A history of Van Buren County, Michigan a narrative account of its historical progress, its people, and its principal interests
Rowland, O. W. (Oran W.), 1839-

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Page  I A HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY MICHIGAN A Narrative Account of its Historical Progress, its People, and its Principal Interests. BY CAPTAIN 0. W. ROWLAND VOLUME I ILL USTR.A TED PUBLISHERS THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY CHICAGO AND NEW YORK I912

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Page  III PREFACE More than eighty years have elapsed since the first settlements were made within the limits of Van Buren county. None of those earliest pioneers are left to tell the story, which at this late day rests in tradition, in letters that chance to have been preserved, in ancient public documents that have been placed on the records of the county, and in former publications that have been issued. And while many facts set forth are within the personal knowledge of the author of this "History of Van Buren County," he has drawn liberally from all available and authentic sources. He has freely used the information contained in a history of the county published a generation ago, has corresponded with and interviewed many of his friends and older residents of the county in various localities, and has endeavored in all practicable ways to gather the most authentic matters in reference to the county of which he has been a resident for the past fifty-five years. His familiarity with the public records of the county enabled him to obtain many facts pertaining especially to the earliest records of the county that he might not otherwise have been able to set forth. The period which has been spent in the pleasant task involved in the preparation of this work has been all too limited, although even if the period covered by the author's labors had been longer, the history, doubtless, would still have been incomplete and faulty. This is the nature of everything human, especially the writing of history. Yet the author believes that the work, as a whole, is correct, and knows that his labors, and those of his associates, have been conscientiously performed. Many things have been omitted that might have been recorded if time and space had permitted. As it is, by the courtesy of the publishers, the compiler has been permitted to quite largely exceed the original plan of the work. In style of illustration, printing and binding, also, all pains have been taken to make the work attractive to its patrons. To all those friends who have come to his assistance, the author here extends his grateful acknowledgments. Space will not permit special mention of each to be made, but to his able assistants, Hon. Charles J. Monroe, Hon. Jason Woodman, Dr. George H. Cornish, Hon. C. H. Engle and Hon. Thomas J. Cavanaugh, he tenders his sincere thanks for the invaluable advice and assistance they have rendered in the preparation of the work, which the author trusts may prove of interest to its readers, of value to the citizens of the county, instructive to the rising generation, helpful in commemoration of the early pioneers, and preservative of historical matters that ought not to be forgotten. ORAN W. ROWLAND. iii

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Page  V Contents CHAPTER I ABORIGINAL HISTORY FIRST CHURCH BUILT BY INDIANS-CHIEF POKAGON'S ADDRESSPOKAGON'S LAST WIGWAM-JULIA POKAGON'S ADDRESS-OLD WAPSEY-DO INDIANS CRY, LAUGH OR JOKE?-ALGONQUIN LEGEND OF MAN'S CREATION —LEGEND OF PAW PAW AND THE PAW PAW VALLEY-ALGONQUIN LEGENDS OF SOUTH HAVEN-AFTER ME-ME-OG (SQUABS) IN VAN BUREN COUNTY —THE "BUCK PONY" RIDE-"NEVER CARRY A REVOLVER, BOYS "-SAW-KAW'S LOVE STORY-ME-ME-OG, TIHE WILD PIGEONS..............1-52 CHAPTER II FOREIGN AND AMERICAN GOVERNMENT FRENCH PERIOD (1634-1764)-ENGLISI PERIOD (1760-1796) — TERRITORIAL (AMERICAN) PERIOD —MICHIGAN AS A STATE — POPULATION OF THE STATE (1810-1910)-POPULATION OF THE COUNTY (1840-1910)-PROPERTY VALUATION OF STATE AND COUNTY (1851-1911)................................. 53-76 CHAPTER III CIVIL AND EARLY HISTORY FIRST MICHIGAN COUNTY-VAN BUREN COUNTY CREATED-CIVIL AND JUDICIAL ORGANIZATION-TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION-PIONEER PICTURES-VAN BUREN COUNTY PIONEER ASSOCIATION-EDWIN BARNUM'S POEM-OSLERISM REVIEWED.................77-97 V

Page  VI vi CONTENTS CHAPTER IV ROADS AND RAILROADS NOTED INDIAN TRAILS-FIRST MICHIGAN WHITE MAN's ROADTERRITORIAL AND STATE ROADS-THE OLD STAGE ROUTESPLANK ROADS-THE PAW PAW RIVER-RAILROADS-THE MICHIGAN CENTRAL-KALAMAZOO AND SOUTH HAVEN RAILROAD-THE PAW PAW RAILROAD-TOLEDO AND SOUTH HAVEN RAILROAD (FRUIT BELT LINE)-THE PERE MARQUETTE RAILWAY....98-114 CHAPTER V EDUCATIONAL HISTORY ACT OF 1827 MODIFIED —HARASSED SCHOOL INSPECTORS-THE TEACHERS' QUALIFICATIONS-MRS. ALLEN RICE'S REMINISCENCES -THE OLD AND THE NEW........................... 115-127 CHAPTER VI THE COUNTY SEAT LAWRENCE AS THE COUNTY SEAT-PAW PAW DISPLACES LAWRENCE -PROPOSED COUNTY BUILDINGS-OLD COURT HOUSE COMPLETED-SOUTII HAVEN BIDS FOR COUNTY SEAT-POPULAR VOTE FOR PAW PAW-NEW COUNTY BUILDINGS-COURT HOUSE CORNERSTONE LAID —COST OF PRESENT COUNTY BUILDINGS.....129-158 CHAPTER VII BENCH AND BAR STATE SUPREME AND CIRCUIT COURTS-COUNTY COURTS-FIRST CIRCUIT JUDGE-SUCCESSORS OF JUDGE RANSOM-JUDGE FLAvrUS J. LITTLEJOHN-THIRTY-SIXTH CIRCUIT CREATED-PROBATE JUDGES-VAN BUREN COUNTY BAR................... 159-167

Page  VII CONTENTS vii CHAPTER VIII POLITICS OF THE COUNTY GENERAL ELECTIONS-THE PARTIES IN THE COUNTY-COUNTY OFFICERS-MEMBERS OF THE STATE LEGISLATURE-CHAIRMEN OF THE BOARD OF SUPERVISORS-OTHER IMPORTANT OFFICIALS FROM VAN BUREN COUNTY-CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONSPROPOSED CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS-VAN BUREN COUNTY AND THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC...................... 168-182 CHAPTER IX CIVIL WAR INFANTRY SIXTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY-TWELFTH MICHIGAN INFANTRYTHIRTEENTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY-STONE RIVER-SEVENTEENTH MICHIGAN AT SOUTH MOUNTAIN-NINETEENTH MICHIGAN-TWENTY-FOURTH REGIMENT-TWENTY-FIFTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY-TWENTY-EIGHTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY-SPANISHAMERICAN W AR.................................... 183-231 CHAPTER X CIVIL WAR CAVALRY FIRST MICHIGAN-THIRD CAVALRY-JUSTICE TO CAVALRY REGIMENTS-FOURTH MICHIGAN CAVALRY-CAPTURE OF JEFFERSON DAVIS-NINTH MICHIGAN-CAPTURE OF MORGAN-FIRST AND L AST............................................... 232-273 CHAPTER XI OTHER COMMANDS FIRST MICHIGAN ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS —FIRST REGIMENT MICHIGAN LIGHT ARTILLERY-VAN BUREN COUNTY SOLDIERS IN OTHER MICHIGAN REGIMENTS-BIRGE'S WESTERN SHARPSHOOTERS -COMPANY C, SEVENTIETH NEW YORK INFANTRY-OTHER COMPANIES OR REGIMENTS............................... 274-310

Page  VIII viii CONTENTS CHAPTER XII GEOLOGY OF COUNTY THE CAMBRIAN-ORDOVICIAN-THE SILURIAN AGE-DEVONIANLOWER CARBONIFEROUS-THE PLEISTOCENE (LAST CHAPTER)....................................................311-31 7 CHAPTER XIII AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE WESTERN VAN BUREN-LAKE MICHIGAN, A BENEFACTOR-FRUIT RAISING AT SOUTHI HTAVEN-FRUIT BELT WIDENS-COOPERATION THROUGH SOCIETIES-" 'MASTER L. H. BAILEY"-A. S. DYCKMAN AND T. T. LYON-CROPS OF THE COUNTY-SEMI-AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES-AGRICULTURE IN EASTERN VAN BUREN-" OAK OPENINGS" FIRST CULTIVATED-PIONEER FARM IMPLEMENTS-AFTER THE CIVIL WAR-LIVE STOCK-GOLDEN ERA (1865-90)-THE LEAN YEARS OF THE NINETIES —DEVELOPMENT OF THE GRAPE IND TTSTRY...........................................319-331 CHAPTER XIV TALES OF THE OLDEN D)AY DECATUR WA:R SCARE-SNOW NOT TURNED TO OIL —FIGHT WITII A WOLF PACK-WOLF BOUNTIES —WOODS FULL OF "PAINTERS" -MRS. RICE'S REMINISCENCES-NARROW ESCAPE OF EDWIN MEARS-INDIAN MOUNDS IN LAWRENCE TOWNSHIP-JOSEPH WOODMAN LOCATES AT PAW PAW (1835)-STORIES BY MRS. NANCY (HICKS) BOWEN —"GOOD TIMES" OF THE OLDEN I)AY....................................................332-341 CHAPTER XV FINANCIAL AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS FIRST NATIONAL BANK, PAW PAW-THE PAW PAW SAVINGS BANKFIRST NATIONAL BANK, SOUTH HAVEN-THE CITIZENS STATE BANK, AND FIRST STATE BANK, SOUTH HAVEN-BANKS OF DECATUR-HARTFORD BANKS-WEST MICHIGAN SAVINGS BANK, BANGOR-THE PEOPLES BANK OF BLOOMINGDALE-AT GOBLEVILLE;

