were urged, the gover. expedition. nor's proposals were assented to; Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire, furnished their quotas of men; New York sent a supply of artillery, and Penn. 2. Commodore sylvania of provisions.' 2Commodore Warren, then in the West Indies with an English fleet, was invited to cooperate in the enterprise, but he declined doing so without S. Saitinr of orders from England. -This unexpected intelligence was the.feet. kept a secret, and in April, 1745, the New England forces alone, under William Pepperell, commander-in-chief, and b. April 4 Roger Wolcott, second in command, sailedb for Louisburg. 4.Cesnttsea 4. 4At Canseauc* they were unexpectedly met by the c.Pronounced fleet of Commodore Warren, who had recently received Can-so. orders to repair to Boston, and concert measures with Governor Shirley for his majesty's service in North 5. Landing America. 50n the 11th of May the combined forces, of the troops. numbering more than 4000 land troops, came in sight of Louisburg, and effected a landing at Gabarus Bay,t which was the first intimation the French had of their danger. I. Account of 5. On the day after the landing a detachment of foul.Ohe siege and conquestof hundred men marched by the city and approached the Loutsburg. d. See Map royal battery,d setting fire to the houses and stores on the page 203. The French, imagining that the whole army was coming upon them, spiked the guns and abandoned the battery, which was immediately seized by the New England troops. Its guns were then turned upon the town, and against the island battery at the entrance of the harbor. 6. As it was necessary to transport the guns over a morass, where oxen and horses could not be used, they were placed on sledges constructed for the purpose, and the men with ropes, sinking to their knees in the mud, drew them safely over. Trenches were then thrown up within two hundred yards of the city,-a battery was erected on the opposite side of the harbor, at the Light House Point, a. maI29. — and the fleet of Warren capturede a French 74 gunship, with five hundred and sixty men, and a great quantity of military stores designed for the supply of the gar. rison. Ca.seau is a small island and cape, on which is a small village, at the eastern extremity c' Nova Scotia, seventy-five miles S. W. from Louisburg. (See Map preceding page.) t Gabanos.Bay is a deep bay on the eastern coast of Cape Breton, a short distance S.W. frora Louiaburg. (See Map preceding page.)s

Page  205 PArT II.] NEW HAMPSHIRE. 205 7. A combined attack by sea and land was planned for 1745o the 29th of June, but, on the day previous, the city, fort, and batteries, and the whole island, were surrendered.'This was the most important acquisition which England l.Impsortacnc of thi. acqui. made during the war, and, for its recovery, and the deso- sition, and lation of the English colonies, a powerful naval armament th French Jt under the Duke d'Anville was sent out by France in the rolace.rth following year. But storms, shipwrecks, and disease, dis- 1746. persed and enfeebled the fleet, and blasted the hopes of the enemy. 8.'In 1748 the war was terminated by the treatya of 1748. Aix la Chapelle.* The result proved that neither party 2. Cio-se ofthe had gained any thing by the contest; for all acquisitions terms8 of the treaty. made by either were mutually restored. 3But the causes a. oct. is. of a future and more important war still remained in the 3. Caues of a disputes about boundaries, which were left unsettled; and future, ar. the " FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR" soon followed,b which b. ee p. 267. was the last struggle of the French for dominion in America. CHAPTER 111. NEW fI A M P S Ht I P E * Subject of Chapter llI. 1. 4During the greater portion of its colonial existence 4. With swczt the history of New Hampshire was united with Massachusetts, and its R.l amrp history is therefore necessarily blended with that Qf the blended. parent of the New England colonies.'But in order to 5. Whyiti here treateg preserve the subject entire, a brief sketch of its separate separatey. history will here be given. 2.'Two of the most active members of the council of 1622. Plymouth were Sir Ferdinand Gorges and Captain John 8. Gorg anhd Mason. In 1622 they obtained of their associates a grants c. Aug. 20. of land lying partly in Maine and partly in New HampAix la ChLpelle, (pronounced A lah sha-pellt) is in the western part of Germany, near the line of Belgium, in the province of the Rhine, which belongs to Prussia. It is a very ancient city, and was long in possession of the Romans, who called it Aqueegranii. Its present name was given it by the French, on account of a chapel built there by Charlemagne, who for some time made it the capital of his empire. It is celebrated for its hot springs, its baths, and for several important treaties concluded there. It is seventy-five miles E. from Brussels, and 125 S.E. from Amsterdam. t NEW HABIPSIIRE, one of the Eastern or New England States, lying north of bIassachu setts, and west of Maine, is 180 miles long from north to south, and ninety broad in the southern part, and contains an area of about 9500 square miles. It has only eighteen miles of seacoast, and Polrtsmouth is its only harbor. The country twenty or thirty miles from the sea becomes uneven and hilly, and, toward the northern part, is mountainous. Mount Washington, a peak of the White Mountains, and, next to Black Mountain in N. Carolina, the highest point east of the Rocky Mountains, is 6428 feet above the level of the sea. The elevate i partA of the state are a fine grazing country, and the valleys on the margins of the rivers are highly productive.

Page  206 206} COLONIAL HISTORY. fBoo. [BooI A.NALYSIS. shire, which they called Laconic.'In the spring of the Ifollowing year tnhey sent over two small parties of emi. I. First settle- grants, one of w ich landed at the lhnouth of the Piscataqua,.nts -N7 Newsv and settled at Little Harbor,* a short distance below Portsmouth;t the other, proceeding farther up, formed a settlement at Dover.i 1629. 3.'i i: 1;29 the Rev. John!Wheelriht and others a. May. purchaseda of the Indians all the country between the z.dreb Merrimae and the Piscataqua.'A few months later, this Wt'helriht. tract ofcountry, whichi was a part of the grant to Gorges and 3 Separcte iason, was givenb to Mason alone, and it then first reg,.at a,dn(c ceived the name of New Hampshire.'The country was 4 IIooth,e divided among numerous proprietors, and the various country aa. governed. settlements during several years were governed separately, by agents of the diffierent proprietors, or by magistrates elected by the people. 1641. 4.'In 1641 the people of New Hampshire placed them-. UniLonwitha selves under the protection of Massachusetts, in which Massachusetso. situation thev remained until 1680, when, after a long geparation. 1680. controversy with the heirs of Mason, relative to the ownerc. Royal ship of the soil, New Hampshire was separatedc from Sept. 28, 1679 Massachusetts by a royal commission, and made a royal Actua sepa- province. 6The new government was to consist of a 1680. president and council, to be appointed by the king, and a. Natzenowf house of representatives to be chosen by the people. 7No government. dissatisfaction with the government of Massachusetts had 7. The chnge. been expressed, and the change to a separate province was received with reluctance by all. d. March 26 5. 5 The first legislature, which assembledd at Ports8. Aosnsmblinga of/ the irst mouth in 1680, adopted a code of laws, the first of which Lsegislature declared "That no act, imposition, law, or ordinance, anri its pro. ceedingt. should be made, or imposed upon them, but such as should be made by the assembly and approved by the president 9. Thekeinrs and council.",'This declaration, so worthy of freemen, and spirit of was received with marked displeasure by the king; but the people. New Hampshire, ever after, was as forward as any of her sister colonies in resisting every encroachment upon her VICINITY OF PORrsNOUTH. just rights. D, m~~rtv B y Little Hlarbor, the place first settled, is at the southern ens 0V01,. 4 A trance to the harbor of Portsmouth. two miles below the city, A~ ~~X ez r and opposite the town and island of Newcastle. (See L.1. in Map.) RJA? O Yor T Portsmoutth, in New IIampsphire. is situated on a peninsula. ~,...... on the south side of the Piscataqua, three miles from the ocean. o0, It has an excellent, harbor, which, owing to the rapidity of thl6 current, is never frozen. It is fifty-four miles N. from Boston,',-R'' and the same distance S. VW. from Portland. (See Map.) X Dover village, in N. IT., formerly called Cochteco, is situated on Cocheco River, four miles above its junction with the Piscataqua, and twelve N.W. from Portsmouth. The first settlement in the town was on a beautiful peninsula between Black and i~'-"~/ ~Piscataqua Rivers. (See M3ap.)

Page  207 tAer IL'I NEW HAMIPSHIRE. 207 6.'Earl-y in the fbllowing year 1Robert Mason arrived, 16GL. -asserted his right to the province, on the ground of the early grants made to his ancestor, and assumed the title 1sywUthet of lord proprietor. But his claims to the soil, and his de- aJbot' ant. mands for rent, were resisted by the people. A long controversy ensued; lawsuits were numerous; and judgments for rent were obtained against many of the leading men in the province; but, so general was the hostility to the proprietor, that he could not enforce them. 7.'In 1686 the government of Dudley, and afterwards 1686. that of Andros, was extended over New Hampshire. 2 DdleylatiL When the latter was seized& and imprisoned, on the arrival the.secovd of the news of the revolution in England, the people of' uMaesctauNew Hampshire took the government into their own a. See p. 199. hands, and, in 1690, placed" themselves under the protec- 1690. tion of Massachusetts. 3Two years later, they were sepa- b. March. rated from Massachusetts, contrary to their wishes, and a 3. Separated, separate royal government was established, over them; but united. in 1699 the two provinces were again united, and the c. Aug. 1692. Earl of Bellamont was appointed governor over both. 8. qIn 1691 the heirs of Mason sold their title to the 4. Continulands in New Hampshire to Samuel Allen, between whom.nat settleand the people contentions and lawsuits continued until mIastoiathn 1715, when the heirs of Allen relinquished their claims in controversy. despair. A descendant of Mason, however, subsequently renewed the original claim, on the ground of a defect in the conveyance to Allen. The Masonian controversy was finally terminated by a relinquishment, on the part of the claimants, of all except the unoccupied portions of the territory. 9.'In 1741, on the removal of Governor Belcher, the 1741. provinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire were 5As-ep an ai separated, never to be united again, and a separate gover- fron Massanor was appointed over each. 6During the forty-two 6. The nature years previous to the separation, New Hampshire had a withMlassa separate legislative assembly, and the two provinces were, cit ettsg in reality, distinct, with the exception of their being under the administration of the same royal governor. 10. 7New Hampshire suffered greatly, and perhaps t.'he suffer more than any other New England colony, by the several Hnmpshnr2 French and Indian wars, whose general history has been Indtian.t already given. A particular recital of the plundering and burning of her towns, of her frontiers laid waste, and her children inhumanly murdered, or led into a wretched captivity, would only exhibit scenes similar to those which have been already described, and we willngly pass by this portion of her local history.

Page  208 1208 [Booil 11 ANALYSIS, CHAPTER IV. Subject of C ONNECTICUT.* Chapter I V. Dto Divisionrs. DIVISIONS.-I. Early Settlemnents. — H. Pequod War. —I1I. Neew Havex Colony.-IYV. Connecticut under her own Constitutio. — V. Connec. ticut nuder the Royal Charter. 1630. I. EARLY SETTLEMIENTS.-1.'In 1630 the soil of Con-..4ccounts of necticut was granted by the council of Plymouth to the grants of Earl of Warwick; and, in the following year, the Earl Connecticut. 1631 of Warwick transferred the same to Lord Say-and-Seal, a. march29. Lord Brooke and others. Like all the early colonial grants, that of Connecticut was to extend westward from the Atlantic Ocean to the South Sea, or the Pacific. 2. vsit to the, 2During the same year some of' the people of' Plymouth, country by n tipe with their governor, Mr. Winslow, visited the valley of the Connecticut, by invitation of an Indian chief, who wished the English to make a settlement in that quarter. 3 Dutch fort 2.'The Dutch at New York, apprized of the object of the Plymouth people, determined to anticipate them, and, early In 1633, despatched a party who erected a fort at 4. English Hartford.t 4In October of the same year, a company at Windsor. from Plymouth sailed up the Connecticut River, and passing the Dutch fort, erected a trading-house at Windsor.: The Dutch ordered Captain Holmes, the commander of the Plymouth sloop, to strike his colors, and, in case of refusal, threatened to fire upon him; but he declared that he would execute the orders of the governor of Plymouth. and, in spite of their threats, proceeded resolutely on1634. ward.'In the following year the Dutch sent a company 5. Events that to expel the English from the country, but finding them occurred in ge the f/olozoing well fortified, they came to a parley, and finally returned year. 2 Emigration in peace. om.iu$ss'sa - t3 In the summer of 1635, exploring parties from WV0. of HARTFORn. *i CONNECTICUT, the southernmost of the New England States, is from ~ta2i7XXz.L r - ninety to 100 miles long from E. to W., and from fifty to seventy broad, and 5. uneven and hilly, and somewhat mountainous in the northwest. The val ley of the Connecticut is very fertile, but in most parts of the state the soil is better adapted to grazing than to tillage. An excellent freestone, /I.. much used in building, is found in Chatham and Haddam; iron ore of a ~ o..rig s superior quality in Salisbury and Kent; and fine rmarble in iilfobrd. Ad Hf aartnford, one of the capitals of Connecticut, is on the W. side of the Connecticut I-iver, fifty miles from its mouth, by the 2iver's course. Mill, Xf vor Little River, passes through the southern part of the city. The old Dutch fort was on the S. side of Mill River, at its entrance into the Connec[" - --— " ticut. The Dutch maintained their position until 1654. (See Map.) el IzVindsor is on the wV. side of the Connecticut, seven miles N. from Hartford. The village is on the N. side of Farmington River. The trading house erected by the Plymouth people, was below the mouth of Farmington River. The mea dow in the vicinity is still called Plysmozoth ilIeadowu. (See Manu.)

Page  209 PART L.3 COiN NECTIICUT. 209 Massachrsetts Bay colony visited the valley of' the Con- IL6.,5. necticut, and, in the autumn of the same year, a com-rn pany of about sixty men, women, and children, made a toilsome journey through the wilderness, and settled' at a. See p. 185. Windsor, Hartford, and WVethersfield.*'In October, the 1. Settle b 55c younger Winthrop, son of the governor of Massachusetts, arrived at Boston, with a commission from the proprietors of Connecticut, authorizing him to erect a fort at the mouth of the river of that name, and make the requisite preparations for planting a colony. Scarcely was the fort erected when a Dutch vessel appeared at the mouth of the river, but was not permitted to enter. In honor of Lord Say-and-Seal, and Lord Brooke, the new settlement was named Saybrooklr, which continued a separate colony until 1644. II. PEQUOD WAR. —.'During the year 1636 the Pe- 1636. quods, a powerful tribe of Indians residing mostly within 2. The the limits of Connecticut, began to annoy the infant colony.'In July, the Indians of Block Island,t who were 3. Their desupposed to be in alliance with the Pequods, surprised and prodatihe plundered a trading vessel and killed the captain. A.n Englsh. expeditionb from Massachusetts was sent against them, b. Sept. and which invaded the territory of the Pequods, but as nothing important was accomplished, it served only to excite the Indians to greater outrages. During the winter, a number of whites were killed in the vicinity of Saybrook fort. In April following, nine persons were killed at Wethers- 1637. field, and the alarm became general throughout the plantations on the Connecticut. 2. 4The Pequods, who had long been at enmity with 4. Their at tempted allithe Narragansetts, now sought their alliance in a general ance with thM war upon the English; but the exertions; of Roger Wil- Nsetts. Hiams not only defeated their designs, but induced the c. Seep. 1$6. Narragansetts again to renew the war against their ancient enemy. 5Early in May, the magistrates of the three 5. Expeditison infant towns of Connecticut formally declared war against the Pequod nat;on, and, in ten days, a little army of eighty English, and seventy friendly Mohegan Indians, was on its way against the enemy, whose warriors were said to number more than two thousand men. 6. Princi~pa 3.'The principal seat of the Pequods was near the safth * Wethersfield is on the;V. side of the Connecticut, four miles S. from Hartford. The river here is continually changing its course, by the wearing away of the land on one side, and its gradual deposit on the other. (See Map.) I Saybrook is on the west, side of Connecticut River, at its entrance into Long Island Sound. $ Block rTslancd, discovered in 1614 by Adrian Blok, a Dutch captain, is twenty-four miles, S.W. from Newport. It is attached to Newport Co., I. I., and constitutes the township of Newshoreham. It has no harbor. It is eight miles long fronm N. to S., and from two to four road.

Page  210 210 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BooK H. ANALYSIS. mouth.f Pequod River, now called the Thames,* in the i. 2/zeroute, eastern. part of Connecticut.'Captain Mason sailed down Ofo/lai- the Connecticut with his forces, whence he proceeded to 8son a. Noe, p. 215. Narragansett Bay,0 where several hundred of the Narragansetts joined him. He then commenced his march across the country, towards the principal Pequod fort, which stood on an eminence on the west side of Mystict 2. What the River, in the present town of Groton.t 2The Pequods thou, ir th.,e were ignorant of his approach, for they had seen the Lnglit- boats of the English pass the mouth of their river a few days before, and they believed that their enemies had fled through fear. 3. Attack on 4. 3Earlv in the morning of the 5th of June, the solthe Pequod fort. diers of Connecticut advanced against the fort, while their Indian allies stood aloof, astonished at the boldness of the enterprise. The barking of' a dog betrayed their approach, and an Indian, rushing into the fort, gave the alarm; but scarcely were the enemy aroused from their slumbers, when Mason and his little band, having forced an entrance, commenced the work of destruction. The Indians fought bravely, but bows and arrows availed little against weapons of steel. Yet the vast superiority of numbers on the side of the enemy, for a time rendered the victory doubtful. "We must burn them!" shouted Mason, and applying a firebrand, the frail Indian cahbins were soon enveloped in flame. 4. Deetsuctian 5. "The English now hastily withdrew and surrounded of th~ Peqpoa,. the place, while the savages, driven from their inclosure, became, by the light of the burning pile, a sure prey to the English muskets; or, if they attempted a sally, theyr were cut down by the broadsword, or they fell under the weapons of the Narragansetts, who now rushed forward to the slaughter. As the sun rose upon the scene of destruction it showed that the victory was complete. About six hundred Indians,-men, women, and children, had perished; most of them in the hideous conflagration. Of the whole number within the fort, only seven escaped, B. Loss of the and seven were made prisoners. 5Two of the whites Enygik. were killed, and nearly twenty were wounded. 6. Farther 6.'The loss of their principal fort, and the destruction history!f the Pequodls. of the main body of their warriors, so disheartened the *- The Pequod, or Thiamses River, rises in Massachusetts, and, passing south through the eastern part of Connecticut, enters Long Island Sound, below New London. It is generally called "uinebasug from its source to Norwich. On the west it receives Shetucket, Yantic, and other small streams. It is navigable fourteen miles, to Norwich. t Mystic River is a small river which enters L. I. Sound, six miles E. from the Thames. * The town of Grotoz, lies between the Thames and the Mystic, bordering on the Sound. The Pequod fort, above mentioned, was on Pequod Hill, in the N.E. part of the town, about half a mile west from Mystic River, and sight miles N.E. from New London. A public road uow Crosses the hill, and a dwelling-house occupies its summit.

Page  211 PART 1I.] CONNECTICUT. 211 Pequods, that they no longer made a stand against the 1637. English. They scattered in every direction; straggling -- parties were hunted and shot down like deer in the woods; their Sachem, Sassacus, w as murdered by the Mohawks, to whom he fled for protection; their territory was laid waste; their settlements were burned, and about two hundred survivors, the sole remnant of the Pequod nation, surrendering in despair, were enslaved by the English, or incorporated among their Indian allies.'The vigor i. Effectof with which the war had been prosecuted, struck terror other tribes. into the other tribes of New England, and secured to the settlements a succession of many years of peace. II. NEW HAVEN COLONY.-1.'The pursuit of the 2. Dvcover Pequods westward of the Connecticut, made the English nent o Tzaer acquainted with the coast from Saybrook' to Fairfield;* a. Note, and late in the year, a few men from Boston explored the page 209. country, and, erecting a hut at New Haven,t there passed the winter. 2. In the spring of the following year, a Puritan colony, 1638. under the guidance of Theophilus Eaton, and the Rev. John Davenport, who had recently arrived from Europe, left' Boston for the new settlement at New Haven.'They b. April 9. 3. First Sabpassed their first Sabbath0 under a spreading oak,: and bath at NeS Mr. Davenport explained to the people, with much coun-.Haven. sel adapted to their situation, how the Son of Man was led into the wilderness to be tempted. 3. 4The settlers of New Haven established a govern- 4.Thegrovaerment upon strictly religious principles, making the Bible coianly their law-book, and church-members the only freemen. Mr. Eaton, who was a merchant of great wealth, and who had been deputy-governor of the British East India Company, was annually chosen governor of New Haven colony during twenty years, until his death.'The colo.-. Its prosny quickly assumed a flourishing condition. The settle- erity. ments extended rapidly along the Sound, and, in all cases, the lands were honorably purchased of the natives. IV. CONNECTICUT UNDER HER OWN CONSTITUTION.- 1639. 1. 6In 1639 the inhabitants of the three towns on the Con- e6velnt nportant NEW HAVEN. * Fairfield borders on the Sound, fifty miles S. W. from the mouth of the Connecticut. Some of the Pequods were pursued to a great swvamp in this town. Some were slain, and about 200 surrendered. The. town was first settled by a Mr. Ludlow and others in 1639. t New Havenz, now one of the capitals of Connecticut, called by the h' R Indians Quinipiac, lies at the head of a harbor which sets up four miles;rom Long Island Sound. It is about seventy-five miles N.E. from New a York, and thirty-four S. W. from Hartford. Thecity is on a beautiful plain, bounded on the west by West River, and on the east by Walling- A ford, or Quinipiac River. Yale College is located at New Haven. (See.f 5lap.); This tree stood near the comer of George and College streets.

Page  212 212 COLONIAL HISTOlRY. r1BooR IL. ANALYSIS. necticut, who had hitherto acknowledged the authority a. Jan. 24. of Massachusetts, assembled' at Hartfbrd, and formed a 1. First con- separate government for themselves.'The constitution dtitut:on of Connecticut. was one of unexampled liberality, guarding with jealous care against every encroachment on the rights of the people. The governor and legislature were to be chosen annually by the freemen, who were required to take an oath of allegiance to the commonwealth, instead of the English monarch; and in the general court alone was.Separate vested the power of' making and repealing laws.'At colonies in Conecticut. this time three separate colonies existed within the limits of the present state of Connecticut. 3. Disputes 2.'The Connecticut colonies were early involved in iutch.' disputes with the Dutch of New Netherlands, who claimed the soil as far eastward as the Connecticut River. The fear of an attack from that quarter, was one of the causes which, in 1643, led to the confederation of the 1644. New England colonies for mutual defence. 4In 1644 4.PurhaTceof Saybrook was purchased of George Fenwick, one of the proprietors, and permanently annexed to the Connecticut 5. Treaty colony. fin 1650 Governor Stuyvesant visited Hartford, Dutch. where a treaty was concluded, determining the line of partition between New Netherlands and Connecticut. 1651. 3. "In 1651 war broke out between England and Hol-. War be- land, and although their colonies in America had agreed laod antd to remain at peace, the governor of New Netherlands was accused of uniting with the Indians, in plotting the 7. WhatnoPe- destruction of the English.'The commissioners of the ~inAmsrrca. United Colonies decidedb in favor of commencing hostilib1653. ties against the Dutch and Indians, but Massachusetts refused to furnish her quota of men, and thus prevented 8. What colo- the war.'Connecticut and New Haven then applied to to Cromwell, Cromwell for assistance, who promptly despatched' a fleet aesudt. for the reduction of New Netherlands; but while the c1654. colonies were making preparations to co-operate with the naval force, the news of peace in Europe arrested the expedition. 1660. V. CONNECTICUT UNDER THE ROYAL CHARTER.-1. 9. Loyazty of 9'When Charles II. was restored' to the throne of his anConnecticut. d. May. cestors, Connecticut declared her loyalty, and submissions to. The royal to the king, and applied for a royal charter. "~The aged character. Lord Say-and-Seal, the early friend of the emigrants, 1662. now exerted his influence in their favor; while the younger Winthrop, then governor of the colony, went to England as its agent. When he appeared bef( e the king with his petition, he presented him a favorite ring which Charles I. had given to Winthrop's grandfather. This trifling token, recalling to the king the memory of

Page  213 PART II.] CONNECTICUT. 213 his own unfortunate father, readily won his favor, and 1662. Connecticut thereby obtained a charter,a the n ost liberalthat had yet been granted, and confirming, in every par- a- May 30. ticular, the constitution which the people themselves had adopted. 2.'The royal charter, embracing the territory from the l. Territory embraced by Narragansett Bay and River westward to the Pacific the charter. Ocean, included, within its limits, the New Haven colony, and most of the present state of Rhode Island. 2New INe u Haven reluctantly united with Connecticut in 1665. 1665..'The year after the grant of the Connecticut charter, 3. The Rhoda Rhode Island receivedb one which extended her western island limits to the Pawcatuck* River, thus including a portion b. July 18, 1663. of the territory granted to Connecticut, and causing a controversy between the two colonies, which continued more than sixty years. 3.'During King Philip's war, which began in 1675, 1675. Connecticut suffered less, in her own territory, than any 4. Connctof her sister colonies, but she furnished her proportion of King Phil-. troops for the common defence.'At the same time, 5. Usurpahowever, she was threatened with a greater calamity, in ton of the loss of her liberties, by the usurpations of Andros, then governor of New York, who attempted to extend his arbitrary authority over the country as far east as the Connecticut River. 4.'In July, Andros, with a small naval force, proceed- 6. Expeditieon to Connectied to the mouth of the Connecticut, and hoisting the cut, and its king's flag, demandede the surrender of the fort; but c. July 21. Captain Bull, the commander, likewise showing his majesty's colors, expressed his determination to defend it. Being permitted to land, Andros attempted to read his commission to the people, but, in the king's name, he was sternly commanded to desist. He finally returned to New York without accomplishing his object. 5.'Twelve years later, Andros again appeared in 1687. Connecticut, with a commission from King James, ap- 7. Second pointing him royal governor of all New England. Pro- dros took. ceeding to Hartford, he found the assembly in session, and demandedd the surrender of the charter. A discus- d. Nov. ]O. sion arose, which was prolonged until evening. The charter was then brought in and laid on the table. While the discussion was proceeding, and the house was thronged with citizens, suddenly the lights were extinguished. The utinost decorum prevailed, but when the candles * The Patocatuck, formed by the junction of Wood and Charles Rivers in Washington County, Rhode Island, is still, in the lower pwrt of its course, the dividing line between Con netiacut and Rhode Island.

Page  214 'Z14 COLONIAL HISTORY. rBooK IL ~ANAIYSuS. were re-lighted, the charter was missing, and could no.-... where be found. i.The charter 6.'A Captain Wadsworth had secreted it in a hollow preserved. tree, which is still standing, and which retains the ven. i. whrt tlzen erated name of the Charter Oak.'Andros, however, Anrld.~by assumed the government, which was administered in his 1689. name until the revolutions in England deprived James of a. See p. 197. his throne, and restored the liberties of the people. 3 Events 7.'During King William's war, which immediately durinri Kint William's followed the English revolution, the people of Connecticut W0a' were again called to resist an encroachment on their b. 1689-1697; 4. Fletcher's rights. 4Colonel Fletcher, governor of New York, had commission. received a commission vesting in him the command of the 5. Wheat militia of Connecticut. "This was a power which the taenby/ the charter of Connecticut had reserved to the colony itself, le i.!atlure, andi whlat by and the legislature refused to comply with the requisition. Fletcher Fletcher then repaired to Hartford, and ordered the miliNov. 6. tia under arms. 6. Fletcher's 8.'The Hartford companies, under Captain Wads-, worth, appeared, and Fletcher ordered his commission and instructions to be read to them. Upon this, Captain Wadsworth commanded the drums to be beaten. Coionel Fletcher commanded silence, but no sooner was the reading commenced a second time, than the drums, at the command of Wadsworth, were again beaten with more spirit then ever. But silence was again commanded, when Wadswortah, with great earnestnes, ordered the drums to be beaten, and turning to Fletcher said, with spirit and his looks, "If I am interrupted again I will make -Sie sun shine through you in a moment." Governor Fletcher made no farther attempts to read his commission, and soon judged it expedient to return to New York. 1700. 9.'In the year 1700, several clergymen assembled at 7. EstabZlsh- Branford,* and each, producing a few books, laid them on co2lf.ale the table, with these words: " I give these books for the founding of a college in this colony." Such was the beginning of Yale College, now one of the most honored institutions of learning in the land. It was first estabc 1702. lished~ at Saybrook, and was afterwards removed, to New d. 1717. Haven. It derived its name from Elihu Yale, one of' its most liberal patrons. i Renzaryzing 10. sThe remaining portion of the colonial history of Vonecticut. Connecticut is not marked by events of sufficient interest to require any farther notice than they may gain in the B tranford is a town in Connecticut, bordering on the Sour l, seven miles E. from New HIaven.

Page  215 PART U.] RHODE ISLAND. 215 more general history of the colonies.'The laws, customs, It 77. manners, and religious notions of the people, were similar to those which prevailed in the neighboring colony of sto me,,an. Massachusetts, and, generally, throughout New England. nelr's 4c. CHAPTER V. Subject of Chapter V. RHIODE IS L A N D.* 1.'After Roger Williams had been banished from 2 Roger Wi. Massachusetts, he repaireda to the country of the Narra- liamsa-5fter gansetts, who inhabited nearly all the territory which now " v'iufbrms the state of Rhode Island.'By the sachems of setts. a. Jan. 1636. that tribe he was kindly received, and during fourteen 3 HIowloreweeks he found a shelter in their wigwams from the ceived by thefa severity of winter. 40n the opening of spring he pro- etts. ceeded to Seekonk,t on the north of Narragansett Bay,~ dicd in thie and having been joined by a few faithful friends from Massachusetts, he obtained a grant of land from an Indian chief, and made preparations for a settlement. 2. 5Soon after, finding that he was within the limits of 5 1e7hther the Plymtouth colony, and bein advised by Mr. Winslo advised toby M. W slowethe governor, to remove to the other side of the water, 2Isy. where he might live unmolested, he resolved to comply with the fiiendly advice. GErmbarkingb with five com- 6. Settlement panions in a frail Indian canoe, he passed down the Narra- fdeP.nce. gansett River~ to Moshassuck, which he selected as the b. June. place of settlement, purchased the land of the chiefs of the }Narragansetts, and, with unshaken confidence in the mercies of I-Heaven, named the place Providence.ll 7The 7. N.anme of thee settlesettlement was called Providence Plantation. szenst. * RHIODE ISLAND, the smallest state in the Union, contains an area, separate from the waters of Narragansett.ay, of about 1225 square miles. In the northwestern part cf the state the surface of the country is hilly, and the soil poor. In the south and -west the country is generally level,'and in the vicinity of Narragansett Bay, and on the islands which it contains, the soil is very fertile. -I The townll of Seekonls, the western part of the early Rehobotlh Oseekonk lies east of, and adjoining the northern part of Narragansett Bay. The village is on Ten MBile River, three or four miles east from I Providence. (See Map )' 2 lvarragaxsett Bay is in the eastern part of the state of Rhode sland, 7and is twenty-eight miles long from N. to S., ancd feromnj ion eight to twelve hbroad. The N.E. arin of the bay is callecl llostcot i ilolpe BLay; the northern, ProCidcslce Bay; and the N.. estern, z, 9 Greesswicis canEy. it contains a number of beautiful and lertile islands, the principal of which are Rhode Island, Conanicut, and Prudence. (See Mlap.) The northern part of Narragansette Bay was often called'ar- Tagan ett River. /, II Providence, one of the capitals of Rhode Island, is in the aorthern part of th( state, at the head of Narragansett Bay, and ao ea0th sides Qf Providence River, which is, properly, a small

Page  216 216 COLONIAL HISTORY. LBoom It ANALYSIS. 3.'As Roger Williams brought with him the sams ffects pro- principles of religious toleration, for avowing and maindauced by taining which he had suffered banishment, Providence bereligious toleragion. came the asylum for the persecuted of thile neighboring colonies; but the peace of the settlement was never seriously disturbed by the various and discordant opinions 2. Novel which gained admission.'It was found that the numerexeriment. ous and conflicting sects of the day could dwell together in harmony, and the world beheld, with surprise, the novel experiment of a government in which the magistrates Were allowed to rule "only in civil matters," and in which 1" God alone was respected as the ruler of conscience." 3. TM gov- 4.'The political principles of Roger Williams were as etecoloty. liberal as his religious opinions. For the purpose of' preserving peace, all the settlers were required to subscribe to an agreement that they would submit to such rules,' not affectilng the conscience," as should be made for the public good, by a majority of the inhabitants; and under this simple form of pure democracy, with all the powers of government in the hands of the people, the free institu4. Liberality tions of Rhode Island had their origin. 4The modest and of Mr. Wil' liams. liberal founder of the state reserved no political power to himself, and the territory which he had purchased of the natives he freely granted to all the inhabitants in common, reserving to himself only two small fields, which, on his first arrival, he had planted with his own hands. S. Plot of the 5.'Soon after the removal of Mr. Williams to ProvPequods. idence, he gave to the people of Massachusetts, who had recently expelled him from their colony, the first intimation of the plot which the Pequods were forming for their destruc6. Mr. Wit- tion. 6When the Pequods attempted to form an alliance Hiass' mediation solicited. with the Narragansetts, the magistrates of Massachusetts solicited the mediation of Mr. Williams, whose influence 7. Hgi Con- was great with. the chiefs of the latter tribe.'Forgetting the injuries which he had received friom those who now needed his favor, on a stormy day, alone, and in a poor canoe, he set out upon the Narragansett, and through many dangers repaired to the cabin of' Canonicus. s. HM em- 6. 8There the Pequod ambassadors and Narragansett bassy to the Nirrragan- chiefs had already assembled in council, and three days W8Ut and nights Roger Williams remained with them, in constant danger from the Peq-uods whose hands, he says, seemed to be still reeking with the blood of his countrymen, and whose klnives he expected nightly at his throat. But, as Mi1r. Williams himself writes, "G God wonderfully bay, setting up N.W. from the Narragansett. The Pawtucket or Blackstone Rliver falls Int;o the head of Narragansett Btay, from the N.E., a little below Providence. Brown University' Icated at Providence, on the east side of the River. (See Map )

Page  217 PART lid RHODE ISLAND. 217 preserved him, and helped him to break in pieces the ]S6r6. negotiation and designs of the enemy, and to finish, by many travels and charges, the English league with the Narragansetts and Mohegans against the Pequods." 7.'The settlers at Providence remained unmolested 1. stulation of P roy idenzct during the Pequod war, as the powerful tribe of the Nar- clurig le-.Peluod war. ragansetts completely sheltered them from the enemy. "Such, however, was the aid which Mr. Williams afforded, 2. rid rein bringing that war to a favorable termination, that some Wfilaos. of the leading men in Massachusetts felt that he deserved to be honored with some mark of favor for his services.'The subject of recalling him from banishment was de- 3. Why he bated, but his principles were still viewed with distrust, called f'rornt and the fear of their influence overcame the sentiment of ban ishnent. gratitude. 8. 4In 1638 a settlement was madea at Portsmouth,* in 1638. the northern part of the island of Aquetneck, or Rhode 4. Settlement Island,t by William Coddington and eighteen others, who Oth. had been driven from Massachusetts by persecution for a April. their religious opinions.'In imitation of the form of gov- 5. Foyn of ernment which once prevailed among the Jews, Mr. Cod- governseezt. dington was chosenb judge, and three elders were elected b. Nov to assist him, but in the following year the chief magis- 1639. trate received the title of governor.'Portsmouth received 6. Settlement considerable accessions during the first year, and in the of Netoport. spring of 1639 a number of the inhabitants removed to the southwestern part of the island, where they laid the foundation of Newpoort. 7*The settlements on the island 7. Name rapidly extended, and the whole received the name of the new cetttlRhode Island Plantation. gtents. 9.'Under the pretence that the Providence and Rhode 1643. Island Plantations had no charter, and that their territory 8. Te Pz(C was claimed by Plymouth and Massachusetts, they were det t,.om, the excluded from the confederacy which was fbrmed between 643. the other New England colonies in 1643. gRoger Wil- t9.'T;e 1C(1r. liams therefore proceeded to England, and, in the follow- liaottnt. ing year, obtained~ from Parliament, which was then 1L644. waging a civil war with the king, a free charter of incor- c. March24 poration, by which the two plantations were united under the same government. * The town of Portsmouth is in the northern part of the island of Rhode Islandcl, and embraces about half of the island. The island of Prudence, on the west, is attached to this town. (See Map, p. 215.) t Rhode Island, so called from a fancied resemblance to the island of Rhodes in the Mediterrancasn, is in the southeastern part of Narragansett Bay. It is fifteen miles long, and has an average -width of two and a half miles. The town of Portsmouth occupies the northern part of the Islandcl, Middletown the central portion, and Newport the southern. (See MIap, p. 215.) $ Newport is on the S.W. side of Rhode Island, five miles from the sea,- and twenty-five miles S. from Proviidence. The town is on a beautiful declivity, and has an excellent ha'rbor (See Map, p. 215.) c>.~

Page  218 218 COLONIAL HISTORY. iBoux I1. ANALYSIS. 10. 1Jn 1647 the General Assemlbly of the several a May. ~towns mete at Portsmouth, and organized the government. 1. Organiza- by the choice of a president and other officers. A co12 gtin of the of laws was also adopted, which declared the government aand eary to be a democracy, and which closed with the declaration, Island. that " all men might walk as their consciences persuaded them, without molestation, every one in the name of his God." b. 1660. 11.'After the restorationb of monarchy, and the acces. 2. Charter sion of Charles II. to-the throne of England, Rhode Island from the king, and its applied for and obtained' a charter from the king, in which c. July 18, the principles of the former parliamentary charter, and 1663. those on which the colony was founded, were embodied. The greatest toleration in matters of religion was enjoined by the charter, and the legislature again reasserted the 3. Catholics principle.'It has been said that Roman Catholics were and Quakers. excluded from the right of voting, but no such regulation has ever been found in the laws of the colony; and the assertion that Quakers were persecuted and outlawed, is wholly erroneous. 4. Rhode 12. 4When Andros assumed the government of the New rig and England colonies, Rhode Island quietly submittedd to his ausfter the authority; but when he was imprisonede at Boston, and of Andros. sent to England, the people assembledf at Newport, and d. Jan. 197. resuming their former charter privileges, re-elected the f. May 11, officers whom Andros had displaced. Once more the free 1689. government of the colony was organized, and its seal was g. See the restored, with its symbol an anchor, and its motto Hope,g ieal p. 99. -fit emblems of the steadfast zeal with which Rhode Island has ever cherished all her early religious freedom, and her civil rights. CHAPTER VI. Subject EW YORK. chapter VI. N E W YO R.* SECTION 1. Uf Section I. NEW NETHERLANDS PREVIOUS TO ITS CONQUEST BY TIIE ENGLISH IN 1664.'yaotr2 o!f 1.'During the years 1607 and 1608, Henry Hudson, IYenYro.d an English mariner of some celebrity, and then in the * NEW YORK, the most northern of the Mid Ile States, and now the most populous in the Union, has an area of nearly 47,000 square miles This state has a great variety of surface.

