A history of Van Buren County, Michigan a narrative account of its historical progress, its people, and its principal interests
Rowland, O. W. (Oran W.), 1839-

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Page  629 A HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY MICHIGAN A Narrative Account of its Historical Progress, its People, and its Principal Interests. BY CAPTAIN O. W. ROWLAND VOLUME II ILL US TRA TED PUBLISHERS THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY CHICAGO AND NEW YORK 1912

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Page  631 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY FRANK N. WAKEMAN.-Born and reared on a farm, or as a farmer's son, obtaining a good high school education, then teaching school for a number of years and afterward filling an important county office with great credit to himself and satisfaction to the people for two terms, Frank N. Wakeman came to the duties he now performs as editor and publisher of a progressive newspaper with his faculties well developed and trained in an extended and varied experience. In all the lines of endeavor he has followed from his boyhood he has been attentive to their requirements and studied them with an earnest intention to obtain as thorough a mastery of them as possible. This wise and fruitful method of procedure has made him ready for almost any kind of work involving mental acuteness, scholarship and good judgment, and is one of the strong elements of his success in his present exacting and important engagement. Mr. Wakeman's life began in Lawrence, Van Buren county, Michigan, on July 4, 1870, and he is a son of Nathan B. and Isabelle (Braybrooks) Wakeman, the former a native of the state of New York and the latter of England. The father, who was a farmer all his life, and for a number of years was also engaged in raising live stock for the markets, came to Van Buren county in 1864, and located on a farm in Lawrence township, on which he passed the remainder of his days, dying in February, 1901. At the time of his death he owned eighty acres of land especially well adapted to general farming and raising stock. The mother is still living and has her home in this county. She and her husband were the parents of seven children, all of whom are residents of this county b)ut one. They are: Frank N., the immediate subject of this review; Nellie, the wife of A. H. Abrams; Jennie, the wife of C. J. Rowlee; Carrie, the wife of A. E. Abrams; Cora, the wife of William Nower: Veda, the wife of Irvin D. Moore, and Abbie, who is living at home with her mother. Nellie, Jennie, Carrie and Cora all live in Lawrence, and Veda has her home in Hillsdale, Michigan, one of the attractive cities of the state. After the death of their father the mother married a second time, uniting herself in this union with James H. Brown, of Lawrence, where she now resides, finding great comfort in being near and associating freely with several of her children, and enjoying in a marked degree, in company with her husband, the regard and good will of all classes of the people, among whom she is well known 631

Page  632 632 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY and warmly appreciated for the excellence of her character and her cordial interest in everything that ministers to the comfort and betterment of the inhabitants of the town and county. After his graduation from the Lawrence high school Frank N. Wakeman taught a district school for two years, then was superintendent of the schools in Covert for six years. At the end of that period he was elected county clerk, and at the end of his term was re-elected, holding the office four years in all. When he retired from the public service he started an abstract business in Hillsdale, and this he conducted for two years. His ability and careful attention to all his duties in public and private life won him a high reputation to all his duties, resourceful and capable man, and opened the way to him for his present engagement as editor and publisher of the True Northerner, a newspaper published in Paw Paw under the direction of a stock company of which he is one of the leading members. He is, in fact, the controlling spirit and real inspiration of the paper, directing its policy and giving expression to its views, and by his clearness and force as a writer he has made it influential and popular, while his business acumen has made it prosperous financially. On July 31, 1895, Mr. Wakeman was united in marriage with Miss Mamie E. Cross, a daughter of George A. and Mary L. (Jennings) Cross. Her father was born in Michigan and her mother in the state of New York. They have had five children, four of whom are living: Mrs. Mamie Wakeman; George and Ina, twins, George having died in infancy, and Ina being now the wife of N. Nicholas, a resident of Arlington township; and Harry A., who is at present (1911) county clerk of Van Buren county. Mr. and Mrs. Wakeman have one child, Wynn Francis, who was born on April 2, 1908. Mr. Wakeman is a Republican in politics and an energetic and efficient worker for the success of his party in all campaigns. Fraternally he is an enthusiastic member of the Masonic order in all the branches of the York rite. He belongs to the Lodge and Chapter in Paw Paw, the Council in Lawrence and Peninsular Commandery, Knights Templar, in Kalamazoo. Ile also belongs to the Knights of Pythias and the order of the Eastern Star in Paw Paw, and in all the stages of his Masonic affiliation he takes a deep interest and a serviceable part in the work of each. He is universally known as one of the most useful and representative citizens of the county from every point of view, and well deserves his rank. JEROME C. WARNER.-Following the peaceful and productive occupation of a quiet farmer until his services were required in the army in defense of th'e Union, then going valiantly to the field and rendering the best service he could to the cause he had espoused, Jerome C. Warner, of Paw Paw, has shown in his career as a man and a citizen that he is ready for any call to duty and can be depended on to perform his part ably and faithfully, whatever it may be. When he returned from the war, bearing on his person the mark of his service in the scar from a dangerous wound received in one of the late battles of our sanguinary and disastrous sectional strife, he again turned his attention to farming for a

Page  633 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 633 short time, then became a merchant. In this last line of endeavor he has risen to high rank in the part of the state in which his operations are conducted, and has thus given another proof of his adaptibility to circumstances and capacity to meet requirements, even in hitherto wholly untried fields of labor. Mr. Warner is a native of Van Buren county and has passed the whole of his life within its borders, except during the period of his military service. He was born on a farm in Almena township on December 14, 1840, and is a son of Rev. Junia and Arminda (Merry) Warner, natives of Herkimer county, New York. They came to Michigan and located on the Van Buren county farm in 1835, the place of their son Jerome's birth. On their arrival in this county they entered three hundred acres of land belonging to the government and on that they made their home and bestowed their labor until the death of the father in 1847. After this event the mother remained on the farm and continued cultivating it and rearing her children to usefulness in life by having them perform their full share of the work in conducting it. She survived him thirty-six years, surrendering her trust at the behest of the Great Disposer of Events in 1883. Nine children were born in the family, three of whom died in infancy and four of the others have since died, the latter being Philura, Elam L., Francis and Mary. The two still living are Jerome C. and his brother Wilbur F., who lives in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Both were educated in the district schools and reared on the farm. Both have also sought other pursuits in life and have won gratifying and well-deserved success in them. Jerome C. Warner remained on the farm until 1864. On January 1, that year, he enlisted in Company H, Thirteenth Michigan Infantry, as a volunteer to fight for the preservation of the Union. This company was connected with the army corps commanded by General Sherman and he remained in active service until the battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, when he was wounded and removed to a hospital in New York city, where he remained about three months, or until the fall of the Southern Confederacy and the close of the war, being discharged in June, 1865. When he left the army he returned to the farm and conducted its operations for a short time. Finally he sold it and moved to Paw Paw, where for a number of years he was extensively and profitably engaged in merchandising, which business is now carried on by his sons. He now owns one of the largest and most imposing brick business buildings and one of the most attractive and valuable private residences in the city. He also owns one hundred and thirty acres of fine farming land, which he has purchased since he became a merchant and to the cultivation of which he gives his personal attention to the extent of. supervising and directing it. Mr. Warner has taken a great interest in the affairs of the city, township and county of his home and has rendered their people excellent service in several important and responsible public offices. He has been under sheriff of the county, township treasurer two terms, township supervisor nine years and successively president, treasurer and assessor of Paw Paw. In fraternal circles he is connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and he also

Page  634 634 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY belongs to the Grand Army of the Republic. His religious fealty is given to the Presbyterian church. In politics he is a Republican of pronounced convictions and zealous in the service of his party at all times. On May 24, 1876, Mr. Warner united in marriage with Miss Jennie Kelly, and by this union became the father of five children, allof whom are living at Paw Paw. Wilbur J., who is conducting the business formerly carried on by his father, married. Vivian, daughter of R. W. Broughton, of Paw Paw. They have one daughter, Jean. Glenn E. and Guy are twins, the former being a lawyer and the present prosecuting attorney of Van Buren county, and the latter in the furniture business at Paw Paw. Guy married Mabel Showerman, of Paw Paw. Leland is associated with his brother Wilbur J. in business, and the youngest member of the family is Blaine. Glenn E., Leland and Blaine still reside beneath the parental roof-tree and assist in making the household one of the most popular in the neighborhood and an attractive resort for numerous admiring friends of the family. All the members stand high in the regard and good will of the people and are looked upon as among the best and most useful citizens in the county. They are accepted everywhere as worthy representatives of its sterling manhood and the enterprise and progressiveness which distinguish its inhabitants and sustain its excellent reputation in all parts of the state. OscAR ADAMS.-This sterling citizen of Van Buren county has passed the psalmist's span of three score years and ten, and more than half a century of his life has been passed in the county which is now his home and in which he is known and honored of men. He may well be designated as one of the pioneer citizens of the county and he has done his part in furthering its industrial and civic development and upbuilding, the while his earnest and well directed efforts as one of the world's productive workers have not been denied a gracious fruition. He has long been known as one of the representative exponents of agriculture in Keeler township and his fine homestead well shows the thrift and good management that have been brought to bear by him, the while he here finds himself surrounded by all that should compass old age. He is passing the gracious evening of his life in peace and prosperity and surrounded by friends that are tried and true and to whom his loyalty is inviolable. Such are the citizens whose careers merit special consideration in publications of this nature, and it will be a source of gratification to many residents of Van Buren county to find within these pages a brief review of the worthy life record of him whose name introduces this paragraph. Oscar Adams was born in Allegany county, New York, on the 22d of March, 1839, and is a scion of one of the staunch old families of the Empire commonwealth, which has given to Michigan so large and valuable a contribution, many of the early settlers of the southern part of the state having come from New York, as the annals of Michigan well indicate, as do also names of towns, cities and villages which in their titles give honor to old homes in New York. Mr. Adams is the youngest in a family of three sons and

Page  635 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY two daughters born to Willard and Esther (Baker) Adams, and he is now the only surviving member of the immediate family. His father was born in Vermont and was a representative of one of the pioneer families of that state, as well as one established in New England in the colonial days, when that section was the matrix in which was cast so much of the early history of the nation. Willard Adams was reared to adult age in the old Green Mountain state, and after he had passed his legal majority he accompanied two of his brothers in a migration to the state of New York. Owing to the exigencies of timn and place he had received but limited educational advantages, but he had the intrinsic elements for the gaining of worthy success and made for himself a secure place in connection with economic industry. He acquired land in Allegany county, New York, where he reclaimed a productive farm and where he became a citizen of prominence and influence in his community. Upright in all the relations of life, industrious and God-fearing, his career was one marked by earnestness, sincerity and worthy accomplishment, as well as by temporal prosperity that was justly his due. In politics he was a Jeffersonian Democrat, he was affiliated with the Masonic fraternity. Esther (Baker) Adams was likewise a native of Vermont but was a child of seven years at the time of the family removal to the state of New York, where she was reared to womanhood and where her marriage was solemnized. Her father, Thaddeus Baker, was graduated in a college in England and was a man of much ability, and he became one of the prominent pioneers of Allegany county, New York. He secured a tract of wild land in the southwestern part of that county and there developed a good farm. He found much requisition for his services as a skilled surveyor and was called upon to serve in various offices of public trust. He was for many years a justice of the peace and also served for a number of years as judge of the probate court of his county. Willard and Esther (Baker) Adams continued to reside in Allegany county until their death and both attained to venerable age. Oscar Adams was reared to the sturdy discipline of the farm and his early educational advantages were limited to a somewhat irregular attendance in the common schools of his native county. When but fifteen years of age he manifested his youthful independence, self-reliance and ambition by severing the home ties and setting forth alone to seek his fortunes in Michigan. He made the voyage by lake steamer to Detroit and thence came on the Mlichigan Central Railroad to Decatur, Van Buren county, where he arrived in March, 1857, with his cash capital reduced to less than ten dollars. The venturesome lad was ready to turn his attention to any honest employment and he soon secured work on a neighboring farm, where he received fourteen dollars a month for his services, this being the first money he had ever earned in an independent way. For six years he continued to be thus employed as a farm hand,-in Hamilton and Keeler townships,and for three years of this period he worked for Philotas Haydon, one of the well known pioneers of the county. He had carefully saved his earnings and at the expiration of six years he made his first purchase of land, securing one hundred and sixty acres, for

Page  636 636 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY which he paid one-fourth of the purchase price and assumed indebtedness for the remainder. The land was but slightly improved and he set himself vigorously to the task of metamorphosing the same into a productive farm. He has continued in possession of this land during the long intervening years and the same constitutes his present homestead, which is recognized as one of the valuable farms of the county, with excellent improvements and with every evidence of thrift and prosperity. The first dwelling owned by Mr. Adams represented an expenditure on his part of the sum of twenty-four dollars. This was a wing of an old house and was transported to his farm by means of an ox team. At that time deer, wild turkeys and other native game were still plentiful, and he was enabled to add much to his larder from this source. His experience also compasses the use of the old-time cradle, which he has swung from sunny morn till dewy eve in the garnering of grain and he utilized the oldfashioned scythe in cutting hay, both kinds of products being raked up by hand. He has witnessed the marvelous development in agricultural machinery and implements and finds satisfaction in the use of modern improvements and facilities, though he ever reverts with pleasure to the "dear, dead days beyond recall," and appreciates the generous friendships and mutual helpfulness that marked the associations of the pioneer epoch. He still has in his possession one of the grain cradles of the old times and the same is worthy of preservation as a family heirloom. By the use of this primitive implement he made a record of cutting two and onehalf acres of grain in a day, and his memory constitutes a link between the pioneer past and the present era of opulent prosperity and manifold advantages. The first schoolhouse in the vicinity of his home was erected in 1858, and he drew the stone for the foundation of the same. He has used the goose-quill pen, prior to the manufacturing of steel pens, and has fashioned many of these quills for such use. As a boy he absorbed wisdom from Daboll's arithmetic, Kenyon's grammar and Town's spelling-book, and few of the present day remain to recall these early text-books. Within three years after the purchase of his farm Mr. Adams had labored so industriously and had so carefully husbanded his resources that he could have met all indebtedness. He had borrowed money of his friend and former employer, Mr. Haydon, and he toiled and planned until he was able to pay back dollar for dollar, the while he was laying the secure foundation for future independence and prosperity. Hard work, integrity of purpose and fairness and honor in all things have characterized the career of this sterling pioneer, and he has not only won but also deserved success, as well as the high regard of his fellow men. In the stern school of experience and through self-discipline he has gained valuable lessons, and he is one of the well informed men of his county, taking a lively interest in its affairs and also in the questions and issues of the day. He has done his part in the furthering of enterprises and measures advanced for the general good of the community and is known as a broad-minded and public-spirited citizen. Mr. Adams cast his first presidential vote for Stephen A. Douglas, and his second was in support of the immortal Lin

Page  637 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 637 coin, but since that time he has been unwavering in his allegiance to the Democratic party. He served several years as justice of the peace of his township and for thirty-three years has been an official of his school district. He has shown deep interest in educational matters and has done much to forward the upbuilding of the public schools in the county that has so long been his home. He is a zealous and consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal church and has been earnest in its work. He assisted in the erection of the first church building in the vicinity of his home, and this was used by those of the various religious faiths, without discrimination, tolerance and unity of spirit being in evidence and the cause of the Divine Master being held as the one essential. He has been an official member of the Methodist church at Keeler for many years, having served as one of its trustees and having been liberal in his contributions to the various departments of its work. He has thus shown a high sense of stewardship, as has he also in the daily walks of life, and this church is still open for the use of all denominations at funeral and other occasions. Mr. Adams' fine homestead is located nine miles distant from the city of Dowagiac and eight miles from Decatur. It comprises ninety acres and the attractive home is known for its generous hospitality, being a favorite rendezvous for a wide circle of friends whom he has' grappled to his soul with hoops of steel." Mr. Adams has been twice wedded. On the 16th of February, 1862, was solemnized his marriage to Miss Sarah Geer, who was born in Van Buren county, on the 2d of April, 1839, and who here passed her entire life, her death having occurred on the 20th of February, 1894. She was a member of one of the well known and honored pioneer families of Hamilton township and her life was one of loving consecration to home and family. Concerning the nine children of this union the following brief record is given: Isabelle B. is the wife of Fred H. Baker, who is one of the representative business men of Dowagiac, where he is one of the principal stockholders in the Colby Milling Company, and his wife is the owner of large land interests in Van Buren county as well as the owner of a landed estate of one thousand acres in Manitoba, Canada. Mrs. Baker was afforded excellent educational advantages, including a course in an excellent academic institution at Goshen, Indiana. Prior to her marriage she was a successful teacher in the schools of her home township and she is now a prominent factor in the leading social activities of the city of Dowagiac, being a woman whose culture has been enhanced by the extended travels which she and her husband have indulged through the various sections of the country. Oliver, the eldest of the sons, is one of the prosperous and progressive farmers of Keeler township, where he secured his early education in the public schools. He married Miss Nora Someral and they have five children,Wesley, Isabelle, Dorothy, Allen and Oscar; Wesley L., the second son, is engaged in mining enterprises in Alaska and is located thirty-four miles distant from Fairbanks, that territory. He was afforded the advantages of the Northern Indiana Normal School, now known as Valparaiso University, and has been in Alaska since 1898. Deyo, the youngest of the children, is in active charge of

Page  638 638 HISTORY OF VAN BUJREN COUNTY his father's old homestead farm and in this connection he lhas shown an energy and judgment that have made him justify the name which he bears. He is a Republicaf in politics, and he is affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He married Miss Valorie Earl and they have one son, Maurice. On the 26th of March, 1896, Mr. Adams contracted his second marriage, having then been united to Mrs. Marcia (Buck) Beattie, who proves a most gracious chatelaine of their beautiful rural home. She was born and reared in Van Buren county, and is a daughter of the late Lucius E. and Celina (Wise) Buck, who came to this county from the vicinity of Geneseo, New York, and who here passed the residue of their lives, secure in the high regard of all who knew them. Mrs. Adams is a specially earnest and devoted member of the Methodist Episcopal church and is a woman of marked culture and social attractiveness. She has served as both president and vice president of the Thursday Literary Club, in the village of Keeler, and for twenty years prior to her marriage she was one of the valued and loved teachers in the public schools of her native county, where hei circle of friends is coincident with that of her acquaintances. She is a pleasing public speaker and has been a popular factor in social and literary circles for many years. By her first marriage she became the mother of one child, Mrs. Nellie B. Sill, of Billings, Montana, and she has two daughters, Beatrice and Margarie. Since their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Adams have visited various sections of the Union, including the Pacific coast and the eastern states, and they have thus found both enjoyment and information, the while they have shown the proper recognition of the uses of such temporal prosperity as is theirs. Mr. Adams is a man of unassuming and thoroughly democratic bearing but his mind is a veritable storehouse of knowledge and mature judgment, with a specially large department from which may be drawn most interesting reminiscences touching the pioneer days in Van Buren county. JoHN 1A. RIDLON.-Lacking but a few months of being ninety years of age, and in the long period of his earthly existence having hlad often trying, sometimes hazardous, and always instructive experience in several lines of useful endeavor; having started on life's journey in the remote East, and being, within a short time at the utmost, about to end it in the Middle West of this great country, and having also seen something of its Farther West by residence among its people for some years; having taken up arms in defense of the Union when civil war threatened its dismemberment, and devoted all the remainder of his years to augmenting its power, increasing its prosperity and promoting the welfare of its people by fruitful industry in the domain of peaceful production, John M. Ridlon, of Lawrence, this county, presents in his career an epitome of American history itself. He saw the nation in the infancy of its life and has witnessed its struggles with the wild forces of nature and with foreign foes, and its triumph over both. He has seen it terribly torn and distressed by internecine strife, and ending that to its far greater glory, progress and prosperity, and elevating its people through

Page  639 HISTORY OF VAN BUIREN COUNTY 639 the baptism of blood to a higher conception and standard of humanity. He has beheld its mighty triumphs in every department of human activity, mental, moral and material, and to the full measure of his capacity and his opportunities he has aided in bringing about the great achievements the American people have written so luminously and in such large and enduring phrase in the annals of mankind. Poetry sparkles, Heroism glows, Tragedy darkens in the texture of his long life, and the golden thread of sentiment runs brightly through its woof. Wide gulfs of time and space are compassed in its range and made as naught. Since it began-since the hardy New Englander first saw time and tide between him and his ancestral home-distant countries have become near neighbors, the Atlantic has been made a narrow frith across which the Old World and the New shake hands, the Pacific has been bound to it with hoops of steel, and our own East and West have learned to look into each other's windows. The great Northwest, at the commanding might of mind, has risen from her slumber of centuries, and, clad in comeliest habiliments, has come forth to greet her lord, the Genius of an advanced and progressive civilization, and laid all her treasures at his feet. And he who has lived that life and helped to make this record, is still among us in active vigor and usefulness, reminding all who know him of some genial year, proceeding to its close undoubtedly, but with its seasons of warmth, and bloom and fruitfulness not yet wholly spent. MAr. Ridlon was born on May 16, 1822, in York county, Maine, not far from the town of Bonny Eagle. He is a son of Joseph and Mary (Hopkinson) Ridlon, also natives of that county, and belonging to families domesticated there for generations. Joseph Ridlon was a son of James, the second son of Mathias Ridlon, who was the third son of Magnus Ridlon. The last named was born and reared on the Shetland Islands off the north coast of Scotland, where his life began in 1698. In 1717, when he was nineteen years of age, he came to America and located in New England. There lie reared a family and started the name in this country. Iis grandson, Joseph Ridlon, the father of John M., was born in York county, Maine, on May 26, 1782, and in March, 1802, was united in marriage with Miss Mary Hopkinson, the daughter of William Hopkinson, of that county. They became the parents of five sons, who were, like themselves, constant and honest in their industry, clean, upright and moral in their lives, and steadily useful to the people around them in their several localities. They were all reared in their parental household, and all but John M. passed their lives on their native heath. He alone sought new scenes and associations and a new field of opportunity, and he is the only member of the family now living. John M. Ridlon grew to the age of eighteen in his father's home. and by the time he reached that age he had already taught school three terms, although his own facilities for education were limited to those furnished by the primitive schools of the rural regions in his boyhood and youth. At the age of eighteen he found employment as a clerk and salesman in a store in the town of Gorham, Cumberland county, but not far from his home. He remained

Page  640 640 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY in the store six years, and at the end of that period decided to come West. He located at Oshkosh, Wisconsin, with very little in the way of worldly wealth or capital for business, and took up one hundred and sixty acres of land which was still virgin to the plow and had never heard the persuasive voice of the husbandman. He cultivated this land for one year, then came to the conclusion that he could do better in some other occupation. The lumber trade was then assuming large proportions and a very active condition in that neighborhood, and he sold his farm and embarked in this line of mercantile business. He remained in the lumber trade four years, and during this period he was happily married to Miss Sarah M. Phelps, the daughter of A. H. Phelps, at that time a resident of Lawrence. The marriage took place in 1852, fifty-nine years ago, and both parties to the contract are still enjoying the union which made them one so long ago. In 1854, two years after his marriage, Mr. Ridlon moved his family to Lawrence in this county, and bought a farm of ninetyfour acres of land on the outskirts of the village or hamlet, as it was then, and in June, 1855, just one year after his arrival, he assumed the duties of deputy county treasurer of Van Buren county, under A. H. Phelps, his father-in-law, who had been elected treasurer. Mr. Ridlon served as deputy two years, and was then elected treasurer, being a candidate on the ticket which contained the name of General John C. Fremont as a candidate for the presidency of the United States, and was the first national ticket of the Republican party. His services were so acceptable to the people that they gladly elected him for a second term in the office of county treasurer. This term expired on December 31, 1861, and on August 27, 1862, he was commissioned first lieutenant and quartermaster in the Twenty-fifth Michigan Infantry, then enlisted for service during the Civil war. He served in the army three years, lacking forty days, and was honorably discharged at Salisbury, North Carolina, on July 13, 1865. His services as quartermaster were rendered for a time at the headquarters of General Schofield in Ohio and at Knoxville, Tennessee, and afterward at the department headquarters of Kentucky in Louisville, of which General John M. Palmer was in command, and in performing them he was so capable and faithful to duty that he won the commendation of both these generals. In 1866 Mr. Ridlon took up his residence in the village of Lawrence, building for his use the dwelling in which he now lives. He entered mercantile life again, and was in business for himself five years, after which he gave up his establishment and worked in stores of other merchants until 1888, when he and his wife went to live with their daughter, Addie, who is the wife of James H. Yund and resides in Grand Island, Nebraska. Mr. Yund owns a store in that city, and Mr. Ridlon assisted him in its management eight years. At the end of that time he returned to Lawrence, and here he and his wife have lived ever since. He has for a number of years been retired from active pursuits, except that he has acted as agent for several insurance companies. He and his wife have

Page  641 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 641 three children, thirteen grandchildren and three great-grandchildren. Their children are: Jennie F., who is the wife of S. M. Hess, of Lawrence; Addie B., who is the wife of James H. Yund, of Grand Island, Nebraska, as has been stated; and Charles A., whose home is at Roulette, Potter county, Pennsylvania, where he is superintendent of a stave factory, which carries on an extensive business. Mr. Ridlon and all the members of his family belong to the Congregational church. He and his wife hold their membership in the church in Lawrence, of which he had long been one of the deacons, and will in all probability continue to be as long as he lives. His father was a deacon in his church, the Baptist, for many years, and was always spoken of as "Deacon Joseph" in the community of his home. This official connection with the church in father and son probably covers nearly a century of time, and furnishes a strong proof of their genuine worth, the uprightness of their lives and their steadfast interest in the welfare of the people among whom they lived and labored. From his youth the venerable patriarch who is the interesting subject of these paragraphs has felt an interest in the affairs of his country and given special attention to the moral side of its government according to his convictions. He was a member of the Know Nothing party during its brief and stormy existence, and has been strong and steadfast in his devotion to the principles and candidates of the Republican party from its birth "Under the Oaks" in Jackson, Michigan. His loyalty to it has not been based on any hope of personal reward, but on his abiding faith in the virtue of his party and in its beneficence as an instrument in promoting good government, whether it be that of his county, his state or the nation. In political matters, as in all others, duty has thundered in his soul, and he has obeyed its supreme mandates. HARRY L. McNEIL.-A lawyer by profession and an abstracter by occupation, H. L. McNeil, of Paw Paw, is connected with two lines of work in which the interests of the county and its people are deeply involved. He is serviceable to those interests in both, and in the latter the people have come to depend on him for full information concerning the titles to their real property, and to demand his services almost constantly. But he attends to their wants cheerfully and with alacrity, and gives them information and papers on which they can rely with full confidence as to their correctness and completeness. Mr. McNeil is a native of Paw Paw, where he was born on April 21, 1870, and has passed nearly the whole of his subsequent life among its people. His parents were Allen F. and Alzina (Halsted) MVcNeil, the former a native of Michigan, born in 1844, and the latter, a native of Ohio. The father was a blacksmith and worked at his trade all his years after acquiring a knowledge of it. He died in 1909, at the age of sixty-five years. The mother is still living and has her home in Paw Paw, where she has lived many years and is well known and universally esteemed for her fidelity to every duty and the uprightness of her long career of quiet but effective usefulnes.

Page  642 642 IIISTORY OF VAN IBUREN COUNTY They were the parents of but one child, the subject of this brief memoir. He obtained a high school education, being graduated in 1889, and then entered the office of Judge Heckert in Paw Paw, under whose direction he began the study of law. He passed one year in this office as a student, then entered the law department of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, from which he was graduated in 1892. During the next four years he devoted himself wholly to the practice of his -profession. At the end of the period mentioned he bought the only abstracting business in Van Buren county, and since becoming the proprietor of this he has made it his chief concern and used his enterprise to make its operations co-extensive with the county and so complete as to meet every requirement of the people in its line of work. Taking a broad and comprehensive view of his business, Mr. McNeil has made every effort to increase its usefulness and expand the volume of its trade. He helped to organize the Michigan Abstract Association, and served as its secretary for four years. IHe was also one of the founders of the National Association of Title Men, of which he was the first national secretary. He is now a member of the National Judiciary Committee of that Association. His extensive and accurate knowledge of the law governing real property, and his careful and exhaustive study of his business have given him great weight and made him an accepted authority on all questions connected with or growing out of the subject of real estate titles in Van Buren county and also in a general way. On October 18, 1893, Mr. McNeil was united in marriage with Miss Jennie Towers, a daughter of E. C. and Ella A. (Fuller) Towers, both natives of Michigan and the parents of two children, Mrs. McNeil and her brother Lewis E., a resident of Mattawan in this county. Mr. and Mrs. McNeil have but one child, Azel A., who was born on February 8, 1899. Mr. McNeil is independent in politics, giving consideration in all campaigns only to the general welfare and ignoring partisan interests altogether. He is a member of the Order of Odd Fellows and during the year (1911) held the office of Grand Warden of the state in the order and in October of that year, at the annual session held in Saginaw, he was elected deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge. He also belongs to the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He is in the first rank as a citizen, and the esteem bestowed on him is general and cordial. WILLIS V. HALL.-This gentleman, who is now one of the enterprising and progressive merchants and highly esteemed citizens of Paw Paw, has lived in the city but five years, but in that period has made an excellent reputation as a business man, upright and independent in all his transactions, but wide-awake to the needs and interests of the community, and full of public spirit in helping to provide for them and promote the comfort, convenience and general welfare of all classes of its residents. Mr. Hall has been in business, either for himself or as manager for some one else, ever since he left school, and like that of

Page  643 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 643 most business men his life has passed through quiet scenes of daily routine and been uneventful in large measure. But unlike many business men, he has made the most of his opportunities for his own advancement and the service of the locality in which he has lived. Every step of his progress has been the result of his own efforts, unaided by favors of fortune or adventitious circumstances. He was born in Racine, Wisconsin, on February 14, 1876, and is a son of John H. and Louisa (Kingman) Hall, the former a native of Vermont and the latter of England. The father was a machinist and followed his trade to the end of his life, which came on May 12, 1881. The mother is still living and now resides in Chicago. They were the parents of two children, Willis V. and his brother George E., a resident also of Chicago, where he is a bookkeeper for the Apsley Rubber Company. Willis V. Hall obtained a high school education in Kenosha, and then attended the Illinois College of Pharmacy in Chicago. After his graduation from that institution he followed the drug trade in Kenosha, Wisconsin, for six years. At the end of that period he moved to Chicago, where he became assistant manager of one of the stores of the I)earborn Drug Company, a position which he held continuously for five years. Ie next passed a number of years in drug supply work in Chicago. In 1906 he moved to Paw Paw and bought a store, and in this he has ever since been conducting a general merchandising business with a steadily advancing volume of trade and an intensifying hold on the confidence and regard of the people of the city and the surrounding country. He has shown himself to be a thorough master of his business, and has conducted it with a close and satisfying study of the wants of the community in his lines of trade and the best method of supplying them. In this way he has made his store extensively popular and won great credit for himself as an energetic, enterprising and up-to-date merchant. On July 30, 1900, Mr. Hall united in marriage with Miss Mira A. Grennell, a daughter of M. J. and Catherine (Morgan) Grennell and a native of Michigan. Two children have blessed the union and brightened the household, Wilbur Vern and Gilbert Kingman. The father is independent in political affairs, but is always deeply interested in the progress and improvement of the city and county of his home. He was elected village clerk of Paw Paw in 1911, and his ability in the office and devotion to duty with unswerving fidelity have brought him high encomiums for the value of his work and his close attention to the interests he has in charge. In fraternal relations he is a Freemason, and in church affiliation a Methodist, with ardent interest in the welfare of both his lodge and his church, taking an earnest and helpful part in the work of each, as he does in connection with all other moral agencies at work among the people around him. BANGS F. WARNER.-Selected for his appointment to the postmastership of Paw Paw in 1900, because of his supposed special fitness for the office, Bangs F. Warner has demonstrated in his

Page  644 644 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY continuous service in the position since his first appointment that there was wisdom and good judgment in the selection, and the expectations involved in making it have been fully met in the capable and faithful performance of his official duties. He came to the office with his faculties well trained and his knowledge of public affairs expanded to considerable magnitude in a long and varied previous experience in several lines of usefulness, in all of which he has exhibited a high sense of duty and every quality of upright and enlightened manhood in the performance of it in an able and satisfactory manner. Mr. Warner's life began in Almena township, Van Buren county, Michigan, on June 24, 1858. His parents, Elam L. and Charlotte M. (Bangs) Warner, were born in the state of New York, and further mention of the genealogy of this prominent family is made in the biographical sketch of Jerome C. Warner, uncle of the subject, which is found on other pages of this work. In this locality the father of Bangs F. Warner grew to manhood, was married and reared his offspring. He died in 1902, at the age of seventyfour years. The mother is still living and has now reached the age of seventy-seven. The father was a farmer all his life and at the time of his death he owned one hundred and sixty-six acres of fine farming land in this county, which showed the benefit of his well-applied industry throughout a long series of years in its high state of development and cultivation, the complete and comfortable character of its buildings and other improvements, together with its general attractiveness and value as a farm and a rural home. The mother is still living in Van Buren county and is now the oldest of its people in continuous residence within its boundaries. She is venerated as a veritable "Mother in Israel" on this account and she also enjoys the high regard of all classes of the population because of her integrity of character, uprightness of life and strong American womanhood. She and her husband were the parents of four children, one of whom, Roy E., died an infant. Those living are: Frances A., who resides in Paw Paw; Bangs F., the immediate subject of this brief memoir; and Junia J., who resides in Oakland, California, and is the general passenger and freight agent of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railroad in that city, having held said position for a number of years. Bangs F. Warner grew to manhood and was educated in this county, having been graduated from a high school in 1876, at the age of eighteen. After completing his education he became a farmer during the summer months and taught school in the winters of several years. He conducted schools at Kendall, Breedsville and other places in this county and at Middleville in Barry county, continuing in the profession until 1883, when he moved to Paw Paw and turned his attention to insurance as an occupation and means of advancement. In 1889 he went to Idaho, and there for three years he bought range horses for shipment to the eastern markets. In 1893 he returned to his farm of one hundred acres in Waverly township, this county, where he remained until 1897, and made a specialty of dealing extensively in hay. In the year last mentioned he

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered] ISAAC W. VAN FOSSEN

Page  645 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 645 again moved to Paw Paw, but continued his transactions in hay and has done so to the present time (1911). He has also been the postmaster of the city continuously since 1900, as has been noted, and enjoys an excellent reputation and general popularity for the manner in which he conducts the office and provides for the comfort and convenience of the people, whose welfare he makes the first consideration in the performance of his official duties within the law and the regulations governing the services, which, of course, he is obliged to obey. Mr. Warner was married on November 2, 1882, to Miss Clara Bray, a daughter of Benjamin and Rebecca (Clark) Bray, and by this marriage became the father of one child, his son Leo E., who is now a bookkeeper in the First National Bank of Paw Paw. The father is a Republican in his political faith and allegiance and always loyal to his party, but he never allows party considerations to interfere with the faithful and impartial discharge of his duties. In fraternal relations he is affiliated with the Masonic order, the Knights of Pythias and the Modern Woodmen of America. The people of Van Buren county esteem him highly for his upright and commendable manhood, his enterprise and publicspirit as a citizen, and his ability and fidelity as a public official. He also ranks high in business circles as a progressive and farseeing dealer, modern in his methods and strictly square in all his transactions. He well deserves the rank they accord him as one of their leading and most representative men and in every feature of his daily life exemplifies it. ISAAC W. VAN FOSSEN.-The venerable and venerated patriarch to whom these paragraphs are dedicated and the story of whose long and highly useful life they briefly chronicle, entered upon the great field of newspaper work at the age of sixteen and continued in it until long after he passed the meridian of life. During the extended period of his connection with that spectacular and sparkling line of human endeavor our country expanded and grew in power and importance as nothing in human history has ever done. It planted new commonwealths of vast expanse and almost boundless resources where but a little while before the Red Man roamed, the panther leaped, the deer disported, in a security that was undisturbed save by the ravages of one upon another. While it was passing, too, opposing political theories and their advocates were making history on our soil with the elevation of Man, the betterment of the race, as the prize of the contests. The hereditary lord of the soil, although for the greater part of the time sullenly accepting his fate, occasionally rose against the advancing march of civilization, and our people had to reduce him to subjection, sometimes at a great sacrifice of life and treasure. The majestic march of mind, the advance of science and art, the progress of discovery and invention, the expansion of education for lofty and lowly, and all the other concomitants of a militant and strident civilization kept pace with the flight of time and the sequence of events. And throughout the whole of it Mr. Van Fossen Vol. n-2

Page  646 646 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY was in touch with the leading thought and some of the leading actors in the great progressive performance. His life is like a mighty bridge, spanning a wide, swift current of running water. Its one abutment rests on the undeveloped condition of the country and its simplicity in life during our earlier days; and the other, when it shall have been completed-for he is still among us-will have its base in the full flower and fruitage of our twentieth century advancement and all that is involved therein. Mr. Van Fossen was born at Livonia, Livingston county, New York, on July 24, 1826, and is a son of Isaac and Mary (Codding) Van Fossen, the former a native of Pennsylvania and the latter of New York. They were the parents of eleven children, of whom only Isaac W. and his brother Thomas D., of Springfield, Missouri, are living. The father and his elder brother, John, owned large mills at Livonia, New York, and were the most prominent men in that locality. Through the failure of banks in 1829 they lost their business and property and then came to Michigan. After a prospecting tour of the wild western territory, which was to be his future home and that of his family, the father returned east and reported conditions and prospects. In 1831 he and his brother William, who lived in Ann Arbor, purchased a section of land where Concord, in Jackson county, Michigan, now stands. He was still in the east and from there shipped the machinery for a new mill to his brother William, who had moved to the new section on Kalamazoo river. In 1833 the family came to this state, where he had erected a new log house, journeying by way of the Erie canal to Buffalo, and thence over Lake Erie by steamboat to Detroit. On their arrival in the Detroit river they found it full of Indian canoes, the day of their arrival being one on which the Indians received their annual allowance of money and presents from the government. The family secured horses and wagons in Detroit and then made the journey overland to their new home in Jackson county, a distance of ninety-five or a hundred miles, as the crow flies, and the greater part of it through an almost unbroken wilderness in which there were no conveniences of travel. Isaac W. Van Fossen, who was then about seven years of age, stopped with an uncle at what is now Ann Arbor, and which received its name in honor of his uncle's wife, Ann Van Fossen. As soon as the family was settled in its new home the brothers bestirred themselves to get things in order for the beginning of their business as millers. William had already begun damming the Kalamazoo river at Concord to get power for the mill and as soon as the dam was completed and the mill erected operations were begun in a new industry which was soon appreciated as one of the greatest conveniences and benefactions of the region. Mr. Van Fossen's mother died on November 30, 1839, but his father lived to the age of eighty-seven. He remained at home, aiding in breaking up the farm with ox teams and with the other farm work, until the death of his mother. He then took up his residence with a relative, Mr. Morgan, who lived at Homer in the adjoining county of Calhoun. From Homer he went a few months later to Spring Arbor, riding a two-year old colt as his means of transportation. He worked at Spring Arbor about eighteen months,

Page  647 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 647 then moved to Jackson, where he secured employment in a window and other woodwork factory for a short time. Here his newspaper career began. He got into the office of the Jackson Democrat, George W. Raney, editor and proprietor, as an apprentice, and remained in connection with the paper three years, having his home with his employers. They sold the paper to Messrs. Story & Cheney, proprietors of the Jackson Patriot, and Mr. Van Fossen worked for them two years. His father owned a mill at Waterville, Ohio, and he went there on a visit. For about a year and a half he worked on the Mainmee City Times and after that his engagements on newspapers were numerous. He was on the Toledo Blade, and later on the Detroit Advertiser. During the campaign of 1848, when General Cass was the Democratic candidate for the presidency, he worked on the Jackson Patriot. While working on the one last named he wrote an Indian story dealing with events in the history of the Ottawa and Pottawattomie tribes, which had been at war between themselves. The story made a great hit, for the war between the Indians had excited universal interest at the time. During his wanderings Mr. Van Fossen attended school at odd times, when he had the chance, and kept on improving his education. On one occasion he rode from Jackson to Lansing on horseback, stopping over night at Mason. There he found a gentleman who had a Washington iron hand printing press, but did not know how to set it up. Mr. Van Fossen put it in working order for him and it was soon thereafter dispensing the news and keeping the people enlightened. At the request of Messrs. Story & Cheney, of Jackson, his old employers, he went to Leslie, Ingham county, and took charge of a publication to secure the "Tax List," of that county and was successful. The material and appliances he had to work with were very crude, but he did the best he could with them, as he had always done under all circumstances, no matter what the difficulties. While living in Jackson he was first corporal of the Jackson Light Guards for six years, and was then promoted quartermaster of the eighteenth Brigade, Ninth Division, of the Michigan Militia, now known as the Michigan National Guard. During a session of the state legislature in 1852 (December 23) he began work on the State Jourinal, published in Lansing, Michigan, by Hedges & Peck, state printers. He remained with this paper and after the legislature adjourned he assisted in getting out the reports of the work of the legislature during that session as one of the three compositors who were chosen. A position was offered him in Detroit by Bagg, Patten & McDonald, printers, book-sellers and dealers in stationery. Here he had charge as foreman of the book and job office. While here, on November 5, 1853, he joined the Detroit Typographical Union and is today probably its oldest living member. He remained with the concern until June, 1854. At that time John R. Baker, the district attorney of Van Buren county, arrived in Detroit, having been sent there by the business men of Paw Paw to secure a man to take charge of the Paw Paw Free Press, which they had recently bought from S. T. Conway. Mr. Baker

Page  648 648 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY had been a student with Mr. Patten and he laid the situation before him, and he immediately recommended Mr. Van Fossen for the place and granted him leave of absence to come to Paw Paw and look into the situation. He did so, and as a result of what he saw he, in June, 1854, moved to the village and bought the paper and office. The Free Press was at that time the organ of the Democratic party and the only paper published in the county then in the control of the political situation in Van Buren county, but in 1855 the state passed into the hands of the Republicans and Mr. George W. Fitch, of Kalamazoo, was induiced to send a printer-lawyer named Butler to Paw Paw to edit and print what was then and is still known as The True Northerner, and which was at once given the political and official patronage of the political party then coming into power. Mr. Van Fossen still continued and, being a thoroughly practical man, his business increased and at the end of six months he was compelled to put in another press to take care of his increased business and job printing. In 1858 his office was destroyed by fire, but he succeeded in saving his newspaper files and books and immediately bought new material and continued the paper some months later. This continued until 1875, when he sold the paper to Landphear & Matthews, after which he went to Florida and assisted in establishing a new Democratic paper, The Pensacola Advance. IHe then returned to Paw Paw, where in the meantime had been formed a central Greenback club, which had begun the publication of a paper-the Michigain Independent-but it had not been a remarkable success and was discontinued. He was solicited to buy an office and start a new paper, which he did on June 1, 1880, called the Paw Paw Herald, and this he continued to publish until December 31, 1889. He then retired from the publication of this and later published for awhile a campaign paper called the "People's Alliance" for Sullivan Cook, the editor, of Hartford, Michigan. He also operated a job office up to 1902, when he sold out and retired from active business. His newspaper career covers a period of fifty years, in which time he has seen many advances and reverses in the course of his connection with it, and has established himself firmly in the esteem of newspaper men wherever he and his work are known. Mr. Van Fossen purchased his present residence and was married on June 23, 1858, to Miss Irene P. Simmons, the first white girl born in Paw Paw, then called the town of Lafayette, and by this union he became the father of three children, namely: Zell, who died in infancy; Vern, who is a dentist and living at home; and Rena R., who is a school teacher in Rossville, Illinois. The father was an ardent Greenbacker in the day when the Greenback issue was a prominent one in our politics, and he still adheres to the doctrines of the party. For some years he has not been active in political matters, but he still retains all his old-time interest in public affairs. In 1858 he was appointed deputy United States marshal for the District of Michigan by U. S. Marshal John S. Bagg. In 1866 he was made Department Collector of Revenue for the Second District. In 1884 he was nominated by the Greenback

Page  649 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 649 and Democratic parties for the State Senate, in opposition to C. J. Monroe, Republican, and was defeated by a small majority. Fraternally he is a Freemason, having been initiated in the Jackson Lodge, No. 17, on February 8, 1849, and soon thereafter took the R. A. M. degrees. When he became a resident of Paw Paw he took a demit from the Jackson lodge and joined at Paw Paw, July 15, 1855, and from the chapter in 1860. He holds the rank of past high priest in his chapter and is the only charter member now living. He was also a member of Peninsular Commandery, Knight Templars, of Kalamazoo. His religious connection is with the Episcopal church. C. RAY PUGSLEY.-Pursuing the even tenor of his way as a quiet, unostentatious farmer and breeder of fine registered cattle, with comparative indifference to the great, wasting currents of life outside of his peaceful domain; with no desire to mingle in or be a part of its bustle, hurry and distracting cares, yet alert always to the needs of his own community and zealous in his efforts to aid in providing for them, C. Ray Pugsley, of Paw Paw township, in this county, has lived to this time a useful and productive life, and given to those around him a fine example of sturdy manhood and serviceable citizenship of the kind that the welfare of the country mainly depends upon. Mr. Pugsley was born on a Paw Paw township farm,, in fact on the one he now lives on and cultivates, and the whole of his life to this time (1911) has been passed within the boundaries of Van Buren county. The date of his birth was February 12, 1883, and he is a son of William H. and Sarah A. (Harris) Pugsley, the former a native of England and the latter of Jackson county, Michigan. The father came to Michigan in 1857, when he was but ten years of age, and he has been a resident of the state ever since. He has been actively and profitably connected with the farming industry of the state for more than thirty years, and is even now deeply interested in it, although he has turned the management of his home farm over to his son Ray. In 1880 he bought the eighty acres on which the family is now established, and to the cultivation and improvement of this tract he devoted all his time and energy until 1904, when his son took charge of the place and he retired from active pursuits. He and his wife are the parents of three children, all of whom are living. They are: Verne M., the wife of L. H. Weldon, of Battle Creek, Michigan; May, the wife of F. A. Dibble, of Paw Paw; and C. Ray, the interesting subject of this brief review. The last named obtained a high-school education in Paw Paw and remained at home working for and under the direction of his father on the farm until he reached the age of twenty-one. He then took over the management of the farm himself, under an agreement with his father, and since that time he alone has cultivated it and conducted all the operations pertaining to it. His father was a first-rate farmer and he received good instruction while working under his direction. Yet he is a progressive man and studies his business with a view to securing the best possible returns for his labor and keeping in touch with the progress in

Page  650 650 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY what he has discovered his business to be-one of the most rapidly improving industries among men. He is something of an enthusiast on the subject of stock improvement, and in accordance with his theories he makes a specialty of breeding fine registered Guernsey cattle, conducting this department of his enterprise both for his own satisfaction and advantage, and also for the good of the country around him. He also feeds and ships live stock in general, and carries on a general farming industry with the utmost vigor and all the information concerning his operations he can gather from judicious reading and reflective and analytical observation. On October 25, 1905, Mr. Pugsley was united in marriage with Miss Frances Du Bois, a daughter of J. E. and Lucy Du Bois, highly respected residents of Paw Paw. They have had six children: Milly, who has been dead several years; Frances, the wife of Mr. Pugsley; Claude; J. C., whose home is in Van Buren county; Vernon, who is also a resident of this county; and Gertrude, who is still living at home with her parents. Mr. Pugsley has always taken an earnest interest and an active part in all commendable projects involving the development and improvement of the township and county of his home. He is a progressive and public-spirited man, and at all times eager to see Van Buren county as far forward in advancement of a wholesome character as judicious efforts can put it. The public affairs of the township and county interest him as a good citizen, but not as a man ambitious for public station or prominence among his fellows. Therefore, although he is a firm believer in the principles of the Democratic party and does his part to secure their adoption for the government of the country, general and local, he has never sought or desired a political office for himself. His iarming and live stock industries interest and occupy him in a leading way, and he prefers to leave the direction of public affairs to those who like such employment. In church relations he is a Baptist and one of the mainstays of the congregation in which he holds his membership. All who know him esteem him and he is in all respects worthy of their regard, confidence and good will. BENJAMIN A. MURDOCK.-Having rounded out the full score of years allotted to man by the sacred writer, and almost one more, the late Benjamin A. Murdock, of Paw Paw, who died on November 29, 1895, surrendered his trust at the behest of the Great Disposer of Events after working out a career that was interesting in all and remarkable in some of its features. He was for many years a school teacher, and although persons who follow that pursuit, especially those who teach in country or district schools, usually eke out only a slender living, he became a man of extensive possessions in a worldly way. He was a traveler of some note for the period in his young manhood, yet he passed the greater part of his subsequent life almost wholly in the locality of his home and warmly attached to its attractions. His life began soon after the close of the war of 1812, in fact but nine days after its latest and greatest victory was won for the citizen soldiers of our country, and he lived through two other wars of magnitude the arbitrament

Page  651 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 651 of fate forced on our people, and in addition through a number of Indian wars, some of them of great atrocity and at times of threatening proportions. He also witnessed the expansion of our territory, the marvelous increase in our population, our wonderful strides in the arts and sciences and all the broadening and improveing forces of education, and to these he did his part to bring about the results that have no parallel in human history. Mr. Murdock was born in Hamilton, New York, on January 17, 1815, a son of Ariel and Tryphosa (Bonney) Murdock. The father was the captain of a company of volunteers in the war of 1812, but did not long survive the war, dying in September, 1826, when his son was less than twelve years old. His wife belonged to the Bonney family of distinction and had an extension and varied experience. Their children are all now deceased: Sophia, Benjamin A., Hannah and Carey. Benjamin obtained a first-rate education, being graduated from Hamilton College at Clinton, New York, and for some years thereafter taught school in that state. He came to Michigan in 1836 and located in Van Buren county, taking up one hundred and sixty acres of government land near South Haven. During the next two years he taught school in that vicinity, and in 1839 made a visit to his native state and afterward an extended tour through the South. In 1842 he returned to Kalamazoo, Michigan, and for some months was the companion and chum of James Fennimore Cooper, the celebrated novelist. He again turned his attention to teaching, and continued his devotion to the profession for twelve years. At the end of that period he became a druggist in Paw Paw. In this business he was occupied until failing health induced him to retire and from that time until his death he gave his time and attention to looking after his large farming interests. At one period of his life he owned more than sixteen hundred acres of Michigan land, and at the time of his death possessed between six and seven hundred acres. On May 1, 1859, Mr. Murdock was married to Miss Mary Victoria Anderson, a daughter of LeGrand and Catherine (Shaw) Anderson, natives of Virginia and the parents of ten children: Cornelius, Lydia Anna, William, George, John, Eliza, Harriet and LeGrand, all deceased, and MIary, who married Mr. Murdock, and Jane, who is now Mrs. Dewey and living in Van Buren county, Michigan. LeGrand Anderson, the father of these children, came to Michigan in 1828 and located near Decatur. In 1832 he brought his family to his new home in the wilderness, and several Ohio families with them, whom he induced to settle in the same neighborhood. He bought five hundred acres of Government land, to which he added by subsequent purchases until at the time of his death, which occurred in July, 1869, he was the possessor of about one thousand acres. His wife died in 1842. Mrs. Murdock was well educated in her youth, living for a time in Ohio and having as her first tutor in that state Professor John Purdue, the founder of Purdue University at Lafayette, Indiana. Mr. and Mrs. Murdock became the parents of two children, their daughter Mary Eva, who died at the age of a few months, and their son Benjamin LeGrand, who lived to be only two years old.

Page  652 652 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Although their own home was childless, they found comfort in ministering to the happiness of the children of other households and made themselves foster parents to many, so to speak, by their numberless acts of kindness to them and their interest in everything that ministered to the happiness of all who came within the reach of their generosity and proved worthy of it. Mr. Murdock was a Republican in politics from the founding of the party and prior to that was a Whig. He was always warmly interested in the success of his party and worked to win it, but he did not care for official station for himself. His regular affiliation was with the Christian church, of which he was a devout and zealous member, and in whose work of making men and women better and happier he was an active participant, a wise counselor and a greatly valued aid. An incident of special interest in the history of the Murdock and Anderson families should not be overlooked: Mr. Lambert, the private secretary of John Quincy Adams, came to Kalamazoo for a rest. Later two nephews of George Washington, Spottswood and George by name, who were then being educated at West Point, left there on a vacation and came west looking for Mr. Lambert. The latter in the meantime had moved to the home of Mr. Anderson, and there they found him. They later obtained positions as school teachers in that section. Spottswood Washington taught the school nearest the home of Mrs. Murdock's father, Mr. Anderson, and lived in the family. His brother George taught another school a short time in the same neighborhood, and he also was a member of the Anderson household. REV. JAMES HATT RENNIE.-Although the life of this divine lasted only forty-one years, and ended when it should have been in its prime and full of promise, and although his health was failing for several years prior to his demise, he accomplished a great deal of good, and made every year of his activity fruitful in service to the cause of his Master and beneficial to the peoples among whom he ministered from time to time. Mr. Rennie was a native of Scotland, born on October 8, 1862, at Nether Tuloch, near Meldrum, the son of Robert and Anna (Hatt) Rennie. He completed his academic education at Park College in Parkville, Missouri, and his professional preparation for his great work in life at Auburn Theological Seminary, Auburn, New York. After leaving this institution he was engaged in his sacred calling for a few years in the East, and then the hand of Providence turned his face in the direction of the setting son. In the autumn of 1894 he came to Michigan, and in 1895 located at Paw Paw, where he served the Presbyterian church as pastor for one year. He then went to Colorado and took up his work at Ouray in that state, remaining until 1898. During the next year he was in charge of a church of his creed in Omaha, Nebraska, and at the end of that period decided to rest from his labors for a year and seek to regain his health and strength. He returned to Michigan for the purpose, and here he remained until his death, which occurred on November 22, 1903.

Page  653 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 653 On June 28, 1899, Mr. Rennie was united in marriage with Miss Clara Susanne Anderson, the daughter of Le Grande Redmond and Susanne (Morris) Anderson. In domestic life, as in all other relations, he was a pattern of excellence and won high commendation. In politics he was by no means an active partisan, but in his faith adhered to the principles of the Republican party, and usually voted for the candidates it placed in the field for public office. In other respects besides the exercise of his suffrage he took a good citizen's interest in public affairs, and strongly favored everything that he thought likely to advance the welfare of the community in which he lived and promote the moral, mental or material progress of its people. He was a modest and unostentatious gentleman, of high character and elevated tone, genial in manner, obliging in disposition, cultivated in intellect and rich in all the bland amenities of life. While he was able he was also tireless in his pastoral work and energetic in doing all he could to make it as effective for the good of his flock as possible. Wherever he lived he was greatly beloved, and his untimely death was deeply regretted in every pastorate he ever served. His memory is enshrined in the hearts of all who knew him, and the example he gave of upright living and earnest spiritual striving toward a higher and better life is still a potential force wherever it was exhibited and exerted its influence while he walked, labored and counseled among men. MILTON H. PUGSLEY.-One of the enterprising and progressive general farmers of Van Buren county for a number of years, and now one of the leaders and most successful of its fruit growers, Milton H. Pugsley, of Paw Paw township, is contributing to the advancement of the county and its mercantile and commercial influence in a very material and substantial way, and has been doing so for a long time. He has tried his hand at other occupations and made a success of them, too. But his inclination has always been in the direction of the farm, and notwithstanding strong temptations to remain away from it he returned to the vocation of the patriarchs and has never had occasion to regret his choice. Mr. Pugsley has a special interest in the welfare and progress of Van Buren county and Paw Paw township, for here he was born, grew to manhood and was educated. Here also he was married and established his domestic shrine, and here he has kept the fires burning brightly on it ever since. His life began in Paw Paw township on December 29, 1856, and he is a son of Henry M. and Mary A. (Prater) Pugsley, the former a native of England, born in 1823, and the latter of the state of New York. The father came to Michigan in 1845 and located in Van Buren county. He bought first eighty and then forty acres of land, and to this he added by subsequent purchases until, at the time of his death in 1901, when he was seventy-eight years of age, he owned two hundred and eighty-three acres. His widow survived him five years, passing away in 1906. They were the parents of seven children: William H., who is a resident of this county; Alice E., the wife of Harland P. Waters, of Paw Paw; John K., deceased; M. H., the subject of this writing; Dora M., the wife

Page  654 654 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of Charles Lake, of Paw Paw; Myra A., the wife of L. E. Shepard, of Paw Paw; and Eliza, who died in infancy. Milton H. Pugsley remained with his father until he obtained a high-school education, pursued a course of instruction at the Normal College at Valparaiso, Indiana, and was graduated from a business college. He had obtained his first certificate after leaving the district school, and began this profession at that time, teaching at intervals, up to the time he was graduated from the business college. He then taught school six winters, and at the end of that period was offered an excellent position as a teacher. But he preferred to return to the farm, of which he then took charge, being twenty-four years of age at the time. The next year he married and continued his farming operations, in which there has been no break since, except that he followed general farming for years, but is now making a specialty of fruit growing, grapes in particular, having forty acres of these under cultivation, and keeping from fifteen to forty employes during the fruit season. IHe has gradually been drawn into this interesting and profitable line of production. Mr. Pugsley was married on May 24, 1882, to Miss Jennie F. Cash, a daughter of Erastus and Jennie (Pierson) Cash, an account of whose lives will be found in this volume. They were the parents of three children, Mrs. Pugsley and her sister Carrie, who is the wife of C. L. Bowen, of this county, and a child that died in infancy. Mr. and Mrs. Pugsley have had three children: Earl, who is a lawyer in good practice at Hart, Michigan; Henry Paul, who died at the age of two years; and Clifford Gale, who is still living at home with his parents. The oldest son, Earl Pugsley, was graduated from the Paw Paw high school and then taught in a district school one year and in the high school two years. While teaching he prepared himself to enter the law department of the University of Michigan, and from that institution he was graduated and admitted to the bar in 1909. The father is a Republican in his political belief and a faithful worker for his party, although he does not seek or desire any of its honors or emoluments for himself. In religious faith and church affiliation he is a Baptist, and has long been active and effective in church work, being associated with the church in Gliddenburg. He also takes an active part in the work of the Sunday-school, and has been the teacher of a class of about twentyfive young people for many years and takes an interest in all that tends to improve the people around him and minister to their welfare in any way. Mr. Pugsley has taken a very earnest interest and a very active part in matters of importance to the community connected with his business and some that are not. He is president of the Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Van Buren county and the Wolverine Nursery Company, and he is also one of the directors of the Southern Michigan Fruit Association. Wide-awake, alert, progressive and intelligent, devoted to the welfare of his township and county, elevated in his citizenship and useful and loyal in all the relations of life, he is universally conceded to be one of

Page  655 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 655 the best and most representative men in Van Buren county, and he is fully deserving of his rank. HUGH BROCKWAY.-New York has given Michigan a number of her best citizens and the newer commonwealth cheerfully acknowledges her indebtedness to all the older states who have sent their enterprising sons westward in the track of the course of empire, and to none does she render sincerer thanks than to New York state. Mr. Brockway is a typical representative of these adoptive citizens of Van Buren county and though he was not early enough to be called a pioneer, yet he has lived here long enough to have been a factor in the advancement of the region. Hugh Brockway was born in Delaware county, New York, on December 5, 1865. His father, Delos Brockway, and his mother, Mary Gillespie Brockway, were both also natives of New York state. Both are now deceased. Hugh is the eldest of four children. Alexander, the next oldest, is dead; Cora and Frederick M. still reside in Delaware county, New York, the former being the wife of David Calhoun. The father was a farmer all of his life and the children grew up in the country. A district school education constituted Mr. Brockway's schooling and until he was eighteen he remained with his father. In 1893 he came to Paw Paw and bought one hundred and four acres of land and on this place he does general farming and makes a specialty of dairying. His cattle are of the Durham variety and of an unusually fine strain. His methods are those approved by the best modern authorities and his success is not due to chance, but to intelligent and scientific application of the principles of agriculture. Mrs. Brockway is Allie, the daughter of Aaron and Maria (Labardie) Harrison. She was married to Mr. Brockway December 31, 1901. There were ten children in the Harrison family besides Mrs. Brockway. Their names and places of residence will be found in the sketch of their father, Aaron Harrison. The family of Mr. and Mrs. Brockway consists of two daughters and one son. Genevieve E. was born June 27, 1903; Delos A., August 8, 1905; and Charlotte E., January 12, 1911. Mr. Brockway is a Republican in politics. He and Mrs. Brockway are loyal supporters of the work of the Christian church, of which she is a member. In the lodges of the county Mr. Brockway belongs to the Modern Woodmen. IsAAc GERNw.-Having taken up the battle of life for himself when he was but eight years of age, and in the beginning of the struggle worked laboriously in the pine woods of Maine getting out timber for the industries; then living in various places and working at several different occupations for a number of years under great difficulties, but with his eyes steadily fixed on the goal of his ambition, Isaac Gerow, of Paw Paw township, this county, is entitled to high credit for the progress he has made and the success he has won, wholly by his own efforts, unaided by any of Fortune's favors or propitious circumstances at any time. He is now a man of substance in a worldly way, and a citizen of consequence in the township and county of his home.

Page  656 656 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Mr. Gerow is a native of the state of Maine, where his life began on October 10, 1855. His parents, Isaac and Martha (Taylor) Gerow, were also born and reared in Maine, and both are now deceased. The father was a farmer from his youth. He and his wife were the parents of three children; Isaac, of this review; Isa, who died in 1891; and Phebe, who died two years ago. Isaac was compelled by the condition of the family estate to begin earning his own living when he was only eight years old, as has been stated, and his educational opportunities were necessarily of the most limited character. At the age of fourteen he secured employment in the pine woods of his native state in the logging or lumber business, to which he adhered for six months. The work was hard, the pay was meager, and the privations and hardships of his situation were numerous and burdensome. But he bravely toiled on and saved his earnings in the confident belief that he would in time secure better chances for advancement. At the end of the season in the woods he returned to his home and gave his attention to farm work. When he was twenty he went to the oil regions of Pennsylvania, where he remained two years in search of the profits which did not come his way. In 1880 he came to Michigan and worked on farms and at whatever else he could find to do. He kept this up five years, and at the end of that period rented forty acres of land in Arlington township, Van Buren county. He remained on this farm two years, then moved to one of one hundred and fifty-five acres in Lawrence township, which he also rented, but gave up at the end of the first year of his tenancy. His next venture was on another farm of forty acres, which he occupied two years, and his next on one of one hundred and twenty-three acres, on which he lived five years. From Lawrence township, Van Buren county, he moved to Oklahoma, but returned at the end of eight months to this state and Lawrence township, for another residence of one year, followed by one of a year on a rented farm in Paw Paw township. By this time he was able to select and secure a permanent home of his own, and bought fifty acres of first-rate land in Paw Paw township, and on this he has ever since lived, made extensive imnprovements and conducted a highly progressive farming and stock-raising industry. His farm is in section 30, and the fine improvements he has made on it and the high state of productiveness to which he has brought it have made it one of the most valuable and desirable of its size in the township, and he has not yet made it all he intends it shall be if industry and good management can bring about the conditions for which he is striving. Mr. Gerow was married on February 7, 1878, to Miss Louisa Gilger, and by this union has become the father of five children: Isa, who is a resident of South Dakota; Daniel, whose home' is in Kalamazoo; Millen, who also resides in this state; Martha, the wife of Emory Hulbert, who lives in Bloomingdale township; and Orvilla, who has her home in South Dakota. The father is a firm and faithful working member of the Republican party in his political faith and activity, and has filled a number of township offices as such, but has administered them

Page  657 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 657 all for the good of the township and the welfare and betterment of its people. Mrs. Gerow's church connection is with the Methodists, and in the congregation is one of the reliable and energetic workers for its advancement and general well being. Mr. Gerow is zealous and effective in his support of all worthy agencies working in his community for the progress and improvement of the region, and is esteemed on all sides as one of the sterling, sturdy and representative men in the citizenship of all Van Buren county. JASON J. LYLE.-Having passed the whole of his life to this time (1911) in Van Buren county, and Paw Paw township, Jason J. Lyle has an unusual and impressive interest in its welfare and that of its people. He has mingled with its residents from childhood, obtained his education in its schools, taken his place and faithfully filled it in its industrial life, and contributed his full share to its improvement and advancement and the proper administration of its civil affairs through his activity as a citizen. He is therefore in full sympathy with its people, and one of their most representative and useful men, as well as one of their most progressive and successful farmers and live stock breeders and dealers. Mr. Lyle is a native of Van Buren county and Paw Paw township, and his life began here on August 4, 1879. He is a son of Marshall and Mary (McWilliams) Lyle, also natives of Van Buren county, and a grandson of John and Ann (Armstrong) Lyle, who came to Michigan from their former home in England in 1848. More extended mention of the family may be found in the sketch of Levi N. Lyle elsewhere in this volume. Mr. Lyle's father, Marshall Lyle, passed the whole of his life in the township, and on the farm with his father. They were stock breeders and general farmers, and made steady gains in their business as the years passed by. The father died on April 3, 1899, leaving his father, the grandfather of Jason, then well advanced in years, in charge of the business. His widow, Jason's mother, is still living, at the age of over sixty years. They were the parents of two children: Jason J. and his sister Ethel, who is now the wife of Dr. W. E. Collins, of Kalamazoo, Michigan. Jason attended the district school near his home and afterward the high school in Decatur, this county. Iis course of instruction at the latter was cut short, however, by the death of his grandfather, which laid upon him the burden of taking care of the farm and conducting its operations. He has managed it ever since, and in addition to this two hundred and thirty acres he has one hundred and sixty of his own, which he cultivates according to the best methods of present-day farming. On this he is extensively engaged in raising live stock, having ever in view the large and active dairying business he is carrying on in connection with his other industries. For this he breeds Holstein cattle, of which he has a fine herd. On October 30, 1901, Mr. Lyle was united in marriage with Miss Maud Goodenough, a daughter of Nelson and Adella (Wright) Goodenough, natives of Michigan, and their only child. Her father had been married before, and to his first union one

Page  658 658 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY child was born also, his son Ralph, who is a resident of Cass county, this state. The grandparents of Mrs. Lyle came to Michigan and located in Cass county, and were among the most respected residents of that portion of the state, filling their places and performing their duty as builders and improvers of the state in full measure according to their powers and opportunities. Mr. and Mrs. Lyle have one child, their son Kenneth Marshall,.who was born on February 18, 1906. His father is a Republican in politics and earnestly loyal and serviceable to his party. He desires no place on the official roster of the township or county for himself, but takes an interest in public affairs for the purpose of doing what he can to promote the best interests of the people. In church connection he is a Methodist. He is universally recognized as one of the best and most useful citizens of the county. HARRY J. LuRKINs.-Representing the third generation of his family in continuous ownership of the same farm in Van Buren county, and never having known any other home, Harry J. Lurkins, of Paw Paw township, has an especial interest in this part of Michigan and the country. He was born and reared on this farm; he was educated in the public schools of the county; he acquired his social training in association with its people; and he is indebted to its industrial opportunities for all he possesses in the way of worldly wealth. He is therefore wholly a product of the county, and in his career as a farmer, a citizen and a man he is a credit to the region of his birth. The farm upon which he now resides has been in the family for three generations. It was formerly owned by his grandfather, who, when he died, left it to his son Charles, who resided upon it until his death, in 1889, and it is now owned by Mrs. Charles J. Lurkins and her two sons, George W. and Harry J., and is known as the Lurkins Keepsake Home. Mr. Lurkins' life began on November 9, 1878, and he is a son of Charles H. and Angie (Sanders) Lurkins, the former a native of Geneva, New York, horn in 1850, and the latter of Canada, born in 1854. The father was brought to Michigan and Van Buren county when he was but four years old by his parents. His wife, the mother of Harry J., was brought to this county by her parents in 1864. She is still living on the old homestead in Paw Paw and Harry J. has his home with her. Three children were born in the family: Harry J.; his older brother George W., who now lives in Ypsilanti, Michigan, and his younger sister, Maud B., who died when she was ten years old. Harry J. Lurkins obtained a high school education in Decatur, being graduated in 1897. He at once returned to the farm and has ever since lived on and cultivated it. He does general farming, employing a judicious succession of crops to secure the best results, and raises live stock for the general market on a scale of some magnitude. Of late years he has been giving special attention to the production of grapes, an industry of recent introduction in this part of the state, but one which promises to become a leader and a source of great profit to those engaged in it and of decided benefit

Page  659 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 6,59 to the mercantile interests of the county. Mr. Lurkins' farm coinprises two hundred and twenty-eight acres, including the interests of the other members of the family in it, but he cultivates it all and in so progressive and enterprising a way that hle makes every acre yield its due tribute in return for the intelligent and careful labor bestowed upon it. In the public affairs of the township and county of his home Mr. Lurkins takes a warm and helpful interest. He is always ready to aid in promoting any worthy undertaking for the improvement of the locality and the welfare of the people, and he gives attention to the government by doing a good citizen's duty in reference to political matters, according to his convictions. Firm in his faith in the principles of the Republican party, he supports its candidates in all campaigns, if they are worthy, and does what, he can to secure their election and keep up the general strength and spirit of the party. But he desires no political office for himself. His mother's church affiliations is with the Baptists. In all the relations of life he gives a fine example of progressive, enterprising and industrious manhood and elevated American citizenship, and the people of the county esteem him as one of their most useful, upright and representative men, always faithful to every duty and sincerely devoted to the best interests of the region in which he lives. CHARLES HOOD, who is engaged in agricultural pursuits in section 29, Paw Paw township, is one of the successful farmers of Van Buren county, and the owner of one hundred and forty acres of fine land. The farms of this section are as well regulated as any to be found in the state, and Mr. Hood's land is no exception to this rule, as he is a skilled agriculturist and through years of hard, faithful endeavor he has brought his tract into an excellent state of cultivation. Charles Hood was born July 4, 1861, in county Norfolk, England, and is a son of Samuel and Rachel. (Butcher) Hood. Mr. Hood came to the United States as a young man, and was followed four years later by his brother, George Hood, who is now engaged in farming in Paw Paw township. Charles, Hood has always been engaged in agricultural pursuits, and he is now the owner of good land. He is a stanch Republican in politics, and his friends credit him with being an advocate of more liberal educational facilities and stringent laws governing the same. He has won the respect of his fellow citizens for his fair dealings and honest methods, and is self-made in the full sense of the term, having, from a start of nothing, accumulated the comfortable property which he now enjoys and richly deserves. On April 14, 1897, Mr. Hood was married to Miss Annie Kay, daughter of Joseph and Jennie (Sheppard) Kay, and one child has been born to this union: Max, who was born March 7, 1904. Mr. Hood is a popular member of the Gleaners, and socially no family in Paw Paw township stands higher. FRANK G. HUDSON.-The son of a druggist who passed thirtythree years of his life in the trade in Paw Paw, and himself for

Page  660 660 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY some years engaged in the same department of mercantile enterprise, Frank G. Hudson, now one of the leading retail merchants of Van Buren county, has seen a considerable amount of human suffering and been able to minister substantially to its relief. In his present mercantile enterprise, handling clothing, boots and shoes for the general trade, he is engaged in providing for the comfort of his fellow men in another way, and his services in the latter are as highly appreciated as those in the former were when he was rendering them. For in all undertakings he is faith. ful to every requirement and leaves nothing undone on his part to secure the best results for his patrons and himself. Mr. Hudson is a native of the Pacific slope, having been born in Sacramento, California, on April 22, 1857. His parents, Major G. J. and Maria (Prater) Hudson, were born in the state of New York. The father came to Michigan, and located in Alnena township, Van Buren county. He later moved to Paw Paw and in company with Mr. Kilmer, opened a drug store, the firm being known as Hudson & Kilmer, and this he kept without interruption, except during the four years of the Civil war, until his death, which occurred in 1883. His connection with the drug traqle in one locality covered a full generation of human life, and as he had fine qualifications for the business, and a stern sense of duty in the use of them, he always gave satisfaction to the patrons of his store and stood high in the regard of the community, both as a business man and a citizen. He was a major in the Third Michigan Militia when the Civil war began, and his regiment was one of the first to offer its services to the government for the defense of the Union. He was in the war four years, and although he faced death on many a hard-fought field in the sanguinary sectional strife, he escaped unharmed and was mustered out of the service at the close of the war. He and his wife were the parents of three children, all living and all residents of Michigan: Charles H., who lives at Marcellus in Cass county; Frank G., the immediate subject of these paragraphs; and Lizzie, the wife of Dr. J. C. Reynolds, whose home is in Battle Creek. Frank G. Hudson obtained a high school education in Paw Paw, and after leaving school entered the drug trade and continued his connection with it for a number of years. He then turned his attention to farming, desiring a more outdoor life, and in this interesting but exacting pursuit he passed the next twenty years of his life agreeably and profitably. At the end of that period he determined to return to merchandising, and came back to Paw Paw for the purpose. He opened a clothing and shoe store, and this he has been conducting ever since, with increasing advantage to the community and good results for himself. His store is one of the most satisfactory and popular in the county. The people find it always up-to-date in the completeness and variety of its stock, the reasonableness of its prices and the strict integrity that controls every transaction. Mr. Hudson is not an active partisan in politics, but a good citizen in attention to public affairs and the performance of his duty to the city, county, state and nation. He is an Episcopalian

Page  661 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 661 in church connection, and full of zeal for the advancement of the best interests of the community in every way. His father was very active and prominent in the Masonic fraternity, and at one time was Grand Master of the state. CHARLES C. SEARLS.-This venerable citizen of Paw Paw township, Van Buren county, who has passed the age of four score years and is now living retired from active pursuits, making his home with his son John, has been a resident of Michigan for over forty-four years, and has passed the most of them in this county. His life has been long and useful, and the people of the county esteem him highly for the genuine worth of his manhood, the services he has rendered in several lines of active effort and productiveness, for his patriotism which took him to the battlefield during our Civil war, and for his sterling, upright and estimable demeanor in all the relations of life. Mr. Searls is a native of Genesee county, New York, where his life began on March 3, 1830. He is a son of John and Hannah (Stocking) Searls, the former born in the state of New York and the latter in Connecticut. The father passed his life on a farm and cultivated it with skill and energy. Both he and his wife died in 1875.' They were the parents'of four children, all of whom lived to good old age, and two are still living, well advanced in years. These are C. C., who is eighty-one, and his brother Isaiah, who is still a resident of Genesee county, New York, and is eighty-three. Their sister Clarissa died at the age of eighty-five, and their brother Stephen D. in 1909, aged ninetyone. C. C. Searls remained on the home farm with his parents until he reached the age of thirty-seven. In 1867 he came to Michigan and located in the southern part of the state, where he, remained until 1871. In that year he changed his residence to Paw Paw, and here he has been living ever since except for some years, which he passed in Grand Rapids. In his active years he was a builder and contractor, and worked at that occupation here and in Grand Rapids, and also in other places. On July 4, 1849, Mr. Searls was married to Miss Hannah Sheppard, who died on December 31, 1909, after sixty years of peaceful domestic life and faithful devotion to the interests and welfare of her household. *She and Mr. Searls were the parents of two children: Mary, the wife of C. L. Fitch, of Grand Rapids, who has been the clerk of the United States court in that city during the last twenty-five years; and John, who is a resident and prosperous farmer of Paw Paw township, this county. C. C. Searls is a firm and faithful Democrat in political relations. He served two terms as assessor, and has been of value to the people in other ways by his fidelity in serving them and the force of his excellent example as a man and citizen. He belongs to the Grand Army of the Republic and enjoys the meetings of his post in the organization. They bring vividly to his mind the memories of the Civil war, in which he served for a time, until a serious rupture disabled him from further military duty. He enlisted in April, 1861, in Company F, Twenty-eighth Vol. II —

Page  662 662" HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY New York Volunteer Infantry, and was discharged on September 29 of the same year on account of the disability already alluded to. John Searls, the only son of C. C. and Hannah (Sheppard) Searls, was born in Byron, Genesee county, New York, on April 29, 1857. He received a high school education in Paw Paw, and when he reached the age of twenty began farming, continuing his operations in this pursuit two years. At the end of that time he joined his father in contracting and building, and in Grand Rapids had entire charge of the building operations of the firm for twelve years. In 1898 he returned to this county and bought eighty acres of good farming land in Paw Paw township. He has increased his farm by subsequent purchases until he now owns one hundred and sixty acres, on which he does general farming and raises live stock for the markets. On January 3, 1878, John Searls was united in marriage with Miss Carrie Adams, daughter of John Q. and Caroline (Tower) Adams, natives of the state of New York. The mother died in 1893 and the father in 1896. They had three children Susan, who is the wife of J. D. Benson, of North Dakota; Josephine, who has been dead a number of years; and Carrie, who is now MIrs. John Searls. She and her husband are the parents of two children: Their daughter Mary, who was born on July 8, 1888, and is now the wife of G. W. Lewis, of Grand Rapids, Michigan, and their son Charles C., who was born on July 15, 1889, and is also now a resident of Grand Rapids. Like his father, John Searls is a Democrat in his political faith and alliahee, and an energetic and effective worker for the good of his party. His occupation as a builder for a number of years deeply impressed him with the value of improvements in his community, and he has always been full of enterprise and progressiveness in helping to bring them about. He and his wife and children are very useful as citizens, and are universally esteemed by all classes of the people in their county. Stephen D. Searls, the brother of C. C., was also a highly appreciated citizen and prosperous farmer of Van Buren county for more than twenty-five years. He located in Paw Paw township in 1865, and here he owned and cultivated one hundred and six acres of land in section 22. In 1890 he sold this farm and moved to North Dakota, and from there to Spokane, Washington, where he passed the remainder of his days, dying there in 1909, at the advanced age of ninety-one years. J. B. BREED.-The Almena township citizenship is fortunate in the possession of the Breed family, of which Joshua B. Breed, a prominent gentleman, is an estimable member of society and a representative of the agricultural industry. He is one of Van Buren county's pioneers, having resided here since 1835, the year of his birth. His eyes first opened to the light of day on July 5 of the year mentioned, in the state of New York, and while he was a babe in arms his parents severed old associations in the Empire state and settled in Van Buren county, Michigan. His parents were Silas and Nancy (Bangs) Breed and their coming to this section was in

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered] J. B. BREED

Page  [unnumbered] MRS. J. B. BREED

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  663 HISTORY OF VAN BI3REN COUNTY 663 the pioneer days, when Van Buren county was original ground. It goes without saying that the first years were filled with the hardships encountered by the representative pioneers, but there was doubtless ample recompense in the wholesome life, the generous spirit of good-will which characterized the dealings of the people of the time and section. The original Breed home was at Breedsville, on the Black river. The subject's father erected a mill there (a saw-mill) which he operated for about four years, then removed to Antwerp and buying a farm there. At the latter point he resided for four years; then went to another farm and after a short time disposed of that land and took up his residence within the borders of Almena township, where his son lives now. He spent the remainder of his days here, his demise occurring in 1877. The demise of his worthy wife, the mother of the subject, was many years previous, when Mr. Breed was a little lad but four years of age. Of the five children of that union but two survive, the other being Albert T., of northern Michigan. After the death of his first wife Slias Breed was united in marriage to Mary (Jones) Miller, and the three children born to them all survive, namely: Nancy, wife of George W. Meyer; Mina, wife of Dr. Bennett, residing in northern Michigan; and Silas A. When J. B. Breed was a lad he attended the district school for two or three months out of the year, educational facilities being somewhat meagre at that time, and there being much need of his assistance in the affairs of his father's farm. He attended school until his eighteenth year and then until his majority he worked for his father. IIe then determined to establish himself upon an independent footing and for a year or two managed his father's place, subsequent to that buying a farm in Waverly township. Here he engaged successfully in farming for eight years and then came to Almena township, where he bought a farm and has ever since made his home upon it. It is very desirably situated and has been brought to a fine state of improvement by its owner. At the age of twenty-three years Mr. Breed was married, his chosen lady being Marie Clark, daughter of Thomas Clark, Sr., the date of the celebration of their marriage being the year 1858. An ideally happy life companionship was terminated in 1907 by the death of the beloved and devoted wife. Three children were born to them, two of whom are living at the present time, namely: Burdette L., who is identified with the Van Buren County Fire Insurance Company as secretary and who makes his home in Paw Paw; and Lester E., who remains at home with his father, conducting the affairs of the farm. Mr. Breed is a member of the Masons at Paw Paw and exemplifies in his own living the ideals of moral and social justice and brotherly love of that order. He is also connected with the Order of the Eastern Star, as was his wife before her death. Both were members of the Baptist church, in whose affairs Mr. Breed is still active. He gives heart and hand to the men and measures of the Republican party and at one time took a leading part in political affairs of the county. However, of recent years he has lived a retired life. He has held all of the township offices and has ever enjoyed and merited the confidence and respect of the entire com ~1 i, i

Page  664 664 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY munity. He is a man of pleasing and accommodating nature, willing and ready to do all he can for his neighbor. Mr. Breed owns one hundred and sixty acres of land in this township, his estate being an eminently valuable and well-ordered one. FRANK VAN BLARICON.-Orphaned at the age of three years by the death of his father, and with his mother in moderate circumstances so that she could not do all for her children she wished in the way of preparing them for advancement in life and providing them with opportunities for making it, Frank Van Blaricon, one of the enterprising and prosperous farmers and live stock men of Paw Paw township, Van Buren county, was thrown on his own resources early in life, and has been ever since obliged to make his own way in the world. But he has met his responsibilities courageously, and confronted all the difficulties of his progress with a determination to overcome them. Mr. Van Blaricon is a native of Wayne county, New York, where he was born on February 23, 1863. His parents were John and Margaret (Van Awken) Van Blaricon, also natives of Wayne county, New York, and both now deceased, the father having died in his native state in 1866, and the mother in this county in 1911. There were but two children born in the family, Frank and his older sister Mary, who is now the wife of William Rickerson, of Paw Paw. In 1871, when Frank was eight years old, his mother brought him to Michigan and located in Paw Paw. When he reached the age of twenty-one he bought eighty acres of land in section 27, Paw Paw township, and started a farming industry, which he conducted for a short time, then turned his attention to electrical work. He was engaged in this interesting but hazardous occupation for twelve years in Minnesota, Cleveland, Ohio, and Detroit, Michigan. In 1906 he returned to his farm, and ever since then has been profitably occupied in cultivating that, raising live stock for the general markets and operating a busy and remunerative peppermint distillery which he owns. On October 8, 1901, Mr. Van Blaricon was united in marriage with Miss Anna Paulson, a native of Sweden, the daughter of Nelson and Eleanor (Morton) Paulson, and the first born of their seven children. The others are: Mary, the wife of Fred Jarl, of St. Paul, Minnesota; John, Olaf, Albert and Jonas, all of whom are also residents of St. Paul; and Emma, whose home is in Litchfield, Meeker county, Minnesota. They are all doing well in their several occupations and giving the communities in which they live excellent examples of worthy, upright, progressive and useful citizenship. Mr. Van Blaricon is a Republican in his political allegiance and always warmly interested in the success of his party. He is a faithful worker for its welfare because he believes firmly in its principles, and not with a desire for public office of any kind, although he has filled a number of township positions at the behest of the people, and has done it in a manner creditable to himself and beneficial to the township. He has for many years been an active member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and taken great interest in the work of his lodge and the order in general.