Page  IX CONTENTS ix COVERT, LAWRENCE AND LAWTON-SOUTH HAVEN LOAN AND TRUST COMPANY-VAN BUREN COUNTY FARMERS MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY-TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE LINES.....342-353 CHAPTER XV \ THE PRESS "PAW PAW FREE PRESS "-" PAW TAW FREE PRESS ANI) COURIER" -- THE TRUE NORTHERNER "-"DECATUR REPUBLICAN "-"THE LAWTON LEADER" —"HARTFORD DAY SPRING"-"TIIE BANGOR ADVANCE — EARLY LAWRENCE NEWSPAPERS — W R E N C E TIMES — ' BLOOMINGDALE LEADER' -" GOBLEVILLE NEWS 'SOUTH HAVEN NEWSPAPERS..........................354-368 CHAPTER XVII MEDICINE AND SURGERY A MEDICAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH-PREVENTIVE MIEDICINE-SURGERYTHE COUNTRY PHYSICIAN AND THE TRAINED NURSE-EARLY PHYSICIANS OF VAN BUREN COUNTY-PAW PAW PHYSICIANS-BANGOR-GOBLEVILLE —IARTFORD —COVERT-LAWRENCE —LAWTONTHE PROFESSION IN SOUTH HAVEN-SOUTH HAVEN CITY HOSPITA —DECATTUR —THE VETERINARY SCHOO............ 369-392 CHAPTER XVIII TOWNSHIP OF ALMENA GENERAL DESCRIPTION-PIONEER SETTLERS AND INSTITUTIONSBUSY PERIOD (1836-42)-SETTLEMENT IN THE NORTHERN SECTIONS-CHURCHES-SCHOOLS, SUPERVISORS, ETC......... 393-400 CHAPTER XIX TOWNSHIP OF ANTWERP GENERAL DESCRIPTION-RAILROADS, PROPERTY AND POPULATIONEARLY SETTLEMENT-SETTLERS OF 1836-8-SETTLERS IN SOUTHERN ANTWERP TOWNSHIP-POST OFFICES, ROADS AND HOTELS

Page  X CONTENTS PIONEER MILLS —TOWNSHIP ELECTIONS AND OFFICIALS-EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS-GLEN SPRINGS TROUT HATCHERY-VILLAGE OF LAWTON-VILLAGE OF MATTAWAN-RETROSPECT......401-423 CHAPTER XX TOWNSHIP OF ARLINGTON FIRST ELECTION-FIRST SETTLER ARRIVES-MAJOR HEATH, FIRST SUPERVISOR-THE DANGEROUS BRIGGS BROTHERS-OTHER NEW YORK MEN-THE HOGMIRE FAMILY-RUGGED WORK OF THE PIONEERS —M. H. HOGMIRE ON PIONEER TIMES-NEW TIMES BETTER THAN OLD..................................... 424-436 CHAPTER XXI TOWNSHIP OF BANGOR NATURAL FEATURES-EARLY SETTLERS-PIONEER TAX PAYERSCIVIL AND EDUCATIONAL —SKETCH BY HON. JOHN S. CROSS-IN THE CIVIL WAR-PROGRESS AND PROSPERITY-VILLAGE OF BANGOR-VILLAGE OF DEERFIELD.........................437-447 CHAPTER XXII TOWNSHIP OF 13LOOMINGDALE FIRST SETTLEMENTS AND SETTLERS-TAXES AND TOWNSHIP GOVERNMENT-POPULATION AND EDUCATION-VILLAGE OF BLOOMINGDALE-MR. HAVEN'S SKETCH OF THE VILLAGE —CHURCHES AND SOCIETIES —VILLAGE OF GOBLEVILLE................... 448-463 CHAPTER XXIII TOWNSHIP OF COLUMBIA PHYSICAL FEATURES AND RAILROADS-SITE OF BREEDSVILLE SETTLED -PROPERTY HOLDERS AND TAXES (1839)-SETTLERS PRIOR TO 1845-CIVIL AND POLITICAL-PRESENT VILLAGE OF BREEDSVILLE -BERLAMONT-COLUMBIA-GRAND JUNCTION..........464-473

Page  XI CONTENTS xi CHAPTER XXIV TOWNSHIP OF COVERT THE ORIGINAL TOWNSHIP-PHYSICAL FEATURES-EARLIEST SETTLERS-ROADS AND SCHOOLS-STATISTICAL AND POLITICAL-THE VILLAGE OF COVERT................................. 474-481 CHAPTER XXV TOWNSHIP OF DECATUR FIRST WHITE SETTLER OF THE COUNTY-FIRST NATIVE WHITE CHILD-FIRST GOSPEL SERMON AND PIONEER SCHOOL-A. B. COPLEY ON EARLY DAYS-VARIOUS PIONEERS-CIVIL AND POLITICAL-STATISTICS-VILLAGE OF DECATUR-RETROSPECT... 482-494 CHAPTER XXVI TOWNSHIP OF GENEVA ROADS AND PHYSICAL FEATURES-POLITICAL AND EDUCATIONALPIONEERS OF THE TOWNSHIP-VILLAGE OF LACOTA-VILLAGE OF KIBBIE —GENERAL TOWNSHIP PROGRESS................ 495-501 CHAPTER XXVII TOWNSHIP OF HAMILTON CIVIC AND POLITICAL MATTERS-PHYSICAL FEATURES-TAXPAYERS AND TAXES OF 1839-FIRST BUILDING AND FIRST PERMANENT SETTLER-ALSO SETTLED PRIOR TO 1844-ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE PIONEERS AND THEIR TIMES-SCHOOLS, THEN AND NOW-THE HAMILTON TOWNSHIP FAIR.......................... 502-512 CHAPTER XXVIII TOWNSHIP OF HARTFORD FIRST THINGS AND EVENTS-ALLEN'S PAPER TOWN-FIRST ACTUAL SETTLERS-TERRITORIAL AND OFFICIAL-' WHEN THE

Page  XII xii CONTENTS WORLD GOES WRONG WITH ME"-THE VILLAGE OF HARTFORDEDUCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL-CHURCHES AND SOCIETIES3BUSINESS AND INDUSTRIES............................513-532 (,HIA PTER XXIX TOWNSHIP OF KEELER LAKES AND RESORTS-CIVIL ORGANIZATION-FIRST SETTLERS OF TOWNSHIP-WOLCOTT HI. KEELER-SETTLERS OF 1 836-44-TAxPAYERS, PROPERTY AND SCHOOLS-KEELER AND OTHER TOWNSGENERAL VIEW..................................... 533-542 CHIAPTER XXX TOWNStIIPI OF LAWRENCE S CREAMS AND LAKES-EARLY PIONEERS AND SETTLEMENT —THE BRANCH FAMILY —JUDGE JAY R. MONROE-FIRST MARRIAGE, BIRTII AND DEATH-ROADS AND MAILS —FLAT-BOAT TRAFFICPAPER TOWN OF VAN BUREN —CIVIL, EDUCATIONAL AND POLITICAI —LOOKING BACKWARD-VILLAGE OF LAWRENCE-CHURCHES AND SOCIETIES-BUSINESS AND GENERAL FEATURES......543-563 CHAPTER XXXI TOWNSHIP OF PAW PAW ORIGINAL TOWNSHIP OF LA FAYETTE-BECOMES PAW PAW TOWNSHIP-LAKES-THE HARDY PIONEERS —"MR. AND MRS." PE-PEYAH-DAVID WOODMAN'S PIONEER PICTURES-THE PAW PAW IRREVOCABLY CROOKED-STATISTICAL, POLITICAL, HORTICULTURAL -VILLAGE OF PAW PAW............................. 564-590 CHAPTER XXXII TOWNSHIP OF PINE GROVE. TOWNSHIP ORGANIZED-SHINGLES AS LEGAL TENDERS-MARITAL AND LEGAL-KALAMAZOO AND SOUTH HAVEN RAILROAD-GENERAL PROGRESS-GOBLEVILLE-PINE GROVE-KENDALL-MENTHA....................................................591-597

Page  XIII CONTENTS xiii CHAPTER XXXIII TOWNSHIP OF PORTER FIRST SETTLEMENTS AND SETTLERS-THE KINNEY SETTLEMENTTHE ADAMS FAMILY-TOWNSHIP NAMED AND ORGANIZED-EDUCA'IONAI, AND POLITICAi —A RETROSPECT................ 598-602 CIIAPTER XXXIV TOWNSHIP OF SOUTH HAVEN EARLY ELECTIONS AND OFFICIALS-PROPERTY AND POPULATIONJAY R. MONROE, FIRST WHITE SETTLER-CLARK AND DANIEL PIERCE-A. S. DYCKMAN'S STORY-PIONEER STEAM SAWMILLSFIRST INSTITUTIONS AND PIONEERS-VILLAGE (NOW CITY) OF SOUTH HAVEN-THE SUMMER RESORT BUSINESS-SCHOOLS, CHURCHES AND SOCIETIES-MUNICIPAL AND BUSINESS AIATTERSPOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY AND BOARD OF TRADE............603-619 CHAPTER XXXV TOWNSHIP OF WAVERLY PHYSICAL FEATURES-TOWNSHIP NAMED-THE MYERS FAMILYFIRST WEDDING BETWEEN PIONEERS-COVEY HILL-JOHN SCOTT -OTHER EARLY SETTLERS-FROM THE OFFICIAL RECORDS-VILLAGE OF GLENDALE.................................. 620-627