Page  219 PART 11J NEW YORK. 219 employ of a company of London merchants, made two 160' voyages to the northern coasts of America, with the hope —. - of finding a passage though those icy seas, to the genial climes of southern Asia.'His employers being disheart- 1. Third voy' ened by his failure, he next entered the service of the age. Dutch East India Company, and, in April, 1609, sailed- 1609. on his third voyage. a. April 14. 2. aFailing to discover a northern passage to India, he 2. Account of turned to the south, and explored the eastern coast, in the the voyage. hope of finding an opening to the Pacific, through the continent. After proceeding south as far as the capes* of Virginia, he again turned north, examined the waters of Delaware Bay,t and, following the eastern coast of New Jersey, on the 13th of September he anchored his vessel within Sandy Hook.T 3.'After a week's delay, Hudson passed' through the 3. Discovery Narrows,~ and, during ten days, continued to ascend the (fRiver. noble river which bears his name; nor was it until his b. sept. 21 vessel had passed beyond the city of Hudson,I and a boat had advanced probably beyond Albany, that he appears to have relinquished all hopes of being able to reach the Pacific by this inland passage. 4Having completed his 4. Hudson's discovery, he slowly descended the stream, and sailinge his treatment for Europe, reached England in the Novembera follo0wing. by the kig. c. Oct. 14. The king, James the First, jealous of the advantages d. Nov. 17. which the Dutch might seek to derive from the discovery, forbade his return to Holland. 1610. 4.'In the following year, 1610, the Dutch East India 5 Wzhat oas done by the Company fitted out a ship with merchandize, to traffick Dutch East with the natives of the country which Hudson had ex- panty. Two chains of the Alleghanies pass through the eastern part of the state. The Highlands, coming from New Jersey, cross the Hudson near West Point, and soon after pass into Connecticut. The Catskill mountains, farther west, and more irregular in their outlines, cross the Mohawk, and continue under different names, along the western border of Lake Champlain. The western part of the state has generally a level surface, except in the southern tier of counties, where the western ranges of the Alleghanies terminate. The soil throughout the state is, generally, good; and along the valley of the Mohawk, and in the western part of the state, it is highly fertile. * Capes Charles and Henry, at the entrance of Chesapeake Bay. t Delaware Bay is a large arm of the sea, setting up into the land between New Jersey and Delaware; and having, at its entrance, Cape May on the north, and Cape Henlopen on the south, eighteen miles apart. Some distance within the capes the bay is thirty miles across. This bay has no safe natural harbor, but a good artificial harbor has been constructed by tho general government within Cape Henlopen. It is formed by two massive stone piers, called the Delaware Breakwater. T Sandy Hook is a low sandy island, on the eastern coast of New Jersey, extending north from the N. IAstern extremity of Monmouth County, and separated from it by Shrewsbury Inlet. It is five miles in length, and seventeen miles S. from New York. At the northern extremity of the island is a light-house, but the accumulating sand i~ gradually extending the point farther north. Sandy Hook was a peninsula until 1778, when the waters of the ocean forced a passage, and cut it off from the mainland. In 1800 the inlet was closed, but it was opened again in 1830, and now admits vessels through its channel ~ The entrance to New York harbor, between Long Island on the east and Staten Island on the west, is called the NVarrows. It is about one mile wide, and is nine miles below the city. (See Map next page.) II The city of Hudson is on the east side of Hudson River, 116 miles N. from New York and twenty-nine miles S. from Albany.

Page  220 2fii) COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL ANALYSIS. plored.'The voyage being prosperous, the traffic was Coditio continued; and when Argall, in 1613, was returning of the Dutch from his excursionz against the French settlement of Port settlement at the tine of Royal, he found on the island of Manhattan* a few rude tll's visit.. hovels, which the Dutch had erected there as a summer station for those engaged in the trade with the natives. 2. ral'sult of 5. 2The Dutch, unable to make any resistance against the force of Argall, quietly submitted to the English claim of sovereignty over the country; but, on his departure, they continued their'traffic,-passed the winter there, and, 1614. in the following year, erected a rude fort on the southern 3. New settle- part of the island.'In 1615 they began a settlement at after made. Albany,t which had been previously visited, and erected a fort which was called Fort Orange. I'he country in their possession was called NEw NETHERLANDS.4 4. Govern- 6. 4During several years, Directors, sent out by the country, East India Company, exercised authority over the little auhv coato-, settlement of New Amsterdam on the island of Manzeda,-and hattan, but it was not until 1623 that the actual colonizwohen the lrstgovernor ing of the country took place, nor until 1625 that an was appointed. actual governor was formally appointed.'In 1621 the 1621. Dutch West India Company was formed, and, in the same Wes5tcda year, the States-General of Holland granted to it the exCompany. clusive privilege to traffick and plant colonies on the American coast, from the Straits of Magellan to the remotest north. 1623. 7. 1In 1623 a number of settlers, duly provided with 6. Attempted the means of subsistence, trade, and defence, were sent in the south- out under the command of Cornelius Mey, who not only ern part of New Jersey. visited Manhattan, but, entering Delaware Bay, and NEW YORK AND VICINITY * Mlanhattanl, or New York island, lies on the east side of Hudson River, at the head of New -- ~, Yorlk harbor. It is about fourteen miles in l" length, and has an average wvidtl of one milo x i /; and three-fifths. It is separated from Long Is. A'o J#gt tland on the east, by a strait called the East [') xael....l'el " "' River, which connects the harbor and Long IsIlobokesso'l.. A' - land Sound; and from the mainlatnd on the east -.'-'z:'.r.o ~' t 2,' ~ by Harlem River, a strai. which connects the It.F.v,orw~:a~' r 1.ent on the southern part of the island, was 8 1;1 t/zlbo oikdr' Nessllnd Arri Amt erdam. I-Iere now stands the,....o. z city of ArNe York, the largest in America, and de -iord second only to London in the amount of its con..,[,o,,~?/ ~lal-.......or ere. The city is rapidly increasing in size,'- v. ~ ug:ahough its compact parts already have a cirMJ;< * L)-z e;; (.o% 0 a. ).: s cuomference of about nine miles. (See Map.) ~ |.~1s)e:,h!fii: -i banly, now the capital of the state of,cl - -s- -,:~ rolYok, is situated on the west bank of the Hud53t4;~d X,tz,///S//2}ffi|\442E, 03m River, 145 nilles N. from New York by t h,,,d~.-_ —:: river's course. It was first called by tne Dutch /" —' —— =' Beaverwyck, and afterwards Williamstadt. (. Map, next page.) $ The country fiom Caple Cod to the banks ofi the I)ela.ut.lec was claimed by the Dtza-_h

Page  221 F' RT II.]:NEW YORK. 22 ascending tile river,* took possession of the country, and, 6623. a few miles below Camden,t in the present New Jersey, --- built Fort Nassau.T Thle fort, ihowt evel', was soon after abandoned, and the wzlorthy Captain Mey carried away with him the affectionate rengrets of the natives, who long cherished his nemorly.'Pobably a few years befolre i. Settlesmer this, the Dutch settled at Bergen,~ and other places west >of* othoeh of the Hludson, in New Jersey. Jersey. S. 2In 1625 Peter Minutls arrived at Manhattan, as 1625. governor of' New Netherlands, and in the same year the o Events in settlement of Brooklyn,]j on Long Island,~ was commenced. "The Dutch colony at this time showed a dis- 3. Feelings position to cultivate fiiendly relations with the English by the Dutchi settlements in New Englandc, and mutual courtesies were Enlish cozoexchanged,-the Dutch cordially inviting_ the Plymouth eatch t0har.d settlers to relnove to the more fertile soil of the Connecti- a. Oct. cut, and the English advising the Dutchl to secure their claim to the banks of the Hudson by a treaty with England. 9. 4Although Holland claimed the country, on the 4. Opposing cl.ains to the ground of' its discovery by Hudson, yet it was likewise countr.y. claimed by England, on the -ground of the first discovery of the continent by Cabot. "The pilgrims expressed the 5. What the kindest wishes for the prosperity of the Dutch, but, at the PilestTed of same time, requested them not to send their skiffs into the Dutch. Narragansett Bay for beaver skins.'The Dutch at Man- 6. Conition hattan were at that time little more than a company of fthe Manhathunters and traders, employed in the traffic of the furs of tan. the otter and the beaver. 10.'7I 1629 the WVest India Company, in the hope of 1629. exciting individual enterprise to colonize the country, 7.Acteount of promised, by " a charter of liberties," the grant of an ex- of liberties." tensive tract of land to each individual who should, within four years, form a settlement of fifty persons. Those who * The Delaware River rises in the S. Eastern part of the state ALBANY AND VICINITY. f N7ew York, west of the Catskill mountains. It forms sixty miles Fpt]. wace.. P}lan x a-i:f the boundary line between Newv York and Pennsylvania, and luring the remainder of its course is the boundary between New etc / Jersey, on the one side, and Pennsylvania and Delaware on the as Dther. It is navigable for vessels of the largest class to Phila- -'S.,,,ie. delphia. i Camden, now a city, is situated on the east side of Delaware.As L, 44:e River, opposite Philadelphia. (See Map, p. 248.) I s -O, t This fort wvas on Big Timber Creek, in the present Glonces- M ter County, about five miles S. freon, camden. 5tcl 5 ~ The village of Bergen is on the summit of Bergen R.idge, three miles IV. from Jersey City,. nd four from New York. (See Map, p. 220.) II Brooklyn, now a city, is situated on elevated land at the west end of Long Island, opposite the lower part of the city of New York, from which it is separated by East River, three-fourths of a mile wide. (See Map, p. 220.) *I Long Island, forming a part of the state of New Yornc, lies south of Connecticut, from which it is separated by Long Island Sound. It is 120 miles in length, and has an average width of about twelve miles. It contains an area of about 1450 square miles, and is, therefore, Wrgerithan the entire state of Rhode Island. The north side of the island is rough and hilly — the south low and sandy. (See Map, p. 220.)

Page  222 222 COLONIAL HISTORY. LBookx IL ANALYSIS. shc;ul I plant colonies were to purchase the land of the In dians, and it was likewise enjoined upon them that they should, at an early period, provide for the support of a minister and a schoolmnaster, that the service of God, and zeal for religion, might not be neglected. Z. Appropia- 11.'Under this charter, four directors of the company, distinguished by the title of patrons or patroons, appropri. ated to themselves some of the most valuable portions of a. Godyn. the territory. 20One' of the patroons having purchasedb s. June. from the natives the southern half of the present state of 2. Attempt to ornm a settle- Delaware, a colony under De Vriez was sent out, and earmnet in Delaware. ly in 1631 a small settlement was formed near the present D. Extentof Lewistown.*'The Dutch now occupied Delaware, and ctlaiDtCh the claims of New Netherlands extended over the whole a. Note, p. 134. country from Cape Henlopent to Cape Cod., 1632. 12. 4After more than a year's residence in America, 4. Date of the De Vriez returned to Holland, leaving his infant colony colony to the care of one Osset. The folly of the new commandant, in his treatment of the natives, soon provoked their d. Dec. jealousy, and on the returnd of De Vriez, at the end of the year, he found the fort deserted. Indian vengeance had prepared an ambush, and every white man had been 5. Escape of murdered.'De Vriez himself narrowly escaped the perDe Vriez. fidy of the natives, being saved by the kind interposition of an Indian woman, who warned him of the designs of 1633. her countrymen. 6After proceeding to Virginia for the 6. Places 6vted. purpose of obtaining provisions, De Vriez sailed to New e. April. Amsterdam, where he founde Wouter Van Twiller, the second governor, who had just been sent out to supersede the discontented Minuits. 7. Firstsettle- 13. 7A few months before the arrival of Van Twiller as ment of the Dutch, and ofgovernor, the Dutch had purchased of the natives the soil eConnleciti, around Hartford,f and had erected' and fortified a tradingfct. house on land within the limits of the present city. The f. N. p 208. g. Jan. English, however, claimed the country; and in the same year a number of the Plymouth colonists proceeded up the river, and in defiance of the threats of the Dutch h. Oct. See commencedh a settlement at Windsor. sAlthough for 8g Feteo8 many years the Dutch West India Company retained Dutch tra- possession of their feeble trading station, yet it was finally overwhelmed by the numerous settlements of the more 9. settle- enterprising New Englanders. 9The English likewise Longisland. formed settlements on the eastern end of Long Island, although they were for a season resisted by the Dutch, who claimed the whole island as a part of New Netherlands. * Lewistown is on Lewis Creek, in Sussex County, Delaware, five or six miles from Cap$ Henlopen. In front of the village is the Delaware Breakwater. 1 Cape Hentlopen is the southern cape of the entrance into Delaware Bay.

Page  223 PART 1I.1 NEW YORK. 223 14. W lile the English were thus encroaching upon 16l30 the Dutch Dn the east, the southern portion of the territory claimed by the latter was seized by a new competitor..tvusn, Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, the hero of his age, folZhnus and the renowned oh ampion of the Protestant religion in colonies il Europe, had early conceived the design of planting colonies in America. Under the auspices of the Swedish monarch a commercial company was formed for this purpose as early as 1626, but the German war, in which Gustavus was soon after engaged, delayed for a time the execution of the project. 2After the death- of Gustavus, 2. 2mnisitcr-o J which happened at the battle of Lutzen,* in 1633, his a. Nov. 28, wvorthy minister renewed the plan of an American settle- 1633. ment, the execution of which he intrusted to Peter Minuits, the first governor of New Netherlands. 15.'Early in the year 1638, about the same time that 1638. Sir William Kieft succeeded Van Twiller, in the govern- 3. setltlz2 sZ ment of New Netherlands, the Swedish colony under Minuits arrived, erected a fort, and formed a settlement on Christiana Creek,t near Wilmington,: within the present state of Delaware. 4Kieft, considering this an intrusion 4. Opposition made by th, upon his territories, sentb an unavailing remonstrance to adutch. the Swedes, and, as a check to their aggressions, rebuilt b. May. Fort Nassau on the eastern bank of the Delaware.'The 5. Progree-s of the Swedhis Swedes gradually extended their settlements, and, to pre- settlements. serve their ascendency over the Dutch, their governor establisheda his residence and built a fort on the island of c 1643. Tinicum,~ a few miles below Philadelphia.'The terri- 6. Extent and tory occupied by the Swedes, extending from Cape Hen- Sle,(lish lopen to the falls in the Delaware, opposite Trenton, l was territory. called NEW SWVEDEN. 16.'In 1640 the Long Island and New Jersey Indians 7. Indiavn hosbeogan to show symptoms of hostility towards the Dutch. ohich the PIrovoked by dishonest traders, and maddened by rum, engaged. they attacked the settlements on Staten Island,IT and threatL Lntzen is a town in Prussian Saxony, on one of the NORTHERN PART OF DELAWARE branches of the Elbe. Hiere the French, lunder Bonaparte, defeqated the combined forces of Prussia and Russia, in 1813., t Christiana Creek is in the northern part of the state of. l.,*. Delaware. and has its head branches in Pennsylvania and.'i \.. MIarylandc. It enters the Brandywine River at lVilmingon. a (See BMap.) -c t lilmwingsson, in the northern part of the state of Dela- ne ware, is situated between Brandywine and Christiana Creeks,, one mile above their junction, and twlo miles west from Dela-,, /d ware l;iver. (See Map.) I J r 7 Tiict.n11 iS a lonlg narrow island in Delaware River, be- 5c O'o /'9nging to Pennsylvaniia, twelve miles, by the river's course,/' k,. [ S.w. from Philadelphia. (See Map, p. 248.) II T-renton, now the capital of New Jersey, is situated on!lhe E. side of Delaware River, thirty miles N.E. from Philadelphia, and fifty-five S,W. from New York. (See Map, p. 363, and also p. 364.) [,Staten Island, belonging to the state of New York, is about six miles S. W. from Nle

Page  224 224 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BooK If, &NALYSIS. ened New Amsterdam. A fruitless expeditions against a 1641 the Delawares of New Jersey was the consequence.'The 16431 war continued, with various success, until 1643, when 1. A truce the Dutch solicited peace; and by the mediation of the obtaineRo soon folloow wise and good Roger Williams, a brief truce was obby war. tained.b But confidence could not easily be restored, for b. April. revenge still rankled in the hearts of the Indians, and in c. Sept, a few months they again beganr the work of blood and desolation... Eoploits of 17.'The Dutch now engaged in their service Captain captain Undarhzll. John Underhill, an Englishman who had settled on Long Island, and who had previously distinguished himself in the Indian wars of New England. Having raised a considerable number of men under Kieft's authority, he ded. Probably featedd the Indians on Long Island, and also at Strickn 1645. land's Plain,* or Horseneck, on the mainland. T. The war 18. 3The war was finally terminated by the mediation termniated. *a* of ti:e Iroquois, who, claiming a sovereignty over the Algonquin tribes around Manhattan, proposed terms of e. 1645. peace, which were gladly acceptede by both parties. 4. Cretlty 4The fame of Kieft is tarnished by the exceeding cruelty andiet. f which he practiced towards the Indians. The colonists requesting his recall, and the West India Company dis1647. claiming his barbarous policy, in 1647 he embarked for Europe in a richly laden vessel, but the ship was wrecked on the coast of Wales, and the unhappy governor perished. 5. Stuvve- 19.'William Kieft was succcededf by Peter Stuyment ofthet vesant, the most noted of the governors of New NetherIndians. lands. By his judicious treatment of the Indians he conf June. ciliated their favor, and such a change did he produce in their feelings towards the Dutch, that he was accused of endeavoring to enlist them in a general war against the English. 8. His treaty 20. "After long continued boundary disputes with the with the, English. colonies of New England, Stuyvesant relinquished a por1650. tion of his claims, and concluded a provisional treaty,5 g. Sept. which allowed New Netherlands to extend on Long Island as far as Oyster Bay,t and on the mainland as far as 7. Erection Greenwich,t near the present boundary between New and loss of Fort cOaimir. York and Connecticut.'For the purpose of placing a York city. It is about thirty-five miles in circumference. It has Newark Bay on the nrorth Raritan Bay on the south, and a narrow channel, called Staten Island Sound, on the west (See Map, p. 220 and p. 363.) * Strickland's Plain is at the western extremity of the state of Connecticut, in the present town of Greenwich. The peninsula on which the plain is situated was called forseneck, because it was early used as a pasture for horses. t Oyster Bay is on the north side of Long Island, at the N.E. extremity of Queens County,'hirty miles N.E. from New York city. I Greenwich is the S. Western town of Connecticut. Byram River enters the Sonil on the boundary between Connecticut ax:d New York.

Page  225 PART II.1 NEW YORK, 225 barrier to the encroachments of the Swedes on the south, t651. in 1651 Stuyvesant built Fort Casimir on the site of the present town of Newcastle,* within five miles of the Swedish fort at Christiana. The Swedes, however, soon after obtained possessions of the fort by stratagem, and a..651. overpowered the garrison. 21.'The home government, indignant at the outrage 1. Conquest of the Swedes, ordered Stuyvesant to reduce them to sub- sf Nee. mission. With six hundred men the governor sailed for this purpose in 1655, and soon compelled the surrenderb 1655. of' all the Swedish fortresses. Honorable terms were b. Sept. and granted to the inhabitants. Those who quietly submitted to the authority of the Dutch retained the possession of their estates; the governor, Rising, was conveyed to Europe; a few of the colonists removed to Maryland and Virginia, and the country was placed under the government of deputies of New Netherlands. 22. 2Such was the end of the little Protestant colony of 2. Character New Sweden. It wvas a religious and intelligent commu- Swedish nity,-preserving peace with the natives, ever cherishing cololy. a fond attachment to the mother country, and loyalty towards its sovereign; and long after their conquest by the Dutch, and the subsequent transfer to England, the Swedes of the Delaware remained the objects of generous and disinterested regard at the court of Stockholm. 23.'While the forces of the Dutch were withdrawn 3. Indian from New Amsterdam, in the expedition against the tSwedes, the neighboring Indians appeared in force before the city, and ravaged the surrounding country. The return of the expedition restored confidence;-peace was concluded, and the captives were ransomed. 24. 4In 1663 the village of Esopus, now Kingston,t 1663. was suddenly attacked' by the Indians, and sixty-five of 4. Other ag-,he inhabitants were either killed or carried away captive. result of the A force from New Amsterdam being sent to their assist- c. June. ance, the Indians were pursued to their villages; their fields were laid waste; many of their warriors were killed, and a number of the captives were released. These vigorous measures were followed by a truce in Decenmber, and a treaty of peace in the May following.d d. l164. 25.'Although the Dutch retained possession of the, 5. ofNere cou ltry as far south as Cape Henlopen, yet their claims Nete pp were resisted, both by Lord Baltimore, the proprietor of Dtchaims.the N* Newcastle is on the west side of Delaware River, in the state of Delaware, thirty-two miles &.w. from Philadelphia. The northern boundary of the state is part of the circumference of a circle drawn twelve miles distant from Newcastle. (See Map, p. 223.) t Kingston, formerly called Esopus, is on the IW. side of Hudson Rivers in Ulster County about ninety miles N. from New Yorl city. 29

Page  226 226 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BoorK! ANALYSIS. Marylalld, and by the governor of Virgi aia. The southern boundary of New Netherlands was never definitely set. tled. At the north, the subject of boundary was still more troublesome; Massachusetts claimed an indefinite extent of territory westward, Connecticut had increased her pretensions on Long Island, and her settlements were steadily advancing towards the Hudson. 1.-Discon- 26.'Added to these difficulties from without, discontents it8aDutch. had arisen among the Dutch themselves. The NeAv England notions of popular rights began to prevail; —he people, hitherto accustomed to implicit deference to the will of their rulers, began to demand greater privileges 2. Their de. as citizens, and a share in the government. 2Stuyvesant mands remisted. resisted the demands of the people, and was sustained by 3. To what' the home government. 3The prevalence of liberal prinAectionsof the ciples, and the unjust exactions of an arbitrary governPeope haadb ment, had alienated the affections of the people, and when ated. rumors of an English invasion reached them, they were already prepared to submit to English authority, in the hope of obtaining English rights. 1664. 27. 4Early in 1664, during a period of peace between 4. Grant to England and Holland, the king of England, indifferent to the Dlke of the claims of the Dutch, granteda to his brother James, the a. March 22. Duke of York, the whole territory from the Connecticut River to the shores of the Delaware.'The duke soon 5. Espedition fitted out a squadron under Colonel Nichols, with orders and thehsur- to take possession of the Dutch province. The arrival of rendherofnezo the fleet found New Amsterdam in a defenceless state. Netherlands. The governor, Stuyvesant, faithful to his employers, assembled his council and proposed a defence of the place; but it was in vain that he endeavored to infuse his own spirit into his people, and it was not until after the capitub. Sept. 6. lation had been agreedb to by the magistrates, that he rec. Sept. 8. luctantly signed' it. 6. Places in- 28. *The fall of the capital, which now received the chided in the surrender. name of New York, was followed by the surrenderd of the d. Oc. 4 settlement at Fort Orange, which received the name of Albany, and by the general submission of the province, e. Oct. 11. with its subordinate settlements on the Delaware.e 7The 7. Gove'rn- government of England was acknowledged over the whole. nent of Engladni acknio- early in October, 1664. 8. Injustice Of 29.'Thus, while England and Holland were at peace, tnio conquest. by an act of the most flagrant injustice, the Dutch dominion in America was overthrown after an existence of I Grant made little more than half a century.'Previous [o the surrentoBerke- der, the Duke of Yorlk had conveyedf to Lord Berkeley teret. and Sir George Carteret all that portion of New Netherv3.4. lands which now forms the state of New Jersey, over

Page  227 PART iI.] NEW YORK. 22" which a separate government was established under its 1664L proprietors.'The settlements on the Delaware, subse-.The quently called " The Territories," were connected with Territories." the province of New York until their purchasee by Wil- a. see p. 247. liam Penn in 1682, when they were joined to the government of Pennsylvania. SECTION 11. SE'W Y'ORK, F ROM THE CONQUIEST OF NEWi' NETHIERLANDS IN Subjectof!16G, UNTIL THE COM0M3ENCE1MENT OF THE FRENCH AND IN- Ss~ton I DIAN WAR IN 1754. (DELAWAREt* INCLUDED UNTIL 1682.) 1.'On the surrender of' New Netherlands, the new 2. Charnges 2hat took name of its capital was extended to the whole territory place after embraced under the government of the Duke of York. of Newnbthse Long Island, which had been previously grantedb to the an b. 1623. Earl of Sterling, was now, in total disregard of the claims of Connecticut, purchased by the duke, and has since remained a part of New York. " The Territories," comprising the present Delaware, remained under the jurisdiction of New York, and were ruled by deputies appointed by the governors of the latter. 2.'Colonel Nichols, the first English governor of the a. MAdintis. province, exercised both executive and legislative powers, Goveranor but no rights of representation were conceded to the Nichols. people. The Dutch titles to land were held to be invalid, and the fees exacted fbr their renewal were a source of much profit to the new governor. The people were disappointed in not obtaining a representative government, yet it must be admitted that the governor, considering his arbitrary powers, ruled with much moderation. 3. 4Under Lovelace, the successor of Nichols, the ar- 1667. bitrary system of the new. government was more fully de- 1670 veloped. The people protested against being taxed for 4. Ain70t the support of a government in which they had no voice, tratio, of and when their proceedings were transmitted to the governor, they were declared " scandalous, illegal, and seditious," and were ordered to be burned by the common hangman. Lovelace declared that, to keep the people in order, such taxes must be laid upon them as should give Rofn theountry by the Dutch, them time to think of nothing but how to discharge them.a and iht resto4. 5A war having broken out between England and Eangland. * DELAWARE, one of the Middle States, and, next to Rhode Island, the smallest state in the Union, contains an area of but little more than 2000 square miles. The southern part of tShe state is level and sandy; tihe northern mlDderately hilly and rough; while the western bor ler contains an elevated table land, dividing the waters which fall into the Chesapeake from those which flow into Delaware Bay.

Page  228 228 COLONIAL HISTORY [Book II ANALYSIS. Holland in 1672, in the following year the latter des. 1673. patched a small squadron to destroy the commerce of the English colonies. Arriving at New York during the aba. Aug. 9. sence of the governor, the city was surrendereda by the traitorous and cowardly Manning, without any attempt at defence. New Jersey made no resistance, and the settle. ments on the Delaware followed the example. The name New Netherlands was again revived, but it was of short 1674. continuance. In February of the following year peace b. Feb. o9, was concludedb between the contending powers, and early in November New Netherlands was again surrendered to the English...Newat pent 5.'Doubts being raised as to the validity of the Duke obteaDued be of York's title, because it had been granted while the York. Dutch were in full and peaceful possession of the country, and because the country had since been reconquered by a,. July 9. them, the duke thought it prudent to obtain~ from his broth a. Andros er, the king, a new patent confirming the former grant. governteord 2The office of governor was conferredd on Edmund Andros, d. July 11. who afterwards became distinguished as the tyrant of New England. 3. character 6. 3His government was arbitrary; no representation of the goof was allowed the people, and taxes were levied without Andros. their consent. 4As the Duke of York claimed the country 1675. as far east as the Connecticut River, in the following sum4. His attept to en- mer Andros proceeded to Saybrook, and attemptede to endut"e's clahe force the claim; but the spirited resistance of the people to cotecti- compelled him to return without accomplishing his object. e. July. See 7. 5Andros likewise attemptedf to extend his jurisdic5. To New tion over New Jersey, claiming it as a dependency of Jrse:y. New York, although it had previously been regrantedg by 1678-1680. c' 1682. the Duke to Berkeley and Carteret. eIn 1682 the " Terg. See p. 226. ritories,' now forming the state of Delaware, were grantedh and prt 26. by the Duke of York to William Penn, from which time history of until the Revolution they were united with Pennsylvania, Delaware. a. See p. 247. or remained under the jurisdiction of her got ernors.. Successor 8. 7Andros having returned to England, Colonel Gf4Anrto. Thomas Dongan, a Catholic, was appointed governor, and 1683. arrived in the province in 1683. 8Through the advice of.f Lc'harter William Penn the duke had instructed Dongan to call an of Liberties" established. assembly of representatives. The assembly, with the api. Nov. 9. proval of the governor, establishedi a " CHARTER OF LIBERTIES," which conceded to the people many important rights which they had not previously enjoyed. S ProvsMions 9. 9The charter declared that'supreme legislative Charter. power should forever reside in the governor, council, and people, met in general assembly;-that every freeholder and freeman might vote for representatives without re.

Page  229 PART II.] NEW YORK. 229 straint,-that no freeman should suffer, but by judg- 1633. ment of his peers, and that all trials should be by a jury - of twelve men,-that no tax should be assessed, on any pretence whatever, but by the consent of the assembly,that no seaman or soldier should be quartered on the inhabitants against their will,-that no martial law should exist;, —and that no person professing faith in God, by Jesus Christ, should at any time, be in any way disquieted or questioned for any difference of opinion in matters of religion.''In 1684 the governors of New York and nadeein 68y Virginia met the deputies of the Five Nations at Albany, and renewed' with them a treaty of peace. a. Aug. Lt 10.'On the accessionb of the Duke of York to the 1685. throne of England, with the title of James IT., the hopes 2 b,. which the people entertained, of a permanent representa-,2urchfo tive government, were in a measure defeated. A direct loedl th:ea c tax was decreed, printing presses, the dread of tyrants, James II. were forbidden in the province; and many arbitrary exactions were imposed on the people. 11.'It was the evident intention of the king to intro- 3. Introuofduce the Catholic religion into the province, and most of Catholic rethe officers appointed by him were of that faith. 4Among 4.InstructionS other modes of introducing popery, James instructed Gov- Dong~a; Ais ernor Dongan to favor the introduction of Catholic priests, t.istaenc to. by the French, among the Iroquois; but Dpngan, although a Catholic, clearly seeing the ambitious designs of the French for extending their influence over the Indian tribes, resisted the measure.'The Iroquois remained at- 5t teoIsod tached to the English, and long carried on a violent war- the French. fare against the French. During the administration of Dongan the French made two invasionso of the territory c. In684 anc of the Iroquois, neither of which was successful. See p. 512. 12.'Dongan was succeeded by Francis Nicholson, the 1688. lieutenant-general of Andros. Andros had been pre-' Thaz2tn. viouslyI appointed governor of New England, and his drOSo,,iNetw authority was now extended over the province of New a. Seep. 197. York. 7The discontents of the people had been gradually 7. News f increasing since the conquest from the Dutch, and when, of Willzam, in 1689, news arrived of the accession of William and andlary Mary to the throne of England, the people joyfully received the intelligence, and rose in open rebellion to the existing government. 13. 80ne Jacob Leisler, a captain of the militia, aided 8. Proceedby several hundred men in arms, with the general appro- and of AticS bation of the citizens took possessione of the fort at New e~z~;Je. York, in the name of William and Mary; while Nicholson, after having vainly endeavored to counteract the movements of the people, secretly went on board a ship

Page  230 230 COLONIAL ITISTOPY.'Boox 11 ANALYSIS. and sailed for Engrland.'The magistrates of the city l. hleg s- T however, being opposed to the assumption of Leisler, re. tratel of the paired to Albany, where the authority of Leisler was de-;itt! nied, although, in both places, the government was administered in the name of William and Mary. 2 iflborte's 14. 2Milborne, the son-in-law of Leisler, was sent to Albany to demand the surrender of the fort; but, meeting with opposition, he returned without accomplishing 3.aIrntruc- his object.'In December, letters arrived from the king, lions received from Eng- empowering Nicholson, or whoever administered the govregarled byz ernment in his absence, to take the chief command of Lisler, the province. Leisler regarded the letter as addressed to himself, and assumed the title and authority of lieutenantgovernor. 1690. 15. 4King William's war having at this period broken 4. Dest.ruc- out, in February,a 1690, a party of about three hundred tion of Schenecta/dy. French and Indians fell upon Schenectady, a village on a. Feb. 18. the Mohawk, killed sixty persons, took thirty prisoners, 5. Subnission and burned the place. *Soon after this event, the northto Leiler. ern portion of the province, terrified by the recent calamity, and troubled by domestic factions, yielded to the authority of Leisier. 6 Ente-rprise 16. 6The northern colonies, roused by the atrocities of against Montreal the French and their savage allies at the commencement and Quebec. of King William's war, resolved to attack the enemy i4. b. May. See turn. After the successful expeditionb of Sir William page 198. Phipps against Port Royal; New York, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, united for the reduction of Montreal and Quebec. The naval armament sent against Quebec was w See p. 198. wholly unsuccessful.e The land expedition, planned by Leisler, and placed under the command of General Winthrop of Connecticut, proceeded as far as Wood Creek,* near the head of Lake Champlain,-' when sickness, the want of provisions, and dissensions among the officers, compelled a return. 1691. 17.'Early in 1691 Richard Ingoldsby arrived at New 7. Leisler dold York, and announced the appointment of Colonel Sloughter, as governor of the province. He bore a commission as captain, and without producing any order from the d. Feb. s. king, or from Sloughter, haughtily demandedd of Leisler * Wood Creek, in Washington County, New York, flows north, and falls into the south endci of Lake Champlain, at the village of Whitehall. The narrow body of water, however, between Whitehall and Ticonderoga, is often called South River. Through a considerable portion of:xs course Wood Creek is now used as a part of the Champlain Canal. There is another Wool} Creek in Oneida County, New York. (See Map, p. 273 and Map, p. 376.) t Lake Clhamplain lies between the states of New York and Vermont, and extends four ox five miles into Canada. It is about 120 miles in length, and varies from half a mile to fifteen miles in width, its southern portion being the narrowest. Its outlet is the Sorel or Riehelieu, through which it discharges its waters into the St. Lawrence. This lake was discovered in'609 by Samuel Champlain, the founder of Quebec. (See Canadian Histoxy, p. 505.)