Page  665 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 665 Prosperous in his business undertakings, zealously interested in the progress and improvement of his township and county, and performing all the duties of citizenship in an estimable manner, he has earned by his merit the general esteem in which he is held by the people and proven himself worthy of their regard in every way. He is not ostentatious in his life, but sterling in his character and every manifestation of it, and is a good representative and sturdy product of the elevated and reliable manhood of Van Buren county that has given it its high rank in the state. GEORGE H. MYHAN.-Born in this country of Irish parentage, George H. Myhan of South Haven has had the inspiration of his life from two of the most interesting countries in the world, both teeming with high examples and historical suggestions of the most impressive character. A native of Massachusetts and afterward a resident of New York, where he lived until he reached the age of thirteen, and now for nearly fifty years a factor in the industrial and civil life of Michigan, the East and West have commingled in his experience, and given him additional incentives to ambition and the effort necessary to realize all it pointed him to and promised as a reward for his endeavors. Mr. Myhan's life began in Massachusetts on April 13, 1850. Htis parents, James and Ann (O'Hara) Myhan, were born in Ireland, the former on May 1, 1815, near the city of Cork, and the latter in County Antrim on April 8, 1822. The father died in October, 1899, and the mother in 1890. They were married in Burlington, Vermont, and became the parents of nine children, six of whom are living, their son George having been the third in the order of birth, and being the only one of the lot living in this state and taking part in its activities. The father lost his parents by death in his native land when he was a boy, and when he was nine years old crossed the Atlantic in a sailing vessel to Quebec, Canada, arriving in that city in 1824, and remaining there sixteen or seventeen years. From Quebec he went to Vermont, and there he learned the tanner's trade, which later he worked at in the state of New York. In 1863 he came to Michigan and located in South Haven, where he put up one of the first tanneries erected and operated in this part of the state. He remained in the business and had personal charge of his tannery in every detail of its operation until 1890, when he retired from all active pursuits. IIe took a decided interest in public affairs, but was not allied with either of the two great political parties, always remaining independent of party connections and free from partisan preferences. George H. Myhan began his education in the schools of New York and completed it in those of South Haven. After leaving school, he learned the tanner's trade under the instruction of his father and was associated with him in business until his retirement in 1890. The son then took charge of the tannery and continued to control and manage it until 1903. In that year he was appointed postmaster of South Haven, a position which he has filled ever since, performing its duties in a way that has given the patrons of the office great satisfaction and been very creditable to himself. He

Page  666 666 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY has also been a member of the school board and tie city council of South Haven and in each of these positions has also rendered acceptable service. Mr. Myhan was married on October 31, 1880, to Miss Cora C. (rimes. She was born in Paw Paw, Michigan, and is a daughter of C. D. Grimes and P. L. (Bushnell) Grimes, who were born in Vermont and came with their parents to Michigan in 1836. These families were pioneers in the part of the state in which they settled, and when Mr. Grimes, the father of Mrs. Myhan, grew to manhood and began working at his trade as a carpenter, he found plenty of demand for his services. But he also had a farm and( cultivated it with industry and good judgment. Mr. and Mrs. Myhan have had two children, their son James, who died at the age of five years, and their daughter Ruth, who is living, and is still at home with her parents. Mr. Myhan is a Republican in his political connection, and while he cannot be called a very active partisan, he is always loyal to his party and renders it effective service. NELSON RowE.-The history of Van Buren county must of necessity remain an incomplete record of the growth of that favored section of the state, without at least a brief mention of the life and worth of Nelson Rowe, since 1855 a resident of Hartford until the time of his demise, which sad event occurred at Hartford on December 20. 1907. when the fine old pioneer had attained the patriarchal age of ninety-one years, six months and six days. Settling in Hartford when it was a (dense wilderness. Mr. Rowe was one of the few who lived to see it emerge from its pristine state into a thriving little city, and to him and his sturdy and honest effort much of thle credit for this metamorphosis is undeniably due. Nelson Rowe was the son of Daniel and Polly (Crossman) Rowe. He was born on June 14. 1816, in Cayuga county, New York, and was reared there to the age of fourteen years. When he had reached that age, his parents migrated to Oakland county, Michigan, where the father settled on a wilderness farm. Here Nelson Rowe, aided by an older brother, labored for years in hewing out of the new country a home for themselves, and in time the Rowe Ifarm became one of the beauty spots of Oakland county. It was in 1855 that Nelson Rowe came to Van Buren county and purchased the farm in southwest Hartford which was his home for so many years thereafter. As before, the farm was not a farm until the labors of Mr. Rowe reduced the forest to a goodly acreage of tillable soil. Before he might build his house, it was necessary for him to clear away a spot sufficient for that work to be done, and it goes without saying that the making of a fertile farm out of a tract of dense forest land is a task that would call forth every drop of energy, fortitude, perseverance and courage with which a man might be by nature endowed, and that only the possession of those traits in a generous degree would render such an accomplishment possible. The state of his beautiful Hartford farm at the time of his death speaks eloquently of the rugged and untiring character of the man, and will remain a monument to his unremitting labors of earlier years. Mr. Rowe was a success

Page  667 HISTORY OF VAN I1UREN COUNTY 667 ful man in the broader meaning of the word. Although he did not amass a fortune, he accumulated a fair competence, and he was always known as a liberal and generous giver to any cause conducive to the betterment of the communal life. He was a man of enterprise, and the onward march of development was never retarded by any untoward influence emanating from him; he rather aided and abetted every movement that might be calculated to result in the advancement and upbuilding of the civic life of the community. After settling in Hartford in 1855, Mr. Rowe's entire life was passed in that place, with the exception of two occasions when he made western trips, each covering a period of perhaps two years. These trips took place between the years 1859 and 1864, and were made by ox train, his passage across the plains being attended by many hardships and perilous encounters with bands of marauding Indians. Barring these two trips, his life from 1855 was confined to the home place. Mr. Rowe was twice married. His first wife was Martha Ann Sibley, the marriage occurring on October 24, 1849. His second wife was Ann E. Wood, the daughter of George and Lucretia Wood, of Keeler, Michigan. Of this latter union three children were born. They are Jay M., born April 3, 1858, and who died September 20, 1887; George U., born July 28, 1865, and Alma A., I)orn March 29, 1868, who is now the wife of Rev. Samuel H. Taylor, LL.D., of Avon, Illinois, and her mother, now seventy-four years of age, makes her home with Mrs. Taylor. George U., the only surviving son, lives on the farm which his father was instrumental in bringing to its present flourishing state, and is carrying on the good work in a manner worthy of such a man. (E()ORGE -LYSSES ROWrE.-This prosperous, progressive and repre(senltative farmer of Hartford township, Van Buren county, is a native of the township and has passed almost all his life to this time (1911) within its borders. IIe has been deeply interested in the welfare and development of the township and county and always ready and alert in his support of every worthy undertaking designed to advance their interests or promote the good of their residents. To him the locality of his home is the dearest part of the world, and lie is sedulous and energetic at all times in doing what he can to make it better and increase its prosperity, influence and importance. Mr. Rowe's life began on July 28, 1865, and he is a son of Nelson and Ann (Wood) Rowe, natives of the state of New York. Unlike his soin, the father was something of a wanderer, but not to his detriment, for he made his wanderings profitable to himself and his family. When he was a young man he came to Michigan and located at Milford in Oakland county. A few years later he (hanged his residence to Van Buren county, purchasing of B. A. ()lney the farm in Hartford township on which his son now lives. In 1850 he went to Calfornia under the influence of the gold excitement of that time. He was absent from this state some years, and during his absence traveled over all the western states. He accumulated some additional capital, and on his return to this county bought more land. He then went back to California and se

Page  668 668 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY cured about four thousand dollars in gold during his two years' stay in that state. When he again came to Michigan after his second trip to the Pacific coast he determined to remain here, and he passed the rest of his life on the farm, where he died in 1908. He also passed some time during his absence from this state in the employ of lumber boats on the Mississippi river. His widow is still living and makes her home with her daughter at Avon, Illinois They were the parents of three children, two of whom are living: George U., the subject of this review, and his sister Alma, who is the wife of Dr. Samuel Taylor, a Congregational minister who came to this country from England and was in charge of the church of his sect in Hartford some years. The other child in the Rowe family, Jay Rowe, died in 1887, at the age of twenty-nine years, passing away in Hartford township, in which the whole of his life was spent. His widow is still living in this township, but one of his two children, Nelson Vance Rowe, died in Kalamazoo in 1907. The other one who was formerly Miss Lea Rowe, is now the wife of Monroe Chatterson and resides at Three Oaks in Berrien county. They have one child, Arlo. Dr. and Mrs. Taylor have two children, their son James Rowe Taylor, and their daughter, Alice Hope Taylor. George Ulysses Rowe grew to manhood in his father's home and obtained a part of his education in the country school in the neighborhood. When he was sixteen he moved with his parents to the village of Hartford, and here he attended the high school until near his completion of its course of study, then went back to the farm, to which the family returned at that time. He was married on April 9, 1885, to Miss Jennie Eby, a daughter of George W. and Gertrude (Pierce) Eby, of Grand Rapids. Her father was a native of Canada of German parentage, they living for a time in the state of Indiana. Mr. Rowe became acquainted with his wife while she was on a visit to this county in the vicinity of his father's farm, and music was the medium, through which they came into close communion. After the return of the lady to Grand Rapids he went to that city and they were married there. Eight children have been born of their union, all of whom are living and enjoying robust health, like their parents. They are Eby D., Glorian G., Perry F., G. Nelson, Ardise L., Paul V., Lynn C. and Mary Elizabeth. All the members of the family belong to the Congregational church in Hartford. In his political views Mr. Rowe is liberal, looking always in the bestowal of his suffrage to the genuine welfare of the township and county, and not being bound by partisan considerations. In his farming he is enterprising and progressive. He owns one hundred and sixty-five acres of land in Hartford township. In his citizenship he is attentive to every public and private duty, and throughout the county he is esteemed as one of its most useful, creditable and estimable residents, and as representing in an admirable manner the best attributes of sterling American manhood. ARTHUR W. HAYDON.-The subject of this text is one of the leading agriculturists of Van Buren county and is a native son and

Page  669 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 669 scion of one of the oldest and most highly respected of its families. IHe was born here April 22, 1844, and is the younger of two children born to Philotas and Mary A. (Broughton) Haydon. He is also the only survivor. His brother, Charles B., was a volunteer soldier at the time of the Civil war and gave up his life upon the battlefield in defense of the Union. The father was a native of Montgomery county, New York, where his birth occurred in the year 1810, and he removed to Vermont when but a boy. There he was reared to young manhood and engaged in agriculture. His advantages were meagre and he was for the most part self-educated. He married in the Green Mountain state and came to Van Buren county in 1836 with his father-in-law. They purchased lands and the subject still possesses an ancient parchment deed. The first habitation was a rude log cabin and deer and wild turkeys were plentiful. For a long period everything was marketed at St. Joseph, where it was hauled with ox teams, and then Kalamazoo became the market. At that time wheat sold at forty cents a bushel. The father was a very successful man and ere he died he accumulated more than a thousand acres of land in Hamilton township. He was an old-line Whig and cast his vote for the first Republican president. He and the subject took an active part in campaigns, the father being an able speaker. Mother Haydon was a native of Vermont and was reared to young womanhood in that state. Both she and her husband died in Hamilton township and here their remains are interred. Arthur W. Haydon is an active agriculturist and one of the wellknown stock breeders of the county. He has made a specialty of Merino sheep (Registered) and for the last twenty-five years has been a breeder of Percheron horses. He received his education in the common schools and in the Kalamazoo high school, completing the full course and graduating. He received a higher education, being a member of the class of 1867 of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where he pursued a scientific course. He came home at his father's death to assume charge of the estate, and thus did not quite finish his course. He is thoroughly progressive and keeps pace with the latest discoveries in the agricultural field. Mr. Haydon was united in marriage to Mary E. Baker, their union being solemnized on October 19, 1868, and it has resulted in the birth of two children, an infant being deceased. The daughter Ione is at home with her parents. She was educated in the high school of Decatur and is a member of the graduating class of 1891. Her father's alma mater became her own and she was graduated in 1896 from the University of Michigan. She is still a student of good books, in which, as Emerson says, she finds her best companionship. Mrs. Haydon is the representative of one of the well-known families. She was born December 12, 1847, and is the daughter of Hiram and Hannah L. (Head) Baker. There were three children in her father's household, two being sons and one a daughter. Her brother Fred is one of the leading business men of Dowagiac, Michigan. Mrs. Haydon was a student in the Decatur high school. Her father, Hiram Baker, was a native of Andover, Allegany county, New York, and was an agriculturist. He was reared and

Page  670 670 ItHSTORY OF VAN 'I2REN COUNTY educated in the Empire state and caine to Michigan in 1853, Va\ Buren county being his objective point. Here he and his brother accumulated considerable property. He was a Jackson Democrat. Iis wife was a native of New York. The remains of both are interred in Keeler. When Mr. and Mrs. Haydon began life it was on the present estate and their home is known as "Shady Knoll. " They have seven hundred and forty acres, all in this township, and the fine improvements thereupon have been achieved by the subject and his wife. The former is a Republican and his first presidential vote was cast for Grant. He is a "progressive" in his ideas. Both Mr. and Mrs. IHaydon are believers in the Spiritualistic faith and meet with the society established in Hamilton township fully seventeen years ago. There are one or two meetings each year, when some of the leading lecturers of the faith appear before them. Mr. and Mrs. Haydon and their daughter are active members of the I-amilton Grange. There are seventy members. At one time there was a membership of over three hundred. The Grange Hall is located in the center of the township. Mr. and Mrs. Haydon are leading citizens and come from old and well-established families. They are held in highest esteem by all who know them and none are more worthy of recognition in this volume. The father of the subject was one of the most active Republicans in his locality and represented his people in the state legislature from 1844 to 1851, and in 1859 he held the office of state senator. -He was supervisor of the township and this office was given into his keeping as long as he would hold it. Ite was a Christian gentlemnan in act and principle and did mnuch for the furtherance of the general welfare. After the death of his first wife he married again, Miss Eliza Buck becoming his wife on October 24, 1880. A son and two daughters were born to them and the son and a daughter survive. F. Mortimer is a resident of Iamilton township, residing on the old estate and being engaged in agriculture. He married Frances Skinner. Addie M. is the wife of Dr. F. C. Williams, a resident of Syracuse, New York, and a graduate of the University of Michigan. THe is a very successful physician and surgeon. Dr. and Mrs. Williams have a son, Harold. WILrIIrM MI. TRAVER.-To create something out of nothing is held to be impossible for human power to accomplish, yet to the casual observer that is what William M. Traver, of Hartford, Van Buren county, Michigan, seems to have achieved. He was the creator and has from the start been the proprietor and motive power of the Traver Cannery in Hartford, which is one of the largest in the state. The enterprise is devoted to canning all kinds of fruits and vegetables, has a capacity of one hundred and fifty cars a season, and always has more orders than it has facilities to fill at once. The business is very extensive and active, and the cannery is a source of great benefit to the county in the employment it gives to labor, the ready market it affords for local products in its lines of raw material, and the large

Page  671 HISTORY OF VAN BLTREN CO()[NTY 671 amitount of money it keeps continually ill circulation in the comninunity in which it operates so extensively and successfully. Mr. Traver did not, however, create this big enterprise out of nothing. It is true he had no capital, in the way of money, to start with, and Fortune has never bestowed upon him any of her special favors. He began the battle of life as a poor young man forced to make his livelihood by whatever means he found available, and to work for very meager compensation while getting a start. But he had that within him which was better than money capital, and the business he has established and built up to such magnitude is the result of his native energy, capacity, strong determination to make circumstances his obedient slaves, his quickness of observation in seeing and alertness in seizing opportunities for advancement, and his persistent industry in making the most of them when he had them. Mr. Traver is a native of Hartford township, this county, and was born on August 1, 1867. He was reared on a farm and educated in the district school near his home. The circumstances of the family were such that lie was forced to begin making his o.awn living at an early age, and to do this lie entered the employ of a wholesale grocery store in a very subordinate station. IIe was attentive to his duties, soon showed unusual capacity for the Iusiness, and made himself so valuable to his employer that his advancement in the service was steady and continued. IBut this is not the whole story. Mr. Traver worked hard, lived (conomically, denied himself all unnecessary expenditures, and saved his money to aid in procuring him a better position and larger opportunities in business. IHis great aim was to have an (stablishment of his own, and he bent all his energies to securing one. He kept his eyes open, too, so that no chance for the accomplishment of his wishes, or that would help toward this, should pass him by unutilized. In time he found himself prepared to start something for himself, and the rapid development of the canning industry, together with the extensive production of fruits and vegetables in his locality, furnished him the longed for opening. HIe built his large plant in 1904, using cement or concrete blocks in the construction of the building, and equipped it with the best modern devices known to the business. IIe then began operations, and the new institution was soon found to be mutually beneficial to him and the community around him. His facilities for preserving the products of the region stimulated the old growers of fruits and vegetables to greater activity and larger plantings, and also brought many new ones into the field of production. The excellence of his output from the beginning soon brought his cannery a wide-spread reputation, and a large business. He found a rapidly increasing demand for his goods and was obliged to enlarge his facilities and augment his resources to meet the requirements of his trade, and this condition has continued to the present time, with still greater prospects for the years to come, for the trade is growing more extensive all the time. Mrr. Traver has been married three times, but his son William

Page  672 672 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY S., is his only child, the fruit of the second marriage, and is now twelve years old. The father is active in the fraternal life of his community and stands high in three of the leading benevolent societies. He belongs to Florada Masonic Lodge, No. 309, at Hartford, and also to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Knights of Pythias. His political faith and allegiance are given to the Republican party, but he has never been an active partisan. He has no desire for political prominence or public office, and his business requires all his time and attention except what is necessary for the ordinary duties of citizenship, and these he never neglects. He is zealous in helping to promote the progress and development of his township and county and contributes in any way open to him to the general and lasting welfare of their residents. In all respects he is a very estimable citizen, and is universally esteemed as such. JOSEPH LABADIE.-Although born and reared on a farm, Joseph Labadie, of Paw Paw township, Van Buren county, has not expended all his efforts in life on his own account as a farmer: He has devoted a portion of his time to other pursuits with advantage to himself, but in the main he has followed the occupation of his forefathers for many generations and has prospered in it. He has one of the finest farms in Paw Paw township. It is in the rich bottom land, and from the beginning his efforts to make it productive and profitable have succeeded admirably. Mr. Labadie knows Paw Paw township thoroughly, as he has passed the whole of his life to this time (1911) in it, and been connected with its industries in an active way from his boyhood. His life began in the township on September 22, 1867, his parents, George and Eliza (Scott) Labadie, being residents of it at the time. They were natives of the state of New York, and of English ancestry. The father was a farmer all his life from youth, and was one of the first settlers within the present limits of Van Buren county. He hewed his farm out of the wilderness, and transformed it into an attractive, valuable and well improved rural home. There were seven children born in the family, six of whom are living: George, who is a resident of Allegan county; Joseph, who is the immediate subject of this review; Kittie, who is the wife of Samuel Handle, of Porter, Midland county, Michigan; Jesse, who lives in Paw Paw; Grace, the wife of Oscar Baughter, also a resident of Paw Paw; and Thomas, whose home is in Florida. Lillie, the third child in the order of birth, died a number of years ago, making the only break in the family circle. Joseph Labadie remained at home with his parents until he reached the age of sixteen, attending the district school when he had opportunity in relief from the work on the farm, in which he made a full hand from his early youth. After leaving home he followed farming for twelve years, then turned his attention to teaming in Paw Paw, in which he was engaged until 1902. In that year he bought fifty acres of land in Almena township, which he cultivated until 1906. He then sold this tract and purchased one hundred and ten acres in section 5, Paw Paw township,

Page  673 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 673 to which he has since added twenty acres by another purchase, and he now has one of the finest and most valuable bottom land farms in the township, as has already been stated, and what it is he has made it, using its natural richness and fertility as the base of his operations, and making the most of them by intelligent and judicious cultivation. He carries on thriving industries in general farming and raising and feeding cattle for the markets. On March 3, 1894, Mr. Labadie was married to Mrs. Flora (Jacobs) Franklin, a daughter of Lucius C. and Iester Ann (Snyder) Jacobs, who came from Indiana to Michigan and located in Van Buren county. They had nine children: Flora, now Mrs. Labadie; Ella, the wife of Ernest HIungerford, of Kalamazoo county; William, who is a resident of Paw Paw; Eugene, who lives at Honor in this state; Thomas, Joln and Louis, all residents of Paw Paw; Robert, whose home is at La Porte, Indiana; and Myrtle, the wife of Guy Cooper, of North Dakota. Mrs. Labadie's first husband was William B. Franklin, of Mantua, Ohio. By her marriage with him she had one child, her son Otto C. Franklin, who is now living with hier. Since her marriage with 1Mr. Lal)adie she has become the mother of one additional child, their son Paul, who is still living at home with his parents and assisting in the work on the farm. Mr. Labadie's deep and abiding interest in the welfare of his township and county leads him to ignore partisan considerations in local public affairs and act in the bestowal of his suffrage independently. His primary purpose in reference to all public matters is to aid in promoting the best interests of the people around hin, and he always votes with this object in view and for its attainment as far as possible. He does the same with reference to all other functions of citizenship, and his independence is well known, and he is cordially esteemed for it, as h'e is for all the commnendable qualities of his sterling and elevated manhood. The people of his township and the county generally regard him as one of their most upright, reliable and representative citizens, and respect him in accordance with this judgment, which is based on intimate knowledge of him and his whole career in all the relations of life. SIMON B. POOR.-A venerable and highly respected citizen of Van Buren county is Simon B. Poor, who is known from border to border of this particularly favored section and whose career has ever been such as to warrant the trust and confidence of the business world, for he has ever conducted all transactions according to the strictest principles of honor. He is a native of the state of New York, his birth having occurred on May 5. 1827, and he is the third in a family of eight children, five of whom were sons and three daughters, born to Daniel and Malinda (Ingersoll) Poor. Of this number the subject is the only survivor. The father was a native of New York and was reared as a mellanic. He received his education in the common schools and in the Empire state married. His progenitors were worthy citizens, some having been soldiers in the Revolutionary war. In 1846 he severed old associations and came west, his destination being Keeler

Page  674 674 HISTORY OF VAN IBREN COUNTY township, Van Buren county. lie had previously purchased sixty acres in Cass county, where Dowagiac now stands, the present city of seven thousand then boasting but a few houses and two small stores. He was a Jackson Democrat and always upheld the principles of that party. The lineage of the family is traced to England. Three brothers came to America and one of them was the ancestor of the subject. The subject's mother was a native of New York; educated in the common schools and a member of the Congregational church. Both Father and Mother Poor are interred in the ild cemetery at I)owagiac. Simon 13. Poor was reared to young manhood in his native state and received his education in one of the old subscription schools.:Ie well remembers the crude forms and the text books of that day. HIe came west with his parents by stage. In those primitive timnes (leer were plentiful and he remembers an occasion upon whichll e saw a herd of nine deer on the Keeler township farm. tIartford was not in existence at that time. The closest market was St. Joseph, Michigan. Mr. Poor had taken up the trade of a blackslnitl and conducted a shop with his brother in Keeler township. They also had a shop in Iamnilton township. The first purchase of land made by him was when he bought from his father sixty acres near Dowagiac and he went in debt for the same, paying, however, one hundred dollars on the house. lie lived in a little shack, six or seven feet high and covered with rough boards, through which the rain often leaked, making it unbearable inside. ie tllought he would like to have a new house, but had no money and so he went to a Mr. Lybrooks in Dowagiac, who had a large store, and stated his case to him. I-e asked him whether he would sell him material for his house on time. Mr. Lybrooks walked the floor and considered and finally said, "Simon, it's all right. I will sell you what you want and you can pay for it when you can." The subject then visited the owner of the saw mill and made arrangements to have his lumber cut and in a short time the abode was erected. He was deeply in debt, but by the exercise of industry and thrift finally got his head above water. Mr. Poor was married June 30, 1861, Mrs. Mary E. (Higgins) Williams becoming his wife. To them were born four children, three sons and one daughter, and two of this number are living. Byron W. is a resident of San Antonio, Texas, where he is a contractor and builder. He has been successful in life, was educated in the Cassopolis high school; is a member of the Oddfellows fra.ternity, is affiliated with the Theosophical Society; and is a Socialist in political opinion. IHe taught for a time in Michigan and was professor of music at Gibbon, Nebraska. The second son, George Harold, resides upon the old homestead with his parents. He was educated in the Decatur schools, graduating from the higher department and is now a practical agriculturist and horticulturist. IHe married Miss Ada McAllister on March 28, 1905, and they have a young son, Melvin Harold. His wife was born in Van Buren county, March 4, 1880, and is a daughter of Eli and Laura (Young) McAllister, both of her parents being now deceased. Socially Mr. Poor is a member of the Knights of the Maccabees, Tent No. 113,

Page  675 HISTORY OF VAN BUIREN COU'NTY 67I) and of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, both of Decatur, Michigan. The wife of the subject is a native of DeKalb, Indiana, where she was born June 18, 1840. She is a daughter of William and Nancy (Berry) Higgins. She was a little girl, six years of age, when her parents came to Cass county and located between Cassopolis and Dowagiac. She was educated in the common schools and had the pleasure of attending the old log-cabin schoolhouse, where the logs burned in the great fire-place and the pupils sat at a long desk at the end of the building. The seats were made of puncheon, waitll holes bored through where sticks were inserted for legs. The school was supported by subscription. Mrs. Poor attended schools of this primitive character in both Indiana and Michigan. She had mnany experiences outside of the imagination of the modern g'irl. Once upon a time she saw a deer killing a rattlesnake and she lias never forgotten it. Both she aId lher husband in their younger (lays enjoyed tle old time sports and mnerry-mlakings, and attended rallys and apple-parings and quiltings. Thley well remember the great Lin:olnr rally in 1864, when AMr. -Poor made an iron wedge to go in a wagon whiich was to be drawn il tlhe procession, and some of tie ''(opperlleadls" asserted that tile we(lge split the Union. AMr. alln( Mrs. I'oor began life as younlg married people on the little farm near I)owagiac and lived there some years, before they sold out and went to reside in Dowagiac. There the subject worked for P. ). Beekwith, drill and plow-maker, for four or five years. He then caine to Van Buren county and purchased one hundred acres in south Hamilton township, and after living there six months went to Cass county. They sold the one hundred acres and then purchased one hundred and twenty acres in Volina township, Cass county. and there resided five years. He sold that and went to Volina Corners and there lived two years, working at his trade of lblacksmith. He then secured one hundred and twenty acres in Penn township and remained there eighteen years. He sold out and bought one hundred and fifty acres of fine land in Hamilton township, his present estate. IIe and his family removed to this location in 1893 and they now possess one of the finest farms in the township. Mr. Poor is an independent voter, supporting the man rather than the party. He cast his first presidential vote for Martin Van Buren. Both he and his wife are valiant friends of the public schools. They are Spiritualists and their home has been the scene of many successful seances. Mr. Riley, the well-known medium, is a great friend of the Poors. Both Mr. and Mrs. Poor are connected with the Hamilton Grange. On June 30, 1911, Mr. and Mrs. Poor celebrated their golden wedding at the Grange Hall and the members of the organization paid them every honor. They are citizens who are held in highest esteem and the record of their useful lives is well worthy of perpetuation in this History of Van Buren County, Michigan. WILLIAM H. GLEASON.-With all his energies devoted to farming in one form or another from his boyhood, and with steady progress in his struggle for advancement among men since he

Page  676 676 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY started out in life for himself, all the result of his own industry and ability, William H. Gleason, of Paw Paw township, has fully demonstrated that he is sturdy in spirit, sterling in character and self-reliant in all his undertakings. He has performed all the duties of citizenship, too, with a sole desire for the general welfare, and in continued efforts to secure the best possible state of development and improvement in every way for the locality in which he has so long lived and labored. Mr. Gleason's life began in Byron, Genesee county, New York, on January 18, 1846, and he came to Michigan in 1865, when he was nineteen years old, with his parents, Richard and Sarah (Parish) Gleason, also natives of New York state. On their arrival in this state they located on a farm in Paw Paw township, Van Buren county, and there they passed the remainder of their days. They had two children, William H. and his younger sister Ruth, who has been dead a number of years. The son has never left the home of his parents, but has added to the extent of the homestead until his farm now comprises one hundred acres. For many years he devoted himself to general farming, but he now makes a specialty of grape culture, finding his land, which is located in sections 5 and 8, Paw Paw township, especially well adapted to this line of production. He has studied his industry by reading and reflective observation in order to secure the best results, and the extent and success of his operations prove that the time he has devoted to the study has been well and wisely employed. On January 25, 1871, Mr. Gleason united himself in marriage with Miss Frances Prater, a daughter of William and Sophia (Salt) Prater, who came to Michigan and became one of the leading farmers of Van Buren county. They were the parents of eleven children, only two of whom are now living, Mrs. Gleason and her older brother George, who is also a resident of Paw Paw township in this county. The children who have died were: William, Susan, James, Maria, Elizabeth, Giles, Julia, Sophia and one who passed away in infancy. Mr. and Mrs. Gleason have one child, their son Bert, who resides in Paw Paw township and is engaged in farming and fruit growing. (See sketch of him on another page of this volume.) Mr. Gleason takes an 6arnest interest and an active part in local public affairs. His political faith and allegiance are given firmly to the Democratic party, but he has never sought or desired a public office of any kind. He is also energetic and helpful in all undertakings for the improvement of the township and county, of his home and the substantial and enduring welfare of their people. No duty of citizenship has ever been neglected by him, and all who know him esteem him for his fidelity, his sterling worth and his elevated and elevating manhood. In church connection he is a Baptist, and while not ostentatious in his church work, he is one of the leading members of the congregation to which he belongs, and one of its main reliances in all its commendable projects for the good of the people. The residents of Paw Paw township look upon him as one of their best and most

Page  677 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 677 useful and representative citizens, and he is entirely worthy of the high regard they have for him. ENOS E. HAZARD.-A native of the state of New York and of New England parentage, Enos E. Hazard, of Paw Paw township, this county, inherits the traits of a sturdy race and was trained in the industry, thrift and frugality of a section of our country renowned for these qualifications for success among its people. He has been alert in accepting his opportunities in life as they have come, and with the energy characteristic of his ancestry has been zealous in making the most of them. While his success has not been striking or spectacular, it has been steady and continued; and while he has not built his fortune to great proportions, he has made a comfortable estate for himself and his family, and has done it all by his own efforts. Mr. Hazard was born in Chenango county, New York, on October 28, 1838. His father, Charles Hazard, was born in Rhode Island, and his mother, whose maiden name was Fanny Brodrick, was a native of Massachusetts. Their son, E. E. Hazard, was the first born of their six children. Of the others, Dewayne and Sarah are deceased; Charles lives at Decatur in this county; George is a resident of Denver, Colorado; and Ella M. is the wife of William Bell, of Manteno, Illinois. At the age of fifteen E. E. Hazard accompanied his parents and the rest of the family, as it was then, to Illinois, and remained at home helping in the work on the farm until he reached the age of twenty-one. He secured a common, country school education, directed specially to preparing him for usefulness and business success as a farmer, and not looking beyond this. When he was twenty-one he took charge of the home farm in association with one of his brothers, and they cultivated it in partnership for twelve years. At the end of that period his brother retired from the arrangement, and from then until 1896 he had sole charge of the farm. In the year last named he came to Michigan and located in Van Buren county. For four years he farmed land which he rented, then, in 1900, bought the tract of eighty acres in sections 8, 4 and 5 which he now owns and lives on. Here he carries on a general farming industry, raises some cattle and makes a specialty of fruit, which he raises in abundance and fine quality. He gives his personal attention to every department of his business, and applies his best powers to each with steady regularity and commendable intelligence and skill. The result is that he has one of the best farms in the township of its size, and every feature of his work brings him in good returns. On December 30, 1868, Mr. Hazard was married to Miss Mary Bell, a daughter of David and Sarah (Cook) Bell, the former a native of Scotland and the latter of the state of New York. The father came to this country in his youth or young manhood and located in Illinois. He was a prosperous farmer there and rose to some prominence and influence in his locality. He and his wife became the parents of three children: Mary, who is now the wife of Vol. II- 4

Page  678 678 HIISTORY OF VAN BITREN COIUNTY Mr. Hazard; William, who still lives in Illinois; and Bertina, who died a number of years ago. The parents are both deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Hazard have two children, their daughters Ella S. and Mabel J., both of whom are still members of the parental family circle. The father is a Republican in his political faith and allegiance, and one of the appreciated workers for the success of his party. He has served the people of his township well and faithfully as township clerk, and has long had considerable influence among them in party councils and with reference to public affairs in general. TIe is a Presbyterian in church relations and one of the leading mlembers of the congregation to which he belongs. JLEWIS P. \\WA\.KER.-The record of Lewis P. Walker is one of signal business ability coupled with a sturdy integrity. He is at the head of a manufacturing concern which turns out lumber, hoops, hleadings, barrels, boxes and crates at Iartford, Michigan. Mr. Walker was born in Columbiana county, Ohio, February 1, 1862, the son of E. J. and Maria (Beck) Walker and the grandson of Lewis B. Walker. Lewis B. Walker went to Pennsylvania and at Brownsville, Fayette county, married Tamson H. Haynes. HIe and his wife soon after migrated to Columbiana county, Ohio, where they settled permanently and became the parents of seven children, namlely: Ely J., Mary H., two little daughters who died in infancy, Abel, Ruth and Joseph. Abel is the only one living in 1911. He is a farmer in Logan county, Kansas. Lewis B. Walker and his wife were strict adherents of the Quaker faith and leading members of the Quaker church at Winona, Ohio. Lewis P., the grandson of Lewis B. Walker, came with his parents to Van Buren county, Michigan, at the age of eight years. Iere his father built a mill three miles north of Hartford, which he operated for three years. He then moved it to the village, and continued to run it until 1883, in which year he moved it to Keeler township. He stayed there for six years and then brought the enterprise back to Hartford, and some time afterward took his son, Lewis P., into the business as a partner. Since his father's death Mr. Walker has conducted the business alone. Besides the mill, Mr. Walker owns a brick and tile plant in Hartford. On November 5, 1896, was solemnized his marriage to Miss Myrta Ray, of Hartford, and this union has since been blessed by two children, both of them now attending the public schools,-Ruth, aged fourteen, and Ray, aged ten. The Walker family attend the Methodist Episcopal church, in which Mr. Walker has served as trustee and has been active in Sunday-school work. Fraternally Mr. Walker is a member of Florada lodge, No. 309, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, and of the Order of the Eastern Star, of which his wife is also a member. IIe is also a member of Charter Oak Lodge, No. 231, of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of which lodge he was treasurer for a number of years; and of the Order of the Maccabees. Politically Mr. Walker gives his allegiance to the men and measures of the Republican party. He is a councilman and is at present the treasurer of the school board.

Page  679 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 679 DR. A. S. HASKIN.-The venerable and venerated physician of Lawrence, Dr. IHaskin, was born in Moriah, Essex county, New York, on September 15, 1827. For the first twenty years of his life he led rather an unsettled existence, beginning his wanderings at the age of one year, when his parents moved to Bridport, Addison county, Vermont. Six years later they again changed their place of residence, going this time to Brockport, Monroe county, New York. After another six years the family came west to La Grange county, Indiana, going from there to Elkhart county in 1843 and then to Cass county, Michigan, in 1848. At this time Dr. Haskin was twenty-one years of age and had had only a common-school education. When the IHaskin family settled in Cass county our subject began to work for the railroad, the Michigan Central. Iis work was near Dowagiac, which was then a populous settlement of two buildings in the business part, the boarding house and the grocery store, and had a residence section which consisted of Patrick Hamilton's house and barn, making a grand total of four structures. Dr. Haskin worked only a short time here before he became ill from overwork. During the time of the sickness his parents moved to Lagrange, then called Whitinanville, in Cass county. For a year and a half he continued to be ailing and then was able to work on the farms in the summers. For a number of years he taught school in the winters too. On April 9, 1854, lie was married to Olive, the daughter of Selah and Charity Pickett. She died on November 10, 1855, and it was then that Dr. Haskin began his medical studies in the office of Dr. William E. Clark, of Dowagiac. After spending two years in this office, he attended the medical school of the State University at Ann Arbor and then began his practice. In 1860, on December 17, he was united in marriage to the wife who is still his companion after fifty years and who has been such a help and an inspiration to him through all the vicissitudes of this changing scene-Martha Jane McKnight Haskin. When the Doctor first began to practice he was in partnership with Dr. Nelson Rowe, with whom he remained for about two years and since that partnership was dissolved he has practiced alone. It was not until Dr. Haskin was in his eighty-fourth year, in 1910, that he retired from active work in his profession and he still prescribes for some of his old patients. In the time-honored institution of Masonry Dr. Haskin has attained considerable honor. He belongs to the lodge of Lawrence and also to the Council and Chapter at the same place. He has been through the chairs in all of these degrees and several years ago was master of the lodge for one year. As long as his strength permitted he was an active worker in the lodge of Lawrence. The father of Dr. Haskin was of Scotch descent and his religious faith was embodied in the doctrine of the Baptist church. The Doctor was brought up in this church but when he became head of his own household he joined the Methodist body. He has always been a regular attendant upon religious services and one of the hardest workers in the church, where he has held the office

Page  680 680 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of trustee for a number of years. His wife, too, is one of the most faithful in carrying on the many duties which fall to those who keep up the activities of the church. It was Dr. Haskin's privilege to vote for the first Republican candidate when the party was organized and he has never varied in his allegiance to it. For a few years he held the office of coroner in the county and discharged the duties of that office in a manner satisfactory. Probably the oldest practitioner in the county, Dr. Haskin has rendered incalculable service to it; he has brought many of its leading citizens into this life and has kept as many others in it to finish their work. A doctor may not speak as freely of his work as a business man, but none the less his ministrations are known in part; they can never be wholly known. Mrs. Haskin is the oldest settler in the township, and as she and her husband wait in the bright evening of their lives the interest and the affectionate good will of all the county are theirs. Life has been full of noble work for them and it continues to be full of zest for them and a thing of gladness, and it is the hope of all who know them that they may be granted many more years and die young, before life has robbed them of one dear illusion. MRs. GRACE F. WARREN.-The ladies of the nation play a conspicuous part in the historical annals of state and county. Mrs. Grace F. Warren, subject of this review, is a woman of marked business acumen and activity. Now of Hartford township, she is a native of Lewis county, New York, her birth having occurred December 14, 1873. She is the younger of two children born to Stephen and Jennie (Lambert) Jones, there being an elder brother. This brother, Grant Jones, resides in Hartford, Michigan, is an agriculturist by vocation and is married. Stephen Jones, father of the subject, was a native of the Green Mountain state and by trade was a sawyer. He traced his progenitors to the little country of Wales. The demise of this good man occurred in the year 1873. The mother was a native of the "Land of the Lily"-Bonnie France-and was but a child when her parents immigrated to America. She has passed the greater part of her life in Michigan and is now living in Hartford, a venerable and beloved widow. Mrs. Warren, immediate subject of this review, was but a little girl when she came to Michigan and the greater part of her life has been spent in this state. She received a good practical education in the common schools of Van Buren county. She married Hugh E. Warren, a scion of one of the prominent families of Hartford township. They were wedded April 2, 1889, and there are two daughters living of the children born to this marriage. The elder, Ruby C., is a graduate from the eighth grade of the public schools and the Hartford high school and is a pianist; Pearl B. is now a student in the eighth grade. Mrs. Warren will give her daughters the benefits of an excellent educational training, fitting them for the higher walks of life. Hugh E. Warren was born in Van Buren county, August 2, 1862, and his lamentable demise occurred on January 26, 1908. He was a successful agriculturist and managed his business af

Page  681 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 681 fairs with wisdom and rare tactful administrative dealing. He received merely a common school education and demonstrated the fact that much success may follow upon strict honesty, energy and industry, wisely applied. When the young couple began life it was upon the farm upon which the family now reside. This consists of one hundred and forty acres of land, two miles from Hartford. When this was first purchased they went in debt for the major portion of it. However, with the aid and counsel of his estinable wife they succeeded. The estate is now valuable, its desirability being enhanced by its beautiful and costly buildings. There is a beautiful, modern residence, elegantly furnished, lighted by an acetylene plant and furnace-heated. All this accumulation has been accomplished through the industry and toil, as well as the economy, of Mrs. Warren and her late husband. When Mr. Warren passed away in the prime and zenith of his manhood, county and township lost a valuable citizen and the home a kind and loving father and affectionate husband. In his political affiliation Mr. Warren was a Republican and fraternally he was a member of the Modern Woodmen of America. Mrs. Warren is a member of the Royal Neighbors, the auxiliary of the Modern Woodmen of America. The deceased was well insured in both the Modern Woodmen of America and the North Western Life Insurance Company, indicative of his never-failing thoughtfulness for his family. He possessed hosts of friends. Mr. Warren's remains are interred in the Maple Hill cemetery, where the loving wife has erected a beautiful monument sacred to his memory. Mrs. Warren and her daughters occupy the beautiful estate known as Pleasant View Farm, which commands a magnificent view of the surrounding country. Their delightful home is the abode of hospitality and their many friends are perpetually extended a cordial welcome within its portals. FRANK F. CUTTER.-Left to the care of foster parents at the age of three years by the migratory life of his own father and mother, and by the man who adopted him turned over to the care of strangers when he was nine, Frank F. Cutter, of Paw Paw township, learned early in life to rely on his own resources and efforts for advancement in life, and they have been his dependence ever since. He has mingled and worked with men in many places and under widely differing circumstances, but wherever he has been and whatever he has done he has always made his own way in the world, and found himself equal to any requirement of his situation. He has encountered adversities and faced them bravely. He has succeeded in many things, and success has not disturbed him. Under all circumstances and in every condition he has gone steadily forward, the same self-reliant and resourceful man, securing none of Fortune's special favors and asking none, but making the most of his opportunities as they have come to him, whether weighted with benefits or only lightly laden. Mr. Cutter was born in Indiana, on January 28, 1856, and is a son of Robert and Harriet (Morell) Cutter, the former a native of Ireland and the latter of Indiana. The father came to the

Page  682 682 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY United States when he was eighteen years of age, and proceeded at once to Indiana, where he remained four years. At the end of that period he moved to Michigan and located for a time at Vandalia in Cass county. From this state he went to Vermont, and after a short residence in that state, came West again, taking up his residence in Nebraska, and there engaging in farming. There were three children born in the household: William A., who is now living at Marshfield, Missouri; Frank F., the subject of this sketch; and Cyle C., who is a resident of Carlisle, Indiana. When he was three years old Frank was adopted by Azel Fuller, of Vandalia, Michigan, and during the next six years made his home with the family of that gentleman, who lived on a farm which the lad helped to cultivate as much as he could. When he reached the age of nine the Fuller family moved away and he remained with the new tenants of the farm a year and a half longer. He then returned to Indiana, and there he remained until he was seventeen, attending school when he was able and doing whatever he found to do to provide for his livelihood. At the age of seventeen he moved to Nebraska, and in that state he lived two years. From Nebraska he went to White Oaks, New Mexico, where he secured employnent in the mines. While engaged in mining he was seriously crippled and unfitted for further usefulness in that laborious and hazardous occupation. He therefore determined to seek something to do above ground in a well-favored locality, and came to Van Buren county, Michigan, for the purpose. Since his arrival in this county he has followed farming mainly, but has also done considerable work in well driving. In 1889 he formed a partnership with Charles IH. Butler for carrying on a business in th'e farming implement trade in Paw Paw village. While it was interesting to Mr. Cutter, and gave some variety and spice to his life, it was not altogether agreeable to him and in 1894 the business was sold and the partnership dissolved. Mr. Cutter then decided to begin the work of his forefathers and purchased eighty acres of land, which was then heavily timbered, and began the herculean task of clearing this land and getting it into a state of cultivation. The vast amount of work which was necessary to accomplish this can scarcely be conceived, but he has demonstrated what can be accomplished, for the condition of a portion of this land which he has brought into a high state of cultivation is a wonderful evidence of what can be done in this direction. For six yvars he worked alone and unaided, but in 1910 he was joined by his son-in-law, Mr. Gilbert, as noted further on in this article. His farm comprises eighty acres and is well improved and has been skillfully cultivated ever since it came into his possession and under his intelligent care. On July 4, 1883, Mr. Cutter was united in marriage with Miss May Wilcox, a native of New York state. They have no children of their own, but have reared an adopted daughter, Martha Schoolcraft, who is now the wife of Lawrence Gilbert. Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert live with Mr. Cutter, and Mr. Gilbert gives him valuable assistance in the cultivation of the farm. The Gilberts have one

Page  683 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 683 child, their son Laurence, who was born on March 20, 1911, and is the light and life of the home. In his activity and belief in reference to public affairs Mr. Cutter is a Socialist, which necessarily precludes the probability of his being elected to a public office at this time, if he desired to have one. But he does not. He is eager to see and help to bring about such a state of affairs in county, state and nation as will do the greatest good for the greatest number, and he has no other ambition with regard to the government, local, state or national. But he is interested in the improvement of his locality and always ready to do what he can to promote it and give the genius of progress which incites its people the widest sweep and most rapid pace the circumstances will allow. He is in all respects an excellent citizen, and is universally esteemed as such wherever he is known. CHARLES AUSTIN.-The English colonists who settled America brought to the new country the ideals of liberty and enlightenment and lofty standards of public responsibility, which crystallized, in the new and trying environment, into those qualities which we proudly call typical American. Our debt to England did not end with the founding of the thirteen colonies. Continually the ranks of our best citizens receive recruits from our cousins across the sea and the race from which we sprang adds its unfailing steadfastness to our sometimes reckless tendencies. Charles Austin is one of Van Buren county's prominent men who was born about sixty miles from the greatest city in the world, London. Devonshire was his native place and the date of his birth was September 13, 1839. He was one of six children born to George and Harriet Hurst Austin and is the eldest of the three now living. His two sisters arc Mrs. Lazarus Flaherty, of Keeler, where her husband is a tinner, and Amelia, the widow of Williamn Gleason. She is the mother of one son and three daughters. George Austin, the father, was a farmer, born in Devonshire, England. In 1841 he decided to bring his family to America and after a voyage of fourteen weeks the sailing vessel in which they made the trip dropped anchor in New York. It was a grateful set of passengers who disembarked from that ship, for the voyage had been a stormy one and only the most undaunted hoped ever to come safe to port. For two years after their arrival the family remained in New York and then came west to Michigan. The father purchased two hundred and six acres of land, for six dollars an acre. At that time not only was the farm unimproved, but there was little in the way of improvement in the whole township. Charles Austin was but a child when his father died and consequently life has been a hard school for the fatherless boy, who was obliged to make his own way in the world. He got little chance to go to school but was obliged to spend the most of his time at work to make his living. The competence he has acquired is the result of his native industry and shrewdness. In all his undertakings Mr. Austin has been ably assisted by his wife, Laura L. Baylor Austin, to whom he was united on Jan

Page  684 684 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY uary 1, 1865, and who for forty-six years has been his unfailing comrade and helper. Mr. and Mrs. Austin are the proud grandparents of three granddaughters. Doris and Majorie Livermeyer, are the children of their daughter Gertrude, whose husband, Charles Livermeyer, is a prosperous farmer residing on the Austin estate. Harriet Austin is the daughter of Ludwig and Minnie Irish Austin, of Kalamazoo, Michigan. Mr. Austin is electrician for the state asylum. Mr. and Mrs. Austin reside on a fine farm of eighty acres, which provides them with an ample income and enables them to meet the advancing years without anxiety. They have met and conquered the fickle goddess Fortune, who was not always showering luck upon them. When Mr. Austin bought his first forty acres of land he worked by the month for the money to pay for it, spending five and a half years in the employ of one man. In time he sold the first forty and then bought eighty acres. The success which has been his is viewed with pleasure by all who know his sterling worth and tireless industry. Mr. Austin supports the principles and the policies of the Democratic party. He is not unknown to public office, as he has been highway commissioner of Keeler township for six years and township treasurer for two years. He has filled these posts to the satisfaction of all the people and has shown himself a man who has the public welfare at heart and works to promote it. Mrs. Austin shares in the respect and affection which are accorded to her husband, not only as his wife, but for her own many fine traits of character and for her neighborly kindness. The record of the lives of Charles and Laura Austin is one for their children to remember with pride and to emulate in their own careers. CAREY DUNHAM, manager of the Southern Michigan Fruit Association, and one of the leading business men of Lawton, has for many years been closely identified with the agricultural interests of Van Buren county, and is the owner of more than three hundred acres of valuable farming land. He has won his position in the world by his own energy, industry and good management, and has always been, since his residence in Lawton, an eager promoter of the town's prosperity by all means within his power. Mr. Dunham was born in Lawrence, Michigan, December 5, 1853, and is a son of Edwin S. and Adelia (Rood) Dunham. Mr. Dunham's parents, who were both natives of New York, came to Michigan about 1837, and settled as pioneers near the village of Plainwell. There Edwin S. Dunham, who was a minister of the Baptist church, spent the remainder of his life in preaching the Gospel, and passed away in 1900, his wife dying in 1890. They had four children: Mary, the wife of Chauncey Drury, of Lawton; Carey, of this review; and William and Silas, who are deceased. Carey Dunham received his education in the district schools, later attending graded schools, and as a young man took up farming. He first purchased forty acres of land, and so successful did he become in his operations, that at the time of his retirement from farming, in 1899, he owned three hundred

Page  685 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 685 acres, a part of which was well improved land. In the year mentioned Mr. Dunham became manager of the Southern Michigan Fruit Association, one of the largest institutions of its kind in this part of the country, which, under his skilled and experienced management had increased the scope of its operations greatly during the past ten years. Mr. Dunham is a man of more than ordinary business ability, and his many years of experience in fruit growing have made him a valuable man for the position he now holds. His reputation is that of a man of the highest business integrity, and those who have been associated with him in matters of a commercial nature will vouch for his fair dealing and sense of honor. On September 15, 1874, MRr. Dunham was married to Miss Martha Ann Barker, daughter of George and Martha Barker, both of whom are deceased, and to this union there have been born six children: Belle, who married A. G. Dawson, of Lawton; May, who is residing at home; George and Jesse, residents of Lawton; Grace, who is deceased; and Elsie, residing at home. In matters of political importance Mr. Dunham lends his support to the Republican party, and he has served his township as highway commissioner. He and his family are affiliated with the Baptist church. ROYAL R. KNAPP.-The present high place which Royal R. Knapp holds in the confidence and affection of the county can best be explained by a brief sketch of his life, for it is in the actual record of his deeds that one may best read of his unswerving honesty, kindliness and determined persistence in whatever enterprises he has ever undertaken. Born in Wayne township, Cass county, Michigan, on June 20, 1859, Royal Knapp was the son of Ezra and Alvira (Ramsey) Knapp. The father was a farmer, but at one time during his residence in Lawton he was the proprietor of a grocery business. His wife has since passed to her eternal reward, and he now makes his home with his son Royal, the immediate subject of this sketch. The boyhood of Royal R. Knapp was spent in Cass county, Michigan, where the family lived until his eighth year. At that time he came with them to Lawton and entered the Lawton public schools, which he attended until he went to work for himself. At an early age he entered the train service of the Michigan Central Railroad, and later was made clerk at Paw Paw. After that he removed to Hartford, Michigan, and for fourteen years was agent for the railroad at that place. By that time he had saved considerable money, which he determined to invest in a grocery business. Before he entered the grocery business, however, he went into the fruit trade and in that venture lost all that he had saved in twenty-five years except two hundred dollars. The spirit of the man is made apparent when it is known that he was in no wise daunted by the unfortunate outcome of his venture but rather felt that it was a challenge to renewed vigor and persistence in the next project. It is a fact that the grocery business which he then started was managed with such success that within four years' time he erected his present brick block, where he has carried on his prosperous business since 1906.

Page  686 686 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY On April 9, 1877, Mr. Knapp laid the foundations of the happy home life which has been his for so many years by his marriage on that date to Miss Eva Cushman, who has since been to him an ideal helpmeet and congenial companion. To her counsel and companionship Mr. Knapp attributes in a large measure the success of his various undertakings. They are the parents of one child, a daughter Rosa M., who has graduated from the Hartford high school, and now makes her home with her parents. Mr. Knapp has attained prominence and distinction in fraternal circles. He is a member of Florada Lodge, No. 309, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, and of Lawrence Chapter, No. 95, Royal Arch Masons, and Council No. 43, R. & S. M., and S. E. M. In the field of politics Mr. Knapp conforms to the Democratic view on national issues, but in local situations he has the broad attitude which overlooks party lines in an effort to get the greatest good for the greatest number, freely deciding what is best in every situation. GLENN S. EASTON.-Although he has lived in many places and mingled freely with the residents of them all, manifesting a cordial interest in their welfare and contributing to their advancement by every means at his command, Glenn S. Easton, of Lawrence, this county, has devoted all his years since leaving school to one line of effort, that of newspaper work, with which he has been connected in large cities and several small ones, in this state and New York. He has lived in Lawrence and been the editor and publisher of the Lawrence Times only two years. But even in that short period he has won a high place in the regard of the people as a capable and straightforward newspaper man and a wide-awake, enterprising and progressive citizen. Mr. Easton was born in Union City, Branch county, Michigan, on February 19, 1878, and is a son of the late Major D. J. and Della (Stowe) Easton, the former a native of Elmira, New York. and the latter of Coldwater, MTichigan. They were the parents of seven children, four of whom are living: Ora C.; Glenn S.; Elva, now the wife of H. R. Robedee; and Lynn. The father passed a portion of his boyhood in his native city, and was brought from there to Michigan by his parents while he was yet young. The family located in Coldwater, Branch county, this state, and there he grew to manhood and obtained a part of his education, completing it at some college in the East, from which he was graduated after a full course of academic instruction. The parents were pioneers in Branch county and took a hearty interest in the progress and development of that portion of the state. When the Civil war began the young man and future military hero of the family was living at Sturgis in St. Joseph county, and was editing the Sturgis Journal, which was published in that city. Prior to this he had shown a very strong support of the principles of the Republican party and taken a great interest in its campaigns. His zeal and fidelity in its behalf brought him a reward in the form of an appointment as internal revenue collector for the district in which he lived, and he filled the office with great

Page  687 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 687 acceptability to the government at Washington and the people of the district as well. In 1860, when the sectional war cloud became very ominous and gave unmistakable signs of bursting with fury over the country, he was impelled by his strong sense of patriotic duty to oppose the dismemberment of the Union and raised a company of volunteers for the purpose of aiding in defending it from that disaster. He went to the field as captain of his company, and remained with it to the end of the sanguinary contest, being promoted major for gallantry in battle and the capacity and faithfulness he showed in other work in the service. The regiment with which he was connected suffered severely in the war. He was severely wounded at the battle of Resaca, and in all received nine bullet wounds. He was taken prisoner and was confined in Libby prison for several months. After his discharge from the army he returned to Coldwater, and during the next two years he published the Coldwater Republican. At the end of the period mentioned he sold his interests in the Coldwater Republican and moved to Union City, where he founded and for twenty-eight years published the Union City Register. He died in the harness, working on this paper, in August, 1900, and then for one year and a half his son Glenn edited and published it. The Major was postmaster of Union City sixteen years, and represented that town in the state legislature one term. Glenn S. Easton was reared and received a high school education in Union City, a year in Albion college following, and after leaving school he took up his residence in Detroit. As he had been trained in newspaper work under the direction of his father, he determined to devote hinself to that line of endeavor. He worked on the Detroit Free Press, then on the Buffalo (New York) Daily Courier. From Buffalo he returned to Union City and took charge of his father's paper when death ended the labors of that gentleman, as has been already noted. He was connected with other papers for a time after leaving the Union Register, then for four years he published the New's at Onstead in Lenawee county. In 1909 he located at Lawrence, Van Buren county, where he has ever since been publishing the Lawrence Times. On August 17, 1910, Mr. Easton was united in marriage with Miss Lucile Hess, a daughter of S. M. and Jennie (Ridlon) Hess, of Lawrence. One child has been born of the union, Edwin Paul Easton, whose life began on August 16, 1911. Mr. Easton belongs to the Masonic fraternity and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, holding his membership in the former in the lodge at Onsted and in the latter at the one in Lawrence. He and his wife are members of the Congregational church, and in political relations he is a firm and faithful member of the Republican party. To all the duties of citizenship he is steadfastly attentive, and to every commendable enterprise for the good of his community and county he gives ardent and intelligent support, both through the columns of his paper and by his personal influence and helpful services. He is appreciated throughout the county as one of its best and most progressive citizens, and is fully deserving of *

Page  688 688 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY the rank in this respect so cheerfully and readily bestowed on him by the estimate of the people in whose service he is laboring. GEORGE MILTON HARRISON.-Doubly orphaned at the age of one year by the death of both his father and his mother, who were victims of an epidemic of spinal meningitis which raged with great violence in the city of their home in 1847, George M. Iarrison, of Paw Paw, where he has been engaged in general merchandising during the last forty-six years, passed the greater part of his boyhood under the shadow of this great bereavement, and was forced by it to begin the battle of life for himself at a very early age. Mr. Harrison was born in Kalamazoo, Michigan, on June 4, 1846, and was the last born of the thirteen children of Benjamin and Jane (Stillwell) Harrison, and one of two of them who are still living. The father was a native of Virginia, born January 21, 1799, and he died December 13, 1847, aged forty-eight years, ten months and twenty-two days, and the mother's life began in Maryland, May 12, 1804, and she died December 13, 1847, on the same day as the father, aged forty-four years, seven months and one day. They were married on February 21, 1822, and moved to Prairie Ronde, now Schoolcraft, Michigan, in 1830, and remained there four years. In October, 1834, they changed their residence to Kalamazoo, which was then called Bronson, and there they met their tragic fate, which hurried them out of the world in the prime of life and left their helpless offspring to the mercy of whatever fate might befall them. Both died in 1847, during a destructive epidemic of spinal meningitis, as has been stated, the disease being of the most violent type and sweeping hundreds of the residents of Kalamazoo and the surrounding country into their graves. The father was a millwright of skill and ability, and wrought industriously at his trade during all the years of his manhood until his untimely death. He and his wife were the parents of thirteen children: Joseph, who was born on September 6, 1822, and died in October, 1824; Sally or Sarah, who came into being on August 30, 1824, grew to womanhood, became the wife of Liberty H. Bailey, of South Haven, and died in 1868, at the age of forty-four; Nancy, whose life began on April 3, 1826, who became the wife of Walter Russell, of Decatur, this state, and who died in 1895; Benjamin, who was born on March 26, 1828, and died July 3, 1830; John Strange, whose life began on March 4, 1830, and ended in December, 1905; Emily Jane, who lived from February 5, 1832, to October, 1906, and was the wife of John Simmons, of Santa Barbara, California; IIenry, who was born on September 26, 1833, and died February 16, 1834; Lucinda, who was born on November 9, 1834, became the wife of Rufus Bigelow, of Allington township, this county, and died in 1854; Harriet, whose life extended from March 23, 1837, to 1893, and who was the wife of Joseph R. Bonebright, of Constantine, Michigan; Charlotte, who came into being on January 16, 1839, and who is still living and the wife of Rufus Bigelow, of Lawrence, this county; Arvilla, who was born on November 4, 1840, and is the wife of Jefferson Archer, of South Haven; James Madison, who was born on September 3, 1842, and died May 18, 1844; and George M., the immediate subject of this review.

Page  [unnumbered] GEORGE M. HARRISON

Page  [unnumbered] I

Page  689 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 689 At the age of fourteen Mr. Harrison took up his residence with his brother-in-law, Mr. Russell of Decatur, with whom he found a home for four years. In March, 1864, he secured a position as clerk and salesman in a general store in Constantine, with which he was connected 'for a year and a half. Then, in 1865, on October 1, he arrived in Paw Paw to take a position in the store of E. Smith & Company. From the clerkship which he then accepted and was glad to get, he rose by demonstrated merit and capacity to membership in the firm, and is now the only survivor of those who composed it when he went into it. His residence in the city and his service to the people in mercantile channels has extended over a period of forty-six years, and now all classes of the population respect him highly, and those who know him well have the most cordial esteem for him. Mr. Harrison was married July 23, 1871, to Miss H. Ella Fraley, and by this union became the father of five children, four of, whom are living: Julia H., who was born in 1874, and is the wife of Rev. A. J. Holland, of Owosso, Michigan; Jessie G., who was born in 1876, and is the wife of Thomas J. Cavanaugh, a prominent attorney of Paw Paw; Edmund S., who was born on November 30, 1877, and has his home in Paw Paw; and Besse M., who was born on May 28, 1881, and resides in Paw Paw. MIr. Harrison married a second time, April 2, 1892, being united on this occasion with Miss Maud Cornell. They have had four children, two of whom are living: Doane C., of Paw Paw, who is t. graduate of the high school; and Thomas Cavanaugh, who was born in 1901. Geraldine and Rex Milton died in infancy. The two sons who are living still have their home with their parents. Although his father was a Whig and he was reared under circumstances of strong bias toward the tenets of his father's party in political affairs, Mr. Harrison is a Democrat in his own political faith and allegiance. His religious connection is with the Baptist church, and he is one of the most loyal and serviceable members of the congregation to which he belongs. In addition to the duties of his business he takes an interest in other matters involving the welfare of his community and does his part toward promoting it in every way open to his efforts. For years he has been the vice president of the First National Bank of Paw Paw, and connected with other enterprises of value in service to the people and in helping to advance the progress and prosperity of the city and county in which he lives. CHARLES G. HALL, proprietor of the only agricultural implement establishment in the southeastern part of Van Buren county, located in the village of Lawton, and one of the most progressive and enterprising business men of his community, has resided in Lawton all of his life and is well and favorably known to its citizens. His birth occurred in Lawton September 5, 1867, and he is a son of A. J. and Mary (Lee) Hall, the former a native of New York and the latter a Southerner by birth. A. J. Hall came to Michigan when he was a lad of seven years, was educated in the district schools, and grew up on the farm of his parents in Plymouth. He was reared to agricultural pursuits,

Page  690 690 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY which he followed throughout his life and became a well known and successful farmer. He and his wife had three children: Charles G.; Hattie, who is the wife of Calvin Kinney, of Porter township; and Reed, a resident of Seattle, Washington. Charles G. Hall's education was obtained in the district schools in the vicinity of his father's farm and in the Lawton high school, which he attended for one year, and in 1891 he established himself in the restaurant business, continuing therein for one and one-half years. At this time, seeing the opportunity to better himself in a different field. Mr. Hall entered the agricultural implement business in Lawton, starting in a small way and gradually increasing his stock until lie now conducts one of the important enterprises of his section. His establishment filled a long needed want, and the farmers of this part of the county were quick to realize the advantages offered in being able to purchase their machinery close at hand instead of having to send a great distance for it or make extended trips to look over stock. Naturally Mr. Hall's business has steadily grown, and he now represents some of the leading implement houses of the country, among which may be mentioned the Syracuse and International Harvester Companies, located at Chicago, and the John Deer Plow Works and Studebaker Brothers of South Bend, Indiana. Progressive ideas, enterprising methods and faithful and conscientious work, backed by inherent business ability, have made Mr. Hall one of the substantial men of Lawton, and his honest dealings have won him the confidence and patronage of the countryside. On April 17, 1890, Mr. Hall was married to Miss Jennie Gibson, daughter of Hugh and Mary (Cummings) Gibson. Mrs. Hall's parents had the following children: Jennie; William; Mattie, married and living in Los Angeles, California; Robert, of Chicago; Fred, residing in Lawton; Maud, the wife of Mancil Hough, of Lawton; Belle, of California; and Harry, residing in Lawton. Mr. Hall is a Republican in politics, and has served for two years as township clerk and as a member of the board for three years. Fraternally he is connected with the Masons, the Knights of Pythias, the Elks and the Modern Woodmen. With his family he attends the Methodist Episcopal church. HARRY A. MARTIN.-Well educated academically for almost any calling in life, nerved by nature for arduous effort in any department of useful labor that may enlist his interest or engage his faculties, and trained to skill by continued practical experience in several lines of work, Harry A. Martin, one of the leading merchants of Lawrence, this county, and head of the firm of Martin Brothers & Company, has made good use of his endowments, acquisitions and opportunities, and given Van Buren county one of its most impressive examples of progressive citizenship. Mr. Martin is a native of this county, born in Paw Paw township. where his life began on December 2, 1865. His parents, Oscar and Henrietta (Smith) Martin, were farmers during their years of activity, and energetic and prosperous in their work. Oscar Martin was born, reared to the age of thirteen and partially educated in the state of New York. He is a son of Harry and

Page  691 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 691 Emily (Hungerford) Martin, also natives of New York, where they were married and all their offspring were born. When their son Oscar was thirteen years old they moved to Michigan and located near Paw Paw in Van Buren county, and here Oscar grew to manhood and completed his education. Here also he was married, and has passed all his subsequent years, except (luring three of the Civil war which he passed in the army. When that memorable contest burst with all its fury on our unhappy country in 1861, he enlisted in Company C, Third Michigan Cavalry, and in this company he served until late in 1864. His regiment was kept most of the time in the West, and was part of the army of General Grant for a time and afterward in that of General Rosecrans. It saw a great deal of very active service and considerable fighting of the hardest kind, and Mr. Martin took part in all its engagements with the enemy and all its other work. After his discharge from the army Mr. Martin returned to his father's home, and soon afterward was married. He and his wife became the parents of two children: Their son Harry A., tile subject of this brief memoir, and their daughter Nellie, who is still living at home with them in Lawrence, they having moved to the township of Lawrence in 1882. The father is now (1911) seventy-three years of age, and the mother is seventy years of age. Harry A. Martin remained at home with his parents until he was seventeen, working on the farm and attending school in Paw Paw township, and then moved with them to Lawrence township, where he assisted in the farm work three years longer. In 1885, after his graduation from the Lawrence high school, which occurred that year, he began teaching school in the winter and attending the State Agricultural College during the rest of the year. until he completed its full four years' course of instruction in 1889. On October 16 of that year he was united in marriage with Miss Eva C. Sheldon, a daughter of Julian and Melvina (Wallace) Sheldon, of Paw Paw township, and during the first year of his narried life he still remained on the farm with his father and worked under his direction, but continued teaching two winters more. His next move was into mercantile life, but after a trial of ten years and a half in that, as clerk in a store in Lawrence, he returned to farming. For this purpose he bought a farm in Lawrence township, which he cultivated for six years, but lived in the village of Lawrence during the whole of that period. Since the beginning of this year (1911) he and his sons have had entire ownership and control of the store in Lawrence which they are now conducting, and which they bought just before they took charge of it. They are making this one of the most complete and satisfactory mercantile establishments of its kind in the county, and rapidly building up its trade to large proportions and strengthening and widening its hold on the confidence and good will of the people throughout the surrounding country for many miles in every direction. Mr. and Mrs. Martin have had six children, all of whom are living and still members of the parental family circle. They are:

Page  692 692 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Marguerita G., who is a graduate of the Lawrence high school and the State Normal College in Kalamazoo; Rex S. and Robert D., who are also graduates of the Lawrence high school, and are now associated in business with their father; Roscoe J. and Ruth, who are attending school at present; and Wayne 0., who will begin going to school in 1912. Mr. Martin has long been prominent in the Masonic order. He belongs to Rising Sun Lodge, No. 119, at Lawrence, and served as its Worshipful Master five years. He also holds membership in a Royal Arch Chapter and a Council of Royal and Select Masters in the order, and has occupied the leading offices in each. He was High Priest of the Chapter several years, and is at this time (1911) Thrice Illustrious Master of the Council. In politics he is a Democrat, and has served as township clerk at various times, as a member of the village council, and two years as its president. He was also a member of the school board for nine years in succession. His ancestors were English, Irish and Scotch in their nationalities, and he has exhibited in his highly creditable career the best attributes of the citizenship of each of the countries from which they hailed. In Van Buren county he is regarded as a leading and thoroughly representative citizen. JOHN MARTIN KLETT.-It is always gratifying to true citizens of this Republic to note the readiness of many men, born under foreign flags, to become loyal and patriotic supporters of the United States Government when they adopt this country as their home. This can never be misconstrued as an act displaying lack of fidelity to their native land, for which they must always hold the warmest affection, but it is evidence that they are men who recognize their duty as citizens in common with the native-born of the Republic, and do not hesitate to perform it. One of these representative men now living in Keeler township, Van Buren county, served faithfully in the Union army during the Civil war, and is now living in quiet retirement, his many years of industrious labor having brought him a comfortable competence. John Martin Klett was born in Wittenberg, Germany, April 15, 1832, a son of Christopher and Katherine (Nagel) Klett. Mr. Klett has one brother, Christopher, for thirty years a wagon maker and now an agriculturist of Whitehall, Michigan, the four other children of his parents being deceased. Christopher Klett, father of John M., was a native of Wittenberg, Germany, was reared and educated in the Fatherland, and left his native country only for a short time when he made a visit to America. He and his wife both died in the old country in the faith of the Lutheran church, of which they were devout, life-long members. John Martin Klett was a young man of nineteen years when he boarded a sailing vessel from Havre, France, and six weeks later he landed at New York city, from whence he made his way to Rochester. He then located in Monroe county, New York, and for three years worked by the month, and after coming to Keeler township, Van Buren county, Michigan, he continued to be thus employed until his enlistment, December 30, 1863, in Company I,

Page  693 HISTORY OF rVAN BUREN COUNTY9 693 Nineteenth Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Infantry, which was assigned to the Twentieth Corps of the Army of the Cumberland, and he continued in the service until the close of the war. Under the command of "Fighting Joe" Hooker the regiment participated in the battles of Resaca, Carrville and Dollys Woods, at which latter battle Mr. Klett fell, badly wounded in the hip by a grape shot one inch in diameter. This shot, which was cut from his hip by the surgeon, is still in Mr. Klett's possession. He was disabled from May 25, 1864, until April 1, 1865, when he was transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, at Johnson's Island, Sandusky, Ohio, — i'ro he was kept until his honorable discharge, July 23, 1865, although he was always desirous of rejoining his regiment. For this brave and faithful service Mr. Klett now receives a pension of twenty dollars a month, although it might seem as though a grateful country could afford to reimburse its defenders to a little greater extent, especially when they have endured such suffering as fell to MIr. Klett's lot. On his return to Michigan, Mr. Klett resumed the civilian's garb, and shortly thereafter purchased seventeen acres of land in Keeler township, later adding tracts of forty and sixty acres, and during the remainder of his active life he followed agricultural pursuits, proving just as good a citizen in times of peace as he was a soldier during times of war. Politically a Republican, lie cast his first presidential vote for the Martyred President Lincoln, and lie has served as township treasurer for two years and as school director for nine years, both he and his wife being active friends of and hard workers in thle cause of education. An honored nmember of Gilbert Post, (G. A. R., at Dowagiac, Michigan, Mr. Klett has been as popular with his comrades as lie has been esteemed and respected by his fellow citizens, and in every walk of life he has proven himself an upright, law-abiding and public-spirited citizen. On February 2, 1862, Mir. Klett was married to Miss Mary Klett, in Berrien county, Michigan, she was born in Wurtemburg, Germany, July 31, 1844, and came to the United States when thirteen years of age. She is a prominent tilember of the Evangelical Association. Mr. and Mrs. Klett have been the parents of seven children, of whom six still survive. WILLIAM BENNETT.-As a sterling citizen whlo has the interest of the whole community at heart, a veteran of the great Civil war, and as one of the leading hardware merchants, a progressive and thoroughly honest business man, has William Bennett, of Hart-.ford, won the respect and friendly regard of Van Buren county. He holds high place lamong those whose industry and unselfish interest have laid the foundations of a general prosperity. Mr. Bennett was born in Columbiana county, Ohio, on August 16, 1841, the son of Samuel and Ruth (Hannum) Bennett. The father was a native of Chester county, Pennsylvania, the son of James Bennett, well known in that part of the state. Samuel Bennett and his wife were quiet, unassuming people, who lived and died in the state of Ohio. They were the parents of five children, two of whom are living at this date, 1911. Caroline became Mrs. Joshua Whinery. She died, and her husband has since remarried and become Vol. n-I6

Page  694 691 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY the father of a family. Ruth was united in marriage to Hiram Cameron, and her sister Anna married Joseph Whinery. Lee Bennett is deceased. William Bennett was raised on his father's Ohio farm, and educated in the local schools and academy. Before his school days were over the war cloud that had cast its shadow over the nation for so many years finally broke, and the country became "the North" and "the South." William Bennett at once enlisted in Company I, Nineteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, the date being in October, 1860. IIe was appointed a non-commissioned officer, and was later promoted to the rank of orderly surgeon. He was in the Army of the Cumberland and was present at twenty-three engagements. In all his active service he was never wounded and was mustered out in December, 1865. He is now the recipient of a monthly pension of seventeen dollars in recognition of his gallant and faithful service. At the close of the war Mr. Bennett returned to Ohio, and was there engaged in farming until his removal, in 1870, to Van Buren county, Michigan. In 1867 he was united in marriage to Miss Pheniah Beatty, the daughter of Mahlan Beatty. Mrs. Bennett was born in Carlton, Carroll county, Ohio, where she attended school until her eighteenth year. As a wife she has shown herself a capable helpmeet, a cheery companion and a tender mother. She was a member of the Order of Eastern Star lodge of Hartford, and of the Hartford Ladies Club, of which she was several times an office-holder. Upon his advent in Iartford, Mr. Bennett purchased a stock of hardware. He now owns his place of business, and through his careful management has achieved a large patronage. Mr. and Mrs. Bennett are the parents of two sons: Eugene B., born July 23, 1870, was educated in the public schools and later attended a business college. He married Miss Alice L. Babbolt, and has since become the father of two children, Eugene B., Jr., aged nine, and Alice L., aged six. Their mother is an Episcopalian. Eugene Bennett is a member of Florada Lodge, No. 309, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, and of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, lodge No. 544, at Benton Harbor. George W., the second Bennett son, was born in March, 1873, at Hartford, Michigan. He is both a Mason and an Elk; he married Miss Mary O'Brien, of Lansing. William Bennett is a member of Charter Oak lodge, No. 231, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, in which he is a past noble grand. He is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic and is a past commander of his post. He had the honor to be the first commander of Elsworth post. In the field of politics Mr. Bennett is found under the standard of the Republican party. He has served as village president, and as township clerk and treasurer, and for five years under the McKinley and Roosevelt administrations held to the eminent satisfaction of all the postmastership of Hartford. Mr. Bennett well deserves the esteem and affection in which he is held by all who know him. FRANK L. SPENCER.-The treasurer of Lawrence township was born in Van Buren county, Antwerp township, on December 10, 1851. His parents had been married eleven years before and had

Page  695 HIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 695 come to Michigan to begin their wedded life. The father, William 13. Spencer, was a native of Connecticut and the mother, Nancy A. Borden Spencer, of New York. There were two other children in the family besides Frank L. These are Mary, the widow of D. C. Rush, and Edith, the widow of David E. Hinman. The family resided in Antwerp township for about fifteen years and then they went to St. Joseph county, Indiana, where they lived for about twenty-four years before returning to this county. In 1875 they bought a farm in Lawrence township and lived there until they died. William Spencer passed away in January, 1891, and his wife in August, 1889. Frank Spencer attended the district school near his father's farm in St. Joseph county, Indiana, and then the graded school of New Carlisle and that of South Bend, where he was in the high school. After this he worked for his father and on New Year's day of 1874 was married to Edith E. Stryker, of Berrien county, Michigan. She was born in the state of New York on April 3, 1855, the daughter of G. C. and A. S. Chamberlain Stryker, both of New York state. Mrs. Spencer has lived in Michigan since she was ten and was educated in the district schools of Berrien county. There were three children born to her and Mr. Spencer: Albert E., born December 12, 1877, Carrie M., in 1883, and Edna L. in 1885. All attended the Lawrence schools and the girls both graduated from the high school. Edna is now a stenographer in South Bend, Indiana. The son is a member of the Independent Order of the Odd Fellows and of the Knights of the Maccabees, to both of which lodges his father belongs. In the forrer organization Frank Spencer is treasurer of the Shady Grove lodge, No. 499. In the Maccabees his tent is No. 205, and he is secretary of the lodge. In politics Mr. Spencer is a loyal Democrat and, although the township is predominantly Republican, he was elected treasurer, from which fact one may deduce the correct conclusion that he is a man of unusual personal popularity and high ability. No man stands higher in the esteem of his fellow citizens and his affable manner wins him an easy liking which closer acquaintance deepens into regard. His farm of eighty acres on sections twenty and twenty-one is a flourishing and profitable estate, conducted on modern principles and, like its owners, representative of the best of the country. EDWIN S. DouGLAS.-Although a resident of Lawrence, Michigan, only during the last seven years, and unostentatious and retiring in his life during that period, Edwin S. Douglas, now one of the prominent and successful real estate dealers in this part of the state, has won his way to a high place in the confidence and regard of the people, and has shown at every step of his progress that he is fully entitled to their faith in him and the generous manner in which they manifest it, both in patronage for his business and in esteem for his manhood and citizenship. Mr. Douglas brought to the service of his interests in this county acquisitions secured in the great Empire state, in which he was born ard reared, and with whose business he was connected in an

Page  696 696 IISTORY OF VAN BIJREN COUNTY important way for many years. He was born in Delhi, Delaware county, New York, on August 12, 1864, and is the son of Robert and Frances (Sheldon) Douglas, also natives of the state of New York, the father of Scotch ancestry and the mother descended from an English family long resident in New York state. Robert Douglas was the son of Adam and Jennie Douglas, natives of Aberdeen, Scotland, who were reared, educated and married in the old country, but came to the United States at an early date, and located in New Kingston, Delaware county, New York, where their son Robert was born, grew to manhood and was educatel, graduating at the end of his course of academic instruction from the Delaware Academy at Delhi, New York, the curriculum of which he went through from beginning to end. After his graduation from this institution, having no desire to follow in the footsteps of his ancestors for many generations in tilling tlie soil, he entered mercantile life as the proprietor of a general store, which he conducted for ten years. From general merchandising he turned to the wholesale clothing trade, with his establishment located in Albany, New York, where he remained five years carrying on an active business and winning an excellent reputation as a man and merchant. From Albany at the end of the period named he moved to Chicago, and in that city also engaged in the clothing trade, remaining until 1894. He then moved to Montague, Muskegon county, in this state, where he died the same year and where his widow died in 1898. Their son, Edwin S. Douglas, was their only child. He moved to Chicago with his parents in 1875. There he attended school until 1884, when he engaged in the real estate business. In 1904 he moved to Lawrence in this county, and here he has ever since been actively and extensively engaged in handling real estate. He is one of the best known and most esteemed men in the business in this part of the state, and his judgment is always relied on by purchasers and sellers who are familiar with his ability and his complete and accurate knowledge of properties and their values, as to which he is a widely accredited authority. He has been engaged in the handling of Michigan real estate for the past twenty years. Mr. Douglas was married on February 22, 1887, to Miss Mary M. Power, a daughter of Colonel John M. and Lydia A. Power. Colonel Power was a valiant soldier for the cause of the Union (uruing the Civil war, and won his title and military rank in that memorable contest, entering the army from New Castle, Pennsylvania, and making an excellent record in one of the hard-fighting regiments enrolled in that state. Mr. Douglas and his wife are members of the Episcopal church, holding their membership in one of the congregations in Chicago. He is a Free Mason, belonging to Rising Sun Lodge, No. 119, at Lawrence in this fraternity, and he also belongs to Chicago Lodge, No. 4, of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. His great-grandfather on his mother's side of the house was Corporal Job Sheldon in the Revolutionary war and one of the faithful soldiers who captured Major Andre, the British spy, during that struggle for liberty and independence. The grand

Page  697 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 697 t father of Mr. Douglas was also a man of prominence and influence in Delaware county, New York, where he passed the greater part of his life, and where he served as county clerk for twenty-four consecutive years. Mr. Douglas also takes an active interest in public affairs, but only in the performance of the duties of citizenship and with no aspiration toward public office or prominence in the affairs of any political party. He and his wife stand well in the county, and are regarded as most worthy, estimable and useful citizens. SILAS A. BREED.-The world instinctively and justly renders deference to the man whose success in life has been worthily achieved, who has attained a competence by honorable methods and whose high reputation is solely the result of preeminent merit. Such a man is Silas A. Breed, a prominent farmer and fruit-grower of Almena township, whose valuable and highly improved estate of one hundred and twenty acres is situated in sections 7 and 8, his pleasant residence being in the former section. His is the remarkable record of having lived on the same farm nearly all his life, to which he came as a baby two years of age. Mr. Breed is a native son of the Wolverine state, his birth having taken place in Antwerp township, Van Buren county, on December 11, 1848, his parents being Silas and Mary Ann Jones (Miller) Breed. The father was born in New Hampshire and resided until he became of age in that state. He then removed to the Empire state, where he settled and where he was married to his first wife, whose name was Nancy Bangs. They lived in New York until 1835. at which time four children had been born to them. After the birth of their son Joshua, they came to the newly opened state of Michigan, and located first at Breedsville, where the head of the house erected a mill. A few years later he removed to a point just east of Paw Paw, on the old territorial road. Iere lee rented land and resided for two years, previous to taking the Elden-Gillman farm, where he lived for five years. It was subsequent to that, that he removed to the farm upon which his son, the subject, now resides, and there tile elder gentleman passed the remainder of his days, his demise occurring on Maty 7, 1878. Three children were born to hlimi and his good wife, all of whom survive at the present time. Nancy B. is the wife of George W. Meyers and Ermine is the wife of J. II. Bennett, of Boyne City in northern Michigan, Dr. Bennett being a practicing physician and surgeon. Silas A. Breed is indebted to the district schools for his education. Within the walls of the district school-room he pursued his studies until he was in the neighborhood of twenty years old, in the meantime assisting his father in his work and becoming under his excellent tutelage familiar with farming in all its departments. Subsequently he purchased the farm for his own and as previously mentioned he has lived here ever since babyhood, every inch of it being dear to him with some association. On June 4, 1870, Mr. Breed was united in marriage to Emily Stoughton, daughter of James W. Stoughton, of Almena town

Page  698 698 HISTORY OF VAN BIJREN COUNTY ship, and to this happy union two children have been bornCharles and Glenn. The former, who lives upon the old home place and assists in its management, married Myrtle Kessler and is the father of seven children: Theo, James, Frank, La Rue, Carl, Mina and Robert. Glenn is in Kansas, where he is prominent in the automobile business. He left home when a youth of eighteen years. He is single. Mr. and Mrs. Breed are members of the Maccabees at Gobleville and both for a good many years have been members of the Waverly Free Baptist church. Mr. Breed is a trustee at the present time and for several years was clerk of the church. He is one of the most active members, assisting in every way possible in the campaign for good instituted by the church body. Mr. Breed has always voted with the Republican party and is a stalwart supporter of its policies and principles. He is held in generally high esteem and confidence and it is appropriate that in him should have been vested the responsibilities of office, he having held the offices of treasurer and township clerk. He is a man of pleasing address and it has been his successful aim and ambition to lead a true and upright life. He is, in truth, one of the most highly respected citizens of Almena township. MRs. SOPHIE KROHNE.-If the history of our county is more concerned with the deeds of its men than with those of its women, it is not because they are so much more important, but because they are of the sort which lend themselves to narrative. Van Buren county owes as much to the women who are its loyal citizens as to the masculine element of her population, and this no man will gainsay. Prominent among the women who ably conduct their estates and whose enterprise has won them the administration of the entire community is Mrs. Krohne. Westphalen, Germany, was the birthplace of Sophie Wolf Krohne as well as that of her parents, Wilhelm and Angela Rupencamp Wolf, and of her four brothers and one sister. Sophie was the fourth in the family in point of age and was born December 21, 1862. The father of this family was a butcher and a farmer who spent his life in Germany. After his death the mother decided to come to America, and accordingly she and her family sailed from Bremen to New York in 1882 and came directly to Berrien county. At present all the children except Henry reside in the state of Michigan. He lives in Kingman county, Kansas. The resources of the Wolf family were very limited when they arrived in the new country, and until her marriage Sophie worked for wages. On September 13, 1885, she was married to Henry Krohne. He, like his bride, had been born and reared in Westphalen, Germany, and had come to America in the same year. At the time of his arrival he not only had no money, but was in debt. He went to work on the farm of his uncle and then came to Van Buren county and secured employment on the farm of Mr. Gregory, one of the pioneers of the county. For ten years Mr. Krohne worked for Mr. Gregory and then he and his wife were able to purchase a home of their own. To be sure, they were obliged to go-into debt for a part of their first eighty acres, but

Page  699 HISTORY OF VAN BIUREN COUNTY 699 careful husbandry and wise management presently enabled them to pay off what they owed and to purchase an additional twenty acres. Sixty of the first tract was in Van Buren county and the remainder in Cass county. In time the small house was replaced by a pleasant modern dwelling and the "shack" by the excellent barns. The farm has grown to a place of two hundred and sixty acres, all finely improved and in prosperous condition. In the success which was his before he was called from this life in 1910 Mr. Krohne owed no little part to the wife, who had so ably aided him throughout the toilsome journey from poverty to affluence. Mr. Krohne was a Lutheran and his family are also valued members of that church. In politics he was a Republican and though not active in political life, he was genuinely interested in the public welfare. At the time of his death he was a member of the school board, for educational matters always claimed his attention. There were two sons and two daughters in the family of Sophie and Henry Krohne. John is the eldest and has received his education in this county where he now is one of the thrifty farmers. For a time he also engaged in the butcher business. On July 19, 1911, he was married to Miss Eva Rupencamp, of Council Bluffs, Iowa, where she graduated from the high school. They are members of the Lutheran church and he is a Republican in politics. The other son, William, is at home with his mother and is a practical farmer. In political views he follows the family tradition and supports the Republican party. Iouise, the elder daughter, -has completed the course of the common school and has studied music. Rosa, the youngest, is in the first year of high school. These children have received an inheritance from their honored father more valuable than the material one his industry attained for them, for he has left them a name which is a synonym of rectitude and probity. Not only for the sake of him but for their own many lofty qualities, Mrs. Krohne and her family are accorded a. place among the most highly respected people of the county. ANSON D. PEASE.-Holding a prominent and well assured place in the affairs of Almena township, Van Buren county, is Anson D. Pease, one of the representatives of the agricultural industry, which more than any other factor contributes to the unusual prosperity of this favored section of the United States. Mr. Pease was born at Eckford, Calhoun county, Michigan, on July 14, 1857. He is the son of John L. and Julia E. (Osborn) Pease. The former was born in Oneida county, New York, and was the son of John W. Pease, a native of Connecticut, who lived to the great old age of ninety-six years. The father survives at the present time, a gentleman of eighty years, still hale and hearty and greatly interested in the progress of the times. He makes his residence at Cadillac, Michigan. He is a veteran of the Civil war and his father, John W., carried a musket in the war of 1812. As previously mentioned John L. Pease was born in New York and there resided until the attainment of his majority. Then, favorably impressed with the newly opened northwest, he concluded to east his fortunes with this section and accordingly took up his

Page  700 oVV HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY residence within the borders of the state. Two years later he was followed by his father, who secured land in the vicinity of Eckford and there resided until his demise in 1879. He then removed to Wexford county, near Cadillac, and farmed there until 1901, when he retired and took up his abode in Cadillac, where he is an honored citizen. He is the father of five children, Anson D. Pease, the immediate subject of this record being the only one surviving at the present time. The boyhood of Anson D. Pease was passed in Eckford, Calhoun county. When he was about ten years of age his mother's death broke up the home and five children were left without a mother's care. The children found various homes and Anson lived in the neighborhood until he was thirty years of age, when he established an independent home by marriage. IHe has prospered in very definite manner and is now the possessor of two hundred and ninety acres of Almena township's best land. The entire tract is paid for and almost the whole of it he has gained himself. He is of that typically American product,-the self-made man. Mr. Pease was married on September 2(, 1887, the young woman to become his wife being Euphemia Crofoot, daughter of Asa Crofoot, of Almena township, a native of the state of New York and a man of considerable affairs in this township. His demise occurred some twenty-four years ago. Mr. and Mrs. Pease are the parents of two children, Roy D., aged twenty-one, holding an excellent position with the American Express Company, of Kalamazoo, Michigan; and Kyle D., aged fourteen (born August 25, 1897), a student in the public schools. The Crofoots are an eastern family. Asa Crofoot married Elenore Erkenbeck. Iis father's name was Joseph Crofoot. The subject is a Mason, belonging to Hudson Lodge, No. 325 at Gobleville and to the Chapter at Paw Paw. He is likewise affiliated with the Gleaners. He is a Republican in politics, and he has been honored by the bestowal of public office, he having served as treasurer and highway commissioner, and in an eminently satisfactory manner. HTIRAM A. COLE.-Following the migratory genius of his craft, which was almost universal in practice among its members until within a comparatively recent period, Hiram A. Cole, of Paw Paw, owner and publisher of the Paw Paw Free Press land Courier, has worked in many places at the printer's case, and had valuable experience in association with men under widely differing circumstances and conditions. Unlike the proverbial rolling stone, however, he gathered moss in the form of worldly substance as he roamed, and found himself steadily moving toward the goal of his ambition, where he is now safely anchored, and with power to work out any other aspirations he may have. Mr. Cole is a native of Kalamazoo county, where his life began on a farm on March 24, 1856. He is a son of Hiram and Ann (Shaw) Cole, natives of the state of New York who came to Michigan in 1846 and took up their residence on the farm in Kalamazoo county already alluded to as the birthplace of their

Page  701 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 701 son Hiram. After farming several years in Kalamazoo county the father moved his family to Decatur in this county, where he passed the remainder of his life actively engaged in a general law practice, serving as prosecuting attorney of Van Buren county several terms. He died in April, 1870. Iis widow survived him nearly twenty-nine years, passing away on January 1, 1899. They were the parents of three children, all of whom are living: Louise M., widow of the late E. A. Blackman, of Hillsdale county, who was a prominent journalist of this county, and widely and favorably known as such all over the state; Hiram A., the subject of these paragraphs; and Charles S., who is with his brother Hiram. Hiram A. Cole obtained a high-school education in Decatur, and then began life for himself by learning the trade of printer in the office of the Decatur Republican, of which Mr. Blackman, mentioned above, was the editor and proprietor. Mr. Cole remained with the Republican three years, then went to Battle Creek, Michigan, and there.worked on the Milichigan Triblue two years. Returning to Decatur at the end of that period, he purchased an interest in the Republican. IBut he sold this soon afterward and moved to South Bend, Indiana, where he worked on the Daily Tribune for a year and a half, winning credit for himself and giving his employers full satisfaction. By this time he had grown weary of the continuous monotony of his trade and determined to enter another line of useful endeavor. He returned again to Decatur and followed the grocery business for a year. Mercantile life was not to his taste, and he returned to the case, becoming a compositor on the Paw Pawt Free Press and Courier, with which he was connected three years. His next engagement was as foreman on the True Northerner, in which capacity he served that paper for a year and a half. There was now an opening for him in a higher department of his calling, and he promptly took advantage of it. He bought an interest in the P.It Pawr Free ]''ress and, Courier and entered into a partnership with James F. Jordan in the ownership and management of the paper. He bought Mr. Jordan out within the first year, and thus became the sole owner of the publication, which he has been ever since. The paper has a large local circulation and wields a considerable influence with the people. It is the only Democratic newspaper in the county, and always supports the principles and candidates of its party with fearless courage, impressive force and unwavering loyalty, as it acts wholly on conviction and never has occasion to dodge an issue or side-step or shuffle on any question. Mr. Cole was married on December 1, 1875, to Miss Carrie A. Neff, a daughter of Emanuel and Laurilla A. (Field) Neff, who are the parents of three children: Mrs. Cole, her brother Wallace, and her sister Mabel, now the wife of E. S. Briggs of Paw Paw. Mr. and Mrs. Cole have four children: Alberto N., who was born on June 2, 1878, and is now engaged in newspaper work in Chicago; Carlos C., who was born on August 21, 1888; and is now a teacher of Latin and Greek in the Battle Creek High School; Katharine, whose life began on July 15, 1890; and Margaret, who

Page  702 702 HIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY came into being on June 4, 1896. The two last named are still living at home with their parents. In his political faith and allegiance Mr. Cole is an uncompromising Democrat in state and national affairs. In local matters he regards always the best interests of the community, and does not allow his zeal for their promotion to be overborne by partisan considerations. But he also endeavors to have his party pursue such a course in determining its policy and selecting its candidates as will best subserve the public welfare. In fraternal circles he is something of an enthusiast, holding membership in the Masonic order, the Order of Odd Fellows, the Knights of the Maccabees and the Knights of Pythias, and taking an active part in the proceedings of his lodge in each. He is regarded on all sides as one of Van Buren county's most reliable, useful and representative citizens from every point of view. OLIVER P. KETCHUM.-The birthplace of Oliver P. Ketchum was in New England, the cradle of so much of our national history, but in Michigan he has made his home since the age of one year and he is very loyal to the section. The estate of this prominent farmer and good citizen consists of two hundred acres, advantageously situated in sections sixteen and ten, and his operations in the great basic industry have proved of very successful character. He has played a useful part in township affairs and has the distinction of being a veteran of the Civil war, having worn the blue during the conflict between the states. His military record is indeed gallant and interesting. This citizen of Almena township was born in Berkshire county. Massachusetts, on January 4, 1844, and is the son of Elihu and Abigail (Dlarling) Ketchum. Elihu was also born in the Bay state andI there was reared, educated and married. There lie and his worthy wife spent their younger days and all but one of their children were born in Massachusetts, where the head of the house was a farmer. Of their children, five are now living, as follows: A. J., who makes his home in Mason county, Michigan; Harriet, who married J. H. Stevens, of North Dakota, now deceased; Ann married Allen Gorman and is also a widow; Helen became the wife of Mr. Patterson and makes her home in the Bay state. The newly opened northwest appealed to the parents of Oliver P. Ketchurn as presenting greater opportunities for their sons and daughters and accordingly, when the subject was an infant, they severed the old associations and brought goods and chattels to Michigan. They chose Van Buren county as a location and possessed themselves of land which was new and uncleared. Their farm consisted of one hundred and sixty acres and a great part of it was covered with timber, vast labor being entailed in bringing it to a state of cultivation. Of the original tract Mr. Ketchum now owns eighty acres. There the father and mother spent the residue of their lives, the mother dying when Oliver was a lad of seven years. In course of time the father again married Casdania Clark, also of Massachusetts, becoming his second wife. The father survived until 1864. Mr. Ketchum remained beneath the parental roof-tree until

Page  703 HISTORY OF VAN BUiREN COUNTY 7)t3 1861, when the long gathering Civil war cloud broke in all its fury and the young men of the nation were called to risk and sacrifice their lives upon the battlefield. He enlisted soon after the firing of the first guns at Sumter, as a member of Company K, Thirteenth Michigan Volunteer Infantry, and saw almost four years of service. Throughout almost all of this period he was with "JUncle Billy" Sherman and was with that gallant commander on the famous march to the sea. He experienced many hardships and saw much fighting. When the war was over Mr. Ketchuin returned to Michigan and on July 14, 1866, was united in marriage to Clara Story, daughter of Thomas Story, of Pine Grove. No children have been born to this union, but in the kindness of their hearts Mr. and Mrs. Ketchum have reared a boy from babyhood and he is as their own son. This admirable young man, Mark E. Ketchurn, married Laura Emmons and they have three children, all living, who bear the names of Thomas E., Oliver R. and Mark J. Mr. Ketchum is a Mason and exemplifies in his own life those ideals of moral and social justice and brotherly love for which the order stands. His membership is with Gobleville Lodge, No. 325. tie is a tried and true Republican, and cast his maiden vote for Abraham Lincoln. IHe belongs to the Grand Army of the Republic of Gobleville, Michigan. I-e has held public office with the utmost acceptability, having been at one time highway commissioner and having given service in other capacity. In short, Mr. and Mrs. Ketchum are popular and highly esteemed citizens of the community in which for so many years their interests have been centered. DONALD F. COCHRANE.-As editor and publisher of the Hartford Day Spring and clerk of the village of Hartford. Donald F. Cochrane is in close touch with public sentiment in his locality and a leading man in giving it trend and expression. He is also directly connected with the financial interests of the community and its people, and has excellent opportunities to aid in caring for them in an intelligent and forceful way. It must be said, greatly to his credit but in perfect candor, that in both capacities he is faithful to his trust, and his services are rendered in an upright, conscientious and able manner, which makes them satisfactory to the public, and enaI)les him to maintain the hold on its confidence and regard which he long ago won. Mr. Cochrane is a native of this state, though not of Van Buren county. He was horn at York, Washtenaw county, on May 21, 1881. IHe is a son of Rev. Henry F. and Coral M. (Wray) Cochrane, the former a native of tle state of Massachusetts and the latter of Illinois. The father was a clergyman of the Baptist denomination, and was nationally prominent in the councils of his church. While living in Michigan lie was secretary of the state organization of the sect, and his fidelity to duty and pronounced ability in this position were matters of general commendation. He received an excellent education, being graduated from Union College in Schenectady, New York, and receiving the degree of LL. D. in a post-graduate course at Yale University. His theological teaching and training for the ministry was secured at the Rochester (New York) Theological Seminary, and he served for some years as pastor of the leading Baptist

Page  704 704 HISTORY OF VA. BUREN COUNTY church in that city. In the year 1879 he moved to this state and located in Detroit, subsequently holding pastorates at Ypsilanti, Centreville, St. Joseph county, and at Adrian, and in 1887 he moved his family to Van Buren county. Here he passed the remainder of his days, dying in 1895. At the time of his death he was the owner and editor of the Hartford Day Spring, having purchased it in 1898 in association with his son Donald. He was a Royal Arch degree Freemason and very devoted to the fraternity, active in its meetings and zealously and effectively serviceable in its behalf from his young manhood. Rev, Mr. Cochrane and his wife were the parents of six children, all of whom are living: Frederick, who is an extensive fruit grower in Florida; Grace, who is the wife of Rev. Mr. Clark and resides with him at Chelsea, Massachusetts; Robert W., who is in the drug business in Kalamazoo; Donald F., who succeeded the father as the owner and editor of the Hartford Day Spring; Beatrice F., who has for some years been principal of a high school in Lansing; and Everett W., who is at this time (1911) sporting editor of the Kansas City (Missouri) Journal. Donald F. Cochrane was six years old when his parents located in Van Buren county. IHe began his education in the public school at Bloomingdale, continued it at the Grand Rapids High School and completed it at Ferris College in Mecosta county. While attending the institution last named he also did editorial work in Big Rapids and Benton Harbor, Michigan. In 1898, as has been stated, in company with his father, he purchased the newspaper he now owns and publishes. This publication is an earnest advocate and defender of the principles of the Republican party, of which Mr. Cochrane is a true and loyal member, and in whose behalf he is an energetic and effective worker. But above all and before all else, the paper and its editor are ardently devoted to the welfare and improvement of Hartford township and Van Buren county. As a justice of the peace Mr. Cochrane is also able to aid in promoting the interests of his locality, and he does it with firmness and intelligence. He is a member of Florada Lodge, No. 309, in the Masonic order and zealous in the service of the fraternity. On October 12, 1902, Mr. Cochrane was married to Miss Sadie Stowe, of Bangor, Michigan. She is a graduate of the Hartford High school, and before her marriage was a teacher of considerable local celebrity. They have one child, their son Donald S., who was born on March 4, 1904. The lives of his parents have been devoted to pursuits which are educational in character, and they feel a deep interest in the intellectual improvement of the people, especially those of the rising generation. They are cordial supporters of the public school system, and make their interest in it effective by active efforts for its betterment and increased usefulness. They also stand by and befriend every agency working in the community for the moral and material good of its residents and their social enjoyment. Their citizenship is highly valued throughout the county. and in every relation of life they have shown themselves altogether worthy of the hearty regard and good will the people generally have for them.

Page  705 HISTORY OF VAN BUIREN COUNTY 705 MRS. SYRENA B. HALL.-It will not be gainsaid that one of the most highly revered and best beloved of the good people of Almena township is Mrs. Syrena B. Hall, who, crowned with years and honor, is a representative of the noble womanhood of Van Buren county. Mrs. Hall has been granted more extended life than the majority of mankind and has long passed the psalmist's allotment, being now in her ninetieth year. In her long and useful life she has indeed been proved "A noble woman, nobly planned, To warn, to comfort and command." MIrs. Hall, who is the widow of Freeman Hall, is a native of the state of New York, her birth having occurred in Otsego county on August 8, 1822. Her husband, who was the son of Joseph Hall, was born in Massachusetts. Her maiden name was Syrena Bonfoey and she was the daughter of Horace and Susanna (Smith) Bonfoey, the former the scion of one of the old families of New England,-that cradle of so much of our national history. His eyes first opened to the light. of day at Had(lam. 5Middlesex county, Connecticut. His father was Benanual Bonfoey. Whlen Mrs. Hall was a young girl thirteen years of age she came to Michigan with her parents, who had become impressed with the rich resources and opportunity of the northwest. The country was little developed then-in 1835-in fact Horace Bonfoey was one of the first settlers in Almena township, and here he and his family met the joys and sorrows peculiar to the lot of the pioneer, conquering the wild young virgin country and cutting new paths, laying them straight and clean. Mrs. Hall vividly remembers the Indians and bears and wolves which inhabited the region in abundance. Their first home was a cabin in the woods, a mnere rough shanty, in truth, but they lived in it but a short time, and then built a log cabin of more comfortable sort. Subsequently the father built the house in which the family lived for many years and in which George Brooks makes his home at the present time. The father resided in this house until his summons to the "Undiscovered Country" a good many years ago. Eight children were born into the houshold of Horace Bonfoey and his good wife, but Mrs. Hall is the only one who survives. She was the third in order of birth. When a maiden of twenty she was united in marriage to one of the young men of Almena township,-Freeman Hall, their union being celebrated on November 9, 1842. After their marriage they came to the house in which Mrs. Hall still makes her home and beneath its roof they lived together for nearly fifty years, Mr. Hall dying in 1891. Their long companionship was of the happiest and most congenial sort and although no children were born to them, they reared a number of boys and girls who might otherwise have been homeless. One of these was the son of Mrs. Hall's brother, who took the name of Frederick Hall. This estimable citizen now lives across the road from his aunt and foster-mother.

Page  706 706 0HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Mrs. Hall has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal church since her twentieth year and still retains her membership, although the weight of years precludes the possibility of her being as active as formerly. IHer influence is and long has been a real factor for good, for she has lived a Christian life in the truest sense of the word, and respect and high standing are hers. She owns two hundred and twenty acres of land, whose management she has given into other hands. JOHN C. KENNEDY. —'rominent among the honored and substantial citizenship of Almena township, Van Buren county, Michigan, is John C. Kennedy, an extensive farmer and fruit grower. Mr. Kennedy is one of those native sons of Almena township who have paid the section the highest compliment within his power by electing to remain permanently within its borders. The date of his birth was February 17, 1857, and he is the son of Newton and Mary (Williams) Kennedy. The father's birthplace was Bradford county, Pennsylvania, and he was the son of David Kennedy, probably also a native of the Keystone state. The subject's father was a young man twenty-one years of age when he came to Michigan, and he first located at Stevens' Corners, in Alnmena township. At that time this section was practically a wilderness and Mr. Kennedy remembers as a child listening to his father's tales of the days when wolves roamed this part of the country. His memory of his father's return with venison from hunting is equally vivid. The original homestead was all forest and it was his father's inonumental task to clear this and begin farming. He spent the entire remainder of his life here with the exception of one year which he and his family spent in the state of Iowa. He was not satisfied with the land there and, the old associates remaining dear to him, he came back to Michigan. Ile died in 1872 and his wife survived him for a number of years, her demise occurring in 1897. Five children were born to them, and of the number three are living at the present time. Albert makes his home at Pine Grove village in Van Buren county; Martin is a Kalamazoo county farmner and John C. is the subject of this review. John C. Kennedy received such limited education as it was his portion to secure behind a desk in the district school of Almena township. He assisted his father with the work of the farm and resided beneath the home roof until 1872. In that year he established himself upon an independent footing and took up the carpenter trade, which he followed for the space of twenty years, five years of which were passed in Gobleville. -Following this he sold out his business and bought a farm in Almena township. He remained engaged in the great basic industry of agriculture until 1905, when he retired from the more active labors of life and removed to Armstrong's Corners, where he purchased a very pretty home and where he now resides, secure in the possession of hosts of friends. An August 25, 1880, Mr. Kennedy laid the foundation of a happy household by his union with Ida Covey, daughter of Luther and Phoebe (Strong) Covey, the father a native of the Empire state and the mother of Michigan. Covey Hill, of some renown in

Page  707 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 707 Waverly township, was the place wihere Mrs. Kennedy's grandfather Covey first located, and a large tract of the surrounding country was in his possession. Fraternally MIr. Kennedy is a Mason, who exemplifies the noble principles of the order in his own living. He is also affiliated with the Knights of Pythias at (Gobleville and with the Grangers and Gleaners, insurance orders. In politics he is a Republican and in evidence of the confidence in which he is held in the community is the fact that for a number of terms he has held the offices of supervisor and township treasurer (the latter for two years) with credit to himself and honor to his constituents. His tenure of the above offices covers a period of seven consecutive years. Mr. Kennedy owns one hundred and thirty acres of Alinena township's most desirable land. Ile is widely known and it may almost be said that his circle of ac(luaintanees is co-incident with that of his friends. MIERLE II. YOUNG..-Energetic and enterprising in everything he undertakes, and well prepared for the duties of life by natural ability well dleveloped and trained in botlh academic and professional lines. Merle II. Young, present supervisor of the town of. Paw 'Paw and one of the younger lawyers of Van Buren county, living in Paw Paw, is one of tlhe mtost promising members of his profession in this part of the state, and ranks high in the estimation of the people as one of their brightest, best and most capable citizens. IIe has been at the bar only five years, but even in that short period has made his mark in his profession and won general commendation for the ability he has shown and his high character and general worth as a man. M1r. Young is a native of Paw Paw, and therefore has a special interest in its growth and development and the substantial and enduring welfare of its people. He seeks to promote these by every means at his command, applying both intelligence and energy to all public affairs, and stimulating other citizens to activity by his own. He was born on May 25, 1884, and is a son of Charles Wesley and Anna (Vanauken) Young, the former a native of Ohio and the latter of Michigan. The father came to this state and county in 1849 and took up his residence in Paw Paw township, where he has lived ever since and been engaged in business as a farmer, fruit grower and dealer in farming implements. I-e was connected officially with the State Agricultural Society for twenty-two years and its treasurer for fifteen. He has also served a number of years as supervisor and has done excellent work for his township and the county in many other ways. Ile is now living quietly in Paw lPaw at the age of sixty-eight, in the full enjoyment of his "green old age," the fruits of his many years of useful industry and the universal regard and good will of all classes of the inhabitants of the county which has had the benefits of his enterprise in business, his fidelity and ability in the public service and the stimulus of his fine example as a man and citizen. Merle H. Young is one of the two children and sons born to his parents, their offspring comprising only himself and his older brother, Dr. George F. Young, a prominent physician in active general practice at South Haven, the beautiful lake city of this county.

Page  708 708 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Merle was graduated from the Paw Paw High School at the age of eighteen, then entered the law department of the State University at Ann Arbor, from which he received his degree of LL. B. in 1906. He was at once admitted to the bar and took charge of his father's business as legal counselor and manager, and is still looking after it in that dual capacity and also enlarging his professional work by extending his general practice in the county. On April 4, 1911, he was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth Whitman, one of the four daughters of Irving A. and Caroline (Stainton) Whitman. Their other children are: Bertha, the wife of Charles Batchelder, who resides in Detroit, Michigan; Anna, who is living at home with her parents; and Sarah, the wife of Charles N. Hathaway, whose home is in Seattle, Washington. All are doing well in their several localities and exemplifying in their daily lives the lessons acquired from the teaching and examples of their parents around the family hearthstone. Mr. Young is a Republican in his political faith and allegiance, and an ardent supporter of the principles and candidates of his party in all campaigns. His fraternal affiliations are with the Masonic Order in which he is senior warden, and the Order of the Eastern Star. Mrs. Young is also a member of the latter order. In Freemasonry he has taken all the degrees in Lodge, Chapter and Council, and is an earnest worker in each. His religious connection is with the Presbyterian church, and his wife is a Christian Scientist. JEWVETT CLEVELAND.-A prominent citizen of Waverly township is Jewett Cleveland, farmer and stockman, and also a veteran of the Civil war, having served in the gallant First Michigan Cavalry during the last year of the struggle between the states. It is almost needless to say that he came from the state of New York, an unusually large number of Empire state people having assisted in the development of this section of the Wolverine state. Mr. Cleveland's well-improved place of thirty-eight acres is located in section 17 and is the scene of intelligent operations in general farming and stock raising. Jewett Cleveland was born in Oswego county, New York, April 4. 1848, and is the son of Henry and Elizabeth (Bessey) Cleveland, both natives of Saratoga Springs, New York. The father was twice married, first to Elizabeth Bessey and after her demise to her cousin Elnora. To the first union six children were horn, three of whom are living in 1911. To the second were also born six children, and of these four are living in 1911, namely: Jewett of this review, Zelon, Arthur K., and Edwin (of Kalamazoo, Michigan). Jewett Cleveland was a lad six years of age when his parents made their adieux to old associations and brought their goods and chattels to Michigan, of whose resources and advantages they had heard good report. They located in Columbia township, Van Buren county, and while growing to young manhood Jewett attended school in the winter months and worked on the farm in the summer. As was the case with the young men of his day and generation, the threatening noise of the approaching great civil ~.

