The early German theatre in New York, 1840-1872,
Leuchs, Frederick Adolph Herman, 1888-

Page  [unnumbered] A6601838 THE EARLY GERMAN THEATRE IN NEW YORK 1840-1872 BY FRITZ A. H. LEUCHS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY NEW YORK COLUMBIA UJNIVERSITY PRESS 19e8

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Page  i (1luntiamt UniuarsitV (Srtmanir Otubirs THE EARLY GERMAN THEATRE IN NEW YORK

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Page  iii THE EARLY GERMAN THEATRE IN NEW YORK 1840-872 'FRITZ)A4M H-/EUCHS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY NEW YORK COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS 1928

Page  iv Copyright 1928 By COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS Printed from type. Published October, 1928 Printed in the United States of America Braunworth & Co., Inc. Brooklyn, New York

Page  v Ex Cnci 1, e, Co)umbia University Library TO MY PARENTS AND

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Page  vii PREFACE THE subject of the present study was first suggested to the author by his colleague and friend, Dr. Frank Mankiewicz, and the investigation was carried on and attained its final form under the most careful and encouraging guidance and the indispensable supervision of Professor Robert Herndon Fife of Columbia University. The attempt has been made with the use of all available sources to present the early history of the German theatre in New York, not in annalistic form but as a connected narrative. By this method the author has hoped to give in adequate perspective the important phases in the development of German theatrical enterprises. Especially in treating the "Liebhabertheater" (Chapter IV) and the Altes Stadttheater (Chapter V), it has been necessary to subordinate chronology in the effort to give a definite picture of these early undertakings. All the data of importance that could be gleaned from the sources have been classified and assembled under appropriate headings in the numerous appendices at the end of the book for the benefit of those who may be interested in further investigations in the field of the present treatise or in related fields. In connection with his work the author takes great pleasure in acknowledging his sincere and grateful appreciation to the many individuals, named and unnamed, who have so generously placed at his disposal their valuable time and expert advice. Without the unflagging interest vii

Page  viii viii PREFACE and untiring efforts of Professor Fife, who amended and revised the manuscript with the closest attention not only to the general conception of the thesis but also to the minutest details of content and style, this study could not have been completed in the form in which it appears. Professors George C. D. Odell and Henry H. L. Schulze of Columbia University likewise read the manuscript most patiently and carefully. From the former the author received many valuable suggestions. The latter subjected the entire treatise to a microscopic examination of the finest scale and thoroughly revised it. With infinite good will Dr. C. F. Ansley and his associates and assistants of the Columbia University Press assumed the arduous task of editing the manuscript. In the reading of proofs the author was helped not a little by his wife. And finally it must be mentioned that Dr. J. W. H. Emmert of the New Yorker Staatszeitung made accessible the oldest files of that newspaper, without which the study could not have been begun. To all the author owes a debt of deepest gratitude. F. A. H. L. New York City August, 1928

Page  ix CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION.............X11i CHAPTER I THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD..... 1 CHAPTER II EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES IN NEW YORK CITY (1840-49) 15 A. The German Drama in English on the American Stage 15 B. The First Recorded Performances in German, in January and February of 1840.......... 17 C. The First Season at the Franklin Theatre (February 15 to April 29, 1840)...... 22 D. The Second Season at the Franklin Theatre (August 9, 1841, to January 28, 1842)...... 29 E. The Third (and Last) Season at the Franklin Theatre (September 14 to December 16, 1842)... 41 F. The Sporadic Attempts to Give German Drama in Various Halls between 1843 and 1849... 44 CHAPTER III THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES (1850-54) 48 A. Introduction........ 48 B. The Year 1850....... 50 C. The Year 1851.......... 53 D. The Year 1852....... 59 E. The year 1853........ 60 F. The year 1854...... 66 ix

Page  x CONTENTS CHAPTER IV PAGE THE IILIEBHABERTHEATER." AND THE MINOR GERMAN STAGE IN THE FH'0TIPs 68 CHAPTER V THE ALTES STADTTHEATER. (1854-64) A. Introduction B. The Repertoire 1. Preliminary Remarks 2. Shakespeare-Schiller, Lessing and Goethe 3. Other Major German Dramatists 4. Minor German Dramatists.... 5. Plays by Insignificant Authors 6. Plays by German-American Authors-Dramas with Local Settings 7. Minor " Tendenzstiiche' '-Concluding Remarks 75 75 80 80 81 86 87 91 95 99 C. The Actors................103 D. The Operation of the Theatre and the Reception of Plays 113 E. The Theatre and the Press...117 F. Concluding Remarks..123 CHAPTER VI THE NEUSS STADTTHEATER (1864-72) AND DRAMATIo ENTERPRISES OF THE TIME A. The Season of 1864-65. B. The Season of 1865-66. C. The Season of 1866-67. D. The Season of 1867-68. 1. At the Stadttheater OTHER NOTEWORTHY.. 125..125..130..134.. 149 149 2. Fanny Janauscheh at the Academy of Music E. The Season of 1868-69....... 1. At the Stadttheater 2. Other Performances in German F. The Season of 1869-70..... 1. The Terrace Garden Summer Theatre 2. The Stadttheater 3. The Terrace Garden Winter Theatre 155 160 160 170 172 172 173 177

Page  xi CONTENTS xi G. The Season of 1870-71. 1. General Review of the Seas 2. Marie Seebach H. The Season of 1871-72 1. The Summer of 1871 2. The Stadttheater. 3. The Minor German Stage I. The Summer and Autumn of Stadttheater.... J. Summary-Conclusion PAGE. 180 on..... 180 S. 183 S. 191 S. 191...... 191. 194 1872-The End of the S. 195 S. 197 CHAPTER VII THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT BETWEEN THE GERMAN- AND THE ENGLISH-LANGUAGE STAGES OF NEW YORK CITY DURING THE MIDDLE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY..... 200 A. Introductory Remarks........ 200 B. Evidences of External Relationship between the Two Stages................ 203 C. Actors and Actresses Appearing on Both Stages. 206 D. The Dramas That Were Common to Both Stages. 209 1. Prefactory Note........ 209 2. Plays Originally Given on the German Stage and Later Adopted by the American.... 210 3. Plays on the English-Language Stage of New York That Were Later Adopted by the Local German Theatre.......... 214 4. Plays That Were Common Property of Both Stages 219 E. Summary of the Chapter....... 220 APPENDICES APPENDIX I............ 223 Halls and Theatres of New York City in Which the Earliest Performances in the German Language Occurred (1840-48) APPENDIX II............ 225 Plays Produced in German in New York City (1840-48) APPENDIX III............ 230 German " Liebhaberbiihnen " (Amateur and Minor Stages) in and about New York City in the Fifties

Page  xii Xii CONTENTS PAGE APPENDIX IVa........... 232 Actors and Actresses of the Altes Stadttheater APPENDIX IVb........... 235 Actors and Actresses of the Neues Stadttheater APPENDIX V............. 238 Das Alte Stadttheater-Last Season, 1863-64 APPENDIX VI............ 244 Das Neue Stadttheater-Third Season, 1866-67 APPENDIX VII........... 251 Plays Produced at the Altes and the Neues Stadttheater APPENDIX VIII........... 277 German-American Journalistic Publications of New York and Vicinity Prior to 1872 BIBLIOGRAPHY............ 279 INDEX............. 283

Page  xiii INTRODUCTION NEW YORK CITY has had five successive German theatres of importance, the dates of which form practically a continuous chain from the year 1854, when the Stadttheater first opened its doors, until the year 1917, which marks the most recent limit of regular performances in the German language at the Irving Place Theatre. In their chronological sequence these theatres were: (1) Das Alte Stadttheater (1854-64), (2) Das Neue Stadttheater (1864-72), (3) Neuendorffs Germania Theater (1872-81), (4) Das Thalia Theater (1879-88), and (5) Das Irving Place Theater (1888-1917).x Plays have of course been acted in German on many other stages in New York'City. The first performance in the German language of which any record has been found occurred in a little hall located at 83 Anthony Street 2 on January 6, 1840. During the succeeding period of four1 For an excellent cursory survey of these theatres, cf. the newspaper article of Arthur G. Abrecht, "Das deutsche Theater in New York," in the Sonntagsblatt der New Yorker Staatszeitung, Apr. 16, 1905. Abrecht supplements the above-mentioned list by two additional institutions of minor importance: Philipps Germania Theater (1893-1902) and Das Star Theater (1881-83) and illustrates his account with photographic pictures of all seven theatres. Similar illustrated articles on the German theatre in New York have appeared in the following Sunday editions of the N. Y. Staatszeitung: Apr. 21, 1901, by Udo Brachvogel; Aug. 11, 1901, by C. Stiirenburg; Apr. 24, 1910, by A. Pulvermacher. 2 Anthony Street is at present known as Worth Street. Xiii

Page  xiv xiv INTRODUCTION teen years we find at first sporadic performances of such plays, then series of performances now at one and now at another theatre, wherever a temporary footing was gained, until in the year 1854 the German stage found its first permanent abode in the Stadttheater. Since the year 1854, too, many German performances have been staged both singly and in cycles at various New York theatres. The more recent period of the German theatre in this city has been treated in an article by Edwin H. Zeydel.3 It is the purpose of the present treatise to trace in some detail the history of the earliest period of the local German stage-i.e., the period from its incipiency in 1840 until the end of the Neues Stadttheater in 1872. This theatre, a direct offspring of the Altes Stadttheater, may be regarded in conjunction with the parent institution as constituting New York's first permanent German playhouse. In order to provide our theatrical picture with a suitable frame, a brief study of the cultural background of the period with reference to the German element in New York City may not prove amiss. Then it will be necessary to investigate, as fully as the records at our disposal permit, the infancy of the German-language stage in our city. At the same time a consideration of the "Liebhabertheater," or so-called amateur stage, that flourished extensively during the early fifties is essential, for this " Liebhabertheater " was in reality the source from which the professional stage sprang. The main body of this investigation, however, will be devoted to a history of the two Stadttheater. Finally 3 Edwin H. Zeydel, " The German Theatre in New York City, with Special Consideration of the Years 1878-1914," published in the Jahrbcwh of the Deutsch-Amerikanische Gesellsehaft von Illinois, Vol. XV, 1915, pp. 255-309. The author merely summarizes in a brief introduction the period preceding 1878.

Page  xv INTRODUCTION XV the material on hand makes possible a comparative study of the German- and the English-speaking stages of New York in the three decades under consideration. The scope of the present work involves a detailed investigation of the various theatres in which plays were performed in German. In this study an examination has been attempted of the following points in particular: (1) the history of the more important theatrical enterprises and institutions; (2) the titles of the plays presented and the frequency of performance of individual plays; (3) the classification of plays (a) as to character (tragedies, comedies, farces, etc.), (b) as to authorship and period of origin (Shakespearean, classical German, etc.), and (c) as to source, especially if foreign (French, English, etc.); (4) the casts and the individual actors and actresses, particularly those of greatest renown (the Hoyms, Bandmann, Dawison, Methua-Scheller, Haase, etc.); (5) the quality of the performances, their merits and demerits, their success or failure, their reception by the public, the criticisms they received in the press; (6) the most noteworthy events in the theatrical world of Little Germany in New York; finally, (7) certain other isolated features warranting observation. However, German operatic performances, numerous especially during the latter part of our period-they were frequently included in the repertoire of the Stadttheater-must on the whole be disregarded.4 They are referred to only when they attain unusual significance. The annual files of the New Yorker Staatszeitung 5 form the chief source of the data upon which this investigation is based. This German newspaper was founded as a 4Fr6edric Louis Ritter, Music in America, N. Y., 1884 and 1890, includes data of considerable interest in connection with German musical activities in New York. 5 For convenience, hereafter referred to simply as S.

Page  xvi xvi INTRODUCTION Wochenblatt in December, 1834,6 but the earliest number that could be found is Volume III, Number 1, bearing the date of December 21, 1836. Thereafter the file of the weekly runs continuously, with the exception of the following missing volumes: IV (December, 1837-December, 1838); V (1838-39); X (1843-44); XI (1844-45); XIII (1847); XXIII (1857); XXVI (1860); XXVII (1861); XXVIII (1862). In August, 1842, a Tageblatt was inaugurated, which at first, however, appeared but three times a week. Only eight numbers of the year 1842 and twelve of 1843 have been preserved, and from the entire period between the years 1843 and 1866 only the following volumes could be located: 1853; 8 1856 (January 1-June 30); 1858 (April 20-December 31);1859 (all of March, also July 1-December 31); 1863 (July 1-December 31); 1864 (complete). Beginning with the year 1866 the file runs without interruption to the present date. Of the Sonntagsblatt, begun in 1849, all volumes from 1866 on are available; earlier, only the volumes for 1859, 1863 and 1864.9 Without the minute and extensive data contained in the Staatszeitung, chiefly in the form of theatrical advertisements that regularly appeared there together with the less regular reports of per6 The initial number, issued on December 24, contained the following motto: " Im Volke ruht die Kraft, / Im Volke muss sie walten, / Wo diese Kraft erschlafft, / Wird Freiheit auch erkalten." Cf. S., Mar. 20, 1858. 7 During the first eleven years, each new volume began in the middle of December; from 1847 on, the volumes coincided with the calendar year. S At this time the Tageblatt actually appeared every day. 9 Practically all the extant numbers prior to 1863 are to be seen at the offices of the Staats-Herold Corporation, 22 North William Street. For the subsequent years the New York Public Library has a very complete file, with the exception of the entire volume for 1865,

Page  xvii INTRODUCTION XVii formances, the present history of the German theatre could not have been written. Second in importance to the Staatszeitung as a source is the Belletristisches Journal,10 a weekly founded in 1852, which continued to exist until 1911. This publication contains critical articles of rare excellence discussing in great detail and with much intelligence the worthiest performances on the local German stage. Owing to the continuity of its file it is especially valuable to bridge over the gaps that arise from the missing numbers of the Staaszeitung. As another supplementary source for the early period of the German stage the Deutsche Schnellpost is of value, inasmuch as it contains the announcements of various scattered attempts that were made to give plays in the German language in New York between the years 1843 and 1848. A file of this publication was located at the Harvard College Library and very kindly placed at the disposal of the 10 Belletristisohes Journal, New York, 1852-1911 (hereafter to be referred to as B.): at the N. Y. Public Library, Vols. I-XLVIII and L-LX (Vols. L-LIX incomplete). For the period of our study, therefore, this journal offers a complete and uninterrupted source, beginning with the year 1852. The volumes are bound and, for the most part, in excellent condition. The title varies as follows: Vol. I: New Yorker Criminal Zeitung; Vol. II: Belletristisches Journal und New Yorker Criminal Zeitung; Vols. III-XII: New Yorker Criminal Zeitung und Belletristisches Journal; Vols. XIII-XXXVII: New Yorker Belletristisches Journal. During the years covered by this study it was published by Rudolph Lexow at 17 North William Street. It was printed on fine heavy paper and each number consisted of sixteen large-sized pages. In addition to a story (often a serial based on some episode of city life) the Journal contained a number of historical sketches and notes, the police blotter, correspondence and articles on political topics, literature, art, music and the theatre, also the latest news from Europe and many advertisements. The publication appeared every Friday, selling for seven cents a copy or $3.50 per year.

Page  xviii xviii INTRODUCTION author. The Deutsche Schnellpost was published by Eichthal and Bernhard at 3 Spruce Street. A "Probeblatt" appeared on December 28, 1842, the first number following on January 4, 1843. Thereafter it appeared twice a week and the file is fairly regular, particularly during the first two and a half years. A wide gap interrupts its continuity, however, between the months of July and November in the year 1846, after which the sequence is not again seriously impaired until March 25, 1848. At this point a second breach is found in the Harvard file, extending to October 30, 1848. The folio terminates shortly after this date.1" The Deutsche Schnellpost was a four-page newspaper which sought in the main to acquaint its German readers with European news. While the paper contains no descriptions of plays, its advertisements of performances help to fill in the voids left by the absence of Volumes X, XI and XII of the Staatszeitung. Of specific value for the season of 1851-52, for want of other records, is the publication entitled Figaro,12 a weekly journal in the English language, devoted to art, music and the drama. It seems to have run but a single season and 11 Little is known about the Schunellpost after this date. It appears that on September 1, 1845, Bernhard had retired from the partnership and Eichthal continued to publish the paper until his death, which occurred about January 1, 1848, whereupon Wilhelm Wagenitz assumed the editorship. On August 23, 1851, the Staatszeitung still listed the Deutsche Schnellpost as a contemporary newspaper. It is extremely interesting to note on the very first page of the Harvard collection the words, written in pencil, " Gift of Professor H. W. Longfellow," together with the date 1852. 12 Figaro, or Corbyn's Chronicle of Amusements, New York, 1850 -51 (not to be confused with the later and much better known German-American publication, New York Figaro, N. Y. 1882-99). A file of Figaro, in excellent condition, was found in the N. Y. Public Library. The spelling of German names and titles of dramas in Corbyn's magazine is extremely faulty.

Page  xix INTRODUCTION xix was edited by the owner of a well-known theatrical agency of the day. In addition, the contemporary Deutsche 1onatshefte 13 contain regular items dealing with the German stage and are of value for the earliest years of the older Stadttheater. The five publications just mentioned contain most of the material required for a satisfactory examination of New York's early "Deutsches Theater." From them, especially from the Staatszeitung, the Belletristisches Journal and the Deutsche Schnellpo'st, a fairly unbroken, if at times uneven, picture of the German stage during the period of 1840 to 1872 may be obtained. It may furthermore be confidently asserted that the minor interruptions in the sources, mentioned as occurring during the decade 1840 to 1850, are not detrimental even to a detailed study, for the material on hand fully justifies the belief that there was no stage of importance in those years. The information gleaned from the extant sources, then, is sufficient for an adequate survey of those first abortive and irregular theatrical undertakings. Of somewhat greater significance is the absence of the entire daily file of the Staa.tszeitung for the years 1854, 1855, 1857, 1860, 1861 and 1862, and the fragmentary state of each of the remaining volumes between 1854 and 1863.14 These omissions preclude a day-by-day study of the Altes Stadttheater, and for this reason it has seemed best to treat the period of that institution not chronologically but according to a topical arrangement. Fortunately the perfect condition of the file of the Belletristisches Journal makes possible a fairly accurate survey of the development 13 Deutsche Monatshefte, New York, 1853-56, A. Kolatschek (also in the N. Y. Public Library). Known also, by a variation of the title, as Meyers Monatshefte, Aug. 1853 to June, 1855. 14 See p. xvi.

Page  xx XX INTRODUCTION of the older of the two Stadttheater. Naturally in the treatment of the later Stadttheater a change of method from the topical to the chronological seemed advisable, for with the single exception of the year 1865 an unbroken daily file could be drawn upon for the entire period of its existence. Leaving aside for the present the five major sources above mentioned, it is only reasonable to assume that articles dealing with the German stage in New York must have appeared from time to time in one or another of the numerous German periodicals15 published in this city during the years under discussion, copies of which can no longer be found. The English-language press, however, as may be expected, only occasionally took cognizance of the German stage. During the first two decades we find absolutely no references of any account, and it was only in the sixties, when Bogumil Dawison, the L'Arronges, Marie Seebach and other stars arrived, that the New York Herald and a few other newspapers gave space to German theatricals and at times printed regular, consecutive notices and criticisms. These reports will be referred to in due time, in their chronological sequence. Attempts have been made in various articles (in addition to those mentioned) to treat the subject of the German theatre in New York City as a whole. For the most part these are rather brief resumes of a popular, non-scholarly character. The most important of the essays dealing with the era with which this study is concerned are by Ford,16 15 The author has compiled, from the catalogue of the N. Y. Public Library and from other sources, a list of names of the most important pioneer German journalistic publications of New York City. Unfortunately it has been possible to locate copies of but a few of them. For this list cf. App. VIII. 16 James L. Ford, "CThe German Stage in America," in Munsey 's Magazine, Vol. XX, pp. 232-45, Nov., 1898.

Page  xxi INTRODUCTION xxi Moses,17 Huch,18 and Muiller,19 together with a report in Das Buch der Deutschen in Amerika.20 The German stage in New York is also discussed in the works of Boernstein,21 Cronau,22 and Kadelburg,23 and considerable data relative to the topic may be found in Brown's History of the New York Stage.24 17 Montrose J. Moses, The Life of Heinrich Conried, N. Y., 1916. Chapters II, III and IV (pp. 23-170) give a synopsis of the German theatre from its beginnings to Conried's departure from the Irving Place Theatre in 1903. Only the first few pages, however, deal with the early period. 1s C. F. Huch, " Das deutsche Theater in New York bis zum Jahre 1860," contained in the Mitteilunge'n of the Deutscher Pionier Verein of Philadelphia, Sechstes Heft, 1907. It is a five-page monograph, excellent, as far as it goes, for the earliest years. Huch mentions as his source Heinrich Schmidt's Almanach der deutschen Biihnen in Amerika, which the author has not located. 19 Wilhelm Muller, " Das deutschamerikanische Theater.I" The article is included in the book entitled Amerika, published by A. Tenner (pp. 110-31 of that work). Miiller mentions as his authority an essay on the subject by Adolf Neuendorff, which cannot be found. 20 't Das deutsche Theater in New York. " This article forms part of a chapter called "Das deutsche Theater in Tmerika," appearing in Das Buch der Deutschen in Amerika, edited by the Deutsch-Amerikanischer Nationalbund, Philadelphia, 1909 (pp. 423-35). The article refers to the accounts of Abrecht (cf. Note 1) and Huch (Note 18). 21 Georg C. H. Boernstein, Fiinfundsiebzig Jahre in der Alten und der Neuen Welt. For the German theatre in New York, cf. Vol. II, pp. 222 f. 2 Rudolf Cronau, Drei Jahrhunderte deutschen Lebens in Amerika, Berlin, 1909 (with a more recent edition). See pp. 517-21 for a brief chapter, "Das deutsche Theater in Amerika." 23 Heinrich Kadelburg, Das deutsche Theater in New York, N. Y., 1878. In reality this constitutes a sharp polemic directed against the Germania Theater. 24 Thomas Allston Brown, A History of the New York Stage from the First Performance in 1732 to 1901, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1903. It contains many records of German performances scattered over its three volumes, but there are also very many omissions, incomplete records and inaccuracies.

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Page  1 CHAPTER I THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD THE age that witnessed the beginnings of the German stage in New York City covers, roughly speaking, the middle third of the nineteenth century and therefore synchronizes with an era characterized by a remarkable growth and by an unprecedented development in the metropolitan city. In 1840 the population of New York amounted to 312,710; by 1870 it had grown to 942,292. No previous stretch of thirty years had shown so great a numerical increase nor has any subsequent span of like length yielded an equally high percentage of growth, excluding, of course, the arbitrary additions to the city's population that resulted from the incorporation of Greater New York in 1898. Within the single decade of 1840 to 1850 the population mounted from 312,710 to 515,547. This tremendous physical expansion was accompanied by an unheard-of development in which probably no single foreign element participated more extensively than did the German constituency of the city. No detailed account of the German-Americans of New York can be given here.It does seem desirable, however, to call attention to some of the more important cultural features of "Kleindeutsch1 For detailed accounts of the life and the activities of the German element in New York the reader should consult the book of Rudolf Cronau and some of the other works mentioned at the conclusion of the Introduction, and also the following: Albert B. Faust, Das 1

Page  2 2 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD land" in the years that marked the early evolution of the German stage. The extremely reactionary policy exercised by the governments of Prussia and other German states in the thirties and forties of the last century drove thousands of discontented, liberty-loving Germans from their native land to the shores of the New World and resulted in a marked increase of immigration into the United States. Of the 60,722 aliens who landed in the port of New York in 1840, 20,000 came from Germany. In 1850 there were 45,768 Germans out of a total of 221,799.2 During the years immediately following, the numbers increased by leaps and bounds, so that the figures for 1854 disclose not only a vast numerical but also a striking percentual augmentation. In the course of that year, of the huge number of 323,700 foreign arrivals in New York, no less than 179,600, or well over fifty percent, had set out from Germany.3 A very considerable portion of the German immigration naturally settled in New York. These Germans did not, Deutschtum in den Vereinigten Staaten; Friedrich Kapp, Die Deutschen im Staate New York; Gustav Koerner, Das deutsche Element in den Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika (1818-48); Th. Lemke, Geschichte des Deutschtums von New York (giving the lives of leading individuals); Otto Lohr, The First Germans in North America and the German Element of New Netherland; Alexander Schem, Deutschamerikanisohes Konversationslexikon; Reinhold Solger, Deutsch-Amerikanische Bibliothek; Otto Spengler, Das deutsche Element der Stadt New York. For excellent, comprehensive bibliographies, cf. Cronau; A. P. Griffen, A List of Works Relating to the Germans in the United States; Julius Goebel, Das Deutschtum in den Vereinigten Staaten. 2 For these figures cf. S., Jan. 22, 1853 (Wochenblatt). 3 Cf. also S., Feb. 24, 1855 (Wochenblatt). It is furthermore stated there that out of a total immigration of 514,277 into all parts of the United States in 1854 the Germans numbered 225,000.

Page  3 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD however, spread out promiscuously over the various sections of the city, but generally preferred to join their "Landsleute," who had established their colony "Kleindeutschland" in a well-defined part of the town. In the early forties they were concentrated largely in the district south of Houston Street, west of Attorney, north of East Broadway and east of Lafayette. The central part of this territory, cut by the longitudinal arteries Elizabeth Street, the Bowery, Chrystie, Forsythe and Eldridge Streets, and included between the cross streets Rivington (on the north) and Canal (on the south), formed the nucleus of New York's Little Germany during these years. At this time not a few Germans, of course, still resided in the lower city-that is, south of City Hall. Year by year "Kleindeutschland" expanded, and in 1854, when the Stadttheater was opened, an examination of newspaper advertisements shows Germans living in considerable numbers as far east as Pitt Street and on Monroe to the southeast. Addresses of German homes and business establishments are frequently found in the vicinity of Lafayette Street, Broadway, and in the lateral streets that cross these thoroughfares south of Canal Street. During the fifties and even later, many German business locations continued to exist south of City Hall. Now, for the first time, isolated private residences occupied by Germans are noted north of Houston Street, and, indeed, as far uptown as Twenty-sixth Street in the neighborhood of Second Avenue. A single physician advertises his office as located at One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Street and Fourth Avenue, one of the earliest German pioneers of Harlem. In 1872, the closing year of this study, the geographical limits of Little Germany had become decidedly more complicated. By this time New York had, of course, expanded

Page  4 4 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD greatly northward, and the older German element, without forsaking its quarter on the lower East Side, had shifted the northern boundary thereof from Houston to East Eleventh Street. By the thousands Germans had poured into the rectangular district that is included between these two lateral streets and extends from Avenue C to Second Avenue. A little island of German folk is found along Third Avenue near Thirtieth Street, and a surprisingly large group inhabited the section east of Third Avenue between Fiftieth and Sixtieth Streets. Judging by the newspaper advertisements, most of these residents occupied private homes and could afford domestic help. German addresses are also recorded along the West Side near Sixth Avenue, between Fifteenth and Fifty-fifth Streets, and especially in the streets north of Fiftieth. The late sixties and the early seventies also marked the opening of numerous popular picnic parks in Harlem and in the villages of Melrose and Morrisania (now a part of Bronx Borough). It is worth noting that the German colony of Yorkville, which subsequently attained such prominence, was rather unimportant prior to 1872. It would be a great mistake to suppose that the new racial element that was thus flocking into our land and swelling the population of New York was merely numerically strong. There were many evidences of a very positive cultural interest on the part of the newcomers. At an early date it became clear that they were determined to assert themselves and that they would play an important part socially, economically, politically and culturally-in fine, that they would turn their steps to all the many fields of activity which their new surroundings offered to them. It is indeed a significant fact that, not many years after the high tide of immigration had set in, a strikingly large

Page  5 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD number of newspapers printed in the German language made their appearance. The establishment of New York's principal German newspaper in 1834 has already been spoken of.4 Others, to be sure less important and in many cases short-lived, followed as the German population grew. A list of such newspapers that were printed in the city in the year 1856, together with their circulations, shows the following: Daily Weekly Staatszeitung............. 15,300 11,000 Staatsdemokrat........... 3,400 2,000 Abendzeitung............ 2,300 150 Neue Zeit................ 3,000 Pionier.................. 1,200 Criminal Zeitung......... 6,000 Katholische Kirchenzeitung. 4,000 Some of these newspapers also used their printing apparatus to publish other matter, as, for example, Eichthal and Bernhard, the owners of the Deutsche Schnellpost, had done in the preceding decade. Vast quantities of German books, pamphlets, periodicals and newspapers thus circulated in lower Manhattan, largely through the distributing agencies of B. Westermann & Co. at 290 Broadway and L. W. Schmidt at 191 William Street. The catalogues of Westermann were reputed to have been a veritable storehouse of plays presented in New York.6 In many fields of business and industry German names, some of them with a sound very familiar to the present4 See p. xvi. 5 For this list cf. S., July 19, 1856. 6 OCf. B., Nov. 30, 1855, for this assertion.

Page  6 6 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD day New Yorker, began to make their appearance at this time. The two largest German steamship companies led the list. In 1856 the New York service of the HamburgAmerican Line was organized, and in 1858 the vessels of the North German Lloyd began to ply between Bremen and New York. German names also invaded the domain of finance, for in the Deutsche Schnellpost of the mid-forties one meets the advertisements of Philip Speyer, Wechselgeschaft, 51-53 Wall Street, and as early as 1853 the announcements of Knauth, Nachod and Kiihne are regularly found in the Staatszeitung. On July 1, 1859, the Deutsche Sparbank7 was opened. From such rather limited and select spheres of business the activity of the Germans extended downward through every conceivable branch of retail trade and handicraft, principally to those of the grocer, butcher, baker and liquor dealer. The lists of men in the professions, especially in that of medicine, were filled out of all proportion with Germanic names. The specifically cultural interests of the Germans in New York are reflected, in part, in the large number of school items and advertisements appearing in the journals during this period. At an early date it became clear that the newcomers were anxious to have their offspring taught the language of the Fatherland and, in some cases, even to have their children educated largely through the medium of that language and along pedagogical lines insisted on in the Old Country. One of the first German schools to be founded in the city was August Glaser's Deutsche Bildungsschule fiir Knaben und Madchen at 141 Chrystie Street, of which we get reports as early as 1846.8 In the year 1853 we meet the notices of the Deutsche Biirger7 Known at the present time as the Central Savings Bank. s Cf. Sohnellpost, July 18, 1846, for the announcement.

Page  7 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD schule, directed by E. Feldner at 191 William Street.9 Other such schools of the fifties were the Deutsche Freischule in Allen Street10 and Dulon's German-American School, situated at 11-13 Market Street.1" Furthermore, the Staatszeitung of September 17, 1859, reports the laying of the corner stone of the Freie deutsche Schule, which had formerly been conducted at Hoym's theatre.'2 In 1866 it is recorded that German was even being taught in the public school at 5 Mott Street, as well as in several other public schools, and the Staatszeitung 13 urges a more general introduction of this language into the curricula of the city schools. The Deutschamerikanische Akademie, another private institution, is noted in 1867 as located at 649 Third Avenue, and a year later we hear of the Freie deutsche Volksschule in Fourth Street14 under Director Straubenmiiller-a name familiar to present-day schoolmen of our city. This expansion of German school interests was accompanied by a rising professional spirit among German teachers. The Staatszeitung of December 3, 1867, contains an article on the "Deutschamerikanischer Lehrerverein von New York und Umgegend," stating that this organization 9 S., Mar. 5, 1853. 1ýo Cf. S., May 5, 1855. The newspaper reports the closing of this school after an existence of five years. 11 For data concerning this school cf. S., Sept. 28, 1855, also Aug. 13, 1859. In 1859 this institution is reported as having an enrolment of 240 pupils instructed by twelve teachers, with the following rates for a quarter of twelve weeks: board, $50; washing, $2.50; tuition, $6 to $15. 12 Cf. B., May 3, 1859, and Apr. 6, 1860. Within a year's time this school increased its enrolment from 500 to 1115 pupils. is S., Feb. 21, 1866. 14 S., Jan. 7, 1868. The school had a monthly registration of 680 at this time.

Page  8 8 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD had come into being in March of that year and had a membership of almost thirty. Its meetings were held in Pythagoras Hall, at 134 Canal Street, every second Saturday, the program usually consisting of a lecture based on a pedagogical topic. German, as a subject of study, had also found 'its way into higher education in this city. Columbia College had long had the language on its program of instruction. As early as 1784 the Rev. Dr. John Daniel Gross was elected professor of geography and German, and he taught till 1795.15 On July 10, 1843, we are informed in the Staatszeitung of the establishment of the chair of Gebhard Professor of Germanic Languages and Literatures at Columbia. Along with German schools many German churches sprang up, some of which antedated the earliest educational undertakings of which we have just read. The columns of the Deutsche Schnellpost of 1844 contain announcements of the Vereinigte deutsche lutherische Kirche at Walker Street near Broadway and those of the Deutsche Methodisten-Kirche at Second Street near Avenue C. Others, too numerous to mention here, both of the Catholic faith and of the various Protestant denominations, followed in later years. That Little Germany's interests also embraced the ethics and the morality of the community as a whole may be deduced from frequent items in the Staatszeitung. This newspaper was of course particularly insistent on stressing any statistics and happenings that might be interpreted to cast a favorable light upon standards of conduct current am ong the Germans. Thus with 15 His seems to have been the first collegiate appointment in German in this country. Cf. C. E. Castan'eda, Modern Language Instruction in American Colleges, 1779-1800; also the History of Columbia University, 1754-1904, pp. 69-75.

Page  9 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD keen satisfaction on at least one occasion 16 the editor proclaims the fact that in a drive undertaken against prostitutes there was not a single German woman in forty-nine cases of arrest! The establishment of the German Hospital,17 the German orphan asylum Wartburg s in Mount Vernon and of other similar institutions of lesser dimensions was plainly indicative of an interest on the part of our German-Americans in social welfare. Beneficiary societies such as the Deutsche gegenseitige Unterstiitzungsgesellschaft fiir Witwen und Waisen, whose announcements are to be found in the Deutsche Schnellpost of 1844 and subsequent years, were not lacking. In this connection must be mentioned the time-honored Deutsche Gesellschaft, which had been founded in the remote year of 1783, aiming to serve in various ways the German immigrant. Although this organization still exists, its position was far more prominent seventy years ago. Conducted on a strict business basis, it met regularly and was accorded wide publicity in the columns of the German press. The German-Americans of New York also manifested a keen interest in various other phases of culture and civilization. Lectures were delivered in the German language and received due attention in the newspapers.19 During 16 S., May 26, 1855. 17 Its present name is the Lenox Hill Hospital; the Staatszeitung of Sept. 3, 1866, reports the laying of its corner stone. is The Staatszeitung of Oct. 10, 1856, states that it has just opened its doors to its first inmates. 19 The Staatszeitung announces on Dec. 1, 1855, a course of lectures in German at the Mercantile Library. In 1867-68 the actor Oscar Guttmann, who appeared at the Stadttheater, delivered a series of lectures in German at Steck's Music Hall, 141 Eighth Street, on The Merchant of Venice, The Taming of the Shrew, Minna von Bamnhelm and other dramas then given at the Stadttheater. So frequent were such lectures that it is utterly impossible to note them here.

Page  10 10 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD the winter of 1855-56 an exhibition of one hundred and fifty famous paintings at the Diisseldorfer Gallerie 20 continued to arouse interest for many weeks. Remarkably widespread and intense was the participation of the German population in the world of music. A list of members of the first orchestra of the New York Philharmonic Society, founded in April, 1842, contains names more than half of which are purely Germanic.21 In the late forties, the fifties and the sixties German "Singerfeste" were abundantly held by well organized singing societies,22 many of which dated from this period. As early as 1853 attempts were made to found a German opera,23 which later met with singular success in the numerous performances at Niblo's Garden, the Academy of Music and in other halls. Steinway Hall in Fourteenth Street, opened October 31, 20 It was located at 497 Broadway. Season tickets, good for 60 days, were sold at 60 cents. Cf. S., Jan. 23, 1856, and subsequent numbers. 21 Cf. Ritter, Music in America, pp. 275f. 22 The most important of these singing societies are the Liederkranz and the Rheinischer Suingerbund, both founded in 1847, the Arion, in 1854, and the Yorkville Midnnerchor, in 1856. Of course there are many others. Late in June and early in July of each year great annual ''Siingerfeste ' were held, which generally lasted a few days and received the widest publicity in the German newspapers. Especially noteworthy was the festival of 1858, in which the large number of 278 instrumental musicians and 300 singers took part. The festival opened with a performance of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony at the Academy of Music on Sunday evening, June 27, and continued on the following morning with a procession through the streets of the city, followed by an excursion to Jones' Wood, the most popular picnic resort of the time, located along the East River, north of Sixtieth Street. The Staatszeitung states that 28,000 admission ribbons were sold on this occasion and estimates the attendance at 50,0001 23 Cf. S., Nov. 21, 1853.

Page  11 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD 11 1866, and demolished as recently as 1925, deserves mention here. The social life of New York's German population centered largely in the numerous "Vereine," some of which fostered music, as we have just noted, others literature, dramatics or gymnastics. Above all they cultivated "'deutsche Gemiitlichkeit " and " Geselligkeit." The Deutscher Verein, which subsequently attained considerable importance, dates from the year 1842; and even before this, in 1835, Germania had been founded. The dramatic societies may here be passed over, inasmuch as we shall meet some of them in the course of our history of the German stage. In 1850 the Nord-Amerikanischer Turnerbund and the New York Turnverein were formed, and during the ensuing decade two Turnzeitungen 24 made their appearance. Most of these German clubs, especially the Turner, enjoyed frequent outings during the milder season of the year, and very often the Staatszeitung reports more or less serious disorders resulting from clashes between the German celebrators and the Irish element of the city, for between these two factions a perpetual feeling of hostility seems to have prevailed.25 During this period originated also the local chapters of the secret-society lodges: the Freimaurer, the Deutsche Eichenloge, etc. On evenings when the average German-American was not occupied with one or another of these numerous clubs, he might be found, with or without his family, at a German beer garden or tavern. The Staatszeitung is replete with advertisements of such "Lokale," most of which, in addition to beer, wine and food, offered their guests the most diverse dramatic, acro24 Cf. App. VIII, Nos. 13 and 25. 25 Cf. S., May 31, 1851, for lengthy reports of the German May festival and the attending riot. For similar accounts cf. S., July 29, 1854, and Mar. 6, 1868.

Page  12 12 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD batic or vaudeville entertainments.26 Little Germany was addicted in a marked degree to celebrations, so that it rarely allowed an event of special significance to pass by without duly observing it. Thus the Schiller centenary on November 10, 1859, is marked by announcements and advertisements in the Staatszeitung of no less than twenty SSchillerfeste." A word must be said, in conclusion, about the political interests of New York's Germanic stock during the middle of the century. There were, of course, attempts to organize politically, but, for the most part, the results were highly unsatisfactory and fell wofully short of what might have been expected of a body of citizens numerically so strong. In this respect the Germans were completely outdone by the Irish. Internal strife, born of petty jealousy and rivalry, together with that spirit of particularism and that idealistic vein which shrinks from the worldly contact and intimacy of practical politics-traits that are inseparably bound up with the character of the average German-all these combined to defeat the German-American in his desire to obtain political influence and ascendency. Only rarely did he gain a momentary triumph, as when a "Landsmann," John T. Hoffmann, was elected to serve as mayor of the city (1866-68). In domestic politics the leading questions for "Kleindeutschland" were the so-called temperance and "bluelaw" movements and the nativistic or "Know-Nothing" agitations. The latter were felt to be especially obnoxious in the fifties,27 and the Staatszeitung bitterly attacks the New York Express as the leading journalistic organ of the Know-Nothing Party. Frequent, too, are the accounts of many a promising German picnic hopelessly spoilt by the 26 Cf. especially Chap. IV. 27 Cf. S., Dec. 23, 1854.

Page  13 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD 13 operations of ordinances, so detestable to the German, which forbade the sale of beer and the staging of performances of various kinds on Sunday. Politically the Staatszeitung, the mouthpiece of the majority of German-Americans in the city, was strongly anti-Whig and Democratic in its sympathies. It bitterly opposed Harrison, Polk and Taylor and supported Buchanan with equal energy. Lincoln was denounced with a feeling of animosity seldom paralleled in a newspaper north of Washington, although the Staatszeitung and the Germans in New York supported the cause of the Union in the Civil War in a most patriotic manner. In its foreign policy the Staatszeitung espoused enthusiastically the doctrines of the champions of German democracy. Hecker, Kossuth, Kinkel and other leaders who came to New York and to other parts of the United States were publicly welcomed, demonstrations of the most elaborate sort were prepared and funds collected to support the movement. Further to illumine the sphere in which Little Germany moved about would too greatly distort the scale upon which this study has been planned. From what has been noted in this chapter it is evident that the German population of New York, with a vigorous and rapidly expanding cultural life, was well fitted to form a rich soil from which theatrical undertakings might grow. During the generation after 1840 its numbers were swelled to hundreds of thousands and the bonds which bound the sons and daughters of the Fatherland to the art interests of their old home were constantly renewed by fresh streams of immigration. Year by year the economic situation of the earlier comers grew more favorable; the social life, especially as fostered by club and Verein, flourished in the new environment in highly varied and colorful forms. With such a background the theatre was born and grew, reflecting, as we

Page  14 14 THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE PERIOD shall see, much ideal enthusiasm for art and literature but also many superficial and sordid characteristics of the rapidly growing city. In general its history is that of a sincere attempt to transplant an ancient national culture on a new and not altogether hospitable soil.

Page  15 CHAPTER II EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES IN NEW YORK CITY (184(L-49) A. THE GERMAN DRAMA IN ENGLISH ON THE AMERICAN STAGE LONG before there was any German stage in New York City, translations and adaptations of German plays were given here on the English stage.' The first German drama ever produced in America is said to have been a translation of Lessing's Minna von Barnhelm, performed at Charleston, S. C., on February 18, 1795,2 while the first German play that New York witnessed was a translation of Schiller's Rduber, staged at the John Street Theatre on the 14th of April or the 14th of May 3 in the same year. The following dramas dealing with German subjects are mentioned by Baker, the historian of the German drama in 1 For an excellent history of German plays in English on the New York stage, cf. Louis C. Baker, The German Drama in English on the New York Stage up to 1830, "Americana Germanica," No. 31. The data used in the opening paragraphs of the present chapter are borrowed largely from Baker 's work. 2 Cf. Charles F. Brede, The German Drama in English on the Philadelphia Stage from 1794 to 1830, "Americana Germanica," No. 34, p. 55. But Rudolf Cronau, op. cit., p. 535, sets the year as 1785, without, however, documenting his assertion. 3 Baker, op. cit., p. 8, gives the earlier date; Brede, op. cit., p. 4, the later. 15

Page  16 16 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES English, as having been produced at the John Street house during the next season: Cumberland's Wheel of Fortune (a cleverly constructed version of Kotzebue's Menschenhass und Retze); William Dunlap's opera, Tle Archers (which treats the story of Wilhelm Tell); and F. Reynold's Werther and Charlotte (a dramatization of Goethe's novel. William Dunlap, at this time manager of the John Street Theatre, now became interested in the German drama, specifically in Kotzebue, and on December 10, 1798, offered to the patrons of his hall his own version of Kotzebue's Stranger (Menschenhass und Reue). With the well-known actor Cooper in the title r81e, the play proved immediately successful. Indeed it was intensely popular during the next few years and remained, with interruptions, a drawing card until as late as the year 1860. Dunlap now turned to the translation and presentation of other Kotzebue plays, and set himself to the task with such vigor that in the season of 1798-99, in addition to The Stranger, which was given twelve times, there were eight performances of Lovers' Vows, four of Count Benyow'sky and one of The Indians in England. Thus a total of twenty-five Kotzebue performances was the result-more than one-fourth of the ninety-three given in the John Street playhouse in the course of the entire season. Two other German plays were likewise presented, namely The Minister (Kabale und Liebe), of which there were two performances, and Don Carlos, given once only. During the following theatrical year, that of 1799-1800, no less than fourteen Kotzebue creations together with four additional German dramas were seen by New York audiences. These eighteen German works enjoyed fifty representations, well over half of the ninety-four performances that the season yielded in all! Thereafter, however, we note a steady decline in the popu

Page  17 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 17 larity of plays of German authorship,4 and as the years passed, the place they had occupied for a brief period in the repertoire of New York's English-language stage was usurped by plays of French origin. B. THE FIRST RECORDED PERFORMANCES IN GERMAN, IN JANUARY AND FEBRUARY OF 1840 The birth of the German theatre in New York was an extremely painful and protracted process, accomplished with all the expenditure of energy and all the struggle that seem almost inevitably to attend upon the development of Germanic institutions everywhere. Between the date of the first recorded performance of a play in German, in 1840, and the founding of what may first be called a "permanent" stage almost fifteen years elapsed. In that interval attempts, numerous to the point of monotony, were again and again made to give to the German muse a lasting abode. A close study of the era of experimentation reveals the fact that hundreds of scattered and sporadic performances were essayed at dozens of small halls, for the most part with highly indifferent if not, in many cases, negligible results. In the first eight years for which we have reports-that is, between the years 1840 and 1848-eighty-two "Theater4 The following statistics, recorded by Baker, substantiate this assertion: eason No. of plays of No. of perform Total No. of German origin ances of these performances German plays of all plays 1800-1801....... 14 44 106 1801-1802....... 14 28 91 1802-1803....... 12 27 118 1803-1804....... 4 7 25

Page  18 18 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES abende" are noted, on which German plays were given at a dozen small halls and restaurants located in lower Manhattan-in Chatham, Anthony, Frankfort, Chambers, Elizabeth and Pearl Streets, on the Bowery and on Broadway. Inasmuch as two or even three plays often were crowded into a single evening we find, by addition, a total number of one hundred forty-nine performances of eighty-eight different works during this period.5 Of these earliest dramatic ventures by far the largest number, fifty-seven "Abende," occurred at a tiny house known at the time as the Franklin Theatre, situated at 175 Chatham Street, which flourished between the years 1840 and 1843, and may therefore fittingly be termed New York's first German theatre. In those remote days the plays were acted in general by loosely formed, often leaderless companies or "Vereine" of men and women, usually amateurs, who possessed at best a certain amount of talent and good will, but who had, as a rule, little experience, little money, and little tact. Lack of the necessary financial backing and of adequate theatrical quarters; the absence of proper organization and, above all, of a strong guiding hand; all too frequent outbursts of jealousy among highly nervous, sensitive rival actors; an apathetic public and an unreliable press, which vacillated between warm recognition on one day and hypercritical censure, if not complete scorn and neglect, on the next; finally, the trying economic conditions of those hard pre-Civil War times-all of these factors contributed both singly and collectively to doom to a more or less speedy but equally certain failure each' of the many early dramatic enterprises. A perfect, microscopic picture of the period is out of the question. When it is remembered that there was, at first, no daily German newspaper; that, in many instances, copies of journals that did appear have not been preserved; furthermore that, as has been sug5 Cf. App. I and II.

Page  19 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 19 gested, the press often overlooked entirely those first ventures in the field of dramatic production-when all this is borne in mind, the impossibility of a statistically accurate and historically perfect survey becomes all too obvious. That, however, is no great loss. Even though we are not in possession of a hundred percent of the facts, we do have at our disposal a great bulk of them-a sufficiently large proportion to leave no doubt as to what was happening. And when we consider how very little was actually accomplished in that first decade covered by our study, our material, fragmentary as it may appear, seems at times to impress us as being painfully plenteous in comparison with its meagreness of quality. With all good will the records we have can be welded into but a dull and dry narrative, which would grow only the more tedious by the addition of further facts. An examination of the eighty-two theatrical programs noted between 1840 and 1848 discloses few plays of literary merit. The repertoire was dominated by comedies, chiefly those of Kotzebue, and farces and vaudeville sketches of the day. The bright spots of the "Spielplan" were very rare attempts at Schiller's Rdzuber, Kabale und Liebe and Wilhelm Tell. The fate tragedy was represented by Grillparzer's Ahnfrau and by Miillner's extreme example, Die Schuld, and the romantic drama by Kleist's K1ithchen von Heilbronn. The only other noteworthy works were Zschokke's Abellino, cited because of its earlier popularity on the English stage in this country, and Nestroy's Lumpaci Vagabundus, here mentioned in view of the unceasing attention which that Vienna farce subsequently attracted. With the single exception of Friedrich Schwan, the actors who appeared were not heard of in the later history of the stage and belong, therefore, to the passing generation of pre-forty-eighters. The performances were, as a rule, of a decidedly mediocre quality, the scenery and the stage

Page  20 20 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES mechanics crude and uninspiring. Since, however, the facts embodied exist only in perishable form-so far as is known, they are found in newspaper files of which there are but few copies and which may, several decades hence, no longer be available-it has been thought advisable to narrate them here. The exact date on which the first play in the German language was staged in New York City cannot be positively established. The first notice referring to such a performance that has been discovered appeared in the Staatszeitung of November 8, 1837: "As we hear, the German Amateur Theatrical Society of Philadelphia has arrived here and intends to give performances in the near future." What this group of players was and whether the promised performances ever took place cannot be verified. The following five numbers of the Staatszeitung-the last five of Volume III-make no further mention of the matter, and the next two volumes are missing. Thus no records are on hand for 1838 and 1839, but on January 1, 1840, the Staatszeitung reports that a number of Germans in New York, after overcoming many obstacles, have succeeded in establishing a "Deutscher dramatischer Verein." This organization is entitled to a position of importance in the following pages, since it seems to have initiated German-language drama in this city. The Verein's activities opened on January 6 with performances of Theodor Kbrner's Hedwig die Banditenbraut and Kotzebue's Der grade Weg, der beste, given at 83 Anthony Street. It was announced that the "Musikalischer Titigkeitsverein" would assist. Admission was limited to members of the club, by tickets costing fifty cents each, and to such other persons as were willing to join the Verein as honorary members. The next issue of the newspaper 6 contains a short report 6 S., Jan. 8, 1840.

Page  21 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 21 and criticism of the performance, rating it as highly successful in view of the novelty and the difficulty of the enterprise. Judging by the latter statement,7 and in the absence of earlier data, we may perhaps assume that this was the first dramatic representation in the German language in New York City. The part of Rudolph in Hedwig was very acceptably played by a certain Dessoir (or Dessau?), whose articulation was, however, "not always clear." A Miss Weiss, as Hedwig, "was very pleasing but might have been freer in her movements." The Kotzebue farce is reported as having been more of a success, players named Jllrich, Buek and Frau Ostermeyer impersonating respectively the roles of the Major, the Schoolmaster and Frau Krebs. The music was also favorably criticized. In conclusion the German Dramatic Club is advised to confine itself to short comedies and farces. Encouraged by this successful debut, the Verein followed it up with three further performances, on January 16 and 27 and on an unrecorded date early in February. For the first named date an advertisement announces Kotzebue's Der Zitherschldger und das Gaugericht and Lebriin's two-act comedy Humoristische Studien," also at 83 Anthony Street.9 These plays likewise elicited warm commendation. 7 It is spoken of as a ''neue und iiberraschende Erscheinung. " 8 Cf. S., Jan. 15, 1840. Karl August Lebriin (1792-1842) was a Prussian actor on the staff of the Berlin Hoftheater under Iffland. He showed considerable skill in dramatic adaptations from French sources, taking Kotzebue as his model. Cf. Allgemeine deutsche Biographie (hereafter to be referred to as A. D. B.), XVIII, 101. 9 In the same issue (Jan. 15, 1840) a second theatrical advertisement appears over the name of "'G. Ni1ke, Direktor," announcing a first performance in the Gasthaus zu den 22 Cantonen at 83 Washington Street. A five-act tragedy, Vampyr, by an unmentioned author, is to be presented on Jan. 16, at 6 p. m., admission twentyfive cents I. Rang, one shilling II. Rang. However, no report to show that the performance actually took place could be found in subsequent issues.

Page  22 22 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES The third bill, on the 27th, consisted of Kotzebue's Der arme Poet and Die eifersilchtige Frau. A short critical note 1o on the 29th found the former piece very tiresome, the latter quite pleasing. The acting of one Schwagerle in Die eifersilchtige Frau, is especially lauded. A complaint is registered, however, that the curtain was very late in rising-perhaps a constitutional failing at German functions. The same issue of the Staatszeitung, that of the 29th, includes also a lengthy advertisement of the Verein, promising Die Entfilhfrung oder der alte Biirgerkapitin,"1 a Frankfurt comedy in two acts, and the one-act comedy Die Zerstreuten.12 The date of this program is to be made public later. That the pieces were actually given is shown by a note on the 12th of February containing a favorable criticism of the former play. Two actors apparently distinguished themselves, for Schnepf's command of the Frankfurt dialect is praised and the efforts of Kreutzer were also generously applauded. The newspaper further states that several talented actors had joined the Verein. C. THE FIRST SEASON AT THE FRANKLIN THEATRE (FEBRUARY 15 TO APRIL 29, 1840) Pleased with the outcome of these first four theatrical evenings in the hall at 83 Anthony Street, the Deutscher dramatischer Verein now rented the Franklin Theatre, 10 All these theatrical criticisms are unsigned. In fact practically none of the many hundreds of " Theaternachrichten'" examined by the author bear signatures. 11 One of the many insignificant creations (1820) of Karl Malsz, who "sketched the rough peculiarities of the Frankfurt people in numberless plays with stock figures." Cf. Witkowski, German Drama of the Nineteenth Century, p. 37. 12 By Kotzebue.

Page  23 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 23 situated at 175 Chatham Street.13 Here it entertained its guests on about a dozen different occasions in the late winter and early spring of the year, opening its new home on February 15 with repetitions of the Kotzebue comedies Der Zitherschliger und das Gaugericht and Die eifersicMtige Fraz.14 Now, for the first time, subscriptions15 were sold costing four dollars for eight performances, the price of single admissions ranging from twenty-five to seventy-five cents. The prologue, which invariably accompanied the opening of a German theatrical venture, was spoken by Dr. Fdrsch, prominent in German-American circles of the day. A rather long contributed article in the Staatszeitung of February 19 contains a highly sympathetic and favorable review of the first night at the Franklin. In the same issue may be read an account of a shameful trick on the part of an unknown gentleman, who, on that opening evening, falsely directed fifty unwitting German theatregoers to the neighboring Chatham Street Theatre, in which an English play was scheduled! Initial difficulties having been successfully overcome, German performances now continued more or less regularly at the Franklin at the rate of approximately one per week. For February 19 Kotzebue's two-act comedy Incognito and, "by request," a repetition of Die Entfiihrung 16 were billed. The program for the 26th called for Humoristische Studien and Kotzebue's one-act comedy Die Brandschattung; 17 that 13 Brown (op. cit.) states that this house, located in the block between James and Oliver Streets, was a mere box of a place, twentyfive feet in width, but seating five hundred and fifty persons. It had been originally opened on Sept. 7, 1835. 14 Cf. S., Feb. 12, 1840. 5s The practice of issuing subscriptions (Abonnement) was fairly common in German theatricals. 16 COf. S., Feb. 19, 1840. 17 Cf. S., Feb. 26, 1840.

Page  24 24 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES of the 29th gave notice of Kmrner's three-act drama Toni and more Kotzebue, this time the one-act farce Wer weiss wozu das gut ist? Little Germany's young and enterprising dramatic club was now, however, no longer satisfied with light comedies and farces alone, for in the Staatszeituzng of March 4 we are informed that the theatre will remain closed for a week owing to preparations for the production of Pius Alexander Wolff's romantic play Preciosa.18 This drama, given about March 7,19 must have proved a success, for the issue of the 11th contains a half-column report full of unreserved commendation. Indeed, in view of the good attendance at the Franklin, the critic boldly calls for the establishment in New York of a permanent German "Musenheim." Fraiulein Wiese, the earliest idol of "Kleindeutschland," whose name is frequently met with, is glowingly praised as the heroine in Preciosa, and Schnepf, as Pedro; and a repetition is scheduled for that same evening, March 11. A fairly long article on the 18th states that Wolff's romantic play has now been given three times in rapid succession 20 and has certainly become all the rage, with a fourth performance planned for the 20th in connection with Kotzebue's Zerstreuten, as a benefit to Fraulein Wiese. This "Kulissenliebling" is lauded as a rare artist of quite unusual and manifold talents, melodic speech, pure, sweet tone (the parts she assumed often involved singing), graceful action, eloquent gesture, etc. A second actress, Madame Holm, is mentioned for the first time. 18 Preciosa (1809-10) was first given at Berlin, Mar. 14, 1821, and retained its popularity for the greater part of the century. Weber composed music for the play. Cf. A. D. B., XLIV, 45. 19 The author is inclined to assume the 7th, for that was a Saturday. 20 The third performance probably occurred on the 14th.

Page  25 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 25 The Verein was now impelled by its initial success further to extend and to regularize its activities. In the Staatszeitung of March 18 an advertisement is printed stating that the "Franklin Theater" (the first occurrence of this caption) has been leased until May 1. Six new pieces are promised, a very ambitious program, for among them were Kleist's Kdthchen von Heilbronn and two operas: Der Freischiltz and Die Schweizerfamilie.21 Subscriptions for the six performances were to sell at ten dollars for "eine Bank," five dollars for "eine halbe Bank" and two and a half dollars for "einen Sitz." Commendatory reports on the Deutscher dramatischer Verein are included in the next two issues of the Staatszeitung,22 and the writer urges the organization to seek publicity in the English-language press. Friulein Wiese, Herr Creutzer (probably the Kreutzer mentioned above) and Madame Holm are especially praised for their clever acting. For Thursday, March 28 (the 26th must have been meant), Kdithchen von Heilbronn is now definitely advertised at prices ranging from eighteen to seventy-five cents. That this performance as well as a repetition occurred is attested by the reference, on April 1, to the "two presentations" of Kleist's play of knighthood "during the past week." 23 Wiese, Holm and Kreutzer, as usual, win the laurels, which are shared by Schnepf, Buek and one Miiller. For April 1 a triple Kotzebue bill is announced as a "Zweite Abonnements-Vorstellung": Der grade Weg, der 21 The text was written by Ignatz Franz Castelli (1781-1862), a dramatic poet and collector of plays of Vienna. He is said to have amassed some twelve thousand dramatic works. The opera Schweizerfamilie, based on Castelli's text, was composed by Weigl. Cf. A. D. B., IV, 63. 22 Cf. S., Mar. 25 and Apr. 1, 1840. 23 Perhaps the second performance took place on Saturday, Mar. 28.

Page  26 26 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES beste, followed by Der Gimpel auf der Messe, and finally, Der Nachtwidchter. The newspaper issues of April 8 and 17 24 include no articles on the theatre, but in the latter edition a brief advertisement states that certain difficulties (of what nature is riot mentioned) prevented the giving of Lumpaci Vagabundus, which had been scheduled "for Wednesday" (either the 8th or the 15th). On April 22 Preciosa is repeated as a benefit 25 to Schnepf, and now we hear for the first time of a "guest-actor." 26 He is Herr Icks, stage manager of the German theatre in New Orleans, and he is to appear on the evening of the Schnepf benefit in the role of "Der Mann" in Kotzebue's one-act comedy, D.er hiusliche Zwist. The presence of the visitor makes possible a new venture, the staging of the Verein's first classical play. For April 29 Die Rdiuber is advertised, with Icks as Karl Moor. On that date 27 the Staatszeitung published a long unsigned contribution reviewing thisthe first-season of the German stage in New York. The work of the Verein is duly appreciated, while regrets are expressed that the performances have not drawn good-sized audiences. The actors and actresses thus far named, together with two newcomers (Herr und Frau Becker), are praised for their efforts. This review, together with the absence of further notices in the succeeding numbers of the Staatszeitung, makes it probable that the Riuber, on April 29-if the Schiller drama was actually performed 28-marked the close of New 24 The Staatszeitung regularly appeared on Wednesday; by exception, however, on Friday, Apr. 17, 1840. 25 Such benefit performances were, as we shall see, very common on the New York German stage. 26 The frequent appearances of so-called "guest" or visiting actors has been another characteristic feature of the German stage. 27 Cf. S., Apr. 29, 1840. 28 No report confirming the performance could be found.

Page  27 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 27 York's first season of the German stage. To summarize it, we may state that it was a season of comedies, and, in accordance with the taste of the time, almost exclusively of Kotzebue plays. Nevertheless at least two significant dramas were attempted. With the Rduber (assuming it to have been given) and Kdthchen von Heilbronn the classic and the romantic drama made their appearance on the local German-speaking stage. And a second romantic play, Preciosa, had scored a decided hit. Considering the poor economic conditions of those early times and the newness of the attempt, a highly satisfactory start had been made. Unfortunately, however, this modest beginning could not be followed up immediately, for, as we shall' see, external circumstances, quite beyond the control of the Deutscher dramatischer Verein, militated against its continued activity. More than fifteen months, indeed, were to elapse before New York's "Kleindeutschland" was again to be entertained by a play in German. In a most hopeful spirit the Staatszeitung, as early as May 20, published a "Bekanntmachung," 29 inviting those interested in the German theatre to attend a meeting on the 22d, called for the purpose of discussing the possibilities of continuing "Das deutsche Theater" and of establishing it on a firmer basis. But there the matter rested. As the summer came the Germans soon found themselves deeply involved in bitter racial conflicts, aroused, no doubt, by their rapid growth in numbers and by their increasing economic and social importance. The storm broke with great fury on 29 Among the seventeen signatures of this notice was that of G. A. Neumann, at that time owner of the Staatszeitung. A second invitation appeared on the 27th calling for a meeting on the 30th, but we do not know whether this was a second meeting or whether the first had been postponed.

Page  28 28 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES Friday, August 14, when a most violent anti-German demonstration marred a serenade tendered by the sons of the Fatherland to their countrywoman, Fanny Elssler, the celebrated dancer, who had been performing here. The issues of the Staatszeitung of the 19th and the 26th are filled with accounts of the riot, and with intense feeling retaliatory measures are planned. The Dramatischer Verein, evidently bent upon waging the fight with weapons of culture-so rumor had it on September 9-made preparations to bring out, during the following week, Zedlitz' Herr und. Skiave 30 and Kettel's Richards Wanderleben.31 It is doubtful, however, whether these plays, subsequently added to the repertoire of New York's "Deutsche Biihne," were given at this time; a full fortnight later 32 the newspaper expresses its satisfaction at the "prospective" renewal of the Verein's dramatic work, doubly welcome, so we are told, at a time characterized by such vehement antagonism to German culture in the city. Naturally all Germans in New York are urgently requested to support the theatrical undertaking. However no further items on "Das Theater" appear in New York's German newspaper during the rest of 1840;33 in fact no theatrical notice is 30 Freiherr von Zedlitz-Nimmersatt (1790-1862), "ein echter, reclhter Altisterreicher.'I Starting as an independent poet, he soon came under the influence of Schreyvogel and later followed the conventional Vienna school. Herr und Sklave (1831) is a two-act play in trochees. It is Spanish in form and in conception and treats problems of honor. Cf. A. D. B., XLIV, 742. 3' Johann G. Kettel (1789-1862) was a Vienna actor. He joined the "Liebhaber" theatre in that city and made his debut in 1814 in Kotzebue's Die beiden Klingsberg. In 1816 he joined the Hofburgtheater under Schreyvogel and prepared a series of dramas for the stage: Bichards Wanderleben, Der Findling, Der betrogene Betriiger, etc. Cf. A. D. B., XV, 669. 32 Cf. S., Sept. 23, 1840. 33 To be sure the issues of Nov. 4, Nov. 11, Dec. 2 and Dec. 9 are

Page  29 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 29 found prior to July, 1841, so that it is safe to assume that the Verein had lost its importance and that there was in reality no German dramatic season for 1840-41. D. THE SECOND SEASON AT THE FRANKLIN THEATRE (AUGUST 9, 1841, TO JANUARY 28, 1842) On July 14, 1841, a brief notice in the Staatszeitung states that a German theatre will in all probability be opened on August 1. Again the Franklin, newly decorated, is to be used, and subscriptions are solicited "to cover expenses." 34 There is a slight delay, however, in launching the new undertaking, for on August 4 an advertisement conveying the information that the Franklin has been rented until May 1, 1842, states that the "Deutsche Schauspieler Gesellschaft" will open there on August 9 with Kotzebue's Pagenstreiche. This was no false alarm, for on the 11th the event is reported with the remark that a large audience was delighted with the histrionic skill of Fraulein Wiese as the Page, Madame Holm as Deborah, and also with the efforts of Herren Buek, Schlee, Schnepf and Becker. Three adverse comments are voiced: confusion in the assignment of some of the seats, poor illumination and a poor selection of musical numbers by the orchestra. Since all the actors mentioned, with the single exception of Schlee, had been members of earlier casts, it is perfectly safe to assume that the "Deutsche Schauspieler Gesellschaft" was but a reorganization of the Verein which had inaugurated the German stage. The season which now opened was to prove not only missing, but the absence of four numbers in a period covering nine months is surely not significant. 34A second notice, one week later, alleges that great interest is being shown in this new attempt.

Page  30 30 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES much longer than its predecessor, but by far the most extended and the fullest of the entire decade of the forties -a season that was not again equalled quantitatively until the German stage had really begun to expand widely in the fifties. Between the 9th of August and January 28 of the following year (1842) there were no less than thirtyfive theatrical evenings, fairly evenly distributed, with a slight acceleration noted during the last two months.35 A qualitatively strong repertoire was, of course, not yet to be expected, since we are still dealing with the earliest infancy of the German stage. Light comedy and vaudeville naturally continued to predominate and the high points were restricted to renditions of Schiller's Rduber, Act V, Zschokke's Abellino and Miillner's Schuld. However, Korner and Raupach were beginning to infringe slightly upon the monopoly heretofore enjoyed by Kotzebue. Considered all in all, a history of this season, too, must of necessity result in a rather monotonous and tiresome narrative but for the sake of completeness we must follow it. Kotzebue's Pagenstreiche was followed, on August 18,36 by that author's Der Gimpel auf der Messe together with the Raupach comedy Der versiegelte Biirgermeister. A shortage of actresses at this time evidently prompted the management to insert an advertisement inviting the immediate services of "zwei deutsche Schauspielerinnen." 36 On the whole, the presentation of the 18th was described as well done,37 Schnepf playing the parts of Lampe and Stoffelsack excellently, while Becker, Fraiulein Wiese and Fraiulein Schroder (evidently a newcomer) also acted with great skill. Bree was quite humorous but Buek was sharply 35 Cf. App. I. 36 Cf. S., Aug. 11 and 18, 1841. 37 Cf. S., Aug. 25, 1841.

Page  31 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 31 berated for his poor memory, and the orchestra was likewise characterized as poor. A violinist appeared in the intermission between the two plays.38 The next announcement was for the 27th, when Kotzebue's Der hdusliche Zwist and Raupach's two-act comedy Der Platzregen als Eheprokurator oder das Schmalztopfchen und der Silbergroschen were billed. These performances, indeed, were appraised by the Staatszeitung as unquestionably the best yet given, and were well attended despite most unfavorable weather.39 In the Raupach farce the honors were shared by Wiese (as Gustel, a Berlin cook) and Bree (a Prussian foot-soldier). Herr Icks (as the Captain) acted well enough but wore a most unsatisfactory costume, while Madame Holm (as the Kommerzienritin) was considered much too old for the part. The evening's entertainment certainly turned out to be a long one, for Kotzebue's Zerstreuten was also given. The efforts of Schnepf (David), Buek (the Neighbor) and Fraulein Marder (Charlotte), a new member of the company, were duly commended.40 For September 3 another lengthy program was put together, consisting of Kotzebue's two-act comedy Incognito, followed by Bendix' 41 comic pantomime Der Deserteur aus Liebe oder der gefoppte Alte, solo num38 The reader has, by this time, become thoroughly familiar with the practice, in vogue on New York's German stage, of producing two or even three short plays on a single evening, in which case the resulting intermissions were frequently filled out by musical or dance numbers. 39 The weather seems to have played a determinative role in New York's German theatricals, for the Staatszeitung time and again attributes Little Germany 's failure to attend performances to snow, rain, wind-storms or other sinister meterological conditions. 40 Cf. S., Sept. 1, 1841, for this report. 41 Perhaps the actor who joined the company at this time; cf. p. 33.

Page  32 32 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES bers by Wiegers and Kurz (probably two musical artists) and finally a two-act comedy, Der Trunkenbold.42 For the 10th43 the company promised "by request" Der Platzregen and Die sieben Mddchen in Uniform,4 a sketch which had long been contemplated and which was, in later years, to become an extremely popular show. Strangely enough neither of these two September bills was reported by the Staatszeitung. Since, therefore, the German newspaper seemed at this time not to be according our young Theater a sufficient degree of publicity, it must not surprise us to find a long letter of complaint, signed "Petermnnnchen," addressed to the editor. From this letter 45 we learn not only that the "Theaterabend" of the 10th had materialized, but that K6rner's Toni and a repetition of Die sieben Mddchen had occurred on the 13th. Both performances were rated high, although the critic ventured to hope that the company would confine itself to light diet and renounce its dreams of Tell, Faust and Fiesco (dreams of which the correspondent must have had private information). A second letter,46 on September 22, under the caption "Deutsches Theater," likewise made propaganda for the 42 The author's name is not divulged, nor has it been possible to establish the identity of the play. The identification of obscure and insignificant dramatic works, of which not a few are encountered, forms one of the difficult, often unsolved, problems of the present investigation. In certain instances, such plays, especially if they were local products, were probably never published and the stage versions have, no doubt, long since been lost. 43 Cf. S., Sept. 8, 1841. 44By Louis A. Angely (1788-1835). Cf. A. D. B., I, 457. He was a writer of vaudevilles and farces at Berlin, which he borrowed mainly from French sources and adapted not without skill to Berlin conditions. Among his most popular creations which we shall presently meet are: Das Fest der Handwerker, Paris in Pommern, etc. 45 S., Sept. 15, 1841. 46 Signed: " Matz Michel Riibezahl von der Schneekoppe' "I

Page  33 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 33 new institution and extolled the performances of the 20th, when Korner's one-act comedy Der Vetter aus Bremen and Richards Wandereleben were acted. In the former Bree (Veit), Becker (Franz) and Demoiselle Wiese (Gretchen) appeared with the usual satisfactory results. Icks, who took the leading part in the Kettel play, was criticized for slips in grammar and pronunciation, and for the first time the popular Wiese received an unsatisfactory rating. Two new actors, Schmidt and Bendix, were mentioned as very promising. The critic furthermore gave vent freely to his disapproval of the excessively long intermissions between acts and plays and found the music "herzlich schlecht."-For September 30 Preciosa, preceded by Der Vetter aus Bremen, was advertised as a benefit to Wiese, with the usual musical numbers in between. The fresh impulse given to the German theatre by the increased publicity continued, and, under the heading "Deutsches Theater-Erster Artikel," we find on September 29 the longest theatrical article that had yet been printed in the Staatszeitung. The writer, who styles himself "Ein Freund deutscher Kunst," is delighted with the prospect of a permanent German stage. Actors are urged to improve their standards of enunciation and language. In the meantime dramatic performances continued at varying rates of once or twice a week. For October 747 repetitions of Richards Wanderleben and Die sieben Midchen in Uniform were advertised and presumably given. On the 11th 4 came Kotzebue's Freimaurer with Wiese as Caroline and Icks as the Baron, followed by Nestroy's Lumpaci Vagabundus.9 This Vienna farce, a satire on the many magic operas of the age, remained a 47S., Oct. 6, 1841. 48 S., Oct. 13, 1841. 49 The full title was Der b6se Geist Lumpacivagabundus, oder das liederliche Kleeblatt.