Page  231 PART II.] NEW YORK. 231 the surrender of the fort. With this demand Leisler re- 1691. fused to comply. He protested against the lawless pro- ceedings of Ingoldsby, but declared his readiness to yield the government to Sioughter on his arrival. 18.'At length, in March, Sloughter himself arrived, a. March 29. and Leisler immediately sent messengers to receive his.loivaghter, orders. The messengers were detained, and Ingoldsby that foooevent was twice sent to the fort with a verbal commission to demand its surrender. 2Leisler at first hesitated to yield to 2. Hesitatiomz qf Leisler, his inveterate enemy, preferring to deliver the fort into anthe rethe hands of Sloughter himself; but, as his messengers sitt and his letters to Sloughter were unheeded, the next day he personally surrendered the fort, and with Milborne and others, was immediately thrown into prison. 19. 3Leisler and Milborne were soon after tried on the 3. Trial and charge of being rebels and traitors, and were condemned Lecsleti on to death, but Sloughter hesitated to put the sentence in ex- mlbolune. ecution. At length the enemies of the condemned, when no other measures could prevail with the governor, invited him to a feast, and, when his reason was drowned in wine, persuaded him to sign the death warrant. Before he recovered from his intoxication the prisoners were executed.b 4Their estates were confiscated, but were after- b. May. 26. wards, on application to the king, restored to their heirs. 4estahte 20.'In June, Sloughter met a council of the Iroquois, 5. Other or Five Nations, at Albany, and renewed the treaties Sltoeuthter's Which had formerly been in force. Soon after, having adn"istrareturned to New York, he ended, by a sudden death,c a c. Aug. 2. short, weak, and turbulent administration. ~In the mean 6. War cartime the English, with their Indian allies, the Iroquois, t"ewdn tirmes carried on the war against the French, and, under Major 1692. Schuyler, made a successful attack on the French settlemnents beyond Lake Champlain. 21. 7Benjamin Fletcher, the next governor of the prov- 7. Character of Governor nce, was a man of strong passions, and of moderate abili- Fletcher. ties; but he had the prudence to follow the counsels of Schuyler, in his intercourse with the Indians. sThe Iro- 8..Neso York 8creernedfrwin quois remained the active allies of the English, and their the attacks of situation in a great measure screened the province of New the Fre63ch York from the attacks of the French. 22. 9Fletcher having been authorized by the crown to 9. Fletcher's take the command of the militia of Connecticut, he pro- Connecticut. eeeded to Hartford to execute his commission; but the d. Nov. 6. people resisted,d and he was forced to return without ac- See p. 2L4. or. His at2omplishing his object. ~-Ie labored with great zeal, in tempts to ea. endeavoring to establish the English Church; but the ltalisghthe people demanded toleration, and the assembly resolutely Church. opposed the pretensions of the governor. "In 1696 the 1". Evets i

Page  232 232.' COLONIAL HISTORY. [Boos: IL ANALYSIS. French, under Frontenac, with a large force, made an uly, Au. unsuccessful invasion~ of the territory of the Iroquois.1. Closeof'In the following year King William's war was termib. Sept. 20. nated by the peace of Ryswick.b..Belamnont; 23. 2In 1698, the Earl of Bellamont, an Irish peer, a w.oris ditc- man of energy and integrity, succeededc Fletcher in the co Aprfli,. administration of the government of New York, and, in the following year, New Hampshire and Massachusetts 3. Of piracy. were added to his jurisdiction.'Piracy had at this time increased to an alarming extent, infesting every sea from America to China; and Bellamont had been particularly instructed to put an end to this evil on the American coast. Bella- 24. 4For this purpose, before his departure for Amerim.ont's effortu to suppess it. ca, in connection with several persons of distinction he had equipped a vessel, the command of which was given to 5. William William Kidd.'Kidd, himself, however, soon after turnKidda. ed pirate, and became the terror of the seas; but, at d. Jly, 1699. length, appearing publicly at Boston, he was arrested,d e. May 23, and sent to England, where he was tried and executed.' 6, ChLge GBellamont and his partners were charged with abetting againstBel- Kidd in his Piracies, and sharing the plunder, but after lasont. an examination in the House of Commons, nothing could be found to criminate theim. 1701. 25. 70n the death' of Beliamont, the vicious, haughty, 7. Next gov- and intolerant Lord Cornbury was appointed governor of a'n.Jer, sey extent of izs New York, and New Jersey was soon afterwards added f. March 16. to his jurisdiction,-the proprietors of the latter province 1702. having surrendered their rights to the crown in 1702. — 9. See p. 239.'On the arrivalh of Cornbury, the province was divided the Slaten of between two violent factions, the friends and the enemies on hSal'ari- of the late unfortunate Leisler; and the new governor, by h. May. espousing the cause of the latter, and by persecuting with unrelenting hate all denominations except that of the Church of England, soon rendered himself odious to the great mass Of the people. I. iTs recall 26. 9He likewise embezzled the public money,-conrequested. tracted debts which he was unable to pay,-repeatedly dissolved the assembly for opposition to his wishes,-and, by his petty tyranny, and dissolute habits, soon weakened his influence with all parties, who repeatedly requested his 1o.Even.tlthat recall.'OBeing deprivedi of his office, his creditors threw folloioed his removalfrown him into the same prison where he had unjustly confined,oe. many worthier men, and where he remained a prisoner, for debt, until the death of his father, by elevating him to the peerage, entitled him to his liberation. I. suzbse- 27. "As the history of the successive administrations of istration. the governors of New York, from this period until the time of the French and Indian war, would possess little

Page  233 PART II.] NEW YORK. 233 interest for the general reader, a few of the more import- 1~ON. ant events only will be mentioned. 28.'Queen Anne's war having broken out in 1702, the o. Pre p ra - northern colonies, in 1709, made extensive preparations vading Canfor an attack on Canada. While the New England colo-.ise abae, nies were preparing a naval armament to co-operate with one one expected from England, INew York and New Jersey raised a force of eighteen hundred men to march against Montreal by way of Lake Champlain. This force proneeded as far as Wood Creek,- when, learning that the a Noto p. s. armament promised from England had been sent to Por-,ugal, the expedition was abandoned. 29. 2Soon after, the project was renewed, and a large 1711. feet under the command of Sir Hovendc-n Walker being 2. T'hesecond attempt. sent from England to co-operate with the colonial forces, an expedition of four thousand men from New York, New Jersey and Connecticut, commenced its march towards Canada. The fleet being shatteredb by a storm, and re- b. Sept. 2, 3. turning to England, the land expedition, after proceeding See p. 120 as far as Lake George,* was likewise compelled to return. 30.'The debt incurred by New York in these expe- 3.'Thaedebt ditions, remained a heavy burden upon her resources for by it,?e many years. 4In 1713 the Tuscaroras, having been de- 1713. feated in a war with the Carolinians, migrated to the 4. Migratios north, and joined the confederacy of the Five Nations, caroas. -afterwards known as the " Six Nations." 31.'The treaty of Utrecht in 1713c put an end to 5. Treaty of Queen Anne's war, and, if we except the brief interval Utecht. d. April 1. of King George's war,d relieved the English colonies, d. 1744-1748. during a period of forty years, from the depredations of the French and their Indian allies. 6In 1722 the govern- 1722. ors of New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, met the,6. Meetng deputies of the Iroquois at Albany, for the purpose of con- ny in 1722. firming treaties, and transacting other business.'During 7. Anestabthe same year Governor Burnett established a trading- madeat house at Oswego,' on the southeastern shore of Lake On- Ossvego. tario; and in 1727 a fort was completed at the same place. *The primary object of this frontier establishment 8. For what was to secure the favor of the Indians, by a direct trade object. with them, which had before been engrossed by the French. * Lake George. called by the French Lac Sacramnent, on account of the purity of its waters and now frequently called the lIoricon, lies mostly between Washington and Warren Counties, near the southern extremity of Lake Champlain, with which its outlet conmmunicates. It is a beautiful sheet of water, 230 feet above the Iludson, and surrounded by high hills; it in thirty-three miles in length, and from two to three in width, and is interspersed with numneraus islands. Lake George was long conspicuous in the early wars of the country, and severa memorable battles were fought on its borders. (See Map, p. 273.) f (See page 275.) 39

Page  234 234 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BOOK 1L ANALYSIS. 32.'The French, at this time, had evidently formed the scheme of confining the English to the territory east fo, ed by the of the Alleghanies, by erecting a line of fobrts and trading Frenc. houses on the western waters, and by securing the influz. The means ence of the western tribes.'With this view, in 1726 employed. they renewed the fortress at Niagara,* which gave them control over the commerce of the remote interior. Five 1731. years later they established a garrison on the eastern shore of Lake Champlain, but soon after removed it to Crown Point,t on the western shore. The latter defended the usual route to Canada, and gave security to Mon8. Possessions treal.'With the exception of the English fortress at and claims of lse French at Oswego, the French had possession of the entire country this time. watered by the St. Lawrence and its tributaries, while their claims to Louisiana, on the west, embraced the whole valley of the Mississippi. 4. Condition 33. 4During the administration of Governor Cosby, of the rtrovn ince s2enderr who came out in 1732, the province was divided between nGo. Cosbi. two violent parties, the liberal or democratic, and the arisS. Prosecution tocratic party.'A journal of the popular party having folr libel. attacked the measures of the governor and council with a. J. P. en- some virulence, the editors was thrown into prison,b and ger. b. Nov. 1734. prosecuted for a libel against the government. Great ex1735. citement prevailed; the editor was zealously defended by able counsel; and an independent jury gave a verdict of c. July. acquittal.. Hole the 34.'The people applauded their conduct, and, to Anrnagistrates drew Hamilton of Philadelphia, one of the defenders of'egarded the conduct of the accused, the magistrates of the city of New York preti2e jry. sented an elegant gold box, for his learned and generous defence of the rights of mankind and the liberty of the 7. Hoo this press. 7This important trial shows the prevailing liberal trial may be regarded. sentiments of tVe people at that period, and may be regarded as one of the early germs of American freedom. 1741. 35. "In 1741 a supposed negro plot occasioned great 8. The negro excitement in the city of New York. There were then many slaves in the province, against whom suspicion was first directed by the robbery of a dwelling house, and by the frequent occurrence oP fires evidently caused by design. The magistrates of the city having offered rewards, * This place was in the state of New York, on a point of land at the mouth of Niagara River. As early as 1679 a French officer, M. de Salle, inclosed a small spot here with palisades. The fortifications once inclosed a space of eight acres, and it was long the greatest place south of Montreal and west of Albany. The American fort Niagara now occupies the site of the old French fort. (See Map, p. 451.) t Crown Point is a town in Essex County, New York, on the western shore of Lake Chaimn plain. The fort, called by the French Fort Frederic, and afterwards repaired and called Crowsn Point, was situated on a point of land projecting into the lake at the N.E. extremity of the town, ninety-five miles, in a direct line, N.E. from Albany. Its site is now marked by a heap of ruins.

Page  235 ART Il1 NEW YORK. 235 pardon, and freedom, to any slave that it ould testily- 1741. against incendiaries and conspirators, some abandoned. females were induced to declare that the negroes had combined to burn the city and make one of their number governor. 36.'There was soon no want of witnesses; the num- 1. Reult Qf ber of the accused increased rapidly; and even white hentx.t men were designated as concerned in the plot. Before the excitement was over more than thirty persons were executed;-several of these were burned at the stake; and many were transported to foreign parts. 37. 2When all apprehensions of danger had subsided, 2. HroW the and men began to reflect upon the madness of the project arega;ded itself, and the base character of most of the witnesses, the hensions reality of the plot began to be doubted; and the people ofded.rld looked back with horror upon the numerous and cruel punishments that had been inflicted. 38. SBoston and Salem have had their delusions of 3~ Wl2ad we should witchcraft, and New York its Negro Plot, in each of learn fom which many innocent persons suffered death. These ces of ubiec mournful results show the necessity of exceeding cau- excitemen. tion and calm investigation in times of great public excitement, lest terror or deluded enthusiasm get the predominance of reason, and "make madmen of us all." 39. 4The subsequent history of New York, previous to 4. The s8ubse quent history the commencement of the French and Indian war, con-.f tNew York. tains few events of importance. In 1745, during King 1745. George's war, the savages in alliance with France made some incursions into the territory north of Albany, and a few villages were deserted- on their approach. The a. Nov. province made some preparations to join the eastern colonies in an expedition against Canada, but in 1748 a treaty 1749. of peace was concludedb between the contending powers, b. Oct. 18. and New York again enjoyed a short interval of repose, soon to be disturbed by a conflict more sanguinary than any which had preceded. A connected history of that:ontest, in which all the colonies acted in concert, is given in the " French and Indian War."' r. See p. 267.

Page  236 236.Booi Il ANALYSIS. CHAPTER VIT. Subject of Chrpte VI. N E W J E R S E YA.P 1. In what 1.'The territory embraced in the present state of wvasat.2t New Jersey was included in tile Dutch province of New inclded Netherlands; and the few events connected with its history, previous to the conquest by the English in 1664, 2. Earlyset- belong to that province. 2In 1623 Fort Nassau was built te,,nenlts. on the eastelrl bank of' the Delaware, but was soon after deserted. Probably a few years before this the Dutch began to form settlements at Bergen, and other places west of the HIudson, in the vicinity of New York; but the first colonizing of the province dates, more properly, 1664. from the settlement of Elizabethtownt in 1664. 3 Portion of 2. 3Soon after the grant of New Netherlands to the hcoyvey Duke of York, and previous to the surrender, the duke loy by tfhe conveyeda that portion of the territory which is bounded York. on the east, south, and west, respectively, by the Hudson, a. July 3, 4. the sea, and the Delaware, and north by the 41st decgree and 40th minute of latitude, to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, who were already proprietors of Carolina. 4. Namen 4This tract was called New Jersey, in compriment to Carrct.Ia teret, who had been governor of the island of Jersey,4 o Note,p. 173. and had defended it for the king during the civil war.b 1665. 3.'To invite settlers to the country, the proprietors 5 Thecost: - soon publishedc a liberal constitution for the colony, by the propri- promising freedom from taxation, except by the act of,etor. the colonial assembly, and securing equal privileges, and e. Feb. 20. -D Z 6 The frst liberty of conscience to all. 6In 1665 Philip Carteret, the governor, and ohecrp ta of first governor, arrived,d and established himself at Elizathe province. bethtown, recently settled by emigrants from Long Island, d. Aug. ate and which became the first capital of the infant colony. 7.'The early 4. 7New York and New England furnished most of settlers. the early settlers, who were attracted by the salubrity of 8. Canses of the climate, and the liberal institutions which the inhabthesecurity itants were to enjoy.'Fearing little finom the neighboring wohich they, enjoyed. Indians, whose strength had been broken by lonog hostili. * NEW JERSEY, one of the Middle States, bordering on the Atlantic, and lying south of New York, and east of PennsCylvania and Delaware, contains an area of about 8000 square miles. The northert, part of the state is mountainous, the middle is diversified by hills and valleys; and is well adapted to grazing and to most kinds of grain, while the southlern part is level and sandy, and, to a great extent, barren the natural growth of the soil being chiefly shurnb oaks and yellow pines. t Elizabethtoewn is situated on Elizabethtown Creek, two and a half miles from its entrance into Staten Island Sound, and twelve miles S.W. from Neov York city. It was named from lady Elizabeth Carteret, wife of Sir George Carteret. (See Map, p. 220, and p. 363.2 0 The island of Jersey is a strongly fortified island in the English Channel, seventeen mileg from the French coast. It is twelve miles long, and has an average width of about five mailes

Page  237 PART II.1 NEW JERSEY. 237 ties with the Dutch, and guarded by the Five Nations and 1665. New York against the approaches of the French and their savage allies, the colonists of New Jersey, enjoying a happy security, es aped the dangers and privations which had afflicted the inhabitants of most of the other provinces. 5. 1After a few years of quiet, domestic disputes began 1. Repose of to disturb the repose of the colony. The proprietors, by the colony their constitution, had required the payment, after 1670, 1670. of a penny or half penny an acre for the use of land; but when the day of payment arrived, the demand of the tribute met with general opposition'. Those who had purchased land of the Indians refused to acknowledge the claims of the proprietors, asserting that a deed from the former was paramount to any other title. 2A weak and 2. Troubles dissolute son of Sir George Carteret was induced to assume ta. follwe. the government, and after two years of disputes and confusion, the established authority was set at defiance by open insurrection, and the governor was compelled to returnb to England. b. 1672. 6. a1n the following year, during a war with Holland, 1673. the Dutch regainede all their former possessions, including 3. Etvenrtsthat New Jersey, but restored them to the English in 1674. the following 4After this event, the Duke of York obtainedd a second c. Seep 228. charter, confirming the former grant; and, in disregard p4r Feedgs of the rights of Berkeley and Carteret, appointede Andros of the Duke,, of York. governor over the whole re-united province. On the ap- a.July9. plication of Carteret, however, the duke consented to re- e. July 17. store New Jersey; but he afterwards endeavoredf to avoid f Oct. the full performanice of his engagement, by pretending that he had reserved certain rights of sovereignty over the country, which Andros seized every opportunity of asserting-. 7. 1In 1674 Lord Berkeley soldg his share of New 1674. Jersey to John Fenwick, in trust for Edward Byllinge 5. Berceley and his assignees. GIn the following year Philip Carteret territory. returned to New Jersey, and resumed the government; g March 2. but the arbitrary proceedings of Andros long continued to 1675. disquiet the colony. Carteret, attempting to establish a t.oete Gardirect trade between England and New Jersey, was leretdalA'nwarmly opposed by Andros, who claimed, for the duke his master, the right of rendering New Jersey tributary Co New York, and even went so far as to arrest Governor Carteret and convey him prisoner to New York. 8. 7Byllinge, having become embarrassed in his for- 7 *Ass,-rn?,2n bV Byllinge, tunes, made an assignment of his share in the province to dc. William Penn and two others, all Quakers, whose first care was to effect a division of the territory between themselves and Sir George Carteret, that they might es

Page  238 238 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BooK 1I, ANALYSIS. tablish a separate government in accordance with their: Division peculiar religious principles.'The division* was accom. of thcs pro- plished'. without difficulty; Carteret receiving the eastern a. July 11. portion of the province, which was called EAST JERSEY; and the assignees of Byllinge the western portion, which 1677. they named WEST JERSEY. 2The western proprietors then 2. Thle vest- gaveb the settlers a free constitution, under the title of ern proprietors. "Concessions," similar to that given by Berkeley and b. March 13. Carteret, granting all the important privileges of civil and religious liberty. 3. Settlers in- 9.'The authors of the " Constitution" accompanied its vited to the colony; oith publication with a special recommendation of the province that result. to the members of their own religious fraternity, and in 1677 upwards of four hundred Quakers came over and 4. Subiject of settled in West New Jersey. 4The settlers being unextacation and soverei, srty. pectedly called upon by Andros to acknowledge the sovereignty of the Duke of York, and submit to taxation, they remonstrated earnestly with the duke, and the question was finally referred to the eminent jurist, Sir William Jones, for his decision. 1680. 10.'The result was a decision against the pretensions 5. Declosiof of the duke, who immediately relinquished all claims to Jones, and the territory and the government. Soon after, he made aduke. a similar release in favor of the representatives of Carteret, in East Jersey, and the whole province thus became independent of foreign jurisdiction. 1681. 11.'In 1681 the governor of West Jersey convoked the 6. roceed- first representative assembly, which enactedo several imtanssem2bly portant laws for protecting property, punishing crimes, esin West Jersey. tablishing the rights of the people, and defining the powers 7. Derc. a. of rulers. 7The most remarkable feature in the new laws N'efeaturein was a provision, that in all criminal cases except treason, the new laws. murder, and theft, the person aggrieved should have power to pardon the offender. S. Sale ofEast 12. sAfter the deathd of Sir George Carteret, the trusJersey, and Barclay's td- tees of his estates offered his portion of the province for nininstration. - d. Dec. 1679. sale; and in 1682 William Penn and eleven others, meme. Feb. 11, 12. bers of the Society of Friends, purchasede East Jersey, over which Robert Barclay, a Scotch gentleman, the auf. July 27, thor of the " Apology for Quakers," was appointedf govledisedin ernor for life. During his brief administrationg the col69ss. ony received a large accession of emigrants, chiefly frorm Barclay's native county of Aberdeen, in Scotland. * According to the terms of the deed, the dividing line was to run from the most southerly point of the east side of Little Egg Harbor, to the N. Western extremity of N(w Jersey; which was declared to be a point on the Delaware River in latitude 41~ 40/, which is 185 23/t farther north than the present N. Western extremity of the state. Several partial attempts were made, at different times, to run the line, and much controversy arose fromu the disputes which thems attempts occasioned.

Page  239 ?Li~' 1I.J NEW JERSEY. 539 13.'On the accession of the Duke of York to the'hrone, G6,5. with the title of James II., —disregarding his previous en- A - gagements, and having formed the design OI annulling all lmeasu-es of the charters of the American colonies, he caused writs to Yeork when MI be issued against both the Jerseys, and in 1688 the whole became king. province was placed under the jurisdiction of Andros, 1688. who had already' become the king's governor of New a. Seep. 197 York and New England. and p. 228. 14.'The revolution in England terminated the author- 1688-9. ity of Andros, and from June, 1689, to August, 1692, no 2. Events thia regular government existed in New Jersey, and during reotaution in the following ten years the whole province remained in an unsettled condition.'For a time New York attempted 3. ERvilstha arose fl'om to exert her authority over New Jersey, and at length the the divspu::s disagreements between the various proprietors and their priotor's. respective adherents occasioned so much confusion, that the people found it difficult to ascertain in whom the government was legally vested. 4At length the proprietors, 4. Dis7pos., o finding that their conflicting claims tended only to disturb the.ropri, the peace of their territories, and lessen their profits as etoar owners of the soil, made a surrenderb of their powers of government to the crown; and in 1702 New Jersey be- 1702. came a royal province, and was united- to New York, b. April 25. under the government of Lord Cornbury. c. See p. 23 15.'From this period until 1738 the province remained 5. Governunder the governors of New York, but with a distinct m Jertsey. legislative assembly. OThe administrations of Lord Corn- 6. Lord Cornl bury, consisting of little more than a history of his conten- niUzst'atidon tions with the assemblies of the province, fully developed d. 1702-1708, the partiality, frauds and tyranny of the governor, and served to awaken in the people a vigorous and vigilant siprit of liberty. 7The commission and instructions of 7. constituCornbury formed the constitution of New Jersey until the Jersey. period when it ceased to be a British province. 16. 8in 1728 the assembly petitioned the king to separate 8. Separation of New Jersey the province from New York; but the petition was disre- efroN oews garded until 1738, when through the influence of Lewis York7. Morris, the application was granted, and Mr. Morris him- 18. self received the first commission as royal governor over the separate province of' New Jersey. ~After this period 9. Subsequen4 we meet with no events of importance in the history of Ne2w Jerseey New Jersey until the Revolution.

Page  240 240 [BotQ U ANALYSIS. subject q CHAPTER VIII. Chapter TVIII MARYLAND.' 1609. 1.'The second charter given- to the London Company 1. Maryland. embraced within the limits of Virginia all the territory See p. 165. which now forms the state of Maryland. 2The country 2. By ohom, near the head of the Chesapeake was early explored', by wasexzplored. the Virginians, and a profitable trade in furs was estab. b. 1627, 8, 9. 9 Liense to lished with the Indians. "In 1631 William Clayborne, a Clayborne. man of resolute and enterprising spirit, who had first been sent out as a surveyor, by the London Company, and who subsequently was appointed a member of the council, and c. May 26. secretary of the colony, obtainede a royal license to traffick with the Indians. 1632. 2. 4Under this license, which was confirmedd by a 4. Settlements commission from the governor of Virginia, Clayborne performned by him. fected several trading establishments which he had pred. March IS. viously formed; one on the island of Kent,t nearly opposite Annapolis,: in the very heart of Maryland; and one 5. ctai: of near the mouth of the Susquehanna. 5Clayborne had ob. Vrginia. tained a monopoly of the fur trade, and Virginia aimed at extending her jurisdiction over the large tract of unoccupied territory lying between her borders and those of the a. Herclaims Dutch in New Netherlands.'But before the settlements efWeated. Of Clayborne could be completed, and the claim of Virginia confirmed, a new province was formed within her limits, and a government established on a plan as extraordinary as its results were benevolent. 7. Lord Balti- 3. 7As early as 1621, Sir George Calvert, whose title i oNre olony was Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic nobleman, influfounzlaad. enced by a desire of opening in America a refulge for * MARYLAND, the most southern of the Mliddle States, is very irregular in its outline, and contains an area of about 11,000 square miles. The Chesapeake Bay runs nearly through thfe state from N. to S., dividing it into two parts, called the Eastern Shore and the tWestern Shore The land on the eastern shore is generally level and low, and, in many places, is covered with stagnant waters; yet the soil possesses considerable fertility. The country on the westerrn shore, below the falls of the rivers, is similar to that on the eastern, but above the falls the country becomes gradually uneven and hilly, and in the western part of the state is mounVeICINITY O ANNAPOLIS. tainous. Iron ore is found in various parts of the state, and exVICINITY OF NNAPOIS.* tensive beds of coal between the mountains in the western part. e t ent, the largest island in Chesapeake Bay, lies opposite Annapois, near the eastern shore, and belongs to Queen Anne's County. It is nearly in the form of a triangle, and contains an area of about r Annapolis, (formerly called Providence,) now the capital of P Iarylasnd, is situated on the S.AV. side of the River Severn, two s miles from its entrance into Chesapeake Bay. It is twenty-five miles S. from Baltimore, and thirty-three N.E. from Washington. The or; - ginal plan of the city was designed in the form of a circle, with. I,1 W~ t the State-house on an eminence in the centre, and the streets, like ~ ~~':~SC~~ ~. ~radii, diverging from it. (See Mlap.)

Page  241 PaART I. MARYLAND 24 Catholics, who were then persecuted in England, had establishede a Catholic colony iin Newfoundland, and had. freely expended his estate in advancing its interests. a. eep. 556'But the rugged soil, the unfavorable climate, and the fie- 1. Itshopeso!f quent annoyances from the hostile French, soon destroyed a defeated. all hopes of' a flourishing colony,'He next visitedb Vir- 2. Iis visit to ginia, in whose mild and fertile regions he hoped to find b. 16"26 for his followers a peaceful and quiet asylum. The Virginians, however, received him with marked intolerance, and he soon found that, even here, he could not enjoy his religious opinions in peace. 4.'Heenext turned his attention to the unoccupied 3. Tothe country beyond the Potomac; and as the dissolution of beyond uthe the London Company had restored to the monarch his pre- P1to62ac. rogative over the soil, Callvert, a favorite with the royal 1632. family, found no difficulty in obtaining a charter for domains in that happy clime. 4The charter was probably 4. The drawn by the hand of Lord Baltimore himself, but as he died caprrter. before it recS4i ed the royal seal, the same was made out to his son Cecil.'The territory thus granted, d extending 5. Extent and north to the 40th degree, the latitude of Philadelphia, naneof$the nwas now erected into a separate province, and in honor of gran te d. Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV. king of France, and wife of the English monarch, was named MARYLAND. 5. *The charter granted to Lord Baltimore, unlike any 6. Provigions which had hitherto passed the royal seal, secured to the cofete,. emigrants equality in religious rights and civil freedom, and a1 independent share in the legislation of the province.'The laws of the colony were to be established 7. HoL the.vith the advice and approbation of a majority of the free- bleo,,tortietd men, or their deputies; and although Christianity was made the law of the land, yet no preferences were given to any sect or party. 6. 8Maryland was also most carefully removed from 8. rarther iball dependence upon the crown; the proprietor was left e'toig',',io free and uncontrolled in his anoc-.ltments to office; and it a2nd thet ro was farther expressly stipulated, that no tax whatsoever should ever be imposed by the crown upon the inhabitants of the province. 7. 9Under this liberal charter, Cecil Calvert, the son, a. Favorable who had succeeded to the honors and fortunes of his fa- the entetr ther, found no difficulty in enlisting a sufficient number of nfse. emiigrants to form a respectable colony; nor was it long before gentlemen of birth and fortune were found ready to join in the enterprise. "~Lord Baltimore himself, having 1633. abandoned his original purpose of conducting tile emi- I0o. LCa.rd grants in person, appointed his brother, Leonard Calvert, to iCt as his lieutenant. 31

Page  242 242 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Boos IL ANALYSIS. 8.'In December, 1633, the latter, with about two. —Deparure hunrsred emigrants, mostly Roman Catholics, sailed~ for of tie coto- the Potomac, where they arrivedb in March of the follow. 971sts, atzd tize.l.ecep- intg year. In obedience to the express command of the tiorn at Virr,,. king, the emigrants were welcomed with courtesy by a. Dec. 2. Harvey, the governor of Virginia, although Virginia had 1l634. remonstrated against the grant to Lord Baltimore, as an -. March 6. invasion of her rights of trade with the Indians, and an encroachment on her territorial limits... calvert's 9. 2Calvert, having proceeded about one hundred and oith~ tVl en- fifty miles up the Potomac, found on its eastern. bank the (lions. Indian village of Piscataway,* the chieftain of which would not bid him either go or stay, but told him "lHe 8. The rst might use his own discretion."'Deeming it unsafe, selttlesnt. however, to settle so high up the river, he descended the stream, entered the river now called St. Mary's,t and, about ten miles from its junction with the Potomac, pure. A.Dril,. chased of the Indians a village, where he commenced: a settlement, to which was given the name St. Mary's. t. The'frIend 10. 4The wise policy of Calvert, in paying the Indians Indta.sf.thie for their lands, and in treating them with liberality and S.cur1.apy kindness, secured their confidence and friendship.'The situalton of English obtained from the forests'abundance of game, and be colony. n as they had come into possession of lands already cultivated, they looked forward with confidence to abundant harvests. No sufferings were endured,-no fears of want were excited,-and under the fostering care of its liberal proprietor the colony rapidly advanced in wealth and population. 1635. 11.'Early in 16385 the first legislative assembly of the 0. First leg'is province was conveneda at St. Mary's, but as the records, j8l. have been lost,& little is known of its proceedings.'Not. I. In the re- withstanding the pleasant auspices under which the col4helloes of ony commenced, it did not long remain wholly exempt nwt page. from intestine troubles. Clayborne had, from the first, 7. Troubles casoed y refised to submit to the authority of Lord Baltimore, and, Claylorne. acquiring confidence in his increasing strength, he resolved to maintain his possessions by force of arms. A. itv. bloody skirmish occurredf on one of the rivers4 of' Maryland, and several lives were lost, but Clayborne's men were defeated and taken prisoners. 4 This Indian village wvas fifteen miles S. from Washington, on the east side of the Potomac, at the mouth of Piscataway Creek, opposite Mount Vernon, and near the site of the present Bortm Washington. i The St. Mlary's River, called by Calvert St. George's River, enters the Potomac from tihe north, about fifteen miles from the entrance of the latter into the Chesapeake. It is properly a small arm or estuary of the Chesapeake. NOTr. —ThiS skirmish occurred either on the River EWicomiro, or the Pocomoke, on bhs eatern shore otf Maryland; the former fifty-five miles, and the latter eighty miles S.E. from eIc ]2ale of eont.

Page  243 PART II.] MARYLAND, 242 12.'Clayborne himself had previously fled to Virginia, ]61.. and, when reclaimed by AMaryland, he was sent by the -- governor of Virginia to England for trial. The Mary- i. FProceedinfs and Iinet land assembly declared- him ( uilty of treason, seized his ct in l.,.Z tion l oto him. estates, and declared them f)r'tiited. In England, Clay- a. Mareh, borne applied to the king to gain redress for his alleged'3 wrongs; but after a full hearing it was decided that the charter of Lord Baltimore was valid against the earlier license of Clayborne, and thus the claims of the proprietor were fully confirmed. 13. 2At first the people of Mnaryland convened in gen- 1639. eral assembly for passing laws,-each freeman being en- 2i. Io the titled to a vote; but in 1639 the more convenient form of Jlst' erntted, and whiat a representative government was established,-the people t,, being allowed to send as many delegates to the general afmivea7.d" assembly as they should think proper.'At the same time 3. otih, ep. a declaration of rights was adopted; the powers of the ulatproprietor were defined; and all the liberties enjoyed by English subjects at home, were confirmed to the people of Maryland. 14. 4About the same time some petty hostilities were 4. A.di, carried on against the Indians, which, in 1642, broke out toar into a general Indian war, that was not terminated until 1644. 1644. 15.'Early in 1645 Clayborne returned to Maryland, 1645. and, having succeeded in creating a rebellion, compelled 5ble ct.sedo the governor to withdraw into Virginia for protection. lborne.'The vacant government was immediately seized by the 6. Thego insurgents, who distinguished the period of their domin- thiz~'n.-2tr ion by disorder and misrule; and notwithstanding the most rents. vigorous exertions of the governor, the revolt was not suppressed until August of the following year. 1646. 16.'Although religious toleration had been declared, R' liRgiost by the proprietor, one of the fundamental principles of the social union over which he presided, yet the assembly, in order to give the principle the sanction of their authority, proceeded to incorporate it in the laws of the pro- 1649. vince. It was enactedb that no person, professing to be- t. May 1. lieve in Jesus Christ, should be molested in respect of his religion, or the free exercise thereof; and that any one, who should reproach his neighbor with opprobrious names of religious distinction, should pay a fine to the person insulted. 17.'Thus Maryland quickly followed Rhode Island in 8. I-onor a establishing religious toleration by law. "While at this Maryland. very period the Puritans were persecutingy their Pro- f9AcbOetnp,a testant brethren in Massachusetts, and the Episcopalians Mar'y7Jand were retorting the same severity on the Puritans in Vir- colonies.

Page  244 244 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Boon I, ANALYSIS. ginia, there w as forming, in Maryland, a sanctuary where all might worship, and none might oppIress; and where even Protestants sought reffuge from Protestant intolerance.* 1650. 18.'In 1650 an important law was passed,~ confirm. a. Important ing the division of the legislative body into two branches, 1650. an upper and a lower house; the former consisting of the a. April 16. governor and council, appointed by the proprietor, and the latter of the burgesses or representatives, chosen by 2. Rights of the people.'At the same session, the rights of Lord BalLord Balti-. Inore,-taxa- timore, as proprietor, were admitted, but all taxes were prohibited unless they were levied with the consent of the freemen. 1651. 19. 3In the mean time the parliament had established 3. Inter- its supremacy in England, and had appointedb certain ference of Parliament commissioners, of whom Clayborne was one, to reduce ernmuent. and govern the colonies bordering on the bay of the Chesb. Oct. 6. apeake. "The commissioners appearing in Maryland, 4. Events Z between Stone, the lieutenant of Lord Baltimore, was at first rethe second re- movedc from his office, but was soon after restored.d In moval of Gov. stone. 1654, upon the dissolution of the Long Parliament, from c. Airil 8. which the commissioners had received their authority. d. July 8. Stone restored the full powers of the proprietor; but the 1654. commissioners, then in Virginia, again entered the province, and compelled Stone to surrender his commission e. Aug. i. and the government into their hands.e 5. Protestant 20.'Parties had now become identified with religious ascendency. sects. The Protestants, who had now the power in their own hands, acknowledging the authority of Cromwell, were hostile to monarchy and to an hereditary proprietor; and while they contended earnestly for every civil liberty, they proceeded to disfranchise those who differed Oct.-Nov. from them in matters of rcligion. Catholics were excluded from the assembly which was then called; and an act of the assembly declared that Catholics were not entitled to the protection of the laws of Maryland. 1655. 21. "In January of the following year, Stone, the lieu6. Measures tenant of Lord Baltimore, reassumed his office of govertake~, by the lileutenant of nor,-organized an armed force,-and seized the pro. Lord Balti- - more. vineial records. 7Civil war followed. Several skirmishes T. Events that folleowed occurred between the contending parties, and at length a f. April 4. decisive battlet was fought,f which resulted in the defeat of the Catholics, with the loss of about fifty men in killed NOTE.-Boznas'sra, in his Iistory of IMaryland, ii.,50-356, dwells at coi.siderable lnc-gth upont these laws; but he maitltains that a majority of the nleolbers of the Assembly of 1649 were Proteustants. t Nor. —The place where this battle was fought was on the south side of the smiall creek which torms the southern boundary of tihe peninsula on which Annapolis, the capital of Mary laud, noueV stands. (See bMap, p. 240.)