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Page  XV INDEX Abbe, Jesse, 410 Abbott, Elisha, 468 Abell, Charles E., 943 Abrams, Albert H., 1154 Abrams, James E., 759 Ackley, D. C., 467 Ackley, Levi, 468 Ackley, William, 567 Adams, Frank A., 470 Adams, Franklin B., 112, 412, 602 Adams, HIomer, 432 Adams, Horace H., 600 Adams, Norman H., 468, 470 Adams, Oscar, 634 Adriance, William H., 625 Agard, John, 567 Agriculture and horticulture-Lake Michigan a benefactor, 319; fruit raising at South Haven, 320; fruit-belt widens, 321; cooperation through societies, 322; "Master L. H. Bailey," 323; A. S. Dyckman and T. T. Lyon, 324; crops of the county, 324; semiagricultural industries, 325; agriculture in eastern Van Buren, 325; "Oak openings" first cultivated, 326; pioneer farm implements, 327; after the Civil war, 327; live stock, 328; golden era (1865-90), 328; the lean years of the nineties, 329; development of the grape industry, 329 Albright, Henry H., 986 Alexander, Daniel, 484 Alexander, William, 483, 488 Allen, D. B., 480 Allen, Daniel M:., 791 Allen, Daniel W., 1106 Allen, Howard S., 468 Allen, John, 515, 544, 553, 558 Allen, Joseph C., 778 Allen, Reuben E., 625 Allerton, Charles B., 729 Almena township-Mention, 83; general description, 393; pioneer settlers and institutions, 394; busy period (1836-42), 396; settlement in the northern sections, 397; churches, 398; schools, supervisors, etc., 399 Alpena (Hamilton) township, 83, 503 Anderson, A. Throop, 468 Anderson, Charles E., 521 Anderson, Charles J., 908 Anderson, David, 166, 468, 471 Anderson, Doctor H., 468, 471 Anderson, Edgar A., 527 Andrews, Josiah, 89, 94 Anderson,,lulian 1t., 527, 829 Anderson, LeGrand, 485 Anderson, Marion O., 527 Anderson, William, 527. 602 Andrews, John, 526, 556, 605 Andrews, Josiah, 134, 239, 3.S Andrews, William H., 613 Annable, Edward R., 396 Annable, Fernando C. C., 395, 400, 621 Antwerp township- Mention, 80, 81; general description, 401; railroads, property and population, 402; early settlement, 403; settlers of 1836-8, 406; settlers in southern Antwerp township, 409; postoffices, roads Iand hotels, 410; pioneer mills, 411; township elections and officials, 411; educational statistics, 412; Glen Springs trout hatchery, 413; village of Lawton, 413; village of Mattawan, 419; retrospect, 422 Appleton, Ephraim S., 764 Arlington township —Mention, 84; first election, 424; drainage, timber and products, 425; first settler arrives, 426; Major Heath, first supervisor, 426; the dangerous Briggs brothers, 428; other New York men, 429; the Hogmire family, 430; rugged work of the pioneers, 431; official records, 432; M. H. IHogmire on pioneer times, 433; new times better than the old, 435 Armstrong, E., 625 Arnold, G. W., 983 Ashbrook, Charles W., 892 Austin, Charles, 683 Austin, Jonah, 623 Austin, Samuel J., 1005 Avery, Charles B., 178 Avery, Charles R., 710 Avery, Mrs. H. M., 615 Avery, R., 575 Avery Beach, 616 Babbitt, J. M., 467 Baggerly, Chester P., 855 Bailey, Ed. M., 715 Bailey, John, 844 Bailey, Liberty H., 320, 1145 Bailey, Prof. Liberty H., 1148 Baker, Andrew, 1155 Baker, C. I., 391 Baker, Fred H., 535 Baker, John R., 105, 535, 560, 571 Balch, Luther C., 625 Balfour, Herbert F., 989 xv

Page  XVI xvi INDEX Balfour, Vannie, 989 Ball, Abraham, 570 Ball, Jesse, 605 Bangor, 114 Bangor, Lyman S., 253 Bangor township-Mention, 85; natural features, 437; early settlers, 438; pioneer taxpayers, 439; civil and educational, 440; sketch by Hon. John S. Cross, 441; in the Civil war, 443; progress and prosperity, 443; village of Bangor, 444; village of Deerfield, 447 Bangs, Joshua, 134, 404, 412, 595 Bangs, Nathaniel H., 1133 Bangs, Theophilus, 405, 412 Bank of Covert, 351 Banks (see Financial and other institutions) Banks, Fred W., 1144 Banks, Jacob F., 1011 Banks, Nancy B., 1012 Baptist church, Bloomingdale, 457 Baptist church, Lawton, 418 Barber, Jonas, 394, 398 Barber, L. A., 454 Barber, M. A., 365 Bark and quill work, 3 Barker, George H., 474, 849 Barker, Harvey, 600, 601, 602 Barker, Irwin M., 1097 Barker, John, 602, 1096 Barker, Wesley T., 1124 Barner, Silas N., 734 Barnes, Adelia (Mrs. Allen Rice), 440 Barnes, Anson U., 556 Barnes, Ella, 611, 616 Barnes, Joseph B., 135, 575 Barnes, Uriel T., 335, 548 Barney, Aaron, 507 Barnum, Edwin, 89, 90, 568, 575 Barnum, Henry, 399, 400 Barnum, Humphrey P., 80, 135, 516, 549, 552, 553, 556 Barrington, David, 594 Barrett, Enoch L., 566, 567 Barrows, John, 466 Bartholomew, George, 490, 539 Barton, Anne S., 809 Barton, Jesse S., 807 Bartley, Robert, 475 Basket making, 30 Bass, William W., 556 Bates, Israel P., 94, 731 Baxter, J. H., 351 Beach, Adam, 716 Beach, Ray W., 1069 Beach, William, 1068 Beals, Alpheus, 1082 Beebe, Eri, 488 Beers, Joseph D., 489 Bell, Rezin, 623, 624, 625 Bellows, C. F. R., 360 Bench and Bar-Circuit courts, 159; county courts, 161; first circuit judge, 161; successors of Judge Ransom, 162; Judge Flavius J.. Littlejohn, 163; thirty-sixth circuit created, 165; probate judges, 165; Van Buren county bar, 166 Benedict, Amos C., 136, 137, 556 Benevolent Eastern Star Lodge No. 46, Hartford, 530 Bennett, George, 488 Bennett, William, 693 Bentley, George A., 135, 503, 504 Benton, Burr, 1140 Berlamont, 110, 471 Bidwell, H. E., 323 Bierce, James M., 430 Bierce, Norman, 336 Bigelow, Calvin J., 431 Bigelow, Rufus, 431 Bigelow, Samuel, 431 Bilsborrow, Cora W., 784 Bilsborrow, Edward F., 783 Bingham, John, 411 Bingham, John K., 411 Birge's Western Sharpshooters, 294 Bishop, Arch W., 461 Bitely, Nathan H., 330, 412 Bixby, M. H., 344 Blackinton, Albert B., 1129 Blackman, E. A., 356, 360 Blackman, Samuel I., 178, 358 Blair, Austin, 73 Blaisdell, William, 1016 Blakeman, M. J., 625 Blashfield, Timothy E., 890 Bleecker, L. B., 358 Bliss, J. J., 420 Bloomingdale, 110, 453 Bloomingdale creamery, 459 Bloomingdale township-Mention, 84; first settlements and settlers, 449; taxes and township government, 451; population and education, 452; village of Bloomingdale, 453; Mr. Haven's sketch of the village, 454; churches and societies, 456; village of Gobleville, 459 " Bloomington Leader," 365 Boardman, Silas R., 344, 611 Bockius, Fannie, 420 Bonfoey, Horace, 394, 395 Booth, William A., 613 Borden, I. S., 412 Bowen, Frank, 608 Bowen, Henry F., 592 Bowen, Mrs. Nancy (Hicks), 338 Boyce, George D., 602 Boyer, Seymour A., 1014 Boynton, Cyrus, 523 Bradley, William S., 813 Branch, Eaton, 94, 546, 552, 553 Branch, Francis, 556 Branch, Israel, 546 Branch, Lemuel J., 445, 446 Branch, Luther, 546 Branch, Vine, 546 Breed, B. L., 352 Breed, Joshua B., 400, 662 Breed, Marie C., 663 Breed, A. Silas, 397, 400, 404, 467, 470, 603, 605, 697 Breeding, William P., 352, 834 Breedsville, 114, 470 Bregger, Louis A., 994