Page  709 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 709 struggle disturbed the serenity of his younger days. He was very young when the Nation first went down into the "Valley of Decision, " but he was patriotic and high spirited and on February 9, 1864, at the age of seventeen years, he hearkened to his country's (all aid enlisted as a member of Company E, First Michigan Cavalry. Ile remained in service until the close of the war, being mInustered out October 9, 1865. Shortly thereafter he returned to AVan Buren county. For a number of years after the war Mr. Cleveland was engaged in farming and saw-milling and in the year 1904 he came into possession of his present farm. On July 13, 1873, he married Emma A. Salisbury, thus establishing an independent household. Mrs. Cleveland was born January 20, 1855, in Cass county, Michigan, and received her education in the schools of that county. To this union have been born four children, namely: Grace, wife of Carl Tibbitt, of Galesburg, Michigan; May, wife of John Wilson, of Galesburg; Lynn, who married Ada. Zwansig, and lives at Ottawa, Illinois; and Fay, who is single and remains at home. Mr Cleveland is a valued member of the Methodist Episcopal church of Glendale and is one of its trustees. Fraternally he is a member of Glendale Lodge, No. 408, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He has given hand and heart to the cause of the Republican party since his earliest voting days and has given excellent service as highway commissioner of his township. He has not forgotten the comrades of other days and is interested in all the "Old Boys" doings. GEORGE LANGDON.-One of Almena township, Van Buren county's. highly respected citizens and representative farmers and fruit growers is George Langdon, who, although not a native son of the Wolverine state, has resided within its boundaries since youth. His eyes first opened to the light of day in Wayne county, New York, April 23, 1855. He is the son of Henry and Phoebe (Smith) Langdon and the grandson of Ananias Langdon. Henry Langdon was also a native of the Empire state, where he was reared and married, and where he resided until summoned to the Great Beyond. He and his wife were the parents of fdur children, only one of whom is now living, namely: the subject. George Langdon was about fifteen years of age when his father died and he came to Michigan with his mother, who with her own home broken up had acepted her sister's invitation to make her home with her. They remained permanently in the state, eventually having a home of their own and beneath its roof the subject remained until his marriage. He laid the foundations of an independent household when on November 5, 1882, he was united in matrimony to Phoebe French, daughter of Warren and Sarah (Eager) French. Sarah Eager's father, Benjamin Eager, came to Michigan when it was a territory, and was one of its early pioneers and followed farming all his life. He and his wife were the parents of thirteen children. The mother dying when the youngest was a baby. The care of the family fell upon the shoulders of the older children, of whom Mrs. Langdon's mother, Sarah, was one, making her life one of extreme and Vol. n —t

Page  710 710 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY severe toil and responsibility. She and her husband, Warren Eager, lived together for many years, the husband being one year the older and his death proved so great a shock to his widow that she only survived one week. Mrs. Langdon's father was a native of Vermont and remained in the Green Mountain state until his marriage, when he and his wife took up their residence in the state of New York and later moved to Michigan and settled in Almena, where he followed farming some forty years, up to the time of his death, which occurred when he was over eighty years. HTe was a Democrat in politics and always took an active part in town affairs, holding a number of town offices, among them being that of supervisor, which office he filled for many years. Both he and his wife claimed St. Albans, Vermont, as their birthplace. Nine children were born to them, of which number six are now living, namely: Mary J., wife of Levi Brown; Henry French; Ella, wife of Wells Edgerley; Walter; Phoebe, wife of the immediate subject of the review; and Hiram T. After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Langdon located on the farm upon which they have ever since resided. This consists of ninety-four acres of excellent land, located in Almena township, and here Mr. Langdon has engaged successfully in fruit growing and general farming. Here nine sons and daughters have been born to bless the home, seven of the number now surviving. Claude is an employe in a factory in Kalamazoo, Michigan; Ralph, now at home, was engaged in farming in Idaho for five years; Ray is employed in a drug store in Grand Rapids; Frank is employed in a factory in Grand Rapids; Charlie is a student in the Paw Paw high school, and Reo and Lettie are in attendance at the country schools. Although inclined towards the men and measures of the Republican party, Mr. Langdon is liberal in his political views, casting his vote for whomever he believes to be the best man, regardless of mere partisanship. Both he and his excellent wife are members of the Maccabees at Almena and the family enjoy high standing in the community in which they are best known. Mr. Langdon's brother James wore the Union blue at the time of the Civil war. CHARLES R. AVERY.-Starting in life as a clerk and salesman in a general dry goods store, and acquiring a fondness for the business, Charles R. Avery, now one of the leading merchants of Paw Paw, has adhered to it ever since, and although he has suffered some severe losses he has on the whole made steady advances to his present high standing in business circles, and shown at all times a spirit of determination to win his way in spite of every obstacle and over every difficulty. Mr. Avery is a native of Paw Paw, and was born on Septemlber 10, 1842. He is a son of Richardson and Sarah A. (Lurmbard) Avery, the former born in Jefferson county, New York, and the latter in Pawlet, Rutland county, Vermont. The father came to Michigan in 1840 and located in Paw Paw after a short residence in Detroit, during which he faced all the horrors of the great epidemic of cholera of the early days in that city that was fatal to so

Page  711 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 711 many persons but left him unharmed. IIe was a carpenter and joiner, and wrought at his trade until his death, which occurred in Paw Paw in 1875. The mother lived to be eighty-three years of age, surviving her husband a long time. They had four children, of whomn Charles R. is the only one living. The third and fourth in the order of birth passed away in infancy. The second son, Fred E., grew to manhood and was in business as a merchant for some years in Paw Paw. He died some years ago, generally esteemed for his excellent business traits and his general worth as a iman and citizen. Charles R. Avery obtained a high school education in Paw Paw. IIe left school in 1859, and in 1860 entered the employ of E. Smith and Company, a general dry goods firm of Paw Paw, with whom he remained ten years, by his capacity and faithful attention to duty acquiring an interest in the business, which covered the last few years of his connection with the house. But he was eager to have an establishment of his own, or a larger interest in one than he possessed in that of Mr. Smith. Accordingly, in 1870 he formed a partnership with his brother Fred, and together they opened a general merchandising store, which they conducted under the firm name of C. R. and F. E. Avery until 1877. In that year C. R. sold his interest in the business to his brother and started a new store of his own, of which he is still in charge. IIe started his separate store in a building which he rented for the purpose, and in 1880 had his stock of goods entirely destroyed by a disastrous fire. Not disheartened by this calamity, he kept on trading, and in 1890, or soon afterward, bought the commodious and substantial building of brick in which his store is now located, and in which it has ever since been carried on. His business ability and studious attention to the wants of the community brought him prosperity, increased his popularity as a merchant and strengthened his hold on the confidence and esteem of the people. In addition to his store building and stock of merchandise he owns an attractive and valuable residence and other property. On June 12, 1865, Mr. Avery was married at Jackson, Michigan, to Miss Flora A. Kemble, a daughter of A. C. and Ermeline Kemnble, of that city. Three children have been born of this union: Nettie, who died in infancy; Bernetta, who died at the age of eleven years; and Frank, who is associated in business with his father. The father is a Democrat in his political faith and allegiance, and while not strictly an active partisan, has always been loyal to his party and zealous in its service. He has taken a cordial interest in the affairs of the village, too, independently of political considerations, serving it well and wisely as president, trustee and treasurer. His fraternal connection is with the Knights of the Maccabees, and his religious affiliation with the Presbyterian church. These organizations enlist his hearty support, and all their affairs receive his energetic and helpful attention. Ite is ardent also in his zeal in behalf of all worthy undertakings for the good of the people and all the mental and moral agencies at work among them.

Page  712 71 '2 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY DR. ROBERT R. LAWRENCE.-Probably the most useful, and certainly the most comforting to mankind, of all the professions among men is the science of medicine and surgery, and its practitioners deserve, and usually secure, the universal regard and good will of the people among whom they labor. They are called upon for service at any hour of the day or night, in any rigor of the seasons, and under any pressure of other engagements; and as a rule they respond to all calls as promptly as possible, no matter what the personal sacrifice or inconvenience, or even hardship to themselves. They devote their lives and energies to the welfare of their fellow men, and the rewards for their fidelity are seldom commensurate with the value of their services in a material way. But the people who are their beneficiaries always hold them in high esteem, and in many cases give them great and lasting popularity. Dr. Robert R. Lawrence, of Hartford, furnishes in his useful career an impressive illustration of these facts. He has lived in Hartford thirty years and during the whole of that period has been actively engaged in an extensive and very exacting practice of his profession. The people have found him capable and skillful, attentive to their needs in his line of work, abreast with his calling in knowledge of his teachings and very judicious in the practical application of that knowledge; and they have bestowed on him the full measure of their approval and popular esteem. The Doctor was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on July 28, 1851, and is a son of Daniel T. and Jane (Crawford) Lawrence, the former a native of Canada and the latter of Warren county, Ohio. The father was captain of a river boat on the Ohio river and became acquainted with the lady whom he made his wife in Cincinnati. It seems to have been a case of love at first sight, for they were married after a short companionship, and a little later located in Jennings county, Indiana. From there they moved to Berrien county, Michigan, settling on a farm on which they passed the remainder of their lives. That of the mother ended in 1883, and that of the father in 1886, each having reached a good old age. They were devoted to their home and its duties, and gave the greater part of their attention to the rearing and education of their children, nine being born to them, four of whom are living: Judith, who is the wife of John Osborne, of Benton Harbor, this state; John C., who is also a resident of that city; Hadassah, now the wife of John Withey and a resident of Los Gatos, California; and the Doctor. The father was a man of fine education and excellent business capacity. He was also a man of the strictest moral rectitude, and was impelled in everything he did by a strong sense of duty. This made him industrious in his affairs, and his careful management of them enabled him to accumulate a competence for the benefit of his offspring, as well as for the enjoyment of himself and his wife in their declining years. Dr. Lawrence was reared on the farm in Berrien county, and began his education in the Union school in Benton Harbor. Having completed its full course of instruction, he entered the University of Michigan in 1871, becoming a student in the medical department and, in due course received his degree of M. D., in 1875. I-e

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Page  713 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 713 at once located at Watervliet, Michigan, and for six years was engaged in an active practice as a physician and surgeon at that place. In 1881 he came to Hartford as surgeon for the Chicago & West Michigan Railroad Company, and in that capacity he is now serving that highway of travel and great public convenience, the Pere Marquette. He has not, however, confined his professional work to the requirements of the railroad, but has been occupied in a large general practice throughout the county of Van Buren and portions of those which adjoin it. tIe has been successful in a material way as well as in his profession, being interested in farming. a stockholder in one of the banks of the city, and tle owner of other property of value. Dr. Lawrence was married on 1larch 24, 1876, to Aliss Carrie B. Merrifield, of Coloma, Berrien county. where she was born and reared. She is a highly accomplished and cultivated lady. weil versed in literature, with fine natural al ilitv well developed )by the most careful training. Although she and the I)octor have no children, Mrs. Lawrence is devoted to her home. and takes delight in making it an agreeable resort for her own andt the Doctor's nu(Ier(Ius friends and acquaintancees. The Doctor is a memnber of Floradia.Iasonic Lodge. No.:309, at Hartford, and also takes great interest in the organizations formed in and devoted to the welfare of his profession. He was formerly vice president of the International Association of Railroad Surgeons, and is an active and serviceable member of the American Medical Association. I-e has written for publication several brochures and a number of articles on medicine and surgery, which have been received with high approval. His political faith and services are given to the Republican party, to which he is earnestly devoted, but the only political, or semi-political, office he has ever held is that of secretary of the local pension board,'which lie is now filling and has filled for many years. M. L. DECKER.-In1 the forty-nine years of his life M. L. l)ecker, of Paw Paw, has dwelt and been in business in three states of the American Union and the city of Quebec, Canada. Ele has been occupied in several lines of trade, filled a number of public offices and suffered some reverses in his undertakings. Iis experience has therefore been extensive and varied, and of a character to broaden and develop him in capacity, make him firml in fiber an(d flexible in function, and give him an excellent and useful knowledge of human nature, evolving himi into the intelligent, influential and serviceable citizen he is and has long been known to be. He has traveled extensively, has made ten trips across the continent to California and on these trips has covered most of the western states ald New Mexico and Arizona. Some of his journeys have been made in the interest of fruit growers, but after an extended investigation he returned to his home county firmly convinced that the richest and most adaptable land for fruit culture anywhere in the United States was located in Van Buren county. Mr. Decker is a native of Ohio and was born on August 28, 1862. His parents were Absalom and Sarah (Rees) Decker, the former born in Pennsylvania and the latter in Wales. The father was a

Page  714 714 HISTORY OF VAN BULTREN COUNTY wagon maker and blacksmith for a number of years, then turned his attention to farming, in which he was engaged to the end of his life, which came when he was about fifty-eight years old. The mother died at the age of thirty-seven. They prospered in life, and when the father died he owned a fine farm of one hundred and sixty acres, which showed by its improved condition and high state of cultivation that he had been attentive to his work and performed it with energy, skill and intelligence, according to the most approved methods of his time. They had eight children, of whom but two are living, M. L. and his older brother Elmer W., who is a resident of Grand Rapids in this state. The children who have died were: Mary, wife of E. A. Whitney, of Tacoma, Washington; Wilbur, who lived at Grand Rapids; Naomi, wife of William Long, of Coldwater, Michigan; Horace, whose home was at Grand Rapids; Leora, wife of M. M. Marshall, of Bowling Green, Ohio; and Alice, wife of G. A. Bates, of Denver, Colorado. At the age of eighteen M. L. Decker started in business as a grocer at Deshler, Ohio, where he did a very successful business. He was later engaged for a time in buying lumber in Quebec, Canada, for parties residing in Deshler. He followed the insurance business two years in Iowa. At the end of that period he moved to Michigan, locating in Bloomingdale, this county, where he was in the drug trade six years. The taste he had of the West gave him an appetite for more of it and a region farther removed from his boyhood's home, and to gratify this desire he moved to Colorado. He was engaged in merchandising in that state for a year, and then returned to Bloomingdale. But at the end of another year he changed his residence to Lacota, Van Buren county, where he was destined to remain for a time. Soon after his removal to Lacota he was appointed postmaster of the village, a position which he held for nine years, conducting the office in a drug store which he owned and managed. HTe rose to prominence among the people of the township and was chosen to serve them as township clerk six years and as supervisor three years. He was a member of the county board of supervisors when the court house was built in Paw Paw. He was also a member of the Republican County Committee for nine years. He was elected register of deeds in 1902, being the first to occupy this office in the new court house, and then moved to Paw Paw. In the second year of his residence here he was chosen president of the village. Within the year of his removal to Paw Paw he bought the general merchandising store of Longwell Brothers, which he afterward sold to A. C. Martin. But he bought it back again, and then sold all of the goods but those in the drug department, with which he started an independent drug business and this he is still carrying on in connection with his partner, E. M. Bailey, who has been associated with him three years, and a sketch of whom will be found in this work. The firm is widely known as one of the most reliable in the county, handling only the best and purest drugs, compounding them with the utmost care and skill, dealing squarely with all patrons, and representing the most desirable traits of first rate business men and the most modern methods of doing business. In addition

Page  715 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 715 to the drug business, Mr. Decker also carries on a real estate business. In December, 1887, Mr. Decker was married to Miss Mina Eaton, a daughter of Hon. R. C. Eaton. Mrs. Decker's father was a member of the state legislature for a number of years. She and her husband have two children: Royal E., who completed his education with a two years' course in college, and is now deputy county clerk; and Verne C., who is still living at home with his parents. The father is a Republican in his political faith and allegiance, and has always been loyal to his party and done all that good citizenship required for its advancement in progress and success in its campaigns. In fraternal circles he is connected witil the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias and the Knights of the Maccabees. His religious affiliation is with the Baptist church, in which he takes an active and serviceable interest at all times. He has always been earnest and zealous in behalf of all public improvements for the city and county of his home, and has applied his efforts with intelligence and good judgment. Van Buren county has no better citizen, none more enterprising and public spirited, and none whom the people hold in higher esteem. Mr. Decker says that although he has traveled extensively, in no place did he find more congenial people than in the village of Paw Paw. ED. M. BAILEY, one of the leading business men of Paw Paw, and the junior member of the firm of Decker & Bailey, druggists, has passed the whole of his life to this time (1911) in Michigan, and during all the years of his maturity has contributed substantially and valuably to the mercantile and social influence of the state and the direction of its public affairs through his influence and activity in the locality of his home. His partner in his present business enterprise is M. L. Decker, a sketch of whose life will be found in this volume. Mr. Bailey was born in Hastings, Barry county, on October 6, 1868, and is a son of Norman and Rachel (Aldrich) Bailey, the former born in Cayuga county, New York, and the latter in Michigan. The father came to Michigan in 1845 and located in Grand Rapids. During the Civil war he was provost marshal and served the government faithfully and effectively until the close of the momentous conflict. In 1866 he moved to Hastings, and there he was engaged in merchandising until his death, which occurred when he was seventy-six years of age. The mother is still living and has her home in Grand Rapids. They were the parents of three children: Emma, who was the wife of Daniel Donohue, of Hastings, but is now deceased; Ernest A., who resides in Grand Rapids; and Ed. M. The last named, who is the immediate subject of tkese paragraphs, was graduated from the high school at Hastings in 1886 and after a course of two years' instruction at Ann Arbor College, received his diploma in 1890. After leaving school he became connected with the drug business in Otsego, and was engaged in it in that city for two years and a half. From Otsego he moved to Michigan City, where he carried on the same line

Page  716 716 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of trade three years. He next passed twelve years as the leading druggist and general merchant of Gobleville, and in addition to this he was engaged in the manufacture of lumber and in the buying and shipping of live stock. He was later at Mattawan and Bradley, having drug stores at both places. In 1908 he moved to Paw Paw, and directly after his arrival and location in the city, formed a partnership with M. L. Decker for conducting a real estate and drug business. In these enterprises he is still actively and profitably engaged, and, although he has resided in the city but three years, he has fully won the confidence and esteem of the people as a business man and citizen, and holds a high rank in mercantile circles throughout Van Buren county and a large extent of the surrounding country. On June 21, 1893, Mr. Bailey was united in marriage with Miss Nellie Bush, a daughter of George A. and Lucy (Palmer) Bush, and a native of Gobleville. Of the seven children born of this union six are living: Cyril E., George A., Norman, Carl, Rachel L. and Gertrude. The last born of the seven, Joy Valentine. died at the age of one year. Otherwise the family circle is unbroken. as all the living children are still members of it, and add life and light to their parental home. Mr. Bailey is a Republican in political belief and adherence. and has never wavered in his loyalty to his party, or withheld any service he has been able to render it. IIe is a member of the Masonic fraternity, the Order of Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias, the Knights of the Maccabees, the Woodmen and the Order of Elks. Hte and his wife divide their religious affiliation between the Baptist and the Episcopal churches, he belonging to one and she to the other, and both are true to their church duties. as they are to every interest of their community, and helpful to all good agencies at work among its people. ADAM BEACH.-Farming, the oldest of the industries, has a successful and well and favorably known representative in Waverly township in the person of Adam Beach, who engages in general farming and stock-raising, his land being located in sections 16 and 21, forty acres being in the former and twenty in the latter. Mr. Beach was born in Hancock county, Ohio, on October 6. 1867. and is the son of Tobias and Eliza (Bame) Beach. He is of German descent, his father having been born in the Fatherland, in February, 1837. He came to the conclusion to seek the wider opportunity presented by the new world and crossed the Atlantic when but eighteen years of age. In course of time he found his way to Hancock county, Ohio, where he located. His wife was a native of Springfield, Ohio. In 1878 the elder Mr. and Mrs. Beach came with their family to Michigan, where they encountered good fortunes and where they are now living, their residence being maintained in Waverly township, where they enjoy general esteem. They became the parents of a family of seven children, all of whom are living (in 1911); Catherine is the wife of James Steinman, of Bloomingdale township; John W.. who married Amanda Wolford, resides in Bloomingdale village; Adam is the next in order of birth; Anna is the wife of Volney

Page  717 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 717 Robinson; Louisa is the wife of Bert Blackman, of Allegan county, Michigan; Conrad, who married Mabel Ashbrook, makes his home in Bloomingdale village; Jacob took as his wife Mabel Howard, and they make their home in the state of Washington. Adam Beach spent his earlier boyhood and school days in the Buckeye state and was eleven years of age when he came with his parents to Van Buren county, Michigan. He pursued his studies in the public schools of this section and did not conclude his educational discipline until about sixteen years of age. At that early age he embarked upon his career as a farmer and has ever since continued thus engaged, employing the most enlightened methods in his agricultural endeavors. He has brought his land to a high state of improvement and his stock is known for its high quality. Mr. Beach laid the foundation of an independent household when, in 1895, he was united in marriage to Rena Hollister, of Waverly township, born in Paw Paw township on May 24, 1879. She is the daughter of Cyrus L. and Clara E. (Richmond) Hollister and received her education in the common schools. Mr. and Mrs. Beach share their pleasant home. ith three children: Claris E., aged thirteen; Mildred, aged eight; and Lawrence W., aged four. Mrs. Beach is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church at Glendale, as is also her eldest daughter. The subject is a popular member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows an( the. Modern Woodmen of America. Ile is in harmony with the men and measures of the Democratic party, but has never taken an active part in political affairs, his agricultural duties leaving him little time for other considerations. WILLIA.M KILLEFER.-A volunteer in the defense of the Union at the age of eighteen, and remaining in the service of his country until the Civil war was ended and for half a year longer; then a merchant, afterward an insurance agent for some years, and since 1896 a public official standing high in thl appreciation and esteem of the people to whom he is giving faithful service, William Killefer. of Paw Paw, has tried his hand at several occupations and found it skilful and ready for any duty in them all. Mr. Killefer was born at Richfield, Ohio, on August 5, 1846, and is the only son and one of the two children of Henry and Abigail (Coolman) Killefer, the former a native of Pennsylvania and the latter of Connecticut. IHe therefore unites in his inherited traits the sturdy industry, perseverance and frugality of the true Pennsylvanian with the shrewdness, resourcefulness and self-reliance of the New Englander, and in his career he has exemplified the most sterling attributes of each. The father came to Michigan and Van Buren county in 1857, and located in Bloomingdale, where he was engaged in general merchandising until his death, which occurred on November 23, 1872. The mother died in April, 1864. They were the parents of a son and a daughter, William and his sister Mary, the latter being now a resident of Los Angeles, California. Their mother was their father's second wife. His first was Jane Ann Curtis, and of their union three children were born: John, who resides in Los Angeles,

Page  718 718 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY California; and Ienry and Elizabeth, both of whom have been dead a number of years, leaving three of the five born in the two families to represent them and perpetuate the virtues and practice the teachings of the parents. William Killefer was practically but a schoolboy when his patriotism led him into the military service to aid in saving the American Union from being torn asunder in sectional strife. lie enlisted in 1864 in Battery C, First Michigan Light Artillery, and in this battery he served until October 27, 1865, when he was mustered out at Detroit. On his return to his home in this county he became a part of his father's mercantile establishment in Bloomingdale, and continued as such until 1888, then moved to Paw Paw, where he was in the insurance business for five years. In 1896 he was appointed postmaster of Paw Paw, and he held the office for a full term of four years. Since retiring from that position he has been a justice of the peace, and has also carried on an insurance business in addition to his judicial duties. But he gives the duties of his office his first consideration, and does not allow any other claim on his time or attention to interfere with them under any circumstances. IHe is energetic and resourceful, however, in pushing the insurance end of his activity, making use of all his power to render his days of usefulness profitable to himself and serviceable to the community. Mr. Killefer was married on June 3, 1880, to Miss Emma Ferguson, and they have had four children: Carl, who was born on June 23, 1881, and was accidentally killed on October 13, 1895, while hunting; Ola, whose life began on October 10, 1883, and who is still living with her parents; Wade, who was born on April 13, 1885, and is now a professional base ball player on the team at Minneapolis, Minnesota; William M., who came into being on October 10, 1887, and is also a professional base ball player, formerly a member of the team at Buffalo, New York, and now with the Philadelphia National team. The father is a Republican in politics and one of the wheelhorses of his party in the county. He serves its best interests with judgment and energy at all times, and his counsel is always appreciated by both the leaders and the rank and file as worthy of weight. He has held the township offices of every grade, some of them for lengthy periods. He was supervisor five years in Bloomingdale and five in Paw Paw. In fraternal circles he is also prominent in the Masonic order and the Order of Odd Fellows, taking an earnest and serviceable interest in affairs of his lodge in each. His church affiliation is with the Baptists, and among them, too, his influence is strong, as he is helpful in all the work of the congregation in which he holds his membership and true to the Christian teachings of the sect in all the relations of life. As a citizen, as a business man and as a public official he meets all the requirements of uprightness, integrity and enterprise, and his loyalty to these requirements has not only given him force and influence with the people of the city and county, but has won for him their enduring confidence and regard.

Page  719 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNJTY 719 SYLVESTER II. JoNES.-The untimely death of the late Sylvester H. Jones, of Paw Paw, on January 22, 1887, at the early age of fifty-seven years and in the prime of his manhood and fulness of his usefulness, enshrouded the whole community in grief and gloom. IIe had been a resident of Van Buren county twenty-one years, and during one-third of this period had lived and been in business in Paw Paw. His worth as a man, his business ability, his public spirit and enterprise as a citizen, and his genial and companionable nature had given him a high place in the regard of the people and greatly endeared him to all who knew him intimately, and each felt a sense of personal loss in his death, which was universally lamented. Mr. Jones was a native of Maine, and was born at Camden in that state on July 21, 1830. He was a son of Johnson Jones of that place, whose wife died when her son Sylvester was but two years old, and as all the members of the family have passed away her maiden name cannot now be given. There were four children in the family, of whom Sylvester was the second in the order of birth. The place and 'circumstances of his nativity determined his first pursuit in life, and might have been expected to give him more robust health than he had. For Camden, Maine, is on the coast of the Atlantic, and its air is supposed to be full of life-giving elements. Mr. Jones grew to manhood and obtained his education in his native town, and as soon as he left school began work in its principal industry, shipbuilding. Ile wrought in this industry, at first for others and later for himself, until he reached the age of thirty-six years. Then, in 1866, he came to Michigan and Van Buren county, and took up his residence at Glendale. There he owned a steam saw mill, where he sawed large quantities of butternut and ash lumber, which he sold to be used in the building of churches and other fine buildings in Paw Paw, where he was well and favorably known among the contractors. This mill had long been a landmark in the locality and is familiarly spoken of as "the Old Pioneer Mill" through all the country around, the name indicating not only something of the age of the structure, but also some measure of the attachment the people have for it and its interesting history. Mr. Jones moved to Paw Paw in 1880 and started an enterprise in the furniture trade. He conducted the business for a few years, then sold it, owing to his failing health, but retained the ownership of the building in which it was carried on. But he did not live long to enjoy the rest he had promised himself. On January 22, 1887, as has been noted, he passed away. He was married on December 2, 1858, to Miss Mary Adelia Thorndike, a daughter of David W. and Betsy Jane (Hilt) Thorndike. They were born and reared on the coast of Maine also, and the father became a sea captain. When the Civil war began he offered his services to the government in defense of the Union, and was soon in the midst of active naval operations. In the course of the conflict his ship was blockaded in the port of Cienfuegos, Cuba, by the Confederate terror of the sea, the Alabama. The climate was so hot and ener

Page  720 720 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY vating during the period of the blockade that the whole ship's crew and all the officers contracted ship's fever, and many of them died of it. The Captain passed through this ordeal safely, but in the subsequent exposure incurred the illness of which he died, not many months later, as scarcely any constitution could have resisted the extreme heat to which he was subjected and the great change he suddenly encountered in a debilitated and wasted condition. He and his wife were the parents of five children: Mary Adelia, the widow of Mr. Jones; Sarah, the wife of John T. Clapp, of Paw Paw, and Washburn W. and Francella, both of whom have been dead for a number of years. Emma, the last born of the family, is also deceased, leaving Mrs. Jones and her sister, Mrs. Clapp, the only living representatives of the family. But they do it credit in their worthy aspirations and the elevated American womanhood with which they work toward them in their daily lives. Mr. and Mrs. Jones had two children, both sons and both living. Winfield Scott, who was born in 1862, is now a resident of South Bend, Indiana; and Ralph Sylvester, who was born in 1876, has his home at present in Chicago. The father was a loyal and devoted member of the Republican party in politics, and always energetic and effective in the service of its principles and candidates. His religious faith was expressed by active and serviceable attendance in the Congregational church. In business, in relation to public affairs and the welfare of his community and in private life he was true to every claim of duty, and the citizenship of the county found him worthy of its highest esteem from every point of view and freely bestowed this upon him. CHARLES A. FINCH, farmer and owner of the creamery at Almena in Alnena township, was born in this same township on October 25, 1877. He is the son of George A. and Sarah Rhodes Finch. the former a native of Oswego county, New York. Iis father Chauncey P. Finch, was a New Englander of the state of New Hampshire. He grew up there but when a young man went to Oswego county, New York, where he was married and where all his family were born. Five children were born to him, but only three lived to grow up and the father of Charles of this sketch was rhe middle one of the three. He was but eight years of age when the family came to Michigan in 1854. Edward Finch was a veteran of the Civil war. He belonged to the Michigan cavalry and served throughout the entire period of the war. His death occurred in 1903. The other one of the three children of Chauncey Finch, Mrs. Helen Finch Daily, died in 1910. Her husband, Walter Daily, died in 1904, at Mattawan. The Finches first settled in Pine Grove township of this county, and for over half a century they have lived there and in Almena township. George Finch grew up in the county and was married to Sarah Rhodes. She died in 1886, when Charles was not ten years old, leaving two little children. A few years later the father married Miss Georgia Thomas, and they are still living at Mattawan, Mr. George Finch being agent for the Fruit Belt Line in that place.

Page  721 HISTORY OF VAN BITREN COUNTY 721 Charles A. Finch lived at home until he was fourteen years old and then began to make his own way by hiring out in the summers. He continued to go to school in the winter until he was seventeen. At that age he finished the district school course, and then worked for wages for another year. At eighteen he purchased forty acres of land and kept bachelor's hall on it until he was married, on March 17, 1896. Mrs. Charles Finch was Miss Hettie Palmer before her marriage, the daughter of George Palmer, of Almena township. Her mother died when she was four days old and her father now resides in Nebraska, where he is telegraph operator for the Northern Railroad. The mother of Mr. George Palmer was Selina Downing. She was born in Cayuga county, New York, April 29, 1828. Her father, Isaiah Smith Downing, was born in New York state and came to Van Buren county, Michigan, and settled in Almena in 1836, at the present home of his daughter, Mrs. Palmer. This country was then nearly an unbroken wilderness and Mrs. Palmer, now in her eighty-third year, vividly remembers the events of those pioneer days when the wolves and bears were often the unwelcome intruders into the small brood of chickens, or occasionally the sheepfold, and when the Indians were far more numerous than the white neighbors. Mrs. Palmer's mother was Hannah Barnum, also born in Cayuga county, New York. She had three children, but Decatur and Eliza are both deceased, Mrs. Palmer being the youngest. The mother died at sixty years of age. Mrs. Palmer has spent her entire life since eight years old in the town of Almena where she received her education in the district schools and in Paw Paw, and at the age of sixteen, in 1844, she began teaching, which she continued for seven terms, two in Almena. one in Lawrence and the other four in nearby towns. In 1850 she married Chauncey B. Palmer, who was born in New York state, and as a young man came to Almena, where he followed agricultural pursuits all his life and died in 1900. She is the mother of four children: George, mentioned above; Chauncey; Flora, residing with her mother on the farm; and Hannah, now deceased. Lois, the only child of the union of Charles and Hettie Finch, was born in December 19, 1898, and is now attending school in Almena. Mr. Finch holds menlbership in several of the best known fraternal orders. He is a Mason in lodge No. 268 at Mattawan. In Alinena he is affiliated with the Modern Woodmen, No. 9333, and the A. O. of G.. in both of which he carries insurance. Mrs. Finch is a member of the Methodist church and in politics Mr. Finch holds with the Republican party. After his marriage, Mr. Finch bought forty acres of land adjoining the forty he already owned. Two years later he sold the eighty and then came to Almnena and started in the grocery business. At the end of one year he sold out and went into the creamcry business, where he learned the butter-maker's trade. Not content with the knowledge he acquired from conducting the business for some time, Mr. Finch went to the Agricultural College at Lansing and finished a course in butter making. He received his diploma and then returned to the creamery business, being associated with the Worden Co-Operative Creamery, near Detroit. He spent three years with this concern and then went into business for him

Page  722 722 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY self at Lake Odessa, Michigan, where he stayed for six months. He desired to learn still another branch of the milk business, so he sold out and went into a condensed milk factory and learned that trade. Upon leaving the factory where he had been employed he bought the plant at Almena and since February, 1905, he has been in business in this county. In addition to his creamery Mr. Finch owns one hundred arid forty acres of land in sections 33 and 34 and he is building a ten-room house in the village of Almena. The thorough preparation and the practical experience have put Mr. Finch in the ranks of the foremost men of his trade and his plant is one of the best assets of the county from a business standpoint. JOHN T. CIAmvi.-The late John T. Clapp, of Paw Paw, who died on November 17, 1891, on the verge of seventy years of age, was at the time of his demise one of the most prominent and substantial citizens of Van Buren county. He had accumulated the greater part of his estate by industry and ability in the county, and he had therefore a particularly cordial interest in its welfare and the advancement of its people, as they had a warm admiration and a high regard for him. For, although he looked after his own interests with the utmost care and diligence, he never neglected those of the county, and was an ardent practical supporter of all worthy undertakings designed to promote them without reference to any personal advantage for himself, but wholly with a view to the public good and general well being. Mr. Clapp was a native of the state of New York, and his life began in one of its most enterprising and interesting cities. He was born on March 12, 1823, in Rochester, where the tides of industrial, mercantile and commercial life flow in strong and steady progress, and never seem to ebb. He came to Michigan and located in Van Buren county, and all his subsequent years of activity were devoted to farming and buying and selling wool, in which he was an extensive dealer. He also dealt with some energy and considerable success in real estate, especially farming lands, and made a widely extended reputation for his judgment of land and its value. Mr. Clapp did not, however, let everything go by him in his transactions. He began as a farmer on a small scale, but added to his possessions until at one time he owned and farmed four hundred and sixty acres of excellent land. To this he applied his industry with such skill and judgment that every acre was made to yield its full recompense for the care and labor bestowed upon it, and thus strengthen his hands for more extended operations. He also owned several houses in Paw Paw, and as he kept them in good order he always secured the full measure of revenue from them that he had a right to expect. These facts prove that Mr. Clapp was an excellent business man and made the most of his opportunities. But his record also includes a long course of first-rate and upright progressive citizenship, and the people esteemed him highly and revere his memory for that. Some years prior to his death, desiring to enjoy the remainder of his days in quiet, freedom from care and the rest he had so richly earned, he sold all his farms and moved

Page  723 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN (COUNTY 723 to Paw Paw. He was a Democrat in his political faith and allegiance, and always gave his party energetic and effective service during his period of active life. The party rewarded his zeal and efficiency by nominating him for several township offices in turn, and the people of the township eagerly embraced the opportunity thus afforded them to secure service of high character in connection with their local affairs by electing him to each. I-e was affiliated in religion with the Presbyterian church. and was an active worker in his congregation. Mr. Clapp was married three times. His first union was with a Miss Rickerd. They had two children, both of whom died in infancy. The second was with Miss Eliza Rickerd, a sister of his first wife, and the fruits of it were seven children: Julius, whose home is in Ithaca, New York; Willis, who is a resident of Paw Paw; Eva, the wife of Charles Bailey, of Boston, Massachusetts; Frank, who lives in Portland, Oregon; Ida, who married Samuel Mawrey, of Three Rivers, Illinois; John, who dwells in Bay City, Michigan; and Nellie, the wife of Frank Francisco, whose home is at Chicago, Illinois. Mr. Clapp's third marriage took place on November 6, 1883, and united him with Miss Sarah A. Thorndike, a daughter of Captain David W. and Betsy Jane (Hilt) Thorndike, members of old New England families, and born and reared on the coast of Maine. The salient points in the life of Captain Thorndike are given in a sketch of Sylvester H. Jones, deceased, the husband of his other living child, Mrs. Mary Adelia Jones, which will be found on another page of this work. Mrs. Clapp is still living in Paw Paw, and is always numbered among its best and most admirable matrons. Her home is a center of gracious hospitality, and a popular resort for the numerous friends of the family, who always find the time passed there agreeable, and the influences emanating therefrom stimulating and helpful. (GEORGE HOOD.-When George Hood became a resident of Van Buren county in 1887 he added to its active and productive forces something of the spirit of the "bright little, tight little islands" of England and Scotland across the sea, the spirit that has made the British empire the great civilizing force of modern times, and one of the greatest agencies of progress the world has ever known. He was born in England on February 14, 1866, and is a son of Samuel and Rachel (Butcher) Hood, natives of that country, who passed their lives within its borders and died on the soil that had been hallowed by their labors and which now piously covers their remains. The father passed away in 1906 and the mother in 1907, leaving four of their five children to mourn their death. The children who survive them are: Frederick, who lives in England: Charles, who lives in Van Buren county; Alice, who is the wife of Frederick Whissel and also has her home in England; and George, the subject of this brief review. Lucy, the fifth child in the order of birth, died a number of years ago. George remained in his native land until he reached the age of twenty-one, and then came to the United States. He did not

Page  724 724 HISTORY OF VAN BITREN COUNTY linger on the Atlantic seaboard, but came at once to Michigan and located in Van Buren county, where he engaged in farming for a number of years, on rented land. He then 'bought forty acres in Decatur township, which he owned and cultivated six years. At the end of that period he sold the forty acres and bought eighty in section 34, Paw Paw township, on which he is still living and conducting an industry in general farming. In addition to this he has an interest with his wife in sixty-four acres adjoining his eighty, and forty acres of timber land, and in connection with his farming operations he raises and feeds cattle for the general market on a considerable scale. On November 27, 1891, Mr. Hood united himself in marriage with Miss Mary Burnett, a daughter of John and Elizabeth (Watton) Burnett, natives of England, who came to Michigan in 1852 and took up their residence in Paw Paw, where they died many years ago. They had three children, Mrs. Hood and her sisters Annie and Kittie, both of whom are deceased, leaving her the only living representative of the family. Mr. and Mrs. Hood have had one child, their son Carl, who was born on June 9, 1893 and died on June 23, 1893. Kitty, a sister of Mrs. Hood, married George Andrews and they had one child, Lillian, born May 18, 1899. Her mother died when she was ten days old and since that time she has been a member of the household of Mr. and Mrs. Hood, who are greatly attached to her and have given her all the care of a daughter. Mr. Hood is a Democrat in reference to national political affairs, and true to his party in all campaigns. Locally he looks only to the substantial and enduring welfare of the people, and exerts his influence to promote that. He is now the treasurer of the township school board, and has been a member of the board for several years. In fraternal life he is a member of the Order of Gleaners, and in church connection both he and his wife are Methodists. The people of Van Buren county esteem him highly and he is entitled to the regard in which they hold him, for he is a citizen deeply interested in the enduring welfare of the township and county of his home, and a man exemplifies in his daily life the best attributes of American manhood. GARRIE W. HUNT.-The late Garrie W. Hunt, of Paw Paw, whose untimely death on December 17, 1891, at the early age of fortysix years and nine months, was universally regretted, was in his young manhood a storekeeper and in his later years an extensive buyer and shipper of live stock. He was recognized in all parts of Van Buren county as an excellent business man, an upright and progressive citizen, and an exemplar of the best attributes of American manhood of the most sturdy and sterling kind. He was born in Antwerp township, Van Buren county, Michigan, on March 3, 1845, and was a son of John and Eliza (King) Hunt. They had nine children: Laurentio, who is now a resident of Antwerp township, this county; Sarah, who has been dead a number of years; Harty, deceased, the former wife of J. J. Woodward, of Van Buren county; Nathaniel K., who resides in St. Cloud, Minnesota; Lydia, the wife of W. W. Dole, of Kalamazoo, Michigan;

Page  725 IlSTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 725 Garrie W., the lamented subject of this brief memoir; Eliza, the wife of Edward Stevens, of Spokane, Washington; John, whose home is at Mattawan, Michigan; and Simeon, who died a number of years ago. On June 7. 1883, Mr. Hunt was joined in marriage with Miss Adeline Palmer, who was born at Lyme, Connecticut, on October 15, 1845, and is a daughter and the only child of Elisha C. and Eliza H. (Fowler) Palmer, the former a native of Connecticut, who came to Paw Paw in 1856, and the latter a native of New York. Mrs. Hunt's father was a contractor and prominent in his business. He died at the home of his daughter on February 23, 1878. Her mother died on April 4, 1895. Mr. and Mrs. Hunt became the parents of one child, their daughter Ruth A., who was born on October 3, 1885 and died on March 27, 1886. Mr. Hunt was married twice, and by his first marriage became the father of one child, his son J. W. Hunt, who is now a resident of Aurora, Illinois. Mr. Hunt was a Republican in politics and loyally devoted to the principles and theories of his party. He rendered it effective service at all times, and was regarded as a man of importance in its councils. But he had no aspiration to public office, either by appointment or election, and never sought a political position. His standing in his community, however, was such, and the general esteem in which he was held was so high, that it is probable he would have been compelled to yield to the importunities of the people and accept a position in their service if he had lived a few years longer, for they recognized his ability for official duties and his high character as a man as the best qualifications for effective and acceptable public service, and in time would have demanded that he employ these qualifications for the public good in the most practical way. He took a great interest in the Order of Patrons of Husbandry (the' Grange) and was prominent and influential in its organization. In church relations he was what is known as a Presbyterian Baptist. His consideration for the welfare of his community was shown in many ways, particularly by his warm and helpful interest in public improvements, his ardent support of public education and all other beneficial and elevating institutions, mental, moral, civil and social, and his wisdom and energy in what he did to keep the shining wheels of progress in motion toward desirable ends. No man stood higher in his township and none better deserved the rank he occupied. For he was true to every claim of duty and every requirement of citizenship. GEORGE W. DAVIS.-A well known farmer of Waverly township is George W. Davis, who in addition to his agricultural activities gives no small amount of interest to several other institutions, among these being the Republican party and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. In the councils of the former he is indeed influential and he can ever be depended upon to give his support to all measures likely to prove of general benefit. His forty acres of land are located in section 16. What may be said of a goodly proportion of the prominent citizens of the community-that they were born in the state of New York-may be said of him, his first Vol. II-7

Page  726 726 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY appearance on this mundane sphere having been made in Oneida county, New York, September 15, 1845. His parents were Delatrius and Harriet (Collins) Davis, and both of the older people lived in New York until after the demise of the mother, when the father went to Michigan to make his home with the subject. They were farmers and they reared a family of four children, all of whom have passed on to the "Undiscovered Country" with the exception of he whose name inaugurates this review. Mr. Davis was educated in the common schools of his locality and subsequently entered the high school of Wilson, Niagara county, New York, from which institution he was graduated. When it came to a time when he must decide in his vocation in life he chose agriculture, to which his fathers had devoted their energies and in whose wholesome independence he found content. Many New Yorkers had preceded him to Van Buren county, Michigan, a section of great resource and natural wealth, and he came to the conclusion to cast his fortunes with it also. He came in February, 1876, and was so well suited with it that he has ever since remained here and here he has played a manly and conscientious part in the many-sided life. In 1864, when a very young man, Mr. Davis married, the young woman to become his wife being Juliana Deland Carter, of New York, and a native of Canada. To this union were born three children: William D., who resides at Waverly and who has been three times married, his present wife having been a Miss Coulson; Iarriet M., the wife of Clinton Hungerford, of South Bend, Indiana; and Elmer G., of this township, and who married Lislia l)avis. The first wife of the subject passed away on March 17, 1885, and on April 14, 1888, he was a second time married, to Mayette Bradley, of this county. They maintain a hospitable home and both are highly esteemled( in the conmnunity. As previously mentioned, Mir. Davis is an enthusiastic Odd Fellow, holding mem)ership in Glendale lodge and holding the office of gate keeper on the Inside of the lodge. IIe gives heart and hand to the men and measures of the Republican party and has held a number of public offices with great faithfulness and efficiency, having been highway commissioner and for twenty-four years justice of the peace of the township, during which time he has married twenty-four couples. FRANK E. STEPHENS, whose death occurred February 16, 1903, on the family homestead near Mattawan, Van Buren county, was one of the skilled agriculturists of his locality, and during many years spent in operations in this township displayed traits of cllaracter that stamped him as a good citizen and enterprising workman. Born on the farm which he was operating at the time of his death, July 10, 1857, Mr. Stephens was a son of Orange and Mary Ann (Armstrong) Stephens, natives of Vermont. Mr. Stephens' mother was for some years a school teacher in Van Buren county, her father being one of the early hotel keepers of Lawton. After coming to Michigan, Orange Stephens traveled west to California, where he worked for wages until he had sent back enough to purchase two hundred and forty acres, which became the family homo

Page  727 HISTORY OF VAN IBUREN COUNTY 727 - stead. Three children were born to Orange and Mary Ann (Armstrong) Stephens, namely: Ransom E., deceased; MIary Jane, who (lied in infancy; and Frank E. Frank E. Stephens attended the public schools of his native locality and always remained on the home farm, which he operated as a stock farm, breeding thoroughbred cattle and Shropshire sheep. lie was considered one of the best judges of live stock in his part of the county, and his advice was often sought in matters pertaining to the raising of sheep and cattle. Mr. Stephens did not conline his interests to his own personal affairs, for he was ever found ready and willing to lend his aid to whatever promised to work out for the ultimate good of the community, and by his own example did much to advance and improve the standard of agricultural work throughout Van Buren county. He was a Republican in politics, and although he never cared for public office for himself, was always a hard worker in the ranks of his party. Fraternally he was connected with the Masonic order. He was a Universalist in his religious belief, as is his widow, who survives him and lives in the comfortable family residence on Mattawan Rural Route No. 2. Mr. Stephens was married on December 3, 1878, to Miss Amanda Beardsley, daughter of Ransom and Susanna (Wood) Beardsley, whose other four children wAere: Capitola, who is deceased; Lorene, who married Isaac Scott, of Mattawan; Fred R., who is deceased; and Lincoln E., residing in Mattawan. Mr. Beardsley died Novemnber 29, 1909, his wife having passed away February 21, 1905. Mr. and Mrs. Stephens had a family of three children: Elsie, the wife of Walter Hunt, living on the old Stephens homestead; Gladys, the wife of Philbrook Munson, of Kalamazoo county, Michigan; and Orange R., born February 12, 1893, and nosw making his home with his mother. ALONZO SHERMAN.-.Merchant, mill lman and banker, Alonzo Sherman, until 1887 one of the leading forces in the business life of Paw Paw, and whose useful career was then ended by death, gave to the people of this community a fine example of enterprise and progressiveness in mercantile and commercial life and in elevated and serviceable citizenship, and in his career illustrated what can be accomplished in this land of boundless resources and almost boundless opportunity by industry, thrift, business capacity and good management. He was a resident of Paw Paw forty-four years, and during that long period his life was an open book before the people of the city and county, and hey never saw a blot on any page of it. Mr. Sherman was a native of Massachusetts, born in Conway, Franklin county, on May 8, 1811. He was a son of John and MAary (Warren) Sherman, New Englanders by nativity and rearing, and thoroughly imbued with the spirit and aspirations of the people of the portion of the country which was their home from birth to death, and had been the home of their ancestors for generations before them. Their son, Alonzo Sherman, grew to manhood and obtained his education in his native place. After leaving school he learned

Page  728 728 HISTORY OF VAN BIiREN COUNTY the trade of a shoemaker. He went to York, Genesee county, New York, in search of better opportunities in life than his native town seemed ever likely to afford him, and there he worked at his trade two years. But the work he had to do was journeyman work only, and his ambitious soul longed for something better. He therefore opened a shoe factory at Leroy in Genesee county, in the same state, and carried it on for ten years. To dispose of the output he opened a boot and shoe store of his own, and this he also conducted with success and general approval for ten years, and in addition to this he owned a farm. By the end of that period the Western fever had secured a firm hold on him and he could no longer resist its demands. In the spring of 1844 he traded his business and farm in Leroy for a half interest in a store in Paw Paw, forming a partnership with E. J. House to conduct a general merchandising business. The firm as originally organized lasted two years. Then H. L. Dickenson was taken in as a member of it, and two years later its numbers were increased and its forces augmented by the addition of Joseph Sherman, a brother of Alonzo. In 1848 Thomas L. Stevens was taken into the firm, and this continued until 1849. When Joseph Sherman died, the other partners continuing until 1866, when fire destroyed the store. But it was rebuilt and the business continued up to 1868, in which year Mr. Sherman sold the store to his partner but was obliged to repurchase it, and operated it alone until 1870, when he sold it to Mr. Thomas R. Ross. The house was popular, and its trade was large and active. But its affairs were not sufficient to fully occupy Mr. Sherman's energetic, resourceful and versatile mind. He therefore, in company with T. L. Stevens, bought the Paw Paw Mill Company in 1849, and this he conducted and managed until 1868. In that year Mr. Ross purchased Mr. Stevens' share of the mill property and rented Mr. Sherman's share, and this continued until 1870, when the mill was sold to Mr. Anderson. In 1873 Mr. Sherman again repurchased his half of the mill and continued to operate it up to 1880, when he deeded it to his son John D. In 1864, in connection with Thomas L. Stevens, he founded the First National Bank of Paw Paw, he being elected its president. From this position he retired in 1886, and on December 21, 1887, his useful and instructive life ended, at the age of seventy-six years and seven months. His death was a great loss to the community, as he was a man of fine public spirit and had been one of the potential factors in building up and improving Paw Paw and Van Buren county, and promoting the substantial welfare of their people in every way available to him. Mr. Sherman was united in marriage with Miss Lucy Ann Dickenson, who died in 1883, at sixty-five years of age. By this marriage he became the father of five children: Charles, John D., (a sketch of whom is to be found in this work). Delia P. who died in 1873, Frank and George W. The mother died and the father took to himself another wife in the person of Miss Elizabeth Boyington. She died and he contracted a third marriage, uniting himself on this occasion with Miss Eugenia T. Esterbrook, a daughter of Dr. Joseph H. Esterbrook, of Camden, Maine.

Page  729 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 729 The third Mrs. Sherman is one of a family of nineteen children, fourteen of whom grew to maturity. She and her husband became the parents of one child, their son Joseph Hubbard Shermnan, who was born on July 13, 1869, obtained a high school education, and has been engaged in mercantile business ever since leaving school. He owns and occupies the old homestead in Paw Paw and has a large block of stock in the First National Bank. In politics he is independent; an Odd Fellow and a Knight of Pythias in fraternal life; and a Baptist in religious faith and church connection. CHARLES B. ALLERTON.-To plant one's feet in the wilderness, amid the unpruned growth of ages, with the wild life of man and beast indigenous to the soil still prevalent in full vigor and unrestrained freedom in the region, is an experience no longer possible in this country, and the few remaining men and women who have had it are always interesting in themselves and their history. To this steadily diminishing number belong Andrew J. and Martha J. (Babcock) Allerton, of Van Buren county, the parents of Charles B. Allerton, one of the enterprising and prosperous farmers of Keeler township. When they located in this county in 1865 there were only two small stores in the village of Hartford, and there was not a railroad anywhere in this part of the state. They saw the country in its primeval wildness, became familiar with the sight of its untamed denizens of the forest, savage beasts and still more savage men, and they have witnessed and contributed to its progress from that condition to its present high state of development and advanced improvement. This interesting couple were born and reared in Ohio, the father in Stark county, where his life began on May 21, 1831, and the mother in Wood county, where she came into being on April 6, 1841. She was a daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth (Roberts) Babcock, and had four brothers, being herself the only girl in the fainily. She and her husband made the trip overland from their native state to Michigan and Van Buren county nearly fifty years ago, and on their arrival in this locality they bought twenty acres of land in Keeler township, for which the purchase price was three hundred dollars. On this they built a log cabin, which was called "The Bass Wood Cabin, as it was constructed of split bass wood logs, with the smooth side inside the dwelling as a finish, and humble and unpretentious as the cabin would look now, it was a habitation of more than ordinary consequence when it was put up. A few years later they sold their little farm of twenty acres and made other purchases, adding to their acreage as time passed until they were the owners of a considerable quantity of good Iand. They helped to lay the foundations of the township in its civil government, aided in the erection of the little log schoolhouse in which their children began their education, and bore their full part of the labor and responsibility incident to speaking a new region into being as a civilized community and starting it on its career of progress and development. This gentleman and his wife were distinguished in their an

Page  730 730 IIISTORY OF VAN BIJREN COUNTY cestry as well as in their own achievements. Mr. Allerton's grandfather was a soldier in the Revolutionary war and connected withl the immediate command of General Washington. The Allertons came to this country in the Mayflower and from the time of the arrival of the first of the name members of the family have been prominent in American history. They have dignified and adorned every worthy walk in public and private life, and the same is true of the forefathers of Mrs. Allerton. Their children and their children's children are entitled to honorary membership in the societies of the Sons and Daughters of the American Revolution. They are themselves the parents of three sons and one daughter, all of whom are living: Curtis 0., the first born, is a contractor and builder in Battle Creek, Michigan. He completed his education in the high school in Hartford, is married and has an attractive residence in the city of his home. Ella E., the second child, married Henry Harmon, a prosperous barber who now lives at New Buffalo, Berrien county, Michigan. Charles B. is the third child in the order of birth, and the fourth is William F., who is also married and carries on extensively as a contractor and builder in the state of Florida, where he has lived for a number of years. Charles B. Allerton was born in Van Buren county, Michigan, on October 5, 1867. H-e was reared on his father's farm, attended the common school in its vicinity and completed his education in the high school in Iartford. IIe also pursued a two years' c.ourse of instruction in the literary and business departments of Mount Ulnioi College in Ohio, being graduated in the business department. While attending this institution he paid his own way out of money he had earned and saved. After leaving the college he located in Grand Rapids, iIichigan, where he did office work for a time. From there he moved to Chicago and accepted a position as shipping clerk in the emnploy of T. A. Shaw & Company, dry goods commission merehants. At the end of a year sickness compelled him to give up his position, and his next engagement was as city bill clerk for Kelly, Maus & Company, hardware merchants on Lake street, Chicago. He was with this company during the World's Fair of 1893, and afterward became a traveling salesman for the Tack and Nail Company, of Grand Crossing, Illinois. On December 28, 1892, Mr. Allerton was married to Miss Jennie I. Gould, who was born in Van Buren county on August 2, 1870, and is a daughter of Gilbert and Mary (Garrett) Gould, prominent residents of Keeler township. She was educated in the public schools and at the Collegiate Institute in Benton Harbor, and after completing her education was one of the successful and popular teachers of the county for three years. Mrs. Allerton is a lady of unusual sunniness and cheerfulness of disposition and makes her home one of the most popular resorts in the township of its location. After his marriage Mr. Allerton took a position with the AngloSwiss Milk Company at Dixon, Illinois, to which he rendered valuable service as a salesman for two years. He then became the superintendent of the shipping, department of the Reynolds Wire Company, of Dixon, Illinois, but at the end of one year in

Page  731 HISTORY OF VAN IUREN COUNTY 731 that responsible position he found himself weary of business and determined to turn his attention and devote his energies to farming. With this end in view, he bought forty acres of land, which is part of his present farm, and two years later he added twenty acres of timber and pasture land. In 1910 he purchased one hundred and twenty acres of choice land in Berrien county, and he also owns a valuable piece of property, one hundred and sixtyfour by one hundred and thirty-seven feet in size, on Broadway in Benton Harbor, which is steadily increasing in desirability and value. Mr. Allerton began the battle of life for himself before lie went to college. He paid his own way through that and has been steadily progressing ever since. lie now owns one hundred and eighty acres of fine, productive land, which he has enriched with good buildings and other improvements, and of which he is making model farms. He does general farming and raises live stock. lie was the first farmer in Keeler township to raise alfalfa, the production of which he started as an experiment on nine acres of land. In 1911 he cut three crops from this tract and secured an average of four tons to the acre. In politics Mr. Allerton is independent. IIe has no time or desire for public office himself, and will not allow himself to be bound by party ties, but bestows his suffrage on the candidates he deems best fitted for the offices sought and most likely to promote the general welfare of the township, county or state. At this time (1911) his father and mother are among the oldest living residents of Van Buren county who came here as pioneers, and he is one of the county's most wide-awake, intelligent, enterprising and progressive farmers, as well as one of its most esteemed and influential and useful citizens. His beautiful farm is on the line between Keeler and Hartford townships, five miles distant from Hartford, Keeler and Watervliet, and has many advantages in its location. Mr. and Mrs. Allerton have five children, two sons and three daughters, but only two are living. Their daughter Helen is in the third grade in school and is making a record in her studies of which her parents are justly proud. The other child is their daughter Marian M., who is not yet old enough to go to school. Their honme is a social center and one of the popular resorts of the county, throughout which it is renowned for its intellectual atmosphere, many artistic attractions and genuine hospitality. It is like its occupants, full of life's brightness and cheer, and a source of betterment and refined enjoyment for all who come within its influence. 1. P. BATES.-In the year 1776 there was born to Israel Bates, of Vermont, a son, Jacob. The father went into the war a little later and fought for the independence of the colonies, so the little boy grew up in an atmosphere of rumors of battles and of the fine indifference to small matters of personal comfort which characterized these earlier Americans whose faces were set as a flint toward the goal of liberty. Jacob Bates went west when he grew' to manhood and settled in New York, where his son Daniel

Page  732 732 IIISTORY OF VAN B1JREN COUNTY was born in IIerkimer county. Daniel married Eliza Pinkham, of Onondaga county, and of this union was born in 1835, on the thirtieth of December, I. P. Bates, the subject of this review. There were twelve children in the family of Daniel Bates, eleven of whom grew to maturity. Lydia. is the widow of Isaac Nelson, of Pennsylvania. John D. Bates also lives in the Keystone state. Eliza Jane is the widow of Webster Johnston, of Arlington township. Perry is now dead, Lovina is the widow of J. L. Williams, of Kansas, and Ellen is the widow of L. G. Cunningham, of the same state. Otis is judge of the probate court in Lane county, Kansas. Russell is a United States marshal in Nome, Alaska. Mansel is a contractor and builder in Kansas. Emma is the wife of Ienry A. Gerdes, of Minneapolis, Minnesota., where her husband is a cement contractor for the city. The father moved to Kansas in his latter years and died there at the age of sixty-one. The mother lived to the age of eighty-eight and died in 1901. Israel P. Bates was the third in the family and until he was twenty he stayed with his father. At that age he came to Arlington Centre, Van Buren county. He had attended the Mayville academy in New York for one year and after coming to Van Buren county in the years 1856 to 1859 he went to school at Lawrence and then was for two years a student in Hillsdale College. When the war broke out he shouldered a musket to preserve the country his great-grandfather had fought to make a nation, enlisting in Company G, Second Michigan Cavalry, under Captain Fred Fowler. He served for three years and was mustered out October 3, 1864; at Washington, D. C. Mr. Bates had begun preaching in 1859, his first sermon having been given in April, of that year, and after returning from the war on May 6, 1866, he was ordained for the ministry of the Baptist church and began the work of preaching, which has been his work ever since. He is still active in this profession after more than forty years in its service. He is of that company who, like the pioneers of Kansas, take a rifle and a Bible to guide their course by, and while they do valiant service both with their muskets and with "the sword of the spirit, which is the word of God," they are in no whit lacking in what we term the practical concerns of life. Mr. Bates not only preaches the gospel, but he farms his place of forty acres besides. On the first of December, 1864, Mr. Bates was married to Sarah, the daughter of Alfred C. and Maria Church. Mrs. Bates is a native of Michigan, being born one month after it became a state, her birthday and that of President Cleveland's being but one day apart. There were five children in the family in which she grew up. The others: Mary, Arletta, Matilda and Elliot W., are deceased. There have been six children born to Mr. and Mrs. Bates. Ina, the eldest is dead..She was the wife of E. Peacock, of Paw Paw. Rose is at home and Alva C. lives in this county. Relly T. is a resident of Waverly. Florence and Clyde are both dead, the latter having been accidentally shot, while in North Dakota. Mr. Bates is a Republican and a worker in the G. A. R. For

Page  733 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 733 twenty-two years he has been chairman of the Soldiers' Relief Commission. He is commander of the Grand Army Post and has also been its chaplain. It would be impossible to speak too highly of the work of this patriotic and devoted citizen who has striven so long and so faithfully for all which makes for the best life of the country. JOHN D. SHERMAN.-Having passed sixty-seven of the seventyfour years of his life in Paw Paw with but one little interval of two years, during which he was in business in another county, and having been in mercantile and industrial life among this people from the very dawn of his manhood, and in one line of trade throughout the last twenty-three years, the life of John D. Sherman is well known to the residents of Van Buren county, and in its long course of active and general usefulness he has given them many proofs of his business capacity, his high character as a man and his public spirit and progressiveness as a citizen. Mr. Sherman's life began in Genesee county, New York, on June 14, 1837, where he lived until he was seven years of age. He is a. son of Alonzo and Lucy Ann (Dickenson) Sherman, a sketch of whose lives will be found elsewhere in this volume. They had five children, of whom John D. and his brother George of Topeka, Kansas, are living. The latter is superintendent of The Dining Car Service of the Chicago and Rock Island Railroad Company; Charles. Delia P. and Frank have passed away. Mr. Sherman started in business when he was but twenty years old, and almost immediately after completing his education. His first venture was in the hardware trade, in which he was engaged three years. He then started an exchange office in Paw Paw, which he conducted for two years, and at the end of that period turned his attention to the grocery business. This occupied his attention and held his interest from 1861 to 1868, when he sold his own store and took a hand in helping to carry on that of his father, which he did during all of the next two years. He was eager during this period, however, to be again in business for himself, and as soon as he saw an opening gratified his desire. He went to Coloma in Berrien county and remained two years keeping a general store. In 1873 he returned to Paw Paw and bought an interest in a flour mill, with which he was connected as a member of the firm seven years. At the beginning of the eighth year he bought the whole outfit, and from 1880 to 1888 conducted the mill altogether on his own account. Since 1888 he has been continuously engaged in the sale of seed on a large scale, and also carries general produce. On June 14, 1860, Mr. Sherman was united in marriage with Miss Helen A. Belfy, a daughter of Henry and Catherine H. (Pease) Belfy of western New York. Two children have been born of the union, both of whom are living. They are Henry Ellsworth and Lulu May. In his political faith the father is a pronounced Democrat and a loyal member of his party. He has served it faithfully as one of its rank and file for many years. and he has also represented it in several township offices, in each having carefully looked after the interests of the township and

Page  734 734 HISTORY OF VAN B1REN COUNTY its people. In religious belief and alliance he is a Spiritualist, firm in his faith and consistent in his actions in connection with it at all times. SILAS N. BARNER.-Perhaps no part of Van Buren county has more comfortable old homes or a more prosperous class of citizens than has Paw Paw township, and the farm of Silas N. Barner, in section 13, offers proof of the statement. Mr. Barner was born in Schoharie county, New York, March 25, 1833, and is a son of Silas and Nancy (Shaffer) Barner, natives of New York and descendants of German ancestry. Silas Barner was a farmer and preacher of the Methodist faith, and his death occurred in 1886. His wife died at the birth of their only child, Silas N., and Mr. Barner was married then to Sally Barton, who bore him two children: Brad, of Brooklyn, New York; and Eli, who is deceased. Silas N. Barner went to Pennsylvania at the age of sixteen years, and there purchased twenty acres of farming land, which he operated for fourteen years, becoming a prominent agriculturist and filling positions of political importance in his community. Going to Kansas at that time, Mr. Barner was for one year engaged in the lumber and sawmill business, and lie then returned to Pennsylvania, remaining on the homestead for about ten years. He subsequently located in Longview, Texas, where he conducted a grist, saw and planing mill for five years, after which he purchased a tract of one hundred and thirty-five acres of farming land in Scotland county, Missouri. and in connection with cultivating this property conducted a sawmill and milling business and a blacksmith and machine shop for twenty years. 1n 1901 AMr. Barner came to I'aw Paw township, purchasing one hundred and eight acres of land in section 13, and lhere lie has since been engaged in general farming and fruit raising. IHe is a successful agriculturist, progressive and enterprising, and is recognized as one of Paw Paw township's public-spirited citizens, always ready to encourage and assist every Inovement for the improvement and advancement of his section. On November 25, 1852, Mr. Barner was married to Miss H-elen Parker, daughter of Isaac and Margery (Smith) IParker, thee latter a native of Holland and the former of New York state. Mrs. Barner died in 1886. Mr. and Mrs. Barner had four children, namely: ATenzo, who met an accidental death in 1910, when the team of horses he was driving ran away with tie binder; Minnie N., who is deceased; Hattie N., the wife of Ivain B. Shull, who is now assisting his father-in-law on the Barner lhomnestead; and Ola Lapette, the wife of Hiram L. Fickel, chief deputy sheriff of Polk county, Iowa, and a resident of Des Moines. In his political views Mr. Barner is a Republican, and he always takes an interest in public matters, although he has never found time to hold public office since leaving Pennsylvania. His fraternal connection is with the Masons, and Mrs. Barner was a consistent member of the Methodist church. FERDINAND MENIG.-The German-Americans of this country are regarded as among the most reliable and esteemed citizens of tlh

Page  735 HISTORY OF VAN BUJREN COUNTY 735 land, and where they live there is sure to be found a number of substantial homes. They usually take a great interest in the development of the resources of a community and make for good government, thus proving themselves very desirable additions to their adopted country's citizenship. Among the men of this class in Van Buren county was the late Ferdinand Menig, a successful agriculturist and veteran of the Civil war, who was born in Bavaria, Germany, October 13, 1841, and died January 4, 1910, in Paw Paw township. Mr. Menig was a son of John and Margaret Menig, natives of Germany, whose other children were: George and Ursula, both of whom are deceased. The Menig family came to the United States in 1852, when Ferdinand was eleven years old, and settled in New York, where Mr. Menig learned the trade of baker and where lie was living at the time of his enlistment in Company C, Fourth Regiment, New York Artillery, with which organization lie served five years. lie then entered the arsenal at Watertown, Massacusetts, where lie worked three years as a baker. On completing his service Mr. Menig went to Egerton, Ohio, and formed a partnership with George Kerr, with whom he was engaged in operating a woolen mill until 1878, then going to Danville, Illinois, where he purchased of Henry Riggs a half interest in woolen mills at that l)lace, and after three years bought out his partner's interests and continued it for twenty-five years. While in Ohio he had met with an accident which deprived him of an arm, but he did not allow this misfortune to keep him from making a success of his business ventures. After conducting the Danville mills alone up to 1906 he moved to Antwerp township, Van Buren county, and took up one hundred acres of farming land in section 19, which he continued to operate until his death. During his entire business career he was actuated by the highest principles of honor, and he stood high in the esteem of his fellows. On December 8, 1864, Mr. Menig was maarried to 5Miss Mary Shean, who was born in Massachusetts, and nine children were born to this union, as follows: Margaret, now known as Sister Eunice, is at present teaching in Alexandria, Virginia. She was educated at the Holy Cross Convent of Notre Dalmle, South Bend, Indiana, and following her graduation taught nine years in South Bend. Mary is thie wife of Tllomlas E. Blrown, assistant cashier in the bank of J. G.. Cannon, Danville, Illinois. George is a resident of Kokomo, Indiana. (Gertrude is the wife of Dr. IIooton, of )Danville, Illinois. iTrsula C. lives at home withl her mother. Frank is a resident of Paw Paw. Nellie H. is residing at home. August is living in I)anville, Illinois. Bertha is the wife of George Fisher, superintendent of light and heat for the Illinois Traction Company at Danville. Mr. Menig was a Republican in his political views, and served as school director and justice of the peace for many years, being closely identified with the progress of his township and being justly regarded as one of its most influential men. ITe and his family were connected with the Catholic church.

Page  736 736 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY ALLEN HIARWICK.-The Iarwick family is intimately associated with the pioneer history of Van Buren county, and its representatives are deserving of much credit for the part they have borne in the improvement and development of this section of the state. Perhaps no more substantial or better liked man ever resided in Antwerp township than the late Allen Harwick, who was for many years one of Van Buren county's successful farmers. Mr. Harwick was born in Caledonia, New York, December 6, 1838, a son of Peter and Belva (Root) Harwick, natives of the Empire state. Mr. and Mrs. Harwick came to Michigan in 1843, taking up government land in section 16, Antwerp township, and here they spent the remainder of their lives, the father passing away October 4, 1892, and his wife September 9 of that year. They had only one child, Allen. Allen Harwick was five years of age when he accompanied his parents to Michigan, and his education was secured in the primitive district schools. Sharing with his parents all the hardships and privations incident to pioneer life, he early learned the traits of honesty, industry and economy which characterized his whole later life, and became a skilled agriculturist. He succeeded his father to the home property, and there he spent his active career, being engaged in general farming and fruit raising and making a general success of his operations. He was highly respected by his neighbors and loved in his home, and his funeral was largely attended, those who knew him being glad to pay respect to his memory. IHe was a Mason and a Democrat, and with his family attended the Congregational church. On March 5, 1863, Mr. Harwick was married to Mertice Bowen, daughter of Frank and Nancy (Hicks) Bowen, natives of New York, who came to Michigan in 1845 and settled in Arlington township. During the year 1848 they rented a part of their house, which consisted of two large rooms, two bedrooms, a buttery and an attic, and during the spring following Mr. Bowen purchased a forty-acre tract, paying for it with personal property, and rented the Arlington place and started to go East. When the family had gone as far as Paw Paw, Mr. Bowen was prevailed upon to locate in Pine Grove, and they settled in an unfinished log house, with no doors nor windows, and the floors laid down as the boards had come from the lumber mill. During the spring following Mr. Bowen cut the lumber, sawed the timber, and built a small house, into which they moved, but in 1851 he purchased a farm east of Paw Paw and moved into it, building a house and barn and making numerous improvements from year to year, but eventually sold it. In 1858 Mr. Bowen's brother died and the family moved East, so that he could take charge of affairs. During the following year, however, the family returned to Michigan, and here Mr. Bowen continued to carry on agricultural pursuits until his death, which occurred December 16, 1892. His widow died on September 30, 1911, in her eighty-ninth year. They had the following children: Mertice, widow of Mr. Harwick; George, who grew to manhood, married Miss Carrie Hamlin, and removed to Minnesota, where he died in 1896; Maria and Jerod, who died in 1858, within a few days of each other, of

Page  [unnumbered] I

Page  [unnumbered] DANIEL COY AND FAMILY

Page  737 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 737 scarlet fever; and Chauncey, who lives in Kalamazoo county. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Harwick, namely: Frank, who is now engaged in cultivating the home farm; Minnie, who is deceased; Grace, who is engaged in school teaching in the West; and Isa, the wife of Sheldon Coleman, of Lawton. DANIEL COY.-An enterprising and progressive farmer in times of peace and a valiant soldier to the limit of endurance under hardships and bravery in battle while the war drum of our Civil strife throbbed, Daniel Coy, of Paw Paw township, Van Buren county, has hearkened to the call of duty in every line of endeavor in which he has engaged, and faithfully performed his part in each. He has prospered in his fidelity, too, as he is now one of the substantial men of his locality, with a comfortable competence for life, which he has accumulated by his own efforts and ability. Mr. Coy was born and reared to the age of fifteen years in the East, and passed his boyhood in one of the most populous and interesting portions of that section of the country. But when he came West he had no difficulty in adapting himself to the change in conditions which he found here, as he has never had in getting in touch with his surroundings wherever he has been. His life began in Albany county, New York, on July 3, 1849, and he is a son of John and Margaret (M1cMechen) Coy, and the third of their seven children in the order of birth. The others are: James, who lives in Kalamazoo; Mary, the wife of John Boyd, also a resident of Kalamazoo; Louisa, the widow of the late Theodore Merwin of Van Buren county; Andrew, whose home is at Bloomingdale, this county; Jane, who has been dead a number of years; and John, who also lives at Bloomingdale. The parents were born, passed the last years of their lives and died in Bloomingdale, Michigan. The father was a farmer and mill man. Daniel Coy came to Michigan when he was fifteen years old and located at Lawton for a short time, then moved to Bloomingdale, working in mills at the latter place. The only education he obtained was secured in the common schools of his native county. From the time of his arrival in Michigan he was always too busy and too much in need of work to go to school while his school age lasted, but he took advantage of such means as were available to him for the improvement of his mind and the acquisition of useful information. Soon after the beginning of the Civil war he enlisted in Company A, Third Michigan Cavalry, under command of Captain Moyer. He was mustered into the service on July 22, 1861, and discharged on July 26, 1865. Hostilities were in rapid progress at the time of his enlistment, and his company was soon called into the field in an aggressive campaign against the forts on the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers which were held by the Confederate forces. Mr. Coy.was taken prisoner at the battle of Fort Donelson, but succeeded in making his escape soon afterward. From then until the close of the war he was in active service, and during the course of it took part in many engagements. He was mustered out at Springfield, Illinois, and at once returned to his home and went to work in a mill.

Page  738 738 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY After passing two years in this occupation lhe went again to Tennessee. But this time he was bent on no conquest except that of industrial prosperity; and bore no arms but those which nature had equipped him with in his ready and resourceful mind and strong and responsive body. IIe remained in Tennessee two years profitably engaged in farming, then sold his farm in that state and came back to Michigan. On his return to this state lie bought forty acres of land in Almena township, Van Buren county. In 1878 he sold this tract and bought forty acres in Waverly township, to which Ihe added forty more by a subsequent purchase. In 1891 he sold the eighty acres and purchased one hundred and forty-six in Paw 1Paw township, which he still owns, occupies and cultivates. tIe does general farming and raises and feeds live stock for the general market, and succeeds well in both lines of his business. Mr. Coy was married on November 26, 1877, to Miss Maly Thayer, a daughter of Zara, and Mary (Parker) Tlayer, the father a native of New Hampshire and the mother of Vermont. They came to Michigan in 1865 and located in Waverly township, Van Buren county, where the mother died on March 22, 1877, and the father on June 1, 1907. They were the parents of seven children, of whom Mrs. Coy was the fifth in the order of birth. The others who are living are: Maria, the wife of Ira Jenkins, of Cadillac, Michigan; and Orisa, the wife of William Markley of Gobleville, also in this state. Mary Jane, Joseph, Johannus and Addie have been dead for a number of years. Mr. and Mrs. Coy have seven children: Edward J., resides in Gobleville; their daughter Addie lives at Mattawan; their son Zara is a resident of Paw Paw; Joseph has his home in Cleveland, Ohio; and May, Daniel and Andrew are still living at home with their parents. The father is a Republican in his political faith and allegiance, and a Baptist in his church affiliation. He keeps alive the memory of his military service by active membership iti the Grand Army of the Republic, but recollects only its pleasant features without any of the bitterness of feeling he experienced when he was going through it. He stands well in the regard of the people of Van Buren county, and deserves their esteem and good will from every point of view. HENRY WAITE.-When a man has resided in a community for a number of years and has proven himself always industrious, energetic, responsible and public spirited, his death is keenly felt in the community and his place is not readily filled. Such a man was the late Henry Waite, who for many years was engaged in agricultural pursuits in Antwerp township, and was closely identified with the development of this part of Van Buren county. Mr. Waite was born September 10, 1825, in Washington county, New York, son of Green and Lida (Moon) Waite, also natives of The Empire state. Henry Waite was one of a family of fifteen children, all of whom grew to maturity, and he was only fifteen years of age when he left his home with his blankets on his back and the sum of ten dollars in his pocket. After a long and tedious journey on foot he arrived in Adrian, Michigan, his money meanwhile

Page  739 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN. COUNTY 7t39 having dwindled to two and one-half dollars, but after spending about two years and six months at that point he returned to New York. In 1847 he again came to Michigan, remaining only a short time, when he once more went to his home in the East, but in 1855 came to Michigail and purchased seventy acres of wild land in Van Buren county. Here he spent ten years of har(d, unremitting toil, and when he had succeeded in clearing his land and putting it under cultivation he disposed of it at a good profit and purchased eighty acres in Antwerp township, which he had increased to one hundred and thirty acres at the time of his death, January 6, 1888. His father had passed away in 1869 and his Inother in 1867. Mr. Waite's whole career was one which should encourage the youth of today in their efforts to gain a competence. Starting in life a poor boy, with but ordinary educational advantages and practically no assistance of a financial nature, he won success through the sheer force of his own industry and perseverance, and nmade a name and reputation for himself among the substantial mene of his community. Always alive to opportunities to better his own condition, lie was also considerate of the rights of others, and his honest (lealings witll those wlto were associated withl him in a t)usiness \wa\ won for Iilm the respect and friendship of his fellow townsmenl. On Ilarcl 26, 1850, Mr. Waite was united in marriage with Miss (Caroline MlcCrossen, who was born in New York state, l)ecemrber 5, 1831, daughter of natives of Ireland and New York, respectively, whose other children were: George, who is deceased; Ellen, the widow of George Owen, of Ontario county, New York; and Christopher, living in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Mr. and MArs. Waite had no children of their own, but became the parents of an adopted daughter, now the wife of Asa Sheldon, of Van lBuren county. AIr. and Mrs. Sheldon have two children: Asa Ford, born February 10, 1896; and Alma Marie, born September 25, 1903. MIr. Waite was a stanch Republican in politics, and a consistent member of the Christian church. Mrs. Waite survives her husband, and has reached the advanced age of eighty years, but is in the best of health and spirits and in possession of her full faculties. She is as well known in this vicinity as was her esteemed husband, and has many friends and acquaintances. DAVID LYTLE.-Industry, perseverance, intelligence and good judgment are the. price of success in agricultural work in these modern days of farming, when the hard, unremitting toil of former years has given away to scientific use of modern machinery and a knowledge of the proper treatment of the soil. Van Buren county, Michigan, has many skilled farmers who treat their vocation more as a profession than as a niere occupation, and take a justifiable pride in their accomplishments, and among these may be mentioned David Lytle, the owner of a well-cultivated tract of farming land located in Antwerp township. Mr. Lytle was born December 11, 1860, in Porter township, Van Buren county, and is a son of Dewitt Clinton and Mary Jane (Wilcox) Lytle. Dewitt Clinton Lytle, who was a native of the Empire state and

Page  740 740 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY a carpenter by trade, came to Michigan in the year 1853, settling on eighty acres of land on which the southern part of Lawton now stands. He engaged in agricultural pursuits, but after holding this property a short time, sold it to buy one hundred and sixty acres in Porter township, and to this he added from time to time, being the owner of eight hundred acres of valuable land at the time of his death, which occurred June 27, 1898. His wife, who was a native of Michigan, died February 18, 1904, having been the mother of the following children: Charles S., who resides in Porter township; David; John, also living in Porter township; Wilbur, who makes his residence in Lawton; N. Verne, the wife of Woodson N. Shaffer, of Paw Paw; and Robert, who is operating the old homestead in Porter township. The education of David Lytle was secured in the public schools in the vicinity of the old homestead, and he was reared to the life of an agriculturist, being early taught the value of industry, economy and clean living. He remained on the homestead farm with his parents until he was twenty-eight years old, at which time he started working for himself on a farm, and in 1892 he purchased his present farm of ninety-three acres, situated in section 9, Antwerp township. Mixed farming and fruit raising have claimed his attention, and he is one of the most progressive of farmers, being prompt to experiment with new methods oi devices. On February 20, 1889, Mr. Lytle was united in marriage with Miss Belle F. Ellison, daughter of Joseph and IMary Ellison, of Lawton, Michigan, and she died April 16, 1904, having been the mother of two children: Gladys M., who died in infancy; and Theo. Belle, who was born July 4, 1899. In his political belief Mr. Lytle is a Republican, and he takes an active interest in those movements which his judgment tells him will be of benefit to his community, although he has never aspired to public office. Fraternally he is a popular member of the M. W. A. He ranks high among the agriculturists of his section, and is known as a good neighbor and public-spirited citizen. EDWARD AARON MOREHOUSE.-Van Buren county is the home of some excellent citizens who have employed themselves in tilling the soil; many of them have spent their lives on the farm, but there are others who have been engaged in other lines and have returned to an agricultural vocation, and among these may be mentioned Edward Aaron Morehouse, who ranks high among the farmers of Antwerp township, a man of many sterling characteristics, and a public-spirited citizen whose influence is always cast in favor of those movements which have for their object the advancement or development of his county and township along any line. Born in Branch county, Michigan, Mr. Morehouse is a son of Daniel and Elizabeth Ann (Robinson) Morehouse. Mr. Morehouse is a direct descendant of Ethan Allen, the Revolutionary patriot, and the British spy, Major Andre, was captured on his grandfather's farm. The latter, Aaron Morehouse, was taken prisoner by the British on account of his Revolutionary tendencies and for quite a long period was made to work

Page  741 HISTORY OF VAN BI3REN COUNTY 741 at making clothes for the British soldiers. Daniel C. Morehouse, the father of Edward Aaron, was born February 13, 1815, in Ballston Spa, Saratoga county, New York, and came to Michigan in 1823, settling at Coldwater. He had begun to study with the idea of entering the legal profession. He was later admitted to the bar in New York state, but returned to Coldwater, where he practiced his profession until 1878, and for ten years served as justice of the peace. In the year nentioned he purchased a tract of eighty acres of farming land in Antwerp township, and here he continued to engage in farming and fruit growing until his death, May 7, 1896. His first wife, who bore the maiden name of Ann Robinson, died January 16, 1857, at Coldwater, having been the mother of two children: Edward Aaron; and George Amos, the latter born December 31, 1856, and died May 12, 1858. On November 24, 1858, Mr. Morehouse was married to Eunice Gager Graham, who now makes her home with her stepson, there having been no children born to her union with Mr. Morehouse. Edward Aaron Morehouse was reared to manhood in Coldwater, Michigan, and as a young man took up carriage painting, an occupation which he followed until his fathet lost his health, at which time he considered it his duty to return home and take charge of the farm. Since taking over the management, Mr. Morehouse has made numerous improvements, and has set out numerous fruit trees and grape vines. He is an excellent example of the live, progressive, up-to-date farmer of the twentieth century, who knows how to make his land pay him a good profit, and how to enjoy life among congenial surroundings. On May 3, 1876, Mr. Morehouse was married to Miss Clara Mead, daughter of Henry and Maria Mead, of Genesee county, New York, and she died May 3, 1877, leaving one child: Daniel M., now a resident of Seattle, Washington. On October 5, 1882. Mr. Morehouse was married to Mary Williams, who was born September 15, 1851, at Burr Oak, St. Joseph county, Michigan, daughter of Erastus and Lucy (Cummings) Williams, and a descendant of Chief Justice Waite. Two children have been born to this union: Harry E., born July 28, 1883, superintendent for Thompson & Starritt, contractors of Chicago; and Percy E., who was born July 20, 1900. Mr. Morehouse's political views are those of the Republican party. Iis fraternal connections are with the Masons, the Maccabees and the Eastern Star, and he and Mrs. Morehouse are consistent mnembers of the Congregational church. ANDREW H1. CAMPBELL.-Most immediately associated with the growth and character of any community are its business interests. They mold the life of the people, give direction to their efforts, and crystallize the present and future possibilities of the locality into concrete form. The leading business men of a town are its greatest benefactors, silently controlling the forces that bring progress and prosperity, and the measure of the credit that is due them is not always appreciated. To write of the lives of these leaders in material growth is a pleasure, for the influence of their careers is always helpful and cheering. When the deVol. II- 8

Page  742 742 HISTORY OF VAN BU1REN COUNTY velopment of Mattawan, Alichigan, is under discussion, one name is always mentioned, viz: that of Campbell, and one of the members of this family is Andrew H. Campbell, who as a business man has made his influence felt for many years, and always for the good of the community. Mr. Campbell was born in Portage township, Kalamazoo county, Michigan, March 24, 1861, and is a son of Hugh and Mary (Gilmore) Campbell, natives of Ireland. Hugh Campbell and his wife came to the United States in 1838 and settled in New York, from whence ten years later they made their way to Kalamazoo county, purchasing one hundred and twenty acres of farming land in Texas township, on which the remainder of their lives were spent, Mr. Campbell dying in 1882 and his widow in 1901. They were the parents of a family of twelve children, namely: John, of Eudora, Kansas; William, of Texas township, Kalamazoo county, and Mary Jane, deceased, twins; Ella, who died in infancy; Albert, who is acting in the capacity of sheriff of Kalamazoo county; Gilmore, residing in Everett, Washington; Sarah, who married L. C. Rix, of Texas township; Etta, whose death occurred in Minnesota in 1880; Andrew H.; Charles, who is president of the Michigan National Bank of Kalamazoo; Lizzie, who died in 1893, the wife of J. W. Budrow, editor of the Schoolcraft (Michigan) Express; and one child who died in infancy. Andrew II. Campbell was reared on the homestead farm, but at the age of twenty-four years, feeling that there were better opportunities offered in a mercantile career, he came to Mattawan and engaged in a general merchandise business with D. 0. Rix, with whom he was associated for fourteen years. He then purchased Mr. Rix's interests, and for four years conducted the business alone, at the end of that time entering the furniture, undertaking and real estate business, in which he has continued to the present time, in addition to engaging extensively in dealing in loans. Mr. Campbell is an excellent type of the old-school gentleman, and his sympathetic manner and tactful capability have made him welcome at many homes of mourning. His undertaking establishment is equipped with the most modern appliances and inventions, and he is admirably fitted to take charge of arrangements at the time when the Grim Reaper has made a visit to some home of sorrow. On December 3, 1882, Mr. Campbell was married to Carrie L. McElroy, daughter of Owen and Jane McElroy, and one child has been born to this union; Eva, the wife of George H. Murch of Mattawan. In his political belief Mr. Campbell is a Democrat, and the high esteem in which he is held by his fellow-townsmen has been evidenced by his election to various positions of honor and trust, including the offices of justices of the peace and town treasurer. Fraternally he is connected with the Masons and the M. W. A., and for twenty years he has been a consistent member and trustee of the Congregational church, to which Mrs. Campbell also belongs. EDWARD IH. HARVEY.-In studying the lives and characters of prominent men we are naturally led to inquire into the secrets

Page  743 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 743 of their success and the motives which have prompted their actions. Success is a matter of the application of experience and sound judgment at the right time and in the right manner. In almost every instance the successful men of any profession or line of business have attained success through persistent individual effort. Edward H. Harvey, one of the very successful men of Van Buren county, residing in the "finest house in Southern Michigan," in Antwerp township, has throughout his life exhibited the sterling traits of character which would have made him successful in whatever line of endeavor he found himself. I-e was born near Cazenovia, New York, February 11, 1845, and is a son of Reuben and Susan (Howlett) Harvey, natives of England. Mr. Harvey's parents came to the United States in 1836, settling in Madison county, New York, where the father remained until 1854. He then came to Michigan and later to the home of his son, Rev. Henry W. Harvey, and here he died August 25, 1903, having attained the remarkable age of ninety-seven years. His wife passed away June 21, 1892, having been the mother of twelve children, of whom five died in infancy; while the others are as follows: John and Mary, who are deceased; Edward H., Henry W., residing in Van Buren county; Clarence, living in Kalamazoo county; Elizabeth, the wife of James Miller, of Middleville, Michigan; and Alice, the wife of Professor A. J. Steel, of Coldwater, Michigan, who for many years was President of LeMoine Institute, Memphis, Tennessee, and is now traveling in Europe, being the recipient of a Carnegie pension for long service. He was also in the Civil war. Edward H. Harvey remained with his father until he was seventeen years of age, at which time he enlisted for service in the Civil war, becoming a member of the Seventh Michigan Cavalry, under Captain Alexander Walker, of Company A. lie entered the service at Prairieville, Michigan, in November, 1862, serving until December, 1864, when he was mustered out at Detroit. IHe was severely wounded at Hawes Shop, Virginia, and his right leg was amputated on the field of battle. After fortyeight hours of travel he was placed in an ambulance on a boat and in this manner taken to Washington, D. C., which city he reached June 4, 1864. He remained in the hospital until his recovery in November. After recuperating to some extent, Mr. Harvey entered the Prairie Seminary at Richland, Michigan, where he remained for two years, and then spent a like period in the college of Kalamazoo. For two years he was a student in the McCormick Theological Seminary, and he then went to the Union Theological Seminary, from which he was graduated in 1872, being ordained to the ministry of the Presbyterian church. He was called to Summit, New Jersey, for two years, and to Albion, Michigan, for four years, and in 1878 he started on a tour of Europe. After a year spent at Broadhead, Wisconsin, he was pastor at Augusta, Michigan, from 1881 until 1884, when he again made a tour of Europe, returning to fill the charge at Paw Paw. In 1890 he was appointed United States pension agent, by President Harrison, remaining at that place for four years.

Page  744 744 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY He then came to Paw Paw township and purchased sixty acres of land, on which he resided during the summer months, while his winters were spent in the south of California, and he then bought his present tract, a sixty-acre property, on which is located his magnificent modern two and one-half story residence. This residence, known as the "finest house in Southern Michigan," is built in old Colonial style, and is up-to-date in every respect, being equipped with running water, modern lavatories and acetylene gas for lighting. Mr. Harvey is the owner of one of the finest libraries in the state. In addition to preaching and lecturing, he has engaged somewhat in Republican politics and at various times has been offered the nomination for member of legislature and also for the office of state senator, being nominated the last time, in 1911. On September 26, 1881, Mr. Harvey was married to Florence Godfrey, daughter of Lyman and Laura Godfrey, of Battle Creek, Michigan, and five children were born to this union: Dr. W. L., of Battle Creek; Frank, residing in Chicago; Vietta, the wife of Arthur Blanchard, of Battle Creek; Grace, the wife of Charles Thomas, of Buffalo, New York; and Ferdinand, a railroad engineer of Ashland, Wisconsin. HENRY W. H-IARvEY, who during the past twenty years has been engaged in agricultural pursuits in Van Buren county, where lie owns an excellent tract of one hundred and forty acres of land, is a veteran of the Civil war, and for a long period was widely and favorably known as a preacher of the Gospel. Born in Cazcnovia, New York, April 2, 1847, Mr. Harvey is a son of Reuben and Susan (Ilowlett) Iarvey, natives of England. Mr. Harvey's parents came to the United States in 1836, settling first in Madison county, New York, and coming later to Michigan. In 1865 they settled in Richland, and there Mrs. Harvey passed away June 21, 1892, her husband surviving her until August 25, 1903, and attaining the remarkable age of ninety-seven years. They had a family of twelve children, of whom five died in infancy, while the others were: John and Mary, who are deceased; Edward, who is living in Van Buren county; Henry W.; Clarence, who lives in Kalamazoo county; Elizabeth, the wife of James Miller, of Middleville, Michigan; and Alice, the wife of Professor A. J. Steel, of Coldwater, Michigan. Professor Steel now draws a substantial pension from the Carnegie Fund for long service in LeMoine Institute, Memphis, Tennessee. Henry W. Harvey remained on his father's farm until he was sixteen years of age, and on September 22, 1863, he enlisted in Company H, Eleventh Michigan Cavalry, under Captain Henry Bewell. After a brave and faithful service, during which he participated in numerous hard-fought engagements, Mr. Harvey was mustered out of the service September 22, 1865, at Nashville, Tennessee, and returned to Michigan, joining his parents at their home in Richland. In 1867 he went to Kalamazoo College, and later attended Olivet College, from which lie wras graduated in 1867. He then spent a year in Yale College, New Haven, Connecticut, and a like period in the Presbyterian Theological Sem

Page  745 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 745 inary at Auburn, New York, from which he was graduated in 1877, and was ordained during the same year in the ministry of the Presbyterian church. During the next three years he had the charge at Wiliner, Minnesota, and after a European trip he returned to Michigan, locating in Paw Paw in 1880. After another seven years spent in the service of the church, he took a second trip to Europe, and on his return preached for four years in Allegan. In 1892 Mr. Harvey decided to turn his attention to agricultural pursuits, and since that time has been engaged in dairying and fruit-raising. His farm of one hundred and forty acres is most carefully cultivated, comparing favorably with any of its size in this part of the county, and most of the buildings and improvements have been put on the property by him. He is known to be a power in influencing his neighbors along the lines of good government, and his own reputation is beyond reproach. He is no politician, but is a studious and well-read man, alive to all of the leading topics of the day, and takes an interest in all matters pertaining to his community. Ile votes with the Republican party. On October 25, 1881, Mr. Harvey was united in marriage with Miss Isabella McEntee, daughter of Steven J. and Mary Jane (Ferguson) McEntee, natives of New York, and they have had two children: Edith, born March 17, 1883, the wife of Harry C. Marvin, of Augusta, Michigan; and Lloyd, who resides at home, born November 17, 1887. The comfortable residence of the Harvey family is located on Paw Paw Rural Route No. 3, where the many friends of this worthy family are always welcome. J. E. SEBRING.-The banking interests of any community are so important and play such a prominent part in the financial life of the people that naturally the greater care is taken in the selection of those in whose hands the affairs of the banks are placed. Bangor, Michigan, located as it is in the midst of a rich farming section, handles a large amount of money, and its bank officials must be men of experience, as well as of unblemished business records. The West Michigan Savings Bank of Bangor is to be congratulated for the record of its president, J. E. Sebring, long identified with the business interests of Bangor as proprietor of the Sebring House. Mr. Sebring was born June 10, 1853, in Lawton, Michigan, and is a son of Horace and Eunice (Harper) Sebring, the former a native of New York and the latter of Ohio. Horace Sebring, who in early life was a railroad man, came to Michigan in 1850, and about 1857 established himself in the hotel business at Lawton. He had a successful career at that place, but in 1869 decided to come to Bangor, and subsequently traded his Lawton property for a hostelry in Bangor, which he named the Sebring House and conducted for nine years, or until his death. His widow now makes her home in Paw Paw, where she is one of the venerable and highly respected residents.. They had a family of three children, namely: J. E.; Sarah, who married Peter McKeller, of Paw Paw; and Charles, who is deceased.