Page  245 PART I.1 MlARTYAI.D. 245 and wounded. Stone himself was taken prisoner, and 1,6. four of the principal men of the province twere executed. 22.'Int 1656 Josiah Fendall was comnilissionedl' gover- 1 Farther nor by the proprietor, but he was soon after arrested, 1ist,&tlo C07 cy the Protestant party. After a divided rule of' nearly a. y 20. two years, between the contending parties, Fendall was b. Aug. at length acknowledged'. governor, and the proprietor was 1658. restored to the fill enjoyment of his rights.'Soon after c. April 3. the deathd of Cromwell, the Protector of England, the 2. Disolution ~, cof tile upper Assembly of'?M~aryland, fearing a renewal of the dissen- hoJye. sions which had lo101 distracted the province, and seeing d. Sept. 1658. no security but in asserting the power of the people, dissolved the uipper house, consisting of the goveirnor and 160. his council, and assumedC to itself the whole legislative e. March24. powv,er of the state. 23. 3Fendall, havinr surrendered the trust which Lord, course ta. Baltimore had confided to him, accepted from the assemr- dall. bly a new commission as governor. 4But on the restora- 4. Events that tionf of monarchy in England, the proprietor was re-es- th, restora-'e tablished in his rights, —Philip Calvert was appointed go- tio,0,rfon. tablished in his ri yhts, archy. vernor,-and the ancient order of things was restored. f. June, 1660. TFendall was tried for treason and found guilty; but the 5. Political proprietor wisely proclaimed a general pardon to polit- oeen ical offenders, and MIaryland once more experienced the blessings of a mild government, and internal tranquillity. 24.'On the death' of Lord Baltimore, in 1675, his son 1675. Charles, who inherited his father's reputation for virtue 6. 7,esor and ability, succeeded him as proprietor. He confirmed tiinore the law which established an absolute political equality g. Dec. 10. among all denominations of Christians, —caused a diligent revision of the laws of the province to be made, and, in general, administered the government with great satisfaction to the people. 25. 7At the time of the revolution in England, the re- 1689. pose of MlVaryland was again disturbed. The deputies of 7. Events the the proprietor having hesitated to proclaim the new sove- revolution in.;'eins, and a rumor h1aving gained prevalence that the magistrates and the Catholics lad formed a league with the Indians for the massacre of all the Protestants in the province, an armed association was formed for asserting Sept. the right of King William, and for the defence of' the Protestant faith. 26. 8The Catholics at first endeavored to oppose, by 8. The Cathforce, the designs of the association; but they at le-ngth esl surrendered the powers of' government by capitulation. A convention of the associates then assumed the govern- 9. Changes r ment, which they administered until 1691, wv5hen the governmerl king, by an arbitrary enactment,h deprived Lord Balti- h.jul,11.

Page  246 246 COLONIAL HIST'ORY. L3ooIK I1 ANALYSIS. more of his political rights as proprietor, and constituted Maryland a royal government. 1692. 27.'In the following year Sir Lionel Copley arrived l. Admzinis- as royal governor,-the principles of the proprietary ad-;ration of Sir Lionel were subverted,-reliious toleration was Copley. minitraion~.resubvrte, I abolished,-and the Church of England was established as the religion of the state, and was supported by taxation. 1. Remaining 28. 2After an interval of more than twenty years, the,istIy of legal proprietor, in the person of the infant heir of Lord P.Teouos to Baltimore, was restored- to his rights, and Maryland th/e revolu- std tion. again became a proprietary government, under which it a. 7j 17160. remnained until the Revolution. Few events of interest mark its subsequent history, until, as an independent state, it adopted a constitution, when the claims of the proprietor to jurisdiction and property were finally rejected. CHAPTER IX. Subject 9t P E N N S Y L V A N I A.* Chapter I S. 3. Early 1.s As early as 1643 the Swedes, who had previously seiee set tledb near Wilmington, in Delaware, erected a fort on inPennsylva the island of Tinicum, a few miles below Philadelphia; b. Seep. 223. and here the Swedish governor, John Printz, established his residence. Settlements clustered along the western bank of the Delaware, and Pennsylvania was thus colonized by Swedes, nearly forty years before the grant of the territory to William Penn. 1681. 2. 4In 1681, William Penn, son of Admiral Penn, a 4. Grant to member of the society of Friends, obtained' of Charles William Penn. 1I. a grant of a1l the lands embraced in the present state C. dr elr4. of Pennsylvania. Thlis grant was given, as expressed tlon of Mth in the charter, in consideration of the desire of Penn to grant. enlarge the boundaries of the British empire, and reduce the natives, by just and gentle treatment, to the love of civil society and the Christian religion; and, in addition, as a recompense for unrequited services rendered by his fathier to the British nation. * PENNSYLVANIA contains an area of about 46,000 square miles. The central part of thl state is covered by the numerous ridges of the Alleghanies, running N.E. and S.W., but on Woth sides of the mountains the country is either level or moderately hilly, and the soil is generally excelient. Iron ore is widely disseminated in Pennsylvania, aLngd the coal regions are very extensive. The bituuminous, or soft coal, is found in inexhaustible qualntities west of the Alleghanies, and anthra;cite, or hard coal, on the east, particularly between the Blue tLidge and,1he N. branch of the Susquehanna. The principal coalr-field is sixty-five miles in length with anr average b sadth of about five miles.

Page  247 PAR? 1Il. PENNSYLVANIA. 247 3.'The enlarged and liberal views of Penn, however, 1681. enmbraaced objects of even more extended benevolence than. Vie of those expressed in the royal charter. His noble aim was Penn,cndais;o open, in the New World, an asylum where civil and "10btlea religious liberty should be enjoyed; and where, under the benign influence of the principles of PEACE, those of every sect, color, and clime, might dwell together in unity and love.'As Pennsylvania included the principal settlements 2 Proclainaof' the Swedes, Penn issueda a proclamation to the inhab- Ptioaenln by itants, in which he assured them of his ardent desire for a. April. their wvelfaire, and promised that they should live a free people, and be governed by laws of their own making. 4. 8Penn now published a flattering account of the 3 Invltation province, and an invitation to purchasers, and during the ato setlers same year three ships, with emigrants, mostly Quakers, b. ay and sailedb for Pennsylvania.'In the first came William Oct. -Markham, agent of the proprietor, and deputy-governor, I4isn.ttuc who was instructed to govern in harmony with law,-to ilarkham. confer with the Indians respecting their lands, and to conelude with them a league of peace. 5In the same year 5. Penn's let Penn addressedi a letter to the natives, declaring himself tero tives. and them responsible to the same God, who had written c. Oct. 2. his law in the hearts of all, and assuring them of his' great love and regard for them," and his " resolution to live justly, peaceably, andl friendly" with them. 5. "E-arly in the following year Penn published,' a 1682. " frlame of govenmnent," and a code of laws, which were 6 Franme of zn governmen t, to be submitted to the people of his province for their ap- a o. proval. 7He soon after obtained* friom the duke of York d Cay 15 7. Release, a release of all his claims to the territory of Pennsylvania, and ograne and likewise a gorantf of the present state of Delaware, Duke of Yftr then called TpHE'EaarroRIEs, or,' The Three Lower e Au 31 Colunties on the Delaware." 81n September Penn him- 8S. Penn, self, w ith a lalre number of emigrants of his own religious viebi to persuasion, sailed'for America, and on the sixth of November' fol lo\wrn Janded at Newcastle. 6. 90n the (lday after his arrival he received in public, 9. EVen..ta "tb J. l o wr 1 w C rb ~~~~thca o lccureed from the agent of the Dlrlke of York, a surrender7 of ill...edliately "The Territories;" made a kind address to the people, afrter ia. and renewed the commissions of the former magistrates. g. Nov. 7. 1'I1i accordance with hlis directions a friendly correspond- i0 IRenltion, aoready esab.y ence had been opened with the neighboring tribes of In- a./lz.~. ezon, dians, by the deputy-governor Markham; they hadl as- ti/eIadiaz,. seuted to the form of a treaty, and they were now invited to a conference for the purpose of giving it their ratifica- coterence, tion. "At a spot which is now the site of Kensington,* at 1Io,,isng A' mnusingtoi constitutes a suburb of PhUadelphia, in the N E. paxt of tho city. bordering

Page  248 248 COLONIAL IISTORY. [BooK h, ANAL~YS l. one of the suburbs of Philadelphi:, the Indian chiefs as..-... sembled at, the head of their armed warriors; and here they were met by William Penn, at the head of an un armed train of his religious associates, all clad in the simple Quaker garb, which the Indians long after venerated as the habiliments of peace.?.. Pws I7.'Taking his station beneath a spreading elm, PeiLn adgress to tile mndians. addressed the Indians through the medium of an interpre. ter. He told them that the Great Spirit knew with what sincerity he and his people desired' to live in friendship with them. " Woe rileet, " such were his words, " on the broad pathway of' good faith and good will; no advantage shall be taken on either side; disputes shall be settled by arbitrators mutually chosen; and all shall be 2. Record of openness and _ove."'Having paid the chiefs the stiputie treat/. lated price for their lands, he delivered to them a parchment record of the treaty, which he desired that they would carefully preserve, fbr the information of their posterity, for three generations. 3. Promises 8. 3The children of the forest cordially acceded to the ftedian. terms of friendship offered them, and pledged themselves to live in love with William Penn and his children, as.. Happy long as the sun and moon should endure. 4The friende ects of' _Penns's pol- ship thus created between the province and the Indians continued more than seventy years, and was never interrupted while the Quakers retained the control of the government. Of all the American colonies, the early history of Pennsylvania alone is wholly exempt from scenes of savage warfare. The Quakers came without arms, and with no message but peace, and not a drop of their blood was ever shed by an Indian. 1683. 9.'A few months after Penn's arrival, he selected a fi. FouPh place between the rivers Schuylkill* and Delaware, for phia. the capital of his province,-purchased the land of the PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY. Swedes, who had already erected a _No:-ris / M church there, and having regulated Ci' 3 ceses Ti I the model of the future city by a map, io ~ }. ~-:,'i tiM named it Philadelphia,t or the city of Themlnr Lon the Delaware; and, though it has a separate gov-.'' ie of the city. (See Map.) Mant v5,' syi vaThe Scihuylkfill River, in the eastern part of Pennian sylvania, rises by three principal branches in Schuyl)fII kill County, and pursuing a S.E course, enters Del* =) s:::i nm~g aware River five miles belcw Philadelphia. Vessels;. ri: > i ~,of fbrom 3r00 to 400 tons ascend it to the western,c.i (Ca'S~, wharves of Philadelphia. (See Map.) 3,(jI~ i tV~. /L e,',, ("' eouos,,:ter.f Philadelphia City, no"w the second in size and.a t population in the'United States, is situated bet;woeh 3' feI)'4 the Delaware and the Schuylkill Rivers, five miles ~.. ~ -" "~above their junction, and 120 miles, b. the Delaware I River, from the ocean. It is about eighty miles, ih

Page  249 PAx' II.] PENNSYLVANIA. 249 " Brotherly Love."'The groves of chestnut, walnut, IO4S. and pine, which marked the site, were commemorated by the names given to the principal streets.'At the end 6f tihe's'eets. a year the city numbered eighty dwellings, and at the 2. GroZt/ of end of two years it contained a population of two thousand five hundred inhabitants. 10.'The second assembly of the province was held in 3. Thevecoan tlhe infant city in March, 1683. The " frame of government," and the laws previously agreed upon, were amended at the suggestion of Penn;'and, in their place, a charter of liberties, signed by him, was adopted,& which a. April 12. rendered Pennsylvania, nearly all but in name, a represertative democracy. 4While in the other colonies the 4.Penn's proprietors reserved to themselves the appointment of the sthe people. judicial and executive officers, William Penn freely surrendered these powers to the people. His highest ambition, so different from that of the founders of most colonies, was to do good to the people of his care; and to his dying day he declared that if they needed any thing more to make them happier, he would readily grant it. 11.'In August, 1684, Penn sailed for England, having 1684. first appointed five commissioners of the provincial coun- e. Tent after cil, with Thomas Lloyd as president, to administer the tPenn's egovernment during his absence. 6Little occurred to dis- land. turb the quiet of the province until 1691, whei the 1691. " three lower counties on the Delaware," dissatisfied with 6a of DeWithrawsome proceedings of a majority of the council, withdrewb warefrom t24 Union. from the Union, and, with the reluctant consent of the b. April 11 proprietor, a separate deputy-governor was then, appointed over them. 12.'In the mean time James II. had been driven from 7. Penn'sim. his throne, and William Penn was several times imprison- miEnnglta~ ed in England, in consequence of his supposed adherence 1692. to the cause of the fallen monarch.'In 1692 Penn's 8. Thie governrnent of provincial government was taken from him, by a royal thleprovince coml'mission' to Governor Fletcher, of New York; who, from 1692 to the following year, reunitedd Delaware to Pennsylvania, c Oct. 31. d. May. and extended the royal authority over both. Soon after, e. Aug. 30. the suspicions against Penn were removed, and in Augualc, 1694, he was restorede to his proprietary rights. 9. Condition of the Prov13. "In the latter part of the year 1699 Penn again ince in 1699. visitedf his colony, but instead of the quiet and repose f. Penn's0; which he expected, he found the people dissatisfied, and labors to sat. demanding still farther concessions and privileges. 1He people. therefore presented' them another charter, or frame of 1701. a direct line, S.W. from New York, and 125 N.E. from Washington. The compact part of the city is now more than eight miles in circumference. (See Miap, p. 248.) 32

Page  250 250 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BooK 11 &NALYSIS. government, more liberal than the former, and conferring greater powers on the people; but all his efforts could not remove the objections of the delegates of the lower couna. Oct. 20. ties, who had already withdrawna from the assembly, and who now refused to receive the charter continuing their 1702. union with Pennsylvania.'In the following year the leg. a.Finalsepa-islature of Pennsylvania was convened apart, and in awarefrom 1703 the two colonies agreed to the separation. They Pennsylvania. were never again united in legislation, although the same governor still continued to preside over both. 2. Penn's 14. 2immediately after the grant of the last charter, quesezire' Penn returnedb to England, where his presence Was neb, Dengland. cessary to resist a project which the English ministers had formed, of abolishing all the proprietary governments 1718. in America. SHe died in England in 1718, leaving his 3. Death of interest in Pennsylvania and Delaware to his sons John, subsequent Thomas, and Richard Penn, who continued to adminishistory of the colony. ter the government, most of the time by deputies, until the American revolution, when the commonwealth purchased all their claims in the province for about 580,000 dollars. (For a more full account of the Quakers or Friinds, see Appendix, p. 311 to p. 31.9.) CHAPTER X. Subjectof NORTB CAROLINA.o Chapter x. R T C A R L I N A 4. Early at- 1. 4The early attempts0 of the English, under Sir settle Nortls Walter Raleigh, to form a settlement on the coast of North carolina. Carolina, have already been mentioned.c About forty c. 1585, 6, 7. hAbout See P 131. years later, the king of England grantedd to Sir Robert 5. Grant to n Sir Robert Heath a large tract of country lying between the 30th dH eath. and 36th degrees of north latitude, which was erected in6. Why de- to a province by the name of Carolina.'No settlements, clated void, however, were made under the grant, which, on that a-. 7. TWhetn atd count, was afterwards declared void. by whzom Carolina was 2.'Between 1640 and 1650 exploring parties from first expl ored and settled. Virginia penetrated into Carolina, and from the same - NORTH CAROLINA, one of the Southern States, lying next south of Virginia, contains an area of nearly 50,000 square miles. Along the whole coast is a narrow ridge of sand, separated from the mainland in some places by na'row! a-n.d ir other places by broad sounds and bays. The country for more than sixty miles from tho coast is a low sandy plain, with many swamps and marshes, and inlets from the sea. The natural growth of this region is almost univorsally pitch pine. Above the falls of the rivers the country becomes uneven, and the soil more fertile. In the western part of the state is an elevated table land, and some high ranges of the Alleghanies. _Black Itafozcottit, the highest point in the United States east of tho Rocky Mountains. is 6476 feet high. The gold region of North Carolina lies on both sides of the Blue Ridge, in the S. Western part of the state.

Page  251 PART IL] NORTH CAROLINA. 251 source came the fimnt emigrants, who soon aftel settled~ near the mouth of the Chowan,* on the northern shore of Albemarle Sound.'In 1663 the province of Carolina a. Theparwas grantedb to Lord Clarendon and seven others, and in is loot knowa. the same year a government under William Drummond to;'. t/ela't was established over the little settlement on the Chowan, secoanz,,d Lde, and 9ietal which, in honor of the Duke of Albemarle, one of the gatove e,~t, proprietors, was called the Albemarie County Co7ony. y i.sestab3. 2Two years later, the proprietors having learnled that b. April 3 the settlement was not within the limits of their charter, 16061. the grant was extended,' so as to embrace the half of 2. Etelsio; Florida on the south, and, on the north, all within thle -"''t. present limits of North Carolina, and westward to the C. July0. Pacific Ocean.'The charter secured religious freedom 3. to the people, and a voice in the legislation of the colony; bye but granted to the corporation of eight, an extent of powers and privileges, that made it evident that the formation of an empire was contemplated. 4. 4During the same year that the grant to Clarendon 4. 3stablish. was extended, another colony was firmly established Iarofen5daa within the present limits of North Carolina. In 1660 or Co1052/ 1661, a band of adventurers from New England entered Cape Fear River,t purchased a tract of land from the Irndians, and, a few miles below Wilmington,4 on Old Town Creek,~ formed a settlement. The colony did not prosper. The Indians became hostile, and before the auLumn of 1665, the settlement was abandoned. Two years 16065 later a number of planters from Barbadoesli formed a permanent settlement near the neglected site of the New England colony, and a county named Clarendon was established, with the same constitution and powers that had been granted to Albemarle. 5Sir John Yeamans, the 5s. ssevrar. choice of the people, ruled the colony with prudence and a-fection.' The Cliowan River, formed by the union of Nottaway, AMehlerrin, and Blackwa.ter Ilivers, which rise and run chiefly in Virginia, flows into Albermarle Sound. a little north of the mouth of the ioanoke. The first settlements were on the N.E. side of the Chowan, near the present Tillage of Edenton. T Cape Fear River, in North Carolina, is formed by the union vrc. or WITLInGTo'i'O, W. C. of Ilaw and Deep Rlivers. about 125 miles NT.W. from Wilminigton...... It enters the Atlantic by two channels, one on each side of Smith's Lsland, twenty and twenty-five miles below Wl ilmlington. (See the Map.) 4.I?[lmnington, the principal seaport in North Carolina. is situ- [" ated on the east side of Cape Fear River, twenty-five miles roinl the ocean, by way of Cape, Fear, and 150 miles N.E. froma Charles-.'i ton. (See Map.) lI,0Old Toun Creek is a small stream that enters Cape Fear River. ie from the W. eight miles below Wilmington. (Map.) II Barbadoes is one of the Caribbee or Windward Islands, anoi ~ the most eastern of the Wlest Indies. It is twenty miles long, aind l; contains an area of about 1i0 miles. The island was grant- 0d by James I. to the arl q f Marlborough in 1624.' -

Page  252 g52 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BooK I. ANALYSIS. 5.'As the proprietors of Carolina anticipated the rapid 1. Anticipa- growth of a great and powerful people within the limits etioo9san of their extensive and fertile territory, they thought proper proprietors, to establish a permanent form of government, commensurate, in dignity, with the vastness of their expectations. I. Framers of'The task of framing the constitution was assigned to the the constitu-,. tion. tu Earl of Shaftesbury, one of the number, who chose the celebrated philosopher, John Locke, as his friend and adviser in the work of legislation. 3. Object of 6.'The object of the proprietors, as expressed- by dZOto.;s. themselves, was "to make the government of Carolina a. Constitu- agree, as nearly as possible, to the monarchy of which it tions signed n March 1. was a part; and to avoid erecting a numerous democ-.Nature of racy." 4A constitution of one hundred and twenty artition adopted. cles, called the " Fundamental Constitutions," was adopted, establishing a government to be administered by lords and noblemen; connecting political power with hereditary wealth; and placing nearly every office in the government beyond the reach of the people. 1670. 7.'The attempt to establish the new form of govern5. Attempt to ment proved ineffiectual. The former plain and simple Constitution laws were suited to the circumstances of the people, and ~ —and thie resutt. the magnificent model of government, with its appendages of royalty, contrasted too ludicrously with the sparse population, and rude cabins of Carolina. After a contest of little more than twenty years, the constitution, which was never in effectual operation, and which had l) 1693. proved to be a source of perpetual discord, was abrogatedb by the proprietors themselves. 671. 8. "The Clarendon county colony had never been o.tacectumat very numerous, and the barrenness of the soil in its viTetarded and cinity offered little promise of reward to new adventufnally defeated thesettle- rers. In 1671 Sir John Yeamans, the governor, was ment of Clareneon. transferred~ from the colony to the charge of another c~ Dec. which had recently been establisheda in South Carolina. d. Seep.255, Numerous removals to the southward greatly reduced the numbers of the inhabitants, and nearly the whole country embraced within the limits of the Clarendon colb ony was a second time surrendered to the aborigines before the vear 1690. V. Dsses'iorns 9.'Domestic dissensions long retarded the prosperity in the, Albeearleczony. of the Albemarle, or northern colony. Disorder arose from the attempts of the governors to administer the government according to the constitution of the proprietors; 1676. excessive taxation, and restrictions upon t'm commerce of the colony, occasioned much discontent; while numerous refugees from Virginia, the actors in Bacon's rebellion, friends of popular iiberty, being kind'y sheltered iv

Page  253 PART ]L.] NORTH CAROLINA. 253 Carolina, gave encouragement to the people to resist op.- 167o7. pression. 10.'The very yeara after the suppression of Bacon's.Re.vo7tin rebellion ill Virginia, a revolt occurred in Carolina, occa- a c.inDa. sioned by an attempt to enforce the revenue laws against a vessel from New England. The people took arms in support of a smuggler, and imprisoned the president of the colony and six members of his council. John Culpepper, who had recently fled from South Carolina, was Lhe leader in the insurrection. 2Duirig several years, 2. T.raquzlld officers chosen by the people administered the govern- ty restored. rment, and tranquillity was for a time restored. The inhabitants were restless and turbulent under a government imposed on them from abroad, but firm and tranquil when left to take care of themselves. 11.'In 1683 Seth Sothel, one of the proprietors, ar- 1683. rived as governor of the province. Being exceedingly 3. Sothelgovavaricious, he not only plundered the colonists, but cheat- chlaracter ed his proprietary associates. He valued his office only as the means of gaining wealth, and in the pursuit of his favorite object, whether as judge, or executive, he was ever open to bribery and corruption. 4An historian of 4. What isre North Carolina remarks, that'the dark shades of his inrkaqr. character were not relieved by a single ray of virtue." The patience of the inhabitants being exhausted after 5.H isarrest nearly six years of oppression, they seized their governor with the design of sending him to England; but, at his 1688 owvi request, he was tried by the assembly, which banished him from the colony. 12. OLudwell,.the next governor, redressed the frauds, 1689. public and private, which Sothel had committed, and re- 6.Admioofn stored order to the colony. 71In 1695 Sir John Archdale, Luclwzel. another of the proprietors, a man of much sagacity and ex- Aug. 7. Arrival, emplary conduct, arrived as governor of both the Caroli- aon character of Archdale. nas. ~In 1698 the first settlements were made on Pamlico s. Firstsettleor Tar* River. The Pamlico Indians in that vicinity mWet- on had been nearly destroyed, two years previous by a pes- River tilential fever; while another numerous tribe had been greatly reduced by the arms of a more powerful nation. 13. "The want of harmony, which generally prevailed s. Increae of between the proprietors and the people, did not check the population. increase of population.'~In 1707 a company of French to.rrival eo Protestants, who had previously settled in Virginia, re- emigrants. moved to Carolina. Two years later, they were followed 1709. * Tar IRiver, in the eastern part of North Carolina, flows S.E., and enters Paralico Sound It is the principal river next south of the Roanoke. It expands into a wide estuary a short distance below the village of Washington, from which place to Pamlico Sound, it distance ot orty miles, it is called Pawlico River

Page  254 254 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Bool 11.-AL-YSIS by a hundred German famnilies firom the Rhine,* who had been driven in poverty from their homes, by the de. r.,.ovisios vastations of war, and religious persecution.'The proprimade for thIs 7 i nirglatis. etors assigned to each falmily two hundred and fifty acres of land;and generous contributions in England furnished them with provisions and implements of husbandry, sufficient for their immediate wants. 2. Changes 14.'A great change had fallen upon the numerous t1hat had s a i tT fatllnZ upo, Indian tribes on the seacoast, s t he the time of Sir Walter tri.e Ina a Raleigh's attempted settlements. One tribe, which could thei ttme f then bringw three thousand bowmen into the field, was now Sir Walter a IIl ictr. reduced to fifteen men; another had. entirely disappeared; and, of the whole, but a remnant remained. After having sold most of their lands, their reservations had been encroached upon; —strong drink had degraded the Indians, and crafty traders had impoverished them; and they had passed away before the march of' civilization, like snow beneath a vertical sun. T. Tuscaroras 15. 3The Tuscaroras and the Corees, being farther in. Caodees. land, had held little intercourse with the whites; but they had observed, with jealousy and fear, their growing power, and the rapid advance of their settlements, and with Indian secrecy they now plotted the extermination of the 1711. strangers. 4A surveyor, who was found upon their lands 4. Commnence- with his chain and compass, was the first victim.a Leavtiliates. ing their fire-arms, to avoid suspicion, in small parties, a. Sept. acting in concert, they approached the scattered settlements along Roanoket River and Pamlico Sound; and. in ). Oct.2. one night,', one hundred and thirty persons fell by the hatchet. 5. Services of 16. SColonel Barnwell, with a considerable body of ucll agBnt friendly Cherokees, Creeks, and Catawbas, was sent from tihe Tndians. South Carolina to the relief of the settlers, and having defeated the enemy in different actions, he pursued themn to their fortified town,t which capitulated, and the Indians 6. Farther were allowed to escape. 6But in a few days the treaty Prorteets and was broken on both sides, and the Indians renewed hostilthe soar. ities. At length Colonel Moore, of South Carolina, arc. Dec. rived,' with forty white men and eight hundred friendly 1713. Indians; and in 1713 the Tuscaroras were besieged in d April 5. their fort,~ and eight hundred taken prisoners.d At last * The Rhine, one of the most important rivers in Europe, rises in Switzerland, passes through Lake Constance, and after flowing N. and N.W. through Germany, it turns to the west, and, through several channels, enters the North Sea or German Ocean, between IHolland and Belgium. t Roanolce River, formed by the junction of Staunton and Dan Rivers, near the south boundary of Virginia, flows S.E. through the northeastern part of North Carolina, and enters the head of Albemarle Sound. $ This place was near the River Neuse, a short distance above Edenton, in Craven County. This place was in Greene County, on Cotentnea (or Cotechney) Creek, a short distance above its entrance into the River Neuse.

Page  255 PAR'r Il.] SOUTH CAROLINA. 255 the hostile part ef the tribe migrated north, and, joining.173., their kindred in New York, became the sixth nation of the Iroquois confederacy. In 1715 peace was concluded, 1715. with the Corees. a. Feb. 17.'In 1729, the two Carolinas, which had hitherto 1729. been under the superintendence of the same board of. EFvents thte proprietors, were finally separated; and royal govern- c17,2 ments, entirely unconnected, were establishede over them. b. July.'From this time, until the period immediately preceding c ondition the Revolution, few events occurred to disturb the peace,ofad progress and increasing prosperity of North Carolina. In 1744 soime f'om this time titZ public attention was turned to the defence of the sea-coast, the revoluon account of the commencement of hostilities between England and Spain. About the time of the commencement of the French and Indian war, the colony received large accessions to its numbers, by emigrants from Ireland 1754. and Scotland, and thus the settlements were extended into the interior, where. the soil was far more fertile than the lands previously occupied. CHAPTER XI. S O U T H C A R O L I N A.* Subject of Chapter XI. 1.'The charter granted to Lord Clarendon and others, 3. Charter to in 1663, embraced,' as has been stated,d a large extent of d. See p. 251. territory, reaching from Virginia to Florida. 4After the 170 establishment of a colony in the northern part of their 4. The plant. province, the proprietors, early in 1670, fitted out several ingof theirstI ships, with emigrants, for planting a southern colony, un- souta caroder the direction of William Sayle, who had previously explored the coast. The ships which bore the emigrants entered the harbor of Port Royal, near Beaufort,t whence, after a short delay, they sailed into AshleyT River, on the - SOUTH CAROLINA, one of the Southern States, contains an area of nearly 33,000 square:niles. The sea-coast is bordered with a chain of fertile islands. The Low Country, extending from eighty to 100 miles from the coast, is covered with forests of pitch pine, called pine barrens, interspersed with marshes and swamps, which form excellent rice plantations. Beyond this, extendislg fifty or sixty miles in width, is the Mliddle Covuntry, composed of numerous ridges of sand hills, presenting an appearance which has been compared to the waves of the sea suddenly arrested in their comtse. Beyond these sand hills commences the Upper Country, which is a beautiful and healthy, and generally fertile region, about 800 feet above the level of the sea. The Blue Ridge, a branch of the Alleghanies, passes along the N. Western boundary of the state. t Beaaufort, in South Carolina, is situated on Port Royal Island, on the W. bank of Port Royal River, a narrow branch of the ocean. It is sixteen miles from the sea, and about thirty. six miles, in a direct line, N.E. from Savannah. (See Map, p. 129.) t Ashley River rises about thirty miles N.W. from Charleston, and, passing along the woA side of the city enters Charhlston Harbor seven miles from the ocean. (See Map, next pigG.)

Page  256 2.56 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Boox I11 ANALYSIS. south side of which the settlement of Old Charleston was comnmenced. The colony, in honor of Sir George Carteret, one of the proprietors, was called the CARITERET COUNTY COLONY. 1671. 2.'Early in 1671 Governor Sayle sunk under the dis1. ventsi'hat eases of a sickly climate, and the council appointed Joseph oVIM.11e6d in 1671. West to succeed him, until they should learn the will of the proprietors. In a few months, Sir John Yeamans, a. Dec. then governor of Clarendon, was appointed' governor of 2. The colonzy'the southern colony. From Barbadoes lhe brought a Stiplabo'id..i/ number of Aificanl slaves, and South Carolina was, fiom the first, essentially, a planting state, with slave labor.. Therov- o R-tepresentative government was early establishedb by the uie,colongyo. people, but the attempt to carry out the plan of govern b. 1761-2. merit ibrmed by the proprietors proved ineffectual. 4. Circz.n- 3. 4Several circumsta nces contributed to promote the'tatnces ttmt avorced the early settlement of South Carolina. A long and bloody settlement I. and growth war between two neighboring Indian tribes, and a fatal of south ~ o Caroliza.' epidemic which had recently prevailed, had opened the way for the more peaceful occupation of the country by the English. The recent conquest of New Netherlands induced many of the Dutch to emigrate, and several ship c. 1671. loads of them were conveyed' to Carolina, by the proprietors, free of expense. Lands were assigned them west of the Ashley River, where they formed a settlement, which was called Jamestown. The inhabitants soon spread themselves through the country, and in process of time the town.was deserted. Their prosperity induced many of their countrymen from Holland to follow them. A few years later a company of French Protestants, refugees from d. 1679. their own country, were sentd over by the king of England. 5, Settlement 4. 5The pleasant location of "* Oyster Point," between and cprogrress the rivers Ashley and Cooper,* had early attracted the attention of the settlers, and had gained a few inhabitants; 1680. and in 1680 the foundation of' a new town was laid there, which was callecl It was immediately deVICINITY OF CHARLESTON. * Cooper River rises about thirty-five miles N.E. from Charlestos, and passing alon, the east side of the city, unites with Ashley ]iver, to form Charleston |;~,~ 4\ X ( v;s ~H d Ilarbor.!Tando River, a short but broad stream, enters the Cooper from the east, four miles above tho:' " ~/~ city. (See Map.) 1art Csrlestoss, a city and seaport of s. carolina, is CpuA. IiE TONI, tsituated on a peninsula formed by the union of Ashley l ~4r~'t~..... 2 ~f.' (o5 and Cooper Rtivers, seven v miles from the ocean. It is oo Cr 0 a only about seven feet above high tide; and parts of U,.'~'~~. ~~,~ ~te.., the city have been overflowed when the wind and tide z;~ Z'Z-Jo01grri have combined to raise the waters. The harbor, am' & 9R es ~VI,, ii low the city, is about twsr miles in width, and seven in MufI ar length across tie lmouth of which is a sand bar, having - four passages, the deepest of which, near Sullivan's Island, has seventeen feet of water, at high tide. During the summer months the city is more than ____)=_____ _ Ithe surrounding country.

Page  257 PART ]11, SOUTH CAROLINA. 2'Sb clared the capital of the province, and during the first 1~0,. year thirty dwellings were erected.'In the same year the colony was involved in difficulties with the Indians. ith rstsior Straggling parties of the Westoes began to plunder the dlians, andit ge'ninatiom. plantations, and several Indians were shot by the planters. War immediately broke out; a price was fixed on Indian prisoners; and many of them were sent to the West Illdies, and sold for slaves. The following year- peace was a. 1681. concluded, and commissioners were appointed to decide all colnplaints between the contending parties. 5.'In 1684 a few families of Scotch emigrants settled 1684. at Port Royal; but two years later, the Spaniards of St.'E Entsy ag: Augustine, claiming the territory, invaded the settlement, 1686. and laid it waste.'About this time the revocationb of the 3. Retnovalof Hntguenot.3 to edict of Nantes* induced a large number of French Pro- -tel.ica. testants, generally called Huguenots, to leave their coun- b. 1685. try and seek an asylum in America. A few settled in New England; others in New York; but South Carolina became their chief resort. 4Although they had been in- 4. Ho, they duced, by the proprietors, to believe that the full rights of rergaredt, and citizenship would be extended to them here, yet they by the Ezgwere long viewed with jealousy and distrust by the Eng- li lish settlers, who were desirous of driving them from the country, by enforcing against them the laws of England respecting aliens. 6.'The administratione of Governor Colleton was sig- o5.Eventstha nalized by a continued series of disputes M ith the people, r-ing Gov. who, like the settlers in North Carolina, refu-sed to sub- namiisetramit to the form of government established by the proprie- c. tiog6. tors. An attempt of the governor to collect the rents claimed by the proprietors, finally drove the people to open rebellion. They forcibly took possession of the public records, held assemblies in opposition to the governor, and the authority of the proprietors, and imprisoned the secretary of the province. At length Colleton, pretending danger from Indians or Spaniards, called out the militia, and proclaimed the province under martial law. This only exasperated the people the more, and Colleton was finally impeached by the assembly, and banished from the province. 7.'During these commotions, Seth Sothel, who had 1690. previously been banished' fiom North Carolina, arrived 6. Sothsd'. in the province, and assumed the government, with the d..See p. 153. * Nantes is a large commercial city in the west of France, on the N. side of the Ilsvel Loire, thirty miles from its mouth. It was in this place that Henry IV. promulgated the famous edict in 1598, in favor of the Protestants, granting them the free exercise of their religion. In 1685 this edict was revoked by Louis XI V.;-a violent persecution of the Protestants followed, end thousands of then fled from the kingdom.