Page  34 34 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES perennial fixture of the repertoire of the German theatre for the next thirty years and longer, and was offered, especially on holidays, more regularly than any other farce. The article above mentioned was followed on October 13 by a "Zweiter Artikel," which took the form of an earnest plea for the elevation of aesthetic taste, asserting that the Theater should be not merely a source of enjoyment and distraction, but a "Bildungsanstalt" as well. But this well-meant exhortation found little direct response, for on October 15 Lumpaci and Hiiuslicher Zwist 50 wererepeated, and on the 18th came Biuerle's two-act songplay Die falsche Catalini,51 as a benefit to Schnepf and Becker, who had apparently been promoted to the rank of directors. In the issue of October 20 the new management thanked the public for its generous support and announced the opening of a second subscription on the 31st.52 In the meantime, on the 22d, Bree was the recipient of a benefit at which were seen: Kotzebue's Die Einladungskarte oder U. A. W. G., Th. Korner's Die Braut, Raupach's Platzregen and finally Beckmann's Der Eckensteher Nante,53 all of them one-act comedies-the last, in fact, 50 S., Oct. 20, 1841. 51 It is described in the Staatszeitung of Oct. 20 as a sequel to Kotzebue's Die Kleinstiidter; a review of the plot is given. Adolf Bfuerle (1786-1859) was a Vienna theatrical critic, journalist and writer, the author of eighty plays, most of them " Volksstiicke, " which, for many years, delighted audiences at Vienna's ''Vorstadtbiihnen" (Leopoldstrasse, etc.). In his Bilrger in Wien (1813) he created the so-called "Staberl" or latest incarnation of the Vienna "Hanswurst," which displaced the older figures of "Kasperl" and ' ThaiddMd1." A whole series of "Staberl" plays now followedStaberls Hochzeit (1815), Staberls Wiedergenesung (1816), etc.some of which were later given in New York. Cf. A. D. B., II, 147; also Arnold, Das deutsche Drama, 601-2. 52 This date was apparently later changed to Nov. 5; cf. p. 36. 53 Cf. S., Oct. 20 and 27, 1841. Friedrich Beckmann (1803-66) was

Page  35 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 35 a popular farce. Interest in the theatre was now reflected by the increasing space allotted to it in the Staatszeitung -for instance, an entire column in the newspaper of the 27th, discussing the Bree benefit and commending the actor's feat of essaying four different roles in one evening. But, with the greater attention bestowed upon the stage by the press, the danger of clashes between the two became more and more imminent. Consequently we find, in the issue of the 27th, the earliest evidence of friction between an actor and a journalist. Not satisfied, it seems, with the mere discharge of his assigned part during the Bree benefit, Icks very dramatically stepped before the curtain and complained bitterly to the astonished audience of gross injustice on the part of a certain "ignorant" writer.54 That the actor's remarks had an effect is shown by a long contributed letter in the Staatszeitung of the 27th, defending Icks and justifying his outburst. On November 3 55 a roster of the company was published for the first time: Director, Becker; Stage Manager, Bree; Music Director, Wiegers; Prompter, Siemon; Property Man, Buek; Actors: Becker, Schnepf, Bree, Buek, Busch, Schmidt, Icks, Bendix; Actresses: Icks, Wiese, an excellent comedian and immensely popular with the mid-century audiences of Vienna's Hofburgtheater. Laube thought highly of him (cf. H. Laube's Das Burgtheater, especially pp. 374-79). His most applauded roles were in Eckcesteher Nante and in Der Fater der Debutantin, which we shall also meet with in the present study. Nothing could be found, however, which sheds any light on Beckmann as a writer. Cf. A. D. B., II, 237. 54 Evidently the author of a rather acrimonious report printed in the Staatszeitung shortly before this occasion. 55 There must have been one more theatrical evening in October, namely on the 29th. The Staatszeitung of November 3 reprints a prologue, written by Dr. PFrsch and spoken in the Franklin on the 29th by Icks, but no mention is made of what plays were given on that occasion.

Page  36 36 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES Koch, Holm, Schroder, Marder. Thus we note the presence of several unfamiliar members in addition to the members whose acquaintance we have already made. In this way, needless to state, new artists keep springing up in the course of our narrative. At first they appear singly and sparingly, then more frequently and in groups, until they finally overwhelm the investigator by their sheer numerical mass. Some of the actors vanish almost as soon as they have been introduced; others abide. Naturally the great body of these Thespians have long been forgotten. Whence they came and whither they went are questions we can never hope to answer. The provenience of even the more important actors and actresses is one of the most difficult and unsatisfactory problems of the present study-a problem with which the author has had little success. In the relatively few instances in which the origin of an actor has been established it will be mentioned. But, to return to our story, the new subscription opened on November 5 with Clauren's four-act comedy Der Wollmarkt,56 preceded by KEirner's one-act tragedy Die Sihnme. Unfortunately the audience on that evening was a small one, and for almost two weeks we hear little of the activities of the Schauspieler Gesellschaft. On the 19th57 Lumpaci Vagabunzdus, as a non-subscription bill, was repeated. In fact it was acted a third time on the 26th, while in the interval, on the 22d,58 a new production, Carl 56 Heinrich Clauren, pseudonym for Carl G. S. Heun (1771-1854), enjoyed a considerable vogue, which was, however, short-lived. In his sentimental comedies as in his novels he catered to the lower taste of the people and was thoroughly satirized by W. Hauff. Cf. A. D. B., IV, 281; Laube, Das Burgtheater, 94 and 332; also Arnold, Das deutsche Drama, 590. 57 Cf. S., Nov. 17 and 24, 1841. ss The Staatsizeitung of the 17th announces this as a "fifth subscription," the first having occurred on the 5th. Performances, fur

Page  37 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 37 XII auf Riigen, a four-act comedy by Schneider,59 taken from the English of Both, was introduced to the patrons of the Franklin, to be repeated on the 29th. To supplement Nestroy's satirical comedy on the 26th the first act of Preciosa was given, "mit falscher Besetzung," 60 while the evening of the 29th was rounded out with Act V, Scene 1 of Die Riduber, as was claimed, for the first time in New York.61 Thus, as the season advanced, the theatre developed an increasingly active and versatile program. The frequency with which the directors of the Franklin brought out plays continued unabated in December. On the 1st came a series of short sketches and miscellaneous numbers (as a benefit to Herr and Frau Icks) consisting of the following: Robert Macaire (adapted from an English melodrama) by one Weidemeyer; Ein Kinderballet; Marsano's comedy Die Helden; 62 Kotzebue's Die Beichte, and finally thermore, are announced as taking place regularly on Monday and Friday of each week. Obviously, then, the newspaper fails to mention some of the theatrical evenings at the Franklin, and it is only fair to assume that the second, third and fourth subscription performances were given on the 8th, 12th and 15th respectively. 59 Ludwig Schneider, the popular author of comedies, farces and song-plays, born at Berlin, 1805. Among his productions given on the New York German stage were Der Kurmdrker nd die Pikarde, Der Heiratsantrag auf Helgolatnd, Der reisende Student (?), etc. Together with a captain of the artillery, W. Forster, Schneider edited "Biihnenrepertoire des Auslandes,'" under the pseudonym L. W. Both (i.e., "Beide"). Cf. Briimmer, Lexikon deutscher Dichter, VI, 264. 60 That is, with men taking the parts of women and vice versa. 61 Bree played Franz, and Schmidt, Pastor Moser. This scene must have been omitted in the earlier performance; cf. p. 26. 62 Wilhelm von Marsano (1797-1871) was an Austrian army officer and an author of unusually attractive personality. He was called the "Prager Alcibiades.'" In Kotzebue's Almanach dramatischer Spiele, Vols. XXVII, XXVIII and XXIX, appeared his three plays:

Page  38 38 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES some recitations. The 3d saw repetitions of Eckensteher Nante and Die eifersilchtige Frau. Kotzebue's Kreuzfahrer, a five-act drama of chivalry, was presented on the 7th; and on the 10th Lebriin's three-act comedy Der Quartierzettel and the one-act farces Unser Verkehr and Je toller, je besser were given. Quality, however, did not go hand in hand with quantity, and sometimes the former left much to be desired. Adverse criticism stressed the annoying habit of hesitation on the part of the actors, due to their unfamiliarity with roles and with the stage setting.63 The repetition of Kreuzfahrer on the 13th elicited the comment "herzlich schlecht." Herr and Frau Icks were characterized as especially poor and in a laughing mood, certainly a false note in a romantic drama! On the 15th the performance of Hedwig die Banditenbraut was stamped as "wretched"; it was asserted that the actors made a real burlesque out of this tragedy by their flippant attitude, so that many a friend of the theatre felt ashamed. These instances of unsatisfactory acting and of weak discipline in the company may have been due in part to a spirit of internal discord, of which the first symptoms came to light at this time. In connection with the performance of the 20th we learn of an altercation between two actors. Herr Schmidt, the beneficiary of the evening, inserted a notice in the newspaper, protesting against the conduct of his colleague Bree, whom he accused of having withdrawn from the performance at the last moment, of having incited the actors against him, and furthermore of having torn up the program sheets of the occasion! Yet the month of December was not without its redeeming features. The Kotzebue comedy Die Rosen von Die Phlegmatilcer, Die Helden, and Das Spiegelbild. Cf. A. D. B., XX, 429. 63 S., Dec. 15, 1841.

Page  39 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 39 Malesherbes, given on the same evening with Hedwig (December 15), was well acted, and on the 20th Miillner's Schuld, contrary to all expectations, turned out to be so pleasing that it was characterized as the season's best achievement.64 The noticeable orderliness of audiences at the Franklin, in contrast with gatherings at other New York theatres, also evoked words of praise at this time.65 Two more theatrical evenings completed the month at the German playhouse. On the 25th Kotzebue's Pagenstreiche, designated as the eleventh subscription, was excellently given,66 and the year closed on the 30th with a thoroughly mixed variety and dance bill, consisting of Fanny Ellsler's Cracovienne, Schneider Fipps, Die schlaue Witwe, Die Helden, and a children's ballet called Der Carneval von Venedig oder die Grenadiere Friedrichs des Grossen in Italien. The year 1842 67 opened with a special performance on New Year's Day of three plays the titles of all of which are familiar to us: Der Gimpel auf der Messe, Die sieben Midchen in Uniform and Zedlitz's Herr und Sklave. On January 6, after many months of preparation and various postponements, came Zschokke's Abellino,68 one of the very first German plays given in translation on the American stage, forty years before this time. Kotzebue's five-act farce Pachter Feldkilmmnel followed on the 11th.69 It proved a great attraction. The same formalistic imitator of Schiller again furnished the bill for the 14th with Die 64 Cf. S., Dec. 22, 1841. 65 Cf. S., Dec. 1, 1841. '66 Cf. S., Dec. 29, 1841. 67 Cf. S., Jan. 5, 1842. 68 Cf. S., Jan. 12, 1842. This drama must have been cut considerably, for the reporter speaks of "fragments" of Abellino as having been given. 69 Cf. S., Jan. 19, 1842.

Page  40 40 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES Kom6dianten aus Liebe, which failed to arouse any enthusiasm, and with a Shrovetide play entitled Das Landhaus an der Heerstrasse.70 For the 18th Richards Wanderleben was scheduled; for the 20th, a series of short sketches ending with Wallensteins Lager-a benefit to Buek. However, a subsequent notice 71 informed the reader that this did not materialize, owing to insufficient attendance. The notice-it bore the signature, "Wahrheit, Achte Avenue" --deplored this lack of support of the theatre on the part of the thirty thousand Germans living in the city. On the other hand a German performance, on the 22d, of Weber's Freischiitz, in the Franklin Theatre, announced as the first complete rendition of that opera in America, was highly successful72 and surpassed all expectations. New York's finest artists took part and the music was reported excellent. The opera was repeated on the 29th.73 For the 26th Pachhter Feldkilnmel 74 was advertised once more, preceded by Doring's one-act comedy of Gellert,75 and the closing evening of the month as well as of the season was featured by the English actress Miss Clemence, who participated in a vaudeville and medley program composed of Schneider Fipps, La Bayadere, Die Grenadiere Friedrichs des Grossen and various dances.76 With that the winter's theatrical offerings came to a 70 S., Jan. 12, 1842; Das sugemauerte Fenster was also promised for the same evening. 71 S., Jan. 26, 1842. 72 Ibid. 73 S., Feb. 2, 1842. 74 The Staatszeitvng of Jan. 20 erronebusly mentions the 20th as the date. 75 Georg C. W. A. Db'ring (1789-1833) was an uninspired playwright, whose productions yielded satisfaction only for the moment. In addition to Gellert, he wrote the dramas Cervantes, Posa, and Der treue Eckart. His novel Sonnenberg furnished Birch-Pfeiffer material for her Pfefferrbsel. Cf. A. D. B., V, 347. 76 S., Jan. 26, 1842.

Page  41 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 41 rather abrupt end at the Franklin, for on February 9 we are informed that the local German company is about to leave for Philadelphia, there to perform for several weeks at the Arch Street Theatre. The Staatszeitung wishes the players the best of success and hopes they will avoid the errors they made in New York, but what these errors were the newspaper does not state. E. THE THIRD (AND LAST) SEASON AT THE FRANKLIN THEATRE (SEPTEMBER 14 TO DECEMBER 16, 1842) We next hear of the German theatre on September 10, 1842. On this date a long advertisement appeared in the Staatszeitung, signed by F. Wiese,77 announcing the opening of the Franklin on Wednesday, September 14, with a program of six numbers, including two dramas: Wer weiss, wozu das gut ist? by Kotzebue, and Das Gasthaus zum goldenen Lowen, a four-act comedy by Carl Stein.78 This marked the beginning of a third and, as it turned out, last season of German drama at the little house in Chatham Street. Indeed, we may hardly speak of this as a season, inasmuch as only seven scattered performances are noted between the limiting dates of September 14 and December 16. Aside from a single presentation of Kabale und Liebe, this last three months' session of the German dramatic muse at the Franklin offers no bright spot. On September 24 Kotzebue's three-act comedy Der Rehbock oder die schuldlosen Schuldbewussten and KSrner's Vetter aus Bremen make up the bill, yet the difficulty of once more setting the machinery of the theatre in motion is painfully apparent. In an effort to stabilize his undertaking Director Wiese on October 1 announces that he has rented the Franklin until May 1, 1843, and 77 F. Wiese was the father of Elise (cf. pp. 24, 25, etc.) and Agnes (cf. p. 42). 78 His identity has not been definitely established.

Page  42 42 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES calls upon the public for its support. He advertises no less than twenty-four performances at subscription prices ranging from six to ten dollars! 79 As an additional inducement patrons are notified that the two favorites, Icks and Schmidt, have been reeingaged and will appear, for the first time in eight months, in a triple bill made up of the two Kotzebue one-act plays, Der Hahnenschlag and Das Landhaus an der Heerstrasse, followed by a one-act comedy after Florian entitled Die beiden Billets. In spite of all his heroic efforts Wiese seemed unable to arouse his little playhouse from its inertia and it continued to drift along. The first subscription evening was finally set for October 25 80-a one-act comedy, Der Freimaurer, and a musical medley (" Quodlibet"), Der reisende Student oder das DonnerwetterY81 with La Cracovienne, danced by Agnes Wiese, in the intermission. An advertisement on the 29th stated that the Franklin was to remain closed until November 5, owing to preparations for Kabale und Liebe, slated as the "third subscription." 82 But the Theater continued its dilatory policy, for on the 5th another postponement disappointed its friends. This time the excuse was that the building was being repaired and newly decorated! Finally, on the 12th, Schiller's middleclass tragedy was promised for both the 18th and the 19th, while on the latter date it is announced for that same evening, without mention of any performance on the 18th. Probably only one performance was given after all, and that on the 19th, since the Staatszeitung set the date of the "vierte Abonnement" as November 23.83 79 Cf. S., Oct. 8, 1842. so Cf. S., Oct. 22, 1842. 'si There is a play by this name by Ludwig Schneider (cf. p. 37, Note 59). 82 There is no record of a second subscription performance. 83 S., Nov. 21, 1842.

Page  43 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 43 From the constant postponement of plays the hard struggle which the German stage was experiencing during these months becomes only too obvious. The reason is not hard to find when we consider the economic depression that marked the winter of 1842-43. Indeed even the Park Theatre, one of the most prominent playhouses of the city at that period, was forced to reduce its prices of admission as a result of the hard times.84" Through it all Wiese struggled bravely on; he announced for December 2,85 as a benefit for Madame Icks, another lengthy medley bill, including the initial presentation of no fewer than three one-act comedies-Castelli's Zwei Freunde uwnd ein Rock, Korner's Der griine Domino, and Das Anekdotenbiichlein, by Scribe and Delavigne. The director, again impelled by the desire to systematize his venture, stated that he would henceforth open his house regularly on Tuesday and Friday evenings each week, and promised Kabale und Liebe for December 6. Gaps in the newspaper file make it impossible to ascertain whether Wiese was really able to carry out his plans, but we are in a position to state that at best he had to put them off and probably could not even inaugurate them. For December 16, the next recorded date, three more short comedies and farces were planned "8-Der junge Pathe, by Schneider, and Herr Blaubart oder das geheimmnisvolle Cabinet and Der Schmarotzer in der Klemme, both by Angely. However, the economic situation continued seriously to affect the theatre, so that the fulfilment of projects was often accompanied by the greatest delays, if, indeed, not entirely frustrated. Thus a local five-act comedy entitled Herr Hampelmann sucht ein Logis (by an unknown au84 8., Nov. 26, 1842. 85 S. (Tageblatt), Nov. 28, 1842. 86 Cf. S., Dec. 16, 1842.

Page  44 44 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES thor) was announced as a benefit for Schnepf on the 23d.87 Yet on the 31st the identical benefit was advertised for January 6, 1843, as a "first" performance, thus proving that it certainly could not have taken place on the date originally set. To make matters worse, a brief exhortation on January 7 urged the readers of the Staatszeitung not to forget the "coming" Schnepf benefit, which would seem to prove that the actor was experiencing the same disappointment week after week. Further checking up on this benefit to Schnepf becomes impossible, for the issue of the Staatszeitung for January 14 is missing. The last recorded performance, therefore, of this highly abbreviated and fragmentary season at the Franklin was probably that of December 16, and by way of summary we may note that the only work of literary merit given during the winter was Kabale und Liebe. F. THE SPORADIC ATTEMPTS TO GIVE GERMAN DRAMA IN VARIOUS HALLS BETWEEN 1843 AND 1849 The cessation of performances at the Franklin in the midst of the trying winter of 1842-43 88 denoted not only another failure in the annals of German dramatics in this city; it signified, as well, what may be considered the end of the first period of New York's German stage. While, to be sure, no permanent Deutsches Theater had as yet been established, this early period (1840-43) had witnessed the successful efforts of the Deutscher dramatischer Verein to introduce the German muse-efforts that had resulted in three seasons of drama at the Franklin. The ensuing years, 1843-49, represent, by contrast, a very barren period during which, in all, only twenty-one widely separated theatrical evenings are noted at no less than nine different S7 S., Dec. 17, 1842. 8s Only one more performance, on May 22, 1843, is recorded at the Franklin Theatre; cf. p. 45.

Page  45 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 45 halls. These figures alone will make it clear to the reader that it becomes utterly impossible to speak of any more "seasons" during the remainder of the decade. It appears, after all, that the novelty of the undertaking, coupled with the numerical weakness of Little Germany, and finally the severe economic conditions, all combined to defeat, for the present, the sincere attempts that had been made to create a real German stage. Director Wiese, indeed, found successors who were willing to take up the task, and the hard times did not prevent private experiments in the theatrical field. One of the first problems of the new sponsors of the German theatre was to find a suitable hall, as is shown by the fact that the seven isolated play-nights recorded for the entire year 1843 occurred at three separate localities. However, we must not fail to mention one bright spot at this timenamely, that New York saw what was probably its first performance of Wilhelm Tell in German. Let us examine this period somewhat more in detail. On January 28 a certain M. H. Dessau announces that he has rented the Bowery Amphitheatre (at 37 Bowery) for his own benefit on February 3, promising a performance of Die Ahnfrau, which he states has been played several times with success in Philadelphia. Unfortunately no positive evidence exists that Dessau accomplished his object. A gap of four months in the reports on the theatre affords another bit of mute testimony as to the precarious condition of German dramatics in the metropolis. On May 15 a new director, Rudolph Riese,"8 appears on the scene and announces as his opening play Kotzebue's Graf Benyowsky oder die Verschw6rung auf Kamtschatka, to be staged at the Franklin. This event received a highly 89 The name of Riese had appeared in the Staatszeitung of May 11, 1842, in connection with an attempt to establish a German theatre in New Orleans.

Page  46 46 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES encouraging review,90 and Riese, but recently come from New Orleans, besides being characterized as a capable, energetic director and actor, was hailed as a "new star in the heaven of the German theatre." Among his histrionic colleagues on this occasion we meet our old friends Schmidt, Schnepf, Bree and Frajulein Wiese. The critic points out that the prompter had very little to do during the evening-a most "unusual state of affairs." The "slim" attendance is attributed to the many recent disappointments to which German audiences had been subjected. On May 3191 Riese plans to take his company to St. John's Hall, at 8 Frankfort Street, for a second performance, selecting for this occasion three short plays-Der Taugenichts, Die Frankfurter in Hannover and Der reisende Student. Again successful, and full of aspiration, Riese's wandering troupe now turns to the Bowery Amphitheatre, where it gives Die Riuber on July 14 92 and Wilhelm Tell on August 1. A sympathetic review, signed "Theaterfreund," 93 commends the company highly for its pains and urges the public to support this latest venture, calling attention especially to the excellent work of Riese himself (Gessler), Schmidt (Tell) and Wiese (Bertha), the last mentioned being lauded as the "crown" of all actresses! But it seems that this diet was somewhat heavy for "Kleindeutschland" in the midst of a hot summer. At any rate, Riese was only yielding to popular demands, as he claimed, when he announced for August 22 Kotzebue's four-act comedy Der verbannte Amor oder die argw6hnischen Eheleute, followed by Holtei's short romantic musical play Der alte Feldherr.94 And therewith 90 Cf. S., May 30, 1843 (should probably be May 27). 91 Cf. S. (Tageblatt), May 31, 1843; (Wocherblatt), June 3, 1843. 92 Cf. S. (Tageblatt), July 10, 1843; (Wochenblatt), July 8, 1843. 93 Cf. S., Aug. 5, 1843. 94 Cf. S., Aug. 19, 1843

Page  47 EARLY GERMAN PERFORMANCES 47 Riese's directorial activities terminated, for we hear of him subsequently only once or twice, and then in the capacity of actor. Only one more German performance is on record for the year 1843. On December 18 the Deutsches LiebhaberTheater announces itself as located at Abelmann's restaurant, at 508 Pearl Street, near Centre. The two plays which this organization promises for that evening are the familiar Vetter aus Bremen and Die Zerstreuten. The prices on this occasion ranged from thirty-seven and a half to twelve and a half cents. For the next six years only three volumes of the Staatszeitung--those for 1846, 1848 and 1849-are available.95 However, inasmuch as the three extant folios contain no theatrical items, we are led to believe that the rest of the decade of the forties was not marked by any developments of importance in the field of German dramatics. From the files of the Deutsche Schnellpost, which also cover this period, and which are fairly continuous, a list of but fourteen thoroughly isolated and sporadic performances has been gleaned. They were staged at no fewer than six scattered halls located in Pearl, Elizabeth and Chambers Streets and on the Bowery and Broadway, and took place at various dates between 1844 and 1848.96 For the most part they consisted of previously noted plays by Kotzebue, Angely and Raupach. The novelties were: Der Pariser Taugenichts; C. A. West's Das Leben, ein Traum; and Roderich Benedix's five-act prize comedy, Doktor Wespe. A single offering of Schiller's Kabale und Liebe also deserves mention. Thus the German dramatic muse in New York, after so hopeful a beginning in the early forties, steadily declined and all but perished as the years rolled by. 95 Cf. p. xvi. 96 Cf. App. I and II.

Page  48 CHAPTER III THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES (1850-54) 1 A. INTRODUCTION THE very irregular and spasmodic character of the German stage in New York during the early fifties makes it necessary for us to scatter our attention over a con1 Owing to the heterogeneous and fragmentary nature of the sources, the period covered by the present chapter is unusually difficult of treatment. During these years the Staatszeitung was issuing a daily newspaper as well as its original weekly. But with the appearance of the daily edition the Wochenblatt, with singular consistency, avoids theatrical items, which find a place only in the Tageblatt. Unfortunately, however, only a single volume of the latter-that of 1853-has been preserved. For the years 1850, 1851, 1852 and 1854 we are therefore forced to turn to other sources, which are, for the most part, mere journalistic reviews and, as such, must be used with the proverbial grain of salt. The two chief sources at our disposal are the contemporary articles of Meyers Monatshefte (cf. p. xix), which were written between 1853 and 1856, and an account which C. P. Huch (cf. p. xxi) wrote in 1907. Our study of the period is further complicated by the fact that these two authorities, as we shall see, do not agree-which is not so strange when we consider that they are separated by fifty years in time., For a brief span in 1851 we have data given by a journal, Figaro (cf. p. xviii) and for the period beginning with 1853 the Belletristisches Journal (cf. p. xvii). Brown's History of the New York Stage (cf. p. xxi) also contains titles and dates of plays performed in German during this time. In view of these extraordinary conditions a thoroughly accurate and homogeneous study of these years becomes impossible. 48

Page  49 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES 49 siderable area and to introduce into our narrative several theatrical enterprises whose names have today merely an annalistic importance. A broad survey of these years shows clearly that the pains attending the birth of the new institution-to-be were rapidly growing more and more acute, the nearer we approach that hopeful day in the month of September, 1854, when the Stadttheater welcomed its first audience. To obtain a general picture of conditions during this early post-forty-eight era one needs merely to multiply by three or four the theatrical ventures described in the last chapter, to imagine two or even three such undertakings as coexistent for brief periods, and, of course, to keep doubling, trebling and even further accelerating the rates at which performances had heretofore taken place. Moreover we must now attach increased importance to the leaders, who were springing up with greater frequency than ever before and whose competence naturally grew as time advanced. For the first time we meet the names of directors who had gained experience in the playhouses of the Fatherland. As the tremendous tide of German immigration noted above 2 set in, it was only natural that the attempts to give plays in German should become more and more numerous. But this flood tide was unfortunately accompanied by a treacherous backwash, for we know that the unnaturally hasty and convulsive growth of the city for a time resulted in an economic distress that threatened to shipwreck Little Germany's theatrical ambitions, until, one fine day, out of all the whirlpools and eddies of the flood a lasting theatre arose. About the only stage of those mentioned above that lived to see the dawn of 1850 was the house at Mager's.3 But apparently it did not satisfy the more pretentious taste 2 Cf. p. 2. s Cf. App. I.

Page  50 50 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES of the newly arrived intellectual forty-eighters, for already before the end of 1850 some of Mager's players deserted and a rival house was started on Broadway at the Olympic, which lasted, to be sure with violent interruptions, until 1852. In 1851 dissension at the latter had again caused a split, and this time the irreconcilables fled to Chambers Street to make a fresh start at Burton's Lyceum. Along came the terrible winter of 1851-52 and temporarily halted all three enterprises. Undaunted promoters, however, tided over the imperiled German stage by giving performances at the Astor Place Opera House. In 1852 there was further rivalry between the Olympic and Burton's Lyceum, both of which had reopened their doors, but soon failed. The year 1853 saw two new, flourishing stagesprosperous, no doubt, since they were not, as had been their predecessors, simultaneous, but successive. They were the Deutsches National Theater and the St. Charles. Only the latter kept its head above water in 1854 and was still on the scene when the Stadttheater was founded. This, in brief, is the picture which we must now proceed to examine somewhat more minutely under separate annual headings. B. THE YEAR 1850 One of the retrospects in Meyers Monatshefte pictures the theatre at Mager's as a very inferior institution, which attracted its audiences by the bait of a dance after each theatrical representation. Here "orgies and bacchanalia" were enacted which lowered the reputation of the hall to the point at which, as Meyer asserts, it was impossible to speak of the German theatre in respectable society. The performances were of a simplicity bordering on the primitive, the orchestra consisting of a cellist and a violinist, whose constant companion was his pipe. The actors were

Page  51 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES 51 persons who followed other occupations during the day. But the repertoire, according to Meyer, was by no means limited, and classical plays were not infrequently staged, the author recalling a presentation of Don Carlos that struck him as "spanisch genug." For want of new plays, Mager would produce old ones under new titles, an abuse which the critic of the Monatshefte still deplored as late as 1854. Changes of management became more and more frequent as the theatre declined, and managers often turned out to be men of low character. When the theatre continued thus to deteriorate, a new stage was opened on Broadway4 in 1850 under the direction of one Fassert, whose undertaking, so we are informed by the critic, ruined Mager. Fassert's attempt was said to have begun most auspiciously. Crowded houses found the performances quite to their taste, and the German public, after its many disappointments, now felt it a matter of duty to support what had all the earmarks of a decent institution. Yet in spite of the propitious beginning, intrigues soon arose and Fassert showed all too plainly that he was not the man to check them. Within a few brief months the manager found himself bankrupt, but the members of the company decided to continue, and by sharing their expenses they contrived to keep the house open for a few additional weeks. In discussing these earliest years of the decade of 1850 Huch, by contrast with Meyer, paints a much more favorable picture of German theatrical conditions. The former declares that a certain W. Herrmann 5 had opened a German theatre in Mager's concert hall in Elizabeth Street 4 Presumably at the Olympic, 442 Broadway. 5 A German-American actor of the Deutsches Theater at Cincinnati, who made several trips to New York and was frequently seen on various stages here during the late forties and the early fifties.

Page  52 52 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES in 1850, supported by a group of players many of whom were soon to attain prominence in their field. The leading actors were Stein, Schwan,6 Hoym,7 Wenzlawski and H6rning, and the leading actresses, Lindemann and Schmidt. The presence of these histrionic artists, even at this earlier period of their careers, must, indeed, have lent the Mager stage a finer atmosphere than Meyer would have us believe. However, even Huch admits that the more exacting demands of the immigrants after the Revolution of 1848 were not satisfied with the quality of the offerings in the Elizabeth Street hall and that this dissatisfaction led to the Broadway undertaking of Fassert. The only theatre item in the Wochenblatt (of the Staatszeitung) for the year 1850 takes the form of a translation of an English letter, which had been published in the Washington Union of November 20.8 It had been written by a co-worker of that newspaper, named Wallach, who likewise judges the situation more optimistically than Meyer. The journalist asserts that there are in town no less than seventy thousand Germans, who live apart from the rest of the population and support two small theatres 9 at which semi-weekly performances are given in the German language. In Elizabeth Street the correspondent finds the plays just as good as anywhere in the city with the possible 6 Friedrich Schwan (cf. p. 60) had made a vain attempt to establish a German stage at Palmo's Opera House in Chambers Street on Aug. 11, 1845. Of. App. I. 7 This is the earliest reference to Otto Hoym, founder of the New York Stadttheater. According to Abrecht he had been a member of the Court Theatres at Dresden and Darmstadt, had come to New York in 1850 and had soon won favor here because of his handsome appearance, his splendid voice and his unusual ability as an actor. s Cf. S., Nov. 29, 1850. 9 Without doubt the critic has in mind Mager's hall and Fassert's playhouse.

Page  53 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES 53 exception of Burton's. The reviewer then describes how, at the conclusion of the dramatic program each evening, the benches are removed and the theatre is transformed into a dance hall, where the younger set may amuse themselves until one o'clock. Neither drunkenness nor coarse behavior is to be noted, but clouds of tobacco smoke fill the air and claret and lager beer flow freely. With this portrayal and with the other descriptions above given we must take leave of the German theatre during the year 1850. C. THE YEAR 1851 That the German stage kept up its struggle to gain a permanent foothold in New York during the year 1851 appears from several sources. The Staatszeitung attributes to the New York Herald of July 4 the statement that "even the local German theatre is enjoying support."10 Somewhat earlier, in the spring of the year, the Figaro reports a whole series of German performances at the Olympic-undoubtedly a sequel to Fassert's. Plays are advertised between March 26 and May 10, a span of slightly more than six weeks, which probably represents but a fraction of a longer season. The Figaro journalist quite frankly confesses his ignorance of German, which language he pretends to "brush up" for his visits to the Theater, and his mutilation of the titles of plays together with his wretched orthography certainly substantiate his contention to the fullest. He further admits that he "sees rather than hears" what takes place on the stage and attributes his ability to follow the performances largely to the merits of the players. His tone throughout is clearly that of the flattering and ignorant newspaper writer, solely bent on securing the patronage of the theatre for his publication, and under these circumstances no great value can be at10 Cf. S., July 5, 1851.

Page  54 54 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES tached to his criticisms. For our purposes the importance of the Figaro must be sought almost entirely in the data it gives us for a period not otherwise adequately covered, and in the fact that we find here one of the first instances of publicity given to the German muse by an Englishlanguage journal. The Figaro advertises the titles of twenty-three plays, which titles of course appear in English translation. The only classical offering of the series was William Tell, while the most popular drama seems to have been one variously listed (owing no doubt to inaccurate orthography) as The Confession(s) and The Confusion(s),11 which was seen five times-a large number, as German performances run. Then followed "Lumpartzi and Vagabundres" [Lumpaci Vagabundus] and the Rogue of the Streets (called on one occasion the Rogue of the Streets of Paris),12 each of which was given three times. William Tell, La Marseilleuse 11 This may have been Eduard von Bauernfeld's three-act comedy Die Bekenntnisse. Bauernfeld was a very productive playwright, whose creations attained great popularity on the Vienna stage in the thirties. He delineates Viennese society in a highly skillful, realistic and sympathetic manner. His comedies Biirgerlich und Bomantisch, Das Liebesprotokoll and Die Bekenntnisse were all produced on the New York stage during the period of the present study. Cf. Laube, 114 ff. and Witkowski, 50. 12 Perhaps Toipfer's four-act comedy Der Pariser Taugenichts (1839). Karl F. G. T6pfer was born in Berlin in 1792, became interested in the stage early in life and was attracted by Schreyvogel to Vienna, where he spent six years (1815-21). In 1822 he went to Hamburg, where he remained until his death in 1871. His comedies were immensely popular. Among those which met with great success on the early German stage of New York were Hermann und Dorothea, Der beste Ton, Freien nach Vorschrift, Des Kcinigs Befehl, Die Gebriider Foster, Bosenmiiller und Finkie and Der Pariser Taugenichts. However he borrowed much from Scribe and never transports his audience into a higher poetic world. Cf. A. D. B., XXXVIII, 446.

Page  55 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES 55 (or the Vicomte de Letoriere),3 Charles XII ' and Intermezzo (or The Farmer's First Night in the Residence) 15 each enjoyed two performances. In all, thirty-five theatrical evenings were announced in the Figaro, occurring regularly on Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday of each week, with special "benefit-evenings" on Tuesdays and "sacred concerts" on Sundays. The wardrobe is described as not especially brilliant. The leading actors seem to have been Herr and Frau Hoym,16 Friedrich, Buchheister, and Mmes Engelmann and Miiller. The Figaro's reporter speaks of the lovers of "Der Faderland[!]" as rallying around the worthy manager (his identity is not revealed) and filling the house night after night. The newspaper critic expresses the hope, too, that the German theatre will soon be established on a permanent basis in New York. Sometime between May 10 and June 18 there must have 13 Prolss (Robert Pr6lss, Geschichte des Hoftheaters su Dresden von seien Anfangen bis sum Jahre 1862, Dresden, 1878) mentions a three-act comedy of this title after the French of Bayard by C. Blum-first performed in Dresden on July 1, 1850. Of Carl Blum, Witkowski (p. 36) states that he "imported the short opera, called vaudeville, from France and composed numerous comedies in the Kotzebue manner." His Ich bleibe ledig (1835) and Ersiehungsresultate (1840) were favorites on New York's mid-century German stage. 14 A two-act comedy, taken from the English by Th. Hell. Theodor Hell was the pseudonym of Karl G. Th. Winkler (1775-1856), who from 1814 until his death was connected with the Hofbiihne at Dresden. Prilss' catalogue of plays given on that stage is filled with the creations of this author. Among those best known to "Kleindeutschland" were Die K6nigin von sechzehn Jahren and Ein Glas Wasser. Cf. A. D. B., LIV, 209. iL Das Intermezzo oder der Landjunker sum ersten Mal in der Besidenz, a five-act farce by Kotzebue. 1 Apparently Hoym's first wife. In 1853 he married Elise HehlDieffenbacher.

Page  56 56 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES been an interruption in the run of performances at the Olympic for, in his account of that playhouse, Brown17 states that on the latter date "Burgthal's German National Theatre" (seemingly a new organization) was inaugurated in the building at 442 Broadway. Humoristische Studien, billed on the 18th, was followed by Die Schule der Verliebten 18 on the 20th, Der Vater der Debutantint 9 on the 24th, and Weber's opera Preciosa on the 25th. Brown then abruptly dismisses the Burgthal company, stating that the theatre was shortly thereafter remodeled into stores. We must add, however, that Brown's data with reference to German performances cannot be regarded as complete, inasmuch as that historian wholly overlooks the entire spring season at the Olympic reported by the Figaro. Both Huch and Meyer charge Burgthal with incompetency, and the latter states that during this period almost every actor of the company successively took a turn at the management for a couple of weeks at a time. Huch reports that in the ensuing strife one of the members, Stein, withdrew, formed an independent troupe, and enjoyed great artistic success with the theatregoing public. This actor was said to have been especially effective as Shylock, in which part he was wont to be well supported by Frau Lindemann as Portia. In continuing his historical sketch Huch says that Alexander Pfeiffer of the Mannheim Thea17 Cf. Brown, I, 288. 18 A four-act comedy by Carl Blum (cf. Note 13), taken from Sheridan Knowles. The play is listed by Pr6lss as having its first Dresden performance on Oct. 21, 1845. 19 A four-act comedy, from a French source, by Bernhard A. Herrmann (1806-76), a dramatist and theatrical director, who was in charge of the Hamburg Stadttheater from 1862 to 1866, and again from 1871 to 1873, and is said to have kept that stage at a high artistic level. He is reputed to have translated 123 French plays. Cf.. D. B., XII, 217.

Page  57 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES 57 ter assumed the directorship of the Burgthal stage in the late summer of the year and starred particularly as the King in Zopf und Schwert, as Don Ramiro in Die Schule des Lebens,20 and as Moliere in Das Urbilds des Tartiiffe. But in spite of Pfeiffer's histrionic ability the public refused to be attracted, salaries had to be reduced, and, as was so often the case, friction developed within the company. As a result, Pfeiffer resigned (this must have happened in the fall) and together with Otto Hoym opened a new German theatre in Burton's Lyceum, in Chambers Street. This move apparently forced Burgthal to recall Stein as his stage manager, but in the resulting rivalry both houses failed. The winter that followed (1851-52) was unusually severe, and according to Huch it brought great hardship to the local German actors, who for the most part were left absolutely stranded. Pfeiffer finally made another theatrical attempt at the Astor Place Theatre, which met with some support from the public, but he was unwilling to risk the money needed to continue the enterprise and turned over the reins to the director of an Italian opera company that had leased the house. A fresh start was made with Schiller's Riduber, but after a few weeks, so we are told by Huch, the effort had to be abandoned. Brown, under the caption of the Astor Place Opera House, lists two German performances as having been staged there in November-viz., The Camp of the Warriors,21 A Day in Naples and The Ugliest of Seven,22 all on the 22d, and The B ell Ringer of the Church of Notre Dame (or 20 A five-act play by Ernst Raupach. 21 In view of a report published in the New York~ Criminal Zeitung (B.) of Mar. 27, 1852, one wonders if this may not have been Wallensteins Lager. Cf. Note 25. 22 A four-act comedy by Louis A. Angely.

Page  58 58 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES Esmeralde the Gypsy Girl),23 characterized as a "first New York performance," on the 29th. Brown connects Stein with these productions in Astor Place, so that if both he and Huch are correct we may believe that the Chambers Street as well as the Olympic company had a share in the German drama uptown. Before we leave the fitful year of 1851, a detached performance of German drama on an American stage should be mentioned, since it seems to have attracted considerable attention at the time and was even reported in the Englishlanguage press. On August 12 an all-day benefit was tendered at Castle Garden to Director Marshall of the Broadway Theatre. The very long program was extremely varied in character, including dramatic selections in English and in foreign languages, musical numbers and vaudeville. As part of the bill the members of the Burgthal company were invited to participate, and Die weibliche Schildwache 24 was offered with Otto Hoym in the leading r0le. This was perhaps the earliest instance of a direct contact between the English- and the German-language stages of New York. At any rate it is significant as showing that even at this early date the Deutsches Theater had, on one occasion, succeeded in winning recognition outside of its immediate sphere. One is much inclined to believe that the publicity which the Figaro had accorded the German stage may have helped pave the way for this invitation extended to German players to appear at an American theatrical function. Unfortunately, however, this isolated event was not at all followed up, and many years were to elapse before any further relations were established between the two stages. 23 Birch-Pfeiffer 's Der Glckner von Notre Dame. 24 By an oft-mentioned playwright Friedrich, otherwise not identified.

Page  59 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES 59 D. THE YEAR 1852 Apparently the trying economic conditions of the closing months of 1851 continued to prevail during the early part of the following year, thus precluding the founding of a lasting German stage in the city at this time. Huch reports that a merchant bearing the highly suggestive name of Monnie became interested and opened (he might more accurately have said reopened) the Olympic for the stranded German Thespians, but the plan soon had to be abandoned, whereupon the actors scattered. As the next attempt Huch cites that of an actor named Benroth, who came to New York with his wife and reopened Mager's hall, but likewise failed. On March 20 the first number of the New Yorker Criminal Zeitung was published, and the very second issue, that of the 27th, contained an article entitled "Die Presse und das Theater." This account makes it clear that the most recent German performances must have achieved fairly high standards of artistic merit, even though, as has been noted, they had not attained financial success. The critic even asserts that during the short time of its existence the German stage has risen above the plane of the English theatre, and deplores the inferior taste and the utter lack of educational initiative of the latter! To confirm his claim about the finer taste of the German public our journalist points to the "recent production of classical plays at the Astor Place Opera House," among which he mentions Egmont, Hamlet and Wallensteins Lager! 25 It is interesting to read that "many Americans"7 attended these performances, although one seeks in vain any advertisements or announcements of them in the con25 Cf. Note 21. It is to be regretted that neither Huch nor Meyer mentions the production of these classics.

Page  60 60 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES temporary English-language press. At the conclusion of the article the reader is informed that a Verein deutscher Schauspieler is planning to give plays at the Olympic, which project the public is warmly urged to support. Although a weak attempt to give German drama in the open air in Hoboken, New Jersey, during the summer months proved anything but successful, conditions took a decided turn for the better in the autumn of the year. Above all, the economic situation was once more improving and, even though two more years were to pass before New York should have its first enduring "Musenheim," the fall of 1852 marks a distinct turning point in German dramatics in this city. Now, for the first time, it becomes possible to talk of a fairly regular and continuous activity on the part of the German stage. Huch tells us that Eduard Kriiger, an impersonator of powerful characters at Mager's, now engaged a small company that found modest audiences at Burton's Lyceum in Chambers Street. Emanuel Pleyel of Vienna took over the management, Worret was stage manager, and Bruno Berndt, Friedrich Schwan and Frau Lindemann were the leading players. Berndt was hailed as the hero of the day. While Huch adds no further details and gives no dates, these events must have happened in the late autumn or in the early winter, for on January 1, 1853, we find the company well organized, no longer, to be sure, in Chambers Street, but under a new name, the Deutsches National Theater, on the Bowery. E. THE YEAR 1853 The Deutsches National Theater apparently 26 inaugurated its new home at 53 Bowery on New Year's Day and 26 Since we have no complete daily file of the Staatszeitung before Jan. 1, 1853, this statement cannot be proved, but inasmuch as a

Page  61 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES 61 continued to give regular "Theaterabende" until May 7. Then followed a two-months summer session at Becker's Garden in Hoboken, extending from May 23 to July 22, and advertised as under the management of Pleyel and Worret. The former got into financial difficulties, however, and had to flee, so that in the autumn Kriiger and Eduard Hamann took charge and opened the St. Charles Theatre at 17-19 Bowery, which continued not only during the remaining months of the year, but throughout the entire winter and spring following, and was, in fact, the immediate predecessor of the Stadttheater. We must now examine somewhat more closely the three theatrical ventures just outlined. The Deutsches National Theater, then, opened on January 1 with Heinrich Clauren's Wollmarkt and closed on May 7 with Kabale und Liebe. Seventy-six "Spielabende" in all are recorded, which took place regularly four times a week. The prices ran from one dollar to eighteen and three-quarter cents. While the repertoire shows a wide range, there were few classical representations and few outstanding features. Schiller was heard about once each month, with three presentations of Die Riuber and two of Kabale und Liebe. Kotzebue was beginning to yield the leadership which he had heretofore enjoyed to Charlotte Birch-Pfeiffer, who contributed no fewer than seven different plays to the season's list. Of the remaining significant dramatists Gutzkow, Laube, Holtei, Benedix, K~mrer and Mosenthal were represented, but played a very minor part. Highly interesting as a reflection of the attitude of the prologue featured the evening's entertainment the author is inclined to believe that the Deutsches National Theater, after staging performances at Chambers Street (perhaps under a different name) during the concluding months of 1852, moved into its new quarters on the Bowery on January 1.

Page  62 62 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES German-Americans toward their adopted fatherland was the presentation, on February 22, of Julius Dornau's 27 five-act patriotic play George Washington. At this time, too, New York's German theatre felt independent enough occasionally to scorn the "Made in Germany" stamp which had always characterized its offerings, for the local actor Worret had written a farce (with song and dance) entitled Herr Hampelmann in Californien oder goldene Berge, ein Traum, which was acted on the 12th of February. The discovery of gold in California of course explains Herr Worret's theme. The public was urged particularly to attend the performance of January 24, given as a benefit to Nees von Esenbeck.28 described as a veteran of German science who had been persecuted for his ultra-democratic views. This is but one of several instances indicative of Little Germany's interest in European politics and of its sympathy with the Revolution of 1848. On the roster of players appear the names of Berndt, Schwan, Heinrich Schmidt, August Hoaring, Frau Lindemann and Amelie Klaus. A guest who seems to have attracted considerable attention, but about whom little is known, was Albertine Kenkel. The Hoboken Sommer-Theater was an open-air undertaking. Three performances a week were scheduled, but unfavorable weather sometimes necessitated postponements. 27 Julius Dornau, the pseudonym of A. Julius Naundorff. He was born at Dresden in 1821 and became a soldier and officer in the Saxon army. Literature was his avocation. Briimmer gives the date of his drama, George Washington, as 1862-obviously an error. Cf. Briimmer, V, 107. 2s Christian G. D. Nees von Esenbeck (1776-1858) was a noted German botanist, who, in spite of his advanced age, broke with the old political regime in 1848, became thoroughly radical and joined the social democratic party. He was removed from his professorial chair at Breslau in 1851 and dismissed without a pension. His last years were spent in poverty and distress. Cf. A. D. B., XXIII, 368.

Page  63 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES 63 No plays of any merit were recorded, and accordingly the venture may be dismissed without further comment. The Deutsches Theater in St. Charles Theatre, later known simply as the St. Charles Theatre, was originally announced as intending to open in a newly built hall next to Burton's Theatre, in Chambers Street, but a subsequent advertisement locates this most recent stage at 17-19 Bowery. Messrs. Kriiger and Hamann turned the management of their house over to W. Boettner, a theatrical director who had lately come over from Germany. Considerable publicity marked the opening on September 12. Karl Topfer's four-act comedy Freien nach Vorschrift oder wenn Sie befehlen was seen, followed by a dance and a little sketch, Der Tod des Erzbischofs auf den Barrikaden von Paris. While admitting the shortcomings of the theatre (its small size and inadequate stage equipment and facilities) and the lack of good actors, the Staatszeitung earnestly pleads for the support of the "Musenhalle." The newspaper deplores the absence of names like Hoym, Pfeiffer, Berndt, Fraulein Klaus and other players who even at this time must have enjoyed some repute, but were not found with the troupe. The leading parts were taken by the actors Worret, Szmock, Wilhelmi, Unger, Nordhausen, Meyer and Otto Kriiger and the actresses Lindemann, Boettner, Herzog, Wolf and Kraft. Only a few of these names are familiar to us. Buchheister (cf. page 55), who also appeared, was referred to as a popular comedian of the time, but we are left in the dark as to his provenience. On December 9 Fraulein Hehl of the Stadttheater in Diisseldorf, who was to become the second wife of Otto Hoym 29 and one of the leading actresses of the Stadttheater in New York, made her debut. That histrionic decorum was 29 Cf. Note 16.

Page  64 64 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES not always strictly observed at the St. Charles, one gathers from the fact that at least one of the actors, Stein, insisted on delivering political improvisations from the stage-a bit of license roundly condemned by the Statszeitung.30 Qualitatively the repertoire reveals no marked improvement over that of the earlier German theatres, although novelties were constantly added. Much is made of a fiveact drama Die Grabesbraut oder Gustav Adolf in Miinchen, whose author, a certain Bahrt, has not been further identified. Hamann and Kruiger introduced this play on November 21, hoping that it would make a strong appeal in view of the Crimean War, which was, of course, the principal political topic of the day. The following announcement is subjoined to the advertisement of the work: At the present time, when all eyes are fixed upon the Orient eager to see the smouldering torch of liberty there burst into a bright flame, whose glorious light may perhaps dispel darkness from all the countries of Europe, the presentation of the abovenamed work of acknowledged merit-a work which also pictures a similar struggle of tyranny with rising liberty-ought to be of special interest.31 As at the Deutsches National Theater, so also at the St. Charles, classical plays were practically absent from the repertoire. Faust was given on September 28 and Die Rduber on October 1, after which no further efforts were made along these lines, owing perhaps to the weak character of the ensemble and the want of "stars." Instead, the programs were overloaded with the melodramas of BirchPfeiffer and the comedies, farces and musical plays that the contemporary European stage was likewise offering in 30 Cf. S., Sept.14, 1853. 31 Cf. S., Nov. 21, 1853.

Page  65 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES 65 abundance. On one or two occasions American atmosphere penetrated into the hall. A German dramatization of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin 32 was presented on October 20 and enjoyed a single repetition. Then, too, some attention was aroused by a three-act farce written especially for the St. Charles, and given on September 10. It was called Filrsten zum Land hinaus oder die Schul' ist aus,33 and its scene was laid successively in a barroom, in the Gasthof zum Konigsmorder, on a pier in South Street, in a park, and in one of New York's leading GermanAmerican rendezvous, the Shakespeare Hotel. The time of the action was described as "die nachste Erntezeit der Republikaner," and from this annotation it is clear that the theatre was feeding its patrons on another morsel of political propaganda. Nothing further of interest remains to be added with regard to the activities of the St. Charles 32 For a history of the many dramatic versions of Uncle Tom's Cabin on the English-language stage of America, cf. Brown, I, 314-19. According to that authority the first "Uncle Tom's Cabin" of which he has any record was written by Professor Hewett of Baltimore and was produced at the "Museum" in that city on Jan. 5, 1852. This play was not, however, a dramatization of Mrs. Stowe's novel, but was written to counteract that book and was called "Uncle Tom's Cabin, as It Is." Brown asserts that the first production in America of a dramatic version of Mrs. Stowe's work occurred at Purdy's Chatham Theatre in New York, Aug. 23, 1852. Its author was Charles Western Taylor, and the play was adjudged a failure, running but eleven nights. Highly successful, on the other hand, was George L. Aiken's version, which was first given at the Chatham Theatre on July 18, 1853, and was performed almost daily until Apr. 19, 1854, and thereafter less frequently. Thus only three months elapsed between the first performance in New York of Aiken's play and the giving of "Onkel Tom's Hiitte" at the St. Charles. 33 It was the product of Max Cohnheim, "collaborator on the Berliner Kladderadatsch." Cf. S., Dec. 10, 1853.

Page  66 66 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES during the year 1853. In all, eighty-one performances are recorded prior to January 1, 1854. F. THE YEAR 1854 The St. Charles continued rather to amuse, we may say, than to uplift its audiences during the first half of the year 1854. Meyer notes in this year that it was struggling along in the old rut and that it needed a thorough cleansing-above all, a more efficient management. Huch, on the other hand, insists that Kriiger and Hamann gained a higher degree of success than had ever before been achieved. Be that as it may, stimulated by the fact that it had survived a full and uninterrupted theatrical season, the St. Charles reopened its doors in September, 1854, and might have lasted another year, perhaps eventually to have won the honor of becoming New York's first permanent German theatre, had not a rival house appeared on the scene. On September 4 the Stadttheater,34 managed by Messrs. Hoym and Siegrist, staged its opening performance. For a month the two rivals struggled side by side, then the older institution rapidly lost support. Krfiger shrewdly abandoned the sinking ship and early in October the St. Charles closed its doors. Sporadic, but futile, attempts to reopen this theatre in January and in February of the following year (1855) left the Stadttheater in undisputed possession of the field. The older house had not departed, however, without leaving a legacy, for Director Hamann of the St. Charles soon replaced Siegrist as co-director of the Stadttheater, and under the skilful guidance of Hamann and Hoym the latter theatre during the next ten years provided New York German-Americans with continuous performances on a higher plane than those of any previous period. 34 Located at 37-39 Bowery. Cf. Chap. V.

Page  67 THE GERMAN STAGE IN THE EARLY FIFTIES 67 G. CONCLUSION A review of the brief span of four or five years that has been discussed in the present chapter shows a positive advance in the direction of a permanent German stage in New York. Clearly, this period marks a transition from the widely scattered, haphazard endeavors of the previous decade to the actual establishment of an institution that was to function every day for many successive years. The intensified efforts noted above to create a Deutsches Theater were no doubt due to the steady stream of the highly intellectual immigration which deluged the United States after the Revolution of 1848 and which, to a considerable extent, made New York its home. Without this reinforcement, it is safe to say that the initial steps taken in the forties in the theatrical field could not have been successfully followed up. Although most of the numerous ventures thus far recorded vanished like the first snowflakes of winter, without leaving any perceptible trace, they were not in vain. The pioneers were destined to fail, but pioneers there had to be. At least one of the recent stages, the St. Charles, as we have seen, held itself above water for a considerable time and gave promise of lasting success. Finally it is to be noted that the actors and theatrical enterprises of the period of 1850 to 1854 surpassed their predecessors both in energy and in magnitude. In some instances, at least, these pathfinders did not succumb with the undertakings with which they had first been identified, but will be met in the subsequent history of the German stage.

Page  68 CHAPTER IV THE "LIEBHABERTHEATER" AND THE MINOR GERMAN STAGE IN THE FIFTIES No account of the evolution of New York's German theatre would be complete without at least a partial consideration of the so-called "Liebhaber-" or "Dilettantentheater," which added so much color to the motley picture that Little Germany presented during the middle of the past century. But before we examine this highly interesting institution it must be clearly understood that the German "Liebhabertheater" included a much wider range of dramatic enterprise than is covered by the term amateur dramatics. We, in America, are wont to restrict this phrase to the activity of men and women who take up the histrionic art solely as an avocation. Such folk, their daily duties ended, turn in the evening to dramatics for amusement. Usually they form a club, hold rehearsals once or twice a week and occasionally present a play before a select audience of friends. As a rule they receive no remuneration for their efforts, but are content with the satisfaction of cultivating whatever talent they may possess and with the gratification of their social wants and desires. The admission fees collected at functions are generally just sufficient to cover expenses, and if there is a small surplus it is added to the club's treasury. This conception, to be sure, is equally applicable to a certain type of the "Liebhabertheater' '-that, namely, represented by the earliest Deutscher dramatischer Verein, 68

Page  69 THE " LIEBHABERTHEATER" ' 69 whose course we followed in Chapter II, but which apparently soon developed into a professional theatre. And it is the strictly amateur type of organization that is found in the Dramatische Sektion of the New York Turnverein to which reference will be made later. Such "Theatervereine," conducted on the basis outlined above, have always enjoyed great popularity among German-Americans; but in the early days, the young German who felt within himself a pronounced dramatic bent, was often inclined to commercialize it as soon as possible. Together with two or three others of his kind he would apply to the proprietor of a "Bierhalle" or "Weinstube" for the privilege of entertaining patrons with some sort of simple dramatic act. As he always insisted on a financial compensation-a large portion of it often took the form of food and drink-he was, strictly speaking, a professional actor. The dozens of "Lokale" that dotted "Kleindeutschland" naturally afforded ample opportunity for the carrying out of this arrangement, and at least a few of these crude undertakings expanded presently to the point where they could be dignified by the name of stages. The spread of this species of "Liebhabertheater" in our town during the fifties was truly remarkable. What may perhaps be regarded as the first example of considerable importance was undoubtedly the hall of Mager during its first years, the only stage in fact, as we have noted, that survived the dawn of the fifties. Mager found a host of imitators in the course of the decade. In 1853 the names of four such "Theater" appear among the advertisements of the Staatszeitung. The movement reached its apex in 1856 when the names of no less than twenty are gleaned from the newspaper within the period of six months from January to June, and it is only fair to assume that several more could be added to the list if data for the rest of the

Page  70 70 THE "cLIEBHABERTHEATER 7 year were available. Again in 1858 fourteen names are recorded over a period of seven months, though the following year the number had dropped to seven within a period of half a year. Thus a list 1 of forty-five such "Liebhaberbiihnen" may be compiled for the years mentioned, the most prominent of which were: Eustachi, the Deutscher Volksgarten, Odeon, Elfsium, Busam, the Deutsches Volkstheater, and the Blumenthaler Liebhabertheater. Arguing from extant records it is safe to set the number of German performances staged at all these halls at well over a thousand and the aggregate repertoire at several hundred different plays! These stages arose, as has been said, chiefly in restaurants, beer halls, wine taverns and, during the summer, in public gardens. Frequently no admission whatsoever was charged, since the income derived from the thirsty German's beer or wine check proved sufficient to defray the costs of producing the plays.2 However, when the owner did not have great confidence in his patron's purse or in the latter's willingness to spend enough for refreshments, he would generally exact a small entrance fee, ranging between six and fifteen cents or more.3 At the Deutscher Volksgarten in 1858 ten cents was collected, which entitled the guest not only to a seat but to a glass of beer as well, and he was even permitted to bring along his wife and children free of charge! (We are not informed as to whether this privilege was often abused!) Whenever a ball followed the performance, a ticket became somewhat more expensive, costing from twelve cents upward.4 The 1 For this list cf. App. III. 2 This seems to have been the case in the Odeon, the Elysium and even in Eustachi's Liebhabertheater. 3 Busam charged from six and a quarter to twelve and a half cents; the Volkstheater, ten cents, etc. 4 As at the Blumenthaler Liebhabertheater and at other halls.

Page  71 THE " LIEBHABERTHEATER 7) 71 highest fees were demanded at the Deutsches Volkstheater in 1853, since it gave its plays in a regular theatrical hall -which probably minimized, if it did not entirely preclude, any other source of revenue. Here tickets run from eighteen and three-quarters to fifty cents apiece. Generally speaking, this large group of minor German stages presented audiences with an unbroken run of light comedies and farces of passing interest and of no real literary or dramatic merit. This is especially true during the years 1853 and 1856, when one looks in vain for classical dramas. Between January 1 and June 30, 1856, Eustachi, by far the most active theatrical producer in this field, offered no fewer than ninety-four bills, consisting largely of plays by Kotzebue, Benedix, Lebriin, Friedrich, Schneider, Nestroy and the like, uninterrupted by even a single classical work! When Die Rduber was given at Dramatic Hall on Easter Monday, March 24, 1856, it stood out as a striking exception. A definite, if slight, change for the better is noted in 1858. Influenced without doubt by the more elevated standards set by the Stadttheater, which had at that time existed some four years and had educated the public to higher tastes, a few of the minor stages did occasionally turn to the classics. Eustachi, in that year manager of the New Yorker Volks-Theater, took the lead, and it is refreshing to note on the repertoire of this house, side by side with the farces and comedies of Angely, Schneider, Kalisch and others, eleven Schiller performances, including Kabale und Liebe, Die Rdiber, Wilhelm Tell, Die Jungfrau von Orleans and Maria Stuart. In the course of his ninety-five "Theaterabende" between April 21 and December 22, Eustachi also staged Brachvogel's Narciss, Mosenthal's Deborah, and plays by Laube, Birch-Pfeiffer and of course the indispensable Kotzebue-all of which were regularly given also at the Stadttheater. In fact for weeks at a time

Page  72 72 THE c"LIEBHABERTHEATER" Eustachi's "Spielplan" could easily be mistaken for that of the town's real German theatre. Hartmann, who, in 1858, took over the hall in Forsythe Street hitherto occupied by Eustachi, adopted a similar policy, staging nine performances of Schiller plays: Die Rduber, Wilhelm Tell, Fiesco and Don Carlos. Two more offerings of the firstnamed play at Lindenmiiller's Colosseum and two of Tell at the Odeon provide further evidence of an awakening interest in Schiller, due, no doubt, to the approaching Schiller centenary. In the following year, 1859, Eustachi continued his policy of including at least a limited number of substantial works in his vast repertoire. The unusually large number of a hundred and forty-eight presentations of about sixty different dramatic works is noted in the half year ending with December 31, 1859-an average of almost one a day-and the list embraces works by Schiller, Shakespeare, Kleist, Gutzkow and Laube, in addition to the lighter offerings of Kotzebue, Birch-Pfeiffer, Raimund, Benedix, Halm, Friedrich, Nestroy and others. What is true, however, of these few "Biihnen" can not be claimed for the rest, which persisted in their old rut of trashy comedies, farces and vaudeville. Worthy of mention is the increasing number of plays of purely local import, and by local playwrights. In some instances these were merely Berlin farces rewritten to suit New York conditions. Thus, for example, Eustachi brought out in 1859 Kalisch's New Yorker Aktiengrocer, a forerunner of Adolf Philipp's Corner Grocer of Avenue A, and similar farces. A genuine "Gelegenheitsstiick" was that called Bekehrung vonm Temperenz Wahnsinn oder vor und nach der Elektion, recorded at the Volkstheater on December 6, 1859. But the real hit of the closing months of that year was unquestionably a highly spectacular threeact production of Berg and Kalisch entitled Das Volk, wie

Page  73 THE " LIEBHABERTHEATER" 73 es w'eint und lacht, which had opened very successfully at the Stadttheater on November 3 after a run of two hundred and fourteen nights at Berlin. Naturally the minor German stages in town soon took it up, and it is most amusing to note the keen rivalry that marked their efforts to outdo one another in the matter of scenic effects. With great pride the managers of the Stadttheater had announced the piece as being given "lMit 2,000 Gaslampen'"for in those days the electric light had, of course, not yet made its entrance into the theatre. When Eustachi introduced the play on December 10 he boasted that six thousand gas lights supplied his illumination. One week later the Deutscher Volksgarten, not to be eclipsed, varied the title to Das Volk, wie es lacht und sich amiisiert "Mit 2,000 und mit 6,000 Gasflammen, also mit 26,000 Gasflammen!" On the 29th Eustachi came back with still another version: New York, wie es lebt und webt, depicting scenes of New York life at the Five Points, Fifth Avenue, the German quarter on the East Side and elsewhere. While the actors on these petty stages were, for the most part, insignificant dilettanti, it not infrequently happened that men of repute, hailing from the Stadttheater itself, appeared at some of the halls. As was to be expected, Eustachi took the initiative in attracting to his establishment players of more than average ability. For his Schiller performances in 1858 he engaged no less an actor than our Friedrich Schwan as his "star." Schwan, who had already made his debut at the Stadttheater, had by now acquired an enviable reputation, and one wonders how Eustachi found it possible to present him to audiences that were paying only ten cents for a ticket and received free beer! During Eustachi's biggest season, in 1859, when the price of admission still remained at a dime, the names of

Page  74 74 THE "L LIEBHABERTHEATER " Worret, Grieben, Schmidt, Volkland, Herr and Frau Wichter, and Herr and Frau Lindner5 appeared on his roster-all of them experienced and well known. Perhaps the small salary earned by the average actor or the occasional development of internal friction at New York's leading German stage caused one or the other of these Thespians to withdraw temporarily from the Stadttheater and to direct his steps to one of the "Dilettantentheater." The performances in the beer and wine halls of "Kleindeutschland" must, at best, have left much to be desired from an artistic point of view. The arrangement of serving guests with food and drink at movable tables and chairs, often while the curtain was up, caused much noise and confusion that inevitably distracted from the play. Still the average guest, governed as much by his appetite as by his feeling for the aesthetic, was content; for whenever he tired of conditions and whenever his artistic side seriously asserted itself he could pay a visit to the real Theater. The scenery, settings and entire mechanism employed in the beer halls must also have been most unsatisfactory and crude in the extreme. That the minor German stage flourished so extensively at this time, in spite of all its shortcomings, can only be interpreted as a bit of eloquent testimony to the sincere love of dramatics which the average immigrant had brought over with him from the Old Country and which had not yet been diluted by the flood of new ideas and ideals that were to saturate his life in the New World. With these brief remarks we take leave of New York's charming mid-century "Deutsches Liebhabertheater," to turn our attention to the principal theme of the present work-a discussion of the New York Stadttheater. 5 The first three of this group of names will be found in the list of actors appearing at the Altes Stadttheater, App. IV, a.

Page  75 CHAPTER V THE ALTES STADTTHEATER (1854-64) A. INTRODUCTION THE Stadttheater, New York's first regular and dignified house for German drama, opened its doors for the first time on the evening of September 4, 1854, and closed them for the last time on June 30, 1864. Apart from the summer months (usually in June, July and August) and with certain other sporadic exceptions, chiefly in the first year of the Civil War, daily performances were given continuously during the period of almost ten years included by the above-mentioned dates. The buildingI which the Deutsches Theater occupied had formerly been known as the Bowery Amphitheatre and was located at 37-39 Bowery.2 It had been erected by the Zoological Institute in 1833 and was originally used as a menagerie. Subsequently it was turned into an amphitheatre where equestrian exhibitions were held. In 1852 the structure was occupied by a circus and in the summer of 1854 it was rebuilt as a theatre, which seated 2,500 persons. On the opening night of the new German theatre,3 this large hall was entirely filled in spite of a temperature of ninety 1 For the details following, cf. Brown, I, 238-40. 2 This site is at present covered by a section of the approach of the Manhattan (Canal Street) Bridge. 3 The details of the opening performance are well given by Meyer, III, 463-65. 75

Page  76 76 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER degrees, thereby establishing an attendance record for a German dramatic house in New York. The prologue was spoken by a Dr. Langenschwarz, who had been associated with Director Kriiger of the St. Charles Theater.4 The program continued with two dancers, and then followed the play of the evening, Charlotte Birch-Pfeiffer's Das Forsthaus, with Otto Hoym and his wife and the actors Worret and Hacke in the leading parts. A general survey of the Altes Stadttheater shows us that during the entire period of its existence its management was almost continually confronted by two alternatives, neither of which was highly attractive. The directors could choose either to give plays of real dramatic worth, in which case they very often ran the risk of drawing small audiences, or they could attract large gatherings to their hall, as a rule, however, only by plays of thoroughly inferior quality. How to offer habitually the finest dramas and how, at the same time, to keep up the attendance-that was for Hamann and Hoym a constant source of worry. And so the Stadttheater as a whole was but another aspect of that eternal conflict between irreconcilable antitheses to which the German mind likes to cling so tenaciously-the desire to unite aesthetic idealism with material success. How did the directors meet this problem? They faced it with a psychology that was characteristically German. At times we find the Theater fully conscious of the very great and important educational mission that it feels itself called upon to fulfil, and aspiring to give to its patrons classical works of the very highest order-generally those of Schiller and Shakespeare; at other times we find it stooping to the most meaningless popular comedies and farces of the day, calculated merely to fill the box office with dollars and to amuse the theatre public. The "zwei Seelen" of the 4 Cf. 63 ff.; also B., Sept. 29, 1854.