Page  746 746 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY J. E. Sebring attended school at Olivet, Michigan, and as a youth assisted his father in the hotel, with which he has been connected for thirty years. He also spent four years as an employe of the Bank of Bangor, and in 1892 he was elected president of the West Michigan Savings Bank, a position which he has since held. President Sebring has always taken an active part in securing the promotion of enterprises calculated to build up his city, and has never been sparing of either time or money to effect such improvements. He is one of the soundest business men his community has known, displaying that sense of values and ability to economize that bring success in almost every case, and since 1892, when he accepted the presidency, the deposits of the institution have advanced from sixty-five thousand dollars to more than four hundred thousand dollars. As a citizen he stands equally high, and the confidence in which he is held by his fellowcitizens has been evidenced by his election to the offices of township treasurer and village treasurer, in both of which capacities he acted with marked ability. In political matters he is a stalwart Republican and one of the influential party men of his section of Van Buren county. President Sebring is a prominent Mason, belonging to the Benton Harbor Commandery and the Grand Rapids Shriners. On December 17, 1878, Mr. Sebring was married to Miss Clara J. Stebbins, daughter of William H. and Emily Stebbins, natives of New York state, and two children have blessed this union: Myron, of Bangor, and Clara J. CLIFTON B. CHARIES.-One of the most extensive land holders in all Van Buren county is that well-known gentleman, Clifton B. Charles, whose holdings consist of -two thousand one hundred and seventy acres, located in the state of Washington and in Van Buren county, Michigan. He is one of the Successful farmers who believes that the oldest of the industries presents one of the richest fields of scientific endeavor, and he has proved the truth of this by bringing his acres to the highest possible point of productiveness and managing so well that the resources of the soil bring the best possible results. He does not keep his convictions to himself, but has proved one of the most able and original of lecturers. He was formerly engaged in banking. Mr. Charles was born in Allegany county, New York, June 21, 1857, the son of David K. Charles, a farmer, and his wife, Caroline M. (Barnum) Charles. The father was a native of Ireland, born March 25, 1829, and the mother of New York. The former came to America in 1841, when twelve years of age, making the voyage with an uncle and locating in Angelica, New York. Of his immediate family he was the first to come to this country, his father, mother and the rest of the family coming ten years later. David K. Charles came to Michigan in 1866 and located in Bangor, where he learned the various departments of farming, and he was a merchant for many years, later becoming a farmer. He is an extensive holder of real estate, and has erected no less than twenty-two buildings in Bangor. At one time he owned within the boundaries of Bangor township five hundred and twenty

Page  747 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 747 acres and at the present he retains a fine estate, consisting of two hundred and thirty-six acres. This is now given over to general farming. He is now retired and living, at a very advanced age, in Bangor, where in leisure he enjoys the fruits of previous industry and thrift. His cherished and devoted wife, who was born June 27, 1830, was called to her eternal rest November 27, 1897. By his union with his first wife, whose maiden name was Caroline M. Barnum, Mr. Charles, the elder, became the father of four children, namely: Amelia, who died in childhood; Emma, wife of T. T. McNitt, of Bangor; Clifton B.; and Hattie, who died November 18, 1910, wife of William Taylor, of Bangor. Mr. Charles married for his second wife the widow of Mitchell Ustick. By her union with Mr. Ustick she had these five children: May, wife of Charles Williams, of Greeley, Colorado; Myrtle, wife of Phillip Slaughter, of Bangor; Julia, wife of Charles Cross, of Bangor; Carl, of Victor, Colorado; and John P., now resident in Grand Junction, Colorado. Clifton B. Charles received his preliminary education in Bangor and for four years attended the Agricultural College at Lansing. Upon the completion of his education he came home and rented two hundred and forty acres, which he continued to operate fIor fourteen years, and meantime became a landholder by the purchase of two hundred and eighty acres near McDonald. It was new land and he commenced clearing it in 1880 and when he sold it in 1898 he had brought it to a high state of improvement. In the year 1898 Mr. Charles entered upon an entirely new field of endeavor, in that year starting a private bank in Bangor and becoming a director in the same. He subsequently sold this to the West Michigan Savings Bank and took a position in the new consolidation as cashier. He continued in this office until 1901, when he disposed of this interest and removed to Sprague, Washington, where, in association with Anson Goss, of Bangor, he organized a bank. He remained in the far west for two years, but the charms of Michigan were by no means forgotten and he returned to Bangor and invested in numerous tracts of land. Mr. Charles was married February 25, 1882, the lady of his choice being Ionia F. Grills, daughter of Henry S. and Sarah (Roberts) Grills, the former a native of Kentucky and the latter of Indiana. Mr. and Mrs. Grills were the parents of the following eight children: James A., deceased; Cynthia, wife of Amos Ellabarger, of Cambridge City, Indiana; Rebecca, widow of E. Quakenbush, of Van Buren county; Mirs. Charles; Loretta, wife of F. McLane, of Cambridge City, Indiana; and three younger children who died in infancy. After the death of Mrs. Charles' mother in 1863, her father married again, Miss Susan (Keesey) Church becoming his wife, and seven children were born to them, namely: Serena, of Indiana.; Mahala, deceased; May, of Indiana; Lenora, of Kansas City, Missouri; Calfina, deceased; Vernia, of Indiana; and Leroy, a surgeon, of Hastings, Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Charles have one daughter, Jennie S., now the wife of Guy B. Findley, of Elyria, Ohio. Mr. Charles pays allegiance to the men and measures of the Republican party. He is a member of the time-honored Masonic

Page  748 748 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY order and in his own life follows its noble teachings. He is also affiliated with the Maccabees. His wife is a member of the Christian church, and both are held in the highest confidence and esteem in the community. Upon the state college, Mr. Charles had the honor to be one of the six to receive the degree of Master of Agriculture. He, in fact, was the second to receive that degree from the Michigan Agricultural College. For four seasons he has lectured throughout the state on agricultural subjects. F. D. NEWBRE.-The fruit-growers of Van Buren county have always kept their standard high; no other county in the state can boast of larger or better crops, and this may be explained by the fact that in addition to being a class of energetic, progressive and industrious men, the Van Buren citizens have been quick to grasp modern ideas and to make use of the latest and most highly improved machinery and implements. F. D. Newbre, whose successful operations have placed him in the front rank of fruit-growers of Van Buren county, is the owner of a fine farm of ninety-six acres, located in section 22. He is a native of Erie county, New York, and was born October 20, 1850, a son of David and Pamnelia (Stearns) Newbre. David Newbre, who was a shoe maker by occupation, and a native of New York state, died in the East in 1890, and his wife, also born in the Empire state, survived him until 1901. They were the parents of four children, namely: Adelbert, who is deceased; F. D.; Martha, the wife of George Brinley, of Jamestown, New York; and Franklin, who resides in Mississippi. F. D. Newbre remained at his father's home until he was nineteen years of age, at which time he took up carpentry as a trade and followed it until his marriage in 1876, when he began the manufacture of cheese. He continued to reside in the East until 1888, in which year he made his way to Michigan and first settled in Cass county, where for nine years he was engaged in the windmill business. He was also employed in a drill works for eight years there, but in 1901 came to Van Buren county and purchased' his present ninety-six acre farm in section 22, Antwerp township, where he has since been engaged in fruit cultivation. Progressive to a high degree, Mr. Newbre has done much towards raising the standard of his occupation, and it is such men that the farming communities need-men who keep abreast of the times and do not hesitate to improve every opportunity to improve their land and to rear their families in comfort and plenty. On January 4, 1876, Mr. Newbre was married to Miss Cynthia Brindley, whose parents died when she was a child of four years, and to this union there have been born five children, as follows: May, the wife of Joseph Burke, of California; Robert, residing in Kalamazoo, Michigan; Edith, the wife of Clyde Fuller, of Porter township; Lynn, who is assisting his father on the farm; and Olive, residing at home. Mr. Newbre is a Republican in his political views, and for six years served very acceptably as school director of Antwerp township. Fraternally he is connected with the Tribe of Ben Hur, and his religious affiliation is with the

Page  749 HISTORY OF VAN IBUREN COUNTY 749 Methodist church. Mr. Newbre and his family reside in a coinfortable residence situated on Lawton Rural Route No. 3. CLAIR G. HALL.-Some of the most successful farmers of Van Buren county are those of the younger generation, who are now profiting from the sacrifices made for them by the pioneers who braved innumerable hardships and privations to secure homes for their families in the new country. One of the progressive young agriculturists of section 24, Antwerp township, is Clair G. Hall, who was born at Lawrence, Van Buren county, October 11, 1881, a son of Gilbert and Anna (French) Hall, the former a native of Oswego county, New York, and the latter of Canada. Gilbert Hall came to Michigan from the Empire state at an early day, first settling on one hundred and sixty acres of land in Cass county, farming this land in connection with following the trade of cooper until 1896, in which year he came to Van Buren county, settling in Lawrence, where he followed his trade of cooper. He later moved to Decatur, whlere he followed farming and the same trade, and in 1896 moved to section 24, Antwerp township, where he purchased eighty acres of land. IHere he followed general farmiing until his death, which occurred in August, 1904, and his widow still survives and makes her home at Kalamazoo. They were the parents of four children: Ida, who is living in Arizona; Minnie, who is the wife of C. J. Stuyvesant, of Van Buren county; Etta, the wife of Artlur Conklin, of Kalamazoo; and Clair G. Clair G. Hall received his education in the public schools of Decatur, and remained on the home farm in Antwerp township assisting his father until the latter's death, at which time he fell heir to the property. He is now engaged in raising grapes, and has brought to his work that enthusiasm that is bound to make for success. Enterprising and energetic, he is always ready to make experiments and to test new innovations, and the satisfactory results already obtained by him speak well for his progressive spirit. Mr. Hall has also been before the public as an auctioneer, and his pleasant personality, his jovial, friendly manner, and the faculty of introducing real witticisms into his speeches has made him much sought after by those wishing to dispose of goods by auction. In political matters he favors the principles of the Republican party, and his fraternal connection is with the Modern Woodmlen of America, in which he is very popular. Mr. Hall was married to Miss Lena Eager, the estimable daughter of Orlando and Jennie Eager. Mrs. Hall's parents had four children, as follows: Lena, who married Mr. Hall; John, who lives in Detroit; William, residing in Almena township; and Iazel, who married Winnie Fisk, of that township. Mr. and Mrs. Hall have had two children: Pauline, born July 5, 1903, and Gilbert, born October 31, 1907. C. F. HOSMER.-In the life and career of C. F. Hosmer, one of the substantial business citizens of Mattawan, Michigan, there is to be found much to encourage the youth of this generation, and

Page  750 750 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY no better example could be placed before the ambitious young men of today of success finally gained after the most disheartening discouragements. Starting in life as the proprietor of a small business establishment, he worked his way up to a point where success seemed just in reach, only to have his years of labor destroyed with a single hour, and when, nothing daunted, he had reached comfortable circumstances for a second time, his earnings were again lost through no fault of his own. With the courage and perseverance that have been the foundation for the fortunes of all successful business men, he made a new start, and now may be ranked among the substantial men of his community and a factor to be reckoned with in the business world. Mr. Hosmer was born July 18, 1856, in Edwards, St. Lawrence county, New York, and is a son of Charles and Lura (Church) Hosmer, natives of Vermont. Mr. Hosmer's father, who was a mechanic, came to Michigan in 1865, and there resided at Coopersville until his death, in 1889, his widow surviving until 1898. They had two children: C. F. and Sherman E., the latter of Ottawa county, Michigan. C. F. Hosmer remained in Coopersville until 1879, in which year he was married, and then engaged in the mercantile business, which he continued to conduct until 1894. In that year he started the first grocery in Coopersville, but on July 22, 1898, a fire destroyed his entire stock, and he subsequently went to Hammond, Indiana, where he was in the same business for one year. Returning to Coopersville, in 1900 he embarked in the milling business, which he continued for four years, and in 1904 came to Mattawan and bought the general merchandise stock of W. C. Mosier, and was successfully engaged in business until December, 1908, when he was again wiped out by fire. He then started a general merchandise store, which he later sold to Ryan Brothers, and in 1909 went to Rockford, Michigan, and formed a partnership with E. L. Prichard in the grocery business, but during August of that year sold out and went to Lowell, where he was interested in the same line. In February, 1910, Mr. Hosmer returned to Mattawan, and here he has since carried on a successful general merchandise establishment. Mr. Ilosmer is a mian who makes friends easily and keeps them a lifetime; he is enterprising and progressive in his ideas and is quick to recognize an opportunity and to grasp it; and his inherent business ability has never been questioned, but all of these would have counted for naught were it not for the fact that he has never allowed himself to be discouraged, no matter how dark the outlook, nor how great have been his misfortunes. He has gone steadily forward, rebuilding his fortune each time it has been swept away, showing an indomitable spirit that refuses to be broken, and earning the respect and esteem of his fellow men by the very earnestness of his endeavors. On March 29, 1879, Mr. Hosmer was married to Miss Effie Dickinson, who died December 22, 1903. On January 26, 1905, he was married to Jennie Meredith. There have been no children to either union. Mr. Hosmer is a popular member of the F. and A. M. and the I. O. O. F., and in his political views takes an independent stand.

Page  751 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 751 C. E. BURDICK.-In every community there are men who by reason of their ability stand out from their fellows. Upon such men many cares devolve; they are the center of activity; it is their brains and money that are back of the important enterprises, whether public or private, and to them belongs the credit of progress gained. Van Buren county has its full quota of these progressive citizens, public-spirited individuals who are always ready to cast their influence with movements that will benefit their communities, and among these may be mentioned C. E. Burdick, business man and agriculturist of Mattawan, and one of his section's best known men. Mr. Burdick's birth occurred July 28, 1861, at Kalamazoo, Michigan, and he is a son of William H. and Harriet (Putnam) Burdick, the latter a direct descendant of the famous Revolutionary hero, General Israel Putnam. William H. Burdick, a native of New York state, brought his family to Michigan at an early day, settling in Kalamazoo, where until 1868 he was the proprietor of a shoe establishment. In the year mentioned he came to Mattawan, purchasing fifty acres of farming land, and there he was engaged in agricultural pursuits until his death, in 1896, his widow surviving him until 1903. They were the parents of two children: William HI., of Shaftsburg, Michigan, who has been an employe of the Grand Trunk Railroad for the past twenty-five years; and C. E. C. E. Burdick was twenty-one years of age when he entered the employ of the Michigan Central Railroad Company, and for the following twenty-one years he was engaged in railroad work at various stations throughout this part of the country, but eventually located in Mattawan and took up farming for four years. He then entered the mercantile field at Mattawan. in which city he makes his home, although he is still interested in farming and owns a well-cultivated tract of eighty acres of land. He has been active in Democratic politics, serving as school director for a number of years, and was a prominent factor in the consolidation of the school district, the school building here being the finest in the county. He is a popular member of the Masons, the I. O. F. and the M. W. A., and his religious connections is with the Congregational church, of which his wife is also a consistent member. Thoroughly conversant with farming conditions and possessing much business ability, Mr. Burdick has made a success in both lines, and is regarded as one of his community's subtantial citizens. Mr. Burdick was married to Miss Susan McClintock, a former schoolmistress of Shiawassee county, and to this union there has been born one son: Gordon C., January 21, 1909. NATHAN THOMAS.-Beginning life as an Iowa farmer, following a short experience in this useful and invigorating occupation with more than three years' service as a Union soldier during the Civil war, and since then variously occupied as a farmer, a merchant, a public official and again as a farmer, Nathan Thomas, of Paw Paw, has seen life under many conditions and been tried in many pursuits. In all his manhood has shown himself to be sterling, his courage and self-reliance have come out strong under

Page  752 752 HIlSTORY OF VAN IUREN COUNTY the tests and his citizenship has always been of the most sturdy, patriotic and serviceable character, a credit to himself and the people among whom lie has exhibited in and exercised its rights and functions. Mr. Thomas was born at Newgarden, Ohio, on December 19, 1837, and is a son of Ienry and Sarah (Johns) Thomas, the former a native of North Carolina and the latter of Ohio. The father died in 1858 and the mother in 1883. They were the parents of ten children: Rachel. who has been dead for a number of years; Jesse, who resides at Hartford in this county; Elizabeth, the wife of Joseph Shafer, of Homeworth, Ohio; Nathan, the immediate subject of this brief review; Stanton, whose home is in Alliance, Ohio; Maria, the widow of John Kerns, who lives at Winona, Ohio; Phebe Ann, who has been dead some years; Franklin, who is also deceased; Edwin. who is a resident of Winona, Ohio; and Kersey, who died several years ago. In the spring of 1861 Nathan Thomas came West to Cedar county, Iowa, and worked on a farm by the. month during tlhe summer. In the fall he felt impelled by a strong sense of duty to go to the assistance of the government in its effort to prevent the forcible dismemberment of the Union, and on October 28th enlisted in the Tenth Kansas Infantry, under Captain Foreman. In this regiment he served three years, being much in active service and taking part in numerous engagements, the most important of which was the battle of Prairie Grove. Mr. Thomas was mustered out of the army in St. Louis at the end of his term in 1864 and returned to his Ohio home. He remained there all winter, but not wholly inactive. He helped to organize a company for further service in the war, which was still in progress, and went with it into camp on March 5, 1865. He was the first lieutenant of his company, and the regiment of which it formed a part was the One Hundred and Ninety-first Ohio Volunteer Infantry. The regiment proceeded to Winchester, Virginia, but the war closed before it saw any active field work. Mr. Thomnas was again mustered out of the service, this time at Columbus, Ohio, and once more he returned to his former home. In 1866 he was married and at once set up a d(omestic shrine on land which he rented for farming purposes, and during the next two years was busily and profitably employed in tilling the soil. An opening in mercantile life attracted him at the end of the time named, and he embraced it, starting a grocery store at Winona, Ohio, which he conducted for one year, or thereabouts. In 1870 he came to Michigan and located at Hartford in this county. He passed the first year in farming, and then again went into business as a merchant, selecting the hardware. trade as his line on this occasion, and adhering to it about seven years. At the end of that period he was appointed postmaster of Hartford and sold his hardware business. Soon afterward he moved to Paw Paw, having been elected sheriff of Van Buren county. He filled this office four years, then returned to Hartford and was again appointed postmaster. He held the office until after the; election of Mr. Cleveland to the presidency, and on the appointment of his successor, bought a farm of sixty acres in the vicinity

Page  753 IISTORY OF VAN IBUREN COUNTY 7.53 of Hartford. This lie cultivated for two years, when lie was once more elected sheriff, and again held the office four years. When his term closed he turned his attention to farming again, but continued to reside in Paw Paw, where he still owns a home, although he is now living on a farm belonging to one of his sons, located in section twelve. Paw Paw township, and distant from the city about one and one half miles. On March 1, 1866, Mr. Thomas was married to Miss Rebecca A. Votaw, a daughter of Moses and Mary Votaw, old settlers in Ohio. Five children have been born of the union, and four of them are living: Mary V., who is the widow of the late Albro A. Whitcomb and lives with her father; Wesley J. and Lester, twins, the former, who has also served as sheriff, living in Paw Paw and the latter deceased; Emmnet E., a resident of Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Jesse B., who is a commercial traveler. Mr. Thomas is a firm and faithful Republican in his political faith, and is loyally attached to the principles of his party and a zealous worker in its behalf. His services are energetic and effective, and are highly appreciated by both the leaders of the party and its rank and file. Fraternally he is'a Free Mason and a member of the Grand Army of the Republic. lie takes an earnest interest in the affairs of his lodge in the Masonic order and his post in the Grand Army of the Republic. aiding their good work by all the means available to him, as he does every worthy enterprise for tile good of his city and county. ROY HINCKLEY. —Among the prominent business men of Hartford, and highly respected as a citizen who has always shown an interest in whatever has been advanced to increase the genera] welfare of the county, is Roy Hinckley, the proprietor of a thriving livery business. He was born in Paw Paw township. Vain Buren county, on May 3, 1876, the son of J. Henry and Halrriett (Webb, Hinckley. J. Henry was the son of Asa G. Hinckley, who was of direct English descent. Roy Hinckley was one in a family of ten children, five sons and five daughters. He was reared on the farm until lie was eighteen, and was educated in the district schools and in the Paw I'aw high school. He was variously employed up to 1908. In that year, at the outbreak of the Spanisl-Amlericaln war, he enlisted with the Second Regiment of MIichigan Volunteer Infantry at Battle Creek, Michigan. I-e went with his regiment to Cuba, and was present in the engagement at Santiago. He was on the island from June until August, and was then mustered out at Anniston, Alabama, receiving a plension of six dollars per' month. He returned to Paw Paw. In 1899 lie came to Harvard and embarked in the livery business. On March 27, 1901, Mr. Hincklev was united in marriage to Mrs. Nina Hewitt, who was born in Hartford, Michigan, January 21, 1873, the daughter of A. E. and Julia (Olds) Reynolds. A. E. Reynolds was born in the Dominion of Canada on August 8, 1826 and came with his parents to Ypsilanti, Michigan, when he was twelve years old, later coming to Hartford when it was still a patch of woodland. He took up farming, but later rented his farm and established himself in a general store, one of the first

Page  754 754 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY enterprises of the sort in the town. It was he who built the Reynolds Block, in which the first opera house was located. He was a public spirited man and did much to promote the growth and prosperity of Hartford. He died in June, 1910, and his wife passed away in 1896. He and his wife were the parents of six children, of whom five are still living in 1911: Emma, who is now the wife of Dan Iubbard and lives in Chicago, Illinois; Clara, who is now Mrs. Henry Nichols, of Chattanooga, Tennessee; Otta Reynolds, who lives in Chicago; William Reynolds; and Nina, the wife of Roy IIinckley, was educated in the public schools of Iartford and in the Catholic school at Logansport, Indiana. Mrs. Hinckley was first married to Mr. Hewitt, and by him had one son, Harry Hewitt, eighteen years old, who is a graduate of the Hartford high school and is now in his second year at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. Mr. Hinckley is a stanch Republican and is the constable of the township. He owns the fine modern home on Maple street which he and his wife have made so popular by their pleasant hospitality. CHARLES DE WITT 1LAWTON.-The death of Charles De Witt Lawton, w\hich occurred August 24, 1909, removed from Michigan a man who had long been prominent in the state's political, scientific and intellectual life, but who left behind the memory and influence of a life work that is a bequest of value to the commonwealth. Mr. Lawton was born in Rome, New York, November 4, 1835. The son of Nathan and Esther (Wiggins) Lawton, he was of strictly English descent and of martial ancestry, his paternal and maternal grandfathers having been Revolutionary soldiers in New York and New England regiments. The family is one of the oldest in the country. The original American Lawtons came from.Lawton, England, in 1.636, settling in Rhode Island as colonists under Roger Williams. The records of that colony give ample evidence of the distinguished and formative services rendered by them both previous to and during the Revolution. That those family traits have not been lost is proved by the recent record of Mr. Lawton's nephew, Major Louis B. Lawton, who, for his bravery at Tien Tsin in bringing relief to the American forces through the open fire of Chinese bullets, was awarded a medal by Congress. Mr. Lawton's paternal grandfather settled in HIerkimer county, New York, in 1794, and his father, Nathan Lawton, moved from there to Auburn, New York, where for many years he was a wellknown and influential citizen. Mr. Lawton's early life was passed in Herkimer county and in the city of Auburn, where he attended Auburn Academy. In 1858 he was graduated, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, from IUnion College at Schenectady, which in that day was one of the largest American colleges. One year after his graduation he received the degree of Civil Engineer, and some time later that of Master of Arts. He then returned to his home city, Auburn, and with his brother George W. (the late Judge Lawton), took charge of Auburn Academy. Academies in those days comprised a large share of the higher educational institutions. Many students were enrolled who have since become

Page  755 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 755 famous, among them Hon. Sereno Payne of New York. Mr. Lawton's influence and friendship with them was life-long. In 1861 Mr. Lawton married Miss Lucy Lovina Latham, daughter of Oliver Sanford and Lucy Maria (Eastman) Latham, of Seneca Falls, New York. Mr. Latham was a prominent contractor and builder, and, associated with his three brothers, was the builder of many government locks, bridges, canals and custom houses. In 1865, his health not being good and advised by physicians to go West, Mr. Lawton, with Mrs. Lawton, removed to the village of Lawton, Van Buren county, Michigan, where his father owned a great quantity of land and which had received his name. He concluded to make his home here, and from that time on his interests have been identified with the growth of Michigan, with its mining interests, its agricultural interests and its development in every way, for Mr. Lawton was primarily and essentially the best of citizens. To Mr. and Mrs. Lawton were born nine children: Charles Latham, general manager of the Quincy & Adventurer Mining Company of Hancock, Michigan; Nathan Oliver, superintendent of the Miami mine at Globe, Arizona; Frederick Percy, a physician at Traverse City, Michigan; Swaby Latham, of the law firm of Hanchette & Lawton, at Hancock; Eugene Wright, of San Antonio, Texas; Margaret Brooks; Rebecca Estella; Marion Agnes, wife of Dr. Thomas J. Swantz, of South Bend, Indiana; rand Gertrude Genevieve, wife of Clarence R. Van Vleck, of Jackson, Wyoming. The family home has long been an intellectual and social center, owing much to the culture, accomplishments, dignity and charm of Mrs. Lawton, who has wielded a sympathetic influence in the growth and progress of the town. Mr. Lawton's brilliant mentality soon won for him a prominent place in his community, and there early were recognized in him those qualities which won for him so many successes in after life. Together with his brother George W., who had preceded him to Lawton two years, and the late Nathan Bitely, he embarked in Ihe nursery business and began the cultivation of grapes, which has since grown into such a magnificent industry. Finding the soil to be of a sandy nature and seemingly unproductive, they began to investigate in a small way, until the growing of grapes became widespread. The first big planting was done by Mr. Lawton in 1865 and 1866, when he put out five thousand vines secured at Geneva, in the famous grape district of New York. However, Mr. Lawton was a man of varied interests. He was prominent in establishing a blast-furnace in Lawton for the manufacture of charcoal pig-iron from Lake Superior ores. In 1870 Mr. Lawton was appointed assistant professor of engineering at the University of Michigan. From the university he spread into practical work, and in 1872 and 1873 assisted Major T. B. Brooks in the geological survey of the Marquette Iron region and the Menominee Range, where so much wealth was then discovered. He continued in the work of developing the Upper Peninsula, and in 1877 and 1878 assisted his nephew, the late Charles E. Wright, in the field work and in the preparation of his

Page  756 756 IHISTORY OF VAN 3BUREN COUNTY report as commissioner of mineral statistics, eventually taking over the active duties of the mining department and writing the immensely valuable reports of 1880, 1881 and 1882. In 1884 Governor Alger offered him the position of state geologist, but he preferred to continue his work as commissioner of mineral statistics, publishing each year a report covering the mines and mineral interests of the state. This office, a purely scientific one, he held until 1891, and his reports for the years of his tenure of it are now much sought for and prized by men in all parts of the world who are interested in Michigan geology and Michigan mines, as they were and still are absolutely to be relied on. His knowledge of the mineral ranges of the Northern Peninsula was vast, and his ready pen made his reports not merely technical but delightful to read. Mr. Lawton was never a permanent resident of the Upper Peninsula, but his numerous visits to the copper and iron region, his interest in geology and his friendship for the early mining men of that section made him in spirit one of them, and the Northern Peninsula was always glad to claim him as one of its loyal friends. In the meantime he never relinquished his interests at home and throughout Van Buren county. Practically all the county was surveyed by him, and he nade the first and the sulsequent surveys for what was known as the Narrow Gauge Railroad. In this way he had an intimate and wide acquaintance with all parts of the county and with all its residents. His notes and surveys, because of their accuracy, would, if published and edited, be a valuable reference in the archives of the county. M\r. Lawton always retained his interest in fartming. Besides the running of his fruit farm, lie owned and managed a grain farm in Porter township, and was always an active and a large contributing mnemnber to the various horticu ltura] and agricultural societies of the county and state; and beinlg a fluent writer, lie was a frequent contributor to the various journals. Iis father a Whig before hilm, Mr. Lawton was always a staunch Republican, one of the noble old Romans who laid the foundations for the new Republican party under the oaks of,Jackson. As an intrepid Abolitionist he cast his first vote for Fremont, and was an advocate of the nomination of William II. Seward for the presidency at the time of Lincoln's nomination; as he and Mr. Seward were fellow-townsmen and friends. Mr. Lawton's father was a delegate to the national Republican convention at that time. \Mr. Lawton was always actively interested in county, state and national politics. In county and state conventions he led the list of delegates, and ever exercised a potent influence. He was an easy speaker as well as a vigorous and fearless writer, and his speech-making tours throughout the state made him a familiar figure to thousands. He was an honorary mnember of the United States Historical Society and of many Michigan state organizations formed for the betterment and enlightenment of the people. In 1897-the only election in which Mr. Lawton figured as a candidate-he was elected on the Republican ticket by a large majority regent of the University, which office he held eight years. Probably few men had his love for educational institutions or

Page  757 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 757 were better fitted to help govern them. He was especially endowed with a keen mentality, a broad insight, a scholarly and well furnished mind, for he was a man of much learning and vast information, all of which made him a valuable public servant. Always ready to be of service to his fellow-citizens as well as to his state, for thirty years he was a member of the school board of his village and gave to his duties as such the same degree of attention and interest that he devoted to other claims upon his time or faculties. Mr. Lawton was a man of great versatility and a rare diversity of gifts. Handicapped at the outset of early manhood with a weak side, and often enduring severe pain, he, nevertheless, manifested an ever restless and intense diligence in the attainment of knowledge or in the pursuance of some line of work. He was a natural student and possessed a remarkable memory. In his later years, during his hours of recreation, he was always to be seen reading in the original some French, German, Spanish or Italian classic. Mr. Lawton was the ideal American citizen. While discriminating in his friendships and scholarly in his tastes, he was, however, democratic in his ideas, sympathetic and approachable toward all. He was a man of the soundest judgment, wholly sane, unbiased and unprejudiced in his views, of the highest character, uncompromisingly honest, broadly charitable, genial in his nature and delightful in his home. To quote from the True Northerner: "Those who knew Mr. Lawton best appreciated his sterling worth and rare diversity of gifts. 'IHe knew so much,' was the heartfelt testimonial of a discriminating and eminent friend. Yet, after a life-time of study, his wisdom was never paraded for applause, but treasured to himself, save when friendship or service called it forth. He was ever the most modest of men. "No citizen of our state was better posted on the current questions of the day, and few were better equipped in the classics. Concerning the most momentous issues, as with the commonest practical affairs, his opinion was lucid and his judgment sound. The record Mr. Lawton made in mastering the geological status of Upper Michigan is a tribute to his intelligence and industry, and his long time official association with the affairs of our State University is one of the most notable achievements of his public career. In all his connection with the varied affairs of his busy life, no hint of dishonesty, incompetence or slightest shade of selfseeking was ever heard. His family and neighborhood life was simple, kindly and pure. Sturdy and straightforward, frank and fearless, he did what he thought was right, and left judgment of consequences to a higher tribunal than the vacillating opinions of men. "The men of Mr. Lawton's generation, with whom he so long affiliated, have, for the most part, passed from the stage of action. But the impress of their rugged honor and stalwart courage has been left as a legacy for those who succeed them. The life-work, the influence, the memory of such a man as Charles D. Lawton are a bequest of value to the commonwealth and will be appreciated for their actual value and increasing worth." Vol. II-9

Page  758 758 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY In every field Mr. Lawton was recognized as a leader, a man among men, and one who will leave his impress upon his adopted state. The good he has done cannot be estimated, and his children, friends and fellow-citizens have a priceless legacy in the memory of his life. He was the fifth in order of birth of the seven children of his parents, all of whom are now deceased. The others were Eliza, Nathan, Esther, George W., Albert W. and one who died in infancy. Mrs. Lawton was the first born of the nine children who blessed and brightened her parental home. All but her and her brother William Arthur Swaby, of Syracuse, New York, have passed away. Her sisters and brothers who have died were: Gertrude Isadore, Oliver Sanford, Sanford, Jessie Maria, Stephen Eastman, Margaret Aurelia and Marion Agnes. GEORGE W. CLEMENTS.-Enjoying general honor and esteem in the community in which he is best known and to whose interests he has ever shown a whole-hearted and helpful loyalty is George W. Clements, a pioneer farmer of Lawrence township, Van Buren county. Now in the pleasant evening of life he can look back over the busy well-spent years with satisfaction and has leisure to cultivate the acquaintance of his hosts of friends. Mr. Clements is of English birth, his eyes having first opened to the light of day on February 28, 1830. His parents were William and Mary (Cook) Clements, and when the subject was a babe in arms they decided to cross the Atlantic in quest of the greater opportunity to be found in the New World. They went first to Canada. locating in Quebec, but remained in that quaint and lovely old city for only a short time. Removing farther south, they settled in Ontario. When Mr. Clements was a lad of fourteen years his mother died. Finding it necessary to make his own living, he started out to find any employment he could and eventually found his way to Detroit. He spent the first winter scoring ties on the Michigan Central Railroad and doing a man's work, although only a boy. While in that city he saved sufficient money to make his way to Kalamazoo, which was at that time the western terminal of the Michigan Central. He stayed in Kalamazoo only over night and then he and two or three other boys set out on foot for the neighborhood of the present town of Lawton. Here he was thrown into association with a "tough bunch" of Irishmen and stayed three days, chopping wood and again doing a man's work. Accommodations were poor and he and another boy decided not to tarry, but started off toward Paw Paw, where they stopped. MIr. Clements hired out to a man of the name of Willard and continued in his employ for over a year. The love of change and adventure was a part of his character, however, and he again started out. wandering for a time and then locating in Lawrence, where he secured work in a saw-mill. He was so proficient that he rapidly advanced and soon came to be head sawyer, a position he held for a year and a half. Shortly after this, having saved a little money, he started a -little grocery store and continued in this line of endeavor for three years. He was somewhat successful and began to gather together a little means.

Page  759 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 759 In the meantime Mr. Clements had taken unto himself a wife, his marriage occurring on April 17, 1856, to Harriet Christy, daughter of Robert Christy, of Lawrence, and thus he established a household of his own. After three years in the grocery business Mr. Clements entered the carpentry business and he and a partner built the Congregational church and sawed the lumber for another church edifice in the early days. This proved congenial work and he remained thus engaged for twenty years. In 1865 he concluded to devote some of his time to farming and moved onto land in Lawrence township. His farm consists of fifty-five acres. In the ensuing years he has farmed successfully, and has just as successfully played the part of a good citizen. The union of Mr. Clemlent and his estimable wife was blessed by the birth of one daughter, whose name is Edith, and who is now the wife of B. B. Fisher. Mr. and Mrs. Fisher reside on Mr. Clements farm and direct its affairs, now that the father is retired. Mr. Clements has since his earliest voting days been one of the stanchest and unfaltering of Republicans. He cast his first vote for Zachary Taylor and has supported all the candidates of the "Grand Old Party" since that day. He is a man of pleasing address and patriarchal appearance, well preserved and still active in mind and body. Iis wife has preceded him to the "Better Land," having died October 28, 1899. JAMES E. ABRAMS.-In the development and progress of Van Buren county from pioneer times to the present no family has shown itself more devoted to the solid virtues of industrious husbandry and patriotic citizenship then that represented by Mr. James E. Abrams, of Lawrence township. He himself has been a resident of the county for sixty years, has been one of the most successful in agriculture, and has served his country and his community in promoting their best welfare. James E. Abrams was born in Orleans county. New York. October 7, 1841. His family has been identified with American history for several generations, and its military record is especially noteworthy, since the members of three successive generations have served in the most important wars that occurred during their respective careers. His grandfather bore arms in the war of the Revolution. Then his son John, who was born at Newburgh on the Hudson in 1797, was a member of the New York state militia when the British crossed Lake Champlain. John Abrams spent most of his life in New York state. He married Eunice Shepard, and they were the parents of eleven children, all of whom were born in New York, and the five now living are: Eunice, Anne, Lindy, James E. and Nancy, all except James being residents of different states in the west. In 1851 John Abrams, with his wife and family, set out for Michigan, which at that time was the destination of many people leaving Orleans and neighboring counties of New York. I-Ie crossed Lake Erie to Detroit, and from there came overland by wagon to Kalamazoo, where he spent the winter. On March 4th

Page  760 760 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of the following year they arrived in what is now Paw Paw township, where the father bought eighty acres of cleared land for one thousand dollars. At that time many of the settlers had joined the rush to California, and for this reason it was possible to secure good bargains in improved or partially improved land. On this place John Abrams lived for thirty years, until his life came to a peaceful close in 1881. His wife died three years later, in 1884. During his youth Mr. Abrams was privileged to attend school only about three months in the year and continued his efforts in obtaining an education until he was nineteen. By that time he had saved some money, which he planned to use in attending the college at Ypsilanti. Just then the Civil war broke out. The day following the firing on Fort Sumter, April 15, 1861, he enlisted in the Lafayette Light Guards under Captain Hugo. From here he went to New York and was attached to Sickle's Brigade, in the Seventieth New York Regiment, and saw nearly four years of service in many campaigns through the south. A veteran soldier, he returned to Michigan to take up the practical duties of civil life. In December, 1865, he purchased a farm, and the following March he married Miss Helen Beddo, of a well known family near Paw Paw. Together they began to make a home and continued to live on their first farm fourteen years. In the fall of 1882 they moved to another place, which remained their home until 1896. Mr. Abrams then engaged in the mercantile business at Lawrence until in 1900. For two years after that he served in the office of town treasurer, and then returned to the farm. In 1907 he bought the farm of one hundred and thirty-two acres which is now his attractive home. Altogether he owns one hundred and sixty-six acres in Lawrence township. His material prosperity has been generous and has been gained as the result of his own well bestowed labors and good business management. Mr. Abrams has held several offices in Post Wadsworth, No. 49, G. A. R., at Lawrence. His citizenship has always been of the substantial kind that supports the best movements in the community, and when entrusted with public responsibility he has discharged his duties with conscientious faithfulness and energy. He and his family are members of the Methodist church at Lawrence. Eight children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Abrams: Hetty is the wife of Rev. E. H. Bradfield, of La Pierre; A. H., is in a general store at Lawrence; Katie is the wife of A. B. Carris, of Highland, California; Archie E. is on his father's farm; Richard J., who continued the military record of the family by serving with the rank of corporal in the Spanish war, is now an electrical engineer residing in Chicago; James G. is on his father's farm in Lawrence township; Helen is the wife of Frank Jones, of Mendon, St. Joseph county; and Harold E. is on his father's farm. GEORGE MUTCHLER.-The present incumbent of the office of drain commissioner of Van Buren county, Michigan, is a fine example of the man who accepts an office of public trust and responsibility and brings to the same the same unswerving rectitude and persistent industry which would mark his private endeavors. It is

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered] HIRAM SHERROD

Page  761 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 761 to such men as George Mutchler that our democratic government must look for the redemption of her administrations from the inefficiency of "political jobbery." George Mutchler was born in Oshtemo, Kalamazoo county, this state, July 21, 1862, to Martin and Mary Mutchler. Both his father and mother, whose maiden name was Miller, came to the United States from the Fatherland. They met and were married in New York state before they came to the state of Michigan. They were the parents of nine children, of whom George, the immediate subject of this sketch, was the sixth in order of birth. The family came to Van Buren county when George was a child of three years, the date being 1865. Here the father was employed as section foreman on railroads for a great many years. Both Martin Mutchler and his wife have since passed to their eternal reward. George Mutchler was raised in Van Buren county, and received an excellent common school education in the district schools of the county. On December 20, 1888, he was united in marriage to Miss Edah Gibney, of Bangor township, Van Buren county, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Henry E. Gibney, the former of. whom was born in Bethney, New York state, and the latter of whom first saw the light of this world in Bloomington, Indiana. She was raised in Van Buren county, and attended the public schools of the district. To Mr. and Mrs. George Mutchler was born one son, Harrie E., the date of his nativity being December 29, 1889. He has graduated from the Hartford high school and is now a student at Lansing, Michigan. The family are members of the Christian denomination, and Mr. Mutchler is an elder in the church and a trustee of the same. Politically Mr. Mutchler adheres to the party of Lincoln, McKinley and Taft, and is accounted a worthy promoter of the interests of the "Grand Old Party" in this part of the state. He has served the county in the capacity of surveyor for three terms, of two years each. After an appointment to fill out an unexpired term Mr. Mutchler has since been appointed for three terms as county drain commissioner and also twice elected to the office, this being ample proof of the quality of his service and the high place he holds in the esteem of his constituency. It is worthy of note that he held the office of county surveyor and drainage commissioner for one year, the same being very unusual, since it is a rare thing to find a man holding two active county offices at one time. Fraternally Mr. Mutchler is affiliated with Charter Oak Lodge, No. 231, of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. HIRAM SHERROD represents a family who came to Michigan from Pennsylvania in 1867. He was born in the Keystone state on November 29, 1835. His parents were Daniel and Hannah Cole Sherrod, the father a Pennsylvanian and the mother a New Yorker. When they came to Michigan they settled near Paw Paw and the parents spent the rest of their lives there. The mother died in 1885, and the father three years later. There were seven children in the family, five sons and two daughters. Matilda lives in Paw Paw and is Mrs. Levi Lyle. The other sister is married to John Cleckner, of Colorado. One brother,

Page  762 762 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Almond, also lives in Colorado. Lorenzo, the other brother now living, resides in Detroit. Hiram Sherrod learned the blacksmith trade from his father and in 1857, bought seventy-five acres of land, to which he later added a tract of thirty-eight acres, making a total of one hundred and eighteen acres. Upon this he has put a fine brick house two stories high and good barns and other outhouses. He has one of the best managed farms in the community and one of which the whole county is proud. In 1861 Mir. Sherrod was married to Salina Lee, and eight children were born of their union; three who died in infancy and Henry, Minnie, Wilbur, Carrie and Vincent. The mother died in 1879, and the father took for his second wife Letissa Stephenson, and of this union there is one child, Grover. Mr. Sherrod is a Democrat in his political convictions, but he is not a practical politician nor has he ever sought any public office. Hie belongs to the Grangers and to the Good Templars. The Christian church counts him one of its most interested members and he is known throughout the county as one sincerely interested in all which builds up the economic, educational and moral life of the country. ERASTUS OSBORN is one of the leading citizens of Hamilton township, and a pioneer of the locality as well. He is a gentleman so well known for his integrity and honesty, thrift and manliness, that he needs no introduction to the citizens of Van Buren county. IHe and his estimable wife are citizens who are held in the highest esteem and it is with pleasure that the ensuing sketch is presented in the record and history of Van Buren county, Michigan. Erastus Osborn is a native of Allegiany county, New York, where his birth occurred on Marchl 24, 1838. IIe is the second in a family of eight children, equally divided as to sons and daughters, born to Stephen and Sallie (THungerford) Osborn. Of this number but three are living at the present time, Atr. Osborn being the eldest; Benjamiiin, an agriculturist, residing in Hamilton township; and the same being true of Horace. Stephen Osborn also raised to maturity four sons and four daughters by a former marriage. The father was born in Vermont, October 11, 1794, and died in 1853. HIe was a courageous man and a good citizen, of the type of (General Stark and his Green Mountain Boys. He adopted agriculture as his life work and his politics was that of a Jackson Democrat. The Osborn family ultimately removed from New York to Michigan (about 1844), making the journey in pioneer fashion in covered wagons, across swamps and through forests. This interesting journey is well remembered by the subject, who was about six years old at the time. Near where the family located deer and wild turkeys were abundant. The first farm owned by the family consisted of but forty acres and the first habitation was an underground log house. Conditions were indeed primitive, for the Osborns were among the first white settlers. The Indians still looked upon the district as their own. The elder MIr. and Mrs. Osborn were Christian people and of good influence in the community. The mother was a native of New York

Page  763 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 763 and her grandfather Weston was a soldier of the Revolutionary war, the present day Osborns being thus entitled to membership in the Sons and Daughters of the' American Revolution. Her grandmother Weston rode horseback with a little baby in her arms to witness the surrender of Cornwallis. Both of the subject's parents are interred in the Hamilton township cemetery where suitable stones stand sacred to their memory. His maternal grandfather, Benjamin HIungerford, was born in 1773 and the grandmother in 1778, the latter dying in 1854. Their remains are interred in the Keeler cemetery, their tombstones being among the earliest placed in that burial ground. Benjamin Hungerford at one time was proprietor of a cording mill in Alleghany county, New York, and there in his early life Millard Fillmnore worked as an apprentice. When an old man he revisited and wept over those scenes of his boyhood. Erastus Osborn has spent his life in Van Buren county and has devoted his energies to agriculture and stock-raising. He received his education in the common schools, when conditions were pritmitive, the first school house he attended being a log cabin, where the pens used were quills. In 1859 he made a six months' trip with ox teams to Pike's Peak. He has used the old fashioned grain cradle, swinging it all day long, and he has cut as much as seven acres of grain in one day, using also a scythe and flail. The Osborns were innovators, however, and the subject's father bought the first threshing-box with a cylinder in the township. In those days the closest market was St. Joe, Paw Paw not then being in existence. His memory goes back to the day when Decatur was a mere hamlet, when the Michigan Central Railway was being built, his half brother assisting in the construction of the same. When ISr. Osborn began life he had no capital, but his industry and thrift made his success certain from the beginning. He was not afraid of hard work and has split rails at fifty cents per hundred, the fact being apparent that he began life at the bottom. On March 24, 1864, lie was united in marriage to Miss Annette Maria Lascelle, and two daughters have been born to them. Mary E. is the wiife of William H. MIyrkle, a resident of Hamilton township, and an agriculturist. The Myrkles have five children, all living and as follows: Harold E., a student of the public schools; Grover C., in the junior class of the Dowagiac high school; Lawrence, in the eighth grade of the public school; Helen Gertrude, in the fifth grade; and Marjorie Lascelle, the youngest child. Agnes Luana, younger daughter of Mr. Osborn, received her preliminary education in the common schools and subsequently studied in the high schools of Decatur and Dowagiac and the Atheneum Institute in Chicago. She makes her home with her parents. Mrs. Osborn is a native of Jefferson county, New York, her birthplace having been near the Thousand Isles. The date of her birth was December 29, 1841, and she is the seventh in a family of eight children. She is the only member of her family now living. She was reared in Jefferson county until her seventeenth year and received an education in the public schools. While a resident of Chicago she was a student in the Bryant & Stratton Business Col

Page  764 764 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY lege. At the age of sixteen years she began her career as a teacher in Jefferson county, New York, and she taught subsequently in Wayne township, Cass county, and Van Buren county. She is a cultured woman, and has ever improved her mind with good literature. She has been a true and helpful wife. When she and the subject began life it was in a frame house made of black walnut, this building is still standing. It was built in the early '40s and is one of the oldest frame houses in the town. Their present home is a pretty and commodious one and they own a fine tract of four hundred and forty acres lying in Keeler and Hamilton townships. They have made all its improvements themselves and today (in 1911) this valuable estate is without a dollar's debt. Their lives furnish a splendid example to the young of what courageous industry will accomplish. Mr. Osborn is a sound Democrat and has never strayed from its Jeffersonian principles. He is the champion of good schools and has been treasurer of his township, an office he held for seven years. His wife is a member of the Swedenborgian church. Mr. and Mrs. Osborn are representative citizens of Hamilton township and owners of one of its finest estates, its broad acres being known as "Brookside," and its hospitable doors being ever open to their many friends. It is indeed appropriate that record of their lives be perpetuated in this History of Van Buren County. EPHRAIM S. APPLETON.-The eventful life of Mr. Appleton began at Buxton, Maine, on December 22, 1846. His parents were Samuel B. and Elizabeth (Morgan) Appleton, members of prominent families of that place. The family went west to Chicago and from there, at the age of seventeen, Ephraim went to the front at the call of the country for troops to save the Union and was six months in the service. He enlisted in the Chicago Board of Trade Battery. Mr. Appleton was discharged on account of disability and still draws the pension granted him somewhat later. For forty years after his return from the war, Chicago continued to be Mr. Appleton's home. He was for a time a fireman on the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, working at this for three years. Another three years he spent in California as a sheep herder, and while there he passed through the many experiences which are incident to that calling. Upon returning to Chicago, he learned the machinist trade and worked at that for the remainder of his stay in Chicago. In 1905 Mr. Appleton came to Van Buren county and purchased a farm of forty acres. Mrs. Appleton was formerly Miss Frances L. Colf, of Allegan couity, Michigan. She became the wife of Mr. Appleton in 1872 and is the mother of two sons. William C. Appleton is a graduate of a commercial school in Chicago also took a course in commercial law, and is now cashier of the Standard Varnish Company of Chicago. Herbert is a bachelor of thirty-five and lives at home. Mr. Appleton, like most of the Civil war veterans, is a Republican in politics. He and his wife are members of the Methodist church and he is affiliated with the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons in Florada Lodge, No. 309. Although they have lived in

Page  765 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 765 the county but a short time, Mr. Appleton and his family have won a place among the best citizens of this section and are in all ways worthy of the regard in which they are held. DR. JOHN C. MAXWELL, of Paw Paw, was born in Hamilton township, Van Buren county, Michigan, on March 5, 1866, and is a son of James Edward and Mary (Conway) Maxwell, who were born in Ireland. The father came to this country about 1846, and at once made his way to the West to take part in its development and improvement and secure for himself a share in the results of its progress. He located in this county on a farm but little removed from its state of primal wildness, and on this he passed the remainder of his life, which ended in 1884, eight years after the death of his wife, in 1876. He labored diligently and intelligently in the cultivation of his farm, and when he died left it in an advanced state of development and productiveness, and well improved with good buildings. Eight children were born in the family and seven of them are living, only Mary, the late wife of Joseph Godley, of Kalamazoo county, having died. The others are: Celia, the wife of Jacob Knowles, of Van Buren county; Thomas C., who resides in Springfield, South Dakota; Elizabeth, the wife of Otis Gould, of Lawrence, this county; C. Ella, who is dean of women in the Marquette State Normal School, and a teacher of history in that institution; Frances, the wife of M. S. Bullard, of this county; James Edward, a prominent physician and surgeon whose home is in Decatur, Michigan; and Dr. John C. The last named, when his father died, was the only one at home to take charge of the farm until it could be sold, and he was compelled to leave school and devote his time to its management. As soon as he was able to get away he entered the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor as a medical student, and while pursuing his professional course also followed the high school course of academic instruction. He was graduated from the department of pharmacy in the university in 1894, and from the medical department in 1895. When he left the University he at once located in Paw Paw, and here he has worked out his subsequent career, making an admirable record as a physician and surgeon. His practice is large and active, laying all his time and energy under tribute except what is required for the duties of citizenship outside of professional lines, for these he never neglects in any degree whatever. Dr. Maxwell was married in December, 1898, to Miss Cleo Lyle Stevens, a daughter of F. E. and Ida M. (Parker) Stevens, of Paw Paw. Three children have been born of the union, two of whom are living: James Hoyt, who was born December 15, 1902, and Catherine Frances, whose life began on December 1, 1908. The first born child, Helen, came into being on December 15, 1899, and died on March 13, 1902. The Doctor holds to the principles and theories of government of the Republican party in political affairs, but he is not desirous of official station of any kind. He is a member of several local lodges.

Page  766 766 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY SAMUEL CULVER.-As the leading industry of Van Buren county is farming, and as that industry is in large measure the basis of the wealth, prosperity and progress of almost every land under the sun, its representatives are entitled to full consideration in any work that purports to give an account of the forces which have made a people what they are, and the steps by which they reach a stage of progress which may be the subject of the work. This volume is designed as a portrayal of the people of Van Buren county at the present time, and their advancement from the pioneer stage of the county's existence to the high state of development, improvement and prosperity to which its residents have brought it. The greater part of the population have been farmers from the start, and Samuel Culver, of Keeler township, is one of their best representatives in the generation to which he belongs. Mr. Culver was born in the state of Ohio, Stark county, on July 2, 1840, and was the last of the eight children (three sons and five daughters), born to his parents, Christopher and Susanna (Chiesley) Culver. Three of the eight are living: William, who is a farmer near Howard City, Montcaln county, Michigan; Polly, who is a widow and resides in La Grange county, Indiana; and Samuel, the immediate subject of this brief review. The father of this family was a native of Pennsylvania, and was reared, educated and married in that state. He was of German ancestry, his parents having come to this country from the Fatherland during our Revolutionary war. The mother of the family was also of German extraction and both she and her husband could speak the German language fluently. After their marriage they moved to Ohio, and some years later to La Grange county, Indiana, where the father died in October, 1861. He was first a Democrat in political allegiance, but when the Republican party was organized he espoused its principles, and to them he adhered to the end of his life. His wife died several years before his death. They were Presbyterians in their religious connection, and consistent members of their church from their youth, holding firmly to its teachings and exemplifying the Christian spirit in their daily lives. Samuel Culver was a boy of four years when his parents moved to Indiana, and he passed the succeeding thirty years of his life in that state. He has always been warmly attached to the Union, and when the Civil war was raging he joined the forces enlisted for its defense and salvation. He was enrolled in September, 1864, in Company G, One Hundred and Forty-second Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and received his honorable discharge from the army in July, 1865. His company was commanded by Captain Schlegel, and the regiment to which it belonged by Colonel John Comparet. The regiment was assigned to the Army of the Tennessee and took part in the second battle of Nashville. In this contest Mir. Culver had a narrow escape from death, the band of his cap being shot away. But the regiment was fighting under the inspiration of the presence and heroic example of its great general, George H. Thomas, the idol of his soldiers, who called him "Pap Thomas" in the ardor of their affectionate devotion. On February 21, 1867, Mr. Qulver was united in marriage with

Page  767 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 767 Miss Maryette E. Emerson, the nuptials being solemnized in La Grange county, Indiana. Mrs. Culver is a daughter of Elial Todd and Huldah M. (King) Emerson, the former a native of the state of New York, born in 1814, near the Connecticut line, and the latter of Rhode Island, where her life began on July 1, 1817. She (tied on March 31, 1900, and her husband's life ended in 1894. HIe was a distant relative of the great American philosopher, essayist and poet, Ralph Waldo Emerson. His occupation through life was that of a farmer, and his marriage occurred in Michigan, whither lie caie after attaining his majority and residing for a Inumber of years in Indiana, moving to the latter state in 1841, after having bought land in La Grange county. IIe became a resident of Van Buren county in this state in 1870. On his arrival in this county l-e purchased the tract of eighty acres of land which now constitutes the old Emerson homestead, located on the township line between Keeler and Iartford townships, within four miles of the village of Iartford. During his life in Van Buren county Mr. Emerson took a great interest in tlie public schools and for a number of years rendered theml valuable service as school director. He and his wife were devout mlembers of the Baptist church at Keeler, and were persons of strict integrity and true to every duty. They reared their offspring in paths of rectitude and to useful lives. Mrs. Emerson was descended froml old New England stock and English ancestry, one of her (randmtothers having been a native of the Isle of Wight, England. HIer grandfathers were soldiers in the Revolutionary war. This entitles Mrs. Culver and( her daughter to nembership in the society of D)aughters of the Amlerican Revolution. They could certainly meet all the reluircem(ents otf membeership in respect to high character, intelligence ald( a(cceptable social standing, no matter 1how exacting they may be. SMrs. Culver grew to womanhood in Ildiana, and there received a very good education, although slic lha(d only tlhe facilities afforded by the public schools; nor did hler husband have any other, and, lie, too, is well ill t'orltled an(d las a well traine(d llin1(. Tlle fruit of their union is one child, their daughter (Irace Belle, lwho is the wife of Theodore Samluel Allen and lias had two children, a daughter lnamed MAaryette [salelle, who died at the age of fifteen months, andl a sol name(d (George Iial, w}io is now in the fourth grade of tlhe public school lie attenlis. M1rs. Allen was o}rn in the Emerson holmestead andl ed(ul(atced ill tle district schools and at the high scllools in Hartford and Plenlton IIarllor. Slle is a member of the Baptist churclh, tle Suidtay-school ot the cmogregation to which s}ie belongs, alnd the \Vomnen's Christianl Temperance Union. Mr. Culver is a.progressive farmer and studies his business in all its details withl a view to securing the best returns and most satisfactory results tromio the labor and care he bestows on his farm. IHe is also an enterprising and public spirited citizen, with oreat interest in thle development and enduring welfare of his township and county. In political faith he is a Republican, and at all times serviceable to his party, although he has no desire for any of the honors or profits it may have to bestow on its faithful and capable adherents. He cast his first vote for our martyred

Page  768 768 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY president, Abraham Lincoln. In addition to their farm the Culvers own a residence property in Hartford.- Mr. Culver and his wife are deeply interested in the cause of public education, and this fact has induced him to serve on the school board. Like their daughter, the parents are members of the Baptist church and zealous workers in the Sunday-school of their congregation. All the members of the family stand high in the regard of the people, and the record of their useful, upright and estimable lives shows that they are worthy of all the respect and good will that is so richly bestowed upon them. Van Buren county has no better or more serviceable citizens. JOHN J. MARKILLIE.-Among the men who have given the farmers of Van Buren county their high name for industry and progressive methods is John J. Markille, of Hartford township. He comes of sturdy old English stock. He was born March 17, 1849, in Longsutton Crosses, Lincolnshire, Old England, the son of Edward and Mary (Skeels) Markillie, neither of whom ever came to this country, and both of whom have now passed away. The early life of John Markillie was spent upon the farm, and his education was slight, for he was obliged to be busy early and late at his farm duties. He worked on the farm until he attained his majority, not accumulating, however, very much of this world's goods. On Christmas day, 1871, he was united in marriage to Miss Mary Christopher, of Lutton, England. The young couple made their home on a rented farm and the husband not only ran that but was employed by other farmers as well. Mrs. Markillie was born on the 15th of November, 1851. Mr. Markillie came to the United States, landing here on the 11th of October, 1881, and settled near Goblesville, his wife joining hin} in the following spring. Mr. and Mrs. Markillie were the parents of twelve children, concerning whom the following brief data is here inserted: Carrie became the wife of Frank Webster; Samuel is deceased; Sarah is now Mrs. Charles Koons; Florence was united in marriage to Charles Baldwin; Alice married Odis Curtis; George remains on the home farm and he is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows; Walter W.. is single; Clarence married Miss Cecil Olds; Grace is the wife of Clair Leach; Ella M. graduated from the Hartford high school and is now engaged in teaching school; Ralph is a graduate of the public schools. The family are not members of any church. Mr. Markillie carries insurance in the Order of the Maccabees. He is affiliated with the Republican party, and has for the past two years served the community as path master. He went to live on the Olney farm, in section 33, seven years ago, and has since raised some very fine short-horned Durham cattle, which he purchased from the well-known Rutland stock farm, and he is the owner of a half interest in the stock, produce and tools now on the place. He and his family are well liked in the neighborhood, and have many friends. DR. WILBUR F. HOYT, of Paw Paw, is a native of this state and was born in Battle Creek on January 25, 1863. His parents, Benjamin Franklin and Frances (Warner) Hoyt, were natives of New York state, and passed the earlier years of their lives within

Page  769 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 769 its borders. The father came to Michigan in 1847 and located near Battle Creek, some years afterward moving to Paw Paw. He was a carpenter and worked at his trade in both localities with profit for himself and benefit to the places in which he labored. During the Civil war he was a soldier in the Union army, and although he lived to see the end of the gigantic sectional conflict, he died in 1866 from disabilities due to his military service. Some time after his death the mother contracted a second marriage, in which she was united with Frederick S. Eldred, of Jamesville, Wisconsin, now deceased. She died on August 25, 1908. She and her first husband were the parents of two children: Lucius W., who died in 1910, and Dr. Wilbur F. The latter attended school in Paw Paw and Grand Rapids until he reached the age of sixteen, then became a student in the State Agricultural College in Lansing, from which he was graduated in 1883. Having completed his scholastic training, he turned his whole attention to the work of preparing for his professional career, which he did at a medical college in Columbus, Ohio. He received his degree from that institution in 1885, then passed one year as resident physician at St. Frances Hospital in Columbus. In 1886 he located in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where he remained actively engaged in the practice of medicine until the winter of 1890-91, when failing health obliged him to give up the practice for a period of two years. In the summer of 1892 he pursued a special course in clinics at Bellevue Hospital in New York city, and after concluding that located in Paw Paw, where he has resided most of the time since and been actively occupied with a large and exacting practice. During 1903 and 1904 he served as clinical assistant in the Samnaritan Hospital of London, England, but at the end of his connection with that institution returned to Paw Paw, and here he has ever since had his home and been one of the strong forces in his profession and one of the leading citizens of the community. On July 7, 1903, the Doctor was married to Mrs. Amanda B. Bartram. She has a son by her former marriage, E. W. Bartram, who is living in Boston, Massachusetts, where he is connected with the United Drug Company. Dr. Hoyt is a member of the Masonic order and its adjunct, the Order of the Eastern Star, and of the Knights of Pythias. He is a Republican in politics and a member of the Park Street Congregational church of Grand Rapids. EDWIN A. CHASE.-A citizen of very considerable prominence and public spirit in Van Buren county is Edwin A. Chase, a prosperous agriculturist and supervisor of Waverly township. He is a man of influence in public affairs and has brought about more than one good thing, while any public trust given into his hands is sure of such intelligent and conscientious attention as to redound to his credit and the honor and profit of the people. Edwin A. Chase is a native of the state of New York, his birth having occurred in Genesee county on September 2, 1848, his parents being Johnson and Almira (Baker) Chase. The birth of Johnson Chase was in Vermont and the mother was a New Yorker. *

Page  770 770 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY They were married in New York and in the fall of 1864 came to Michigan and located on a farm nine miles from Paw Paw, where the father lived until his demise. The mother is still living (in 1911), a venerable lady approaching her ninetieth year. (She was born in 1824.) Mrs. Chase lives on the old homestead, just across the road from her son, E. A. Chase. She and her husband had six children, four of whom are living, namely: Edwin A.; Wallace F., of Waverly township; Albert L.; and Ella, wife of Charles A. Fox. The father, by a previous marriage, had one daughter. The immediate subject of this review was reared on a farm in New York state and in the district schools he obtained his education, attending until his eighteenth year, when he came to Michigan. He worked in the meantime, however, and soon became familiar with the many secrets of seedtime and harvest. He practically was thrown upon his own resources from his thirteenth year, for at that early age he began to work for his living. He was a strong and sturdy young fellow and a good assistant. At the age of twenty-one years he was still without property, but by twentyeight he had begun to get a start and owned forty acres of land, a tract which had not yet been improved and which required an expenditure of much time and labor. In the meantime Mr. Chase married, the young woman to become his wife being Nettie Burns, of Almena township. She was born in 1854 and was a daughter of Able and Sarah (Bidgood) Burns, who came to Michigan at an early date from the Empire state. By Mr. Chase's first marriage there were two children, one dying in infancy. The other, Lottie, is the wife of Leroy Hutchins, of Waverly township; she was educated in the Waverly schools and taught one term; she has one child, Clair. The first wife of the subject passed away in June, 1880, and in 1884 he was united to Ruhany Huey, and to this marriage were born three children, two being deceased. The surviving child, Lena, is the wife of Frank McGary. Upon the demise of the second Mrs. Chase the subject married, on November 26, 1893, Mrs. Celia (Congdon) Davis, widow of John Davis. She is the daughter of Daniel and Eliza (Stoddard) Congdon, both natives of Connecticut, who came to Michigan in 1837 and settled in Washtenaw county. She was born November 28, 1852, in Kalamazoo and received her education in the common schools. By her first marriage she became the mother of three children, two of whom are living. Earl received a commercial education and is now a farmer, and Leon is single and lives with Mr. Chase. He now owns forty acres in section ten and pursues successful operations in general farming. Mr. Chase is a prominent Mason, holding membership in the Bloomingdale Lodge, No. 222, A. F. & A. M., and he and his wife are members of the Bloomingdale Chapter, No. 58, Order of the Eastern Star. He is affiliated with Glendale Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and also with the Grange. In politics he is found valiantly marching under the standard of the Democratic party, for whose policies and principles he has stood since his earliest voting days. He is serving his twelfth term as supervisor of Waverly township and was elected in a township that is largely Republican. He was at one time chairman of the board of super

Page  771 IISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 771 visors. He was a member of the building committee of the Van Buren county court house and his name is inscribed on the cornerstone. In that, as in other things, he played a valuable part. Mr. Chase is one of the best known hunters in Michigan and each year devotes a month to the hunting of deer and other large game. He has laid low many splendid animals, his prowess in this line being remarkable. His hunting takes him north each year, and each year adds new laurels to the share of this Van Buren county Nimrod. He has moreover done much to secure juster game laws for the state, his lobbying at the state capital having probably done as much as any one factor to bring about this result. HIis wife has a natural ability for the raising of flowers and has many beautiful specimens. DWIGHT FOSTER.-One of the oldest and most highly esteemed families of Keeler township, Van Buren county, is that of Foster, members of which have been prominent in every walk of life. One of its worthy representatives is Dwight Foster, one of the leading agriculturists of this part of the county, who during a long and useful career has established a reputation for probity and integrity that does credit to himself and the family name. Mr. Foster was born in Keeler township, December 10, 1854, the eighth in a family of nine children born to Ira and Caroline (Bishop) Foster, a complete review of whose lives will be found in the sketch of the Foster sisters in another part of this work. In common with other farmers' sons of his day Mr. Foster's early education was secured in the district schools near his father's farm, attending during the winter months when his services could be spared from the duties of the some place, and in the summer months learning the details of practical and scientific farming. Later he was sent to the Northern Indiana University, and after graduation returned to the home farm for some time. After his marriage, which occurred September 22, 1881, to Miss Mary Lillian Buck, he began renting the Foster homestead, which he successfully operated for a period covering sixteen years, and at the end of that time purchased eighty acres in Keeler township, to which later ten acres were added by inheritance. Feeling that they wished to own their own property Mr. and Mrs. Foster had gone into debt for this land, then. but a fairly productive tract, with no buildings on it. To-day there is not a more highly cultivated tract to be found in this part of the township, and the buildings are of the most modern architecture and equipped with up-todate improvements in every way. Mr. Foster has proven himself an able farmer, and today he stands as one of the substantial men of his locality, his property being entirely clear from indebtedness. I-e has also shown himself a good and public-spirited citizen, and one who is ready at all times to lend his influence to those movements which he feels will be of benefit to his community. Reliable in all matters, conscientious in what he believes to be his duty, an honest business man and kind husband and father, Mr. Foster wields a power for good among his neighbors and fellow townsmen, who expressed their confidence in him by electing him to the office of supervisor of Keeler township from 1896 until 1902.

Page  772 772 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Although Mr. Foster is a Democrat, he is very progressive in his views and is a great admirer of the ideas and principles of Robert LaFollette. Fraternally he is connected with the K. O. T. M. of Keeler township, and believes earnestly in the benefits to be derived from life insurance, holding a good policy in the Northwestern Life Insurance Company. He is a trustee and member of the Methodist Episcopal church of Keeler. On September 22, 1881, Mr. Foster was married to Miss Mary Lillian Buck and five children were born to this union, of whom three survive, namely: Gladys, who finished eighth grade in the common schools and in 1908 graduated from the Hartford High school and is now a student at Valparaiso, Indiana; L. Dean, educated in the common schools, and graduated from the Hartford High School in 1910, and later from the Van Buren Normal School, is now one of the successful young teachers of Keeler township; and Newton B., also a graduate of the Keeler common schools and now in the tenth year of the Hartford High School. Mrs. Foster was born in Keeler township, October 19, 1857, and is the third of a family of six children, one son and five daughters, born to Lucius and Celina A. (Wise) Buck. Five of her parents' children still survive: Marcia, who married Oscar Adams, one of the prominent farmers of Keeler township; Luella, the wife of C. H. Tuller, a furniture dealer and undertaker of Shelby, Michigan; Mary Lillian, who married Mr. Foster; Nellie, the wife of E. C. Parmlee, a dealer in real estate and insurance at Auburn Park, Chicago, Illinois; and C. Edwin, an agriculturist of San Jose, California. Lucius E. Buck was born about 1823, in Livingston county, New York, and his death occurred in 1889. He received a good education for his day and locality, and during the early settlement of Van Buren county, Michigan, came to this section as a teacher, although the major portion of his life was spent in agricultural pursuits. Settling first in a log cabin in the heavy timber, at a time when bear, deer and wolves were to be found in plenty and the red man roamed the woods, Mr. Buck bravely started to work to establish himself and his family in a comfortable home, and after years of untiring, persistent toil he accomplished his object, and at the time of his death was the owner of two hundred and forty acres of magnificent farming land. Ile was a Jacksonian Democrat, and a stanch advocate of good roads and public education facilities, and served his community well as supervisor and town clerk of Keeler township. Always a faithful member of the Methodist Episcopal church, he served for many years as trustee and was liberal in supporting movements of a benevolent or charitable nature. His wife, who was also a faithful Christian, was born about 1825 and died in 1901. She was a child when she came with her parents to Livingston county, New York, from her native state of New Jersey, and was educated in the Lima Ladies Seminary. Both she and her husband are interred in the Keeler Cemetery, where beautiful tablets mark their final resting-place. Mrs. Foster was educated in the township and public schools of Keeler, and for a number of years was successfully engaged in teaching school in Keeler and Hamilton townships. An estimable,

Page  773 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 773 Christian lady.of cheerful and loving disposition, she has done much to assist her husband in attaining his success, her counsel and active advice being helpful and bracing in times of discouragement. Mrs. Foster has been prominent in social circles and in the work of the Methodist church, she having been a teacher in the Sabbath-school for many years. She has been a member of the Keeler Thursday Club, an organization of some literary distinction, and has served very ably as its president. VOLNEY ROBERT HUNGERFORD.-The standard of excellence among educators all over the country is being raised higher and higher, and especially is this true in Michigan, where the people are so proud of their public school system. Van Buren county keeps well abreast of her sister counties in this, as in other things, and is fortunate in the possession of a superintendent of schools that comes of a line of educators and has many years of practical experience back of him. Volney Robert Hungerford was born in Branch county, Michigan, August 6, 1874, and is a son of Henry W. and Sophia (Mabbs) Hungerford. Henry Iungerford was born in Oakland county, Michigan, in 1834, and as a young man began teaching school. Later he took up the occupation of farming, and he was so engaged at the time of his death, January 30, 1901. His widow, who was born in New York, still survives, and makes her home at Coldwater, Michigan. They had a family of five children, namely: Virgil U., residing at Coldwater; Bertha, the wife of Edgar Conklin, of Branch county; Mary, the wife of Loren H1. Draper, of Branch county; Volney Robert; and Emily E., a teacher in the high school at Coldwater. Volney Robert Hungerford graduated from the public schools at the age of seventeen years, and in three years completed the four years' course in the high school and began teaching, but after one year decided that he was in need of a more comprehensive education, and for the next four years attended Olivet College. Graduating in 1900, with the degree of Bachelor of Sciences, he was for one year assistant at the Schoolcraft High School. In the following year he became superintendent of schools, and then went to Decatur, where he served in a like capacity for five years. His perfect fitness for the position at this time resulted in his election to the office of county superintendent of schools, and he has ably continued to act in that capacity to the present time. Mr. Hungerford has brought to his work an enthusiasm that is contagious among his fellow workers. Modern ideas, progressive innovations and a well expended effort to learn and cater to the needs of the young minds under his fostering and developing care have made the school system of Van Buren county something to model other systems by. Mr. Hungerford is a man of delightful personality and a close student, not only of books, but of mankind. That he has been successful in his life work, the host of his former pupils, now his warm, personal friends, testify. On June 19, 1901, Mr. Hungerford was married to Lula Knapp, and one child, Harlan, was born to this union June 15, 1902. Politically a Republican, Mr. Hungerford has taken a deep interest in matters pertaining to the welfare of his party and his comVnl. TT- 1

Page  774 774 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY munity. He is past grand master of the Odd Fellows, and a consistent and liberal member of the Presbyterian church. CHARLES B. MOLBY.-An honorable farmer-citizen of Waverly township is Charles B. Molby, who has resided in this locality since boyhood and who, although leading a quiet life, has been a factor for good in the community, never failing to yield support and co-operation to any measure that has appealed to him as likely to be conducive to the public good. He has spent his life as a farmer and on his small, but well-improved farm of forty acres conducts successful operations in general farming. Mr. Molby is one of that large portion of the citizenship of Van Buren county, Michigan, which the section owes to the state of New York, his birth having occurred in Onondaga county, that state, February 2, 1857. He is the only child of Benjamin and Betsy (Stanley) Molby, both likewise natives of New York. They came to Van Buren county in 1866, when the subject was less thanl ten years old, and here resided until their demise, that of the father taking place on February 19, 1906, and that of the latter in June 1881. Benjamin Molby, whose death removed from the community a venerable and esteemed citizen, was a Democrat ill politics and a Spiritualist in religious conviction. During his active career he pursued the occupation of a carpenter, joiner and farmer. Charles Molby received his education in the public schools and under the preceptorship of his father became well versed in the many secrets of seed time and harvest. When his school days were concluded he gave his time to the great basic industry and has ever since remained thus engaged. He secured his present farm December 17, 1903. Mr. Molby laid the foundations of a home of his own when on October 27, 1878, he was united in marriage to Amelia Palmer. daughter of Harvey and Aurilla (Baker) Palmer. She was born in Genesee county, New York, November 7, 1855, and came to this county with her parents when only about ten years old. The union of Mr. and Mrs. Molby has been blessed by the birth of two daughters. Mertie is the wife of Ivan Sergeant and her two children. Ima J. and Boyd C.. entitle the subject to the distinction of grandfather. Kitty Christine is the wife of John Weiner. In politics Mr. Molby is independent, giving his support to what he esteems the best man and the best measure and deeminig partisanship a secondary consideration. Fraternally he is a menmber of the Modern Woodmen of America and the Royal Neighbors and in each carries a thousand dollars insurance. WILLIAM H. MILLER.-The farming interests of Van Buren county are in charge of efficient, capable men who have given to their labor that application of scientific effort that is bound to bring the best results. Years of observance of the best methods have brought the occupation of farming up to the standard of one of the sciences, and the constant improving of farming machinery has done wonders in making the harvesting of large crops a surety. One of the leading agriculturists of Antwerp township. now spe

Page  775 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 775 cializing in fruit growing, is William H. Miller, of section 25, a prominent citizen and veteran of the Civil war, who has met with much success in his operations. Mr. Miller was born in Hadley, Lapeer county, Michigan, September 17, 1844, and is a son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Randolph) Miller, natives of New York. As a young man Jacob Miller came from New York to Lapeer county, and here the remainder of his life was spent in farming. Here he was a pioneer and endured all the hardships and hard work incident to pioneer life, such as cutting wood at fifty cents a cord, and walking four miles each way to and from his work. The nearest market in those days was Detroit, and there he took his beef, a distance of fifty miles, traveling with an ox team, and taking nearly a week to make the trip. His death was a sad one, he having been murdered in Lapeer City by a man who had forged his name to a note, and his body was burned to destroy the evidence of his crime. Iis wife, who died in 1851, bore him the following seven children: Charles, Daniel and Jane, who are deceased; James, residing in Mattawan; Henry, who lives in Fentonville; William H.; and Otis, who is deceased. William H. Miller was reared to an agricultural life and was employed on his father's farm until he was twenty years old, at which time he enlisted in the Third Division of Colonel Jewell's Department, Seventeenth Army Corps, and as a member of a Michigan regiment was with General Sherman on his famous "March to the Sea." He was seriously wounded at IHilton Head, South Carolina, and after being mustered out of the service there went to New York, from whence he returned to Michigan, and for about four years was engaged in land speculation. IIe then purchased a tract of one hundred and twenty acres in section 25, Antwerp township, where he has since been engaged in farming and fruit growing, and his undertakings have met with unqualified success. His life has been that of an upright, honorable and public-spirited citizen, and he enjoys the respect and esteem of the community. On December 9, 1873. Mr. Mliller was united in marriage with Miss Emily Burgess, daughter of Charles 0. and Ludencia (Morey) Burgess, natives of New York state, and to this union there has been born one daughter, Emily. Mr. MIiller has beeil so occupied with his farming interests that lie has had little time for public matters, but he takes a keen interest in Ineasures that are apt to prove of benefit to his community, and votes the Democratic ticket. Ite is prominent fraternally as a mnember of the IMasons and the Eastern Star. AIRs. SO'IlIAI L. NESBITTT.-At venerable anid notable figure in the life of Van Buren county, Michigan, is Mrs. Sophia L. Nesbitt, mistress of one of the fairest and most valuable country estates in all Michigan, a great tract of two hundred and eighty-two of the state's most advantageously situated acres, ornamented by one of the most beautiful mansions in the county. In the evening of life this admirable woman may look back over a career of great usefulness, of faithfulness and helpfulness, as a wife and devotion as a, mother, for she has been

Page  776 776 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY "Earth's noblest thing, a woman perfected." Mrs. Nesbitt is a native of Brockville, Canada, situated on Lake Ontario, on the "Broken Front," her birth having occurred on October 23, 1828. She is the youngest member of a family of four children, equally divided as to sons and daughters, born to Crinness and Mary (Baxter) LaRue, she being the only one surviving. Her father was of French descent, as is indicated in the name, his father having come to America at an early day. He was a descendant of the Huguenots. He was a Parisian and of the mercantile class. He was of a noble family, the name originally having been De laRue, but upon coming to this country the French government deprived him of his honors. Mrs. Nesbitt's father was a prominent man and engaged in banking about the time of the war of 1812. One of the LaRues-Henry-was aide-de-camp to General Washington. Among the most prized possessions of the family are the shaving implements and other personal belongings of the "Father of his Country." In course of time the family took up their residence in the Dominion of Canada and it was while they were there residing that she whose name inaugurates this review was born. She received her education in the schools of Canada, eventually entering the National School at New Castle and she later taught for some years, proving a gifted young instructor. She was first married in 1846, when a damsel in her teens, becoming the bride of George Griffin. To their union were born four children, three daughters and a son, two of the number surviving: Addie is the widow of Thomas Nesbitt and resides in Schoolcraft, Michigan; Emma is the wife of O. M. Geer and makes her home in Harrington, Montana. She is the mother of eight children. The subject and her first husband were married in Dunham county, Canada, and there resided until the death of Mr. Griffin, who was an agriculturist. He traced his lineage to Scotland. His religion was that of the Methodist Episcopal church. His untimely demise was caused from becoming overheated on the occasion of a conflagration, which caused typhoid fever and from which sudden death resulted, in June, 1853. On September 22, 1858, the widow was united in marriage to Robert Nesbitt, of Decatur, Michigan. To this union three daughters were born and reared to maturity, two of whom are living at the present time. Miss Minnie Nesbitt is well known in Van Buren county as a particularly gifted business woman. She is in charge of the great Nesbitt estate and manages its affairs worthily and successfully. She received an excellent high school education in Decatur, but the best part of her culture is self acquired and her mind and business ability are of the highest order. She takes pleasure in the higher things of life, is literary in her tastes and is a valued and active. member of the "Corwin Woman's Literary Club" and the "Every Tuesday Club" of Decatur. Miss Nesbitt is affiliated with the Christian Science Society of Decatur and is a firm believer in its wonderful and beautiful teachings. She belongs to the Order of the Eastern Star, No. 333, at Decatur, and has served as secretary of the same. She is a friend of the town

Page  777 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 777 ship Grange and has assisted in its achievements. She has assumed full charge of the affairs of her mother's estate and worthily does the robe of responsibility rest upon her shoulders. She is fond of travel and in 1904 she and her sister made an interesting voyage to Cuba. She has also journeyed through the middle west and has had a season in the Adirondacks. In her father's lifetime he was wont to take various members of his family with him to New York and the east. Ile had charge of the affairs of Mrs. Nesbitt's first husband, who although young when summoned to the Undiscovered Country had already shown fine capacity and would doubtless have made a fortune had his life been spared. The second daughter, Nellie, died at the age of three years. Dora, who resides with her mother and sister, was educated in the schools of the county. She has a taste for good books and would doubtless say with the poet: "That place that does contain My books, the best companions, is to me A glorious court, where hourly I converse With the old sages and philosophers; And sometimes, for variety, I confer With kings and emperors, and weigh their counsels." George Nesbitt, of Decatur, Michigan, is a son of Mr. Nesbitt by a former marriage. Mr. Nesbitt, the father of these children, was born in the parish of Glanova, county Antrim, Ireland, his birthplace being twelve miles from Belfast. The date of his birth was March 18, 1810, and that of his demise, April 11, 1888. Ie lived until his fourteenth year in his native land and came to this country in 1824, with his elder brother, John. They came on a sailing-vessel, the Rob Roy, landing at Quebec, Canada, after having experienced a voyage eventful from the fact that they were blown out of their course. The two young fellows worked their way to Plattsburg, on Lake Champlain. Mr. Nesbitt clerked in a store in the winter and also learned to tally lumber. He went thence to Detroit and became a clerk in his brother William's store and bakery. William became a banker and real estate dealer and found the highest success in his adapted country, leaving a fortune at his death. Mr. Nesbitt received a common-school education in his native land. -He was of good family. His father, George Nesbitt, was a member of King George's Royal Guards and his grandmother was a daughter of Lord Ireland. The first Nesbitt came from Bonnie Scotland. Robert Nesbitt's uncle, William, was one of the first teachers in the Carolinas. To revert to the early years of Robert, he came from Detroit to Monroe, Michigan, in 1825 and there remained for a time, then going to Kalamazoo county, where he located lands from the government. There he remained until 1834, when he came to Van Buren county. His wife and daughters possess six of the parchment deeds signed by Presidents Van Buren and Jackson,-valuable heirlooms, indeed. At one time he owned as much as two thousand six hundred acres in Van Buren county. The first home of the Nesbitts was a log cabin, located on the site

Page  778 778 HI-STORY OF VAN BUREN CO1UNTY of the present magnificent residence. At that time there were plenty of deer and wild turkeys on the farm. St. Joseph was the nearest market and wheat sold at twenty-eight cents a bushel, while salt was ten dollars a barrel. Journeys to market were made with ox teams. While in Monroe Mr. Nesbitt learned the trade of a millwright and'most of his life in Michigan was devoted to the milling industry. He erected four mills in the vicinity of his home, these being saw and grist mills and a steam saw mill in Allegan county. Mr. Nesbitt was a man of wonderful activity and indomitable will, and he had a most remarkable memory. He marketed lunber by hundreds of thousands of feet and his part as a maker of Van Buren county was considerable. He served as a soldier in tlhe Black Hawk war, being a lieutenant, and he well remembered Chicago at that time and Fort Dearborn. All his life he was a Jackson Democrat. He was a valued official, serving as supervisor of his township for several years. IIe was the champion of good education and in the pioneer days of Van Buren county he maintained a school in his own home. IHe was a Spiritualist and entertained such noted mediums as the Davenport Brothers. In 1871 Mr. and Mrs. Nesbitt began the erection of their magnificent country residence, one of the country's finest homes, erected at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars, and finished in hard woods, such as oak and walnut. This is known as "The Nesbitt Homestead," and is graciously presided over by the daughters of the subject, whose gentle and lovable personality impresses all who come within the sphere of their influence. Like all citizens who stand high in the esteem and respect of all of Van Buren county, it is with pleasure that we present this record of an admirable woman and those nearest and dearest to her. JOSEPH C. ALLEN. —The casual observer would seem justified in his conclusion that not many years ago the state of New York suffered a real misfortune in the exodus of a great number of its best citizens to Michigan. For in looking over the biographical data of those representative men and women who form the subject matter of the History of Van Buren county it seems the rule, rather than the exception, to meet with the information that the subject was born in New York and eventually came hither. Then, judging by the high standard of citizenship here, New York must produce a particularly fine type of men. Joseph C. Allen is one of the great company of New Yorkers who make their present residence in Waverly township, Van Buren county. His eyes first opened to the light of day on January 12, 1847, his parents being Job and Hannah (Odell) Allen. His paternal grandfather was Daniel Allen. In 1866 Job Allen severed the old associations and brought his family to the state of Michigan, first locating in Kalamazoo county, where he remained four years, engaged in farming and in his trade of chair-making. In 1870 the Allens came to Van Buren county, which they elected to make their permanent abode. The father passed away in November, 1886, but his cherished and devoted wife survived him some years, her demise occurring on

Page  779 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 779 September 10, 1894. They were the parents of seven children, six of whom survive (1911) namely: Daniel, Joseph C., William, Alberta, Lydia, Job and Allen. Joseph C. Allen was about eighteen years of age when he first came to the Wolverine state, his education having been previously secured in the district schools of his native state. He chose farming as his life work and first became an independent agriculturist in the year 1870, when he secured forty acres of land. He is now a considerable land holder, owning eighty acres in sections 8 and 9 and eighty acres in Section 29, all in Waverly township. This estate is well situated and highly improved. Mr. Allen contracted a happy marriage on August 12, 1889, when Mary MI. Epley became his wife. She, like her husband, was born in New York, Alleghany county, the date of her birth being October 26, 1854, and her parents being S. W. Epley and Charlotte C. (Bird) Epley. The father was born in Danville, New York, and the mother in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Mrs. Allen received an excellent education, graduating from the Buchanan (Michigan) high school and the Normal School at Valparaiso, Indiana. They share their delightful home with one daughter, Ruth L., born August 25, 1897, an alert young high school student. Mrs. Allen is a valued member of the Congregational church at Bangor. The subject is found marching under the standard of the party which produced Lincoln, McKinley and Taft and is helpfully interested in all matters concerning the public welfare. Ile served two years as township drain commissioner and as a mnember of the school board. The Aliens enjoy the esteem of the community. HARLAN P. WATERS.-A soldier in the Civil war at the age of seventeen, and remaining in the service nearly three years, during which he took part in many engagements on the battlefield, and has ever since borne the marks of his fidelity to duty in wounds that still trouble him at times; then a school teacher, a farmer, a salesman, and since again a farmer and merchant, Harlan P. Waters, of Paw Paw, has followed several pursuits and given valuable service to the people in each of them. He is now nearing the limit of human life as fixed by the psalmist, but is still hale and vigorous in spite of his long years of arduous labor and the wounds he received in the army, and ranks as one of the most prosperous, progressive and esteemed citizens of Van Buren county, which has been his home for more than forty years. Mr. Waters is a native of Ohio, where he was born on September 9, 1843. His parents were Asa M. and Caroline (Evans) Waters, the former born in Ohio, the latter in Vermont. The father came to Michigan and Van Buren county in 1868, and took up his residence on a farm in Antwerp township. There he passed the remainder of his life, following the pursuit in which he started, and that of his father and other members of the family for generations. He died on his farm in Antwerp township in April, 1900. The mother's life ended in February, 1901, at the same place. They were the parents of five children: Harlan P., the immediate subject of this memoir; Celia, who was the wife of

Page  780 780 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY B. F. Morris, of Paw Paw, and died on June 21, 1911; Elma and Elbert, twins, the latter of whom died at the age of three years, and the former at that of twenty; and James H., who is now a resident of Benton Harbor, and is as highly esteemed in his community as his brother Harlan P. is in his. At the beginning of the Civil war, which almost rent this country asunder and brought untold havoc to all its interests while it was in progress, Harlan P. Waters, who was then but seventeen years old, enlisted in Company G, Eighty-sixth Ohio Infantry, under Captain Milligan, to fight in defense of the Union. He served in this regiment two years, but before enlisting in it belonged to the Squirrel Hunters, an organization that was kept busy in following and defeating the Southern General Early in his famous raiding expeditions. When he was mustered out at the end of his first term of enlistment he returned to his home and attended school about four months. He then enlisted in Company K, One Hundred and Ninety-sixth Ohio Infantry, whose commander was Captain Hughes. IIe was connected with this company eleven months, and during this period was made first sergeant of the regiment. At the end of the term he was mustered out at Baltimore, Maryland, and again returned to his home in Ohio. He took advantage of the opportunity now presented to advance his education by attending the Spencerian Institute at Geneva in his native state, from which he was graduated at the end of his course of instruction. He at once went to Hamilton, Ohio, and passed about one year as a teacher in the Commercial College in that city. During the next three years he was engaged in farming, one year in Ohio and two in Michigan. From this occupation he turned to selling nursery stock for the L. G. Bragg Nursery Company, with which he was connected as a salesman eleven years. Since the end of that period he has again been engaged in farming, and now owns three farms, comprising two hundred and eighty acres, all located in Antwerp township. He also owns and occupies a fine residence in Paw Paw, and is interested in an extensive hardware business in the same city, which makes him and his son Harry M. proprietors of the largest and most active establishment of the kind in Van Buren county. Mr. Waters was married on December 26, 1870, to Miss Alice E. Pugsley, a daughter of Henry M. and Mary A. (Prater) Pugsley, the father a native of England and the mother, whose parents were also from England, born in the state of New York. They were the parents of five children: Mrs. Waters; John, who has been dead for some years; Milton H., who lives in this county; Dora M., the wife of Charles Lake, of Paw Paw; and Myra, the wife of L. E. Sheppard, whose home is also in Paw Paw. By a previous marriage of the father there was one child, William Pugsley, who lives in Paw Paw. Mr. and Mrs. Waters have three children: Harry M., who is associated with his father in the hardware trade in Paw Paw; Charles M., a civil engineer at Wyanet, Illinois; and Pearl, who is the wife of L. A. Packer, of Lawton in this county. The father is a Republican in politics and loyally devoted to the interests of his party. He was supervisor

Page  781 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 781 of Antwerp township for eleven years, and chairman of the board for a considerable portion of the time. He has also held a number of other township offices. He is a Royal Arch Mason in fraternal life and a member of the Grand Army of the Republic. In religious affiliation he is a Baptist. The military record of Mr. Waters in the Civil war would be far from complete if it were not mentioned that he was wounded near Mills Springs, Kentucky, in 1862, and now carries a bullet in his hip received during the service. He was taken prisoner and held in captivity for forty-eight hours at the battle of Lookout Mountain, when he was recaptured by members of the Union army. He also had one of his shoulders badly smashed at the battle of Cumberland Gap. His defense of his country was always, therefore, hazardous, for he was in active service a great deal of the time he passed in the army, and it proved disastrous to him on three separate occasions, and fully established his fortitude and devotion to his cause by the patience and serenity with which he bore his sufferings, and his willingness to continue in the ranks and keep on fighting after he incurred them. He has met all the other trials and troubles of life with the same lofty spirit of endurance and determination to make the best of them and overcome them by close attention to whatever he had in hand and the use of all his faculties to advance himself in prosperity in spite of them. By his manly course and fidelity to duty in every relation of life he has won the universal regard and good will of all who know him, and established himself in public esteem as one of the best and most useful citizens of the county in which his labors have so long contributed to the general welfare by both the value of their products and the ability with which they have been performed under all circumstances. WESLEY M. HALL.-Working on his father's farm until he reached the age of twenty-three, except while he was attending college in Kalamazoo; then enlisting in the Federal army in defense of the Union, but before the end of his first year in the war receiving a wound that disabled him for further service; and after his discharge returning to the pursuits of peaceful industry, in which he has ever since been engaged, Wesley M. Hall, one of the wideawake and progressive farmers of Paw Paw township, Van Buren county, has shown his devotion to the welfare of his country and its people in every way open to him, no matter what the hazard of his situation. Mr. Hall was born in Macomb county, Michigan, on November 16, 1838, the second of the two children and sons of MIyron and Caroline (Sagar) Hall. The father came to Michigan in 1834 and located on eighty acres of government land in Macomb county, on which he lived twelve years. In the spring of 1847 he moved to Jackson county, and in the autumn of the same year to Porter township in Van Buren county. Here he began operations on forty acres of land, to which he added by subsequent purchases until he owned two hundred acres. He later sold one hundred and sixty acres of this, keeping forty, which was still in his possession at the time of his death, which occurred on March 5, 1881. The

Page  782 782 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY another is still living, at the age of ninety-four, and has her home with her son Wesley. HIer other son and first born child died in 1892. Wesley M. Hall began his education in the district schools and completed it at Kalamazoo College, which he attended in 1857 and 1858. On October 29, 1861, he enlisted in Company H, Twelfth Michigan Volunteer Infantry, as a Union soldier, the company being under the command of Captain G. D. Johnson. The regiment to which his company was attached was soon at the front and in the midst of hostilities. Mr. Iall took part in the deluge of death on the historic field of Shiloh, where he was twice wounded and taken prisoner. Five days after his capture Federal forces recaptured him, but he was in turn retaken by the Union forces and again by the Confederates, this continuing until he had been taken and retaken six times in one day and finally left in the hands of the enemy. Mr. Hall demanded of them that he be removed to the hospital in a wagon, but as the wagons were all in use he was ordered to get on the back of a horse behind a rebel cavalryman. This he refused to do and they left him upon the field, where he was found next day by the Union ambulance corps and taken back to his regiment. lie was then taken to a hospital in St. Louis for treatment. On May 5, 1862, he was given a furlough and returned to his Michigan home. He remained at home nearly sixty days, then, on July 5, 1862, reported in Detroit in obedience to orders. There he was examined, and on August 25, 1862, was discharged from the service on account of the disability occasioned by his wound. After that he remained on the home farm until the spring of 1880, when he bought seventy-three acres of land and began farming on his own account, his land being located in Van Buren county. In 1883 he sold this land and bought seventy acres in sections 25 and 26 in Paw Paw township, Van Buren county, not far from the county seat. On this land he has ever since lived and employed his energies, greatly to his own benefit and that of the farm, which he has made one of the most productive and valuable in the township for its size. Mr. Hall was married on November 4, 1865, to Miss Sarah A. McCon, a daughter of Isaac and Eliza (Stears) McCon, of New York state. One child has been born in the Hall household, Leora W., who is now the wife of D. P. Smith, of Paw Paw. Mr. Hall is a Republican in his political faith and allegiance and loyal and energetic in the service of his party. Fraternally he belongs to the Grand Army of the Republic, and in church connection is a Methodist Episcopal. He takes an interest in the work of his church, as he does in that of every other good agency active in the community, and is zealous in his support of all worthy undertakings for the improvement of his township or county, and is an excellent citizen in every way. JOHN Q. BURDICK.-A well and favorably known farmer of Waverly township, Van Buren county, is John Q. Burdick, whose fifty well improved acres and pleasant home are situated in section 17. Like so many of his neighbors he is a native of the state

Page  783 HISTORY OF VAN BIUREN COUNTY 788 of New York, but he came to Michigan at an early age and has ever since remained a citizen. He is a Veteran of the Civil war and the grandson of a Revolutionary soldier, an admirable patriotism and love of country having been transmitted from one generation to the next. The birth of Mr. Burdick occurred on November 11, 1837, in Wyoming county, New York, and he is the son of William G. and Abigail (Dibble) Burdick. William G. Burdick's father was Elisha Burdick, the colonial patriot mentioned above. The father of the immediate subject of this review came to Michigan at an early day and here resided for the residue of his life. He became the father of fourteen children, ten of whom grew to young manhood and womanhood, this number being equally divided as to sons and daughters. Only two of them are living at the present time (1911), John Q. and a sister Mary L., a maiden lady. Mr. Burdick was reared amid the wholesome surroundings of his father's country home and his educational discipline was secured in the district school. Some time before the outbreak of the war he married, but in 1864, in spite of strong home ties, he enlisted in Company I, of the Fifth Michigan Cavalry, and the following year he was transferred to Company H, of the Seventh Michigan Regiment, At Fort Bridges these two regiments were consolidated with the First and became known as the First Michgan Volunteer Cavalry. In the new organization the subject was a member of Company A. He saw much hard service and was discharged on March 12, 1866, at Salt Lake City, Utah. After the termination of hostilities he returned to Allegan county and remained there until 1867, when he came to Waverly township and he has been a continuous resident here ever since that time, taking a loyal interest in its county and township affairs and supporting all measures likely to prove of benefit to the whole community. IHe had devoted his attention to farming and is the recipient of a pension. Mr. Burdick was united in marriage on January 1, 1861, his chosen lady being Jane Ann Reedman, who, like her husband, was born in New York, in October, 1842. They have had four children, two of whom died in infancy. Bertha K. is the wife of Claude Brown, and Ruth G. makes her home in Benton Harbor, Michi. gan. Mr. Burdick is one of the standard-bearers of local Republicanism, having given hand and heart to its men and measures for many years. EDWARD F. BILSBORROW.-In the death of Edward F. Bilsborrow, which occurred March 17, 1910, Van Buren county lost one of its representative men, and one who, during a long and useful life, had always been prominent in important movements and innovations. His activities, confined principally to farming and stock raising, stamped him as one of the most progressive men of his day and locality, and his reputation, honestly gained, was that of a public-spirited citizen, honest and sincere friend and excellent business man. Mr. Bilsborrow's birth occurred in Niagara county, New York, in July, 1852, and he was a son of Charles and Caroline (Moss) Bilsborrow.