Page  258 258 COLONIAL HISTORY. MLoo 1, U &NALY-SIS. consent of the people. But his avarice lea tinm to tram. pie upon every restraint of jus!;ice and equity; and after two years of tyranny and nisrule, he likewise was de..Luiwell's posed and banished by thle p:ople.'Philip Ludwell, for adntr.a- some time governor of North Carolina, was then sent to the 1692. southern province, to re-establish the authority of the proprietors. But the old disputes revived, and a.fter a brief. but turbulent administration, he gladly withdrew into Virginia. 1693. 8. 2In 1693, one cause of discontent with the people 2. 16egntsin was removed by the proprietors; who abolished the "Fundamental Constitution," and returned to a more simple and more republican form of government.'But contendale:-his ad- * * mnizistration. tions and disputes still continuing, John Archdale, who was a Quaker, and proprietor, came over in 1695; and by a wise and equitable administration, did much to allay private animosities, and remove the causes of civil dis-,. French cord. 4Matters of general moment were settled to the rfueesu satisfaction of all, excepting the French refugees; and such was the antipathy of the English settlers against these peaceable, but unfortunate people, that Governor Archdale found it necessary to exclude the latter fiom all concern in the legislature. 1696. 9.'Fortunately for the peace of the colony, soon after 5 Tersinae- the return of Archdale, all difficulties with the Huguenots tion of the dificulti.ees were amicably settled. Their quiet and inodtensive behat2Uth thess. vior, and their zeal for the success of the colony, had gradually removed the national antipathies; and the geni1697. eral assembly at length admittedcl them to all the ricghts a. March. of citizens and. freemen. The French and English Pro. testants of Carolina have ever since lived together in hbar1702. mony and peace. GIn 1702, immediately after the decla6. Wa,'iike rationh of war, by England, against France and Spain.osaedby tihe Governor Moore proposed to the assembly of Carolina an 702.r in expedition against the Spanish settlement of St. Augus. b. May. tine, in Florida. 7The more considerate opposed the pro1. How recei- ved. ject, but a majority being in favor of it, a sum of aboelt nine thousand dollars was voted for the war, and 12i00 men were raised, of whorm half were Indians. i. Expeditioss 10. 5While Colonel Daniel marched aogainst St. Au1gusagainst St. tine by land, the governor proceeded with the main body by sea, and blocked up the harbor. The Spaniards, tak. ng with them all their mnost valuable effects, and a large supply of provisions, retired to their castle. As nothing could be effected agaiinst it, for the want of heavy artillery, Daniel w as despatchled to Jamaica,* for cannon, mor. J amaca, one of the West India Islands, is 100 miles S. from Cuba, antd 800 S.E. from g[. augustine. It; is of an oval form, and is about 160 miles long.

Page  259 PART's Ill SOUTH CAROLiNA. 2+59 tars, &c. During his absence, two Spanish ships appedr.. 73 ed off the harbor; when Governor Moore, ab andoning his —---—. ships, made a hasty retreat into Carolina. Colonel Daniel, on his return, standing in ibr the harbor, made a nairow escape fiom the enlemy. 11.'The hasty retreat of the governor was severely 1. Debt incar. censured by the people of Carolina. This enterprise -d, aned h2 loaded the colony with a delbt of more than 26,f000 dollars, ibr the payment of xwhich bills of credit were issued; the first paper money used in Carolinoa. 2An expedition which 1703. was soon after undertaken- aegainst the Ap alachian In 2-a' lti dians, who were in alliance with the Spaniards, proved ch/anos more successful. The Indian towns between the rivers a Dec. Altamaha* and Savannaaht were laid in ashes; several hundred Indians were taken prisoners; and the whole 1704. province of Apalachia was obliged to submit to the English government. 12. 3The establishment of the Church of England, in 3. EstablishCarolina, had long been a favorite object with several of itof'ch of the proprietors, and during the administration of Sir Na- Enia thaniel Johnson, who succeededb Governor Moore, their b. 1704. designs were fully carried out; and not only was the Episcopal forni of' worship established, as the religion of lie province, but all dissenters were excluded from the oolonial legislature. 4The dissenters then carried their c:Decision of cause before the English parliament, which declared that Paithinen the acts complained of were repugnant to the laws of 7oatle. England, and contrary to the charter of the proprietors. 5Soon after, the coloniel assembly of Carolina repealed' 1706. the laws which disfranchised a portion of the people; but dsf. ocwof the Church of England remained the established religion ynentareof the province until the Revolution. C. Nov. 13.'From these domestic troubles, a threatened inva- 6. Threatenee sion of the province turned the attention of the people towards their common defence against foreign enemies.'Queen Anne's war still continued; and Spain, consider- 7itle Spitojn. inag Carolina as a part of Florida, determined to assert her ia7ds. right by force of arms. SIn 17(06, a French and Spanish 8. Eve.ts:quadron fiom Havanna appeared before Charleston; but readin 170. the inhabitants, headed by the governor and Colonel Rhett. Uassemlbled in great numbers for the defence of the city. " The Atanmaer, a 1-erge and navivga ble river of G- eoria, is formed by the union of the Oconee lnd the Ocmoulgoe after which it flors S.E., upwards of 100 miles, and enters thle Atlantic by several ountlets, sixty miles S.W. from Savannah.'diliecdeville, the capital of the srate, is on lie Oconee, the northern branch. (Sie MIap, 261.) Tle MSiva7lSzat.h River Juts s s heacl brtiches in N. Carolina, a.nd, runniang a S. Eastern course, iormls the boundary between S. Carolina andrGeorgis. The largest vessels pass up the river fourteen miles, and steambosts to Augusta, 120 miles: in a direct line, from the mouthll of bhe iiver, and more than 300 by the river's course.

Page  260 260 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BOOK II. ANALYSIS. The enemy landed in several places, but were repulsed with loss. One of the French ships vwas taken, and the invasion, at first so alarminn, was repelled w-ith little loss, and little expense to ilhe colony. 1715. 14.'In 1715 a general indian war broke out, headed... r2ia,1nar by the Yarnassees, and involvinr all the Indian tribes fiom of 1715. - Cape Fear River to the Alabamna. The Yamassees had previously shown great fiiendship to the English; and the war commenced- before the latter were aware of their a. April26. danger. The frontier settlements were desolated; Port Royal was abandoned; Clharleston itself was in dans,.srvices ger; and the colony seemed near its ruin.'But Govn~.tand close ernor Craven, with nearly the entire force of the colony, ofthe,,ar. advanced against the eneny, drove their stragg'ling parties before him, and on the banks of the Salkehatchie* encounb May. teredt their main body in camp, and after a bloody battle gained a complete victory. At length the Yamassees, being driven from their territory, retired to Florida, where they were kindly received by the Spaniards.. Donzestic 15. 3The war with the Yamassees was followed, in revolzcti.on. 1719, by a domest:c revolution in Carolina.'As the prodisconten. prietors refused to pay any portion of the debt incurred by the war, and likewise enforced their land claims with severity, the colonists began to look towards the crowln for 5. Resultog assistance and protection.'After much controversy and t/he cont,'o-,versy. difficulty with the proprietors, the assembly and the people openly rebelled angainst their authority, and in the name. Dec. of the king proclaimed~ James Moore governor of the 1720. province. The agent of Carolina obtained, in England, a hearing from tle lords of the reoency, who decided that the proprietors had forfeited their charter. 6. Nitolson.:16. 6While measures were taken for its abrogation, Francis Nicholson, who had previously exercised the office of governor in New York, in Mlaryland, in Virginia, d. Sept. and in Nova Scotia, now received, a royal commission as e1721.. governor of Carolina; and, early in the following year,e 7. Arrange- arrived in the province. 7The controversy with the proment between the proprie- prietors was finally adjusted in 1729, when seven, out of tots and the the eight. sold to the king, for less than 80,000 dollars, their claims to the soil and rents in both Carolinas; and all assigned to him the powers of government granted 8. Situation them by their charter. 8Both Carolinas then becamne of th,' Caroflinas. royal governments, under which they remained until the RIevolution. * Salkeehatchlie is the name given to the upper portion of the Cambahee River, (which see Map, p. 129.) Its course is S.E., and it is from twenty to thirty miles E, from the Savannab Riar.

Page  261 PAWR 1.1J 26] CHAPTER XII. GEORGIA." subject Qf Chaptsr XI; 1.'At thl. time of the surrender- of the Ca' 1,. ehar- 1. Situati ter io the crown, the country southwest of the Sr ninah of Georgia was a wilderness, occupied by savage tribes, and cii)imed cf her thesurr by Spain as a part of Florida, and by England as. nart Carolina charter. of Carolina. 6H1appily for the claims of the latter, and a. 1729. the security of Carolina, in 1732 a number of persons in 2, Project England, influenced by motives of patriotism and humoran- 1732. ity, formed the project of planting a colony in the disputd territory. 2. "James Oglethorpe, a member of the British parlin. 3, Oglethorve ment, a soldier and a loyalist, but a friend of the unfor- naevsla bdetunate, first conceived the idea of opening, for the poor si of his own country, and fbr persecuted Protestants of all nations, an asylum in America, where former poverty would be no reproach, and where all might worship without fear of persecution. 4The benevolent enterprise met. rrs tgran, bo' chearter, with favor from the king, who granted,b for twenty-one rf G iheria. years, to a corporation, " in trust for the poor," the coun- b. June 20 try between the Savannah and the Altamaha, and westward to the Pacific Ocean. The new province was named Georgia. 3. qIn November of the same year, Oglethorpe, with 5. Seat nearly one hundred and twenty emigrants, embarkedo for of Savanna. c. Nov. America, and after touching1 at Charleston and Port 1733. Royal, on the twelfth of February landed at Savannah.t d. Jan. 24. On Yamacraw bluff, a settlement was immediately commenced, and the town, after the Indian name of the river, 6. Indians invited to a was called Savannah.'After completing a slight fortifi- conference. GEORGIA, one of the Southern States, contains an area of about 60,000 square miles. The entire coast, to the distance of seven or eight miles, is intersected by numerous inlets, comnmunicating with each other, and navigable for small vessels. The islands thus formed consist mlostlyv of salt marshes, which produce sea island cotton of a superior quality. The coast on the mainland, to the distance of several miles, is mostly a salt marsh; beyond which are ti.j pine barrels, and the ridges of sand hills, similar to OCINIT~ OF SAVXNNAI. those of South Carolina. The Upper Couantry is an extensire table!and, with a black and fertile soil. Near b - the boundary of Tennessee and Carolina, on the north, the country beconmes mountainous. Ec7.s.i'oss., e' SovIana/h, now the la.rgest city, and the principal |:, seaport of Georgia, is situated on thle S. W. balnk of thle I\N: -. Savannah Iivrci, on a sandy plain forty feet above the; -. level of the lidle, and seventeen imiles froom thee sea. i The city is regularly ]aid out in the fobrm of a p:aLr-.-,,,/ allelogranl, with streets erossing each other at right ng'les. - Vessels reqluiring fourteen ieet of water comlne fs,.!_/.;:. tp to the wharves of the city, and larger vessels to CieT p/ rilve Fatcshom ol, three miles below the city. (See Ma.) ___ ___

Page  262 262 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BOOK IL ANALYSIs. cation for the defence of the settlers, Oglethorpe invited - the neighboring Indian chiefs to meet him at Savannah, in order to treat with them for their lands, and establish relations of firiendship. First meeL- 4.'In June the chiefs of the Creek nation assembled; t,' qvitt- the kind feelings prevailed; and the English were cordially welcomed to the country. Anll aged warrior presented several bundles of slins, saying that, although the Indians were poor, they gave, with a good heart, such things as they possessed. Another chief presented the skin of a buffalo, painted, on the inside, with the head and feathers of an eagle. He said the English were as swift as the eagle, and as strong as the buffalo; for they flew over vast seas; and were so powerful, that nothing could withstand them. He reminded them that the feathers of the eagle were soft, and signified love; that the skin of the buffalo was warm, and signified protection; and therefore he hoped the English would love and protect the little families of the Indians. Character 5. "The settlers rapidly increased in numbers, but as osettlers.l most of those who first came over, were not only poor, but unaccustomed to habits of industry, they were poorly qualified to encounter the toil and hardships to which their. A.rrval of situation exposed themt.'The liberality of the trustees grants. then invited emigrants of more enterprising habits; and large numbers of' Swiss, Germans, and Scotch, accepted 4. Reula- their proposals. 4The regul4ations of the trustees at first tionusof the forbade the use of negroes,-prohibited the importation of rum,-and interdicted all trade with the Indians, without a special license. Slavery was declared to be no, only immoral, but contrary to the laws of England. 1736. 6.'Early in 1736, Oglethorpe, who had previously a. Adatirto visited England, returned- to Georgia, with a new commade to the ZD coloSny pany of three hundred emigrants. 1In anticipation of in, 1736. a. Feb. 16. war between England and Spain, he fortified his colony, t.onsfoo Pra- by erecting forts at Augusta,* Darien,4 Frederica,- on Cumberland Island~ near the mouth of the St. Mary's,J1 e Augusta City is situated on the S.W. side of the Savannah River, 120 miles N.W. from Savannah City. It is at the head of steamboat navigation on the Savannah, is surrounded by a rich country, and has an active trade. t Darsie is situated on a high sandy bluff, on the north and principal channel of the Alta, VICINITY OF RED)ERICA. maha, twelve miles from the bar near its mouth. (See Map.) I Frederica is situated on the west side of St. Simon's Island, {-~.Dxv —ke-' 5f below the principal mouth of the Altamaha, and on one of it~,. navigable channels. The fort, mentioned above, sias constructe of tabby, a mixture of water and lime, with shells or gravel, forming a hard rocky mass when dry. The ruins of the fort'.>" o-'p,, I may still be seen. (See Map.) ~ Css7sberlned Island lies opposite the coast, at the southeastern extremity of Georgia. It is fifteen miles in length, and from one Bruns r to four in width. Thie fort on the southern point, and -i5e/;Fv 4FK/' commanded the entrance to St. Mlary's River. II,St. iMary's River, forming part of the boundary between Georgia and Florida, enters the Atlantic, between Cumberland Island on the north, and Amelia Island onuthe south

Page  263 PART l.J GEORGIA.. 263 and even as far as the St. John's, claiming for the Eng- 1J'36 iish, all the territory north of' that river. I3But the Span- i. Claisr ish authorities of St. Augustine complained of the near ged by tihe t Spanish at. approach of the English; and their commissioners, sent hoites. to confer with Oglethorpe, demanded the evacuation of the country, as far north as St. lelena Sound;* and, in case of refusal, threatened hostilities. 2The fortress at!2. toufar the mouth of the St. John's was abandoned; but that near wtere.a, tthe mouth of the St. Mary's was retained; and this river tea. afterwards became the southern boundary of Georgia. 7.'The celebrated John WM esley, founder of the Metho- 3. Iw ests dist church, had returned with Oglethorpe, with the cha- iS',.aect: ritable design of rendering Georgia a religious colony, and of converting the Indians. 4Having become unpopu- 4. What ren; lar by his zeal and imprudence, lie was indicted for exer-,epop ar, cising unwarranted ecclesiastical authority; and, after a ahnisetu,rn. residence of two years in the colony, he returned to Englhand, where he was long distinguished for his piety and usefulness.'Soon after his return the Rev. George 5. visit of Whitefield, another and more distinguished Methodist, Whitefield. visiteda Georgia, with the design of establishing an orphan a. May, 1738. asylum on lands obtained from the trustees for that purpose. The plan but partially succeeded during his lifetime, and was abandoned after his death.b b. In 1770. S.'To hasten the preparations for the impending con- 6. Preparatest with Spain, Oglethorpe again visited' England, where tos.iortea o he receivecd a commission as brigadier-general, with a 1736-37. command extending over South Carolina, and, after an 1737. absence of more than a year and a half, returnede to de. eOct.7 Georgia, bringing with him a regiment of' 600 men, for the defence of the southern fi-ontlers. 7In the latter part 7. Drlaraof 1739,. England declaredf war against Spain; and tion ofwOe,,. Oglethorpe immediately planned an expedition against St. Augustine. In May of the following year,g he entered f.No.' Florida with a select force of four hundred men from his g 1740. regiment, some Carolina troops, and a large body of fiiendly Indians. 9. 8A Spanish fort, twenty-five miles from St. Augus- 8. ciretn tine, surrendered after a short resistance;-another, within tendin. t" two miles, was abandoned; but a summons for the z-r- 4np-'gtos. render of the town was answered by a bold defiance. For Angwlene a time the Spaniards were cut off from all supplies, by ships stationed at the entrance of the harbor; but at length several Spanish galleys eluded the vigilance of the blockading squadron, and brought a reenforcement and supplies St, Sielena Sound is the entrance to the Camibahee River. It is north of St Helena I1lan,1 %nd about fifty milea N.E. from Swvannah. (See Map, p. 129.)

Page  264 264 COLONIAL HlS'TORY. [BooK 1! ANALYSIS. to the garrison. All hopes of speedily reducing the placu were now lost;-sickness began to prevail alnong the a. July. troops; and Oglethorpe, with sorrow and regret, returneda to Georgia. 1742. 10.'Two years later, the Spaniards, in return, made S. spanish preparations for anl invasion of Georgia. In July, a fleet invasion of a i Jl Georgia. of thirty-six sail from Havanna and St. Augustine, bearing more than three thousand troops, entered the' harbor of b. uly l6. St. Simon's;* landedb on the west side of the island, a little above the town.of the same name; and erected a S. Movements battery of twenty guns. 2General Oglethorpe, who was thrpe, and then on the island with a force of less than eight hundred aansCt te men, exclusive of Indians, withdrew to Frederica; enelny. anxiously awaiting an expected reenforcement from Carolina. A party of the enemy, having advanced within two miles of the town, was driven back with loss; another party of three hundred, coming to their assistance, was c. July is. ambuscadedc and two-thirds of the number were slain or taken prisoners. 3. Attack on 11. 3Oglethorpe next resolved to attack, by night, one camnp pe- of the Spanish camps; but a French soldier deserted, venlted. and gave the alarm, and the design was defeated. dAp4. Oglethorpe's plan prehensive that the enemy would now discover his weak-'waenemy. ness, he devised an expedient for destroying the credit of any information that might be given. He wrote a letter to the deserter, requesting that he would urge the Spaniards to an immediate attack, or, if he should not succeed in this, that he would induce them to remain on the island three days longer, for in that time several British ships, and a reenforcement, were expected from Carolina. He also dropped some hints of an expected attack on St. Augustine by a British fleet. This letter he bribed a Spanish prisoner to deliver to the deserter, but, as was expected, it was given to the Spanish commander. S. The result 12.'The deserter was immediately arrested as a spy, q'tis8plan. but the letter sorely perplexed the Spanish officers, some of whom believed it was intended as a deception, while others, regarding the circumstances mentioned in it as highly probable, and fearing for the safety of St. Augustine, advised an immediate return of the expedition. s. circhm- 6Fortunately, while they were consulting, there appeared, stance that aIn greatlyfa- at some distance on the coast, three small vessels, which voted its success. were regarded as a part of the British fleet mentioned in * St. Simon's Island lies south of the principal channel of the Altamaha. It is twelve miles in length, and from two to five in width. The harbor of St. Simon's is at the southern point of the island, before the town of the same name, and eight miles below Frederica. At St Stimon's there was also a-small fort, The northern part of the island is separated from the Lainland by a small creek, and is called Little St. Sirlon's. (See Map, p. 262.)

Page  265 PART II.] GEORGIA. 265 the letter.'It was now determined to attaci Oglethorpe'. at Frederica, before the expected reenforcement should - arrive. lion to attacke 13.'While advancing, for this purpose, they fell into 2 lteetorpe. an ambutscade,a at a place since called " Bloody Marsh," teijteded where they were so warmly received that they retreated a. July 25. with precipitation-abandoned their works, and hastily retired to their shipping; leaving a quantity of guns and ammunition behind them.'O3n their way south they 3. Othcr demade an attackb on Fort William,* but were repulsed; b. Jly 29 and two galleys were disabled and'abandoned.'The 4. Trerteogt Spaniards were deeply mortified at the result of the expe- oftish c,,n'. dition; and the commander of the'troops, on his return to ZanderHavanna, was tried by a court-martial, and, in disgrace, dismissed from the service. 14.'Soon after these events, Oglethorpe returned to 1743. England, never to revisit the colony which, after ten years t. QIO'e,z of disinterested toil, he had planted, defended, and now turn. left in tranquillity..Hlitherto, the people had been under 6. it,S a kind of military rule; but now a civil government was thsent. established, and commnitted to the charge of a president and council, who were required to govern according to the instructions of the trustees. 15. 7Yet the colony did not prosper, and most of the 7. Condition settlers still remained in poverty, with scarcely the hope ofthe colonzu. of better days.'Under the restrictions of the trustees, agriculture had not flourished; and commerce had scarcely been thought of. 8The people complained that, 8. Cownptlai?,t as they were poor, the want of a free title to their lands of tpleo. almost wholly deprived them of' credit; they wished that the unjust rule of descent, which gave their property to the eldest son, to the exclusion of the younger children, should be changed for one more equitable; but, more than all, they complained that they were prohibited the use of slave labor, and requested that the same encouragements should be given to them as were given to their more fortunate neighbors in Carolina. 16. 9The regulations of the trustees began to be evaded, 9. L,, and the laws against slavery were not rigidly enforced. vary, a. At first, slaves from Carolina were hired for short periods; dd. then for a hundred years, or during life; and a sum equal to the value of the negro paid in advance; and, finally, slavers from Africa sailed directly to Savannah; and Georgia, like Carolina, became a planting state, with slave labor. F F'ort William was the name of the fort at the southern extremity of Cumberland Island thore w1as also a fort, called FIot Andrewl, at the northern extremity of the island. 34

Page  266 266 COLONIAL HISTORY [Boos EIL ANALYSIS..17.'In 1752, the trustees of Georgia, wearied with 1752. complaints against the system of government which they 1. Fomn of had established, and finding that the province languished govern'lment under their care, resignedu their charter to the king; anzd zah. and the province was formedb into a royal government.. Jly Oct. The people were then favored with the same liberties S. WIhat gave and privileges that were enjoyed by the provinces of Ca-'P~ony.o rolina; but it was not until the close of the French and Indian war, and the surrender of the Floridas to England, by which security was given to the frontiers, that tlhe colony began to assume a flourishing condition.

Page  267 PAu'r Il.] 267 ____ - ________', _ I: DarEATH OF GENERAL WOLFE. (See page 282.) CHAPTER XII. THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR,Subjectoj XIII EXTENDING FIRO0 1754 TO THtE PEACE OF 1763. DIVISIONS. F. CGazses of the Vrart, and events of 1754. —I. 1755: Epecdt.toons of Divisions of Monckton, Braddock, Shirley, nd Johnson.-III. 1756: Delays; the Chapter. Loss of Osrvego; Indian Izacursions.-IV. 1757: Designs against Louisbhlrg, anrd Loss of Fort Wn. Henzry. —V. 1758': Redlectiol of LOisbnrg; AbercroLbis Defeat; The taki-ng qf Forts Froltenzac and DIG, Qlesne.- VI 1759 to 1763: Ticonderoga and CJrown Point Ahbando1ned; Niagoara Takens; CoInquest of Qlebec, —Of all Canada; War with the Cherokees; Peace of 1763. 1. CAUSES OF THE WAl, AND EVENTS OF 1754,- FiSit Dvfo. I'hus far separate accounts of the early American col- i. wh., sep.onies have been given, for the purpose of preserving that r'teec'l~oZ. t, unity of narration which seemed best adapted to render thus fore prominent the distinctive features which marked the set- given tlement and progress of each. 2But as we have arrived 2. Changes at a period when the several colonies have become firmly f"df'r mat established, and when their individual histories become sao less eventful, and less interesting, their general history will now be taken up, and continued in those more impo;tant events which subsequently affected all the colonies.,Bp ect oa0'This period is distinguished by the final struggle for do- oD no.f

Page  268 268 COLONIAL HISTORY. [BooK It ANALYSIS minion in America, between the rival powers of France and England. I. Previous 2.'Those previous wars between the two countries, itwee rnce which had so often embroiled their transatlantic colonies, atl Ean. had chiefly arisen from disputes of European origin; and the events which occurred in America, were regarded as of secondary importance to those which, in a greater measure, affected the influence of the rival powers in the 2. What ted affairs of Europe.'But the growing importance of the aothd IFrnch American possessions of the two countries, occasioning war. disputes about territories tenfold more extensive than either possessed in Europe, at length became the sole cause of involving them in another contest, more important to America than any preceding one, and which is commonly known as the French and Indian Wiar. 3. What was 3.'The English, by virtue of the early discovery by thae g.o~,et. the Cabots, claimed the whole seacoast from Newfoundthe extent of land to Florida; and by numerous grants of territory, belte English claim, fore the French had established any settlements in the Valley of the Mississippi, they had extended their claims 4. Upon westward to the Pacific Ocean. 4The French, on the Fhatrte contrary, founded their claims upon the actual occupation foclded their and exploration of the country.'Besides their settlements 5. How far in New France, or Canada, and Acadia, they had long their settle-.ents ex- occupied Detroit,* had explored the Valley of the Missis1tnded sippi, and formed settlements at Kaskaskiat and Vincennes,t, and along the northern border of the Gulf of Mexico. 6 Extent of 4. "According to the French claims, their northern posthe French theim.h sessions of New France and Acadia embraced, within their southern limits, the half of New York, and the greater portion of New England; while their western possessions, of Upper and Lower Louisiana, were held to embrace the entire valley of the Mississippi and its tributary streams. Y. Prepara- 7For the purpose of vindicating their claims to these extions to de- z:1 fend it. tensive territories, and confiningc the English to the country east of the Alleghanies, the French were busily engaged in erecting a chain of forts, by way of the Great Lalkes ant: the Mississippi, from Nova Scotia to the Gulf 8 Immediate of Mexico. case of con- 5. sA royal grant~ of an extensive tract of land on the a 1749. Ohio~ River, to a company of merchants, called the Ohio * Detroit. (SeeI Map, p. 449) t Kaskaskia, in the southwvestern part of the state of Illinois, is situated on the IV. side cI Kaskaskia River, seven miles above its junction with the Mississippi. t Vincennes is in the southwesternl part of Indianat, and is situated on the E. bank of th1 Wabash River, 100 miles, by the river's course, above its entrance into the Ohio.'The Oh1io River is formed by the confluence of the Alleghaeny from the N., and thi' Monongahela froun thi e S., at littsburg, in the western part of Pennlsylvania. From Pittsburg

Page  269 !PART II.] THiE'FRENC AND iNDIAN WAR. 269 company, gave the French the first apprehension that the ]i,.L English were desiioning to deprive them of their western trade wit~h the Indians, and cut off their communication between Canada and Louisiana.'While the company I vion7snt.ecf gsmures thai vere SUlrveyinw, these lanids, with the view of settlement, followed. three British traders we(-re seizedc by a party of French a 1713. and Indians, and convrveed to a French fort at Presque Isle.* The T'winhtwees, a tribe of Indians fr'iendly to tie Enlish, resenting the violence done to their allies, seized several Fruench traders, and sent them to Pennsylvania. 6. 2The Frenci soon afier befan the erection of forts 2. Reomtsouth of Lake I ie, which called forth serious complaints,,'anCe orf from thle Ohio Company..s the terr itory in dispute was Di.oiidiZe. within the original charter limits of Virginia, Robert Dinwiddie, lieutenant-governor of' the colony, deemed it his duty to remonstrate with the Firench commandant of the western posts, against his proceedings, and demand a withdrawal of his troops.'The person em-ployed to con- 3. George vey a letter to the French commandant iwas George lashigton Washington, an enterprising and public-spirited young man, then in his twenty-second year, who thus early engaged in the public service, and who afterwards became illustrious in thle annals of his country. 7. 4The service to which Washington wvas thus called, 4. Theerwas both difficult and dangerous; as half of his route, of Waih ington four hundred miles, lay through a trackless wilderness, inhabited by Indian tribes, whose feelings were hostile to the English.'Departing, on the 31st of October, from 5. His Williamsburg,t then the seat of government of the province, 2 on the 4th of December he reached a French fort at the mouth of French Creek,t froml which he was conducted to another fort higher up the stream, where lie found the French commandant, M. De St. Pierre,b who entertained b Pronounhim with great politeness, and gave him a written answer ced Pe-are. to Governor Dinwiddie's letter. the general course of the river is S.W. to the. ississippi, a distance of 950 miles by the river, but only about 520 in a direct line. It separates the states of Virginia and Kentucky on the S., from Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois on the N., and drains a valley containing more than 200,000 square miles. The only considerable falls in the river are at Louisville, where the wvater descends twenty-two and a hstlf feet iso tlwo miles, around which has been completed a carnal that admits the passage of the largest steamboats. 1'resque Isle (anlmost an island as its name implies,) is a, small peninsula on the southern shore of Lake Erie. at the norlthwestern extremity of Pennsylvauia. r''lle place referred t:o in history as Presque Isle is the present,ilZLae ot oErie, which is situated on the S. Y. side of the bay formed between Presque Isle Land the mainlaild. t iVilliamsbus lr is situated on. elevated ground between Jales antd York Rivers, a ftew miles N.E. from Jamestown. It is the seat of William and Mary College, founded in 1693. (See Map, p. 136.) Frelnch creek, called by thie French Alux rTce.fs, (O Buff.) enters Alleghany River ficln the west, in the present county of Ventngo, sixty-five miles N. from Pittsburg. The F'renc!l fort, called Vesango, was onl the site of the present village of Franklin, the capital of Yenangc Countv.

Page  270 '17(0 COLONIAL 1:S'TOIIY. [BooK 11 ANALYSIS. 8. LHaving secretly taken the dimensions of the fort, 1. Dangers and made all possible observations, he set outs on his return. rncounterec. At one time he providentially escaped being murdered by'1.et6n. a party of hostile Indians; one of' whom, at a short dis. a. Dec. 16. tance, fired upon him, but fortunately missed him. At another time, while crossing a river on a raft, he was thrown fiom it by the floating ice; and, after a narrow 1754. escape from drowning, he suffered greatly from the intense 2. Anwer of severity of the cold. 2On his arrivalb at'Williamsburg, the French cnenmander. the lettei of St. Pierre was found to'contain a refusal to b. Jan. 16. withdraw his troops; with the assurance that he was actin(g in obedience to the commands of the governor-general of Canada, whose orders alone he should obey. 3 eamsures 9. 3The hostile designs of the French being apparent tlt iere fiom the reply of St. Pierre, the governor of Virginia consequenlce. made immediate preparations to resist their encroachments. The Ohio Company sent out a party of thirty men to erect a fort at the confluence of the Alleghany* and Mononga. hela;t and a body of provincial troops, placed under the command of Washington, marched into the disputed terri4. The Ohio tory.'The men sent out by the Ohio Company had C7onposj's scarcely commenced their fort, when they were driven~ c April 18. from the ground by the French, who completed the works, d Pronounced dluKal(ne. and named the place Fort du Quesne.d 5. Fte, of 10.'An advance party under Jumonville, which had Jtornon7iiie's party. been sent out to intercept the approach of Washington, e.Mar28. was surprisede in the night; and all but one were either 7)The, leeLtfkilled or taken prisoners.'After erecting a small fort, Washinrton. which he named Fort Necessity,+ and being joined by some additional troops from New York and Carolina, Washington proceeded with four hundred men towards Fort du Quesne, when, hearing of the advance of a large body of French and Indians, under the command of M. f. il-le-are. de Villiers,f he returned to Fort Necessity, where he was g. July 3. soon after attacked' by nearly fifteen hundred of the enemy. After an obstinate resistance of ten hours, Washh. July 4. ington agreed to a capitulation,h which allowed him the honorable terms of retiring unmolested to Virginia. 7. Plan of 11. 7It havino been seen by England, that war with,ise ad-. FPrance would b e inevitable, the colonies had been advised to unite upon some plan of union for the general defence. it Aobneti. sA convention had likewvise bsen proposed to be held at * Tle Alleghrany River rises in the northern part of Pennsylvania, and runs, first N.W' into New Yorkl, and then, turning to the S. T., again enters Penusylvania, and att Pittshurg unites with the Monongahela to form the Ohio. j The Mlonong-ahela rises by numerous braLnches in the northvwestern patrt of Virginia, and mnling northl enters Pennisyivania, anid unites with the Alilglhany at I'ittsbiurg. + The remains of Fort Necerssity are still to be seen near the national road fromu CunabsrILand to Vheeling, in the southeastern part of Fayette Coont-,: Pennsylvania,.

Page  271 PART I1.] THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 271 Albany, in June, for the.purpose of conferring with the i5t. Six Nations, and securing their friendship.'After a- treaty had been made with the Indians, the, convention d"l hat w~ took up the subject of the proposed union; and, on the fourth of July, the very day of the surrender of Fort Necessity, adopted a plan which had been drawn up by Fir. Franklin, a delegate from Pennsylvania. 12.'This plan proposed the establishment of a general 2. Tahe Zpq. government in the colonies, to be administered by a propoed. governor-general appointed by the crown, and a council chosen by the several colonial legislatures; having the power to levy troops, declare war, raise money, make peace, regulate the Indian trade, and concert all other measures necessary for the general safety. The governorgeneral was to have a negative on the proceedings of the council, and all laws were to be submitted to the king for ratification. 13.'This plan, although approved by all the delegates 3. Whittva, present, except those from Connecticut, who objected to Tcjected the negative voice of the governor-general, shared the singular fate of being rejected, both by the colonial assernblies, and by the British government: by the former, because it was supposed to give too much power to the re presentative of the king; and by the latter, because it was supposed to give too much power to the representatives of the people. 4As no plan of union could be devised, 4thenadetwracceptable to both parties, it was determined to carry on mined: the war with British troops, aided by such forces as the colonial assemblies might voluntarily furnish. II. 1755: EXPEDITIONS OF MONCKTON, BRADDOCK, SIIIR- 1755. LEY, AND SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON.-I.'Early in 1755, Gen- Second d.I vision of the eral Braddock arriveda from Ireland, with two regiments CGptel-. of British troops, and with the authority of commander-in- G chief of the British and colonial forces.'At a convention a. Feb. of the colonial governors, assembled at his request in Vir- 6.Threeezginia, three expeditions were resolved upon; one against solead,pot the French at Fort du Quesne, to be led by General Braddock himself; a second againsti Niagara, and a third against C-rown Point, a French post on the western shore of Lake C[hamnplain. 2'While preparations were making for these expedi- T. rpieditio porevniously tions, an enterprise, that had been previously determined unadertalen. upon, was prosecuted with success in another quarter. About the last of May, Colonel Monckton sailed', from u. aMay O. Boston, wita three thousand troops, against the French settlements at the head of the Bay of Fundy, which were considered as encroachments upon the English province of Nova Scotia.

Page  272 272 COLONIAL HISTORY. 1[B,:oK IL ANALYSIS. 3. 1Landing at Fort Lavwren.ce,* on the eastern shore It. s'ogress of Chignecto,t a branch of the Bay of Fundy, a French. r- - block-house was carried by assault, and Fort Beausejourk 21ationr. a. June 4. surrendered,r after an investment of four days. The name Pronoun- of the fort was then changed to Cumberland. Fort Gas. tedl, Bo-st[- cezhoor. pereau,d on Bay Verte,e or Green Bay, was next taken; P,. Junc,6ed and the forts on the New Brunswick coast were abandond. Pronounced jas-pe-ro. ed. In accordance with the views of the governor of air.onot Nova Scotia, the plantations of the Frlench settlers were laid waste; and several thousands of the hapless fugitives, ardently attached to their mother country, and refusing to take the oath of allegiance to Great Britain, were driven on board the British shipping, at the point of the bayonet, e. oep. 549. and dispersed, in poverty, through the English colonies.f 2. The npe- 4. 2The expedition against the French on the Ohio was Braddoc. considerably delayed by the difficulty of obtaining supplies of wagons and provisions; but, on the tenth of June, General Braddock set out from Fort Cumberland,~ with a force of little more than two thousand men, composed of 3. His march British regulars and provincials.'Apprehending that,hatened, and z 7eon. Fort du Quesne might be reenforced, he hastened his march with a select corps of 1200 men; leaving Col. Dunbar to follow in the rear with the other troops and the heavy baggage. 4. The cause 5. Neglecting the proper measures necessary for fh ir being guarding against a surprise, and too confident in his own,urprised. views to receive the advice of Washington, who acted as his aid, and who requested to lead the provincials in advance, Braddock continued to press forward, heedless of danger, until he had arrived within nine or ten miles of 5. Particu- Fort du Quesne.'While marching in apparent security, 2.~oJsth~ his advanced guard of regulars, commanded by Lieuten-?aurprise. g. JtlV 9. ant-colonel Gage, was fired upong by an unseen enemy; and, unused to Indian warfare, was thrown into disorder; and falling back on the main body, a general confusion ensued. S. Conduct of Bradreock, 6.'General Braddock, vainly endeavoring to rally his 3sd result of the batte. troops on the spot where they were first attacked, after sak~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ o I'or localities see Map. ZO 1 Chig eca t Bay is the northern, or northwestern arm cST. To T15 of the Bay of Fundy. (Map.) $ Bay Verte, or Green Bauy, is a western arm of Nor> y iy he1iSi thuimberlanr Strait; a strait which separates Prince Eadrf~ 4~-S o ip' Ok warddris Island from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. ~~ ~ P~P% (See Map.) ~ Fort Cutmberland was on the site of the present 4'q-. L wr~;~' village of Cumberland, which is situated on the N. side ~~,~!: X Ls.eLawrence of the Potomac River, in Maryland. at the mouth of'"J~,zt,7 P ~ t ~St~O W ili's Creek. "he Cumberland, or National PRad J'~'/, -Ad 20fi~ ~f~.%[,,v v s C which proceeds W. to Ohio. &c., commences here.