Page  XVII INDEX xvii Bridges, Lyman, 521 Bridges, William, 429 Briggs, Allen, 84, 424, 427 Briggs, Duane D., 428, 468 Briggs, Emory 0., 343, 355, 424, 428, 432, 575 Briggs, Mansel M., 438, 439, 440, 605 Brockway, Hugh, 655 Broadwell, William, Sr., 350, 810 Brookfield, William, 484 Brooks, George E., 859 Brooks, Philip M., 495 Broughton, Aaron W., 510 Broughton, Emma J., 914 Brown, Amasa M., 468 Brown, Amos S., 467, 468 Brown, Charles R., 164 Brown, E. W., 392 Brown, George, 392 Brown, Green H., 400 Brown, Isaac, 625 Brown, James A., 530 Brown, J. W., 452 Brown, Levi A., 400 Brown, Luman, 467 Brown, Orlando, 441 Brown, Rufus M., 453 Brown, Walter A., 400 Brush Creek (Lawrence), 560 Bryant, Asahel, 602 Bryant, C. T., 322, 323 Buck, George M., 164, 165 Buck, Lucius E., 535 Buck, Orrin, 412 Buel, B. G., 511 Buffington, H. C., 360 Bullard, James F., 259 Burdick, C. E., 751 Burdick, John Q., 782 Burger, Francis A., 982 Burkette, F. Z., 446 Burkette, G. F., 363 Burlington, George, 1056 Burrows, O. H., 496 Burton, William S., 239 Butler, John B., 357 Butler, Oramel, 569 Butterfield, Chauncey W., 625 Butterfield, Frank A., 1112 Buys, Archibald, 567 Byers, C. W., 504 Byers, Tobias, 536 Cadillac, Antoine de la Mothe, 55 Caldwell, H., 625 Camp, Joel, 468 Camp, Thomas S., 544 Campbell, Andrew H., 741 Canning, James, 1094 Cargo, George A., 1023 Carleton's (Will) "Country Doctor," 391 Carney, Malcolm S., 490 Carpenter, Prank A., 1048 Carroll, Thomas, 1007 Carter, E., Jr., 470 Cash, Erastus, 815 Cass, Lewis, 67, 78 Cate, Lorenzo D., 469 Catholic church, Decatur, 492 Caughey, John, 455 Central Hotel, Bloomingdale, 459 Chadwick, Benjamin F., 134, 534, 535, 538, 556 Chadwick, Charles, 555 Chairman of the board of supervisors, 176 Chamberlain, H., 468 Chandler, Alonzo H., 361, 362, 526, 611 Chapman, Alvin, 350 Chapman, George W., 1117 Chapman, William H., 993 Charles, Clifton B., 746 Charles, William S., 1051 Chase, A. B., 350, 351 Chase, Edwin A., 625, 769 Chesebro, Nathaniel, 419 Chicago road, 99 Christian church, Bloomingdale, 456 Christian church, Decatur, 491 Christian church, Hartford, 530 Christian church, Paw Paw, 584 Christie, Robert, 555, 556 Church, Jesse L., 553 Church of Latter Day Saints, Hartford, 530 Churchill, Lewis E., 461 Churchill, Reuben E., 133, 135 Circuit court associate judges, 171 Circuit court commissioners, 173 Civil war-Sixth Michigan Infantry, 183; Twelfth Michigan Infantry, 188; Thirteenth Michigan Infantry, 197; Stone River, 198; Seventeenth Michigan Infantry, 215; at South Mountain, 216; Nineteenth Michigan Infantry, 218; Twenty-fourth Michigan Infantry, 225; Twenty-fifth Michigan Infantry, 226; Twenty-eighth Michigan Infantry, 227; First Michigan Cavalry, 232; Third Michigan Cavalry, 239; justice to cavalry regiments, 241; Fourth Michigan Cavalry, 256; capture of Jefferson Davis, 259; Ninth Michigan Cavalry, 267; capture of Morgan, 268; first and last, 269; First Michigan Engineers and Mechanics, 274; First Michigan Sharpshooters, 278; First Regiment Michigan Light Artillery, 279; Van Buren county soldiers in other Michigan regiments, 282; Birge's Western Sharpshooters, 294; Company C, Seventieth New York Infantry, 300; other companies or regiments, 307; troops and money from the county, 309 "Citizens Advocate," 368 Citizens Bank, Decatur, 349 Citizens State Bank, South Haven, 345 Clapp, John T., 722 Clapp, Sarah A., 723 Clark, James J., 447 Clark, Joel H., 351, 505, 1039 Clark, Thomas, 397 Clark, William H., 996 Clarson, George, 492, 585 Clement, James L., 961 Clements, George W., 758 Cleveland, Edward, 385 Cleveland, Frank G., 432, 1009 Cleveland, Jewett, 708 Clinch township, 80, 81, 84, 591

Page  XVIII xviii INDEX Deerfield, 447 Deerfield township, 85, 86 DeHaven, Levi, 432 DeLand, C. V., 278 Dell, William A., 474, 478 DeLong, Francis, 519 DeLong, Henry, 520 DeLong, Nathan, 520 DeLong, Silas, 520 Densmore, J., 367 Densmore, Randolph, 320, 605 Derosier, Joseph, 394 Des Voignes, L: Burget, 165 Dewey, Henry E., 605 Dilley, Marshall, 500 Dilley, Varnum H., 496, 500 Dillman, Adam, 978 Dillman, Peter J., 136 Disbrow, Lavoisier W., 988 Disciple (Christian) church, Bangor, 446 Dobbyn, Henry L., 1115 Dobbyn, James, 477 Dodge, Daniel 0., 80, 82, 567, 575 Dodge, Mrs. Daniel 0., 582 Dodge, Henry J., 1130 Donavan, Bartholomew, 1001 I)onovan, Andrew, 1015 Doty, Charles, 529 Doty, Sarah, 529 Douglas, Edwin S., 695 Dow, Joseph, 320 Downing, Asahel S., 396 Downing, Selina, 593 Doyle, Stephen, 521 Drake, Lawrence, 996 Drummond, Frank, 355 Drury, E., 361 Duncorbe, Albert 0., 869 Duncombe, Charles, 177, 178, 535, 540, 872 Duncombe, Moses, 540 Duncombe, Stephen W.. 540 Dunham, Carey, 418, 684 Dunkley, S. J., 113 Durkee, Elisha, 165, 575 Dyckman, Aaron S., 320, 324, 592, 605, 608, 610 DIyckman, Barney H., 605, 609 )yckman, Evert B., 406, 578, 579 Dyckman, Evert S., 579, 931 Dyckman, William, 430 Dyer, Adoniram J., 518 Dygert's Sharpshooters, 288 Eagan, James, 1024 Eagle Lake, 565 Eames, Aaron, 320 Earl, Francis, 530 Earl, Palmer, 504, 539 Earle, William, 539 Earle, William H. H., 362 Eastman, Jacob S., 897 Easton, Glenn S., 365, 686 Easton, Sylvester G., 521 Eaton, Charles L., 178, 358 Edgerton, Abel, 496 Educational (see Schools) Eleventh Michigan Cavalry, 292 Eleventh Michigan Infantry, 285 Elliott, Mary, 490 Ely Park, 527 Engle, Cenius 11., 1, 6, 24, 26, 29, 514, 519, 523, 524, 526, 529 Engle, W. A., 383, 526 English period (1760-1796), 56 Enlow, Miichael, 812 Enos, A. I)., 468 Ewald, Edward W., 886 Farmers and Merchants Bank, Lawrence, 351 Farnum, Matthias, 477 Farrow, Phineas, 1121 Fausnaugh, Adelbert, 1103 Fenton, Matthew, 538 Ferguson,,James, 407 Ferguson,.lames 1)., 1149 Ferguson, James E., 381 Flields, Calvin, 504 Fifteenth Michigan Infantry, 286 Fifth Michigan Cavalry, 290 Fifth Michigan Infantry, 283 Financial and other institutions-First National Bank, Paw Paw, 342; the Paw Paw Savings Bank, 343; First National Bank, South Haven, 344; Citizens State Bank, South Haven, 345; banks of Decatur, 348; Hartford banks, 349; West Michigan Savings Bank, Bangor, 350; the People's Bank, Bloomingdale, 351; at Gobleville, Covert, Lawrence and Lawton, 351; South IHaven Loan and Trust Company, 352; Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 352; telegraph and telephone lines, 353 Finch, Charles A., 720 First Baptist church, Hartford, 529 First Baptist church, Lawrence, 561 First Baptist church, Paw Paw, 584 First Michigan (avalry, 232 First Michigan Engineers and Mlechanics, 274 First Michigan Infantry, 282 First Michigan Sharpshooters, 278 First National Bank, Decatur, 348 First National Bank, Paw Paw, 342 First National Bank, South Haven, 344 First Regiment Michigan Light Artillery, 279 First Presbyterian church, Lawrence, 561 First state convention, 69 Fish, Ellen, 497 Fish, Hiram, 86, 474, 477 Fisher, Everett A., 880 Fisk, Stephen W., 398, 400 Fitch, George A., 357 Fitch, Henry, 412 Fitch, Lyman A., 412 Fitch, Morgan L., 406, 412 Fitzsimmons, Michael, 863 "Fonetic Klips,'" 367 Foote, S. J., 575 Forbes, Fred, 1099 Ford, Henry, 112 Foster, Dwight, 535, 771 Foster, George S., 525 Foster, Ida, 858 Foster, Josephine, 858 Foster Sisters, The, 856