Page  784 784 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Charles Bilsborrow was a native of England, and as a young man came to the United States and settled in the state of New York, where he was married to Miss Caroline Moss, a native of the Empire state. Shortly after their union they made their way West, eventually locating in Van Buren county, Mlichigan, and here they spent the remaining years of their lives engaged in agricultural pursuits. They were the parents of five children, as follows: William, who is deceased; Edward F.; Louisa, the wife of Edwin Thayer, of Paw Paw; George, who is a resident of Albion, Michigan; and Frederick, also living in Paw Paw. Charles Bilsborrow became one of the well lnown agriculturists of Antwerp township, and was honored and esteemed by his fellow townsmen. Edward F. Bilsborrow was still an infant when he was brought to Van Buren county by his parents, and he secured his education in the little schoolhouses of that day, his youth being spent much the same as that of other farmers' boys, the summer months being given to the hard work of clearing the farm, while in the winter he accepted such educational advantages as were offered. He remained on the home farm, assisting his father, until 1878, in which year he was married and took up a tract of eighty acres in Antwerp township, which he continued to farm for some years. At the time of his father's retirement he purchased the old homestead of one hundred and sixty acres, and there continued to engage in agricultural pursuits until his death. Mr. Bilsborrow was one of the first men of his locality to engage in breeding Percheron horses for the market, and this he made a specialty for many years. In 1907 he established himself in the dairy business, and in this, like in all of his other ventures, he was eminently successful. Always a hard-working man, he was never satisfied unless his time was filled with duties, and this industry and persistence accomplished much. The dairy business, now a firmly established, well regulated enterprise, is being conducted by his son, Charles W., one of the progressive young business men of Antwerp township. On January 1, 1878, Mr. Bilsborrow was married to Miss Cora Webster, daughter of Stephen and Catherine R. (Bidewell) Webster, natives of New York. Mrs. Bilsborrow's parents had the following children: Henry C., residing in 1enver, Colorado; Agnes E., the wife of J. Bangs, of Chicago; Katy II., the widow of John Huston, of Buffalo, New York; George O., residing in Albion, Michigan; Ida E., the wife of George Markham, of Marshall, Michigan; Cora, who married Mr. Bilsborrow; and two children who died in infancy. Two children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Bilsborrow: Charles W., born June 10, 1879, now engaged in the dairy business; and Frank Lynn, of Alton, Illinois, born January 23, 1885. Mr. Bilsborrow was a Republican, and was always interested in the success of his party, although he never aspired to public office. Death seized him while in the midst of a happy, useful life. although he had attained an age when most men are beginning to think of their own comfort. He always acted from the purest and best of motives and his death caused the deepest sorrow among those who knew him and called him friend. His widow, who sur

Page  785 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 785 vives him and lives in the comfortable family home on Paw Paw Rural Route No. 3, is one of the best known ladies of her community, and, like her late husband, has many warm personal friends. BARNABAS O'DELL.-Of ancestry distinguished in history by achievement or association on both sides of his house, and holding the fact in high appreciation, Barnabas O'Dell, of Paw Paw, has endeavored to live up to the standards of his forefathers in working out an earnest desire to promote the welfare and help along the advancement of the people around him, doing all he could for the general well being on his small stage of action, as they did on their larger one of majestic proportions and worldwide renown. Mr. O'Dell is a Canadian by birth and an American by voluntary adoption. He was born on March 11, 1843, in what was then known as Upper Canada, and is a son of Dr. Charles Mann and Hannah R. (Tuttle) O'Dell. The parents were also natives of Canada, and passed their early lives in that country, except during short absences from time to time while traveling. In 1850 they came to Van Buren county, Michigan, and here spent the rest of their lives and died here. They were the parents of five children: Henry, who died in 1853; James, who died in infancy; Barnabas, the subject of this memoir; Henrietta F., the wife of Stephen C. Maynard, of Chicago; and Noble F., who also died in infancy. Barnabas O'Dell came to Paw Paw in 1851 and here he studied medicine with his father. IHe then spent one year as a clerk in a store, and at the age of twenty-one left home, burning with a desire to take part in our Civil war as a recruit to our naval forces. He enlisted in the United States navy at Chicago, but was credited to the town of Paw Paw, then called Lafayette, and was assigned to duty on the Receiving Ship Great Western. Some time afterward he was transferred to Collier No. 29 for a period of six months, and by the end of that time the war was over and he was mustered out of the service. During his connection with the navy he was captain of the forecastle on his vessel, and took great pride and interest in his duties. After he left the navy Mr. O'Dell determined to remain in this country, and returned to Paw Paw as the place of his residence. He had some knowledge of the town and its surroundings, its pace in business and prospects for the future, his father having come here in 1851 and passed a year in the place in an effort to improve his health. But, deciding to remain, spent the rest of his life here with the exception of five wears. On locating here after the war the son as soon as he was able entered mercantile life as a clerk and remained in it one year, thus supplementing his knowledge of business gained in a previous year's experience. In the spring of 1869, however, having been married in the fall preceding, he desired a more stable home and occupation, and moved to a farm of one hundred and sixty acres owned by his wife's father and later purchased one of forty acres a mile north of one of eighty acres owned by his wife. On these two tracts of land he engaged in general farming and raising live stock until

Page  786 786 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 1883, when he moved his family to Decatur to secure better educational facilities for his children than his own neighborhood afforded. After a residence of nine years at Decatur he changed his abiding place to Paw Paw, where he has ever since had his home. On November 26, 1868, he was united in marriage with Miss Maria L. Stebbins, a daughter of Horace and Lydia (Skinner) Stebbins, old settlers in Van Buren county, and residents of it from 1842. Mrs. O'Dell still owns the farm on which the family originally located, and it has never been out of the family since her parents carved it into comeliness and fruitfulness from the wilderness. Their offspring numbered two: Mrs. O'Dell, who was born on December 12, 1849; and Emma, who was born in June, 1851, and died when she was six years old. Mr. Stebbins had been married before his union with the mother of these children, and by his first marriage he also became the father of two children: M. Eliza, who was born in 1843 and has been dead for a number of years; and Lewis J., who was a valiant soldier in the Civil war and sealed his devotion to his country with his life. He was wounded at the terrible battle of Chickamauga. and lay in a hospital in Chattanooga nine weeks, then died far from home and kindred, one of the multitude of sacrifices to the blind fury of our great sectional conflict. The mother of these children was Miss Jane Mulholland before her marriage to their father. Mr. and Mrs. O'Dell have five children, all of whom are living. They are: Hubert L., who was born on February 20, 1871, and is now a resident of Pasadena, California; Louis N., who was born on February 4, 1873, and also lives at Pasadena; Mabel C.. whose life began on May 30, 1875, and who is the wife of Frank Shers of Kalamazoo, Michigan; Lillian I., who was born on November 23, 1877, and is the wife of Frank Rhodes, of Bay City, Michigan; and Myrtle L., who was born on April 17, 1880, and is living in Pasadena. In his political relations Mr. O'Dell is an Independent, considering always, in the bestowal of his suffrage, the good of the people and ignoring all partisan considerations. He has served as justice of the peace for thirteen years and as constable for one. During all of the last forty-seven years he has been connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and he is also a member of the Grand Army of the Republic. In religious belief he is a spiritualist of firm convictions and devotion to the teachings of the most advanced thinkers of his cult. Mr. O'Dell's maternal great-grandfather, Thomas Averel, was a personal body-guard of General Washington during the Revolutionary war and his messenger in many important transactions. On one occasion he crossed the Onion river late at night in the service of the great commander, to whom he was carrying dispatches. He had crossed at the same place on a bridge in the morning, but during the day the bridge had been swept away, and he rode over on the main beam or stringer, which was all that was left. It was so dark that he could not see the bridge was gone. But his horse was true and skillful, and took him over

Page  787 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 787 the roaring torrent in safety, and he did not know how hazardous his venture was until afterward. This is a fact recorded in history, and is alluded to by some of the writers as proof of the guiding hand of Providence in our great struggle for independence. Mr. O'Dell still has in his possession a knapsack that his great-grandfather carried at the time and the watch he wore. His maternal grandmother, whose maiden name was Martha Mann, was a sister of Horace Mann, the great apostle and advocate of public education, and one of the finest products of the system the country has ever known. In 1852 the father of Barnabas O'Dell bought a place on Main street, Paw Paw village, opposite the Methodist Episcopal church, and in front of this place father and son planted the beautiful elm trees, which still stand as monuments and are admired by all. In the fifty years which Mr. O'Dell has lived in Paw Paw, he has seen all its improvements made, its public buildings erected and the village grow from five hundred to two thousand inhabitants. JUAN MCKEYES.-The financial interests of any comnmunity are of such an important nature that they cannot be too carefully conserved, and those citizens to whom are given the keeping of public and private moneys have a large responsibility indeed and must necessarily be men of the greatest integrity, in whom ilmplicit confidence can be placed. When it can be truthfully said of a man that he has been at various times trusted with the management of business other than his own and never had a comiplaint made against him; when he has miade a success of whatever he has undertaken because of his thoroughness and realization of the rights of others; when he has tried to live up to a higli standard and help others do the same-then that man is a good citizen and any community may be proud to own hii. Juan McKeyes, president of the banking firm of Juan MicKeyes & Company, at Lawton, Michigan, is a man who can be depended upon in any emergency. lHe was born in Berrien county. Mlichigan, August 26, 1842. and is a son of Samuel and Roxy (Taylor) McKeyes, natives of Connecticut. Mr. MlIcKleyes' parents came to Michigan in 1834, settling on a farm in Bainbridge township, Berrien county, where the father was engaged in agricultural pursuits up to the time of his death. in 1854, his widow surviving him only one year. Mr. McKeyes was decidedly successful in his farming and stock raising operations, and became the owner of five hundred acres of good land. Both Samuel McKeyes and his wife had been previously married, he having five children by his first union and she two. and there was but one child born to their marriage, Juan. After the death of his mother, Juan McKeyes went to live with a halfsister, near Schooleraft, where he attended the district school, and later he went to the seminary at that place and the Kalamazoo College, where lhe took a two-year course in civil engineering. After spending somne time in Illinois and Iowa he returned to Michigan. and for ten years was engaged in the milling business in Van Buren county, at which time he first calme to Lawton 'and established himself in the drug business. After twelve years

Page  788 788 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY.he sold out his interest in this business and became proprietor of a general store, and at the end of five years more organized the bank of Juan McKeyes & Company, in partnership with his son Frank. Mr. McKeyes has never faltered in his upward course, and is now the manager of one of the most substantial concerns of its kind in this part of the state. He possesses the confidence of the community to a remarkable degree, and is looked upon as one of the most progressive men of Van Buren county. He has invested his means in realty to a large extent, and is the owner of some excellent farming land and several valuable town properties. On February 2, 1866, Mr. McKeyes was married to Miss Maria Cowgill, daughter of James S. and Eliza (Smith) Cowgill, the former a native of Virginia and the latter of Ohio. Mrs. McKeyes' brothers, Edward and Frank, are both deceased. Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. McKeyes: Frank, who is interested in business with his father, and Grace, the wife of I1. D. Brown, of Cincinnati, Ohio. Mr. MIcKeyes is a Republican in his political views, and has served as supervisor of his township for five years, while in fraternal matters he is affiliated with the Masons. He is not a member of any church, but has been active in the support and charitable work of the different churches, both Methodist and Baptist. PORT H. HENDERSON.-We have the sanction of Holy Writ for the faith that special rewards follow filial affection, obedience and reverence from children for their parents, and the general tenor of human experience and history fully justifies the assurance given by the sacred writer. Although the rewards do not always come literally in the form specified by him, they come, nevertheless, in some substantial and appreciable form. And the promise of length of days is not to be limited in its meaning to days on earth, for the memory of a good man lives after him with increasing fragrance, and its influence continues in widening circles of benefaction long subsequent to the time of his demise. Port H. Henderson, in his early struggle for advancement and self-denying devotion to his parents during its continuance, his present condition of material comfort and independence in a worldly way, and his consequence of high standing among the people who live around him, furnishes a striking illustration of the truth and force of the Divine promise. In his young manhood he met Fate in the lists and wrested small favors from her reluctant hands, and these with his efforts, and the rewards of his filial affection began at once in his increased prosperity and broadening opportunities. Now he is well established in life, and all his early fidelity to duty is approvingly remembered to his high credit wherever he is known. Mr. Henderson is a native of Wyandot county, Ohio, born on December 3, 1858, and the second of the seven children (five sons and two daughters) of Joseph R. and Sarah A. (Long) Henderson, three of whom are living, as far as he knows. These are himself, his older sister Jennie and his younger brother Charles O. Jennie

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Page  789 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 789 is the wife of Burr Benton, a prosperous farmer living in Keeler township, this county. Charles O. is married, and he also lives in Keeler township and tills the soil with enterprise and progressiveness as his regular occupation, with success following his efforts. The father was born in the state of New York on November 5, 1832, and is still living, enjoying good health and vigor and a sprightliness and vivacity unusual to men of his advanced age. He obtained his education in the common schools of his native place, and when he determined to seek his chance of advancement in this state he made the journey overland by wagon and located in Berrien county on his arrival. Here he purchased forty acres of land, but misfortunes came, and his progress was not what he expected or what his industry and persistency entitled him to. When the Civil war began he enlisted for the defense of the Union and served to the close of the disastrous conflict. He was the color-bearer of his company, and in one of the terrible battles of the war he was seriously shot in one of his hands. But, notwithstanding his wound, he made an excellent record in the war, never shirking duty for a day or hesitating to go forward promptly in the face of danger, even in the fiercest shock of battle or intensest frenzy of the charge. Indeed, like many others, under circumstances of unusual peril his courage seemed to rise to almost supernatural heights and make him ready for any possible requirement. After his discharge from military service he returned to his home, and he has ever since given his energies to farming. He has been a member of the Republican party from its organization and always fervidly loyal to its principles and its candidates. In social and fraternal relations he is connected with the Grand Army of the Republic and the Order of Odd Fellows, and he and his excellent wife went together to the Methodist Episcopal church to which they both belonged, during her life, and of which he is still a melmber and regular attendant. Mrs. Henderson was born in Ohio, on Christmas day, 1832, and died in Van Buren county, Michigan, at the age of forty-five years. She was a noble Christian woman, earnestly devoted to the welfare of ler family, and also a great financier, whose business capacity and good management conducted the household through all its difficulties. Port I-. Henderson was reared as a farmer's son and he has devoted all the years of his life from boyhood to farming. He obtained a small start in mental and scholastic training in the district school near the home of his parents, but in all the essentials of his intellectual development and his acquisitions of information, he is what may properly be termed a self-educated man, and his self-instruction has been along the most practical and serviceable lines with a view to making all his attainments useful to him as capital in his life work. During his youth and the early years of his manhood he worked industriously and gave his earnings to his mother for the benefit of the family. When he determined to set up a domestic shrine of his own he did not have fifty dollars in money. But he deemed it wise to establish a home for himself and trust to his own endeavors to make it stable and in time valuable. On September 8, 1882, he united in marriage with Miss Jessie Benton, who was then living Vol. IT-1 1

Page  790 790 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY in Berrien county, where the marriage was solemnized. Mrs. Henderson was born in that county on October 2, 1861, and died in Van Buren county on May 28, 1907. She was an exemplary Christian woman and won the regard of everybody who knew her by her upright and useful life and the excellent example she gave of elevated American womanhood. Mr. and Mrs. Henderson became the parents of three sons and two daughters, all of whom are living. Lester T., who resides on and helps to cultivate his father's farm, was educated in the district school and pursued a special course of business training in the commercial school of Professor Ferris in Big Rapids. He married Miss Della MTann, and they have one child, their little daughter Helen. Ora M., the second child, is now the wife of William J. Barnard, a lawyer of Paw Paw, and a successful man in his profession. She completed her education at the State Normal School in Kalamazoo, from which she received a certificate of qualification as a teacher, and while she taught she was very capable and popular in the work. Vera P.. third of the children in the order of birth, married George Dennafell, a prominent young farmer of Keeler township. They have one child, their son George III. Oven E., the next in order numerically, is a commercial salesman in the state of Washingtonl and Ray M., the youngest member of the family, is a promising student in the high school in Hartford, his record in which is winning him a high place on the roster of students and bringing his family gratifying credit. Port H. Henderson, the father of these children, began farmtingas a tenant on his father's farm, and continued his work as such. eight years. By the end of that time he had saved one thousand two hundred dollars, through the valued aid of his wife, and began to arrange for a permanent home of his own. He bought eighty acres of land, going in debt for the purchase price to the extent of two thousand two hundred and twenty dollars. In due time he fully discharged this obligation, and immediately created another by the purchase of another tract of fifty-five acres, for which he went in debt one thousand five hundred dollars. He paid this debt, too, and he also improved his land. But misfortune overtook him in the destruction of two barns in succession by fire, one thousand three hundred bushels of grain and seventy-five tons of hay being also consumed in the fires, as were nearly all his farming implements in addition. These were severe blows to Mr. Henderson, but he did not lose any time in lamenting over them. He at once went to work in each case to recoup his losses, and he has now one of the finest and largest barns in Keeler township. The structure is forty by one hundred feet in size, conveniently arranged and complete in equipment for its purposes in every particular. Mr. Henderson has also remodeled his residence and made it one of the most comfortable and attractive rural dwellings in his locality. In addition to his farm in Keeler township he has bought thirty acres of land in Hartford township, on which he has a large peach orchard. In all he owns one hundred and sixty-five acres of first rate land. nearly all of which is under cultivation, and does not owe a dollar on any of it. He also has a paid up life insurance policy for

Page  791 IISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 791 one thousand dollars. Altogether, he is one of the most prosperous farmers and stock men in Keeler township, as well as one of its most highly esteemed citizens. Iis beautiful home is on the line between Keeler and Hartford townships, and is known throughout all this part of the state as "The Plum Grove Stock Farm.'" It is four miles and a half from Hartford, and is the seat of a large and flourishing live stock industry as well as a very active and profitable general farming enterprise. Politically Mr. Henderson has always trained witll tile Republican party. He east his first vote in the presidential election for General Grant, and lie has ever since stood by tile irinciples lwhlich governed him at tile start. Fraternally he is a member of tile Order of Odd Fellows, belonging to the lodge in the order at Keeler, in which he has been through all the chairs. lie and his wsife, during her lifetime, belonged to the order of Daugllters of Relekall. and when she died her remains were interred according to tlhe rites of that elevated, useful and popular auxiliary of the Odd Fellows' Fraternity. Mrs. Henderson stood firmlly bl her hus}band ill all his struggles and difficulties, and gave him substantial aid' as \wll as excellent advice. The duties of her home were her first conlsideration, and devoted and intelligent care for her children her lhighest aspiration. It was her aim to make them as good and useful citizens as she could, and she put all her energies in service for the aceoimplislhment of this purpose. That she did not labor in tlis blelialf in vain is shown by the uprightness of their lives, tlie lofty ideals l y whlichl they are impelled in all they (do, and the high-lminded and serviceable citizenship they so steadfastly exemplify. In tliese respects they but follow the examnple and teachings of their l)arents, and, like their parents, they have the entire confidence and the high esteell of the whole people in every part of the county of Van Bulren and wherever else they are known. Mr. Henderson and his childrenl contribute in every way open to them to the advance, ilnprovement and general welfare of their several localities, morally, mentally, materially and socially, and are everywhere regardedl as highl types of American manhood and womanhood. DANIEL M. ALLEN.-The oldest of the firm of Allen 1Brothers of Glendale, Michigan, was born in Waverly township of Van Buren county on July 19. 1865. His parents, Trumian and Harriet Sinclair Allen, were both born in Monroe county, New York. and there grew to maturity and were wedded. In 1860 they came to Waverly township and purchased land in section 2. The father became the owner of one hundred and seventy-five acres of good land and was a man of influence in the county. IHe was active in the Republican party, of which he was an ardent supporter. He died on September 20, 1909. His wife is still living. There were three sons and one daughter in the family of Truman and Harriet Allen. The sister of our subject, Lura, is now the wife of E. J. Dayton. His two brothers. HI. B. and R. E. Allen, are partners in the store at Glendale and joint owners of four hundred and fifteen acres of land in Waverly township. Here they raise registered Hereford cattle and Poland China hogs, for

Page  792 792 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY which they have a large sale. Twenty acres of their land they use for the propogation of strawberry plants, which they ship to every state in the union and to Canada and Mexico. Reuben takes, the active management of this farm and also of the dairy farm and the general farming business. The firm own twelve houses in Glendale and their estate requires the services of four men whom they keep by the year and four more whom they hire by the day. From March 1 to May 15 is strawberry time, and during that season they employ about thirty extra men and women. The other two brothers attend to the store in Glendale. Daniel 1M. Allen was united in marriage to Miss Allie Boaze in 1899. She is the daughter of Harvey Boaze and received her education in the schools of the county. Their household includes two children, Clare and Atha, both now in school. In the Republican party Mr. Allen has always been an active and an honored worker. Ile has been twice sent as United States delegate to the National conventions of the Modern Woodmen of America at Buffalo. He was also state delegate for the Modern Woodmen of America to the Michigan convention at Sault Ste. Marie. He has filled several of the township and county offices with honor and from 1902 to 1906 was treasurer of Van Buren county. In the Masonic order Mr. Allen is a member of the Bloomingdale lodge, No. 221, of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, and of the Royal Arch Chapter of Paw Paw. At Lawrence he belongs to the Council. He is an Odd Fellow of the Glendale lodge, No. 408 and a Modern Woodman. Besides his signal success in the field of commerce and his activities in public affairs, Mr. Allen has given fifteen years to the profession of teaching and his work in the county in that line was of the high quality which was to be expected from one of his ability and education. He is a graduate of the Valparaiso University at Valparaiso, Indiana, in both the normal and the business course. He has been and continues to be a powerful and a valuable factor in the development of the county and a contributor to its economic progress. SHELDON COLEMAN escaped being a native of Van Buren county by the distance of a half mile and began his life in Oshtemo township, Kalamazoo county, on May 4, 1870. His father, D. O. Coleman, was born in Kalamazoo county in 1843, in the township of Oshtemo. D. O. Coleman was married to Mary E. Sheldon. a native of Washington, D. C. Besides Sheldon, there was one boy and four girls in the Coleman family: Cora. the oldest, is Mrs. W. W. Brown, of Kalamazoo; Allie is Mrs. S. C. Gibbs, of Kalamazoo township; Kate, Mrs. Lee Gibbs, resides in Kalamazoo; Pearl is the wife of Claude Weed, of Texas township; and the other son is Owen, of Oshtemo, living with his father. All live in Kalamazoo county, and all but Pearl and Owen in Kalamazoo township. After completing the course of the common schools, Sheldon Coleman taught for three years. He then decided to study pharmacy and attended the State University at Ann Arbor. In two years he completed the course in pharmacy and began to manage

Page  793 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 793 a drug store. After some years he came to Lawton and in 1894 went into a drug store. Six years later he and Mr. Showers bought the present store and organized the Coleman Drug Company. The partnership continued for nine years and then Mr. Coleman bought out his partner. Since 1909 he has been sole proprietor and has the best drug store in Lawton, conducting the same with much success. On October 23, 1895, Mr. Coleman was married to Miss Isa Harwick. She is a native of this state and her parents, Allen and Mertice E. (Bowen) Harwick, were also born in the state. The mother is still living in this township, but the father died in 1900. Mrs. Coleman's sister, Grace, is a teacher in Idaho and her brother Frank lives in Antwerp township. Another sister, Minnie, died in childhood. Mrs. Coleman has been the mother of four children, but only the two sons, David Allen and Richard H., are now living. Mildred, the eldest of the family, died at six years, and another child, just older than Richard. died in childhood. Mr. Coleman is now serving his fifth term as supervisor of 'the township. He has held all the village offices except that of president of the village. His politics are Republican and he is intluential in his party, of which he is regarded as one of the most valuable members in Lawton. Fraternally Mr. Coleman is affiliated with the Masons, the Knights of Pythias, the MIaccabees, the Mystic Workers and the Woodmen. His wife is a member of the Congregational church at Mattawan. One of the foremost of Lawton's business men, Mr. Coleman is also one of its most popular citizens and one most genuinely interested in all civic matters. AARON HARRISON was born in New Jersey, in the town of Newark, on June 3, 1824. His parents, Jonas and Hannah Markham Harrison, were both natives of New Jersey, who spent several years in New York state. In 1843 they came to Paw Paw township and there they made their home until they died. There were seven children in the Harrison family, as follows: William Henry, now ninety-one years of age, a resident of Kalamazoo; Aaron; Phoebe Ann, residing in Paw Ptaw, the widow of Martin De Graff; Albert, Matilda and John, all deceased; and Ellinore. the wife of M.. Allen, of Paw Paw. After coming to Michigan Aaron Harrison worked for some years at his trade of carpenter and joiner. TIe began his career as a land owner by purchasing ten acres of land in the county and he has continued to add to this from time to time until now he holds some thirty times that amount. Mrs. Harrison is one of the fifteen children of Anthony and Sarah Muson Labady. She became the wife of Aaron Harrison on June 8, 1855. Five of the children of her parents died in infancy. Edgar, Mary and Ellen reside in Paw Paw. Edgar's twin brother, John, lives in Eau Claire. William resides in MIissouri and Nancy Jane and Jackson are deceased. Charles lives in Decatur, and Frank in Paw Paw, Van Buren county. A family of eleven was born to Maria and Aaron Harrison: John is at home and unmarried; Anna is Mrs. Lewis Holster, of

Page  794 794 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Pontiac and has two children, Grover and Miriam; Mary J. is deceased; Mrs. Andrew Graham, of Glendale, Michigan, and she has one daughter Allie; Mrs. Robert McWilliams, of Paw Paw, has four children, Beulah, Lulu, Myrtle and Ruth; Mrs. Hugh Brockway, of Paw Paw, has three children: Genevieve Elizabeth, De Loss Aaron, Charlotte Eleanor; Mrs. Alva Burke, of Paw Paw, has three children, Philo, Emily and Wilbur; Alpha is deceased; Frederick lives in Oakland, California; Edward, in Cherokee, Iowa; and Owen, who died in infancy. The sixty-eight years which Mr. Harrison has spent in the county have been years of profit to him and to the community which his efforts have helped to build. He has seen his children and grandchildren growing up to enjoy the fruits of his labors and working to carry on the development of the land carved out of the wilderness but two generations ago. HERMAN MEYER.-Among the well and favorably known young citizens of Arlington township, Van Buren county, is Herman Meyer, at present engaged in the management of agricultural properties and previously identified with the wholesale and retail grocery business. He is one of the heirs of the great Meyer property of eight hundred acres in Illinois. Mr. Meyer is a native son of Illinois, his entrance upon this mundane sphere having been made at Peru, that state, on November 25, 1883. He is the son of Anton and Elizabeth (Aaron) Meyer, the father a native of Germany and the mother of Illinois. Sir. Meyer gives evidence in himself of many of those stanch, fine Teutonic characteristics to which he has right by paternal heritage. Anton Meyer came to America in youth, in quest of the wider opportunity promised by the New World, and made location in Illinois, where he owned and operated farms, and later in life engaged in the mercantile business. The demise of this prominent and prosperous man occurred on June 16, 1905, and his cherished and devoted wife survived him but a few years, going on to "the Undiscovered Country, from whose bourne no traveler returns" on January 19, 1909. Mr. Meyer, the immediate subject of this review, was one of a family of eight children, of whom the following is an enumeration: William, deceased; Emma, wife of William Newreuther, of Peru, Illinois; Kate, wife of William Doll, of Westfield, Illinois; Anton, Jr., of Peru. Illinois; Sybilla, wife of Charles Siebert, of Bangor, Michigan; Fred, located at Breedville. Michigan; Herman; and Edward, of Breedville, Michigan. Mr. Meyer received his educational discipline in the public schools of Peru, finishing in the higher department. His first adventures as a wage-earner were in the capacity of a cigar maker, a vocation he followed for two and one-half years. He then embarked in the grocery business in association with his father, but the partnership was interrupted by the death of the elder gentleman, and shortly after this Mr. Meyer removed to Pasadena, California. In that western city he engaged in the wholesale and retail grocery business for about six months. He came home for a visit and then returned to Pasadena, but stayed

Page  795 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 795 only a short time, disposing of his interests there. He first becanme identified with Bangor, Michigan, on June 13, 1911. On June 8, 1911, Mr. Meyer established an independent household by marriage, making Miss Eva Giesler its mistress. Mrs. Meyer is a daughter of William and Nellie (Jacobs) Giesler, her father being a native of Germany and her mother of Illinois. They reside in Peru, Illinois, the father being engaged in mercantile business. The subject's wife is one of two children, her sister Eninma residing at home. In political allegiance Mr. Meyer is to be found marching beneath the banners of the "Grand Old Party" and his religious conviction is that of the Evangelical church. The father at his death, as previously mentioned, left about eight hundred acres of land in Illinois. He was a man of wealth, possessing in addition a large amount of city property. In addition to his Illinois holdings, Mr. Meyer has an interest in land in Arlington township, Van Buren county. OSCAR K.RMSEN.-One of those thoroughly up-to-date and wellmlanaged concerns which add in material fashion to the general prosperity and commercial prestige of Bangor is the drug store of Oscar Karmsen, the largest store of its kind in all Van Buren county. In the legitimate channels of trade lie has won the success which always crowns well directed labor, sound judgment and untiring perseverance, and at the same time he has concerned hilmself with the affairs of the community in an admirably publicspirited fashion. Although a native of Montcalm county, Michigan, he is German in descent and manifests in his own individuality that sterling worth which has been of such great value in fostering and supporting our national institutions, the German being generally recognized as one of the most desirable elements of American immigration. Oscar Karmisen was born in Greenville. Michigan, November 24, 1872, and is the son of Charles and Zelma Karmsen, both of whom are natives of Germany. The father and mother of the subject, like so many of their countrymen, became favorably impressed with the opportunity of the land across the Atlantic and concluded to cast their fortunes with it. Upon arriving on our shores they located in Lowell, Michigan, where the father, who was a cabinet maker by occupation, engaged in this means of livelihood. They subsequently removed to Greenville, and in that place they now reside, being among the most honored and estimable of its citizenship. They became the parents of four children,Oscar and his brother, Theodore, who are twins; the latter being a resident of Chicago; Zelma, a teacher in the schools of Greenville, Michigan; and Julia, deceased. Mr. Karmsen attended the district schools and subsequently matriculated in the College of Pharmacy in Detroit, where he pursued his studies for the space of six years. He is naturally adept in this interesting science and thus is fitted by both nature and training for the life work he has chosen. His first practical work in this line was done at Alpena, Michigan, where for four years he was a valued assistant in a drug store. Thence he came

Page  796 796 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY to Bangor, where he established himself upon an independent footing and where, as before stated, he maintains the largest drug store in all Van Buren county, its operations being based upon a capital stock of six thousand dollars. He is by no means one of those content to "let well enough alone," but is constantly adding new improvements and every effort is bent toward keeping abreast of all the latest discoveries in his line. In connection with his drug store, Mr. Karmsen conducts a circulating library, which adds to the popularity of the establishment. On March 4, 1901, Mr. Karmsen, by marriage, laid the foundation of an independent household, making Miss Carrie Ouellette, daughter of Charles Ouellette, its mistress. Mrs. Karmsen is one of a family of six children. The subject and his wife are the parents of one son, Oscar Jr. Mr. Karmsen is in harmony with the principles of the "Grand Old Party," and is of that type of high-principled citizen a record of whose life it is particularly appropriate to include in this history of representative men and women of Van Buren county, Michigan. II. D. HARVEY.-Prominent among the successful business men of Bangor, Michigan, may be mentioned I. D. Harvey, who during the past forty years has been the proprietor of a drug store, and during this time has established an enviable reputation for honorable business dealings and public-spirited citizenship. ifr. Harvey was born in Ohio. April 21, 1851, and is a son of Ephraim and Nancy (Hubbard) Harvey, natives of Ohio. Mr. Iarvey's grandfather and father were both ministers of the Christian church, preaching the Gospel throughout Ohio and Michigan for many years. Ephraim Iarvey passed away in January, 1901, at the advanced age of eighty-four years, while his wife, who was born in 1818, died October 23, 1908. They had a family comprising eight children, as follows: Amnanda, deceased; a child who died in infancy; Lisha, who is also deceased; Samuel P., who lives in Bangor; Willis, residing at Kenton, Ohio; Thomas M., who is deceased; Enoch S., of Washington. D. C.: and H. D. H. D. Harvey attended the public schools of his native state, and graduated from the Bangor high school at the age of twenty years, at which time he was fully qualified to teach school, having acquired his teacher's certificate. He decided, however, to enter the mercantile field instead of following the profession of an educator, and his first venture was in the drug business in Bangor. an enterprise that has proved a highly successful one throughout the years that have followed. In addition to the large brick block in which his establishment is situated, Mr. Harvey owns one of the finest residences in Bangor, and he also has accumulated two hundred and forty acres of excellent farming land located in Arlington township. Mr. Harvey's success in life is due to hard work and good business management, completed with good sense and sound judgment, which have brought him the reward he so well merits. As a citizen his standing is high, and he has al

Page  797 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 797 ways had the best interests of his community at heart, being a leader in all of Bangor's progressive movements. On October 1, 1878, Mr. Harvey was married to Miss Martha L. Menbon, daughter of George and Lucinda (Eckler) Menbon, natives of the state of New York, both now deceased. Nine children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Menbon: Albert, William, Mary Helen, John, Cynthia, Florence and Frederick, all of whom are deceased; Frank, residing in Waverly township; and Martha Lucinda, who married Mr. Harvey. Mr. and Mrs. Harvey have had five children: Florence, who is deceased; Grace, who married Fred Reams; Leo, who is deceased; and Flossie and Gladys, who live at home. In his political views Mr. Harvey is a Republican, but he has never cared for public office. His fraternal connection is with the Elks. His family are well known nmembers of the Christian church, in which they have taken an active interest. FRED AV. REAMS.-MAany of the successful business houses of Bangor. Michigan, are those which were established a number of years ago and whose original proprietors have infused new blood and new methods into their enterprises by the addition of younger mnembers to their firms. One of these, the well-known Wagner l)rug Company, has a large and flourishing trade throughout the village of Bangor and vicinity. Fred W. Reams, who has shown himself to be a business man of no mean ability, is a product of Paw Paw. Lee county, Illinois, and was born October 7, 1879. a son of IAarshall R. and Elizabeth (Sanford) Reams, the former a native of Ohio and the latter of New York. They came to Michigan in 1899, settling in Bangor, where Marshall R. Reams first entered the mercantile field, but eventually took up the fruit and produce business, in which he has since continued. Mr. and Mrs. Reams had a family of three children: Wilbur P., who lives in Buchanan, Mlichigan. and is engaged in the mercantile business: Fred W.; and Grace M., the wife of Charles F. Dandert, of Bangor. Fred W. Reams received his education in the public and high school of Paw Paw, Illinois, but after two years in the latter accompanied his parents to Bangor, where until 1901 he was engaged in the general merchandise business with his father. In the year mentioned he entered the drug business of his fatherin-law, H. D. Harvey, and continued with him for seven years. Mr. Reams is a progressive and enterprising business man, alive to the modern methods and well versed in matters pertaining to the drug trade. His popularity is evidenced by his many warm, personal friends, and he is well known in fraternal circles as a member of the Modern Woodmen. He and Mrs. Reams are consistent attendants of the Christian church. Mr. Reams takes an independent stand in matters of a political nature, reserving the right to vote for the man whom he thinks will best serve the interests of the people, regardless of party ties. On January 18, 1905, Mr. Reams was united in marriage with Miss Grace L. Harvey, the estimable daughter of H. D. and Martha

Page  798 79.8 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Lucinda (Meabon) Harvey, and they have had one son, Roscoe Harvey, who was born January 19, 1906. SHEPARD H. SHATTUCK, a native of New England, has for over a quarter of a century played a helpful and highly honorable part in the life of this part of Van Buren county, Michigan. His is the somewhat unusual record of having held some public office ever since the year 1885, and to every trust he has brought a whole-hearted loyalty which never lost sight of the interests of the many in any personal consideration. At the present time he is chairman of the county board of supervisors. Although now living in Covert, where he owns an attractive and commodious holme, he still retains ownership of some thirty-five acres which he operates. Previous to casting his fortunes with the great basic industry Mr. Shattuck was engaged in sawmill work and in the hardware business. Shepard H. Shattuck was born in Hampshire county, Massachusetts, May 24, 1859, his parents being William J. and Laura (Pratt) Shattuck. The father was a native of the Empire state and the mother of the Bay state. They followed the tide of migration to the developing northwest in 1871 and settled in Covert. The father was a farmer and was also interested in woolen mills before coming to this state. He died in April, 1905, the mother preceding him to the other land in 1872. To their union were born the following five children: Orlo W., deceased in 1906; Ella A., wife of George W. Leslie, of Covert; Carrie A., wife of S. D. Kenny, of Covert; Fred O., of Cincinnati, Ohio, secretary and treasurer of the Church-Bienkamp Piano Company; and the subject. Mr. Shattuck took as his second wife Eliza A. Warner, who also preceded him to the Great Beyond, the date of her demise having been October, 1903. Shepard H. Shattuck began life as a wage-earner at the early age of fifteen years, engaging in sawmilling with the A. S. Packard Company, with whom he remained for a number of years in the capacity of foreman. In December, 1883, he entered upon a new department of enterprise by taking up the hardware business, which he followed in Covert until August, 1887, when he purchased a small farm of sixty acres and proceded to improve and cultivate the same. He made a success of this wholesome and independent vocation and continued thus engaged until 1901, when he disposed of the property. He then removed to Covert. where he built a fine home, his residence being beautifully situated in the midst of a tract of five acres. He has also bought a farm of thirty-five acres in Covert township, section 14, thus still retaining his connection with farming. On April 22, 1885, Miss Clara Sherburne, daughter of E. B. and Jane (Morrison) Sherburne, both natives of Canada, became the wife of Mr. Shattuck. The Sherburnes came to Michigan in 1860 and located in Covert township. The father, whose occupation in his more active days was farming, survives, but his wife died in February, 1902. They were the parents of the following ten children: Roland, of Lone Tree, Iowa; Ella, wife of C.

Page  799 HISTORY OF VAN 1BUREN COUNTY 799 W. Knowles, of Chicago; Clara, the wife of Mr. Shattuck; Minnie, wife of William Simison, of San Diego, California; Lettie, wife of Elmer Blodgett, of Pueblo, Colorado; Harriet, wife of W. H. Seil, of Seattle, Washington; Bertha, wife of William Lees, of Auburn, New York; and three children who died in infancy. Mr. and Mrs. Shattuck share their home with two children,-Karl B., born October 3, 1888; and Winnifred D., born September 10, 1900. The subject is of influence in the counsels of the Republican party and, as mentioned in a preceding paragraph, he is supervisor of Covert township and chairman of the county board of supervisors. He has, in fact, held the office of supervisor for no less than six terms. IIRAM E. NORTON is the scion of one of the oldest of Michigan families, the founder having come here as early as the year 1836. He is a native son of the state and, although familiar with other scenes and for a time a resident of the far west, he has paid this section the highest and most eloquent compliment within his power by electing to return and take up his permanent residence within its boundaries. Mr. Norton is a blacksmith by trade and has ever proved a public-spirited citizen. The birth of Mr. Norton occurred in Porter township on April 15, 1868, his parents being Emanuel and MAary Jane (McNitt) Norton. The McNitt family came to Michigan in the spring of 1836, not long after the engagement at Battle Creek between the -whites and Indians. The father was a native of Canada. He and his family resided in Kalamlazoo county for four years and then removed to Hartford township, the date of that event being 1841. They too took up one hundred and sixty acres from the government. The father who was a farmer throughout his active years is now retired and living in Gregory, Michigan. He is of very advanced age and enjoys the respect and confidence of the community in which he is so well known. The mother died in 1898. Mr. Norton, imimediate subject of this review, is the sole issue of their union. MIr. Norton had the usual experiences of the young folks of his day and locality. HIe acquired his education in the public schools and under his father's direction learned some of the secrets of see(-time and harvest. At the age of thirteen years he decided to become a wage-earner and l)egan work in a sawmill. in which he remained employed for a nulmb)er of years. At the age of twenty-five years he learned the trade of a blacksmith and for a time owned a shop in South Haven. He disposed of the South Haven interest and removed to Covert in 1900, but shortly afterward was seized with western fever and went to Montana, where in Missoula he opened a shop. Throughout his absence, from home, however, the charms of tie old location remained vivid with him and resulted in his returning to Covert, where he now resides. On January 16, 1892, Mr. Norton established a happy home of his own by his union with Miss Clarissa Morgan, daughter of G. W. and Mary (Smith) Morgan. Mrs. Norton's brother, Thomas,

Page  800 800 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY is now a resident of Bangor township and foreman of the Evergreen Farm. To the marriage of the subject and his wife have been born two children, Leah, at home; and Myrtle, deceased. Politically Mr. Norton is in harmony with the men and measures of the Republican party and takes no small amount of interest in local issues. Fraternally he is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, belonging to the encampment at South Haven. He and his wife and daughter are members of the Congregational church and are valued helpers in its campaign for good. They are helpfully interested in all matters pertaining to the welfare of Covert and the county. CHARLES RADTKE.-From sturdy German stock comes Charles Radtke, whose splendid farm of one hundred and ninety-five acres in Bangor township is brought to its fullest productiveness under his capable hands. He has fulfilled in himself all the traditions of this thrifty, honorable race and stands among Van Buren county's representative citizens. Mir. Radtke was born September 30, 1857, the son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Yernitsky) Radtke, both of whom were natives of Germany. In 1874, when seventeen years of age, the subject became the leading spirit in an expedition to the United States. He brought with him his father and mother and supported them until their death. The date of their arrival upon American shores was November 11. The family first located in Columbus City, Indiana, and there remained for a year prior to going to South Haven, where the subject bought eighty acres of land and engaged in agricultural operations. The father died in 1884, and the mother survived until 1894. They were the parents of the following eight children: Godfrey, deceased; Ludwig, of South Haven township; Minnie, deceased; Augusta, wife of John Kuhn, of South Haven township; August. a citizen of Monroe, Michigan; Frederick, deceased; Charles; and John, deceased. Mr. Radtke has experienced the success which usually crowns enlightened industry, honest methods and the determination to succeed. He has added to his property from time to time and now owns one hundred and ninety-five acres in Bangor township. He engages in general farming and stock-raising. When he first came to Michigan he engaged for a time in the lumber industry. For eight years Mr. Radtke was buyer for Frank Lauderbach, commission merchant of South Water street, Chicago, this business taking him over the state of Michigan in the spring and through the south in the winter. Mr. Radtke founded a home of his own by his marriage to Matilda J. Willis, their union being solemnized on October 18, 1885. To them have been born three children. The eldest son, Willis L., is now engaged in the livery and feed business in Covert; Carl is a stationary engineer; and the daughter, Anna Elizabeth, is deceased. Mrs. Radtke's maiden name was Matilda Willis. and she was the daughter of Thomas E. and Annie (Lamb) Willis, natives of Indiana. The family came to Michigan in 1864 and located in Bangor township, where they lived until their demise, the father being called to his eternal rest at the age of

Page  801 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY1 s01 fifty-three years and the mother in 1887, aged fifty-seven years. They were the parents of a large family of children, eleven sons and daughters coming to them. An enumeration of the family is as follows: Hosea, of Pine Grove township; Isaac W., of Bangor township; Charles and Mary, deceased; Mrs. Radtke; Ella, deceased; Rebecca, wife of William Shine, of Bangor township; Thomas E., of Bangor township; Eli, living in Bangor township; Lydia, deceased; and John R., of Porter township. Mr. Radtke is a Republican and takes an interest in public issues. His church is the Lutheran. Mr. and Mrs. Radtke now live in Covert, where they have a pleasant home, the hospitable gathering-place of hosts of friends which they are sufficiently fortunate to possess. IARVEY HARPER.-Every veteran of the Civil war commands our respect and honor in memory of what he accomplished and what he risked in those dark days. A brave defender of his flag, always ready whenever his services have been needed either in war or peace, Harvey Harper, a successful agriculturist of Lawton, Michigan, sets an example of noble-minded living and true patriotism that the rising generation will do well to follow. Mr. Harper was born August 17, 1840, in Huron county, Ohio, and is a son of Samuel D. and Nancy (Spears) Harper. Mr. Harper's parents, both natives of New York, came to Michigan in October, 1841, from Ohio, and, locating in Porter township, Van Buren county, purchased one hundred and forty acres of wild land, which they were engaged in cultivating until 1855. At that time they came to Lawton and erected and opened the first hotel at this place, which they conducted for one year, then purchasing one hundred and twenty acres of farming land just south of the town. In 1861 Samuel D. Harper gave this land to his sons, Harvey and James, and retired from active life, dying in February, 1872, while his widow survived him twenty years and passed away in 1892, on her eighty-third birthday. Eight children were born to this noble pioneer couple, as follows: Sarah and Esther, who are deceased; Eunice, the widow of John Ihling. of Van Buren county; Amanda, the widow of G. P. McNeil, of Lawton; William, who is deceased; James, residing on the home farm; Harvey; and Clarissa, the wife of James Atwell, of Lawton. Harvey Harper remained on the home farm until he had attained his majority, and in 1861 he enlisted in Company H, Twelfth Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Infantry, under Captain Johnson. For six and one-half months he was a prisoner of the enemy, being captured at the battle of Shiloh and taken to Mobile, Alabama, and later to Montgomery. IIe was then paroled and sent to Chattanooga, Tennessee, from whence he was sent to Bridgeport, Alabama, and taken to the Union lines to be exchanged. General Mitchell, however, refused to receive the prisoners, as he was about to go into battle, and they were returned to Chattanooga and a few days later General Mitchell crossed the river and began to shell the city. The prisoners were then put on cars and sent to Atlanta, Georgia, one of the men in the same batch

Page  802 802 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY as Mr. Harper being the noted raider, Andrews, who was afterwards hung on the limb of a peach tree. The limb being too slight for his weight, it is related, the captors shoveled a hole in the ground underneath his feet, thus accomplishing their purpose. While on a trip to Atlanta, in March, 1911, Mr. Harper became acquainted with an old gentleman who vouched for the truth of this story. The street on which it occurred is now named Peach Tree street, and is one of the most beautiful thoroughfares of the Southern city. From Atlanta Mr. Harper and his companions were taken to Griffin, Georgia, and later to the famous Libby Prison, from whence they were paroled and Mr. Harper was sent to Washington, D. C., on to Annapolis, Maryland, and then to Columbus, Ohio, where he was put on detached duty until he was mustered out of the service, August 18, 1863. The brave young soldier, much emaciated and broken in health from his terrible experiences, returned to his home in Michigan and the next year was spent in recovering his health and attending school, and he was then married and went to Morrison, Illinois. where he was engaged in a mercantile business with his uncle. Later he went to Lake City, Minnesota, where he remained for about one year, and returned to the farm which had been given him by his father. In the fall of 1868 he moved to the town of Lawton, where he had purchased ten acres of land, and on this he erected a modern, two-story residence and a fine vineyard. He also owns the town ball park, several building lots and the old homestead farm south of the town, and is considered one of Lawton's successful men, which may be attributed to the fact that he has never shirked hard work, but has always been willing and ready to do his full share. On April 4, 1865, Mr. Harper was married to Martha J. Kinney, daughter of Warren D. and Martha (Roberts) Kinney. and she died June 6, 1904, having been the mother of three children: Bertha, the wife of Crawford Smith, of Ypsilanti. Michigan: Catherine, who resides at home with her father; and Grace, the wife of Hamilton Ewing, of Lawton. Mir. Harper is a stanch Republican in his political views and has served as a member of the village board and as highway commissioner of Porter township. He and his children are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. HON. CHARLES JAY MONROE.-If the people of Van Buren county were challenged to name an admirable product and high type of their citizenship they might with eminent propriety say: "Here is Hon. Charles Jay Monroe-show us his fellow! Behold the fruit and the representative of our civilization! 'Of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a bramble-bush gather they grapes!'" In every field of duty, and his have been numerous. and in every relation of life, Mr. Monroe has exemplified sterling manhood, elevated citizenship, and all the other fine attributes of the genuine American gentleman. Mr. Monroe is wholly a product of Van Buren county. He was born in the township of Lawrence of November 20, 1839. He

Page  803 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 803 obtained his elementary education and first impressions of his relations to his fellow men in the country school near his home. He grew to manhood on his father's farm and did his part of the labor necessary for its cultivation, acquiring therein habits of useful industry, a practical knowledge of farming, and an interest in his native soil that has grown with his years and been intensified by his experience. The activities, aspirations and tendencies of the people of this locality have also been objects of the greatest interest to him at all times, for he has been one of them and fully imbued with their spirit and in sympathy with their desires. Moreover, he taught their children in the schools, surveyed their land, served them wisely and faithfully in many important public capacities, and in time became, in large measure, their banker. And when, in the pride and power of his young manhood, he bowed beneath the flowery yoke of Eros, he united himself in marriage with one of their most estimable and accomplished young ladies, with whom he walked life's troubled way for over forty years. Mr. Monroe is of Scotch ancestry on his father's side of the house. Iis grandfather, Isaac Monroe, was the son of Scotch parents and became a resident of this country early in his life. He was a physician and lived many years in Surry, New Hampshire, then moved to Hamilton, Madison county, New York, where he passed the remainder of his days. IIe reared a family of ten children, of whom his son Jay R. Monroe. the father of Charles Jay, was the eighth in the order of birth, and came into being on April 11, 1806, in Surry, New Hamnpshire, where the family was then living. The father of.1r. Monroe had very limited opportunities for securing an education. ITe was but a boy when the family moved to Hamilton, New York, and soon afterward he was apprenticed to a stonemiason to learn the trade. When he was twenty he decided to cast his lot with the great West, which, in those days. meant anywhere beyond Buffalo. New York. So he resolutely fixed his face in the direction of the setting sun and plunged into the largely untrodden wilderness. Ilis first stop was at Detroit, where he worked at his trade for a time, and made somne progress toward independence. But his ability and force of character were soon discovered, and his services were solicited for more adventurous and ambitious employment. \Ir. Campeau engaged hin to go with a party of his men on a circuit of the lakes in the interest of his fur trade. After his return he passed two years in the employ of Mr. Campeau and General Cass in locating lands for incoming settlers. Iie then made a trip to his old New York home. In 1830 he returned to Michigan and located at Prairie Ronde, but the greater part of his time was occupied in traveling over the territory of Michigan locating lands for others, as before. He was thrifty and frugal. however, and applied his commissions in the purchase of lands for himself. His wandering showed him much of the territory in its state

Page  804 804 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of primeval wilderness. He was the first white man to pass over the site on which South Haven now stands, and in 1833 he built the first house put up within the limits of the present city. He was unmarried at the time, and a family by the name of Thomas occupied his house. It was an unpretentious habitation, on, or, if you please, beyond the borders of civilization, but it was not exempt from the romance and tragedy that visits all human abodes. A child was born and died in that house soon after it was first occupied, and this was the first birth and death in the history of the city. There were not wanting, even at that early day, indications of the coming of a host to people the region, and a plan for a village was projected. Mr. Monroe made a plat of the village as planned, and the plat was embraced in Hannah's plat of 1852, and has been a part of every one that has been made since. Along with other wise provisions, the plan required the reservation of a lot for a school house, and this was shown on the plat made by Mr. Monroe. In 1835, in association with Charles U. Cross, he laid out a road between South Haven and Paw Paw, and what remains of that highway now is still known as the" Monroe road." He had previously laid out a road between South Haven and Prairie Ronde. Thus he was a potential force in the great work of opening the country to settlement, and in bringing settlers in to occupy and improve it. The excellent results that followed his activity in these respects proved his general intelligence, sound judgment and comprehensive grasp of the situation that required his attention. Jay R. Monroe was married on September 10, 1836, to Miss Fanny Rawson, a native of Massachusetts. For some months after their marriage they boarded in Kalamazoo. But in 1837 they located on the land owned by Mr. Monroe in Lawrence township, it seeming probable at the time that the county seat would be located near his farm. The prize of being the center of government in the county was won by Paw Paw, but MSr. Monroe continued to reside on his land in Lawrence township and improved a portion of a farm of nine hundred acres he owned there. He also continued to act as land agent, and in time he became one of the most extensive landholders in this part of the country, being at one period the possessor of eighty eighty-acre tracts, or six thousand four hundred acres in all, and expanse equal in extent to ten square miles. Under the territorial government of Michigan Jay R. Monroe was appointed a judge, and from then to the end of his life he was always known and spoken of as Judge Monroe. I-e was a man of great benignity of disposition, and in his administration of the law always tempered justice with mercy. He was also the friend and adviser of the early settlers, and served as commissioner of the poor in Van Buren county for more than twenty-five. years. He was earnest in his interest and active in his support of all public undertakings for the good of the state, too, helping to organize the State Agricultural Society and assisting at the

Page  805 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 805 baptism of many other excellent institutions from which the people have derived great benefit. In the early history of the county and those who made it he always manifested the deepest interest. He was one of the founders of the Van Buren County Pioneers' Society, and to the end of his life one of its most active and serviceable members. In politics he was a life-long Democrat, and in spiritual matters a firm believer in the Christian religion, but not connected by membership with any church organization. His death occurred in South Haven on October 30, 1876, soon after his return from a visit to the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. His widow survived him one day over thirty-one years, her death coming on October 31, 1907. Mrs. Jay R. Monroe departed this life at the age of eighty-two years, five months and three days. She was universally beloved throughout the city of South Haven, where she passed all the years of her life after the death of her husband, and she well deserved the veneration of the community which she so fully enjoyed. Her pastor, who had been long associated with her in church relations, said in his address at her.funeral: "She was a woman whom Lincoln would have loved, and Roosevelt would have praised," and her heroic character fully justified this eulogy. The first forty years of her life after her marriage were passed on a farm in Lawrence township, which was remote from other human dwellings, the nearest neighbor living about a mile distant. and twenty years elapsing before the woods were cut away so that another house could be seen from her home. Most of her years on this farm were very busy ones for " Mother Monroe," as she was affectionately called by the whole community. Here her nine children were born, and in addition to the innumerable cares incident to rearing and providing for so large a family, she did all the writing and figuring required by her husband's business, including his land agency. Besides as the home was located about the center of the county, it became a sort of halfway house for strangers and travelers, so that there were almost always extra persons to provide for with meals and lodging. Her isolation from society and church privileges, and her burden of work and care imposed great hardships on her, but she bore them all bravely, patiently and cheerfully, for she was a woman of extraordinary virility of body, mind and character, and knew no higher claim on her attention than the voice of duty, which she always heard with reverence and obeyed with fidelity. Of the nine children born to her and her husband only four are living: Charles Jay, Isaac, Andrew and Eunice, the latter the widow of David F. Moore. The mother passed the last thirty-one years of her life in the home of Mrs. Moore. About the time Charles Jay Moore completed his seventeenth year the State Agricultural College was ready to receive students, and he was one of the first to be enrolled. He was present at its opening session, and remained under its beneficent instructions two years and a half. Then, on account of weakness in his eyes, he was obliged to give up his studies. His father, however, found Vol. II-12

Page  806 806 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY employment for him that he was able to attend to by placing him in charge of the land agency business he was conducting. In connection with this he taught school eight terms, and also did surveying in Van Buren and Allegan counties, serving as county surveyor for the former two terms, and being in frequent requisition for work in the same line in the latter, both while he was in office and afterward. In January, 1867, in partnership with S. R. Boardman, MIr. Monroe opened a private bank, which was the first enterprise of the kind in South Haven. In 1871 the First National Bank of South Haven was organized, with Mr. Boardman as president and Mr. Monroe as cashier of the institution. After serving the bank as cashier some four years Mr. Monroe was elected vice president and the next year president. He held this position until 1889. when the bank was reorganized as the First State Bank of South Haven. He was chosen president of this and is still serving it in that office. In 1879 Mr. Monroe pursued a course of instruction in the law department of the University of Michigan, not with any intention of practing the profession, but to assist him in carrying on his multitudinous business affairs. As he stated the case, he had more business than knowledge, so he quit business for a time to obtain more knowledge. In 1880 (or 1881) he organized the West Michigan Savings Bank of Bangor, and he served as its president until he sold his interest in it. He also organized the Kalamazoo Savings Bank, and was its president for some years. He is now one of its directors. In addition he is president of the Van Buren County Pioneers' Society, and one of the most active men connected with that organization. In politics Mr. Monroe has given his allegiance steadfastly and continuously to the Republican party, and as its candidate has been elected township supervisor for three terms, county surveyor for two terms, and school inspector for many years. In 1883 he was elected state senator for Van Buren and Allegan counties, and to this office he was twice re-elected, serving three consecutive terms in all. In the state senate he was chairman of the committee on banks and banking and a member of other important committees. He is the author of the present state banking law, which he had enacted while he was in the senate. In his last term he was unanimously elected president pro tempore of the senate, and during the term was in the chair almost every day. In a material way the interests of South Haven have always been of great consequence in his regard, and he has done his part in promoting them. IHe has built a number of brick business blocks and other houses, and done valuable work in many ways for the advancement and improvement of the city. He has also given the welfare and progress of the county his careful and helpful attention, looking after its interests in every field of effort. intellectual, moral, social and in business affairs. His farm of three hundred and twenty acres, on which he resides, is in tlie county, just outside of South Haven, and has been a source of considerable addition to the mercantile and commercial wealth and

Page  807 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 807 importance of the county. Here he carried on for some years an extensive dairying business, which was a great convenience to the residents of the city and township, and on the farm he now raises large quantities of fine fruit of various kinds, his peach orchard alone comprising thirty acres, with the other orchards in proportion. In June, 1911, he was elected president of the Michigan Bankers' Association. Mr. Monroe was first married in 1866, to Miss Hattie Morehouse. who was born in Albion, Michigan, and was the daughter of Stephen and Lucy (Blackmar) Morehouse. She died on June 22, 1903, and her death removed from South Haven its oldest inhabitant in length of continuous residence, she having lived in the locality from 1852 to the end of her life. By her marriage to Mr. Monroe she became the mother of five children: Stephen B., who is president of the Kalamazoo City Savings Bank; George C., a sketch of whose life will be found in this voluine; Cora J., who died in 1905, and was the wife of William Shakespeare, Jr.; Lucy E., who died in 1906; and Charles 0., who is the editor and manager of the Daily Tribune of South Haven. On September 16, 1905, Mr. Monroe contracted a second marriage, in which he was united with Mrs. Clara O. (Atkinson) Packard, who still abides with him. In fraternal relations he is a Freemason of the Royal Arch degree, and takes a very cordial and serviceable interest in the fraternity. Van Buren county has never had a citizen whom its people esteemed more highly or more universally, or one who was more worthy of their confidence, and hearty regard and good will. He has the good fortune of being estimated at his real value during his life, which is a rare experience among men, and must be due to merit made clear and services beyond question. JESSE S. BARTON.-Illustrating practically in his present course his firm faith in the theory "Ten acres enough." which a few years ago was held by persons in all parts of the country to be full of wisdom and is still adhered to with tenacity in many localities. Jesse S. Barton, of Paw P-aw, is making his ten acres pay well for the labor and intelligence bestowed upon them and finds in tho cultivation of them enough to occupy all the time and attention he cares to devote to farming, whether it is enough to satisfy any other man or not. Mr. Barton knows how much farm work and farm produce he wants, too, for he has farmed larger tracts with success and profit, and according to the most advanced ideas and methods of this day of universal search into every department of human labor, interest, thought and speculation. Mr. Barton is a native of Michigan and was born in Washtenaw county on July 17, 1837. He is a son of William and Charity (Stevens) Barton, natives of New York state. The father, who came to Michigan in 1824, was a farmer all his life, beginning to learn the business in boyhood. Mr. William Barton worked by the month in a mill for the man who later became his father-in-law. After reaching twenty-one years of age he purchased a farm in Washtenaw county, Mlichigan; conducted it a number of years and

Page  808 808 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY then sold it and came to Paw Paw, where he remained six months. He then purchased a farm of one hundred and twenty acres in Almena township, and remained there until selling his farm to his son, Jesse S. Barton. The father, William Barton, returned to New York state, where he remained for a time and then returned to Gobleville, Michigan, where he died at the age of ninety-five years. He and his wife were the parents of five children: Mahala, who has been dead many years; Jesse S., the interesting subject of this writing; John and Emeline, both deceased; and Josephine, the wife of C. D. Meyers, of Gobleville, Michigan. The mother died aged fifty-six years. Jesse S. Barton obtained a district school education and began farming on his own account at the age of eighteen. As soon as he was able he bought twenty acres of good land, but soon afterward sold this and bought eighty acres of the old farm, which he kept for five years. At the end of that period he bought the remaining forty acres of the old homestead and five years later bought an additional tract of eighty acres, and the two together he farmed for more than twenty years, conducting general farming operations and raising live stock for the markets. When he grew weary of the hard work he was obliged to do to keep the business going, he leased his farm to his son and moved to Paw Paw. This arrangement continued eleven years. At the end of that time Mr. Barton sold all hut eighty acres of his old land and bought sixty acres more in Antwerp township, which he retained in his possession about six years. Iis next move was to sell this and to buy ten acres about half a mile from Paw Paw, and on this he now resides. He is well contented with his move and finds both employment and recreation in looking after his small acreage and bringing out of it all that skillful labor and advanced methods of cultivation can make it yield. It is a model of agricultural enterprise and one of the most attractive rural homes in this part of Van Buren county. On January 23. 1864, Mr. Barton was united in marriage with Miss Anne Swick, by whom he became the father of three children: Minnie, the wife of E. A. Aseltine, of Antwerp township and the mother of a son, Leland B.; William, who resides at Dowagiac, Michigan, and has three children-Leta, Carl and Frank; and Allie, married and living in Lansing, Michigan, the mother of Fay and Max. The mother of these children, who is known to fame for her literary work and her ministeral services, died on June 8, 1907. and on June 24, 1908, the father was married to Mrs. Leona A. Jennings. the widow of Henry H. Jennings and by her first marriage the mother of three children: Lilly E., the wife of William L. Nelson. of Lawton; Ralph E., who lives in Waverly township, this county; and Lottie M., the wife of H. C. Buck, of Kalamazoo, Michigan. The present Mrs. Barton is a daughter of Josiah and Amelia (Hannum) Hopkins, the former a native of New York and the latter of Massachussetts. The father came to Michigan in 1852, one of the pioneers of the county and the first man who operated a grist mill in Almena township. He and his wife were the parents

Page  809 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 809 of five children: Mrs. Barton; Luther J., who lives at Ocean Springs, Mississippi; Ella M., the wife of G. P. Kingsbury, of Ann Arbor, Michigan; Willis D., a resident of Cassopolis, Michigan; and Albert, who died in infancy. There is also a son by a second marriage, Jay Paul, a captain in the regular army of the United States and at present (1911) stationed at Fortress Monroe, Virginia. Josiah Hopkins, a venerable man, who passed four-score years in his earthly career, had a wide range of experience in several localities and different lines of achievement. He was born at Crown Point, Essex county, New York, on November 25, 1826, and was a son of Ebenezer and Tryphenia (Searls) Hopkins, natives of Vermont, the father born at West Rutland, that state. Josiah was the last born of the family of six children, and accoimpanied his parents to Ohio when they moved to that state. When he was eighteen years of age his father died and he was obliged to take charge of the affairs of the family. The father owned and operated a sawmill in Ohio, and the son continued to operate it after the father's death until 1852, running it for the benefit of the family. In the year last mentioned he came to MIichigan and Van Buren county and took up one hundred and sixty acres of new and unbroken land in Almena tow'nship. For some years he devoted his energies to general farming and raising stock for the markets. lie saw in time a good opportunity to enhance his own profits and sul))ply a pressing need of the country around him by starting a dairy business, and he did it. After conducting this business ten years he sold it and his farnm and bought eighty acres of land, which he owned and worked three years. At tlie end of that period lie traded this tract for a planing iiill in Mattawan and afterward disposed of this and purchased a grist and sawmill at I)ecatur. These were destroyed by fire and he then bought a grist mill in Antwerp township, which three years later he traded for a farm of one hundred and sixty acres. For three years after this deal he operated a flour mnill in Decatur and then bought a grist and sawmill at Cassopolis. In the course of some fifteen years he sold his interest in the grist mill to his son, who controlled the practical operation of the sawmill twenty years. In 1905 he gave up all active pursuits and made his home with his daughter, Mrs. Barton, in Paw Paw, remaining until his death. on September 18, 1911. Anne Swick Barton, Jesse S. Barton's first wife, was a teacher in the state of New York at the age of seventeen. She came to Michigan in 1862 and here she was engaged in teaching until her marriage with Mr. Barton. While she was yet very young she began writing verse for publication. The first collection of her poems was published in 1882, under the title "For Friendship's Sake." She was also well and favorably known for her work as a minister of the gospel. In 1874 she was requested to take charge of the young people's Bible class at Waverly. She yielded to the request and retained the position three years. During the absence of the pastor of the church to which she belonged on one occasion she was asked to read a sermon. She

Page  810 810 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY did this and her performance gave the people so much gratification that she was called on afterward to aid the pastor in revival work. The next winter she accepted a call to a pastorate of a newly organized congregation at Gliddenberg, six miles west of Paw Paw. She remained in charge of this congregation one year and was then called to her own church at Waverly. She gave this church highly acceptable service as pastor and preacher for two years. In December, 1886, she was regularly ordained to the ministry and from then until her death she devoted all her energies to ministerial work, winning high commendation for her care and solicitude as a pastor and her pathos and fervor as a preacher. Henry II. Jennings, the first husband of the present Mrs. Barton, was a soldier in the Union army during the Civil war. He was a iiember of Company G, First MIichigan Engineer and Mechanics regiment, under the command of Captain Innis. He enlisted in 186:3 and was with General Sherman on his march to Washington, arriving in the capital of his country in rags, after two years' faithful service in its defense. After the war he taught school for over twenty years in Van Buren county. His death occurred in Paw Paw on December 5, 1903. Jesse S. Barton is a Republican in politics of pronounced belief in the principles of his party and reliable energy and efficiency in its service. IHe has not sought nor desired public office himself, hlowever, as he has always preferred to serve the state from the honorable post of private citizenship. HIe is a Baptist in church affiliation. WILLIAM BROADWELL, SR.-A chronicle of the representative men and women of Van Buren county which aims to give credit to usefulness and honor, such as is the purpose of this history, would scarcely be complete without record of that prominent and highly esteemed citizen William Broadwell, Sr., owner of forty acres within the corporate limits of Bangor and of sixty acres in Arlington township. Ile is also a veteran of the Civil war and one of the public-spirited citizens who have contributed in no small measure to the general prosperity. William Broadwell, Sr., was born in Granby, New York, February 26, 1838, the son of William Henry and Olive (Hughnin) lBroadwell, both natives of the Empire state. The father devoted his entire life-time to the great basic industry. The subject's sister, Harriet, now deceased, became the wife of Edward Mayhew, of Detroit, Michigan. William Broadwell, Sr., was by no means reared in the lap of luxury, but in his youth knew the meaning of hard work, which seems to be one of the surest "open sesames" to success. At the age of thirteen he learned what it was to win hunger and weariness by honest toil, for six years working on the Oswego canal. He then took up farming for a year or so and first took up his residence in Michigan in 1856. He located at South Haven and in 1857 first embarked in the lumber business, in which he engaged until 1861. In the meantime the first guns had been fired at Sumter, and the patriotic young man was one of the first to

Page  811 IlSTORY OF VAN BURLN COUNTY 811 enlist, on August 20, 1861, becoming a member of Company D, Sixth Michigan Volunteer Infantry, which later became heavy artillery, and he served in the cause of the Union for the ensuing three years. He was mustered out in Kalamazoo on August 20, 1864, exactly three years after his enlistment. Upon again donning civilian's garb, Mr. Broadwell returned to South Haven and began the work of overseeing the operation of several sawmills in Van Buren county. His identification with Bangor dates from the year 1878 and his activities in his first years here was divided between sawmill and lumber business. He later took up agriculture in addition to his other interests, and has proved exceedingly successful in this line. As previously mentioned, he has a splendid homestead of forty acres within the corporation of Bangor, upon which his fine home is located. He is a director and vice president of the West Michigan Savings Bank. In 1865 Mr. Broadwell laid the foundation of a happy home life by his union with Anna McDonald, daughter of Donald and Catherine (Mcl'herson) McDonald, both natives of Scotland. His first wife (lied in 1896 and he married a second time, in 1898, Mlary Grant. By the first marriage there is one child, William IMcDonald, who has taken over his father's lumber business. This son was born November 11, 1866. He has been twice married. His first wife was Rosa Cooper and this union was blessed by the birth of a daughter, Anna, now a teacher in the public schools. She was graduated from Michigan Normal School in 1910. After the death of the first IlMrs. Broadwell he married Barbara Moore and they share their pleasant home with three children, namely: Mildred, William McDonald, Jr., and Catherine. He and his wife are affiliated with the Congregational church. In his political faith William Broadwell, Sr., is a tried and true Republican and his fraternal loyalty is with the Masonic order. In religious views he is a Congregationalist. L. R. WAGNER, one of Bangor's successful young business men, has only been connected with the interests of this village for two years, but already has established a reputation for progressive methods, enterprising spirit and upright principles. Mr. Wagner is a native of Grand Rapids, Michigan, where he was born August 13:, 1883. and is a son of Herbert and Nellie (Van Bloise) Wagner, wh-o were both born in Iolland. Herbert Wagner came to the United States with his family in 1865, and located in Grand Rapids. where for a number of years he was engaged in doing contract paving work, but eventually he turned his attention to farming, and he was thus engaged at the time of his death. which occurred in May, 1911, his wife having passed away eleven years before. They were the parents of nine children, as follows: Isaac, Martin, Cornelius and John, all residents and business men of Grand Rapids; William Andrew, who resides in New York city; L. R.; and Mary, Jennie and Martha, all deceased. L. R. Wagner attended the school of Grand Rapids, after leaving which he settled on his father's farm, and for the five years

Page  812 812 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY that followed assisted him in his operations. Deciding upon a business career in preference to the life of an agriculturist, he entered McLaughlin's Business College, at Grand Rapids, from which he was graduated in bookkeeping, and then took a fouryear apprenticeship in the drug business. Later he entered the Ferris Institute at Grand Rapids, and after his graduation in 1906 went to Decatur for one year, spent a short time in Hart and a year in Coloma, where he had charge of a'pharmacy, and in February, 1909, came to Bangor and purchased the business of H. D. Harvey, in company with his father-in-law, John DeKruif. Mr. Wagner has applied modern methods in his carrying on of this drug business, and has built up a large and lucrative trade. He has a completely-stocked establishment, centrally located. and it is equipped with all modern appliances and appurtenances. On December 25, 1907, Mr. Wagner was married to Miss Hattie DeKruif, natives of Michigan, whose other children are: I)elia, the wife of Benjamin VenKlossen, of Grand Rapids; and Anna. who lives with her parents. Mlr. and Mrs. Wagner had one child: Ora Leona, who was born August 17, 1909, and died September 21, 1909. Politically Mr. Wagner is a Republican, and his fraternal connection is with the Elks. Progressive in his ideas, he is always ready to support matters which promise to le of benefit to his community, and he is looked upon as one of Bangor's rising young business citizens. MICHAEL ENLOW.-An excellent citizen and able farmer is Michael Enlow, who is engaged in the operation of eighty acres of land in Covert township, section 11, and who preceded his present occupation by many years in the sawmilling business. TIe was born in Monroe county, Ohio, June 5, 1850, and is the son of John and Elizabeth (Blair) Enlow, both natives of the Buckeye state and both deceased. In having adopted agriculture, which laniiel Webster has called the most important labor of man, he is following in the paternal footsteps, for John Enlow was a farmer. The family removed to Covert township, Van Iuren county. in 1857. when the subject was a small lad, and here the fatlier secured eighty acres, which he improved and cultivated. There were seven children in the family, namely: Amelia. deceased; James, of Covert; Mr. Enlow, of this record; Sarah Jane, widow of John Carpenter, of Kansas; Henry, located in Northern \lichigan; and Margaret and Elizabeth, twins, the former the wife of A. N. Logan. of Nebraska, and the latter, of 0. W. Helvy, also of that state. Having secured such education as the district schools had to offer, Mr. Enlow, at the age of eighteen, secured a position in a sawmill, and continued in this field of industry until 1890. IHe did the last sawing done in the Packard sawmills that were located in Covert township and he was familiar and proficient in every detail of the business. Previous to choosing another line of activity he had made a purchase of eighty acres of land in Covert township, and after finishing his milling affairs he moved onto this farm, where he has ever since been engaged. Here he engages in general farming, stock-raising and horticulture, and has been very

Page  813 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 813 successful in these lines, being a foremost representative of the great basic industry on which Van Buren county so securely founds its wealth and standing. On February 26, 1871, Mr. Enlow laid the most important stone in the foundation of his prosperity by his marriage to Lillian Hunt, daughter of A. P. and Cecelia (Frier) Hunt, both natives of the state of New York. Into their happy home have been born five sons and daughters, namely: Eva C., wife of Watson Reed. of Covert; Gertrude, at home; Ralph, deceased; Glendora, at home; and Alice at home. The Enlow household is a pleasant and popular abode. MArs. Enlow was one of a family of eight children, as follows: Ella, wife of A. T. Breed, of northern Michigan; Mrs. Enlow; Dennis R., deceased; Charles, of Grand Rapids; Frank, of South Bend, Indiana; Allen, of Michigan; Clara, widow of Dan Lamaroux, of Grand Rapids; and Eugene, of Grand Rapids. The family are Congregationalist in their religious views and the head of the house is to be found marching beneath the banners of the party which produced Jefferson. Jackson and Cleveland. Mir. Enlow has given conscientious service in several minor township offices. A\ILLIA.M S. B1RADILEY.-A valiant soldier in defense of his country in time of war, and an industrious and progressive merchant and farmer and afterward banker and potent force in educational and civic affairs in time of peace, William S. Bradley, of South Haven, Van Buren county, 1\iichigan, has demonstrated his manliness and usefulness and his devotion to the public weal, local and general. in widely different fields of action and under circumstances varied greatly in character and requirements. Wherever he has been, and whatever he has been engaged in. he has met all the demands of duty with fidelity that is above price and a capacity and readiness of resources that have always commanded admiration and been highly commended. Mr. Bradley is a native of New England, and has all of the typical New Englander 's versatility-shrewdness in business, quickness in seeing and vigor in seizing and using opportunities for his own advantage. IHe has also all the lofty ideals of citizenship which obtain in the section of his nativity, and has followed them through life to this time. He was born in the village of Lee, Berkshire county, Massachusetts, on March 11, 1834, and is a son of Elisha and Sophronia (Jarvis) Bradley, also natives of Massachusetts, and members of families resident in that state from early colonial times. Both have passed to the life beyond, and only two of their nine children are living, William S. and his older sister, Cordelia. The father was a farmer, and removed from his native place to Oswego county. New York, many years before his death. In his new home he continued farming and also carried on a brisk and profitable dairying enterprise with advantage to himself and greatly to the convenience of his patrons. He was a member of the Congregational church in his religious connection and an old line Whig in his political faith and allegiance. In his com 8'

Page  814 814 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COULNTY munity lie was a man of force and influence, and in all the relations of life an estimable and highly respected citizen. His son, William S. Bradley, was educated in the public schools of his home county, and after leaving school engaged in the tanning curriers line until August, 1862, when he responded to duty in another and far more tragic field of endeavor. On August 28, 1862, he enlisted in Company D, One Hundred and Tenth New York Volunteer Infantry, Nineteenth Army Corps. He served for awhile as second and afterward as first lieutenant of his company, remained in the service from the time of his enlistment to the close of the war, and took part in every contest his regiment was engaged in. He finally rose to the rank of captain through his ability and fidelity to duty, and as such was mustered out of the army on August 28, 1865, at Albany. When the war was over and the great armies of conquest melted away in the far greater armies of peaceful production. Mr. Bradley mnoved to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where he was engaged in the manufacture and sale of leather goods until 1881. In that year he moved to Chicago, and there he passed three years in the wool, hide and fur trade. In 1884 he came to Michigan and took up his residence in South IIaven. Soon after his arrival in that city he bought a farm and turned his attention to general farming and fruit growing. In these industries he prospered and his operations became extensive. But he had idle capital in his mental force as well as in his bank account, and he determined to use both in a way that would be agreeable and profitable to him and, at the same time. afford some additional conveniences and advantages to the community around him. In 1892 he helped to found the Citizens Bank, and in 1897 was elected president of this institution, a position he has held continuously ever since his first election to it. ITe was also one of the founders of the City and Township Library, and is now (1911) a member of its board of directors. In addition to these great and serviceable institutions others of a public or semi-public character engage the attention and have the practical personal assistance of this enterprising man of comprehensive and varied activities. He is president of the board of directors of the South Haven City Hospital Association and one of the directors of the South Iaven Telephone Conpany. and he takes an earnest interest and an active part in the affairs and all the work of each of these commendable agencies for good. Moreover. his genuine interest-in the welfare of his home city lias led him to accept the position of city councilman in its service. which he filled for several terms; and the fraternal life of his community has always been, in his view. a source of benefit to the people generally and of special value and enjoyment to those who participate in it. He is a member of the Masonic order in Lodge. Chapter, Council and Commandery, and an enthusiastic devotee before the altars of them all, helping to give life and sparkle to their meetings and direct their energies into beneficial channels, and iake them as serviceable as possible. M:r. Bradley was married on December 27, 1882. to Miss Frances

Page  815 HISTORY OF VAN IBREN COUNTY 815 Iale, a native of Oswego county, New York, and a daughter of Colonel William and Amanda Hale, also natives of New York. The family noved to South Haven, where the father became one of the prominent lumbermen of this region, and was also conspicuous as a real estate dealer. Mr. and Mrs. Bradley have four children, three sons and one daughter. They are universally regarded as among the leading and most representative citizens of the city and county in which they live, and are held in the highest esteem as such by all classes of the people. ER.ASTUS C.sH.-The life of the ordinary farmer in this country generally has few spectacular features or incidents of unusual interest. It is a continual succession of attention to daily duties, performed without ostentation or blare of trumpets, and with little or no notice on the part of the great, busy world. Yet these duties are all important in themselves and in the good they do, both for him who performs them and the public in his community, and the man who attends to them faithfully and discharges them as well as he can is entitled to full credit as a sterling and useful citizen, and one of the great body of men who fix the standards by which manhood and citizenship must be judged. Erastus Cash, of Paw Paw township, this county, in such a man and enjoys the esteem of his fellows in the large measure such a man should win, and always does if the people around him are right in their own conduct and aspirations. He was born in Genesee county, New York, on June 14, 1837, one of the ten children and the third son of Benjamin Franklin and Lucy (Deming) Cash, both of the same nativity as himself. The other children of the family were: Andrew, Eliza and Hiram, all of whom have died; William, who is a resident of New York state; Mary, the widow of William Whitcher who lives in Batavia, New York; Fannie, the wife of Albert White, also of Batavia, New York; Isabelle, the wife of Bennett Waterman, of Genesee county, New York, Stafford township; and Reuben and Benjamin, deceased. Erastus Cash began life for himself at an early age. When he was twenty-two he associated with one of his brothers in buying and shipping live stock, continuing his connection with this line of mercantile enterprise until some months after his marriage, although that event made him eager for a permanent home and more stable business. Soon after it occurred, therefore, he bought one hundred acres of land in his native county and settled down to general farming. He kept this land and cultivated it five years, then sold it and moved to Michigan, locating in Van Buren county. Here again he bought one hundred acres and began a new enterprise as a farmer and raiser of live stock. He owned this tract only three or four years, however, as he found something that pleased him better. He sold his one hundred acres and bought the eighty he now lives on in section 4, Paw Paw township, and which has ever since been his home and furnished him occupation in farming and raising fruit as a commodity and to aid in supplying an extensive and exacting market. His product, like that of his son-in-law, Milton H. Pugsley, a sketch of whom is to be found in

Page  816 816 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY this work, is abundant in quantity and first grade in quality. I-Ie gives its culture careful attention at all times, and makes every endeavor to secure the best possible results from his labors in connection with it, as he does in everything else he undertakes. On November 2, 1859, Mr. Cash was united in marriage with Miss Jennie Pierson, and by this union became the father of three children: Jennie, the wife of Milton H1. Pugsley; Carrie, the wife of Chan Bowen, of Kalamazoo county, Michigan; and Lucy May, who is deceased. Their mother died on May 24, 1866, and on March 11, 1867, the father contracted a second marriage, uniting himself at this time with Miss Cordelia Phillips, a daughter of Aaron and Trephonia (Chapin) Phillips, respected residents of Decatur. Twelve children were born in the Phillips family, nine of whom are living: Charles, who resides at Arlington; Horace, a resident of Indiana; Mary Ann, the widow of Joseph Edmonds of Goshen, Indiana; Adeline, the widow of Monroe Selby, whose home is in Branch county, this state; Aaron, who is a citizen of Indiana; Mrs. Cordelia Cash; Eliza, the wife of Frank Wood, of Decatur, Michigan; William, who lives at Galesburg, this state; and Alexander, whose home is at Bangor, Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Cash have had one child, their daughter Franc A., who was born on September 26, 1875, and died on December 9, 1905. Mr. Cash is a pronounced Democrat in his political faith, a firm believer in the principles of his party and an energetic worker in its behalf, but only because he believes in it, and not because he desires for himself anything it has to bestow in the way of public office. In church affiliation he is a Baptist, and while not showy or desirous of prominence in his membership, he is true to the teachings of his sect and devoted in his interest in the welfare of the congregation to which he belongs. Van Buren county has no more sturdy or sterling citizen, and none who is more generally or highly respected by all classes of its people. ALPHEUS A. McNITT.-This enterprising, progressive and studious, and therefore successful and prosperous, farmer of Keeler township has been a resident of Van Buren county for more than forty-eight years, having been brought to the county by his parents when he was about two years old. He grew to manhood there, drawing his stature and his strength from the soil of this county, obtained his education in the public schools of the locality in which he now lives, and acquired his social training in mingling with its people. He is therefore, practically, a real product of the county, and has no recollection of any other home. although he was born in Niagara county, New York, on December 16, 1851. Moreover, he is a thorough and creditable representative of the citizenship of the county, although his modesty would never allow him to think so. Mr. McNitt's parents, Sylvester and Susan (Brown) McNitt, were of British ancestry, and the father was a native of Great Britain, born in Scotland. He. died in this county when he was about fifty-three years old, on November 8, 1864. He was a mechanic and farmer, and was successful and prosperous in both

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Page  817 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COIUNTY 817 lines of his industry. In 1853, after a residence of some years in the state of New York, he moved to Van Buren county, Michigan, and bought sixty acres of land in Hartford township. Sometime afterward he purchased eighty acres more in the same township, and was possessed of both tracts at the time of his death. During his life he was a great friend of the cause of public education, through which he received his mental training, and did everything in his power to aid in making them better and more useful. In politics he was a firm believer in the Jeffersonian principles, and therefore, a staunch adherent of the Democratic party, which represented, according to his views, the greatest good and safety for the people, locally and nationally. Mrs. McNitt, the mother of Alpheus A., was born in Pennsylvania in 1821, and grew to womanhood in her native state. Her parents came to this country from Ireland and passed the reinainder of their lives in the state of her nativity. She, also, was educated in the common schools, and always felt a cordial interest in them and their work. Her upright and useful life ended in Van Buren county, Michigan, in 1898. She was a loving wife and mother, and gave the people around her an excellent example of American womanhood, and her offspring the best. training and counsel. Of the seven sons and four daughters born to this estimable couple six are living: Charles, who is a resident of Casco, this county, and one of the progressive farmers of his locality; Thaddeus, who is a resident of Bangor, Michigan; Julia, who married Ezra Curtis, a farmer of Iartford township, this state; Archibald E., a structural steel worker and engineer living in Chicago; Flora A., who is the wife of Marion Hoover, a skillful and highly respected blacksmith of Hartford; and the subject of this memoir. All the sons are married. Alpheus A. McNitt obtained a commnion school education in the schools of Van Buren county, and has passed all the years of his life, since leaving school, in farming and working at his trade as a carpenter, following in the footsteps of his father in both lines of effort. His progress in life has been the result of his own industry, frugal living and excellent management. tie began with very little capital, but, witl the aid of his estimable wife, he has accumulated a comfortable estate, which puts him, with his )prudent scale of living, beyond the reacll of adversity. lie is independent in his political sentiments, always casting his vote for the men he considers best fitted for the offices sought and most likely to work for the good of the township and county and their residents. In this respect his stand is well known, and he is highly respected for it, as well as for his excellent character as a man and his usefulness and public- spirit as a citizen. Ite and his wife have a beautiful farm of two hundred and twenty-five acres, all in Keeler township, and located six miles from Hartford and four from Watervliet. The farm is devoted to general farming, but the land is admirably adapted to the culture of fruit. It is well improved with good buildings, and completely equipped with everything needed for its advanced and profitable cultivation.

Page  818 818 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY It is on the line between Keeler and Hartford townships and known as the "Walnut Avenue Farm. " Mr. McNitt was married on October 7, 1875, to Miss Emma Havens, a daughter of William H. and Eleanor Jane (Lewis) Havens, and the third of their six children, all of whom are living. The other five are: Olive, the wife of Marcius Olds, a coal merchant doing business and residing at Fergus Falls, Minnesota. and the mother of eight children; Metcalf E., a Hartford township farmer, and the father of two children; William, also a resident of Hartford, and married; Charles, another of Iartford township's successful and representative farmers; and Ella, a widow with two children, whose home is in St. Joseph, Michigan. William H. Havens, the father of these children, was a native of Coshocton, New York, born in 1828. About the year 1853 he located in Michigan and Van Buren county, where he died in 1891. He was a Republican in politics until the formation of the Populist party, and then joined that organization, to which he adhered faithfully to the end of his life. At the age of sixteen he became a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and throughout all his subsequent years he was true and faithful to its teachings, taking a great interest in its work, wherever he lived. and for a long time being one of the chief singers in the choir of the congregation in which he held his membership. He was also a strong advocate of temperance and the restriction of liquor traffic, and took high ground on this great moral and economic question. Mrs. Eleanor Jane (Lewis) Havens, his wife, now his widow, was born in the state of New York on April 30, 1835. She is of German ancestry, and in all the years of her long, upright and serviceable life has exemplified the best traits of the thrifty, persevering and sturdy race from which she came. For some generations her forefathers lived in Pennsylvania. She is now living in Hartford, this county, where all classes of the people hold her in the highest esteem. Her religious connection from her youth has been with the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. and Mrs. Alpheus A. M\cNitt have two sons and one daughter, all living, and all practitioners of the art of healing according to the theories of the Chiropractic school. They are Leslie, who resides in Benton Harbor; Nellie, the wife of Hermie Warren, whose home and business are at Casnovia, in this state; and William, who is located at Niles, Michigan. The special trend of these young people is so unusual in its uniformity and their achievements in it are so highly creditable to them and the family and so beneficial to their fellow men and women that each deserves a separate notice somewhat in detail. Dr. Leslie A. McNitt is what is called, in the nomenclature of the new art of healing which he practices, a chiropractor, and the theory of his science is that all human ills can be cured by removing the cause. Then nature will restore the organism to a normal condition. The method of operation is adjustment of the spine, the center and force distributor of the whole nervous system, which largely controls all the rest of the body. When the spinal column is properly adjusted and performing its func

Page  819 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 819 tions in a proper way, and the nervous system acts as it should, the other organs of the body will soon be in harmonious accord, and local ailments will fade away like mists in the sunbeams of the morning. Dr. Leslie A. McNitt is in years a young man, but he is full of the right spirit, has been well prepared for his work and is rapidly attaining prominence in his profession. Iis patients are among the leading men and women of the community, and as he gives them positive benefits in what he does for them they realize that he is capable and that his science and art, for his profession includes both, are worthy of confidence and open a new avenue to human welfare, comfort and happiness. Dr. Nellie (McNitt) Warren, as she should properly be called, completed her academic education in the Hartford high school, being graduated in the class of 1901. For several years thereafter she was a successful public school teacher in her home county. She then studied chiropractry at the Grand Rapids institute of this school of the healing art, and was graduated from it in 1910. She has been very successful in the practice of her profession, and her reputation in it grows as the years go by. MAr. Warren, her husband, is a farmer, and he also does well in his business. Dr. William MIcNitt, who is located at Niles, Michigan, and steadily growing into popular favor as a professional man and estimable citizen there, is, like his brother, I)r. Leslie McNitt, and his sister, I)r. Nellie Warren, a graduate of the Chiropractic College in Grand Rapids, from which he received his degree July 1, 1911. Since leaving the Grand Rapids institution, which is devoted to the dissemination of the new and very rational method of dealing with human ailments that he and his work represent, he has been active in propaganda work in behalf of his theory and in practical demonstration of its verity and value. He states its claims to consideration clearly and forcibly in his professional card, which says: "Chiropractic is the science of adjusting by hand the subluxations (displacements) in tie spinal column, conmonly called the back bone, for the purpose of removing pressure from nerves. "The spinal column is the only place where nerves pass between two hard or bony surfaces that are movable, therefore, practically the only place where nerves can be impinged, or the nerve restricted, and it matters not what part of the body or organ is affected, the cause is in the spinal column. I ask no questions. I simply analyze the spine, and I tell you every place you are affected. Chiropractic is the only science that removes the cause of disease, and this is done without pain, drugs or knife. I use nothing but my hands, and it takes but the fraction of a second; the whole object is accomplished when the nerve is released. Paralysis, deafness, loss of voice, cancer, catarrh, gall stones, over weight, rheumatism, appendicitis, neuralgia, neurasthenia, eye, ear, throat, lung, stomach, liver, kidney, bladder trouble, etc., all quickly and permanently disappear under chiropractic adjustments properly given. "I do not treat, I remove the cause, nature cures.