Page  77 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 77 management are thus constantly engaged in a struggle, in which almost periodically the one or the other triumphs for the moment. But, in terms of Richard Wagner, the calls of Frau Venus find a far more ready response than do those of Elizabeth, and we are often forced to tarry for months in Klingsor's magic gardens before we can spend a few days in the sacred domains of the Grail. In consequence of this, each of the ten seasons of the Altes Stadttheater-in many cases, even a small fraction of a season-offers us practically the same picture: The presence of one or two especially capable actors, generally in the fall or in the spring of the year, stimulates the directors to stage a few classical plays. For a time the public responds, laudatory criticisms appear in the Stcadtszeitung and in the Belletristisches Journal, and all seems to be going well. But after a more or less brief period something inevitably happens and the Theater tumbles from the heights of its idealism. As a rule the public is at fault in refusing to be long satisfied with a diet of the classics, and the playgoers all too easily become discouraged-perhaps even by a single imperfect performance that they have been called upon to witness. An empty house is the immediate result, and the well-meaning entrepreneurs, remembering that they must meet expenses, suddenly become panic-stricken and descend to the depths of third- and fourth-rate dramatic trash. For weeks the magic farces of Angely, Schneider, Rider, Nestroy and their like-which at least draw fair-sized audiences-dominate the repertoire. At best these offerings are varied by a Benedix comedy, a Birch-Pfeiffer melodrama, a romantic play of Halm or a fairy comedy of Raimund, but when even these magnets begin to fail, a New York "Lokalposse" of the lowest order imaginable is introduced. Such a theatrical debauch may continue for weeks. Usually the first element to resent it

Page  78 78 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER is the German-language press, which hurls scathing remarks at the "Herren Direktoren," and when these are of no avail, inaugurates a complete strike and consistently declines to print even a single word on the subject of the theatre. Presently public and management alike are, in true German fashion, affected by a genuine "Katzenjammer." The directors once more grow inspired with their theatrical mission and their minds are saturated with all manner of noble thoughts about the ethical functions of the theatre. Lofty phrases about "deutscher Idealismus" fill the atmosphere on the Bowery, a fresh start is taken and more Schiller, Shakespeare and other high-class drama is attempted, until the process described above sets in again. Generally speaking, then, the history of the Stadttheater is a succession of such cycles. The inferior comedies, farces and vaudevilles invariably outnumber the works of lasting value. Naturally this cyclic course pursued by the playhouse on the Bowery very often drew it away from the direct line of progress that its founders strove to follow. Two external obstacles likewise militated severely against the growth and development of the theatre, and since they lay quite beyond the pale of "Kleindeutschland," we must discount them before passing final judgment on the Stadttheater. One was the economic depression of 1857, and the other the Civil War. In each case, however, the Theater with all the resilience of youth accomplished a speedy recovery. The biennium 1858-60 yielded both an artistic and a financial success that far surpassed anything attained before and marks one of the two big crests in the annals of the Stadttheater. The second of these peaks came, strange to say, in the midst of the Civil War, during the years 1863-64, just before the theatre was closed. Thus the slump occasioned by the outbreak of the war lasted but a year and a half, for as early as 1863 the institution regained its poise and the final, banner season witnessed over half a

Page  79 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 79 hundred classical performances! All in all, then, in spite of the ailments to which it fell prey, New York's first enduring German theatre proved to be a thoroughly healthy organism, which grew and developed, as will be further noted, in every direction. At its closing, in 1864, the Stadttheater stood on a distinctly higher plane than ever before. The fragmentary condition of the daily file of the Staatszeitung, which alone contains complete theatrical advertisements, together with the absence of such complete play-lists in other publications, precludes anything like a perfect statistical analysis of the activities of the Stadttheater. However, the abundant data available are more than sufficient to give a very detailed and satisfactory view of the Theater. In the first place, it is possible from the newspaper files to make a day-by-day study of at least one entire season, that of 1863-64, and of several other half-seasons. Secondly, Huch gives us considerable information about the Altes Stadttheater prior to 1860, so that from the various cross sections thus obtainable and from the supplementary material provided by the weekly numbers of the Belletristisches Journal, a good description of New York's first permanent German stage is possible. Huch states that in 1859, with Meaubert and Knorr as stage managers, one hundred and thirty-eight different plays were performed at the Stadttheater. He gives a list of twenty-seven plays that were seen more than twice,5 including Faust, Don Carlos, Maria Stuart, Wilhelm Tell, Fiesco, Die Riuber, Wallensteins Lager, Nathan der Weise, Minna von Barnhelm, Emilia Galotti, Der Kaufmann von Venedig, Romeo und Juliet, and Hamlet. For the final season, that of 1863-64, the author of the present study has compiled a list of one hundred and twenty-three different plays (exclusive of the Sunday sacred concerts), which re5 Cf. Huch, 31.

Page  80 80 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER ceived a total of two hundred and eighty-nine performances.6 There were forty-eight presentations of so-called classical plays, including no less than thirty-six by Shakespeare: Macbeth (3),7 Die bezShmte Widerspenstige (6), Ein Wintermdrchen (10),8 Ein Sommernachtstraum (7), Der Sturm (2), Hamlet (6), Der Kaufmann von Venedig (1) and Kanig Richard III (1). Schiller is a poor second with only ten offerings of six dramas: Maria Stuart (2), Die Rduber (1), Kabale und. Liebe (2), Wallensteins Lager (1), Wilhelm Tell (2) and Die Jungfrau von Orleans (2). Finally there were Goethe's Faust (2) and Grillparzer's Medea (4). The balance of the two hundred and eightynine performances consisted largely of the plays of sentiment and effect and the comedies, farces and vaudeville sketches already alluded to. A few operas and operettas were also included in the repertoire. With this introduction we are now prepared to examine the Altes Stadttheater in greater detail under the following headings: (1) the repertoire, (2) the actors, (3) the operation of the theatre and the reception of plays, and (4) the relations of the theatre and the press. B. THE REPERTOIRE 1. PRELIMINARY REMARKS An analysis of the repertoire of the Altes Stadttheater 6 Cf. App. V, which contains the complete repertoire of the last season (1863-64) of the Altes Stadttheater, together with a statistical summary including the data here given. 7 Figures in parentheses indicate the respective number of performances of plays. The considerable amount of Shakespeare given may have been partly due to the fact that the year 1863 marked the three-hundredth anniversary of the birth of the great English poet. 8 This marks the greatest number of performances of any one drama during the season.

Page  81 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 81 in the ten years of its history reveals the practice, peculiar to the German stage throughout its existence, of offering different plays on successive nights and of consistently avoiding long runs. Only rarely is this rule violated, and even then the run is generally broken after the third or fourth night. The very longest runs recorded do not surpass seven or eight performances. Consequently a single year's repertoire, as we have had occasion to see, shows an unusually large number of plays-more than a hundred at the very lowest, and, at times, reaching a much higher figure. Under these circumstances many of the plays vanish from the stage after two or three performances, if not after the very first. As has been noted, a goodly portion of the dramas given -fully half-consisted of light comedies, farces, and vaudevilles from the pens of contemporary or recent German and Austrian authors and of insignificant local playwrights. The musical farce supplemented by dances was unquestionably the favorite genre, and the type known as the "Zauberposse" was so persistently shown that the critics repeatedly wearied of it. Of the remaining half of the "Spielplan," the larger part was represented by the plays of Birch-Pfeiffer, Benedix, Brachvogel, Mosenthal, Halm and other contemporary German and Austrian dramatists, among whom the first-named easily overshadowed all her rivals. When the theatre was at its zenith, onefifth of all the works produced were classical plays or dramas which today still hold a place in the literary world. As a rule, however, and on the average, this fraction was much smaller. 2. SHAKESPEARE-SCHILLER, LESSING AND GOETHE The best part of the repertoire consists, of course, of the dramas of Shakespeare, Schiller, Lessing and Goethe, with

Page  82 82 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER the two first named leading not only in the number of plays presented but also in the total number of performances of each. Of the English poet eleven works are recorded: Romeo und Juliet, Konig Lear and Othello, in addition to the eight titles listed above.9 While Shakespearean performances are on record for practically every season, they were very rare during the early years, during which they were limited to K6nig Richard III and Hamlet. Late in the fifties a Shakespeare crescendo set in, which naturally reached its forte in the final year 1863-64, when, as before noted, eight of the dramatist's works were staged on no less than thirty-six occasions. The production of Shakespeare often seems to have depended on the presence in the theatrical company of this or that particular star, who felt able or inclined to undertake a major Shakespearean role. Kanig Richard III and Hamlet were most frequently revived. The first impersonator of a Shakespearean part was the actor Hacke, who appeared in the former of these two plays on March 14, 1855. Two years later Bruno Berndt, whose popularity in the metropolis has already been commented on,10 but who had gone to Philadelphia, returned as a visiting actor and starred in the two dramas just mentioned. In the fall of 1858 the simultaneous presence at the Stadttheater of a powerful constellation of actors-Hoym, Knorr and Fraulein Grahn-resulted in half a dozen or more " Shakespeare-Abende." K6nig Lear had a strong cast in 1860, with Knorr and the three actresses Hoym, Scheller and Fischer, and in 1861 the capable Fallenbach made a splendid Shylock and Richard III. The coming of Daniel Bandmann in 1862 was the occasion for excellent portrayals of Hamlet, Konig Richard III, Othello and Der Kaufmann von Vene9 Cf. p. 80. 0o Cf. p. 60.

Page  83 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 83 dig, and the great Shakespeare revival of the closing years of the Altes Stadttheater would probably not have occurred without the assistance of the actors Hoym, Knorr and Scherer. In general the Schlegel-Tieck translations were employed, as was specifically announced in the theatrical advertisements, but there were exceptions. For Macbeth none other than Schiller would satisfy; for Ein Wintermidrchen the translation of Dingelstedt was used; and for Die beziihmte Widerspenstige, the arrangement of Baudissin's translation which Deinhardstein had prepared for the Vienna stage. Unfortunately the actual stage versions used by the Stadttheater are not available and, if at all extant, they are probably hopelessly hidden in unknown attics and cellars. Therefore the merits and the shortcomings of these texts must be judged from second-hand sources. It is clear, however, that great liberties were taken both with the Shakespeare original and with the translations, so that the resulting stage versions often showed wide deviations from both. Cuts were constantly made, especially in Hamlet and in Der Kaufmann von Venedig, resulting in frequent complaints on the part of the press that the part of Horatio was all but obliterated, that Portia's role, too, was mercilessly pruned, and that the famous court scene was reduced to a very few lines and its effect thereby destroyed. Performances varied as to quality. Der Sturm was so poorly done that it had to be dropped after the second attempt. Hamlet and Kanig Richard III, on the other hand, were regularly well given and were usually rewarded by good houses. Ein Sommernachtstraum, although carefully staged, was accorded a very discouraging reception by the public, while Ein Wintermirchen, as we have seen, burst forth in a blaze of glory during the final season and easily established a record of ten repetitions within a compara

Page  84 84 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER tively brief space of time. In the main the leading Shakespearean parts were in the hands of stars, but this system led to a corresponding slighting of the minor r6les. Of Schiller, as might be expected, every major play excepting Die Piccolomini found its way across the boards. In the ten dramas there is a rather interesting and sharp division of five and five as to popularity and reception. Die Rijuber, die Jungfrau von Orleans, Kabale und Liebe, Maria Stuart and Wilhelm Tell were the first five to be produced and later turned out to be by far the most popular, while Wallensteins Tod,11 Don Carlos, Die Braut von Messina, Fiesco and Wallensteins Lager were but sparingly attempted. November 10, needless to say, seldom was permitted to pass without a Schiller drama at the Stadttheater, the banner year naturally being 1859 on account of the Schiller centenary. Of particular interest is the presentation of the poet's free translation of Gozzi's Turandot.12 After a single repetition it was withdrawn, never again to reappear, and was dismissed by a newspaper critic with the remark that the public had outgrown the Turandot type of play. The Schiller performances together with those of Shakespeare may be counted among the highest artistic achievements of the Stadttheater. Practically without exception the leading characters were effectively impersonated. Die Jungfrau von Orleans receives the most favorable general criticism with respect to acting, staging, costuming and scenery, whereas Tell seems to have proved less satisfactory. A specially prepared stage version of the latter by a 11 The performance of Wallensteins Tod given on Nov. 12, 1856, was announced as "the first in New York." Cf. B., Nov. 14, 1856. 12 Cf. S., Oct. 20, 1858. This five-act tragi-comic "MIixrchen" was given with the music of Weber. The work has acquired renewed interest in view of Puccini's recent opera of the same title.

Page  85 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 85 certain Esslair 13 was adopted, which must have been a sort of telescopic arrangement, for it is announced sometimes as in four, and sometimes as in five acts. In neither case, however, did it meet with the approval of the critics, who repeatedly voice their displeasure at the omission of entire scenes and half-acts!14 In the case Maria Stuart the press takes sharp exception to the dropping of the last scene and to the very faulty pronunciation of the English names. Aside from these few imperfections, however, Schiller was excellently rendered and the German newspapers generally greeted the dramas of the Swabian poet with most lavish praise. While the three major plays of Lessing are all recorded, it has not been possible to note more than five performances in all. A single presentation of Minna von Barnhelm on March 18, 1859, proved highly refreshing; why it was not repeated can not be explained. The same might be said of Emilia Galotti, which was likewise received with favor, while the first of the two Nathan performances given was admitted to have failed because of the histrionic deficiencies of the actor Schmidt, who undertook the title role. Goethe's Egmont is noted once, Gotz von Berlichingen twice, while Faust appeared, to be sure at long intervals, some six or seven times. Whenever Goethe's masterpiece was given it was dismissed with the comment that its demands far exceeded the limitations of the theatre, wherefore the drama had best not be attempted. Thereupon it was regularly shelved until unpleasant memories faded, only to reappear after a year or two with the same disappointing result. It required a Daniel Bandmann as Faust 13Perhaps Ferdinand Esslair (1772-1840), dramatic artist, who was a highly successful actor at Munich, Prag, Stuttgart and Nuremberg. Cf. A. D. B., VI, 384. 14 Cf. S., Oct. 22, 1854, et alia.

Page  86 86 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER and a Fallenbach as Mephistopheles to arouse any degree of enthusiam whatsoever. 3. OTHER MAJOR GERMAN DRAMATISTS Leaving the strictly classical side of the repertoire, the remaining bright spots are provided by the far fewer plays of half a dozen important nineteenth century dramatists, that found their way sparingly into the hall of the German theatre. "Young Germany" fared best, inasmuch as Gutzkow and Laube are each represented by four works: the former by Uriel Acosta, Zopf und Scahwert, Der Kanigsleutnant oder Goethes Jugendjahre and Werner oder Herz und Welt; and the latter by Graf Essex, Friedrich Schiller oder die Karlsschiler, Caito von Eisen and Die eine weint, die andere lacht. The most popular of these were unquestionably Uriel Acosta, K6nigsleutnant, Graf Essex and Die Karlsschiiler. Of Grillparzer only Der Traum ein Leben and Medea were given. The latter, as pointed out above, enjoyed four performances during the closing season with one of the Stadttheater's very finest actresses, BeckerGrahn, in the title role. The only play of Kleist that was staged was Das Kdthchen von Heilbrown, which, although it was seen only at long intervals, was nevertheless produced consistently throughout the ten years. The arrangement of Holbein was always used. Turning to the early realistic field we note that Ludwig's Erbf6rster was very well given in 1860 but, although recognized as a striking and fascinating tragedy, was apparently not again attempted. Freytag's Journalisten also made its bow but failed to create a favorable impression, for the reviewer states that this comedy loses too much of its charm in an American atmosphere, that the situations lacked originality

Page  87 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 87 and that the dialogue was often draggy and dull! 15 It is beyond all doubt in the domain of the major German drama of the nineteenth century that the German theatre of New York suffers most by comparison with the leading stages of Europe. When one considers, for instance, the stormy reception accorded to Hebbel as early as 1848 and 1849 at the Vienna Burgtheater, when one recalls Laube's untiring efforts to give Hebbel and Grillparzer their due place on the stage throughout the period of which we are writing, we must realize the inferior position of the local Stadttheater, where the works of the former poet, at least, are singularly conspicuous by their absence. 4. MINOR GERMAN DRAMATISTS The farther we descend in our course downward from Germany's three matchless classic poets to the fourth-rate manufacturers of trivial farces, the more plentiful grows our material in dealing with the repertoire of the Stadttheater. A fair-sized portion was occupied by minor writers, who only rarely succeeded in achieving anything of outstanding worth. Of Iffland, who at this time had all but vanished from the European boards, only Die Jdger and Die Spieler are noted at the theatre on the Bowery. Raimund, but at least Raimund at his best (Das Mddchen aus der Feenwelt oder der Bauer als Milliondr, Der Alpenk6nig und der Menschenfeind and Der Verschwender) remained a regular though at times infrequent visitor throughout. To a far less degree this was true of Theodor K6rner, who was fast receding from the more prominent place he had formerly held. A badly mutilated version of Zriny is recorded. Decidedly more pronounced was the popularity enjoyed by Friedrich Halm (Freiherr von 15 Cf. S., Dec. 5, 1858.

Page  88 88 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER Miinch-Bellinghausen) whose Griseldis, Der Sokn der Wildnis and Der Fechter von Ravenna made a strong appeal to audiences that were ever drawn by the sentimental type of drama. And Halm's Austrian compatriot, Josef Weil,"6 in whom the same romantic spirit is discernible, was represented by his Tristan und Isolde. Most surprising is the almost total eclipse suffered by Kotzebue. Notwithstanding this author's complete domination of the New York stage at the dawn of the century and his overwhelming vogue on the various petty stages of "Kleindeutschland" discussed above, Kotzebue was emphatically neglected and all but excluded at the Stadttheater. We read of but two or three of his plays, such as Pachter Feldkilmmel von Tippelskirchen and Die eifersilchtige Frau. Quantitatively he was succeeded at the Bowery playhouse by Charlotte Birch-Pfeiffer, that indefatigable mid-century playwright, who transformed German, French and English novels of the period into melodramas at an amazing rate. Quite in accord with the favor she enjoyed on the Continental German stage, BirchPfeiffer turned out to be by far the most popular and the most frequently produced dramatist of Hamann and Hoym's theatre. Since her plays offered to the actor an abundance of engaging and effective roles and infallibly dissolved in tears the average sentimentally inclined theatregoing public of the times, they were never absent from the repertoire for any length of time, and the managers invariably depended upon her to stave off impending disaster when box-office receipts were at a low ebb. Over 16 Josef Weil, Ritter von Weilen (1828-89), dramatic poet and author, whose fame rests largely on his two dramas Tristan und Isolde (1859) and Edda (1864), both given in New York. The date of the former synchronizes remarkably with that of the completion of Richard Wagner's immortal music drama. Cf. A. D. B., XLI, 488.

Page  89 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 89 thirty of her dramas are recorded as having been acted, usually with many repetitions, but the reviewers gave a plus rating to only a scant half dozen: Dorf und Stadt, Der Glackner von Notre Damve, Die Grille, 's Lorle vom Schwarzwald, Der Leiermann und sein Pflegekind and Die Waise von Lowood. This last named dramatization of Charlotte Bronti's Jane Eyre was brought out at a time when the English drama of that name was given on the New York stage, while Birch-Pfeiffer's 's Lorle vom Schwarzwald was translated into English for the wellknown actress Maggie Mitchell, who scored a big hit in it.17 The closest rival of the favorite Berlin actress-playwright was undoubtedly Roderich Benedix, about a dozen of whose works, chiefly comedies, were repeatedly given at the Stadttheater. Those best liked were Mathilde, which enjoyed the second highest number of performances-sixteen-of all plays presented in 1859, and Ein Lustspiel oder die drei Junggesellen. January 18, 1864, which marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of Benedix' first drama, Das bemooste Haupt, was celebrated with a performance of Die Banditen. This was in response to a circular appeal sent from Leipzig by Eduard Devrient and Heinrich Laube "to all the German stages in the world" urging that one of Benedix' early works be revived in honor of the occasion.18 The name of Ernst Raupach, one of the many lifeless imitators of Schiller, who catered to the inferior taste of the sensation-loving public, may also be read rather frequently in the playbills of the theatre. Five of his dramas are on record, including at least two of his best, which are placed first in the list: Der Miller und sein Kind oder der Geisterzug in der Christnacht, Isidor und i7 Cf. Chap. VII, p. 211 f. 18 This appeal had been issued in November, 1863. Cf. S., Jan. 18, 1864, which contains a reprint; also B., Jan. 22, 1864.

Page  90 90 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER Olga, Die Schleichhindler oder die Rdiiberbande vom Katzenstein, Rilbezahi oder die Kegelspieler v'o Seedorf and Die Schule des Lebens. The two individual plays, however, which enjoyed a steadier and far more enduring success at the Stadttheater than all others of their type were Brachvogel's Narciss and Mosenthal's Deborah. As everywhere in Europe, so also in New York, both continued to be money magnets long after the Stadttheater had ceased to exist. The popularity of the former work seems to have been due to the peculiar conception of the hero, a character with much of the distraction, helplessness and at-odds-with-the-world spirit of a Hamlet. Narciss incorporates to a marked degree the philosophy of the period following the Revolution of 1848-an age of extreme mental doubt and of uncertain ideals, and a time of bitter disappointment, when man was more conscious than ever of his limitations and restrictions. In Deborah the audience is held by the problem of social prejudice-the persecution of the Jews in peasant circles-and by the struggle heroically waged by a Jewess of noble soul to the point of highest resignation. During the sixties both plays were translated for the English stage of New York, where, as we shall presently see, they also enjoyed great popularity. The dramas heretofore mentioned in the present chapter fairly exhaust the dignified portion-it is the smaller one -of the repertoire of the New York Stadttheater, and it is worth noting that in practically every instance they are paralleled on the German stages of Europe. In addition to the authors thus far mentioned, very few others will come up in our narrative whose names have obtained a place in standard histories of German literature. And so, as we proceed to the weaker half of the "Spielplan," we shall soon realize that it was filled with the creations

Page  91 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 91 -they are largely comedies, farces and vaudevilles, often musical in character-of writers most of whom have long since been forgotten and can be identified, if at all, only from biographical encyclopedias or other special sources. We shall treat them in the following sections. 5. PLAYS BY INSIGNIFICANT AUTHORS19 Like most theatrical audiences the world over, those of our own "Kleindeutschland" had a marked weakness for the genre known as the light comedy and for the so-called "Posse"; and to satisfy this craving the management constantly turned to the most productive of the minor Continental German stages, namely those at Berlin and Vienna. From the former were imported in large numbers the sketches of Angely (Die sieben Mddchen in Uniform, with various modifications; Das Fest der Handwerker, etc.); those of the father of the "Berliner Lokalposse," David Kalisch 20 (Huncdert tausend Taler; Das Volk, wie es weint und lacht-an especially popular piece manufactured with the help of Berg;21 Der Aktienbudiker, etc.); further19 These plays are largely comedies, farces and vaudeville sketches. Wherever it has been found possible to identify any of the more obscure writers mentioned in the present section the information has been introduced in the form of a footnote. It is to be noted that some of them have been identified earlier in our narrative. 20 David Kalisch was born at Dresden in 1820 and died at Berlin in 1872. He was the founder of the Kladderadatsch (1848). His first farce, Einmal hundert tausend Taler (Berlin, Dec. 23, 1847) proved a huge popular success. Cf. A. D. B., XV, 23. 21 "0. F. Berg" was the pseudonym of Otto Franz Ebersberg, who was born at Vienna in 1833 and died at' Dbling in 1886. He was the author of about one hundred and fifty plays, many of them written for the Vorstadttheater in Vienna. In 1862 he founded the Bunte Blatter-Kikeriki. Cf. Briimmer, II, 92.

Page  92 92 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER more the products of Weihrauch 22 (Die; Maschinenbauer oder Arbeit macht das Leben siiss, Wenn Leute Geld haben, Kiselack und seine Nichte vom Ballet, etc.), as well as those of Ludwig Schneider (Der reisende Student, Der Kieselack und seine Nickte vom Ballet, etc.), as well as sure, although we mention them here, were Holtei's plays Hans Jiirge and Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab, which were "Zugstiicke" of considerable power. We may also group with the Berlin writers the scholar Wollheim,23 whose romantic product Die Rosen des Nordens met with no little response, and Girner24 (Tante Kobold und Onkel Satan, Meines Onkels Schlafrock and Ein geadelter Kaufmann). The leading representative from Vienna among the dramatists seen on the Bowery was of course Nestroy, whose "Volksstiicke" (Lumpaci Vagabundus, Die beiden Nachtwandler, Titus Feuerfucks, Till Eulenspiegel, Dreissig Jahre aus dem Leben eines Lumpen, etc.) never quite lost their charm, however fiercely the newspapers, when in a stern moral mood, raged against them. Nestroy had a close rival in his younger associate Kaiser 25 (with Stadt 22 August Weihrauch (var.: Weirauch, Weyrauch), comedian and playwright, who died in 1883 at Rudolstadt. Like Kalisch, he was considered one of the most popular writers of farces in Berlin and his pieces were veritable money magnets at the Wallnertheater. Cf. A. D. B., XLI, 484. 23 Anton E. Wollheim was born at Hamburg in 1810 and died at Berlin in 1884. He was a linguist of exceptional ability, who took his Ph.D. degree at Berlin (1831) and later (1847) was invited to lecture at the university there. His transcription of Dumas' Kean, given at the K6nigsst~idter Theater (Dec. 6, 18.36) attracted attention. Cf. A. D. B., XLIV, 146. 24 Karl Aug. GSrner (1806-84), actor and playwright of North Germany and particularly of Berlin. His specialty was dramatizing fairy tales (Schneewittchen, Aschenbridel, etc.). Cf. A. D. B., XLIX, 462. 25 Friedrich Kaiser (1814-74), author of over one hundred farces,

Page  93 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 93 und Land, Im Dunkeln oder Fahrten und Abenteuer eines Zuckerbdckers, and especially Geld! Geld! Geld!). Nor must we forget Karl Elmar's26 Unter der Erde, which proved to be a particular favorite, and a few comedies of Feldmann 27 (Der Sohn auf Reisen, etc.). But Hoym and Hamann, having all Germany to choose from, did not confine themselves to Berlin and Vienna. From Dresden they imported the magnetic farces of Rader28 (Der artesiscle Brunnen, Ein Prophet oder Johannes' Leiden und Freuden, Robert und Bertram oder die lustigen Vagabunden and Der Weltumsegler wider Willen), all of which were sure to fill the house. Prinz Lieschen, a three-act farce by Heydrich,29 was produced very soon after it had been published in 1861, and caused a sensation. From Hamburg, too, came several pleasing creations of the same sort by Karl Tipfer (Der Pariser Taugenichts, Die Einfalt vorm Lande and Rosenmiiller und Finke). Another great favorite in this field of lightest theatrical diet was Friedrich, whose Er muss aufs Land, Die Tochter Luzifers oder iý der Holle und auf der Erde, Mariette und Jeannetton, Hans und Hanne, In der Geister" Charakterbilder ) and " Zeitgemlilde,'" who especially favored the "Wiener Lokalposse." Cf. A. D. B., XV, 6. 2 Pseudonym for Karl Swiedack, a Vienna actor, born in that city in 1815, the author of several well-liked plays. Cf. Briimmer, VII, 145. 27 Leopold Feldmann (1802-82) was a writer of comedies of Munich. Cf. A. D. B., XLVIII, 513. 28 Gustav Rdder, actor, singer, comedian and playwright, was born at Breslau (1810). His favorite motive in his farces was the often employed pair of " good-for-nothings " exemplified by Lumpaci Vagabundus. Between 1841 and 1862 no less than twenty-one of his creations appeared on the Dresden stage. Cf. A. D. B., XXVII, 120 f. 29 Gustav M. Heydrich (1820-85), a dramatic author of Dresden of no significance. Cf. A. D. B., L, 310.

Page  94 94 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER stunde, Muttersegen, and Don Cdisar de Bazano-the last named a romantic play-remained drawing cards at all times. Two other obscure writers who must here be referred to are Hermann Hersch 30 and Arthur Miiller.31 The former ingratiated himself above all by his five-act "Trinenstiick" Anne-Liese, while Loreley, a romantic drama of his also found its way across the boards. Muiller contributed the historical comedies, Die Verschworung der Frauen oder ein Page Friedrichs des Grossen, Das Haus Habsburg und die Jesuiten, and was further represented by his Gute Nacht, Hdinschen and a tragedy, Der letzte Kanig der Juden. Finally a few parodies were occasionally sprinkled in among the motley playbills of New York's German theatre. Faust seems to have been singled out most often as a target for laughter, and the historian of the "Fauststoff" has no difficulty in finding at least half a dozen satirical treatments and burlesques of that undying theme: Doktor Fausts Zauberkdippchen oder die Rduberherberge im Walde (Posse mit Gesang von Fr. Hopp 32); Fausts Leben, Taten, und HUllenfahrt oder die vier Todsiiunden (dramatisches Gemdlde von Dr. A. Klingemann); Faustin der erste Kaiser von Hayti (Posse von Feldmann und Bertram); Ein moderner Faust (Zauberposse von Trautmann33); so Hermann Hersch (1821-70), whose reputation was established by his dramas Sophonisbe (1857) and Anne-Liese (1858). Cf. Laube, 276. 31 Arthur Miiller, a mediocre writer of tragedies and comedies, was born at Breslau in 1830 and died in Munich in 1873. Cf. A. D. B., XXII, 515. 32 This may possibly have been Franz Hoppe, an actor who was born at Petrograd in 1810 and died in Berlin in 1849. Cf. A. D. B., XIII, 114. 33 Franz Trautmann (1813-87), a Munich author and man of outstanding culture. Cf. A. D. B., XXXVIII, 516 f.

Page  95 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 95 Anton in Amerika oder Fausts Soll und Haben (Nelw Yorker Lokalposse von Se.eberg); and Faust und Gretchen (dranmatischer Scherz von Jacobson 34). Weber was parodied, to the delight of Bowery audiences, in Stabert als Freischiltz older der Parapluiemacher in der Wolfsschlucht, and the author of a certain not unpopular tragi-comic melodrama of the day, Lord und RiRuber oder des Meeres und des Lebens Wogen, may have had Grillparzer in mind, at least in formulating his title. 6. PLAYS BY GERMAN-AMERICAN AUTHORS-DRAMAS WITH LOCAL SETTINGS The repertoire of the New York Stadttheater, as thus far described, shows few striking deviations from that of the average German stage of the time-average, it must be emphasized, for the best of these stages, above all the Burgtheater at Vienna, stood on a distinctly higher level, aesthetically speaking. However, in justice to Hamann and Hoym, it must be remarked that the play-lists of even the Hoftheater of Dresden include practically all the minor "Possenfabrikanten" noted above, to be sure with perhaps a larger proportion of plays of merit to offset some of these inferior products. We must now turn our attention briefly to the plays of German-American authors and of local setting, which were few in number and constituted the weakest part of the repertoire. Occasionally this or that Roscius would venture to write a play for the Stadttheater and would sometimes assume a part in it. Otto Hoym quite appropriately took the lead, translating from the English and revising for his 34 Eduard Jacobson (1833-97), a most productive author of comedies and farces, who settled at Berlin, where his first effort, the abovementioned play, achieved much success (Apr. 21, 1856). Cf. A. D. B., L, 606.

Page  96 96 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER stage Der fliegende Hollnder oder das gespenstische Schiff, a four-act melodrama with songs by I. Ellison. From novels of Lippard and Ruppius, Hoym created respectively his Empire City and Der Pedlar. The actor Meaubert was responsible for at least two works given: Das englischfranz6sische Bilndnis oder der Student von Bonn, and Friedrich Schiller und Gustel von Blasewitz. A third actor, Heinrich Schmidt, wrote and appeared in a five-act "dramatic hodgepodge" entitled Der Flilchtling aus Lucca oder der Talisman der blinden Mutter, while a fourth, Freitag, was the author of Drei Tage der Weltgeschichte oder die Reise in die Tiirkei, a farce based on the French of Gautier. The actress Frau Spengler treated the subject of Katherine Parr in a historical drama based on a novel of Luise Miihlbach, and her work turned out to be one of the best bearing the stamp "Made in America." Another local player, Lehmann, tested his skill as a dramatist in the three-act comedy Die Ekestands-Invaliden, an adaptation from the French of Dumanoir and Lafargue, and Otto Reiffarth, also of the Hoym company, was the writer of a very popular comedy, Wie man seine Tachter verheiratet. In addition Fortner, one of Little Germany's best liked comic actors, was sometimes seen in insignificant sketches of his own. Most of these efforts were, after all, mere ephemera, and it remained for other German-Americans, who did not themselves tread the boards, to supplement the repertoire with numbers not much better in quality, yet often more popular with theatrical audiences. The most active and successful of these local authors was unquestionably Max Cohnheim (whom we have already introduced into our narrative) with his New York und Berlin, Herz und Dollar, Fiirsten zum Land hinaus, Der Sohn des Jongleurs and Der Mord an West Broadway, the titles of which speak

Page  97 THEl ALTES STADTTHEATER 97 for themselves. In the first of these farces and melodramas we find ourselves alternately in New York and Berlin, with an intermediate act on board a vessel on the Atlantic, while Herz und Dollar takes the audience to Jones' Wood, Greenwood Cemetery, and other places familiar to the New Yorker of the age. Cohnheim's closest competitor was Emil Pohl, whose Jongleur was the precursor of Cohnheim's play. Pohl's remaining farces, Bruder Liederlichl and Die Sterne wollen es, were more coldly received. Several other local dramaturgic efforts found their way upon the boards of the Stadttheater, of which the farce Anton in Amerika has already been cited in connection with the Faust parodies. Hermann Muhr, a GermanAmerican poet, reworked a popular "Zuavenroman" into a three-act comedy, Zuavenstreiche in Amerika. The play sought to give a picture of life in the New World, the first two parts playing in the residence of a wholesale merchant in the South, the last in New York and Hoboken. Similar sketches were Berger's 35 Das Rendezvous in der Grand Street, Biirgeler's Der Pilot von Lonff Isliad oder ein New-Yorker Alderman, and Reichenbach's Wildrbschen oder Leben und Treiben in South Carolina, all of which, in reality, are pictures of American life as seen through German eyes. Probably the most dignified of all these New World creations under discussion-although it proved to be a flat failure at the box office-was a tragedy entitled Abelard und He'oise by Gustav and Amalie Struve.36 35 Briimmer's Lexikon deutscher Dichter mentions a Heinrich Berger, born at Breslau in 1816, who emigrated to the United States in 1848 and settled in New York City. 36 Gustav Struve (born at Munich in 1805, died at Vienna in 1870) had a most active and varied career and deserves far greater attention than he has in the past received, or than it is possible to give him here. By his extremely radical publications and by his fearless political agitations he constantly antagonized the reactionary au

Page  98 98 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER On very rare occasions Hamann and Hoym's audiences were treated to a play of genuine American content, which may perhaps be construed as evidence of Little Germany's interest in the culture of its adopted Fatherland. Thus Washington's birthday anniversary in 1864 was observed by the presentation of a five-act play by E. Doench, Der Spion oder George Washington, based of course on Fenimore Cooper's Spy. Other works of the same genre, whose titles alone make further comment superfluous, were Rip van Winkle oder die Ddmnonen der Catskill Berge, a melodrama in four acts from the English of John Kerr, arranged for the German stage by none other than Thomas West,37 and also Die Macht des Goldes oder Deutschland und Californien, described as a grandiose "Charakterbild" in three acts by A. Modinger, with music by Steigmann. A review of these Americana that now and then found a place on the playbills of the Stadttheater makes it obvious that they were a negligible factor. They occupied probably not over one-twentieth of the entire repertoire and were both artistically and financially, on the whole, a dismal failure. The German element in New York, in spite of its numerical strength and in spite of the cultural legacy thorities of the pre-forty-eight period, particularly in Baden. Not content with the pen as a weapon, he at various times during the Revolution raised armed forces to help Hecker and his cause. He was in turn exiled, arrested, and freed by force, and finally he fled to New York, where he arrived May 11, 1851. Not even the liberal atmosphere of the New World could quite satisfy his restless spirit and he so antagonized this city by his ultra-radical speeches and publications, that at least on one occasion he barely escaped violence. He fought in the Civil War, but returned to Europe June 2, 1863. It is said that Struve and his wife wrote Abelard and Heloise at the invitation of Hamann and Hoym. The drama, given Jan. 29, 1855, failed completely. Cf. A. D. B., XXXVI, 681 ff. 37 Schreyvogel adopted the name of Thomas West, as well as that of C. A. AWest.

Page  99 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 99 which it brought along from the Old World, had not succeeded-as, indeed, it has not to this very day-in giving worthy dramatic expression to its thoughts and ideals in a form of sufficient merit to command serious attention. 7. MINOR " TENDENZSTiCKE "-CONCLUDING REMARKS At this point we have practically completed our sketch in the rough of the theatrical program that was enacted in the German playhouse on the Bowery between the years 1854 and 1864. Before leaving the repertoire, however, it might not be amiss to point out a few special dramas, too insignificant to be remembered at the present day, the contents of which reflect Little Germany's interest in European politics. That political events beyond the Atlantic often aroused considerable feeling in the vicinity of the lower East Side is clearly shown in the columns of the Staatszeitung. The average German-American of the period was concerned, as has been explained in an earlier chapter, about two great questions that filled the minds of his compatriots who had remained behind: first, the growth, development and eventual unification of the German states, and, secondly, the triumph of those democratic principles so intimately associated with the year 1848 and-more broadly speaking-with the entire mid-century era. O.ur German citizen's enthusiasm for the former ideal aroused very often his chauvinistic vein and impelled him to look askance at the foreign enemies of the "Vaterland," particularly at France. Thus he was prepared to enjoy such plays as Anne-Liese, whose success was due to the revival of nationalism of the fifties and sixties, and to the antiFrench sentiment it engendered.38 The same spirit actu38 Of. B., Apr. 8, 1859.

Page  100 100 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER ated the staging of Philip Palm oder ein deutscher Biirger, by A. Ringler, the story of a patriotic Nuremberg book publisher, who was shot, at Napoleon's behest, for refusing to divulge the name of an anti-French polemicist.39 Quite opportunely and with a view to appealing to similar emotions, the Theater offered to its patrons in 1864 the fiveact "Zeitgemiilde" Deutsch und Ddnisch oder Schleswig Holsteins erste Midrtyrer. But the liberty-loving German of New York was often keyed to a still higher pitch by his worship of Freedom and Democracy, and the Stadttheater not infrequently served him with food calculated especially to satisfy his appetite in this direction. Audiences were attracted by announcements that this or that play had been forbidden on one or another German stage by reactionary authorities. Thus Oskar von Redwitz' Der Zunftmeister von Niurnberg was discussed as follows: What assured the Zunftmeister of an especially favorable reception on the other side [i.e., in Europe] and what procured for it even the honor of a ban at Vienna, is probably the circumstance that political allusions were discerned in the play. The patricians and the guild-members of the free city of Nuremberg represent the democrats and the aristocrats, the high council is the German princes, and the monsters that threaten the city and the republic are France with all its greed for the left bank of the Rhine, perhaps for more.40 Another play which had been forbidden abroad and which Hamann and Hoym hoped would thrive in the more liberal atmosphere of New York was Julian Werner's Ein verhdingnisvoller Abend oder die Vertreibung der Jesuiten aus Portugal: 39 Cf. B., Jan. 4, 1861. 40 Cf. B., Feb. 22, 1861. Oskar von Redwitz, a "degenerate descendant of the Romanticists," whose Philippine Welser (1859) was also seen on the German stage of New York. Cf. Witkowski, 60.

Page  101 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 101 A piece which was forbidden in Berlin and in Breslau in 1847 and which has not been produced on any other stage since, may perhaps to a certain extent arouse the curiosity of the public here.41 Wilhelm Wolfsohn's Nur eine Seele, was another drama of this general type that found its way into the repertoire: The play attracted much attention in Germany, which it owes in part to its real dramatic worth, in part to its opportune appearance. It pictures the struggle of Russian emancipation against the old conservative Moscow party.42 As may well be expected, the theatrical almanac of New York's German playhouse, covering ten long years and often involving nightly changes of playbills, is sufficiently bulky to invite further analysis from other viewpoints which would here lead us too far afield. Thus the investigator of the prose tale pauses at the titles Hans Kohlhaas, Soll und Hcaben and Der Erbvertrag oder das Majorat,43 although none of these three dramas was at all successful on the Bowery. The historian of music finds the titles of many operas and operettas, which intruded at times upon the boards of the Stadttheater, generally under the auspices 41 Cf. B., Feb. 2, 1855. 42 OCf. B., Jan. 27, 1860. Wolfsohn was born of poor Jewish parents in Odessa in 1820, and spent the latter part of his life at Leipzig and Dresden. He became a successful dramatist at the last-named city, where he died in 1865. Cf. Briimmer, VIII, 28. 43 The first-named play, Hans Kohlhaas, der Bossklamm von Meisel oder der Bdcher (1828) was a historical drama by Gotthilf A. von Maltitz (1794-1837), who incurred the enmity of Berlin authorities by his glorification of Polish liberty. The relation of Maltitz' play to Kleist 's Michael Kohlhaas has not been established. (Cf. A. D. B., XX, 151; also S., Mar. 5, 1856.) Soil und Haben, a dramatization of the Freytag novel, was adjudged a failure and the reviewer asserted with confidence that the novel could not be staged. (Cf. B., Apr. 12, 1861.) Der Erbvertrag oder das Majorat was a five-act play by William Vogel, based on E. T. A. Hoffmann's Das Majorat. (Cf. S., Mar. 22, 1856.)

Page  102 102 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER of other companies.44 However, there is hardly any justification for a further consideration of the repertoire of the Stadttheater here. A broad survey of the entire field of drama which Hamann and Hoym had traversed up to 1864 brings out, more than all else, its motley character, ranging, as we have seen, from the loftiest and most abiding creations of Schiller and Shakespeare to the most stupid and ephemeral local farces of the day. A final appraisal of this wide program of plays offers opportunity for divergence of opinion. In toto and apart from all other stages, the repertoire of the Stadttheater can not be said to have been a strong one, for it was overloaded with light comedies, farces and musical plays of no merit. In comparison, however, with the accomplishments of its predecessors, as chronicled in the earlier chapters of the present work, the first real home of the German dramatic muse was a great improvement. The "Spielplan" had expanded in all directions; above all, Shakespeare, in considerable quantity, and the products of important German dramatists had been added. Compared with the Continental German stage, our Stadttheater could claim a position of average rank, for, as has been noted, the dramatic dregs that polluted the springs of Thalia and Melpomene in the New World were, in no small measure, acceptable to the ordinary European audience. If we may judge the Altes Stadttheater by its 44 The leading achievements of the Stadttheater in the operatic field were undoubtedly the first performances in America of Wagner's Tannhiuser (cf. S., Apr. 10, 1859) and the first complete rendition in America of Weber's Freischiitz (cf. B., Nov. 2, 1855). Among the operatic works frequently given were: Weber's Freischtz and Preciosa; Flotow's Martha; Lortzing's Zar und Zimmermann and Wildsch4itz; Gluck's Orpheus in der Unterwelt; Rossini's Barbier von Sevilla; Auber's Fra Diavolo and Die Stumme von Portici; Boieldieu's Die weisse Dame, etc.

Page  103 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 103 best achievements, we must certainly rate it as a serious undertaking, worthy of an important place in the history of German theatrical enterprises in America. C. THE ACTORS In turning from the repertoire of the Altes Stadttheater to a consideration of its personnel, our problem grows decidedly more complicated and its solution becomes correspondingly less satisfactory. The investigator is continually overwhelmed with long lists of actors in the theatre programs as printed in the Staatszeitung, for that newspaper regularly published the entire casts (even with divisions according to acts) of the play or plays of the evening. Such an advertisement, which may occupy as much as ten or twelve inches of a column of the finest type, amounts practically to a complete copy of the "Theaterzettel." In view of the facts heretofore noted -that playbills were often changed nightly and that we are dealing with a period of ten years-the difficulty of compiling a directory of the hundreds of actors involved and of analyzing their activities becomes only too apparent. In the present study, therefore, we can but select the most important players,45 judging them by the various r8les they impersonated, the frequency of their appearance and the attention they received in the critical reviews of performances found chiefly in the Belletristisches Journal. Even of the few names chosen we shall find very little is known outside of what their owners accomplished in New York. In many cases the men and women who were seen at the Stadttheater were of obscure origin. Some are specifically stated to have come from this or that stage 45 Cf. App. IV, a, for a list of these leading actors together with the seasons during which their names are noted.

Page  104 104 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER in Germany, while a few came from German stages in other cities of the United States.46 Indeed, there was a constant circulation of actors throughout the Germanlanguage stages of our country during all these years. Not only did actors of ability and experience visit New York from Philadelphia, Baltimore and the West; in far greater numbers players, whether successful or not, traveled or drifted to some other city, where there was a "Deutsche Biihne, " after having completed or abandoned engagements in our metropolis. A tour of the West was by no means a rare event. As a result of these conditions it often becomes extremely difficult continuously to keep track of all these Thespians. Occasionally a talented product of American training, who had gained his histrionic experience at a local stage of minor importance, succeeded in obtaining an engagement with Hamann and Hoym. Without any doubt the most illustrious example of this limited class was Daniel Bandmann, who had emerged from the "Zoglingsverein" of the New York Turn Verein.47 After acquiring considerable skill as a member of the dramatic section of that organization, Bandmann, who also appeared on the English-speaking stage, subsequently developed into 46 Even at this early period there were "Deutsche Theater'"-not always as permanent as the New York Stadttheater-in Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Milwaukee, New Orleans, San Francisco and other cities. The history of the St. Louis stage has been examined by Alfred H. Nolle, The German Drama on the St. Louis Stage, " Americana Germanica," No. 32, 1917. Huch has treated the Philadelphia stage in a very brief, journalistic article bound in the same volume with his review of the New York stage. Collective reviews of the German stage in America are found in the works cited on pages xx and xxi. 47 Cf. New York Turn Verein, zur Jubelfeier seines 75 jdhrigen Stiftungsfestes, 1850-1925, New York, 1925, especially the chapter, "Die dramatische Sektion. "

Page  105 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 105 one of the most accomplished actors seen in New York. But for the most part the leading impersonators who came before the footlights of the Stadttheater, whether they had previously acted elsewhere in America or not, were professionally trained men and women who had faced audiences on one of the many stages of the Old World. In most cases they were immigrants; in other instances they came as visitors, and if their initial efforts were successful and the atmosphere proved agreeable, they remained in New York, or soon returned here to become regular members of the staff. Thus the line of demarcation between "Giste" and "Ensemble" can not always be sharply drawn. The two outstanding figures of the Altes Stadttheater were Otto Hoym and his wife, Elise Hoym-Hehl. The former, as noted, had been a member of the Court Theatres at Darmstadt and Dresden. Riding across the sea on the great tidal wave which bore the first "forty-eighters" to America, Hoym, as we have seen, early identified himself with the theatrical ventures that antedated the Stadttheater. In 1853 Elise Dieffenbacher (nee Hehl), a woman of some means and an actress of considerable repute, came to the United States. Hoym married her, and when he organized the Stadttheater, Frau Hoym of course joined the company and played with it regularly and continuously. After the institution closed its doors in 1864, the Hoyms took their troupe to the Neues Stadttheater, but, as we shall see, the husband presently turned over his half of the directorship to his wife, who subsequently relinquished it. Otto Hoym, however, continued to act at the new playhouse, at times absenting himself to visit other German stages in the United States and Germany. Later his health failed, and, a victim of rheumatism, he sought relief for a time (1870-71) in the old Fatherland. He then returned

Page  106 106 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER to the States for a few more performances, condemned, as it were, by fate to witness the death of the theatre he had founded. When he finally went back to Germany, he is said to have taken with him, as the material fruits of his life's work, the sum of forty thousand dollars. He is reported to have died in Nuremberg in 1873.48 Hoym's career at the Altes Stadttheater was temporarily interrupted in 1861 by his enlistment, as a volunteer, in the Union army; and the local Germans, proud of their " Oberleutnant," tendered him a benefit performance prior to his joining the colors.49 Several months later we hear of him as "doing his bit" at Fort Monroe.50 But upon his return to civilian life and to the stage the actor-soldier, so completely idolized by "Kleindeutschland," gave his admirers a rude shock when he stepped before the curtain one evening and indulged in some very unpatriotic remarks. For this bit of tactlessness he received a rather sharp journalistic rebuke51 and the whole incident was surely a very unhappy sequel to, his six months or more of military service! That Hoym gave serious attention to his special duties as co-director is shown by the fact that he undertook a business trip to Germany one summer in order to engage new dramatic talent for his theatre.52 In general, the manager's acting won uniform recognition, and he may rightfully be considered the pivot on which the entire institution turned. Naturally he assumed a large number of important r6les, such as Franz or Karl, Ferdinand, Mortimer, 48 Cf. Abrecht for the last two statements of this paragraph. The remaining data have been gleaned from contemporary newspaper items. Brown, II, 356 f., distorts the facts of Otto Hoym's life. 49 Cf. B., May 10, 1861. 50o f. B., Sept. 13, 1861. 51 Cf. B., Feb. 27, 1863. 52 Cf. B., July 3, 1863.

Page  107 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 107 etc., in the Schiller dramas.53 Now and then, to be sure, adverse comment is heard,54 as when he is accused of faulty memorizing-a deficiency, we might add, with which actors were frequently charged but which can be easily understood in the light of the huge repertoires inflicted upon the leading members of the company. To shed more light at this point on the activities of Otto Hoym, howsoever rich and interesting they were, would but little promote the object of the present investigation. His name will come up again and again as our narrative proceeds. The results he achieved, as well as those he failed of accomplishing, are in reality written on every page of the chapter under discussion and on many pages of the next, for his was to a great extent the guiding spirit of both the Altes and the Neues Stadttheater. Linked with Hoym in the management of the German theatre on the Bowery was Eduard Hamann, a china dealer, who, together with Frau Hoym, provided the financial means required to support the enterprise.55 Hamann, of course, was no actor, but on the rarest of rare occasions his high administrative position, coupled perhaps with a slight touch of vanity, prompted him to appear before the footlights for an evening. At such times-they came but once every year or two-he was tendered a benefit performance, and the good-natured audience graciously tolerated the theatre owner in a minor role, such as that of a mason in Das Fest der Handwerker.56 53 Besides these roles Hoym acted Hamlet, Laertes, Macbeth, Romeo, Marinelli, Lionel, Don Carlos, Tell, Gessler, Jason and scores of others, many of them too insignificant to deserve mention. Frau Hoym's chief parts included Emilia, Luise, Maria, Johanna, Gertrud, Adelheid and Jane Eyre. 54 Cf., for example, B., Sept. 5, 1857. 55 Cf. Abrecht. 56 Cf. S., Jan. 23, 1859.

Page  108 108 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER The Hoyms' most prominent and reliable associates on the stage in the early years were the actors Jakoby, Schwan, Stein, Worret, Czmock and Wolff, and the actresses Karoline Lindemann, Kress-Jakoby, Worret, Wolff and Schmidt. Jakoby, about whom little is known, must have been very old indeed, for in 1860 he is reported as retiring after a career of no less than fifty years, most of which must, of course, have been spent on European stages. His nearest neighbor in point of age was Friedrich Schwan, to whom we have already been introduced. The latter appeared on almost every "Liebhaberbiihne" of importance in town. In the late fifties he went to St. Louis but returned for a brief visit to the Stadttheater in 1861. Schwan was an unusually steady, versatile and dependable artist of more than average ability. He inclined to such parts as the Count (in Die Riiuber,) Philip II (in Don Carlos), Lord Burleigh (in Maria Stuart) and Attinghausen (in Wilhelm Tell), when the classical muse held sway, but most of the time he naturally had to content himself with parts that were far less attractive. Carl Stein, who deserves mention here largely for the initial impetus he gave to our playhouse on the Bowery, left soon after its establishment for St. Louis.57 A very important member of the staff who followed him thither in 1857 was Carl Worret, already familiar to us and much applauded as Stadtmusikant Miller, Leicester, GStz, Tell, Karl Moor, etc. Still another favorite was the well-known Czmock, particularly as Shrewsbury, Walter Fiirst and Philip der Gute. Among the ladies, Frau Hoym's strongest rival at the beginning was Karoline Lindemann, whose Agnes Sorel, Lady Milford, Elisabeth (in Maria Stuart) and Franz (in G6tz von Berlichingen) invited serious attention. 57 Nolle (cf. Note 46) records the presence of Stein, Worret and several other actors here mentioned on the St. Louis stage.

Page  109 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 109 Each season found new names of players appearing on the playbills to replace, in part, the old ones that disappeared, but to record here too many of these names would only impede the progress of our story. The most important acquisitions during the second year of the theatre were undoubtedly Herr und Frau Eduard Meaubert, who had come from the Konigsstidter Theater in Berlin. They were credited with a considerable degree of artistic ability and long outlasted most of their colleagues. In 1861 they departed for California, and soon thereafter we hear of them as directors of the German stage in San Francisco. Later, as we shall see, the Meauberts returned to fulfill engagements at the Neues Stadttheater. Mention has already been made of Herr Meaubert's efforts to enrich the German stage by two contributions, neither of which, however, proved startling. The busiest player of the third season (1856-57) was unquestionably Kronfeld, who had enjoyed an excellent reputation for fifteen years as a comedian at the Hoftheater in Darmstadt. He came just at the right time to star in such plays as 's Lorle vom Schwawadrwa, Der Verschwender, Das Fest der Handwerker, etc., for it will be remembered that the Stadttheater was struggling along during that winter on a plane far below the average. Kronfeld's countryman, Fiirst, who followed him from the same European stage, was adjudged by the critics as capable of deeper roles, but his talent was wasted on Der Lumpensammler von Paris, Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab and the like, and only two years later was he permitted to come out as Philip II. It was, indeed, a decided relief when Bruno Berndt was persuaded to come over as a guest from the city of brotherly love to do Hamlet, Kean and Richard III, and when, at the very end of the theatrical year, Frau Spengler (later Spengler-Spranger) and Fraulein

Page  110 110 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER Fuchs (Steglitz-Fuchs, to be) arrived from unrecorded stages in Germany to undertake more substantial r6les in G6tz von Berlichingen, Don Carlos and Narciss. Frau Steglitz-Fuchs remained with the ensemble for many years and became one of the real idols of Little Germany. Her strongest impersonations were in Die Grille, Narciss and Don Carlos; and also as Ophelia, Luise Millerin and Elisabeth (in Maria Stuart). But the actress who carried the burden of the classical parts during most of the years of the first Stadttheater was Friiulein Grahn (after her marriage, Becker-Grahn). She came originally in the autumn of 1857-from what place, we are not informed-and soon won universal recognition by her acting of Margaret (in Faust), Wolfgang Goethe (in Gutzkow's Kanigsleutnant), Portia, Maria Stuart, Juliet, Ophelia, Johanna, Luise Millerin, Minna von Barnhelm and Orsina, to which Lady Macbeth and Medea were added in the last year. In 1859 and 1860 she interrupted her residence here and we read of her as starring in St. Louis.58 The season of 1857-58 also marked the reappearance of Alexander Pfeiffer (as Faust and Marquis Posa) and the advent of Daniel Bandmann, who had by this time finished his apprenticeship at the New York Turn Verein, and now thrilled audiences with his Franz Moor, Richard III and Mephistopheles. Darmstadt continued to send over worthy representatives, for in the following year came Knorr, whose Marquis Posa, Kean, Faust, Antonio, Hamlet, Essex, Tell, Odoardo and Gotz generally served as a powerful magnet in attracting audiences for two full years. The season of 1859-60 brought Niemeyer from Diisseldorf and Fallenbach from Hamburg. The latter was a man of such exceptional ability and enterprise that within a short time 58 Cf. Nolle, 31; also 37, 39.

Page  111 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 111 after his arrival he was able to organize an independent company of German actors, which performed for a couple of months on Broadway until it failed.59 The last season prior to the commencement of the Civil War introduced to the metropolis Frau Methua-Scheller, who joined Madames Hoym, Steglitz-Fuchs and Becker-Grahn, thereby completing the Stadttheater's quartet of leading ladies. Methua-Scheller's earliest significant characters were Emilia Galotti and Desdemona. Subsequently she passed over to the English-speaking stage, where she attained marked success, as we shall later learn. Other talented players who were engaged on the eve of the war were Frau Pelosi of Milwaukee (who was seen as Lady Milford, Deborah, Madame Pompadour in Narciss, etc.), Krilling of Hamburg, Herr und Frau Schmitz of Kassel and Fraulein Sommer of Hanover. In this way, then, Hamann and Hoym were constantly concerned about adding to their theatrical roster until the outbreak of the gigantic struggle between the North and the South temporarily prevented the importation of histrionic talent from abroad and greatly retarded the rather free circulation of GermanAmerican actors that had gradually developed within our land. The actors who have been mentioned in the preceding paragraphs represent, of course, only the best of those invited to the Stadttheater. Of the remaining players, who formed a considerable numerical portion of the company but who were qualitatively rather insignificant, little is heard, and we may here pass them by. Instances of actors not coming up to standard were not infrequent, but 59 The Belletristisches Journal calls attention to this undertaking on Nov. 2, 1860, and in subsequent numbers; but in spite of the moral support he received from Lexow's influential journal, Fallenbach had to give up in the middle of winter.

Page  112 112 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER in such cases a few adverse comments in the press generally sufficed-if the management had not already taken the initiative-to cause the name of the unsatisfactory Thespian to disappear quietly from the roster. Only rarely was one of the members unsuccessful to such a degree that he was not able, at the very worst, to make a graceful exit from the company. An exceptional case of this kind was the "Schauspieler" Sonnthal, who had been imported from Germany in the fall of the year 1859 and proved himself to be so deficient in two appearances (one of them as Shylock) that he was actually hissed off the boards. The management promptly discharged him, whereupon Sonnthal instituted litigation against the Theater to recover a month's salary of sixty dollars, but lost his suit and was condemned to pay the costs of ten dollars! 60 The figure just quoted as Sonnthal's monthly compensation, together with other data in connection with actors' salaries at the Stadttheater, indicates that Hamann and Hoym in general did not overpay the members of their company. Thus in 1857 Fraulein Grahn (at this time, to be sure, a newcomer) was engaged on a two-year contract at a monthly salary of only eighty dollars, and other stars had to be satisfied with amounts ranging from sixty to eighty dollars! 61 That a harmonious spirit did not always prevail in the large group of actors and actresses may be gleaned from the reports of intrigue and jealousy on the Bowery, which now and then found their way into print.62 On at least one occasion even Daniel Bandmann was prevented by certain clandestine machinations within the inner circle of the so Cf. S., Nov. 7, 1859. 61 Cf. B., July 24, 1857. 62 Cf., for example, B., Aug. 28, 1857; Dec. 5, 1862, et alia.

Page  113 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 113 theatre from appearing on the stage! 63 On the other hand, it must have been highly gratifying to the New York Turner to be able to read nine months later that their illustrious member had been personally received and complimented on his histrionic qualifications by none other than the First Lady of the Land, Mrs. Abraham Lincoln! 64 D. THE OPERATION OF THE THEATRE AND THE RECEPTION OF PLAYS Inasmuch as it is now some sixty-five years since the Altes Stadttheater ceased to function, few eye-witnesses of performances are to be found among the living of today. Fewer still must be the number of those survivors (none has been discovered by the author), who were old enough and sufficiently observant, at the time, to enlighten us in detail on the stage mechanics and the general modus operandi of the Hamann and Hoym house. The journalistic critics and the other reviewers of the German theatre in New York are usually silent on the subject; where they do touch upon it-briefly, as a rule-their comments are for the most part favorable. We may therefore assume that the stage and the hall of the Altes Stadttheater could bear comparison with those of the leading theatres in town. On the other hand it must be borne in mind that scenery, costuming, decorative effects and stage technique have never been a particularly strong point in German-American theatricals, and even New York's greatest German playhouse, the Irving Place Theatre, when it had reached its zenith under the direction of Heinrich Conried, could not vie in this respect with the elaborate, gorgeous settings of Broad63 Cf. B., Dec. 5, 1862. 64 Cf. B., Sept. 18, 1863.

Page  114 114 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER way stages. The attention of the German seems always to have been focused rather more closely on the inner dramatic qualities and the acting of plays than on the more external features of their production. No doubt there was the same relative neglect of stage operation in the midcentury period, although the contrast with the English stage of New York was probably less noticeable in that day than later, owing to the limitations to which even the most perfect dramatic houses were subject, for electricity-we have noted-both as a luminiferous agent and as a motive power with which to manipulate curtains and scenery was still unknown. It seems that in the fairy comedies, which formed such a considerable part of the repertoire at the Stadttheater, the scenery, decorations and costumes proved quite satisfactory.65 The plays that were especially commended for their staging were: Riider's Der artesische Brunnen and Ein Prophet odier Johannes' Leiden und Freuden, Berg and Kalisch's Das Volk, wie es weint und lacht, Ellison-Hoym's Der fliegende Hollander and many others. In the Berg and Kalisch farce, as has been pointed out, two thousand gaslights furnished the illumination. At other times the management is sharply rebuked by the press for hazarding such pretentious ventures as Goethe's Faust 66 and the opera Freischitz 67 and thereby overriding its limitations in technical and mechanical equipment. While the acting itself was on the average of fairly good quality, there were times when it was not at all acceptable. However, in evaluating the histrionic merits and demerits of the ensemble we must ever remember that, because of the swiftly and constantly changing repertoire, players were often overburdened. Undue taxing of the memory fre6s Cf. B., Jan. 6, 1860; S., Feb. 16, 1856, et alia. 66 Cf. B., Nov. 4, 1859. 67 Cf. B., Nov. 2, 1855.

Page  115 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 115 quently led the actor to concentrate on the principal passages of his role at the expense of the remaining portions, which, in some cases, were so poorly learned that even the most heroic efforts of the ever present prompter failed to save the situation, and painful pauses ensued. Thus a performance of Halm's Der Sohn der Wildnis was pictured as so utterly inferior that at least once in each scene one or another of the actors completely lost his lines! 68 In fact during the entire autumn of 1857, performances at 37-39 Bowery were characterized as uniformly mediocre and taking place before empty houses.69 It was openly stated that the institution was rapidly degenerating into a "Kasperletheater." 70 Undoubtedly the meagre attendances -a direct result of the economic hardships and the panic of 1857-contributed their share in causing the players to lose interest in their work and to grow disheartened. Sometimes the excessive haste with which plays were rehearsed was deplored,71 as when a performance of Gotz von Berlichingen was rated as extremely bad owing to the participants' failure to learn their r6les.72 After the trying winter of 1857 the theatre recovered, as has been observed, only to drop to another low ebb during the early years of the Civil War, especially in 1862. At that time a critic remarked that "from murder and execution to the doors of the Stadttheater is only a single step." 73 On certain occasions the house was practically deserted, and the total receipts for one of the evenings of this period are given, if we may believe it, as not more than eighteen dollars 74 68 Cf. B., Sept. 11, 1857. 69 Cf. B., Sept. 25, 1857. 70 Cf. B., Aug. 28, 1857. 71 Cf. B., Feb. 23, 1855. 72 Cf. B., Jan.13, 1860. 7 Cf. B., Feb. 21, 1862. 74 Cf. B., Feb. 7, 1862.

Page  116 116 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER of course a ridiculously low figure for a hall accommodating over two thousand souls! It is doubtful whether Hoym and Hamann undertook extensive alterations or structural improvements in the old Bowery Amphitheatre during the ten years of their occupancy. Every second or third autumn, indeed, one reads of a new curtain, repainting, a general overhauling or minor changes, but all this probably did not amount to much. The seats in the orchestra were no doubt removable, for in the beginning the hall was occasionally given up to a "fancy dress ball," and one imagines that on such evenings the chairs and benches must have been taken out. A disturbing factor, frequently decried, was the serving of drinks and refreshments to the audience; and exception was taken to the slovenly and "undressed" appearance of the waiters and to the noise and the confusion that resulted from this service.75 Other disconcerting elements were the tardy beginnings and the prolongation of performances until the hour of midnight,76 also the presence of little children, so that the management deems it advisable at times to add a few lines to its regular advertisements in the Staatszeitung requesting that the younger element be left at home!77 In theatrical history the success or failure of performances is often unexplainable, since the causes must be sought in the veiled mysteries of crowd psychology. It is therefore impossible to explain just why plays were either warmly welcomed or rejected with indifference by the patrons of "Kleindeutschlands Musenheim." Almost at the same time that Don Carlos plays to well filled houses, eliciting the remark that the public is now interested in the classical drama,78 Romeo und Juliet has to content itself 75 Cf. B., Dec. 12, 1856; Aug. 28, 1857; Sept. 7, 1860. 76 Cf. B., Sept. 29, 1854. 77 Cf. S., Jan. 17, 1856. 78 Cf. S., Sept. 8, 1858.

Page  117 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 117 with a very small audience,79 and the press would have it that the type of playgoer to whom a Shakespearean tragedy appeals is wanting in New York-at best a most unsatisfactory explanation! The problem of analyzing and determining the taste of our German theatregoing public is a difficult one, owing to the element of chance that enters so perceptibly into the question. A drama given only three or four times, at widely scattered intervals, during the entire season, as so often happened, might unfortunately strike "off" nights-evenings when other cynosures in the guise of singing and Turner festivals, balls or other social functions, of which there were so many, attracted the German population to different haunts. Regarding Little Germany's preference in the field of drama we may, in conclusion, merely reiterate what has already been notednamely, that the fairy dramas, "Spektakelstiicke" and "Riihrstiicke" such as Der Jongleur, Herz und Dollar and the numerous Birch-Pfeiffer fabrications normally proved to be stronger attractions than the plays of more enduring qualities, unless perchance some popular actor served as a special magnet. E. THE THEATRE AND THE PRESS Before taking leave of the Altes Stadttheater a brief account of the relations that existed between the newspapers of the town and the Theater may not prove amiss-a topic that received only passing mention in our discussion of the repertoire. To begin with, the attitude of the Englishlanguage press was, on the whole, one of sheer indifference. When, by way of exception, our English newspapers did break their silence on the subject of the local German stage, they usually adopted either a tone of adverse criticism amounting at times to open derision, or indeed one of 79 Cf. S., Oct. 12, 1858.

Page  118 118 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER paternal condescension. Scathing items of severely antiGerman character were to be found in the Evening Express, one of the most rabid Know-Nothing journalistic organs of the day. The Staatszeitung resents with great indignation an article appearing in that paper calculated to poke fun at the Stadttheater, inasmuch as the German theatre is accused of intending to offer a barrel of beer as a prize, providing it can raise sufficient funds at a benefit to be given to Frau Hoym! 80 The Daily News, on the other hand, seems to have inclined to a more sympathetic point of view in dealing with the German muse, and is even credited with persuading native Americans to pay a visit to the Stadttheater.81 The city's leading newspaper, the New York Herald, printed, at long intervals, in its theatrical column brief reports of the following type: Othello was given in German at the Stadt theatre on Wednesday evening last and will be played again this week.... (here the major cast is inserted)... Madame Scheller's Desdemona was exquisitely sweet and natural, and her singing of the "Weeping-Willow Song" moved the audience to tears. Even the German papers, whose criticisms are generally like sour lager beer, praise Madame Scheller. Mr. Hoym's Othello was not good but Mr. Scherer's lago was worse.82 In justice to the Herald it must be noted that that newspaper is found in a receptive mood at times when a German actor of real merit appears on the scene. Thus in 1862, when Bandmann's reputation had been firmly established, we read: A new star has made his appearance on the theatrical firmament. In the conflict of opinions which prevails respecting the comparative merits of our two leading tragedians-Mr. Forrest 8so Cf. S., Nov. 22, 1858. 81 Cf. B., Nov. 30, 1855. 82 New York Herald, Dec. 8, 1862.

Page  119 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 119 and Mr. Booth-it is a relief to find a third competitor in this branch of the drama starting into the field and promising to furnish us with a fresh standard of comparison. We have seen the new actor-Mr. Daniel E. Bandmann-in but one part-that of Mephistopheles in Goethe's Faust-but it was a performance that stamped him as an artist of strong original genius, differing in his conception and in the manner of his delivery from all the actors to whom we have been accustomed.83 It must likewise be recorded, however, that on such occasions, when Hamann and Hoym were in a position to exhibit a brand of superior histrionic art, they were wont to make an exception and to send their business announcements to an English-language newspaper-regularly to that of James Gordon Bennett. One wonders, naturally, whether this fact does not explain, very largely, the amplification of interest manifested by Americans in German theatricals. Quite expectedly the German press of New York displayed, on the whole, a kindly, patronizing spirit toward its theatre. The daily numbers of the Staatszeitung, as we have learned, contained among their advertisements a complete reprint of the program. Here too, then, it may be argued that this business interest of the Staatszeitung precludes the possibility of obtaining an absolutely objective and unbiased picture from its columns, yet that need concern us little, for, as a rule, this newspaper contents itself with merely calling attention to performances in brief items under the heading of "City News." Far more explicit, more critical and more interesting are the weekly reports printed in the Belletristisches Journal,84 which, at no time, publishes formal advertisements of the Stadttheater and 83 New York Herald, Oct. 21, 1862. s4 Cf. pp. xv f. for the relative importance of the Staatszeitung and the Belletristisches Journal as sources for the German stage.

Page  120 120 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER may therefore be depended on for a fairer estimate of the institution. Many of these articles, from one to two thousand words in length, include careful analyses of the plots of plays, discussions of their production, and masterly criticisms, in some instances worthy of a place beside the best dramaturgic literature. As has already been noted, gapsextending in extreme cases over periods of more than six months-sometimes interrupt the continuity of these " Theaterbesprechungen, " and as early as the second season we scan the pages of the Journal from January to September without finding a single remark on the subject of New York's German theatre. Such interruptions are frankly admitted to be manifestations of disapproval, on the editor's part, of alleged inferior standards prevailing in the playhouse on the Bowery.85 At times the Belletristisches Journal justifies its apathy on the grounds of the management's poor taste in its selection of plays,86 and Lexow asserts that he will coaperate with the theatre only on condition that the directors abandon their reprehensible policy and elevate their stage to a higher level.87 In fact the Journal constantly seeks to arouse the Theater to the realization of its educational mission.88 It will naturally not surprise us that reports during that particularly trying year, 1857, reflect discord between the press and the theatre. Early in this year the editor of the Staatszeitung lost his theatre pass as a result of certain very harsh remarks at which the management took offense.89 Later the breach widened and the differences of the two 85 Cf. B., Oct. 19, 1855. 86 Cf. B., Aug. 29, 1856. 87 Cf. B., Oct. 19, 1855. 88 Cf. B., Aug. 29, 1856. 89 Cf. B., Mar. 6, 1857.