Page  XIX INDEX xix Cobb, Alonzo, 398 Cobb, Vera P., 365 Cochran, Andrew M., 1019 Cochrane, Donald F., 362, 703 Cochrane, H. F., 362 Cochrane, James G., 430, 466 Colburn, Byron 11., 553 Cole, Hiram A., 356, 700 Coleman, Henry 1., 83, 503, 504, 509 Coleman, Sheldon, 412, 792 Collins, John H., 504 Columbia, 110, 472 Columbia township —NMention, 85; physical features and railroads, 464; site of Breedsville selected, 465; property holders and taxes, 467; settlers prior to 1845, 468; civil and political, 468; as a resort region, 469; present village of Breedsville, 470; village of Berlamont, 471; village of Columbia, 472; village of Grand Junction, 472 Comley, Maria, 508 Company C, 70th N. Y. Infantry, 300 Compton, John D., 486 Comstock, Albert, 445 Comstock, Darius E., 178 Comstock, Horace H., 109 Cone, lMehitable, 514 Congdon, William L., 1093 Congregational church, Bangor, 446 Congregational church, Covert, 480 Congregational church, Hartford, 530 Congregational church, Lawrence, 561 Congregational church, Mattawan, 422 Conklin, David, 883 Conklin, Luke, 517 Conklin, Mrs. Martha, 521 Conklin, Mary E., 883 Conklin, Thomas, 517 Connery, George B., 895 Conway, Austin 1)., 504 Conway, S. Tallmad(ge, 89, 94, 355, 358 Cook, John R., 1105 Cook, Sarah, 490 Cook, Sullivan, 363 Cooley, Franklin, 957 Cooper, John, 409 Copley, Alexander B., 86, 389, 484 Copley, E. B., 349 Copley, G. N., 483 Corey, Anthony, 405 Corey, Sanford, 602 Corey, Warren S., 601, 602 Cornish, George W., 369, 1101 Cornish, John H., 602, 1098 Cornish, Thomas J., 1044 Corwin, Jacob, 29 Coterie Club, 586 County buildings (new), 141-158 County clerks, 172 County commissioners, 171 County commissioners of schools, 174 County judges, 171 County seat-Lawrence as the seat of justice, 129; Paw Paw displaces Lawrence, 130; proposed county buildings, 132; old courthouse completed, 134; South Haven bids for county seat, 136; popular vote for Paw Paw, 138; new county buildings, 141; courthouse corner-stone laid, 141; cost of present county buildings, 155 County surveyors, 174 County treasurers, 173 Courthouse (see County buildings) Courts (see Bench and Bar) Covert, 113, 479 Covert Resort Association, 478 Covert township-Mention, 186; the original township, 474; physical features, 475; earliest settlers, 475; roads and schools, 477; statistical and political, 478; the village of Covert, 479 Covey Hill, 623 Covington tow-nslhip-Mention, 80, 81, 82, 83 Cox, Elisha C., 84 Cox, Isaac J., 535 Cox, Joseph, 625 Cox, O. E., 432 Coy, 1)aniel, 737 Crandall, J. C., 523 (trandall, Wallace WA., 954 Crane, Alonzo, 569 Crane, Loyal, 569-575 Crane, Jane, 569 Crane, James, 342, 569 Craw, Joseph W., 443 Cronin, M. C., 381 Cronkhite, John, 420 Crops of the county, 324 Cross, Alfonso, 10]30 (Cross, (alvin, 442, 444, 526 Cross, Charles U., 438, 439, 440, 442, 444, 496, 603 Cross, Samuel P., 442 (rouse, Conrad, 472 (ulver, Samuel, 766 Currier, Jacob, 397 Curry, David, 485 Curtenius, Frederick W., 184 Cushman, Charles M., 470 (utter, Frank F., 681 Daines, G. W., 457 Daniels, Lyman I., 576, 578 Danks, Richard B., 549 D)anneffel, Adolph, 535, 877 I)anneffel, George J., 535 Danneffel, Henry H., 999 Darling, James H., 400 Darling, Loren, 575 Davey, George, 992 David, James I., 267 Davis, George W., 725 Davis, Jefferson (capture of), 259 I)avton, Edwin J., 1139 Decatur, 109 "'Decatur Republican," 359 Decatur township-MAention, 80, 81, 82; first white settler of the county, 482; first native white child, 483; first Gospel sermon and pioneer school, 483; A. B. Copley on early days, 484; various pioneers, 485; civil. and political. 486; statistics, 488; village of Decatur, 489; retrospect, 494 Decker, Milton L., 343, 496, 713

Page  XX XX INDEX Foster, Truman, 504, 557 Fountain, Stephen, 544 Fourteenth Michigan Infantry, 285 Fourth Michigan Cavalry, 256 Fowler, Orville, 885 Free, John W., 94, 112, 343, 575 Free Will Baptist church, Gobleville, 462 Free Will Baptist church, Waverly, 398 Freeman, John D., 555 Freese, George S., 487 French, Milford T., 605 French, Warren F., 400 French period (1634-1764), 53 Fruit Belt line, 402 Fuller, Frank H., 432 Fuller, Ora F., 828 Fuller, Sidney, 432 Funk, Charles, 836 Gage, Walter O., 521 Gantt, James N., 356 Gantt, Samuel N., 354 Gault, John, 625 Gay, William 1., 825 Gaynor, Andrew, 468 Geneva township-Mention, 85; descriptive, 495; roads and physical features, 496; political and educational, 496; pioneers of the township, 498; statistical and physical, 500; village of Lacota, 500; village of Kibbie, 501; general township progress, 501 Geology-The Cambrian age, 311; Ordovician age, 312; the Silurian, 313; the Devonian, 314; Lower Carboniferous, 315; the Pleistocene (last chapter), 315 George, Charles G., 535 George, Edward, 847 Gerow, Isaac, 655 Gibbs, Dexter, 551, 554 Gibbs, Elizabeth, 551 Gibney, Henry E., 882 Giffen, John R., 381 Gilbert, Henry C., 218 Gillett, Charles, 363, 443 Gleason, Bert, 1064 Gleason, William H., 675 Glendale, 626 Glendale creamery, 626 Glen Springs Trout Hatchery, 415 Glidden, Asa C., 412 Glidden, E. M., 575 Glidden, 0. D., 575 Goble, Edna, 382 Goble, Hiram E., 459, 461 Gobleville, 110, 459, 596 Gobleville creamery, 463 "Gobleville News," 366 Godfrey, Stafford, 133, 135 Goodenough, Fanny, 529 Gorton, Frank E., 1132 Goss, Henry, 447 Goss, John P., 968 Goss, M. 0., 969 Gould, Gilbert, 864 Grand Junction, 110, 114 Grant, George, 474 Grant, Roland B., 832 Grape industry, 329 Graves, Benjamin F., 163 Gray, Emily, 594 Gray, James, 545, 552, 553, 557 Gray, James M., 468, 470 Gray, Wells, 406 Green, Sanford M., 162 Gregory, Albert E., 535 Gregory, Don F., 958 Gremps, Peter, 161, 575, 576, 578, 581, 582 Grover, Nathaniel, 611 Gunton, Samuel, 80, 550 Gunsaul, Jacob, 475 Hadsell, O. D., 356, 361, 362 Hagar, Solomon B., 504 Hale & Company, 345 Hale, George, 475, 977 Hale, George N., 345, 974 Hall, Alvin, 395 Hall, Benoni, 575 Hall, Charles G., 689 Hall, Clair G., 749 Hall, David P., 1075 Hall, Elmer W., 412 Hall, Freeman, 395 Hall, Gideon, 496 Hall, Isaac, 601 1Hall, J. M., 366 Hall, Syrena B., 705 Hall, Walter A., 1102 Hall, Wesley M., 781 Hall, Willis V., 642 Halleck mill, 610 Hamilton, Alexander, 1062 Hamilton, A. & Sons, 1062 Hamilton, Horace E., 1064 Hamilton, William L., 1064 Hamiltonl township-Mention, 83; civic and political matters, 502; physical features, 504; taxpayers and taxes of 1839, 505; first building and first permanent settlers, 505; also settled prior to 1844, 507; illustrative of the pioneers and their times, 508; schools then and now, 510; the Hamilton township fair, 511 Hammond, Catharine, 517 Hammond, Henry, 514 Hammond, James H., 1070 Hammond, John, 514 Hammond, Mary G., 1071 Hannahs, George, 611, 613 Hannahs, Marvin, 472, 499, 552 Hard, James T., 426 Harper, Harvey, 801 Harris, Alvinsy, 429, 432 Harris, Floyd, 1111 Harris, Jefferson D., 432 Harris, Leonard M., 1111 Harris, Percy F., 1049 Harrison, Aaron, 793 Harrison, George M., 343, 688 Harrison, Thaddeus R., 358 Harrison, William Henry, 66, 67 Hart, Roswell, 521, 523 Hartford, 112, 113, 114, 523 "Hartford Day Spring," 361