Page  820 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY "Analysis and consultation free; let me tell you where you are affected by analyzing your spine. "Because it is new do not say 'it is impossible.' That is what they told Marconi." Mr. and Mrs. McNitt are fully justified in the pride they have in the ambitions and achievements of their children, who have attained a high place in the confidence and esteem of the people who know them, and have admirably proven their right to the general regard and good will they so richly enjoy. In their profession they have severally done some wonderful work and reached some wonderful results. In their interest in the enduring and substantial welfare of the communities in which they live, and in their elevated and serviceable citizenship generally, they have exemplified the best attributes of exalted American manhood and womanhood, and in the correctness and uprightness of their lives in every way they have put into practice the lessons given them in childhood and youth at the parental fireside. All the members of the family are highly creditable to the place of their birth, the institutions from which they got their training, the people among whom they acquired their social culture, and the several communities in which their efforts and energies are being so beneficially expended for the welfare of their kind. Whether representing new theories or old ones, they would command respect for their beliefs and teachings, and the people around them prove their own real worth by showing that they realize this fact and estimate these worthy and estimable citizens at the full measure of their value. HENRY Y. TARBELL.-Born and reared to the age of nineteen in Franklin county, New York, then passing twenty-six years in South Dakota extensively engaged in growing wheat and raising and feeding horses for the Eastern markets, and up to 1911 one of the enterprising and progressive farmers of Van Buren county, Michigan, Henry Y. Tarbell, of Paw Paw township, has mingled with the people and taken part in the industrial life of three of the great states of the American Union, in which the circumstances, the methods of action and the conditions in general differ widely. But he has been able by his versatility and general business capacity to adapt himself to all requirements and do well in every situation in which he has found himself. Mr. Tarbell's life began in Franklin county, New York, on April 7, 1865, and he is a son of Newell I. and Julia M. (Duefraine) Tarbell, also natives of the state of New York. The father was occupied in farming in his native state continuously until May, 1910, when he and his wife came to Michigan and Van Buren county, where they now make their home with their son Henry. They have three children besides Henry: Belle, who is the wife of Allan Tullar and lives in Springfield, Massachusetts; Fred E., who is also a resident of Springfield Massachusetts, and one of the foremen of the Smith & Wesson Gun Works there; and Etta, the wife of W. E. Wiley, of Schagticoke, Rensselaer county, New York. Henry Y. Tarbell remained on the farm with his parents until he reached the age of nineteen, assisting in the farm work and

Page  821 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 821 attending the district school near his home when he could. At the age mentioned he gratified a longing he had cherished for years by throwing himself into the midst of the colossal activities of the great West and taking a part in conducting them. He moved to South Dakota, purchased three hundred and twenty acres of land, and started an industry in raising wheat on a large scale. He also engaged in raising and handling horses for the markets on a similar scale, taking advantage of every opening he saw for the furtherance of his interests, and with characteristic enterprise and energy using each for all it was worth. Mr. Tarbell remained in South Dakota twenty-six years, thriving in his business and rising to consequence and influence among the people. In 1902 he came to Michigan and bought a farm of one hundred and sixty-two acres in section 22, Paw Paw township, this county, and here he maintained his home and carried on a vigorous industry in general farming up to August, 1911. We here quote from The Trte Northerner of November 17, 1911: "Henry Tarbell has surely earned the title of 'Land King.' He sold his farm south of town last summer, and bought a place in the village where he could live near his friends and enjoy himself. He soon got restless, however, and started with his wife for a trip through the west, and for a visit with a son who lives in Dekota. The fine level farms of that country were a delight to his eye, and the temptation became too strong for him to resist. The result was that before he left for home he was the possessor of a deed for one thousand acres of that rich farming land. It is all under cultivation, has fine buildings, is as level as a floor, and is said to be one of the most valuable farms in that locality. "His many friends are glad to know, however, that he does not contemplate moving to that country, but will be content to make Paw Paw his home, and rent the big farm in the west. "Itenry has lived here but a short time comparatively, but during that time he has shown himself to be a valuable acquisition to any community, and his friends are legion. "He not only is a good judge of farm lands, but knows a horse from A to Z and has handled many horses since coming here. He is the happiest when dealing in horse flesh or swapping with a neighbor. He always has a horse that can step some, and knows how to get the speed out of him. Harry Showerman can give testimony in evidence of his ability as a driver, and it makes an interesting story to listen to." Mr. Tarbell's residence and operations on the plains of the Farther West taught him the value of conducting the farming industry on the largest scale the circumstances would allow and having labor saving machinery commensurate with its utmost requirements, and he has applied the lessons there learned to his operations in this county, making himself one of its most progressive and successful farmers, and settling a pace which his neighbors and observers generally are following to their own advantage and the benefit of the county. On September 2, 1888, Mr. Tarbell united in marriage with Miss Myra E. Thayer, a daughter of R. 0. and Ellen (Tullar) Thayer, Vol. nI-1 3

Page  822 822 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY residents of Iowa. Six children have been born of the union, all of whom are living. They are: Walter W. and Mabel A., who reside in South Dakota; and Ferne T., Julia, Thusa Pearl and Newell L., who are still living under the parental rooftree, adding to the social life and enjoyment of the community and doing what they can in a quiet but effective way for the general welfare of their township and county. While Mr. Tarbell has no ambition for public office of any kind, and never sought a political position in his life, he has an earnest interest and takes an active part in local public affairs for the good of the community. He believes firmly in the principles of the Republican party, and does what he can to have themn prevail in the government of his county, state and country. Ile also regards fraternal societies as beneficial among men, and does his share toward making some of them as potential and effective for good as possible. He belongs to the Masonic order and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and is active in the work of his lodge in each. In church connections he is a Presbyterian. Van Buren countI has no better citizen, and none whom the people hold in higher or more deserved esteem. GEORGE C. MON\ROE.-Industrial and business life in this country is full of mutations. The ground beneath our feet perpetually rocks and heaves, throwing up new eminences and opening chasms where heights have lately been. New opportunities are ever coming to the wary and making new demands upon the capable. The young man who enters upon the stage of action at twenty as a farmer, trader, doctor, or something else, will not unlikely be found pursuing a very different avocation at forty, so numerous and various are the currents of activity in this electric age and in a land ol such nmulitudinous interests as ours Ipossesses and demlands attention. George C. Monroe. of South Haven. where he is one of the leading business men of the community, furnishes in his career a striking illustration of these facts. He began independent exertions for his own advancement as a surveyor of land aniid a fruit grower. Yet for many years he has been almost exclusively engaged in banking and other occupations kindred to or allied witll this interesting but exacting pursuit. But, although he has changed his business, he has not changed the seat of his operations. IHis energies are employed now where they first found service. and have always been devoted to the place of his birth and its vicinity. Mr. Monroe's life began in South Haven, Michigan, on February 20, 1871, and in that city the whole of it to the present time (1911) has been passed, except the period spend by him at college and the years 1896 to 1899 when he lived in Covert. He is a son of Hon. Charles Jay and Hattie (Morehouse) Monroe, a sketch of whose lives will be found in this work. He attended the public schools in his native city to obtain the basis of his education, and the State Agricultural College to get instruction in the more advanced stages of his mental training. After leaving college he engaged in surveying land and raising

Page  823 HISTORY OF VAN BUlREN COUNTY 823 fruit for the markets seven or eight years. But his mental bias was toward business and its leaning was decidedly in the direction of banking. And what nature had implanted in him was bound to come out, whatever might be his zeal and industry in other directions. On Iecember 1, 1899, he accepted the position of cashier of the First State Bank of South Haven, having had almost a full year's experience in the banking business as the president of the Bank of Covert, which he helped to organize under the auspices of C. J.:Monroe Sons & Company on January 1 of the same year. Mr. Monroe is a son of one of the founders of the Kalamazoo Savings Bank and is now a large stockholder in that institution. In addition he is secretary of the Hotel Columbus Association and the South Haven Hospital Association, of the latter of which he was one of the organizers. In 1906 he gave up the cashiership of the First State Bank, being promoted to the position of vice president in its directorate. His interest in the institution has never waned, however, and his influence has been at all times, from the beginning of his connection with it. potential in helping to give it standing in the community and increase.the volume of its business and its popularity among the people. On February 14. 1893, lie was united in llarriage withl Miss Ielen Smith, a native of Emden, Germany. Three children have been born of this union, George S.. Helen L. and Randolph B., all of whom are still mnembers of the parental household and elements in its attractiveness to the numerous friends and associates of the family. These make its home a frequent resort, and always find it a center of mental and social culture and refined and gracious hospitality. Mr. Monroe is an enthusiastic Freemason, and has ascended all the rounds of the mystic ladder in the York rite and to the thirtysecond degree in the Scottish rite. lie holds membership in Star of the Lake Lodge, No. 155; Royal Arch Chapter, No. 58; and South Haven Council, Royal and Select. Masters, No. 45, having presided over all three bodies in Soutlh Haven: Alalta (Coimmandery No. 44, Knights Templars, at Benton Harbor; Saladin Temple, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, at Grand Rapids; and I)e Witt Clinton Consistory, Scottish Rite Masons, at Grand Rapids. He is also a member of the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of the state, and in addition belongs to Hamilton Grange. Patrons of Husbandry, and the Order of the Knights of Pythias and several insurance orders. In the affairs of his city and county lie has a deep and abiding interest and manifests it by actively supporting all conmmendable undertakings for their improvement and the betterment of their residents. In political faith and allegiance he is pronounced Republican, not with a view to securing public office, which he never desires, but because he believes in the principles of that party and thinks their prevalence in the government, local, state and national, would be beneficial. But he does not allow partisan considerations to outweigh his sense of duty to his community in local affairs, and always gives that sway without regard to personal or partisan claims of any kind. He is looked upon as one of the

Page  824 824 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY most useful, public spirited and representative citizens of the county, and esteemed in all parts of it in accordance with this estimate. CHARLES L. NOWER.-This enterprising, progressive and prosperous farmer and live stock man of Paw Paw township, this county, was born in Paw Paw on September 15, 1893, and is a son of William G. and Melissa (Russell) Nower, for many years industrious and prominent farmers in Van Buren county but now living retired from active pursuits in Lawrence. The father, William G. Nower, was born in Central New York on April 24, 1853, and came to Michigan with his parents in 1857. The parents were James and Frances (Wickens) Nower, natives of England who came to this country early in life and made a new home for themselves in the state of New York. In 1857 they moved their family to Michigan and located in Van Buren county, where the father bought fifty-three acres of farming land, on which they passed the remainder of their lives, the father dying in 1860 and the mother in 1888, on the land that had been hallowed and greatly improved by their labor and skillful cultivation. They had seven children, three of whom are living: William G., Henry and John, all of whom reside in Lawrence. The four of their offspring who died were Frances, Charles, Martha and Alfred. William G. Nower grew to manhood on his father's farm in this county, and when he reached the age of twenty years began farming on his own account. At the age of twenty-seven he bought forty acres of land, but soon afterward sold this and bought ninety-five acres in section 19 in Paw Paw township, which his son Charles L. is now farming. The father was married on May 17, 1879, to Miss Melissa Russell, and they became the parents of three children, all of whom are living. They are: William J., who resides in Lawrence township, this county; Charles Leslie, who is living on and cultivating the parental homestead; and Charlotte, whose home is in Lawrence. The father of these children is independent in his political action, looking only to the good of his township and county without regard to partisan considerations. He has always been an earnest advocate and supporter of public improvements, and every agency that worked for the progress of his locality and the betterment of its people in any way. In church relations he is a Methodist, and one of the energetic and devoted members of the congregation to which he belongs. Whenever he is known he is highly esteemed as a good citizen, an upright man and a very useful force for good. Charles Leslie Nower, the second son of William G., obtained a high school education and, at the age of nineteen, started out in life for himself to make his own way in the world and work out a creditable career by useful industry, which he felt he had the spirit and determination to make profitable to himself and serviceable to any community in which he might live. For two years after leaving school he served the government faithfully as a mail carrier. Then, in March, 1911, he took charge of the homestead

Page  825 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 825 on which he has been conducting a general farming and live stock industry on as large and energetic scale as his facilities will permit. On December 31, 1902, Mr. Nower was united in marriage with Miss Bernice Feegles, a daughter of Joseph and Anna (Kelly) Feegles, of this county. The parents were born and reared in Michigan, and here the father was a contractor and builder for a number of years. He died on August 29, 1896, and some time afterward the mother married a second husband, being united on this occasion with 0. )D. Allen, a resident of Van Buren county. Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Nower have four children: Norma, who was born on August 12, 1903; Vaughn, who was born on June 23, 1905; Rex, whose life began on May 2, 1907; and Donna, the date of whose birth was August 29, 1909. The father holds himself free for independent action in connection with all political matters, and partisan considerations have no weight with him. His first and chief desire in affairs of government. local, state and national, is to aid as far as he can in securing the substantial welfare of the people, and he works for this without regard to the political ambitions of candidates and with none of his own. Mrs. Nower was the last born of the four children of her parents. Three of the four are living: Nina, who is the wife of Thomas Clark, of Cleveland, Ohio; IIattie, who is the wife of Owen Babbitt, of Winthrop, Minnesota; and Bernice, who is now the wife of Mr. Nower. The only son in the family, Ebert Feegles, died some years ago. The parents were highly respected by all classes of the people wherever they were known, as the mother and surviving children are now. All have been faithful to duty in all the relations of life, and have won public esteem by the impiessive examnples they have given of upright living and earnest and helpful interest in their several communities. WILLIAM I. GAY.-Practical industry, wisely and vigorously applied, never fails of success; it carries a man onward and upward, brings out his individual character, and acts as a powerful stimulus to the efforts of others. The greatest results in life are usually attained by simple means, implying the exercise of the ordinary qualities of common sense and perseverance. The every-day life, with its cares, necessities and duties, affords ample opportunities for acquiring experiences of the best kind and its most beaten paths provide a true worker with abundant scope for effort and self-improvement. In the legitimate channels of progressive agriculture, William I. Gay has won the success which usually crowns well directed labor, sound judgment and untiring perseveranee and at the same time he has concerned himself with the affairs of the county in a loyal, public-spirited fashion. This well-known farmer and stock raiser owns one hundred acres in sections 14 and 15. He is a native of Van Buren county, his birth having occurred in Paw Paw township on November 25, 1876. He is the son of William and Sarah (Hunt) Gay. His father was born in England, March 19, 1840, and the birth of the mother also occurred in "the right little, tight little island" the date of her nativity being March 11, 1845. Both came to America in childhood with their

Page  826 t26 HISTORY OF VAN BITREN COUNTY parents, he at the age of eleven and she at the age of thirteen. Both families found their way to Michigan, the Gays settling in Richland, Kalamazoo county, and the H-unts in Paw Paw township, Van Buren county. William Gay married in Paw Paw township and took his wife to Richland, where they made their home for two years before coming to Paw Paw township. They afterward purchased land in Waverly township, where they resided until summoned to the "Undiscovered Country." The admirable wife and mother died January 9, 190i, but the father survived for some years, his demise coming on November 4, 1907. They were the parents of three children: the subject; Fred Gay, of Waverly; and Edith, wife of William I). Davis. \Villiam I. Gay was reared amid the wholesome surroundings of his father's farm and behind a desk in the district school house gained his first introduction to Minerva, Goddess of Wisdom. He attended the institutions of learning of the township until his eighteenth year and since then he has devoted his time to farming. l-e owns one hundred acres in sections 14 and 15 and in addition to his general farming also raises stock. He is a truly self-made man and is known for his honor and integrity, reflecting honor upon the country which gave his parents birth. On October 30, 1900, Mr. Gay was united in marriage to Lulu M. Furbush, of Waverly township, her birth having occurred here.March 14, 1880. Mrs. Gay is the daughter of Rolert and Emma (Ilaydon) Furbush. Their union has resulted in the birth of three daughters and two sons, namely: Russell, born in 1901; Mildred, born in 1903; Florence, born in 1904; Bertha. born in 1908; and Robert, Iorn December 15, 1911. Sir. Gay is a member of the Masonic order and exemplifies in ]imself the ideals of moral and social justice and brotherly love for which the order stands. He belongs to Goble Lodge, No. 325; to Glendale Lodge, No. 4(08 Independent Order of Odd Fellows; and to the Modern Woodmen of America. HIe is Republican in politics, but has never taken an active part in party affairs. RICHARD E. SAGE.-On the roll of those who have laid the foundations of the prosperity of Waverly township, Van Buren county, by their thrift, progressiveness and wise management of the agricultural resources of the country is written the name of Richard E. Sage, a prominent farmer and stockman and a citizen whose unblelished record for integrity and fine principles had won for him general respect and esteem. His farm, which consists of one hundred and twenty acres of particularly excellent land, is located in section 12. By no means afraid of innovation, he employs the latest agricultural methods, and that with success, and the stock raised by him is of high standard. Van Buren county boasts a goodly number of native sons who have paid it the highest compliment within their power by electing to remain permanently within its borders and Mr. Sage is one of these. His birth occurred on June 10, 1860, in Bloomingdale township, his parents being William H. and Sarah (Gay) Sage. The former was born in county Clare, Ireland, in 1849, and at the'age

Page  827 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 827 of nine years came to the United States with his father, Patrick Sage. They first located in the state of New York, where the father and one of his sons found employment upon the Erie Canal, which was then being enlarged, and later on were employed in the building of the New York Central Railroad. Thereby they earned sufficient nloney to pay the passage of the remainder of the family wlio until that timne had remained at their old home in the Emerald Isle. They then came on to Michigan in 1860, where the grandfather of the ilmmediate subject located near Gobleville and followed farming and masonry work until his death, at the age of seventy-five years. Mr. Williami Sage, the father, received his early education in the schools of Ireland and upon coming to this country completed his education in the public schools. He arrived in Michigan at the age of nineteen and upon the breaking out of the Civil war enlisted in Battery E, First Michigan Light Artillery. connected with the Fourth Army Corps, in which he served one year, passing through a number of battles. After his discharge from the service he took up farming near Gobleville and followed that until retiring in 1906, in which year he returned to Paw Paw, where he still resides. During the childhood days of Mr. Sage, while living in Ireland, the great famine took place, during which terrible period, over two miiillion people starved to death, and he vividly recalls the awful suffering which lie witnessed at that time and which made so frightful an impression on his youthful mind. Hie married Sarah Jane Gay and they had nine children, four of whom died in infancy. One of his sons, W. V. Sage, is a graduate of the Lansing schools and also of the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor; he was formerly superintendent of schools and is now engaged in farming in llloomingdale township, on the place where the subject of the sketch was born. Florence is now the wife of George Connery, of Bloomingdale township, and was formerly a teacher in the public schools. May is the wife of Arthur Cleveland, of Janesville, Wisconsin. l)r. E. D. Sage is a graduate of Chicago University and is now resident in Kalamazoo, Michigan, where he is a successful physician and surgeon. Richard E. Sage passed his youth amid the rural surroundings of his father's farm and was educated in the Gobleville public schools. When it came to adopting an occupation of his own he followed in the paternal footsteps, and, being the eldest. he worked on the farm. thereby enabling his brothers to remain at college. Mr. Sage was first married April 28. 1883. to Mary Leaibe, and their union was blessed by the birth of a son. Leroy W., who married Isa Beach, daughter of William Beach. Mir. and Mrs. Leroy W. Sage have a son, Cleon. The first wife of the subject was called to the Great Beyond in 1890, and on September 30, 1903, he was united to Minnie Johnson, daughter of L. J. Johnson. The second union has resulted in the birth of two little daughters,-Florence, aged six; and Alberta, aged two. Mr. and Mrs. Sage are members of the Free Will Baptist church and the former is one of the trustees of Covey Hill church, an historical place. He is a prominent member of the Grange, in whose

Page  828 828 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY affairs he takes an active and interested part. In the field of politics he is found under the standard of the " Grand Old Party," but, although interested in the success of good government, he has never been active in partisan affairs. He has been highway overseer or pathmaster. He has held the position of chairman of the school board for several terms, being the incumbent of that office at the present time, and was one of the founders and at the present time a trustee of the Gobleville Mutual Telephone Company. He enjoys the regard of the community in which his interests are centered and his circle of friends may be said to be co-incident with that of his acquaintances. ORA F. FULLER.-Among the prominent and progressive farmers of Van Buren county who have made their agricultural enterprises successful because of careful business management and resourceful scientific methods is Ora F. Fuller, the proprietor of the Walnut Knob Faril of I-Iartford township. Mr. Fuller is a native of Allegan county, Michigan, having been born there on June 27, 1857, a son of Riley II. and Mary (Upson) Fuller. The father of Riley Fuller was born and lived his entire life in the state of Connecticut. At his death his wife, in a one-horse covered wagon migrated to Pennsylvania, hauling her household goods in the covered wagon and accompanied by her eight children. Later, when Riley H. was about thirteen years old, she married Mr. Brennand. After some time with his mother and her husband, Riley Fuller returned to Connecticut and there married Miss Mary Upson, of Unionville, that state. Later he returned to Pennsylvania with his wife and two children and there engaged in the lumber business, later still removing to Allegan county, Michigan, where he engaged in the lumber business also. In 1863, at the call from President Lincoln, he enlisted in the Union army, becoming a member of the Twentyeighth MIichigan Regiment. He served from that tine until the end of the war, when he received his honorable discharge with the rank of quartermaster. IIe returned to Michigan at the close of the conflict and took up his old interests of lumbering and farming. He was the father of eight children, six of whom survive to this date, 1911, namely: Lenetta. now the wife of William McGraw; Alice, now Mrs. Willis Slocomb; Ora F.; Carrie, wife of Frank Myers; Riley II., Jr., who married Miss Jennie McDonal; Frank. who married Miss Hattie Sargent. Ora F. Fuller was reared on the home farm and spent much of his boyhood in the heavily wooded timber tracts of Michigan. His education he received at the hands of the grade school teachers of the day. Hle remained at home until he attained his majority, when he went to take up a homestead in Luce county, Michigan, upon which he remained for sixteen years. At the end of that time he sold his Luce county property and went to Florida for two years, after which he returned to Luce county and bought a farm of one hundred and sixty acres. Mr. Fuller has also spent two years in New Mexico. Mrs. Fuller filed on a desert claim and they lived there for two years. Mr. Fuller came back to Van Buren county,

Page  829 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 829 Michigan, in the spring of 1911 and purchased the Walnut Knob Fariii, where they now live. On May 5, 1885, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Fuller to Miss Nancy A. Vollick, who was born in the Dominion of Canada, in December, 1865. She was educated in the common schools of Canada. She and MIr. Fuller are the parents of nine children, namely: Everett, Vina, Lena, Alfred, Edith, Maude, Lewis, Roy and Beatrice. They and their family attend the Methodist Episcopal church, in which church, during his stay in northern Michigan, Mr. Fuller was an active worker and member of the official board. In the field of politics Mr. Fuller is a Republican, and has served the community as county superintendent of the poor in Luce county, Michigan, as highway commissioner of Lakefield township, and as treasurer and justice of the peace in the township several times. Sir. Fuller has determined to settle permanently in Van IuIren county, whhich will enrich the county's list of able and publicspirited citizens. J ULIAN II. ANDERSON.-Among the men who have given Van Buren county its reliable and honorable name in the business circles of the state is Julian II. Anderson, one of the proprietors of the Anderson Mill. Ile is a quiet, unassuming man, but has gained the respect of all who knew him. for behind the quiet face they have found invariably strength and integrity. Mr. Anderson was born in Trumbull county, Ohio, in January, 1850, the son of William and Esther Stebbins Anderson and the grandson of John Anderson. William Anderson was born in New York state, as was also his wife. After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. William Anderson removed to Trumbull county, Ohio, where the husband farmed until 1859. In that year they came to Lawrence. Michigan, where he purchased a saw-mill, and later, the former venture prospering, erected a grist mil. From there he came to Hartford township, where he remodeled the existing saw-mill into a grist mill. The mill is still one of the attractive old land-marks of the county, for it has stood in Hartford township for over sixty years. William Anderson continued to live in the township until his death in 1900, thirty-two years after the passing away of his devoted wife. He was the father of ten children, five of whom are living at this date, 1911, as follows: Julian H., James E., Alphius S., George and Charles. Julian H. and James E. are partnership proprietors of the Anderson Mill, and also of the electric light and power plant, which furnishes light and power for the village of Hartford. Julian H. Anderson was nine years old when his parents brought him to Michigan and he is now the oldest of the surviving members of the family. He was educated in the public schools of Lawrence, and at a very early age began to work in his father's mill. Excepting for about five years. three of which were spent in a store, Mr. Anderson has spent his entire life since his boyhood days in the mill business, and it is no wonder that he knows it thoroughly. In 1871 Mr. Anderson was united to Miss Esther Rowland, sister of the well-known Captain Rowland, and a native of Ohio. She and her husband have three children: Mabel is now the wife of

Page  830 830 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Wright Gardner and her sister Louise married Walter Hartman. Mabel was a graduate of the Hartford high school and taught for some time in the grammar school. Marion attended and graduated from the Armour Institute of Chicago and later married Miss Ethel Clinton. They reside in Hartford, he being superintendent of the light and power plant. Mr. and Mrs. Julian Anderson are now the proud grandparents of seven grandchildren. They are members of the Methodist Episcopal church and active supporters of all its good works. Mr. Anderson serves the church as one of its trustees. Fraternally Mr. Anderson is affiliated with the Charter Oak Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. In the field of politics he supports the Republican party, but he has never himself felt any desire for the honors and emoluments of public office. Besides his milling interests he owns twenty-ive acres of land in Hartford township, upon which he and his wife maintain their home. FRANK MCCON, one of the most successful farmers and stock raisers of this section of the country, was born in Galesburg, Kalamazoo county, October 12, 1857. His parents were Isaac and Eliza Teers McCon, both natives of New York state, the birthplace of the father being Neufield and that of the mother Tompkins county. They were married in New York state and decided that they would go to Virginia to begin life. Isaac McCon was a carpenter by trade, though like almost every one of that generation of Americans he was also a farmer. Virginia lost its attractions when viewed at first hand, and the young couple decided that it was a poor country and, without unpacking their goods, they returned to New York state and stayed several years before starting out again to find a new location. This time they moved to Grand Rapids, which was then only a village, and here Isaac MIcCon bought two lots, upon which the post office now stands, for what we should consider "a song." For several years he worked at his carpenter trade here and then moved to Galesburg, where he bought ninety acres of land, and it was there that Frank was born. When he was about two years old his father moved to Porter township, near Lawton, and bought another farim, upon which he lived three years. He was always interested in getting a little better place or one which he could make into a better one, so he traded this farm for one near Mattawan and kept that one three years. When he disposed of his third estate he bought another near Paw Paw and lived there two years, then came west of Paw Paw and stayed there for quite a long time before moving back to Paw Paw, where he retired and spent the rest of his days. He lived to the age of eighty-four, his wife surviving him two years and dying at the age of seventy-seven. There were five children born to Isaac McCon and his wife and four of them are still living: Mary resides on the old home place at Paw Paw; Sarah is the wife of Wesley Hall, who lives south of Paw Paw; George is a carpenter by trade and lives in Oklahoma; Frank is the youngest of the family. At the age of nineteen Frank McCon decided to go west, and accordingly went to Joliet, Illinois, and secured work on a farm

Page  831 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 831 there. When he had been there four months his parents persuaded him to come home and he has remained in the county ever since. lis father gradually gave the entire management of the place over to his son. On December 8, 1887, was soleminized the marriage of Frank MIcCon and Addie E. Christie, the daughter of Charles Christie, for whomn Christie lake is named. Their wedding was celebrated at the old place on'the banks of Christie lake. 31r. McCon now owns one hundred and sixteen acres of land, having disposed of the reinainder of his holdings, which at one time amounted to two hundred and twenty acres. He has also been engaged in the stock business buying all over this part of the country and making his trips to Buffalo in the spring with the stock and looking after it personally and always securing the top price. Both MIr. and Mrs. IlcCon are charter members of the Eastern Star. r. Ir. McCon belongs to the Masonic lodge, No. 119, and to tlie Chapter and Council at Lawrence. I-e has passed through nearly all the chairs. In politics he is a Republican and a most loyal and devoted supporter of the party. His father was a Democrat, but his son did not find himself in sympathy with the policies of that party and so cast his first vote for Hayes and has never varied in his allegiance to the party. (onsistency and faithfulness to what lie undertakes are highly characteristic of AIr. MlcCon and the esteem and regard which are his in Van Buren county are but the fitting tribute to his upright and useful life. Trl'RNER W. IIHOWARD, the well known agriculturist of Van Buren county h1as tlhe unique record of having been born in the farm upon which lie now lives and which las always been his home. The pleasant acres of the Ioward farm are located on section 32. Lawrence townshilp. Turner W. was born Novelmber 13, 1841, the youngest son of IIosea and Elizabeth (lJeonard) Howard. Hosea IHoward was reared in New York state and was there married. IIe, with his wife and three sons, came to Van Buren county in 1838 and purchased the farm of one hundred and sixty acres. IHe was a strong lleloc(rat and an ardent worker for the welfare of his )arty. During his residence in New York, he served as a captain in tlhe state militia. IIis death occurred in 1847. His wife, surviving hliii thirty-five years. passed to her reward in 1882. Of the four children born to this union Turner. the subject of this review, is the only one now living. Turner \W. HIoward was reared on tile old farm and attended the donation school which was at that tine held in an extra room of one of the neighboring farm houses. Eachl iman had to contribute so much in direct proportion to the number of his children attending the school. The parents also furnished the fuel. Turner attended this school until lie was thirteen years old, and then spent his entire time learning all tilere was to learn about farming and assisting in clearing the farm of its timber. On June 3. 1864. AIr. IIoward was united in marriage to Miss M\arcia Place. She was born in Pennsylvania, June 3, 1842, the

Page  832 832 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY daughter of Horace and Fanny (Litchfield) Place. Her father was a native of New York state and her mother of Massachusetts. Her parents were married in New York, moved to Erie county, Pennsylvania, and came to I-amilton township, Van Buren county, Michigan, in 1848, where they continued to dwell for the rest of their lives. They were the parents of ten children, five of whom are now living. Their daughter Marcia was educated in the local schools, and later spent one year in a Pennsylvania school before becoming a teacher in the Van Buren county schools, where she taught three years prior to her marriage to Mr. Howard. She and her husband are the parents of five children. George E., who, following in the footsteps of his father, became a capable farmer. In 1890 he was married to Lulu Cook and, purchasing the south forty acres of the home farm, made a home for his wife and six children, living there until his death in 1909. Effie, formerly a teacher in the public schools, is now Mrs. Thomas Maxwell. Fannie who was also a teacher in the public schools, is now the wife of John R. Cook. Isa is now teaching in Lawrence township, Van Buren county. Frank is still at home, active in church and Sunday-school work. Mr. Howard is a member of Rising Sun Lodge, No. 119, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons; of Lawrence Chapter, No. 95, Royal Arch Masons; and is a member of Lawrence Council, R. & S. M., No. 43. Politically, Mr. Howard may be found beneath the stand ard of the Democratic party, in whose counsels he takes a prominent and interested part. The Howards still own the one hundred sixty acres, which they farm, and where they have their pleasant homes. They are hospitable and highly esteemed in the county as those who may be called upon when any movement for the general welfare is on foot. ROLAND B. GRANT.-The subject of this brief review was born in Cook county on St. Valentine's day of the year 1857. His father was Clarence Grant, who was born in Scotland and lived there until the age of seven, when he accompanied his father, John Grant, to Canada. They settled on a farm near Montreal and there John and his wife lived and died. Clarence Grant was one of a family of six boys and two girls, all now dead. His wife, Sabrina Farnum, was born in New Hampshire in 1829, and her parents, Roland and Mary Brooks Farnum, were also New Englanders. She became acquainted with Clarence Grant when he came to New England as a young man and went to work on a neighboring farm. They were married there and moved to a farm near Chicago. This was not an unknown country to Clarence Grant, as he had worked in Chicago on the breakwater before going to New England. Four children were born to them, three now living; Waldo, a contractor and builder of Chicago; R. B.; and May, who is the wife of Alfonso Chandler, a contractor and builder of Los Angeles, California. The mother died in 1901, and four years later the father went to live with his son Roland. Norwood Park, the place of his father's farm, was the home of Roland Grant until he was twenty-one years old. He then worked in the neighborhood of his home for one year, after which he went

Page  833 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 833 to Chicago. From Chicago he went to New England to engage in the milling business and remained for one and a half years. When he left this he went to Missouri and bought a farm there, which he conducted for two years. It was during this time that he returned to Norwood Park to be married, his bride being Miss Elsie Cheever, the daughter of Benjamin S. and Anna Boise Cheever, the former being a native of New York State and the latter of England. Her grandfather, Jalmes Cheever, was born in Massachusetts. The wedding of Miss Cheever and Mr. Grant took place September 12, 1881, and the young couple began their married life on the Missouri farm, where they remained a year and a half. They then returned to Norwood Park and for eighteen years farmed their own place there. In 1901 they came to Arlington township, in March, and bought a farm upon which they lived for ten years and in the spring of 1911, came to their present home. They own fifty-two acres in Lawrence township and forty in Bangor. Mr. Grant is occupied extensively in growing fruit and ships some fine crops to the markets. Two of the four children who have come into the home of Mr. and Mrs. Grant are still with their parents. Chase B. is a graduate of the Lawrence high school and has spent one year in Albion College, taking a literary course. Gordon is attending school. Both the daughters are married; Grace, to Charles J. Hughes, a contractor of Battle Creek. and Frances, to John Robbins, of Arlington township. Mr. Grant is a memnber of the Shady Grove Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows of Lawrence. He and his family are members of tile Methodist church in the same place and are active workers in it, as they take the keenest interest in all which tends to promote the higher life. IMr. Grant is a trustee in that body. In politics he is not actively interested, but favors the Republican principles in matters of national import. During the ten years which they have passed in the county Mr. and Mrs. Grant have made its best interests their own and have won the lasting regard of all who have come to know them. They contribute a generous share to the industrial efficiency which places Van Buren county so high in the commercial world and add equally to the moral and intellectual forces which are of even more importance. GEORGE G. IUTCHINS.-Born in Devonshire, England, on the last day of the year 1846, George Hutchins, the son of George and Jane Hoils Hutchins. spent the first nineteen years of his life across the water. He acquired only a rudimentary education before leaving school to learn the blacksmith trade. He spent two years in the shop as an apprentice and then for a year and a half was employed to shoe horses at the liberal salary of a shilling a week. An uncle and a brother, Richard, had come to America and Richard sent George the money for his passage and in his twentieth year, he joined his relatives at Paw Paw. Here he secured work on a shop owned by Philips and Kelly and was employed there for six months. The following year he worked on a farm and then for two winters and one summer attended school and thus added to his

Page  834 834 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY educational equipment. He then worked at his trade in Lawrence and in Paw Paw for a year and a half. After this time Mr. Hutchins opened his shop in Paw Paw township and for four years he conducted the business at a good profit. This gave him his start and he was presently able to buy a farm in Arlington township with his savings. This place was his home for eight years and during that time he constantly improved it until he was able to sell it at a good advance and to buy another. He pursued the same policy with his second place and then bought the one he owns at present. This is the estate known as the Sterling Cole farm, a tract of one hundred and twenty-five acres which has been in Mr. Hutchins' possession since 1891. He gives his attention to growing fruit as well as to general farming, and at both is more than ordinarily successful. Mrs. Hutchins was formerly Aliss Flora Cole, the daughter of Sterling Cole of Lawrence township. He came here from New York state in 1852, settling first in Berrien county. In 1854 he was married to Aliss Euphemia Crumb, and then they went to Allegan county, making that their home until the year of 1861. when they came to Lawrence, and bought the farm now owned by Mr. Hutchins. Miss Cole became the wife of George Hutchins on February 4, 1874, and they have been the parents of six childrenl as follows: Arthur, in business in the state of Washington; Jennie. Mrs. R. F. Green, of Toledo; Ellen, Mrs. Charles Harris, of Paw Paw township; Mable, the wife of Professor C. MI. Jennings. a teacher of Stanton, Michigan; Alice, Mrs. Earl Pugsley, of Hart, Michigan, where her husband is an attorney; and Mary, lMrs. Arthur J. Dunning, of Sedro-Woolley, Washington, where she and her husband are both engaged in teaching. Mr. and Mrs. Hutchins are both members of the order of the Eastern Star at Lawrence. She has held several offices in that body, including that of worthy matron. Mr. Hutchins belongs to the Rising Sun lodge of the Masons at Lawrence. All the famiily are members of the Baptist church, where their interest and generous support are highly appreciated. Mr. Hutchins takes no active part in politics but he is a great admirer of Bryan and, although liberal in his views, inclines toward the Democratic platform. He and his wife are of the representative people of Van Buren county and are accorded a place of honor by the many friends they have made in the course of their life here. WILLIAM P. BREEDING.-One of the most enterprising, capable and enterprising young business men of South Haven, and one of the most esteemed citizens of Van Buren county, William I'. Breeding commands the admiration of all who know him by the success he has achieved and the promise his ability holds out for future accomplishments of a still more signal and enlarged character, in whatever department of useful labor he may choose as the avenue of his activities. He has already done several things. and done each of them well, winning advancement for himself in each and contributing to the general weal of the community around him in all.

Page  835 IISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 8'3 5 Mr. Breeding was born in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on April 20, 1875, and is a son of Elbert T. and Anna 1I. (Jackson) Breeding, the father a native of Massachusetts, born in 1849, and the mother of the same nativity as her son William. The father died on December 31, 1909, having outlived by only one month his wife, who passed away on January 30, 1910. They had three children, William P., Derwood M1. and Florence. The daughter is now Mrs. Thomas A. Kennedy, of Kenilworth, a suburb of Chicago. The family moved to St. Louis some years before the death of the parents, and in that city the father was a merchant of good rank and repute. In politics he was a Republican, and in church connection a Baptist. William P. Breeding early in life secured employment with the Corticelli Silk Company of St. Louis, the family then being located in that city. Ile went into the employ of this company as an office boy at the age of fifteen, and by capacity, integrity and faithful attention to business worked himself up to the position of general department manager. Hle acquired a thorough knowledge of the business of the company he was working for, and at the same time attained to a sweep of vision which gave him a comprehensive knowledge of business in general and sufficient confidence in himself to undertake an enterprise of his own. In 1907 he moved to Chicago and entered the lumber trade, with which he was actively and profitably connected for two years. Before going to Chicago, however, he had been iarried, and in 1909 he took up his residence in South IIaven, and there became associated with his father-in-law, Lyman S. \Ionroe, in the South Haven Loan and Trust Company, Mlr. Monroe being the president at that time. After his death Mr. Breeding succeeded him in this office, and is still filling it with great advantage to the company and to the full satisfaction of its patrons. On January 28, 1905. Mr. Breeding was united in marriage witl Miss Louise Monroe, a daughter of Lyman S. and Carrie J. (Curtiss) Monroe. Mr. Monroe was one of the leading business men and most prominent and influential citizens of Van Buren county. Ie was a brother of I-on. Charles Jay Monroe, in a sketch of whose life, to be found elsewhere in this volume, the history of the family is set forth at length. Mr. Breeding venerates the memory of his father-in-law, as he was a man worthy of the highest esteem and confidence in every respect, and he was also very helpful to Mr. Breeding, giving him every possible chance to advance himself, and not only opening the way for him to make headway, but aiding him materially in all his efforts in this direction. MIr. Breeding is President of the South Haven Loan and Trust Company and also one of the directors of the First State Bank of South Iaven and vice president and secretary of the Mlonroe Realty Company. Hie is a Republican in political affiliation and a Baptist in church connection, being chairman of the board of trustees of the First Baptist church. Ite and his wife have one child, their daughter Jane. The parents are among the most

Page  836 836 IHISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY esteemed citizens of the city and county of their home, and the regard shown them by the people is based on genuine merit. CHARLES FUNK.-No citizen of South Haven, Michigan, has been more prominently or beneficially connected with the public life of the city during the last few years than Charles Funk, one of its leading business men and now (1911) its chief executive. He served the people of the city so well and wisely as city councilman one term and part of another that they induced him to become their mayor, although he had to resign his seat in the council to become the nominee on what was known as the Citizens' Ticket, made up without regard to political party considerations. Mr. Funk was born in Bangor, this county, on November 9, 1875, and has passed the whole of his life to the present time within the borders of the county and in intimate association with its residents. He obtained his education principally in the common schools, attending them in winter and working on his father's farm in summer. His scholastic training was finished at the high school in Bangor. He is a son of Martin and Minnie (Schlaack) Funk, the former born in Pennsylvania and the latter in Germany. Of the five children born of their union but three are living, Charles and his brothers Ernest and Preston. The father came to Michigan with his parents in the early fifties, when he was a small boy. They located at a place in Van Buren county known later as Funk's Settlement, where the father of Charles grew to manhood and acquired a knowledge of the occupation of farming, in which he has ever since been engaged, and which he began for himself on wild land unbroken as yet, and never before subject to the persuasive hand of the husbandman. He and his wife are still living on the farm he hewed out of the wilderness, but it is now highly improved, well cultivated and richly productive. He is a member of the German Lutheran church and in political affairs, sides with the Democratic party, although he is no longer a very active partisan, but is still always loyal to his political faith. On December 29, 1897, Mayor Funk, though he probably then never dreamed of becoming mayor, was married to Miss Bertha M. Springett, a native of Geneva township, this county, and a daughter of George and Flora M. Springett, also natives of Van Buren county and the children of English parents. Both are living on the farm the father has cultivated for many years. He is also a justice of the peace, and his political support is given to the Republican party. He and his wife are the parents of two children, Mrs. Funk and her brother Charles. For four years after his marriage Mr. Funk cultivated the farm of his grandfather, John Funk. He then moved to South Haven, and was employed in a milling establishment for one year. He was eager, however, to have a business of his own, and at the end of his year in the mill formed a partnership with E. J. Merrifield and started an enterprise in the coal and wood trade under the firm name of Funk & Merrifield, which is still in existence and

Page  837 HISTORY OF VAN ITREN COUNTY 837 actively engaged in business with ample yards on West Phoenix street, and with an extensive and profitable volume of trade. In 1907 Mr. Funk was elected alderman from the Second ward of the city, and at the end of his term in 1.909 he was re-elected. He showed himself so capable and attentive to his official duties, so vigilant in caring for the interests of the city and the people, and so public-spirited and enterprising in municipal affairs, that before his second term expired he was obliged to resign his seat and become the candidate of the Citizens' party for mayor. To this office he was elected also, his term beginning in the spring of 1911 and being for one year. In politics generally, especially in national and state affairs, Mr. Funk trains with the Democratic party, but in municipal elections he takes the view of many excellent citizens in believing that partisan considerations should have but little weight, as municipal government is almost wholly a matter of business and should be conducted on business principles. Fraternally Mr. Funk is connected with the Modern Woodmen of America. and is one of the leading members of the organization in the order in which he is enrolled. lie and his wife are the parents of two children. their son lloydv and their daughter Velma. JOHN CL(AIR MCAiPINE was b)orn in Hamilton township. Van Buren county, Michigan, October 2. 1869. and is the only son of John and Mary P'hillips MeAlpine, the former a native of Chemung county, New York, and the latter of Livingston county, New York. Mr. MIcAlpine has one sister. liss Ethel -McAlpine. who resides with their mother in Hartford. As the name implies, Mr. MeAlpine 's ancestors awere Scotch, his great-grandfather having settled in New York during the Revolutionary war. Iis grandfather, George McAlpine, was born in New York, but moved with his famnily to Cass county, Michigan, ill 1858. Mr. IcAlpine's father, John MeAlpine. was the eldest of a family of ten children, and, his parents being in poor circumistances financially, lie early began to contribute to the support of his father's family. In 1863, at the age of eighteen, he enlisted in Company C, Sixtysixth Illinois Sharpshooters, and with his company served faithfully to the end of the war of the rebellion, when he was honorably discharged. He was a conscientious and law abiding citizen, a good husband and father, and was much loved by a wide circle of friends. lie held various township offices, to which he brought unswerving honesty, fidelity and good judgment. IHe was a member of the MIasonic order and of the Grand Army of the Republic. His life began at Chemung county, New York, January 28, 1845, and ended in Iartford, Michigan, November 6. 1910. John Clair MeAlpine was educated in the common schools excepting one year in a business college. Having determined early to be a farmer, he has adhered to his first choice of an occupation and is now an enterprising and progressive farmer in Keeler township. On October 3. 1888, Mr. MeAlpine was united in marriage with Vol. lI-1I

Page  838 838 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Miss Minnie E. Sheperd, a native of this county, born September 4, 1868, and the daughter of Henry and Adelaide Van Der Voort Sheperd. Mrs. McAlpine, like her husband, secured her education in the public schools, and that and her home training, like his, were directed to practical ends. They have had four children, three of whom are living. Leila was educated in the public schools and also received good instruction in music. Beatrice, the second daughter, received a public school education and is now the wife of William Bullard and has one child, a son, Gerald. They reside on a farm in Keeler township. The third daughter is Shirley, the youngest of the children. The son died at the age of three nmnths. In his political allegiance Mr. McAlpine is a Republican. but in local affairs, especially, his first consideration is the good of this community and the welfare of its people, and he casts his ballot with this always in view. He is especially interested in the progress and usefulness of the public schools, and has been connected with their management for many years. Mr. McAlpine is a member of the Knights of the Modern Maccabees, holding his membership in Tent No. 623 at Keeler. All the members of the family belong to the Methodist Episcopal church. All are well and favorably known throughout the county as persons of high character, upright lives, advanced social culture and the genuine public spirit which leads them to welcome any worthy undertaking for the progress and improvement of the county and township of their home and are pleased with an opportunity to give it earnest and effective support. They are well deserving of the universal esteem which they enjoy for their elevated standards of living, their sincere interest in the welfare of all who dwell around them, and their general high tone and usefulness as citizens. ALMIRON ROBINSON.-Mr. Robinson's parents were, like so many of the county's best citizens, natives of New York. IBoth Alfred Robinson and his wife, Esther Baird Robinson, were born in the Empire state and came to Michigan early in life. The father was a soldier in the Civil war and a life-long Republican. Both he and his wife were members of the United Brethren church. The mother is still living in Hartford, Michigan. There were five sons and two daughters in the household to which Almiron Robinson belonged and four of the children are still living. Edward is a resident of Keeler township; Charles lives in Hartford; Alfred is a merchant in Berlamont; and Almiron lives in Keeler township. The date of Mr. Robinson's- birth was March 22, 1875, and this county has been his home all of his life. He was educated in the common schools and not until he was twenty-one did he begin working for himself. When he began his career as a wage earner ihe did not have a dollar to his name. In 1895 he was married to Miss Frankie V. Jackson and together they began to work for a competence. She is the only child of Andrew and Eliza St. John Jackson, of this county, and was born February 15, 1879. The first home of the young couple is now a part of their present farm. They were obliged to go in debt to buy it, but thrift and good management, as well as hard work, enabled them in time not

Page  839 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 839 only to pay for this but to acquire forty acres more. In 1899 they built a tasteful frame house, which has since been enlarged and modified. Three years afterwards they erected a large barn, which was destroyed by fire four years later and all its contents lost. Misfortunes are said never to come singly and the Robinson's experience was no exception, for shortly before their valuable barn went up in flames Mr. Robinson was confined to the hospital for five months. Adversity only develops fortitude in strong souls and these two were of that sort who refuse to be discouraged. They built another barn, whose dimensions are thirty-six by seventy feet and in 1911 were able to look out on their pleasant estate, "Ingleside" with the satisfying consciousness that there was not a dollar of indebtedness on it. This place is situated four and a half miles from Keeler and five and a half miles from Hartford, and is one of the pleasant homes of the county. There are four children in the family of Mr. and Mrs. Rolinson and all are in school. Lloyd is in the eighth grade; Leon D., in the seventh; Glenn, in the fourth; and Laura Belle, in the third grade. It is the intention of the parents to give their children the education which will fit them to carry out their chosen careers to the best advantage. They are deeply interested in the question of education and are especially friendly to the public schools. Mr. Robinson endorses the political principles for which the Republican party stands and, though he is no politician hle is very much interested in public affairs. Both he and Mrs. Robinson are always prompt to give support and encouragement to all undertakings which are for the general good. They have built up their fortune from nothing and it has been sometimes very much like making bricks without straw, but their satisfaction is all the keener for the conquered difficulties and their record will be a proud tale for their children to tell and to hear. SPENCER VAN OSTR.AND. —Whatever may be said of native gifts, inherent traits and hereditary characteristics in determining a man's course in life, no thoughtful and observant person can deny the force of circumstances in the same connection, which not infrequently bend every qualification a man has in accordance witlh their requirements. His situation and surroundings made S. Van Ostrand, of South Haven, a student of medicine in his youth and early manhood, and circumstances afterward veered him from his contemplated professional career and made hinm a merchant and promoter. Mr. Van Ostrand is a New Yorker by nativity, and was born in the town of Rose, Wayne county, in that state, on December 20, 1844. His parents. Dr. and Sarah (Tuller) Van Ostrand, were also natives of New York, the former born at Sennett, Cayuga county, and the latter at Wolcott in Oswego county. The father lived to the age of eighty-four and the mother to that of fifty years. Their son, Spencer Van Ostrand, was the first born of their six children. four of whom are living. The father was a physician and obtained his professional training at the Geneva (New York) Medical College. being graduated

Page  840 840 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY from that institution under F. II. Hamilton, of world-wide celebrity. Dr. Van Ostrand served three years in the First Michigan Regimnent of Engineers and Mechanics during the Civil war, and after his release from that engagement returned to Albion, Calhoun county, this state. There he was busily occupied in a large general practice of his profession for a number of years, but about ten years before his death he was appointed examining surgeon in the regular army of the United States and assigned to duty at Yankton, South Dakota. He then moved to that city and there he passed the remainder of his life in faithful attention to his duties to the end. Before the Civil war he was a strong Abolitionist and a devoted worker against the curse of human slavery in this country. As such he rendered very efficient service to the cause of freedom for the slaves as a division superintendent of the famous "Underground Railroad," through the aid of which a great many Southern slaves escaped from their involuntary servitude to Canada, where numbers of them became citizens of approved demeanor and some persons of consequence and influence. Ile joined the Republican party when it was founded and always adhered to it firmly. Mr. Van Ostrand, the son, lived at home with his parents until he was twenty-two years of age, and, with a view to making a physician of himself, studied medicine under the tuition of his father. But instead of entering on the practice of his profession he became a lumberman in South Haven, and followed that business for about two years. He then clerked in a drug store for five years, after which he opened a general store at Kibbie, this couity, where he was also postmaster and agent for the Michigan Central Railroad for a period of ten years. At the end of that time he returned to South Iaven and began an enterprise in the drug trade which he is still conducting, and has been ever since. In 1902. in conjunction with Dr. A. C. Runyan, he organized the Light, Fuel and Power Company of the city, which was later reorganized as the South Haven Gas Company, and of this he has ever since been secretary and treasurer. His political faith and support are given to the Democratic party, and he is an energetic and effective worker for its success, although not himself desirous of any of the honors or emoluments it has to bestow, as his various business interests occupy all his time and claim all his energies except what are required for the ordinary duties of citizenship, and these he never neglects or gives half-hearted attention. Mr. Van Ostrand was married on August 22, 1867, to Miss Fanny H. Overy. She was born near the historic old city of Hastings, England, and is a daughter of Charles and Harriet (Wood) Overy, who were born, reared, educated and married in England, and remained in that country until they reached middle age. They then came to the United States and located in Calhoun county, near Albion. Michigan, where the father died at the age of fifty-four and the mother is still living, being now ninety-four years old. Mrs. Van Ostrand was the second born of their six children, four of whom are living. Mr. and Mrs. Van Ostrand have had five children, three of whom are deceased. Two died in infancy and Robert E.. the fourth born son, was killed by accident in 1896, when he

Page  841 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 841 was twenty years of age. The two living children are Charles H. and Archie E. Charles t1. is with his father in the drug business. Archie E. is in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, engaged in Christian Science work. All the members of the family enjoy in a marked degree the regard and good will of the whole community, and are admired throughout the county for their genuine worth and the elevated character of their citizenship. They are earnest supporters of all commendable projects involving the growth and improveinent of their home city, and manifest in the most helpful and practical way their deep interest in the welfare of the county in whicli they live and all its residents, and the people esteem them accordingly. DANIEL COOK VAN ANTWERP.-The name of Van Antwerp has been conspicuous in the history of Michigan for nearly a hundred years. For three generations the family has resided in this commonwealth, and during the years that have elapsed since the first Van Antwerp came to this part of the country the different members of the family have been identified with the military, agricultural, commercial, political and fiscal life of the community. At all time they have been characterized by their high sense of honor, their valor and efficient performance of any duties with which they were entrusted. Daniel Cook Van Antwerp. whose name inaugurates this biography, and a record of whose career follows, has done honor to the fair name he bears. The -birth of this scion of an old Iolland family occurred in Antwerp township, January 15, 1852. His grandfather, Daniel Van Antwerp, was born in Schenectady, New York, November 22, 1795, and was descended from one of three brothers who came from Antwerp, Holland, and settled in the Empire state. He came to Michigan about the year 1837, entered one thousand and eighty acres of land from the government and became a prominent citizen. He had the contract for considerable work in the building of the Michigan Central Railroad, but it was in his church affiliations that he was best known and remembered. He was a deacon in the Presbyterian church and took a very prominent part in all its affairs, giving freely of his time and means. At a memorial service held in his honor the elder said "I never went to him for counsel and was turned away empty. " He won distinction in the community and in honor of the family the township of Antwerp was named. His son Freeman was born in New York state, July 16, 1823, and when a lad accompanied his father to Michigan, where he later engaged in agricultural pursuits. On October 1, 1850, Freeman Van Antwerp married Miss Harriet Cook, who was born March 29, 1827, in Covington, Tioga county, Pennsylvania, and was the daughter of Dr. Nathan and Ann (Hamilton) Cook, who were married March 18, 1824. Dr. Nathan Cook was born October 4, 1799, in Richmond, Cheshire county, New Hampshire, a son of Nathan and Sally (Dix) Cook, who were married about 1796. This family is of New England Puritan descent, tracing their ancestry to the Cooks who came over in the Mayflower. Dr. Nathan

Page  842 842 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Cook s wife, Ann Hamilton, was a daughter of William Hamilton, who was born in Scotland and came to New York state when young. IIe bore arms in the defense of his country during the Revolutionary war. He married Hannah Weddaugh, of Dutch descent. Mr. and Mrs. William Hamilton are buried in York, Sandusky county; Ohio. Dr. Nathan Cook was a graduate of Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, and practiced his profession in that state before coming west. In 1823 he started for what was then called the "far west"western New York-locating in Chenango county, near the present city of Binghampton and making the entire journey on horseback. In 1826 they moved to Covington, Tioga county, Pennsylvania, where they lived four and a half years and then removed to Huron, Erie county, Ohio, and in 1833 came to Erie, Munroe county, Michigan. where the Doctor was very successful in his profession, but owing to poor health had to discontinue it. In 1836 he came as far as Gravel Lake, where he purchased land and this trip was also made on horseback. On April 15, 1837, he started with his fanily for what was then called the St. Joseph Country. This journey was made with an ox team and was necessarily slow, owing to one of the team having to be favored. The description of a portion of this journey is best told in the following article, copied from a biographical sketch written by Mrs. Freeman Van Antwerp when nearly sixty-nine years old, and left as a precious possession to her son, Daniel Cook Van Antwerp, and'her daughter, MArs. John Marshall. It is of particular interest, owing to the fact that when this portion of Van Buren county in which they located was renamed it was Harriet Cook (later Mrs. Freeman Van Antwerp) who named it Porter. In her article she says: "Monday morning, May 6, 1837, we left Mr. Clark's, being then about thirteen or fourteen miles from our destination. The morning was cold and misty, amounting almost to rain, but towards noon the sun came out and the remainder of the day was very bright, but cool. Moving slowly along, passing only one or two houses on our journey that day, about four o'clock in the afternoon, when just east of where Mr. Rock now lives, that same ox laid down again. My father told us to take the cows and go on, that it was not more than two miles, and when we came to a beautiful, clear lake on our left we would find Uncle Roderick Bell's log cabin back in the bushes on the bank of the lake. Following the road, if road it could be called, for it was just merely a wagon track winding in and out among the trees and logs, we soon saw the lake and soon a woman's voice called to us. It was my aunt, who had been looking for us several days and had seen us through an opening in the bushes. My uncle had settled here in 1836 and he and Mr. Alexander were the first white settlers in southwestern Porter. My uncle went to the assistance of my father and before sundown we were all at our journey's end. And how glad my sister and I were the next morning when we did not have to get up and move on again. "Now began hardships and privations that lasted for years; hardships that no one can fully understand unless placed in simi

Page  843 HISTORY OF VAN 1UtREN COUNTY 843 lar circumstances. No schools, no churches, no newspapers, no books, society, nor amusements. We had the lakes with all their beauty, the forests with all their grandeur and solitude, and they really were companions for me. In early spring we went wintergreening, in summer we rambled in the woods and gathered wild berries, in the fall we went nutting and gathered cranberries (which we could not use for want of suger), and in winter we listened to the lonely howling of wolves,-the most dismal sound one can imagine. Indians came to our house often; sometimes they would camp on the south side of the lake for several days at a time and at night we could hear them laugh and whoop and splash the water in their play. The second summer we were here was what was known for years as the sickly summer; every family had its share, we were all sick, everybody was sick, but we all lived through. "After awhile we began to have a school here and there in the forest, and, though a long way for some to go all were glad of the opportunity. Ily sister and I had one girl friend, Sarah Ann Swift. We were together a great deal; we roamed the woods, played around the lakes and attended school together nearly all of our school days. After a time we began to have spelling schools. This was quite an item for us, as it broke the monotony of pioneer life. We were always first in spelling, we knew what the first call would be-it would be Harriet Cook or Sarah Ann Swift, or vice versa, and this was a source of much pleasure and usefulness to us; and in time we were far ahead of others in spelling. After a time we had township libraries and here began my taste for reading. After many hard struggles we began teaching school,worked so hard for so little-just one dollar per week and 'board round.' My sister Sarah taught thirteen years, summer and winter. She taught the first school ever taught in the village of Decatur and the second one ever taught at Porter Center. "I taught six summers-the first two at Lagrange, Cass county, the next at Williams' Corners on the territorial road in Antwerp, then one term of four and one half months in the valley, then two summers at the Corners again, making in all just twelve months at that place." I)r. Nathan Cook passed the remainder of his life in Van Buren county and was one of its best known citizens. Game was plentiful in these days and he did much hunting, becoming an expert in shooting deer when they were running, and if he saw them standing still he would start them before attempting to shoot. He was town clerk and all business was transacted at his home. He died January 31, 1867, at Porter. His wife died in the same town, July 12, 1887, aged eighty-four. Their daughter, Harriet Cook, married Freeman Van Antwerp, (as noted above). In 1863 Freeman Van Antwerp engaged in the livery business and ran a stage line from Paw Paw to Lawton, having the contract to carry the mail. He died in Paw Paw, Michigan, October 16, 1865. Both Mr. and Mrs. Van Antwerp were members of and attended the Presbyterian church in Paw Paw for many years. Freeman Van Antwerp left three children to be reared by their

Page  844 844 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY mother,-Daniel Cook, a lad of thirteen when his father died; Idale (wife of John Marshall, of Porter township), whose birth had occurred February 23, 1855; and Anna, who was born November 22, 1862, and who died March 14, 1878. Mrs. Van Antwerp, soon after her husband's death, bought a tract of sixty acres of land in Porter township, and there she went with her three children, superintended the management of the farm and the bringing up of her children, the youngest of whom was but three years old when her father died. The mother lived to see her son prosper in his undertakings, her elder daughter married and she buried her youngest child. On the 17th day of November, 1904, the mother was summoned to the Great Beyond. The first five years of Daniel Cook Van Antwerp's life were spent in the township which is named in honor of his family, then one year at Porter, where he began going to school at six years old, then returning to Antwerp, where he spent five years, then four years in Paw Paw, where he attended the high school and left on account of poor health. After his father's death in Paw Paw he removed to Porter township. When eighteen years old he began to farm the land which his mother had bought and in 1881 he bought one hundred and forty acres of land in Porter township. Some of this tract he sold and now owns one hundred and twenty acres in that township. On the 27th of February, 1911, he moved to Lawton, that his daughter might have the advantages afforded by its schools, but he and his wife still own two hundred acres of land, which he rents to farmers. On the 25th day of February, 1891, Mr. Van Antwerp married Miss Laura A. Hayne, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Turner) Hayne, both natives of Cornwall, England, where also their marriage occurred. They came to America in 1855, and settled in Wayne county, Michigan. The father died June 13, 1905, in Porter, and the mother's demise occurred September 11, 1892, in Porter. Of the four children who were born to Mr. and Mrs. Hayne two died in infancy; Mrs. Van Antwerp is the third and her brother, John D., resides in Porter township. Mr. and Mrs. Van Antwerp have had two children,-Elwyn H., born December 1, 1891, who died on March 18, 1896; and Idale Elizabeth, whose birth occurred July 10, 1897. In politics Mr. Van Antwerp is a Republican and for two years he held the position of commissioner of highways in Porter township, which office was given him unsolicited. His fraternal connection is with the Modern Woodmen of America and in a religious way he and his wife and daughter hold membership with the Methodist church. He has resided only a short time in Lawton, but he has already made his presence felt and his fellow citizens regard his coming to the town as an event of which they have reason to be proud. JOHN BAILEY.-A man who plays an active and useful part in the many-sided life of Paw Paw, Van Buren county, Michigan, is John Bailey, who formerly was identified with the agricultural interests of Waverly township and who at the present time is en

Page  845 HISTORY (OF VAN IBUREN COUNTY 845 gaged in the livery business of Sage & Bailey, which is one of the thriving and well-conducted enterprises of the town. He is a native son of Mlichigan and has been a resident of this township since the year 1885. M1r. Bailey was born in Jefferson township, Ilillsdale county, Michigan, on the 25th day of January, 1864. Ilis father, Josiah Bailey, was born in 1831, in Lenawee county, Michigan. As a young lman he farmed in Lenawee county for a number of years and subsequently removed to Jefferson, Hlillsdale county, where he passed the remainder of his days, the demise of this good citizen occurring in 1878. lie laid the foundations of a happy marriage in 1854, at Mledina, Mary Jane Bump, born Novellber 12, 1836, becoming his wife. She survived him for more than a quarter of a century, her summons to the life eternal coming on February 3, 1904. They reared the following son and daughters: IIortensie, Susan, and John. John Bailey, youngest of the children of Josiah and Mary Bailey and the immediate subject of this review, spent his early years in Jefferson county and for his education is indebted to the country schools of the locality in which le spent his boyhood. At the time of his father's death he was a boy of about tifteen years, but he was capalble and serious and of the type which assumes responsibility successfully, and he at once took upon himself the management of the fari and continued at the head of its affairs until 1888. In that year lie made a radical change by comning to Waverly township, where he purchased a farm of eighty acres and proceeded to improve this and to engage in its cultivation. He was very successful in his operations in connection with the great basic industry and in time gained a comfortable competence. In 1905 lihe purchased a half interest in the livery stable business in connection with his present partner, Joel Sage, the firm being known under the caption of Sage & Bailey, and he has continued engaged in this fashion up to the present time. Mr. Bailey and his partner keep from fourteen to twenty good horses and in addition to operating a fine livery they have a sales stable and also run the local stage and baggage business in connection with the various trains coining into Paw Paw. Ile is a progressive, public-spirited citizen who does all in his power to support and encourage all such measures and institutions as shall contribute to the general welfare. Air. Bailey was first married in 1886, Mary Weatherwax, of H-illsdale county, becomiing his wife. Two daughters were born to this union, namely: Bessie, who married George Rock and is the mother of a son and daughter named Clyde and Laura; and Delta, who is still at home. The mother passed away February 12, 1896, mourned by all who know her. On April 8, 1899, Anah Noyes, a native of HIillsdale county, became the wife of the subject. Mr. and Mrs. Bailey share their home with an adopted son, Eugene. They are well and favorably known in the community and their circle of friends may almost ine said to be coincident with that of their acquaintance. In his political affiliations Mr. Bailey has ever given hand and heart to the Republican party. Ite gave his maiden vote to its men

Page  846 8-t6 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY and measures, and his loyalty to the party which produced such men as Lincoln, MIcKinley and Roosevelt is unswerving. His fraternal allegiance is given to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. GEORGE W. MERRIMAN.-Banker, lawyer, farmer, fruit-grower and public official of a high rank, George W. Merriman, of Hartford, is justly considered one of the leading and most useful citizens of Van Buren county. He has been a resident of the county for twenty-nine years, and in that time has been tried in several lines of useful endeavor and never been found wanting in integrity, ability or fidelity to duty in any. He has risen to consequence and influence among the people, and has always used his influence and his opportunities for their welfare, the progress and improvement of the county and the betterment of the whole state, in every way open to him. Mr. Merriman was born in Savannah, Wayne county, New York, on February 4, 1851, and is a scion of a family, on his father's side, that has been resident in this country for more than 1hree hundred years. Ile is a son of Elijah and Maria (Winegar) Merriman, also natives of the state of New York. Elijah Merriman was a son of Elisha; Elisha, a son of Charles; Charles, a son of Joel. And so the lineage runs back in unbroken succession to very early in the seventeenth century, when Captain Nathaniel Merriman of England came to this country and settled in Rhode Island. From that time to the present the name has been prominent in the history of New England and many other parts of the country, and members of the family have dignified and adorned every worthy and commendable walk of life. George W. Merriman was reared on his father's farm in Wayne county, New York, and educated in a district school. After completing his education lie became a teacher, and was principal of the ITnion school at South Butler in his native county when he was only twenty years of age. At the age of twenty-one he came to Michigan and located in Plainwell, Allegan county, where he served as cashier of the Exchange Bank for eight years. He then left the bank for the purpose of pursuing a course in the study of law in the University of Michigan. He was graduated from the law department of this institution in 1882, with the degree of LL. B. Immediately after his graduation he came to Hartford as the head of the Exchange Bank in that town, and he has been conducting this with expanding business and steadily increasing popularity ever since. Mr. Merriman is also interested extensively in farming and fruit-growing, and he does some business in the line of his profession as a lawyer. But his other duties are too numerous and exacting to allow him to devote himself to this exclusively or to any considerable extent. On June 25, 1882, he was joined in marriage with Miss Jennie Sherman, a school teacher at Plainwell, Michigan. The fruit of this union was one child, Harry J. Merriman, who was born at Hartford, this county, on July 25, 1883, and who is now associated with his father in carrying on the bank. His mother died in 1888,

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Page  847 HISTORY OF VAN B1TREN COUNTY 847 and in 1894 the father was married a second time, being united on this occasion with Mrs. Jennie (Smiley) Phelps, a native, like himself, of'the state of New York. Mr. Merriman, the elder, is a Freemason of the thirty-second degree. In Blue Lodge Masonry he belongs to Florada Lodge, No. 309, at Hartford, and to Lawrence Royal Arch Chapter at Lawrence. His membership in the Scottish rite and A. A. O. N. M. S. (Saladin Temple) is held in Grand Rapids. He also belongs to the Order of Odd Fellows and the Knights of the Maccabees, and has been the worshipful master of Florada lodge and held prominent positions in the other fraternities of which he is a member. In political faith and action he has for many years been one of the most influential and valued members of the Republican party, and his wise counsel and efficient work in its behalf have been highly appreciated by both its leaders and its rank and file, locally and throughout the state. IIe was one of the delegates from Michigan to the national Republican convention of 1892. From 1895 to 1899 he was a member of the state senate. He served six years as a member of the. state prison board, two of them as its president, and for twelve years has been a member of the state central (committee of his party. His services to his party and to the people in the several public offices he has held have been conspicuous in their usefulness and extent, and his record in this connection is highly creditable to him, and also to the people who have known how to estimate him properly. In the matter of public improvements for the township and' county in which he lives Mr. MIerriman has also been of great service to the people. He judges of every project with intelligence, supports those he favors with great zeal and energy, and aids in guiding all the progressive tendencies of his locality along lines of wholesome development, enduring good and in behalf of the ibest interests of the people. All his business enterprises, also, contribute to the general weal and help to increase the material wealth and commercial importance of the county. Harry J. Merriman, the son and only child of George W., and his assistant in the bank, is a young man of ability and promise. He married Miss Nora Spaulding, of Hartford. They have two children, their daughters Ruth and Catherine. The young man is a worthy follower in the footsteps of his distinguished father, and shows by his daily walk and conversation that the fine example of citizenship which is always before him has made its due impression on him. He, also, stands high in the regard of the people and fully deserves their confidence and esteem. EDWARD GEORGE.-A striking example of cheerful self-sacrifice to one's country is found in the career of Edward George, a well known resident of Lawton, Michigan, who in the full bloom of young manhood marched away to the defense of the flag of his nation, and returned home shattered in health and spirit and only a shadow of the splendid specimen of young America who so readily had answered his country's call in its time of need. Every

Page  848 848 HIlSTORY OF VAN BUREN COIJNTY veteran of the Civil war is entitled to our respect and honor, and when it has lhppened that one has sacrificed his ambitions, his manhood and all that makes life dear, then he is doubly worthy of our reverence. A1r. George was born August 7, 1840, in Wayne county, New York, and is a son of Charles G. and Phoebe '1. (tIoag) George, natives of Vermont. Mlr. George's parents calle to M1ichigan in 1843, locating in Marengo township, Calhoun county, where the elder George carried on carriage and wagonmaking until 1849, and then sold out and came to Keeler township, Van Buren county, and purchased one hundred and sixty acres of farming land, on which he carried on agricultural pursuits until his death, October 29. 1898. His wife passed away February 17, 1857. having been the miother of four children: Almira, the wife of Goram O. Abbott, of Berrien county; Edward; William G., a veteran of the Civil war, and now a resident of Brunswick, Georgia, with which land he became acquainted while a soldier in the army; and Stephen F., who died in infancy. Edward George received his education in the schools of his native locality and in Keeler township. and he worked on the farm until he was twenty-two years of age. At this time. his youthful patriotism being inflamed by the stories of those who had already been to the front, he enlisted in Company I, Twentieth Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Infantry, under Captain C. C. Dodge. Private George was one of the most popular men in his company, and he was always in the thick of the fight and fighting bravely in a regiment that was noted for its brave, hard-fighting men. Faithful in his service, loyal to his company and proud in keeping up the standard of its ability, and cheerful to a degree on marches that taxed the stamina and temper of the bravest among his companions, Mr. George was a general favorite with men and officers, and there was universal sorrow in the ranks of his company when it was learned that he had been severely wounded in the hip. IIe was taken to the hospital at Fredericksburg, from whence he was renoved to Patterson Park Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, where lie was kept until convalescent, when he was taken to Fort AlcHenry and there later received his honorable discharge. Everything that could be done for his injury was resorted to, but he has been an invalid throughout life, he being paralyzed from the hip down, and during the last twenty-four years he has been compelled to use a wheel chair. The same cheerfulness and patience that characterized his army service and cheered many of his comrades on some soultrying march or kept up their spirits while in the thick of the hardfought engagements that marked the course of the Twentieth Michigan have never deserted Mr. George, and in spite of his affliction he has been able to accomplish much and to complain little. Ever since his return from the war he has lived in Van Buren county, and he now owns a fine home in Lawton, where he is a popular member of the Grand Army Post. In political matters he is a life-long Republican. On March 2, 1864, Mr. George was married to Miss Mary M. Austin, daughter of Harvey II. and Calista (Barry) Austin, and

Page  849 HISTORY OF VAN IIREN COIUNTY t49 she died January 5, 1902. One daughter has been born to this union: Annette C., born April 4, 1871, a graduate of the Lawton High School, who has taught in that institution, and is now keeping house for her father. Mlr. George is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and with his daughter affiliates with the Congregational church. GEORGE HI..BARKER is widely known throughout Van Buren county, where he holds highest standing as a splendid citizen and successful, up-to-date agriculturist. Like so many of the county's best stock, he is a native of the Empire state, his birth having occurred there on August 12, 1832. Iis parents were Lucian and LuIcindy (Bly) Barker, the father a native of Massachusetts and the mother of New York. Mr. Barker first took up his residence within the boundaries of the Wolverine state when he was a small lad, his father removing to Michigan in 1838 and locating in \\as' - tenaw county. The elder gentleman took up farming land and lie followed this occupation until his summlons to the Great Beyond. IHe and his good wife were the parents of a family of pioneer proportions, ten boys and girls coming to live beneatl their roof-tree. Concerning them the following brief data is herewith entered. Mary is the widow of William Bush, of Ann Arbor, Mlichigan; Russell, now deceased, was the captain of a company in a MIichigan regiment of infantry at the time of the Civil war; Ellen is deceased; the subject is fourth in order of birth; Jane is the widow of James Hawkin, of Detroit; Nancy is the widow of Benjamin Todd, of Flint. Alichigan; lhilander I)., a young soldier in the Third Michigan Cavalry, gave up his life at the time of the struggle between the states to the cause of freedom; Frank resides at Whitmore Lake, Michigan; Sarah is deceased; and Angeline is tihe widow of Chester Todd. of l)etroit. IMr. Barker entered upon his career as a farimer at the age of sixteen years, taking up that occupation in association with his blrother-in-law. At the age of twenty-one years he located on a (uarter section of his father's land, this being situated within Section 22, in (overt township. In addition to his general farming lie also followed saw-milling for a time. Ite then returned to New York, where lie remained for two years, but in 1856 he came back to Michigan. H-is father had met with reverses and when his land was sold for taxes Mr. Barker bought it, securing a quartersection at the remarkably low price of one hundred dollars. Then, in evidence of his generosity, he gave his father a quit claim deed to the whole property and his father deeded him eighty acres. At the demise of the elder gentleman Mr. Barker bought out the rest of the heirs and he has ever since retained this property, which has steadily increased in value and which now is one of the wellknown homesteads in this part of the county. In 1861 Mr. Barker went to eastern Michigan, and there lived for two years. While there he married and when he returned to Covert in 1864 he brought back with him a wife. The maiden name of this estimable lady was Sarah C. DeWolf and the date of their union was January 15, 1862. Her parents, both now deceased,

Page  850 850 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY were Jason and Elizabeth (Near) DeWolf, of New York. Their children were five in number and as follows: Anne, wife of Henry Doane, of Livingston county, Michigan; Hiram J., of Livingston county, Michigan, a soldier in the Civil war; Mrs. Barker; Mary L., wife of Thomas Winneger, of Howell, Miichigan; and Horace Wesley, deceased. Into the home of Mr. and Mrs. Barker were born the following five children: Hiram D., deceased; Zilpha V., wife of Elmer Oliver, of Monroe county, New York, and mother of one child, Grace Eloise; Grace A., wife of Robert Ballou of Covert; George Cecil, deceased; and Ernest H. The last-named was married to Lottie Walters, of Chicago, and their four children, Cecil E., G. Herbert, Katheryn L. and Walter G., give to the subject and his wife the pleasant distinction of grandfather and grandmother. Mr. Barker, throughout his long and useful life, has been in harmony with the policies and principles of the Republican party and he has ever done all in his power to support its causes. His fine principles and stanchness of character have placed him in the possession of the general confidence and he has been confided with the keeping of some of the most important offices in the gift of the county. For nine years he served as supervisor and he has given most efficient service as treasurer and township clerk. IIe is one of the influential members of the Grange and his church home is the Congregational, to whose support he has ever contributed generously. Mr. Barker has now retired from the more strenuous duties of the great basic industry of agriculture and resides in Covert, where he owns and occupies a fine commodious residence, and in leisure well-earned enjoys the fruits of his former industry and thrift. LEVI NELSON LYLE.-It has been given to some to help develop the country, to shape their surroundings according to their needs. and to bring forth the present high degree of civilization. Van Buren county, Michigan, became the hone of many a sturdy pioneer who did not ask for anything more than wild timber land to work upon. Bravely, uncomplainingly, these forerunners of civilization went to work and now many of them have laid down the burdens of life, although it was given to most of them to see in some measure what they had accomplished. The son of a pioneer and a citizen who has himself developed an excellent farm from what was before only a tract of wild woodland is Levi Nelson Lyle, residing in Paw Paw township. Levi Nelson Lyle was born in a rough hewn shanty in the woods of Paw Paw township, Van Buren county, March 29, 1846, his birthplace having been about thirty feet from where now stands the home of his nephew, Jay Lyle. His parents were John and Ann (Armstrong) Lyle. His grandfather, John Lyle, Sr., was a native of Cornwall, England, and was born on Christmas day, 1793. With his family he immigrated to America in 1832 and in the spring of 1835 came to Michigan, locating his home in the wilderness, a mile and a half north of Paw Paw. HIe died December 4, 1867, leaving a wife, ten children and numerous grand

Page  851 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY children to mourn his loss. John Lyle Jr., eldest of the ten children of the foregoing, was born in Devonshire, England, January 5, 1818, and came to Michigan with the family. At that time the only fashion in which he could find his way from his farm to Paw Paw was by marking the trees, this primitive method of blazing the trail being the forerunner of the beautiful roads of today. The farm which he cleared became one of the best in the country and was his home until his death, October 5, 1899. He hauled his wheat to St. Joseph with a yoke of oxen, taking three days to make the trip, and received for it fifty cents per bushel, which was considered a very good price in those days. He was married here to Miss Ann Armstrong, who had come to Paw Paw from New York at a time when the village of Paw Paw consisted of two log stores and a hotel. HIe died on his farm, having survived his wife three years. They were the parents of four children: Levi Nelson; Olive and Oliver, twins, who are deceased; and Marshall, also deceased. Levi, the eldest of tile children, grew to manhood on his father's farm. tie first went to school in an old log schoolhouse on the IIenry IIinckley place, but later a new schoolhouse was built on the crossroads corner, about forty rods from the family residence, which made it much more convenient. IIe later attended school for a time in Paw P1aw, boarding with a family in the west part of town and also attended school for a time in I)ecatur. Professor Bellows being at the head of the high school. At the age of twentyone years his father gave him eighty acres of land, which at that time was covered with a heavy growth of beech, maple and basswood timber that, were it all standing today, would be more valuable than the land, but not foreseeing its future value Mr. Lyle cut it down mercilessly, and in clearing the land he resorted to what was called "niggering it out," that is, he would lay pieces across each other on the tree and about twenty-five or thirty feet from the butt would build a fire, burning out the limbs and in many instances consuming the larger part of the tree, thus saving a great deal of chopping. Mr. ILyle boasts that he has gone to bed at times leaving as many as thirty "niggers" working for him. or in other words consuming the fallen timber. The method and the expression were common in pioneer days, though the young people of today would scarcely understand the significance of the latter. Both Mr. Lyle's father and his grandfather made a vast amount of maple syrup from the trees now cut down and Mr. Lyle still owns a small grove of maples from which he gets syrup each year, his output last year being about fifty gallons. Mr. Lyle has added to his property from time to time and now owns about two hundred acres, on which he carries on general farming. He is also interested in dairying, owning a fine herd of cattle, at the head of which is Dexter, a three-year old registered Guernsey bull and the registered cow, Belinda Hillcrest. He is considered one of the skilled farmers of his district and is known as a good neighbor and a public-spirited citizen. A staunch Republican in his political views, Mr. Lyle has served as township commissioner and his fra

Page  852 IISTORY OF VAN BlIREN COUNTY ternal affiliation is with the Maccabees. lie and his wife are attendants of the Methodist Episcopal church. On September 28, 1869, Mr. Lyle was married to Mliss Matilda Sherrod, who was born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Daniel and Hannah (Cole) Sherrod. Daniel Sherrod was born September 20, 1800. IIe removed to Paw Paw in 1855 and followed farming until his death, on March 6, 1888. His first wife was Rebecca Kite, born May 5, 1804, and died in February, 1833. To this union were born four children, namely: Michael, MAargaret, Philip and I-iram, the daughter alone surviving. Iis seeond marriage, on February 5. 1836. was to H-anhah Cole, born in New York state November 17, 1809. and died February 17, 1884. Their children follow: Hiram J., born Novemlber 29, 1836; Jesse A., born October 5, 1837, died April 5, 1897; David A.. born February 3, 184() died August 25, 1896: Lorenzo, born October 22, 1841; Sarah A., born August 4, 1844; Almond A., born February 25. 1849; and Matilda, born September 14. 1851, the wife of the subject. To Mr. and Mrs. Lyle have been born seven children, namely: Melvin, residing in Van Buren county; Nellie, the wife of Frank Patton, of Kalamazoo; Gertrude, who married Fred Webb, of Chicago; Beatrice, wife of Ernest Edgely. formerly employed in Chicago, but now residing on a farm in l)ecatur; Wave, the wife of Roy Mosier, of Antwerp township; Arlie, residing near home; and Alta, who is still beneath the parental roof-tree. Mlr. and Mrs. Lyle rejoice in the possession of eleven grandchildren. Melvin Lyle's children are Leo and Vivian; Mrs. Patton's. are Lyle, Catherine, Donald, lax and Virginia; Mrs. \Webb's. are Ioward, Lucile and Sylvia; and Mrs. Mosier las a daughter. Evelyn. The following appreciation of the character of Mr. Lyle lhas been given in another publication: "A more honest, conscientious and upright, citizen than Levi Lyle cannot be namlled. Ile has lived all his life in one neighborhood and it is not known that he has an enemy. His sense of right is such that he could not take even what is usually considered a fair advantage of a fellow citizen. Iis life has been quiet and uneventful, but it furnishes an example of true citizenship which will be an influence for good in his community for generations to come." M. F. RUISSELL, the enterprising and progressive publisller and proprietor of The Bangor Advance, at Bangor, Michigan, is purely a Bangor man, being born and brought up in the town, and has the distinction of being one of the very few business men who has nade a success in the town where he was raised, it being generally conceded that a young man's chances for success are far better under different surroundings. Mr. Russell has been in the printing and newspaper business all his life, and conducts his paper along lines that are somewhat original and considerably different from the ordinary country paper, and on these lines and principles he has built up a large and constantly increasing circulation and a business not exceeded by

Page  853 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 853 its kind in any town of the size of Bangor in the state of Michigan. H-e is an enthusiastic booster for his town, county and state, and firmly believes that Van Buren county, Michigan is, all things considered, the peer of any county in the north. The Bangor Advance is always attractive in appearance and is welcomed weekly to nearly every home in a radius of many miles around Bangor. The proprietor of The Advance believes in progress and his printing office equipment is an exceptionally good one. At one time there were three papers published in Bangor, but the principle of "the survival of the fittest" applies in the case of The Advance, and today it is the only one published here. Mr. Russell was born in Bangor, January 30, 1868, eldest son of Lyman S. and Laura (Overton) Russell, natives of Jefferson county, New York. L. S. Russell first entered the newspaper field in Bangor in 1882, when he became publisher of The West Michigan Advance, conducting it until he turned it over to his son, M. F. Russell in January, 1891, who changed its title to its present style. In 1893 L. S. Russell went to Lansing, Michigan, where he became chief clerk in the state department known as the Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics, which position he filled for fifteen consecutive years, or until his death, which occurred April 4, 1908. Hlis widow, who survives, now resides at Lansing. They had a family of five children, as follows: Mlaude E., who is the wife of John C. Frye, of Lansing; M. F., the subject of this sketch; Allan M., residing at Washington, D. C.; Merton C., who died at the age of three years; and Mlella O., the wife of S. T.:IcCallumn, of Detroit, Michigan. M. F. Russell received his education in the Bangor schools, but was obliged to quit before finishing the High School course, and associated himself with his father in the printing office. H-e learned the printer's trade and has never had occasion to regret it. While at the present time he does little in the mechanical department of his business, he still does sufficient to keep in the front rank of the printing profession, and is a critical judge of job printing and advertising. Barring three months which he spent in North Dakota, in 1887, he has resided in Bangor all his life. He edits his paper energetically, has always been an open champion of what he considered right and fearlessly attacked what to him looked wrong. The Bangor Advance and one other paper of the county took aggressive action against the old convention system of nominations and largely through their influence succeeded in establishing the primary system of nominating candidates for office in the county, a system which has proven popular with the masses and verified the judgnent of the promoters. Mr. Russell takes an active interest in every charitable movement and is a liberal contributor to charity and the church. He has a part in every movement for the betterment of his town and is ranked among its most public-spirited citizens. He is a progressive Republican in politics, and the Odd Fellows is the only secret society to which he belongs. The Church of Christ denomination is his church home. VoL nI-15

Page  854 854 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY On August 26, 1891, Mr. Russell was united in marriage to Miss Lissie M. DeLong, daughter of Henry and Eliza DeLong, and to this union were born two children: Zelpha L., born August 14, 1893, who lived with her parents, enjoying all the advantages possible, was taken ill and died December 10, 1911, after eleven days sickness, at the age of eighteen years, three months and twentysix days; and Henry M., born April 20, 1904, died in November. 1905. GEORGE SHINE.-In the year of 1816 Jacob Shine caime from Germany and settled in Pennsylvania, where his countrymen had already done so much for the land of their adoption, both by the valiant service they had rendered in the war for independence and by their skill in the pursuits of peace. Jacob Shine was married to a native of Pennsylvania, Mary Master, and they moved to Stark county, Ohio. There were eleven children in their family, eight of whom grew to maturity. These were Jacob, Sarah. Christian, Annie, John, Kate, Charles and George. At present but two survive, Kate, who is the widow of John Gertie, of Albuquerque, New Mexico, and George of Bangor, Michigan. They moved to Hancock county, Ohio, during Polk's administration, and in 1850 the mother died. Jacob bought a piece of wild land, consisting of one hundred acres, and cleared about eighty acres of it. George, the subject of this sketch, was the fifth child of Jacob and Mary Shine. He was born in Stark county, Ohio, in 1834, in February. At the age of fifteen he moved with his parents to Hancock county, Ohio, where he greatly assisted his father in clearing the farm. At twenty-five years of age he married Mlary Garman, of Ohio, and they began farming for themselves on land which George had rented from his father. Here they remained until the close of the Civil war, when his father sold out, and they moved to Pulaski county, Indiana. There Jacob bought one hundred and sixty acres of land. George remained with him about one year and a half, when Charles, his younger brother, married and worked his father's farm. George and his family then came in 1867, to Michigan. Jacob, his father, died about ten years after George came to Michigan. The latter purchased a farm of eighty acres in Bangor township, Michigan. He added to this until he owned one hundred and five acres. All but forty-five acres of this he has given away to his two sons. This land was all in timber when Mr. Shine purchased it, and he has cleared and improved it all, getting it into fine condition and putting up the best of buildings. There were four children born to George and Mary Shine. namely, John, William L., Elizabeth and Ellen. The two sons reside in Bangor township and manage the fine places which their father has given them, and to which John has added nineteen acres and William forty-six acres. This land all adjoins, making in all a solid body of one hundred and seventy acres. Elizabeth is the wife of George Monk, of Geneva township. Ellen married John Edwards, of Geneva, but died in 1896. In politics Mr. Shine is a Democrat. He is a member of the

Page  855 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 855 Church of God, to which his wife also belonged. She passed away August 10, 1911, leaving behind her the memory of a life of love and usefulness. These parents brought up their boys to respect God, and to despise swearing, smoking and drinking. They now are respected citizens of Bangor township and can be depended upon to vote for local option. CHESTER P. BAGGERLY.-Both Mr. and Mrs. Baggerly belong to families who have helped to make the history of our country. While, in America, each man may stand upon his own achievements, regardless of what his ancestors have done, still the inheritance from a long line of men and women whose ideals and purposes were of the highest, is an advantage which any one may well covet and the pride in belonging to a race which gave soldiers to the Revolution and loyal citizens to every generation is a credit to him who possesses it. The Baggerlys settled in New York state before the Revolution and the great-grandfather of Chester Baggerly fought in the Continental army. Iis father, Charles A. lBaggerly, was born in Ontario county, New York, in 1820. IIe grew up in that county and received his education there. D)uring his long life lie was remarkable for the tenacity with which lie held to what he conceived to be his duty. Ile was at first an old line AWhig and later an active Republican. When the first nominee of that party, General Fremont, was selected, Mlr. Baggerly was one who cast his vote for the first representative of the new party. I-e was a staunch supporter of Lincoln and all his life was influential in the politics of his district. lie died in 1909, being almost ninety years old. The wife of Charles A. Baggerly was also a New Yorker, her birthplace being Yates county. Her maiden name was Mary A. Putney and she was a granddaughter of Adams, a Revolutionary soldier, and a cousin of the second president of the U'nited States. She was a devout member of the Congregational church. She died in 1903, in Ontario county, New York. Chester Baggerly. of this sketch, is the eldest of a famlily of four children and also the only son. The three daughters are all imarried and reside in New York state. Kate is Mrs. B. C. Hobart, of Stanley, New York. Previous to her marriage she was a successful teacher. Her liusband is a farmer. Both of the other sisters were teachers too. Nettie is the wife of 2I. S. Lonsbury, a farmer and dealer in general merchandise of Potter, New York. Mrs. Arnold Palmer, of Caledonia, New York, was formerly Elenor Baggerly. Mr. Palmer is a retired farmer. Until ten years ago Mr. Baggerly lived in the county where he was born in 1855, on September 19. Since 1901 he has been one of the prosperous farmers of this county. who gives especial attention to raising fine horses. The farm of the Baggerly family is an estate of eighty acres known as the Maple Avenue Farm. The land is some of the best in the region and the residence both tasteful and comfortable. Mr. Baggerly has been twice married. His first wife was a Miss Flora Van Auken, who died leaving one son, Hershel. The

Page  856 .-) 6 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY boy was educated at Clifton Springs, New York, where he graduated from the high school. He is now a farmer and resides on the old Baggerly estate with his wife, Lena Francis Baggerly. Both he and his father were born on this farm. The union of Mr. Chester Baggerly and' Miss Ida B. Peters took place on February 7, 1901. Mrs. Baggerly was born in Yates county on February 4, 1855. She is the second in a family of four children, three of whon are now living. The brother Philip is a prosperous hardware merchant at Benton Harbor. He is married to Miss Ida Baker. Myrtle Peters became Mrs. F. F. Warren, of Hartford, Michigan, where her husband conducts one of the leading mercantile establishments. Mr. Peters was born in Yates county, New York, on December 15, 1824. His ancestry is of Pennsylvania German stock. Until 1861 he lived in his native country but at that time the family sold their old home and camie west to Van Buren county. Here Alr. Peters bought a quarter section of the Arnour homestead and MIrs. Baggerly now resides on the place her father bought half a century ago, half a mile north of Keeler. Mrs. Peters was born in the same county as her husband three years after the date of his birth. She died in 1903, at Hartford, where she and her husband had retired from their farm several years before. Mrs. Baggerly was a child of seven when she came to Van Buren county. Every year she and her husband revisit their native state and so keep in touch with the old home and with the new as well. Mrs. Baggerly is a member of the Congregational church of Hartford and for five years taught a class in the Sunday-school. Mr. Baggerly follows his father's political preference. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and of the Modern WAoodmen of Keeler. Mrs. Bagerly is a valued member of the Thursday Club of Keeler, an organization of literary nature. The families of Mr. and Mrs. Baggerly are people of prominence in their native state and their position in Van Buren county is not less dignified. They are types of the best product of our American civilization and well merit the esteem in which they are held by all who know them. THE FOSTER SISTERS.-Whatever there may be of high emprise and noble achievement in subsequent years, since the foundations of the county were laid either in carrying on to successful fulfillment projects already started or originating new ones nothing can rob the pioneers of Van Buren county of the full measure of credit that is due them for what they accomplished in their day and generation for the baptism into the domain of civilized life of this portion of the state and the start they gave it on the highway toward its present condition of advanced development, rapid progress and fruitfulness in all the concomitants of civilized life and aspirations toward higher development. They were men and women of heroic mold, fashioned by their time for sturdy workfit progenitors of the followers they begot. No toil deterred, no danger daunted, no hardship dismayed them. With unyielding

Page  857 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY H 7 will they pressed their way over every obstacle, often challenging Fate herself into the lists and meeting her on almost equal terms. To this class belonged Ira Foster, who boldly strode into the almost unbroken and savage wilderness of this region in 1837 and bought one hundred and sixty acres of land, which was the nucleus of the present Foster homestead, located three-quarters of a mile north of Keeler, and now owned and occupied by Misses Josephine and Ida Foster, the interesting subjects of this brief memoir. The father afterward added to his domain forty acres of school land, and the first dwelling he erected on it was a little log house, in which he sheltered his family and built the altar of his hopes. The region had not then surrendered to the commanding might of mind which was to dominate it in the future, and in the main it was still given up to the dominion of the wild denizens of the forest and plain. The Red Man roamed at will through its pathless depths, beasts of prey made night hideous with their revels, bear and wolves levied their tribute on other forms of life, and wild-eyed deer, gazing with wonder on the savage propensity of man and beast, took their chances for continued existence between wild men and wild animals on the one side and the forerunners of civilizaton on the other. The Indians in the neighborhood belonged to the Potawatami tribe, and while they were in the main friendly, they sometimes showed the other side of their nature. Mr. and Mrs. Foster of that day, however, courageously met the requirements of their situation and dealt with it according to its needs. They came to the wilderness with the settled purpose of redeeming at least a small portion of it from the waste, and resolutely and persistently they devoted themselves to the task they had laid out as their portion. They were devout members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and the first services held in the township of their home, under the auspices of this sect, were conducted in their residence. They were also potential factors in the erection of the first church edifice of their faith at Keeler, and at all times ready and responsive supporters of all benevolences in the locality worthy of their consideration. The father was an unwavering Whig until the organization to which he belonged went to pieces and the Republican party was organized on its ruins. He then joined the new party, and cast his vote for its first presidential candidate, General John C. Fremont. Following that expression of his faith, he was, until the end of his life, a great admirer of Abraham Lincoln and James G. Blaine. To the principles which they advocated, and the aspirations to which they devoted themselves for the good of the country. according to his view, he adhered to the end of his life, and at all times gave them his unwavering and energetic support. The mother was born in Madison county, New York, on October 11, 1812, and died in Van Buren county, Michigan, on January 15, 1889. She grew to womanhood in her native county and obtained her education in its district schools. After leaving school she was a teacher for some years, devoting her energies to that occupation until her marriage. Some of her forefathers were soldiers in the Revolutionary war, and throughout her own life she

Page  858 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY exhibited traits of character that would have made her a heroine in any sufficient crisis. As it was, her early years in this state were passed in heroic endurance of privations and hardships, and in the constant presence of danger. She was a woman of high character, of a stern and unrelenting sense of duty, and of great amiability of disposition, devoted to her family and constant in her zeal for the welfare of its members. Those of her children who survive her cherish her memory with the reverence that is due that of a faithful wife and mother and a noble pioneer matron. Her remains and those of the father rest in Keeler cemetery, and their graves are marked with imposing and suggestive memorial stones. The offspring of this interesting couple numbered eight, four sons and four daughters, seven of whom are living. Morris is married and successfully engaged in farming at Hector, Minnesota. He is a graduate of the University of Michigan and was a high school teacher at Bay City and Benton Harbor for a number of years. He married with Miss Katharine Folwell, whose brother, Dr. Folwell, was president of the University of Minnesota from the beginning of its history to 1884. In politics Morris Foster is a Democrat. Josephine was educated in the common schools and the high schools at Dowagiac and Decatur. She was a successful teacher in the public schools of this county for a number of years. Riley is a prosperous and progressive farmer living at Hubbard, Minnesota. He is a graduate of the University of Michigan and passed several years of his useful life as a teacher in the public schools. IIe is a Democrat in politics and takes an earnest interest in the public affairs of the county in which he lives. His wife was Miss Alice Flanders before her marriage, and she and her husband are esteemed as among the best citizens of the great and progressive state in which they have their home. Olive is the wife of Isaac P. Newton and their home is in Muskegon county, Michigan. Mr. Newton was prominently connected with the lumber trade of this state as an enterprising and progressive merchant for a number of years. He is now living retired from business and devoting himself in a quiet and unostentatious way to the progress and improvement of his home county and the state of Michigan in general. Ida occupies the old family homestead in company with her sister Josephine. She received a high school education in Decatur, and the whole of her life since leaving school has been devoted to the service of the public in lines of usefulness which are highly appreciated, although they attract no noisy or special attention. She has been a successful teacher in the public schools of Van Buren and Kalkaska counties. Miss Josephine and Miss Ida, "The Foster Sisters," as they are called in the respectful and appreciative language of the whole community in which they live, are active members of the Keeler Thursday Literary Club, which is one of the great promoters of social enjoyment and literary culture in the town. Miss Josephine is a leading member of the programme committee of this club.

Page  859 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 859 She is a devout member of the Episcopal church and one of its most efficient workers in behalf of the people of the town and township. She has traveled extensively in many parts of the United States, going where natural beauties or interesting works of man have led her, and having her love of country intensified by b)oth. They have a fine library of hundreds of volumes of choice literature, and are ladies of extensive information and high culture. l)wight is one of the prosperous and progressive young farmers of Keeler township, and one of the young men of influence in connection with its public affairs. He is a zealous member of the Democratic party, and his wisdom in counsel and energy and effectiveness in action in behalf of his party are highly appreciated by its leaders in the county and also by its rank and file. He married Miss Lillian Buck, and they have three children. Dean Foster, the youngest of the living members of the family, is a resident of Alaska, where he is vigorously engaged in prospecting for a portion of the seemingly inexhaustible mineral wealth of that wonderful country. He began his education in the common schools of Van Buren county and completed it at the high school in Kalamazoo. There were many opportunities open to him in his native state, but being of an adventurous disposition he determined to seek his fortune in a far away region, and while his success in his venture has not been phenomenal or spectacular, it has been steady and substantial and given promise of much greater results in time to come if he continues his operations in our hyperborean territory. Tile Foster Sisters are representatives of the forces in human character, human endeavor and human worth that have made Van Buren county what it is, and in their record, their activities and their aspirations they show impressively the high development to which it is tending and the ultimate lofty standard of living its people will attain to. Each human life, and every human life, however unnoted, embodies some substantial indication of the general trend and tendency of all human life, and the serviceable diligence of the Foster Sisters in the lines of usefulness open to them, unconscious as they may be of the fact, is contributing essentially and inevitably to the high destiny and prowess of Van Buren county in working out the full measure of Michigan's part in the general elevation of the human race toward its imperial position in God's empire. GEORGE E. BRooKs.-Numbered among the influential and well known residents of Van Buren county is George E. Brooks, whose home and farm is in its township of Almena. His ancestry is Scotch Irish, and he is a grandson of Michael Brooks, a native son of the land of "hills and heather," and on the maternal side a grandson of George Brown, who was born in the north of Ireland. The latter, however, left his native land in his youth and came to America, establishing his home in the east. His daughter Margaret became the wife of George F. Brooks, the son of Michael Brooks. Paterson, New Jersey, was the birthplace of George E. Brooks,

Page  860 860 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY and he began his existence on the 16th of March, 1840. When he was ten years of age he accompanied his father to Brooklyn, New York, and from there they went to St. Louis, Missouri, but subsequently returned East, to New York city. Later they returned to Paterson, New Jersey, the birthplace of George E., and, again migrating, they went to Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, where the father died. In the year 1862 George E. Brooks entered the employ of the government and spent two years in its service. But before entering that work he had lived on a farm in Pennsylvania, and when he retired from the government service he returned to that farm. On the 14th of September, 1861, he was united in marriage to Anna E. Slater, a daughter of Isaiah Slater and his wife, Amy Mix Slater, both natives of the state of New York. Following their marriage the young couple lived in Susquehanna county until 1882, when they moved to Pullman, Illinois, and for twelve years that city continued their home. The following eight years they spent in Roseland, Illinois, and in 1899 Mr. Brooks bought a farmn in Van Buren county, Michigan, the place being then known as the old Wilson farm. In 1902 they came to this state to reside and within its borders have since made their home. Until recently he owned a farm of one hundred and twenty-eight acres in Almena township and was one of the progressive and successful agriculturists of the county, but at present his son-in-law, Mr. K. E. Crouse, is the owner of this farm. There were five children born of the union of Mr. and Mrs. Brooks, and four of the number are now living: Flora, the wife of George Backus and residing in Almena township; Edwin II., who died in infancy; Margaret, whose husband, Kenneth E. Crouse, has bought the farm her father formerly owned; George W., a resident of Kalamazoo, Michigan; and Daisy, the wife of Wralter Brown, supervisor of Almena township. It is Mr. Brooks' good fortune to have seen not only his children grow to useful manhood and womanhood, but his grandchildren as well. His eldest daughter, Flora, has three children: William C., a bookkeeper for a factory in Bay City; Geraldine, the wife of L. O. Dustin. of Kalamazoo; and Laura, the wife of Roy Barringer, of Grand Rapids. Mrs. Margaret Brooks Crouse has had two children. Edgar and Margaret, but both are now deceased. George W-. Brooks has four children living: Geraldine, Laura, Loyd and Marguerite. Roy, the first born, was accidentally killed at the age of thirteen. The union of Mr. and Mrs. Brown has been without issue. Mr. Brooks is a member of the Masonic fraternity, affiliated with the lodge at Mattawan, No. 268. His daughters belong to the Eastern Star, and all but one have held office in the order. Mr. Brooks is also affiliated with the Knights of Pythias. The family are Methodists and have always been influential and active in the work of the church. Mr. and Mrs. Brooks' membership is in the church at Almena, and that of the daughters in other churches of the denomination in the towns in which they have previously resided. Mr. Brooks has always been a stanch supporter of the policies of the Republican party, and was at one time road com

Page  861 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 861 missioner in Almena township. As a citizen he has achieved the respect of the entire community, and, although he has not lived in the county a great many years, he has so identified himself with its interests that he is universally regarded as one of the representative men of the district. FRANK LAMB is fortunate enough to own and cultivate the fine farm on which he was born and to carry on the business which his father conducted before him. For farming is a business and only those who so regard it are making a success of it. Much has been written lately on the reason why our boys leave the farm for the city and about everything has been said on both sides of the question, but the best argument for the "back to the soil" movement is the one which our enterprising farmers present in their farms and in themselves. Mr. Lamb is one of Van Buren county's good arguments on the advantages of agriculture as a profession. Charles Lamb, the father of Frank, was born in New Hampshire, on December 30, 1822. Two years later his parents moved to Lake county. Ohio, and there he grew up and in 1845 was married to Emneline Bartlett. In 1854 they came to Hartford township and settled on the farm where they spent the rest of their days. IIe (lied in 1906 and his wife in 1894. Frank Lamb was born June 28, 1856. He was the only child who grew up in his family, as the other son died in infancy. His schooling was finished at the age of eighteen and he then gave all his time to farming, having put in his summers at it ever since he was old enough to be of assistance. Before his twentieth birthday-on April 2, 1876-he was married to Miss Helen Pierce, a native of IHume, New York. Her father, William L. Pierce, was born in Pike, Wyoming county, New York. on May 24, 1825. Ile was wedded to Marian Brockett, whose native place was 'Wyoiling county, New York, and the date of whose birth was July 20, 1836. Their marriage took place in Ossian, New York. on June 1, 1854, and fifteen years later they came to Hartford township. Until 1878 they lived on a farm but in that year they moved into town. Mirs. Pierce died at Hartford on July 19, 1905, and her husband survived her five years, passing to his reward on August 13. 1910. They were the parents of six children, two of whom are living now in 1911, Mrs. Lamb and her sister Louise, the wife of Daniel Stickney, of Hamilton township. Mrs. Lamb attended the Hartford schools after finishing the course in the district schools. The first two sons of her union with MIr. Lamb. Roy W. and Orville C., did not live to maturity. A son and daughter were later born to them, the son Clare, on November 18, 1887. He is now married to Miss Iva Stratton of Benton Harbor, and has a farm of forty acres not far from the old homestead. The daughter, Margaret, is attending the district school, and was eleven on May 17, 1911. Mrs. Lamb is active in church work, being affiliated with the United Brethren denomination. Here. as wherever she is known, Mrs. Lamb is regarded

Page  862 862 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUTNTY as one of the most valuable members. She is a person of executive ability and of tactful manner. The Lamb farm of one hundred and twenty acres is in section seven of Hartford township and is one of the best conducted places in Van Buren county. R. C. NYMAN, ex-treasurer of Bangor township and one of the leading and influential men of his community, is proprietor of a flour, grist, saw and woolen mill at Bangor, which was erected by his father more than fifty-five years ago and has remained in the family ever since. Mr. Nyman is a survivor of the Civil war, in which he made an excellent record, and he has proven himself as good a citizen in times of peace as he was a soldier during the dark days of the war of the rebellion. Mr. Nyman is a native of Niles, Michigan, and was born November 16, 1844, a son of J. H. and Julia M. (Youngs) Nyman, the former a native of Ohio and the latter of New York. The Nyman family first came to MIichigan during the early 'forties, and in 1856 J. 11. Nyman brought his family to Bangor, where he established himself in business as the proprietor of a flour, grist, saw and woolen mill, which he conducted successfully during the remainder of his life. His death occurred in 1886, his wife having passed away three years before, and they were the parents of five children, as follows: A. J., who is deceased; R. C.; Emily, who is deceased; Etta, the wife of Andrew Charles, of Denver, Colorado; and Oro, who lives in Bangor. R. C. Nyman was reared in his native village, and there was given a good education in the common schools. When he was only seventeen years of age, in September, 1861, he ran away from home and enlisted in Company C, Third Michigan Cavalry, under Captain Hudson, and on January 18, 1864, received his honorable discharge at La Grange, Tennessee. On the following day he re-enlisted in the same company, and he continued to serve with that organization until he received his final discharge at San Antonio, Texas, February 12, 1866. Mr. Nyman's war record was that of a brave, faithful and valorous soldier. During the long, heart-breaking marches he was cheerful and patient, under fire he was always cool and in full command of his faculties, and in the thickest of the hardest-fought battles he displayed a bravery and lack of fear that won him respect of his comrades and words of praise from his officers. On his return to his home in Bangor he at once took up the duties of civil life, and ably assisted his father until the latter's death, when the milling property was left to his children, R. C. receiving his share. After a short time he bought out the other heirs, and he now is the sole owner of the enterprise, which he has been engaged in operating ever since. Mr. Nyman is a good business man, and knows how to conduct his industry so that it will give him the best results. He has an unblemished record as a business man, and he is held in high esteem by his fellow townsmen in Bangor, who have elected him village president and councilman. He is a popular member of the Masons and the Grand Army of the Republic, and in politics takes an independent stand.