Page  273 PART i.] THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 27,3 having had three horses killed under hini, and after seeing iLa5. every mounted officer fall, except Washington, was him- -- self mortally wounded, when his troops fled in dismay and confusion.'The cool bravery of the Virginia provincials, 1. Whatsaved who formed under the command of WVashington, covered reomeatotal the retreat of the regulars, and saved the army from total festructiG-n. destruction.'In this disastrous defeat more than two- 2. Number killed or thirds of all the officers, and nearly half the privates, were wounded. either killed or wounded. 7.'No pursuit was made by the enemy, to whom the 3. The re success was wholly unexpected; yet so great was the treat panic communicate d to Colonel Dunbar's troops, that they likewise fled with precipitation, and made no pause until they found themselves sheltered by the walls of Fort Cumberland. 4Soon after, Colonel Dunbar, leaving at Cumber- 4. Dispositfio land a few provincial troops, but insufficient to protect the mahde of the frontiers, retired- with the rest of the army to Philadelphia. any-. 8.'The expedition against Niagara was intrusted to 5. Expedition Governor Shirley of Massachusetts; on whom the com- atagara. mand in chief of the British forces had devolved, after the death of General Braddock. The forces designed for this enterprise were to assemble at Oswego,b whence they were b. N. p. 271. to proceed by water to the mouth of' the Niagara River.* The main body of the troops, however, did not arrive until the last of August; and then a succession of western winds and rain, the prevalence of sickness in the camp, and the desertion of the Indian allies, rendered it unadvisable to proceed; and most of the forces were withdrawn.; The erection of two new forts had been co',l- c. Oct. 2. menced on the east side of the river; and suitable garrisons were left to defend them. 9. 6The expedition against Crown Point was intrusted 6 Paticuto General Johnson, afterwards Sir William Johnson, a,eclitZin member of the council of New York. In June and July, Crozen Point, about 6000 troops, under General Lyman, were assembled tz ea'rot ral of at the carrying place betwveen Hudson River and Lake dJo~hnson. George,d where they constructed a fort which VICINITY OF LAKE GEORGE. theynamed Fort Lyman, but which was ater- wards called Fort Edward.j-'In the latter 2 N'Iiagara River is the channel vwhich connects Lake E rie i' with Laklie Ontario. It is about thirty-six miles long, and flows 1 S,,'A fro. S. to N. In this stream, twenty-two miles north from Lake 8 Erie, are the celebrated Falls of Nicagara, the greatest natural.. Ann curiosity in the world. (See Map. p. 451and 462.). e o, t Fort Ediward was on the site of the present village of, Edward, in Washington County, on the E. side of Ihtdson lRiver, B and about forty-five miles N. from Albany. This spot was also,Vson A j called the carryinzg place; being the point where, in. the expedi-, 7 tions against Canada, the troops, stores, &c., Awere landed, andtl thence carried to WVood Creek, a distance of twelve miles, where they were again embarked. (See Map.) * nE.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~s~~

Page  274 274 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Boor IL ANALYSIS. part of August General Johnson arriv d; and, taking. Arrival and the command, moved forward with the main body of his proceedings forces to the head of Lake George; where he learned,' o.f JslepSO by his scouts, that nearly two thousand French and Inb. N.p.234. dians were on their march from Crown Point,b with the intention of attacking Fort Edward. o Movements 10.'The enemy, under the command of the Baron of the enemy. Dieskau,c approaching by the way of Wood Creek,d had c. Pronounced, De-es-ko. arrived within two miles of Fort Edward; when the comrd. N. p. 230. mander, at the request of his Indian allies, who stood in great dread of the English cannon, suddenly changed his route, with the design of attacking the camp of Johnson. 3. Detach- 3In the meantime, Johnson had sent out a party of a thoum tZtnehte, sand provincials under the command of Colonel Williams; and why- and two hundred Indians under the command of Hendricks, a Mohawk sachem; for the purpose of intercepting the return of the enemy, whether they succeeded, or failed, in their designs against Fort Edward. 4; Fate of 11. 4Unfortunately, the English, being drawn into an is deetach- ambuscade,, were overpowered by superior numbers, and e. Sept. 8. driven back with a severe loss. Among the killed were Colonel Williams and the chieftain Hendricks. The loss of the enemy was also considerable; and among the slain 5. areaara- was St. Pierre, who commanded the Indians. 5The filring tiinsfor rte- being heard in the camp of Johnson, and its near approach enemy. convincing him oif the repulse of Williams, he rapidly constructed a breastwork of fallen trees, and mounted several cannon, which, two days before, he had fortii. nately received from Fort Edward. S. Attackon 12.'The fugitives had scarcely arrived at the camp, the camp. when the enemy appeared and commenced a spirited attack; but the unexpected reception which the English cannon gave them, considerably cooled their ardor. The Canadian militia and the Indians soon fled; and the French troops, after continuing the contest several hours, y. Fate of retired in disorder. 7Dieskau was foflnd wounded and Deenu'. alone, leaning against the stump of a tree. While feeling for his watch, in order to surrender it, an English soldier, thinking he was searching for a pistol, fired upon him, and inflicted a wound which caused his death. b. What com- 8After the repulse of the French, a detachment from Fort pleted the defeat of the Edward fell upon their rear, and completed their defeat. enelmy. 13. 9For the purpose of securing the country from the 9. Farther proceedings incursions of the enemy, General Johnson erected a fort Johnson. at his place of encampment, which he named Fort Wil. liam Henry.* Learning that the French were strength, P Fort Win. Helinry was situated at the head of Lake George, a little E. from the village o

Page  275 P.T H.] THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 275 ening their works at Crown Point, and likewise that a 17fi55. large party had taken possession of, and were fbrtifying -- Ticonderoga;* he (teemed it advisable to make no farther advance; and, late in the season-after leaving sufficient garrisons at Forts William Henry and Edward, he retired- a nee to Albany, whence he dispersed the remainder of his army to their respective provinces. III. 1756; DELAYs; Lo3s OF SWEGO: INDIAN INCUR- ZhirdDvissoNs. —1.'The plan for the campaign of' 1756, which 1756. had been agreed upon in a council of the colonial gover- Plano,r' the Cam, nors held at Albany, early in the season, was similar to.ti sv,7. that of the preceding year; having for its object the reduction of Crown Point, Niagara, and Fort du Quesne.'Lord Loudon was appointed by the king commander-in- 2. coseinnaa chief of' his forces in America, and also governor of Vir- erTap Ointed ginia; but, being unable to depart immediately, General Abercrombie was ordered to precede him, and take the command of the troops until his arrival.'Thus far, hos- 3 Decrat tilities had been carried on without any formal declaration toi of war. of war; but, in May of this year, war was declaredt by b. May. Ir. Great Britain against France, and, soon after,' by the c. une9. latter power against Great Britain. 2. 4In June, General Abercrombie arrived, with several ieastus regiments, and proceeded to Albany, where the provincial oie en.ord troops were assembled; but deeming the forees under his command inadequate to carry out the plan of the campaign, he thought it prudent to await the arrival of the Earl of Loudon. This occasioned a delay until the latter part of July; and even after the arrival of the earl, no measures of importance were taken.'The French, in s5.i mothe rFrench prot. the mean time, profiting by the delays of the English, ed by theise seized the opportunity to make an attack upon Oswego.t delays. 3. 6Early in August, the Marquis Montealm, who had 6. saeotcasm', succeeded the Baron Dieskau in the chief command of the against ostego. French forces in Canada, crossed Lalke Ontario with more than five thousand men, French, Canadians, and Indians; and, with more than thirty pieces of cannon, comnmencedd d Au. i. the siege of Fort Ontario, oi the east side of Oswego Caldwell, in Warren County. Aftcr the fort was levelled by M.ontcalim, in 1757, (see page 277.) Fort George was built as a substitute for it, on a more commanding site; et it i wats iuever thd scene of any important batile. (See Map, page 273.) FORa's AT osw::o. * Tiesonderoga is situated at the mouth of the outlet of Lake George, in Essex Counsty, on the western shore of Lake Chamilplain, about eighty-five nliles in a direct line N. front Albarny. (See Map and Note, p'74.) The villae of Ticonderoga is two miles above the ruins of the fort. Sw t The village of Oswego, in Oswego County, is situated on both sides of Oswego River, at its entrance into Lake Ontario. I ifl i' r Old Fort Oswego, built in 1727, -wras on the west side of the riv- er. In 1755 Fort Ontario was built on an eminence on the E.;ice 77J trio of the river; a short distance N. of whioh stands the presen t Fort O wego.o

Page  276 '2ri6 COLONIAL HISTORY [Boos IL &NALYSIS River.* After an obstinate, but short defence, this fort a was abandoned,s-the garrison safely retiing to the oldc a. Aug. 12. n sael retrio o beol fort on the west side of the river. I. Surrender 4.'On the fourteenlth, the English, numbering (only of this p!ace, and loss suf' 1400 men, found themselves reduced to the necessity of a fered by the eEA-lishe capitulation; by which they surrendered themselves prisoners of war. Several vessels in the harbor, together with a large amount of military stores, consisting of small arms, ammunition, provisions, and 134 pieces of cannon, fell into the hands of the enemy. MIontcalm, after demolishing the forts, returned to Canada. 2. Indian dep- 5. 2After the defeat of Braddock, the Indians on the datioheeste western frontiers, incited by the French, renewed their frontiers. depredations, and killed, or carried into captivity, more than 3. Col. Arm- a thousand of the inhabitants. 3In August of this year, pedZtio,. Colonel Armstrong, with a party of nearly 300 men, marched against Kittaning,t their principal town, on the b. Sept.. Allegrhany River. The Indians, although surprised,b de. fended themselves with great bravery; refusing quarter when it was offered them. Their principal chiefs were killed, their town was destroyed, and eleven prisoners were recovered. The English suffered but little in this expedition. Among their wounded was Captain Mercer, afterwards distinguished in the war of the Revolution. 4. Result of 4These were the principal events of this year; and not campain.ear' one of the important objects of the campaign was either accomplished or attempted. 1757. IV. 1757: DESIGNS AGAINST LOUISBURG, AND Loss OF The fourths FORT WILLIAM I HENRY.-1. 5The plan of the campaign division. 5. object of of 1757, was limited, by the conmmander-in-chief, to an?6e cammpaign attempt upon the important fortress of Louisburg.'With of 1757. 6 Preparae- the reduction of this post in view, Lord London sailed& wvere made. from New York, in June, with 6000 regular troops, and c. June20. on the thirteenth of the same month arrived at Halifax, where he was reenforced by a powerful naval armament commanded by Admiral Holbourn, and a land force of. Theobject 5000 men from England. "Soon after, information was abandoned. d. Aug. 4. received,d that a French fleet, larger than that of the English, had already arrived in the harbor of Louisburg, and that the city was garrisoned by more than 6000 men. The expedition was, therefore, necessarily abandoned. The admiral proceeded to cruise off Louisburg, and Lord e. Ag. 31.. Loudon returnede to New York. * Os7wego Rier is formed by the jnnction of Seneca and Oneida Rivers. The former is the outlet of Canandaiga, Crookied, Seneca, Cayuga, Owasco, and Skeneateles Lakes; and the latter of Oneida Lake. t Kittaning, the county seat, of Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, is built on the site of the old Indian Town. It is on the E. side of Alleghany Ri er, about forty miles N.E, from Pittsburg.

Page  277 PART lld THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 277 2.'While these events were transpiring, the French [7,. commander, the Marquis Montcalm, having collected his - forces at Ticonderoga, advanced with an army of 9000 -,1Prromtmen, 2000 of whnom were savages, and laid siegea to Fort'iO""2 n the William Henry.b'The garrison of the fort consisted of a. Aug. 3. between two and three thousand men, commanded by b. S27ote Colonel Monro; and, for the farther security of the place, 2 Siege and Surrender of Colonel Webb was stationed at Fort Edward, only fifteen Fort WIvlt.'u miles distant, with an army of 4000 men. During six He days, the garrison maintained an obstinate defence; anxiously awaiting a reenforcement from Fort Edward; until, receiving positive information that no relief would be attempted, and their ammunition beginning to fail thbm, they surrenderedr the place by capitulation. c. Aug. 8. 3.'Honorable terms were granted the garrison' on 3. Terns account of their honorable defence," as the capitulation granted the itself expressed; and they were to march out with their arms, and retire in safety under an escort to Fort Edward. 4The capitulation, however, was shamefully broken by the 4. The captIndians attached to Montcalm's party; who fell upon the brokten. English as they were leaving the fort; plundered them of their baggage, and butchered many of them in cold blood.'The otherwise fair fame of' Montcalm has been tarnished 5. Conduct of Montcalm by this unfortunate affair; but it is believed that he and onthis occaslon. his officers used their utmost endeavors, except firing upon the Indians, to stop the butchery. V. 1758: REDUCTION OF LOUISBURG; ABERCROBIBIE'S 1758. DEFEAT; THE TAKING OF FORTS FRONTENAC AND DU Fifth diviQUESNE. —1. GThe result of the two preceding campaigns 6. Resoult of was exceedingly humiliating to England, in view of the for- the, toptcr' midable preparations that had been made for carrying on the Panswar; and so strong was the feeling against the ministry and their measures, that a change was found necessary.?A new administration was formed. at the head of which 7. Chanoges was placed Mr. Pitt, afterwards Lord Chatham; Lord tnatfotlooed Loudon was recalled; additional forces were raised in America; and a large naval armament, and twelve thousand additional troops, were promised from England. oThree expeditions were planned: one against Louisburg, 8. E.pedftions plananother' against the French on Lake Champlain, and a 0zea third against Fort du Quesne. 2. 9Early in the season, Admiral Boscawen arrived at 9. ExpecdHalifax, whence he sailed, on the 28th of May, with a tLouisurg. fleet of nearly forty armed vessels, together with twelve thousand men under the command of General Amherst, for the reduction of Louisburg.- On the second of June, d. See Not, the fleet anchored ill Gabarus Bay; and on the 8th the and Map, p. 203. ~roops effected a landing, with little loss; when the

Page  278 1'is COLONIAL HISTORY. [Boor ITI ANALY3IS. French called in their outposts, and dismantled the roya. battery. I. Progress of 3.'Soon after. General WJolfe, passing' around this the siege, and b l'rendler of Northeast Harbor, erected a battery at the North Cape, te. ule. ae. near the light-house, from which the island battery was a.lJute the u atr b. June 25. silenced: b three French ships were burned' in the harbor; c. July21. and the fortifications of the town were greatly injured. At length, all the shipping being destroyed, and the batteries from the land side having made several breaches in the walls, near the last of July the city and island, toge(i. July 6. ther with St. John's,* were surrenderedd by capitulation. L. Abercrom- 4. =During these events, General Abercrombie, on whomn beeptiepedt the command in chief had devolved on the recall of Lord e See Note Loudon, was advancing against Ticonderoga.e 3rOn the an l74.p. 5th of July, lie embarked on Lake George, with more a. FrorreS of than 15,000 men, and a formidable train of artillery. On tionl, ant re- the following morning, the troops landed near the northern sult of the firZst attack extremity of the lake, and commenced their march through a thick wood towards-the fort, then defended by about four thousand men under the command of the Marquis Montcalm. ignorant of the nature of the ground, and without proper guideS, the troops became bewildered; and the centre column, commanded by Lord Howe, falling in with an advanced guard of the French, Lord Howe himrnself was killed; but after a warm contest, the enemy f. July. 6. were repulsed.f 4. The effect.5.'After the death of Lord Howe, who was a highly Uoiofe, death. valuable officer, and the soul of the expedition, the ardor of the troops greatly abated; and disorder and confusion 5. Particzulars prevailed. SMost of the armyv fell back to the place, but early on the morning of the Sth, again advanced in full force to attack the fort; the general being assured, by his chief engineer, that the intrenchments were unfinished, and might be attempted with good prospects of success. Unexpectedly, the breastwork was found to be of great strength, and covered with felled trees, with their branches pointing outwards; and notwithstanding the intrepidity of the troops, after a contest of nearly four hours, g. July 8. they were repulsedg with great slaughter; leaving nearly two thousand of their number killed or wounded on the field of battle. e. REpedition 6. 6After this repulse, the army retired to the head of Raontenac. Lake George, whence at the solicitation of Colonel Brad. street, an expedition of three thousand men, under the * St. T.!lri;, or Prince Edward's Island, is an island of very irregular shape, about 13CI miles long; j ing west of Cape Breton, and north of Nova Scotia, from which it is separated by Northumberland Strait. The Freach called the island St. John's; but in 1799 the Englisl changed its name to Prince Edward. (See Hist. of Prince Edward, p. 553.)

Page  279 PART I.] THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 279 command of that officer, was sent against Fort Frontenac,* 175s. on the western shore of the outlet of Lake Ontario, a place — which had long been the chief resort for the traders of he Indian nations who were in alliance with the French. Proceeding by the way of Oswego, Bradstreet crossed the lake, landed- within a mile of the fort without opposition, a..t.. and, in two days, compelled that important fortress to surrender. b The Fort was destroyed, and nine armed vessels, b. Au. 27. sixty cannon, and a large quantity of military stores and goods, designed for the Indian trade, fell into the hands of the English. 7.'The expedition against Fort du Quesne was in- 1. Expeditic~r trusted to General Forbes, who set out from Philadelphia acga, t Frs. early in July, at the head of 9000 men. An advanced party under Major Grant was attacked near the fort, and defeated with the loss of three hundred men; but, as the main body of the army advanced, the French, being deserted by their Indian allies, abandoned, the place, and es- c. Nov. M. caped in boats down the Ohio. Quiet posession was then takend of the fort, when it was repaired and garrisoned, d. Nov. 25. and, in honor of Mr. Pitt, named Pittsburg.t 2'The west- 2. Treaty ern Indians soon after came in and concluded a treaty of fo neutrality with the English.'Notwithstanding the defeat 3. zesult of of Abercrombie, the events of the year had weakened oft1Co se the French power in America; and the campaign closed with honor to England and her colonies. VI. 1759 TO 1763: TICONDEROGA AND CROWN POINT 1759. ABANDONED; NIAGARA TAKEN; CONQUEST OF QUEBEC, — SubJects of OF ALL CANADA; WAR WITH THE CHEROKEES; PEACE OF vision. 1763.-1. 4The high reputation which General Amherst 4. Honorsbehad acquired in the siege of Louisburg, had gained him a stloed on vote of thanks from parliament, and had procured for him. Amsherst. the appointment of commander-in-chief of the army in North Amnerica, with the responsibility of carrying out the vast and daring project of Mr. Pitt, which was no less than the entire conquest of Canada in a single campaign. 2.'For the purpose of dividing and weakening the 5. Plno of tm power of the French, General Wolfe, a young officer of C"et1agnl of uncommon merit, who had distinguished himself at the siege of Louisburg, was to ascend the St. Lawrence and lay siege to Quebec: General Amherst was to carry Ticonderoga and Crown Point; and then, by way of Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence, was to unite with the forces of General Wolfe; while a third army, after the * The village of Kingston, in Canada, now occupies the site of Old Fort Frontenac. t Pittsburg, now a flourishing city, is situated on a beautiful plain, at the junction of the Alleghany and the Monongahela, in the western part of Pennsylvani-t. There are several thriving villages in the vicinity, which should be regarded as suburbs of Pittsburg, the prin. tipal of which is Allegianzy City, on the N.W. side of the Alleghany Rliver.

Page  280 280 COLONIAL HIISTORY. Boox II. ANALYSIS. reduction uf Niagara, was to proceec aown the lake and river against Montreal. 1 Successf 3. Ikn the prosecution of the enterprise which had been at Ti;conzder- intrusted to him, General Amherst arrived- before Ticona Jgar2. derogab in the latter part of July, with an army of little t,. See Note more than 11,000 men. While preparing for a general i. i,4. attack, the French abandonede their lines, and withdrew c Jtu' 23. to the fort; but, in a few Clays, abandonedd this also, after d.. July e26 e I9 p. 234. having partially demolished it, and retired to Crown Point.e,2 Farthzer 4.'Pursuin(r his successes, General Amherst advanced p,,oaivut of the eeSty,.and towards this latter post; but on his approach, the garrison rettt'.tf t retiredr to the Isle of Aux Noix* in the river Sorel.g After f. AnL. 1. having constructed several small vessels, and acquired a g N. P. 2.30. naval superiority on the lake, the whole army embarkedh in pursuit of the enemy; but a succession of' storms, and the advanced season of the year, finally compelled a rei. Oct. 2. turni to Crown Point, where the troops went into winter quarters. 3. Events of 5.'General. Prideaux,i to whom was given the comtion eaainst mand of the expedition against Niagara, proceeded by the Nagata. way of Schenectady and Oswego; and on the sixth of ced, Pee-do. July landed near the fort Without opposition. Soon after the commencement of the siege, the general was killed through the carelessness of a gunner, by the bursting of a cohorn, when the command devolved on Sir William Johnson. As twelve hundred French and Indians, from the southern French forts, were advancing to the relief of k. July 24. the place, they were met and routedk with great loss; 1 July 25. when the garrison, despairing of assistance, submittedl to terms of capitulation. The surrender of this important post effectually cut off the communication between Canada i [-r? G eTjos;..:and Louisiana. VICINITYof TIE cs o n Camp 6..:..'While these events were..~ ~.u: transpiring, General WVolfe was 9 f Z~7r-,,74.7Wg prosecuting the more imnortant.-.l. of Quebec. Having embarked s',',X "; Aul" iVoNie (O Noo-ah) is a small. island in d g > the l'i-er Sorel, or Richelieu, a short distance 4t, / ~7fs asboye the northerl extrenity of Lake Chaum-.i./ -P~c- Qt Q2ube, a strongly fortified city of Canada \'__Y.\Im/$/';5 3s situatecl o the N.Wi7. side of the River St. ____fi_*f.'. ) Lanurence, on a lotty promontory formed by — g) <X\e\S\9\\>\ i that river andcl the St. Charles. The city consists of the pp i the Loer To th latter ole a nasrow sthip of land, wholly the WnlPPX8gX\i~tt3 /h' lv~orik of at. near the water's ede * and the *sOlln'n %j~g!/Ry' o 1 f- Ef ormer os it plain, cliifellt of access, nore ih~? ~ll @ th Ls ust 20 feet hisher. Cape D)ianmod, tlte most f scrrxe 14' arrrcs elelsted past of the Upper Town, on which Y*cals of MUles. stands the cittdel, is 34i feet above the level of the river and commands a grand kiew of

Page  281 PART 11.1 THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 2]. about 8000 metl at Louisburg, under convoy of a fleet of. 22 ships of the line, and an equal number of frigates and. —-- small armed vessels, commanded by Admirals Saunders 4 Proceedand Holmes; he safely landedc the army, near the end of ot'ein th, June, on the Isle of Orleans a few miles below Quebec. a. Jlne 27.'The French forces, to the number of thirteen thousand 1. Diszasition of the Frenca men, occupied the city, and a strong camp on the northern forces. shore of the St. IJawrence. between the rivers St. Charles and Montmorenci.* 7.'General Wolfe took possessioni of Point Levi,- 2. Piratna-ch where he erected batteries which destroyed the Lower Iozfe adsot Town, but did little injury to the defences of the city. He b. June 30. soon after crossed the north channel of the St. Lawrence, c. See MaP, p. 280. and encampedd his army near the enemy's left, the river d. July 1o. Monttmorenci lying between them.'Convinced, however. 3 Daring of the impossibility of reducing the place unless he could nelt esolved erect batteries nearer the city than Point Levi, he soon de- "25o cided on more daring measures. He resolved to cross the St. Lawrence and the Montmorenci, with different divisions, at the same time, and storm the intrenchments of the French camp. 8. 4'For this purpose, on the last day of July, the boats 4 Lofeain-g of the fleet, filled with grenadiers, and with troops from ofthe Point Levi, under the command of General Monckton, crossed the St. Lawrence, and, after considerable delay by grounding on the ledge of rocks, effected a landing a July 31. little above the Montmorenci; while Generals Townshend and Murray, fording that stream at low water, near its mouth, hastened to the assistance of the troops already landed. 5But as the granadiers rushed impetuously for- 5. Reputse Q1 ward without waiting for the troops that were to support diers. them, they were driven back with loss, and obliged to seek shelter behind a redoubt which the enemy had abandoned.'Here they were detained a while by a thunder 6. what esystorm, still exposed to a galling fire; when night ap- petea t, nd preaching, and the tide setting in, a retreat was ordered. IVustaiaed. This unfortunate attempt was attended with the loss of nearly 500 men. 9.'The bodily fatigues which General Wolfe had en- 7. Sic7cnessoof dured, together with his recent disappointment, acting Oen. Wolfe upon a frame naturally delicate, threw him into a violent fever; and, fo.,a time, rendered him incapable of taking aen extensive tract of country. The fortifications of the Upper Town, extending nearly across the peninsula, incloset a circuit of about two miles and three-quarters. The Plains of Abraham immediately westward, and in front of the fortifications, rise to the height of mlore than 806 feet, and are exceedingly difficult of access from the river. (Map.) The RIiver I'Iosernorenci enters the St. Lawrence from. the N., about seven miles below Quebec. The falls in this river, near its mouth, are justly celebrated for their beauty. The Water descends 240 feet in one unlbroken sheet of foam. (Map, p. 280.) 36

Page  282 282 COLtJNirAL HIS'ORY. [Boox I! ANALYSIS. the field in person.'He therefore called a council of his. Pan net officerls, and, requesting'- their advice, proposed a second pioposed. attack on the F'rench lines. They were of opinion, how. ever, that this -was inexpedient, but proposed that the army should attempt a point above Quebec, where they might gain the heights which overlooked the city. The plan being approved, preparations were immediately made to carry it into execution. t. Account of 10.'The camp at Mon'tmorenci being broken up, the e execut ion of the pltan troops and artillery' were conveyed to Point Levi; and, adopted. soon after, to some distance above the city; while Montcalm's attention was still engaged with the apparent design of a second attack upon his camp. All things being in readiness, during the night of the 12th of September, the troops in boats silently fell down the stream; and, landing within a mile and a half of the city, ascended the precipice,-dispersed a few Canadians and Indians; and, when morning dawned, were drawn up in battle array on the plains of Abraham. s. Proceed- ii'Montcalm, surprised at this unexpected event, and ings of ant perceiving that, unless tle English could be driven from their position, Quebec was lost, immediately crossed the St. Charles with his whole army, and advanced to the 4. Theattackc. attack. 4About nine in the morning fifteen hundred Indians and Canadians, advancilg in front, and screened a. Sept. 13. by surrounding thickets, began the battle;a but the English reserved their fire for the main body of the French, then rapidly advancing; and, when at the distance of forty yards, opened upon them with such efiect as to compel them to recoil with confusion. 5. Circuem- 12.'Early in the battle General Wolfe received two Pdaestof tle wounds in quick succession, which he concealed, but, nrtodro-. while pressing forward at the head of his grenadiers, with fixed bayonets, a third ball pierced his breast. Colonel Monckton, the second officer in rank, was dangerously wounded by his side, when the command devolved onl General Townshend. The French general, Montealin, likewise fell; and his second in command was mortally wounded. General Wolfe died on the field of battle, but he lived long enough to be infbrmed that he had gained the victory. a. Therela- 13. 6Conveyed to the rear, and supported by a few atO'mcontin- tendants, while the agonies of death were upon him he heard the distant cry, "' They run, they run." Raising his drooping head, the dyin, hero anxiously aske(d, " Whr run?" Being informed that it was the French, " Then,' said he, "': I die contented," and immediately expired, MAontealm lived to be carried into the city. When in

Page  283 PAsT I.l Th -IE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 283 formed that his wound was mortal, So much the better, 1759., he replied, "I shall not then live to witness the surrender of Quebec." 14.'Five days after the ba ttle the city surrendered,L i. Surrender of tile city. and received an English garrison, thus leaving Montreal a. Sept. m1. the only place of inportance to the Frenclh, in Canada. YTet in the follow ing spring the French attempted the 1760. recovery of Quebec; and, after a bloody battle foughtb 2. Attenept ta three miles above the city, dlrove the English to their forti- dec. fications, from wvllich they were relieved only by the arri- b. April28. val' of an English squadron witll reenforcements. c. Ia 16. 15.'During the season, General Amherst, the com- 3. Canpure *4 mander-in-chief, made extensive preparations for reducing Monntreal. Montreal. Three powerful alrlnice assembledd there by d. Sept. 6, difierent routes, early in September; when the commander of the place, perceiving that resistance would be ineffectual, surrendered,e not only Montreal, but all the other e. Sept. 8. French posts in Canada, to his Britannic majesty. 16. 4Early in the same year a war broke out with the 4. Eventsof powerful nation of the Cherokees, who had but recently, tor zoievit as allies of the French, concluded~' a peace with the Eng- kee,y,,'arrlin lish. General Amherst sent Colonel Montgomery against f.Sept. 6S, them, who, assisted by the Carolinians, burnedg many of g.IM,A7Yu their towns; but the Cherokees, in tur-l, besieged Fort Loudon,* and having compelled the garrison to capitulate,h afterward fell upon them, and either killed, or ear-. Aug. 7. Pied away prisoners, the whole party.'In the following i. Aug. 8. year Colonel Grant marched into their country,-over- 5 "year 1eI., came thel in battle,i —destroyed their villages,-and Juneo 10. drove the savages to the mountains; when peace was concluded with them. 1-7.'The war between France and England continued p. Farther ul the ocean, and among the islands of the West Indies, end of the t war between with- almost uniform success to the English, until 1763; France and lwhen. on the 10th of February of that year, a definite 1E763. treaty was signed at Paris.'France thereby surrendered 7. Iwhat prto Great Britain all her possessions in North America, sesso,,s ceIe to t e Franceded by. eastxarid of' the IMississippi River. fiom its source to the FIa.lcegnd,"iver Ioerville;-t and thence, through Lakes Maurepast s ait.. u'd'o' I,sotdo was in the nloritheastern part. of T'ennessee, on the Watfauga River, a strean ~.shicl, rising in t. C(arolina, lowsv westward into Terlnessee,e and unites with HIolston River. Fort 1loClaon nvas built in 1757, and was tie first settlement in Tennessee, which was then in.-.!uh',l il the territory claimled by N. Crulin;a. I — Iberille, an outlet of the 3Isississipl, ieaves that river fourteen miles below Baton Rouge, ansd flSiong EL. enters Anmie iiNrer, wvrhich falls into Lake io1r1epaas. It now receives water front the 3iississippi only ac lig i flood. In 1699 tise French nava.l officer, Iberville, sailed up the 5Iississippi to thllis stre- which hlie entered, a.nd thence passedl through Lakes Maurepag ltd IPontchiartrain to Mobile slay. (See Iist. of louisiana. p. 521.) i 2t1aurepas is a lake about twenty miles in circumference, comnmunicating with Lake Ponthart;rain on thel. I-y an outlet seven miles long.

Page  284 284 (s)COLONIAL HIISTORY{I. loui 1i ANALYSe S. and Pontchartrain,* to the Gulf of Mexico. At the same time Spain, with whom England had beern at war durincg dlle previous year, ceded to Great Britain her possessions of East and West Florida.'t 1. Peacesof 18. "'ihe peace of 1763 was destined to close the seWe n,y3 vieow ries of wars in which the American colonies were invollhe colozies. at %his pe iod. ved by their connection with the British empire. We may now view them as grown up to manhood, about to renounce the authority of the mother country-to adopt councils of their own-and to assume a new name and 2. Of the station among the nations of the earth.'Some of the''thich lcd to tlis causes which led to this change might be gathered from cange. the foregoing historical sketches, but they will be developed more fully in the followilg' Appendix, and in the Chapter on the causes which led to the American Revolution. Poentchartrain is a lake more than a hundred miles in circumference, the soutl;hern shore of which is about five miles N. froam New Orleans.'he passage by which it coimmunicates with Lake Borgne on the E. is called The lsigolets. (See Map, p. 4388.) T That part of the country ceded by Spain was divided, by the English monarch, into the governments of East and West iFlorida. Fast Florida included all embraced in the present F'lorida, as far W. as the Apalachicola ui ver. Terst I'lorida extended from the Apalachicoia'o til Mlississippi, and was bounded on the N. by the 31st derree of latitude, and on the S. by the Gulf of Mexico, and a line draswn through Lakes Pl'ontc hartrain and Maurepas, and the lIvers Anmite and I:'erville, to the Mlississippi. Th'l'us those parts of the states of Alabama and Milssissippi whiach extend foom the 831E degree,/ox;u to the Gulf of 3lexico, were luclud: il tIVot flsm.

Page  285 APPE ND IX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 1.'Before we proceed to a relation of the immediate causes JAMES T. whit h led to the American Revolution, and the exciting incidents 1603-1625. of that struggle, we request the reader's attention, in accordance 1. Geneal with the design previously explained, to a farther consideration of character and such portions of European history as are intimately connected with design of thi our own during the period we have passed over in the preceding pages; —in connection with which we purpose to examine farther mnore of the internal relations, character, condition, and social progress of the American people during their colonial existence. 2A. At the close of the "' Appendix to the period of Voyages and 2. Previous Discoveries" we gave an account of the origin, early history, and accput5f0,ftld character of the puritan party in England, some of whose members became the first settlers of several of the North American colonies. 3 We now go back to England for the purpose of following out in 3. Continuatheir results the liberal principles of the puritan sects, as they lion of theit afterwards affected the character and destiny both of the English and the American people. 3. 4On the accession of James the First to the throne of Eng- JAMnES 1. land. in the year 1603, the church party and the puritan party 1603-1625. began to assume more of a political character than they had ex- 4. Character hibited during the reign of Elizabeth. The reign of that princess Ot artime of had been favorable to intellectual advancement; the Reformation the accession halo infused new ideas of liberty into the minds of the people;,fJazne#I and as they had escaped, in part, from the slavery of spiritual despotism, a general eagerness was manifested to carry their principles farther, as well in politics as in religion. 4. 5The operation of these principles had been in part restrained 5. Politictl by the general respect for the government of Elizabeth, which, aspect ofth, zetigious conhcwever, the people did not accord to that of her successor; and troaversies thei spell being once broken, the spirit of party soon began to rage with threatening violence. That which, in the time of Elizabeth, was a controversy of divines about religious faith and worshiD. now became a political contest between the crown and the pe, ple. a. 6The puritans rapidly increased in numbers, nor was it long1 6. Increase of before they became the ruling party in the FHouse of Commons, the primtanls where, although they did not always act in concert, and although anti iusrze their immediate objects were various, yet their influence constantly encO. tended to abridge the preroogatives of the kiing, and to increase the power of the people., t7Sonle, whose minds were absorbed with the 7. Their voridesire of carrying out the Reformation to the farthest possible ous objects, acnd the tenextent. exerted themselves for a reform in the church: others at- dency of tilel tacked arbitrary courts of justice, like that of the Star-chanmber efforts. and the power of arbitrary imprisonment exercised by officers of * The appellation " puritan" now stood for three parx,ies, which though commonly unstc, were yst actuated by very different views and motives. "T' here were the political puritans. who maintained the highest principles of civil liberty, the puritans in discipline, who were gverse to the ceremonies and episcopal government of the church; and the d~octrinal puritans, who rigidly defended the speculative system of the first reformners.". -Hrue.