Page  XXI INDEX xxi lLartford township-Mention, 83; named and organized, 513; first things and events, 514; Allen's paper town, 515; first actual settlers, 517; a soldier of the Revolution, 519; territorial and official, 520; "When the World Goes Wrong with Me," 522; the village of Hartford, 523; educational and professional, 525; churches and societies, 528; business and industries, 531 HIarvey, Edward H., 742 Harvey, E. P., 441 Harvey, IH. D., 796 Harvey, Henry W., 744 Harvey, Marshall J., 1108 Ilarwick, Allen, 736 Hiarwick, Frank, 736 Harwick, Harman, 412 Harwick, Peter, 412 Haskin, Albert S., 94, 548, 549, 679 Hathaway, George, 1100 Hathaway, William B., 605, 611 Haven, Augustus, 451, 454 Haven, Davis, 454 Haven, Edward A., 900 Havens, Charles W., 1116 Hawes, Josiah L., 164 Hawley, G. W., 462 Hawkins, Nathan, 1086 Hawkins, William R., 581 lIaydon, Arthur W., 349, 507, 511, 668 Haydon, Philotus, 134, 504, 507 Hayne, John D., 1087 Haynes, Alonzo M., 613 Haynes, John R., 80, 335, 544, 545, 553, 556 Hazard, Enos E., 677 Heagy, George, 535 Heath, Arvin, 432 Heath, Charles E., 427 Heath, Major, 424, 432 Heath, Morrison, 429 Heekert, Benjamin F., 70, 166, 179 Hempstead, C. J., 345 Henderson, Port H., 788 Hendryx, Josiah, 511 Herron, Ashbel, 449 Herron, John W., 945 Herzog, Adolf, 1109 Hicks, Evart B. D., 608 High, Leon, 1066 High, Mary R., 1067 High, William A., 490 Hill, E. Parker, 349, 488, 490 Hill, James, 534, 537 Hill, Justus, 537 Hill, L. Dana, 349 Hill, Lyman G., 535 Hilliard, Weare, 523 Hilton, George V., 387 Hilton, Orrin N., 165 Hinckley, Asa G., 569 Hinckley, Isaac, 612 Hinckley, Jonathan, 135, 404, 465, 569 Tinckley, Marvin, 488 Hinckley, Peter, 406 Hinckley, Rodney, 567, 612 Hinckley, Roy, 753 Ripp, Benton W., 400 Hlipp, E. M., 350, 443 Hoag, Charles N., 495 Hoag, Mrs. Harriet, 497 Hoag, Mrs. Orrin S., 497 "Hog Creek" (Roseville), 516 Hogmire, Conrad, 431 Hogmire, Daniel, 430 Hogmire, Henry, 431 Hlogmire, John, 431 Hlogmire, Mitchell H., 432, 433, 1016 Hollister, Chauncey, 488, 602 Hollon, Joseph A., 343 Holmes, Reason, 410, 411 Hood, Charles, 659 Hood, George, 723 Hopkins, Josiah, 809 Horticulture (see Agriculture and Horticulture) Hoskins, Myron, 466-7 HIosmer, C. F., 749 Houghton, Hiram T., 449 Houseknecht, Jacob D., 1104 Hover, Josephus S., 1026 Howard, Barnard M., 465 Howard, Harvey H., 898 Howard, Jonathan, 455, 467, 468 Howard, Nancy, 466 Howard, Turner W., 831 Hoyt J., 529 Hoyt, Wilbur F., 768 Hudson, Frank G., 659 Hudson, G. J., 575 Hudson, J. B., 400 Hudson, Thomas, 450 Hull, Moses, 359 Hull, William, 63-66 Humphrey, Horace, 467, 468 Humphrey, Luther, 561 Hungerford, Benjamin, 538 Hungerford, Volney R., 773 Hunt, Adeline P., 725 Hunt, Benjamin F., 605 Hunt, Charles F., 344 Hunt, Garrie W., 724 Hunt, Isaiah F., 432 Hunt, John, 405, 412 Hunt, John A., 975 iHurlbut, William H., 440, 442, 574, 605, 608 Hutchins, Elias, 1000 Hutchins, George G., 833 Hutchins, George W., 937 Ihling, John, 111, 112, 412 Indian mounds in Lawrence township, 337 Indian trails, 98 Indians-First church built by, in Van Buren county, 4; Chief Pokagon's address, 5; Pokagon's last wigwam, 12; Julia Pokagon's address, 12; "Old Wapsey," 14; Do Indians cry, laugh or joke?, 20; Algonquin legend of man's creation, by Pokagon, 21; legend of Paw Paw and the Paw Paw valley, by Pokagon, 24; Algonquin legends of South Haven, by Pokagon, 26; after me-me-og (squabs) in Van Buren county, by C. H. Engle, 29; Indian basket-making, 30; the "buck pony" ride, 33; "never carry a revolver, boys," 37; Saw-kaw's love story, 38; me-me-og, the wild pigeon, by Pokagon, 45

Page  XXII xxii INDEX Indiana territory formed, 62 Ingalls, J., 349 Irwin, Thomas B., 556 Isabella Club, 417 Ives, Joseph, 429 Jennings, Jaines G., 365 Jennings, Ralph E., 965 Jewell, James, 1002 Johns, Thomas J., 521 Johnson, Andrew, 360 Johnson,.James H., 166, 605 Johnson, Lewis, 507 Johnson, L. S., 362 Johnson, Smith, 83, 520 Johnstone, W. A., 457 Jones, A. B., 330 Jones, M. Adelia, 719 Jones, Sylvester H., 719.Jordan, James F., 356 Kalamazoo & South Haven Railroad, 109, 595 Karmsen, Oscar, 795 Kaw-kee, Joe, 33-37 Keeler, 541 Keeler, E. H., 502, 534 Keeler, Wolcott H., 80, 83, 161, 536-7 Keeler township-Descriptive, 533; lakes and resorts, 534; civil organization, 534; first settlers of township, 535; Wolcott H. Keeler, 537; settlers of 1836-44, 537; tax payers, property and schools, 540; Keeler and other towns, 541; general view, 542 Keith, Henry S., 535 Kelley, Patrick H., 177 Kelley, James, 1128 Kemp, Thomas, 514 Kendall, 597 Kendall, Lucius B., 453, 454 Kennedy, Almus, 997 Kennedy, John C., 400, 706 Kern, Julius M., 1060 Kern, AIenasseh, 602 Ketcham, E. B., 320 Ketchum, James, 397 Ketchum, Oliver P., 702 Kibbie, 110, 501 Kietzer, Charles, 1113 Killefer, Henry, 453-4 Killefer, William, 575, 717 King, Edward H., 1143 Kingsley, Henry M., 951 Kinney, Elijah, 598 Kinney, Luther, 602 Kinney, Stephen, 487 Kinney, Uri, 602 Kitzmiller, W. K., 456 Klett, John M., 692 Klock, Ernest G., 365 Knapp, Royal R., 685 Knowles, Elijah, 466, 467, 468 Knowles, William H., 468 Krogel, Fred, 1029 Krohne, Sophie, 698 Krull, Frederick, 395 Labadie, Anthony, 568 Labadie, Joseph, 672 Lacota, 110, 500 Laduke, Nelson, 1024 La Fayette township, 79, 80, 81, 82, 86, 564, 565 Lake Cora, 565 Lake Mills (Gobleville), 461 Lake of the Woods, 488, 504 Lake Park, 566 ILamb, hFank, 861 lampson, T'ruman A., 475 Landphere, E. A., 355 Lane, W. K., 361 Iangdon, George, 709 Langdon, Phoebe F., 709 Langelan, Herman, 1138 Lannin, J., 323 Lanphear, Oel E., 902 Lawrence, 111, 113, 129, 130, 135, 558-63 Lawrence, Robert R., 712 "'Lawrence Times,'" 365 Lawrence township-Mention, 80, 81, 82, 337; streams and lakes, 543; early pioneers and settlements, 544; the Branch family, 546;.Judge Jay R. Monroe, 547; first marriage, birth and death, 551; the food problem, 552; roads and mails, 552; flat-boat traffic, 554; paper town of Van Buren, 555; civil, educational and political, 556; looking backward, 558; village of Lawrence, 558; churches and societies, 561; business and general features, 563 Lawton, 109. 111, 113, 401, 413 Lawton, Charles D., 120, 177, 412, 415, 754 Lawton, George W., 112, 165, 361, 415 Lawton, Nathan, 413, 416 "Lawton Leader," 361 Lawton Lodge, No. 216, A. F. & A. M., 417 I-awton Lodge No. 83, 1. 0. O. F., 417 Lee, Bert, 1081 Lee, Hiram, 489 Lee, James, 570 Lee, James A., 535 Lee, Uriel C., 570 Lee, William H., 570 Leedy, William, 1125 Le Fevre N., 487 Lemont (Glendale), 626 Lewis, Abram, 432 Lewis, C. E., 361 Lewis, Cyrus H., 475 Lewis, Marshall, 538 Lincoln, F. T., 367 Linderman, I. S., 323 Linton, Charles, 455, 894 Littlejohn, Flavius J., 163 Live stock, 328 Lobdell, Howard, 136, 137, 521 Local option in the county, 180 Lockard, E. D., 470 Lockman, DeWitt C., 592 Longcor, Wesley N., 1058 Longstreet, Andrew, 411, 412, 413, 415 Longstreet, Samuel, 406 Longwell, James M., 959 Longwell, Phoebe A., 960 Loomis, Russell F., 970 Lord, Frederick, 165 Lotlrop, Edwin H., 109 Luce. Charles W., 468