Page  863 IISTORY OF VAN BUIREN COITNTY8 863 In 1868 Mr. Nyman married Miss Lucy Martindale, daughter of Bennett Martindale, and' she died in 1896, having been the mother of two children: Harry, who is engaged in business with his father; and Audie, who is deceased. MICHAEL FITzSIMMONS.-Since the age of two Mr. Fitzsimmons has been a resident of Van Buren county, and as he was fifty-six years old on June 10, 1911, he has seen a variety of changes in the various industries of the county, as well as its growth from a wild country to a populous and thriving district. IIe has always been a farmer and his father, too, followed that pursuit, so he has been especially interested in the changes which have taken place in methods of farming. He has cut many an acre with the old fashioned foot cradle and has swung the scythe all day long with the mowers. He has seen and used the flail, so he is prepared to speak with authority on the wonders of modern farming. Both the father and the mother of Michael Fitzsimmons were born in Ireland. Kildare was his mother's native place, Dublin his father's. William Fitzsimimons sailed from Dublin at about the age of twenty-one and made the trip in seven weeks and three days. Ile settled in Clyde, Wayne county, New York, where he worked for wages, as his capital when he reached his new home amounted to only five shillings. Here he met and married Katherine O'Connor, and in 1857 the family moved to Michigan. The father had saved two hundred and fifty dollars, intending to invest in a farm and accordingly he bought a tract of forty acres, the present home of MIichael Fitzsimmons. At that time Hartford was only a handful of people and roads had not been made to a sufficient extent to render driving feasable. Most people walked or rode horseback from the railroad. Van Buren county was the home of the Fitzsimmons family continuously after 1857. The father lived to be almost a hundred years old. He and his wife were devout members of the Catholic church, in whose faith they lived and died. being laid to rest in St. Mary's Parish cemetery at Silver Creek. There were two sons and one daughter in their family. Mlichael Fitzsimmnon's brother. Willian. is a painter in South Bend, Indiana. The sister is no longer living. Michael Fitzsimmons grew up on his father's farm and attended such schools as were to be attended. The first educational institution of which he enjoyed the advantages was a small subscription school which was conducted in the home of a AMr. Kelly. Later he was a pupil in the first school built by the district and taught by Marion Woodman. Although Mr. Fitzsiimmnons has not yet come to the age when he can be called an old man, yet he is one of the oldest residents of the county and is entitled to speak of the "good old times" when deer were plentiful and time hadn't been hurried on by all the modern devices for saving it, which oblige us to get as much done in a day as our forefathers did in a week. He knows something about getting work done, for he has been doing it all his life. With no capital to start on, he has acquired a quarter section of fine land, eighty acres in Keeler township and the other half in

Page  864 864 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Watervliet. The tract in the former section is one of the best in the county and his home is situated on that. Besides general farming he is an extensive fruit grower and highly successful in that branch of agriculture. In the prosperity and position he has attained Mr. Fitzsimmons has been ably assisted by his wife, who is a woman of unusual tact and intelligence. She is the daughter of William t1. and Bridget (Carmody) Watson, christened Mary E. and born December 4, 1855, twenty-five miles west of Detroit. There were three sons and two daughters in her home circle. The boys are all dead, but the sister Sarah is the wife of Thomas Hawley, a farmer of Hartford township, to whom she has borne eight children, seven of whom are living. Mrs. Fitzsimmons' father was a native of Kent county, England, born October 10, 1833. His opportunities for getting an education were mostly of his own making and he was truly a self-educated man. At the age of eighteen he came to America and- settled at Clyde, New York. Here he worked as a wage earner for fourteen years and then, on December 14, 1864, he came to Berrien county. Michigan. From here he moved to Van Buren county, where he resided for the rest of his life. His wife, Bridget Carmody, came to America from Limerick, Ireland, when she was a young lady, in 1850. Both of them were communicants of the Catholic church and devout attendants upon its services. The father died in 1900 and is buried beside his wife in St. Mary's Parish cemetery. The union of Mr. Fitzsimmons and Miss Watson took place January 10, 1893, and of the two daughters who have come into the home then begun one has been taken away by death. Florence, the other, is now in the eighth grade and is studying music. It is her parents' intention to give her an education which shall fit her for any vocation she may desire to follow. Her mother was for five years a successful teacher in the schools of Berrien and Van Buren counties, and so is able to direct her daughter's education with more than ordinary understanding. William Fitzsimmons was a strong advocate of the principles of the Democratic party and his son Michael follows in his footsteps in this respect. The family are members of St. Joseph's Catholic church at Watervliet and Florence was confirmed by Bishop Kelly. All the benevolent undertakings of their denomination are generously supported by Mr. and Mrs. Fitzsimmons. Mr. Fitzsimmons holds membership in the order of the Knights of the Tented Maccabees of Watervliet, his tent being No. 821. The proprietors of Maple Avenue Farm are universally accorded a place among the leading citizens of the county. Their labors have brought them material prosperity and their many attractive personal qualities have won them the friendship and admiration of a wide circle of the county's representative men and women. GILBERT GOULD.-Mr. Gould has been a resident of the county for over half a century and for that entire period has engaged in the pursuit of agriculture. Much has been said and written about farming as an occupation and of its value in producing a crop which

Page  865 HISTORY OF VAN B1UREN COUNTY 865 is even mnore important than the food supply-that of character. One can not hope to say anything new on this matter. but neither is it a subject that is ever old, inasmuch as it is one of the eternal verities. The farmer is busy with a task that is always worth while, since upon him all else depends. It is a work which requires that a nian be able to spend time in his own society and not be dependent upon distractions, whose chief end is to prevent him from thinking. He must be a person of resource and of a philosophic mind. Small wonder that the farm-bred youth outstrips all competitors. No greater service to the land can be performed than that of causing the earth to yield of her fulness and those who devote themselves to this have ever been the strength and the flower of our civilization. Mr. Gould is a native of Litchfield, Ohio, born May 23, 1836. There were six sons and six daughters in the household and Mr. Gould is the sixth in point of age. Only three of the offspring of Ira and Nancy Strickland Gould are now living; Mr. Gould and two sisters, Mrs. Esther Suits of Silver Creek township, and Mrs. Milton Shafer, of Laurence township. The Gould family is of English origin. Three brothers came from England and settled in America early in the history of the country. The Jay Gould family, famled for its wealth, is a branch of the same stock. Ira Gould was born in Broome county, New York, in 1799, the year of Washington's death. Until his death in 1880, he followed the occupation of agriculture, first in New York state, where he lived until after his marriage, and later in St. Lucas county, Ohio, then in Branch county, Michigan, near Coldwater, where he went in 1837 and lastly in Van Buren county. IIe had traded his forty acres in Branch for a tract of twice that extent in Van Buren county. Until recently this farm was in the possession of Mr. Gilbert Gould. At the time when his father bought his land the country was entirely uncultivated, a vast expanse of virgin field and forest. The father was a Jeffersonian Democrat and ardent in his advocating of the principles of that party. For eight years the people of Keeler township kept him in their service as township treasurer. His strict adherence to his principles won him the respect even of those who disagreed with him. He took an active interest in public education and recognized its importance in a democratic government. At his death the funeral was conducted by the Odd Fellows, of which lodge he was a prominent member. The wife of Ira Gould was born in Connecticut, in 1808. Before her marriage she was a teacher in Broome county, New York, and the qualities which made her successful in that great profession made her also successful in the greater calling of a wife and mother. She was a devout Christian, whose sweet, every-day life was an irrefutable argument of the divinity of her doctrine. She passed from this life in 1892, and is buried in Keeler cemetery. Gilbert Gould was still a child when he came to Van Buren county. His early schooling was received in a log school house whose seats were great slabs with holes bored in them, into which the wooden pins were set to hold up the benches. An old-fashioned fireplace heated the room, or a part of it at least, and the pupils sometimes wrote with goose quill pens. Cobb's Spelling Book was

Page  866 866 HIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY the chief text book on literature, though it was later superseded by a more pretentious volume with definitions, written by Towne. The teacher was paid by subscription and boarded around in the homes of his pupils. The change from this primitive equipment to the school of the twentieth century is great indeed and only those who have seen the two regimes of our education can realize the improvement. Mr. Gould has been privileged to witness this and other great changes. When he was a boy the deer were to be seen all around in droves and the Indians still in their aboriginal condition. Until his marriage Mr. Gould remained with his parents. In 1862 he established his own home with his wife, Mary Garrett Gould. They were the parents of two sons and four daughters. Five of this family are still living. Jennie, the eldest, was educated in the public schools and in Benton Harbor College. For three years she was one of the successful teachers of Van Buren county and then she became the wife of Charles Allerton, of Keeler. Will is a practical farmer whose residence is near that of his father. He and his wife, Kate Kent Gould, have two children, Mildred and George. Edna B. is a young lady of literary tastes, who is unusually fond of good books. She makes her home with her parents and relieves them of much of the responsibility of the home. Mrs. Gould was born on March 15, 1842, in Montgomery county, Ohio. She was the seventh in a family of ten children, three sons and seven daughters. Three of the family of John and Dora Pettigrew Garrett still survive. Anne is the widow of John Kennedy, of Benton Harbor. William is a farmer of Cass county, Michigan, and is married. Father Garrett was born in Ireland in 1799 and catne to America at the age of twenty-one. It took six months for the sailing vessel in which he embarked to make the voyage-time enough to get used to water for a habitation. After working for a time in New York Mr. Garrett went to Ohio and there he was married. He bought a farm of forty acres in Ohio and later disposed of it and came to Michigan. IHe went first to Cass county and thence to Van Buren in about 1853. Keeler township was his hoiie for the remaining eight years of his life and he was a successful agriculturist. In politics he was originally a Whig, but afterwards became a Democrat. Iis wife was born in Ohio in 1807 and died in Michigan in '1878. Since the age of seven Mrs. Gould has lived in Van Buren county and for forty-nine years she and her husband have labored together and watched the progress of the county, contributing with a right good will their share toward its advancement. Their farm is called Oak Grove Farm and comprises a hundred acres of good land near Magician lake. They have been able to equip this with the best of appliances and fine buildings, including a handsome modern residence. Like his father, Mr. Gould is a Democrat. He cast his first vote for the "Little Giant of the West" and he has never wavered in his support of the principles of that party. Fraternally he is connected with the Masonic lodge of Dowagiac, Michigan. The years he and his wife have spent in this county have been busy and benefi

Page  867 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 867 cent ones. Theirs are honored names in the history of the region which is proud to claim them as her citizens. IENRY SHEPARD.-To recount the main events of the lives of Mlr. and Mrs. Henry Shepard is to speak of people who need no introduction to the residents of Keeler township. The many years they have passed in that region have made them known to all its citizens and have brought them the gift of a high place in the affections of the entire community. For almost half a century their names have been linked with the history of the county and they have borne their full share of the labors which have produced its greatness and prosperity. Mr. Shepard is of English descent and is a native of Wayne county, New York, where he was born in 1841, on March 21st. I-He is the fourth in a family of five children; three sons and two daughters, born to Mark and Sarah Class Shepard. Only two of that family are now living, Henry of this review, and Dorliske, the widow of Robert Rupel, a resident of Wexford county, Aichigan. Malrk Shepard was a native of the state of Maine and was born in 1796, three years before the first president of our republic died. At the age of sixteen he moved to New York state and began life on his own account. His education was but meagre, as tile advantages were poor. Ite married in New York state and purchased sixty-three acres in Wayne county near the town of -Marion. In 1862 the family came to Michigan, Ienry Shepard, making the trip to Van BIuren county with a team. They purchased ninety acres of unimproved land in Hartford township and here the father lived until his death in 1867. Iis grandfather had come to Canada from England and thence to Maine. It was his fate to be tomahawked by the Indians while going out to bury a kettle containing valuable papers of the Shepard estate, and if these lost documents could be found a large inheritance would fall to the present generation of that family. Mark Shepard belonged to the old Whig party and later joined the ranks of the new Republican faction. He voted for the first nominee of that party and was a warm admirer of Lincoln. IHis wife was a native of New Jersey. She was born in 1803 and died April 22, 1874. New Jersey was her home until she was ten years of age and then she moved to New York state. Circumstances deprived her of any means if livelihood except her own efforts. but adversity detracted nothing from her qualities as a true mother and her lofty character commanded the admiration of all who met her. In her widowhood she made her home with her son Henry, and it was here that she passed to her rest at the age of three score and ten. Ienry Shepard was twenty-two when he left his native state. He had received the benefits of such educational opportunities as the time and locality afforded. It was not in the traditional log school house that he pursued the study of the three R's but in a stone building. However the difference in architecture did not extend to the interior' furnishings. The seats were the usual wooden benches and the heat was supplied by a square box stove, which illustrated all the zones from the torrid to the frigid. The teacher was hired by subscription and while we might consider the instruc

Page  868 868 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY tion rudimentary, it was probably far more in proportion than we secure for a like expenditure. Mirs. Shepard, too, was an attendant at this sort of school. Jefferson county, New York, was the home of Mrs. Shepard's family and her maiden name was Vandervoort, one well known in the annals of New Amsterdam and borne by many a good burgher. Her father was by trade a fuller of cloth. He was born in New York state, in 1815, and lived there until 1851, when he and his family moved to Michigan. They purchased a farm in Hartford township of eighty acres and here their family grew up. The father enlisted in the war and was present at the battle of the Wilderness. Shortly afterwards he contracted typhoid fever and died at Nashville, Tennessee, in the service of his country. He was a charter member of the Lawrence Masonic Lodge. His wife was born in the same county as was he, on January 4, 1819. She was a strict member of the Presbyterian church and an earnest worker in the Sundayschool. IHer devotion to the rearing of her children made her a model mother and bore fruit in the useful lives of the sons and daughters. Mrs. Shepard is the eldest of five children. The two sons are both dead, but the daughters are all now presiding over homes of their own. Augusta is Mrs. Fred Fish and resides on a farm in Lawrence township. Martha is the wife of a real estate dealer in Oklahoma City, Mr. C. R. Heminway, one of the city's most successful men. One son has been born to this couple. The mother of this family lived to the age of eighty and died March 8, 1899. Mrs. Shepard was born in Watertown, New York. in 11845, on April 24. She has spent most of her life in this county and can remember when Hartford had just one house. As the population of the town is now one thousand two hundred, she has witnessed a vast development of the country. The marriage of Adelaide Vandervoort and Henry Shepard was solemnized on February 21, 1862, at I)ecatur, Michigan. The young couple began life with small capital, purchasing a farm of forty acres, partly on credit. Their first house was an unplastered frame structure. This has given place to a comfortable residence, and the farm of eighty acres has been made one of the best improved in the section in the matter of buildings and general equipment. The latch string is always out at the I. X. L. Farm for the friends and neighbors, as well as for the children and grandchildren. The three daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Shepard are all married. Alice Josephine is Mrs. Frank Hall. Her husband is a telegrapher. employed in New York city, but residing in Salamanca. There are four children in this home: Florence M., Elsie J., Francis H. and Oliver C. Mrs. Hall was educated in the Decatur schools and graduated from the high school. Mr. Hall is chairman of the Order of Railroad Telegraphers. He is also a member of the Elks. He and his wife belong to the Methodist church and he is a Republican in his political convictions. Lydia Shepard was educated in the common schools of the county and was later one of its successful teachers. She is now the wife of one of Hamilton township's prosperous farmers, Mr. Fred Harris. Minnie is the wife of John Clair

Page  869 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 869 MileAlpine. Mr. and Mrs. Shepard gave their children a good education and also the care and sympathy which are such powerful factors in the making of happy and loyal citizens. It was Mlr. Shepard's privilege to cast his first presidential vote for Abraham Lincoln and he has always been a loyal supporter of the Republican party. He has been for a number of years deputy treasurer of the schools and served two years as road commissioner. Mr. Shepard is a member of the Methodist church at Keeler and both she and her husband are always ready to aid in all movements for the betterment of the community where they have been so long and so honorably known. ALBERT 0. DUNCOMBE.-Although all the years of his itianhood have been devoted to one pursuit, and that an occupation which is so exacting in its claims and so personal in its bearing that it narrows the views of many men engaged in it to their own interests and makes them abnormally acute in that limit, Albert O. Duncombe, one of the leading merchants of Van Buren county, Michigan, with a large department store at Keeler, has never become a man of one idea, and his vision has always been broad enough in its sweep to take in the interests of the whole county in which he lives, and keep him keenly alive to the welfare, comfort and progress of its residents. Since the dawn of his manhood no enterprise undertaken, in which their lasting good has been involved, has gone without his earnest and effective support, or been without the benefit of his wise and judicious counsel. Mr. )uncombe was born in this county in Septenber 16, 1863, the third in a family of six children (three sons and three daughters) born to Charles and Frances S. (Knights) Duncombe, four of whom are living. These include Albert's sister Fannie S., the oldest of the living children, who is the wife of Seth Felt, a prominent farmer of Keeler township; his other sister, Harriet, who is the wife of N. F. Simpson, warden of the Michigan state's prison in Jackson; and his brother Charles, a sketch of whom will be found in this volume, giving a brief account of his life. Mrs. Simpson is a High School graduate and she and her husband are the parents of two children, their daughter Frances Fae and their son Nathan D. Frances is a High School graduate in the class of 1905, and is now the wife of Ralph Z. Hopkins, a resident of Detroit, where he is connected with a contracting establishment as a draughtsman. Nathan is a student at the Michigan Agricultural College, and will graduate in the regular course in 1913, if nothing happens to prevent his doing so. Charles Dunconlbe, the father of Albert 0., was a native of Canada, of Scotch parentage, and born on May 1. 1822. He died in Van Buren county, Michigan, on January 1, 1900. He was educated in the public schools, and after leaving them became in succession and all together a merchant, a banker, a real estate dealer and a farmer. Although he attended the public schools when he had opportunity, his benefits derived from them in the way of scholastic attainments were very limited, because his opportunities of seeking those benefits were limited and often interrupted. He Vol. II-1 6

Page  870 870 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY was practically a self-educated and self-made man, and one of much more than ordinary business capacity and extent and comprehensiveness of information. This is one of Nature's ways of dealing with us. She often deprives her most promising offspring of extraneous advantages, then offers them compensation in the way of chances to develop their inherent faculties, and it is not her fault if they fail to accept and use the chance. Mr. Duncombe, the elder, accepted her terms, and made the nost of his openings in life by his own efforts. He began operations with very little capital and at one period of his life owned more than two thousand acres of land. He was a young man when he came with his parents to Michigan, and not many years afterward he yielded to the excitement that filled the world over the discovery of gold in California and became one of the bold and resolute "Forty-niners," that great band of hardy adventurers which crossed the plains in 1849 to the new Eldorado on the Pacific slope. These modern argonauts used ox teams as their means of transporting their goods, and made the long and wearying journey themselves for the most part on foot. The bones of many of them whitened on the trackless llanos of the wilderness, as it was then, but Mr. Duncombe reached his destination in safety. He made Sacramento the seat of his operations and was successful in his venture. When he had accumulated a considerable sum of the virgin treasure of which he went in search of, he returned to civilization, traveling down the Pacific. across the Isthmus of Panama and up the Atlantic to New York, and thence across the continent to his former Michigan home. He invested his money in land, and kept adding to his holdings by subsequent purchases until, as has been noted, he owned two thousand acres and over. In his political faith Mr. Duncollbe was first a Whig and after the birth of the Republican party a member of that organization. He adhered to this political party to the end of his days, and found his heroes of state craft among the leaders its critical times developed. Its first candidate for the presidency, General John C. Fremont, received his ardent support, and to his last hour of life he was a warm admirer of Lincoln and Blaine. On the large field of political activity he was a member of the state constitutional convention, and locally he served for a number of years as supervisor of his township. Fraternally he was connected for many years with the Masonic order, and became a charter member of the lodge at Keeler when it was organized. HIe died in Keeler township, and in. his passing away the township lost one of its best and most useful citizens. His wife was a native of Saratoga county, New York. She was born there in 1830, and died in Keeler township, this county. in 1882. She was reared and educated in her native county. During the greater part of her life she was an active working member of the Baptist church, and for some years was president of the local organization of the Women's Christian Temperance Union. Her remains and those of her husband were interred in the cemetery in Keeler, and beautiful and suggestive memorial stones mark the place of their long sleep in the narrow house to which all must go.

Page  871 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 871 Albert O. Duncombe grew to manhood in this county and obtained the greater part of his education in its schools. He began his scholastic instruction in the lower grades of the common schoolst continued it at the high school in Decatur, and completed it at the Northern Indiana State University. Iis whole life since leaving school has been passed in merchandising. In 1884 he and his father began business in this line in Keeler with a stock of goods valued at about two thousand, five hundred dollars, and since 1900 he has carried on the business alone. In conducting it he has been very successful, both in increasing his trade to great magnitude and in winning and holding the confidence and esteem of the people throughout a very large extent of the surrounding country. Mr. Duncombe's department store is the largest of the kind in Van Buren county, and carries a stock of merchandise sufficiently comprehensive and varied to meet every requirement of the community in which it operates, including agricultural implements. Its trade averages sixty-five thousand dollars per annum, and its well satisfied patrons number many hundred of the most intelligent and cultivated people residing in the region tributary to its traffic, as well as thousands of others. Mr. Duncombe is assisted in carrying on the business by his brother Charles and two saleswomen, with additional help on holiday and other rushing times. The force mentioned would not be sufficient if all its members were not persons of superior qualifications for the work in which they are engaged, and it were not governed by perfect system, which prevents all waste of time and energy. Mr. Duncombe was married to Miss Alice G. Peters, who was born in this county on June 3, 1869, and is a daughter of James A. and Harriet (McMillan) Peters, and the first born of their three children, the other two being her brother Stephen, who is a resident of Indiana, and her other brother, Tracey E., who is a salesman with headquarters in Spokane, AVashington. The father of these children was born in the state of New York on June 17, 1847. and died in Van Buren county, Michigan, in January, 1908. He was long engaged in lmercantile pursuits as a salesman after leaving the Decatur IIigh School, where he colnpleted his education. I-e was of German ancestry, a Republican in politics and a member of the Odd Fellows Lodge at Hartford. Michigan, fraternally. His wife was also a native of the state of New York, born in Sing Sing on December 20, 1850. She also died in this county. Her education was secured in the public schools of her native county, and her life was devoted to good works under the guidance of the church of which she was a faithful and zealous member during the greater part of her life, and a consistent exemplar of its teachings all the time. Mr. and Mrs. Duncombe have one child, their daughter Frances P. They also had one son who died in infancy. The daughter is a graduate of St. Mary's convent at Monroe, Michigan. class of 1907, and of the Kalamazoo State Normal School, from which she received her degree in 1909, her special course in that institution being that of music and art. She taught music in the public school at Belleview, this state, one year, then her parents sent her to the Cosino

Page  872 872 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY politan School of Music in Chicago for the further development and cultivation of her talents, which are of a high order and show great promise. In that institution she is pursuing the study of voice culture under the instruction of Professor L. A. Torrens, and that of dramatic art under instructors who are also highly competent. Miss Duncombe is unusually richly endowed for her art work, to which she intends to devote her life, and in all other respects she is a great credit to her family, her friends and the locality of her home. Appreciating fully the advantages she is enjoying through the liberality of her parents, she will undoubtedly make the most of them, and Van Buren county is delighted over the prospect of giving to the world a new star in the lofty firmament of intellectual radiance and power from which Miss Duncombe is destined to shine. The whole community unites with her parents in their just pride in her natural gifts and the use she contemplates making of them, and rejoices in the fact that she is well deserving, in her high character, devotion to duty and social accomplishments, of the universal esteem bestowed upon her wherever she is known. MAr. Duncombe has given his adherence to the Republican party in political affairs from the dawn of his manhood. His first presidential vote was cast for James G. Blaine, and his devotion to the party has been unwavering ever since. He has served as a delegate to its county and state conventions a number of times, and was one of the Republican national convention which met in Chicago in 1904. He has always been a devoted friend of the public schools, and given them the benefit of his services for many years in some official capacity, regarding the cause of public education as one of the greatest claims on the attention of the people, and one of the strongest means for the preservation of liberty, intelligence and morality among them. Fraternally he is a member of the Odd Fellows Lodge at Keeler and of Benton Harbor Lodge, No. 544, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, in each of which he takes an earnest interest, showing commendable fervor in his zeal for the welfare of both fraternities, as he does with reference to every other good agency at work among the people for their betterment in morals, in tellectual development. in social relations and as contributors to the general enjoyment of the community. Mr. and Mrs. Duncombe reside in a beautiful modern dwelling in Keeler. The house is conveniently arranged, richly and tastefully furnished, and provided with every appliance required for its comfort and the enjoyment of its inmates. The home is a social center of great popularity, a radiating point of high culture and genial good fellowship, wherein gracious hospitality is dispensed and the best attributes of American domestic life are enthroned, in accordance with the sunny and elevated nature of its occupants, whose hearts are rich in kindly feelings for all mankind. CHARES DUNcoMBE.-Reared as a farmer and following that occupation until he was nearly forty years of age, then turning his attention to merchandising with as much deftness and capacity as if he had long been trained to the business, Charles Duncombe, of

Page  873 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 873 Keeler, has shown his adaptability to circumstances to be of an extent and character that would win him success and credit in almost any line of endeavor that he might choose to turn his hand to. His is rather an unusual case, as farmers are not generally well adapted to general merchandising, their usual pursuit not involving the fine points of this line of trade and unfitting them for its more graceful requirements. But MSr. Duncombe is as mlluch at home behind the counter as he ever was behind the plow, and he can turn a imercantile transaction as neatly and as cleverly as lie ever did a furrow. This shows his versality and readiness for any station or duty. and he has given imany proofs of them in his mercantile career in other ways. Of the six children horn to his parents Charles l)uncombe was the fourth in the order of birth. Ile is a son of Charles and Frances S. (Knight) Duncombe, the story of whose lives is given at some length in the sketch of Albert 0. Duncombe, which will be found in this volume. Like his brother Albert O., Charles was born in Van Buren county, Michigan, and reared and largely educated on his native heath. Ile attended the district schlool near his home until he completed its course, then engaged in farming on shares for his father. This he continued until the death of the father, when he inherited one hundred and sixty acres of fine land in Ilaiiiilton township and began cultivating it entirely on his own account. He remained on this farm and devoted himself wholly to its development and improvement until 1907. And he has ever since superintended its cultivation and kept it up to the standard of excellence to which he raised it. It is devoted to general farlling. In 1907 Mr. Duncan entered the employ of his older brother Albert as a clerk and assistant manager of the large department store the brother owns and carries on in Keeler. IIe has been a potent factor in helping to win the wide popularity the emporium enjoys and build it up to the high place it has in the confidence and regard of the business world and the general public. IHe is what the old Romans called sua,:ifer in modo, forliter in re-genial and courteous in manner but strong or resolute in deed-and the two qualifications for business combined in him have given him great influence with the purchasing public, and pronounced success as a business man in the department of trade with which he is connected. Mr. Duncombe was married in April 2, 1891, in Keeler township. to Miss Maria 5MceMillan. who was born in this county on February 14, 1873, the first of the five children, all daughters, of John and Salome (Reece) MeMlillan. all of whomi are living. The others are: Ada, who is the wife of A. W. Gustine, formerly a merchant in Keeler but now a farmer in the same township; Buna, who is the wife of H. A. Welcher, also a Keeler township farmer; Nellie, who is the wife of D. F. Gregory, a scion of the old Gregory family so long prominent in this locality, and. like her sisters, a resident of Keeler township; and Zorah, who is the wife of M. J. Teed. a butcher living and doing business in Benton Harbor. Mr. and Mrs. Gustine have three children, Mr. and Mrs. Welcher have two sons, and Mr. and Mrs. Gregory have one daughter. Four children, three sons and one daughter, have been born to

Page  874 874 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY MAr. and Mrs. Duncombe, but only one of them is living, their son Charles McMillan. From the age at which he entered school until the present time his education has been carefully looked after. He completed the eighth grade of the elementary and grammar school at Hamilton, passed one year at the high school in Decatur, and was graduated from the Hartford high school in the class of 1910. At this time (1911) he is a student in the school of Professor Ferris in Big Rapids, which is considered one of the best of the kind in the state, and there he is pursuing a course in the commercial and business department to fit himself to follow in the footsteps of his father, his uncle and his grandfather as a merchant. John McMillan, the father of Mrs. I)uncomnbe, is a native of the state of New York, and in earlier life was a blacksmith. IHe was a soldier in defense of the Union during the Civil war, and made an excellent record in the army. He has served as treasurer of Keeler township and is now township clerk. His political faith is pledged and his political services are given to the Republican party, and he is ardently devoted to its principles. Fraternally he is a Freemason and belongs to the lodge of the order in Keeler, where he and his wife are living. The latter was also born in New York state, and she, too, takes an earnest interest in the fraternal life of the community as a member of the Order of the Eastern Star. No citizens of Van Buren county are more highly or more generally esteemed. Mr. Duncombe is a Republican of the most devoted loyalty to his party. He cast his first presidential vote for President Benjamin Harrison, and has kept himself steadfastly under the Republican banner ever since. He served several years as school director while living in Hamilton township and is now township treasurer of Keeler township. He is deeply and intelligently interested in the cause of public education, regarding it as a bulwark of American liberty, a valuable means of preparation for the duties of citizenship and a great force in democratizing our people and helping to make them homogeneous in their social and political activities. Mrs. Duncombe is a true partner of her husband's joys, sorrows and ambitions. She shares in all his aspirations, takes part in all his work for the good of the community, and aids in making their home one of the choice domestic shrines of the township, and one of its most popular and agreeable centers of social culture, beneficent energy and genuine hospitality. Van Buren county has no better or more useful citizens than Mr. and Mrs. Duncombe, no better representatives of what is best in its citizenship, no more zealous promoters of its welfare in every way, and, to its credit be it said, no heads of a household within its borders who are more highly esteemed or more thoroughly appreciated. LESTER E. OSBORN.-Among the native-born sons of Van Buren county, Michigan, is Lester E. Osborn, whose citizenship is of that stanch and admirable type which has made this section so progressive and prosperous that it is widely noted for these qualities. The name of Osborn is well known hereabout and he whose name inaugurates this review is distinguished not only for his own record as a man and a citizen, but from the honored ancestry from which

Page  875 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 875 lie is descended. He was born in Hamilton township on August 1, 1854, and is the eldest member and only son in a family of four born to Stephen and Maria (Tryon) Osborn. At the present time all the children survive. Lillie is the wife of H. A. Beardsley, an agriculturist and a resident of Decatur. Lucy is the wife of Charles Iarris, a prosperous agriculturist of Hamilton township; and Lora is married to John Ingram, an engineer in the great Sheffield works of Three Rivers, Michigan. The father of the subject was a native of Allegheny county, New York, and was an agriculturist. He attended school in an old log school house in the Empire state and was of the self-made type. WAhen but a lad he came with his parents to Van Buren county, Michigan, making the journey by wagon in pioneer style. When the Osborns arrived in the Wolverine state wolves, deer and wild turkeys were plentiful and the traces of the redmen had by no means been obliterated. The father entered land from the government and became prosperous. All his life he was loyal in his support of the principles of Jackson Democracy. He was well-known, a man of strong character and of influence in the community. In the early days he had sixteen yoke of oxen and with them broke the virgin soil. Both he and his worthy wife were members of the Disciple church. IIe took a great interest in improving public school conditions and he was at the forefront in other progressive work. His wife was a native of Michigan and a woman of great ambition and industry. Both are interred in the Hamilton cemetery, where beautiful stones are erected sacred to their memory. Mr. Osborn, immediate subject of this review, was reared in old Van Buren county and was educated in the common school and the Paw Paw high school. He has devoted all his activities to agriculture. At the age of twenty he earned his first wages, twenty dollars a month, and until the demise of the beloved parents, to which lie had ever been devoted, he resided beneath the home roof. At the death of the father, Erastus Osborn, of whom mention is made on other pages, was appointed administrator and the two worked the homestead on shares. At the age of twenty-four the subject wedded.Miss Rena Gage, their union being on April 28, 1878. To them have been born two sons and two daughters. Adah M. is the wife of C(harles Lindsley, a resident of Bangor township, who operates the SISiley farm. Their daughter, Lucille Belle, is in school. Mrs. lindsley was educated in the common schools and previous to her marriage was a music teacher. V. Belle became the wife of Claude Sterns, son of Z. Sterns, one of the pioneers of Van Buren county. She was educated in the common schools. IHer husband is. one of Hamilton township s prosperous young farmers. Leroy S. is a residlent of Keeler township and an agriculturist. He married Miss Bessie Rathburne. He was educated in the common schools. Hugh I). is a resident of Dowagiac and is engaged as an iron moulder. Tle took as his wife M\iss Lucille Baker, a school teacher, and they have a little daughter, Irma. Mr. and Mrs. Osborn have given their children good practical edu cations and fitted them for honorable lives and they have become honorable citizens and a credit to their parents. Mrs. Osborn was

Page  876 876 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY born in Cass county, Michigan, February 11, 1860, and she is the eldest of two children, both daughters, born to Van Orman and Zilpha (Langley) Gage. Both are living and Mrs. Osborn is the elder. Her sister, Alpha M., is the widow of William Scoby, a resident of Battle Creek and they have one daughter, Edith, who was the wife of Theodore Shaw, and is now an actress in Chicago. Mrs. Shaw was educated in the Hastings high school. The father Gage was a native of Cattaraugus county, his birth having occurred in 1832 and his death in 1869. He was only a boy when his parents came to Cass county, Michigan. He received a good education, a part of which was received in the Ypsilanti Normal School. Iis occupation was that of a practical farmer and horticulturist and he was distinguished for unusual mentality. In politics he was a Republican and cast his vote for the first nominee of the party. IIe died in Berrien county. His wife was a native of Wisconsin, born August 16, 1839, and still living at Battle Creek. She is a woman beautiful in face as well as in character and mind. She has long been a useful member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mrs. Osborn was a little girl but four years of age when she became a resident of Berrien county. She has spent the greater part 'of her life, however, in Hamilton township, and in its schools secured her education. She possesses a most pleasing personality and her home is her paradise. She has ably reared her family and.is. indeed, in the words of Longfellow, "A noble type of good Heroic womanhood." 3Ir. and Mrs. Osborn moved onto this present place in 1897. It is known as "Oak Grove Homestead." The subject has ever been a Republican, nationally and locally, and he casts his vote for the men he believes best suited for the office. He is a public spirited man and his sixteen years' service as school director has been of value to the community. To conclude, Mr. and Mrs. Osborn stand high in the neighborhood. where they command universal respect. They have reared an honorable and upright family and happy indeed is the old home when children and grandchildren congregate at such seasons as Christmas and Thanksgiving. The record of their worthy lives is indeed good material for perpetuation in the History of Van Buren County. Michigan. CLAUDE D. ROBINSON.-It is almost a tiresomely trite saying that the farms have given us our best citizens. Until two generations ago the most of our population lived in the country, so naturally the farm-bred boy had the advantage. Later came the great exodus to the city and for a time it was hard to find a young man of talent who intended to devote his life to agriculture. But now this is changing and we are beginning to return to our Anglo-Saxon notion that farming is an occupation worthy to engage the best skill of our best men, and ever increasing numbers of our youth are

Page  877 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 877 adopting it, not because they drift into it but as the profession of their choice. One of Keeler township's notable young agriculturists is Claude D. Robinson. His family have lived in the state all their lives and his father, Edmund J. Robinson, is a well known and successful farmer in this county. This gentleman began life with no capital and for five years after his marriage to Miss Minnie Winch he rented land. His first eighty acres was purchased by going into debt, and their house was a little log cabin. Now he and his wife own together one hundred and twenty acres in Keeler township and in 1898 they built their handsome modern residence on the first eighty acres which he bought. The ruins of the old log cabin are still to be seen on the place. Three children were born to Mr. and Airs. Robinson, all living in this state. Clyde lives at Marcellus and is a farmer. Iis wife was formerly Miss Elizabeth Willis. Ruth Louise, the youngest of the Robinson family, is still at home. Claude Robinson was born July 30, 1888, in Keeler township. lIe attended the public schools of the county and early decided to devote himself to farming and stock raising. He began his work with a capital of five hundred dollars from his parents, who having made a success of the same pursuit desired to give their son assistance in his undertaking. On July 30, 1909, he was married to Miss Caroline Bl. MIolter, a daughter of Katherine Weber and Peter Molter, of Bainbridge. AIichigan. She was born January 25, 1889, and is one of a family of twelve children, seven of whoim were sons. She received her elducation in the county schools and is a young woman of ability, well fitted to fill the position which devolves upon her. All but one of the children of her parents are still living and reside in, Mlichigan. The father and mother, too, are still conducting their thriving truck farm, whose products they market in Benton Harbor. Both are miembers of the German Lutheran church. In 191( ) Mr. Robinson built a pleasant residence, opposite his father's home, on eighty acres of land which belongs to him. Here he and his wife and their small son, Maurice Leland. constitute a household whose elders are well known and popular in the county in which they hold an eminent position. Mr. Robinson is a Republican in his politics, as is also his father. He has already attained an enviable reputation as a farmer and will doubtless always keep his place in the front. rank of the progressive agriculturists. A\DOLPI DANNEFFEL.-Germany has given to America some of its best and most intellectual citizens. From the Fatherland has come much that is great and good, and although our German-Americans cherish in their hearts a tender love for the native country, they have ever proven themselves among our best and most loyal patriots and encourage in their offspring the same devotion to their adopted land. Van Buren county is the home of some of the leading German-American citizens of the country, and prominent among these, one who has risen to the front rank of agriculturists of his section througl the force of his own industry and persevering labor, is Adolph I)anneffel, of Keeler township, who, by a long and honorable business career, a thoughtful interest in others and public-spirited

Page  878 878 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY efforts in behalf of his community, has made himself known and respected all over this part of the county. Mr. Danneffel was born in Baden, Germany, April 16, 1831, and is the third in a family of eight children born to George and Mary (Elgas) Danneffel. George Danneffel, also a native of Germany, never left that country, where throughout his life he was engaged in agricultural pursuits and in school teaching. He and his wife were consistent meimbers of the Roman Catholic faith, and they were interred in the cemetery of that denomination near their home. Those of their children who survive are: Adolph; Leopold, a veteran of the Franco-Prussian war, and now an agriculturist in Germany; Charles, who received an excellent education and is now engaged in farming in Germany; Otto, also a school teacher in the old country; Phillip, who, like his brothers, is engaged in educational pursuits in the Fatherland; and Martha and Phillipine, who are also residents of Germany. One son and one daughter have passed away. Adolph Danneffel received a good education in the German language, and as a youth was apprenticed to the trade of shoemaker. which he followed in Germany until he reached his twenty-second year, at which time, not being satisfied with his prospects, he decided to come to the United States. In April, 1854, he boarded a sailing vessel at Antwerp, and after a stormy voyage of thirty-three days, during which the passengers suffered the pangs of hunger and other hardships, finally landed at Castle Garden. On putting foot on American soil the sum total of the money between Adolph and his brother John Danneffel was one dollar and fifty cents, and with this they started out to make their fortunes among a strange people speaking a strange language. During the next three and one-half years Mr. Danneffel remained in New York state, working out as a farm hand at ten dollars per month, and about 1858 he came to Berrien county, Michigan, where he worked for a farmer during one summer. IIe then purchased eighty acres of wild land in Keeler township, Van Buren county, and this proved the nucleus for a magnificent farm of six hundred acres. On first settling here the country was a vast wilderness of tilmber land, in which still roamed wild beasts, and Indian camps were not unusual sights. The axe and the ox-team were the principal implements used in clearing and cultivating the land, in sharp contrast to the inmproved implemrents of today and the powerful machinery that is used to operate themn. Mr. I)anneffel's career is a striking example of what may be accomplished by a man who has the determination to succeed and the ability to carry this determination through. ITe has replaced the primitive log buildings of half a century ago with modern structures, a handsome residence and all necessary outbuildings, and his land is now some of the best in Van Buren county. Since 1903. when his wife died, he has resided on the old homestead with his youngest son, William. Mr. Danneffel stands square with the world. and he has always been honest and fair in all of his dealings with his fellow men. Always ready to stand up for what he believes to be right, he is, nevertheless, considerate of the feelings and opinions of others, and it is this sense of fairness that has made his name known and respected in his section. Although in his eightieth

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Page  879 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 879 year, Mr. Danneffel is in full possession of all of his faculties and his mind is as clear as when he came to this country many years ago, a poor immigrant boy looking for his fortunes in the new world,-clearer perhaps, for the years of experience and observation have made him alert to all that is of interest to his community. He has always supported the principles of the Republican party, and cast his first vote for Abraham Lincoln. His fellow citizens have recognized his ability as a public official by electing him to positions of honor and trust, and he has served as director of the school district for six years, highway commissioner for two years, and supervisor of his township for six years, and in none of these did he betray the confidence thus displayed in him. He has also at numerous times represented his party in county conventions, and as an official was ever alert to protect the people's interests. Now, in the evening of life, he can look back over a well-spent, useful career, content in the knowledge that there is not the slightest stain or blemish upon his record. On March 14, 1857, Mr. Danneffel was married to Miss Phoebe Arndt, and seven sons and two daughters were born to this union, all of whom survive: George, a retired farmer of Benton Harbor, Michigan, is married and has two children, George and Saide; Mary, widow of Charles Swartz, resident of South Bend, Indiana, has one child, Charlie; Charles, a retired farmer of Benton Harbor, is married; Frank, living in Bainbridge, Michigan, is an agriculturist, and has three children, May, Herbert and Lymon; Adolph P., also an agriculturist of Bainbridge, is married and has two children, Florence and Lloyd; Catherine, the wife of Adelbert Salter, an agriculturist of Keeler township; Albert, who is farming in Keeler township, is married and has three children, Dean, Robert and Ward; Simon, also farming in Keeler township, is married and has two children, Edward and Margaret; and William, who is living on the old homestead with his father, married Miss Emma Mundt and lias one child, Johnnie. Mr. Danneffel is a great-grandfather. In 1880 he made a visit to his native land, where he remained four months, and then returned to his adopted county, more pleased than ever with it. HIRAM A. SMITH.-Many years ago Oliver Wendell Holmles wrote of one of his classmates, "There was a young fellow of excellent pith, Fate tried to obscure him by naming him Smith." It is unnecessary to add that Fate was cheated in her nefarious designs and the same is true of the subject, who is one of the prominent citizens of the county, of which he is also a native son. In addition to his success as a farmer he has great ability as an inventor, and the Smith Interlocking Cement Stave Silo is a mechanical device which he is now putting on the market and which promises to make him very well-known. He is also engaged in the manufacture of a number of other mechanical inventions.

Page  880 880 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY His ninety acres of good land are located in section 21, of Waverly township. Mr. Smith was born in Arlington township, Van Buren county, Michigan, November 13, 1864, and is the son of John P. and Helen M. (Goodeve) Smith. The father was born in Germany, February 21, 1836, and came to America at the age of four years with his parents, John M. and Catherine Smith. The mother was a native of New York city and a daughter of John B. Goodeve, of London, England. John B. Goodeve came with his family to Allegan county, Michigan, when the subject's mother was but one year old, and there they resided until their summons to the better land. The subject's parents were married in this county and to them were born four children, namely: Hiram A. Smith; William A. Smith; Mabel, wife of C. H. Miller, of North Dakota; and Albert, who is unmarried and resides in Stevens county, Washington. Hiram A. Smith was reared on his father's farm in Van Buren county and received his education in the public schools, finishing with the eighth grade. Following that he received a commercial education and at an early age his natural mechanical ability became apparent. He is a manufacturer as well as agriculturist, his stock tank having proved a particularly salable commodity. He remained beneath the parental roof-tree until the attainment of his majority and in 1892 he was united in marriage to Ada E. Horton, also a native of this county. They share their pleasant home with four children: Homer I., now at home, was a student in the high school and is eighteen years of age; Warren H. is fifteen years old, and attends the high school at Paw Paw; Hiram A., Jr., is eleven; and Helen A. is seven. Fraternally Mr. Smith is a member of Glendale Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and the Modern Woodmen of America, and his wife is affiliated with the Royal Neighbors. Both of them carry insurance. In politics the subject is independent. giving his support to the man and the measure he deems most likely to be conducive to the general benefit, although he has Democratic inclinations, at present he is a Republican insurgent. He has been twice elected township treasurer on the Democratic ticket. Ile is, in short, a good citizen and widely known. EVERETT A. FISHER.-Among the prominent agriculturists of Keeler township, Van Buren county, none is more deserving of mention than Everett A. Fisher, who is a worthy member of one of the pioneer families of this section. When the family first settled here bears, deer and wolves still roamed the forests, and almost the entire country was yet in its primitive condition. Bears were often seen even on the farm and on occasion would attack and carry off the domestic animals. In those days not only the men but the women assisted in the clearing, and many were the hardships and privations endured by the early settlers before they had hewn for themselves a comfortable home from the dense forest. Everett A. Fisher was born in Berrien county, Michigan, March 9, 1861, the youngest of the three children born to Wanzer and Eliza J. ([Mat

Page  881 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 881 tock) Fisher, and he now has one sister living: Evaline, a widow residing in Benton Harbor, Michigan. Wanzer Fisher was born in Ohio in 1834, and died April 8, 1875, in Keeler township. He was reared to the life of an agriculturist and educated in the common schools, and came by wagon to Berrien county, Michigan, with his parents. There the little band of pioneers settled in a primitive log cabin, and Mr. Fisher assisted his father and brothers in clearing the land to develop a farm. Ho was married in Berrien county to Miss Eliza Mattock, and they began their married life in very humble circumstances, settling on a forty-acre tract of wild land, for which they went into debt, but eventually cleared the property and paid dollar for dollar for every acre of it. In 1866 they came to Keeler township, purchasing eighty acres of land, about one acre of which was cleared, and on this had been built a small house, which would now be considered little more than a shanty. Nevertheless, it was home to this young couple, who proceeded to work steadfastly and industriously, and after years of hard and incessant toil succeeded in cultivating the land and made their property the equal of any of its size in their part of the township. Wanzer Fisher was a stanch Democrat in politics and was a great friend of the cause of education. Both he and his wife were faithful members of the Christian church. Mr. Fisher died in Keeler township, and was buried in the cemetery here, a beautiful stone being erected in his memory. Mrs. Fisher, who survives her husband and makes her home with her son, was born in Ohio. June 30, 1839. She did mluch towards helping her husband during the pioneer days, and her many lovable traits of character have endeared her to all who know her. Everett Fisher was six years of age lwhen the fanily canme to Keeler township, and he received his education in the common schools. On Alay 17, 1888, lie was married to MIiss Lillian Klett. and two children have been born to this union: Bessie L., who finished the eighth grade in the public schools, was given a musical education, and then became a saleslady in the general store of A. 0. )uncolmbe, at Keeler, and Floyd E., a graduate of the public schools and now a member of the class of 1912 in the Hartford High School. AIrs. Fisher is a native of Van Buren county and was born July 19. 1870, the fourth of a fallily of seven children, one of whom is now deceased. while four live in Van Buren county and two in Berrien counllty. Bot}h of iMrs. Fisher's parents reside in Keeler township. her father being a veteran of the Civil war. in wllich he served for three years. lHe is a Republican in politics and a member of the G. A. R., while his wife is a devouit nmember of the Evangelical church. After their marriage IMr. and MIrs. Fisher settled down on the old Fisher homestead, whiclh is know-n as The AIaples," and is devoted to general farming and stock raising. Mr. Fisher is a Democrat in his political affiliations, and both he and his wife are great friends of education. Mr. Fisher having served for six years as treasurer of his school district. They are worthy children of pioneer fathers who hewed out homes in the midst of the forest and from a start of nothing secured a comfortable property by years of patient toil.

Page  882 882 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY HENRY E. GIBNEY attributes his success in life's undertakings to the quality of close application, persevering devotion to the task in hand, and an honest intention to perform every task in the day's work with one's whole soul and best energy. The man who really lives with hard work as the key note of his life is bound to accomplish things. Henry E. Gibney, who has now retired from active participation in the management of his farm and makes his pleasant home in Hartford, Michigan, was born in Genesee county, New York, the date of his nativity being May 23, 1840. He is the son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Munger) Gibney. Thomas Gibney was a native born son of Ireland who immigrated to the United States when he was a lad of fifteen years, choosing to try the broader opportunities of the western world. Elizabeth Munger, who afterwards became the mother of Henry E. Gibney, the immediate subject of this review, was born in the state of Connecticut and married her husband in New York state, coming with him some time in the fifties to Berrien county, where they made their permanent home. She passed to her eternal reward in 1877, and was followed by her husband thirteen years later. They were the parents of eleven children, seven of whom are living at this date, 1911. Henry E. and one sister now live in Van Buren county. Henry E. Gibney was twelve years old at the time of his parents removal from New York state, and he remained at the parental home in Berrien county, Michigan, until he reached his majority. On August 9, 1862, he enlisted in Company "M'", Fourth Michigan cavalry, and followed the starry ensign of the Union until the close of the war, serving in many notable engagements, including the battle of Stone River. When the conflict was over, and the blue and the gray were no longer the emblems of a divided nation, Mr. Gibney returned to Michigan, and was united in marriage to Miss Florence Wheeler, by whom he had one daughter, Edah, now the wife of George Mutchler, of Hartford, Michigan. On May 31, 1880, was solemnized the marriage of Henry E. Gibney to Anna C. Kemp, who was born in Van Buren county in July, 1852. She was the daughter of William Kemp. a native of England. who was born in the mother country in 1818. He immigrated to this country and was married in New York to Miss Philena Potter. a native of that state. They came after their marriage to Michigan and Mr. Kemp was here engaged in agricultural pursuits until his death, in 1904. His wife followed him to that other land in 1911. Their daughter, Mrs. Henry E. Gibney, is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Although always a stanch supporter of the principles and policies of the Republican party, Mr. Gibney has never had time for the honors and emoluments of public office and has manifested his interest in the welfare of the community in the quieter but none the less expressive medium, the polls. In 1899 Mr. and Mrs. Gibney left their farms, located on sections 27 and 30 of Bangor township, and they have since enjoyed the fruits of their past years of wise management and unfailing industry at their pleasant and hospitable home in Hartford.

Page  883 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 883 DAVID CONKLIN.-The late David Conklin was one of the prominent farmers of Van Buren county, and in his death the county may feel a personal loss, for with his demise it was robbed of an upright and progressive citizen who was always willing to lend his strength to whatever good works were being put forward for the general welfare. David Conklin was a native of New York state, having been born in Philadelphia township, Jefferson county, that state, on April 10, 1845, the son of Richard and Lucy (Gotham) Conklin. Richard Conklin was born in Rutland county, New York, and his wife was born at Cranes Corners, Westchester county, New York, now a suburb of New York city. Their son David was reared on the home farm and educated in the public schools until he was sixteen. At that age, in 1861, together with five of his brothers, he enlisted in Company E, Ninety-fourth New York Volunteer Infantry of the Union army. The six brothers, though they followed the flag through many desperate engagements, all returned without a scratch at the close of the struggle. In the spring of 1865 David Conklin left New York and came to Hartford. MAichigan. He was without mneans, but he at once set about to "make good,'' and obtained employmnent in the timber business. On the 5th of June. 1869. was solemnized the marriage of David Conklin to Mliss MIary E. Olds. She was born in Iartford township, May 29, 1849, a daughter of Iiram and MIarian A. (Stratton) Olds. IIiraii B1. Olds was a son of John Olds. who came to Michigan from New York state as a pioneer settler in this part of the country. IHe located in Hartford township, and there cleared a farm in the timber region and lived on the clearing for the remainder of his life. Hiram Olds. his son. was reared in New York, where he grew to manhood and married Marian A. Stratton. Shortly after the wedding the young husband came on to Michigan, returning a year later for his wife. Ile had no "start" in life and accumulated his fortune by his own industrious efforts. IIe became the owner of one hundred and forty acres of land and inade his own furniture. He was a shrewd business man as well as a hard worker and a man of unquestioned honor. Hie passed away at the very outset of his career, at the age of thirty-five years, leaving a wife and three children,-Mary E., Ira V. and Stephen A. Mr. and Mrs. Conklin became the parents of nine children, seven of whom now survive, in 1911: Melvin J. Conklin, who married Miss Ethel Parmeter and has become the father of three children; Milton D., unmarried and now makes his home with his widowed mother; Marian G.. now Mrs. Hiram G. Hinkley; Lillie M'., who was united in marriage to Sheldon P. Straub, and is the mother of one daughter; Walter A., unmarried and living at the paternal home; Nora E. now Mrs. Gorham Blair; Charles II., who married Miss Fern Hummell. Mrs. Conklin, while not the member of any church, has been the supporter of the good works of all and has lived a truly upright life of kindly helpfulness. Her husband was a Mason and a member of the Knights of Pythias. Politically he was an ardent Democrat.

Page  884 884 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Both he and his wife were members of the Patricians, and at the time of Mr. Conklin's death each carried a thousand dollars insurance in the order. Mrs. Conklin is the owner of forty acres in Hartford township; forty-nine acres across the road in Keeler township; twenty-seven acres west of the forty-nine; and forty acres to the east of the same tract. In all her holdings amount to one hundred and fifty-seven acres, part of which is managed as a fruit farm and grapes and peaches of a high quality are raised. EDWARD SKINNER.-Van Buren county is fortunate in the possession of the Skinner family, estimable members of society and representatives of the agricultural industry, an industry which is at once the oldest and, according to Daniel Webster, the most important labor of man. Edward Skinner, who now farms and raises fruit on his fine tract of land in section 28 of Hartford township, Van Buren county, was born in Kendall county, Illinois, on the 6th of November, 1870. He is the son of Stephen and Eva (Brodie) Skinner, both of whom were natives of England, where they were married. They immigrated to this country in 1854 and located in Kendall county, Illinois. They made the journey across the ocean in a sail boat, and it consumed three months' time, an interesting fact in the light of modern steamship navigation. Stephen Skinner passed to his eternal reward on May 1, 1882, and was followed by his wife on the 29th of May, 1896. They made their home on a rented farm, and were the parents of seven children, five of whom are living at this date, 1911. George resides in the state of Illinois. Anna is now the wife of Richard Phillip. Mary is deceased. Libbie is now Mrs. Mike Lochran and resides in Montana. Meline is the wife of George Brockway. Kate is deceased. Edward Skinner was reared amid the healthful surroundings of the home farm, there learning the lessons of integrity and industry that have made his later success possible. lIe continued to work on the farm during the summer seasons and to attend the district school during the winters until he was eighteen years old. His father died when he was eleven years old, and he remained with his mother until she, too, passed away, after which his sister kept house for him until he was thirty years old. Part of this time he spent at Lisbon, Illinois, where for three years he was engaged in business. After selling out there Mr. Skinner came to Hartford township and bought the John Heins farm of one hundred and twenty acres, located in section 28, and he has made his home there since 1903. In February, 1902, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Skinner to Mrs. Mettie Sleezer, who was Miss Mettie Ostrom, born January 15, 1863, in Kendall county. She was educated in the Newark school, and later attended a seminary. To her first marriage were born two daughters. Miss Clara Sleezer was a graduate of the Newark high school and was a teacher in the public schools prior to her marriage to William Phillips and is now a resident on the home farm. Nina Sleezer was also a teacher prior to her marriage. She is now Mrs. Loveland Munson, and makes her home in Deerfield, Illinois. Mrs. Skinner is a member of the Methodist Episcopal

Page  885 IISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 885 church of Hartford. Her husband is a member of the Modern Woodmen of America; Politically Mr. Skinner is a loyal member of the Republican party, and an active worker for its men and measures. ORVILLE FOWLER.-Among the citizens of Van Buren county whose names appear in the list of those whose industry, integrity and ability are responsible for the prosperity enjoyed by the county, no name is more deserving of its place than that of Orville Fowler, an agriculturist well known in Hartford township, where he owns two tine farms of one hundred acres each. Mr. Fowler was born in La Salle county, Illinois, on the 11th of February, 1854, the son of Milton and Hannah (Phillips) Fowler. His father, Milton Fowler, was a native of Warner, New Hampshire, and his mother was born in Erie county, Pennsylvania. His parents both came when young with their respective families to settle in Newark, Kendall county, Illinois, some time prior to the end of the year 1842. The young people met, married and lived the rest of their lives in Kendall county, quiet and unassuming people, well-liked by all who came to know them. The father passed to his eternal reward in 1898, ten years after the demise of his wife. Orville Fowler was one in their family of nine children. He was brought up on the pleasant acres of the home farm, learning there the lessons of industry and honor which have so marked his after life, and there gaining the robust constitution that meant much when added to his native ability. His education was obtained at the local district school, which he attended until his eighteenth year. At that age he definitely took up agriculture as his permanent work and began to give his entire time to it. On the 6th of November, 1878, was solemnized the marriage of Orville Fowler to Miss Amelia Jones, the daughter of William and Martha (Powell) Jones. Both of her parents were natives of Dowlais, South Wales, who had come from the old country about 1867 and located their new home at Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania. They had only been in this country a short time when both the father and mother died, leaving their daughter Amelia to make her own way in a world that is none too kind to those who buffet its blasts alone. She was young and strong, however, and though her early education had been sadly neglected she won out against all odds. In 1876 she went to Newark, Illinois, and it was there that she met Orville Fowler. After a two years' courtship they were married, and they later came to make their home in Van Buren county, Michigan. Their union has been blessed by the birth of two sons. Claude E. Fowler married Miss Inga Krone, and they are now living on a farm in Hartford township and are the parents of two fine children. Ray B. Fowler was united in marriage to Miss Deldee Martin, and, like his brother, is engaged in farming in Hartford township. Fraternally Mr. Fowler is connected with Charter Oak Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and he is also a member of the Modern Woodmen of America. His wife is a member of Benevolence Chapter, No. 46, of the Order of the Eastern Star, in which she was initiated on October 9, 1911. Politically Mr. Fowler VoL nf-IT

Page  886 886 tHISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY is allied with the party of Jefferson, Jackson and Cleveland, but he has no desire for the honors and emoluments of public office and takes no active part in party affairs. Mr. Fowler's farms are admirably located and are farmed by his two sons. I-e and his wife are quiet, kindly and both liked and respected by all who knew them. EDWARD W. EwALD.-The very roots of a community's prosperity lie in the sturdiness and absolute integrity of its farmer class. If these be strong men, with a heart for any undertaking, the whole life around them grows into a solid fabric. The farmers of Van Buren county are notable throughout the state for their industrious and progressive work, and not the least among the farmers who have given the county its good name is Edward W. Ewald, well-known in Hartford township as a fruit grower as well as a general farmer. Edward Ewald was born in Saint Joseph township, Berrien county, Michigan, in the city of St. Joseph, on July 17, 1871. He was the son of Fred J. and Mary (Grimm) Ewald, both of whom were natives of Germany. The parents now make their home in St. Joseph. Edward W. was the fifth born in a family of thirteen children. When he was old enough he went to the local district school, and continued there until he was eighteen, by which time he had aquired a good general education. He then went to work on a fruit farm, and has ever since been connected with the same industry. On the seventeenth of December, 1895, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Ewald to Miss Clara Weber. She was born in Stephensville, Michigan, March 3, 1873, the daughter of John and Mary (Wright) Weber, and was reared in the city of St. Joseph, where she attended the public schools until she was fifteen years old. For three years she was employed as a clerk in a store in St. Joseph. Mlr. and Mrs. Ewald became the parents of five children, namely: Evelyn, Leonard, Walter, Marjorie and Clare. Mr. Ewald and his family attend the Baptist church, and he is one of the trustees of the church. Both he and his wife have taken a prominent part in the Sunday-school work of the church for a long time. Fraternally Mr. Ewald is a member of the Modern Woodmen of America. In the field of politics he is to be found beneath the Republican standard, and he was elected to be treasurer of St. Joseph township, Berrien county, upon the ticket of that party. IIe achieved an honorable and able record in that office. In 1905 Mr. Ewald came to Van Buren county and purchased the old Packer farm, two and a quarter miles southwest of Hartford, in section 29 of Hartford township, where he and his family have since made their home. Though a comparatively short time in the county, Mr. and Mrs. Ewald already have a large number of devoted and loyal friends, and have attained a high name among all who have had the opportunity to meet them. JACOB OPPENHEIM.-The story of the life of Jacob Oppenheim is the story of industry, courage and a determined ambition, for

Page  887 IISTORY OF VAN ITREN COUNTY 887 he came to this country forty years ago on borrowed money and has attained his present successful position through his own splendid efforts. He is now vice president of the Olney National Bank of Hartford, Michigan, and one of the town's highly respected citizens. Jacob Oppenheimn was born in Russia, in July, 1854, the son of Bernard and Minnie (Demboskey) Oppenheim, neither of whom ever immigrated to this country. Mr. Oppenheim was reared in the village of Vistiten, and attended the little school of the place until his sixteenth year. When he was sixteen he made up his mind to essay his fortunes in the newer territory of the United States and accordingly immigrated to this country, locating first at Goshen, Indiana. He soon came to Hartford, however, on his peddling expedition. IIe carried his pack for almost a year be. fore obtaining a horse. He later obtained a team, and in seven years had earned enough to start a store in a small way. His brother, Mark Oppenheim, had furnished him the money with which to buy his passage to this country, and it was the same brother who let him have his first stock of goods on credit. Both kindnesses Jacob was able to pay back in later years. The little store that Mr. Oppenheim started so many years ago has grown into a prosperous business, besides which he has accumulated other financial interests, including the stock he holds in the Olney National Bank. In 1885 Mr. Oppenheim was united in the bonds of holy matrimony to Miss Anna MIittenthal, of Detroit. Michigan. She was born in Utica, New York state. She and her husband have since become the parents of three children. The eldest, M. O. Oppenheim, is now the owner of the clothing store, while Beatrice, aged fourteen, and Aubry, aged ten, are still school children. Mr. Oppenheim is a member of Florada Lodge, No. 309, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. He is a stanch Republican, but up to Cleveland's administration was a supporter of the Democratic party. He has held various offices of civic trust in the village of Hartford, and always shown himself an efficient public servant. It is interesting to note that I\Mr. Oppenheim has just returned from his first visit to his native land, a trip, it may be added, which has convinced him more than ever of the advantages of a republican government over Russian autocracy. JOHN F. NIcHOLS.-Prominent in the business world of Hartford, Van Buren county, Michigan, for his progressive methods and reputation as one who is always "square" is John F. Nichols, now the proprietor of a thriving feed business. He was born in Arlington township, this county, July 23, 1865, the year of the ending of the Civil war. He is the son of George W. and Laorenda (Crapo) Nichols. George W. Nichols was born in New York state, November 24, 1839, and died in Michigan, October 10, 1898. His wife was a native of St. Joseph county, Michigan, born October 27, 1844, and is still living, making her home in Benton Harbor. John F. Nichols was reared in this county and until he was twenty years of age attended the district and Lawrence graded

Page  888 888 HISTORY OF VAN B1UREN COUNTY schools on April 19, 1887, his marriage was solemnized at Mendon, St. Joseph county, Michigan, the lady of his choice being Miss Maggie A. Lash, who was born in Mifflin county, Pennsylvania, September 29, 1865, and educated in the public schools of Mendon, Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Nichols have no children. After their marriage the young couple moved to a farm in Arlington, where they remained four years before removing to Benton Harbor, in which place Mr. Nichols became employed as a carpenter. After ten years they returned to farm life, and spent two and a half years on a farm in Van Buren county, finally, however, coming to Hartford to engage in the poultry business. Until 1905 Mr. Nichols bought and sold poultry, making quite a profitable undertaking of the venture, but in that year he chose to become identified with a cider mill, which he left in 1908 to take up his present enterprise as proprietor of a feed store. In this his long experience as a farm and poultry dealer has served him in good stead. He is now erecting a new house and barn on his Hartford property. This making the fourth house he has built, he having sold all but the one he now occupies. Fraternally. Mr. Nichols is connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, being a member of Charter Oak Lodge, No. 231, and is a past Noble Grand and the present treasurer of the same. Iie is a member of an insurance company, the New Era, of Grand Rapids. Politically he supports the men and measures of the Democratic party, but he takes little interest in the honors and emoluments of public office, though he now serves on the town council. GEORGE W. OCOBOCK.-A native of the state of New York, but educated and reared in Michigan, where he has since been a resident actively engaged in mercantile life in this state during the greater part of the period and for the last twenty-seven years in Hartford, George W. Ocobock has had experience and made progress in one of the greatest states of the American Union. His life began in Medina, Orleans county, New York, on February 22, 1853, and both on account of the date of his birth and his high character, general probity and public spirit his name is very properly George Washington. He is a son of James W. and Susan (Ostrum) Ocobock, also natives of New York state, and were of German ancestry. The father operated a shingle mill in MIuskegon county, Michigan, and the son was put to work in this at an early age. He received a district school education and remained with his parents until their death. Since the age of fifteen years, Mr. Ocobock has made his own way in the world. In pursuance of a determination to engage in the mercantile business he located at Whitehall in Muskegon county in 1885. There he was engaged in general merchandising for two years and then moved to Hartford, where he opened a dry goods store, which he has ever since been conducting. His business has steadily increased as the years have passed, until now it is of considerable magnitude, his store being one of the most popular and satisfactory in the township and he enjoys the confidence and esteem of the people

Page  889 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 889 of the community in a high degree and to a large extent of the county, wherever his dealings have made him known. Mir. Ocobock was married on March 19, 1890, to Miss Emma Crager, who was born in Berrien county, Michigan, and educated in Hartford. They have no children, and both have been able to take an active part in fraternal affairs. The husband is a past master of Florada Masonic Lodge, No. 309, in Hartford, and both husband and wife are energetic and serviceable members of the order of the Eastern Star. In this order Mrs. Ocobock has attained world-wide distinction. She is a past worthy grand matron of the Grand Chapter of the order in Michigan, serving in 1906 and 1907, and in 1910 was elected right worthy grand conductress of the General Grand Chapter of the World. Her election to these high offices in the order is a great honor to be conferred on her, but all who know her zeal and fidelity in the service of the organization, and the ability which she has displayed in the performance of her duties in lower stations, know that she is well worthy of any position it has to bestow, and highly qualified to fill any with benefit to the order and renown to herself. But the distinction is not all her own. It is greatly to the credit of the members of the order in this state that they know how to appreciate her membership at its real value, and no less to the credit of the general membership that all have seen and recognized her merit and demanded the benefit of her services in exalted stations. And as she has been true and faithful in her devotion to this order, so have she and her husband both been to every public and private duty, for which the people of Van Buren county esteem them as among its best citizens. VOLNEY W. OLDS, the present postmaster of Hartford in this county, has a very trying position, as the people of the community are his patrons and he is expected to please them all. But they knew his capacity, energy in everything he undertakes, and obliging disposition before his first appointment to the office, and the good service they expected of him in the performance of its duties has been given them, and it is highly to his credit that he is universally approved as a public official and well esteemed as a man and citizen. Mr. Olds was born on a farm in the township of his present residence on October 31, 1869, and has never lived anywhere else. He is a son of Allen 0. and Mahala (Lewis) Olds, both natives of the state of New York. The father was brought by his parents to Michigan when he was but one year old. He was reared on a farm and educated in the neighborhood school. As he grew toward manhood the Civil war began, and as soon as he was old enough he joined the forces mustering for the defense of the Union. He enlisted in Company G, Nineteenth Michigan Infantry, and served in that company nearly four years, rising to the rank of first lieutenant through meritorious service and holding that rank when he was mustered out of the army. After the close of his military career he returned to Hartford township, and for many years he has resided in the village of

Page  890 890 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Hartford.. Here he served as alderman for eighteen years, and in many other ways he has helped to promote the progress and general welfare of the village and the township in which it is located. He has long been a very enthusiastic member of the Order of Odd Fellows and taken a prominent and helpful part in the work of its different branches. He and his wife are the parents of two children, their son Volney and their daughter Minnie B.,'the latter of whom is employed as a bookkeeper in a large establishment in Gary, Indiana. Volney W. Olds passed his boyhood and early youth on his father's farm and obtained his education in the Union school of Hartford. At the age of sixteen, being eager to make his own living, he accepted a position as clerk and salesman in a general hardware store belonging to V. E. Manley. On February 29, 1904, he was appointed postmaster of Hartford, and in 1908 he was appointed for a second term of four years, which has not yet expired. He has taken a cordial interest also in the affairs of his township and county, and given every project involving their progress and improvement and the substantial and enduring welfare of their people his earnest and effective support. On July 17, 1895, he was united in marriage with Miss Estella McAllister, the daughter of John and Lena IMcAllister and born in Buchanan, Michigan. She was educated in schools in Niles, St. Joseph and Hartford, being graduated from the high school in the city last named in 1886. For some years after her graduation she was employed in her father's store. She is now the efficient and popular assistant postmistress of the city, and a great help to her husband in the management of the office. They have no children. John McAllister, the father of Mrs. Olds, was born in Scotland in 1833, and was brought by his parents to the United States when he was only two or three years old. Iis father was highly educated of the University of Edinburgh. The family located near Niles, Michigan, soon after its arrival in this country, and there John McAllister grew to manhood and obtained his education. For many years he has been one of the leading merchants and most prominent and influential citizens of Hartford. Mr. Olds is a Freemason in fraternal relations, holding his membership in the order in Florada Lodge, No. 309, at Hartford, and also belongs to the camp of the Modern Woodmen of America established in that town. He is an ardent Republican in his political connection, and has long been a faithful and effective worker for the success of his party and a man of force and influence in its councils. TIMOTHY E. BLASHFIELD.-Prominent in the lumber interests of Van Buren county, and as citizens who can be relied upon to foster whatever is advanced for the general welfare, are Timothy E. Blashfield and his son, William H. Blashfield. both of Hartford, Michigan. Timothy Blashfield was born in Clarendon, Calhoun county, Michigan, on January 5, 1846, the son of William and Alvira (Keep) Blashfield, both of whom were natives of Homer,

Page  891 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 891 New York state. William Blashfield was a son of Iddo Blashfield, like his son, a native of Homer, New York. Both the Blashfield and Keep families removed to Calhoun county, Michigan, about the year 1836. It was there that the young people were married and lived upon the fertile acres of their farms. They became the parents of four children, of whom Timothy is the only one surviving to this date. The others were William, George and Adelia Blashfield. Timothy E. was reared amid the pleasant and healthful surroundings of the home farm located in Calhoun county. Until he was eighteen he spent the summers helping his father in the fields and his winters attending the district schools of the vicinity. When he was eighteen he entered Albion College, where he spent a year preparing himself for public school teaching, and for nine winters thereafter he taught school, devoting his summer interests to his farm. In 1873 Mr. Blashfield was united in marriage to Miss Mary E. Smith, the daughter of Abida Smith, and they were the parents of three children, two of whom died in infancy. William H., and the only surviving one, is his father's business partner. William IH. was born June 7, 1875, and was educated in the Iartford public schools. At the age of eighteen he began to learn the jeweler's trade, at which he worked until 1911, owning a half interest in his business, while his mother owned the rest. He married MIiss Edith Montague, of Alpena, Alpena county, Iichigan. They have no children. He is a member of Florada Lodge. No. 309, Ancient Free and Accepted IMasons, and both he and his father carry insurance in the order of the Maccabees. I-is mother passed to her eternal reward in 1897. Timothy Blashfield later remarried, being united to Airs. Emily Taylor in December, 1899. She died in June, 1910. Politically Timothy Blashfield is found in the ranks of the Democratic party. IHis election to the office of treasurer of Hartford township was upon the nomination of that party. His son also gives his allegiance to the party of Jefferson, Jackson and Cleveland. The prosperous business of the Blashfields is made up of dealings in lumber, wire fence, cement. lime and brick. WILLIAM R. SCOTT, M. 1).-Prominent among the leading physicians of Van Buren county is William R. Scott, M. D., who has been in continuous practice at Bloomingdale for thirty-eight or more years, during which time he has gained a large and lucrative practice, his natural talents and industry classing him among the successful members of the medical profession. A native of Canada, he was born in Farnham township, province of Quebec, a son of John Scott, whose birth occurred in the same province. Richard Scott, the Doctor's grandfather, was, as far as known, a native of Canada, and was of pure Scotch ancestry. During his early life he was engaged in dairy farming in Canada, but later he migrated to Michigan, and for a time was engaged in agricultural and horticultural pursuits in Cooper township, Kalamazoo county, where he became owner of forty acres of land. Dis

Page  892 892 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY posing of his holdings in that locality, he bought forty acres of land in Trowbridge township, Allegan county, Michigan, and was there engaged in general farming and dairying, residing there until his death, at the age of eighty-six years. He married a Miss Ilealy, a native of Canada, and they reared seven children, as follows: HIenry, Rodman, John, Edward, Mary, Mercy and Dorcas. John Scott was brought up in Canada. and was there employed as a farmer and hotel keeper until after his marriage. In the early fifties he came with his family to Michigan, locating in Kalanazoo county, where lie enmbarked in business as a fruit grower, making a specialty of raising apples and peaches. A few years later he moved to Allegan county, Michigan, and having purchased forty acres of land in Trowbridge was there successfully engaged in tilling the soil until his death, at the comparatively early age of forty-five years. IIe married Rachel Johnson, who was born in Montreal, Canada, a daughter of William Johnson and his wife, a.liss Swails. She is still living in Allegan county, a venerable and highly respected woman of eighty-eight years. To her and her husband five children were born and reared, namely: William R., Rodman J., Henry II., Sarah A. and Mercy I). Iut a small lad when his parents settled in Michigan, William R. Scott obtained his preliminary education in the public schools, and subsequently began the study of medicine with Dr. J. H. Fulton in Otsego, Michigan. Going then to Cincinnati, Ohio, he attended lectures at the Cincinnati Eclectic Medical College, and in 1870 began the practice of his profession in Bloomingdale, where he has since continued, his success having been assured from the first. Dr. Scott married first in May, 1882, Etta Allen, who was born in Pine Grove township, Van Buren county, a daughter of Henry and Caroline Allen. Two children have blessed the union of 1)r. and Mrs. Scott, namely: Erma Aline and William A. Fraternally Dr. Scott is a member of Bloomingdale Lodge. No. 221. Ancient Free and Accepted Order of Masons; of Paw Paw Chapter, Royal Arch Masons; of Lawrence Council, Royal and Select Masters; of Lawrence Commandery, Knights Templar, and also a member of the Order of the Eastern Star, of which Mrs. Scott is likewise a member; of Bloomingdale Lodge, No. 161, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and of Bonifoi Lodge, No. 382, Daughters of Rebekah, to which Mrs. Scott also belongs. CIIARLES W. ASHBROOK.-An enterprising and thriving agriculturist of Van Buren county, Charles W. Ashbrook, owning and occupying a valuable farming estate in Bloomingdale township, has brought to his independent vocation excellent business methods and sound judgment, and in his undertakings has met with well deserved success. A son of Joseph R. Ashbrook, he was born April 6, 1855, in Goshen, Elkhart county, Indiana. His paternal grandfather, Elias Ashbrook, was an early settler of Ohio, and for many years owned and operated a tannery near Zanesville. Migrating from there to Indiana, he conducted a tannery in the vicinity of Goshen for some time. Selling his tannery, he moved

Page  893 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 893 to Milford, Koseiusko county, Indiana, where he was engaged in the grocery business continuously until his death, at the venerable age of eighty-seven years. He married Jane Smith, who was born in Scotland, and died in Milford, Indiana, at the advanced age of ninety-four years. IHer parents were weavers by trade, operating hand looms in their native country. On coming' fromn Scotland to America they brought a quantity of web with them, intending to weave it after they were settled in their new home, but could find in this country no loom fine enough to answer their purpose, and the web is now preserved as an heirloom by their descendants. Joseph R. Ashbrook was born near Zanesville. Ohio, and when a young man learned the trade of a cabinet maker, which he subsequently followed for awhile in Goshen, Indiana. Ile afterwards operated a sawmill at Milford, Indiana, manufacturing lumber. Coming to Michigan in 1870, he, in partnership with Jonathan Sell. bought a hotel at South Iaven, and conducted it for about four years. Selling his share at the end of that time, he bought land in South Iaven township, where he was profitably employed in general farming for a number of years. Now, a venerable man of eighty-seven years, lie is living retired from active business at Grass Lake, lichigan. Joseph R. Ashbrook has been twice married. He married first Jlerusha Flagert, who \was born in Ohio, a daughter of Jacob Flagert, a blacksmith, who spent his last days in AIilford, Indiana, passing away at the age of four score years. She died in middle life, leaving five children, Charles W., Jonathan, Amanda, Joseph E. and Amos E. The father subsequently married for his second life Avis King, now deceased. Charles WT. Ashbrook acquired his early education in Indiana, attending the public schools of Milford and Goshen. After colming to Miichigan he was variously employed for awhile. eventually, beginning his independent career as a farmer on rented land. For fifteen years lie leased land in Columbia township, and in 1893 bought his present farm in section twenty-eight, Bloomingdale township. Industrious, energetic and a wise manager, Mr. Ashbrook has made improvements on his place of great value, and is here profitably engaged in general farming and dairying, each year reaping a good income from his harvests. Mr. Ashbrook married, in 1878, Alvina Baxter, wlho was born in Bloomingdale township, a daughter of Janmes Baxter. Mr. Baxter was born in 1798, in Washington county. Pennsylvania, where his father William Baxter, a native of the North of Ireland, settled just prior to his birth. HIe was brought up in his native state, and thus learned the trade of a distiller. After the death of his first wife he moved to Ohio, where he was for several years employed in the butchering business. Coming to Van Buren county, Michigan, with his family in 1850, Mr. Baxter was a pioneer of Bloomingdale township. Purchasing from the government a tract of timber land in section thirty, at one dollar and twenty five cents an acre, he erected a log house and began the improvement of a farm. The country throughout this section was then in its original

Page  894 894 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY wildness, and he had but three neighbors within reasonable distance from his clearing. Paw Paw was the nearest market and depot for supplies, and as there were no roads in this vicinity a trip there was somewhat of an undertaking. Ie cleared a large part of his land, and was just preparing to erect a frame house when, in 1872, his death occurred. Mr. Baxter was twice married, by his first wife having five children, Daniel, William, Catherine, Sarah and John. The maiden name of the second wife of Mr. Baxter was Mary Hull. She was born in Ohio, a daughter of Joseph and Catherine (Pyles) Hull, natives of Ohio. She died in 1898, leaving five children, namely: Mary Ann; Alvina, now Mrs. Ashbrook; Emily; Joseph; and James. Mr. and Mrs. Baxter have six children, named Mina, Sidney, James, Mabel, Irwin and Fern. Mina married George Confer and have two children, Ross and Hope. Sidney married Georgie Arnold. Mabel married Conrad Beach and they have two daughters, named Mona and Lucille. Mrs. Ashbrook is a charter member of Bloomingdale Lodge, No. 148, Order of the Eastern Star, and her son James is both a Mason and an Odd Fellow. (C11ARLES LINTON.-A prominent business man of the village of Blooiiingdale, Charles Linton holds a position of note in manufacturing and mercantile circles, and as proprietor of both the Bloomingdale and the Berlamont Creameries is an important factor in advancing the dairy interests of this section of Van Buren county. A son of Abel Kaye, he was born in Saint Croix county, Wisconsin, of English lineage, his birth occurring in 1869. BIorn in England, Abel Kaye was there brought up) and educated. Immigrating to America in early manhood, lie spent a few years in Minnesota, and then went to I)unn county. Wisconsin, where he bought land and was engaged in tilling the soil until 1900. Selling out in that year, he migrated to Ridgefield, Oregon, where he has since resided, being employed in general farming. Mir. Kaye married Eliza Wilson, who was born in New England, the birthplace, also, of her parents, who were among the pioneer settlers of Minnesota. She died in 1871, leaving four children, as follows: John, residing at Umatilla, Oregon; Nettie, wife of Charles N. Weber, of Ridgefield, Oregon; Charles L.; and MIaude, who died at the age of twenty years. But two years old when his mother died, Charles Kaye, as he was then called, was adopted by Francis M. and -Iannah (Adams) Linton, and was legally given their name. Mr. Linton was a native of Indiana and Mrs. Linton, of Ohio. They were engaged in farming for many years in Saint Croix county, Wisconsin, but are living in Minneapolis, retired from active pursuits. Charles Linton was given good educational advantages as a boy, and while assisting in the care of the Linton farm developed a taste for agriculture in all of its branches. Desirous of becoming proficient in the art of making butter and cheese, he entered the dairy department of the University of Wisconsin, at Madison, where he studied faithfully a few months. Locating then in Saint Clair, Minnesota. Mr. Linton worked in a creamery a year, obtaining a practical

Page  895 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY knowledge of his chosen work, after which he took another course of study at the University of Wisconsin, still further advancing his knowledge. Going then to Illinois, Mr. Linton operated a creamery in Shabbona for a year, after which lie had charge of the Polar Creamery in La Fayette, Indiana, for a year. Coming from there to Van Buren county, Michigan, Mr. linton operated the 1erlamont Creamery for nine years, and then purchased the plant. Three years later, having met with eminent success in his field of endeavor, he bought the cheese factory in Bloomingdale, converted it into a creamery, and has since operated both plants most successfully. Although he manufactures butter and cheese at both plants, his principal production is butter, for which he finds a ready market in Michigan, much of it being sold near home and the remainder in Detroit. Mr. Linton married, in 1893, Vielda Stafford. who was born in Berlamont, MIichigan, a daughter of Anson and I)iana (Curtis) Stafford. Mr. Linton is a well-known and valued member of both the Michigan I)airymen's Association and the National Creamery Butter Makers' Association. Fraternally lie belongs to Bloomingdale Lodge, No. 221. Ancient Free and Accepted Order of Masons, and to Bloomingdale Lodge, No. 161, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Mrs. Linton is a member of Blooiningdale Chapter. No. 158. Order of Eastern Star, and of Bonifoi Rebekah Lodge, No. 382. GEORGE B. CONNERY.-Noteworthy among the enterprising and successful agriculturists of Van Buren county is George B. Connery one of the leading farmers of Bloomingdale township and a fine representative of the native-born citizens of this county, his birth having occurred here December 1, 1866. His father, George W. Connery, was born in 1832 in Rutland. Vermont. a son of IIenry Connery, who was of Scotch-Irish ancestry. Learning the lacksinith's trade when young, Henry Connery followed it in Vermont for several years. In 1839 lie came with his family to Michigan, from Buffalo to Detroit coming by way of the Lake. Starting from Detroit with an ox team, he journeyed through the wilderness to Hudson, Lenawee county, where he was a pioneer settler, and there, it is said. built the second chimiiney put up in the village. After following his trade there for a time he bought a farm lying four miles south of the village, and was there engaged in tilling the soil until his death. To him and his wife eight children were born, five sons and three daughters. But seven years old when his parents settled in Lenawee county. George W. Connery was reared among pioneer scenes, and when old enough to work in the woods assisted in the pioneer labor of clearing a homestead. Succeeding to the occupation to which he was brought up, he came to Van Buren county in early manhood and bought from the government the south half of the northeast quarter of section five, in Pine Grove township. The country roundabout was then almost entirely in its pristine wildness, with here and there an opening in which the pioneer had reared his log cabin. He built a small log house, cleared a few acres of his purchase, and then sold out and bought the west half of the north

Page  896 896 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY east quarter of the same section, on which he made the first clearing. Improving a large part of his land, he resided there until 1880, when he disposed of his farm at an advantage and bought land in section seven, in the same township. Selling that a few years later, he bought a farm in section one, Bloomingdale township, and at the end of five years sold out, and for a time resided in Gobleville. Returning then to Pine Grove township, he purchased land and was there employed in tilling the soil until his death. The maiden name of the wife of George W. Connery was Cornelia Rockwell. She was born in Seneca county, Ohio, a daughter of Russell R. and Iannah (Foster) Rockwell. Her father came from Ohio to Michigan in pioneer days, making his way on foot through the dense woods from Paw Paw to Trowbridge township, Allegan county. Buying a tract of government land bordering on Bare Line Lake, he erected a log cabin, returned to Ohio for his family, and was afterwards engaged in farming on his newlypurchased land until his death. Mr. and Mrs. George W. Connery reared four children, as follows: Elmer, Luella, George B3. and Homer. Growing to manhood beneath the parental roof-tree, George B. Connery obtained his education in the district schools, and became acquainted with the many branches of agriculture while assisting his father on the home farm. In 1891 he located on the farm he now owns and occupies, and on which he has made practical and valuable improvements. It is pleasantly located in section one, Bloomingdale township, on the shores of Sweet Lake. By dint of industry, energy and good management MAr. Connery has converted his land from its primitive condition to a highly cultivated farm, with a good set of frame buildings, his property in its appointments and equipments ranking with the best in the vicinity. Mr. Connery married, in 1891, Florence Lucelia Sage, who was born in Bloomingdale township, a daughter of William Sage. Her grandfather, Patrick Sage, was born in county Limerick, Ireland, where his parents, William and Catherine (O'Brien) Sage, were life-long residents. Soon after his marriage Patrick Sage settled in county Clare, Ireland, and began farming on rented land. During the three years' famine in the forties he managed to support his family, but being unable to pay his rent was evicted. His wife in the meantime had died, leaving him with six little children. Placing these children under the care of their grandparents, he came to America to begin life anew. Landing in Boston, he worked as opportunity occurred for a time, and then went to New York state, where he was employed in laying stone on the Erie Canal, making his home in Manlius. As soon as he had acquired the means he sent for his children. In 1860 he came to Van Buren county, Michigan, bought land in section twenty-seven, Bloomingdale township, and having erected a log cabin in the wilderness began the improvement of a farm, on which he resided until his death, at the age of seventy-five years. Patrick Sage's wife, whose maiden name was Catherine Ryan, was born in county

Page  897 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 897 Clare, Ireland, a daughter of John Ryan, who served for twenty years in the British Army, and, having lost his sight in India, received a pension during the later years of his life. William Sage, Mrs. Connery's father, was but a boy when he joined his father in New York state. Coming to Van Buren county with the family, he subsequently bought a tract of land in section twenty-six, Bloomingdale township, where he was successfully engaged in farming for many years, but is now living retired from active pursuits in Paw Paw, Michigan. He married Sarah Gay, who was born in the state of New York, a daughter of George and Mary Gay, Mr. and Mrs. Connery usually attend the Methodist Episcopal church. Fraternally Mr. Connery formerly belonged to Bloomingdale Lodge, No. 221, Ancient Free and Accepted Order of Masons, but demitted from that and joined Gobleville Lodge, No. 393, of the same order. JACOB S. EASTMrAN.-Numbered among the active and well-to-do agriculturists of Van Buren county is Jacob S. Eastman, whose highly improved farm is located in Bloomingdale township. A native of Michigan, he was born October 2, 1844, in Cass county, where his father, John Eastman, was a pioneer settler. Born and bred in New England, John Eastman acquired a good education in his home town, and as a young man came to Michigan ere it had yet put on the garb of statehood, locating in Cass county. The greater part of the territory was then owned by the government and on sale at one dollar and twenty-five cents an acre. There were then no railways in this section of the country, and the dense forests were inhabited by wild animals and game of all kinds for many years after he came here. He rented land and carried on general farming with satisfactory results, in addition to managing his estate operating one of the first threshing machines introduced into this section of the state. On the farm which he improved he spent his remaining days, passing away in 1847. John Eastman married Maria Gilbert, who was born in New England and, like her husband, there received an academical education. Surviving him, she married for her second husband Hiram Richardson, of Cass county, and in 1863 removed with him to Allegan county, Michigan, and there spent her last years in Cheshire township. By her marriage with Mr. Eastman she reared six children, as follows: Alfred, Mary A., Rozene, Horace, Adelaide and Jacob. She had two children by her second marriage, but neither are now living. Two and one-half years old when his father's death occurred, Jacob S. Eastman lived with his mother until he was ten years old, when he became self-supporting, at first working for his board and clothing and winter schooling, having some winters to walk two and one-half miles to attend school. He began receiving wages after awhile, and in 1862 enlisted as a soldier, but on account of his youth was not accepted for service in the army. He was employed, however, by the government as a teamster, and in that capacity accompanied General Grant's division, being for a long

Page  898 898 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY time with the First Kansas and Eighth Missouri Regiments in Tennessee, Kentucky and Mississippi. Early in 1865 Mr. Eastman enlisted in Company B, Ninth Michigan Volunteer Infantry, and served in "Pap" Thomas' army, much of the time being at the General's headquarters. Being honorably discharged from the service in October, 1865, he returned to Michigan and entered the employ of D. A. Blodgett, a lumberman, working for awhile in the woods. In 1879 Mr. Eastman bought one hundred and eight acres of land in Bloomingdale township, in sections one and two. About twenty acres had been cleared and a log house and stable had thereon been erected. Assuming its possession, he began clearing the timber from the remainder of the tract, and since that time has carried on general farming with eminent success. As he accumulated money Mr. Eastman wisely invested it in other lands, buying first forty-eight acres adjoining his original purchase, and afterwards buying the fifty acres on which he now resides, his holdings now amounting to two hundred and six acres. on which he has made improvements of an excellent character. Mr. Eastman married, in 1872, Elizabeth Long. who was born in Summerville, Cass county, Michigan. a daughter of David Long and granddaughter of Jacob Long, whose father, Adam Long, and grandfather, John Long, were life-long residents of Virginia. Jacob Long was born in Virginia, November 20, 1791, and after his marriage with Elizabeth Keplinger moved to Reno, Indiana, whicli is still the home of some of his descendants. Born in Virginia, David Long removed to Michigan, locating in Summerville, Cass county, where he practiced medicine a number of years, being the pioneer physician of that part of the state, traveling on horseback to visit his numerous patients. On retiring from his profession, the Doctor purchased land in Calvin township, Cass county, and there resided until his death. Dr. Long married Sarah Russey, who was born in Indiana, February 20, 1826, and died April 14, 1883. Her father, William Russey, a son of James and Sarah Russey, was born December 12, 1785, and was married, October 14, 1806, to Mary Talbot, who was horn December 22, 1785, a daughter of Jacob and Susanna Talbot. Dr. David Long survived his wife some years, dying August 25, 1889. To him and his wife six children were born and reared, as follows: Mary Caroline, Winfield Taylor who died on the 9th of August, 1901; Ambrose Henley, Ann Elizabeth, Martha J. and Minnie Merritt. Mr. and Mrs. Eastman are the parents of three children, namely: Sarah Elma, who married Albert James, has one daughter, Frances James; Zelda Arrissa, wife of William Pullen and has one daughter named Violet Elizabeth; and Arba M., born in 1877, married Ethel Leach, and died in 1907, leaving five children, Mildred, Rblla, J. G., Emma and Charlie. Mr. Eastman is a member of Calvin Post, No. 59, Grand Army of the Republic. Religiously he was reared in the Swedenborgian faith, while Mrs. Eastman's mother was a Quaker and her father, a Presbyterian. HON. HARVEY H. HOWARD.-A venerable and highly esteemed resident of Bloomingdale village, Honorable Harvey H. Howard

Page  899 HISTORY OF VAN 1BUREN COUNTY 899 has been a resident of Van Buren county for upwards of three score years, during which time he has been actively identified with the advancement of the agricultural and industrial prosperity of his community and has established for himself a hne reputation as a thoroughly honest man and good citizen. Having as a farmer accomplished a most satisfactory work, he and his good wife are now living retired, enjoying to the utmost the fruits of their earlier years of toil. A son of Barnard M. Ioward, he was born September 6, 1825, in Sweden township, Monroe county, New York, of New England ancestry. His paternal grandfather, Rev. Timothy Howard, a native of Massachusetts, was educated for the ministry, and for many years was a Free Will Baptist preacher in Oneida county, New York, where his last years were spent. Barnard M. Howard was born in Oneida county, New York, in October, 1791. Migrating to Monroe county, New York, in early manhood, he passed through the now beautiful city of Rochester when its only only habitation was a log cabin, with no indication whatever of its present prosperity. Locating in Sweden township, he purchased a tract of timber land, and from the dense forest began the arduous task of redeeming a farm, his first work being to clear a space in which he might erect a log house. He met with good success in his labors, and in the course of a few years had a productive farm, while the little log cabin had been replaced by a frame house, and other frame buildings had been erected. On this homestead property he spent the remainder of his days, dying at the age of fifty-nine years. IIe married Nancy Hinkley, a daughter of Jonathan N. Hinkley, and she survived him, attaining the age of seventy-three years. She reared six children, as follows: Jonathan N., Henry AM., Zenas C., Mary, Harvey II. and Joseph P. Receiving a good common school education in his native county and being reared by a father who was well versed in agriculture, Tarvey H. Howard became familiar with all branches of that independent industry in his youthful days, and selected farming as his life occupation. In 1850, soon after his marriage, Mr. Howard came to Michigan on a prospecting tour, and being pleased with Van Buren county and its prospects bought a tract of timber land in section four, Bloomingdale township. Having erected a log cabin, he returned East for his wife, and with her came, by way of the Erie Canal and Lake Erie, to Detroit, thence by railway to the railroad terminus, Lawton, Michigan, and from there with a team to their home in Bloomingdale township, leaving Lawton early in the morning and not reaching their point of destination until after candle-light. The greater part of Michigan was then in its primitive wildness, much of the land being still owned by the government. The wild beasts of the forest had not then fled before the advancing steps of civilization, but roamed at will, and the few inhabitants of that vicinity lived in a primitive manner, possessing but few of the modern conveniences, their luxuries being now our necessities. Laboring with energy and resolution of purpose, Mr. Howard cleared and improved a fine and highly productive farm, on which he resided until 1902. In that

Page  900 900 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY year he and his wife moved into the village of Bloomingdale, where they have a pleasant and cheerful home and are enjoying life. MSr. Howard married, January 8, 1850, Sarah Cooley, who was born on the 10th of August, 1831, in a log cabin in Sweden township, Monroe county, New York, a daughter of James B. Cooley and granddaughter of Thomas and Eunice (Barrett) Cooley, pioneer settlers of Sweden township. James B. Cooley was but a child when his parents settled on a farm in Sweden township. He became a farmer from choice, and when ready to start in life for himself installed his bride in the log cabin in which their children were born, and which was located just across the road from the old Howard homestead. Mr. Cooley was subsequently there employed in tilling the soil until his death, at the comparatively early age of forty-six years. He married Adeline Fargo, who was born at German Flats, New York, and she died when but thirty-one years old. Mr. and Mrs. Howard have reared two children, namely: Clara and Edward M. Clara is the wife of Davis Haven, and has two children, Mabel and Lois. Edward MI. married Carrie A. Church, and they have three children, Oren Harvey, Edward iM. and Neta. Mirs. H. H. Howard is a member of the Baptist church, of which her husband is an attendant and a liberal supporter. A Whig in politics during his early life, Mr. Howard cast his first presidential vote for Zachary Taylor. Since the formation of the Republican party, however, he has been one of its most loyal supporters, and has served his fellow-citizens in various official capacities. IIe assisted in organizing the first school district on the base line in Bloomingdale township and served as moderator at the meetings and also served as a school director. Ile served. two terms as justice of the peace, nine terms as a member of the County Board of Supervisors and has been a member of the Board of Review since the board was established, being a member at the present time. He has been twice elected as a representative to the State Legislature, and had the honor of voting for Thomas A. Palmer for United States senator. Fraternally he has been a member of Bloomingdale Lodge, No. 221, Ancient Free and Accepted Order of Masons, since 1871, and of Bloomingdale Lodge, No. 161, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, since 1872. Mr. Howard and his'brothers were natural musicians, and before leaving New York state played in the local band, and after coming to Bloomingdale township Mr. Howard was a member of the first band organized in this part of Van Buren county. Mr. Howard also, with his brothers Zenas C. and Joseph P., built the railroad station at Bloomingdale and presented it to the railroad company. EDWARD A. HAVEN.-Widely known throughout Van Buren county in connection with his business associations, Edward A. Haven, of Bloomingdale village, manager of the Bloomingdale Produce and Lumber Company, was for several years the state food inspector and instructor in cheese making at the State Agricultural College. A son of Augustus Haven, he was born in Bloomingdale township, August 3, 1862. He comes of excellent New

Page  901 ItISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 901 England stock his grandfather, Davis Haven, a native of Vermont, having been the son of Elisha Haven, who was a descendant in the seventh generation from Richard and Susanna Haven, who immigrated from the west of England to America in 1640. Elisha Haven, who was a blacksmith, followed his trade at Shoreham, Vermont, until 1820, when he removed with his family to Portage county, Ohio, making the long and tedious journey through the wilderness with teams. One of the early settlers of Shalerville, Portage county, he continued his residence there until his death, at the venerable age of eighty-two years. His wife, whose maiden name was Molly Goodell, was born in Vermont, and died in Shalerville, Ohio, when upwards of four score years old. She reared eight children, four sons and four daughters. Davis Haven was thirteen years old when his parents moved from Vermont to Ohio. On attaining his majority he bought forty acres of timber land in Shalerville township, and in the space which he cleared built the log cabin in which his older children were born. He improved the land, erected a good set of buildings, and lived there until 1865. Selling out in that year, he came to Michigan, locating in Genesee county, where he purchased two hundred and forty acres of land, on which he was successfully engaged as a tiller of the soil until his death, in 1869. The maiden name of his first wife, MNr. Iaven's grandmother, was Julia Adams. She was born in Ohio, a daughter of Augustus and,1ary (IIine) Adams, natives of Connecticut and pioneer settlers of Portage county, Ohio. She died at the early age of thirtyseven years, leaving five children, namely: Mary, Augustus. Cynthia, Martha and Warren. Augustus Haven was born in Portage county, Ohio, and there acquired an excellent education. IIe began his career as a teacher at the age of eighteen years, and taught three terms in Ohio. In 1854 he came to Van Buren county, Michigan, traveling by rail to Lawton, then by stage to Paw Paw, from there footing it through the intervening woods to Bloomingdale township. Securing forty acres of government land in section eighteen, he was also fortunate enough to buy eighty acres in the same section from a settler, who had cleared five acres of his tract and had put up a log cabin. Beginning at once to clear his land, he rolled together huge piles of logs that would now be of great value and burned them, that being the only way to dispose of them. While living in Ohio he had learned the manufacture of dairy products, and after a few years engaged in the making of cheese in addition to general farming. He improved his land, erected good buildings, and lived there until 1866, when he sold out and bought the farm in section seventeen, Bloomingdale township, where he has since resided. He married, in 1854, Emily McLellan, who was born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, a daughter of Henry and Melissa McLellan, natives of Pennsylvania and of Scotch ancestry. She died in 1907. Having completed the course of study in the public schools, Edward A. Haven attended the State Agricultural School and at the age of nineteen began teaching school. While young he assisted his father in the making of cheese, working in the factory, Vol. II-18

Page  902 902 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY and after his return from College he was engaged in the manufacture of cheese during the summer months and teaching in winter. Going to Oregon in 1886, he taught school in Rosebury two years, and then returned to Michigan and farmed until 1895. IIe then bought the Bloomingdale Cheese factory which he conducted until 1905, then selling the factory to Charles Linton, who converted it into a creamery, one of the leading industries of the village. In 1905 Mr. Haven was elected state food inspector and served continuously until 1910, at the same time being instructor of cheese making at the State Agricultural College. In 1910 he accepted his present position as manager of the Bloomingdale Produce and lumber Company, and is filling it ably and satisfactorily. Mr. Haven married in 1892 Myrtle L. Edwards, who was born in Cheshire township, Allegan county, a daughter of James and Mary (Galusha) Edwards, the former of whom was a native of England, while her mother was born and reared in New York state. Mr. and Mrs. Haven have one daughter, Iris. One of the leading Republicans of his community, Mr. Haven has served as chairman of the Republican County Committee, and is a member of the local school board, of the village council and vice president of the Commercial Club. DR. OEL E. LANPHEAR.-The science and art of dental surgery is one of the most progressive in the whole range of human activity, and requires an alert, studious and enterprising man to keep up with it in its rapid advances. Every month brings some new discovery or invention in connection with it, designed to improve its methods, secure better results from its work, or aid in lessening the horrors of its chair torture. To say, then, that a practitioner of dentistry is up-to-date is to give him credit for wide knowledge and great skill in connection with his profession, and stamp him as a man who keeps pace with a rapid current of evolution and development. Dr. O. E. Lanphear, of Paw Paw, one of the leading dentists in this part of Michigan, is entitled to full recognition and credit as such a man. He is diligently studious of his profession in all its branches, and keeps himself abreast of its most advanced thought and discoveries. And in his practice he gives his patrons the full benefit of his knowledge and the skill he has acquired in his grade work. He is genial and companionable, too, and by his manner of receiving and treating them, aids greatly in quieting apprehension and stimulating courage in his patients, and thus secures their cooperation in what he has to do for them. Dr. Lanphear is a native of Van Buren county, his life having begun at Lawrence on June 25, 1876. He is a son of Orin P. and Josephine I. (Dolson) Lanphear, the former a native of Watertown, Jefferson county, New York, born on December 20, 1847, and the latter of Michigan, born on August 10, 1852. 0. P. Lanphear spent his early days with his parents on a farm and enlisted in the One Hundred and Eight-sixth New York Infantry at the age of sixteen, and served until the close of the Civil war.