Page  121 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 121 opposing parties were aired in print! 90 The directors of the theatre became thoroughly wrought up over the consistently critical vein of the German press, which, in reply, pointed to a succession of empty houses as clear evidence that the public emphatically disapproved of the manner in which the affairs of the Theater were being administered. But the wound healed and a month later the Journal again offered its readers a most sympathetic write-up, in which it lauded Hamann and Hoym for refusing to darken their house during a period of such marked economic and financial depression.91 The denial of admittance to a newspaper critic in April, 1864, caused a similar verbal tilt, but once again the situation cleared up.92 Nor are instances lacking of incensed Thespians who gave vent to their spleen before the very footlights by publicly heaping tirades of invective on newspaper critics. In particular, the actor Graff and the actress Lund were charged with this form of misconduct, and were sharply rebuked therefor.93 An especially impressive article of considerable length and detail printed in the Belletristisches Journal of Septemper 17, 1858, purports to examine and to analyze the aesthetical ideals of the theatre. It is pointed out quite correctly that certain dramas of considerable popularity on the European stage failed even of moderate recognition in the United States. The journalist tries to explain this apparent hiatus by what he perhaps rightly claims to be a functional difference between the stages of Europe and those of America. In the New World the theatre must be regarded primarily as a "Zerstreuungshaus," designed fundamentally to distract and to amuse a tired, unpretentious so Cf. B., Oct. 2, 1857. 91 Cf. B., Nov. 6, 1857. 92 Cf. B., Apr. 22, 1864. 93 Cf. B., May 6, 1859; also July 8, 1864.

Page  122 122 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER audience, which has spent the day's effort in nerve-racking worldly pursuits and seeks its theatrical haunts merely to enjoy an evening's mental relaxation. The European audience, on the other hand, with all its cultural tradition and its greater remoteness from and indifference to, the world of exclusively material interests, demands rather the gratification of its aesthetic hunger and inclines to look upon the stage as a real "Bildungsanstalt." Proceeding upon this theory the reviewer urges the directors of the Stadttheater no longer to pattern their repertoire after that of the stages of the Old World, but rather to choose pieces whose plots are based upon the realities of every-day life in our metropolis: Let plays be selected which lash the vices of society, which reveal the rottenness of family life among the upper classes and relentlessly expose the roguery of the princes of Wall Street, but which, on the other hand, pay to merit, morality and common sense the triumph of recognition that is due them.94 Many other examples of such interesting analytical and constructive critical articles could be cited-some of them dramaturgic essays worthy of a Lessing, both as to content and style-but considerations of time and space make their introduction here impossible. From the foregoing paragraphs of the present section it is clear that the connections which were established between Little Germany's young dramatic nursery and the press of New York City were not always uniformly pleasant, constant or closely knit. The attention bestowed upon the Stadttheater by our English-language press, we have seen, was still quite negligible, while the attitude of the German newspapers depended largely on the status in which the Hamann and Hoym house happened to find itself. Of the two journal 94 Cf. B., Sept. 17, 1858.

Page  123 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER 123 istic publications in German, we have further noted, the Staatszeitung played the more passive role of a mere advertising medium, so that it was left for the Belletristisclhes Journal to give to the growing hall its well-earned publicity in the fuller sense of the word. And that journal responded in a most commendable manner. During most of the ten years, it was a real mentor to the enterprise and stood by it whole-heartedly. In view of the alarming depths to which the stage at times sagged, the dignified Journal could not but temporarily slight or even ignore it. On the other hand the Lexow weekly repeatedly took the initiative in such crises, eager to discover the first sparks of higher impulses that might be fanned into fresh and wholesome aspirations. F. CONCLUDING REMARKS We have now arrived at the point at which we must conclude our survey of the Altes Stadttheater. It has been possible to present here only a broad picture of that institution, with its ups and downs, its bright and its dull spots. The most impersonal reviewer of New York's first permanent German stage must concede that it signified a distinct step forward in the annals of the German muse in our town. For ten long years, as we observed, it moved along steadily, delighting more or less appreciative audiences each night from the closing of one summer to the opening of the next. Of previous undertakings none had lasted more than one or two seasons. Nor was the function of the first Stadttheater entirely one of amusement, for serious drama occupied an indisputable place there. Above all, Shakespeare, as we saw, was added to the repertoire that was offered to "Kleindeutschland, " and that fact in itself was sufficient to elevate the German theatre to a level

Page  124 124 THE ALTES STADTTHEATER from which it could indeed command respect. To be sure the gems of the great Elizabethan dramatist, together with a fair number of dramatic pearls of German literature, were buried in much dross, and the efforts of local German playwrights were nothing to be proud of, but what contemporary playhouse could point to better conditions? It has further been noted that Hamann and Hoym for the first time employed with consistence actors of European training and experience, who had to be taken seriously and who usually proved very successful here. The real import of the hall at 37 Bowery, however, could only be fully realized after it had been darkened for the last time. After the trying months of the early Civil War the house rallied, as has been recorded, and enjoyed its "banner year" during the winter of 1863-64. So powerful had the institution grown that while Thespis and Thalia were alternately declaiming from the stage within the hall night after night, the sounds of the masons and laborers could be heard outside in the daytime, as a brand iiew and handsome edifice was being erected a few doors to the north-the future home of the Deutsches Theater. And so the Altes Stadttheater was, indeed, one theatrical undertaking that did not end in dismal failure but expanded into a finer and grander enterprise, which we shall proceed to examine in the next chapter.

Page  125 CHAPTER VI THE NEUES STADTTHEATER (1864-72) AND OTHER NOTEWORTHY DRAMATIC ENTERPRISES OF THE TIME A. THE SEASON OF 1864-65 WHILE the guns of Antietam were loudly booming and the Civil War was in full swing, the German population of New York City was calmly erecting a "Musenheim" all its own. This turned out to be a large stone building at Nos. 45-47 Bowery, a mere stone's throw uptown from the old structure. For the first time it could really be said that a theatre was being built to order for a German theatrical enterprise in our city. The front part of the edifice was occupied by Hartmann's Hotel, and in the adjoining houses on either side were Logeling's Konditorei and the Cafe National, where the theatregoing public was wont to idle away its leisure hours.' The interior of the hall was pictured as unusually spacious, simply but tastefully decorated, semicircular in form and arranged in three tiers with a seating capacity of thirty-five hundred! It was described as one of the largest homes of drama that not only New York but the entire country could boast at the time.2 The importance of the new playhouse, coupled with the 1 Cf. Abrecht for these and other interesting details. 2 Cf. Das Buwh der Deutschen in Amerika; also B., Sept. 16, 1864. 125

Page  126 126 THE NEUJES STADTTHEATER fact that we are in a position to draw for our knowledge of its activity on a daily newspaper file that runs along continuously for seven 3 of the eight years of its existence, makes a change of procedure most desirable in our further study of the German stage. In the present chapter, therefore, we shall return once more to the annalistic method and consider the Neues Stadttheater year by year. As in the older theatre, performances were regularly given every evening from August or September to May or June each season during most of the period under consideration. We shall find, however, that during its closing years, when the institution declined, the continuity of its functioning is often impaired. During the late sixties and the early seventies the centre of gravity of the German stage sometimes shifts away from the Bowery, where, by a process of substitution, musical plays occupy a more and more prominent place. These facts make it imperative to inject into our narrative, at certain times, other theatrical ventures, shortlived but important, and occasionally to leave the field of the spoken drama for that of the musical. However, in the presentation of each of the eight theatrical years, we shall strive neither to bore nor to distract the reader with too minute an investigation, but shall select only those performances, events and conditions that are worthy of mention. The new house was inaugurated on September 6, 1864, with Eduard von Meyern's 4 patriotic play Heirrich von Schwerin oder Deutschland und Diinemark, a very opportune choice in view of the brief war that Prussia and 3 Only the file 1865 is missing; cf. p. xvi. 4 Von Meyern-Hohenberg (1826-78) possessed considerable poetic talent but lacked the real dramatic vein. His plays, of which Heinrich von Schwerin (1859) was the best, early disappeared from the repertoire of German stages. Cf. A. D. B., XXI, 645.

Page  127 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 127 Austria waged against Denmark during that year. Hamann and Hoym had brought along with them the best members of their ensemble at the Altes Stadttheater and engaged half a dozen newly imported players, among whom Fraulein Hesse of Cologne, Herr Harting of Hanover and Herr Lennert of Budapest were to prove the most significant. The first season, therefore, disclosed a cast of strong actors, subsequently to be reinforced by a number of celebrated guests, who appeared in a repertoire richly flavored with classical numbers. The first noteworthy performance was Die Riduber on September 10, in which Lennert played the part of Franz and Hoym that of Karl. Two days later Romeo und Juliet was announced with Hoym and Fraulein Hesse in the title roles, and one week after the opening of the new hall the New York Turnverein gave there a festive performance of Laube's Karlsschiller, in which Otto Hoym and Methua-Scheller essayed the leading characters. Frau Steglitz-Fuchs played Catherine in Die bezdihmte Widerspenstige on September 16, and on the 20th Hedwig Hesse was the leading lady in Kabale und Liebe, given as a benefit to Heinrich Hoffmann, the builder of the theatre. To vary the character of the repertoire, Emil Pohl's farce Eine leichte Person, was introduced on the 21st and enjoyed a record run of five performances, much to the disgust of the newspaper critic, who deemed it wofully weak.5 The month ended with Narciss and two presentations of Benedix' three-act comedy Gegeniiber, the latter described as an excellent play with a most skilfully conceived plot.6 Evidently bent on further whetting the chauvinistic appetite of the German population, the management, early in October, staged a second patriotic play, Die Deutschen von 5 B., Sept. 30, 1864. 6 S., Sept. 29, 1864.

Page  128 128 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER Schleswig oder der Sturm auf die Dannewerke, in four acts, by Thalburg and Wagener.7 Wilhelm Tell followed on the 10th with Harting in the title role, and Don Carlos on the 19th with the same actor as the Marquis Posa. Mosenthal's Deborah, always a favorite, provided the bill for the 29th, and the month closed with a repetition of Die bezaihmte Widerspenstige. On November 2 Hairting and Fraiulein Hesse assumed the leading parts in Hamlet, which was repeated on the 14th with Hoym and Methua-Scheller. During this month there were also repetitions of Tell (on the 12th), Don Carlos (on the 18th) and Die Riiuber (on the 24th). The season's first Faust occurred on the 23d with Hirting in the title r0le and Hoym and Fraulein Hesse completing the major cast. Interest in classical plays did not wane in December, for Methua-Scheller was seen as Emilia Galotti on the 2d, and then the coming of Daniel Bandmann was in itself a guarantee for a sufficiently heavy diet. The distinguished actor opened with Hamlet on the 5th and acknowledged the ringing applause of eight crowded houses, which saw him in Hamlet, Narciss, Ein Glas Wasser, Der Kaufmann von Venedig, Faust, Die Riiuber and Konig Richard IIIall in the Christmas month. Most novel was the headline which greeted the patrons of the theatre on the 23d, for on that evening the American actor, Charles Pope, was invited to make his debut on the German-language stage. While Pope's handling of the foreign tongue was evaluated as comparatively good, the critic asserted that it was not of a quality warranting success on the German stage.8 Of the few light plays sprinkled in among these substantial 7 Perhaps the Adolf Wagener of the Viktoria Theater in Berlin, whom we shall meet presently; cf. p. 136. 8 S., Dec. 24, 1864.

Page  129 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 129 December offerings, Salingree's9 three-act sketch PechSchulze was easily the most popular, for it enjoyed as many as ten repetitions within four weeks (from November 28 to December 26). The new year, 1865, marked a renewed interest in Schiller; Fiesco and Die Braut vovn Messina were among the dramas given early in January. Undoubtedly the most important addition to the personnel of the Theater during this period was a Fraulein Haase, who made a highly favorable impression as Medea10 and as Lady Macbeth.11 In the meantime an event was taking place calculated to cause the breast of many a theatregoer of "Kleindeutschland" to swell with pride. Both Methua-Scheller and Bandmann, not content with their success on the Bowery, had quietly passed over to the English-speaking stage and were thrilling large audiences by their histrionic art. The American press characterized the latter as one of the best tragic actors on the American stage.12 In March two very satisfactory performances of Hebbel's Genoveva with Friulein Haase and Frau Hoym respectively are noted.13 A desire to encourage local GermanAmerican playwrights prompted the directors in April to offer the latest creation of the actress Spengler-Spranger, Das bose Verhingnis, as well as a farce by Stein,14 the editor of the New Yorker Staatszeitung. At this time the company paid a visit to the Academy of Music, where Faust was presented with Bandmann and the two Hoyms. Dur9 Hermann Salingree (1833-79) was a very popular writer of Berlin comedies and farces; cf. Brimmer, VI, 104. 10 Cf. B., Jan. 27, 1865. Fraulein Haase's provenience is not stated. 11 B., Feb. 17, 1865. 12 B., Mar. 10, 1865. 13 B., Mar. 24, 1865; also Mar. 31, 1865. 14 This may have been the Stein mentioned earlier in this narrative; cf. p. 52; cf. also B., Apr. 7, 1865.

Page  130 130 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER ing the week of April 14 the Stadttheater closed its doors out of respect to the memory of Abraham Lincoln, and when it reopened them, Shakespeare's Was ihzr wolit was successfully produced, Putlitz' 15 version being used. Paul Heyse's Hans Lange, offered in May, received commendatory criticism.16 Of the only two important novelties of June, Viel Lirm umn Nichts was hailed as a success, while Schiller's Demetrius, completed by Gustav Kiihne, proved a decided disappointment. The Theater closed for the summer at the end of June. B. THE SEASON OF 1865-66 On August 24 the Stadttheater reopened with Berger's Die Bastille, a very mediocre play. Several new actors of merit introduced themselves early in the season, the two most important being Casar Frank and one Zerboni. In September the outstanding event was a brief series of guest performances featuring a Herr Lasswitz, who came unheralded and disappeared from the theatre just as mysteriously although he was deemed a very satisfactory Nathan. The chief novelty of the month was Josef Weilen's Edda, which, like the same author's Tristan und Isolde, was adjudged a good play and well given. The months of October and November were memorable for the appearance of Ottilie Genee," who was acclaimed 15 B., Apr. 28, 1865. 1I B., May 26, 1865. 17 Ottilie Gen6e was born at Dresden in 1834 and achieved marked success early in life on the stages of Danzig and Berlin. Later she came to the United States with her husband, Charles Fritzsch, and after her appearances at the New York Stadttheater she went to San Francisco, where she managed the Deutsches Theater for a number of years, returning to Berlin in 1891. Cf. Deutsches Zeitgenossen Lexikon, Leipzig, 1905, p. 433.

Page  131 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 131 the leading comedienne of the day and who made her bow to a New York audience as Richelieu in the comedy Der Ehemann von fiinfzehn Jahren. Capacity houses applauded this highly talented and versatile artist; she fully lived up to her reputation and played as often as four nights a week, chiefly in short, light comedies and farces, sometimes in three on one evening. Indeed the only complaint heard was the regret that the actress was wasting her gifts on too many worthless pieces, such as Heydrich's Prinz Lieschen, Trautmann's Die Dame von Paris und der Schusterjunge von Lyon, G6rner's comic monologue Theatralische Studien, etc. Throughout November the Genie craze continued unabated and the Stadttheater enjoyed a period of brilliancy in the midst of which even Otto Hoym, who had gone to New Orleans for a cycle of twenty guestperformances, was not missed. Nor could Shakespeare check the furore occasioned by the inimitable comedienne, for a performance of Heinrich IV (the Schroder version) received scant attention and was soon forgotten. Toward the end of the month Madame Genee was succeeded by a new arrival, Wilhelmine Rohde (her origin is not revealed), who, however, faded into obscurity by comparison with her distinguished predecessor. Berlin farces were the order of the day during the closing months of the year 1865, interrupted by a single performance of Hamlet to celebrate the return of the popular idol, Otto Hoym. An interesting novelty of the holiday season was Rezept gegen Schwiegermiitter, a one-act comedy by King Ludwig I of Bavaria, based on the Spanish original of Don Manuel Juan Diana. It enjoyed half a dozen repetitions within a fortnight. The new year was inaugurated by a performance of Die Riduber, in which Hoym and Frank were given the leading parts, and on January 17 the first American per

Page  132 132 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER formance in the German language of Shakespeare's Coriolanus was witnessed. The Schlegel-Tieck translation, revised for the German stage by Karl Gutzkow, was used and Beethoven's overture was relied upon to lend color to the occasion. Although the drama had the advantage of a powerful cast (Becker-Grahn as Volumnia, Steglitz-Fuchs as Valeria, Frank as Agrippa and Knorr as Aufidius), it did not receive a satisfactory verdict, for the pruning knife of Gutzkow had left the work in an entirely too fragmentary condition."' A repetition of Wilhelm Tell with Zerboni and the giving of Uriel Acosta are also recorded during January. Early in this year clouds began to gather on the theatrical horizon, the press hinted at discord among the actors, and when the storm broke it proved to be a clash between Otto Hoym and Caisar Frank,'9 in which the public, strangely enough, seemed momentarily to forsake its old hero and to lavish most of its sympathy on the younger member of the troupe. Interrupted by hisses while performing on the evening of January 24, Hoym stopped the play in order to explain to the audience that in the course of an argument with "an actor" he had been addressed by an improper epithet, whereupon he had boxed the offending colleague's ears! This unpleasant incident undoubtedly hastened Hoym's temporary withdrawal from the company and the Theater. On February 17 a Hoym farewell was suddenly announced for Monday the 19th. Before a capacity house unable to accommodate his host of admirers, the popular favorite took a formal, tearful leave of his friends after a period of continuous service extending over twelve years. Hoym acted in Narciss and received a thunderous ovation. On the 23d he left for Baltimore to begin 1s Cf. S., Jan. 17, 1866; also B., Jan. 26, 1866. 19 Cf. S., Jan. 25, 1866.

Page  133 THE NEITES STADTTHEATER 133 a short guest-tour. The Belletristisches Journal took the opportunity at this time to print a three-colum article on Hoym's activity in New York and on the history of German dramatics in this city.20 After his partner's withdrawal Hamann remained for the time being the sole director of the institution and continued to manage it on traditional lines. There were occasional performances of Schiller and Shakespeare plays, and audiences often had the opportunity of seeing visiting actors and actresses, chiefly Ida Marchand of Budapest, Hairting, and Wilhelmine Stein of Berlin. Fraulein Rohde starred in Hebbel's Genoveva and Hairting in the same tragedy as well as in Die bezdihmte Widerspenstige and in Fiesco. In March the popular actor Fritze returned. Holbein's Kiife'rmeister Martin und seine Gesellen, based on the tale of E. T. A. Hoffmann, drew two crowded houses. During the closing days of March Graupenmniller, a threeact musical farce credited to Kalisch and Salingree, enjoyed a run of five successive evenings. April was marked by the giving of many classical dramas: Der Kaufmann von Venedig, Julius Caesar (its first American performance in German), Die Rdnber, Das Urbild des Tartiiffe, Deborah and Hamlet, in which group Hirting, Zerboni, Knorr, Frank, Fraiulein Rohde and others shared the chief responsibility. A new member of the staff, Frau von Berkel, acted a few times without arousing particular attention. On May 7 Harting as Mephistopheles, Zerboni as Faust and Fraulein Hesse as Gretchen divided the honors in Goethe's tragedy, and on the 11th Genee returned for six performances after a highly successful tour in the West. Hardly had she finished her engagement when Bandmann, unspoiled by his temporary desertion of the German muse, 20 Cf. B., Feb. 23, 1866.

Page  134 134 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER reappeared in Narciss on May 25 and subsequently gave nine impersonations, closing with Konig Richard III on June 11, between which two dates he revealed his genius in Hamlet, Der Kaufmann von Venedig, Uriel Acosta, Kinig Richard III, Der Mann mit der eisernen Maske, Die Riuber (Franz) and a trio of short comedies: Doktor Robin by W. Friedrich, Im Vorzimmer seiner Exzellenz by Hahn,21 and Ein Arzt by Hesse.22 After these brilliant guests, the final month of the season, June, proved decidedly dull. On the 7th Wilhelmine Kramer of Diisseldorf made her American debut in the popular Geld! Geld! Geld!, a German adaptation from the English of Bulwer's Money, which had been attracting large audiences in various theatres of New York City. After a last Wiltelm Tell on the 14th and a Hamann benefit on the 15th, in which the director played his usual mason's role, while Bandmann, Fraulein Hesse and Fraulein Gene contributed their services, the season came to an end on June 22 with Adrienne Lecouvreur. C. THE SEASON OF 1866-67 During the summer Hamann was not idle. The most important step he took was to accept Frau Elise Hoym for the position that had been left vacant by the withdrawal of her husband in the early spring. Thus the owner of the 21 Rudolf Hahn, who was born at Dresden in 1815 and died in Berlin in 1889, was the author of no less than 173 plays, many of which proved to be popular. Among those seen at the Stadttheater in New York, in addition to the above mentioned, were Schulze und Miller, Mei Name ist Meyer and Der alte Junggeselle. Cf. Briimmer, III, 45 f. 22 August Wilhelm Hesse (pseudonym for J. C. H. Wages) was a theatrical director and author who was born at Strassburg in 1805 and died in Berlin in 1864. Cf. Briimmer, III, 190 f.

Page  135 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 135 Stadttheater again secured a managing partner who, as a leading actress, could move about freely among her histrionic colleagues and thereby effect a spirit of great solidarity between the administrative department and the company of players. That the move was a wise one was proved by the fruits it yielded, for the season that was about to begin turned out to be the most remarkable in the entire history of the institution, unsurpassed even by any of the contemporary English-language theatres of New York. For the first time the German stage, which had heretofore been known and discussed only within the restricted limits of "Kleindeutschland," exceeded its hereditary bounds and assumed a cosmopolitan character. For the first time the local German theatre received more than passing mention in the English-language press. For the first time, also, the presence of Anglo-Americans is noted, now and then, in the audiences of the theatre on the Bowery. Zerboni, Lange, Hiibsch, Fritze and the actresses SteglitzFuchs, Rohde and Hiibner were retained as the nucleus of the troupe, but one notes with surprise the absence of Frank and Hirting. Fanny HIrting, probably a relative of the latter, was one of the additions to the roster, and the coming of Oscar Guttmann was announced. Hoym and Frau Becker-Grahn returned to the fold before the season was many weeks old. A. E. Brachvogel's Die Schweizer in Neapel was chosen to usher in the new year on August 23. Attracted by most agreeable recollections of that author's Narciss, the audience was distinctly disappointed by the very weak play it was now called upon to witness. In general, moderation marked the opening month, during which we note the usual repertoire with its abundance of traditional favorites, including Emilia Galotti, Wilhelm Tell, Zopf und Schwert, Uriel Acosta, Narciss, Deborah, Lumpaci Vagabundus and the more recently staged suc

Page  136 136 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER cesses, Graupenmilluer, Herzs nd Dollar and Rezept gegen Schwiegermiitter. Of the few novelties offered the most acceptable was a Benedix comedy, Die zdrtlichen Verwandten. An early guest, Oscar Guttmann, was seen but four times and a second visitor, Adolf Wagener, passed practically unnoticed. On September 14 Otto Hoym suddenly rejoined the company, where he was able to replace in some degree the sadly missed Frank, and was, needless to say, warmly welcomed by a host of his former friends and admirers. But the red-letter day of the entire season and one of the truly memorable dates in the history of German theatricals in America was September 20, for on that evening Hamann introduced to his patrons the unforgettable Bogumil Dawison.23 Dawison was universally conceded to be one of the greatest if not, indeed, the greatest European actor of his day and a worthy mate of our own Edwin Booth, with whom he was very soon to appear on the same stage, although that distinction fell to the lot of an American theatre, as we shall presently see. To bring the great Polish actor to the United States was, to say the least, the most daring venture upon which any local German Theater had as yet embarked. It was rumored that Hoym made the renowned visitor an offer of fifty thousand dollars for 23 Bogumil Dawison, born of Jewish parents in Warsaw (1818), began his theatrical career in the Polish capital on Nov. 30, 1837. After appearing in various cities, notably in Lemberg, Breslau and Hamburg, he was invited by Holbein to come to Vienna in 1849. Under Laube at the Burgtheater, Dawison became a star of the first magnitude, but owing to his extremely erratic nature he broke with the Vienna stage in 1853 and visited, in turn, the stages of Dresden, Berlin and Munich, finally returning to the Saxon city. In 1864 he abruptly broke his contract with the Dresdner Hoftheater and two years later came to New York, where we meet him in our narrative. Upon his return to Germany in 1867 Dawison suffered a complete mental breakdown, from which he never really fully recovered. He died in Dresden in 1872. Cf. A. D. B., IV, 787.

Page  137 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 137 fifty appearances 24-a statement that may well be correct as far as the figures are concerned-but it is questionable whether Hoym drew up the contract, in view of the fact that he had severed business connections with the Stadttheater, as we have seen, some seven months before Dawison came. The first play in which the famous impersonator appeared was Othello, the cast of which was materially strengthened by the presence of Hoym as lago and of Steglitz-Fuchs as Desdemona. By the strangest of coincidences that famous Italian actress, Adelaide Ristori, made her New York debut in Legouve's Medea at the French theatre on that same evening, so that the city had the novel experience of witnessing two foreign histrionic celebrities in triumphant debuts at two foreign-language theatres! It was, indeed, a poor day for the English-language stage of our town, which for one night, at least, was badly eclipsed. Dawison's success was immediate and overwhelming. From the very first evening on, packed houses greeted him and his every appearance was the signal for wild applause. Whenever his name was printed on the playbill, prices were advanced, the choicest seats bringing three dollars instead of the normal rate of two. A single performance of K6nig Richard III, generally regarded as his finest role, netted twenty-six hundred dollars at the box office25-a figure which marked a record-breaking house for the period. The first visit of Dawison extended over twenty-one performances, lasting until November 5. He appeared successively in Othello, Narciss, Died Riduber, Der Kafifmann von Venedig, Konigsleutnant, Holtei's Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab, Moliere's Der Geizige (translated by Dingelstedt), Faust, K6nig Richard III, Holtei's Hans Jiirge oder die Perl24 Cf. Zeydel, 257. 25 Cf. S., Oct. 16, 1866.

Page  138 138 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER schnur, Kotzebue's Die Ungliicklichen (a specially prepared version by Schneider), Holtei's one-act genre picture Die Wiener in Paris and Deinhardstein's Zw'ei Tage aus dem Leben eines Fiirsten. This motley repertoire gave the famed guest an opportunity to display his remarkable versatility in the most varied r6les, ranging from those of deepest tragedy to those of lightest comedy. In Die Unglicklichen Dawison performed the unusual feat of representing three characters in a single play. Instead of adopting the policy current on the American stage of surrounding a star with insignificant subordinates, thereby enhancing his eminence regardless of all else, the Stadttheater often pursued exactly the opposite course. Whenever possible, Dawison was matched against the best talent the Theater had to offer, as was the case in his opening performance. Otto Hoym was repeatedly paired with the Polish star (as in Die Rdiuber, Der Kaufmann von Venedig, Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab and Faust). That the German-language press spoke of Dawison in glowing terms goes without saying. It was remarked that not only Little Germany, but English-speaking New York as well, flocked to the Bowery to see his Richard III.26 The English-language newspapers took cognizance of the presence of the celebrated foreigner in words which could not be misinterpreted. To be sure, the Dawison debut did not receive the quantitative publicity accorded to Ristori's triumphant storming of the metropolitan stage, for the New York Herald gave her three and a half columns (of exceedingly fine print), whereas Poland's Roscius followed below with less than half a column. But even this was a novelty as regards space and easily marked a record for a report in the English press on the German theatre. Moreover this unfair ratio was soon reduced, for the Dawison items steadily increased in length until they often 26 Cf. S., Oct. 16, 1866.

Page  139 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 139 equalled or exceeded those of his rival. Detailed accounts of performances regularly appeared in the Herald, and an idea of the effect that Dawison produced may be obtained from the following excerpts: Bogumil Dawison last evening surpassed all his former efforts as far as these were above all other actors.... The seating capacity of the house is 3,500 and on last evening not only was every seat filled but there were nearly 500 persons who could obtain only standing room. There was little or no applause while the play was going on, for the audience sat spellbound in breathless attention and frowned down the slightest noise that could disturb their interest in one of the most magnificent triumphs in acting that the American stage has ever witnessed.... It was not acting; it was nature and genius.27 Truthfully and faithfully did Bogumil Dawison represent Richard in person and character on the occasion of his benefit last evening at the Stadttheater. That immense house was crowded in every part by the best class of our German fellow citizens, added to a few cultivated Americans. The tragedy, we believe, was Schlegel's translation.... It was quite unlike our acting copy of the play; and wherein it differed, it was chiefly for the better.... Imagine what a relief it was to witness Dawison's original, subtle and scholarly interpretation of the much abused part last night and to perceive that it was appreciated by one of the largest audiences we have seen in the city this season.... Dawison's costume was historically correct-the first time we have ever seen it so.... Again and again he was called at the close of each act and applauded to the echo. We have rarely noticed a more enthusiastic reception. He received more demonstrations last night than Ristori during the week.28 The house was crowded from top to bottom and every foot of ground which could afford standing room was occupied. Looking upwards at the circles and galleries one encountered a sea of 27 New York Herald, Oct. 3, 1866. 28 New York Herald, Oct. 14, 1866.

Page  140 140 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER human faces, with straining eyes and eagerly bent ears, each one apparently fearful of missing the slightest movement or failing to catch some single sound that issued from the master's lips. When he spoke an almost painful stillness prevailed and every breath seemed to be hushed-the silence was almost audible.29 When he uttered the words: "A horse, a horse, my kingdom for a horse" he did so with a pathos that sent a magic thrill through the veins of the audience and made one fancy for the moment that one really stood on Bosworth's bloody plain amid the din of battle.3" Urged on by the success of the first Dawison cycle the Stadttheater soon recalled the star. On January, 11 he appeared in a single performance of Egmont, and on February 25 he began a second extended engagement which ended with his nineteenth appearance on April 6. Besides repeating many of his former roles he added to his repertoire during this period: Don Carlos, Der bucklige Marquis oder die reiche Erbin (a five-act play by one Gormansky based on Eugene Sue), Uriel Acosta, Wallensteins Tod, Hamlet, Der Lumpensammler von Paris (a five-act drama by H. Schmidt from a French original), Donna Diana (a five-act comedy of Don Augustin Moreto translated from the Spanish by Schreyvogel), and Doktor Robin. A month later, on May 7, the hero of the hour returned for a brief farewell engagement of six performances, noted chiefly for his portrayal of the leading characters in Wolfsohn's Nur eine Seele, Konig Lear and Viel Lidrm um Nichts. The last few Dawison evenings were marked by casts of rare strength. As Lear the actor was supported by Madames Hoym, Becker-Grahn and Magda Irschick, each of whom alone might have occupied a headline. As Benedict in the Shakespearean comedy, the Pole had as his associate a very renowned German comedian of the 29 New York Herald, Oct. 24, 1866. so New York Herald, Oct. 24, 1866.

Page  141 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 141 time, Theodor L'Arronge. Needless to state, the attendance at every one of these performances was limited only by the capacity of the hall. The Stadttheater, however, was not the sole scene of Dawison's triumphs. Eduard Harting, as we have noted, had not rejoined the staff of the Hamann and Hoym house in the autumn of 1866 but, carried away by boundless ambition, had decided to turn director himself and to bring the German muse to the very doors of Broadway. On September 3, he had opened the Thalia Theater at 514 Broadway and soon attracted an ensemble of no mean ability. The new playhouse reached the acme of its very short-lived career when, exactly three months after its opening, its manager presented Dawison for a series of ten evenings extending from December 3 to the 28th. With the exception of Hamlet, the illustrious guest obliged the proud director by playing comic roles exclusively, since HIrting was making a specialty of light diet. The actor starred in Ludwig Schneider's Sie ist wahnsinnig, Rudolf Gottschall's Die Marseillaise, Rudolf Hahn's Der alte Junggeselle, Johanna von Weissenthurn's Des Malers Meisterstiick and W. Constant's Das Fenster im ersten Stock (all of these are titles familiar only to the special investigator), in addition to some of the comedies in which he had already been seen on the Bowery.31 Finally must be mentioned the famous "polyglot" performance of Othello, which occurred at the Winter Garden 31 HIrting's undertaking, buoyed up by the presence of Dawison and other actors of repute such as Pelosi, Oscar Guttmann, Frau Methua-Scheller and Frliulein Hesse, succeeded in keeping its head above water for four months during the close of the year 1866. It failed utterly in January, however, and after a few isolated attempts to continue the director is reported, on February 5, as taking his company to Philadelphia, there to perform at the Callowhill Street Theatre. Cf. S., Feb. 5, 1867.

Page  142 142 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER on December 29, 1866, and was repeated early in January of the following year. In reality it was a performance in English, with Edwin Booth in the role of Iago. Dawison rendered Othello in German and the German actress Methua-Scheller, as Desdemona, spoke English to Booth and German to Dawison. While the Staatszeitung adjudged this unique event highly successful, other critical authorities were less enthusiastic over it. There is also on record a single German performance at the Winter Garden, given as a benefit to the German Hospital, in which Dawison gave K6nig Richard III, supported by Harting and his Thalia troupe.32 Bogumil Dawison made his last appearance on American soil at the Stadttheater on May 21, 1867, and sailed for Europe two days later. In summarizing his visit the Staatszeitung 33 stated that he took part in seventy-six performances in the United States. These were distributed as follows: in New York, sixty-one; 3 in Brooklyn, one; in Philadelphia, five; in Baltimore, eight; in Boston, one. In all he had portrayed more than thirty different roles. It is further reported that the visit to our shores netted the actor the sum of $49,059.77, surely a very high figure in those days. Although the name of Dawison was early emblazoned in indelible letters on the annals of the New York Stadttheater as marking the greatest achievement of the season and, indeed, of its entire history, it would be false to assume that the management was content during this current year with having introduced but one noted visitor. 32 Cf. S., Nov. 24, 1866. 33 Cf. S., May 24, 1867. 34 The author can account for only sixty, but the slight discrepancy may be due to the fact that on one occasion the indisposition of the star led to a postponement not deducted in the newspaper statistics.

Page  143 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 143 On the contrary, Hamann and Frau Hoym were investing money on a truly amazing scale that winter and they spared no expense to raise their institution to a plane higher than any upon which it had yet stood and to elevate it to a position in which it could well bear comparison with the finest theatres of our city. Several other guests were invited, each one of whom might have proved to be a bright star in a normal theatre sky, but the luminosity of Poland's histrionic genius was sufficient to dim even the brightest. There were Daniel Bandmann, Theodor L'Arronge, Ottilie Genee and others-but one must return to the beginning of the season to include them all. The first two "gastierende Schauspieler" have already been mentioned. Adolf Wagener of the Viktoria Theater in Berlin was the earliest' to arrive and greeted his first audience in Wilhelm Tell on September 1. Then followed Oscar Guttmann of the Hamburger Stadttheater, who was seen on the 3d in the German version of Moliere's familiar comedy, Der Geizige, and received a very favorable criticism when he acted in Der Jude, a translation of Cumberland's three-act play.35 Otto Hoym has already been referred to as a guest during the season. After numerous appearances, some of which, as we have noted, occurred jointly with Dawison, the former director left, on November 13, for a tour of the West. On February 1 he returned as Hamlet; he enjoyed a very busy stay of three weeks, terminating on the 22d with Katherine Howard. No fewer than thirteen "Hoymabende" were crowded into this brief space of time, after which the actor journeyed to Philadelphia and to Pittsburgh and finally returned on May 15 to help close the season. On October 15, in the very midst of the Dawison furore, Fraulein Magda Irschick, a newcomer from the Stadttheater 35 Cf. S., Sept. 8, 1866.

Page  144 144 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER in Konigsberg, faced her first New York audience. Little wonder that she drew only a small-sized gathering, even though she had, as her partner, Hoym in Die Jungfrau von Orleans, for it was the night before Dawison had his twenty-six hundred dollar house! Naturally this cast a shadow over her initial visit to our boards, and the critics, for the time being, found her unimpressive. Thus we must not be surprised to find that Irschick had but few engagements during the year, though her efforts were subsequently duly appreciated and highly appraised at times even by the New York Herald. She was called upon to assist Dawison as Ophelia, Cordelia and Gretchen. Another imported guest was Georg Stemmler of the Hoftheater in Wiesbaden, who won favor at his debut on October 17 in Laube's Graf Essex. Two days later came Herr Briiggemann of the Stadttheater in Aachen. Neither actor, however, could for the present escape the fate of obscurity that many a not untalented disciple of the Thespian art was doomed to suffer. Highly interesting was the presence at our Stadttheater, during this most significant season, of two of the finest exponents of comedy in their day, Ottilie Genee and Theodor L'Arronge.36 The former had already become a familiar figure, as a highly charming soubrette chantante, and her successes of the previous season were still fresh in the minds of the Theater's patrons. This year she arrived on November 15, ten days after Little Germany's most powerful magnet had completed his initial visit, and she was seen very frequently for a period of five weeks. However, the void left by the departure of Dawison proved to be so great that even an Ottilie Genee could not fill the 36 Theodor L'Arronge, comedian and theatre director, was the father of the well-known Adolf L'Arronge (1838-1908). Cf. Briimmer, IV, 190.

Page  145 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 145 house,37 and we may well imagine her keen disappointment when she contrasted her present reception with the triumphs attendant upon her first visit.38 At Christmas time she quietly left for Buffalo. When her colleague, Theodor L'Arronge, presented himself on April 5, exactly a day before Dawison finished his spring program, he instantly became a popular favorite and was regarded as a most clever and versatile artist. For just two months he commanded the attention of large-sized audiences, who saw him on no less than thirty-three occasions, often in two plays on the same evening. His most popular rol1e was undoubtedly in Zehn Mddchen und kein Mann, a one-act comic operetta by Suppee, in which piece he appeared fifteen times, thereby enabling this mediocre work to establish the season's high record for number of performances. The long interval between the engagements of the two comedians, Genie and L'Arronge, was marked by the introduction of several less significant guests, whom we can merely mention in passing. They were Eugenie Schmitz of Hamburg (on December 19), Laura Naumann of Regensburg (on January 7), the familiar favorite Frau Meaubert (on January 25) and Herr Grossmann of the Stadttheater of Gorlitz (on February 28). None of them appeared very frequently, and none, during this season, enjoyed marked popularity. Finally, as if enough had not already been offered, the German playhouse invited its distinguished member of former times, Daniel Bandmann. The occasion for the invitation was a Shakespeare anniversary on April 23, when Hamlet was presented, and Fraulein Irschick was Herr Bandmann's associate. Only a moderately filled house welcomed the idol of the past, which was at first explained 37 Cf. S., Nov. 16, 1866. 38 Cf. 130 f.

Page  146 146 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER on the ground that Hamlet was by no means the actor's most effective r61e.39 It soon had to be admitted, however, that the Bandmann evenings continued to be poorly attended, while L'Arronge, just then in the midst of his great run, regularly drew crowds.40 Then the reason became clear. After the sumptuous theatrical feasts that had characterized the year's repertoire, it was but natural that the patrons of the Stadttheater, toward spring, should like nothing better than the light and amusing products of Thalia that L'Arronge could offer them. And so, at this time, even the genius of Bandmann survived only four appearances (Hamlet, Uriel Acosta, Freytag's Graf Waldemar and Der Kaufmann von Venedig), and on May 1 the player departed without much ado. Undoubtedly his leaving was somewhat accelerated by the announcement that the Dawison farewell cycle was to begin seven days later. The memorable season of 1866-67 closed on June 14 with a mediocre production of an equally mediocre play; it was Birch-Pfeiffer's Die Frau in Weiss, a five-act drama based on a novel of Wilkie Collins. A statistical analysis shows that, in all, the incredible number of two hundred and five different dramatic works had enjoyed no fewer than three hundred and forty one performances! 41 One pauses and wonders if this record has ever been surpassed on any other stage. To be sure, many of the pieces were so brief that it was possible to present two or occasionally three in one evening, which accounts, in part, for the high figures just given. Yet the reader has met with a sufficient number of titles (more can be found in the Appendix) 39 f. S., Apr. 24, 1867. 40 Cf. S., Apr. 30, 1867. 41 For the complete repertoire together with a statistical review, cf. App. VI.

Page  147 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 147 to convince him that the longer and often more dignified five-act drama was well represented in the "Spielplan." The complete repertoire of the season covers an extremely wide range of plays, including seventeen operas, operettas and song-plays, one of which, as has been pointed out, established the record of fifteen performances. Shakespeare is represented by nine different dramas: Konig Richard III (with five performances), Hamlet, Der Kaufmann von Venedig (with three each), Othello, Konig Lear, Viel Ldirm um Nichts and Die b.ezdhmte Widerspenstige (with two each), and single performances of Ein Wintermdrcihen and Romeo und Juliet-a total of twenty-one, the highest number for any single author. As in the Altes Stadttheater, specially prepared stage-versions (with abridgments) of the Schlegel-Tieck translations were employed, but for Viel Ldrm um Nichts and for Kinig Lear the translations of Karl von Holtei and of Dr. Heinrich Voss42 respectively were selected. Of the classical German dramatists Schiller naturally fared best with eleven presentations of eight works: three of Die Riduber, two of Wallensteins Tod, and one each of Wilhelm Tell, Die Jungfrau voln Orleans, Maria Stuart, Kabale und- Liebe, Fiesco and Don Carlos. Goethe was represented only by Faust, given twice, and Egmont, once, while of Lessing a single offering of Emilia Galotti is recorded. The rest of the repertoire requires little comment, since it consisted, in the main, of the conventional products that had been seen at both the Altes and the Neues Stadttheater for years. It included dramas by Gutzkow and Laube, and we must not forget to mention Hebbel's Genoveva. 42 Not the well-known Voss, but his son Johann Heinrich (1779 -1822), who in conjunction with a brother helped his father in translating Shakespeare. Cf. A. D. B., XL, 347.

Page  148 148 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER Only a very few Kotzebue comedies still remained on the playbills, and Birch-Pfeiffer, too, had lost ground, by comparison with former seasons. Benedix and Holtei, on the other hand, were strongly represented, and the remaining offerings were drawn largely from the light comedies, farces, sketches and vaudevilles of Friedrich, Rader, Weihrauch, Girner, Kalisch, Jacobson and many others. Of interest as reflecting the attitude shown toward the new art of Richard Wagner is the bill of January 23, which reads: "Tannhduser, Zukunftsposse mit vergangener Musik und gegenwartigen Gruppierungen, in drei Abteilungen, von Lewittschnigg." In this parody, if we may believe the description which is appended to the title, Tannhiuser and Elisabeth are revived after their death and happily restored to each other. The musical accompaniment of the farce is stated to have been written by Carl Binder of Vienna. Other parodies calculated to amuse the frequenters of the playhouse on the Bowery during this season were Jacobson's Faust und Gretchen and the same author's Moderne Vagabunden oder Faust und Margarethe, and the medley entitled Eine Dampfwagenr.eise durch die Theaterwelt, in which Die Riduber, Mozart's Zauberflate, Mosenthal's Deborah and many other plays were satirized. Finally a word may perhaps fittingly be added here about the musical department of the Stadttheater. A small orchestra functioned there every evening, and when it was not actively occupied with the performance of musical comedies, operas and operettas it contented itself with entertaining the audience by entre'acte numbers.43 The musicians were under the direction of Adolf Neuendorff, who had come to the United States from Hamburg in 1855. Although but twelve years old on his arrival in New York, 43 For the following details about Neuendorff, ef. Abrecht's account.

Page  149 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 149 the lad showed remarkable musical ability, was presently engaged by Hoym in the Altes Stadttheater and soon aroused the admiration of his listeners by his versatility in handling all sorts of instruments. Within a very few years he rose to the position of orchestra leader and not only wielded the baton most effectively but composed some of the music heard at the theatre. Neuendorff was destined to play a prominent part as an organizer in the later history of the German stage, but that happened after the summer of the year 1872 and therefore does not belong to the subject of the present work. D. THE SEASON OF 1867-68 1. AT THE STADTTHEATER After the remarkable achievements characterizing the season of 1866-67, the following year, as might be expected, resulted in a decided retrogression, so that a description of what took place can most vividly be presented in negative rather than in positive terms. To begin with, there was no Bogumil Dawison to grace the boards at 45 Bowery, there was no Bandmann, no Steglitz-Fuchs and no MethuaScheller. While a few impersonators of tragic or of serious roles remained on the lower East Side or were cautiously and sparingly added to the ensemble, they formed a negligible quantity, for the most part, and had to acclimate themselves to the less wholesome atmosphere that now prevailed there-one almost exclusively, we might say, of light opera, comedy and vaudeville. Indeed, even the perennial Otto Hoym, who during the current year twice visited the scenes of his former triumphs, had to renounce most of his familiar, heroic r6les, Shakespeare parts not excepted, and had to content himself, as far as the classical drama was concerned, with two isolated performances of Die Rdtuber

Page  150 150 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER and one of Wallensteins Lager. In sharpest contrast with the twenty-one offerings of Shakespearean plays that had crowned the banner season, the present year yielded, all told, a mere trio, consisting of Macbeth, Romeo uwnd Juliet and Ein Sommernachtstraum! Matched against the three dozen performances of classical works of the season of 1866-67 there were now even less than one dozen-namely, two each of Die Riuber and Maria Stuart, and one apiece of Wallensteins Lager, Wilhelm Tell, Die Braut vo. Messina and Emilia Galotti (added to the three Shakespeare productions just mentioned). Director Hamann reopened his theatre alone in the autumn, Frau Hoym having vanished in some mysterious manner from the duodirectorium during the summer. Indeed, in the course of the entire year to come she appeared before the footlights just once, on April 2 (1868) in Herz und Dollar. But on November 1 (1867) Hamann found a new partner in the person of A. Rosenberg, who was to play an active part in German-American theatricals a decade later, and the two men jointly guided the destinies of our Stadttheater up to within a year of the end of its existence. In the light of the subsequent history of the theatre, it cannot be said that the change in management was a happy one. While, as we shall see, the Stadttheater at times showed flashes of its former accomplishments, its old-time steadiness was largely absent during these final years, and only the first two of the five seasons that we have yet to examine really mark sincere and consistent attempts to give dignified spoken drama. Even these were in part marred by internal and external discord - but of that anon. The indisputable success of Theodor L'Arronge during the spring of 1867 gave Hamann his cue and prompted him to reengage the popular comedian. This time L'Arronge

Page  151 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 151 brought his wife along, and between September 6 and December 14 the two were seen singly or, as happened far more frequently, together, on no less than thirty-eight occasions. The popularity of Herr and Frau L'Arronge seems to have been due, in no small measure, to their ability as singers, for they often appeared in comic operas and operettas. On September 26 they caught the popular fancy in the four-act burlesque opera Orpheus in der Unterwelt, adapted by Kalisch from the French of Cremieux, and for seven successive nights the piece drew crowded houses, thereby marking the longest run of the entire year. A similar creation, the three-act opera bouffe Die sch6ne Helena, for which Offenbach composed the music, enjoyed five consecutive hearings in December and a like run near the end of the season. The L'Arronges appeared in a large variety of other operettas, principally in Die schone Galathee by Poly Henrion 44 (the music by Suppee), Fortunios Lied, from the French of Cremieux (Halevy's music) and Das zugemcauerte Fenster (the theme of the Kotzebue play set to music by one Kotz). At rather frequent intervals repetitions of last year's favorite, Zehn Midchen und kein Mann, were sprinkled in. The only pieces of real literary merit in which L'Arronge was seen were Wallensteins Lager (on November 20), in which he shared the honors with Hoym, and an occasional serious opera such as Weber's Freischiitz or Lortzing's Wildschiitz. Herr and Frau L'Arronge interrupted their sojourn on the Bowery in December, and after three and a half months' absence returned on April 1 for another busy session which was to have terminated on May 8. But the visitors turned out to be such powerful attractions that their leave-taking was 44 Pseudonym for Leonhard Kohl von Kohlenegg, actor and author, who was born in Vienna in 1834 and died in Saalfeld, in Thuringia, in 1875. Cf. Briimmer, IV, 50.

Page  152 152 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER again and again postponed and they did not finally bid farewell until June 1. Almost equally well liked at the Theater were three dwarfs, quite appropriately called Jean Piccolo, Jean Petit and Kiss Jozsi, who came on October 5 and made twenty-one appearances, the last on November 22. They were seen chiefly in farces, such as Ein gebildeter Hausknecht oder verfehlte Priifungen, by Kalisch, and in short comic operettas, among which Flotte Bursche by Suppie infallibly drew enthusiastic audiences. Between December 20 and February 7 the "Zwerge," who generally performed jointly, were seen on twenty further evenings, and on May 12, prior to their departure for Europe, they gave two farewell performances. Between their New York engagements they had toured the West. While the L'Arronges and the dwarfs featured the season of 1867-68, other prominent actors occasionally appeared. Among those familiar to the public may be mentioned Magda Irschick and Hoym. The former was again the stepchild of the year, inasmuch as her name was printed on the programs only a couple of time-once in Maria Stuart. Hoym was given eight roles between November 6 and December 19, chiefly in Narciss, Die Riuber, Graf Essex, Richard. Savage, Wallensteins Lager, and a novelty entitled Maximilian, Kaiser von Mexico, a historical tragedy in five acts by one Dr. Krach. In a criticism of this play the Staatszeitung expressed sharp disapproval of the vilification which the drama heaped upon the president of our neighbor republic.45 On March 23 Hoym returned in Deinhardstein's four-act Hans Sachs, only to depart again after very few appearances. Of the newcomers, Olga von Plittersdorf, freshly imported from Germany-from what stage, we are not told45 Cf. S., Nov. 28, 1867.

Page  153 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 153 had the distinction of being the only trag6dienne of any account. She made her bow on October 30 in Maria Stuart and two days later gave an impersonation of Emilia Galotti that was rated as very weak.46 Thereafter in this season of comedy and light opera she had little to do, although she apparently remained in town until June. She was associated with Hoym in Laube's Graf Essex and Gutzkow's Richard Savage and on February 1 portrayed Lady Macbeth. Plittersdorf showed her fondness for male parts by taking Oberon in Eir Sommnernachtstraum on February 12 and Romeo on the following night, although she achieved no great success in the latter.47 The new calendar year (1868) marked the debut, on January 2, of Augusta Hoifl of the Stadttheater of Frankfurt am Main. She began her engagement with BirchPfeiffer's Dorf und Stadt and ended it on April 8 with Reichenbach's48 very popular Barfilssle, giving a dozen performances in all. In the course of these she appeared as Titania in Ein Sommernachtstrarum, but, in general, Hofl was partial to melodrama. Only two more actors of importance need be mentioned, Ernst Rethwisch and Otto Reiffarth, both of whom were also playwrights. The former came from Hamburg with an excellent reputation as a comedian and known as the author of several popular "Volksstiicke." He was introduced on January 13 in two of his own creations: Kaufmann und Seefahrer, a character sketch in two parts, and S8ren S6rensen, der tapfere Landsoldat, another aftermath of the late Dano-Prussian War. During the spring, when numer46 Cf. S., Nov. 2, 1867. 47 Cf. S., Feb. 14, 1868. 48 Konstantin Moritz Reichenbach (1804-70) studied medicine in Leipzig and, after becoming involved in difficulties, devoted himself to authorship and a stage career. Cf. A. D. B., XXVII, 671.

Page  154 154 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER ous balls and other social festivities drew the patrons away from the Stadttheater and times became dull, it was often Rethwisch alone who could claim credit for attracting to the hall the few persons that found their way thither. He appeared some twenty-five times in comedies and farces, one of which bore the name Dawison and took the great actor as its subject. On March 27 Rethwisch participated in the first German performance in New York of Rossini's Barbier von Sevilla. Otto Reiffarth began his visit on February 29 with the ever popular Pech-Schulze and subsequently introduced a rather weak composition of his own, Die Armen und die Reichen von New York, the scene of which was laid at City Hall, Hoboken and Yorkville. The season offered practically no bright spots other than the few already mentioned. On September 23 Theodor Korner's birthday was celebrated with a performance of Hedwig die Banditenbraut, followed by a one-act melodrama, Theodor KErner oder die Schlacht bei Gadebusch, from the pen of one H. Dreher. It was described as a very unsatisfactory play and the "Kornerfeier" seems to have lacked the necessary preparation and aroused but little enthusiasm.49 That times were really dull and that interest in German theatricals was flagging appears, too, from the fact that on April 11 Hamann and Rosenberg rented out their hall for a pugilistic benefit tendered to the boxer Joe Coburn. The press was naturally mortified and characterized the procedure as highly scandalous: In another hall, in which ostensibly the German muse is cultivated, the dramatic representations were recently interrupted by pugilistic entertainments with their delightful black eyes and bloody noses. Certainly nothing exceeds the piety and sense of duty which certain "directors" feel toward German art! 5o 49 Cf. S., Sept. 24, 1867. 5o B., Apr. 17, 1868.

Page  155 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 155 It is interesting to note that, but for such occasional scathing rebukes, the Belletristisches Journal maintained throughout the entire year a most punitive and scornful silence on the subject of the Stadttheater. 2. FANNY JANAUSCHEK AT THE ACADEMY OF MUSIC It was evident that the playhouse of Hamann and Rosenberg, with its light and unsubstantial offerings, thoroughly failed to satisfy the demands of the more highly cultured portion of its clients, whose appetite it had so wholesomely stimulated during the previous season. Yet the latter were not to be entirely disappointed. While, as we have observed, they could not get what they wanted on the Bowery they could and, indeed, did turn their steps northward to Fourteenth Street, where a new star appeared in the theatrical firmament. Fanny Janauschek, according to some connoisseurs the most famous German tragedienne of her day, and an actress who was generally rated on a par with Rachel, Ristori and Dawison, visited our shores for the first time in the autumn of 1867. She brought along her own private company of players, making her first appearance at the Academy of Music on October 9 in Grillparzer's Medea, in which she was ably supported by one Scherenberg as Jason and the familiar Steglitz-Fuchs as Kreusa. Then followed successively performances of Deborah, Maria Stuart, Geibel's Brunhild, Adrienne Lecouvreur, Emilia Galotti, Halm's Fechter von Ravenna, Don Carlos, Mendelssohn's 51 Marie Anne, and Egmont, and also parts of Laube's Karlsschiiler, Kabale und Liebe, Romeo und Juliet and Macbet,. Janauschek terminated her visit after twenty51 Josef Mendelssohn (1817-56), an active author of Hamburg, wrote among other plays Er mnss aufs Land and Marie Anne, ein Weib aus dem Volke, both of which were given at the Stadttheater. Cf. Briimmer, IV, 427.

Page  156 156 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER three performances, on November 30, in Der Fechter von Ravenna. In Emilia Galotti she undertook the r6les of the heroine and Orsina on one and the same evening. At a Schiller celebration, on November 11, she further displayed her versatility by essaying three different parts, appearing in Act IV of Die Karlsschiuler; in Act II, Scene 7, of Don Carlos; and in Act II, Scene 3, of Kabale und Liebe. She also gave Deborah in the Academy of Music of Brooklyn on October 23. From the very start the newly arrived histrionic genius created a profound impression. She and her distinguished colleague Adelaide Ristori, who so frequently starred in the metropolis in the same decade, were acclaimed "the two most famous tragic actresses of the day," 52 In Medea she was said to have achieved the rarest effects, and of her Deborah it was asserted: In the crucial moments-those of her expulsion and her flight and in the scene of reconciliation-her acting was so full of overwhelming beauty, so deep, so full of rapture, and withal so restrained, so stirring and magnificent, so masterly and thrilling, that the approval of the audience grew and grew, and finally burst forth in a storm of wildest enthusiasm, so that one curtain call followed another.... The impressions which we have received of Fanny Janauschek are still too stunning to permit us to judge calmly of her.53 It was not long before the English press of our town, which at first was cold and indifferent, began to react favorably to the efforts of the new actress. The Herald wrote: In her native land she has won the highest honors on the stage, and both as an artist and as a lady, deserves the title of the German Ristori.54 52 B., Oct. 18, 1867. 53 B., Oct. 18, 1867. 54 New York Herald, Oct. 18, 1867.

Page  157 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 157 The continuation of the passage just cited is particularly interesting as revealing the critic's estimation of Grill, parzer's Moedea: The selection for the debut was most unfortunate, being a weak and long-spun version of Medea. The German dramatist, unlike Legouve, has given each of his characters more talking than action, and, instead of seizing upon the strong points in the sad story and concentrating them in a few effective scenes, he has diluted the incidents into an interminable and intolerably borish play. The success of Mile Janauschek, then, under such circumstances, is a sufficient proof of her abilities.... Her stage appearance, to commence with, is striking and attractive. Her voice is one of mingled power and sweetness, and the rugged lines of the German dramatist become soft as Italian on her lips.... The scene in which her children are torn from her in Medea and the famous curse in Deborah showed a heart rent to its innermost depths with passion; but it was partially suppressed emotion, in which the words came from her lips, as if each were a drop of her life's blood.55 Even the Evening Post, a newspaper alleged at the time to be fundamentally anti-German in all its tendencies, became converted to a sympathetic judgment of the merits of the visiting actress, while the elder James Gordon Bennett himself, owner of the Herald, was one of the audience on the night of November 7 and indulged in the most lavish praise of Janauschek's art.56 Unfortunately, however, the genius of the one great star was, in most cases, the only bright spot in these performances at the Academy, and the brighter the star grew, the paler became the surrounding heavens. The supporting cast developed numerous weaknesses and the stage setting and scenery, for instance in the case of Brunhild,57 showed 55 New York Herald, Oct. 18, 1867. 56 Cf. B., Nov. 15, 1867. 57 Cf. B., Oct. 25, 1867.

Page  158 158 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER marked deficiencies, all of which no doubt affected the attendance. The first four evenings, to be sure, attracted full houses, but already on the fifth there was a marked falling off, and thereafter the audiences were often deplorably small, so that, great as was the artistic success of Fanny Janauschek, financially her enterprise was a bitter disappointment. Early in December the Herald published a long editorial on the actress, blaming the management for this failure. In part it said: Yet this extraordinary actress has not received the attention she merits. Her action is true to nature and surprisingly forcible. It startles one by its truthfulness and energy. In repose she is equally striking.58 The small gatherings that turned out to see Janauschek certainly did not reflect credit on New York's German population as a whole. With considerable satisfaction, perhaps, Hamann and Rosenberg down on the Bowery might have pointed up to Fourteenth Street as visible proof that most of "Kleindeutschland" was unappreciative of anything suggestive of a higher aesthetic standard than the one they were setting at the Stadttheater! After completing her initial "Gastspiel" on November 30, the German tragedienne took a short trip to Philadelphia and Baltimore and returned to the metropolis on December 23 to "brighten up" Christmas week, as the Belletristisches Journal expressed it, for: In those abodes in which one has every reason to expect the cultivation of dignified German drama, disgraceful trash of the lowest order has for months been asserting itself, and the much abused muses have turned their backs upon the temple that has fallen into unhappy hands! 59 58 New York Herald, Dec. 2, 1867. 59 B., Jan. 3, 1868.

Page  159 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 159 Janauschek's brief Christmas visit was limited to four performances, in the course of which she exhibited herself in two new roles, as Iphigenia and as Gretchen in Goethe's dramas. Again she was the recipient of unreserved commendation on the part of the English press, for the Herald wrote: It is not easy to say which is most to be admired, her remarkable eloquence or her splendid acting, and all so natural and true to nature.... All our orators and actors should see Janauschek and study her for the highest and purest style of eloquence and acting.60 Like most German actors and actresses of repute, Fanny Janauschek, after her New York debut, engaged in an extensive tour of the West. During the late winter and the early spring she was repeatedly reported as meeting with the highest degree of success in all the cities of importance that possessed a German stage: St. Louis, Chicago, Milwaukee, Cincinnati and Louisville, as well as in the East, in Newark, Philadelphia, Buffalo and Rochester. On April 22 the star returned to New York for five farewell performances that were crowded into eight days, selecting for her plays Medea, Graf Essex, Maria Stuart, Deborah and Schiller's Phiddra. When Fanny Janauschek left New York in the spring of 1868 she might well have boasted of having been the first German actress to triumph independently in the metropolis, even though, as we have been forced to admit, her sojourn here was not very lucrative. For the first time since its inception in 1854 the Stadttheater had clearly lost, for intermittent periods aggregating about two months, its leadership in the field of German theatricals in our town. For the first time the centre of gravity had, at least 60 New York Herald, Dec. 29, 1867.

Page  160 160 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER for brief intervals, been shifted uptown-all because of poor management on the Bowery and the opportune arrival of one single enterprising star! And that star was to return the following year. How were Hamann and Rosenberg going to meet the situation? We shall find the answer to this question in the next section. E. THE SEASON OF 1868-69 1. AT THE STADTTHEATER New York's German stage could, in the summer of 1868, look back over a period of continuous activity covering a decade and a half, and "Das deutsche Theater" was gradually growing conscious of the fact that it had a history which was by no means uninteresting. It had utilized and had, indeed, trained and developed histrionic talent that was now attracting attention on other stages, both in this country and abroad. With increasing frequency items concerning this or that actor, familiar to the clientele of the Stadttheater, appeared in the German-language press of New York. Methua-Scheller was often mentioned as enjoying one triumph after another in the Far West on the English stage, to which she had now fully passed over. She spent the years 1868 and 1869 giving performances (largely of classical plays) in the Rocky Mountains and along the Pacific coast, where her strongholds included Salt Lake City, Helena and San Francisco.61 For five weeks she played to crowded house in Central City, a Colorado mining town situated 8,500 feet above sea level. Daniel Bandmann likewise completely forsook the German-language stage, left the boards on the Bowery in a huff after his 61 The numerous details contained in this paragraph have all been gleaned from contemporary numbers of the Staatszeitwag and the Belletristisches Journal.

Page  161 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 161 bitter disappointments during the Dawison furore,62 and spent a year entertaining good-sized London audiences, after which (in January, 1870) we hear of him in distant Australia. Father Hoym, together with Frau Hoym, decided to spend the new season (1868-69) on the stage of his old Fatherland. Frequent, gratifying reports of his popularity and success might well make New York's Little Germany proud of its representative abroad. At the same time a comedian, Ascher, who had been active on the minor stages in town, and a prominent actor of Cincinnati named Rudolf were likewise reported as appearing abroad, the former in Berlin and the latter in Dresden. Other favorites, however, fared less happily. The greatest of them all, Bogumil Dawison, had suffered a nervous breakdown 63 shortly after his return from the United States in 1867, and the present summer found him a complete and pathetic mental wreck in Dresden, in what was described as a hopeless condition. And Olga von Plittersdorf, disconsolate over the death of her husband, could not long endure the separation and took her own life in San Francisco in 1870. But we must return to New York. After the artistic fiasco of the season of 1867-68 the Stadttheater, in the summer and early fall of the latter year, found itself absolutely discredited by the local German press. For months the Staatszeitung had coiperated but little with the Theater, except to print its paid advertisements, while the Belletristisches Journal had consistently scorned the playhouse except for an occasional rebuke of embittered severity. Hamann and Rosenberg felt this humiliation most keenly and spared no pains in their efforts to rehabilitate the institution. With this object in view the very best German actors obtainable were e2 Cf. p. 146. 63 Cf. p. 136, Note 23.

Page  162 162 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER imported during the new season. Dawison was, of course, out of the question, but Hermann Hendrichs, Friedrich Haase, Augusta von Birendorf-all of them players of enviable reputation in Europe-and other lesser lights were engaged. Terpsichore and Thalia, while naturally not in the slightest danger of ever being banished from the boards, were at least more closely limited in the repertoire than they had been heretofore, and Melpomene was given a position of greater prominence. Theoretically, then, the season gave full promise of approximating that of the banner year of 1866-67, and it did, in fact, yield many fine performances. Yet no season was ever so seriously affected-indeed, so hopelessly spoilt-as was this one, by internal strife and intrigue among the actors, by incompetent management, by quarrels with the press, and by other sinister factors, such as infallibly spell ruin even for the best of theatres. It is, indeed, a season of sharp contrasts that we are now called upon to examine. With a beautiful new curtain, with the capable Adolf Neuendorff in the orchestra pit, with the undismayed Magda Irschick to speak the indispensable prologue, and with two new actors of promise in debuts, the season opened most auspiciously on the last day of August. Der Schulz von Altenbiiren, a Mosenthal novelty, was the play, and although it fell far short of Deborah, the performance itself passed as good. On the very next evening, September 1, Hermann Hendrichs of Berlin, one of Germany's fore, most tragedians, made his first appearance before an American audience. For extensiveness of repertoire the new guest surpassed all previous records at the Stadttheater; in the single month of September he went through thirteen different full-sized dramas on as many evenings without one repetition! That quality was not sacrificed to quantity and that the visitor certainly had at his command a

Page  163 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 163 wide range of plays the following list, for the most part familiar to us, will show: Melchior Meyr's Herzog Albrecht, Wilhelm Tell, Raupach's Die Schule des Lebens, West-Schreyvogel's Das Leben ein Traum, Egmont, Louis Schenk's Michael Kohlhaas, Don Carlos, Gotz von Berlichingen, Die Waise von Lowood, Struensee, TSpfer's Gebriider Foster, Das Kithc.ven von Heilbronn and Julius Caesar. Continuing his run in October and in the early part of November, Hendrichs added to this long array of titles Graf Essex, Menschenlhass und Reue, Der Sohn der Wildnis, Dorf und Stadt, Fiesco, Otto von Wittelsbach, Faust, Die Schuld and Macbeth. Drama followed upon drama so rapidly that there were scarcely any repetitions; in fact, the only plays that were at all repeated were Tell, Michael Kohlhaas, Gitz, Die Waise von Lowood and Der Sohn der Wildnis, the first-named four times, the others but once each..Thus when this active impersonator completed his engagement on November 5, he had, in a little more than two months, given thirty performances of twenty-two different works by a dozen dramatists of note! On paper the visit of Hendrichs looked like a most formidable start for the new season; in reality, however, unfavorable conditions and regrettable incidents militated from the outset not only against Hendrichs' success but against that of the Theater as well. To begin with, there was insufficient publicity. The Bjelletristisches Journal, unwilling to forget the frivolity of the past season and suspicious of what was to come, held well aloof and for five weeks prior to October 9 printed not a word about the Stadttheater! And the Staatszeitung, which had at the beginning enthusiastically directed public attention to Hendrichs, unfortunately became involved in an altercation with the directors. On September 19 this newspaper abruptly cut off all theatrical items, not to resume them

Page  164 164 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER until November 7-'just two days after the worthy guest had terminated his visit. Thus "Kleindeutschland," dependent on these two publications for its information of what was happening on the boards, was left unenlightened, for the most part, as to the merits of the new arrival. But there were other contributory causes to the failure of the IHendrichs "Gastspiel." It was rightly pointed out 64 that the Berlin Thespian was brought here three weeks too early in the theatrical year, for it was, indeed, an unusually hot September and business conditions showed a marked depression. In addition it was alleged65 that the repertoire of the actor was not popular here-a sad reflection, one must admit, on the taste of the patrons! It is a striking fact that whenever mention is made of Hendrichs, he is invariably referred to in terms of highest recognitionas a fine, genuine artist, free from all affectation-and his acting is described as at all times characterized by ideals of truth and beauty. In spite of these virtues it is clear that he suffered from intrigue and from lack of support, both on the part of his colleagues and on the part of the management. On November 20 the visitor was recalled for seven more performances, during which he added to his list of plays Hamlet, Uriel Acosta, Hans Sachs and Narciss, closing with the last-named drama on December 12. Immediately thereafter the unfortunate German returned to his native shores, a victim of the deplorable conditions that were at this time tolerated on the Bowery. The second important guest of the year was Frau Augusta von Barendorf of the Kaiserliches Hoftheater in St. Petersburg, who fared decidedly better than her predecessor. She made her debut on November 6, the evening after Hendrichs had ended his first cycle and, happily for 64 Cf. B., Oct. 9, 1868. 65 Cf. S., Dec. 14, 1868.

Page  165 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 165 her, only one day before amicable relations were restored between the Staatszeitung and the Stadttheater. On November 7 a letter addressed to the editor and signed by the joint directors Hamann and Rosenberg appeared in the newspaper. In it the managers stated that differences had arisen between the press and the theatre, resulting in a cessation of publicity. Immediately below this letter was appended the answer of the editor, in which the latter virtually apologized and admitted very frankly that his attitude of silence in the question of the "Deutsches Theater" had been prompted by "false reports"'! Madame Barendorf was seen over half a hundred times in New York during the season, principally during the months of November, January and February, with a few appearances in December and four farewells at the close of the year in May. It is interesting to note that during the latter part of November and early in December-a period when both Hendrichs and Barendorf were seen in the auditorium at 45 Bowery-the latter always drew crowds, while the Hendrichs audiences were almost without exception conspicuously meagre. The Russian actress possessed a remarkably broad repertoire and seemed to be just as apt a pupil of the tragic muse as of the comic. Of Schiller she appeared in Maria Stuart, Kabale und Liebe, Die Jungfrau von Orleans and Don Carlos; of Lessing, in Minna von Barnhelm and Emilia Galotti; and of Shakespeare in Die belzdhite Widerspenstige, Viel Ldirm um nichts and Romeo und Juliet. From such classical dramas her r6les extended downward through the second-rate tragedies and melodramas of the day, such as Adrienne Lecouvreur, Katherine Howard and Marie Anne, and finally the actress did not hesitate to stoop to popular trash of the type of Ehestandsexercitien. Critics repeatedly accused her of wasting her fine talent on inferior plays, among

Page  166 166 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER which, we note with interest, is included Gustav Freytag's Die Valentine. On the whole, B~rendorf was appraised as an actress. of very great ability though by no means the equal of Fanny Janauschek. The Belletristisches Journal seemed to think that the Russian guest was out of place down on the Bowery, for it urged her to sever her connections with the theatre there and to star independently.66 Biarendorf did not adopt this extreme course, but, in the midst of her "Gastspiel" at the Stadttheater, and supported by that institution, she did carry through a series of a dozen performances at the Theatre of the Union League Club, located at Madison Avenue and Twenty-sixth Street. While this cycle was in progress her appearances at both halls would sometimes total as many as five per week. The last of the trio of distinguished visitors was the "Charakterschauspieler" Friedrich Haase,67 regarded as one of the very greatest comedians of the time, and he easily proved to be the most prominent histrionic figure that graced the stage of the Stadttheater during the year. He instantly won favor at his very first appearance, on March 4, to be sure in two insignificant comedies: Sie ist wahnsinnig, by L. Schneider, and Ein h iflicher Mann, by L. Feldmann. For two months thereafter Haase attracted throngs of theatregoers, who were as little deterred by the advanced prices that were demanded on "Haaseabende" as they had been in the case of Dawison. His repertoire included a vast number of light comedies, most 66 Cf. B., Dec. 12, 1868. 67 Friedrich Haase, born at Berlin in 1825, early developed into an actor of great power under the guidance of Ludwig Tieck. He made his debut in the Prussian capital in 1845, playing in Weimar the following year. He was seen for three years (1852-55) on the Munich stage and acted at St. Petersburg from 1860 to 1866. After starring in the United States Haase was director of the Stadttheater at Leipzig (1871-76). Cf. Deutsches Zeitgenossen Lexikon, 509.