Page  286 2%b APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. [BooK II, ANALYSIS. the crown,-but yet the efforts of all had a common'endency;the principles of democracy were contending against the powers of despotism. 1. The policy 6. lThe arbitrary principles of government which James had f Jazes-. adopted, rather than his natural disposition, disposed him to exert all the influence which his power and station gave him, in favor of the established church system. and in opposition to the puritan party.* Educated in Scotland, where presbyterianism prevailed, he had observed among the Scoth reformers a strong tendency towards republican principles, and a zealous attachment to civil liberty, and on his accession to the throne of England he was resolved to prevent, if possible, the growth of the sect of puritans in I. iovow par- that country. 2Yet his want of enterprise, his pacific disposition, tially ed- and his love of personal ease, rendered him incapable of stemming the torrent of liberal principles that was so strongly setting against the arbitrary powers of royalty. I. The aeom- 7. 3The anomalies of the character of James present a curious alies of his compound of contradictions. Hume says: "His generosity borter dered on profusion, his learning on pedantry, his pacific disposition on pusillanimity, his wisdom on cunning, his friendship on light fancy and boyish fondness.' "'All his qualities were sullied with weakness. and embellished by humanity." Lingard says of him: His discourse teemed with maxims of political wis. dom; his conduct frequently bore the impress of political folly. Posterity has agreed to consider him a weak and prodigal king, a vain and loquacious pedant." His English flatterers called him "the British Solomlon;" the Duke of Sully says of him, " He was the wisest fool in Europe." 1. The reign S. 4The reign of this prince is chiefly memorable as being the qf Janes period in which the first English colonies were permanently msoemnorable for wzhat. planted in Aimerica. s-Iume. speaking of the eastern American B. Hume's re- coast in reference to the colonies planted there during the reign of mar/cs rela- James, says: " Peopled gradually from England by the necessitous live to the s Ameerican and indigent, who at home increased neither wealth nor populousclonies. ness, the colonies which were planted along that tract have promoted the navigation, encouraged the industry, and even perhaps multiplied the inhabitants of their mother oountry. The spirit of independence, which was revived in England, here shone forth in its full lustre, and received new accessions from the aspiring - An extract from Hallam showing the different tenets and practices of the opposing religious parties at this time, and the disposition of James needlessly to harass the puritans may be interesting to the reader The puritans, as is well known, practiced a very strict observance of the Sabbathl, a term which, instead of Sunday, became a distinctive mark of the puritan party We quote, as a matter of historical interest, the following:-'" Those who opposed them (the puritans) on the high church side, not only derided the ex travagance of the Sabbatarians, as the others were called, but pretended that the commandment having been confined to the HIebrews, the modern observance of the first day of the weeh as a season of rest and devotion was an ecclesiastical institution, and in no degree more vene rable than that of the other festivals-or the season of Lent, which the puritans stubbornly despised. Such a controversy might well have been left to the usual weapons. But James, or some of the bishops to whom he listened, bethought themselves that this might serve as a test of puritan ministers. I-e published accordingly a declaration to be read in the churches, permitting all lawful recreations on Sunday after divine service, such as dancing, archery, Maygames, and morrice-dances, and other usual sports; but with a prohibition of bear-baiting, and other unlawful games. No recusant, or any one who had not attended the church service, was entitled to this privilege; which might consequently be regarded as a bounty on devotion.'The severe puritan saw it in no such point of view. To his cynical temper, May-galles and morrice-dances were hardly tolerable on six days of the week; they were now recommended for the seventh. And this impious license was to be promulgated in the church itself. It is Indeed difficult to explain so unnecessary an insult on the precise clergy, but b) supposing an intention to harass those who should refuse compliance." The declaration, however, was not enforced till the following reign. The puritan clergy, who then refused to read this declara fton in their chu-clhes, were punished by suspension or deprivation.

Page  287 PART 11.] APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL 1-USTORY. 287 character of' those who, being discontented with the established JAMES I. church and monarchy, had sought for freedom amidst those savage 1603-1625. deserts." 9. 1An account of the planting of several of the American colo- 1. The kinrg nies during the reign of James has elsewhere been given. The faevorable to American coikilng, being from the first favorable to the project of American col- onization. onization, readily acceded to the wishes of the projectors of the first plans of settlement; but in all the charters which he granted, his arbitrary maxims of government are discernible. 2By the first 2. ris ari-. charter of Virginia, the emigrants were subjected to a corporation trary potlcy in England, called the London Company, over whose deliberations the first Virthey had no influence; and even this corporation possessed merely gtlma charsadministrative, rather than legislative powers. as all supreme legislative authority was expressly reserved to the king. The most valuable political privilege of Englishmen was thus denied to the early colonists of Virginia. 10. 3By the second charter, granted in 1609, the authority of the 3. Character corporation was increased by the surrender of those powers which of the second the king had previously reserved to himself, yet no additional charter privileges were conceded to the people. The same indifference to the political rights of the latter are observable in the third charter, granted in 1612, although by it the enlarged corporation assumed a more democratic form, and, numbering among its members many of the English patriots, was the cause of finally giving to the Vir- 4. Connection ginia colonists those civil liberties which the kinr would still have between Enrg0ni tI3 Wo y~ ~I1 LYV~~ l-~- Y1~-LSlish independenied them. 4Here is the first connection that we observe be- dence, and tween the spirit of English independence and the cause of freedom.freedom in the New in the Nrew WVorld. World. 11. 5After the grant of the third charter of Virginia, the meet- 5. The Lon. ings of the London Company were frequent, and numerously at- don Company tended. Some of the patriot leaders in parliament were among cause of the members, and in proportion as their principles were oppos freedom. by the high church and monarchy party at home, they engaged with the more earnestness in schemes for advancing the liberties of Virginia. In 1621 the Company, after a violent struggle among its own members, and a successful resistance of royal interference, proceeded to establish a liberal written constitution for the colony, by which the system of representative government and trial by jury were established-the supreme powers of legislation were conceded to a colonial legislature, with the reserve of a negative voice to the governor appointed by the company-and the courts of justice were required to conform to the laws of England. 12. 6" Thus early,2" says Grahame, " was planted in Amlerica that 6. Remarks of representative system which forms the soundest political fraime Crr00am. wherein the spirit of liberty was ever imbodied, and at once the safest and most efficient organ by which its energies are exercised and developed. So strongly imbued were the minds of Englishmen in this age with those generous principles which were rapidly advancing to a first manhood in their native country, that wherever they settled, the institutions of freedom took root and grew up along with them." 7Although the government of the Virginia 7. Peria. colony was soon after taken into the hands of the king, yet the;nence of the representative system established there could never after be sub- tIvesystem in verted, nor the colonial assemblies suppressed. Whenever the Virgin. rights of the people were encroached upon by arbitrary enactments, their representatives were ready to reassert them; and thus, channel was ever kept open for the expression of the public grievances.'rite colonial legislature, in all the trials thre ltgh which it

Page  288 288 APPENDIX TO THIE COLONIAL HISTORY. [BooKr IL ANALYSIS. afterwards passed, ever proved itself a watchful guardian of the - cause of liberty. 1. Failure of 13. 1The charters granted by king Jaimes, in 1606, to the Lonthe Pchemestof don and Plymouth companies; were embraced in one and the same Company at instrument, and the fobrms of government designed for the projected Oolonization. colonies were the same. After various attempts at colonization, the Plymouth company, disheartened by so many disappointmenLts abandoned the enterprise; limiting their own efforts to an insignli.ficant traffic with the natives. and exercising no farther dominion over the territory than the disposition of small portions of it to private adventurers, who, for many years, succeeded no better in attempts at settlement than the Company had done before them. In reference to the seemingly providential failure of all these schemes for planting colonies in New England, we subjoin the following appropriate remarks from Grahame. 2. Remarks of 14. 2"' We have sufficient assurance that the course of this world h',a subject. is not governed by chance; and that the series of events which it exhibits is regulated by divine ordinance, and adapted to purposes which. from their transcendent wisdom and infinite range, often elude the grasp of created capacity. As it could not, then, be without design, so it seems to have been for no common object that discomfiture was thus entailed on the counsels of princes, the schemes of the wise, and the efforts of the brave. It was for no ordinary people that the land was reserved, and of no common qualities or vulgar superiority that it was ordained to be the prize. New England was the destined asylum of oppressed piety and virtue; and its colonization, denied to the pretensions of greatness and the efforts of might. was reserved for men whom the great and mighty despised for their insignificance, and persecuted for their integrity.)) a. Applica- 15. 3After the puritans had determined to remove to America, ptan of the they sent agents to king JLmes, and endeavored to obtain his apthefavor of proval of their enterprise.With characteristic simplicity and king James. honesty of purpose they represented to him " that they were well weaned from the delicate milk of their mother country, and inured to the difficulties of a strange land; that they were knit together in a strict and sacred bond, by virtue of which they held themselves bound to take care of the good of each other, and of the whole; that it was not with them as with other men, whom small things could discourage. or small discontent cause to wish themselves at home 4. Their par- ngain." 4A11: however, that could be obtained from the king, who tial success. refused to grant them a charter for the full enjoyment of their religious privileges, was the vague promise that the English govern, ment should refrain fromn molesting them. 5. The pro- 16. 5We have thus passed rapidly in review the more prominent resae thfa events in English history connected with the planting of the first 6. Death of American colonies during the reign of Jaines the First. 6He died James the in 1625.a' the first sovereign of an established empire in America."' First a. March 2", just aS he was on the point of composing a code of laws for the d0 old style. mestic administration of the Virginia colony. s,1:AR.LEs I 17. iJames was succeeded by his only son, Charles the First, then 1626 —1649. in the 25th year of his age. Inheriting the arbitrary principles T. Succession of his father; conirng to the throne when a revolution in public opin. o~f Charles I. His/ hara.c ion in relation to the royal prerogative, the powers of parliament, ter, policy, and the liberty of the subject was rapidly progressing: and destiea datll. tute of the prudence and foresight which the critical emergencies of the times required in him, he persisted in arrogantly opposing the many needed reforms demanded by the voice of the nationa

Page  289 PAYrT I1.] APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. until, finally) he was brought to expiate his folly, rather than his CHA: rES. crillles, onl the scaffold. 1625 —1649, 18.'The accession of Charles to the throne was immediately fol- 1. la earlt lowed by difficulties with his parliamlent, which reftused to grant controversiia hiln the recuisite supplies ior carrying on a warv'- in which the for- t'/u the;o~p. mier king and parliLmcent hdl involhved thle nation. Irritated by the oppositioa which he encountered. he colmmlitted many indiscretons, and englgel in numerous controversies with the parliament, ia which he was certain of beingo finally defeated. He caused a peer of the realmh who had become obnoxious to limn to be accused. of high treason, because he insisted on1 his inalienable right to a seat in parliament: the commons. in retulrin proceeded to inr...ach the king's favorite minister. the dulke of Bulckingham. —The king retaliated by imprisoninga two members of the house, whom, however, the exaspelration of the commons soon compelled hin to release. 19. 2Seemingly unaLware of the grieat iil iuence which the com- 2. f-Is co,.mons exerted in the nation, he elblbracel every oopo-rtunhiy of ex- cte t oert, ad threats pressing his contempt foi them, and, it length. ventured to use to- against the wards them the irrit, tin commons, wards them the iirritating threaLt that, if they did not furnish hila with supplies to carry oil the wars in which he was engaged, h, should be obliged to try nea councils; meaning, thereby, that he would rule without their assistance. 3The comnlons. however con- 3. Obstinacy tinned obstinate in their purposes, tandc the king proceeclecl to put of thiae cohis threat in execution. He lissolved" the parliament, andl. in re- arbitrary venrge for the unkind treatlllent which he had received fiom it c027dIit 0'c tholught himself justifiedl in making an invasion of the rights and a. June, ii libecities of- the whole nation. A general loan or tax was ievied on the people, and the king employed the whole power of his prerogative, in fines and imprisonments, to enforce the payment. 20. 4Unsuccessftil in his foreign wirs, in great want of sapplies, 4. King oalaiid beginling to apprehendcl daner from the discontents which his gee to Saemarbitlrary loans had occeasionedl he foundll himself undler the necessity pari zameont. a.f again sunmoningi a parliament. An answer to his demand for 1628. supplies was delayed until some imporitant concessions were obtained froi i him. LAfter the commons had unanimously declared, by vote,. concawagainst the legality of arbitrary imprisoniments and forced loans, siosobiitaihe they prepared a "! Petition of Right,;, setting forth the rights of the /ciag. E1nglish people, as guarantied to them by the Great Charterb and b. See p. 3S. by various laws and statutes of the realm: for the continuance of which they required of the king a ratification of their petition. After fiequent evasions and delays, the king finally gave his assent to the petition, which thus became law, and the commons then glranted the requisite supplies. 6But; in a few months the obliga- 6. Viola/ed b tions imlposed on the king by his sanction of the petition were reck- iii. lessly violated by him. 21. 7In 1629, some arbitrary measures of taxation occasioned a 7. Di,3soiitioi great fcrment in parliament. and led to its abruLpt dissolution. SThe. cant. king then gave the nation to aunderstancl that, during his reign, he 1629. intended to summeon no more parliaments. Monopolies were now S. cing's inrevived to a ruinous extent: duties of tonnage and poundage were tentioas — 9noropolles — rigorously extorted; former oppressive statutes for obtaining money arbitrary rluwere enforced; and various illegal expedients were devised for t:oes, operes — levying taxes and giving them the color of law; aund numbers of,na,,e. a: A war undertaken originally against Austria, in aid of a German prince, Frederick, the e'lector palatine, who had married a sizter of Charles. This war afterwards involv(ed Spain i.nlI Fra.nce against England. 37

Page  290 290 APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. [Boov Il AN.ALYSIS. the most distinguished patriots, who refused to pay, were subjected --- to fines aitll imprisonnltent.1. T'he case of 22. In the yea.r 1637. the distinrLuished petriot John Himpden, JQO' HIem1p- rendered his name illustrious by the bold sta.d which he mlade ag inst the tyranny of the govejnmeint. Dennying the legality of the tax called ship-money, and refusing to pay his portion, he willingly submitted to a legal prosecution':lnd to the indlignation of his moiiaLchb in defence of the laws and libertv of his country. The case was argued befire all the supreme judges of Eng]land, twelve in number, and althouh a otmajority of two decided aga.inst Hampclen yet the people were arousecl froin their lethargy, and beca-n.e sensible of the d anger to which their liberties were exposed. Y. Ect.tsia.sti- 23. 2The ecelesiastical branch of Chlirlesls governm ienit was nit ci Pioc//J of less arbitrary than the civil. Seemingly to iannoy the puritans, he revised and enIorced llis faLther:s edict for allowing sports andc recr eations on Sundaly; and those divines wiho refused to read, ir their pulpits: his proclamnition for that purpose, were punished by suspension or cleprivLtion. The penalties against CaLtholics were, relaxed; nilny new ceriemonies and observa'ices, preludes, as, they were terimed. to popish idolatries, were introduced into the church and that too at a time w hen the sentiments of the naltion were de,. -cidedly of a puritan character. The most strict conformity ir religious )worship was required, and such of the clergy as neg lected to observe every ceremony, were excludled from the minis. try. Severe punishments were inflicted upon those who inveighed{ agalinst the established church; and the ecclesiastical courts wer, exalted above the civil, and aibove all law but -that of their own1 creation.-l 10t31. 24. s3Clrles next attempted to iJit oduce the liturgy of the Eng a Con,,wotio7s lish church into Scotland; a measure which immediately produced cctcsttancl. most violenit commotion. This lituruy was regarded by this, Scotch presbyterians as as species of' mi.Iss-a prepar tive thas; wa.t soon to introduce, as was tihought., all the abomninations of poperj. The populace andi the higher classes at once united in the commoni cause. thee clergy loudly declaimced against popery and the liturgy, Immediately after the dissolution of p-alrliament, Ilichard Chambers, an alderman of London, and an eminent merchant, refused to pay a ta:x illegally imposed upon him, and appealed to ths public justice of his country. Being sulmmoned before the king's council, and remalrklng there that " the merchants of England were ias much screwed up as in Turkey," lie was fitele two thousand pounds, and doonmed to imlprisonlmeiit till he mtde a submission. Refusing to degrade hinlself in this way, and thus become an instrument for destroying the vital prin ciples of the constitution, he was thrown into prison, where he remained upwards of twelve years.-Brodie.? As an instance of: cruel and unusual punishmensts, sometimes inflicted during this reign, weo notice the following. One Leigrhton, a fanatical puritan, having written an inflammatory book against prelacy, was condemned to be degraded from the ministry; to be publicly whipped in the palace yard; to be placed two hours in the pillory; to have an ear cut off, a nostril slit open, and a cheek branded with the letters SS., to denote a sower of sedition. At the expiration of a week he lost the remaining ear, had the other nostril slit, and the other cheek branded, after which he was condemned to be immured in prison for life. At the end of ten years he obtained his literty, from parliament, then in arms against the king.-Lingard. Such cases, occurring in Old England, reliind us of the tortures inflicted by American savages on their prisoners. The following is mentioned by Hume. One Prynn. a zealot, who had written a book of invectives against all plays, games, &c., and those who countenanced them, was indicted as a libeller of the king and queen, who frequented plays, tand condemned by the arbitrary court of the star-chamber to lose both his ears, pay five thousand pounds, and be imprisoned for life. J'or another similar libel he was condemned to pay an additional five thousa.nd pounds, and lose the remainder of his ears. As he presented the mutilated stumps to the hangman's knife, he called out to the croswd, " Christians stand fist; be faithful to God and your country; or you bring on yourselves and your children perpetual slavery." " The dungeon, the pillory, and the scaffold,',says Bancroft, " were but stages in the pragres.Q of civil liberty towards its tihlmbh'

Page  291 PART IL.] APPENDIX TO THEI COLONIAL HISTORY. 291 which they represented as the same; a bond; termed a National CFARLES T. Covenanllt, containing an oath of resistaIunce to all reliious innova- 1625-1649. tions, was subscribed by all classes land na htiontl assembly formally abolished Episcopacy, anld declcaled the English canonis and 1638. liturgy to be unlawful.'1n support of' these measures the Scotch I. War. covenanters took up arms, annd, after a brief truce, mlarched into 1639. England. 25. 2After an intermission of above eleven years, an Elnglish 2 Parlia'ef parliament was again summoned. 3Charles made some conces- again sumsions but failing to obtain supplies as readily as he desired, the 1640. parliament wals abruptly dissolved, to the general discontent of the 1540 nation_.; 4New elections were held. and another parliament was dissol uion, of assembled.a but this proved even Imore obstinate than the former. parliament. 5Straffordl, the kinsg:s favorite general, and late lieutenant of Ire- pAnthewt land. and Laucd archbishop of Cmanterbury, the two most powerful a Nov. 3, and nmost favored ministers of the king, were impeached by the com- old styie. mons for the crime of high treason. Strafford was brought to trial ~. P0e-6d fngs of this immediately, wast declared guilty by the House of Peers, and by the paarliamLent. unusual expedient of a bill of sattainderf was sentenced to execu- 64l1. tion.b Laud was brought to trial and executed'our years later. b. Executed SThe eloquence and. ability with which Straf ford defended himself, itlay'2. have given to his fall, in the eyes of many, the appearance of a tri- 6. Fate anld umph, and have rendered him somewhat illustrious as a supposed character of martyr to his country; and yet true history shows him to have StraflSrd been the adviser and willing instrument of much of that tyrannical usurpation which finally destroyed the monarch wNThom ho designed to serve.4 26. 7From this period, parliament having once gained the ascen- 7. fncsroas dency, and conscious of the support of the people, continued to neInts fpa(tr. lirteanst on encroach on the prerogatives of the king: until scarcely the shadoav the l.erogaof his former power was left him. Already the character of the tievs of tOe British constitution hald been changed firom a despotic government tier. to a limited monarchy, and it would probably have been well if here the spirit of reform had firmly estaiblished it. 8Yet one coil- 8; Continued cession was immediately followecd by the demand of another. until de7lmaus!qf parliament finally required the entire control of the military force alzd./,az reof the nation, when Charles, conscious th at if he yielded this point, sias!cc o there would be left him "'only the picture —the mere sign of a king," ventured to put a stop to his concessions, and to remove from London with most of the nobility. I9t was now evident that 9. Prepara. the sword alone must decide the contest: both parties matde the tionsfor va,'. most active preparations for the coming struggle, while each endeavored to throw upon the other the odium of commu encing it.~ - During the short recess that followed, the onzvocatio1n, an ecclesiastical assembly of archbishops, bishops, and inferior clergy, continued in session. Of their imany imprudent mleasures during this period, when Puritanism was already in the ascendant in the parliament, we quote the following from Lingard. " It was ordered, (among other canons,) that every clergyman, once in each quarter of the year, should instruct his parishioners in the divine right of kings, and the damnable sin of resistance to authority." -t A bill qf attainder was a special act of parliament, inflicting capital punishment, without any conviction in the ordinary course of judicial proceedings. By the third clause of Section IX. Article I. of the Constitution of the United States. it is declared that" No bill of atftainler, or ex post.facto law, (a law declaring a past act criminal that was not criminal when done,l;hall be passed." $ IHum'.;s account, of the trial of Straffordl, has been shown to be, in miany particulars, erroaeous, and prejudiced in his favor; and his opinion of the Earl's innocence has been dissented'aom by sonie very able subsequent writers. See Brodie's extended and circunlstantial (tccount of this important trial. ~ The following remarks of Lingard present an impartial view of the real objects for which'his war was undertaken, and answer the question,'Who were the authors of it?'' The controversy between the king and his opponents no longer regarded the real Iiberties

Page  292 292 APPENDIX TO TIlE COLONIAL HISTORY. [Booet il, ANALYSIS. 27. IHere then we have arrived at the be,',in~il of tha-t crisis in - English history, to which all the civil, religious: and political con. 1. Point te troversies of the nation scidc been tendinsg since the comlnel cemlent hav;e 7no of the Reforimation. 2Th1e various conllicting sects and parties, arrived, for a while overlookting their minor clifferences now arrang e them2..a'ishall. sngofpzl aries. selves in two grimnd divisions, having on the one side the Presbyterian dissenters, then a numerous part3y and all ultlra eligious and political reformers. headed by the parliame ent; ancd on the other the high church and monarcey party, embracing the Cattholics and 1. The begin- most of the nobility, headed by the kine. 3This appeal to arms, we zing of the have said, was the bepi.ftie-d of the crisis; the conclusion was fifty risis: when 0 brought to a years later, when, at the close of the revolution of 1688, the pres. conctuslion. ent principles'of the British constitution were permanently established) by the declaration of rights which was annexed to the settlement of the crown on the prince and plincess of Orange. 4. Civilwar, 28. 4From 16412 to 1647 civil war continued, and many imporand execu- tant battles were fought; after which the nation continued to be tione of the king. distracted by contending factions until the close of 16418, when the king, having fallen into the hands of the parliament'try forces, was tried for the crime of'levying war against the parliament and kingdom of England," and being convicted on this novel charge of a. Old style. treason, was executed on the 30th" of January, 1649. 5Parliament 5. Condition had, ere this, fallen entirely under the influence of the army- then fpSent.a- commanded by Oliver Cromwell, the principal general of the republican, or puritanical party. 6. Remartks 29. 6For the dea;th of the king no justification cani be made, for on the death no considerationl of public necessity required it. Nor can this act of the kicng. 7. Views of be attributed to the vengeance of the people. 7Lingard l says that ~ingard. 4 the people, for the mlost paiirt were even willing to replace Charles on the throne. under those limitations which they deemled necessary for the preservation of their rights. The Iene who hurried him to the scaffold were a small fiaction of bold mand ambitions spirits, who had the address to guide the passions and fanaticisnm of their followers, and were enabled; through them, to control the real senti. B. Of attllra. ments of the nation.' 8iHSllam asserts that the most powerful motive that influenced the regicides was a "fierce fanatical hatred of 9. Huime's the king, the natural fruit of long civil dissensions, inflamed by representa- preachers more dalrk and( sanguinary than those they addressed, lion of the and by a perverted study of the Jewish scriptures." character of' Ch/arles. 30. 9lHuine whose political prejudices have induced him to speak of the nation, which had already been establishl-le by successive acts of the legislatule, but was confined to certain coencessions which they demanded as essential to the preservation of those iberties, and which fhe refused, as subversive of the royal authority. That some securities were requisite no one denied; *but while many contended that the control of the public money, the power of ilnpaclhment, aind the rig'ht of mleeting every third year, all which wsere now vested in the Parliament, formed a sufficient barrier against encroa.chnients on the part of thle sovereign, others insisted that the command of the army, and the appointment of tle judges, ought also to be transferred to the two houses. Diversity of opinion produced a schism anmonmg the patriots; the more moderate silently -withdrew to the royal standard, —the more violenllt or more distrustful. resolved to defesid their opinions awith the sword. It has often ben b een i(l, Wh71o were the authors of the civil war? Thve answer seems to depend on the solution of thlis other question, Were additional securities necessary for the preservation of thle naltional l'ilitS? If they were. the blame wnil belong to Charles; if not, it mnust rest wvithl his adversaries." Hallamln has the followia remarks oni tihe character of the two parties after th-ue vwar commenced. —' If it were difficult for an uprilht masn to enilist with entire willingness under eitller the royalist or parliamentary bsanner, at tile conimencement of hostilities in 16492 it bectle far less easy for him to desire thne complete success of one or the other cause, as advanciulg time displayed the ftilts of both in darker colorsl than they had previously wvorn.-Of the Parliament it may be, with not greater severity than trutl, that s.arcely two or three public acts of justice, hunlnanity or generosity, antd very few of political wisdom or cour'age are re trlpred of them firom their quarrel awith the king to tlheir expulsion by Cromwell."

Page  293 PAiRT II1. APPENDIX TO THIE COIONLIAL I-It ['O-iY. 093 more favorlably, thaan other writers, of the princes of the Stuart CHARLES L tlllily; attributes to Charlles i nluch glreater predlominanc ot vir- 1625 —1649..ues than of vices. arLnd pailli.tes his e1Irors by whlt lie clls his ra;ilties aod wVeaLnOless.: and the mialevolence of his fortunes. tlid Chlarles lived a hundred e.liel erwllhen the cla;ins of the i.'I'rie stats royal prero-zgztive were undispute and unlclacstione e. Is ovel n- ( f ie case. nlellit althoughl alrbitlrary, nligllt h11av been a happly one for his people- but hle was illy adtiLted to the tilies in vwhich he lived. 31. 2i2D urilln the rign of' (' hii;les, tlhe Egl.oish governmeitt mostly 2. Relsation ib)SOIl;et vi t i;ll thternifi aff-irs of tie klilldom paid little a ltten- OflEntt'withi her tion to the nAmericaa colonic D. Duorin' tihe wial with 1i'rance in Ar-merican the elnly part of this reig tei e Fr1enich osseseions in Nsovil Scotia co(fitezths and Canacdl were easily reducedl by thil Engliish yet by the tlreaty re of'St. Germcins. in L(6:32. lihatles. with little considelration of the vanlue of these.colqiiacs:s -groeed to restore themn. 3Had ntot the 3. Little e irnest counsels of' Chlnpliaini the fotuntder of Qebec, prevalled v1aiuLte wc2htt with his mon'irch, Louis Xtl. Fr1ille i awoluld then hItlve. iabmnldoned i, is ttires, these distantt )posssions awhose resforiLtion was not, thou ght worth (ttattciir to:) <wZ ~~~~~~~~~~ti c her American insisting upoln.i" possessions. 3'2. 41I his colonial policy towards Virg i inil: Ctharles adopted the 4. Colo2sial m11axims thbt bi:dl lrcgultt-": the conduct of his father. Declaring; pcy of Chac lea that the mnisfortunes of Virgwilnia, were owing. in a,1 geat measure, to toiztaricr virthe clemocratical fra!ne of the Civil constitutionl which the London 615 Company had given it, he expressed his intention of' talling the government of that colony into his own halnds- but although lie appointed the governors andl their council of advisers, the colonial assembly -was aippa.rently oerlookedl is of little consequlence and allowed to renlltin. sThe reiLt ain of the king seemed to be, to 5. Great attn monopolize the profits of the industry of' tlhe coloni'ts; and while ortieslitts c.: absorbed with this object.~ which he could never fully accomplish, and over whelirned with ia multiplicity of c:lres iat holne the political rights of the Viroginians becaIne establislhed by his ieglect. 33. 6The relations of Charles iwith the Puritain colonies of New 6. TherelaEnglaLnd. ftorm one of the most interesting portions of our colonial tit of Charlt history, both on account of the subsequent imnporta nce of those col- b qVir the onies, and the exceedilog liberaLlity of conduct manifested towards Puritc NElo thenm by the king, —so utterly irreconcilab:e with all his well known EnCg lad. maxims of arbitroa.y authorit3y —and dirfctly opposed to the whole policy of his goverinment in Englnd, tandil to the disposition which he exhibited in his relations with the Virgini: colonialts. 7The 7. Sosrprising reader will, perhtlps, be surprised to lear n t'ch:t Charlles the First fact. acted. indirectly at least. as the early frielnd of' the liberties of New England, and the plitron of the Puritan settlements. 34. 81n the last year of the reign of Jimes, the prqojet of another 8. CircumPuritan settlement on the shore of Massachusetts Blav had been stancesatformed by MIr. WVhite, a non-conforrmist minister of Dorchester; founding of and, although the firstt attempt was ia part frustrateld. it led, a few tl"'ts -nac7 Z-) I setts Bay years late; to the foundinfg of the Ma;ssachusetts Bay colony. By ContcJy. the zeal and activity of W5hite, an association of Puritans was formed; a tract, of territory was purchased of the Plymouth Company, and, in 1G S28 a small bocly of planters was tespatchedl to Massachusetts, under the charge of John Endicott one of the lead-:; t is remuarkable that the French were doubtful whether they should reclaim Canada from the English, or leatve it to themni. Many were of opinion that it was better to keep the people in France, and employ thenm in all sorts of manufactures, which would oblige the other European powers who hatd colonies in America to bring their raw goods to French ports. aind take French manuifactures in return." —Kainms Travels in North America

Page  294 294 APPENDlX TO TIHE COLO3NIAL IIIfSTOR'. [Book IL ANALYSIS. ing projectors. Some opulent commercial men of London, whG openlly professed or secretly fitvored the tenets of' the Puritans were indluced to join in ttie enterprise' ind they persuaded their associates to unite witi'h them in an application to the king for a charter of incorporation. b, s8ricoikg 35. l'he readiness with which the kineg yielded to their applilbzeroai.ty 0Jr cttion% and the liberal tenor of the chalt-el tnhus obtained, are perkA kinIag. fectly unaccountable, except -upon the supposition that the king was anxious. it this time; to irelieve his kingdom of the religious and politic.l iagitators of the Puritan party, by opening for themr 2 Incossist- an asylUl m in a foreignl land. 2While attenmpting to divest the Virencies in his ginians of many of their'rightss he made a free gift of the samle to the " Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay,"; although he had but recently declared. in the case of Virgini, t hlit a chartered incorporation was totally unfit to manage the affairs of a remote colony, yet he did iiot hesitate to establish one for New England. 8. Ecclesiasti- 3Although acwar,- of' the hostility of the Puritans to the established riihts/ - Enhglish Chlurch lie absttined from imposing upon them a single lonved the, Puroan colo- ordinance rcspecting religious tenets, or the forms and ceremonies nsits. of worship.'he charter madce no mention of the ecclesiastical rights of the colonists, thus showing a silent acquiescenc e of the king in the wrcll known cldesigns of the formler of establishing a church governlllent on puIitanical principles.-? 4. Their po- 36. 4Yet the great body of the emigrants did not obtain, directly,tical rigrhts. any firther political rights: than the incorporatetd Company/,; in which was vested all legislative and executive authority, thought!. T7e i7c0o- proper to give them. 5But the Company itself was large, some of 7orated col/n- its mesmbers were atmong the first emiglsrants. and a large proportion iany, aoid its re!attons Of the patentees soon removed to Americat. Botween the Company i'iti thile ancl the emigrants there wais a unliformity of views, principles, and interests; and the political rights given to the former, by their 6 Charter charter, were soon shatredi by the latter. 61n 1629, the CompanyJ and nieetings by its own vote, and by general consent, transferred its charter. its pafntAt8aee i meetings, and the control of the goverillnent of the colony from fe-red ato England to America. Thus an English corporation, established in London, resolved itself. with all its powers and privileges. into an A ielrican corporation to be established in Massachusetts; and that too without any opposition fromli the English monarlch. who; in all other cases, had shown himself exceedingly jealous of' the preroga* Yet Robertson (I-istory of America, b. x.) charges the Puritans with laying the foundations of their church governlment in fraud; because the charter required that' none of their acts or ordinances should be inconsistent uitih the laws of England,, a provision understood by the Puritans to require of them nothing farther than a general confornuity to the comoilln law of England. It would be preposterous to suppose that it -was designed to require of them an adherence to the changing forms and ceremonies of Episcopacy. Yet'rotwithstandiig. the well known sentiments of the Massachusetts Bay colonists, and their avowed objects in elisigrating, Rolbertson accounts for the silence of the charter on ecclesiastical subjects, by the supposition that " the king seemlls not to hare foreseen, nor to have suspected tlte secret intentions of those who plpojected the inmeasure." But this supposed iinoltralce of the king appears quite incrldible. Bancroft (i. 343.) appears to give a plartial ssrction to the opinion expressed by Robertson, in saying that " the patentees could not foresee, nor the Ei'ng lish -owvernment anticipate, how wide a delparture from English usages would grow out. of the eniirattion of Puritalns to Americau." Andl farther: " The chtlrter, accorcliing to the stlicet rules of legal interpre tationi, wasir ftr i'oo conceclig to the patentees t;he frteedoill of religious wiollship.' Ilalcroft says nothing of the probable design aend understallnding of the kio)g iland his councillors inI this matter. Grahame (b. ii.) says, " By the Purittilcs, and thle Puritan writers of thalt age, it was sincerely believed, andl confidently maintained, tllat the intendument of tlhe charter was to bestow on the colonists unrestricted liberty to regulate their ecclesia;stical constitution by the dictatec, of their own judglments nd consciences," and thrt thei lking weas fully a'Lware that it was the:bj(ect of the colonists to establish an ecclesiastical constitution simlilar to that estabstthe 1 at Plymouth.

Page  295 PART II.] APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 295 tives of the crown. 1Two years later. when a complaint was pre- CHARLES r.'emrredl against the colony by a Ronmln Catholic who had been ban- 1625-l1649. ished rolom it, the king took occasio i to disprove the reports thla 1t Frienl he 1' h'td no good opinion of thal pll lltation;' and to assure the in- coinauc o$ habitants theit he would mnimntain their privileges. and supply what- the tin. ever eise might contribute to their comnort andt prosperity.37. 2The tranusler to which we have allulded did not of itself 2 Nantre aesd effects of the.onfer any new franchises on the colonists, unless they were al- ransJ'e ready members of the Company; yet it was, in ieality, the estab- Wtzic/Z2 s tishment o'an independent provincial government, to be adminis - to tered, in eedl in Accordlance with the laws of England, but while so adslinistered.t not subject to any interIerence ftio m othe king. 31n 3. Enelarre163:0 the corporltion inll which still remained all the powers of cieet of the corporation, g0ovel1rmn11t en cllarged its numlbers by the cadmlission into its body antil reruelao1 more than one hundred persons; many o' them members of no tinon yiS.d chutchh but in the following ye'ar it was (agreed andc oridiined'that, for the time to core. no manl should be admitted to the freedom of this body pol:tic, who was not. a member of some church within the limits oc the colony.' 4Under this limitation, the full roights of 4. Gradual citizenslhip were gradually extended beyond the limits of the orig- ext~einis f 9 tile i ig/to of intl corporation, so as to embrace all church-memlbers in good citize'is/l'io st.anding; but at a ltier periodl this law was anenlced so as to ineltude among the freemen those inhabitants also who should procure a certificate foIom some minister of' the established church that they were peLsons Of orIthodox principles andcl of hoest life and conversatt i on. 38. 5Such is a brief history ofL the early relations that existed 5. Thze ruitl between Clharles the First and the Mass achusetts Bay colonists; t/ufo. showinolg how the civil anld relioious liberties of these people were tolerated anti e&lcouraioed by the unaccountable liberality of a despotic monarch; who showed himselh' in his own kingdoni, mlost bitteily hos.i ile to tie religious views, political principles, and general character tof t he Puritns. -'VWe close our renlarkcs on this subject b1y quoting the obllowing -froml Gratmie. 3:. 6 T'I'he colonists themselvxes notwithstandinog all the facilities 6. Reznartt o which the king presented to themn.tand the unwonted liberality and (Grahab.or consideration wioh which he showed himself willing to grice their departur e i om Britain. wiveire so fully watlre of his rooted enimaity to their principles, and so, little able to recocile his present demeanor with his itavorite policy, that they openly declared they hadcl been conducted by Providence to a lin of- rest, through ways w-hich they wxereu contented to a:rdmire -without comprehending' and t:!tit they could asceribe the blessinlos they obtained to lnolhing else tOlmL tlhe speciml interposition of that Being who orders all the s-eps of his people, and holds the heirts of' kings, as of all men, in Lis hands. It is indeet a stra nge coincicldece, thlt this arbitrary I'rince, at the very time when he was oppressirng the royalists in Virorgnit. should have been chmerishing the principles of liberty onier' thei Paritans in'N ew Englant.l 40. l:B1ut notwi-thstluandiciio the ltvor withs wxhich the Englisah gov- 7. Jco.lous./ ermnenlt alppears to i''ve re.ciuded the clesions o- the Pu-ritans in t,,.i tziai r'eTo10viri to A-merica. no oisooner were tiLhe fiirmlly established there wmverin, thlanl a jealoulsy of theit- success aras lobseolrv;nle in the counsels of of"piPu. rp'';:lchbisihop Lmtid and the hitgh-ch lach urcl pltS; and the kiing began to wtaver between his originall wish to remove the seeds of' discontent [ar from himn; and his iapprehensions'of the dlangerous and increasGrahame, Book II, chap... Neal.