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Page  903 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 903 IHe served mostly in Virginia, in the army of the Potomac. His regiment was present at the surrender of General Lee and from there he went to Washington to take part in the Grand Review. He was mustered out, and went to Sackett's Harbor, New York, where he was discharged, thence home, and spent two years with his folks. He moved to Michigan with his father and mother and was engaged in farming for several years. Then he returned to the state of his nativity and served an apprenticeship to the all mason's trade, becoming a mason contractor. As cement came to the front rank in the building trades, he carried on the business of cement contractor, supplying the cement and supervising the building of cement foundations and other similar work. He is now living retired on a farm in Lawrence. Of the six children born of their union five are living: 0. E., the subject of this sketch; Jennie, the wife of Fred Carroll, of this county; Charles R., a resident of Paw Paw; J. E., who lives in Lawrence; and HIoward, who is still at home with his parents. Orin, the second of the six in the order of birth, died at the age of two years. Dr. O. E. Lanphear was graduated from the Lawrence high school in 1895, and then taught school on the Paw Paw township line for one year. At the end of that period he entered the dental department of the State University at Ann Arbor, where he pursued a full course of instruction and practice in dental surgery, and was graduated in 1901, after passing three years in the institution, which he entered in 1898. He came at once to Paw Paw from the University and opened an office for the practice of his profession. In this he has been actively engaged with a rapidly growing patronage and extending reputation ever since, winning high regard among the people by the excellence of his professional work and his enterprising, up-todate methods, his office being one of the most thoroughly equipped with the latest appliances for the practice of dental surgery in the state of Michigan. In addition to his profession as a doctor of dental surgery he has also taken a special course in anesthesia, and to this he has given considerable time and study and is regarded as an authority on this subject. Along these lines he has gone very thoroughly into the properties and administration of the newest anesthetic now before the public, known as Somno form and has the only complete equipment for its administration, in combination with other anesthetics, in Van Buren county, and in this respect has been very successful. The doctor was married on June 25, 1902, to Miss Mamie L. Gould, a daughter of Otis and Elizabeth (Maxwell) Gould, who have three children, all daughters. Dr. and Mrs. Lanphear have two children: Marvel G., who was born on September 21, 1905, and Loel G., whose life began on July 22, 1908. The doctor is a Republican in politics and in fraternal circles belongs to the Masonic order and the Knights of Pythias. His religious connection is with the Congregational church. He takes a great interest in the welfare of his church and the affairs of each of his fra

Page  904 904 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY ternities, as he does in everything that is promotive of the betterment of the people around him and the progress and developinent of the region in which they live. He ardently desires the best that can be attained for Paw Paw and Van Buren county, and shows it in the most practical manner on all occasions and in every way open to his helpful and stimulating efforts. THOMAS HARVEY RANSOM, 'I. D. —Engaged in the practice of one of the more important of the various professions and pursuits to which men devote their time and energies, Thomas Harvey Ransom, 1M. D., of Bloomingdale, has acquired prominence not only in the medical circles of Van Buren county, but in the business and social life of his community. A son of William Clark Ransom, M. D., he was born in Grant county, Indiana, of Revolutionary stock, his great-grandfather, James Ransome, a resident of Union county, Pennsylvania, having served as a soldier in the Revolutionary war. The Doctor's paternal grandfather, James Ransom, Jr., was born in Union county, Pennsylvania, in 1809, coming from thrifty Scotch ancestry. After learning the blacksmith trade he moved to Ohio and lived in Belmont and Guernsey counties until 1836. In that year, following the trend of migration westward, he made an overland journey to Indiana, going into the interior as far as Blackford county, being forced to cut his way through the heavy timber the last five miles of his trip. Settling in the wilderness, five miles from the nearest neighbor, he bought a tract of land, and in the opening which he made in the forest erected the typical pioneer log cabin, which was the first home of the family. Working with indomitable perseverance, lie improved a good homestead, and was there engaged in tilling the soil until his death, in 1862. His wife, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Anderson, was born near Baltimore, Maryland, and died, in 1873. Twelve of their children grew to years of maturity and married. Three of the sons became physicians, two of them became prosperous nerchants and one was a contractor and builder. William Clark Ransom, M. 1)., was born in Belmont county, Ohio, December 6, 1828, and in boyhood accompanied his parents to Blackford county, Indiana, where, amid pioneer scenes, he grew to man's estate. For a year after attaining his majority he worked for a neighboring stockman. Not content, however, to spend his life in rural occupations, he started in 1850 for California, visiting on the way New Orleans, Mexico, Cuba and the Sandwich Islands. At the end of nine months he landed at San Francisco, without a penny to his name. The ensuing year he worked on a ranch, receiving one hundred and twenty-five dollars a month wages. He then took up a tract of land that is now included within the limits of the city of San Jose. but soon sold his claim for six thousand dollars, and put the money in a bank that soon after failed. During the time he earned one thousand five hundred dollars mining, and loaned the entire sum to a merchant who, likewise, failed a few months later. Before leaving home, William Clark Ransom had paid some

Page  905 HISTORY OF VAN Bl7REN COUNTY 905 attention to the study of medicine, and when starting westward had taken his books with him, and had spent his leisure time in advancing his professional knowledge. Giving up mining, therefore, he became an interne in a private hospital in Sacramento, where he remained two years. Then, accompanying a surgeon general of a company of militia, he went to northern California and Oregon to care for the sick soldiers. Four years later he was stationed in a like capacity on an Indian reservation in 1 el Norte county, California, where he continued for a time. In 1864, purchasing four hundred dollars worth of drugs, lie went to the island of Otaheite, in the South Pacific ocean, making the passage on an American built schooner. There disposing of his drugs, he visited China, after which he returned, on a man-of-war, to Otaheite Island, locating in the village of Papieti, where he was for awhile employed in caring for the sick whalers that landed there. I-e afterwards visited the Fiji Islands, New Zealand and Australia, from the latter place going to South America on March 6, 1865, and landing in Valparaiso. Chili, where he subsequently learned of the assassination of President Lincoln. From there he sailed to Calloa, Peru, thence to Quito, Ecuador, where he sailed for New York, coming home by way of the Isthmus of Panama, arriving at -Iartford, Indiana, in the fall of 1865. After practicing medicine in Iartford, Indiana. for a year or more, Dr. William C. Ransom further pursued his studies at the Cleveland Medical College, and in 1870 was graduated from the Indiana Medical College. Removing to South Haven, Michigan, in 1881, he engaged in the practice of his profession, and also became an important factor in advancing the mercantile and industrial interests of the place, becoming a member of the clothing firm of Hemnsted Brothers & Ransom, and an extensive real estate dealer. A man of rare enterprise and judgment, he embarked in an entirely new venture in 1884, building a boat which he located with produce and took down the Mississippi river to New Orleans, where he sold both the boat and its cargo. He subsequently built three other boats for the same purpose, and was likewise engaged in lake transportation, building the "Harvey Ransom," and other good boats that plied Lake Michigan. Going to the extreme Northwest in 1893, he explored Oregon, Washington and Alaska, and is now a resident of Klamath, Oregon. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and has passed all of the chairs of the subordinate lodge and of the Encampment. His wife, whose maiden name was Mary Emily Hodson, was born in Grant county, Indiana, November 22, 1848, a daughter of Samuel and Phebe Hodson. The only child of his parents, Thomas Harvey Ransom received his preliminary education in the common schools, and after his graduation from the South Iaven high school began the study of medicine. He attended the University of Michigan, and was graduated fromthe Central College of Physicians and Surgeons, at Indianapolis, Indiana, and later took post graduate courses in Philadelphia and Chicago. Beginning the practice of his profession at South Haven, Michigan, Dr. Ransom remained there a

Page  906 906 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY year, and then settled in Lacota, Van Buren county. While in college, Dr. Ransom was active in base ball matters, and after practicing medicine in Lacota for a year entered the base ball field as a professional and played two seasons with his team. Coming then to Bloomingdale, the Doctor has practiced here since, and is now recognized as one of the leading physicians and surgeons of this part of the county. In 1901 the Doctor was united in marriage with Nellie Pearl Wiggins, who was born in Bloomingdale, a daughter of Honorable Milan D. and Maria F. (Hubbard) Wiggins, of whom a brief sketch appears elsewhere in this work. Three children have been born to Dr. and Mrs. Ransom, namely: Theone, Ruth and Milan Wiggins. The Doctor is a man of excellent business ability, and is interested in the Bloomingdale Milling Company. He is a member of the Kalamazoo, the Van Buren County and the Michigan State Medical Societies, and of the American Medical Association. A steadfast Republican in politics, he cast his first presidential vote, in 1892, for Benjamin Harrison. Although not an office seeker, he served six years as president of the local school board, and in 1910 and 1911 was elected mayor of Bloomingdale, the highest municipal office within the gift of his fellow-citizens. Fraternally Dr. Ransom is a member of Bloomingdale Lodge No. 221, Ancient Free and Accepted Order of Masons; of Paw Paw Chapter, Royal Arch Masons; and of Bloomingdale Lodge, No. 161, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, at the present writing being chairman of the committee on by-laws of the Grand Chapter. Both he and his wife are members of the Christian church. MARLIN LEE WILMOT.-Prominent among the energetic and able agriculturists who have been actively associated with the advancement of the farming interests of Van Buren county is Marlin Lee Wilmot, who is profitably engaged in his chosen vocation on the paternal homestead in Bloomingdale township, managing it with ability and success. He was born March 19, 1863, in Eaton town. ship, Lorain county, Ohio, which was also the birthplace of his father, Albert Wilmot. Silas Wilmot, his grandfather, was born in Connecticut, and was there brought up and educated. At the age of twenty years he married Chloe Tyler, one of his early school-mates, and very soon afterward started for the then far West to seek a home. He was accompanied on his trip by a friend, Ira Morgan, with whom he made his way on foot to the wilds of Lorain county, Ohio, each carrying in addition to their other baggage an axe. Spending their first night in Lorain county under the spreading branches of a maple tree, they slept soundly. After prospecting awhile, Silas Wilmot bought a tract of land on Butternut Ridge, in Eaton township, and having erected a log house was soon joined by his young wife, who made the journey from her New England home with another party of pioneers. All of that section of the country was then in its primeval wildness, Cleveland being a mere hamlet, with the land now included within its city limits for sale at one dollar and twenty-five cents an acre. The wild beasts of the forest had

Page  907 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 907 not then fled before the advancing steps of civilization, but, with the dusky savage, habited the vast wilderness. Clearing and improving a good farm, he resided on it until his death, at the age of sixty-five years. His wife, who died when but forty-five years old, was the mother of fourteen children, all of whom grew to years of maturity, eleven of them marrying and rearing families. Born April 24, 1829, Albert Wilmot attended the pioneer schools of Eaton township in his native county, and subsequently began the study of medicine preparatory to entering upon a professional career. On account of the ill health of his father, however, he relinquished his studies, returned home, and had the charge of the parental acres until 1865. Disposing then of his share of the home farm, he migrated to Michigan, and having located in Van Buren county purchased timbered land in section two, Bloomingdale township. Five acres of the land had been previously cleared, and a board house stood upon the place. Continuing the improvements already inaugurated, he placed much of the land under cultivation, erected a good set of frame buildings, the house overlooking Duck Lake, and carried on farming successfully for many years. Here, having accomplished a satisfactory work, he is now living retired, enjoying all the comforts of modern life. Albert Wilmot married, in 1857, Sarah A. Lee, who was born in Newfield, Tompkins county, New York, June 13, 1832, a daughter of George W. Lee. Her grandfather, Solomon Lee, was born in the same locality, of English ancestry, and spent his entire life in or near Fishkill. In 1845 George W. Lee removed fron Tompkins county, New York, to Whitley county, Indiana, where, but a year later, his death occurred. Iis wife, whose maiden name was Hannah Wooden, was born in Fishkill, New York, and died in Whitley county, Indiana, on the very same day of his demise. leaving four children, as follows: Marena, John Emery, Esther and Sarah A. Mr. and Mrs. Albert Wilmot reared two children, Marlin Lee, the special subject of this sketch, and Elma, who died at the age of nineteen years. But two years old when brought by his parents to Bloomingdale township, Marlin Lee Wilmot obtained his education in the rural schools of his district, and from his earliest years assisted on the farm. Since the failure of his father's health, Mr. Wilmot has devoted his entire time and energy to the management of the homestead property, continuing each year to add improvements of value. The land is now under a high state of cultivation, while the buildings rank with the best in the neighborhood, the estate, which is picturesquely located on an elevation overlooking Duck Lake, being one of the most attractive and desirable in the township. In 1894 Mr. Wilmot was united in marriage with Edna M. Merriam, who was born in Trowbridge township, Allegan county, Michigan, and is of stanch New England stock, her father, George O. Merriam, having been a native of Vermont, while her mother, whose maiden name was Helen Minckler, was born on the Isle of La Motte, in Lake Champlain. Mr. and Mrs. Wilmot have one daughter, Helen Sarah Wilmot. Fraternally Mr. Wilmot is a

Page  908 908 HI-STORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY member of Woodmen Grange, No. 610, Patrons pf Husbandry; and of Gobleville Lodge, No. 393, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. CHARLES J. ANDERSON..-Many of the more enterprising and thrifty agriculturists of our country were born across the sea, prominent among the number being Charles J. Anderson, of Bloomingdale, Van Buren county, whose birth occurred January 16, 1864, in Westervik, province of Smaland. His father, Andrew J. Anderson, a farmer in Sweden, where he has spent his entire life, reared two sons and three daughters, all of whom, with the exception of his son Charles, still reside in their native land, his other son, Gustav Emil, being engaged in farming in Sinaland. Leaving school at the age of fifteen years, Charles J. Anderson worked on the home farm until 1884, when he entered the merchant marine service, sailing for eight months on an English vessel and for seven months on a German vessel, during which time he visited all of the important sea ports of Europe. Immigrating to America, the land of promise, in 1887, Mr. Anderson was variously occupied for a time, finally becoming an entry clerk for the widely known firm of Hibbard, Spencer & Bartlett, of Chicago, Illinois, in whose employ he continued for ten years. Resigning his position, he then visited his parents and friends, remnaining in Sweden ten months. Returning to Chicago, Mr. Anderson was there employed as a watchman for nearly a year and a half. Coming from there to Van Buren county, Michigan, he bought an estate in Bloomingdale township, where he has since been profitably engaged in general farming and poultry raising. Mr. Anderson married, in 1891, Augusta Olev, who was born in Sweden, where her parents were life-long residents, she and three of her sisters being the only members of the family to come to America. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson have one child, Lillie Augusta. Religiously they were reared in the Lutheran faith. THEODORE W. VALLEAU.-A venerable and highly respected citizen of Bloomingdale township, Van Buren county, Theodore W. Valleau is an honored representative of the early pioneers of this section of our beautiful country, and a true type of the energetic, hardy and enterprising men who have actively assisted in the development of this fertile and productive agricultural region. In the days of his boyhood the wild beasts of the forest had not fled before the advancing march of the sturdy pioneer, and not a building had then been erected on the sites of the present villages of Bloomingdale and Gobleville, the country roundabout having been an almost impenetrable wilderness. Mr. Valleau began life for himself without other means than his natural endowments of energy, perseverance and resolution of purpose, but by his wise management, sagacity and keen foresight he has overcome all obstacles and has been able to accumulate a considerable fortune, his success in life being entirely due to his own efforts. A son of Peter Valleau, he was born October 27, 1823, in Monroe county, New York. His grandfather, Theodore Valleau, was born in the Em

Page  909 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 909 pire state, of French Huguenot ancestry, where his father, who served as a soldier in the Revolutionary war, settled on coming from France to this country. Born in or near Poughkeepsie, New York, Theodore Valleau moved in early manhood to Cayuga county, and subsequently resided a few years in Monroe county New York. Going from there to Ohio, he spent the remainder of his life in the vicinity of Cleveland. He was twice married, and was the father of eighteen children. Peter Valleau was born in Cayuga county, New York, and was a young man when he accompanied the family to Monroe county. Among the early pioneers of that county, he subsequently bought a tract of timbered land in Wheatland, on the Genesee river, and on the farm which he improved lived until 1843. In that year, with his wife and nine children, he started for Mlichigan, going by team to Buffalo, thence by lake to Detroit, and from there by rail to Marshall, the railroad terminus, the remainder of the journey to Waverly township, Van Buren county, their point of destination, being p)erformed with teans. lie purchased from tile government eighty acres of land, paying one dollar and twenty-five cents an acre, and with his pioneer's axe began tle clearing and improvemient of a homestead, his first work having been the erection of a log cabin. At the end of two months he bought a tract of land in what is now section thirteen, Bloomingdale township, and settled in the wilderness, his nearest neighbor being three miles away. He built a log house on his new claim, making the chimney of earth and sticks and there lived in a most primitive style for several years, subsisting principally upon the game of the forest and the productions of the soil, the mother doing her cooking in the fireplace and dressing the family in homespun materials. Soon after his arrival new settlers came into the county, prominent among the number being Orlando Newcomb, Eben Armstrong, Ira Nash, Daniel Robinson and the Thayer, Brown and Meyers families. Soon a schoolhouse was erected on the present site of the village of Gobleville, it being the first building of that place. Peter Valleau cleared a good farm, but was subsequently unfortunate and lost his property..He spent his later years of his life in Waverly township, on a place belonging to his son, Theodore W. Valleau, the subject of this sketch, dying there at the age of seventyfour years. Peter Valleau married Samantha Pike, who was born in Vermont, a daughter of Erastus Pike, who was a native of the same state and a pioneer settler of Monroe county, New York. She died at the home of her son Theodore at the advanced age of four score and four years. She was the mother of eleven children, of whom nine grew to years of maturity, as follows: Theodore W., Andrew, Susan, Norman, Freeman, William. Adeline, Phebe and Caroline. Theodore W., the first born, is the only survivor of this large family. Theodore W. Valleau acquired his early education in Wheatland, Monroe county, New York, and with his parents came to Michigan to seek his fortune. Beginning life for himself even with the

Page  910 910 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY world, he worked at anything he could find to do, when wages were high receiving fifty cents a day for his labor, as a boy, however, being glad to get his board and clothing. Prior to his marriage he was exceedingly anxious to become a landholder, and found a tract of land containing twenty acres, in Waverly township, that he could have for the modest sum of two dollars and fifty cents an acre, but he had no money with which to make the purchase, and the owner needed the cash, but also wanted a cow. Mr. Valleau, therefore, bought a cow, giving his note for the animal, gave the cow for the land, and then earned the money to redeem his note. He soon built a small log house on his newly-acquired purchase, and was ready to receive his bride, but having no money to pay the justice of the peace for performing the marriage ceremony he made arrangements with the justice to pay him by working for him at logging for two days. This recalls another instance of a similar nature, when Andrew Impson, of Almena township, this county, one of the first to be married in this vicinity, gave Almon Colby, the justice of the peace, one thousand shingles to perform the marriage ceremony, he and his bride-to-be going to Mr. Colby's house in a cart drawn by a pair of oxen. For a number of years after taking unto himself a wife, Mr. Valleau took contracts to build roads and bridges, devoting his leisure time to the clearing of his land. In 1888 he moved from Waverly township to Pine Grove township, and there lived for two years on the large farm that he owned, and on which he made substantial improvements. Coming to Bloomingdale township in 1890, he purchased what was then known as the Beddo farm, and is now living here retired from active business, enjoying the fruits of his earlier years of judicious toil. A man of rare discrimination and ability, Mr. Valleau has acquired large property interests, at one time having owned upwards of eleven hundred acres of choice land, and has assisted each of his children to homes of their own. Mr. Valleau has been twice married. He married first, at the age of twenty-four years, Mary B. Luddington, who was born in Ashtabula county, Ohio, a daughter of Archibald and Abby (Matterson) Luddington, natives of either New York state or Pennsylvania, and pioneer settlers of Portage township, Kalamazoo county, Michigan. She died in 1865, leaving six children, namely: Alice, Eber, Harmon, Merlain, Mina and Archie. Alice married James Scoville and has seven children, Archie, Roy, Robert, Myrtle, Marion, Benjamin T., and Earl. Eber died at the age of forty years. Harmon married first Alma Phillips, who bore him three children, Harley, Lulu and Gladys, and married (second) Maria Scoville, by whom he has three children also, Donald, Jack and Allie. Merlain, who married Stella Hanawald, has nine children, Erwin, Russell, Merle, Lawrence, Esther, Emilleo, Law, Antha and Asal B. Mina, wife of Clarence Brown, has six children, Effie, Ruby, Maude, Milton, Alice and Clare. Archie married Mary Bell, and they have two children, Ethel and George. Mr. Valleau married for his second wife Mrs. Mary A. (Skinner) Snell, who was born in Hastings, Oswego county, New York, of New England ancestry. Her father, Zeri Skinner, who was born

Page  911 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 911 and bred in Vermont, removed to New York state when eighteen years of age, and after living for awhile in Oswego county went to Hard Scrabble, in Onondaga county, and from there to Baldwinsville, New York. In 1847 Mr. Skinner came with his family to Michigan, and was one of the earlier settlers of Waverly township, Van Buren county, where he cleared and improved eighty acres of land, on which he resided until his death, at the age of sixty-six years. Mr. Skinner married ilary Cornell, who was born in Vermont, a daughter of Nathaniel and Sarah (Coffin) Cornell, natives of New England. She died at the age of sixtyfive years, having reared nine children, as follows: Cornelia; Christopher; Joseph; Hiram; Mary A., now Mrs. Valleau; Irving; James; Hezekiah; and Nancy. At the age of nineteen years Mary A. Skinner became the bride of Theodore W. Snell, who was born in the Mohawk valley, New York, a son of Jacob I. and Gertrude (Fox) Snell. Jacob I. Snell, accompanied by his family, migrated from New York to Illinois, from there coming to Van Buren county, Michigan, where he spent his closing years of life. Theodore W. Snell learned the trade of a harness maker when young, and followed it successfully for several years. In 1861 he enlisted in Company K, Second Michigan Volunteer Infantry, which became a part of the Army of the Potomac. He was at the front in many battles of note, and in 1864 was captured by the enemy. He was subsequently exchanged, and being very ill at the time of his exchange died on board the vessel while en route to Fortress Monroe. He left his widow with a family of four children to care for, namely: Lillie B., Milton Eugene, Isadore and Archie Theodore. Lillie B. Snell married Alfred Kinciad, and six children, Gertrude, Grace, Ernest, Lillian, Marion and Hobart. Milton E. Snell married Martha Smith, and they are the parents of seven children, Mabel, Earl, Marvin, Harold and Herbert, twins, Wendell and Lillian. Isadore Snell is the wife of Milton J. Sherrod, and has two children, Glen and Paul. Archie T. Snell married Rose Dunham, and they have five children, Neil, Beulah, Breta, Shirley and Beryl. Mr. and Mrs. Valleau have one child, Rose M., who married David E. Rich, and has three children. Mollie, Florence and Bernard. JAMES VAN HORN.-An enterprising, intelligent and able agriculturist, James Van Horn is prosperously engaged in his independent vocation on one of the many pleasant and desirable farms in Bloomingdale township, to the improvements and value of which he is constantly adding. A son of John Van Horn, he was born August 12, 1872, near Hartford, Blackford county, Indiana. Jere Van Horn, his paternal grandfather, was born, it is thought, in Ohio, and was of pure Holland ancestry. Removing from Ohio to Indiana, he bought wild land in Blackford county, erected a log house and barn, tilled a sufficient number of acres to make a living for himself and family, and was there a resident during the remainder of his life. Born and reared in Ohio, John Van Horn went with the family

Page  912 912 IIISTORY OF VAN B1JREN COUNTY to Blackford county, Indiana, and subsequently bought land lying six miles north of Hartford. He cleared and improved a part of the tract, and lived there several years. Then impelled by the restless American spirit characteristic of the early pioneers, he came to Michigan, and having purchased eighty acres of land in Osceola county was there employed as a tiller of the soil until 1892. Removing in that year to Bloomingdale township, Van Buren county, he purchased a home, and lived here until his death, in 1908. IIe married first Ardella Townsend, a native of Blackford county, Indiana. She died in 1875, leaving six children, as follows: George, Clem, Mary, John, James and Charles. After the death of his first wife he subsequently married Mary Gathrup. During the days of his boyhood and youth James Van Horn attended the public schools and assisted in the lighter work of the home farm. He was early trained to habits of industry and thrift, and while yet a young lad worked out by the month, thereby earning the money to make a payment on a tract of land. He first purchased seventy acres in Bloomingdale township, and after occupying it five years bought the farm where he now resides. It is pleasantly located in section three, and contains one hundred and sixty acres. Mr. Van Horn has shown excellent judgment in improving his property, having cleared and drained portions of it, and having repaired and enlarged the buildings, his place in point of improvements and equipments ranking with the best in the vicinity. IIe pays especial attention to dairying, an industry which he finds profitable, having his farm well stocked with high graded Holstein cattle. Mr. Van Horn married August 12, 1894, Blanche Haven, who was born in Bloomingdale township, a daughter of Augustus and Emily Iaven, of whom a brief account may be found elsewhere in this volume, in connection with the sketch of E. A. Haven. Mr. and Mrs. Van Iorn are the parents of six children, namely: Vena. Clare, Herbert, Veta, Emily and George. Fraternally Mr. Van Horn is a member of Bloomingdale Lodge, No. 161, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. BENJAMIN S. MUNN.-A well-known and respected citizen of Bloomingdale township, and one of its progressive and prosperous farmers, Benjamin S. Munn is of pioneer descent, being a son of the late Matthew A. Munn, who dauntlessly pushed his way into an uncultivated country and has left behind him a record for steadiness of purpose and persistent industry of which his children may well be proud. IIe was born on the homestead where he now resides, April 9, 1865, coming on both sides of the house of honored New England ancestry. His paternal grandfather, Obadiah Munn, was born in Massachusetts, the ancestral homestead in which he first opened his eyes to the light of this world having bordered in the Connecticut river. As a young man he followed the trail of the emigrant to New York state, and a few years later pushed his way onward to Ohio, journeying by team to Buffalo, thence by boat to Cleveland. Locating in Cuyahoga county, he bought a tract of unbroken land, and on

Page  913 ItSTORY OF VAN BUIREN COUINTY' 913 the farm which he improved lie and his wife, whose maiden name was Mary Adgate, spent the remainder of their lives. Matthew A. Munn was born, in 1825, in Painesville, Ohio, and was brought up on the home farm. When nineteen years of age he went to Boston, Massachusetts, where he remained six years, serving an apprenticeship at the stone cutter's trade. Returning then to Ohio, he continued at his trade until 1853, when he, too, followed the march of civilization westward, becoming one of the early settlers of Bloomingdale township, Van Buren county, Michigan. Purchasing a tract of land in section ten, he built a log cabin in the forest and began to clear a farm, for a few years thereafter working at his trade in connection with farming. Subsequently devoting his entire time to the cultivation of his land, he improved a fine homestead, on which he lived until his death, February 27, 1909, an honored and highly esteemed member of his community. The maiden name of the wife of Matthew A. Mlunn was Rachel Healy. She was born and bred in Cuyahoga county, Ohio, coming from substantial New England stock. Her father, Jeremiah Spaulding Healy, was born in Vermont, among the rugged hills of the Green mountains. He subsequently migrated to Saint Lawrence county, New York, where he married, and afterwards moved with his family to Ohio. IIe bought a tract of wild land in Eaton township, Lorain county, and having no sawed lumber split by hand puncheon for the floor of the log cabin which he erected as a shelter for himself and family, when it was completed sending for his wife and children to join him. About 1841 his wife died, and ten years later he married again, and settled on a farm adjoining his.first purchase. Coming to Van luren county, Michigan, in 1853, he bought a tract of timbered land in Bloomingdale township, where he first built a rude shack and later a substantial log house, in which he resided until his death, in 1865. The maiden name of the first wife of Mr. Healy was Polly Fields. She was born in Saint Lawrence county, New York, and at her death left nine children, one of them being Rachel, who became the wife of Matthew A. MIunn. She died on the home farm in Bloomningdale township, February 10, 1895, leaving eight children, as follows: Horatio; Harriet; Orren; Edgar; Jane; Alvin; Benjamin S.. the special subject of this brief sketch; and Julius. Acquiring his education in the district schools. Benjamin S. Munn was well drilled in the various branches of industry as a boy and youth, and having succeeded to the ownership of the homestead cared tenderly for his parents during the later years that they lived. Since assuming management of the place, Mr. Munn has made marked improvements, having a good set of buildings, and an ample supply of all the necessary machinery and appliances for successfully carrying on his work, which consists of general farming and dairying. Mr. Munn married, October 20, 1888, Mary M. Pingree. who was born in Bloomingdale township, a daughter of David and Samantha (Bush) Pingree and granddaughter of Jewett Pingree, an early pioneer of Van Buren county. Born in M1assachusetts,

Page  914 914 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY David Pingree was quite young when he came with his parents to Michigan. At the outbreak of the Civil war he enlisted in a Michigan regiment of volunteer infantry, and served as a soldier until the close of the conflict, when he was honorably discharged from the army. Returning to Bloomingdale township, he was engaged in farming the remainder of his life. Four children have blessed the union of Mr. and Mrs. Munn, namely: Florence, Fern, Harold and Donald. Mr. Munn has ever evinced an intelligent interest in local affairs, and has never shirked the responsibilities of public office. In 1898 he was elected township treasurer for a term of two years, and, with the exception of two years, has served as highway commissioner since 1901. He belongs to Woodmen Grange, No. 610, Patrons of Husbandry. MRS. EMMA J. (WHEELER) BROUGHTON.-A well-known and highly esteemed resident of Bloomingdale township, Van Buren county, Mrs. Broughton was born in Bedford, Connecticut, a daughter of George W. Wheeler, who was born and reared in the same state. Her paternal grandfather, Ephraim Wheeler, a native of New England, served as a soldier in the struggle of the colonists for independence. Subsequently removing from Connecticut to Monroe county, New York, he bought three hundred acres of Government land in what is now the town of Charlotte, being one of its earliest settlers and the first to erect a frame house within its limits. He cleared and improved a homestead, and there resided until his death. Iis wife survived him, dying in the ninetyseventh year of her age. The youngest of a large family of children, George W. Wheeler was reared on a farm in Connecticut, and spent his early life in his native state. Subsequently, accompanied by his wife and four children, he migrated to New York state, making the removal with teams and settling in Charlotte, Monroe county, on a tract of timbered land given him by his father. Erecting a log cabin in the forest, he began the pioneer task of redeeming a farm from its pristine wildness. Selling out a few years later, he removed with his family to Chili, in the same county, and on a farm which he rented spent his remaining days. He married Catherine Reid, who was of Scotch ancestry, and she survived him a few years. They were the parents of eight children, as follows: Catherine; Susan Elizabeth; John W.; Theodore, a soldier in the Civil war, was killed at the battle of Gettysburg, when but eighteen years old; James; Amos; Emma J.; and Frances. Brought up in Monroe county, New York, Emma J. Broughton was there educated, at her home being well trained in the domestic arts. After leaving school she went to Detroit, Michigan, to visit an uncle, and while there met and married John N. Chadsey, who was born in Sweden, Monroe county, New York. Mr. Chadsey's father, Benjamin Chadsey, a native of Massachusetts, was a man of undaunted courage and enterprise. When young he followed the migrant's trail to New York state, with his axe on his shoulder bravely making his way to Monroe county. Securing a tract of Government land, he soon began felling the mighty giants

Page  915 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 915 of the forest to make a space on which he might erect a log cabin to shelter himself and family, and on the farm which he cleared he resided until his death. John N. Chadsey was brought up on the home farm in Monroe county, New York, and educated in the pioneer schools of his district. Soon after the close of the Civil war he came to Michigan, settling in Bloomingdale township, Van Buren county, where he bought a tract of timbered land, erected a frame house, and began to clear a farm. Industrious, energetic and enterprising, Mr. Chadsey cleared a large part of his land and in due course of time made improvements of great value, replacing the original house by-a large brick structure, and erecting a substantial barn and other needed farm buildings, each year adding to the attractiveness and value of his property. He there continued his agricultural labors until his death, in 1895. After the death of MSr. Chadsey, Mrs. Chadsey married for her second husband, in 1901, George W. Broughton, who was born in Macomb county, Michigan, where his parents, James and Lucy Broughton, were pioneer settlers, going there from Massachusetts, their native state. Mr. Broughton was reared on the home farm in Macomb county, and as a young man tried the venture of new hazards, going West and living in different places until 1897. Returning then to Michigan, he bought land in Cheshire township, Allegan county, and embarked in general farming, continuing as an agriculturist until his death, March 3, 1910. Mrs. Broughton has no children of her own, but has an adopted son, Franklin M. Broughton. Mrs. Broughton is a conscientious member of the Baptist church, while Mr. Broughton was affiliated with the Methodist Episcopal church. JACOB MITCHELL.-Although he is of distinguished ancestry and can trace his family line back through the history of this country in unbroken succession two hundred and seventy-six years, and although members of the family have dignified and adorned all the higher walks of life in various places as the generations have come and gone, Jacob Mitchell, one of the enterprising merchants and leading citizens of South Haven, has built his career along lines of ordinary productive usefulness, without a thought of attaining distinction or attracting the noisy admiration of the world. His labors have been important and serviceable in their day and locality, but, while many of them required expert knowledge and the skill that comes from careful training, they have not been of a character to bring renown or secure public attention in any showy or extensive way. But he has not desired this. He has been content to walk faithfully in the plain and simple path of duty, and thus work out his destiny in life and render what service he could do his fellow men in his day and generation. Mr. Mitchell is a native of St. Lawrence county, New York, where his life began on July 31, 1836. His parents were Reuben and Margaret (Roberts) Mitchell, the former born in Clinton county, New York, in 1808, and the latter in county Cork, Ireland, in 1812. The mother died in 1880 and the father in 1890. Nine children were born of their union, three of whoml are now living,

Page  916 916 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Jacob and his brothers I-enry and David, both younger than himself. Henry is a resident of Fairgrove and David of Flint, Michigan. The first American representative of the family was Matthew Mitchell, who, with his wife and children, came to this country and settled in what was then Wethersfield, Connecticut, in 1635. The family came from Scotland, and the head of the household at once began to take an active part in the affairs of the town in which he had located, and four years after his arrival was its clerk. Stephen Mitchell, another member of the family, founded the public library in Glasgow, Scotland, which is the second in size in the country. Another distinguished member of the family was Professor Maria Mitchell, who belonged to the branch that settled on Nantucket Island at an early day, moving to the island from the mainland of Massachusetts. Elector Mitchell, another member of note in the early days, lived at Heathfield, Scotland; Dr. Samuel Latham Mitchell, a renowned physician and surgeon, belonged to a branch that located on Long Island, and Stephen Mitchell, of the same family was chief justice of Connecticut in 1812. During the nineteenth century nine members of the family, all bearing the name of Mitchell, were graduated from Harvard University and seven of the same lineage and name secured diplomas from Yale University. Jacob Mitchell's grandfather, whose name was also Jacob, was a native of Pennsylvania and a merchant in the state of New York. His son Reuben, the father of Jacob, the subject of this review, was a farmer in New York and came to Michigan in 1865. He first took up his residence in St. Clair county, but some time afterward moved to Tuscola county. where he redeemed a farm fron the wilderness on which lie passed the relmainder of his days. He was a Presbyterian in church relations, and first a Whig and later a Republican in his political attachment. Jacob Mitchell, of South Iaven, remained at home with his parents until he was eight years old, then became a farm hand in the enploy of Dr. 'Iead in Essex county, New York. He worked on the Doctor's farm, lived in his family and attended school, when he could be spared for the purpose, until he reached the age of twenty. While doing these things he also acquired a good knowledge of the millwright's trade, and for some years thereafter worked at it in his native state. In 1863 lie came to MAichigan and located in St. Clair county. where he wrought at his trade as a millwright, did considerable other carpenter work and also built a number of boats, then passed a number of years as a contractor and builder in southern Michigan and northern Indiana, erecting mills and other structures. In 1891 he moved to South Haven, and during the next two years and a half was occupied in building boats for the lake service. He also built the government light house at South Haven. By this time he became weary of his migratory life and determined to secure a permanent abode and settled occupation for himself. Accordingly, in 1894, he located a claim on forty acres of land in Tuscola county, and to the improvement of this farm

Page  917 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY9 917 and the cultivation of his land he devoted himself during the next six years. In September, 1900, he again came to South Haven and opened a meat market, and this he is still conducting. By strict attention to business and a careful study of the needs of the community he has built up a large trade and won a wide and appreciative popularity for his enterprise, and his business has become very active and extensive. Its cares do not, however, fall entirely on him. He is assisted in carrying it on by his two sons. On November 8, 1873, Mr. Mitchell was united in marriage with Miss Theresa Metetall, who was born in St. Clair county, Michigan, and is a daughter of Frederick and Theresa (Silas) Metetall. Her father was born in France and died in this state at the age of sixty-five. The mother was a native of Germany, near the French line. She died in this state also, passing away in 1911, at the age of eighty-six. They had eleven children, eight of whom are living, Mrs. Mitchell being the fifth in the order of birth. Ier father was a professional cook, and came to the United States when he was a young man. He lived for a time in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, then was employed as the chef on a United States man-ofwar until 1856. In that year he retired from the Government service and took up his residence in St. Clair county, this state, where he engaged in farming during the rest of his life. Ile was a Republican in political affiliation and a Presbyterian in church connection, and was devoted to both his party and his church, rendering both good service, and without looking for any reward in the way of office from the former or any prominence or distinction in the latter, his devotion in each case being a matter of firm belief in the basic principles and teachings involved. Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell have three children: Lydia, who is the wife of Iale Bradley and resides in South Haven; and William and IIerbert, both of whom are associated in business with their father, as has already been noted. The father is a devout and consistent member of the Congregational church and deeply interested in the congregation to which he belongs. His political support is given cordially and steadily to the Republican party, his adherence to that organization being based on conviction and a sense of duty, for he has never sought or desired a political office, either by election or appointment, being well content to serve his country as well as he can in the highly creditable post of private citizenship. HIe is now past seventy-five years of age, and his long and useful life and fidelity to every call of duty have won him the universal respect and good will of the residents of Van Buren county, who have found him worthy of their commendation and esteem from every point of view. CHARLES W. WILLIAMS.-The son of a pioneer in the business of carrying passengers and freight out of and into South Haven by boats on the'lake, and himself one of the leaders in lake traffic and transportation for many years, Charles W. Williams has been a potential factor in building up the commercial importance and influence of the city and providing for the convenience and progress of its people. For two generations this family has led the Vol. II-19

Page  918 918 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY forces of communication by water between South Haven and other Lake Michigan points, and in that way have rendered a service to the lake shore towns that has probably not been surpassed in value by what any other line of enterprise has accomplished for them and the region in which they are located. Mr. Williams is practically a child of the Lake, and his devotion to it in his business enterprise has something of filial feeling in it. His life began on its shore, and the greater part of his energy through all his subsequent years has been expended in business for which it has furnished the medium. Ie was born in St. Joseph, Michigan, on February 2, 1868, and is a son of Henry W. and Loraine L. (Green) Williams, who were born, reared, educated and married in Vermont, on the shore of Lake Champlain, the former born in 1829 and the latter in 1828. Both died in 1901, in South Haven, Michigan, after many years of steady industry and usefulness. Of the seven children born to them but two are living, their son Charles W. and their daughter Laura A., the latter now a resident of South Haven. The father was a very enterprising and progressive itan. Ile obtained a good education in his native state, and when but seventeen years of age built the first car ferry that crossed Lake Champlain. He also built there a truss bridge sixty feet in height. From Vermont he carried his talents and acquirements to a larger and more active market, moving to Chicago, and there for a short time he worked at his dual trade of ship and house carpenter. He then returned to Vermont and was married, and soon afterward came West again, this time locating at St. Joseph in this state. Here he again worked at his trade, and between the claims of others on his time and attention built himself two schooners for lake traffic between St. Joseph and Chicago and Milwaukee. To secure greater facilities in his operations and be in a position to use to better advantage some of the wealth of the country around him in timber, he built himself a salw mill on the Paw Paw river. This mill was destroyed by fire, and he then bought one located between Benton Harbor and St. Joseph. Sometime afterward he purchased a one-half interest in the steamer Skylark. engaged in carrying lumber, fruit and passengers between St. Joseph and Chicago. He was engaged in the manufacture of fruit packings at his saw mill, and this steamer gave him an easy and profitable way of transporting his products to places where they were needed. In 1880 he retired from the lumber business and gave his attention exclusively to transportation work as a memlber of the firm of Graham, Morton & Company, which then owned two steamers. the Skylark and the Messenger. He withdrew from this firiti in 1882, and the next year moved to South Haven, having purchased the steamer City of St. Joseph for a new enterprise which he had under consideration. This was the establishment of a transportation line by water between South Haven and Chicago. IHe put the line in operation and kept it going during 1883 and 1884. But it was not a profitable enterprise, and he turned the Citv of St. Joseph into an iron ore barge in 1885. and set her plying'between

Page  919 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 919 St. Joseph and points on Lake Superior. In 1886 he sold the steamer. His next venture was undertaken at the request of the business men of South Haven in 1888, who induced him to build the Steamer H. W. Williams for carrying fruit and passengers between South Haven and Chicago. This also turned out to be a losing venture. and in 1890 he built the Steamer Glenn for the transportation of fruit between Pier (probably Union Pier now) and South Haven and Chicago. The next year he built the Steamer Loraine L.. put her on the line between Pier and South Haven, and opened up another line between Michigan City, Indiana and Chicago with the Steamer Glenn. In 1890 he organized the H. I. Williams Transportation Company, with himself as president and his son Charles as secretary and treasurer, all the stock being held in the family; and in the fall of 1892 he built for this company the steamer City of Kalamazoo, which made the fourth in the company's lake fleet. The elder Mr. Williams was also president of the Pierce-Williams Manufacturing Company, engaged in making fruit packages and doing a flourishing business in the enterprise. Ile was a man of large capacity for affairs, and could carry on successfulll several industries at a time with more ease than many a miian finds il mIianaging one, and he also had the nerve born of confidence in himself and good judgment of conditions and prospects. W\hen his undertakings demonstrated in a full and fair trial that they would not pay, he abandoned them and began others. lut he never wasted time in whining over his losses, his habit in such cases being to increase his energy and make them up in some new project. He was an enthusiastic believer in the value of benevolent fraternities, and manifested great interest in the one which he favored with his membership. Ile was,made a Master Mason in St. Joseph Lodge, but after moving to Soutl I aven dimitte(d l'rom that and became a charter member of Star of tile Lake Lodge. No. 158, in that city. Ile was a Democrat in his political party allegiance, and although lie was never a candidate for any political office, and never desired to be. he gave his organization the hest service of which he was capable at all times. In all the relations of life and in every duty of citizenship he was true and faithful. and his memory is embalmed in the lasting esteem and approval of his fellow men in every locality in which he was known. Charles W. Williams obtained his education in the schools of Benton Harbor and at the Notre Dame (Indiana) University. He also pursued a course of special instruction at a business college in Lafayette. Indiana. At the age of seventeen he became clerk of the steamer St. Joseph, and during the next seven years lie was employed in the same capacity on some one of his father's boats. In 1890, at its organization, he was made secretary and treasurer of the H. W. Williams Transportation Company, and at a later date became its manager. with headquarters at South Haven. occupying this position until the death of his father in 1901. After that event he organized the Dunkley & Williams Transportation Company, for which he built the steamer City of South Haven in

Page  920 920( HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 1903, and of which he was manager until 1904, when he sold his interests in the company and retired from the business. Mr. Williams is a Freemason and belongs to all the branches of the order in the York rite. He is a member of Star of the Lake Lodge, No. 158, at South Haven, and also of the Chapter of Royal Arch Masons and the Council of Royal and Select Masters in that city. As a Knight Templar he is connected with Malta Commandery, No. 44, at Benton Harbor, and as a Noble of the Mystic Shrine with Saladin Temple in Grand Rapids. In his political faith and allegiance he is a member of the Democratic party and takes an earnest interest in its welfare, but never seeks or desires anything in the way of a political office for himself..Mr. Williams was married on September 20, 1893, to Miss Zaradia C. Brunson, a native of Benton Harbor and the daughter of Rufus and Sarah Jane (Stotts) Brunson. Her parents were born in Indiana and came to Michigan with their parents in childhood. Sterne Brunson, the paternal grandfather of M\r. Williams, was one of the first settlers of what is now Benton Harbor, but was called Brunson Harbor in his day and named in his honor. Mr. and Mrs. Williams have two children, their son Henry A. and their daughter Sarah L., both of whom are still living under the parental rooftree and adding light, life and attractiveness to the parental family circle, which the friends and acquaintances of the family always find a center of social culture and refined and genuine hospitality. JOHN S. IMALBONE.-Operating in business in five of the states of the American Union, and trying his hand at several lines of useful effort, with success in each, John S. Malbone, of South Haven, has had a varied experience and has profited by its sometimes severe but always impressive lessons. He has been a mechanic, a merchant and a farmer. These are widely divergent avenues to consequence in a worldly way, but Mr. Malbone has shown himself able to cope with their varied requirements in a masterly manner and command them all to his service and advancement. Mr. Malbone was born in Franklin county, Ohio, seven miles from Columbus. His parents, Solomon M. and Jerusha Malbone, were farmers, and he was born and reared on a farmi. The father was born in Ohio in 1819, and died in Van Buren county, Michigan, in 1903. The mother was born in the state of New York in 1821, and died in this county in 1908. The father farmed in his native state until 1864, then moved his family to Webster county. Iowa, and lived there until 1875, when they came to Van Buren county, Michigan. Here he continued to farm until 1893, then retired from active pursuits. IHe was a man of prominence and influence in his native county and also in this county, and filled acceptably a number of township offices in each. In politics he was a Republican, in fraternal relations an Odd Fellow, and in church connection a Congregationalist. He and his wife were the parents of five sons and two daughters, John S. being the second child in the order of birth. John S. Malbone remained at home with his parents on the

Page  921 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 921 farm until he reached the age of twenty-three, then started an independent course of activity for himself as a carpenter and stonemason. In 1864 he went to Fort Dodge, Webster county, Iowa, and after abiding there and in other places for a time came to Van Buren county, this state, and took up his residence at South haven. Here he was occupied in fruit growing for a time not far from the city, then, in 1894, moved into the city and built himself a three-story brick business block with a pressed brick front. In this building he opened a hardware and furniture store, which he conducted until 1907, with good returns for his enterprise. In October of that year he sold his business and moved to Virginia, where he bought two hundred acres of lumber land, going later to Pennsylvania. In 1910 he returned to South Haven and took back the business he had sold before leaving the city, and in carrying on this he has ever since been engaged. He has taken an earnest interest and a leading part in the affairs of his city and township, serving the public well and acceptably as township clerk two terms and as township supervisor three terms. To everything he has deemed of value in promoting the progress and improvement of the region of his home he has given his cordial support, and to every movement for the benefit of the people he has cheerfully lent his energetic aid. In the fraternal life of the community he has been active and forceful, working for its welfare and expansion through his membership in several branches of the Masonic order, including Star of the Lake Lodge, No. 158, South Iaven Chapter, No. 58, Royal Arch Masons, and South Haven Council. No. 45, Royal and Select Masters. His religious affiliation is with the Baptist church, and in this, too, he is an intelligent and effective worker, taking a special interest in every good work undertaken by the congregation to which he belongs, but not limiting his energy and zeal to that. His political allegiance is given to the Republican party, and he is diligent and effective in the service of that organization also. Mr. Malbone was married on April 15, 1869, to Miss Mary C. Rawson, a native of Illinois. They have four sons and two daughters: Edith, the wife of Robert A. Farrand, of Leslie, Michigan; and Willis L., Frank M., John H.. Lloyd G. and Carrie B. Tr] father is in all respects a first rate citizen and is highly esteel d as a man. Ile has made his own way in the world without the the aid of Fortune's favors or adventitious circumstances at any time, except as his foresight and energy enabled him to make any circumstances propitious by commanding them to his service. His education was obtained, so far as regular academic instruction is concerned, in a humble log school house in a rural district of Ohio, but he has supplemented that part of his mental training by keeping his eyes open and gathering in information from every source available to him in his journey through life, and he is now a man of extensive general information. The sterling and serviceable citizenship of our country is made up of such material, and Mr. Malbone is a very worthy representative of the most sturdy and commendable class.

Page  922 922 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY JOHN F. NOUD.-With the splendid record of his father as a manufacturer, business man and public spirited and progressive citizen before him, John F. Noud, of South Haven, began his own career under the stimulus of a high example, and also that of the responsibility of living up to it and holding the family name at least at the altitude at which his father had written it. It is high praise but only a just tribute to genuine and demonstrated merit to state that the son has fully lived up to the example of his father and dignified and adorned the name he bears as worthily in his generation as his father did in his; and it is to his credit that he has been as ready in adaptation to the requirements of his day, much intensified as they are in exaction, as his father or any other member of his family ever was. Mr. Noud was born in Manistee county, Michigan, on September 29, 1876, a son of Patrick and Susan A. (McCurdy) Noud, and the third of their eight children, six of whom are living. The father was born in Canada and became a resident of the United States and Michigan when he was yet a young man. For a time after his arrival in this state he worked as an employe at lumbering, and when he got a start engaged in the lumber trade in Manistee on his own account, operating a saw mill and carrying on a general lumber business. He was one of the pioneers in that part of the state in this line of industrial and mercantile effort, and one of the most prominent men engaged in it there. He is now and has been for several years president of the State Lumber Company of Manistee. This company is also engaged in the manufacture of salt. He is also president of the Chicago and South Haven Steamship Company. In all his business undertakings he was highly successful, and in his connection with the public affairs of the city and county in which he lived he was also prominent and influential. His political connection was with the Democratic party, and in the local councils of that organization he was one of the most potential forces, being recognized as a judicious and reliable adviser and a resourceful and effective worker for the good of the party, while everything involving the substantial welfare of the city and county felt the quickening impulse of his vigorous mind.and the directing care of his strong and skillful hand greatly to itd advantage. His son, John F. Noud, was educated in the schools of Manistee, and for some years after completing their course of instruction was associated in business with his father. On November 21, 1900, he began business for himself as a retail lumber merchant in South Haven in association with Joseph F. Smith, the firm name being Noud & Smith. The partnership continued until late in 1901, when Mr. Noud bought Mr. Smith's interest in the business and started it anew under the name of the John F. Noud Company. Under this name Mr. Noud has been conducting the enterprise ever since with a steadily increasing volume of trade and an ascending rank and reputation as a merchant and business man in general, being esteemed as a leader by both the trade and the general public throughout this part of the country. Mr. Noud has also been active in city affairs and one of the

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Page  923 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 923 awakening and stimulating forces in connection with them. He served as alderman from the First ward four years, giving the people excellent service as a city official, and for many years has been zealous in promoting every undertaking of value for their benefit, mentally, morally and materially. His duty as a citizen is never neglected or given half-hearted attention, whatever the issue, whether political, business or social matters, and it is always performed with conscience and an effectiveness that indicates elevated manhood and a deep sense of personal responsibility for general conditions and the results of every agitation for their betterment. His political support is given to the Republican party, but he is not a hide-bound partisan, and he never allows party considerations to overbear local needs with him. Fraternally he is a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, holding his membership in Benton Harbor Lodge, No. 544, and a Knight of Columbus, belonging to Benton Harbor Council, No. 1120. IHe is zealous in his devotion to these fraternities and energetic and helpful in the work of the lodge and council in them to which he belongs. Mr. Noud was married on April 21, 1902, to Miss Alna M. Schaab, a native of Manistee and the daughter of John and Rose (Wise) Schaab. Five children have been born of the union, three of whom are living: Francis Patrick, J. Bernard and Roger William. Katherine, the second child, died in infancy, and Robert T., the fourth, at the age of two years. The parents are warmly welcomed in all desirable social circles, and regarded as valuable additions to any. They are genial and companionable, making association with them highly agreeable, and their advanced culture and lofty ideals win them the admiration of all who come in contact with them and aid extensively in keeping up the standard of citizenship in their community, of which they are such creditable representatives. THOMAS WABER.-For upwards of half a century Thomas Waber has been a resident of Pine Grove township, and during that time he has established for himself a reputation as a thoroughly honest man and worthy citizen. Many of the active agriculturists of Van Buren county were born on the other side of the Atlantic, and to Germany, especially, is our country indebted for some of her prosperous citizens, among them being Mr. Waber. He was born, May 14, 1841, in Bavaria. Germany, the home of his ancestors for many generations. John Waber, his father, was born in the same part of Germany, being the only child of his parents. He there learned to hew timber before the days of saw mills, or at least before they were generally used, becoming an expert chopper and hewer. Bidding good bye to friends and relatives in 1848, he came with his family to the United States, being several weeks in crossing the ocean on a sailing vessel. Landing in New York city, he made his way to Rochester, and for a time worked on the Erie Canal, later being there employed in a foundry. Desirous of establishing a perma

Page  924 924 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY nent home for himself, wife and children, and being attracted by the cheap Government land of the West, he came to Michigan in 1854, and for a year lived in Kalamazoo county, from there coming, in 1855, to Van Buren county. Settling in the dense woods, he became one of the early pioneers of Pine Grove township. Buying eighty acres of timbered land on the east half of the southeast quarter of section two, he cut down giant trees to make room for the log house which he built as one of the first improvements on his place. Deer, wild turkeys and game of all kinds abounded and formed a large part of the subsistence of the brave-hearted pioneers. Working with a will, he cleared his land and was there engaged in tilling the soil for many years. Prior to his death, however, he went to Otsego, Allegan county, to live with his son Fred, and was there a resident until his death, at the ripe old age of eighty-one years. His wife, who was also a native of Bavaria, died before he did, her death occurring on the home farm. They reared seven children, as follows: George, Henry, Frederick, Anna, Thomas, Margaret and James. They were worthy members of the Lutheran church, and reared their family in'the same religious faith. Seven years old when he left the Fatherland, Thomas Waber still has a vivid recollection of many of the incidents connected with his ocean voyage, and likewise of pioneer life in Van Buren county. In his boyhood days the people hereabout lived in a primitive manner, with few if any of the modern conveniences, living on the fruits of the chase or the productions of the soil, and were clothed in garments made at home from material spun and woven by the good house mother. Traveling was mostly performed on horseback, or with heavy teams, slow methods as compared with the modern means of transportation. Reared to habits of industry, Mr. Waber began life as a wage-earner when quite young, working out for his board and five dollars a month at first, but later being employed in a saw mill. In 1865 he bought the land now included in his present farm, and immediately began its improvement. He has cleared a large part of his estate, and is actively engaged in general farming, each year raising abundant crops of hay and grain. Mr. Waber married, in March, 1871, Ann Eliza Miller, who w-as born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, which was also the birthplace of her father, Nicholas Miller. Mr..Miller's wife immigrated to America with her ten children, leaving Mr. Miller to attend to some business matters in the Fatherland, and took up her residence( at Palmyra, New York, where her death occurred two years later. Mr. Miller subsequently joined his motherless children, and with them came to Trowbridge, Allegan county, Michigan, where he spent the remainder of his life, dying when upwards of eighty years of age. Mrs. Waber died at the age of forty-eight years. leaving five children, namely: Thomas Laverne, who married Mabel Kingsley and has two sons, Henry and Clarence; Alma. wife of John McGregor, has four children, Donald, Anna, Lillian and Arthur; James; Paul Miller, who married Josie Champion. and they have one child, Pauline; and Arthur, who married Bes

Page  925 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY sie Antinica Vedder, and has one daughter, Eleanor. Mr. Waber's father, the founder of the Waber family in America, was an only child, but his seven children married and reared families, so that his descendants now living in Michigan number nearly one hundred, and are among the best citizens of the state, being enterprising and thrifty. IERBERT LINCOLN ROOT.-Actively and intelligently engaged in the prosecution of one of the most independent, needful and useful occupations to which a man may devote his energies, Herbert Lincoln Root stands high among the prominent husbandmen of Pine Grove township, and is an important factor in the agricultural interests of Van Buren county. Coming on both sides of the house from honored New England ancestry, and of sturdy pioneer stock, he was born August 9, 1865, in Oshtemo township, Kalamnazoo county. Michigan, a son of Isaac L. Root. His paternal grandfather, John Root, was born in Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, but spent a large part of his early life in Connecticut, where lie followed the mason's trade. In 1857 he came with his family to Michigan, locating in Kalamazoo county, which was then but sparsely settled, the present city of Kalamazoo having been a small place, while the surrounding country was in its original wildness. Purchasing a tract of land in Oshtemo township, five miles from Kalamazoo. he continued the improvements, which were very limited, and having placed a large share of it under cultivation resided there until his death, at the age of seventy-five years. Iis wife, whose maiden name was Susan MAoe, was born in New York city, and (lied on the home farm at the advanced age of four score years. They reared a family of seven children, as follows: Sarah, Beardsley, Frederick, Isaac L., Edward, Ebenezer and Martha. Born in Greenwich, Connecticut. Isaac L. Root began working with his father at the mason's trade while but a boy, and in 1857 accompanied his parents to Michigan. and has since followed his trade in Kalamazoo and surrounding counties. HIe is a skilled workman, and his services are ever in demand. IIe married IHannah Isadore Kingsley, who was born in Oshtenio township, a daughter of Moses Kingsley, who was the third in direct line of descent to bear that name. Moses Kingsley, the first, was born in Northampton, Massachusetts, January 29, 1744, of English ancestry, and married Abigail Lyman, whose birth occurred January 21, 1744, in the same place. Their son, Moses Kingsley, the second, was born in Northampton, Massachusetts. November 8, 1772. After his marriage he located in Brighton, Massachusetts. He was twice married, his second wife, Mr. Root's great-grandmother, having been Mary Montague. Moses Kingsley, the third, was born in Brighton, Massachusetts, March 5, 1810, and there learned the cabinet maker's trade. Migrating to Michigan in 1831, while it was still under territorial government, he became one of the early settlers of what is now the town of Webster, in Webster, Washtenaw county, and while there served as postmaster and town clerk.

Page  926 926 HISTORY OF VAN IJITREN COtUNTY In 1836 he moved to Kalamazoo county and purchased a tract of timbered land, forty acres of which was located in Kalamazoo township and forty acres in Oshtemo township. After devoting about twenty years to the clearing and improvement of his estate he organized the Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company, of which he was secretary and treasurer for a quarter of a century. In 1873 he became a resident of Kalamazoo, which remained his home until his death, in 1891. He married first, in Webster, Michigan, in December 1, 1831, Hannah Williams, who was born in Sempronious, New York, October 7, 1808, a daughter of a pioneer of Washtenaw county, Michigan. She died January 13, 1844, leaving four children, as follows: Daniel W.; Amelia; Floyd; and Hannah Isadore, who became the wife of Isaac L. Root. Moses Kingsley, the third, subsequently married for his second wife Clarissa Beckley, who was born in Stafford, New York, March 25, 1818, a daughter of Joseph and Clarissa (Jeffries) Beckley. She died May 16, 1879. leaving six children, Henry M., Moses, Sabra W., Chester M., Clara F. and Homer AM. Mrs. Isaac L. Root died in Oshtemo township, April 10, 1901. To her and her husband seven children were born, namely: HIerbert Lincoln, Myron, Bertha, Luella, Edna, Fanny and Mary. Brought up in Kalamazoo county, Herbert Lincoln Root acquired a practical education in the public schools, and at the age of nineteen years began working with his father at the mason's trade, which he followed for four years. Turning his attention then to agriculture, he bought the farm which he now owns and occupies. It is pleasantly located in section thirty-four, Pine Grove township, bordering on and overlooking North Lake, one of the imany beautiful sheets of water to be found in Van Buren county. Mr. Root first bought eighty acres in the northwest quarter, and subsequently purchased twenty acres of adjoining land, and still later added more land by purchase, his farmi now containing one hundred and sixty-two and one-half acres of as rich and productive land as can be found in the vicinity. IHere he is prosperously engaged in general fariming, making something of a specialty of stock-raising and dairying. In 1890 Mr. Root was united in marriage with Jennie A. Smith, who was born in Ridgeville township, Lorain county, Ohio, a daughter of Mark and Eunice (Kibby) Smith, natives, respectively, of New York and Ohio. Five children have blessed the union of Mr. and Mrs. Root, namely: Lillie, Carl, Alice, Harry and Nelson. Mr. and Mrs. Root are both members of the Congregational church, and give liberally towards its support. DR. ARTHUR CASPER RUNYAN.-With a high grade of capacity and skill in one of the most useful of the professions, a commanding genius for the promotion and development of public utilities, an elevated tone and broad public spirit in his citizenship, and a humanitarian disposition that seeks the good of the whole people even if it may be, to some extent, at the expense of his private business, Dr. Arthur C. Runyan, of South Haven, one of the lead

Page  927 HISTORY 1OF VAN BUREN CO(UNSTY 927 ing dentists of Southwestern Michigan, is a very useful citizen and is universally esteemed as such. Dr. Runyan was born in White Pigeon, Mlichigan, on September 3, 1857, and grew to manhood on his father's tarm in St. Joseph county. There he served his apprenticeship to the farming industry, but he had other desires in life, and as he neared maturity sought an opportunity to gratify them. His parents, Casper Y. and Louisa (Olmstead) Runyan, were natives of New York, the father born in the western part of the state in 1828 and the mother in Genesee county in 1837. The father died in 1895, but the mother is still living and has her home with her children. Of the nine children born to them seven grew to maturity and five are now living. The Doctor was the second child born in the family. The father was brought to Michigan by his parents, Philip E. and Priscilla (Brush) Runyan, when he was but seven years old. The family arrived in 1835, before Michigan was a state, and located at White Pigeon. The head of the house at that time, Philip E. Runyan, was of French Huguenot stock. IHe first engaged in keeping a tavern on the old Chicago turnpike, and afterward became a farmer. He was a man of prominence and influence in his locality and served in the state legislature while Detroit was the capital, and left a good name for the value and fidelity of his service in every trust and station. Dr. Runyan's father, Casper Runyan, was educated in the schools of White Pigeon, and after leaving school engaged in farming, the occupation to which he had been reared. In 1852 he caught the enthusiasm over the discovery of gold in the then far away region known as California, and journeyed overland to seek a rapid advance in his fortune in the opportunities so widely and wildly proclaimed as abounding in that state. Two years later he returned to the old homestead in Michigan, making the return trip by way of the Isthmus of Panama. Farming in this state was good enough for him ever afterward, and it occupied himll for the remainder of his days. IHe also took an earnest interest and an active part in the public affairs of his locality, serving for more than twenty-five years as township supervisor, and also filling with credit to hinself and benefit to the people other township offices. In politics he was a genuine Democrat of the old school and to the end of his life served his party with unswerving loyalty, for he felt that it was the promise and fulfillment of the highest and most enduring good to county, state and nation. Dr. Arthur C. Runyan was also educated academically in the schools of White Pigeon. but they were greatly improved in their facilities and appointnents in conparison with what they had when his father attended them. After completing their course of instruction the Doctor studied dentistry under the instruction of Dr. S. M. White, and in 1904 took a post graduate course in the dental department of the University of Michigan. For the practice of his profession he first located in Bangor, this county, where he remained until 1890, a period of ten years. In that year he changed his residence to South Haven, making the change in the

Page  928 928 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY spring, and here he has ever since lived and been actively engaged in an extensive and lucrative practice with a steadily increasing body of patrons and a steadily rising and expanding reputation for his professional work and his enterprise, public spirit and usefulness as a citizen. While living in Bangor he was a member of the village board of directors for a number of years and also served on the school board there. He has been alderman from the Third ward of South Haven two terms and a member of the school board of this city for over twenty years. His duties as alderman were not entirely agreeable to him and he declined to be a candidate for a third term. He has shown deep and abiding interest in the welfare of the community in other ways, however, having helped to organize the library board and served as its president for a time. He also was one of the founders of the City Hospital of South Haven, and is now (1911) a member of its board of directors. In more material matters contributing to the improvement of the city and the convenience and comfort of its residents, he has also been a potential factor for good, and his services in connection with them have been extensive and conspicuous. He helped to organize the South Haven Gas Company and is its president. In addition he is president of the gas company at Sturgis, and of the Allegan County Gas Company of Allegan, Otsego and Plainwell, Michigan, in the adjoining counties of St. Joseph and Allegan. In connection with these utilities he is sedulous in his efforts to make their product and their service to their patrons as good as possible, managing them with primary reference to excellence of output and satisfaction to all classes of consumers. In his profession Dr. Runyan is studious and progressive, using all means available to him to keep up with its advances and informed as to its latest discoveries and improvements. He is an active member of the Southwestern Dental Society, and has been its president and secretary. He also belongs to the Michigan State Dental Society and the National Dental Association, and takes a very active and helpful part in their proceedings, both as a contributor to the interest and benefit of their meetings and an eager learner from the contributions of others. Doubtless Dr. Runyan began studying for his professional work and practicing it with a primary view to making a livelihood out of it. But in the course of his practice it has broadened in his vision to a great means of constant and permanent good for the whole community if the people, especially the young people, can be informed of the facts in the case. With the view of giving them this information he began in 1892 systematic course lectures on dental anatomy and hygiene and the proper care of the teeth in the public schools of South Haven, using lantern slides to illustrate and emphasize his instructions. These lectures have been a source of great benefit to the school children, and his enterprise and public spirit in giving them is regarded with great favor by everybody in the city. In furtherance of his work in this respect he has also written a booklet on "Twentieth Century Dentistry." which he

Page  929 HISTORY OF VAN BU1REN COUNTY 929 describes as "An Ethical Treatise on the Care and Treatment of the Iuman Teeth." Dr. Runyan was married on October 12, 1881, to Miss Emma Cross, a native of Lawrence township, this county, and the daughter of Calvin and Emily (Roby) Cross. Her parents are both deceased. They were born in the state of New York, and the parents of seven children, five of whom are living. Mrs. Runyan was the last born of the seven. Her father came to Michigan in 1844 and located in Bangor, Van Buren county. He was a millwright, a farmer and a lawyer, and rose to prominence and influence in the county. In connection with public affairs he was an active working Democrat and enjoyed in full measure the confidence and regard of both the leaders and the rank and file of his party, being esteemed as wise in counsel as well as vigorous, skillful and effective in action in party matters. Dr. and Mrs. Runyan are the parents of two children, their son Cecil A. and their daughter Mabel A. The son is a gas engineer. Ile married Miss Louisa Tall and is living in South Haven. The daughter is still living at home with her parents. In political faith and allegiance the Doctor is also a pronounced Democrat, and in church relations he and his wife are Congregationalists. They are both members of the Order of the Eastern Star, the bright and popular auxiliary of the Masonic order. In the latter the Doctor has long been active and serviceable as a member of Star of the Lake Lodge, No. 158; South Iaven Chapter, No. 58, Royal Arch Masons; South Haven Council, No. 45, Royal and Select Masters; Peninsula Commandery, No. 8, Knights Templar, at Kalamazoo, and Saladin Temple, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, in Grand Rapids. In these different branches of the fraternity he is not merely one of the silent units, but a very energetic working member, whose intelligence and good judgment are highly valued, and whose high character, sterling manhood and elevated citizenship help to give consequence and standing to the order and exemplify its best teachings. GEORGE T. WABER.-Among the native-born citizens of Van Buren county who have spent their lives within its precincts, aiding in every possible way its growth and development, whether relating to its agricultural, mercantile or financial prosperity, is George T. Waber, an extensive landholder and prosperous agriculturist who is now engaged in mercantile pursuits in the village of Kendall, Pine Grove township, the township in which his birth occurred. A son of the late George Waber, he is a grandson of John Waber. the founder of the American family of Wabers, and of whom a brief account may be found on another page of this work, in connection with the sketch of Thomas Waber. Born in Bavaria, Germany, George Waber was educated in the Fatherland, and as a boy in his teens came to America with his parents. In Rochester, New York, he learned the trade of a butcher, but after accompanying the family to Michigan he worked out as a farm laborer by the month. Enlisting, at the breaking out of the Civil war, in the Thirteenth Michigan Volunteer Infan

Page  930 930 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY try, he went South with his regiment, and continued in active service until the expiration of his term of enlistment, when he was honorably discharged. Returning to Van Buren county, Michigan, he purchased a tract of timber in Pine Grove township, and having cleared a large portion of his land was there engaged in farming several seasons. Later, leaving his family on the farm, he took up a homestead claim in Baraga county, Michigan, made the necessary improvements to secure a title to the land, and then returned to his home in Pine Grove township, and was there a resident the remainder of his life. He married Aliss Mary Miller, who was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, being a sister of Mrs. Thomas Waber. She died February 8, 1894, leaving the following children: George T., the subject of this sketch, Louis H., John N.. and Elizabeth. Having completed his early studies in the common schools of his native township, George T. Waber assisted his father on the parental homestead until attaining man's estate. Beginning life for himself as a farmer, he started in on a modest scale, with a comparatively few acres of land which he could call his own. Meeting with encouraging results in his labors, he made subsequent investments in other tracts of land, acquiring title to upwards of two hundred acres of rich and fertile land, on which he has a substantial residence, a good barn and all the outbuildings and machinery required by an up-to-date agriculturist. In 1911 AMr. Waber embarked in the mercantile business in the village of Kendall, where he has a large store, well stocked with general merchandise, including a fine line of agricultural implements and machinery. Mr. Waber married, October 29, 1889, Martha E. Way, a daughter of Harrison S. Way, a granddaughter of Lyman Way and a great-granddaughter of John Way, of Vermont. Lyman Way, a native of Peacham, Vermont, was of a roving disposition, and not only lived in several different places in his native state, but made years in Minnesota. IHe spent his declining years, however, among three trips to California in pioneer days, and spent two or three the green hills of his native state, dying in the town of his birth. His wife, whose maiden name was Sophia Stevens, was born in Vermont, and there died, her death occurring at Barton Landing. at the age of eighty-two years. They were the parents of six children. as follows: Julia; Mary: Harrison S.. father of Mfrs. Waber: Richlard; and Marshall and Marcellus, twins. Harrison S. Way began when young to assist his mother in her efforts to support the family, his father being away from home a large part of the time. On September 6, 1861, he enlisted in Comipany E, Sixth Vermont Volunteer Infantry, for three years. during which time he was frequently in battle,'having participated in the engagements at Williamsburg, Lees Mills. White Oak Swamp, Fair Oaks, the siege of Richmond, and at Savage Station and Malvern Hill. Soon after the last mentioned battle he was sent to the hospital on account of illness, and when able to be about he was assigned to duty in the commissary department, in which he served until honorably discharged from the service. He was subsequently in the employ of the Government until 1865, when he enlisted in

Page  931 HISTORY OF VAN BUJREN COUNTY 9,j31 Company C, Fourth Regiment, United States Veteran Volunteers, with which he remained until honorably discharged, at Louisville, Kentucky, at the close of the conflict. Returning then to Vermont, Mr. Way remained there three years, when, in 1868, he went to Washington, District of Columbia, where for four years he was employed in the quartermaster's department. In 1872 Mr. Way came with his family to Michigan, settling in Penn Grove township, where he rented land for a few years. He afterwards bought one hundred and thirty acres of partly improved land in that township, and was there engaged in farming until 1910, when he sold, and removed to his present home in the village of Kendall. In 1868 Mr. Way married Mrs. Sarah (Willey) Hatch, widow of Calvin THatch. She was born in Danville, Vermont, a daughter of Noah and Sally (Gray) Willey. Her paternal grandfather, Samuel Wiley, was a life-long resident of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, while her maternal grandparents, John and Hannah (Otis) Gray, spent their entire lives in Vermont. Mr. and Mrs. Way reared four children, namely: Frank S. E.; Martha Emma, now the wife of George T. Waber, the subject of this sketch; Freeman W.; and George Fred. AIr. and Mrs. Waber have three children, Bertha, Harry and Leon. An active and prominent member of the Iemocratic party, Mr. Waber has served as a member of the Township Democratic Committee, and as a delegate to different party conventions. Ile takes an intelligent interest in local affairs, and for ten years represented Pine Grove township on the County Board of Supervisors. EVERT S. DYcKMAN.-Taking a turn successively in the transportation industry on the lake, mercantile life as a dealer in ice, coal and wood, and finally as a manufacturer of cigars, Evert S Dyckman, of South H-aven, has given a striking evidence of his versatility and adaptability to circumstances and conditions. He has also shown that no matter what has engaged his faculties he has been equal to the requirements, and in all occupations has maintained and manifested his interest in the locality of his home and a strong desire to promote its progress and the substantial and enduring welfare of its people. Mr. Dyckmlan has bestowed his efforts on the region of his birth and found its opportunities sufficient to employ them to his own advantage and the benefit of that region. He was born in South Haven, Michigan, on December 5, 1856, and is a son of Aaron S. and Emeratta (Blood) Dyckman, natives of New York state, the former born in Seneca county of that state on February 16, 1826. and the latter in UTtica. The father died on December 14. 1899. and the mother is still living. They had four children, three of whom are living: Evert S.; Harriet, who is the wife of F. G. Dewey, of Kalamazoo; and Claud, who resides in Chicago. The second child, George, died in infancy. * The father, A. S. Dyckman, was brought to Michigan by his parents while he was yet a little boy. The family located first in Paw Paw township, Van Buren county, but soon afterward removed to Schooleraft, Kalamazoo county, where the father at

Page  932 932 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY tended school, and after a due course of preparation was sent to college in Kalamazoo. In 1847, when he was twenty-one years old, he hrst visited South Haven, stopping but a short time. In 1849 the golden music of California enlisted his attention and was soon pulling at his heartstrings as with the tug of gravitation, and he was unable to resist it. He joined a company of adventurers like himself and dared the hardships and dangers of the long jaunt across the plains and mountains to the region of fabulous wealth in an effort to make his fortune by a few strong and lucky strokes. But his success was very moderate, and in 1852 he returned to his Michigan home, making the trip by the Isthmus of Panama, over the Gulf of Mexico and up the Mississippi to the landing place most convenient to South Haven. After his arrival at South Haven he formed a partnership with E. B. and B. H. Dyckman, A. W. Pantland, Joseph Sturgis, Marshall Hale and Uriah Conger, and together they conducted a thriving saw mill and lumber business under the firm name of Dyckman, Sturgis & Company. The undertaking was successful and the partnership continued several years. Mr. A. S. Dyckman did not, however, rest his hopes on this industry alone. He engaged in growing fruit, and was the first in this section to cultivate peaches commtercially, and in time he became the most extensive producer of the tree fruits adapted to the region in this locality, holding this rank until his death, but with many followers of his stimulating example and sharers in the gratifying profits of the industry. -le was also a man of prominence and influence in the public affairs of the township and county, serving as township supervisor for a number of years and as county treasurer two terms. He was also one of the founders of the Scott Club, a literary society organized and conducted for the mental improvement and social enjoyment of its members. In politics he was a pronounced Republican, with strong faith in his party and great earnestness and zeal in its service and a voice of potency in its councils. His son, Evert S. Dyckman, obtained his education in the schools of South Haven and at the State Agricultural College in Lansing. He was then associated with his father in business for about eight years, and at the end of that period worked for a time for the H. W. Williamls Transportation Company. But he was ambitious to have an establishment and a business of his own, and started one in the ice, coal and wood trade, which he carried on for awhile. From that he turned to the manufacture of cigars, in which he has ever since been profitably engaged. The public affairs of the city of his home have always interested him greatly, and he has done all he could to secure their proper administration. In 1903 he was elected mayor and in 1904 was re-elected, serving two consecutive terms in the office. He was also a member of the board of public works for five years. In these positions he was able to render the city signal service in the way of promoting public improvements, and he used his opportunities to the full measure in the work. In fraternal relations Mr. Dyckman has affiliated with but one of the benevolent societies so numerous among men, but in that

Page  933 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 933 lie has been an earnest and very helpful member. He belongs to Star of the Lake Lodge, No. 158, Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons, and has been its Worshipful Master two terms. He is also a Royal Arch Mason, belonging to South Haven Chapter, No. 58, in this branch of the fraternity, and a Knight Templar of Malta Commandery at Benton Harbor. In addition he and his wife are members of the Masonic auxiliary, the Order of the Eastern Star. In political matters he sides with the Democratic party with loyalty and zeal. Mr. Dyckman was married on January 25, 1895, to Miss Lucille Plummer, who was born in South Haven and reared and educated here. She is a daughter of William G. and Susan (McDowell) Plummier, natives of Michigan and long residents of Allegan county. Mr. and Mrs. Dyckman have one child, their son Clovis, who was born on the 25th of May, 1896, and is still living at home with them. The parents are highly esteemed in all parts of the county of their residence and by all classes of its people. They have shown that they follow high ideals of citizenship and embrace every opportunity to aid in promoting the welfare of their city and county and that of their residents, and that they are impelled by a strong sense of duty in all the relations of life. They are worthy representatives of the sturdy and sterling citizenship of Van Buren county, and as such are well deserving of the strong hold they have on the confidence and regard of the people. LEANDER SIMMONS.-Noteworthy not only as the representative of an honored pioneer of Michigan, but as one of the self-made men of Van Buren county, Leander Simmons holds a prominent position among the successful agriculturists of Pine Grove township, where he has a large farm, which in its appointments compares favorably with any in the locality. The neatness, appearance and flourishing condition of his farming property bears visible evidence to the most casual observer the thrift and care of the proprietor, and show conclusively that he has a thorough understanding of his business and that he exercises excellent judgment in its management. He was born January 26, 1840, in Townsend township, Norfolk county, Ontario, Canada, a son of Isaac Simmons, and grandson of Philip Simmons, both natives of Newark. New Jersey. His great-grandparents on the paternal side immigrated from Germany in colonial days, settling in Newark, New Jersey, where they spent their remaining days. They reared four sons, two of whom lived and died in Newark, while the other two settled in Rochester, New York. Philip Simmons was a blacksmith by trade, and followed it through his active career. He married, and reared five sons and five daughters. Early in life Isaac Simmons learned the trade of a shoemaker, all shoes at that time having been made to order. Moving to Norfolk county, Canada, when young, he bought fifty acres of land in Townsend township, and after marrying followed his trade and farmed. Selling his farm in 1841, he started for the West, accompanied by his wife and son, and journeyed overland with Vol. II-1-20

Page  934 934 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY teams to Allegan, Michigan. All of this part of the state was then heavily timbered, much of the land being owned by the Government. Deer, bear, catamounts, wild turkeys and, in fact, game of all kinds native to this section of the country were plentiful and, with the Indians, populated the forests. After looking about for a time Mr. Isaac Simmons bought, in Gun Plains township, forty acres of land, a very small patch of which had been cleared to make room for the substantial log house that stood upon it. Ready money was a scare article in those days, and he added to his income by working in a shoe factory at Kalamazoo, making shoes by hand, as no machinery for the making was then in use, being thus employed whenever work on his land was not imperative. Subsequently selling out there, he removed to Kalamazoo county, and having purchased land in section six, Cooper township, was there engaged in general farming until his death, at the age of sixty-six years, his life having been lost in a fierce tornado which he encountered while returning to his home from Plainwell. The maiden name of the wife of Isaac Simmons was Mary Culver. She was born in Townsend township, Norfolk county, Canada, a daughter of Henry and Eunice Culver. both of whom were born in Pennsylvania, of German ancestry. She survived her husband, and lived to be nearly ninety years old. She reared three sons, namely: Leander, with whom this brief sketch is chiefly concerned; Marvin, who owns and occupies the old homestead; and Philip, who died at the age of thirty-one years. But an infant when he was brought by his parents to Michigan. Leander Simmons has no recollection of any other home. An ambitious student in his youthful days, he attended the pioneer schools of Allegan county and of Cooper township, completing his studies at Kalamazoo College. He was reared to habits of industry and honesty, and began as a boy to assist his father on the farm, remaining beneath the parental roof until attaining his majority, when he began life's battle on his own account, with no other capital than strong hands, a willing heart and an unlimited amount of courage and energy. Locating in Pine Grove township, Van Buren county, in 1862, Mr. Simmons bought eighty acres of land in section three, and immediately began the arduous labor of reclaiming a farm from the wilderness, and in a comparatively brief time had much of his land under cultivation, and in the raising of crops was making good money. As his means increased, he wisely invested in other lands and now has title to four hundred acres of as fertile and productive land as can be found in western Michigan. His large brick house is sheltered from the cold winds of winter by a natural grove of pine and oak trees, and near by stands his barn, which is conveniently arranged, and other substantial farm buildings, his estate, with its excellent improvements, being one of the most attractive and desirable in the township. Mr. Simmons married, in 1866, Margaret Hazen, who was born in Townsend township, Norfolk county, Canada, a daughter of Daniel Hazen. Her father was a wagon maker, and for many years followed his trade at Woodhouse, Norfolk county, Canada, where he spent all of the later part of his life. Mrs. Simmons's maternal

Page  935 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 935 grandfather, Colonel Gilbert, was an officer in the English army, and for several years was a recruiting officer in Norfolk county, Canada. Mrs. Simmons passed to the life beyond at the age of about sixty-four years, leaving four children, namely: Elgy, Arthur, Elmer and Mary. Elgy and Arthur are prosperous farmers. Arthur, who fought during the Spanish-American war in Cuba and the Philippines, has been for a number of years in the railway mail service, with headquarters at Seattle. Washington. MIary received her advanced education at the State Normal School in Ypsilanti, and is now a teacher in the Seattle High School. Although Mr. Simmons has even been too much engrossed with his own affairs to meddle with politics, he has always performed his duty at the polls, and has served on the Republican Township Committee, and for twenty years has been a member of the local school board. MATTHEW VASSAR SELKIRK.-This enterprising merchant, influential citizen and potential social and civic force in the life of South Haven and Van Buren county, has been a resident of the city ever since 1866, when he was fourteen years old. Here he completed his education and learned his trade as a harness maker. Here also he married and has maintained his domestic shrine. He has, therefore, been closely and serviceably connected with the interests of the community for a long time in business and private life, and in addition has given its residents good service as a public official at different times. Mr. Selkirk was born in Waukegan, Lake county, Illinois, on May 28, 1852. His parents, James and Electa C. (Austin) Selkirk, were natives of the state of New York, the father born in Homer. Cortland county. He died at the age of sixty-three years, and the mother died in July, 1907. Five children were born of their union. two of whom are living, Matthew V. and his older sister Lucia S.. who is the wife of Charles P. Ludwig and resides in Otsego, Michigan. The father came W'est in 1837 and first located in La Porte, Indiana, for a short time, then moved to Lake county, Illinois. He was a Methodist Episcopal clergyman for over forty years, and busied himself in other affairs of great and signal service to the country in critical times. In 1849 he went to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama. but in the fall of 1850 lie returned to his former Illinois home in Lake county. There. in connection with his ministerial duties. he cultivated a farm and did a great deal toward keeping up the anti-slavery agitation. When the terrible storm cloud of the Civil war burst upon the country he made his faith good in practical work by organizing a company of volunteers to go to the defense of the Union. But he was refused entry into the service for the field himself, because it was believed he could do a great deal nore good at home recruiting men. His company comprised ninety-seven men. and he was to go with them as their chaplain. He remained at home, however, and in the course of the war enlisted one thousand four hundred soldiers in Lake and McHenry counties, Illinois, and aided vastly in keeping up the enthusiasm of the people for

Page  936 936 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY the Union and its salvation from dismemberment. But his family paid its tribute to the Union cause in actual service in the field. His brother Charles enlisted in the South when he was but sixteen years old and was the captain of his company, but was soon afterward taken prisoner at Harper's Ferry, Virginia. He was paroled and sent home, and when his parole expired he again enlisted, although then barely seventeen, and served to the end of the war. In 1866 he came to South Haven and lived for a time, then went to Kalkaska county and engaged in the drug and grocery business several years, and served two terms as county clerk and register of deeds. He spent the last year of his life in Gibson City, Illinois. In the fall of 1866 the family of Rev. Mr. Selkirk was moved by him to South Haven, where he continued to do ministerial work and also carried on a flourishing drug business. In politics he was an ardent and zealous member of the Republican party from its organization to the close of his life. He cast his first vote for it in 1856, its first campaign, and never failed to support its candidates afterward while he lived. He also took an active stand in its favor in his talk and work, and rendered it considerable service at all times, notwithstanding he was a clergyman and in business. Matthew Vassar Selkirk began his education in Waukegan, Illinois, and completed it in South Haven. At the age of sixteen he started to learn the trade of harness maker, and in 1871 went into business as a manufacturer of harness. He continued his operations in this line of production until the fall of 1899. He then devoted his attention to the real estate business for a few years, and in 1910 returned to harness-making, in which he is still engaged. His business is extensive and active, but it has never been so great or exacting as to deaden his interest in the welfare of his community or lessen his efforts to promote that by all means at his command. He served as village treasurer one term and as alderman from his city ward one term, and in many other ways has contributed directly and essentially to the progress and improvement of the city. He is the owner of the opera house in South Haven, and is careful to see that it offers only proper entertainment to its patrons, for in all respects, intellectually and morally, as well as materially, the public weal is an object of supreme interest to him and always has his earnest and intelligent advocacy and aid. Mr. Selkirk was married on October 24, 1883, in Waukegan, Illinois, to Miss Helen J. Palmer. She was born in the state of New York and is a daughter of George and Sarah Jane (Morrison) Palmer. The father was born in New York state and died while serving his country in the Civil war. The mother is still living and makes her home with Mr. and Mrs. Selkirk. They had only one child, their daughter Helen J., now Mrs. Selkirk. By her marriage to Mr. Selkirk she has become the mother of two children. their daughters Effa N. and Mildred V. Effa married Ralph E. Longley and lives in Seattle, Washington.

Page  [unnumbered] I

Page  [unnumbered] GEORGE W. HUTCHINS

Page  937 HISTORY OF VAN BIJREN COUNTY 937 GEORGE W. HUTCHINS.-The death of George W. Hutchins, of Paw Paw township in this county, which occurred on May 5, 1911, took away from Van Buren county one of its most substantial and progressive farmers, a sturdy and sterling citizen, a man of high character and enlightened public spirit, and a friend of hundreds who felt a deep sense of personal bereavement when he could be with them no more. IHe had a special interest in the welfare of the county of Van Buren, because his parents were among its pioneer settlers; he was born and reared within its borders and passed the whole of the sixty-seven years of his life among its people; and his brothers and sisters were nearly all born and all who grew to maturity were reared upon its soil, which gave them their stature and their strength for life and became the resting place of their remains and those of their parents in death. Mr. Hutchins was born in Paw Paw township, this county, on November 6, 1843, a son of Richard and Sarah (H-uxtable) IHutchins. The parents began their lives, grew to miaturity, and were educated and married in England. They. camle to this country and Michigan in 1836, and located in Van Bluren county, where they hewed a farm out of the wilderness and transformned the unbroken wilds into al comfortable home for their offspring. They had nine children: Willianm, who was born on November 13. 1832, and has been dead for a number of years; Ainn, who was born on June 30, 1834, and is also deceased; Elizabeth, whose life )began on October 28, 1836, and ended many years ago; John, who caine into being on February 18, 1839, and has long been dead; Mary, who was born on May 12, 1841, and is now the wife of Richard Hutchins, of Paw Paw; Charles, who first saw tlhe lighlt of this world on September 20, 1842, and now has his home in Kalamazoo, Michigan; George W., the subject of this brief nmemoir; Thomas, who was born on August 3, 1846, and is now living in the state of California; and Sarah, who was born on Decelmber 3, 1849, and is deceased. George W. Hutchins was a farmer all his life from his boyhood. He attended the country school in the neighborhood of his homne when he had opportunity and could be spared from the exacting duties of cultivating a new tract of land which had not yet learned obedience and responsiveness to the developing hand of tie husbandman. As soon as he was able he bought off the heirs and with his mother conducted the farm until her death, after which he purchased more land and at the time of his death he owned one hundred and three acres of land, well improved and brought to a high state of productiveness of his skillful cultivation. The farm is in section twelve of Paw Paw township, and is one of the best in this part of the county. For some years he occupied the old family homestead of ninetyseven acres, but a number of years ago the buildings on this were destroyed by fire, and he then bought the farm of one hundred and three acres which he thereafter occupied until his death. It is on the other side of the road from the homestead, and the land is of the same character as that. In selling the homestead, therefore he neither left the scenes of his boyhood and youth nor sul)jected himself to new and untried conditions in his farming.

Page  938 93 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY On February 28, 1886, Mr. Iutchins was united in marriage with Mrs. Lydia (Carr) Warner, a daughter of George and Catherine (Snyder) Carr, natives of New York, and the parents of four children: William, who lives at Waverly, this county; Mrs. Hutchins; Moses, who was killed in the Civil war; and George, who died in infancy. These were children of the father's second marriage. His first union in wedlock was with Miss Christine Plank, who bore him four children: Jacob, who lives in Paw Paw; and Peter, Cornelius and William, all deceased. By her first marriage, which took place in 1859 and united her with Delos Warner, Mrs. Hutchins had one child, her son Willard \arner, who was a resident of Waverly, Van Buren county, but now resides with his mother. Her second husband, Mr. Hutchins, (luring all of his mature years gave faithful adherence and support to the principles and candidates of the Republican party, and was a zealous worker for its success in all campaigns. He held several township offices and rendered the people good service in them all. He was a Baptist in religious faith and connection, and for many years served as one of the deacons of the congregation in which he held his membership. In this he always manifested the warmest and most helpful interest, and was held in cordial regard as a force of great value in promoting its welfare and expanding its usefulness among its own members and the people of the community in general. CHARLES J. MAY.-Conspicuous among the earlier settlers of Pine Grove township, Van Buren county, was Charles J. May, who still owns and occupies the farm which he hewed from the wilderness, and which has been his home for a half century or more. A native of Germany, he was born in the village of Laudenbach, Baden, in 1831. His father, William May, was born and reared in Germany, and with his wife spent his entire life in Germany. He was a traveling salesman, but owned a home in the village of Laudenbach, where he was noted as a most successful bee raiser and keeper, generally having as many as one hundred and fifty hives of bees in his apiary. Two of his sons, Charles J., the subject of this sketch, and William came to America, the latter named settling in Pennsylvania. Educated in the Fatherland, Charles J. May attended school regularly until fourteen years old, acquiring a practical knowledge of books. Five years later he immigrated to America, being thirtytwo days in crossing the ocean on a sailing vessel, and landing at the end of the voyage in New York city. Going from there to Ohio, he began the struggle of life among strangers, without capital other than he earned. For two years he was employed as a farm laborer in the vicinity of Cleveland. Being convinced that he could find more favorable opportunities for advancing his financial condition in a newer country, Mr. May made his way to Van Buren county, Michigan. The county, especially its northern portion, was then sparsely settled, the people hereabout having but limited means at their command. He found employment in clearing the land and in farming. Industrious and thrifty, he saved his wages,

Page  939 HIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 939 and when he had accumulated a sufficient sum to warrant him in so doing bought eighty acres of the land now included in his present farm, in section eleven, Pine Grove township. The entire tract was covered with timber when he bought it, and for a few years he rented land near by, and during the time that he worked that cleared a few acres of his own estate. When ready to set up an establishment of his own he settled with his bride on his own farm, which he has since placed under a high state of cultivation. Mr. May has made other improvements of great value, erecting a substantial set of farm buildings, and installing all the machinery and equipments necessary for carrying on his agricultural work after the most approved modern methods. Mr. May married Margaret Waber, who was born in 1843, in Bavaria, Germany, her birth occurring on the sixth day of April. IHer father, John Waber, was born and bred in Bavaria, and there learned the trade of a carpenter. In 1848, accompanied by his wife and eight children, he came to America in a sailing vessel, being six weeks on ship board before landing in New York. Locating in Rochester, New York, he lived there for six years, after which he spent a year in Kalamazoo, Michigan. From there he came to Van Buren county, which was then in its pristine wildness. with no railroad nearer than Lawton. He settled in Pine Grove township, and a year or so after coining here purchased eighty acres of woodland in section two. Clearing a small space in the forest, he erected a log house, and having placed a part of his land under cultivation began farming in earnest, for several years taking his surplus productions to Kalamazoo with ox teamis, and selling it, or exchanging it for needed household supplies. Late in life he sold his farm and moved to Otsego, where he lived with his son Fred, dying at his home at the advanced age of eighty-one years. His wife died on the home farm in Pine Grove township. at the age of sixty-seven years. She reared seven children, as follows: George, Henry, Frederick, Anna, Thomas. Margaret and James. Mr. and Mirs. May have had nine children, namely: Frederick, Philip, Anna, Barbara, Frances, Charlie, Nellie, Alice and Elmer. Frederick married Caroline Stiloh. Philip married Mabel Cowan, and they have one son, Philip H. Cowan. Anna, wife of Peter Stevens, has six children, May, Royal, Dale, Adelbert, Isabelle and Isadore. Barbara, who married George Wryman, died in 1909, leaving two children, Margaret and Charlie. Frances is the wife of Clyde Scramlin. Nellie, wife of Florence Harbolt, has three children, Flossie, Anna and Elmer. Alice is the wife of Elmer Simmons. Elmer, the youngest member of the parental househould. miarried Gertrude Squires, and they have two children, Lyle and Claudie. Charlie is unmarried and manages the home farm. JOHN H.,TRIPP.-Leaving the home of his parents and the scenes and associations of his childhood and youth at the age of seventeen, and coming to Michigan when it was still a part of the remote West, to join a brother in South Haven who was conducting a general store in that city, himself far from his kindred and

Page  940 910 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY still a young man, John H. Tripp, now one of the leading business men and citizens of the town of his adoption, gave at an early age a signal proof of his mettle and an indication of the qualities of resolute and self-reliant manhood which have distinguished him through all his subsequent years of life and in all his business undertakings. Mr. Tripp is a native of Orleans county, New York, where his life began on September 1, 1852. His parents, Alvah and Jane (Blakely) Tripp, were also natives of New York, the father born in Delaware county on March 15, 1806, and the mother was born in 1810. She died on January 22, 1866, and the father passed away in 1882. They were the parents of seven sons and seven daughters, of whom ten grew to maturity and five are now living, three of the daughters and two of the sons. John II. was the thirteenth child born in the family. The father was a carpenter and farmer, and located in western New York in 1832, and there he erected a sawmill which he operated in connection with his farming and some work that he still did at his trade. Early in the forties he bought land in Michigan. near Lansing, where the State Agricultural College now stands. He made a tour of observation through this part of the country and foresaw its possibilities in the way of progress and improvement, and he eagerly embraced the opportunity to become possessed of some of the opportunities it offered for advancement to industry and thrift by purchasing the land spoken of. Ile then returned to his New York home with the intention of moving his family to his land in this state. But his wife declined to come West. and he abandoned his project. He then remained in New York until after her death, and passed his last days with his children in that state and this one, dying at Kibbie, Michigan, where his remains were buried. He was a great lover of good horses, and in his time owned some very fine ones. In politics he was a Whig in early life and later a Republican, and in religious connection belonged to the Free Methodist church from his boyhood. John H. Tripp was reared to the age of seventeen on his father's farm in the state of New York, and obtained the higher portion of his education in schools at Albion and Rochester in that state. In 1869, having finished his schooling, as he supposed, the probleii of life was before him, and he made his choice of a locality in which to solve it. He came to South Haven, Michigan, and there he clerked for a time in a general store kept by his brother, Samuel A. Tripp, with whom he remained two years. The next two years he passed in the same capacity in the employ of D. G. Wright, another merchant of South Haven, attaining his majority while in the employ of that gentleman. He felt at this time that his education was incomplete, and at the end of the period mentioned he went back to New York, took up his residence in Rochester, and again attended school there. While doing so he worked on a farm in the neighborhood of the city, so that he lost nothing in the way of provision for his livelihood while preparing himself for higher duties and the use of

Page  941 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 941 better opportunities for his advancement. He next taught school two winters in New York, and then returned to Michigan. After his second arrival in this state he located at Kibbie and bought one hundred and sixty acres of stumpage land in the vicinity of that town. He cleared his land and resided there for eighteen years, cultivated it and carried on a general merchandising enterprise in Kibbie, where he was also agent for the Michigan Railroad. Keeping in touch with the spirit of progress, and always alert to the needs of his community, Mr. Tripp in 1896 organized a telephone company within his own family, and in March, 1898, incorporated it as the Kibbie Telephone Company, of which he has been secretary, treasurer and general manager from the start. The line runs into South Haven, of course, and the offices of the company are in that city. Mr. Tripp is progressive and studious of his business, and keeps his telephone service up to the latest developments in the enterprise. He also makes every effort to meet every requirement of the community in the matter and fully satisfy all the proper demands of his patrons, so that his telephone line is one of the best in the state, and has no superior in this part of the country. MIr. Tripp was married on December 23, 1880, to Mliss Flora Watson. a native of Michigan, born near Grand Rapids, and the daughter of Jerome B. and Catherine (Friant) Watson, who were born and reared in the state of New York and located in Van Buren county, Michigan, in 1854, being among the pioneers of the county. The father has been dead some years, but the mother is still living. They had ten children, of whom Mrs. Tripp was the first born. The family home in this county was in Geneva township, seven miles east of South Haven, and was liter