Page  167 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 167 of which are at present mere names, and the assertion was often made that this fine Roscius was presented in pieces of no dramatic merit whatsoever, such as Don Caesar de 1Bazano (a play popular also on the English-language stage of the time), Der dreissigste November (by Feldmann) and others. Haase was at his best in Gutzkow's K6nigsleutnant, Kotzebue's Die beiden Klingsberg, and a few more plays of their type. At a performance of the Gutzkow play on March 19 hundreds of disappointed patrons were turned from the doors of the theatre, unable to gain admission. The Berlin visitor was clearly outdrawing Fanny Janauschek, who, as we shall presently see, was again appearing at the Academy of Music. The remaining bright spots of the actor's repertoire consisted of Der Kaufmann von Venedig, Narciss and Heinrich von Kleist's Der zerbrocdene Krug. On April 9 Haase momentarily abandoned the field of comedy, just to show that he could don buskin as well as sock, if the occasion demanded. He played Hamlet, supported by Steglitz-Fuchs as Ophelia, and a crowded house witnessed one of the finest Hamlets ever seen on the local German stage. Friedrich Haase officially bade farewell to New York after his thirty-second appearance on May 8, but he participated in two subsequent benefits-one to the Hebrew Free School Association, the other to the ensemble of the Stadttheater. When he left for Germany he took with him as the fruits of his labor during his brief sojourn the sum of twenty thousand dollars, thus averaging over six hundred dollars for each performance.68 The Staatszeitung placed him in a class with Dawison 69 and in reporting his farewell appearances stated that the comedian received the greatest demonstrations ever accorded an artist at the Stadttheater. Each scene was said to have ended 68 OCf. B., May 28, 1869. s69 f. S., Mar. 24, 1869.

Page  168 168 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER in wildest applause, and when the final curtain fell, pandemonium reigned. Thus Hendrichs, Barendorf and Haase were the chief attractions of the season. Hamann and Rosenberg, however, anxious to atone for their sins of omission of the past year, summoned other foreigners to contribute to the entertainment and the edification of Bowery audiences. From the Deutsches National Theater in Pest came Carl Jendersky, the newly appointed "Oberregisseur" of the Theater, who entered upon his duties on September 4 in Benedix' four-act comedy Das Gefiingnis, and was seen, none too often, to be sure, throughout the winter. His principal r6les were in Die beziihx te Widerspenstige; in Bauernfeld's social drama Aus der Gesellschaft-the only novelty of the early season; in Faust, as Mephistopheles (together with Hendrichs); in Die Riiuber, as Karl; and iin n Glas Wasser (with Biirendorf). The Hungarian visitor was the author of the one-act "Festspiel" Vor hundert und neun Jahren, which formed part of the Schiller celebration on November 11; his popularity is attested by benefits tendered him on February 12 and May 6. On the latter date Haase and Frau Barendorf both lent their services in Birch-Pfeiffer's insignificant Nacht und Morgen. The house was sold out and Jendersky realized a thousand dollars.70 Heinrich D6belin of the Hoftheater in Schwerin, a specialist in musical farces and in light comedies, such as Dr. Fausts Hauskdippchen and Robert und Bertram oder die lustigen Vagabunden, came on November 7. During the first month of his visit he appeared rather frequently; thereafter, only irregularly, although he was on hand when the season closed in the middle of May. One of his favorite plays was a creation of his own- Lola Montez als Sdingerin, o7 Cf. S., May 7, 1869.

Page  169 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 169 oder Murrkopf muss Komadie spielen-which was not unpopular. Dobelin also played the leading part in New Yorker Leben, a very taking piece with music by Adolf Neuendorff, the three acts of which were headed respectively: "Frisch von Castle Garden," "In der Fiinften Avenue," and "In Jones Wood." Other newcomers were a certain Friulein Singer, an exmember of the Janauschek troupe, noted especially for her acting of Grillparzer's Sappho-; a Herr Wedderin of the Stadttheater in Diisseldorf; one Bertha Miller, who may have been local talent; and finally three new dwarfs (to match those of the last year): Commodore Foot, Eliza Restel and Colonel Small-vaudeville artists performing in English. None of these minor figures attracted more than average attention. With these numerous new arrivals and the three distinguished stage masters in the limelight most of the time, there was naturally little to do for the oldtime favorites Becker-Grahn, Steglitz-Fuchs, Augusta Hofl and poor Magda Irschick. In February the lastnamed, ever a victim of disappointments, finally left the company in a rage after a public letter to the Staatszeitung in which she declared that "an unjustifiable change had been arbitrarily made by the directors" in the program of a benefit about to be held in her honor.71 Little more remains to be said about the year of 1868-69 at the Stadttheater, for the high points have already been developed in connection with the leading guests. Noteworthy, perhaps, was the first American performance, on February 12, of Heinrich Laube's B6se Zungen, depicting the tragic suicide of von Bruck, an Austrian minister of finance. Worthy of mention is also the giving of Laube's revised version of Heinrich von Kleist's Das Kithchen von Heilbronn. And so we take leave of this season, the fif71 Cf. S., Feb. 16, 1869.

Page  170 170 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER teenth of the Hamann institution and the fifth in its new home-a season noted, on the one hand, for the relatively large number of new names of foreign actors appearing in the theatrical programs, notorious, on the other, for the increased friction attending the operation of the theatre. The year 1868-69 really marked the last season of a continuous run of dignified spoken drama at 45 Bowery. Thereafter the playhouse rapidly declined, first altering the character of its repertoire into one predominantly musical, then unable to keep up regular performances of any kind whatsoever. Only one more distinguished visitor from abroadan actress-was to grace its boards before the hall was finally darkened, so that the rest of our narrative will not prove particularly gratifying. While the Stadttheater was slowly dying, as it were, we are obliged to call attention to other dramatic undertakings, all of them short-lived and, with perhaps one or two exceptions, not highly important. They are given here rather to complete the picture which we have made it our task to portray than for the purpose of trying to embellish it. 2. OTHER PERFORMANCES IN GERMAN Undismayed, it would seem, by the small-sized audiences that she had often been compelled to face on her previous visit, Fanny Janauschek returned to the Academy of Music in the fall of 1868, opening on October 6 with Schiller's Die Braut von Messina. On this visit, too, the actress was her own directress, selecting the now familiar Oscar Guttmann 72 as her stage manager. As before, she imported her entire company and brought along a special wardrobe from Vienna. Her present stay, however, was limited to eight appearances, including one in Brooklyn, and it 72 Cf. p. 9, Note 19.

Page  171 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 171 terminated on October 17 with Medea. Phiadra, Deborah, Maria Stuart and Albert Lindner's 73 tragedy Katharina die Zweite completed Janauschek's program. On November 7 the tragedienne was reported as having engaged with Booth in a bi-lingual presentation of Macbeth before an audience of four thousand at Boston! 74 Later she was seen in Buffalo and in Chicago. She returned to New York in the spring for a short season, which extended from March 29 to April 24, but the synchronous presence of Friedrich Haase at the Stadttheater seriously affected the size of her audiences. We note with interest that one of the plays in which Janauschek appeared at this time was Elisabeth, Ksnigin von England, the translation of a fiveact drama which the Italian Paolo Giacometti had written especially for the great Ristori.75 The minor German stages of New York, which, needless to say, had continued to exist all during the sixties although they had been completely overshadowed by the Stadttheater, began to gain again in importance in proportion as the latter waned. One of the best, a new venture called Dramatischer Verein Urania, opened in a hall at 334-44 West Forty-fourth Street on November 7 and continued to give weekly performances during the entire winter and spring of 1869. Die Grille, Anne-Liese and Kabale und Liebe were among the plays given. Members were required to pay monthly dues of one dollar, which entitled them to free admittance. Many actors connected with the big Ger73 Albert Lindner (1831-88), born at Sulza, achieved his earliest success with the tragedy Brutus und Collatinus (1866), which gained for its author the Kbnig Wilhelm prize and was given on almost all German stages. Lindner specialized in tragedies. In addition to the above-mentioned work his Don Juan d'Austria and Die Bluthochzeit were also seen in New York. Cf. Briimmer, IV, 271. 74 Cf. S., Nov. 7, 1868. 75 Cf. S., Mar. 29, 1869.

Page  172 172 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER man stage down town appeared at the new hall, among them the veterans Worret, Fritze, Schmidt and Frau Hiibner. Later on, the deeply chagrined Magda Irschick, Steglitz-Fuchs and Clsar Frank lent dignity to the enterprise by their presence. Even so, the venture was too, temporary and performances too infrequent to warrant further consideration here. F. THE SEASON OF 1869-70 1. THE TERRACE GARDEN SUMMER THEATRE When the summer of 1869 came around, many German Thespians in town found themselves in dire financial straits, so that a new theatre, known as the Terrace Garden Sommer Theater, was organized. Terrace Garden Hall is still standing at Fifty-eighth Street between Third and Lexington Avenues, and up to a few years ago was a favorite haunt of German societies. The new stage was owned by Ernst Bernett, who employed Julius Herrmann as his director and Adolf Neuendorff as leader of the orchestra. A large number of actors and actresses flocked to the up-town theatre, among them the discontented element of the Bowery and others who needed to increase their incomes in order to tide them over the summer. On the programs could be read the names of Hiibsch, Stemmler, Schwan, Koppe, Volklandt, Frank, Dombrowsky, Steglitz-Fuchs, Becker-Grahn and others-surely a formidable ensemble of talented and trained artists. During the entire months of July and August light comedies were given, usually of a type which allowed the best of the players mentioned above little opportunity to exhibit their histrionic skill in its most advantageous light. An idea of the repertoire may be obtained from the closing bill of the summer, on September 4: the two comedies, Rezept gegen Schwvieger

Page  173 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 173 miitter and Wenn Frauen weinen, together with a burlesque of Friedrich entitled Ein Zimmer mit zwei Betten. The hot season was not productive of a heavy dramatic diet. 2. THE STADTTHEATER Profiting by its unhappy experience of the preceding season, when the unduly early opening on August 31 resulted in a series of poor houses during the first few weeks, the Stadttheater did not reopen this year until September 13. The first visitor was the ever welcome Otto Hoym, now back from Germany, where he had won fresh laurels.76 He came on September 16 for a series of eight evenings, terminating on October 1 with a "Benefiz" in which Frau Elise graciously joined. Die Riuber, Das Kithchen von Heilbronn, Uriel Acosta and Zopf und Schwert formed the better half of his repertoire. Before the season was two weeks old, Albert Kessler, an actor of considerable experience who had been invited from Wiesbaden, assumed the duties of stage manager. Kessler participated in the Hoym benefit, an occasion which also marked the introduction of the Franko family of musical prodigies, among them Sam and Nahan, aged respectively ten and seven. Both the Frankos later became musicians of repute, and Nahan is still remembered by older frequenters of the Metropolitan Opera House as erstwhile first violin there. But this promising beginning was not maintained. Early in the year it became clear that the Germans in New York were no longer sufficiently interested in the dramatic offerings of the house to justify the giving of plays on each night, wherefore the hall was turned over once a week to the Deutsche Operngesellschaft, advertised as under the 76 Cf. p. 161.

Page  174 174 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER management of Grau. Operas such as Die Zauberfl6te, Faust, ]Fidelio and Martha were sung there with fair success. Indeed, this was but a symptom of the times. Even when the Operngesellschaft was not performing, musical plays began to displace the spoken drama more and more. A new guest, Emma Wiese of the Stadttheater in Diisseldorf, made her debut on October 4 in Die Dame mit den Camelien.77 Although given four engagements within a week and heralded as a creditable acquisition, she was not again permitted to tread the boards until December 1, when she appeared in Schiller's Jung frau von Orleans. How fast the tottering playhouse was crumbling may be gathered from the fact that this was one of but four classical performances that the entire season produced! Nor did it redound greatly to the credit of the Staatszeitung that this newspaper seized upon the very first occasion to print a drastic warning that classical plays were absolutely beyond the scope and the possibilities of the Stadttheater and had better not be attempted at all! 78 Of Wiese nothing further is heard until February 2, when she was the medium of introducing another Mosenthal novelty, Isabella Orsini oder das Opfer der Medici, which had received its initial performance only three months before at Vienna and was already a drawing card in Germany. That its success in New York was, at best, very dubious, may be attributed in part to the sinister conditions that were now prevailing in Little Germany 's theatre and, in part, to the fact already established that tastes in the Old World and the New were not alike.79 77 It was from the pen of Karl Ludwig Alvensleben, who was born in Berlin in 1800 and died in Vienna in 1868. He managed the Hoftheater in Meiningen in 1836. Cf. Briimmer, I, 56. 78 Cf. S., Dec. 1, 1869. 79 Cf. p. 121 f.

Page  175 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 175 The transformation of the Stadttheater from its original character as a house of drama into a hall of music was progressing with accelerated speed. Realizing that melody was to so large an extent displacing speech, Hamann and Rosenberg acted accordingly and for their next visitor engaged a famous opera soubrette of the Hoftheater in St. Petersburg, Elsa Chorherr. This singer, who electrified "Kleindeutschland" from the very beginning, at once became the busiest and the most popular member of the company; she turned out to be the one and only "star" of the year. Indeed her art may be said to have definitely and finally shaped the character of the repertoire during the entire season-prevailingly one of musical comedy. And so, even though she properly belongs to the field of the operetta, we shall have to introduce her into our tale, if only for a moment, in order to follow the course of our Stadttheater. Mme Chorherr was presented on October 15 in the popular opera bouffe Die schbne Helena (by Dohm-Offenbach), achieved a complete triumph and continued thereafter to draw large houses even at increased prices. By January 12 the soprano had been heard no fewer than forty times, and before the close of the season she had broken all records for the number of appearances of any guest on the Bowery in a single year! Her singing, dancing and feminine charm were obviously just what Little Germany most desired. On January 12 she was seen for the first time in Die Herzogin von Gerolstein, a comic opera in four acts by Meilhac and Halevy, also composed by Offenbach and arranged for the German stage by Hopp. The operetta was brilliantly costumed and staged and at once made such a hit that it reached its fourteenth performance by February 1. On the fifteenth of that month a similar comic opera by the same authors-it was called Blaubart-scored an equally great success. These two

Page  176 176 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER musical plays, together with Die sch6ne Helena, were indisputably the leading numbers of the year. Associated with Mme Chorherr in these charming Offenbach operettas as well as in similar works was another important guest, Robert Guthery, a comedian of the Stadttheater in Hamburg, who began his sojourn here on November 6 in the Angely comedy Von sieben die hiisslichste. With Guthery came his wife Marie, although she rarely played after the evening of their debut. Guthery was acclaimed a second L'Arronge, and one never seemed to tire of him. He was particularly successful in the often repeated "Zeitbild" Barbara Ubryck oder das Verbrechen im Kloster zu Krakau by one Louis Schmitzer. But although musical diet was served to the patrons of the Stadttheater in such generous portions during this season, an occasional relish of spoken drama did, as we have indeed already observed, lend variety to the menu. Between October 18 and November 12 the familiar Ottilie Genee, now a member of the Deutsches Theater in San Francisco, was granted nine guest engagements. She introduced, on November 8, a new five-act comedy, Schleicher und Genoassen, which made free use of the plot of Sheridan's School for Scandal. Rudolf Genee, the well-known dramatic critic and brother of Ottilie, was the author, but his play, in direct contrast with the original on which it was based, met with no success whatsoever. A weak attempt to bolster up the classical drama at the Bowery playhouse was made when a young beginner, Neville by name, of the Court Theatre at Vienna, was imported and given two engagements on October 23 and December 10, both in Othello. However, these performances passed all but unnoticed, for this was not a year of the cothurnus. On March 16 came two more guests, Hedwig Hesse and an old acquaintance, Eduard Harting, who were seen jointly on ten evenings. Half of their engagement was

Page  177 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 177 given over to a five-act "Lebensbild" by one Hugo Miller: Von Stufe zu Stufe oder zwanzig Jahre aus dem Leben einer Frau, which drew capacity houses. The season calls for little additional comment. A version of Uncle Tom's Cabin (Onkel Toms Hiitte--amerikanisches Zeitgemdilde in drei Abteilungen von Therese Meyerle, nach Harriet Beecher Stowe) was again 80 attempted but did not strike the popular fancy. On March 9 came Achtzehnsechsundsechzig oder aus bewegter Zeit, Volksstilck in drei Akten von Emil Pokl, but the stirring events of 1870 were only a few months off and the GermanAmericans preferred to forget the recent enmity between Austria and Prussia, so that the piece was sharply resented and characterized as a bit of "shallow patriotism." s81 Equally unsuccessful was the novelty Abraham Lincoln, nach einer englischen Idee fiir die deutsche Bihne, von Eduard Mollner,"2 which was rejected as a tiresome, undramatic play. During the final week of the season, on May 11, an unheralded visitor from unknown parts named Guth appeared in Das Kdtthchen von Heilbronn, but was called upon to act only three times. The regular season of the Theater ended on the 16th with Benedix' comedy Der Steckbrief, but a few special performances were appended, for on May 18 there was a "Fiinfundzwanzigjiahriges Jubillium" in honor of the veteran Schwan, and two days later a benefit was tendered to another member of long standing, Fritze. 3. THE TERRACE GARDEN WINTER THEATRE During the winter of 1869-70 it was becoming more and more apparent that the time-honored Stadttheater had passed the zenith of its existence and had entered upon a 80 Cf. p. 65. 81 Cf. S., Mar. 10, 1870. 82 Cf. S., Apr. 27, 1870.

Page  178 178 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER period of rapid decline. The frequent clashes that Hamann and Rosenberg had had in the preceding year with the German-language press certainly did not help their house. Even though the Staatszeitung did generally give to the theatre that degree of publicity which it would naturally accord to one of its regular subscribers and advertisers, there was little warmth and enthusiasm in the meagre articles that were now printed. As for the Belletristisches Journal, it had dropped the Theater from its columns almost entirely, except occasionally to attack the management for the inferior calibre of the prevailing repertoire. The actors, too, were fast losing heart, since the preponderance of musical plays naturally demanded a different type of artist and afforded the older members little chance to appear before the footlights. We have seen that even actresses of the ability of Becker-Grahn and SteglitzFuchs gradually disappeared from the playbills; and feeling themselves more and more superfluous, they finally left the Bowery. Unquestionably the "star system" was coming into vogue, so that a few select satellites, especially those of marked vocal ability, were constantly employed to the exclusion of the rest. Finally we must not forget that we have now reached the year 1870, and the momentous political events across the sea, which deeply engrossed Little Germany's attention, were naturally not conducive to an active interest in the serious drama. The result of all these unsatisfactory conditions in the German theatrical world on the lower East Side was an attempt to establish a new stage-a plan to which the Terrace Garden venture of the previous summer gave an additional impetus. As the city was steadily expanding northward on Manhattan Island, Fifty-eighth Street, even though it lay two miles above "Kleindeutschland," was no longer considered an impossible location for a theatre. At

Page  179 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 179 any rate, it was decided to build upon the beginning that had been made, and on October 1 Ernst Bernett opened the Terrace Garden Winter Theater, with George Stemmler as director, W. Volklandt as stage manager and Carl Richter as conductor of the orchestra, to replace Adolf Neuendorff, who had returned to the Stadttheater for the regular season there. Steglitz-Fuchs and Hiibsch were also included in the company. Admission was fixed at the unusually low rates of fifty to fifteen cents! While the repertoire was, in general, of no higher quality than that down town, and while the stage apparatus was undoubtedly primitive in comparison with that of any regular theatre, attempts were occasionally made to present plays that were worth while, such as Die beizdhmte Widerspenstige (on October 5), Narciss (October 14), Uriel Acosta (October 15), etc. On October 8 Otto Hoym, after his visit to the Stadttheater, joined the company at the Terrace Garden, appearing some ten times within the next six weeks. And between November 23 and December 3 Ottilie Genee was seen four times by large audiences in her comic roles. That Bernett was thus running more than an average "Dilettantentheater" would appear from the fact that he was attracting such guests as these, as well as from the most encouraging publicity that the Belletristisches Journal gave him at this time." Other visitors at the new hall were a certain Emmeline BSller of the Stadttheater in Chicago and a Friulein Petersen of the Stadttheater in St. Louis. Yet in spite of this hopeful beginning in the autumn, the Terrace Garden undertaking gradually faded out; perhaps in part because its location was after all too remote from the section of down-town New York, where the Germans were still densely congregated, in part because the 83 Cf. B., Dec. 3, 1869.

Page  180 180 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER German-speaking public was losing interest in dramatics. Indeed we note that even the English stage in town was at this time at one of its lowest ebbs.84 Unable, then, to attract audiences, the troupe soon started to travel. It journeyed to Brooklyn (October 13), to Hoboken (November 1), to Newark (November 15) and again to Hoboken (December 6), and finally established itself at Miinziger Hall, located in Thirty-second Street near Sixth Avenue (March 26, 1870). Although performances were thus continued at intervals throughout the winter, they became less and less frequent, so that they require no further consideration. On June 8, however, Terrace Garden was reopened for the summer season of 1870 and again proved a haven of refuge for the needy artists of the Stadttheater. G. THE SEASON OF 1870-71 1. GENERAL REVIEW OF THE SEASON In the autumn of the year 1870 the theatrical affairs of Little Germany were, indeed, in a sad state, for New York found itself without a regular house of dignified spoken drama in the German language. The stage of Hamann and Rosenberg had completely ousted the dramatic muse and was now producing only operas and operettas, and the performances of German plays that took place at Terrace Garden were, after all, very irregular in occurrence and left much to be desired. There remained, then, only the "Dilettantentheater," such as existed at the Turnhalle and at a few beer and wine halls. The coming winter brought little change for the better at any of the stages familiar to the German element of the town. The season in Terrace Garden continued to be of minor importance and was devoted exclusively to trivial s4 Cf. B., Sept. 10, 1869.

Page  181 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 181 comedies. W. Rohde was the director, and Mollenhauer, who later became prominent in local musical circles, led the orchestra. The ensemble consisted, for the most part, of former members of the Stadttheater, such as Fritze, Schwan, Colmar, Lobe, and the actresses Schermann, Rohde and Hiibner, whom the operatic company at the Bowery hall had displaced. The unfortunate actors were probably more bent on earning a few dollars than on raising artistic standards. Old familiar faces were disappearing. Otto Hoym was spending the year in Germany and just recovering from a severe attack of rheumatism, and the popular Antonie Becker-Grahn died during the winter. Fanny Janauschek was still in town, but no longer on the German boards. This remarkable woman, following the example of Bandmann and Methua-Scheller, had spent a year preparing herself for the English stage and made her debut during the current year. Augustin Daly gave her an engagement at the Academy of Music, where she won instant recognition, especially in Deborah and in Mary Stuart. The New York Herald compared her mastery of English with that of Fechter, who had the reputation of being at that time the greatest German actor on the English stage, and who aroused considerable attention when he came to New York from London for a series of performances. Of Janauschek 's first interpretation of Mary Stuart in English the Herald said in part: It was the first representation of this gifted and artistic actress of the part in the English tongue on any stage, and added a green and living leaf to the clustering wreath of triumphs which already crowns her brow.85 So successful was Janauschek in her new venture that she is reported to have cleared the sum of twenty thousand 85 New York Herald, Oct. 14, 1870.

Page  182 182 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER dollars during the season.86 We shall have further occasion to refer to her appearances on the English stage in another connection. With the exception of a very few insignificant comedies and farces-Salingree's Pech-Schulze, of course, among them-our good old Stadttheater persisted in carrying on an almost unbroken season of opera throughout the year. Of interest, we may say in passing, was the first American performance of Wagner's Lohengrin on April 3, 1871, with Mme Lichtmay as Elsa and Habelmann in the title role. This opera proved to be very popular and was heard a dozen times during the few remaining weeks of the spring. There is but one great interruption in this endless run of farces and opera, and that began on January 9, 1871, when Hamann and Rosenberg suddenly invited a very great German actress; but only after she had come to New York on her own impulse, after she had for weeks amazed audiences and critics by her marvelous acting in a theatre on Fourteenth Street, and after she had engaged in a tour of the West which, for length and brilliancy, far surpassed anything of its kind. Marie Seebach was the latest and, as far as our narrative is concerned, the last great histrionic genius that drew the eyes of all. So powerful was she and so lonely in her grandeur that, if ever a year may be called a "one-star season," this was true of the present one. The Stadttheater sunned itself in her glory for nine weeks extending from January 9 till March 13, and it must be said thereby retrieved a goodly portion of its failures. Seebach, however, as we have said, originally came to New York, as Janauschek had done, independently of any local enterprise. Because of her greatness and because of her unique position we must not only devote an entire section to a review of her work but we may consider that section 86 B., Apr. 21, 1871.

Page  183 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 183 as concluding all that is worth mentioning in connection with the theatrical year of 1870-71. 2. MARE SEEBACH 87 Marie Seebach, around whose activity the entire dramatic season revolved and who in Europe had enjoyed the reputation of being one of the finest Continental actresses of her age, came to the United States under the management of Grau. Like Fanny Janauschek, she brought her own special company; she opened her visit in the Fourteenth Street Theatre (located just west of Sixth Avenue) on September 22. This was the former French theatre and the house at which Adelaide Ristori had thrilled vast audiences only a few years before. Seebach made her American debut as Gretchen in Faust and at once created a sensation. Scenes of wildest applause attended her opening performance, and at the end of the tragedy she was the recipient of a demonstration such as even a Dawison might have envied. The actress was seen on twenty-seven occasions during her first cycle of performances, which ended with Die b ezihmte Widerspenstige on October 29. Her repertoire, together with the number of her appearances in each play, was as 87 Marie Seebach was born at Riga in 1829 as the daughter of a comedian, was given her first training in dramatics by Roderich Benedix and made her d6but at Kissingen at the early age of thirteen. Thereafter she appeared principally in Nuremberg, Liibeck, Danzig and Hamburg in classical as well as popular plays, and was especially successful in Kean and Dorf und Stadt. In 1854 she came to Laube in Vienna and from that year on was considered Germany's greatest tragedienne. In 1857 she went to Hanover, remaining there till 1866. On her American tour which we are about to review, Grau placed her in charge of her own company at a salary of one hundred thousand francs. After returning to Germany Seebach acted at Dresden, Berlin and Weimar. She died at St. Moritz in the Engadin in 1897. Cf. A. D. B., LIV, 298; also Laube, 235 f.

Page  184 184 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER follows: Faust (3), Maria Stuart (7), Scribe's Valerie die Blinde (3), Eine Tasse Tee-by one Drost-(2), Die Waise von Lowood (5), Kabale und Liebe (2), Benedix' Mathilde (2), Adrienne Lecouvreur (4) and Die beiihmte Widerspenstige (1). Her chief support and by far the most valuable asset of an otherwise mediocre company was Mathilde Veneta of the Court Theatre of Vienna, who, besides ably assisting Seebach, appeared, on evenings when the star did not act, as the leading lady in the two never failing favorites of Deborah and Narciss. Marie Seebach was deluged with outbursts of lavish praise by both the German- and the English-language press. The Staatszeitung consistently characterized her acting as a masterpiece without equal. Long articles could be read in the Belletristisches Journal lauding her achievements and analyzing in greatest detail her various impersonations. In reviewing her first visit the critic wrote in part: The artistic significance of Frau Seebach is found in the tenderness, the delicacy, the grace and the warmth of her creations. Never has the "eternal feminine" been more perfectly delineated on the stage than in her.88 And later in the course of a second engagement, when Seebach (as Kriemhild) and Veneta (as Brunhild) appeared in Hebbel's Nibelungen, one reads of them: The portrayal of the characters by Seebach and Veneta was perfect in every particular. The scene in Brunhild's castle, the famous girdle scene before the cathedral at Worms, finally Kriemhild's grand closing scene and oath of vengeance at the bier of her murdered husband-never has dramatic art celebrated greater triumphs.89 One of the crucial tests to which every aspiring actress of 88 B., Nov. 4, 1870. 89 B., Mar. 24, 1871.

Page  185 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 185 the mid-century stage was subjected by critics and audiences alike was the role of Adrienne Lecouvreur, created by Scribe and Legouve especially for Rachel. Tragediennes were judged and rated according to their portrayal of this part, in which Rachel, Ristori and Janauschek had scored sweeping triumphs. Yet in spite of these illustrious predecessors Seebach's acting of Adrienne was conceded to be truly great. Once again the English-language newspapers-among others the New York Herald and the New York Timeswhich could be persuaded to give German theatricals publicity only when a Bandmann, a Dawison, a Haase or a Janauschek was on hand, opened their columns to a German artist and to the German drama. Seebach easily surpassed every one of her distinguished colleagues in the degree of publicity she received in these newspapers. Especially warm in its eulogistic utterances was the Herald, for it not only printed lengthy columns about the star under its "amusement" caption, but it set an entirely new precedent by honoring her on several occasions with editorials! The actress had not yet been seen here for two weeks when one of the latter appeared under the title "Seebach and Her Success"': This grand artist opened a new page in her repertoire during the past week, when she assumed the duplicate phases of deeply touching drama and comedy on the same night in Scribe's play of "Valerie the Blind Orphan" and the little comedietta "A Cup of Tea." We had thus an opportunity of judging of Seebach's versatility of genius. It was this characteristic, perhaps, as much as the grandeur with which she clothes the deepest tragedies of Schiller and Goethe and Shakespeare, that obtained for her so wide a fame in Europe. We have seen her already in "Maria Stuart," and we know how superbly she rose out of the conventionalities of the actress into the reality of sorrow and

Page  186 186 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER misfortune and humble pride and defiant womanhood and martyrdom in all the late gloomy days of the poor queen of Scots. We are glad that the public can enjoy that wondrous piece of acting again tomorrow night. It has perhaps never been equalled on the American stage. To say that in many passages of this part Seebach excels Ristori is praise great indeed, but yet it is not undeserved. Apart from the pleasure which the success of Seebach affords to the attraction of the theatrical season the effect in exalting the taste for high dramatic art is more important.90 Two days later one reads: "Pure heart, high thought, noble aspiration, untiring toil." Such is the motto in which an impartial hand has justly characterized the career and mental attitude of Marie Seebach, the "Rachel" of Germany. The same hand ought to have added perfect grace, touching sweetness, commanding dignity-a face resplendent with intellectual radiance... every inch a queen.91 Undoubtedly the finest journalistic tribute ever paid the German muse in New York by an English newspaper was contained in an editorial entitled "Seebach and Janauschek." The latter actress, we have remarked, had gone over to the English-language stage and was just at this time (in October) bowing to her first audiences. The Herald said: This will be a brilliant day in the record of what promises to be one of the most brilliant dramatic seasons that New York has ever witnessed, even in her palmiest time. While manifold attractions of scenery, costume and artistic effort are held forth to captivate the public in the theatres and halls devoted to native talent, our great city at the same hour enjoys the presence of two most gifted women trained in the highest histrionic schools and on the most celebrated boards of the Old World-Madame Seebach, whose chosen and most successful task is to embody in living, breathing impersonations the ideals of the best dramatic literary genius of Germany, as well as of other lands and of 90 New York Herald, Oct. 2, 1870. 91 New York Herald, Oct. 4, 1870.

Page  187 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 187 classic and contemporaneous days, in the language of her own race, and Janauschek, who adds to corresponding gifts the acquisition of the English tongue. The first of these accomplished artists is the very dream of grace, purity, gentleness and womanly emotion that inspired Goethe and Schiller, when their muse interpreted the innocent beauty and the heart-breaking sorrows of Gretchen and of Louise Miller; the other has the grandeur and the force of form, the commanding port, the severe Greek contour that absolutely realize before us on the stage the "Medea" and the "Antigone" of the ancient masters of dramatic writing. And here we have them both striving in noble emulation on the American stage and in the highest walks of art. What a conjunction of intellectual stars in one fair firmament! The splendid capitals of Europe may well envy us the fortune that has redoubled our artistic light while half eclipsing theirs.92 Less emotional but none the less positive in its recognition of Marie Seebach's merits was the New York Times, when it said: Of her Maria Stuart we cannot speak with too enthusiastic praise. In this splendid embodiment there is absolutely nothing to desire.93 An article in which Seebach's acting of Luise in Kabale und Liebe is discussed, gains additional interest inasmuch as it sheds light on the attitude with which that tragedy was regarded in certain American circles. It reads, in part, as follows: "Kabale und Liebe," one of the most intense, if not the most artistic of Schiller's tragedies, was on Thursday night represented at the Fourteenth Street Theatre before a large and enthusiastic audience. The plot of this drama is one of those peculiarly disagreeable stories in which the German mind finds a peculiar delight, and the histrionic portrayal of the sorrows and sufferings of Louisa Miller has always been a favorite with our Teutonic 92 New York Herald, Oct. 15, 1870. 93 New York Times, Oct. 2, 1870.

Page  188 188 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER fellow citizens. [Here follows the plot.] The character of the heroine seems especially adapted to MMme Seebach's great abilities, and she interpreted it with a sweetness, and elevated pathos and a profound and mournful tenderness which made a deep impression on her hearers.... Those of our readers who have not yet seen Mme Seebach should make it a point to do so before her engagement is over or they will have to regret missing one of the finest artists that has ever appeared on the American stage.94 Finally, in its review of Seebach, at the termination of her engagement, the Times said: She is an actress of infinite delicacy, pathos, insight and imagination-of the technical details of her profession she is the supreme mistress. Each character in which she appeared has been a clean-cut, substantial and admirable study, etc.95 After the completion of her program at the Fourteenth Street Theatre the renowned daughter of Riga played Maria Stuart in Brooklyn, Adrienne Lecouvreur at Wallach's, and then undertook a long tour of the East and the Middle West during November and December. In reviewing her activities the Staatszeitung in its Sunday issue of January 1, 1871, gives the following tabulations of Seebach performances: In New York (28), Chicago (9), St. Louis (7), Philadelphia (6), Cincinnati (6), Baltimore (3), Milwaukee (3), Cleveland (3), Detroit (3), Louisville (3), Pittsburg (2), Hartford (2), Brooklyn (1), New Haven (1), Indianapolis (1), Columbus (1), Toledo (1)-a total of eighty performances in seventeen cities, in the course of which the following thirteen plays were given: Maria Stuart (20),9" Die Waise von Lowood (18), Faust (11), 94 New York Times, Oct. 16, 1870. 95 New York Times, Oct. 30, 1870. 96 Figures in parentheses indicate the respective number of performances.

Page  189 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 189 Adrienne Lecouvreur (7), Kabale und Liebe (6), Valerie (4), Narciss (3), Mathilde (2), Eine Tasse Tee (2), Die beziahmte Widerspenstige (2), Romeo und Juliet (2), Deborah (2) and Egmont (1). But Seebach was to more than double this achievement before the season ended. Hamann and Rosenberg, at last realizing that a star of unusual magnitude had come to our shores and was within easy reach, decided that it would not be a bad idea to interrupt their season of opera and invite the renowned guest. And so she came on January 9, as we have said, and in the next two months unfolded practically her entire repertoire. With the exception of Deborah, Seebach interpreted all her roles in the above-listed dramas and was likewise seen in Dorf und Stadt, Die Rmhuber, Griseldis, Die Jungfrau von Orleans, Emilia Galotti, Anne-Liese, Das Kdthchen von Heilbronn, Hamlet, Die Grille, Die eine weint, die andere laccht, Isabelle von Orsini and Hebbel's Nibelungen. Thus she impersonated no less than twenty-four different characters on forty-six occasions in the relatively short period of nine weeks! Once more the Stadttheater showed a flash of its former brilliancy, once more the worshipers of the serious muse thronged the Bowery. It was indeed a great splurge, but it proved to be the only one of the year, and, as far as the playhouse at No. 45 was concerned, the final one for all times. After closing at the Stadttheater on March 13, Seebach made a flying trip to Washington, where she acted Adrienne Lecouvreur before a select audience including President Grant himself.97 She then returned to the Fourteenth Street Theatre for a week, adding Desdemona to her interpretations. Next followed a short tour of the East, which took her to Bridgeport, New Haven, Boston, Buffalo 97 Cf. S., Mar. 16, 1871.

Page  190 190 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER and Newark, and finally two farewell appearances at the Stadttheater (April 8 and 13) and two at the Fourteenth Street Theatre (April 26 and 28). During her spring season Seebach added to the dramas in which she was seen Holtei's Lenore oder die Todtenbraut, and two inferior comedies, Erziehungsresultate by Karl Blum and Im Wartesaal erster Klasse by Hugo Miiller. A summary of the entire sojourn of the illustrious visitor in the United States reveals the fact that within seven months she gave a hundred and seventy representations of thirty different roles in twenty-two cities-a record probably not equaled by any foreign-language actor in this land! It was to be expected that the unusual artistic success of Marie Seebach would have been matched by a corresponding financial result, but this was unfortunately not the case. In New York the" Seebachabende" were often poorly attended. Even as early as October 4 the New York Herald, struck by the apathy of a theatre public that had only a few years before struggled for a chance to see a Dawison and a Haase, said: Withal the American observer cannot help wondering at the absence of the throngs of our German society, which we would naturally expect to see doing honor to the advent of so fair and pure a star from the Fatherland.98 To be sure, the "Gastspiele" coincided closely with the stirring events of the Franco-Prussian War, and the celebration of this or that military victory, together with the final festival of peace, was bound to be paramount in the interests of the average German of New York; on the other hand, there was no rival on the German stage to detract from Seebach. The press tried to account for this spirit of indifference to the famous visitor by an alleged lack of 98 New York Herald, Oct. 4, 1870.

Page  191 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 191 novelty in her repertoire-a frank admission that Schiller, Goethe and Shakespeare must have been regarded as out of fashion! However that may be, it does seem to be a fact that "Kleindeutschland" had for the time being lost interest in the higher drama-an assertion which can be substantiated by the absence of a worthy German stage during the next few years. By way of a pleasant contrast we may record that the Germans outside New York supported Seebach far better than their fellow-countrymen in the metropolis. H. THE SEASON OF 1871-72 1. THE SUMMER OF 1871 During the late summer of the year a new theatrical enterprise was established in Weber's Germania Theater, located in Hoboken at 68-74 Hudson Street. Performances were advertised to be given by "the leading actors of the New York Stadttheater under the direction of Richard Homann." 99 The first one took place on August 15; others followed sparingly at the rate of one per week, but as no plays of importance were given we may dismiss the undertaking without further comment. 2. THE STADTTHEATER The Stadttheater, which, as we have observed, had been gradually failing for the past few years, was now in truth a dying institution. In the summer of the year 1871 various contradictory reports were circulating on the Bowery, some foretelling the reopening of the house, others predicting its demise, when suddenly on August 15 an 99Cf. S., Aug. 15, 1871.

Page  192 192 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER advertisement appeared in the Staatszeitung offering the hall for rent! And so we are not surprised to learn that when the theatre reopened on September 18 it was no longer under the directorship of Hamann and Rosenberg but in the hands of the "German Opera Company," managed by Carl Rosa and our familiar "Kapellmeister," Adolf Neuendorff. Four operas were produced weekly, and the genius of Wachtel, foremost German tenor of the day, kept up the attendance during the late fall until November 15, when the company withdrew from the hall. A single dramatic performance interrupted this run of music on October 17, when the large sum of three thousand dollars was realized at a benefit tendered to the stricken city of Chicago-for it was just after the destructive conflagration. This performance is of interest from another point of view, inasmuch as it marks the reentry of Daniel Bandmann into the closing pages of our narrative. After his long absence,100 which had taken him to England and Australia, the actor returned to New York and in September began an engagement on the English-language stage at the Grand Opera House. But the success which had crowned his efforts abroad did not smile upon him here, and after two weeks, during which he was seen chiefly in Narcissus and The Merchant of Venice, he had to give up. Thereafter the scion of the Turnhalle decided once more to follow the German muse; not only did he appear at the above-mentioned benefit (in Ein Glas Wasser) but we shall note that he was prominently identified with the last futile attempts to restore the failing house. The departure of the German Opera Company from the Stadttheater on November 15 left the hall in darkness for a fortnight until Bandmann staged Hamlet there on the o00 Cf. p. 146; also 160 f.

Page  193 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 193 30th. On the same date this actor is reported to have engaged the theatre until January 1, 1872, yet it remained empty until December 11, when it was once more lighted up for a run of ten performances of Benedix' one-act comedy Die Eifersiichtigen. Another pause ensued and then came another reopening on Christmas Day, this time more promising but, as it turned out, equally short-lived. Again Bandmann headed the company, in which are to be noted the names of Worret, Schwan, Fortner, Klein, Rohde, Wiese, Hiibner and others. Die Rduber, Uriel Acosta, Kbnig Richard III and Narciss were given with Bandmann always in the leading roles, but the old spell was gone and at the close of the holiday week on January 2 the company disbanded. After a further lapse of a week the doors were again thrown open, and between the dates of January 8 and February 14 the Mulder-Fabbri Company of French Opera entertained its guests there. Then followed a long interval extending from February 15 to March 24, during which the building was unoccupied. For the succeeding two weeks-i.e., from March 25 until April 7-there were intermittent representations of no account, but on April 8 another serious start was taken. Daniel Bandmann, Mathilde Veneta and Oscar Guttmann (who was the director of the German theatre in New Orleans at the time) now took the German muse in hand, introducing her with Die Karlsschiiler. This attempt, however, also lasted only twelve days, during which its mainstay was Anzengruber's Der Pfarrer von Kirchfeld, given on six consecutive evenings! The rest of the repertoire consisted of Graf Essex, Narciss and Die Rduber, Schiller's tragedy enjoying the strong cast of Bandmann (Franz), Veneta (Amalie) and the indefatigable Otto Hoym (Karl). The last-mentioned had just returned from Germany, con

Page  194 194 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER demned by fate, as it were, to witness the death struggle of the institution he had been instrumental in founding eighteen years earlier! From April 20 until April 28 the Stadttheater remained inactive, but on the 29th the Fabbri Opera Company came to reoccupy the hall until the 10th of the following month. Birch-Pfeiffer's Der Goldbauer was played on May 17, and during the next four weeks there were sporadic offerings of second- and third-rate comedies, in some of which Hoym appeared. On June 16 the moribund Theater closed for the season, if we may dignify with that term the fitful year which we have just reviewed; and on the very next day Hoym and the other actors were reported as fleeing to Hoboken where they were occasionally seen in the summer at Weber's. 3. THE MINOR GERMAN STAGE The Terrace Garden Theater had reopened on October 13, 1871, under the direction of a new leader, Rudolf Beckier, who was in charge of a group of players that included such familiar names as Wiese, Harting and Koppe. However, performances were not given with any degree of regularity and therefore merit no further attention. On December 3, Beckier moved into new quarters and opened what was known as the Vierunddreissigste Strasse Theater, located between Second and Third Avenues. The hall could accommodate eighteen hundred persons, but the venture proved to be another flash in the pan and was soon lost sight of. The "Liebhabertheater" in the Turnhalle continued to function, and there were performances of comedies and farces in the Old Bowery (now the Thalia), but these we may pass over since they were of no consequence.

Page  195 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 195 I. THE SUMMER AND AUTUMN OF 1872--THE END OF THE STADTTHEATER From the disheartening developments of the season of 1871-72, as we have just outlined them, it was obvious that the time-honored Stadttheater was now breathing its last. It had long since forfeited the right to be classified as a dignified permanent stage. Fully a year earlier its directors Hamann and Rosenberg had quietly laid down their burden. A theatrical manager with the qualifications and the financial backing necessary to launch a new Deutsches Theater seemed to be lacking. Moreover the growing indifference of the German-Americans to their dramatic muse was a serious obstacle, and it was not in the least surprising that those interested in dramatics should have hesitated, at this inauspicious time, to embark on a new venture in a field that held forth such slight promise of success. Yet it was felt that something had to be done, for Little Germany's innate idealistic impulses, while at a very low ebb, could never be quite obliterated, and aroused pangs of conscience that had to be satisfied. The man to whom the disciples of "Deutsche Kunst" turned in their distress was Adolf Neuendorff, whose relations to the theatre of Hamann have been noted. Neuendorff had landed in New York a mere child,101 had early joined the orchestra on the Bowery, and had worked himself up to the position of Kapellmeister and even impresario of opera. In the summer of 1872 he was hailed as the coming director of German theatricals in town, and on August 12 he advertised for men and women to join his chorus. Meanwhile some definite announcement in regard to the Stadttheater was eagerly awaited in local German circles. Would further attempts be made to reopen it? In the 10o Cf. p. 148 f.

Page  196 196 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER midst of idle speculations on this question, Little Germany was startled by the sudden report that its theatre together with Hartmann's Hotel had been sold at auction on August 21 for the sum of one hundred and twenty-two thousand dollars!102 The new owner, William H. Martin, issued a statement that the building would be remodeled into a house of business, but this project was never carried out and for many years the interior hall and stage were not disturbed. On October 13, 1872, the self-styled "Professor" Vanek, described as an East Indian fakir and magician, began there a series of demonstrations and exhibitions which were interrupted on the 18th of the month by what was solemnly declared to be the last German dramatic performance at 45 Bowery! Very fittingly it was a benefit to the aging Eduard Hamann, who had suffered a paralytic stroke. Adrienne Lecouvreur was given with Schwan, Hairting, Hiibsch and other old acquaintances in the cast. Only Otto Hoym's name failed to grace the occasion. For years thereafter a variety of performances ranging from vaudeville to grand opera were more or less irregularly staged at the hall. In 1883 the Stadttheater was destroyed by fire and a smaller structure replaced it, which in 1893 became a Hebrew theatre, and early in the present century was leveled to provide space for the approach to the Canal Street Bridge. The sale of the Stadttheater did not in the slightest deter Adolf Neuendorff from his plans, for he selected Bryant's Minstrel Hall, situated in the building of Tammany Hall in Fourteenth Street, and on October 10, 1872, opened there the new Germania Theater,103 which was to be New York's "Deutsches Theater"' for seven years to come. This date, then, marks the beginning of a new chapter in the 102 Cf. S., Aug. 22, 1872. 103 Cf. p. p. xiii.

Page  197 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 197 history of the German stage in this city-one which lies, however, outside the scope of the present work. J. SUMMARY-CONCLUSION A brief review of the activities of the Neues Stadttheater, whose course we have just followed, shows us that while its career was shorter and less homogeneous than that of the parent institution, nevertheless it rose to far greater heights. This is apparent above all from the large number of fine actors and actresses of European training that constantly graced its boards. Some of them were guests, but most of them came to America to stay here and to practice their histrionic profession. At the head of the list of guests were, of course, Ottilie Genee, Bogumil Dawison, Theodor L'Arronge, Hermann Hendrichs, Friedrich Haase and Marie Seebach-a constellation of stars such as even the best stages of Europe could not surpass, for these actors and actresses were themselves counted among the brightest luminaries of the theatrical firmament of the Old World. A summary of the eight seasons makes it clear that, aside from the Seebach performances of the seventh season, only the first five were important. The first two seasons were on a fairly high plane, with Bandmann and Genee as the strongest players and a repertoire that was evenly balanced. The greatest year of the Theater was the third (1866-67), with one distinguished visitor crowding out another, until over a dozen had appeared-Dawison, L'Arronge, Genie and Bandmann leading the list. The fourth season showed a decided retrogression and proved to be the weakest and most one-sided of the first five, for good tragedians were lacking and the presence of L'Arronge and three popular dwarfs gave the season its stamp-one of light comedies, farces and vaudevilles. During the fifth season, however,

Page  198 198 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER the house recovered and with that powerful trio, Hendrichs, Birendorf and Haase, would almost have equaled its third year had not mismanagement and intrigue interfered. Thereafter the stage rapidly deteriorated. The sixth and seventh seasons were almost wholly musical in character, while the eighth is hardly deserving of the name. Our narrative is ended. We have traced the beginnings of the German dramatic muse in New York from the very first presentations in 1840 through the sporadic performances of the forties and the first real theatres of the early fifties, when professionally trained men and women of Europe began to displace, more and more, the local amateur players of earlier days. We have further noted how, with the Stadttheater, a degree of regularity and permanency was given to German dramatics, and how the repertoire was elevated chiefly by the addition of Shakespeare. Finally we have examined also the period of the celebrated "Gastspiele," represented by the Neues Stadttheater. The evaluation of cultural manifestations in the world's history is never the same and varies according to the age that interprets and judges of them. This principle should guide us in appraising New York's "Deutsches Theater" of the mid-century. The German muse, indeed, rose to great heights far more consistently in the succeeding periods of the Thalia and the Irving Place Theatre; therefore a reviewer writing from the point of view of these later playhouses might have found few bright spots to record in the earlier history of the German stage. With us, however, in this post-war'age, the matter is different and we need to adopt a new point of view. Although the city has multiplied itself by more than ten since the year 1870 and although New York numbers in its population more

Page  199 THE NEUES STADTTHEATER 199 than a million persons of German origin and extraction, there is no Stadttheater or any other permanent stage today-none of any account. We must therefore look back to those early accomplishments with feelings of admiration and respect. The mid-century period of our Germanlanguage stage may not represent a grand and heroic aspect of the cultural life of the time. Yet to erect a large and new German theatre in the very midst of the Civil War, to attract to it a Dawison, a Haase and a Seebach, to raise and to lower the curtain almost three hundred and fifty times in a single season for two hundred different plays, and to keep this up year after year-in these achievements there is perhaps something akin to grandeur in so far as this term may be used of theatrical undertakings.

Page  200 CHAPTER VII THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT BETWEEN THE GERMAN- AND THE ENGLISH-LANGUAGE STAGES OF NEW YORK CITY DURING THE MIDDLE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY A. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS THE years that witnessed the birth and the early development of the Deutsches Theater in New York also marked, of course, the continued expansion of the much older as well as far more extensive and more significant Englishlanguage stage of our city. From a single enduring playhouse, the Park Theatre-the only surviving institution that antedated the nineteenth century in the metropolissome six theatres had subsequently been evolved and were functioning with a fair degree of regularity in the early forties when the German dramatic muse first made her appearance. And thirty years later, when the Stadttheater ceased to be the home of German drama, this number had been considerably augmented.1 1 In 1840, English performances were staged at the Park Theatre, Niblo's Garden, the Bowery, the National, the Franklin, Mitchell's Olympic and the Chatham. The National and the Franklin were closed the very next year, and the Park terminated its career of half a century in 1848. Only the Bowery and Niblo 's Garden, in fact, survived the entire period of which we are writing. In the late forties and early fifties more theatres sprang up. In 1854, when the Stadttheater came into existence, ten or eleven were in operation, owing to the addition of Burton's Chambers Street Theatre, Castle 200

Page  201 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT 201 During the entire period of our study (1840-72), while both stages were operating side by side, the investigator of either naturally meets occasional references to the other which invite closer inspection. The points of direct contact brought to light by such an examination open a much broader and deeper question-namely, that of the relations existing between the German drama and the American and English dramas, as they appeared on the New York stage of the mid-century. This comprehensive topic, which can only be touched upon in the present history of the German theatre, would necessitate not only a complete investigation of the titles and contents of all the works that were produced, but also a comparison of scores of dramas of the three literatures just mentioned, with a view to establishing the specific influences of the one upon the other. Many English and American plays found their way upon the boards of the Stadttheater, as we have had occasion to observe. To begin with, there was Shakespeare, in some of whose works Hamann and Hoym were not even content to employ the standard German translations and stage versions current in Europe, but modified or mutilated them at will. Then a number of plays of Richard Cumberland, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Tom Taylor and others were Garden (largely musical), the Old Broadway, Barnum's Museum, Tripler Hall, Brougham's (Wallack's) Lyceum and the Academy of Music. Between 1856 and the outbreak of the Civil War, Laura Keene's Varieties, the New Bowery and Wallack's were added; and shortly after the close of the war, Wood's Theatre Comique, the New York, the Fifth Avenue, the Fourteenth Street, Daly's (called Wood's Museum at the time), and the Grand Opera House were founded. However, since certain of these institutions died almost as fast as others were born, the number of important Englishlanguage stages in New York during the closing years of our midcentury investigation did not yet exceed a dozen. Cf. Brown's History of the New York Stage.

Page  202 202 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT given on New York's German stage, and finally American plays of the type of Rip Van Winkle and Uncle Tom's Cabin, as already noted. On the other hand, not a few dramas seen on the American stage in this city were direct translations or adaptations of German originals. The influence of Germany's three great classic authors-Schiller's in particular-as well as that of the German romanticists and other nineteenth-century dramatists can be discerned in the repertoire of New York's American stage in varying degree not, as yet, finally determined. It is doubtful whether even the most untiring efforts and infinite patience could accomplish the arduous task of assembling the material that would be required in order to establish definitely all the detailed relationships that have here been suggested, for the texts of the German plays involved (in most instances they must have been unpublished stage versions) have undoubtedly been lost. The present chapter, therefore, in no wise aims to enter upon the pretentious investigation outlined in the foregoing paragraph, but will confine itself to points of immediate contact between the two (English and German) stages of our town. The material presented has been gleaned almost exclusively from the sources employed in the first six chapters of this account, and the author has sought to collect here all the pertinent facts involving both institutions. To a large extent, then, this will be merely an attempt to gather up threads that have here and there appeared in our narrative of the early German theatre of New York. Considered as a whole the data that it has been possible to bring together may be classified most conveniently under the three following captions: (1) the external relationship that existed between the two theatres; (2) the actors who were interested in and appeared on the stages of both; and (3) the plays which were produced on both

Page  203 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT 203 stages during the period of our study. Manifestly the last of these headings is by far the most important, and to it we must allot the lion's share of our attention. B. EVIDENDES OF EXTERNAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE Two STAGES Despite the rather long period of a third of a century with which we are concerned, the instances of external contact between the English and the German theatres of New York are few indeed. In general, the former, as the older and superior institution, paid little or no attention to the new and helpless child born of the German muse, while the latter repeatedly cast an envious eye at its older sister,, whom it strove to emulate in all that was worth while. But in this desire it was only partially successful, for at that time Little Germany was still an isolated unit, clannish, set in its ways and characteristically German, so that, aside from the world of its daily occupations, it did not rub elbows with its American neighbors. Its Theater clearly reflected this attitude. The earliest appearance of the German-language stage was the signal for certain outbursts of hostility which cannot, however, be traced to the direct agency of any American theatrical enterprise. Thus it has been recorded that on the opening night of the Franklin Theatre in 1840 some fifty-odd Germans who were seeking that hall were with malicious intent directed to the Chatham Theatre where an English performance was in progress.2 Perhaps someone interested in the box office receipts of the Chatham engineered the trick. The Fanny Elssler riots, which occurred in the summer of the same year,3 while probably racial in 2 Cf. p. 23. 3 Cf. p. 27 f.

Page  204 204 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT character, may have been intensified in part by a feeling of jealousy awakened in friends of the American stage by Little Germany's budding dramatic aspirations. At any rate, the effect of these disturbances was to postpone for fully a year any further attempts to give dramas in German. Since, however, the early forties were character, ized by several such racial clashes, it becomes impossible to fix upon New York's theatres, whether singly or collectively, the specific blame for the setbacks which the German theatre suffered at this time. On the other hand it is a pleasure to note the absence, in later years, of any signs of enmity such as those just recorded. As the years rolled on, the German newspapers referred with increasing frequency to the local American stage, and patrons of German playhouses in town did not hesitate to call attention to any particular point in which they believed their stage excelled. Thus the assertion was often made that Little Germany's performances bore favorable comparison with those of other theatres,4 and the behavior of German audiences was placed above the level of that of the American theatregoing public.5 And in the midst of the economic distress of 1842, when the German stage was still struggling in its infancy, the Staatszeitung, in true "misery likes company" spirit, tried to encourage it with the remark that even the Park Theatre had been compelled to reduce its prices." With evident pride, too, the presence of American theatregoers at German functions is recorded as early as 1852,7 and on a much larger scale fifteen years later, when Bogumil Dawison must, at 4 Cf. pp. 52, 53, 59. 5 Cf. pp. 39, 53, 59. SOCf. p. 43. 7 Cf. p. 59.

Page  205 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT 205 times, have succeeded in enticing many Americans from their usual haunts.8 Doubtless the earliest instance of an immediate contact between the two stages (disregarding the fact that German companies sometimes hired American theatrical halls) was the all-day benefit to Director E. A. Marshall of the Broadway Theatre, at which Burgthal's German Thespians performed.9 Further evidences of the spirit of cordiality and cooperation on the part of Little Germany's theatre directors with their American colleagues are to be found in occasional benefit performances that were given at the Stadttheater. Such a performance was tendered to the well-known James Lingard, ex-director of the New Bowery Theatre, when Tom Taylor's Still Waters Run Deep was given in English.10 On another occasion Die Jungfrau von Orleans was offered as a benefit to add to the funds of the American Dramatic Association,"1 and a third instance is recorded in honor of an "American dancer," one Miss Therese.12 In April, 1865, the Stadttheater followed the example of the remaining New York theatres in closing its doors for a considerable period as a tribute to the memory of Abraham Lincoln; and in October, 1871, New York's German theatre, like many an American playhouse, earned considerable money for charity by a special performance given to help the victims of the Chicago conflagration.13 Before dismissing this topic we must recall the two famous polyglot performances in 1866 and 1867, to which the directors of the German theatre sent their 8 Cf. pp. 138 ff. 9 Cf. p. 58. 10 Jan. 5, 1867. 11 June 2, 1858. 12 Feb. 16, 1856. 13 Cf. p. 192.

Page  206 206 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT illustrious representatives Dawison and Methua-Scheller, to act with Edwin Booth at the Winter Garden.14 These occurrences are proof that occasionally, at least, the German theatre abandoned its insularity and strove to be affable and mingle with its neighbors. C. ACTORS AND ACTRESSES APPEARING ON BOTH STAGES Instances of actors who, in the course of their careers in New York, passed from one of the two coexisting stages over to the other are extremely rare, and whenever such a step is recorded it is almost invariably a German impersonator of merit who seeks to gain fresh laurels on the English stage. There was naturally very little incentive for a successful American player to submit to the linguistic and the histrionic training necessary to face a German audience. A rare exception was the case of Charles Pope, who, as we saw,15 attempted a performance of Othello on the boards of the Stadttheater with very creditable results. On the other hand, it has already been recorded that several prominent German artists, after they had starred for a time on New York's German stage, subsequently went over to its English sister. The pioneer in this respect was Daniel Bandmann. Urged on by the glowing tributes of the English-language newspapers that his splendid impersonations of Mephistopheles and Richard III at the Stadttheater evoked in the autumn of 1862, this actor determined to test his skill in the English tongue. In January of the following year we read a long article describing his successful debut as Shylock.16 Bandmann continued to appear at Niblo's Garden in other roles-Hamlet, Mephistopheles and Nar14 Cf. p. 141 f. 15 Cf. p. 128. 1i Cf. B., Jan. 23, 1863.

Page  207 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT 207 cissus-and by September his fame had grown to such an extent that, as has been stated,17 he was received by Mrs. Lincoln, who expressed the greatest admiration for his art. Shortly thereafter he is reported as doing Narcissus in Boston,18 and a year later the Shakespeare Committee of Philadelphia presented him with a silver laurel wreath in recognition of his fine portrayal of Hamlet.19 For a time Bandmann retained his connection with both the English and the German theatres, but it will be recalled that he left America in 1867 and, after spending considerable time in professional pursuits in England and Australia, returned to our shores in 1871 in time to make the final attempt to rehabilitate the failing Stadttheater. Encouraged perhaps by the gratifying experiences of such an illustrious model, Heinrich Moesinger, another Thespian product of the Turnhalle-but a relatively obscure one-decided to adopt the English language as the medium of his art and made his initial appearance at the New York Theatre in Hinko, a drama especially translated for him by "Professor J. E. Frobischer." 20 The Staatszeitung pronounced the attempt a success; 21 not so the New York Herald, however, which assumed a very sarcastic tone in discussing the feat of the actor.22 So delighted were Moesinger's friends that he was given a special benefit performance at the Turnhalle, at which Das Marmor-Herz, a translation of the four-act drama The Marble Heart, by J. F. Kaufmann, was said to have received its first hearing here.23 17 Cf. p. 113. is Cf. B., Oct. 16, 1863. 19 Cf. B., Oct. 18, 1864. 20 Cf. S., Mar. 10, 1869. 21 Cf. S., Mar. 22, 1869. 22 Cf. New York Herald, Mar. 20, 1869. 23 Cf. S., Mar. 24, 1870.

Page  208 208 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT The first German actress of importance to adopt the language of her new home in her profession was MethuaScheller, last mentioned for her connection with the famous polyglot performances at the Winter Garden. As early as 1864 24 she aroused considerable attention at that theatre by her rendering of Lorle in an English version prepared by Augustin Daly from Birch-Pfeiffer's drama. The next year brought her fresh successes on the English stage in New York, Baltimore and Buffalo,25 and during the closing months of 1866 we find her associated with the great Edwin Booth. Thereafter she entertained large audiences in the West.26 Far less important is the case of one of the minor actresses of the Stadttheater, a Fraulein Kaiser, who is likewise reported to have passed over to the American stage,27 but of whom no further mention is made. Unquestionably the most distinguished of all German actresses thus to change from one language to the other was Fanny Janauschek, who, it is recollected,28 came to our shores in 1867 and, after her two sensational seasons on the German stage and a year spent in complete retirement and study, achieved (1870-71) the most remarkable triumph on the English stage of any foreign actress that had yet come to town. Certainly no detailed history of the New York stage can afford to overlook the names of Bandmann and Janauschek, and possibly that of MethuaScheller-a contribution of which the German theatre may well be proud. 24 On Mar. 24; cf. Staatszeitung of that date. 25 Cf. B., Feb. 10, 1865. 26 Cf. p. 160. 27 Cf. B., Feb. 17, 1866. 28 Cf. pp. 155 f., 170 f., 181 f.; also B., May 22, 1868.

Page  209 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT 209 D. THE DRAMAS THAT WERE COMMON To BOTH STAGES 1. PREFATORY NOTE In his history of the German drama on the New York stage, Baker has shown how many of the plays given on our stage at the close of the eighteenth and at the beginning of the nineteenth century were of German origin.29 The popularity enjoyed by such plays was, as indicated, just as short-lived as it had been intense. As the century advanced, the percentage of these dramas in New York theatres dwindled more and more. Baker completes his study with the year 1830, just ten years before our city saw its first performance of a play in the German language, and at this time the German drama in translation played a very negligible role here. The question naturally presents itself as to what influence the newly established German stage exerted upon the local American theatre and, as a kind of corollary, to what extent the German stage was affected by its American rival. He who expects a renewed wave of German drama in translation, such as that which William Dunlap set in motion with his unprecedented Kotzebue run of 1798-1804, will, of course, be disappointed, since our mid-century theatre stood under the domination of plays of English and French origin. It goes without saying that Shakespeare held the lead; he was followed by Tom Taylor, Richard Brinsley Sheridan and less significant authors, while. French literature asserted itself in dramatizations that traced their immediate or ultimate sources back to Victor Hugo, the older Alexandre Dumas, George Sand, Eugene Sue, Scribe, Delavigne and many others. In the 29 Cf. pp. 15f.

Page  210 210 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT midst of these powerful and sweeping currents a German influence, to be sure very slight and limited, was now and then beginning to make itself felt, and we shall point out presently just how it was perceptible. Whoever examines the lists of plays that were produced on New York's English- and German-language stages between 1840 and 1872 can readily find some sixty or seventy titles common to both. The best of them were, of course, by Shakespeare and by Germany's classic poets, in groups of very unequal size, for the latter was infinitely smaller than the former. For our purpose we may disregard both groups, inasmuch as their presence cannot be construed as a direct influence of the one stage upon the other. Translations of Goethe, Schiller and Lessing had been given in New York long before the year 1840, and that universal genius Shakespeare had so long been an inseparable part of the German theatre, wherever it existed, that his frequent appearance on the German stage of New York is of no particular significance in the present chapter. However, even after eliminating the plays of these famous authors, almost half a hundred dramas common to the English and German theatres remain-they are largely of nineteenth-century origin-and it becomes our purpose to showv that many of them found a place in the repertoire of one of the two stages as a direct result of their prior existence on the other. 2. PLAYS ORIGINALLY GIVEN ON THE GERMAN STAGE AND LATER ADOPTED BY THE AMERICAN With the growth of the German stage there was a gradual gain in plays of German origin on the American stage, even though the proportion never became very great. Fully a dozen German dramas, introduced with noteworthy success to our American theatre public, had first been seen

Page  211 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT 211 on the German stage in this city. Almost half of the works in question came from the pen of Charlotte BirchPfeiffer, and since this dramatist did not overlook English novels in her search for material, we find the rather interesting situation of an English tale now and then making its way upon the American stage by the indirect agency of a German drama. Thus The Beauforts is admitted by the historian Brown to have been a translation into English (by Alfred Ayres) of Birch-Pfeiffer's Nacht und Morgen, which, in turn, had been adapted from Bulwer-Lytton's novel Night and Morning.30 The play was especially prepared for Daniel Bandmann, who starred in it at Niblo's on March 6, 1865. Similarly The Woman in White, which Brown records as a "first performance" at the Bowery on July 10, 1867,31 is stated by the Belletristisches Journal to have been a translation of Birch-Pfeiffer's Die Frau (var. Die Dame) in Weiss, based on a novel of Wilkie Collins.32 At the time when Frau Methua-Scheller decided to appear on the English boards, Augustin Daly33 prepared Birch-Pfeiffer's Dorf und Stadt oder die Frau Professorin ('s Lorle im Schwarzwald), which he called Lorle's Wedding,3 and the German-American actress was seen in it at Tripler Hall on March 28, 1864. Maggie Mitchell, who seems to have been more partial than any other American 30 Cf. Brown, I, 199; also B., Mar. 24, 1865. Ten years earlier, on Jan. 15, 1855, Night and Morning, described as a dramatization of Bulwer-Lytton's novel, was seen at Wallack's Lyceum (cf. Brown, I, 484), but it is not known whether this also was a translation of Birch-Pfeiffer's play. 31 Cf. Brown, I, 517. 32 The Woman in White. 33 Cf. p. 208, above. 34 Cf. p. 208 above; also B., May 19, 1864; S., Mar. 28, 1864, and Brown, I, 458.

Page  212 212 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT player to German roles in translation, also essayed the part of Lorle. It may be noted in passing that the Belletristisches Journal was inclined to regard the English version of this drama as most unsatisfactory.35 The most popular of all Birch-Pfeiffer plays on the American stage was undoubtedly Fanchon 36 (Die Grille), which was frequently given at various New York theatres during the sixties. Fanchon afforded Miss Mitchell another opportunity to display her talent,37 and finally this actress took the leading part in Das Kind des Gliickes,38 a fifth BirchPfeiffer creation to find its way into an English theatre of New York. This Berlin playwright was, however, only one of several German authors whose works were thus exploited by American theatrical managers. Reichenbach's Barfiissle, based on the charming village tale of Auerbach and translated as Little Barefoot, proved to be another drawing card. This German drama had been introduced at the Stadttheater in 1858 and seven years later was prepared for Miss Mitchell.39 Other very welcome visitors at the city's leading playhouses were, as might be expected, Mosenthal's Deborah and Brachvogel's Narciss. The former is noted scores of times under a variety of titles: Leah the Forsaken, Lysiah the Abandoned, Deborah, and finally as a burlesque, Leah the Forsook.40 The most prominent im35 Cf. B., Mar. 24, 1865. 36 There must have been at least two versions of Fanchon-that of George Marlow, given at the Metropolitan on July 29, 1862 (cf. Brown, I, 454), and that of A. Wilderer, at Laura Keene's Varieties, on June 9, 1862 (cf. Brown, II, 141). The drama was also known as Fanchon the Cricket (cf. S., Sept. 21, 1868; also B., Mar. 24, 1865). 37 Cf. B., May 19, 1865. 38 According to B., Jan. 30, 1863; the English title is not given. 39 Cf. B., July 7, 1865. 40 Cf. Brown, I, 139, 194, 456, 457 et alia.

Page  213 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT 213 personator of the heroine was the mid-century idol, Kate Bateman.41 Brachvogel's tragedy was adapted under the title of Narcisse or the Last of the Pompadours, by John Guido Methua; 42 subsequently a second version of the work by one Schonberg was given at Booth's Theatre.43 One of the favorite pieces of the New York stage during the time of which we are writing was Ingomar-called also The Son of the Wilderness. Brown identifies this as Halm's Der Sohn der Wildnis, asserting that it had first been translated into English in 1848 by Charles Anthon of New York." An idea as to how strong a magnet this drama was may be obtained from the fact that the index of Brown contains some eighty references to performances of it. Two other " Schauspiele" of the Stadttheater revamped for the English stage were Unser Vetter aus Amerika and Donna Diana. The Belletristisches Journal 45 insists that the first-named comedy was a German play which after its translation enjoyed great success on the American stage. Whether it is identical with Tom Taylor's Our American Cousin46 we are not in a position to state. Schreyvogel-West's Donna Diana received its first English presentation in the city at Tripler's Metropolitan as Love's Masquerade.47 The foregoing data could, no doubt, be increased by further investigation, but sufficient material has been presented to prove not only that German drama made a definite contribution to the New York stage in these years, but 41 OCf. B., Jan. 30, 1863; also Brown, I, 194. 42 Cf. Brown, I, 195 f. 43 Cf. S., Feb. 20, 1869. Tom Taylor also prepared a version, but was accused of altering the original excessively (cf. S., Sept. 2, 1871). 44 OCf. Brown, I, 285 f. 45 On Apr. 1, 1859. 46 OCf. Brown, I, 299. 47 Cf. Brown, I, 466. The performance occurred on Nov. 5, 1866.