Page  XXIII IND)EX xi xxiii Lurkins, Harry J., 658 Lyle, Jason J., 657 Lyle, Johni, 328, 568 Lyle, Lemuel, 1123 LylIe, Levi N., 850 Lyle, Williaml 3218 Lyle, William G4., 1046 Lyoii, 71 T., 324 Lytle, Chiarles, -1088 Lytle, David, 739 Lytle, E. HI., 484 lbytle, John, 1.067 McAdams, Edward, 1092 MleAdamns, Leslie, 1092 iMeAlpine, J ohn, 5291, 535 MfeAlpine, JOhnD G., 837 MeCon, Frank, 8~0" McT~onald (Deerfield), 447 McKee, Darwin, 1.090 MeKeyes, Frank, 331 M~eKeyes, Jun. a351 467 7187 McKinley, Napoleon 13, 412 MeKinney, John, 177 355, 487d, 602) MfeKinney, Lewis, 445 \klcLin, James C. 1050 \lcLain fohin C. 602 lciNeil, Ienrv 415 MleNedl Harry L. 641 MciNight, Jane ( Mrs IDr. A. S. Ilaskin), 548 MeiNight, Mary Nancy, 548 \lcNitt~ Alphieus, A., 816 MeNitt, Leslie A., 818 Afc-Williains Arch~ibald P.,.521 Xladill E. L., 347 AMaguiret Phillip, 1095 Nialbone, John 5., 605, 920 M~allory, -Merlin M., 449 Mamnley, C. B., 1131 Maubly, IHervey, 467 Maple lake, 565 Marble, Elisha, 624 Mar-killie, J ohn J., 768 Markillie, William,2 39 7 M-arshiall, Johin, 602, 1054 Marshall, Nelson 5., 549 Mlartin Edwin, 112 Mlartin, Francis, 1022) Mfartin, Harry A., 690 Martin, M\rs. A. C., 358 Mfartindale, Samuel, 445 Marvin, A. E., 361 Marvin, J. D.,' 561 Mason (Lawrence), 544, 560 Mason, Stevens T., 70-712 Mason, Williamson,.133, 379, 580 Mather, Eusebius, '468 Mather House, 555 Mattawan, 109, 111, 113, 401, 419 Matthews, G. W., 355 Maxwell, James E.. 504 Maxwell, Joh-n C., 765 May, Charles J., 938 Maynard, Charles, 359 M-ead, Hannah, 582 Melars, Edwin, 3,-7 Medicine and Surgery-Mfedical scientific researeh, 370; preventfive medicine, 3)71; sur ge,)375, tie country physician and the tiaiiicd nimse2 3b6 early physicians of Van lluren countv 377 Paw Paw physicians, 37() Bangori 381 ( Cobleville, 381; Hartford, 382'- Covert, 38.3 Lawrence, 384; Lawton,.38(, tli piofession in South Haven, 387; South 1laveii (-;ty hospital, 388 Decatur, 190; the Veternary school, 392 Anemeog (ivild pigeons), 45-52 Thuitha, 110, 597 Mlenig, Ferdinaind, 734 Menig, M.ary 5., 735' AMerrnfleld, Edwin.1., 455 Merriman (George W., 846 'Icrrimnan, h1arry.1., 847 Merr iman, Marcus, 503 Mlerry, Llizabethi, 399 \Ileriin, Jesse, 453 Al( thodist, hnitrch, Almena towvnship, 399 \lethodist (hmrch, Bangor, 443 \lethodist church, Bloomningdale, 456 Mlethiodist (hureb, I)ecatur, 491 \l etliodmit hiurchi, (obleville, 462 \1 thiodist huretli,1 h-artf ord, 529 \[l tliodisit e( hnrch, Keeler, 541 \letliodlist (hiureli, L1acota, 500 Mletliolist chumrch, L-awrence, 562) M ethliodit (1 hurch, LairNNton, 418 Me1thodlist hnrch1-0, Mdtta-1wan, 422) \leivr Iferbman, 794 Ml icI li ai in ( nttral fron Co0mp1any, 416 \l ilng'an (Central RailroadW, 107-i 09 Miclmiga iiru it E xeIiaige, 418 A Inic1igan Pm 1'ovost (tuariii 289 A id ici gaii territoryx formed. 63 \lddletONN ii (Rosev'ille)~ 513) Mliller Saun el 0. 411 Ml mler W illiam I., 774 i 4lmllerisum, 33.) Alills. Alfred J.1. 164, 165. 178 \[inem (C'roline, 497 Almui h Robert 11. (G., 2140, 256 Mmt(i lull Xonzo S., 412. 1083 Mmlthell, Gilbert, 496 MitheIn 11aIqob, 9 115 Mitehell, J. W., 412) Moyh, Clmamles -B.. 7-74 Mlonroe Bank, 350 Monroe, Chiarles E., 1028 Monroe, CTharles J., 9 4, 1 77,- 3 2 3 325, 344 350 352, 605, 611, 802 Monroe, George C., 351., 822 Monroe, Hattie E., 102'9 Monroe, isaac. 556 Monroe, Jay R. 80, 8, 93, 161, 344 352 4409 496, 547, 066 Monroe. I,. S., 332 Monroe, Mfiles, 1026 Monroe. AfOseCs, 7599 Mlonroe, S. E., 432, 441, 60 7 Monroe Realty Company, 3-52 -4o on, E. B., 38 7 Moon, Peter, 405 Moon. Phiilio), 405 Moore, D~avid1 F., 60-5 Moore, Henry, 948 Moore, Volnev A., 551

Page  XXIV xxiv INDEX Morehouse, Edward A., 740 Morehouse, Stephen B., 320, 605, 611 Morgan, John (capture of), 268 Morrill, Charles M., 399, 400, 592 Morris, )olphin, 326, 482, 483, 485, 488, 536 Morris, Elias, 484 Morris, Lewis Creighton, 483 Morris, Samuel, 485 Morrison, A. H., 114 Morrow, Henry A., 225 Moses, Charles A., 990 Moulton, Arba N., 360, 387, 490 Munger, George, 259 Munn, Benjamin S., 912 Murch, William, 622, 625 Murdock, Benjamin A., 94, 650 Murdock, Benjamin F., 570 Murdock, Mary V., 651 Murphy, Norman D., 381 Murray, Mary E., 594 Mutchler, George, 760 Myers, Mallory H., 449, 621, 625 Myers, Merlin M., 621 Myers, Reuben J., 449, 621, 624, 625 Myers, Ruth Ann, 621 Myers, Sarah, 622 Myers, William H. H., 449, 621, 626. Myhan, George H., 665 Nash, Augustus W., 165 Nash, Rufus (C., 358, 359 Nesbitt, James, 507, 536 Nesbitt, John, 599 Nesbitt, Mary, 508 Nesbitt, Minnie, 776 Nesbitt, Robert, 504, 506, 508, 509, 510 Nesbitt, Sophia L., 775 Newbre, F. I)., 748 Newcomb, Mary, 398 Newcomb, Orlando IH., 450 Newcomb, Willard, 83, 394, 395 Newspapers (see Press) Nichols, John F., 887 Nichols, John J., 1004 Nicholas, Wesley E., 1008 Nik-a-nong (South Haven), 28 Niles, F. L., 529 Ninth Michigan Cavalry, 267 Ninth Michigan Infantry, 284 Northrup, Caleb, -438, 439, 442 Northrup, Emmett, 1079 Northrup, Mehitable, 440 Northrup, Perrin M., 439, 440 Northrup, Willard S., 445 Norton, Hiram E., 799 Noud, John F., 922 Nower, Charles L., 824 Noye, J. F., 134 Noyes, Kirk W., 605 Nutting, Ransom, 488 Nyman, Joseph, 444 Nyman, Joseph H., 442 Nyman, R. C., 862 "Oak openings," 326 Ocobock, Mrs. Emma, 531 Ocobock, George W., 888 ( 'Dell, Allen, 952 O'Dell, Barnabas, 356, 357, 785 Olds, Estella M., 528 Olds, Ierdino, 513, 517 Olds, Hezekiah, 517 Olds, L. T., 490 Olds, Orson, 517 Olds, Volney W., 528, 889 Olney, Burrell A., 514 Olney, Burrill A., 517, 521 Olney, Horace M., 343, 349, 527, 528 Olney National Bank, 349 Oppenheim, Jacob, 349, 886 Ordinance of 1887, 59-61 Orton, Edwin P., 1078 Orton, Samuel J., 956 Osborn, Erastus, 762 Osborn, Lester E., 874 Oslerism, 94 Overton, Miller, 981 Overton, S. E., 1127 Packard, Alfred I., Jr., 479 Packard, William O., 474 "'Painters, " 334 Page, Thomas P., 468 Palmer, Chauncey B., 400 Palmer, Ephraim, 558 Palmer, Ezra A., 383 Palmer, Frank W., 445 Palmer, Lewis, 1042 Palmer, Milton F., 382, 526 Palmer, Russell, 395 Parker, Thomas E., 1043 Parks, E. F., 343, 355 Parmeter, J. F., 420 Parsons, L. E., 345, 346 Paw Paw, 24, 113, 130, 136, 138, 158, 576-590 "Paw Paw Courier," 356 "Paw Paw Democrat," 354 "Paw Paw Free Press," 354 "Paw Paw Free Press and Courier," 355 Paw Paw Fruit Growers Union, 587 Paw Paw Lodge No. 18, I. 0. O. F., 585 Paw Paw Railroad, 111 Paw Paw river as a carrier, 105, 554 Paw Paw Savings Bank, 343 Paw Paw township-Mention, b2, 86; original township of La Fayette, 564; becomes Paw Paw township, 565; lakes, 565; the hardy pioneers, 566; Mr. and Mrs. Pe-Pe-Yah, 571; David Woodman's pioneer pictures, 571; the Paw Paw irrevocably crooked, 574; statistical, political and horticultural, 575; village of Paw Paw, 576 Pease, Anson D., 699 Pease, Enoch M., 500 Peck, J., 467 Peoples Bank, Bloomingdale, 351 Pe-Pe-Yah, "Mr. and Mrs.," 571 Pere Marquette Railway, 113 Perkins, Roy D., 365, 455 Peters, John, 477 Phelps, Alexander H., 549 Phelps, Horatio N., 555 Phelps, Theodore E., 134, 535 Phillips, Benjamin, 411 Phillips, Charles C., 362, 363 Phillips, David M., 366