Page  296 296 APPENDIX TO TI-HE COLONIAL HISTORY. [B 30oK it. ANAI,YSIS. ing influence which the Puritan colonies already began to exert in the affairs of Enaland. iAmnerica began to be regarded by the i. Arneri'nea, in hoto Aergard'c English patriots as the asylum of liber ty the home of the opsyu dift'rent pressed; and as opening a ready escape fi'om the civil and ecclesir astical rifgors of Elnglish tyranny: hile the clmors the clamors of the malig. nant represented it as a nursery of religious heresies, and of republ lican dogmas utterly subversive of the principles of royalty.,.Reprtesenta- 41. 2The emiissaries of Laud, sent. to spy out the practices of ey.iis'earies of the Puritans, informied him how widely their proceedinsp were at Laud. variance with the laws of England; that marriages were celebrated by the civil magistrate instead of the parish priest; that a new system of church discipline had been established; and. moreover that the colonists aimed at sovereignty; and'that it was accounted treason in their general court to speak of' appeals to the king." an El4sigra- 3: VOwirng to the persecutions in England, and the favorable reports tion to Amnerica. of the prosperity of Massachusetts, emigration had increased so rapidly as to become a subject of serious consideration in the kiing's counicil," d. Attemnptsto 42. 4So early as 1633 the king issued a prloclamnation reprobating pievenz emi- the designs that prompted the emigration of the Puritans. In 1634.'ration, Iarbitrar con- several ships bound for New England were detained in the rmsissiorrlgr- Thames by order of the council; and during the same year an ted to arch bishop Laud, arbitrary commission was granted to archbishop Laud and others, eye. authorizing them to make laws for the American plantations, to regulate the church, and to examine all existing colonial patents and charters'ancd if they found that any had been unduly obtained or that the liberties they conferred were hurtful to the 5. Obiects of royal prerogative, to cause them to be revolked?. s50wing: howcseion deat- ever, to the fluctuating:motives and policy of the king, and tha ed: inten- critical state of affairs in England d the purposes of this commis sion were not fiully carried out: the colonists expressed their in. tention:to defend their lawful possessions, if they were able; if not, to avoid, and protract, -and emigration continued to increase their numbers and.influence. 6. Accessions 43. 6In 1635 a fleet of twenty vessels conveyed three thousand to the colony in 1635. new settlers to the colony, among whom were Hugh Peters, afterwards the celebrated chaplain and counsellor of Oliver Cromwell, and Sir Henry Vane the younger, who was elected governor of the colony, and -who afterwards became one, of the prominent leaders of the Independent party in parliament. during the civil war be_, Orldinance tween that body and the king. 7In 163S an ordinance of council of 1638. was issued for the detention of another large fleet about to sail for Massachusetts, and it has been asserted and generally believed that among -those thus prevented from emigrating were the distinguished Puritan leaders, Hazlerig, Il-ampden, Pynm, and Oliver Cromwell. 8. Demsavd 44. SAbout the same time a requisition was made to the general for the return court of' Massachusetts for the return of the charter of the colony, of the Alasa- cad ehusetts char- that it might abide the result of the judicial proceedings alrcady ter. commenced in England for its subversion. SThe colonists. howeve., 9. opposed by in cautious but energetic languages urged their rights against such the colonists. zn a proceeding, ndc. deprecating the kinags displeasure, returned for answer an hulble petition thiat they miihts be heard before they 10. The kcin were conldemned. OIHappily for their liberties. before their petition otiged hto could find its way to the throne, the monarch was himself involved arbitrary in difficulties in his own dominions. which rendered it prudent for eganstthe 1imn to suspend his arbitrary measures.agasinst the colonies. He colonies. was never allowed an opportunity to resume them

Page  297 PART II.2 APPENDIX TO TIIE COLONIAL HISTORY. 29? 45. Although settlements were commenced in Maine, New CHARLES L Uampshire. Connecticut, and Rhode Island during this reign, they 1625-1649. were considered rather as branches of the more prominent colony I. Other setof Massachusetts Bay, and had not yet acquired sufficient impor- tlements in tance to attract the royal notice. 21n 1644 Rhode Island and Neorlad. Providence obtained front the parliament, through the efforts of 2. rzhode Roger WVilliams, a charter of incorporation "with full power and island and authority to govern themselves.' 3aThe Plymouth colony remain- 3. Ths Plyed without a charter, and unmolested, in the quiet enjoyment mnouti/ colof its civil and religious privileges. For more than eighteen years ony. 4. Its demo. this little colony was a strict democracy. All the manle inhlabitants c-atic charwere convened to frame the laws, and often to decide bloth on ex- acter. ecutive and judicial questions. The governor was elected annually by general suffrang, oad the powers that he exercised were derived directly from the people. The inconveniences arising from the purely democratic iborm led to the adoption of the representative systeln in 1639. 46. sWe now turn to Maryland, the only additional English col- 5. Maryland ony established during the reign of Charles the First, to whose history we have Iot alluded in this Appendix. GIThe charter 6. General grLanted to Lord Baltimore, the general tenor of which has already chlaracter of the Marybeen described, contained a more distinct recognition of the rights tand charter. of the colonists than any instrument which had hitherto passed the royal seal. The merit of its liberal provisions is attriblutable to the provident foresight and generosity of Lord Baltimore himself, who penned the instrument, and whose great favor and influence with the king obtained from him concessions, which would never have been yielded to the claims of justice alone. The charter of Maryland was sought for annd obtained from nobler and holier purposes than the grantor could appreciate. 47. 7Unlike the charters of New England and Virginia, that of 7. Rights of Maryland acknowledged the emigrant settlers themselves as free- thesettlers. men, and conceded to them rights, which. in other instances. had been restricted to privileged companies; or left to their discretionary extension. 8The laws of Maryland were to be established with the 8. The laos advice and approbation of a majority of the freemen; neither were of Miea7land: their enactments, nor the appointments of the proprietary. subject Eo'eptoato any required concurrence of the king: the colony received a per- tion: relig petual exemption from royal taxation; andcl while Christianity was tion, 4-c. declared to be the law of the land, no preference was given to any religious sect or party. 48. SMaryland was settled by Catholics, who, like the Puritans, 9. The praise sought a refuge in the wilds of America friom the persecutions to that is aue ts the Catholics which they were subjected in Englandic and they -are entitled to of larylan&o the praise of having founded the first Amernicit colony in which religious toleration was esttablished by law. 10: C alvert deserves to Iu. Renmar be ranked,?~ says Bancroft, "iamong the most wvise and benevolent of Bancrcft. lawgivers of all ages. He was the first in the history of the Christian world to seek for religious security and peace by the practice ofjustice, and not by the exercise of power; to plan the establishment of popular institutions with the enjoyment of liberty of' conscincre; to advance the career of civilizaltion by recognizing the rightful equality of all religious sects. The asylum of Papists was the spot, where, in a remote corner of the world, on the banks of rivers which, as yet, had hardly been explored. the mild forbearance of a proprietary adopted religious freed mm as the basis of the state.' 28

Page  298 298 APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. Boox l, ANALYSIS. 49 1A few days after the death of Charles, the house of cona. - mols, declaring that the house of lords was useless and dancgerous. THE abolished that branch of parliament. At the same time it was voted COMmON- that the office of king was unnecessary, burdensome. and danger ous to the liberty and safety of the people i and an act was accord-.. 16 Proceed- ingly passedcl, declaring monarchy to be.bolished. The commono intos of the then took into their hands all the powers of government, and the house of corn- former title of the "English Monarchy," gave place to that of the the death of COiMuONWEALTH OF ENGLAND. the king 50. 50. SA proper understanding of the characters of those who now Chaeracterof ruled the destinies of England, requires some account of the char, religious par. ti:es. acter of the religious parties in the nation. 3At the time of the 3. A majority commencement of the civil war, a great majority of the people of of the people Englandl dissatisfied with the Episcopacy, were attached to a system attached to Presbyteri- of greater plainness and simplicity. which was denominated Presancism. byterianism. 4Yet the principles which actuated these opposing which actuza- divisions. were not at first so different as might be expected. ted the oppo- d The Episcopal church}~ says Godwin, " had a hatred of sects; the ions. Presbyterians did not come behind her in that particular. The Episcopal church was intolerant; so were the Presbyterians. Both of them regarded with horror the idea of a free press, and that every one should be permitted to publish and support by his writings whatever positions his caprice or his convictionxs might t. vlresbyteri- dictate to him.~ 5The Presbyterians held the necessity of a system ans; and re- of presbyteries, which they regarded as of divine institution, and liiious uniformity. they labored as earnestly as the Episcopalians to establish a uniformity in religious faith and worship. 6. The Inde- 51. iUnited with the Presbyterians at first in their opposition to penaents. the abuses of the royal prerogative, were the Idely eutde nlts, the most 7. Their gen- radical of the Puritan retbrmers. 7" Like the Presbyterians they era,? princi- cordially disapproved of the pomp and hierarchy of the Church of England. But they weFrnt farther. They equally disapproved of the synods, provincial and general. the classes and incorporatiolns of Presbytery, a system scarcely less cormplicated, though infinitely less dazzling than that of diocesan Episcopacy. They held that a church was a body of Christians assembled in one place appropriated for their worship, and that every such body was complete in itself; that they had a right to draw up the rules by which they thought proper to be regvulated. and thi-t no man not a member of their assembly, and no body of men, was entitled to interfere with 8. They de- their proceedings. 8Demanding toleration on these grounds. they mntsd and felt that they were equally bound to concede and assert it for conceds toleatiOZn. others; and they preferred to see a nuniber of churches. with different sentiments -and institutes. within the same political c.mmunity: to the idesa of' remedying the evil andcl extermina ting error by means of exclusive regulations; and the mienaces and severity of 9. The char- lumnishment. "t saIuume says of the Indepenldents, " Of all ChrisatTer gen tian sects this avs the first which. during its prosperity as well as zume. its adversity, alwlays adopted the priaciples of toleration.;" The In. 10. Political dependents demianded no other liberty than they were willing tc differences between the yield to all others. nd ephep ennes 952. h~As the civil war between the king and parliament progressed, byterians. tinlportant political differences arose between the Independents and bl. The owishes the Presbyterians, extecndin thlroghout parliament, the army and Ofthe~ Prerbyg-o pri th terians. the people. lTrhe Presbyterians would have been satisfied with * Godwin.

Page  299 PART II' APPENDIX TO'THE COLONIAL -IISTORY. 299 royalty unde': proper restrictions against its abuses; not desiring a coNr.-n, - somplete victory, they feared th.t the kinl might be reduced too W'ELTI1. low; and being tired of the war: they were anxious i-lr ca ompro- 164 —1660. mise.'But the Independents, considered as a politc Il partyh hv d ing graldually enlisted under their banners the radicals of all the 9o1ilAs of Gtha liberal sects, demandede first, the abolition of royalty itself. as atistae no conieession to their political principles. and aiierwards, the establishnment of universal toleration in matters of religion. 2it was 2.Th,1esucces~, this latter party, or this union of many parties, that finally gasned.ful part. the ascendency'a caused the death of the king, and subverted the a. Dee. 155s. monarchy. 53. 3On the overthrow of monarchy. therefore, the Independent 3. Situcaiolt party held the reins of government. supported by an army of fifty ~'8Je, lts7,o. thousand men. under the controllino influence of Oliver Cromwvell. tle oehozroo one of the most extraordinary characters that England ever pro- of lMonlarc;y. duced. 4Cromwell was first sentb to Ireland to reduce the rebellion 4. c oa!':eii there; and being completely successfhul he next marched into Scot- succ. aes. b. Aug. N49. land, where Ch.arles, the son of the late kinm, had taken refuge. 5FHere Cromwell defeated the royalist covenanters in the battle s. Battle.sof of Dunbar, and in the following year pursuing' the Scotch army Donbar a'nd J --- t r -- - H —g i-kbaorester, into England, at the head of thirty thousand men he fell upon ilt at. sept. t13 Worcester. and completely annihilated it in one desperate ba ttle.d' 1650. SThe young prince Charles barely escaped with his lif'e, and flying. Scit. 13, in disguise through the niddlcle of Englandc after passin g through 6. Escape of many adventures. often exposed to tile retatest perils, he succeeded, P'riics' " G/~Charlem. eventuailly, in reachinge F'riance in safety'.. Oct. 27. 54. 7Soime difficulties having occurred with the states of Holland, 7' The cele the English parliamenl; in order to punish their alrrogance and lrated Ntavipromote British commerce pcassed the celebratedt Navigtltion Act, gatisl Act. by which all colonial produce, whether of Asin., Afiica, or America. was prohibited fr om being imported into England in any but' British built ships. of whichl too the master and three-tburths of the mallriners should be Englisimen. Even European produce and manufactures were prevented ioiom being inmported but in 3British vessels, uinless they were the growth or fabric of the particular state which carried thema. s8These unjusl;t reulations struck severely at s. IE,,reditnrg the Dutch, a comnmercial people. who, producing few comnmoslities ly iaOt'louas of their own, hand become the general carriers andt factors of Europe. i9War therefore followed: the glory of both nations was proudly 9. vasr wtital sustained on the ocean: Blake, the English naival comimLander, and Icltnd. Von Tromp and De PRuyter, the Dut ch ttlldmirlls, acquired imperish~able renown; but the commerce of the I)utceh was destroyed. and the states were obliged to site for peace.b f. Cncludedt 55. lT~While this war Was progoressig-o a controversy Ihad arisen be- 10A Cotroiver tweeni Ciomwvell and the arnmy on the one handl, and parliatnentt on.,/ betoeern the other. The parliamenit havino conquered all its enemies in L.'arlt'ament Engla.nd, Scotland. and Irellnid,'ad htLving no longer any need of the services of the armny arndl beinsg jealous of its power, beglan to make preparations for itos reduction, with the ostensible object of diminishing the expenses oa the goverLm-ent. But by this time the parliament had lost the confidence of the people. liSince its first i1.Tliegrmp assemblinig, in November, 1640, it had been greatly reduced in it,, dlzesiTro numbers by successive dlesertions anld proscriptions, but. still grasp- mnent, an, ings after all the powers of government, it appearecl letermined to cnatt'eS o t. perpetuate its existence, and ciahimed that, if, another parlilamlent were called, the present members should retain their places awithout m retiection. The contest betaween this parliament and the arnmy became. therefore, one, not for individual rule only, bit for exist>

Page  300 400 APPENTDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. LBooK II, ANALYSIS. ence also. 1This state of affairs was terminated by the decision of Cromwell, who could count on a faithful and well disciplined 1. Controveruyterminated arllmy to second his purposes. Entering the ptrliament house at Ey the decis- the head of a body of solciers on the 30th of April, 1653, he pro. ion of Gronwie U. claimed the dissolution of parliamlent? 4 re1io-ied the menmbers, seized the records. and colmmianded the doors to be locked. 2. History of 56. 2Soon after this event, Cromwell summoned a parliament alrebone's composed wholly of members of his own selection, called, indeed, representatives, but representing only Ciromwell and his council of officers. The members of this parliament, comimonly called Bareo bonle'si prliamlient from the name of' one of its leading members, al er thirteen months' sittingi were to name their successors, and these again were to decide upon thle next rpresenttation. anI so on for all future time. Such was the rep?,.bliccaL system which Cromwell cdesigned for the nation. BLt this body,S too imuch inde:r the influence of' Ceromwell to gain the public confidence, and too independent to subserve Cromwell s anbition, after continuing iti [ le;. 1653. session little more than six months, war s disbandclecd by its own ncl, 3. Newz 3Four clays later a new scheme of governlument, proposed in a mili 0t`/it e ofe tary counci, andcl sanctioned by the chief officers of' state. was adopted, by which the supreme powers of government werie vested in a lordl proprietori a council. and a parliaiiment t and Cromrwell was solemnly installed for life in the office of Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England." 1654. 57. 4A parliallent was summoned to meet on the thirteenth of 4. Parlzament September of the following year, the annive-rsary of Cromwellrs is Enmonerd. two great victories of Dunbar and WTorcester. 5The parliamenlt ence of par- thus assembled was a very fair representation of the people, but liasment, and the great liberty with which it arraigrned the authority of the Proits dwssol - tionz. tector, and even his personal character and conduct, showed himi that he had not gained the confidence of the nation and an angras b. Feb. 1655. dissolutionb increased the general discontent. 5Soon after, a con 6. Conspiracy spiracy of the royalists broke out,c but was ecsily suppressed'. of t2nz/tar'oal- During the sanme year. a war was commenced with Spain: the Csts, and war'with Spain. islamld of Jamaica, was conquered, and has since remained in th%, c. March. hands of the English; and some naval victories ivere obtained. * This parliament had been in existence more than twelve years, and was called the Loam, Parliament. i This man's name was Praise-God Barebone. Hume says, " It was usual for the pretended saints at that time to change their names from Henry, Edward, William, &c., which they regarded as heathenish, into others more sanctified and godly: even the New Testament names, James, Andrew, John, Peter, were not held in such regard as those which were borrowed from the Old Testament —Hezekiah, Habakkuk, Joshua, Zerobabel. Sometimes a wholesentense was adopted as a name." Of this Hume gives the following instance. He says, L'The brother of this Praise-God Barebone had for name, If h/acd ot died fol yeoa, yot swozld hare been damned Bareborie. But the people, tired of this long nrame, retained only the last words, and commonly gave him the appellation of DDantuned Bareborne.' Brodie, referring to Hume'l statement above, says, the individuals did not change their own names, but these names were given them by the parents at the time of christening. HIume gives the names of a jury sumtooned in the county of Essex, of which the first six are as follows Accepted Trevor; iej deszared Conlpton;.Faint-not IIewitt; llake-Peace Iteaton; God Reoward Smart; Stan&d _Fast on High Stringer. Cleaveland says that the muster master in one of Cromwell's regiments had 10o other list than the first chapter of Mdatthew. Godwin gives the following as the names of the newspapers published at this tim.e in London. Perfect Diurnal; 3ioderate Intelligencer; Several Proceedings in Parliament; Faithful Post; Perfect Account; Several Proceedings in State Affairs; &c. $ What Hume says of the character and acts of this parliament, is declared by later writers, Brodie, Scobell, and others, to be almost wholly erroneous. The compilers of the " Variorum Edition of the History of England" say, " We have been compelled to abandon Hume's accoulrg during the latter part of Charles's reign, and during the predominance of the republican piorty,. I Mis want of diligence in research is as notorious as ]is partial advoca.'y of the Stuarts."'

Page  301 PART II.] APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL hIS1TORY. 30] 55'In his civil and domestic administration, which was conducted coiuMoriwith ability, but without any regular plan, Cromwell displayed a WEALrH. general regard for justice and clemency; and irregularities were 1649 —Ic. never sanctioned, unless the necessity of thus sustainin' his usurped authority seemed to require it. 2Such indeed were the order and d1 c2'nCtiz adtranquiliity which he preserved —such his skilful mlanagement of'ft rostetrtion persons and parties. and such, moreover, the chanoe in the feelings, The o.oal of many of the Independents themselves, since the dleoth of the late oqfeied to monarch, that in the parliament of 1656 a motion was made, and 7. carried by a considerable majority, for investing the Protector with 1656. th!e dignity of king. 3Although exceedingly desirous of accepting April. the proffered honor, yet he saw that the ai'my, colmposed mostly of 3Cznst0ra~zed stern and inflexible republicans, could never be reconciled to a by Tnolicy to measure which iniplied an open contradiction of all their past pro- r'fuse it. fessions. and an abandonment of their principles, and he was at last obliged to refuse that crown which had been solemnly proffered to him by the representatives of the nation. 59. 4After this event. the situation of the domestic affairs of the 4.'TrouZble, country kept Cromwell in perpetual uneasiness and inquietude. and death i fe The royalists renewed their conspiracies against him a maljority Cranomell. in parliament now opposed all his fivorite measures; a nmutiny of the army was apprehended; and.even the daughters of the Protector became estranged from him. Overwhelmed with difficulties, possessing the confidence of no party, having lost all composure of mindc and in constant dread of assassination, his health gradually declined, and he expired on the 13th of September, 165S, the anni- 1658. versaLry of his great victories, and a day which he had always considered the umost fortunate for him. 60. 50n the death of Cromnwell, his eldest son., Richard, succeeded 5. Succession, him in the protectorate, in accordance as was supposed: with the abndcspeedy dying wish of his father, and with the approbation of the council. Richard. But Rich.ard, being of a quiet, unambitious temper, and alarmed at the dangers by which he was surrounded, soon signed' his own ab- a. Mlay2, 1659. dication, and retired into private life. 6A state of anarchy followed, 6. Stateof and contending fLctions. in the armay and the parliament, for a while analcy,_ filled the country with bloody dissensions, when General iMonk, the restora. who commuanded the army in Scotland, maarched into England and tion of rodeclared in favor of the restoration of royalty. This declariation, freeing the nation from the state of suspense in which it had long been held, was received with almost universal joy: the house of lords hastened to reinstate itself in its ancient authority; and on the 18th of May, 1660. Charles the Second, son of the late king, 1660. wacs proclaimed sovereign of England, by the united aceclamations of the army, the people, and the two houses of parliamnent. 61. 7The relations that existed between Eurngland and her Almeri-. teZlations ca!n colonies. during the period of the Commaonwealth, were of but lboennd ang little importance, and we shall therefore give only a brief notice of America them. 8D uring the civil war which resultec in the subversion ofmo- then-;rchy, the Puritan colonies of New Enoland, as might have been swealth. expected froin their well known republican principles. were attached s. Coulrse to the cause of parliaient, but thley generally maintained a strict pt!?,Zee neutrality towards the contending factions: and Massachusetts, in Engltnd coZ. onia,3 during particular. rejecting the claims of supremacy advanced both by the civil war. king and parliament, boasted herself a perfect republic. iVirglia 9. Virvania adhered to royalty; Maryland wvas divided; and the restless Clay- an lMdary borne, espousing the party of the republicans, was able to promote a rebellion, and the government of the proprietary was for a while iverthroW n.

Page  302 :02 APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL IIISTOPY. [Book I. ANALYSIS. 62. 1After the execution of Charles the First. parliament asserted its power over the colonies, and in 1650 issued an ordinance, aimed 1o'the, s-L particullllly iat Virginii prohibiting all commercial intercourse prektacy of withl those colonies the1it adhered to the riovyl cause. 2Charles aer ltlecolnt the Seconl:, son of the late kingo and heir to the throne. was then a nies. fugitive in'rance and was lacknowledged by the Virginians as 2. Virgindi their la.fui'l sovereion. 3oin 1651 parliament sent out a squadron adheres to prince under Sir George Ayscue to reduce the rebellious colonies to obeCharies. dience. The English WVest India Islands were easily subdued, and 5. sumint1sto Virginia submitted Without open resistance. 4The charter of 4. The char- Massachusetts aces required to be givenl up. with the plomise of a te of 2iMassa. new one, to be granted in the name of parlialient. But the general chuseits de- court of the colony emonrstlrated against the obuoxious nmandate, manded, but thie demanid and the rieqclisition wvas not enforced. sot enforced. 63. 5But the most imlportant inmeasure of the English government. phe ortant clduring this period, by which the pospective interests of the measulre of American colonies were put in serious jeopardy, by ensuring their the (JonoenonIealth, by entire dependence on the mother country, was the celebrated iwhich ti/e Navigation Act of 1651, to which we hLave already alluded, and interesas of the clon-es which, though unjust towards other nations, is supposed by marny twere effreced. to heave laid the foundation of the commnercial greatness of England. 6. GCerns of 6The germs of this system of policy are found in English legislathe cononercial politcy of tion so early as 1381, during the reign of Richard II. when it was'nglanel. enacted "that, to incirease the navy of England, no goods or merchandize should. be either exported or imported, but in ships belonging to the king;s subjects." But this enactment, and subsequent ones of a simillr naturc, had fallen into disuse long before 7. The c7avi- the time of the Commonwealth. 7Even the navigation act of 16.51 at ofo act owing to the favoring influence of Cromwell, was not strictly et against,ele forced against the American colonies until after the restoration of,l/cotonies du- royalty, but it was the commencement of an unjust system of ccnene.onioeathi. mercial oppression, which finally drove the colonies to resistance, 8. Cormtner- and terminated in their independence. 8A somewhat similar caloystem system, but one far more oppressive was maitaintained by Spain towards her American colonies during the whole period of their colonial existence. CHAinLEs II. 64. 90on the 8th of June, 1660, Charles the Second entered Lon1660-1685. don, and by the general wish of the people, without bloodshed and 9. Chzarles without oppesition, and without any express terms which might esto.ed Zn secure the nation against his abuse of their confidence, was restored o. Ihispearso. to the throne of his ancestors. l~As he possessed a handsome person, ntl appear. and was open and affable in his manners, and engaging in his conclaracter. versation, the first impressions produced by himl were favorable;: but lhe was soon found to be excessively indolent, profligate, and worthless. and to entertain notions as arbitrary as those whichl had 11 Regicides distinguished the reign of his father. 11One of the first acts of liis deadedted,'tie reign was the trial ecnd execution" of'c number of the regicides or dead de?'i-I ded, Vc. judges who had condemnled the late king to death. Even the deadl a. Sepit 1660 were not spared, and the bodies of Cromwell, Bradshawv, and Iretonu were taken from their graves, and exposed on the gallows to the derision of the populace. I2 iSui7rnr Bg65. 12A sudden and surprising chlane in the sentiment.s and feel che rntin ings of the nation was now witnessedl. The same people. who. so Iconts and recently. jealouts of everything that might be constrYued into an fee:tle.arso encroachment on their liberties, had declared violently against monarchy itself,'end the formls and ceremoniails of Episcopacy, now sunk into the slavish doctrines of passive obedience to royalty, and permitted the high church principles to be established, by submit..

Page  303 PART II.] APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 303 ting to an act of uniformity, by which two thousand Presbyterian CHlT, LrS U. ministers were deprived of their livings. Those clergymen who 1660 —1685. should officiate without being properly qualified, were liable to fine 1662 and imprisonment. 66. 1In 1664, some difficulties, originating in commercial jealous- 1. The Dutch ios, having occurred between England and the republicmn states of selIlemnents invaded by Holland, the king, desirous of provoking a war, sent out a squadron England. tunder Admiral Holmes, which seized the Dutch settlements on the toast of Africa, and the Cape Verde Islands. Another fleet, pro- Sept 1664.:eeding to Alnerica, demanded and obtained the surrender of the See p. 26. Dutch colony of New Netherlands.'The Dutch retaliated by 2. rae DlCtoa recovering their African possessions, and equipped a fleet able to retaliate. sope with that of England. 3Charles then declared wa.r" against a. larchs663. the States, and parliament liberally voted supplies to carry it cin 3. lar dewith vigor. 4But Denmark and France, jealous of the growing 4. Dend.arr power of England, formed an alliance with the States and prevented and F rance their ruin. 5After hostilities had continued two years, they were D uthe terminated by the treaty"' of Breda, by which the acquisition of 5. Treaty of New INetherlands was confirmed to England, the chief advantage Breda. which she reaped from the war; while, on the other hand, Acadia b Ju1667. )r -Nova Scotia. which had been conquered by Cromwell in 1654, ras restored to the French. 67. eIn 1672 the French monarch, Louis XIV, persuaded Charles 1672. to unite with him in a war against the Dutch. The latter in the 6. France anl England eniollowing year regained possession of their American colony of Eagzed inna New Netherlands; but the combined arimies of th-e two kingdoms tear tvith soon reduced the republic to the brink of destruction. 711n this 7. illiamyo eatremity, William, prince of Orange, after uniting the discordant Oranle:factions of his countrymen, and being promoted to the chief cor- pEag landit maud of the forces of the republic. gained some successes over the French, and Charles was compelled by the discontents of his people and the parliament, who were opposed to the war, to conclude a seplarate peace~ with Holland. All possessions were to be re- c. Feb. li, stored to the same conditions as before the warl and New Nether- 1674 lands was, consequently, surrendered to England. 8France con- s. Franceconi tinned the war against Holland. which country was nowv aided by tinues the Spain and Sweden,; but the marriage, in 1.677. of the prince of r s, e of italOrange with the lady Mary, daughter of the duke of York, the 1E77 brother of Charles. induced Englalnci to espouse the cause of the Nt;egruear. States, which led to the treatyai of Nimeguen in 1678. d. Aug 11, 68. SThe domestic administration of the government of England 9. D)6oestic during this reign, was neither honoralble to the Iking nor the par- adniliisl'raliament. IODestitute of any settled religious principles, Charles was (0(llef, n Charles. easily made the tool of others, and, during many years, received 1o. His efrom the king of France a pension of 200,000 pounds per annum, reazity. for the purpose of establishing popery anlad despotic power in England. "tThe court of Charles was a school of vice, in which the i. Pro/i-.acy restraints of decency were laughed to scorn; and at no other of Is courlt. period of English history were the immoralities of licentiousness practiced with more ostentation, or with less disgrace. 69. l2The principles of religious toleration which had prevailed 12. Cliange of with the Independents during their sulprsemoacy under the Com- rgioijPsunirhonwealth, had now given place in parliament to the demand for formiry, and a rigid uniformity to the church of' Englsnandd a violent preju- peersecction dice against and persecution of the Catholics, who were repeatedly lics. accused of plotting the sanguinary ove:rthrow of the Protestant religion. 3In 1680, the distinguishing epithets, Wlig and Tory, were thet "1.hitg introduced, the former from Scotl, nd where it was applied to the and " Tory.V

Page  304 ~304 APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HIISTORY. [Booer 11. ANALYSIS. fanatical Scotch Conventiclers, and, generally, to the opponents of royalty: the latter sid to be an Irish wordcl signifying a robber, was introducecd from Irelandc, where it maits applied to the popish banclitti of that country. T'lhe court party of Englandc reproached their antagonists with an affinity to the Scotch Conventiclers; and the rcpublic:, n or colrntry party retaliaLted by comparing the former to thet irish bandclitti and thas these ternis of reproach came into genernal usei'aind have remained to the present timle the character. istic appellations of the two promilent parties in England. A. cipine tsc 0. 1The a1lios, having gutLied the iscendency, and being geneichtate the Dule of Yoi/ er lly acttached to Episcopacy, now the religion of the state, brought fr7io tie forw'aVl' in parlliament a bill to exclude from the throne the Duke of Yorlk; the king's b1rolthler who lihad long been secretly attached to the Catholic religion. and had recently ladcle a public avowal of a. Nov. 16s. i This bill pulssed tie House of Commnons by a large majority, 2. S-ubstit,2ute lbut was deteated in the House of Lords. i[n the following year it In'oposed by tle kilng. was revived ngooin and urged with such vehemence, that the king, throiLch oine of his ministers, proposed as a substitute, that the duke sholcld only have the title of liing, lncd be banished from the kintgdon, wahile the Princess of Orange should adnminister the goy s. hejected, ermlinent as r-egent. 3But this, "expedient2; being indignantly rement dissol - jected) led to an abrupt dissolution of tlhe parliamnent, which was vaed. the last thlin tihe present king assembled. 4. Arbitrary 71. 4ChLries was now enabled to extend his authority without goverC/ment any open resistiance, although several conspiracies were charged upon the whigs, and some of the best menb in the nation were brotught to the scaffold. From this time until his death the- king continued to rule with almost absolute power, guided by the counsels of his brother, the duke of Yorlk, who had formerly been removed by parlianment from the office of high admiral, but was now restored by Cha'rles, rand tacitly acknowledged as the successor to 6. Charles the throne. 5Charle s died in I6Sb in the 55th year of his age, and dieoE,, iad the 25th of his ureign; aund the duke of Yorlk immlediately acceded is sicceeded by the Ducke to the throne, with the title of James II. of Yoik 7. T2. he same general principles of government which had 6. Commerciat pinci- guilded the commgercial policy of England during the Commonites (ftilZe wealth, were revived at the time of the restorationn and their infiu-,wea2th, enece wias extended anew to the American colonies. 7The latter, no cttitottLer longer deemed, as at first, the mere property of the kilg, began now after the resto? raion. to be regartled as portions of tle British empire, and subject to 7. Parzia- pa rliamentary legislation.? sViewed in one light, as blridging the o ent betnju- pretensions of the crown, andc liiting arbitrary abuses, this change tidittionl was favorable to tle colonies; but, on the other hand, it subjected oever the col- them.o by staltutory enactoments. to the most arbitrary comlnsiercial 8ifertso f restrictions which the selfish policy of parlialmen t mnight think this czanzge. proper to impose upon them. 9 The Naii- 73. 9c0carcely was Charles the Second seated upon the throne, gation lt. when the avic'atiooti Act was remodelled and perfected. so as to be. L* Tord Rnussel and Algernon Sidney. IEIallam says Sidney had proposed " one only obje,t. for his political colnduct,-the est.'nblishm:ent of a republic in Englanld. f It was at first the maxim of tile court that the lking alone, anld not the kin0 and ptarlia menlt possessed jutrisoititon over tlne colonies. It was in accordance with this view that when, in the eeignr of ialmes tile First, a bill for regulating the American fisheries was introduced into tle house of comlnotis, Sir G(eorge C0alv ert, then Secretary of State, conveyed to the house the followingt intilTlation fitom the kiil: "; America is lnot annexed to the realm, nor witbiu the jurisdieti ion of parlialmleit: you 1iav-e therefore no right to interfere." The chartt r of Pennsylvaenia was the first American charter that recognized any legislative auth rjty of parliament ever tlhe colonies.

Page  305 :PAIT II.] APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAAL HISTORY. 305 come the ml st important branch of the commercial' code of England. ICHARLES II. 3By this statute, the natural rights of foreign nations and of the 1660 —168. American colonies were sacrificed to British interests. 2Besides 1. Ita genera many other important provisions, it was enteted thtit no merchan- eflacts. dize should be imported into any of the British settlementls, or ex- 2. Some of its ported from them, but in vessels built in England or her planta- provisona. tions, and navigated by Englishmen: and that none but native'or natur 4i;ed subjects should exercise the occupation of merchant or factor in any English settlement, under the penalty of forfeiture of goods amnd chattels. 74.. aThe most important articles of American industry, such as 3. Its restricsugar, tobacco, cotton, wool. ildigo, ginger &c..-articles which tios poH would not compete in the English market with English productions, comymerce -were prohibited from being exported to any other country than an indsEngland; and such commodities only as the English merchant might not find convenient to buy, were allowed to be shipped to other countries of Europe. 4As some compensation for these re- 4 Certain strictions, a seeming mionopoly of the tobacco trade with England privhitees was conferred on the American colonies by prohibiting the culti- the cotonies. vation of that plant in EnglandcI II eland Guernsey, or Jersey,countries, however, not naturally adapted to its growth, and which coutld be little injured by the deprivation. 75. 511 1663 the provisions of the Navigation Acts were exte