Page  214 214 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT also that the stimulating presence of the "Deutsches Theater" in town was to a considerable extent instrumental in introducing this or that German work to an American audience. In no small measure the process was facilitated by the versatile talent of Bandmann and Frau MethuaScheller as well as by that of our own inimitable Maggie Mitchell. 3. PLAYS ON THE ENGLISH-LANGUAGE STAGE OF NEW YORK THAT WERE ADOPTED BY THE LOCAL GERMAN THEATRE The relations of the German- and English-language stages of our city were by no means one-sided. If-as we have seen-a number of important German dramas found their way into our English theatres, often through the medium of the Stadttheater, it can be shown just as clearly that our "Deutsche Biihne" took not a few dramatic works from the repertoire of its American sister. As has been pointed out, Hamann and Hoym, under the constant strain of having to unearth new plays to serve to their patrons, more than once cast searching glances up town and over in the direction of Broadway, to see what money magnets other than Shakespeare might be appropriated from American playhouses. In point of quantity they took as many plays as they gave, with one great difference, however. While the German dramas that were brought upon the English stage proved financially lucrative, the English dramas that the Stadttheater borrowed turned out to be, generally speaking, anything but box-office successes. Indeed, for the most part they were attempted once or twice, and then, if not permanently abandoned, were at best but rarely revived. When thus taking over an English play, the directors of the Stadttheater usually accompanied the announcement of its performance with the statement that it had been "suc

Page  215 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT 215 cessfully given on the New York stage." Thus as early as 1856 Hamann and Hoym hoped to attract audiences to Der fliegende Holldnder by including in their advertisements the remark that this drama had enjoyed from five to six hundred presentations in the English theatres of our city.48 Somewhat later Das Eismeer oder das Gebet der Mutter, by E. Juin and P. J. Reinhard, was tried at the German theatre with the plea that it "had scored a sensational hit at Laura Keene's for seven weeks." 49 And when he introduced Die Geheimnisse von Paris, a five-act drama after Sue by C. Dillor, Director Hamann again motivated his selection by the remark that the work had succeeded on the English stage of the metropolis.50 It was in just this spirit that the three American plays, Rip Van Winkle,51 Uncle Tom's Cabin52 and George Washington,53 all of 48 Cf. S., Jan. 18, 1856. 49 Cf. S., Dec. 27, 1858. This play (according to Brown, I, 313) was given for the first time in America on Apr. 17, 1854, and its original title is said to have been The Child of Prayer or Thirst for Gold, but it became better known as The Sea of Ice or the Mother's Prayer. 50 It was called The Secrets of Paris; it was performed in German on Apr. 23, 1856. 51 Cf. p. 98, above. According to Brown (I, 38) Bip Van Winkle was first acted in New York on April 22, 1830. Hamann and Hoym produced it in 1856. 52 Cf. p. 65, above, and especially Note 32 on that page. 53 There were evidently two dramatic versions in German of George Washington, both of which have been mentioned (cf. pp. 62, 98), A dramatization of Cooper's novel The Spy is noted as early as 1829 by Pr61ss on the Dresden stage, as Der Spion. This may have been the same play as that given at the Stadttheater in 1864 (cf. p. 98, above) and described as Der Spion oder George Washington, by E. Doench, an author of whom it has not been possible to obtain any information. The second play, by Julius Dornau (cf. p. 62, above) is also recorded by Prilss in 1847. The exact relationship between these two German versions and the English versions of George Washington has not been established.

Page  216 216 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT which have appeared in the course of our narrative, were added to the repertoire of the "Deutsches Theater." Bulwer-Lytton's Lady of Lyons and his Money, two distinct hits of the American theatres, were also attempted by the Stadttheater. The former, which had received its first performance at the Park in 1838,54 was given a trial as Das Mddchen von Lyon oder der falsche Filrst (with Methua-Scheller as Pauline) on November 21, 1864, but the translation did not satisfy.55 The second drama, Money, first performed in New York in 1841,56 was in the same year adapted for the German stage abroad by Friedrich Kaiser as Geld! Geld! Geld!, and the management of the Stadttheater put on this German version a few times, generally near the close of a season,57 when new material was hard to find. Another title with a very familiar ring to mid-century playgoers of the metropolis was Jack Sheppard (known also as The Knights of the Mist), which had its initial performance on the American stage in 1840.58 On the German boards it was seen as Jack Sheppard oder das Leben der Verbrecher in London, by J. B. Buckstone, translated from the English and prepared for the German stage by " C. D." and "A. D." 59-and later in a different version, Die Ritter des Nebels, described as a five-act play by Fr. Tietz, taken from the English Jack Sheppard.60 Nor must we forget Sheridan's ever fresh and delightful School for Scandal, 54 Cf. Brown, I, 50. The Brown index contains no less than 165 references to the play! 55 Cf. B., Dec. 2, 1864. 5& According to Brown, I, 261, at the Franklin on Feb. 1, 1841. 57 On May 3, 1858, June 7, 1866, etc. 58 According to Brown, I, 117, at the Bowery, on Dec. 30, 1840. 59 Cf. S., Jan. 21, 1856. 60 Given at the Stadttheater Feb. 14 and 15, 1866. Cf. also S., Feb. 13, 1866.

Page  217 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT 217 which was freely rewritten for the German stage by Rudolf Gen6e as Schleicher und Genossen, but turned out to be a disappointment61 and was apparently discarded after its very first trial. No time was lost in appropriating Tom Taylor's The Ticket of Leave Man, given for the first time in America on November 30, 1863, at the Metropolitan Hall,62 for early the next spring a German translation by one Charles Jacoby63 was introduced into the German theatre without, however, attracting much attention. In this way the Stadttheater continued, never with any marked degree of success, to offer to its patrons, now and then, English plays that had been well received here. The extremely popular comedy Good for Nothing (or Nan, the Good for Nothing) which dates back to the early fifties, is on record at the Stadttheater as Nan, der Taugenichts von New York, a farce with local setting by J. E. Maud.64 If we may accept the authority of Brown,65 Die Schule der Verliebten, which Burgthal staged June 20, 1851, was none other than The Love Chase, first presented to a New York audience at the Park on January 13, 1838.66 One of the first plays given by Hamann and Hoym during their initial season was Kettel's Richards Wanderleben,67 identical with the favorite English play Wild Oats, which is noted in the remote year 1824 at the Chatham,68 and later made the 61 Cf. S., Nov. 8, 1869. Cf. p. 176, above. 62 It enjoyed a run of 125 performances at this time; cf. Brown, I, 458. s3 It was called Der Mann mit dem Freischein and was performed on Apr. 9, 1864; cf. Staatszeitung of that date. 44 Cf. S., Nov. 27, 1866. 65 Brown, I, 288. 66 According to Brown, I, 50. 67 First recorded on Nov. 18, 1854; Pr6lss records the play at Dresden in 1831. 68 Cf. Brown, I, 88.

Page  218 218 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT rounds of the Park, the National, the Old Bowery, Barnum's Museum, Wallack's, etc. The three-act drama Der Jude, listed at the Stadttheater in 1866, was described as Cumberland's play (The Jew),69 which, however, was no great success on either stage, so that it is difficult to understand just what prompted the managers of the German theatre to put the play on the boards. Die Armen und die Reichen von New York, a very mediocre product from the pen of the local actor Reiffarth and admittedly based on "older sources," 70 may well have been a rehash of The Poor of New York, first seen at Wallack's in 1857.71 Finally we note Stille Wasser sind tief oder wie d ueine Frau ziehst, so hast du sie, a four-act comedy by Schroeder,72 which was probably an adaptation of the well-liked Still Waters Run Deep, first recorded at Barnum's in 1855.73 From the facts just adduced it is only fair to conclude that there was no lack of desire on the part of the Deutsches Theater to acquaint the German element in town with plays appealing to the American theatrical world. That the movement was, on the whole, unsuccessful may have been due to various reasons. Without any doubt much of the original charm of these English plays-the subtlety of language and of thought, in so far as these qualities were present-was lost in the process of translation and adaptation. Again, the average German actor must have had great difficulty in working himself into and really assimilating the spirit of the original. Probably the root of the difficulty, however, lay in those fundamental differences that manifested themselves (as, of course, they still 69 Cf. S., Sept. 7, 1866. 70 Cf. S., May 5, 1868. 71 Cf. Brown, I, 494. 72 It was given at the Stadttheater on Sept. 9, 1858. 73 Cf. Brown, I, 73; also I, 355.

Page  219 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT 219 manifest themselves today) in the temperaments of the English and the German audiences. What appealed to the one did not necessarily strike the fancy of the other. This was probably true of many of the plays mentioned above, although we shall see in the next section that there was a certain type of play that apparently attracted both groups of theatregoers. 4. PLAYS THAT WERE COMMON PROPERTY OF BOTH STAGES It has been possible to determine the relationships of the works thus far mentioned. In most instances, no doubt, the prior existence of a given play on the one stage led to its introduction upon the other. But the investigator also meets an additional group of dramas, classifiable in pairs, in which neither member has been translated from the other, but each goes back independently to a common ultimate source. For the most part this source is French, and while German versions of such French originals were establishing themselves in the Old World, their English counterparts were being produced in England and the United States. Owing to the seniority of the English-language stage in New York, it is only natural that the English form of such a play generally preceded its German mate. To begin with, there was the dramatization of Dumas' Three Musketeers, recorded in the version of Birch-Pfeiffer (Anna von Oesterreich oder die drei Musketiere) as early as 1863 at the German theatre. Curiously enough its first performance on the English stage is not noted until ten years later. Similarly there were German and English dramatizations of Jane Eyre, equally well liked in New York.74 The former (Die Waise von Lowood oder Jane 74 Brown (I, 125) records the first performance of Jane Eyre in America at the Bowery on Mar. 12, 1849.

Page  220 220 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT Eyre) was, as we have seen, Birch-Pfeiffer's play based upon the novel of Charlotte Bronte. Furthermore Charles Gayler's The Romance of a Very Poor Young Man, first acted in 1860,75 finds its mate in Der Roman eines armen jungen Mannes, given in the same year at the Stadttheater. The latter is described as taken from Octave Feuillet and recast for the German stage by E. Juin and P. J. Reinhard.76 Other plays having common titles and included in the repertoires of both English- and German-language stages of the city were: Der Graf von Montechristo (The Count of Monte Christo), Don Clisar de Bazano (Don Caesar de Bazan), Der Mann mit der eisernen Maske (The Man with the Iron Mask), Jocko der brasilianische Affe (Jocko the Brazilian Ape), Der Lumpensammler von Paris (The Ragpicker of Paris), and Der Turim vow Nesle (The Tower of Nesle). All were based on French sources and in each of these cases the English play antedated the German on the local stage. Other examples of such dramatic twins might be added, proving that there was, after all, a certain community of interest by which New York's mid-century audiences of the Deutsches Theater and the various English stages were bound together. E. SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER It is believed that a sufficient amount of material has been presented in this chapter to show that the Englishand German-language stages did exert a positive, if limited, influence upon each other during the period covered by us in our history of the German theatre. Although the points of external contact between the two institutions were few 75 Cf. Brown, I, 469. It was presented at Fellow's Opera House on May 12, 1860. 76 Cf. B., Jan. 20, 1860.

Page  221 THE PRINCIPAL POINTS OF CONTACT 221 indeed and relatively insignificant, our American theatre received from the "Deutsche Biihne" several actors of real distinction. Moreover each of the two stages contributed plays to the other, and the German dramas adapted by the American stage proved in some cases to be drawing cards of no little power. To take up in greater detail the relationship of the American (or English) and the German drama, as seen in New York, is not our problem here, although the very fragmentary data introduced above would justify a continuation of the excellent study carried by Baker down to the year 1830.

Page  222

Page  223 APPENDIX I Chronological list of halls and theatres of New York City in which the earliest performances in the German language occurred (1840-48) together with the dates of such performances (cf. Chap. II).1 TOTAL NUMBER OF PERFORMANCES 1. Hall at 83 Anthony (Worth) Street: 1840: Jan. 6, 16, 27; Feb., some day prior to the 12th... 4 2. Hall at 83 Washington Street: 1840: Jan. 16 (unless an error for the performance above). 1 3. Franklin Theatre, 175 Chatham Street: First Season, 1840: Feb. 15, 19, 26, 29; Mar. 7 (cir.), 11, 14 (cir.), 20 (cir.), 26, 28 (cir.); Apr. 1, 22, 29........ 13 Second Season, 1841-42: Aug. 9, 18, 27; Sept. 3, 10, 13, 20, 30; Oct. 7, 11, 15, 18, 22, 29; Nov. 5, 19, 22, 26, 29; Dec. 1, 3, 7, 10, 13, 15, 20, 25, 30; Jan. 1, 6, 11, 14, 18, 26, 28....................................... 35 Third Season: 1842: Sept. 14 (probably), 24; Oct. 10, 25; Nov. 19; Dec. 2, 6, 16........................ 8 1843: M ay 22..................................... 1 4. Bowery Amphitheatre, 37 Bowery: 1843: Feb. 3; July 14; Aug. 1, 22.................... 4 5. St. John's Hall, 8 Frankfort Street: 1843: June 5................................... 1 6. Abelmann's Hall, 508 Pearl Street: 1843: Dec. 18.................................. 1 1844: Feb. 5..................................... 1 7. Mager's Concert Hall, 101 Elizabeth Street: 1845: Mar. 3.................................. 1 1848: Mar. 23 1 8. Palmo's Opera House, Chambers Street: 1845: Aug. 11, 25................................. 2 9. Concert Hall, 201 Elizabeth Street: 1845: O ct. 20....................................... 1 1 The New Yorker Staatszeitung is the source for all information listed under the years 1840-43; for the period covered by the years 1844-48 the Deutsche Schnellpost provides the data. The abbreviation 'cir." after a date indicates uncertainty. 223

Page  224 224 APPENDIX I TOTAL NUMBER OF PPRFORMANCES 10. Hoboken House, 508 Pearl Street (evidently as in No. 6): 1847: May 10.................................1 1848: Feb. 14.................................. 1 11. Gothic Hall, Broadway, near Pearl Street: 1847: Oct. 18, 22, 25............................. 3 12. Bowery Theatre: 1848: Oct. 30, 31; Nov. 6........................... 3 Total........82

Page  225 APPENDIX II Chronological list of plays produced in German in various halls and theatres of New York City (cf. Appendix I) from 1840 to 1848. DATE TITLE AUTHOR 1840 Jan. 6 Hedwig die Banditenbraut.......... Th. K6rner Der grade Weg, der beste........... Kotzebue 16 Der Zitherschliger und das Gaugericht..................... Kotzebue Humoristische Studien............. Lebriin 16 Der Vampyr (a tragedy in five acts).? 27 Der arme Poet.................... Kotzebue Die eifersiichtige Frau............. Kotzebue Feb.? Die Entfiihrung oder der alte BuirgerkapitAn...................... C. Malsz? Die Zerstreuten................ Kotzebue 15 Der Zitherschlager und das Gaugericht....................... Kotzebue Die eifersiichtige Frau............. Kotzebue 19 Incognito...................... Kotzebue Die Entfiihrung oder der alte BiirgerkapitAin....................... C. Malsz? 26 Humoristische Studien............. Lebruin Die Brandschatzung.............. Kotzebue 29 Toni............................ Th. Kbrner Wer weiss wozu das gut ist?........ Kotzebue Mar. 7 (?) Preciosa......................... P. Wolff 11 Preciosa....................... P. Wolff 14 (?) Preciosa....................... P. Wolff 20 (?) Preciosa...................... P. Wolff Die Zerstreuten................... Kotzebue 26 Das Kathchen von Heilbronn....... Kleist 28 (?) Das Kathchen von Heilbronn....... Kleist Apr. 1 Der grade Weg, der beste........... Kotzebue Der Gimpel auf der Messe......... Kotzebue Der Nachtwachter................. Kotzebue 22 Preciosa........................ P. Wolff Der hausliche Zwist................ Kotzebue 29 Die Rauber....................... Schiller 225

Page  226 226 APPENDIX II DATE TITLE AUTHOR 1841 Aug. 9 Pagenstreiche.................... Kotzebue 18 Der Gimpel auf der Messe.......... Kotzebue Der versiegelte Biirgermeister....... Raupach 27 Der hiusliche Zwist................ Kotzebue Der Platzregen als Eheprokurator.... Raupach Die Zerstreuten................... Kotzebue Sept. 3 Incognito....................... Kotzebue Der Deserteur aus Liebe........... Bendix Der Trunkenbold..................? 10 Der Platzregen als Eheprokurator... Raupach Die sieben Madchen in Uniform..... Angely 13 Toni............................ Th. K6rner Die sieben Midchen in Uniform..... Angely 20 Der Vetter aus Bremen........... Th. K6rner Richards Wanderleben............. Kettel 30 Der Vetter aus Bremen........... Th. Kirner Preciosa........................ P. Wolff Oct. 7 Richards Wanderleben............. Kettel Die sieben Madchen in Uniform..... Angely 11 Freimaurer....................... Kotzebue Lumpaci Vagabundus.............. Nestroy 15 Lumpaci Vagabundus.............. Nestroy Der hausliche Zwist.............. Kotzebue 18 Die falsche Cataline............... Bauerle 22 Die Einladungskarte.............. Kotzebue Die Braut........................ Th. K6rner Der Platzregen als Eheprokurator.... Raupach Der Eckensteher Nante............ Beckmann 29 (Title or titles not listed) Nov. 5 Die Sthne........................ Th. K6rner Der Wollmarkt................... H. Clauren 19 Lumpaci Vagabundus.............. Nestroy 22 Carl XII auf Ruigen............... Schneider Preciosa (Act I).................. P. Wolff 26 Lumpaci Vagabundus................ Nestroy 29 Carl XII auf Rilgen............... Schneider Die Rauber (Act V)............... Schiller Dec. 1 Robert Macaire.................. Weidemeyer Ein Kinderballet................? Die Helden....................... Marsano Die Beichte....................... Kotzebue 3 Der Eckensteher Nante............ Beckmann Die eifersiichtige Frau............. Kotzebue 7 Die Kreuzfahrer.................. Kotzebue 10 Der Quartierzettel................ Lebriin

Page  227 APPENDIX II 227 DATE TITLE AUTHon 1841-Continued Unser Verkehr....................? Je toller, je besser.................? 13 Die Kreuzfahrer.................. Kotzebue 15 Hedwig die Banditenbraut.......... Th. Karner Die Rosen des Herrn v. Malesherbes. Kotzebue 20 Die Schuld...................... Milliner 25 Pagenstreiche..................... Kotzebue 30 Schneider Fipps.................? Die schlaue Witwe................? Die Helden....................... Marsano Ein Kinderballet..............? 1842 Jan. 1 Der Gimpel auf der Messe.......... Kotzebue Die sieben M5idchen in Uniform..... Angely Herr und Sklave................ Zedlitz 6 Abellino......................... Zschokke 11 Pachter Feldikimmel............... Kotzebue 14 Die Kom6dianten aus Liebe........ Kotzebue Das Landhaus an der Heerstrasse.... Kotzebue 18 Richards Wanderleben............. Kettel 26 1 Gellert........................... DMring Pachter Feldkiiummel............. Kotzebue 28 Schneider Fipps..................? La Bayadere.....................? Die Grenadiere Friech-ichs des Grossen? Sept. 14 (?) Wer weiss wozu das gut ist?....... Kotzebue Das Gasthaus zum goldenen Lowen.. Carl Stein 24 Der Rehbock..................... Kotzebue Der Vetter aus Bremen............. Th. K6rner Oct. 10 Die beiden Billets................ (After Florian) Das Landhaus an der Heerstrasse... Kotzebue Der Hahnenschlag............... Kotzebue 25 Der Freimaurer................... Kotzebue Der reisende Student.............. L. Schneider? Nov. 19 Kabale und Liebe................ Schiller Dec. 2 Zwei Freunde und ein Rock.......... Castelli Der grime Domino................. Th. Kmrner Das Anekdotenbiichlein............ (After ScribeDelavigne) 6 Kabale und Liebe................. Schiller 16 Der junge Pathe....................... Schneider Herr Blaubart oder das geheimnisvolle Cabinet................... Angely Der Schmarotzer in der Klemme....? 1 On Jan. 22 and 29 the first complete performances of Weber's FreischiUz (in German) in America were given at the Franklin Theatre.

Page  228 228 APPENDIX II DATE 1843 TITLE AUTHOR Feb. 3 (?) Die Ahnfrau...................... Grillparzer May 22 Graf Benjowsky................. Kotzebue June 5 Der Taugenichts................? Die Frankfurter in Hannover.......? Der reisende Student.............. L. Schneider? July 14 Die Rauber...................Schiller Aug. 1 Wilhelm Tell..................... Schiller 22 Der verbannte Amor.............. Kotzebue Der alte Feldherr...............Holtei Dec. 18 Die Zerstreuten.................Kotzebue Der Vetter aus Bremen.......... Th. Kdrner 1844, Feb. 5 Die sieben Mddchen in Uniform..... Angely Braut und Brautigaam in einer Person. Kotzebue 1845 Mar. 3 Der Platzregen als Eheprokurator... Raupach Der Pariser Taugenichts........? Aug. 11 Das Leben ein Traum.............. West-Schreyvogel 25 Kabale und Liebe................. Schiller Oct. 20 Die Vergeltung oder des Hasses und der Liebe Macht..............Schmidt Das Fest der Handwerker........Angely 1847 May 10 Die Siihne..................... Th. K6rner Der Eckensteher Nante..........Beckmann Oct. 18 Doktor Wespe.................... Benedix 22 Der Fabrikant..... E Devrient Rataplan.......................H.W. HerrmannEd. Knott 25 Der Sohn auf Reisen..............? 1848 Feb. 14 Mar. 23 Oct. 30 31 Nov. 6 Die falsche Jenny Lind.............W. HerrmannW. Deets Herr Hampelmann sucht ein Logis...? Christoph Pech, der lustige Schuster. (After Eng.) I. G. Brasch Das Leben.....................? Der Taugenichts................? Das Leben................... Der Taugenichts..................? Das Leben................... Der Taugerichts..............

Page  229 APPENDIX II 229 Statistical review of the German stage in New York City from 1840 to 1848. Total number of different plays recorded................. 88 Total number of performances recorded.................... 149 Average number of times each play was performed............. 1.69 Number of performances of classical dramas (all by Schiller), 6 (4+ %) Kabale und Liebe................. 3 Die RAuber.................... 2 Wilhelm Tell................... 1 Dramatists most frequently given: NAM. NUMBER OF NUMBER OF PLAYS PERFORMANCES Kotzebue........ 25 (28+%) 42 (28 +%) Th. Krner.......... 6 ( 7-%) 11 ( 8-%) List of all plays recorded as having received more than three performances: TITLE OF PLAY Preciosa............................. Die sieben Midchen in Uniform......... Die Zerstreuten........................ Der Vetter aus Bremen................ Der Platzregen als Eheprokurator........ Lumpaci Vagabundus................. Der Taugenichts................... NUMBER OF AUTHOR PERFORMANCE P. Wolff....... 6 Angely........ 5 Kotzebue...... 5 Th. Krner.... 4 Raupach...... 4 Nestroy....... 4?.... 4 Other plays worth noting that were presented: Das Kathchen von Heilbronn........ Kleist....... Die Ahnfrau...................... Grillparzer... Abellino.......................... Zschokke... Die Schuld......................... Milllner...

Page  230 APPENDIX III List of German "Liebhaberbilhnen" (amateur and minor stages) in and about New York City in the fifties (of. Chap. IV).1 1853 Deutsches Volkstheater, at Burton's Lyceum, 39 Chambers St. Verein der deutschen Dekorations-Maler, in the hall of Kuhn and Runk, 274 Grand St. Blumenthaler Liebhabertheater, 124 Seventh Ave. Williamsburg Theatralischer Verein, at the Military Hall, Williamsburg. 1856 Eustachi's Liebhabertheater, 174 Forsythe St. Henry Clay House, 5 Avenue A. Wilken's St. Charles Theater, 19 Bowery (basement). Dramatic Hall, 105 Grand St. Busam's Fortuna-Halle, 216 Second St. Flossmann's Theater-Halle, 221 Atlantic Ave., Brooklyn. Deutsches Theater in der Nationalhalle, corner of Union Ave. and Meserole St., Williamsburg. Tulp's Musenhalle, 34-36 Avenue A. Tonhalle, 20 North William St. Hall of L. Renner and F. Schafer, 192 Second St. Gambrinus Halle (Baumann and Elser), 176 Essex St. Kriiger's Concert-Halle, 23-25 Mercer St. Hall of T. C. Tzschirner, 17 North William St. Maler-Mappe, 274 Grand St. (cf. Verein der deutschen DekorationsMaler, under 1853, above). Deutsches Volkstheater, 53 Bowery (opposite Bowery Theatre). Mannheimer Liebhaber-Theater, 121 Pitt St. (at the Mannheimer Brewery). Turnhalle, 29-31 Canal St. (near Broadway). Colosseum, in William St. Verein Humor, 525-27 Houston St. Theater Mundi oder die Welt im Kleinen (a kind of Punch and Judy), 290 Broadway. 1 Gaps in the files of the daily Staatszeitung make it impossible to compile similar lists for any years of the decade 1850 to 1860 other than those here given. 230

Page  231 APPENDIX III 231 1858 New Yorker Volks-Theater, in Fourth St. Deutscher Volksgarten, 45 Bowery. Hartmann's Theater (formerly Eustachi; cf. under 1856, above), 174 Forsythe St. Odeon (subsequently Lindenmtiller's Odeon), 49 Bowery. Lindenmiiller's Colosseum und Deutsches Theater, 210 William St. (cf. Colosseum, under 1856, above). Bowery Blumen-Garten, 175 Bowery (a summer theatre). Carl J. Diem's Theater und Concert Salon, 301 Houston St. W. Ewald's Bloomingdale Turn-Halle, 519 Eighth Ave. Elysium, 33 Bowery. Turn Halle (Eagle Hall) corner of Christie and Delancy Sts. Theater in Union Hill, in Buck's Hall. Volks-Theater in Union Hill, in Mitchell's Hall. Atlantic Garden, 50 Bowery. Theater in Yorkville, Schwarzhans' Hall, 87th St. near Third Ave. 1859 Eustachi Volkstheater, on Fourth St. (cf. New Yorker Volks-Theater, under 1858, above). Deutscher Volksgarten, 45 Bowery (cf. under 1858, above). Germania Halle, 42 Avenue A. Dramatic Hall, 525-27 Houston St. (cf. Verein Humor, under 1856, above). Concert und Theater Halle zum langen Room, 301 Houston St. Neues Bowery Theater (no address given). Hoym's Sommertheater (no address given).

Page  232 APPENDIX IVa A list of actors and actresses who took the leading parts at the Altes Stadttheater. The figures indicate the years (by theatrical seasons) of their activity. Where known, the provenience is stated. ACTORS Bandmann, Daniel, 1857-58, 1862-63. Berger, 1857-58. Berndt, Bruno (guest, Philadelphia), 1856-57. Bdttner, 1854-55, 1857-58. Czmock, 1854-55, 1855-56. Deetz, 1857-58. Doschel, 1857-58. Fallenbach (guest, Hamburg), 1859-60. Fortner, 1855-56, 1858-59, 1859-60, 18d3-64. Freitag, 1855-56. Frey, 1857-58. Fritze, Karl (Hamburg), 1863-64. Fiirst, 1856-57, 1858-59. Graff, 1857-58, 1858-59, 1859-60. Grieben, 1855-56. Hacke, 1854-55. Halm, 1862-63. Herwig (musical director), 1855-56, 1856-57. Hoym, Otto, 1854-55, 1855-56, 1856-57, 1857-58, 1 1860-61, 1862-63, 1863-64. Hoym, Theodor, 1855-56. Hiibner, 1855-56. Ihleck (guest), 1855-56. Klein, 1855-56, 1857-58, 1859-60. Knorr, 1858-59, 1859-60, 1860-61, 1862-63, 1863-64. Koch, 1857-58. Krilling, 1800-61. Kronfeld, 1856-57, 1858-59. Kunst, 1859-60. Lehmann, 1859-60. Lewens, 1857-58, 1859-60. Matzke, Hermann, 1855-56, 1859-60. Meaubert, Eduard, 1855-56, 1857-58, 1859-60. Metzner, 1855-56. 232 858-59, 1859-60,

Page  233 APPENDIX IVa 233 AcToRs-Continued Meyer, 1857-58, 1859-60. Neuendorff, Adolf (musician), dates uncertain; approximately 1860-64. Niemeyer (guest, Dusseldorf), 1859-60. Otto, 1855-56. Pfeiffer, Alexander, 1857-58. Reidmann, 1855-56. Reiffarth, Otto (Cologne), 1863-64. Richter, 1857-58. Scherer, 1856-57, 1857-58, 1858-59, 1863-64. Schmidt (Philadelphia), 1855-56, 1857-58, 1858-59, 1859-60, 1863-64. Schmitz (Cassel), 1860-61. Schwan, Friedrich, 1854-55, 1855-56, 1856-57, 1857-58, 1861-62. Schwegerle, 1854-55. Siegrist, 1854-55. Singsheim, 1857-58. Sonnthal, 1859-60. Ungar, 1855-56. Wetzlau, 1855-56. Wisbeck, 1862-63. Wolf, 1854-55, 1855-56. Worret, 1854-55, 1855-56. ACTRESSES Becker, 1855-56. Berkel, 1863-64. Busch, 1859-60. Claus, 1855-56. Claussen, 1863-64. Dupr6, 1862-63. Fischer (Breslau), 1860-61. Fuchs, 1856-57, 1857-58; as Steglitz-Fuchs, 1858-59, 1860-61, 1862-63, 1863-64. Grahn, 1857-58, 1858-59, 1859-60; as Becker-Grahn, 1860-61, 1863-64. Herwig, 1855-56. Hoym-Hehl, Elise, 1854-55, 1855-56, 1856-57, 1857-58, 1858-59, 1859-60, 1860-61, 1862-63, 1863-64. Hiibner, 1855-56, 1857-58, 1859-60. Jacoby, 1854-55, 1855-56, 1858-59, 1859-60, 1860-61. Junge, 1857-58. Juinger, 1859-60. Klein, 1861-62. K6rner, 1855-56. Kress-Jacoby, 1854-55, 1855-56. Kronfeld (Frau), 1856-57. Kronfeld (Fraulein Angelica), 1856-57.

Page  234 234 APPENDIX IVa ACTRESsES-Continued Lindemann, 1854-55. Mantius, 1862-63. Meaubert, 1855-56, 1856-57, 1857-58, 1859-60, 1860-61. Meyer (Riga), 1863-64. Pelosi, 1860-61, 1862-63. Pfeiffer, 1854-55. Riemer, 1854-55. Schambach, Johanna, 1855-56. Scheller, 1859-60, 1860-61; as Methua-Scheller, 1862-63, 1863-64. Schmidt, 1854-55, 1855-56, 1858-59. Schmitz, 1860-61. Schubart, 1855-56. Sommer (Hanover), 1860-61. Spengler, 1856-57, 1857-58, 1858-59, 1859-60, 1860-61. Thalberg, 1859-60. Vestvali-Lund, 1863-64. Wolf, 1854-55, 1855-56, 1859-60. Worret, 1855-56.

Page  235 APPENDIX IVb A list of actors and actresses who took the leading parts at the Neues Stadttheater. ACTORS Alstr6m, 1870-71. Bandmann, Daniel, 1864-65, 1865-66, 1866-67, 1871-72. Becker, 1871-72. Bendleb, Adolf (Olmiitz), 1864-65. Briiggemann (guest, Aachen), 1866-67. Colonel Small (dwarf, in vaudeville), 1868-69. Commodore Foote (dwarf, in vaudeville), 1868-69. Dawison, Bogumil (guest, Warsaw), 1866-67. D6belin, Heinrich (guest, Schwerin), 1868-69. Dombrowsky (Riga), 1867-68, 1869-70, 1870-71. Fortner, 1867-68, 1871-72. Frank, Caesar, 1865-66, 1867-68. Fritze, Karl, 1866-67, 1867-68. Genee, Rudolf (guest), 1866-67, 1869-70. Guthery, Robert (guest, Hamburg), 1869-70. Guttmann, Oscar (Hamburg), 1866-67, 1871-72. Haase, Friedrich (guest), 1868-69. Haffner, 1871-72. Harry, 1870-71. Harting (Hanover), 1864-65, 1865-66, 1869-70. Hendrichs, Hermann (guest, Berlin), 1868-69. Herrmann, Friedrich (Leipzig), 1867-68. Homann, 1870-71. Hoxar, H. (St. Louis), 1867-68. Hoym, Otto, 1864-65, 1865-66, 1866-67, 1867-68, 1869-70, 1871-72. Hiibner, 1869-70, 1871-72. Hiibsch, 1865-66, 1866-67. Jendersky (Pesth), 1868-69. Joszi, Kiss (dwarf, in vaudeville), 1867-68. Kaps, Richard, 1867-68, 1868-69. Kessler, Albert, 1869-70. Klein, 1867-68, 1869-70, 1871-72. Klotz, F. (Neustrelitz), 1867-68. Knorr, 1864-65, 1865-66, 1867-68, 1868-69. Kolmar, J. (Libeck), 1867-68. 235

Page  236 236 APPENDIX IVb AcToRs-Continued Koppe, E. (Hamburg), 1867-68, 1870-71, 1871-72. Kraus, 1870-71. Lange, 1864-65, 1866-67, 1867-68, 1870-71. L'Arronge, Theodor (guest), 1866-67, 1867-68. Lasswitz, 1865-66. Lennet (Pesth), 1864-65. Lube, Max, 1869-70. Muller, 1870-71. Neuendorff, Adolf (musical director), 1864-72. Neville (guest, Vienna), 1869-70. Petit, Jean (dwarf, in vaudeville), 1867-68. Piccolo, Jean (dwarf, in vaudeville), 1867-68. Pope, Charles (one performance only; guest from N. Y. English stage), 1864-65. Reiffarth, Otto, 1865-66, 1867-68. Rethwisch, Ernst (guest, Hamburg), 1867-68. Rohbeck, 1870-71. Rohde, 1871-72. Scherer, 1864-65. Schmidt, 1864-65. Schwan, Friedrich, 1867-88, 1871-72. Starcke, Gustav, 1871-72. Stemmler, Georg (guest, Wiesbaden), 1866-67, 1867-68, 1868-69. Verena (Danzig), 1864-65. Wagener, Adolf (guest, Berlin), 1866-67. Wedderer (Dusseldorf), 1868-69. Werber, 1865-66. Worret, 1871-72. Zerboni, 1865-66, 1866-67. ACTRESSES Barendorf, Augusta (guest, St. Petersburg), 1868-69. Becker-Grahn, 1865-66, 1866-67, 1867-68, 1868-69. Berkel, 1864-65, 1865-66. Bissinger, 1870-71. Claussen, Johanna, 1864-65. Elert, Dorothea, 1865-66. Fortner, 1871-72. Gen6e, Ottilie, 1865-66, 1866-67. Guthery, Marie (guest, Hamburg), 1869-70. Haase, 1864-65, 1865-66. Harting, 1866-67. Haffner, Laura (Berlin), 1867-68, 1869-70, 1870-71. Hesse, Hedwig (Cologne), 1864-65, 1869-70. Htfl, Augusta, 1867-68, 1868-69.

Page  237 APPENDIX IVb 237 ACTRESSES-Continued Hoym-Hehl, Elise, 1864-65, 1865-66, 1866-67, 1867-68, 1869-70. Hilbner, 1866-67, 1867-68, 1871-72. Irschick, Magda (guest, K6nigsberg), 1866-67, 1867-68, 1868-69. Johannsen, Bertha (guest), 1869-70. Kenkel, 1864-65. Klein, Anna (Weimar), 1867-68; as Hamann-Klein, 1868-69, 1871-72. Kramer, Wilhelmine (Dusseldorf), 1865-66. Krause, Alma, 1870-71, 1871-72. L'Arronge, 1867-68. Martens, Anna (Stettin), 1867-68. Marchand, Ida, 1865-66. Meaubert, 1866-67. Methua-Scheller, 1864-65. Miller, Berta, 1867-68, 1868-69. Perl, Clara (guest), 1870-71. Petersen (Altoona), 1864-65, 1867-68. Plittersdorf, Olga (guest), 1867-68. Reiss, Rosina, 1865-66. Restel, Eliza (dwarf, in vaudeville), 1868-69. Rohde, Wilhelmine, 1865L-66, 1866-67, 1871-72. Scheuermann, Elise (Hamburg), 1867-68, 1868-69, 1869-70. SchlIger, Hedwig, 1868-69. Schmitz, Eugenie (guest, Hamburg), 1866-67, 1867-68, 1869-70, 1870-71. Scholz, Sophie (Diusseldorf), 1867-68, 1870-71. Seebach, Marie (guest), 1870-71. Singer, 1868-69. Spengler-Spranger, Elise, 1867-68, 1869-70. Steglitz-Fuchs, 1864-65, 1865-66, 1866-67, 1867-68, 1868-69. Thyssen, 1870-71, 1871-72. Unger, 1864-65. Veneta, Mathilda (guest), 1870-71, 1871-72. Walther, 1865-66. Wiese, Emma (Diisseldorf), 1869-70, 1871-72. Distinguished singers heard in opera at the Neues Stadttheater. Formes, Carl, 1870-71. Formes, Wilhelm, 1869-70. Habelmann, Theodor, 1869-70, 1870-71. Halzel, Gustav (Vienna), 1870-71. Wachtel, Theodor, 1870-71. Chorherr, Elsa (St. Petersburg), 1869-70. Lichtmay, Louise, 1870-71.

Page  238 APPENDIX V1 DAS ALTE STADTTHEATER Last Season, 1863-64 Type;Number Type; of PerDate Title of Play Number Author orof Acts ances Sept. 2 Narciss......................... Tr. 5 A. E. Brachvogel.... 4 3 Rose und R6schen............... Scha. 3 Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer.... 1 4 Maria Stuart.................... Tr. 5 Schiller............. 2 5 Lumpaci Vagabundus............ Opte. 3 Nestroy............ 3 8 Der Gl6ckner von Notre Dame.... Tr. 6 Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer... 1 9 Die Ehestands-Invaliden......... Lu. 3 (After Dumanoir and Lafargue) I. Lehmann............. 2 11 Titus Feuerfuchs oder der Talisman, Rot, Schwarz, Blond....... Po. 3 Nestroy........... 3 14 Medea......................... Tr. 5 Grillparzer.......... 4 1 In Appendices V, VI and VII the following abbreviations have been employed to designate the various types of dramas listed: B ild.................... Burleske................. Charakterbild............ Charaktergemalde........ Charakterskizze.......... Charaktersttick........... D ram a.................. Dramatische Anekdote.... Dramatische Satire....... Dramatisches Bild....... Dramatisches Gedicht..... Dramatisches Gemalde.... Dramatisches Marchen.... Dramolet................ Familienbild............ Farze................... Festspiel................ Genrebild............... Gesang (mit Gesang)...... Lebensbild............... Liederspiel............... Lokalposse............... Lustspiel................ Melodrama.............. Bd. Bske. Chbd. Chge. Qhskze. Chst. Dr. Drankd. Satr. Drbd. Drged. Drge. Drma. Drlt. Fabd. Far. Fesp. Grbd. mit Gsng. Lebd. Ldsp. Lopo, Lu. Mldr. Musik (mit Musik)........ mit Mu. Oper Burleske............ Opbske. Operette................. Opte. Parodie................. Par. Posse.................... Po. Quodlibet................ Quodl. Schauspiel............... Scha. Scherz................... Schz. Schwank................. Schw. Singspiel................. Sngs. Sittenbild................ Sibd. Skizze.................... Skze. Szene.................... Sz. Trauerspiel.............. Tr. Vaudeville................ Vaud. Volksdrama.............. Vkdr. Volkslustspiel............. Vklu. Volksmarchen............. Vkmi. Volksstick................ Vkst. Vorspiel.................. Vorsp. Zauberposse.............. Zbpo. Zauberspiel.............. Zbsp. Zeitgemilde.............. Ztge. Owing to the imperfect condition of the sources it is impossible to give complete lists of the plays performed at the Altes and the Neues Stadttheater during each of the years 1854 to 1872. Therefore it was thought best merely to present the repertoire of one entire year of each of these two theatres. In the case of the Altes 238

Page  239 APPENDIX V 239 TypeNumber Type; of PerDate Title of Play Number Author for of Acts ances antes Sept. 16 Die Grille oder die Zwillingsbriider. Scha. 5 (After G. Sand) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer...... 2 18 Gute Nacht, Hanschen oder das Haus Habsburg und die Jesuiten. Lu. 5 Arthur Miller....... 1 19 Das Madchen vom Dorfe oder Baron, Bauer und Handwerker.. Chbd.5 I. Kruger........... 3 22 Therese Krones oder Geheimnisse aus der Kulissenwelt........... Scha. 3 Haffner.............. 4 24 "1756" oder die Parole-Befehle.... Lu. 5 Ludwig Rellstab..... 1 25 Deborah oder die Jiidin aus Ungarn. Scha. 4 S. H. Mosenthal..... 2 26 Dem Herrn ein Glas Wasser....... Schw. 1 Sanftleben.......... 1 Er ist Baron oder die Milchbriider. Po. A. Weihrauch and Hahn............. 2 28 Anna von Oesterreich oder die drei Musketiere.................... Scha. 6 (After Dumas) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer...... 1 29 Wenn Leute Geld haben oder der Schuster als Millionr.......... Bd. 3 A. Weihrauch....... 2 Oct. 1 Wie denken Sie iiber Russland?.... Lu. 1 Moser.............. 1 Das Versprechen hinterm Herd... Sz. 1 Baumann........... 1 Das Fest der Handwerker......... Po. 1 Angely............. 1 2 Die Macht der Vorurteile oder eine gemischte Ehe................. Scha. 4 E. Sangelli (i.e., Ch. Birch-Pfeffer)..... 3 Stadttheater there could be no choice, for the season 1863-64, the last and unquestionably the greatest theatrical year of that institution, was found to be the only one for which complete data were available (App. V). For the Neues Stadttheater the season 1866-67, which saw that playhouse on its highest plane, was selected (App. VI). Finally (App. VII) it seemed worth while to assemble in alphabetical order the titles of all plays recorded as having at any time been performed at the Stadttheater. Each play is preceeded by a date, as nearly as possible that of the earliest performance noted. In instances where such a performance has been taken from the Belletristisches Journal, which does not give exact dates, only an approximate date could be set down. In such cases a second, exact date will sometimes be found subjoined, if a later performance has been recorded in the Staatszeitung. Thus the reader, by reference to this latter date, may often obtain details as to casts, etc., which are not to be found in the Belletristisches Journal. In Appendices V and VI, where the chief aim has been to give complete pictures of two entire theatrical seasons, it naturally seemed best to include the sporadic performances of grand opera that occured. However, in Appendix VII, designed to be primarily a register of dramas, such operas were entirely omitted. In recording the names of authors an effort was made to conform with the wording of the newspaper advertisements. This explains such apparent inconsistencies as, for instance, the designation of what was probably the same playwright sometimes as L. Schneider and sometimes as Ludwig Schneider, etc. The list of plays in Appendix VII forms the basis of an interesting comparison between the New York Stadttheater and the leading contemporary stages of Germany. Thus, for example, PrSlss in his Geschichte des Hoftheaters zu Dresden lists 1412 titles, including, however, grand operas and covering a period of more than forty-five years (from Oct. 1, 1816, to Jan. 1, 1862). While the list of plays in Appendix VII numbers only 831, it covers a period of but eighteen years, excludes grand operas and is known, of course, to be fragmentary. Quantitatively, therefore, it would seem that the New York Stadttheater compares very favorably with the Court Theatre at Dresden. Moreover an examination of both lists shows that no very great qualitative differences existed, on the whole. A considerable portion of the inferior products that were seen on New York's German stage was also inflicted on the Dresden public.

Page  240 240 APPENDIX V Number Type; of PerDate Title of Play Number Author f orerof Acts ances Oct. 1 Oct. 5 8 9 10 12 15 19 21 22 24 28 30 31 Nov. 2 4 7 10 11 16 18 21 25 Dec. 2 4 7 9 16 17 24 28 30 Die Maschinenbauer oder Arbeit macht das Leben siss.......... Wie man seine Tbchter verheiratet. Ein Stoff von Gerson............. Kabale und Liebe................ Im Mondschein............... Der Jongleur oder Leipzig und Berlin........................ Der letzte K6nig der Juden....... Der Aktienbudiker oder wie gewonnen so zerronnen............... Macbeth........................ Die Verschwbrung der Frauen oder ein Page Friedrichs des Grossen.. Unter der Erde oder Arbeit bringt Segen........................ K6nigin Bell................. Rosenmuller und Finke oder abgem acht........................ Die Rauber..................... Vkst. 3 Po. Lu. 1 Tr. 5 Chst. 1 Po. 3 Tr. 5 A. Weihrauch....... Otto Reiffarth....... Moser.............. Schiller............ Wilhelm Klager..... E. Pohl............. Arthur Miller....... Vkbd.3 Kalisch............. Tr. 5 Shakespeare-Schiller.. Lu. 5 Chst. 4 Scha. 5 Lu. 5 Tr. 5 Arthur Mtiller....... C. Elmar........... Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer.... C. T6pfer........... Schiller............. 0. Berg and D. Kalisch............. S. H. Mosenthal..... (After Dumas) Carlschmidt........... G. Stein............ Schiller............ Das Volk wie es weint und lacht... I Vkst. 3 Der Goldschmied von Ulm........ Der Graf von Montechristo....... Marte Steffes Schillerfeier......... Wallensteins Lager............... Friedrich Schiller und Gustel von Blasewitz.................... Die beiden Nachtwandler oder das Notwendige und das Ueberflussige Der Goldonkel............... Die bezahmte Widerspenstige...... Marietta und Jeannetton oder die Marketenderinnen der Republik Scha. 3 Drbd. 3 Drbd. 1....... Ad. Meaubert....... Po. 4 Nestroy............ Vkst. 3 E. Pohl............. Lu. 5 Shakespeare-Baudissin-Deinhardstein.. Vkst. 3 (After Dumas) W. Friedrich......... 4 5 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 3 2 1 1 3 5 2 1 1 1 4 3 6 1 6 2 3 2 1 2 10 3 3 1 2 2 Der fliegende Hollinder oder das Geisterschiff.................. Vkst. 3 Der Ritter der Damen............ Lu. 1 Ein Berliner in Wien oder am Juristentag....................... Vaud. 1 Vierzehn Madchen in Uniform..... Uriel Acosta..................... Eglantine....................... Ein Wintermarchen.............. Don Juan d'Austria.............. Orpheus in der Unterwelt......... Dr. Fausts Zauberkippchen oder die Riuberherberge im Walde... W ilhelm Tell................. Robert und Bertram, die lustigen Vagabunden.................. Vaud. 1 Tr. 5 Scha. 4 Lu. 5 Scha. 6 Opbske. 4 Wollheim........... Georg Hittl......... A. Langer and D. Kalisch........... Angely............. Gutzkow............ E. Mauthner........ Shakespeare-Dingelstedt............. Putlitz............. Offenbach........... Po. 3 Hopp............... Scha. 5 Schiller............. Po. 4 Gustav Rider....... I I ~

Page  241 APPENDIX V 241 Number Type; of PerDate Title of Play Number Author formof Acts ances -1 1-s Jan. 2, 3 4 6 13 18 20 27 30 Feb. i 3 6 10 12 17 20 22 24 25 29 Mar. 2 4 5 7 9 10 16 19 23 30 Apr. 5 6 9 13 16 20 22 27 28 (No newspaper). Die Jungfrau von Orleans......... Ein geadelter Kaufmann oder VerhlItnisse.................... Bruder Liederlich................ Die Banditen.................. Ein Sommernachtstraum........ Salomos Urteil.................. Der Sohn der Nacht oder die SeerBuber.................... Faust I........................ Der ewige Jude I.............. Der ewige Jude II............. Der Fltichtling aus Lucca oder der Talisman der blinden Mutter.... Herz und Dollar............... Der Alpenkdnig und der Menschenfeind................... Deutsch und Dftniscb oder Schieswig-Hoisteins erster Mtrtyrer... Der Spion oder George Washington. Das Donauweibchen........... Matbilde oder ein Weib wie es scmn soll Ein Blatt aus der Geschichte Polens. Rekrut und Dichter oder die weisse Frau........................ Aus den Geheimnissen von Paris... Faust und Gretchen............. New York und Berlin oder wo macht man am besten aus?.......... Der Fechter von Ravenna........ Anton in Amerika oder Fausts Soil und Haben................. Ich werde mir den Major einladen. Der Sturm.................... Die Pflegetbchter oder zwanzig Jahre Strohwitwe............. Backfiscbe oder ein Mddchenpensionat........................ Die Lady in Trauer............ Lore-Ley oder die Nixe des Rheins.. Tr. 5 Lu. 5 Po. 3 Lu. 4 Lu. 5 Scha. 3 Schiller........... Gdrner........... E. Pohl............. R. Benedix..., *,, Shakespeare (Mendelssohn).......... Schrdder............ Scha. 41 (After S6jour). I Tr. 5 Drbd. 5 Drbd. 5 Goethe........... (After Sue) Carlschmidt......... (After Sue) Qarlschmidt......... Scha. 5 H. Schmidt (actor)... Vkst. 4 Max Cohnheim...... Zbsp. 3 Raimund........... Drbd. 5 Scha. 5 Vkmd. 3 Scha. 4 Scha. 1 Lu. 3 Scha. 5 Schb. 1 E. Remy.......... E. Doench (after Cooper)........... K. F. Hensler. R. Benedix.......... Nesle............. (After Schitcking) Heinrich Holipein.. (After Sue) Dr. Frank. Jacobson............ 2 9 6 1 7 3 1 2 5 2 2 6 2 1 2 3 2 1 6 2 2 3 1 1 1 2 4 4 3 6 1 4 3 6 1 1 1 2 2 Drbd. 5 Max Cohnbeim. Scha. 51 Fr. Halm........... Lopo.3 Lu. 1 Lu. 5 Lu. 3 Seeberg........... (After Fren.) Moser.. Shakespeare......... R. Benedix.......... Vaud. 1 E. Jacobson......... Scha. 5 Trauen........... Scha. 51 Herman Hersch...... Das Khithchen von Heilbronn..... Scha. 5 Der Weltumsegler wider Willen.... Po. 4 Der Mann mit dem Freischein..... Scha. 4 Hamlet.................. *i.. Kdnigin Margot und die Hugenotten Der Freischiitz (eine Parodie). Der Kaufmann von Venedig...... Choiseul und Pompadour oder keine Jesuiten mehr............... Der Leiermann und sein Pifegeldod. H. von Kleist-Holbein G. Hider......... Tom Taylor-Charles Jacoby......... Shakespeare.......* (After Dumas) Adami Shakesp eare-Schle'gel. Tr. 5 Scha. 5 Scha. 41 Schubar.......... Scha. 51 Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer....

Page  242 242 APPENDIX V Type; Number Date Title of Play Number Author of er of Acts ances May 3 7 9 11 14 18 19 21 25 26 28 June 1 2 4 8 9 10 14 17 18 21 Muttersegen oder die neue Fanchon. Scha. 51 (After Fren.) FriedI I rich............. Eine Warte am Rhein oder deutscher Birger, hilf dir selbst........... Der artesische Brunnen........... Kbnig Richard III............... Kieselack und seine Nichte vom Ballet........................ Die Macht des Goldes oder Deutschland und Californien........... 's Lorle vom Schwarzwald oder die Frau Professorin............... Der Viehhandler aus Oberosterreich oder Stadt und Land...... Konig Cotton oder ein schwarzer Menschenbruder............... Griseldis, das Kdhlerkind......... Der Pariser Taugenichts.......... Der Kurmarker und die Pikarde... Marie, Tochter des Regiments..... Der Vicomte de Letorieres oder so gewinnt man Millionen......... Hans und Hanne............... Ein Lustspiel oder die drei Junggesellen...................... Das Rendez-vous in der Grand Street..................... Frdhlich oder Soldat und Chorist.. Der Verschwender............. Barfilssle....................... Junker Otto oder ein Weib wie es nicht sein soil................. Die Schule der Verliebten......... Die Waise aus Lowood (Jane Eyre). Wald-Lieschen oder die Tochter der Freiheit...................... Adrienne Lecouvreur oder dei Blumentod................... Scha. 5 Po. 4 Tr. 5 Chst. 4 Friedrich........... Gustav Rqder....... Shakespeare-SchlegelTieck............. A. Weihrauch...... Chst. 3 Mbdinger.......... Scha. 5 Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer.... Po. 2 Bske. 1 Drbd.5 Lu. 4 Grbd. 1 Opte. 2 Lu. 3 Vaud. 1 Lu. 4 Lopo. 2 Opte. 2 Chsat. Chst. 5 Lu. 4 Lu. 5 Scha. 2 Kaiser.............. Moser.............. F. Halm............ (After Fren.) T6pfer.. Louis Schneider...... Donizetti........... (After Bayard) C. Blum............. Friedrich........... R. Benedix.......... L. Berger........... L. Schneider....... Raimund.......... (After Auerbach) Reichenbach...... R. Benedix.......... C. Blum........... (After Currer Bell) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer.. Chat. 31 Carl Elmar........ 25 Prinz Lieschen oder die verwunschene Weberstochter........... Scha. 5 Far. 5 (After Scribe and Legouv6) H. Graus... M. Heydrich........ Statistical review of the season of 1863-64 Total number of different plays produced.................... 123 Total number of performances..................... 289 Average number of times each play was performed............. 2.35 Total number of tragedies performed........................13 (10+%) Total number of performances of tragedy..................... 32 (11+ %) Total number of performances of classical drama (Shakespeare, Lessing, Schiller, Goethe)........................... 48 (16 + %) Dramatist most frequently given: Shakespeare, number of plays, 8; number of performances, 36 (12+%). Dramatist of whom the largest number of plays was given: Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer, number of plays, 9; number of performances, 14. Play most frequently performed: Ein Wintermdrchen, by Shakespeare, number of performances, 10.

Page  243 APPENDIX V Distribution of classical performances. 243 AUTHOR Shakespeare..... Lessing......... Schiller........ PLAY I Ein Wintermirchen....................... Ein Sommernachtstraum................... Die bez&hmte Widerspenstige............... Hamlet.................................. Macbeth................................ Der Sturm............................... Der Kaufmann von Venedig................ K6nig Richard III........................ (None). M aria Stuart............................ Kabale und Liebe........................ W ilhelm Tell............................. Die Jungfrau von Orleans................. Die Ruber............................. Wallensteiias Lager....................... NUMBER OF PERFORMANCES 10 7 6 6 3' 2 1 1 36 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 Goethe.......... Faust I............................... 10 2 48 Total

Page  244 APPENDIX VI' DAS NEUE STADTHEATER Third Season, 1866-67 Type; Number Date Title of Play Number Author of Performof Acts ances an1CeS Aug. 23 24 25 27 30 Sept. 1 3 4 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 20 21 24 25 Die Schweizer in Neappl.......... Zopf und Schwert.............. Der Gliickner von Notre Dame.... Die zdrtlichen Verwandten oder eine Weiberkolonie............... Emilia Galotti.................. Wilhelm Tell.................... Der Geizige..................... Der arme Poet................ Nichts Gewisses oder wie man's treibt so geht's............... Die eine weint, die andere lacht.... Rezept gegen Schwiegermiitter.. - Scha. 5 Lu. 5 Tr. 6 Lu. 3 Tr. 5 Scha. 5 Lu. 5 Lu. 1 Po. 3 Scba. 4 Lu. 1 Der Jude....................... I Scha. 3 Er ist nicbt eifersitchtig........... Lumpaci Vagabundus............ Graupenmiiller................ Narciss...................... Deborah................. Der Vicomte von Letorieres. Lu. 1 Opte. 3 Po. 3 Tr. 5 Scha. 4 Lu. 3 A. E. Brachvogel... Gutzkow.......... Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer.... R. Benedix........ Lessing........... Schiller............ M oli re-F. Dingelstedt A. v. Kotzebue...... 0. aMylius......... (After Fren.) H. Laube (After Don Manuel Juan Diana) Kdnig Ludwig II........ Translated from Gumberland......... Elz.............. Nestroy.......... D. Kalisch........ A. E. Bracbvogel.... S. H. Mosenthal. (After Bayard) C. Blum........... (After C. l'Egru) 0. Guttmann....... Gutzkow.......... H. Salingree..... (After Dumas) Carlschmidt......... Kaiser............ Hahn............ Shakespeare........ Th. Gassmann....... (After Fren.) P. Wichmann........... D. Kalisch.......... Schiller........... Personal-Akten.................. Lu. 2 Uriel Acosta.....................Tr. 5 Pech-Schuize................... Chbd.3 Der Graf von Montechristo....... Drbd. 3 Stadt und Land............. Im Vorzimmer seiner Excellent.... Othello........... Die Kartenschlagerin........... Eine Verirrung oder die Schuid einer Frau........................ Berlin wird Weltstadt............ Die Hituber.................... Sngs. 4 Bd. 1 Tr. 5 Scha. 5 Scha. 3 Po. 1 Tr. 5 See Note, p. 238. 244

Page  245 APPENDIX VI 245 TypeNumber Type; of PerDate Title of Play Number Author formof Acts ances..1ances Sept. 26 27 28 29 Oct. 1 2 3 5 9 13 15 17 18 19 22 25 26 27 29 31 Nov. 2 7 8 9 10 12 14 15 16 17 19 21 Der Goldonkel................... Der Kaufmann von Venedig....... Don Caesar de Bazano oder Kanig, Graf und Zitherschllgerin....... Der K6nigsleutnant............. Die bezahmte Widerspenstige.... Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab...... Maria Stuart.................... Der Jongleur.................... Faust I....................... Konig Richard III............... Die Jungfrau von Orleans......... Graf Essex...................... Hans JOirge..................... Die Ungliicklichen............. Ein Arzt........................ Ein schlechter Mensch............ Die Wiener in Paris.............. Dornen und Lorbeer............. Romeo auf dem Bureau........... Zwei Tage aus dem Leben eines Firrsten.................... Ein gliicklicher Familienvater oder Tante Kobold und Onkel Satanos. Die H elden..................... Robert und Bertram oder die lustigen Vagabunden............... "Y 1"......................... Auf Alsen..................... Mathilde oder ein Weib wie es sein soll............................ Die Stiefmutter.................. Faust und Gretchen............. Unter der Erde oder Arbeit bringt Segen................. Kabale und Liebe................ (Newspaper missing from file). Der Verschwender............. Ein Solospiel in drei Akten........ Eine Margarethe................. Gltckliche Flitterwochen........ Der Soubrette letzte Rolle....... Die Verschwbrung des Fiesco...... Die Dame von Paris und der Schusterjunge von Lyon............ Familie Hirsch.................. Im Career..................... Der Roman eines armen jungen Mannes..................... Die Maschinenbauer oder Arbeit macht das Leben siss.......... Vkst. 3 E. Pohl............ Scha. 5 Shakespeare........ Scha. 4 Lu. 4 Lu. 5 Scha. 3 Tr. 5 Po. 3 Tr. Tr. 5 Tr. 5 Scha. 5 Scha. 2 Lu. 1 Lu. 1 Lu. 4 Grbd. 1 Scha. 2 Schw. 1 Lu. 2 Lu. 3 Lu. 1 Po. 4 Lu. 3 Grbd. 1 (After Fren.) W. Friedrich............. Gutzkow........... Shakespeare....... C. v. Holtei........ Schiller............. E. Pohl............. Goethe............. Shakespeare......... Schiller............. H. Laube.......... C. v. Holtei......... A. v. Kotzebue..... (After Fren.) A. W. Hesse............ J. v. Rosen.......... C. v. Holtei........ (After Lafont) W. Friedrich......... F. Wehl........... Deinhardstein....... Garner............ M arsano............ G. RAder.......... J. v. Rosen.......... F. Schr6der......... Scha. 4 R. Benedix.......... Lu. 3 R. Benedix.......... Po. 1 Jacobson.......... Chbd.3 Tr. 5 Chge. 3 Lu. 3 Lu. 1 Po. 1 Schz. 1 Tr. 5 Chbd.4 Po. 3 Po. 1 Scha. 6 Scha. 3 C. Elmar........... Schiller............ Raimund.......... Saphir............. C. v. Holtei......... H orn............... Jacobson........... Schiller............. Trautmann......... P. A. W olf.......... Jacobson........... (After O. Feuillet) E. Juin and P. Reinhard A. Weihrauch...... 22

Page  246 246 APPENDIX VI Type; ofmPerDate __________ Title___________of ______Play _________ Number______ ______ Author_____________ of_____ _ Per-______ Nov. 23 24 27 28 30 Dec. 1 3 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 14 15 17 18 19 20 22 24 27 31 Jan. 2 Lieschen Wildermuth........... Der Leiermann und sein Pi;&ege kindi.......................... Nan, der Taugenichts von New York.......................... Kabale und Liebe in der Theatergarderobe..................... Grossmutter und Enkel........... Zwei Braute oder Stadt- und Landliebe.......................... Eugen Aram..................... Lu.4 SKrdger............. S cha. 51ICOh. Birch-Pfei ffer.... Po. 1 Lu. 1 Po. 1 Scha. 5 Der kleine Richelieu............... Lu. 2 Ich gehe meinen eigenen Weg....IPo. 1 Meines Onkels Schiafrock..... "A Delegate for Boncomb".. Mldchenpfiffe................... Der letzte Brief.................. Die verhiingnisvolle Omelette.... Beckers Geschichte............... Genoveva (mit Nachspiel)..... Pfeff er-Rdsel.............. Des Yolk wie es weint und lacht... Guten Morgen, Vielliebohen.... Des Herrn Magisters Perriicke... Eine Selbstmdrderin.............. Wie man emn Kammermhdohen lesen lehrt.......................... Infanterie und Kavallerie oder nur mit Leder................... Bhestandsexercitien eines U~nver-' mhlhten....................... Bin Kbnigreich fiur zwei Kinder.... Orpheus in der Unterwelt..... Bine Bntftlhrung mit Hindernissen........................... Die weil~ichen Drillinge.......... Bin Theaterskandal............... Maloheno und Milchen............ Emn Prozess um einen Kuss..... Im Wartesaal erster Kiasse..... In der Heimat................... Therese Krones.................. Emn Wintermarchen.............. Das.M8dchen vom Dorfe..... Der Maller und sein Kind..... Kdnigin Margot und die Hugenotten...........I.............. Das Kitthchen von Heilbronn.... Waidliesehen oder die Tochter der Freiheit....................... Po. 5 Po. 3 Lu. 1 Lu. 3 Vaud. 1 Vaud. 1 Tr. 6 Scha. 5 Vkst. 3 Lu. 1 Lu. 2 Schz. 1 Lu. 1 (Af ter Bng.) I. B. Maud............ B. Dohm........... (After Fren.) F. Tietz. R. Hahn.......... *'i. (After Buiwer) L Relistab.......... '(After Fren.) Blanc.. Hegewald........... Gbrner............. Putlitz.............. Stark.. Gassmann..... Friedrich........... Jacobson............ Hebbel............. Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer.... 0. Berg and D. Kalisch.............. Thale............... G6rner............. Julius.............. (After Fren.) Alex. Berger............. 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Schw. 11 Sigel...............I Schz. 1 Po. 1 Opte. 4 Po. 3 Po. 1 Po. 1 Lu. 1 Lu. 1 Lu. 1 Scha. 5 Scha. 3 Lu. 5 Chst. 5 Dr. 5 Sch'a*.*5, R. Gen6e........... W. Drost........... Hector-Cremieux.... Jtinger.............. C. v. Holtel..... Nesmiiller........... Feodor Weh..... Meilitz............. Hugo Miuller..... Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer.... Haffner............. Shakespeare,.,*,,, I. Kru~ger........... B. Haupach..... (After Dumas) Adami Kleist-Holbein.... Chbd.31 Carl Elmar......

Page  247 APPENDIX VI 247 Number Type; of Per Date Title of Play Number Author ormf er of Acts ances Jan. 3 4 5 7 8 9 11 12 14 16 17 18 21 23 25 26 30 Feb. 1 2 4 5 6 7 9 11 13 14 16 20 22 25 Das Irrenhaus zu Dijou oder der Wahnsinnige.................. Sand in die Augen.......... Der alte BurgerkapitAn oder die EntfUhrung................... Still Waters Run Deep (in English). Friedrich Schiller oder die Karlsschiler...................... Muttersegen oder die neue Fanchon Dr. 3 Lu. 2 Lu. 2 Lu. 3 Scha. 5 Die Grossmutter oder das dunklel VerhAngnis.................. Scha. Egmont....................... Titus Feuerfuchs oder der Talisman. Der Fechter von Ravenna........ Romeo und Juliet................ Preciosa....................... Lore-Ley oder die Nixe des Rheins.. Liebhabereien................... Tannhauser (eine Zukuntsposse). Eine Posse als Medicin............ Mariette und Jeannetton oder die Marketenderinnen der Republik. Kossak, Franzos und Vierlinderin.. Das Donauweibchen............. H am let......................... Richards Wanderleben............ Das Portrit der Geliebten......... Der Waffenschmied von Worms... Eine Tasse Tee.................. Die Grabesbraut oder Gustav Adolf in Miinchen.................... Mein Mann geht aus............. Hans und Hanne................ Der Tower von London........... Kean oder Leidenschaft und Genie.. Drei Tage aus dem Leben eines Spielers....................... Der Billeteur und sein Kind....... Der Sohn der Nacht oder die Seerauber...................... Die Saihne eines Mannes.......... Otto Bellmann................. Ein Glas W asser.................. Katherine Howard oder Thron und Hia tte........................ Don Carlos..................... Tr. 5 Po. 3 Tr. 5 Tr. 5 Scha. 4 Scha. 5 Po. 3 Po. 3 Po. 3 Vkst. 3 Vkmia.3 Tr. 5 Lu. 4 Lu. 3 Oper 3 Lu. 1 Dr. 5 Lu. 2 Vaud. 1 Scha. 4 Scha. 5 Scha. 3 Chst. 3 Scha. 4 Scha. 3 Po. 3 Schw.1 (After Delavigne) A. Prix.............. (After Fren.) Berger.. C. Malsz........... TYom Taylor......... H. Laube........... (After Fren.) Friedrich............. (After Fren.) Ida Gdrner.......... Goethe............. Nestroy............ F. Halm............ Shakespeare-Schlegel. P. A. W olff.......... H. Hersch......... H. Salingree......... Lewittschnigg-music by C. Binder...... Kaiser.............. (After Dumas) W. Friedrich......... K. F. Hensler....... Shakespeare......... Kettel.............. L. Feldmann....... Lortzing.......... (After Fren.) Drost.. J. F. Bahrdt....... (After Fren.) H. BSrnstein............. Friedrich........... L. Bahn.......... (After Dumas) L. Schneider......... (After Ducange) L. Angely........... D. Kalisch and E. Pohl (After Lejour)....... (After Fren.) Wichmann............. D. Kalisch.......... Sanftleben.......... Scha. 5 Ed. Jerrmann.. Tr. 5 Schiller.............

Page  248 248 APPENDIX VI Type;Number Type; of PerDate Title of Play Number Author ofPerof Acts ances ý1 - 1 I a Ces Feb. 27 Mar. 2 5 6 8 11 16 19 22 25 27 29 30 Apr. 2 3 4 5 9 10 11 15 17 19 24 28 May 1 3 4 7 8 10 11 14 15 Der bucklige Marquis oder die reiche Erbin................. Faust........................ Die Zauberflite................. Der Freischiitz.................. Die Jildin.................... Wallensteins Tod.............. Wilhelm Tell.................. Don Juan..................... Massaniello.................... Der Lumpensammier von Paris.... Moderne Vagabunden oder Faust und Margaretha.............. Die Hugenotten............... Donna Diana................... Scha. 5 Oper 3 Oper 2 Oper 3 Oper 5 Tr. 5 Oper 4 Oper 2 Oper 5 Dr. 5 Po. 3 Oper 5 Lu. 5 Robert der Teufel................ Oper 5 Doktor Robin................... Lu. 1 Fidello........................ Oper 2 Der Vater der Debutantin oder doch durchgesetzt...................Po. 4 Paris in Pommcrn oder die seltsame Testamentsklausel........... Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor.. Pantoffel und Degen............. Das Fest der Handwerker.. Einer von unsere' Leut' oder der brave Isaac................... Von sieben die hdsslichste........ Die deutschen Kom6dianten...... Das zugemauerte Fenster.. Ich werde mir den Major einladen.. Zebn Madchen und kein Mann... Die Benefizvorstellung........... Graf Waldemar................. Bin gebildeter Rausknecht.. Nichte und Tante.............. Bin Stidndchen auf dem Comptoir.. Dir wie nir oder dem Herrn ein Glas Wasser..................... Nur eine Seele................... Kivatern (in Low German)....... Kdnig Lear..................... Das heimliche Zimmer oder die Eifersitchtigen................ Viel Lirm um nichts........... Mitgefangen, mitgebangen........ Die lebendigtoten Eheleute...... Vaud. 1 Oper Lu. 3 Sngs. 1 Lu. 3 Lu. 3 Dr. 5 Lu. 1 Lu. 1 Opte. 1 Po. 3 Scha. 5 Po. 1 Lu. 1 Po. 1 Lu. 1 Scha. 5 Tr. 5 Lu. 4 Lu. 5 Scbw. 1 Schw. 1 (After Sue) Gormousky........... Gounod........... Mozart............. Weber............ Scribe-Halvy.... Schiller........... Rossini............. Mozart........... Auber............. (After Fren..) H.' Schmidt.......... Jacobson........... Meyerbeer.......... (After M oreto) WestSchreyvogel....... Meyerbeer........ (After Premary) W. Friedrich........ Beethoven......... (After Bayard) B. A. Herrmann...-.-- L. Angely........... Nicolai............ (After Schr6der) Holbein............ L. Angely........... 0. Berg and D. Kalisch............ L. Angely......... S. H. Mosenthal..... A. v. Kotzebue...... (After Fren.) Moser.. Supp6e............. (After Fren.) Tb. Hell. Freytag........... D. Kalisch........ Gdrner........... Sigmund Haber....(After Fren.) Roger.. Wolfsohn........... Bttrmann.......... Shakespeare......... Schrbder........... Shakespeare-Holtei... Warburg.......... Schikaneder........ 2 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 6 1 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 15 2 1 2 2 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 I I I I

Page  249 APPENDIX VI 249 Type; Number Date Title of Play Number Author of er of Acts ranes ances May 15 Der Ehemann vor der Tiir........ Opte. 1 (After Delacour) A. Bahn and J. Grinbaum............. 1 17 Wer isst mit?.................... Vaud.1 (After Dbsaugiers) Friedrich.......... 2 20 Humoristische Studien............ Lu. 2 Lebriin............. 1 22 Giinstige Vorzeichen.............. Lu. 1 R. Benedix........... 2 Badeker........................ Schw. 1 G. Belly............ 2 24 Der artesische Brunnen........... Po. 4 G. Rader........... 1 25 Eine Dampfwagenreise durch die Theaterwelt (musikalisches Quodlibet)......................... Quodl.? 1 27 Fiinfhunderttausend Teufel....... Po. 4 D. Kalisch.......... 2 29 Der Zillerthaler................ Sngn. 1 Nesmiller.......... 1 Am Klavier.................... Lu. 1 Grandjean.......... 1 Reich an Liebe oder wer borgt mir fiinf Dollar?.................. Po. 1 (After Fren.) Friedrich............. 1 31 Das bemooste Haupt oder der lustige Israel.................... Scha. 4 R. Benedix.......... 1 June 1 Leonore oder die Todtenbraut..... Scha. 3 K. v. Holtei.......... 1 Der Hahn im Dorfe.............. Grbd. 1 C. A. Gbrner........ 1 3 Die Frau in Weiss................ Dr. 5 (After Wilkie Collins) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer.. 2 5 Iffland oder Hannover, Mannheim, Berlin......................... Chat. 4 Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer.... 1 7 Der Berliner Droschkenkutscher.. Po. 3 A. Weihrauch....... 3 12 Kieselack und seine Nichte vom Ballet........................ Chat. 4 A. W eihrauch....... 1 Statistical review of the season of 1866-67. Total number of different plays performed.................... 205 Total number of performances............................... 343 Average number of times each play was performed............. 1.67 Total number of tragedies performed......................... 20 (10- %) Total number of performances of tragedy..................... 41 (12 -%) Total number of performances of classical drama (Shakespeare, Lessing, Schiller, Goethe)............................... 36 (10+%) Dramatist most frequently given and of whom the largest number of plays was given: Shakespeare, number of plays, 9; number of performances, 21 (6+%). Play most frequently performed: Zehn Mddchen und kein Mann, Operette by Supp6e, number of performances, 15.

Page  250 250 APPENDIX VI Distribution of classical performances. AuTHOR Shakespeare... PLAY I K6nig Richard III....................... Der Kaufmann von Venedig............... Hamlet................................. Othello.................. Die bezi~hmte Widerspenstige.............. Kbnig Lear................. Viel Ldrm urn ni hs...................... Emn Wintermitrehen...................... Romeo und Juliet........................ Leasing........... Emilia Galotti........................... NUMBER OF PERFORMANCES 5 3 3 2 2 2 2 11 1 21 Schiller. Die Riluber............................. Wallensteins Tod....................... Wilhelm Tell............................ Maria Stuart............................ Die Jungfrau von Orleans................. Kabale und Liebe............ Die Verschw6rung des Fihesc o'...... Don Carlos............................. Goethe.......... Faust I................................. Egmont................................. Total

Page  251 APPENDIX VII 1 LIST OF PLAYS PRODUCED AT THE ALTES AND THE NEUES STADTTHEATER, 1854-72 Yr. Type; Mo. Da. 18- Title Number Author of Acts Feb.? 55 Mar. 25 68 Nov. 7 67 Apr. May Mar. Mar. Dec. June Aug. Nov. Sept. Sept. Nov. Feb. June Jan. Nov. Apr. May Jan. Nov. May May 27 12 26 9 16 21 21 10 15 24 14 8 8 24 27 14? 29 22 70 70 68 70 70 64 57 65 59 58 58 56 58 56 61 69 58 69 54 67 66 Ab6lard und Heloise.......... Abenteuer (ein) auf Vorposten... Abenteuer (das) in der Waldmihle oder die beiden Sonntagsjhger.................... Abraham Lincoln............ Achtundachtzigste Geburtstag (der)....................... Achtzehnhundertvierundsechzig, ein New Yorker Lebensbild... Achtzehnhundertsechsundsechzig oder aus bewegter Zeit........ Adelaide...................... Adrienne Lecouvreur........... Adrienne Lecouvreur........... Afrikanerin (die).............. Aktienbudiker (der) oder wie gewonnen so zerronnen....... Alboin, Filrst der Longobarden.. Alexander Straderelle......... Alpenkonig (der) und der Menschenfeind.................. Alte Feldherr (der)............. Alte Frankfurter Biurgerkapitin (der) oder die alten Spiessbiirger Alte Fritz (der)............ Alte Junggesellen oder die Tage der Erkenntnis............. Alte Magister (der)............ Alte Schachtel (die)............ Alte Student (der)............. Am Klavier................... Anna, Nanni, Nina, Nettchen oder die Unschuld auf dem Lande..................... Tr. Gust. and Am. Struve Opte. 1 Carlo de Barbiere Po. 1 A. Blank Ztge. 6 (After Eng.) Ed. Malne Fabd. 3 Lu. 3 Vkst. 3 Grbd. 1 Scha. 5 Scha. 5 Po. Vkbd.3 Scha. 5 Par. Zbpo. mit Gsng. 3 Lu. 1 R. Benedix Emil Pohl Hugo Miller (After Fren.) H. Graus (After Scribe and Legouv6) Herrmann Jacobson and Haupt D. Kalisch Pannasch A. Lob Raimund C. v. Holtei Lopo. 2 C. Malsz Po. IBoas Sibd. 5 Scha. 4 Po. 3 Lu. 1' (After V. Sardou) Farster R. Benedix (After 0. Berg) E. Pohl Maltitz Grandj ean Po. mit Gsng. 2 Juin 1 See Note, p. 238. 251

Page  252 252 APPENDIX VII Yr. Type; Te. 18- Number Author of Acts Mar. 55 Sept. 1 28 1 63 Apr. Sept. Mar. Oct. Nov. May Sept. Sept. May June Dec. 5 3 9 5 59 64 64 58 57 68 66 57 64 66 60 Anna von Gesterreich oder die drei Musketiere.............. Anna von Oesterreich oder die drei Musketiere.............. Anne-Liese, die Braut des Soldaten.................... Anne-Liese, die Braut des Soldaten............. Anton in Amerika oder Fausts Soil und Haben.............. Armendoktor (der):............ Armen (die) in Paris.......... Armen (die) und Reichen von New York................ Arme Poet (der)............. Artesische Brunnen (der)..... Artesische Brunnen (der)....... Arzt (ein).................. Aschenbrddel................... Lu. 5 Lu. 5 Po. mit Gsng. 3 Scha. 1 Scha. 6 Vkst.- 3 Lu. 1 Po. 4 Po. 4 Lu. 1 Vkmd. mit Gsng. 4 Vkma. mit Gsng. 4 Grbd. 1 Po. mit Gsng. 6 Skze. 3 Scha. 5 Dr. 4 Opte. 1 Lu. Vaud. 1 Schw. 1 Lu. 1 H. Hersch H. Ilerach Seeberg A. E. Brachvogel (After Fren.) Ed. Jerrmann Otto Reiffartl Kotzebue Gustav Rader Gustav Rader (After Fren.) C. W. Hesse R. Benedix R. Benedix F. Schrbder Conradi K. Blum (After Sue) Dr. Franke Bauernfeld Offenbach E. Jacobson G. Belly Putlitz Scha. 6 (After Dumas) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Scha. 6 (After Dumas) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Dec. 1 16 68 1 Aschenbrddel.................. Nov. Oct. Mar. Oct. Mar. Sept. May Oct. Mar. May May Feb. Feb. Feb. Jan. Mar. June Aug. Mar. Apr. Apr. 2 S 17 2 25 16 19 22 20 2 18 5 7 24 17 24 66 70 60 67 64 68 66 65 64 67 70 55 56 61 64 70 58 65 59 68 66 Auf Alsen.................. Auf eignen Fiissen........... Auferstandenen (die)........... Auffinden der drei Zwerge (das).. Aus den Geheimnissen von Paris. Aus der Gesellschaft.......... Aus Liebe zur Kunst........... Autograph (der)............. Backfische oder ein Midchenpensionat................... Bdideker................... Badekuren........ Bajazzo und seine Familie oder Herzog und Hanswurst...... Bajazzo und seine Familie oder Herzog und Hanswurst. *, Banditen (die)................. Banditen (die)............... Barbara Ubryk oder das Verbrechen im Kloster zu Krakau. Barfilssle................... Bastille (die)................. Bauer (der) als Millionlir. Beaumarchais oder ein Emporkdmmling.................. Vkst. 5 (After Fren.)? Vkst. 5 (After Fren.)? Lu. 4 R. Benedix Lu. 4 R. Benedix Ztbd. 4 Chge. 5 Scha. Scha. 4 Louis Schmitzer (After Auerbach) Reichenbach Berger Raimund (After Brachvogel) Frau E. SpenglerSpranger Jacobson Beckers Geschichte............. I Vaud. 1

Page  253 APPENDIX VII 253 Mo. I Da. Yr. 18 - Title - 1 - 1 - 1 1 - I I I Sept. Mar. Nov. Dec. June Sept. May Apr. Apr. May Feb. Feb. Dec. Jan. Apr. June Mar. May Nov. June Feb. Feb. Feb. Jan. Apr. Apr. Jan. Jan. May May Nov. May 6 13 13 21 31 11 24 6 2.8 2 29 30 18 18 2 14 25 15 5 28 60 69 63 59 65 56 67 56 67 56 63 68 63 69 68 66 62 57 63 68 67 64 70 69 58 65 Befreiung von Neapel (die)..... Beiden Klingsberg (die)......... Beiden Nachtwandier (die)...... Beiden Schiitzen (die)......... Bei einem Glas Wein......... Bekenotnisse (die)............. Bemooste Haupt (das)....... Ben David der Knabenraiuber oder der Christ und der Jude.. Benefizvorstellung (die)......... Benefizvorstellung (die) oder der Souffleur in tausend Aengsten. Berlin bei Nacht............. Berliner Droschkenkutscher (der) Berliner (ein) in Wien oder am Juristentag.................. Berliner Kinder oder eine Stunde in der Kaserne............ Berliner Kreisrichter (emn) auf dem Wiener Juristentag...... Berlin wird Weltstadt.......... Betrogene Betrilger............ Bettlerin von Marienberg (die).. Bezdhmte Widerspenstige (die).. Biedermlnner vom Lande..... Billeteur und sein Kind (der).... Blatt (ein) aus der Gesohiclte Polens.................... Blaubart................... Blinde (die) von Paris oder die Riickkehr des Verbanoten... Blumengeister (die) oder wo weilt das Gliick?.................. Bdse Verhiingnis (das).......... Bdse Zungen.................. Brautfahrt (die) mit Hindernissen oder der Rduberdberfall im Gebirge..................... Brautigam (emn) der seine Braut verheiratet................. Braut oder Schwester oder Verirrung iiber Verirrung.......... Braut von Messina (die)........ Breite Gasse (die) und die schmale Gasse oder morgen ist Neujahr. Bruder Liederlich.............. Bucklige Marquis (der)......... Budiker (der) und sein Kind oder Comtesse MDale.............. Bi~rgerlich und Romantisch..... I Type; Number of Acts Lu. 4 Po. 4 Opte. Lu. 4 Lu. 3 Scha. 4 Scha. 5 Po. 3 Lu. 5 Po. Po. 3 Po. 1 Vkst. 4 Po. 1 Po. 1 Lu. Dr. Lu. 5 Chbd.4 Chst. 3 Bd. 1 Opte. 4 Dr. 5 Zbpo. 3 Dr. Scha. 5 Po. 3 Lu. 1 Lu. 1 Tr. 5 Lu. 5 Po. 3 Scha. 5 Po. mit Gsng. 3 Lu. Author Kotzebue Nestroy Lortzing Heinrich Bdrnstein (?) L. Bauernfeld R. Benedix (After Spindler) Bern. Neustldt (After Fren.) Tb. Hell W. Vogel A. Weibrauch Langer and Kalisch H. Salingree Langer and Kalisch D. Kalisch H. Benedix (After Michel Masson) Julius Meissner Shakespeare-Baudissin-Deinhardstein (After Sardou) 0. F. Eirich D. Kalisch and E. Pohl Nesle Meilhac-Hal6vy-Hopp B. A. Herrmann Th. Gassmano Frau E. SpenglerSpranger H. Laube J. Schick Fe. Wehi Angely Schiller (After the Danish of Overekon) Carl Pallesen E. Pohl (AfterSue) Gormonsky Salingree-Jacobson Bauernfeld 12 69 6 68 13 22 2.8 68 66 60 56 64 67 69 56 Jan. 13 Feb. 27 Oct. 29 Sept. 2 I I I I I

Page  254 254 APPENDIX VII Mo. Da. 1. Title umber Author of Acts Jan. Mar. Dec. Apr. Mar. Apr. May Feb. Jan. Jan. Oct. May Mar. May Jan. Sept. Jan. May Dec. Sept. June Sept. May Feb. Dec. Feb. Dec. Nov. Oct. Apr. Jan. Feb. Mar. Mar. Oct. Apr. Sept. 22? 19?? 27 3 1 17? 4 11? 25 9 10 29 26 3 15? 26 30 4 11 7 26 19 3 17 22 20? 23 68 59 67 62 59 64 69 69 66 62 69 66 60 67 56 67 68 58 66 68 65 63 66 68 66 56 59 67 64 67 56 64 60 70 Birgermeisterin (die) von Schorndorf................... Biirger und Molly........... Carvalho oder ein verhingnisvoller Abend............... Cato von Eisen................ Charlotte Ackermann........... Choiseul und Pompadour oder keine Jesuiten mehr.......... Copist (der)................... Cora, das Kind des Pflanzers (Ztbd. in den Sidstaaten Nordamerikas).............. Coriolanus................... Crinolinenverschwdrung........ Dame (die) mit den Gamelien... Dame (die) von Paris und der Schusterjunge von Lyon..... Damonische Liebe oder der Schwan von Isoro............ Dampfwagenreise (eine) durch die Theaterwelt................. Lu. 5 Lu. 5 Lu. 3 Scha. 5 Scha. 4 Scha. 1 Ztbd. 5 Tr. 5 Lu. Drge. 5 S. Winterlin S. H. Mosenthal Julian Werner H. Laube Otto Miller Schubar (After Meilhac) G. Hittl (After Fren.) Wichmann Shakespeare-SchlegelTieck-Gutzkow Benedix (After A. Dumas Fils) L. v. Alvensleben Chst. 4 Trautmann.uod.. Quodl. mit Mu1 Daniel in der Lbwengrube (biblisch)...................... Das war ich................... Dawison...................... Deborah....................... Delegate (a) for Boncomb....... Delikater Auftrag (ein)......... Demetrius................... Dem Herrn ein Glas Wasser..... Der Soubrette letzte Rolle...... Des Friseurs letztes StUndlein.... Des Herrn Magisters Perriicke... Des K6nigs Befehl oder Friedrich der Grosse................ Des Schulzen Tachterlein....... Des Uhrmachers Hut........... Deutschen (die) in Schleswig oder der Sturm auf die Dannewerke. Deutschen Kom6dianten (die)... Deutscher (ein) in Amerika..... Deutsch und Danisch oder Schleswig-Holsteins erster Martyrer.. Diamant des Geisterkinigs (der). Diana von Mirmanda oder eine Verschw6rung unter dem Kard. Richelieu................... Dr. 4 Sz. 1 Po. 2 Scha. 4 Po. 3 Lu. 1 Tr. Scha.!1 Schz. 1 Solo 1 Lu. 2 Lu. 4 Sngs. 1 Lu. 1 Scha. 4 Dr. 5 Lu. 4 Drbd. 5 Scha. 5 Dr. Franke Hutt B. A. Herrmann S. H. Mosenthal Putlitz (After Fren.) Ascher Schiller-G. Kiihne S anftleben Jacobson? Garner Dr. C. T5pfer Heinemann (After Mrs. Em. de Girardin) Thalburg and Wagener S. H. Mosenthal Emil E. Remy (After Augier) Ed. Jerrmann (From the Italian) G. Stein R. Benedix 65 Diavoletta....................... 65 Diener des Herrn (ein).......... Po. 67 Dienstboden (die)............... Lu. 1

Page  255 APPENDIX VII 255 Yr. Type; Mo. Da. 18r- Title Number Author of Acts May Oct. Jan. Jan. Nov. June Mar. Dec. Mar. Feb. Feb. May. Dec. Aug. Mar. Dec. Nov. Jan. Sept. Oct. May Jan. Jan. Apr. Nov. Also June Dec. Oct. Apr. Nov. May Sept. Dec. Jan. 4 15 26 1 7 5 19 29 24 1 5 16 30 10 12?? 26 17 17 12 12 3 12 21 17? 7 11 67 67 56 69 68 66 65 54 56 64 56 58 63 56 67 58 67 55 54 66 58 59 55 69 58 55 56 56 65 58 60 66 65 63 67 Dir wie mir oder dem Herrn ein Glas Wasser................. Dr. Fausts Hauskippchen..... Dr. Fausts Zauberkippchen..... Doktor und Friseur............ Doktor Peschke oder kleine Herren..................... Doktor Robin................ Doktor Treuwald.............. Domi der amerikanische Affe oder Negerrache................. Dominique Cartouche oder drei Tage aus dem Leben eines Rauberhauptmanns.......... Donauweibchen (das)........... Don Casar de Bazano.......... Don Carlos................... Don Juan d'Austria.......... Donna Diana.................. Donna Diana................. Doppelginger (der) oder das Phantom................. Doppelginger (der) in Kyritz.... Dorfbarbier (der)... Dorf und Stadt oder die Frau Professorin................ Dornen und Lorbeer.......... Dramatisches Vergissmeinnicht (a series of four short plays)..... Drei Dorfmusikanten (die) oder der Zauberring.............. Dreissig Jahre aus dem Leben eines Lumpen.............. Dreissigste November (der).... Drei Tage aus dem Leben eines Spielers.................... Drei Tage der Weltgeschichte oder die Reise in der Tiurkei....... Dreiunddreissig Minuten in Grineberg................. Drillinge (die)................ Drillinge (die)................. Due Job..................... Dumm und Gelehrt............ Edda (die).................. Eglantine.................. Egmont..................... Lu. 1 Schw. Po. 3 Po. 2 Po. 1 Lu. 1 Chbd. Dr. 3 Vkma. 3 Scha. 5 Tr. 5 Scha. 6 Lu. 5 Lu. 5 Lu. 4 Po. 1 Opte. 2 Scha. 5 Scha. 2 Zbpo. Po. Lu. 1 Scha. 3 Po. mit Gsng. Lu. 3 Lu. Schz. 1 Scha. 4 Tr. 5 (After Fren.) Roger Fr. Hopp Fr. Kaiser (After Savetier) Kalisch (After Pr6mary) Friedrich R. Benedix Th. Hell K. F. Hennsler (After Fren.) W. Friedrich Schiller Putlitz (After Moreto) WestSchreyvogel (After Moreto) WestSchreyvogel (After Ad. v. Schaden) F. v. Holbein Kliger (Music by Schenk) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer (After Lafont) Friedrich Aug. Gerstel Nestroy Feldmann (After Ducange) L. Angely (After Gautier) Adolf Freitag (local actor) Holtei (After Fren.) L. Schneider Leon Laya-A. v. Winterfeld v. Platz Joseph Weilen E. Mauthner Goethe

Page  256 256 APPENDIX VII Mo. Oct. Da. Yr. 18 -65 66 May 1 14 May Dec. Sept. Oct. Nov. May Jan. May Apr. Mar. Sept. Dec. Dec. Dec. Dec. Oct. Nov. May Dec. Dec. Apr.May Mar. Apr. Sept. Sept. Sept. Nov. Apr. May 15 1 67 Title Ehemann (ein) von fttnfzehn Jahren oder der kleine Richelieu................ Ehemann (ein) von itinfzehn Jabren oder der kleine Richelieu................., Ehemann (der) vor cer Thiir. Ehestandsexercitien elnes Unvermdhlten........ Ehestands-Invaliden (die)....... Ehestands-Leiden und Freuden.. Eifersttchtige Frau (die)........ Eifersiichtigen (die)............ Eigensinn.................. Einer von unsere' Leut..... Type; Number of Acts Lu. 2 Lu. 2 Opte. 1 Schz. 1 Lu. 3 Lu. 3 Lu. 2 Lu. 1 Lu. 1 Lu. 3 12 9 27 6 4 12 16 6 25 27 12 8 15 Author 66 63 68 58 58 69 60 66 63 66 56 71 58 59 56 54 58 56 66 Einer von unsere' Leut'.......... Lu. 3 Eine (die) weint, die andere lacht. Eine (die) weint, die andere lacht. Einfalt vom Lande (die)........ Eiserne Maske (die)........... Bismeer (das) und das Gebet der Mutter.................... Emilia Galotti................ Empire City.................. Endlich hat er es doch gut gem acht..................... Englisch................... Englischfranzasische B i! n d n i s (das) oder der Student von Bonn..............'Entfithrung mit Hindernissen (eine)...................... Scha. 4 Scha. 4 Lu. 4 Dr. 5 Scha. 5 Tr. 5 Dr. Lu. -3 Lu. 2 Po. 3 (After Fren.) F. Heine (After Fren.) F. Heine (After Delacour) A. Bahn and J. Giinbaum R. Gen6e I. Lehmann Ivan E. Mitchels A. v. Kotzebue R. Benedix R. Benedix 0. Berg and D. Kalisch 0. Berg and D. Kalisch (After Fren. H. Laube (After Fren.) H. Laube C. Tbpfer (After Fren.) L. Schneider (After Eng.) E. Juin and P. J. Reinhard Lessing (After Lippard) 0. Hoym Albini A. Gbrner Ed. Meaubert Jinger 0. Ludwig (After E. T. A. Hoffmann) Wilhelm Vogel Weihrauch and Hahn Weibrauch and Hahn Elz (After Fren.) W. Friedrich G rner B. A. Herrmann (After Scribe and Legouv6) Dr. Ebeling? 60 I Erbfbrster (der)................ I Tr. 5 22 56 Erbvertrag (der) oder das Maj oratI Scha. 5 26 7 6 4 28 23 63 63 66 54 69 69 66 Er ist Baron................ Er ist Baron................. Er ist nicht eifersiichtig...... Er muss aufs Land oder der Ball im Methodisten-Hause..... Erste Gastrolle (die) des Frlulein Veilohenduft (Tanz)........ Er weiss nicht was er will..... Erzdihlungen (die). der K6nigin von Navarra oder Revanche fiir Pavia.................. Po. mit Gsng. Po. mit Gsng. Lu. 1 Lu. 3 Solo Schw. 1 Lu. 5 --

Page  257 APPENDIX VII 257 Yr. Type; Mo. Da. i- Title Number Author of Acts Dec. Apr. Nov. Mar. Mar. Feb. Mar. Oct. Feb. Mar. Nov. Oct. Dec. Apr. May Feb. Nov. Dec. Mar. Oct. Sept. Nov. May Jan. Apr. Nov. Jan. Oct. Mar. Feb. Sept. Sept. 13 28 2 27 19 4 13 25 9 26 11 24 10 11 8 12 5 28 6 8 25 18 25 18 10 4 14 65 71 66 65 66 56 56 58 55 68 64 69 69 58 56 56 66 59 60 64 59 61 56 68 63 63 56 67 68 64 54 67 Erziehung macht den Menschen. Erziehungsresultate oder StadtFraulein und Land-Madchen.. Eugen Aram.................. Europhisches Sklavenleben oder ein Midchen vom Ballet...... Europlisches Sklavenleben oder ein Midchen vom Ballet...... Ewige Jude (der) I............. Ewige Jude (der) II.......... Fabrikant (der)................ Fackeljunge von Cremona (der).. Falscher Minister von Bismarck (ein) oder zur Abstimmung in Nordschleswig............... Familie Fliedermiller oder Versuche..................... Familie Hirsch................. Familie Hummel oder so muss es komm en................... Faust I........................ Faustin I, Kaiser von Hayti..... Fausts Leben, Taten u. Hallenfahrt oder die vier Todessiinden Faust und Gretchen............ Fechter von Ravenna (der)..... Feen-Hande oder die geheimnisvolle Putzmacherin von Paris.. Feen-Hande oder die geheimnisvolle Putzmacherin von Paris.. Feldkaplan und Leutnant....... Ferdinand von Schill........... Fest der Handwerker (das)...... Feuer in der Midchenschule..... Fischermadchen von Fanbland (das)............... Fliegende Hollander (der) oder das Geisterschiff............ Fliegende Hollander (der) oder das gespensterische Schiff..... Flotte Bursche................. Fluch des Galilee (der)......... Fliichtling aus Lucca (der)...... Forsthaus (das)................ Fortunios Lied................ Lu. Lu. 2 Scha. 5 Scha. 5 Scha. 5 Drbd.5 Drbd. 5 Scha. 3 Scha. 4 Schw. 1 Vaud. 1 Po. 3 Po. mit Gsng. 3 Tr. 5 Po. 4 Drge. 6 Schz. 1 Scha. 5 Lu. 5 Lu. 5 Scha. Dr. Vaud. 1 Lu. 1 Sngs. Zbpo. mit Gsng. Scha. 4 Opte. 1 Scha. 5 Scha. 5 Scha. 4 Opte. 1 G6rner Carl Blum (After Bulwer) L. Rellstab (After Hacklander) H. German (After Hacklinder) H. German (After Sue) Carlschmidt (After Sue) Carlschmidt Devrient Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Rethwisch L. Schneider P. A. Wolff Mannstidt (music by Neuendorff) Goethe Feldmann and Bertram Dr. A. Klingemann Jacobson Fr. Halm (After Scribe) Th. Gassmann (After Scribe) Th. Gassmann Fried. Albrecht Gottschalk Angely (After Fren.) F6rster Wollheim (After Ellison) 0. Hoym J. Braun Arthur Muller H. Schmidt Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Cremieux-Hal6vy-G. Ernst

Page  258 258 APPENDIX VII M'o. Nov. May Nov. Jan. May Feb. May Apr. Mar. Dec. Feb. May Nov. June Feb. Mar. May Apr. Nov. Jan. Sept. Dec. Sept. June Oct. Sept. Sept. Mar. Mar. Apr. Feb. Sept. Sept. May Mar. Mar. Sept. June Da. 16 16 6 2 7 20 9 20 26 16 10.4 12 30 4 6 20 26 8 4 28 13 23.3 14 10 14 4 Yr. 18 -58 66 68 69 60 61 69 64 68 67 68 56 63 64 66 55 66 63 67 64 59 60 68 58 68 64 69 59 55 56 63 66 69 58 65 66 61 66 Title Fra Diavolo oder das Gasthaus in der Terracina.............. Frau (eine) die in Paris war..... Frauenkampf............... Frau in Weiss (die)............ Frdiulein H6ckercben......... Frdiulein von St. Cyr (die)...... Fr8ulein von Seigliere (das)..... Freischiitz (der)............. Frencb Louis, der Runnerkonig, New Yorks................ Freund Schlipps.............. Friedricbs des Grossen Jugendjabre.g................... Friedricb Schiller oder die Karisschller................... Friedricb Schiller und Gustel v. Blasewitz.................. Fr6blicb oder Soldat und Chorist. Fttnfbunderttausend Teufel..... Fttrsten sum Land hinaus....... Gdnscben von Bucbenau (das).-. Garibaldi. Gasthaus (das) zum Riesen Goliath.................. Geadelter Kaufmann (emn)...... Gebildeter Hausknecbt (ein) oder verfehlte Prif ongen......... Gebrochene Herz (das)......... Gebriider Foster oder das Gliick und seine Launen.......... Gefangenen der Czarin (die)..... Gefongnis (das)................ Gegentiber................... Gebeimnis (das) der alten Mamsell oder Hass und Liebe...... Geheimnisse (die) elner jungen Frau oder der Selbstmbrder... Gebeimnisse von London (die)... Gebeimnisse von Paris (die).... Geizige (der)................. Geizige (der).................. Geld (das) liegt auf der Strasse. Geld! Geld! Geld!.............. Genoveva (mit Naclspiel)...... Genoveva (mit Naclspiel)...... George Washington........... Gesandtscbaftsattacb6 (der) oder eine Frau mit zwanzig Millionen Type; Number of Acts Opte. 3 Lu. 3 Lu. 3 Dr. 5 Scha. Scha. 4 Par. Scha. 5 Scbw. 1 Scha. 5 Scha. 5 Opte. 2 Po. 4 Lu. Lu. 1 Scbw. 1 Lu. 6 Po. mit Gsng. 1 Dr. Chge. 5 Lu. 2 Lu. 4 Lu. 3 Scha. 5 Scha. 6 Dr. 5 Lu. 5 Lu. 5 Po. mit Gsng. 3 Chge. 3 Tr. 5 Tr. 5 Scha. 5 Lu. 3 Author Scribe-Auber-Carl Blum G. v. Moser (After Scribe) Olfcrs (After Wilkie Collins) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Ch. Birch-Pfciffer (After Fren.) H. B6rnstein (After J. Sandeau) H. Laube (After Tb. Griesingj:xr) C. H. Frings Gustav Geistel H. Laube H. Laube Ad. Meauber t L. Schneider Kalisch M. Cohnheim W. Friedrich Thiirmeyer-Hesner G6rner D. Kplisch Vogel Dr. Carl T6pfer (After Bayard) W. Friedrich H. Benedix H. Benedix (After Marlitt) Dr. Woliheim (After St. Hilaire) Frost and Lentner (After Eng.) A. Mayer (After Sue) C. Dillor Mol~ire-Dingelstedt Moli re-Dingelstedt Salingree-Neuendorff (After Buiwer) Fr. IfKaiser Hebbel Hebbel J. Dornau ATeilhac

Page  259 APPENDIX VII 259 Y. Type; Mo. Da. 18 Title Number Author of Acts Sept. 12 59 Gesellen (die) oder der Weg zum Verbrechen.................. Scha. 5 (After Fren.) H. B6rnstein Jan. Oct. Feb. Sept. Feb. Sept. Jan. Nov. Nov. Apr. Feb. Nov. Dec. Nov. Nov. June Oct. Nov. Sept. Jan. Jan. Sept. Sept. Oct. Apr. Mar. June June May Jan. Apr. Apr. Jan. Nov.? 5 11 20 30 3 15 29 21 12? 16 4 2 22? 18 14 14 6? 22 28 28? 20 13 25? 29 12 27 55 67 68 61 67 64 56 66 66 61 68 69 62 Gestorben und wieder auferstanden...................... Gesunder Junge (ein) oder hundert Taler Belohnung......... Glas W asser (ein).............. Glas W asser (ein).............. Glas Wasser (ein)............... Glas Wasser (ein) oder Ursachen und Wirkungen.............. Gl1ckner von Notre Dame (der). Gltickliche Flitterwochen........ Glicklicher Familienvater (ein).. Goldbauer (der)............... Goldbauer (der)............... Goldelse...................... Goldonkel (der)................ 63 Goldonkel (der)............... 63 72 69 54 68 56 68 58 57 64 67 66 57 64 68 56 63 71 70 66 Goldschmied von Ulm (der)..... Goldteufel (der) oder ein Abenteuer in Amerika............. Goldweibchen oder Russisch und Italienisch................. GStz von Berlichingen.......... G6tz von Berlichingen.......... Grabesbraut (die) oder Gustav Adolf in Muinchen............ Grade Weg (der) der beste...... Graf Essex.................... Graf von Montechristo (der).... Graf von Montechristo (der).... Graf Waldemar............... Graupenmtiller................ Grille (die) oder die Zwillingsbrader...................... Grille (die) oder die Zwillingsbrider..................... Gringoare oder K6nig und Dichter Griseldis, das K6hlerkind....... Grosser Redner (ein).......... Grosser Zwist (ein) um eine Kleinigkeit.................. Grossherzogin von Gerolstein (die)....................... Grossmitterchen und Enkel..... Lu. Schw. 1 Lu. 5 Schw. 1 Schw. 1 Lu. 5 Tr. 5 Po. 1 Lu. 3 Scha. 4 Scha. 4 Chge. 5 Vkst. mit Gsng. 3 Vkst. mit Gsng. 3 Scha. 3 Chge. 3 Vaud. 1 Tr. 5 Tr. 5 Dr. 5 Lu. 1 Scha. 5 Drbd.6 Drbd. 6 Scha. 5 Po. 3 Scha. 5 Scha. 5 Chbd.1 Drbd. 5 Lu. Schw. 1 Opte. 4 Lu. 1 Jacobson (After Scribe) Cosmar Sanftleben Sanftleben (After Scribe) Scherenberg (After V. Hugo) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Horn Gdrner Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer (After E. Marlitt) Wexel and Wegener E. Pohl E. Pohl S. H. Mosenthal C. Elmar (After Fren.) Tollert Goethe Goethe J. F. Bahrdt A. v. Kotzebue H. Laube (After Dumas) Carlschmidt (After Dumas) Carlschmidt G. Freytag D. Kalisch-Salingree (?) (After Sand) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer (After Sand) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer (After Th. Banville) E. Winter Fr. Halmn. (After Fren.)? G6rner M\eilhac-Hal6vy-Hopp (After Fren.) F. Tietz

Page  260 260 APPENDIX VII Yr. Type; Mo. Da. 18- Title Number Author of Acts - 1 - 1 - 1 Jan. May June Oct. Dec. Sept. June Dec. May Apr. Apr. June Oct. Mar. May Mar. May Feb. Jan. Oct. Sept. Feb. Mar. Nov. Sept. May Mar. Oct. Sept. May Jan. Sept. Aug. Mar. Feb. May Feb. Feb. Feb. May 22? 25 18 22 11 20 13 5?1 23 21 19 31 24 23 4 2 6 24 9 29 14 3 19 1 27 12 9 26 8 6 6 67 67 67 67 62 63 66 66 68 57 64 65 66 56 65 68 56 70 66 67 67 68 68 65 64 56 68 66 70 69 56 68 55 60 64 66 70 Grossmutter (die) oder das dunkle Verhingnis.................. Giinstige Vorzeichen............ Giinstlinge (die)............... Gustel von Blasewitz (die)...... Gute Nacht, Hianschen, oder das Haus Habsburg und die Jesuiten Gute Nacnt, Hanschen, oder das Haus Habsburg und die Jesuiten Guten Morgen, Herr Fischer.... Guten Morgen, Vielliebchen..... Hahn (der) im Dorfe........... Hamlet....................... Hamlet....................... Hans JUrge................. Hans Jilrge.... Hans Kohlhaas, der Rosskamm von Meissen................ Hans Lange................... Hans Sachs................. Hans und Hanne............... Harfen-Schule (die) oder JesuitenIntriguen unter Ludwig XVY... Haus der Barneveldt (das)...... Haus der Confusionen (das) oder Maler, Barbier und Musiker... Hedwig, die Banditenbraut...... Heimann Levy auf der Aim..... Heimliche Zimmer (das)........ H einrich IV................... Heinrich von Schwerin oder Deutschland und Diinemark... Heiratsantrag auf Helgoland (der) Heiratsbureau (ein) oder das Ganze beruht auf Diskretion... Helden (die).................. Hermann und Dorothea oder eine deutsche Backerfamilie....... Herr PrEsident (der).......... Herr Rochus Pumpernickel...... Herzog Albrecht oder Vater und Sohn...................... Herzog Johann von Finnland.... Herz und Dollar............... Herz und Dollar.............. Hexen-Hans................ Heydemann und Sohn.......... Scha. 5 Lu. 1 Scha. Drankd. 1 Lu. 5 Lu. 5 Vaud. Lu. 1 Grbd. 1 Tr. 5 Tr. 5 Scha. 2 Scha. 2 Scha. 5 Dr. Scha. 4 Vaud. 1 Scha. 3 Tr. 5 Po. 2 Scha. 3 Sz. 1 Lu. 4 Tr. 5 (After Fren.) Ida Gdrner R. Benedix Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Sigmund Schlesinger Arthur Mfiller Arthur Mfiller Thale C. A. Gorner Shakespeare Shakespeare C. v. Holtei C. v. Holtei G. A. v. Maltitz Paul Heyse Deinhardstein Friedrich (After Fren.) A. E. Brachvogel F. Dingelstedt Fr. Hopp Th. K6rner Schroder Shakespeare-Schrbder 1 - Scha. 5 Meyer Schw. 1 Salingree Lu. 1 Marsano Po. mit Gsng. 1 Schw. 1 Quod. 3 nit Mu. Scha. 5 Scha. 5 Vkst. 4 Vkst. 4 Scha. 5 Lebd. mit Gsng. 4 Kalisch and rauch Wilh. Kliger Weih Stegmeyer Melchior Meyr Frau v. Weissenthurn Max Cohnheim Max Cohnheim Hermann Hersch Hugo Miller and Emil Pohl Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Herrmann R. Benedix 56 Hinko oder Kanig und Freiknecht Dr. 5 55 Hochzeit (die) vor der Trommel. Vors. 2 58 Hochzeitsreise (die)............ Lu. 2 I I ~

Page  261 APPENDIX VII 261 Yr.Type; Mo.IDa. Yr. Title Number Author 18- of Acte ill Mar. Apr. Oct. May May Jan. Nov. Apr. June Apr. May Nov. Jan. June Oct. Sept. Feb. Dec. Oct. Jan. Dec. Feb. Jan. Feb. Nov. Jan. June May Oct. Sept. Jan. Apr. Jan. Oct. May Dec. Sept. Apr. Oct. 4 7 6 24 20 1 3 19 5 19 17 3 10 10 17 20 10 12 5.3 2 21 14 14 24 25 1 12 3 7 '16 69 69 58 58 67 56 65 66 68 67 67 66 56 68 63 65 66 66 54 66 66 70 67 70 60 56 56 58 64 58 55 56 61 63 57 58 66 69 60 H6flicher Mann (ein)......... Hofmeister (der) in tausend Aengsten................. Robe Briicke und tiefer Graben.. Hugenotten (die) oder die Pariser Bluthochzeit.............. Humoristiache Studien.......... Hunderttausend Thaler......... Ich bin ich................. Ich bleibe ledig.............. Ich ease bei meiner Mutter..... Ich werde mir den Major einladen Iffiand........................ Tm Carcer.................... Tm Dunkein oder Fabrten und Abenteuer eines Zuckerbaickers. Im ersten Aufgebot............ Im Mondscbein.............. Im Vorzimmer seiner Exzellenz... Tm Vorzimmer seiner Exzellenz... Tm Wartesalon erster Kiasse.... In der Geisterstunde........... In der Heimath oder Schwarzwald und Paris.............. Infanterie und Kavallerie. In Saus und Braus........... Irrenhaus zu Dijou (das)........ Isabella Orsini oder das Opfer der Medici................... Isidor und Olga.............. Jack Sheppard oder des Leben der Verbrecher in London..... Jdger (die)................... Jerusalems letzte Nacht......... Jesuit (der) und sein Z6gling.... Jocko, der brasilianische Affe.... Johanna von Montfaucon.. Johannes Guttenberg, der Erfinder der Buchdruckerkunst.... Jongleur (der)................. Jongleur (der)................. Joseph in Egypten............ Journalisten (die).............. Jude (der)................... Jude (der)................... Juden (die) von Worms......... 1 - Lu. 1 Lu. Po. 1 Drge. 5 Lu. 2 Po. mit Geng. 3 Lu. Lu. 3 Lu. 1 Lu. 1 Qhst. 4 Po. 1 Po. mit Gang. 3 Grbd. 1 Ohat. 1 Lebd. 1 Lebd. 1 Lu. 1 Po. Scha. 5 Schw. 1 Po. mit Gsng. Dr. 3 Dr. 5 Tr. 3 Scha. 4 Drge. 5 Scha. 5 Lu. 4 Dr. 3 Scha. 5 Po. 3 Po. 3 Opte. Lu. 5 Scha. 3 Scha. 4 Vkst. 5 L. Feldmann (After Fren.) Theo. Hell B1rnstein (After Dumas) F. Adami Lebrun D. Kalisch H. Bdrnstein Carl Blum (After Fren.) Drost; Winterfeld (After Fren.) Moses Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Jacobson (After Scribe and St. Georges) Fr. Kaiser S. Hahn Wilh. KIlger Rudolf Hahn Rudolf Hahn Rugo Miiller Friedrich Oh. Birch-Pfeifer Sigel Jacobson and Hahn; music by Neuendorff (After Delavigne) A. Prix Mosenthal E. Haupach J. B. Buckatone W. A. Iffland Wollheim (After Fren.) A. Schreiber (After Gabriel) L. Bach Oh. Birch-Pfeiffer E. Pohl E. Pohi Mebul 0. Freytag Cumberland (After Cumberland) Seydelmann Th. Gasamano

Page  262 262 APPENDIX VII I I I. - Mo. Apr. Sept.Oct. Jan. May June Nov. Nov. Nov. Nov. Feb. Jan. Apr. Oct. Oct. Oct. Feb. Jan. Nov. Feb. Apr. Mar. Jan. Feb. Jan. Oct. Jan. Mar. May Jan. Feb. Oct. May Feb. Nov. Oct. Da. Yr. 18 - Title Type; Number of Acts Author - I I 4? 1? 10 28 11? 27 26 11 23 31 22 1? I 66 54 64 60 64 67 64 65 66 69? 58 70 69 69 59 I Julius Oaesar.................. Jungfrau von Orleans (die)...... Jungfrau von Orleans (die)...... Junker Otto oder ein Weib wie es nicht sein soll............. Junker Otto oder ein Weib wie es nicht sein soll............. Jux (einen) will er sich machen... Kabale und Liebe............ Kabale und Liebe, ein Soloscherz. Kabale und Liebe in der Theatergarderobe.................... Kadetten..................... Kadetten-Launen............. Kaiserreich (das) oder drei Unglickstage aus dem Leben N apoleons.................. K akadu....................... Kammerkitzchen oder Domestikenstreiche............... Kanonenfutter................. Kapellmeister (der) von Venedig. 25 68 Kapellmeister (der) von Venedig. 25 19 27 7 7 14 13 27 23? 14? 5 8 8 3 4 17 64 56 61 68 56 68 68 58 56 61 64 61 66 59 67 68 58 64 Kartenschlagerin (die) oder die Juden von Worms........... Kathchen von Heilbronn (das).. Katharina Parr................ Katherina Howard........... Katherine Howard oder Krone und Schaffot............... Kaufet se a Kienholz oder eine Schillerfeier................. Kaufmann und Seefahrer...... Kaufmann von Venedig (der).... Kean oder Leidenschaft und G enie...................... Kieselack und seine Nichte vom Ballet.................... Kieselack und seine Nichte vom B allet..................... Kind des Gliickes (ein)........ Kind des Gliickes (ein)......... Kinder (die) des Regiments oder der Invalide............. Kivatern (in Low German)...... Klaas Ehlers oder ein SeemannsJubilium.................. Kleine Richelieu (der) oder der erste Waffengang............ Kleiner Damon (ein) oder durchgesetzt...................... Tr. 5 Tr. 5 Tr. 5 Lu. 4 Lu. 4 Po. 4 Tr. 5 Schz. Po. 1 Opte. 1 Opte. 1 Scha. Opte. 3 Schz. 1 Lu. 3 Quodl. mit Mu. Quodl. mit Mu. Vksp. 5 Scha. 6 Dr.. Tr. 5 Scha. 5 Lebd. 1 Chbd.2 Dr. 5 Scha. 5 Chst. 4 hst. 4 Dr. Dr. Vaud. Scha. Ldsp. 1 Lu. 2 Lu. 4 Shakespeare-Schlegel Schiller Schiller R. Benedix R. Benedix Nestroy Schiller E. Dohm E. Dohm Ad. Neuendorff Hahn (After Dumas) E, Baudius (After Fren.) Hopp Jacobson Julius Rosen (After Breitenstein) L. Schneider (After Breitenstein) L. Schneider Th. Gassmann Kleist-Holbein (After Louise Mihlbach) Frau Spengler Rudolf Gottschall (After Dumas) Ed. Jerrmann Rethwisch Rethwisch Shakespeare-Schlegel (After Dumas) L. Schneider Weihrauch Weihrauch Birch-Pfeiffer Birch-Pfeiffer (After Fren.)? Barmann Ernst Rethwisch (After Fren.) F. Heine A. Bahn ~_

Page  263 APPENDIX VII 263 Yr. Type; Mo. Da. 18 Title Number Author of Acts Jan. Oct. May Oct. Apr. Apr. Nov. May Oct. Dec. Apr. May Sept. Mar. Nov. Nov. Jan. Jan. May Feb. Feb. May Mar. Skpt. May Mar. Mar. Oct. May Sept. Feb. Apr. Apr. Feb. Nov. June Dec. Oct. 1 66 Kleingeld..................... 27 59 Kbnig Allgold oder die drei Thranen..................... 21 28 16?? 10 8 12? 11 3 7 9? 11 26 30? 28 5 21 23 26 23 7 15 21 4? 28 11? 1 5 20 64 63 64 55 60 67 58 66 57 64 58 66 64 56 56 67 66 63 66 66 66 69 64 64 64 68 67 64 68 60 64 69 61 67 66 54 Kbnig Cotton.............. Konigin Bell................. Kanigin Margot und die Hugenotten..................... K6nig Konradin oder die letzten Hohenstaufen............... Kdnig Lear.................... K6nig Lear................... Ksnigreich der Weiber (das) oder der Aufruhr im Serail........ K6nigreich fir zwei Kinder (ein). Konig Richard III............. KSnig Richard III............. K6nigsleutnant (der)........... K6nig und Miiller............. K6nig von sechzehn Jahren (der) oder wer wagt der gewinnt... Konig Wein.................... Korsikanischen Brilder (die) oder die Blutrache................ Kosak, Franzos und Vierlanderin. Kosmos des Herrn v. Humbolt (der) oder Liebe aus Caprice... Kranke Familie (eine)......... Krethi und Plethi.............. Kreuzfahrer (die) oder die Belagerung von Nicia............ Kiifermeister Martin und seine Gesellen................... Kunst (die) geliebt zu werden... Kurmarker und die Pikarde (der). Lady in Trauer (die)........... Laubfrbsche.................... Leben (das) ein Traum......... Lebendigtodten Eheleute (die)... Leichte Person (eine)......... Leiden (die) eines Choristen..... Leiermann (der) und sein Pflegekind....................... Leiermann (der) und sein Pflegekind........................ Leitartikel und Feuilleton....... Leonore oder die Todtenbraut... Leonore oder die Todtenbraut... Letzte Brief (der).............. s letzte Fensterle und drei Jahre nach dem letzten Fensterle.... Po. mit Gsng. 3 Drmi. mit Gsng. 4 Bske. 1 Scha. 5 Dr. 6 Tr. 5 Tr. 5 Po. Po. 1 Tr. 5 Tr. 5 Scha. 5 Chge. 4 Lu. 2 Far. Scha. 4 Lu. 1 Lu. Vkst. 3 Scha. 5 Vklu. 5 Ldsp. 1 Grbd. 1 Scha. 5? Scha. 5 Schw. 1 Po. mit Gsng. 3 Sz. 1 Scha. 5 Scha. 5 Schz. 1 Scha. 3 Scha. 3 Lu. 3 Sngs. 1 E. Pohl Kneisel-Neuendorff Moser Birch-Pfeiffer (After Dumas) Adami E. Raupach Shakespeare Shakespeare Elmar W. Drost Shakespeare-SchlegelTieck Shakespeare-SchlegelTieck Gutzkow Hermann Hersch (After Fren.) Forst (After Dumas) Th. West? Fe. Wehl? Kalisch A. v. Kotzebue (After Hoffmann) F. v. Holbein (After Fren.) Gumbert L. Schneider Trauen? Calderon-C. A. West Schikaneder E. Pohl (After Fren.)? Birch-Pfeiffer Birch-Pfeiffer Schlesinger C. v. Holtei C. v. Holtei (After Fren.) Th. Gassmann J. G. Seidl and Stein

Page  264 264 APPENDIX VII Yr. Type; Mo. Da. - Title Number Author of Acts Oct. Oct. May May Dec. Jan. Jan. June Nov. Sept. Oct. May Oct. Nov. May Nov. June Mar. Oct. Dec. May Dec. Mar. May Dec. Jan. Nov. Jan. Jan. Dec. Sept. Oct. June Oct. Oct. Nov. Dec. Feb. Dec. Sept. 15 17 22 7 8 21 4 23 4 24 26 7? 2 4 30 26 19 2 15 2 16? 24 15 29 31 14 21 9 2 23 3 3 60 63 66 58 58 56 67 68 66 67 65 66 69 68 57 66 56 64 67 56 64 67 69 70 70 55 64 56 58 59 58 63 56 63 58 65 66 65 60 Letzte Hanswurst (der) oder die deutsche Biihne im vorigen Jahrhundert................. Letzte K6nig der Juden (der).... Leutnant (der) im Arrest...... Lichtensteiner (die)............ Liebesprotokol (das)............ Liebestrank (der).............. Liebhabereien................ Lieder des Musikanten (die)..... Lieschen Wildermuth.......... 's Lieserl...................... Lisette, hilf oder ich gehe meinen eigenen W eg................ Lisette, hilf oder ich gehe meinen eigenen W eg................. Loch (das) in der Wand........ Lola Montez als Slngerin oder Murrkopf muss Kom6die spielen Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab.... Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab.... Lord und Rauber oder des Meeres und des Lebens Wogen (trag.-komisch.)............. Lore-Ley oder die Nixe des Rheins Lorenz und seine Schwester..... 's Lorle vom Schwarzwald...... 's Lorle vom Schwarzwald...... Ludwig der Eiserne............ Ludwigs des XI letzte Tage..... Ligner (der) und sein Sohn..... Liigner (ein) der die Wahrheit ligt...................... Lumpaci Vagabundus.......... Lumpaci Vagabundus.......... Lumpensammler von Paris (der). Lustigen lebendigen und toten Eheleute (die)............... Lustige Schuster (der) oder der Teufel ist los.............. Lustspiel (ein) oder die drei Junggesellen................ M acbeth.................. Macht (die) des Goldes oder Deutschland in Californien.... Macht der Vorurteile (die)...... Madame Lafarge oder die Gebieterin von St. Tropez......... Miadchenpfiffe................ Madchenpfiffe................. Midchen vom Ballet (ein)..... Madchen vom Dorfe (das)...... Madchen vom Dorfe (das)...... Lu. Tr. 5 Schz. 1 Drge. 3 Lu. 3 Opte. 2 Po. 3 Vkst. 5 Lu. 4 Ldsp. 1 Po. 1 Po. 1 Schw. 1 Po. 1 Scha. 3 Scha. 3 Dr. Scha. 5 Po. 1 Scha. 5 Scha. 5 Vkst. 5 Dr. 5 Po. 1 Schw. 1 Opte. 3 Opte. 3 Dr. 5 Schw. Po. 5 Lu. 4 Tr. 5 Chbd.3 Scha. 4 Scha. 5 Lu. 1 Lu. 1 Schz. 1 Chst. 5 Chst. 5 Fr. Kaiser Arthur Muller G. Putlitz J. F. Bahrdt Bauernfeld (After Fren.)? H. Salingree Rudolph Kneisel Kriiger I. Kneiff Hegewald Hegewald A. Christen H. Dbbelin C. v. Holtei C. v. Holtei Fr. Adami Hermann Hersch Friedrich Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Alex. Rost (After Delavigne) P. H. Kilb Harleville Paul Hiubner Nestroy Nestroy (After Fren.) H. Schmidt Schikaneder Drieberg R. Benedix Shakespeare-Schiller A. Mbdinger Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer (After Fren.) P. Jerrmann Starke Starke A. Blank J. Kriiger-E. Sangelli (i.e., Ch. BirchPfeiffer) J. Krilger-E. Sangelli (i.e., Ch. BirchPfeiffer) 19 1 63 ~ ~ _ _I

Page  265 APPENDIX VII 265 Yr. Type; Mo. Da.18- Title Number Author of Acts Nov. 21 64 Jana.' 25 69 Dec. Sept. Apr. June June Nov. Apr. Nov. Jan. Oct. Nov. Feb. 17 2 9 8 18 7 7 15 24 13 28 21 66 67 64 66 66 68 69 66 66 54 68 56 Mddchen von Lyons (das) oder der falsehe Fidrst............. Mademoiselle de Belle Isle oder die verblngnisvoile Wette..... Malchen und Milcben.......... Manner von heute oder die seltsame Wette............ Mann (der) mit dem Freisciein.. Mann (der) mit der eisernen Masks................... Mann (ein) ohne Hers.......... Man soil den Teufel nicht an die Wand malen........... Man sucht einen Erzieher oder so bringt man Ordnung ins Haus.................... Margaretbe (eine).......... Maria, Prinzessin von Montpensier...................... Maria Stuart................ Marie Anna oder die beiden Miitter...................... Marie-Anne, ein Weib aus dem Yolk....................... Marie, Tochter des Regiments... Mariette und Jeannetton oder die Marketenderinnen der Republik..................... Marquise von Villette oder der Jakobiter-Club............ Marte Steffes Schiller-Feler..... Masaniello oder der Stumme von Portici................... Maschinenbauer (die) oder Arbeit macht das Leben stss........ Mascbinenbauer (die) oder Arbeit macht das Leben siiss... Matbilde oder ein Weib wie es sein soll.................. Matbilde oder ein Weib wie es sein soll.................. Maurer von Berlin (die)...... Maurer (der) und der Schlosser.. Maximilian, Kaiser von Mexico.. Maximilian Robespierre...... Mazeppa.................... Medea..................... Scha. 5 Dr. 5 Lu. 1 Lu. 4 Scha. 4 Dr. 5 Lu. 3 Lu. 1 Lu. 2 Lu. 1 Scha. 5 Tr. 5 Dr. 4 Vkst. 5 Opte. 2 Vaud.3 Scha. 5 Mldr. mit Gsng. 3 Vkst. 3 Vkst. 3 Scha. 4 Scha. 4 Opte. 3 Tr. 5 Ztbd. 5 Dr. 5 Tr. 5 (Buiwer) (After Dumas) Franz Holbein Fe. Wehl Julius Rosen (Tom Taylor) C. Jacoby (After Arnold and Fournier) L. Schneider (After Dumas Fils) Al Paun Fe. Wehi (After Fren.) Bahn C. v. Roltel A. E. Brachvogel Schiller (After Fren.) Carl Friedrich (After Fran.) Joseph Mendelssohn Donizetti (After Dumas) W. Friedrich Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer G. Stein (After Fren.) music by Auber A. Weibrauch A. Weibrauch R. Benedix R. Benedix (Auber) Dr. Krach R. Griepenkerl R. Gottachall Grillparzer Oct. 26 1 64 Apr.1 9 56 Dec. Nov. Feb. Feb. Oct. Jan. Feb. Feb. Apr. Nov. May Nov. Sept. 28 10 16 5 25 18 27 7 14 59 63 56 60 63 59 64 61 71 67 58 65 63

Page  266 266 APPENDIX VII Mo. Da. 1 Title Number Author of Acts Feb. Mar.Apr. Dec. Sept. Oct. Mar. May Oct. Mar. Sept. May Dec. Mar. Jan. Oct. Apr. Nov. Dec. Dec. Oct. Nov. Apr. Dec. Jan. 67 1 Mein Mann geht aus........... I Lu. 2.... 61 1 66 16 69 7 12 6 5 1?5 15 29 15 18 28 17 22 9 22 22 68 69 68 67 59 68 67 56 67 58 64 59 67 64 59 67 55 66 65 70 Meines Onkels Schlafrock....... Meines Onkels Schlafrock....... Memoiren des Satans (die) oder der Schlossteufel von Ronquerolles....................... Menschenhass und Reue........ Mentor (der) oder der Weiberfeind in der Klemme......... Michael Kohlhaas.............. Milch der Eselin (die).......... Minna von Barnhelm.......... Mit der Feder................. Mitgefangen, mitgehangen...... Moderner Faust (ein).......... Moderne Vagabunden oder Faust und Gretchen............... Mbnch und Soldat............. Mdnche (die)................. Mondecaus, der Erfinder der Dampfmaschine............ Monsieur Herkules........... Montjoye, der Mann von Eisen.. Montrose, der schwarze Markgraf........................ Mord (der) in der Kohlmessergasse....................... Moses, oder der Auszug der Kinder Israel aus Egypten........ Moses, oder der Auszug der Kinder Israel aus Egypten....... Moses und die Propheten....... Mottenberger (die)............. Mozartgeige (die) oder der Dorfmusikant und sein Kind...... Mozart und Schikaneder........ Mulatte (der)................. Miller und Miller............. Muiller und Miller............. Miuller und Schulzes Liebesabenteuer in Italien................ Muller (der) und sein Kind oder der Geisterzug in der Christnacht....................... Muttersegen oder die neue Fanchon..................... Po. 5 Po. 5 Lu. 3 Scha. 4 Lu. 1 Scha. 5 Po. 1 Lu. 5 Drit. 1 Schw. 1 Zbpo. Po. 3 Po. Lu. 3 Scha. 5 Schw. 1 Lebd. 5 Scha. 5 Po. 1 Scha. 5 Scha. 5 Po. mjt Gsng. 3 Scha. 5 Opte. 1 Scha. 3 Schw. 2 Schw. 2 Drged. Vkdr. 5 Scha. mit Gsng. 5 (After Fren.) Heinrich Bbrnstein Gorner G6rner L. Schneider A. v. Kotzebue-Devrient (After Fren.) J. W. Lembert (After Kleist) Louis Schenk (After Fren.) Bittner Lessing Sieg. Schlesinger Warburg Trautmann Jacobson Kaiser M. Tenelli A. E. Brachvogel G. Belly 0. Feuillet-A. Bahn H. Laube A. Berger Aug. Klingemann Aug. Klingemann Salingree Weihrauch and Kalisch Elmar (After Stephany) L, Schneider (music by Mozart) Theodor Hell (after Fren.) Elz Elz R. Kneisel (music by Neuendorff) E. Raupach (After Fren.) W. Friedrich Nov. 16 64 Nov. 9 70 Dec. Dec. Apr. Jan. Jan. Jan. 30? 10 8 4 12 59 56 71 68 56 56 I I ~ I I ~

Page  267 APPENDIX VII 267 Yr. Type; Mo. Da. 18 Title Number Author of Acts w ____ Dec. May Feb. Oct. Jan. Jan. Feb. Nov. Sept. Sept. Feb. May Jan. Apr. Mar. Mar. Mar. May Sept. Jan. Nov. Nov. Dec. Sept. Mar. Dec. Apr. Dec. Dec. Feb. Oct. Feb. Nov. Apr. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Mar. Dec. Sept. May Feb. 14 13 25 5? 31? 27? 27 11?? 20 5 9 3 4 17 4 19 7 21? 14?? 23 20 26 13? 10 20 29 5 26? 21 58 70 71 67 61 55 65 66 57 64 59 65 62 69 57 64 71 67 66 60 67 58 58 69 61 66 63 62 64 67 68 55 65 67 68 72 67 66 57 68 Mutter und Sohn.............. Nach den hundert Tagen....... Nach der Schlacht bei Sedan.... Nacht (eine) in Baden.......... Nacht (eine) in der Residenz.... Nacht und Morgen............. Namenlos.................. Nan, der Taugenichts von New York..................... N arciss....................... Narciss..................... Nathan der Weise............. New York bei Tag und Nacht... New Yorker Kiinstler.......... New Yorker Leben............. New York und Berlin oder wo macht man am besten aus?.... New York und Berlin oder wo macht man am besten aus?.... Nibelungen (die)-part not specified Nichte und Tante............. Nichts Gewisses.............. Nur eine Seele................ Nur Hindernisse.............. Obrist (der) von achtzehn Jahren. Ochsenmenuette (die)......... Onkel Moses oder der erste Stern. Orpheus in der Unterwelt (Bake.). Orpheus in der Unterwelt (Bske.). Osternacht (die).............. Othello....................... Othello....................... Otto Bellmann................. Otto von Wittelsbach, der Kaiserm6rder................... Pachter Feldkilmmel v. Tippelskirchen..................... Pagenstreiche................ Pantoffel und Degen........... Papa Buddend6rfer oder ein alter Clarinettist.................. Parepa Rosa................. Paris in Pommern............. Pariser Carneval (ein).......... Pariser Droschkenkutscher (der). Pariser Nichte................ A-I Scha. 5 Scha. 5 Skze. 1 Po. 1 Po. 3 Dr. 5 Po. Schz. 1 Tr. 5 Tr. 5 Drged.5 Po. Vkst. mit Mu. 3 Drbd.5 Drbd. 5 Tr. Lu. 1 Po. 3 Scha. 5 Schw. 1 Lu. Opte. Scha. 1 Opte. 4 Opte. 4 Dr. Tr. 5 Tr. 5 Po. 3 Lu. Lu. 3 Lu. 1 Po. mit Gsng. 1 Vaud. 1 Grbd. 7 Lebd. 4 Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer A. Dombrowsky Karl Heigel (After Fren.)? A. Hopf (After Bulwer) BirchPfeiffer Kalisch (After Eng.) J. E. Maud A. E. Brachvogel A. E. Brachvogel Lessing? Berg (music by Neuendorff) Max Cohnheim Max Cohnheim Hebbel Garner O. Mylius Wil. Wolfsohn (After Brisebane) W. Friedrich L. Schneider? Hugo Milller H. Cremieux H. Cremieux Wolfsohn Shakespeare-SchlegelTieck Shakespeare-SchlegelTieck D. Kalisch Kotzebue Kotzebue (After Schrader) Holbein Ernst Rethwisch Kalisch (After Fren.) Angely (After Fren.) L. Flerx? (After Fren.) Reinhard TSpfer T6pfer?? 57 Pariser Taugenichts (der)....... Lu. 4 26 64 Pariser Taugenichts (der)....... Lu. 4? 61 Parlamentswahl (die)...............,

Page  268 268 APPENDIX VII Yr. Type; Mo. Da. 18- Title Number Author of Acts June 13 I 66 Jan. I?159 Mar. Feb. Nov. Apr. Oct. Nov. Sept. Apr. Apr. June Apr. Mar. Jan. Sept. Feb. Dec. May Mar. Feb. Jan. Dec. Sept. Jan. May Sept. June Sept. Jan. Feb. Oct. Dec. 10 2.8 18 18 13 15 22 19 16 7 26 2 25 9 19 1 26 2.5 22 28 17 69 59 64 60 67 67 66 55 72 55 58 64 61 59 66 60 72 59 67 67 70 68 56 71 54 64 70 55 55 54 66 Parquet Loge Nr. 3.......... Parteienwuth ocer drei verhaiognisvolle Tage aus Cromwells Schreckenherrschaft........ Partie Piquet (eine)............ Pasquillant (der)............... Pech-Schulze.................. Pedlar (der)................... Pelzpalatin (der) und der Kachelofen ocer der Jahrmarkt zu Rautenbrunn................ Pensionat (das)................ Personal-Akten............. Peter Szapary, der Held in Sklavenketten.................. Pfarrer von Kirchfeld (der). Pfarrherr (der) oder der Sturz des Ministers................. Pfefferr~sel oder die Frankfurter Messe im Jahre 1274. Pflegetochter (die) oder zwanzig Jabre Strohwitwe............ Philipp Palm oder ein deutscher Biirger................... Philippine Welser............. Pietra oder die Guelfen und Ghibellinen............... Pilot (der) von Long Island oder ein New Yorker Alderman.... Plauderstunden oder wo bringe ich meine Abende zu?. Portrat der Geliebten (das). Portrat der Geliebten (das). Posse als Medizin (eine)........ Postillon von Lonjumeau (der). Postillon von Milncheherg (der).. Preciosa oder die Zigeuner in Spanien.................. Prinz Eugen................ Prinz Lieschen oder der Carneval. Prinz Lieschen oder der Carneval. Probier-Mamsell (die)......... Proletariar und seine Familie oder der Rettigiunge............. Proletariat und Aristokratie..... Prophet oder Johannes' Leiden und Freuden (ein).......... - Prozess um einen Kuss (emn)..... Schw. 1 R. Hahn? Ziegler Lu. 1 (After Fournier) Deneke Lu. Schmidt Chst. mit Gsng. 3 H. Salingree Scha. (After Ruppius) 0. Hoym Po. 3 F. Hopp Opte. 2 Supp~e Lu. 2 0. Guttmann Scha. 5 Birch-Pfeiffer Vkst. mit Gsng. 4 L. Gruber (i.e., Anzengruber) Scha. 5 Birch-Pfeiffer Scha. 5 Birch-Pfeiffer Lu. 3 H. Benedix Scha. A. Hingler Scha. 5 Hedwitz Tr. 5 5. H. Mosenthal Ykst. Blirgelen Lu. 1? Lu. 3 L. Feldmann Lu. 3 L. Feldmann Po. 3 Kaiser (music by Adolf Adam) Opte. 3 (After Fren.) Friedrich Po. 3 Jacobson-Linderer Scha. 4 P. A. Wolff Opte. 3 Gustav Schmidt Po. 5 M. Heydrich Po. 5 M. Heydrich Lebd. mit Gsng. 3 Berg-Jacobson Ztge. 4 Fr. Lubojotski Scha. (After M-Ugge) G. Metternich Zbpo. 4 Rdder Lu. 1 Meilitz

Page  269 APPENDIX VII 269 Yr. Type; Mo. Da. 18- Title Number Author of Acts Sept. Jan. May Mar. Apr. Mar. Apr. Jan. Feb. Oct. Dec. June Jan. Dec. Nov. Dec. Apr. Dec. Feb. Dec. Jan. Feb. Oct. Nov. Mar. Apr. Oct. Nov. Sept. Sept. Oct. 11 10 29 113 13 29 19 8 4 2 10 18 1 26 2 14 30.54 56 67 63 70 59 68 55 64 67 69 64 66 67 54 58 56 63 66 63 Rduber (die)................ Rechoungsrat lRechnungsmeister] (der) und seine Tdchtcr..... Reich an Liebe dder wer borgt mir fiiof Dollar?............. Reiche Frau (eine)............. Reichagrdfin Gisela........... Reise (die) auf gemeinschaftliche Kosten.................... Reise (die) auf gemeinschaftliche Kosten................... Reisende Student (der)......... Rekrut und Dichter............ Rekrutierung (die) der Zwerge in Krahwinkel................. Relegierten Studenten (die)..... Rendez-vous in der Grand Street (das)............ Rezept gegen Schwiegermfltter. Richard Savage.............. Richards Wanderleben (Wild Oats).................... Ring (ein) oder der Goldschmied und sein Kind............... Rip van Winkle oder die Dqmonen der Catskill-Berge........... Ritter (der) der Damen......... Ritter (der) des Nebels......... Robert und Bertram, die lustigen Vagabunden.............. Roman eines armen jungen Mannes (der)............... Romeo auf dem Bureau......... Romeo auf dem Bureau.......... Romeo und Juliet............ Rosen (die) des Rerrn v. Malesherbes.................... Rosenmiiller und Finke.......... Rosenmililer und Finke......... Rosen (die) vom Norden........ Rose und Rdschen oder Fahrten und Abenteuer eines Westindiers..................... Rothmantel oder der gespenstische Barbier.............. Roth-Schild................ - Tr. 5 Lu. 3 Po. 1 Dr. Scha. 4 Drge. 5 Drge. 5 Opte. Lu. 3 Po. 1 Lu. 4 Po. 2 Lu. 1 Scha. 5 Lu. 4 Scha. 5 Dr. 4 Lu. 1 Po. mit Gsng. 4 Scha. 6 Schw. 1 Schw. 1 Tr. 5 Drge. 1 Lu. 5 Lu. 5 Drmii. mit Gsng. 3 Scha. 3 Zbpo. mit Gsng. 4 Scha. 5 Schiller L. Feldmann (After Fren.) Friedrich (After Fren.) Grave (After Marlitt) Wexel and Wegener L. Angely L. Angely 2 (After Schicking) H. Rollpein Theo. Flamm R. Benedix L. Berger (After Don Manuel Juan Diana) Ksnig Ludwig II Gutzkow (After Eng.) Kettel Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer (After John Kerr) Th. West G. Hittl (After Eng. Jack Sheppard) Fr. Tietz Gustav Rader (After 0. Feuillet) E. Juin and P. Reinhard Fe. Wehl Fe. Wehl Shakespeare-Schlegel Kotzebue C. Tbpfer C. T6pfer Dr. Wollheim Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Kotzebue-Coltherack HIermann Reich 11 I 60 26 5 16 30 10 3 59 66 58 69 57 63 58 63 11 58 10 64

Page  270 270 APPENDIX VII Mo. Da. 1- Title Number Author of Acts Mar. May May Apr. Nov. Jan. Apr. Jan. Mar. Sept. Jan. Dec. Nov. Nov. Oct. Nov. Mar. Apr. Sept. Feb. Dec. May Oct. Sept. June Aug. Sept. Feb. Oct. May Apr. May Oct. Nov. Aug. Jan. Nov. May Sept. 8 31 30 10 27 7 4 4 2 6 15 6 22 8 24? 6 15 3 9 30 22 14 31 21 6 20 21 28 23 9 30 12 23 69 56 66 58 68 64 68 67 68 68 60 69 68 60 66 69 56 61 67 69 67 70 68 58 64 68 65 68 68 56 60 70 67 65 66 68 59 69 59 Royalisten (die) oder die Flucht Carl Stuarts II von England.. Rilbezahl oder der Kegelspieler von Seidorf................. Riickkehr (die) aus der Stadt.... Sachsen in Preussen............ Sichsischer Schulmeister (ein)... Salomos Urteil................. Salz der Ehe (das)............. Sand in die Augen............. Sanfte Heinrich (der) oder Ruhe ist die erste Bilrgerpflicht..... Sappho.................... Sartanello................... Schach dem K6nig............. Schauspielerin (die)............ Schiller, Goethe oder das Kind des Volkes.................. Schlechter Mensch (ein)........ Schleicher und Genossen........ Schleichhandler (der) oder die Rduberbande am Katzenstein.. Schlimmen Frauen (die) im Serail. Schbne Galath6e (die).......... Schone Genoveva (die) von Gerolstein (Carnevalsopte.)........ Sch6ne Helene (die)............ Scha. 41 E. Raupach Vkma. 5 Po. 1 Grbd. 1 Grbd. 1 Scha. 3 Schz. 1 Lu. 2 Chbd.3 Tr. 5 Lu. 4 Lu. 1 Scha. 4 Lu. 4 Lu. 5 Lu. 4 Opte. 1 Opte. 4 Opte. 3 E. Raupach Starke Emil Pohl Emil Pohl Schr6der G6rner (After Fren.) Berger Starke Grillparzer H. A. Schauffert (After Fournier) Friedrich Ludwig Eckard J. v. Rosen (After R. B. Sheridan) Rud. Gen6e Ernst Raupach Poly Henrion-Suppbe Carl Buchheister (After Meilhac-Ha16vy) Dohm-Offenbach (After Fren.) Schneider Adolf Millner E. Raupach C. Blum S. H. Mosenthal Castelli Castelli (After Fren.) F6rster (After Fren.) H. F. Heine Fe. Oschatz Gorner (After Fren.) Carl Treumann-Offenbach Julius A. E. Brachvogel G. Putlitz Miller E. Rethwisch Schbne Miillerin (die)..........I Lu. 1 Schuld (die).................... Schule (die) des Lebens oder K6nig und Goldschmied...... Schule der Verliebten (die)...... Schulz (der) von Altbiiren....... Schwabin (die) oder Weiberlust geht liber alles.............. Schwabin (die) oder Weiberlust geht liber alles.............. Schwager Spiirnas oder ein vorsichtiger Ehemann........... Schwarze Buch (das)........... Tr. 4 Scha. 5 Lu. 5 Scha. 4 Lu. 1 Lu. 1 Schw. 1 Dr. 5 Schwarze Doktor (der)......... Scha. Schwarze Peter (der)........... Schw. 1 Schwatzer (die) von Saragossa... Opte. Schwitzerin (die) oder sie mengt sich in alles................ Schweizer in Neapel (die)....... Schwert (das) des Damokles..... Schwestern von Prag (die)...... Seemanns-Jubilium............ Seine Dritte oder Amerika und Spandau.................... Po. 3 Scha. 5 Schw. 1 Opte. Ldsp. 1 Schw. mit Gsng. 1 E. Pohl ~ ~ ~_~

Page  271 APPENDIX VII 271 r. Type; Mo. Da. 1 Title Number Author M a 18- of Acts May 14 66 Mar. I 31 May Jan. Dec. Feb. Nov. Sept. Nov. Oct. Mar. Mlay Nov. Jan. Oct. Oct. Nov. Sept. Apr. Nov. Jan. Oct. May Jan. Oct. May Feb. Feb. Nov. May May Apr. May May Sept. Jan. Nov. 9 7 17?? 24 10 31 4 17 4 30? 9? 27? 15 20 18 3 13 22 31 22 9 21 1 1 28 16 19? 31 8 68 70 68 58 55 57 63 69 67 69 66 56 64 54 68 61 58 61 66 64 64 56 68 67 58 64 56 56 64 68 66 70 56 62 60 66 Selbstm6rderin (eine) oder die letzte Stunde einer Putzmacherin.................... Selige (die) an den Verstorbenen. Sefiora Pepita, mein Name ist M eyer...................... Servus, Herr Stutzerl........... Sieben Hauser und keine Schlafstelle...................... Sieben Midchen [also Neun Madchen] in Uniform (die)........ Sieben Todsiinden (die)........ Siebzehnhundertsechsundfunfzig. Sie geht zum Theater........... Sie hat ihr Herz entdeckt....... Schz. 1 Lu. 5 Schw. 1 Po. 1 Po. Sngs. 1 Lu. 5 Solo 1 Lu. 1 Sie ist wahnsinnig.............. Lu. 3 Julius (After Clairbille-Victor Bernard) Friedrich R. Hahn Karl Juin-Louis Flerx Max Ring (After Fren.) Angely (After Sue) Dawison Ludwig Rellstab G6rner Wolfgang Miller (of K6nigswinter) (After Mellville) L. Schneider Carl v. Holtei L. Feldmann (After S6jour) Fr. Halm Fr. Halm Max Cohnheim A. E. Brachvogel (After G. Freytag) Werel Saphir Shakespeare (with music by Mendelssohn) Kalisch S. H. Mosenthal Sie schreibt an sich selbst oder Ziegenpeter und Sohn........ Sohn auf Reisen (der).......... Sohn der Nacht (der)......... Sohn der Wildnis (der)......... Sohn der Wildnis (der)........ Sohn (der) des Jongleurs........ Sohn des Wucherers (der)....... Soll und Haben............... Sololustspiel (ein) in drei Akten.. Sommernachtstraum (ein)....... Sonntagsjager................. Sonnwendhof (der)........... S6ren S6rensen, der tapfere Landsoldat.................... Sperling und Sperber........... Spieler (der).................. Spion (der) oder George Washington........................ Staberl als Freischfitz oder der Parapluimacher in der Wolfschlucht.................. Stadt und Land oder der Viehhandler aus Oberosterreich.... Stadt und Land oder der Viehhandler aus Oberisterreich.... Stadthalter (der) von Bengalen.. Starker Taback oder Berlin in Am erika.................... Steckbrief (der)............... Steffen Langer aus Glogau oder der hollindische Kamin....... Sterne (die) wollen es........... Sternenmidchen (das).......... Stiefmutter (die)............... Lu. 1 Lu. 2 Scha. 4 Drged.5 Drged.5 Po. Scha. 4 Scha. Lu. 3 Lu. 5 Bkse. 1 Vkst. 5 Grbd. E. Rethwisch Schw. 1 C. A. G6rner Scha. 5 Iffland Scha. 5 (After Cooper) E. Doench Par. Po. 4 Po. 4 Scha. 4 Po. 3 Lu. 3 Lu. 5 Lu. Drmt. Lu. 3 J. Bohrer A. Kaiser A. Kaiser H. Laube Jacobson R. Benedix Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer E. Pohl Faber R. Benedix

Page  272 272 APPENDIX VII Yr. Type; Mo. Da. Title Number Author of Acts Sept. Jan. Oct. Feb. Feb. Jan. Sept. Apr. Dec. Sept. Mar. Feb. Oct. Mar. Nov. Jan. Mar. Oct. Feb. Jan. May Mar. Sept. Sept. Dec. Dec. Dec. Apr. Oct. Sept. Mar. Sept. Nov. Dec. Dec. May 8 2.2 9 23 27 16 21 16 16 18 14 23 14 4 26 12 1.3 17 9 23 58 67 63 62 66 68 68 68 70 56 64 67 58 65 67 67 59 69 67 71 69 59 67 65 56 61 66 70 65 67 60 Stille Wasser sind tief oder xie du eine Frau ziehst so hast du sie....................... Still Waters Run Deep (in English).................... Stoff (ein) von Gerson........ Stdrenfried (der).............. Stdrenfried (der).............. Streit (der) ur Kaisers Bart.... Struensee.. Stiindchen (ein) auf dern Comptoir.......... Sttindchen (ein) au ilemsh6he..................... Stiindchcn (ein) in der Schule.... Sturm (der)................. Silhne (die) eines Mannes....... Sullivan oder Nabob u. Schauspieler.................... Tannhauser................. Tannhduser................. Tannhduser, Zukunftsposse mit vergangener Musik in gegenwdrtigen Gruppierungen...... Tante Kobold und Onkel Satan.. Tante Kobold und Onkel Satan.. Tasse Tee (cine).............. Tdiusehung auf Tauschung..... Telegraphisehe Depesehen...... Testament (das) des Kurfilrsten. Testament (das) des Onkels..... Teufel (der) ist los............. Teufel (der) oder der Blinde von Paris......... Teufel (der) und der Schneider.. Theaterskandal (ein).......... Theatraliseher Unsinn.......... Theatralische Studien.......... Theodor Kbrner oder die Schlacht bei Gadebusch.......... Therese Krones oder Geheimnisse aus der Coulissenwelt v. Paris................... Therese Krones oder Geheimnisse aus der Coulissenwelt v. Paris................... Till Eulenspiegel oder Schabernack Uiber Schabernack....... Till Eulenspiegel oder Schabernack Uiber Schabernack....... Titus Feuerfuchs............... Tochter (die) des Gefangenen oder ffnfzehn Jabre in den Kerkern der Festung Glatz............ Lu. 4 Lu. 3 Lu. 1 Lu. 4 Lu. 4 Schw. 1 Scha. 5 Po. 1 Satr. 1 Po. Lu. 5 Scha. 3 Scha. 3 Par. 3 Par. 3 Par. 3 Lu. 3 Lu. 3 Lu. 1 Scha. 5 Lu. 1 Scha" Lu. 3 Lu. Scha. Lu. Po. 1 Po. 4 Solo 1 Dr. 1 Scha. 3 Scha. 3 Po. 4 Po. 4 Po. 3 Scha. 4 Schrbder Tom Taylor G. v. Moser R. Benedix R. Benedix (After Julius Herrmann) Michael Beer Sigmund Haber E. Hirthe Friedrich Shakespeare (After Fren.) Wichmann Ed. Jerrmann Binder-Nestroy Binder-Nestroy Lewittschnig; music byCarlBinder (same as preceding?) C. A. G~rner C. A. Gdrner (After Fren.) Drost von? Holbein Putlitz (After Fren.) Neumann Arthur MUller (After Fren.)? R. Benedix Nesmiailer Norlander C. A. G6rner H. Dreher Haffoer Haffoer Nestroy Nestroy Nestroy (After Fren.) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer 22 1 63 25 12 8 54 67 54 56 I I

Page  273 APPENDIX VII 273 Yr. Type; Mo. Da. 18- Title Number Author of Acts Mar. 20 169 Mar.I? 61 May Apr. Dec. May Oct. Nov. Apr. Mar. Aug. Feb. Oct. Dec. Sept. Mar. Jan. Jan. Aug. Nov. Oct. Mar. Dec. Mar. Feb. Jan. Apr. Mar. Nov. Feb. Nov. Apr. Nov. Oct. Mar. Dec. Feb. Jan. May Oct. 1.7 2 31 26 30 8 20 16 15 3 5 29 4 18 10 15 1 18 28 16 16 5 20 27 5 2 63 56 62 66 59 56 70 59 60 63 58 54 54 61 66 70 59 69 66 63 68 59 56 69 66 56 68 71 56 67 67 69 65 66 55 66 Tochter (die) des Gefangenen.... Tochter (die) der Grille......... Tochter (die) des Siidens... *,a T6chter (die) Luzifers oder in der H61le und auf der Erde....... Tochter Zions (die)........... Toni und seine Walburg oder der Mood an der Kapelle......... Tower (der) in London........ Traum (der) ein Leben......... Trauprann, der Mdrder von Pantin...................... Treue Liebe.................. Tristan und Isolde............. Trbdler (der).................. Turandot..................... Turi von Nesle (der)......... Tyrann von Padua (der)........ Ueber den Ocean.............. Um die Krone oder die Wette... Uncle Toms Hiitte............. Undine oder eine verlorene Seele. Ungeschliffner Diamant (ein).... Unglhicklichen (die)........... Unruhige Zeiten oder es geht los.. Unruhige Zeiten oder as geht Los.. Unser Vetter aus Amerika...... Unter der Erde oder Arbeit bringt Segen................ Urbild (das) der Fenella oder die Stumme von Portici.......... Urbild (das) des Tartilffe....... Uriel Acosta................. Valentine (die)............... Valerie oder die Blinde......... Vater (der) der Debutantin..... Vater (der) der Debutantin..... Verbotene Friicbte oder Nachbars Aepfel..................... Verfolgte Unschuld (eine)... Verhiingnisvolle Feidwebel (der). Verhdngnisvolle Omelette (die). Verhdngnisvoller Abend (ein).... Verirrung (eine) oder die Schuld einer Frau (Supplice d'une femme)..................... Scha. 5 Chst. Scha. Zbsp. 6 Ghge. 3 Scha. 4 Drmami. 4 Gbskze. 9 *I r'. 5* Dr. Drii. 5 Dr. Lu. 5 Ztge. 3 Drmi. mit Gsng. Lu. 1 Lu. 1 Po. 3 Po. 3 Chst. 4 Bske. 1 Lu. 5 Tr. 5 Scha. 5 Scha. 3 Po. 4 Po. 4 Schw.3 Po. 1 Lu. VTaud. 1 Lu. 5 Scha. 3 (After Fren.) W. Friedrich Ely Sangelli (i.e., Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer; cf. B. Mar. 8, 1861) Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer W. Friedrich Franz Pruller L. Bahn Grillparzer Nenustiel E. Devrient Josef Weilen A. E. Brachvogel Gozzi-Schiller (After Fren.)? E. Graus Putlitz (After Stowe) Theresa 5'Ieyerle Stiegmann (After Fren.) Julius A. v. Kotzebue E. Pohl E. Pohl Vogel C. Elmar Bahn Gutzkow Gutzkow Gustav Freytag Scribe (After Bayard) B. A. Herrmann (After Bayard) B. A. Herrmann (After Sardou) Fbrster A. Langer Arthur Miiller Friedrich Julian Werner (After Sardou and Girardin) P. B. Wichmann Haffner (After M. Carre and L. Battu)? 1S56 Verkaufte Schlaf (der)..........Dr. 7 67 Verlobung (die) bei der Laterne.. Opte. 1

Page  274 274 APPENDIX VIn Type; Mo. Da. 18 Title Number Author of Acts May 13 58 Verrither (der)................ Jan. 24 56 Verschwender (der)............ Nov. Aug. Dec. Nov. Oct. May Oct. Oct. Sept. Jan. June May Dec. Dec. Jan. June Nov. May Mar. Nov. Oct. Feb. Oct. 23 31 1 23 13 5 14 2 2 9 3 22 30 11 13 4 59 59 65 54 63 61 67 58 54 55 65 67 65 63 56 58 59 56 70 68 68 67 54 Verschworung (die) des Fiesco... Verschwbrung (die) der Frauen.. Verschwbrung (die) der Irlinder.. Versprechen (das) hinterm Herd. Versprechen (das) hinterm Herd. Verwandlungen............... Verwandlungen................ Vetter (der) oder die Baumwollenspekulation............. Vicomte de Letorieres (der).... Viehhbindler aus Ober6sterreich (der)....................... Viel Larm um nichts.......... Viel Lirm um nichts...... Viel Vergniigen oder die Geheimnis-Posse von Berlin......... Vierzehn Midchen in Uniform... Viola oder die Brautnacht in der St. Johannisnacht.......... Vogelschiessen (das) oder ein deutsches Schatzenfest in alter Zeit....................... Volk (das) wie es weint u. lacht.. Von sieben die Hisslichste..... Von Stufe zu Stufe oder zwanzig Jahre aus dem Leben einer Frau Vor hundertundneun Jahren..... Vornehme Ehe (eine)........... Waffenschmied (der) in Worms.. Waise aus Lowood (die) [Jane Eyre.................... Lu. 1 Chst. 3 mit Gsng. Tr. 5 Lu. 5 Sz. 1 Schz. 1 Schz. 1 Lu. 3 Lu. 3 Po. 2 Lu. 5 Lu. 5 Vaud. 1 Holbein F. Raimund Schiller Arthur Miller Alex. Bauman? Alex. Baumann Jacobson Jacobson R. Benedix C. Blum Kaiser (cf. "Stadt u. Land") Shakespeare-Holtei Shakespeare-Holtei Kalisch Angely (cf. "Sieben Midchen, etc.") Scha. 51 Auffenberg Po. 5 Vkst. 3 Lu. 3 Lebd. 5 Fesp. 1 Scha. 5 Opte. 3 Scha. 5 H. Clauren 0. Berg and D. Kalisch (After Told) Angely Hugo MAller Carl Jendersky (After Octave Feuillet) Lortzing (After Currer Bell) Birch-Pfeiffer H. Laube (After Currer Bell) Birch-Pfeiffer H. Laube Carl Elmar Schiller Schiller Schiller June 17 I 641 Waise aus Lowood (die) [Jane I. Eyre]....................... Scha. June Dec. Nov. Mar. Nov. May Apr. Mar. May Dec. Oct. May 18 10 11 18 7 11 26 15 17 9 64 59 56 67 58 64 65 69 56 66 59 70 Wald-Lieschen................. Wallensteins Lager............. Wallensteins Tod.............. Wallensteins Tod............... Walpurgisnacht (die) oder die Sensenschmiede im Tale v. St. G illen...................... Warte (eine) am Rhein oder deutscher Burger, hilf dir selbst.... W as ihr wollt................... Wechsel (ein)............... Weib (das) des Soldaten........ Weiblichen Drillinge (die)....... Weiblichen Studenten (die)..... Weiblicher Otello (ein)..... Chst. 3 Drbd. 1 Tr. 5 Tr. 5 Zbsp. 41 Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer Scha. 5 Lu. 5 Grbd. 1 Scha. 5 Po. mit Gang. 1 Lu. 3 Po. 1 F. Friedrich Shakespeare-Putlitz Fr. Woltereck B. A. Herrmann Holtei Dr. J. Lederer (After Fren.) L. Gunther

Page  275 APPENDIX VII 275 Type; Mo. Da. Yr. Title Number Author of Acts May May Dec. Oct. Nov. May Apr, Oct. June May Sept. Apr. May Mar. Oct. Dec. Aug. Oct. Nov. Oct. Sept. Apr. Jan. Oct. Nov. Oct. Dec. Oct. Sept. Feb. Dec. Nov. Nov. Aug. 24 2 27 10 4 20 6 18 22 15 29 30 17 1 12 27 8 12 25 3 24 18 56 70 71 68 70 68 64 67 66 56 63 56 67 61 63 66 60 63 68 66 67 68 61 59? Weibliche Schildwache (die)..... Weibliche Seeleute............. Weihnacbten.................. Weinprobe (eine).............. Weisse Dame (die)............. Weisse Othello (der) oder ein bengaliseher Tiger.......... Weltumsegler (der) wider Willen. Wem geb6rt die Frau?. Wenn Frauen weinen........... Wenn Leute Geld haben oder Herr Piefke als Ehemann..... Wenn Leute Geld haben oder der Schuster als Millionar....... Wenn Leute Geld haben oder wo du nicht bist, Herr Organist, da schweigen alle V~gel....... Wer isst mit?.................. Werner oder Herz und Welt..... Wie denken Sie itber Russland?.. Wie ein Kammermadchen lesen lernt..................... Wie man Hauser baut.......... Wie man seine T6chter verheiratet...................... Wiener (die) in Berlin......... I Wiener (die) in Paris.......... Wilderer (der)................ Wildfeuer.................. Wildr~schen oder Leben und Treiben in Siid-Carolina. Wildschiltz (der) oder die Stimme der Natur.................. Wildschiitz (der) oder die Stimme der Natur................ Wilhelm Tell................ Wintermhrchen (emn)........... Wdlfa in Schafskleidern....... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart oder ein Kiastlerleben.......... Wort (ein) an den Minister..... Wurm und Wirmer.......... Illy 1.,.................... Yelva oder die Waise aus Russland..................... Zidrtlicben Verwandten (die)..... Sngs. 1 Po. 2 Grbd. mit Gsng. 1 Schw. 1 Opte. 3 Po. 1 Po. 4 Po. 1 Lu. 1 Chbd. Drbd. 3 Lebd. mit Gsng. 3 Vaud. 1 Scha. 5 Lu. 1 Lu. 1 Scha. Po. Lu. 1 Grbd. 1 Dr. 5 Drged.5 Dr. Opte. 3 Opte. 3 Scha. 5 Lu. 5 Lu. 5 Lebd. 4 Grbd. 1 Chbd.3 Lu. 3 Dr. Lu. 3 (After Lemoine) Friedrich Weibrauch Drost H. Tellechner and Heimerding (After Scribe) H. A. Hitter (After Brisebane) W. Friedrich G. Rdder Winterfeld G. Starke Weibrauch Weibrauch (After D6saugiers) Friedrich Gutzkow Moser (After Fren.) Alex. Berger Ch. Birch-Pfeiffer 0. Reiffarth Carl. v. Holtei Carl. v. Holtei Fr. Gerstileker Friedrich Halm Moritz Reichenbach (After Kotzebue's Rehbock)? (After Kotzebue's Rehbock)? Schiller-Esslair Shakespeare-Dingelstedt Adel Bernhard Wohigemuth Laube-A. Lange J. Kritger J. v. Hosen Th. Hell H. Benedix 17 1 70 22 9 30 5 10 23 2 19 27 55 63 58 59 66 68 66 58 66 I I

Page  276 276 APPENDIX VII Mo. Da. Yr. 18 - Nov. Apr. Apr. Apr. Jan. Jan. Jan. May Feb. Nov. Mar. Apr. Feb. Sept. Dec. Nov. Nov. Oct. Feb. 25 24 16 30 16 20 29 4 22? 19? 23 27 24 27 27? 54 66 67 69 69 68 68 67 56 58 55 67 61 59 67 58 66 66 55 Type; Title Number of Acts Zauberschleier (der)............ Zbpo. 4 Zauberschleier (der)............ Zbpo. 4 Zehn Madchen und kein Mann.. Opte. 1 Zerbrochene Krug (der)......... Lu. 1 Zerstreuten (die)...............Lu. 1 Zigeuner (der)................. Grbd. 1 Zigeuner (der) in der Steinmetzwerkst8tte.................. Lebd. 2 Zillerthaler (die)............... Sngs. 1 Zopf und Schwert oder der preussische Hof im Jahre 1728. Lu. 5 Zuavenstreiche in Amerika...... Lu. 3 Zu ebner Erde und erster Stock.. Po. mit Gsng. 4 Zugemauerte Fenster (das)...... Lu. 1 Zunftmeister (der) von Niirnberg........ Zuriicksetzung oder die verkannte Tochter.................... Scha. 4 Zwei alte Freunde oder ein ganzes Haus voll Schwiegers8hne..... Vkst. 3 Zwei berUhmte Boxer.......... Lu. Zwei Brdute oder Stadt- und Landliebe................... Po. 1 Zwei Tage aus dem Leben eines Fiirsten.................... Lu. 2 Zwei Tote auf Reisen oder zwei verwechselte Pistolen................ Author (After Scribe) F. X. Told (After Scribe) F. X. Told Supp6e Kleist-Fr. Ludwig Kotzebue Alois Berba Fr. Kaiser Nesmiller Gutzkow Hermann Muhr J. Nestroy Kotzebue Oscar v. Redwitz Tipfer Julius Findeisen Fortner R. Hahn Deinhardstein Kaiser Total number of plays in the above list, 831.

Page  277 APPENDIX VIII Chronological list of German-American journalistic publications of New York (and vicinity) prior to 1872, with explanatory notes.1 1. Der deutsche Freund, founded 1819 by Friedrich C. Schaefer, running only a few numbers; claimed by Spengler (cf. Otto Spengler, Das deutsche Element der Stadt New York) to have been the first German newspaper in New York City. 2. Der Vernunftgldubige, 1838, edited by J. A. Fdrsch; mentioned by Koerner (cf. Gustav Koerner, Das deutsche Element in den Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika von 1918 bis 1848). 3. Der Wahrheitssucher, 1839, edited by S. Ludvigh (cf. Koerner). 4. Die allgemeine Zeitung; mentioned in the Staatszeitung (1840) and in the Belletristisches Journal (1852) as a contemporary publication. 5. Der Wdchter am Hudson, edited by J. A. Firsch; described in the Staatszeitung (Oct. 14, 1840) as a new German weekly. 6. Die Stimme aus der Zukunft; mentioned by the Staatszeitung (Oct. 21, 1840) as a new German weekly. 7. Die deutsche Schnellpost (cf. Introduction). 8. New Yorker Demokrat, edited by W. Schliter, 1846 (cf. Koerner). 9. Der Beobachter am Hudson (?), appearing in the 1850's. 10. Hummel, edited by Eduard Pelz; reported in the Staatszeitung (Dec. 21, 1850) as a new German weekly. 11. Lucifer, edited by Dr. E. J. Koch; reported in the Staatszeitung (Dec. 21, 1850) as a new German weekly. 12. Deutscher Zuschauer; a German weekly appearing in July 1851 (cf. Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, Vol. 36, p. 685). 13. Turn Zeitung, New York and Philadelphia; Jahrgang 1-3, 1851-54, in New York Public Library. 14. Deutsche Monatshefte (Meyers), 1853-56 (cf. Introduction). 15. Theater Journal, edited by Eduard Herrmann. Its appearance was announced in the Belletristisches Journal (Dec. 29, 1854) and it was said to contain a historical sketch of the German-American stage. Herrmann was Regisseur of the Stadttheater. 16. New Yorker Sonntagsbldtter, founded April, 1854, by A. Dulon (cf. Meyers Monatshefte). 17. New Yorker Republikaner, appearing in the 1850's. 1 Cf. also Introduction. Of course New York's leading German journals, the New Yorker Staatszeitung and the Belletristisches Journal, are not repeated in this list. 277

Page  278 278 APPENDIX VIII 18. Revue, a German weekly; reported in the Staatszeitung (Sept. 6, 1856). 19. New Yorker Handelszeitung; 1855 to date, in the New York Public Library (cf. Staatszeitung, Sept. 23, 1854). 20. Die Abendzeitung (daily and weekly). This publication and the four following (Nos. 21, 22, 23, 24) are listed in the Staatszeitung of July 19, 1856, as current German newspapers. 21. Newyorker Staatsdemokrat (daily and weekly). 22. Katholische Kirchenzeitung (weekly). 23. Der Pionier (weekly); cf. also Staatszeitung of Jan. 8, 1853. 24. Die neue Zeit (weekly). 25. Turn Blatt fur die Vereine; published in Williamsburg. Nos. 1-24, Oct., 1856, to Sept., 1858, are in New York Public Library. 26. Familienbldtter, edited by Dilthey; reported in the Staatszeitung (cf. S. May 1, 1858). 27. Frank Leslie's Illustrierte Zeitung (weekly); for its advertisement, cf. Staatszeitung of Jan. 9, 1858. 28. New York Humorist (?); an illustrated weekly reported in Staatszeitung (Jan. 8, 1859). 29. Europa (?); a magazine dealing with art, the German theatre, etc., 1864. 30. Deutschamerikanische Gartenlaube; two volumes, 1865-66, in the New York Public Library. 31. Die neue Zeit (cf. No. 24); apparently a second publication of the same name; found in the New York Public Library. Vol. 1, No. 1 is dated Sept. 25, 1869, and the following numbers (1869 to 1872, and later) contain notes on the theatre. 32. Steiger's literarischer Monatsbericht, 1869-71; two volumes in the New York Public Library. 33. Die Welt, 1870-71; in the New York Public Library. The later numbers contain regular criticisms on German theatrical performances.

Page  279 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 A. Sources for the History of the German Theatre in New York. I. Contemporary Newspapers and Periodicals (in order of importance). 1. New Yorker Staatszeitung, 1836-72 (cf. pp. xv-xvii). 2. Belletristisches Journal, New York, 1852-72 (cf. p. xvii). 3. Deutsche Monatshefte (var. Meyers Monatshefte), A. Kolatschek (editor), New York, 1853-56 (cf. p. xix). 4. Deutsche Schnellpost, NewYork, 1842-48 (cf. pp. xvii f.). 5. Figaro or Corbyn's Chronicle of Amusements, New York, 1850-51 (cf. p. xviii). 6. New York Herald (as cited in special references). 7. New York Times (as cited in special references). II. Subsequent Works and Articles. (a) Periodicals and Newspapers 1. Jahrbuch, Deutsch-Amerikanische Gesellschaft von Illinois, Vol. XV, 1915, pp. 255-309: Edwin H. Zeydel, "The German Theatre in New York City, with Special Consideration of the Years 1878-1914." 2. Mitteilungen des deutschen Pionier Vereins von Philadelphia, Sechstes Heft, 1907: C. F. Huch, "Das deutsche Theater in New York bis zum Jahre 1860." 3. Munsey's Magazine, Vol. XX, Nov. 1898, pp. 232-45: James L. Ford, "The German Stage in America." 4. New Yorker Staatszeitung: "Das deutsche Theater in New York;" Sonntagsblatt, Apr. 21, 1901 (by Udo Brachvogel); Sonntagsblatt, Aug. 11, 1901 (by C. Stiirenburg); Sonntagsblatt, Apr. 16, 1905 (by Arthur G. Abrecht); Sonntagsblatt, Apr. 24, 1910 (by A. Pulvermacher). (b) Books and Pamphlets 1. Amerika, Berlin, 1886, A. Tenner (editor), pp. 110 -31: Wilhelm Mfiller, "Das deutschamerikanische Theater." 1 This bibliography does not include works of a general and encyclopedic character. Such works, when employed, are of course duly cited in foot-notes. Only the special books, pamphlets, periodicals and newspapers consulted by the author are listed below. For a detailed discussion of the bibliographical material, cf. Introduction. 279

Page  280 280 BIBLIOGRAPHY 2. Brown, Thomas Allston, A History of the New York Stage from the First Performance in 1732 to 1901 (in 3 vols.), Dodd, Mead and Co., 1903. 3. Das Buch der Deutschen in Amerika (edited by the Deutsch-Amerikanischer Nationalbund), Philadelphia, 1909, pp. 423-35: "Das deutsche Theater in Amerika." 4. Moses, Montrose J., The Life of Heinrich Conried, New York, 1916 (cf. Introduction). 5. New York Turn Verein, zur Jubelfeier seines 75 jdhrigen Stiftungsfestes, 1850-1925, New York, 1925. B. Miscellaneous Sources. 1. "Americana Germanica," Philadelphia: No. 31, 1917: Louis C. Baker, The German Drama in English on the New York Stage up to 1830. No. 32, 1917: Alfred H. Nolle, The German Drama on the St. Louis Stage. No. 34, 1918: Charles F. Brede, The German Drama on the Philadelphia Stage from 1794 to 1830. 2. Arnold, Robert F. (editor), Das deutsche Drama, Miinchen, 1925. 3. Costenoble, Carl Ludwig, Aus dem Burgtheater, 1818-37, Wien, 1889. 4. Laube, Heinrich, Das Burgtheater, Wien, 1868. 5. Prblss, Robert, Geschichte des Hoftheaters zu Dresden von seinen Anfdngen bis zum Jahre 1862, Dresden, 1878. 6. Ritter, Fr6d6ric L., Music in America, New York, 1884 and 1890. 7. Witkowski, Georg (L. E. Horning, translator), The German Drama of the Nineteenth Century, New York, 1909. SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY NOTE.-The following works are of importance for a study of the cultural life of the German element in New York. Numbers 2, 4 and 5 contain much valuable bibliographical material. The author begs to state, however, that he has gleaned the material presented in Chapter I almost exclusively from the contemporary files of the Staatszeitung and the Belletristisches Journal. 1. Boernstein, Georg C. H., Fiinfundsiebzig Jahre in der Alten und der Neuen Welt, Leipzig, 1881. (Cf. especially Vol. II, pp. 222 ff.) 2. Cronau, Rudolf, Drei Jahrhunderte deutschen Lebens in Amerika, Berlin, 1909 (2d rev. ed., Berlin, 1924). 3. Faust, Albert B., Das Deutschtum in den Vereinigten Staaten in seiner Bedeutung fur die amerikanische Kultur, Leipzig, 1912.

Page  281 BIBLIOGRAPHY 281 4. Goebel, Julius, Das Deutschtum in den Vereinigten Staaten, Miinchen, 1904. 5. Griffen, A. P., A List of Works Relating to the Germans in the United States, Washington, 1904. 6. Kapp, Friedrich, Die Deutschen im Staate New York bis zum Anfange des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, Leipzig, 1868. 7. Koerner, Gustav, Das deutsche Element in den Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika, 1818 bis 1848, New York, 1884. 8. Lemke, Theodor, Geschichte des Deutschtums von New York von 1848 bis auf die Gegenwart (in 2 vols.), New York, 1891-92. 9. Schem, Alexander J., Deutschamerikanisches Konversationslexikon (in 11 vols.), New York, 1869-74. 10. Spengler, Otto, Das deutsche Element in der Stadt New York, New York, 1913.

Page  282 VITA The author, Fritz A. H. Leuchs, was born in New York City on April 13, 1888, of German immigrants. He was educated in the elementary schools of this city, and upon graduation from the Morris High School, in 1904, entered Columbia College, receiving his A.B. degree in 1907, in which year he was also admitted to Phi Beta Kappa. In 1908 he took his degree of M.A. under the Faculty of Philosophy (German) at Columbia University, since which time he has been intermittently connected with the University both as a graduate student and as an instructor in the Extension Department and in the Summer Session. Since 1911 the author has been employed in the public high schools of New York, with licenses to teach German and Spanish; he is at present serving under a first assistant's license in an administrative capacity in the New Utrecht High School of Brooklyn. In 1914 the author was sent as exchange teacher of the Carnegie Foundation to Potsdam, in Prussia, where he taught for a semester at the Kgl. Viktoria Gymnasium. Together with Frank Mankiewicz of New York, he wrote A German Review and Exercise Book, published in 1925 by Charles E. Merrill Company. At various times the author has contributed short articles to pedagogical periodicals. 282

Page  283 INDEX Abelard und H6loise, 97 Abellino, 19, 30, 39 Abelmann, 47 Abendzeitung, 5 Abraham Lincoln, 177 Abrecht, xii, xxi Academy of Music, 10, 129, 155ff., 167, 170 f., 181 Achtzehnhundertsechsundsechzig, 177 Actors and actresses at the Altes Stadttheater, 232-34 Actors and actresses at the Neues Stadttheater, 235-37 Adrienne Lecouvreur, 134, 155, 165, 184 f., 188 f., 196 Ahnfrau, die, 19, 45 Aktienbudiker, der, 91 Alpenkinig und der Menschenfeind, der, 87 Alte Feldherr, der, 46 Alte Junggeselle, der, 141 Altes Stadttheater, xiii, xiv, xix f., 49 f., 75-124, 232-34, 238-43, 251-76 Alvensleben, 174 Amateur stage, German, in N. Y., 68-74, 230-31 American Dramatic Association, 205 Anekdotenbiichlein, das, 43 Angely, 47, 71, 77, 91 Anna von Oesterreich, 219 Anne-Liese, 94, 99, 171, 189 Anthony, St., xiii, 18, 20 f. Anton in Amerika, 95, 97 Archers, the, 16 Arch Street Theatre (Philadelphia), 41 Arion, 10 Armen und die Reichen von New York, die, 154, 218 Arme Poet, der, 22 Artesische Brunnen, der, 93, 114 Arzt, ein, 134 Ascher, 161 Astor Place Opera House, 50, 57 ff. Aus der Gesellsehaft, 168 Bahrt, 64 Baker, 15f., 209, 221 Banditen, die, 89 Bandmann, xv, 82, 85, 104, 110, 112 f., 118 ff., 128 f., 133 f., 143, 145 f., 149, 160 f., 181, 185, 192 ff., 197, 206 ff., 211, 214 Barbara Ubryck, 176 Barbier von Sevilla, der, 154 Birendorf, 162, 164ff., 168, 198 Barfiissle, 153, 212 Bastille, die, 130 Bateman, 213 Baudissin, 83 Baiuerle, 34 283

Page  284 284 INDEX Bauernfeld, 54 Beauforts, the, 211 Becker, 26, 29 f., 33 f. Becker-Grahn, 82, 86, 110 f., 112, 132, 135, 140, 169, 172, 178, 181 Becker's Garden, 61 Beckier, 194 Beckmann, 34 Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, 10 Beichte, die, 37 Beiden Billets, die, 42 Beiden Klingsberg, die, 167 Beiden Nachtwandler, die, 92 Bekehrung vom Temperenz Wahnsinn, 72 Bekenntnisse, 54 Belletristisches Journal, xvii, xix, 5 Bemooste Haupt, das, 89 Bendix, 31, 33, 35, 148 Benedix, 61, 71 f., 77, 81, 89 Benroth, 59 Berg, 91 Berger, 97, 130 Berkel, 133 Berndt, 60, 62 f., 82, 109 Bernett, 172, 179 Bernhard, xviii, 5 Bertram, 94 Bezlihmte Widerspenstige, die, 80, 83, 127 f., 133, 147, 165, 168, 179, 183 f., 189 Binder, 148 Birch-Pfeiffer, 61, 64, 71 f., 77, 81, 88 f., 117, 148, 211 f. Blaubart, 175 Blum, 55 Blumenthaler Theater, 70 Boernstein, xxi Boettner, 63 Biller, 179 Booth, 119, 136, 142, 171, 206, 208 Bise Verhingnis, das, 129 Bise Zungen, 169 Bowery Amphitheatre, 45 f., 75 Brachvogel, A. E., 81 Brachvogel, U., xiii Brandschatzung, die, 23 Braut, die, 34 Braut von Messina, die, 84, 129, 150, 170 Brede, 15 Bree, 30 f., 33 f., 38, 46 Brown, xxi, 56 ff. Bruder Liederlich, 96 Briiggemann, 144 Brunhild, 155, 157 Buchanan, 13 Buch der Deutschen in Amerika, das, xxi Buchheister, 55, 63 Bucklige Marquis, der, 140 Buek, 21 f., 25, 29 f., 35, 40 Bulwer, 134 Biirgeler, 97 Burgthal's German National Theatre, 56 ff., 205 Burton's Lyceum, 50, 57, 60 Burton's Theatre, 63 Busam, 70 Busch, 35 Cafe National, 125 Camp of the Warriors, the, 57 Carl XII auf Riigen, 37, 55 Carneval von Venedig, der, 39 f. Castanieda, 8 Castelli, 25 Castle Garden, 58 Cato von Eisen, 86

Page  285 INDEX 285 Chatham Street Theatre, 23, 203 Chorherr, 175 Civil War, 78, 111, 115, 124 f. Clauren, 36 Clemence, 40 Cohnheim, 65, 96 Collins, Wilkie, 146, 211 Colmar, 181 Colonel Small, 169 Colosseum, 72 Columbia College (University), 8 Commodore Foot, 169 Confessions, the, 54 Conried, xxi, 113 Cooper (actor), 16 Cooper, Fen., 98, 215 Corbyn, xviii Coriolanus, 131-32 Corner Grocer of Avenue A, the, 72 Count Benyowsky, 16 Count of Montechristo, the, 220 Cracovienne, 39, 42 Crimean War, 64 Cronau, xxi, 1, 15 Cultural manifestations, German, in N. Y., 4 ff. Cumberland, 15, 201 Czmock, 108 Daily News, 118 Daly, 181, 208, 211 Dame mit den Camelien, die, 174 Dame von Paris, die, 131 Dampfwagenreise, eine, 148 Dawison, xv, xx, 136 ff., 149, 154 f., 161, 167, 183, 185, 190, 197, 199, 204 ff. Day in Naples, a, 57 Deborah, 71, 90, 128, 133, 135, 148, 155 ff., 159, 162, 171, 181, 184, 189, 212 Deinhardstein, 83 Delavigne, 209 Demetrius, 130 Deserteur aus Liebe, der, 31 Dessau, 45 (cf. 21) Dessoir (Dessau?), 21 (cf. 45) Deutschamerik. Akademie, 7 Deutschamerik. Lehrerverein, 7 Deutsche Bildungsschule, 6 Deutsche Biirgerschule, 7 Deutsche Eichenloge, 11 Deutsche gegenseitige Unterstiitzungsgesellsch., 9 Deutsche Gesellschaft, 9 Deutsche Methodisten-Kirche, 8 Deutsche Monatshefte, xix Deutschen von Schleswig, die, 127-28 Deutsche Operngesellschaft, 173 f. Deutscher, dramatischer Verein, 20 ff., 44, 68 Deutscher Verein, 11 Deutscher Volksgarten, 70, 73 Deutsche Schauspieler-Gesellschaft, 29, 36 Deutsche Schnellpost, xvii f., 5 f. Deutsches Liebhaber-Theater, 47 Deutsches National Theater, 50, 60 f., 64 Deutsche Sparbank (Central Savings Bank), 6 Deutsches Volkstheater, 70 Deutsch und Diinisch, 100 Devrient, 89 Dilettantentheater, 68-74, 230 -31 Dingelstedt, 83, 137

Page  286 286 INDEX D-6belin, 168 Doench, 98 Doktor Fausts Hauskiippchen, 168 Doktor Pausts Zauberkdlppchen, 94 Doktor Robin, 134, 140 Doktor Wespe, 47 Dombrowsky, 172 Don Carlos, 16, 51, 72, 79, 84, 108, 110, 116, 128, 140, 147, 155 f., 163, 165 Don Q4Gsar de Bazano, 94, 167, 220 Don Manuel Juan Diana, 131 Donna Diana, 140, 213 Dorf und Stadt, 89, 153, 163, 189, 211 Dbring, 40 Dornau, 62 Dramas, German, given in N. Y., 225-29, 238-76 Dramatic Hall, 71 Dramatischer Verein Urania, 171 Dreher, 154 Dreissig Jahre aus dem Leben eines Lumpen, 92 Dreissigste November, der, 167 Drei Tage der Weltgeschichte, 96 Dresden Hoftheater, 95, 239 Dulon's School, 7 Dumanoir, 96 Dumas, 209 Dunlap, 16, 209 Diisseldorfer Gallerie, 10 Eckensteher Nante, der, 34, 38 Edda, 130 Egmont, 59, 140, 147, 155, 163, 189 Ehemann von fiinfzehn Jahren, der, 131 Ehestandsexercitien, 165 Ehestands-Invaliden, die, 96 Eichthal, xviii, 5 Eifersiichtige Frau, die, 22 f., 38, 88 Eifersiichtigen, die, 193 Eine weint, die andere lacht, die, 86, 189 Einfalt vom Lande, die, 93 Einladungskarte, die, 34 Eismeer, das, 215 Elisabeth, Kinigin von England, 171 Eliza Restel, 169 Ellison, 96 Elmar, 93 Elssler, 28, 203 Elysium, 70 Emilia Galotti, 79, 85, 128, 135, 147, 150, 153, 155 f., 165, 189 Empire City, 96 Engelmann, 55 Englischfranzisische Biindnis, das, 96 English-language stage of New York, the, 200 ff. Entfiihrung, die, 22 f. Erbf6rster, der, 86 Erbvertrag, der, 101 Er muss aufs Land, 93 Erziehungsresultate, 190 Esenbeck, 62 Esslair, 85 Eustachi, 70 ff. Evening Post, 157 Pallenbach, 82, 86, 110 f. Falsche Catalini, die, 34 Fanchon, 212

Page  287 INDEX 287 Fassert, 51 f. Faust, 32, 64, 79 f., 85 f., 94f., 97, 110, 114, 119, 128 f., 133, 137 f., 147, 159, 163, 168, 183 f., 187 f., 206 Faust, A., 1 Faust (opera), 174 Faustin der erste Kaiser von Hayti, 94 Fausts Leben, Taten, und Hillenfahrt, 94 Faust und Gretchen, 95, 148 Fechter, 181 Fechter von Ravenna, der, 88, 155 f. Feldmann, 93 f. Feldner, E., 7 Fenster im ersten Stock, das, 141 Fest der Handwerker, das, 91, 107, 109 Fidelio, 174 Fiesco, 32, 72, 79, 84, 129, 133, 147, 163 Figaro, xviii, 53 ff., 58 Fischer, 82 Fliegende Hollander, der, 96, 114, 215 Florian, 42 Flotte Bursche, 152 Fliichtling aus Lucca, der, 96 Ford, xx F6rsch, 23 Forsthaus, das, 76 Forrest, 118 Fortner, 96, 193 Fortunios Lied, 151 Fourteenth Street Theatre, 183 ff., 189 Frank, 130 ff., 135, 172 Frankfurter in Hannover, die, 46 Franklin Theatre, 18, 22 ff., 44 f., 203 Franko, 173 Frau in Weiss, die, 146, 211 Freie deutsche Schule, 7 Freien nach Vorschrift, 63 Freimaurer, 11 Freimaurer, der, 33, 42 Freischiitz, der, 25, 40, 102, 114, 151 Freitag, 96 Friedrich, 55, 71 f., 93, 134, 148 Friedrich Schiller, 86 Friedrich Schiller und Gustel von Blasewitz, 96 Fritze, 133, 135, 172, 177, 181 Fiirst, 109 Fiirsten zum Land hinaus, 65, 96 Gasthaus zum goldenen Lowen, das, 41 Gautier, 96 Geadelter Kaufmann, ein, 92 Gebildeter Hausknecht, ein, 152 Gebriider Foster, 163 GefRngnis, das, 168 Gegeniiber, 127 Geheimnisse von Paris, die, 215 Geizige, der, 137, 143 Geld! Geld! Geld!, 93, 134, 216 Gellert, 40 Genee, O., 130 f., 133 f., 143 ff., 176, 179, 197 Genee, R., 176 Genoveva, 129, 133, 147 George Washington, 62, 215 German Amateur Theatrical Society of Philadelphia, 20 German-American cultural manifestations in N. Y., 4 ff. German-American political activity, 12 f.

Page  288 288 INDEX German-Americans in New York, 1-14 German-American social life in N. Y., 10 ff. German (Lenox Hill) Hospital, 9 German immigration into the U. S., 1 f. German newspapers in N. Y., 5, 277-78 German Opera Company, 192 German schools and instruction in N. Y., 6 ff. German settlement in N. Y., 3 f. German singing societies, 10 German Vereine, 10 f. Giacometti, 171 Gimpel auf der Messe, der, 26, 30, 39 Gliser, 6 Glas Wasser, ein, 128, 168, 192 Glockner von Notre Dame, der, 57-8, 89 Goebel, 2 Goethe, 16, 81, 85, 147, 191, 210 Goldbauer, der, 194 Good for Nothing, 217 Gormansky, 140 Giirner, 92, 131, 148 Gotz von Berlichingen, 85, 108, 110, 115, 163 Grabesbraut, die, 64 Grade Weg, der beste, der, 20 f., 25 Graf Benyowsky, 45 Graf Essex, 86, 144, 152 f., 159, 163, 193 Graff, 121 Graf von Montechristo, der, 220 Graf Waldemar, 146 Grahn, 82; see also Becker-Grahn Grant, 189 Grau, 174 Graupenmiiller, 133, 136 Grieben, 73 Griffen, 2 Grille, die, 89, 110, 171, 189, 212 Grillparzer, 19, 86, 95 Griseldis, 88, 189 Gross, 8 Grossmann, 145 Griine Domino, der, 43 Gute Nacht, Hinschen, 94 Guth, 177 Guthery, 176 Guttmann, 0., 9, 135 f., 141, 143, 170, 193 Gutzkow, 61, 72, 86, 132, 147 Haase, Friulein, 129 Haase, Friedrich, xv, 162, 166 ff., 171, 185, 190, 197ff. Habelmann, 182 Hacke, 76, 82 Hahn, 134 Hahnenschlag, der, 42 Halm, 72, 77, 81, 87 f. Hamann, 61, 63 f., 66, 76, 93, 101 f., 107, 111 ff., 127, 133 if., 143, 150, 154 f., 158, 160 f., 165, 168, 175, 178, 180, 182, 189, 192, 195f., 214f. Hamburg-American Line, 6 Hamlet, 59, 79 f., 82 f., 128, 131, 133 f., 140, 143, 145 ff., 164, 167, 189, 192, 206 f. Hans Jiirge, 92, 137 Hans Kohlhaas, 101 Hans Lange, 130 Hans Sachs, 152, 164 Hans und Hanne, 93 Harrison, 13

Page  289 INDEX 289 iAirting, 127 f., 133, 135, 141, 142, 176, 194, 196 Hartmann, 72 Hartmann's Hotel, 125, 196 Haus Habsburg, das, 94 HIusliche Zwist, der, 26, 31, 34 Hebbel, 87, 147 Hecker, 13 Hedwig die Banditenbraut, 20 f., 38 f., 154 Hehl, 63; see also Hoym, Elise Heinrich IV, 131 Heinrich von Schwerin, 126 Helden, die, 37, 39 Hell, 55 Hendrichs, 162 ff., 168, 197 f. Henrion, 151 Herr Blaubart, 43 Herr Hampelmann in Californien, 62 Herr Hampelmann sucht ein Logis, 43 Herrmann, 51 Herrmann, B. A., 56 Herrmann, J., 172 Herr und Sklave, 28, 39 Hersch, 94 Herzog, 63 Herzog Albrecht, 163. Herzogin von Gerolstein, die, 175 Herz und Dollar, 96 f., 117, 136, 150 Hesse, Aug., 134 Hesse, Hed., 127 f., 133, 141, 176 Heydrich, 93, 131 Hinko, 207 Hoboken, 60 f., 191 Hoboken Sommer-Theater, 62, 191, 194 Hoffmann, E. T. A., 133 Hoffmann, H., 127 Hoffmann, J. T., 12 H0fl, 153 H6flicher Mann, ein, 166 Holbein, 86 Holm, 24f., 29, 31, 36 Holtei, 61, 92, 147 f. Homann, 191 Hopp(e), 94 HRrning, 52, 62 Hoym (first wife of Otto Hoym), 55 Hoym, Elise, xv, 63, 76, 82, 105ff., 111, 118, 129, 134f., 140, 143, 150, 161, 173 Hoym, Otto, xv, 52, 55, 57 f., 63 66, 76, 82 f., 93, 95 f., 101 f., 105 ff., 111ff., 118 ff., 127 ff., 131 ff., 135 ff., 143 f., 149 ff., 161, 173, 179, 181, 193 f., 196, 214 f. Hoym's theatre, 7 Hiibner, 135, 172, 181, 193 Hiibsch, 135, 172, 179, 196 Huch, xxi, 51 f., 56 ff., 66, 79 Hugo, 209 Humoristische Studien, 21 f., 56 Hunderttausend Taler, 91 Icks, 26, 31, 33, 35, 37 f., 42 Icks, Madame, 35, 37 f., 43 Iffand, 21, 87 Im Dunkeln, 93 Immigration, German, into the U. S., If. Im Vorzimmer seiner Exzellenz, 134 Im Wartesaal erster Klasse, 190 Incognito, 23, 31 In der Geisterstunde, 93 Indians in England, the, 16 Ingomar, 213

Page  290 290 INDEX Intermezzo, das, 55 Iphigenia, 159 Irschick, 140, 143 ff., 152, 162, 169, 172 Irving Place Theatre, xiii, xxi, 113, 198 Isabella Orsini, 174, 189 Isidor und Olga, 89 Jack Sheppard, 216 Jacobson, 95, 148 Jiger, die, 87 Jakoby, 108 Janauschek, 155 ff., 166 f., 170 f., 181ff., 185 ff., 208 Jane Eyre, 89, 219 Jean Petit, 152 Jean Piccolo, 152 Jendersky, 168 Je toller, je besser, 38 Jew, the, 218 Jocko der brasilianische Affe, 220 Jocko the Brazilian Ape, 220 John Street Theatre, 15 f. J6llrich, 21 Jones' Wood, 10 Jongleur, der, 117 Journalisten, die, 86 Journals, German, published in N. Y. prior to 1872, 277-78 Jude, der, 143, 218 Julius Caesar, 133, 163 Junge Pathe, der, 43 Jungfrau von Orleans, die, 71, 80, 84, 144, 147, 165, 174, 189, 205 Kabale und Liebe, 16, 19, 41 ff., 47, 61, 71, 80, 84, 127, 147, 155f., 165, 171, 184, 187, 189 Kadelburg, xxi Kaiser, 92 f. Kaiser, Frl., 208 Kalisch, 71, 91, 133, 148, 151 Kapp, 2 Karlsschiiler, die, 127, 155 f., 193 Katharine die Zweite, 171 Kdthchen von Heilbronn, das, 19, 25, 27, 86, 163, 169, 173, 177, 189 Katherine Howard, 143, 165 Katherine Parr, 96 Katholische Kirchenzeitung, 5 Kaufmann und Seefahrer, 153 Kaufmann von Venedig, der, 79 f, 82 f., 128, 133 f., 137 f., 146 f., 167 Kenkel, 62 Kerr, 98 Kessler, 173 Kettel, 28 Kind des Gliickes, das, 212 Kinderballet, ein, 37 Kinkel, 13 Kieselack und seine Nichte, 92 Kiss Jozsi, 152 Klaus, 62 f. Klein, 193 Kleindeutschland, see Little Germany Kleist, 19, 72, 86 Klingemann, 94 Knauth, Nachod and Kiihne, 6 Knorr, 79, 82 f., 110, 1.32 f. Know-Nothing agitations, 12 Koch, 36 Koerner, G., 2 Kolatschek, xix Kombdianten aus Liebe, die, 40 Konig Lear, 82, 140, 147 K6nig Richard III, 80, 82 f., 128, 134, 137 ff., 142, 147, 193, 206

Page  291 INDEX 291 Koinigsleutnant, der, 86, 110, 137, 167 Koppe, 172, 194 K6rner, Th., 20 iff., 30, 61, 87, 154 Kossuth, 13 Kotzebue, 16, 19 ff., 27, 29 f., 47, 61, 71 f., 88, 148, 209 Krach, 152 Kraft, 63 Kramer, 134 Krebs, 21 Kress-Jakoby, 108 Kreutzer, 22, 25 Kreuzfahrer, 38 Krilling, 111 Kronfeld, 109 Kriiger, 60 f., 63 f., 66, 76 Kiifermeister Martin, 133 EKiihne, 130 Kurmirker und die Pikarde, der, 92 Kurz, 32 La Bayadere, 40 Lady of Lyons, the, 216 Lafargue, 96 Landhaus an der Heerstrasse, das, 40, 42 Lange, 135 Langenschwarz, 76 L'Arronge, Frau, xx, 151 f. L'Arronge, Theo., xx, 141, 143 ff., 150 ff., 176, 197 Lasswitz, 130 Laube, 61, 71 f., 86 f., 89, 147, 169 Leah the Forsaken, 212 Leah the Forsook, 212 Leben, ein Traum, das, 47, 163 Lebriin, 21, 71 Lehmann, 96 Leichte Person, eine, 127 Leiermann und sein Pflegekind, der, 89 Lemke, 2 Lennert, 127 Lenore, 190 Lessing, 81, 85, 147, 165, 210 Letzte Kinig der Juden, der, 94 Lexow, xvii Lichtmay, 182 Liebhaberbiihne, xiv, 68-74, 230 -31 Liederkranz, 10 Lincoln, 13, 130, 205, 207 Lindemann, 52, 56, 60, 62 f., 108 Lindner, 74 Lindner, A., 171 Lingard, 205 Lippard, 96 Little Barefoot, 212 Little Germany, xv, 1-14, 88, 91, 106, 129, 135, 158, 161, 164, 174 f., 178, 191, 195 f., 203 ff. Lobe, 181 Logeling 's Konditorei, 125 Lohengrin, 182 Lohr, 2 Lola Montez als Slgerin, 168 f. Longfellow, xviii Lorbeerbaum und Bettelstab, 92, 109, 137 f. Lord und Iiuber, 95 Loreley, 94 Lorle, 208 Lorle's Wedding, 211 f. Lorle vom Schwarzwald, 's, 89, 109, 211 Love Chase, the, 217 Love's Masquerade, 213 Lovers' Vows, 16

Page  292 292 INDEX Lumpaci Vagabundus, 19, 26, 33 f., 36 f., 54, 92, 135 Lumpensammler von Paris, der, 109, 140, 220 Lund, 121 Lustspiel, ein, 89 Lysiah the Abandoned, 212 Macbeth, 80, 83, 129, 150, 155, 163, 171 Macht des Goldes, die, 98 MIidchen aus der Feenwelt, 153, das, 87 M~idchen von Lyon, das, 216 Mager, 49 ff., 59, 69 Malers Meisterstiick, des, 141 Malsz, 22 Maltitz, 101 Mann mit dem Freischein, der, 217 Mann mit der eisernen Maske, der, 134, 220 Man with the Iron Mask, the, 220 Marble Heart, the, 207 Marchand, 133 Marder, 31, 36 Maria Stuart, 71, 79 f., 84f., 108, 147, 150, 152 f., 155, 159, 165, 171, 181, 184 f., 187 f. Marie-Anne, 155, 165 Mariette und Jeannetton, 93 Marmor-Herz, das, 207 Marsano, 37 Marseillaise, die, 54, 141 Marshall, 58, 205 Martha, 174 Martin, 196 Maschinenbauer, die, 92 Mathilde, 89, 184, 189 Maximilian, Kaiser von Mexico, 152 Meaubert, 79, 96, 109, 145 Medea, 80, 86, 129, 137, 155 ff., 159, 171 Meines Onkels Schlafrock, 92 Mendelssohn, 155 Menschenhass und Reue, 16, 163 Merchant of Venice, 9, 192, 206 Methua-Scheller, xv, 82, 111, 118, 127 ff., 141 f., 149, 160, 181, 206, 208, 211, 214 Meyer, 63 Meyern, 126 Meyers Monatshefte, xix, 50 ff., 56, 66 Michael Kohlhaas, 163 Minister, the, 16 Minna von Barnhelm, 9, 15, 79, 85, 165 Mitchell, Maggie, 89, 211 f., 214 Moderner Faust, ein, 94 Moderne Vagbunden, 148 Midinger, 98 Moesinger, 207 Mollenhauer, 181 Money, 134, 216 Monnie, 59 Mord an West Broadway, der, 96 f. Mosenthal, 61, 81 Moses, xxi Mililbach, 96 Muhr, 97 Mulder-Fabbri Company, 193 f. Miller, W., xxi Miiller (actor), 25 Miller (actress), 55 Miller, A., 94 Miiller, Bertha, 169 Miiller, Hugo, 177 Miiller und sein Kind, der, 89

Page  293 INDEX 293 Miillner, 19 Miinzinger Hall, 180 Musikalischer Tatigkeitsverein, 20 Muttersegen, 94 Nacht und Morgen, 168, 211 NachtwVichter, der, 26 Nan, der Taugenichts von New York, 217 Narciss, 71, 90, 110 f., 127 f., 132, 134f., 137, 152, 164, 167, 179, 184, 189, 19.3, 212 f. Narcissus, 192, 206 f. Nathan der Weise, 79, 85 Naumann, 145 Nestroy, 19, 71 f., 77, 92 Neuendorff, xxi, 148 f., 162, 169, 172, 179, 192, 195 f. Neuendorffs Germania Theater, xiii, xxi, 196 f. Neues Stadttheater, xiii, xiv, xx, 124, 125-99, 235-37, 244-50, 251-76 Neue Zeit, die, 5 Neumann, 27 Neville, 176 Newspapers, German, in N. Y., 5, 277-78 New York City (population, immigration, etc.), 1 ff. New Yorker Aktiengrocer, der, 72 New Yorker Leben, 169 New Yorker Staatszeitung, xv f., xix, 5 f., 7 ff., 13 New Yorker Volkstmeater, 71 New York Express, 12, 118 New York Herald, xx, 53, 118 f., 138 ff., 156 ff., 181, 185 ff., 190, 207 New York Philharmonic Society, 10 New York Times, 185 New York Turnverein, 11, 69, 104, 110, 127, 180, 207 New York und Berlin, 96 New York, wie es lebt und webt, 73 Nibelungen, die, 184, 189 Niblo's Garden, 10 Niemeyer, 110 Night and Morning, 211 N6lke, 21 Nord-Amerik. Turnerbund, 11 Nordhausen, 63 North German Lloyd, 6 Nur eine Seele, 101, 140 Odeon, 70, 72 Offenbach, 151, 175 f. Old Bowery (Thalia) Theatre, 194 Olympic, 50 ff., 56, 58 ff. Onkel Toms Hiitte, 177 Orpheus in der Unterwelt, 151 Ostermeyer, 21 Othello, 82, 118, 137, 141 f., 147, 176, 189, 206 Otto von Wittelsbach, 163 Our American Cousin, 213 Pachter Feldkiimmel, 39 f., 88 Pagenstreiche, 29 f., 39 Pariser Taugenichts, der, 47, 54, 93 Park Theatre, 43, 200, 204 Pech-Schulze, 129, 155, 182 Pedlar, der, 96 Pelosi, 111, 141 Petersen, 179

Page  294 294 INDEX Pfarrer von Kirchfeld, der, 193 Pfeiffer, 56 f., 63, 110 Phiidra, 159, 171 Philip Palm, 100 Piccolomini, die, 84 Pilot von Long Island, der, 97 Pionier, 5 Platzregen als Eheprokurator, der,.31 f., 34 Pleyel, 60 f. Plittersdorf, 152 f., 161 Pohl, 97 Political activity, German, in N. Y., 12 f. Polk, 13 Poor of New York, the, 218 Pope, 128, 206 Preciosa, 24, 26 f., 33, 56 Prinz Lieschen, 93, 131 Prophet, ein, 93, 114 Pulvermacher, xiii Putlitz, 130 Pythagoras Hall, 8 Quartierzettel, der, 38 Rachel, 155, 185 Rider, 77, 93, 148 Ragpicker of Paris, the, 220 Raimund, 72, 77, 87 Riiuber, die, 15, 19, 26 f., 30, 37, 46, 57, 61, 64, 71 f., 79 f., 84, 108, 127 f., 131, 133 f., 137 f., 147 ff., 152, 168, 173, 189, 193 Raupach, 30 f., 47, 89 Redwitz, 100 Rehbock, der, 41 Reichenbach, 97, 153 Reiffarth, 96, 153 f., 218 Reisende Student, der, 42, 46, 92 Rendezvous in der Grand Street, das, 97 Rethwisch, 153 Revolution of 1848, the, 62, 67 Reynold, 16 Rezept gegen Schwiegermiitter, 131, 136, 172 Rheinischer Siingerbund, 10 Richard Savage, 152 f. Richards Wanderleben, 28, 33, 40, 217 Richter, 179 Riese, 45 f. Ringler, 100 Rip van Winkle, 98, 202, 215 Ristori, 137 ff., 155 f., 171, 183, 185 f. Ritter, xv Ritter des Nebels, die, 216 Robert Macaire, 37 Robert und Bertram, 93, 168 Rohde, 131, 133, 135, 181, 193 Romance of a Very Poor Young Man, the, 220 Roman eines armen jungen Mannes, der, 220 Romeo und Juliet, 79, 82, 116, 127, 147, 150, 153, 155, 165, 189 Rosa, 192 Rosenberg, 150, 154 f., 158, 160 f., 165, 168, 175, 178, 180, 182, 189, 192, 195 Rosen des Nordens, die, 92 Rosen von Malesherbes, die, 38 Rosenmiiller und Finke, 93 Riibezahl, 90 Rudolf, 161 Ruppius, 96 Salingree, 129, 133

Page  295 INDEX 295 Sand, 209 Sappho, 169 Scheller, 82; see also MethuaScheller Schem, 2 Scherer, 83, 118 Schermann, 181 Schiller, 12, 61, 71 f., 76, 78, 80 f., 83 ff., 102, 107, 129, 133, 147, 165, 168, 191, 202, 210 Schlaue Witwe, die, 39 Schlee, 29 Schlegel, 83, 132, 147 Schleicher und Genosen, 176, 217 Schleichhandler, die, 90 Schmarotzer in der Klemme, der, 43 Schmidt, Frau, 52, 108 Schmidt, Heinrich, xxi, 33, 35, 38, 42, 46, 62, 73, 85, 96, 140, 172 Schmidt, L. W., 5 Schmitz, 111 Schmitz, Eug., 145 Schneider (Both), 37, 71, 77, 92, 138 Schneider Fipps, 39 f. Schnepf, 22, 24 f., 29 f., 34, 44, 46 Schine Galathee, die, 151 Schine Helene, die, 151, 175 f. School for Scandal, the, 176, 217 Schools, German, in N. Y., 6 ff. Schreyvogel-West, 140 Schr6der, 30, 36, 131 Schuld, die, 19, 30, 39, 163 Schule der Verliebten, die, 56, 217 Schule des Lebens, die, 90, 163 Schulz von Altenbiiren, der, 162 Schwaigerle, 22 Schwan, 19, 52, 60, 62, 73, 108, 172, 177, 180, 193, 196 Schweizerfamilie, die, 25 Schweizer in Neapel, die, 135 bcribe, 209 Sea of Ice, the, 215 Secrets of Paris, the, 215 Seebach, xx, 182 ff., 197, 199 Seeberg, 95 Settlement, German, in N. Y., 3 f. Shakespeare, 72, 76, 78, 80 ff., 102, 117, 123 f., 131 ff., 147, 150, 165, 191, 201, 209 f., 214 Sheridan, 201, 209 Shylock, 82 Sieben Midchen in Uniform, die, 32 f., 39, 91 Siegrist, 66 Sie ist wahnsinnig, 141, 166 Siemon, 35 Singer, 169 Social life, German, in N. Y., 10 ff. Sohn auf Reisen, der, 93 Sohn der Wildnis, der, 88, 115, 163, 213 Sohn des Jongleurs, der, 96 f. Solger, 2 Soll und Haben, 101 Sommer, 111 Sommernachtstraum, ein, 80, 83, 150, 153 Sonnthal, 112 Son of the Wilderness, the, 213 86ren Sdrensen, 153 Spengler, 2 Spengler-Spranger, 96, 109, 129 Speyer, 6 Spieler, die, 87 Spion, der, 98, 215 Spy, the, 98, 215 Staatsdemokrat, 5 Staberl als Freischiitz, 95

Page  296 296 INDEX Stadttheater, see Altes Stadttheater, Neues Stadttheater Stadt und Land, 92-3 St. Charles, 50, 61, 63 ff., 76 Steckbrief, der, 177 Steglitz-Fuchs, 110 f., 127, 132, 135, 137, 149, 167, 169, 172, 178 f. Stein, Carl, 41, 52, 56 f., 64, 108, 129 Stein, W., 133 Steigmann, 98 Steinway Hall, 10 Stemmler, 144, 172, 179 Sterne wollen es, die, 96 Stille Wasser sind tief, 218 Still Waters Run Deep, 205, 218 St. John's Hall, 46 Stranger, the, 16 Straubenmiiller, 7 Struensee, 163 Struve, 97 Stiirenburg, xiii Sturm, der, 80, 83 Sue, 140, 209 Siihne, die, 36 Suppee, 151 f. Szmock, 63 Taming of the Shrew, the, 9 Tannhiuser, 102, 148 Tante Kobold, 92 Tasse Tee, eine, 184 f., 189 Taugenichts, der, 46 Taylor (President), 13 Taylor, Tom, 201, 209 Tenner, xxi Terrace Garden Theatre, 172 f., 177 ff., 180 f., 194 Thalburg, 128 Thalia Theater, xiii, 194, 198 Thalia Theater (Hairting), 141, 142 Theatralische Studien, 131 Theatres in N. Y., list of earliest German, 223-24 Theodor Kbrner, 154 Therese, 205 Three Musketeers, the, 219 Ticket of Leave Man, the, 217 Tieck, 83, 132, 147 Till Eulenspiegel, 92 Titus Feuerfuchs, 92 Tochter Luzifers, die, 93 Tod des Erzbischofs, der, 63 Toni, 24, 32 Tipfer, 54, 63, 93 Tower of Nesle, the, 220 Traum ein Leben, der, 86 Trautmann, 94, 131 Tristan und Isolde, 88, 130 Trunkenbold, der, 32 Turandot, 84 Turm von Nesle, der, 220 Uncle Tom's Cabin, 65, 177, 202, 215 Unger, 63 Ungliicklichen, die, 138 Union League Club (Theatre), 166 Unser Verkehr, 38 Unser Vetter aus Amerika, 213 Unter der Erde, 93 Urbild des Tartiiffe, das, 133 Uriel Acosta, 86, 132, 134 f., 140, 146, 164, 173, 179, 193 Valentine, die, 166 Valerie die Blinde, 184f., 189 Vampyr, 21

Page  297 INDEX 297 Vanek, 196 Vater der Debutantin, der, 56 Veneta, 184, 193 Verbannte Amor, der, 46 Verein deutscher Schauspieler, 60 Vereinigte deutsche luther. Kirche, 8 Verhuingnisvoller Abend, ein, 100 Verschwender, der, 87, 109 Verschwbrung der Frauen, die, 94 Versiegelte Biirgermeister, der, 30 Vetter aus Bremen, der, 33, 41, 47 Viel Larm um Nichts, 130, 140, 147, 165 Vienna Burgtheater, 87, 95 Vierunddreissigste Strasse Theater, 194 Volklandt, 73, 172, 179 Volk, wie es lacht und sich amiisiert, das, 73 Volk, wie es weint und lacht, das, 72 f., 91, 114 Von sieben die Haisslichste, 176 Von Stufe zu Stufe, 177 Vor hundert und neun Jahren, 168 Voss, 147 Wachtel, 192 Wilchter, 74 Wagener, 128, 136, 143 Wagenitz, xviii Wagner, 77, 88, 148 Waise von Lowood, die, 89, 163, 184, 188, 219 Wallach, 52 Wallensteins Lager, 40, 59, 79 f., 84, 150 ff. Wallensteins Tod, 84, 140, 147 Wartburg, 9 Washington Union, 52 Was ihr Wollt, 130 Weber, 95 Wedderin, 169 Weibliche Schildwache, die, 58 Weidemeyer, 37 Weigl, 25 Weihrauch, 92, 148 Weil, 88, 130 Weiss, 21 Weltumsegler wider Willen, der, 93 Wenn Frauen weinen, 173 Wenn Leute Geld haben, 92 Wenzlawski, 52 Werner, 86 Werner, J., 100 Werther and Charlotte, 16 Wer weiss, wozu das gut ist?, 41 West, 98 Westermann, 5 Wheel of Fortune, 15 Wiegers, 32, 35 Wie man seine Tochter verheiratet, 96 Wiener in Paris, die, 138 Wiese, Agnes, 42 Wiese, Elise, 24 f., 29 f., 33, 35, 46 Wiese, Emma, 174, 193 f. Wiese, F., 41 ff., 45 Wild Oats, 217 Wildroschen, 97 Wildschiitz, der, 151 Wilhelmi, 63 Wilhelm Tell, 16, 19, 32, 45 f., 54, 71 f., 79 f., 84, 108, 128, 132, 134 f., 143, 147, 150, 163 Wintermiirchen, ein, 80, 83, 147 Wolf, 63

Page  298 298 INDEX Wolff, 24, 108 Wolfsohn, 101 Wollheim, 92 Wollmarkt, der, 36, 61 Woman in White, the, 211 Worret, 60f., 63, 73, 76, 172, 193 108, Yorkville, 4 Yorkville Miinnerchor, 10 Young Germany, 86 ZErtlichen Verwandten, die, 136 Zauberfl6te, die, 148, 174 Zedlitz, 28 Zehn Midchen und kein Mann, 145, 151 Zerboni, 130, 132 f., 135 Zerbrochene Krug, der, 167 Zerstreuten, die, 22, 24, 31, 47 Zeydel, xiv Zimmer mit zwei Betten, ein, 173 Zitherschidger und das Gaugericht, der, 21 f. Zopf und Schwert, 86, 135, 173 Zriny, 87 Zschokke, 19, 50 Zuavenstreiche in Amerika, 97 Zugemauerte Fenster, das, 151 Zunftmeister von Niirnberg, der, 100 Zwei Freunde und ein Rock, 43 Zwei Tage aus dem Leben eines Fiirsten, 138

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