Page  XXV INDEX Phillips, Eugene, 1134 Phillips, M. F., 5(34 Phillips, Norman, 323 Phillips, Solomon, 408, 411 Phillips, Waldo E., 504 Pierce, Almon J., 444, 500 Pierce, Clark, 498, 607 Pierce, Daniel, 498, 607 Pierce, H. M., 443 Pierce, Ransom T., 991 Pine Grove, 110, 597 Pine Grove township-AMention, 85; organized, 592; shingles as legal tender, 592; marital and legal, 594; Kalamazoo & South Haven Railroad, 595; general progress, 595; Gobleville, 596; Pine Grove, 597; Kendall, 597; Mentha, 597 Pioneer farm implements, 327 Place, Clarence E., 605 Plank roads, 103 Pokagon, Julia, 8, 11, 12-14 L'okagon, Simon (chief), 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 21, 24, 26, 99 Politics of the county-General elections (1837-1910), 168; the parties in the county, 169; presidential vote in the county, 170; county officers, 171; members of the state legislature, 175; other important officials from Van Buren county, 177; constitutional conventions, 178; proposed constitutional amendments, 179; Van Buren county and the liquor traffic, 180 l'omeroy, George B., 605 Pontiac, 56-58 Poole, Olive, 514, 521 Poole, Watson, 5it Poor, Charles N., 510 Poor, Melvin H., 674 Poor, Simon B., 673 Poorman, Byron M., 1073 Population of county (1840-1910), 74 Porter, George G., 68 Porter township-Mlention 82, 84; first settlers, 598; the Kinney settlement, 598; the Adams family, 600; township named and organized, 600; educational and political, 601; a retrospect, 602 Potter, Allen, 110 Potter, John B., 556 Pratt, Warren, 610 Presbyterian church, Decatur, 492 Presbyterian church, Paw Paw, 585 Press of Van Buren county-"Paw Paw Free Press," 354; "Paw Paw Free Press and Courier," 35,5; "The True Northerner," 356; ''Decatur Republican,'' 359; the "Lawton Leader," 361; "Hartford Day Spring," 361; the "Bangor Advance," 363; early Lawrence newspapers, 364; "Lawrence Times,'' 365; " Bloomingdale Leader," 365; "Gobleville News," 366; South Haven newspapers, 366 Pritchard, Colonel, 258, 259, 260 Probate judges, 171 Prohibition in the county, 180 Prosecuting attorneys, 173 Prospect lake, 544 Pugsley, C. Ray, 649 Pugsley, Henry M., 569 Pugsley, John K., 568, 575 Pugsley, Milton H., 352, 653 Pugsley, Nathaniel M., 569 Pugsley's Lake, 565 Quackenbush, Elizabeth, 408 "Queen of the Woods," 6 Quinn, Francis, 188 Radtke, Charles, 800 Railroads —Michigan Central, 107; Kalamazoo & South Haven, 109; the Paw Paw Railroad, 111; Toledo & South Haven Railroad (Fruit Belt line), 111; the Pere Marquette Railway, 113 Randall, V. F., 468 Ranney, John A., 395, 400 Ranney, William, 395 Ransom, Epaphroditus, 109, 161, 162 Ransom, Thomas If., 455, 904 Reams, Fredl AW., 797 "Red Man 's Greeting," 3 Register of deeds, 172 Reid, James L., 320 Remington, J. M., 453, 454 Renfer, Alfred, 1003 Rennie, James H., 652 Reynolds, Benjamin, 84, 505, 601 Reynolds, George, 544, 545, 558 Reynolds, Jane, 551 Reynolds, John, 358, 544, 545, 556, 558 Reynolds, Sarah, 551 Reynolds, Theodore L., 364 1Rhoads, James O., 967 Rhodes, 11. W., 135 Robinson, Daniel G., 450 Ridlon, John M., 638 Rice, Allen, 336 Rice, Mrs. Allen (Adelia), 122, 335, 383, 548 Rich, David E., 625 Richards, Chandler, 165, 556 Risley, C. S., 446 Rix, George H., 412 Roads-'-Indian trails, 98; first Michigan white man's road, 99; territorial and state roads, 99; old stage routes, 101; plank roads, 103 Robertson, Burrill A., 1152 Robbins, John, 1021 Robinson, Almiron, 838 Robinson, Claude i)., 876 Robinson, Daniel G.. 454 Robinson, John A., 1085 Rockwell, Charles, 556 Rogers, Joseph, 348 Rogers, Laura, 497 Rogers, Robert. 56 Rogers, Samuel, 472 Rood, Frank E., 1037 Root, Edson V., 445 Root, Herbert L., 925 Rose, Gilbert L., 390 Rosevelt, John V., 535 Roseville, 516 Ross, Thomas L., 575 Ross, Volney, 344 Rowe, George U., 667 Rowe, Nelson, 384, 556, 666

Page  XXVI xxvi INDEX Rowe, Rufus, 384 Rowe, Sylvanus, 385 Rowland, Marion O., 177, 358, 360 Rowland, Oran W., 94, 343, 358, 360, 1.156 Ruggles, Joseph, 514, 521 Runyan, Arthur C., 926 Russell, L. S., 363 Russell, MI. 1., 363, 852 Ryan, John, 521 Sackett, Stanley, 949 Sage, Richard 1E. 826 St. Clair, Arthur, 61 St. Mary's Church of the Immaculate Conception, Paw Paw, 585 Sanford, Lyman, 487 Savage, Levi, 409 Saw-kaw's love story, 38-45 Sawtelle, Elemucl, 468 Sayres, Rufus, 517 Schermerhorn, William, 1035 Schmidt, O. C., 366 School statistics, 125, 126 Schoolcraft, George W., 963 Schoolcraft, William, 941 Schools-Act of 1827 modified, 117; harassed school inspectors, 118; tle teachers' qualifications, 120; lrs. Allen Rice's reminiscences, 122; the old alld the new, 125 Scott, Charles, 419 Scott, James, 622 Scott, John, 623 Scott, Leslie, 1034 Scott, Thomas, 486 Scott, William R., 891 Scott Club, South Haven, 617 Searls, Charles C., 661 Sebring, Horace, 415 Sebring, J. E., 350, 745 Second Michigan Cavalry, 290 Scord, W. W., 363, 365 Selkirk, Matthew V., 935 Selleck, Charles, 575 Sellick, F. W., 343 Sellick, George F., 355 Sellick, William J., 343 Sellick, W. R., 343 Semi-agricultural industries, 325 Seventeenth Michigan Infantry, 215 Shaefer, Charles S., 412 Shanahan, Joseph K.. 1076 Shattuck, Shepard H., 475, 798 Shattuck, William J., 475 Shaw, Orrin S., 474 Sheffer, C. M., 320 Sheffer, S. G., 320 Sheldon, Charles P., 521, 1101 Sheldon, L. B., 575 Sheldon, Oliver H. P., 412 Sheldon, Thomas C., 613 Shepard, Henry, 867 Shepard, L. E., 575 Shepard, William W., 523, 525 Sheriffs, 171 Sherman, Alonzo, 342, 727 Sherman, John D., 733 Sherman, Joseph H., 729 Sherrod, Burtes MT., 445 Sherrod, G. B., 575 Snerrod, Hiram, 761 Sherwood, George, 490 Sherwood, Samuel, 489 Shine, George, 854 Showerinan, David, 397 Showerman, J. B., 343 Sh1uver, John H., 1027 Sibley, Solomon, 78 Sikes, Orendo M., 535, 538 Sikes, Zenas, 538 Simmons, Jeremiah H., 80, 165, 575 Simmons, Leander, 933 Simon, Ellis, 351 Sirrine, William R., 625 Sisson, Orrin, 602 Sister Lakes resort, 534 Sixteenth Mlichigan Infantry, 287 Sixtih Michiigan Infantry, 183 Skinner, Edward, 884 Smith, Augusta, 497 Smith, (. F., 365 lSmith, l)avid 1., 625 Smitli, Edmund, 343, 581 Smith, George P., 625 Smith, Harsen D., 165 Smith, Hattie B., 367 Smith, Henry, 511 Smith, Hiram A., 879 Smith, H. B., 432 Smith, Ira A., 367 Smith, James, 523 Smith,.Iohn, 438, 439 Smith, R. A., 311 Smith, Sherman D., 4-55 Smith, W. E., 359 Smith, Wilbur G., 367 nSmolk. John, 412 South Haven, 28, 110, 136-138 South Haven and Casco Pomological Society, 322 South Haven Board of Trade, 619 South Haven City Hospital, 388 "'South Haven Daily Gazette," 366, 367 '"South Haven Daily Tribune," 367 South Haven fruit raising, 320 South HIaven Gazette Company, 368 South Haven Loan and Trust Company, 352 SoutR Haven Pomological Society, 322, 619 "South Haven Record,"' 367 "South Haven Sentinel," 366 "South Haven Tribune-Messenger," 367 South Haven township-1\Mention, 80, 81, 84, 85; early elections and officials, 603; property and population, 605; Jay R. Monroe, first white settler, 606; Clark and Daniel Pierce. 607; A. S. Dyckman's story, 608; pioneer steam sawmills, 609; first institutions and pioneers, 610; village (now city) of South Haven, 613; the summer resort business, 615; schools, churches and societies, 61; municipal and business matters, 618; Pomological Society and Board of Trade, 619 South Mountain (battle), 216 Southard, John, 438, 439 Southern Michigan Fruit Association, 417, 418 Southwell, Enoch, 556 Spanish-American war, 310

Page  XXVII INDEX xxvil Spaulding, Henry, 521, 1119 Spayde, Emerson D., 452 Spencer, Frank L., 694 Sprague, William, 483 Squier, l)avid A., 488 Squier, Emory H., 488, 1091 Srackangast, Ezra, 1032 Stage routes, 101 Stainton, William It., 412 Starbuck, William, 1013 Starkweather, Nathaniel B., 80 State representatives, 1 75 State roads, 100, 101 State senators, 175 Stearns, Sidney, 509 Stearns, Zebina, 507, 509 Stephens, Frank E., 726 Stevens, F. E., 343 Stevens, F. H., 575 Stevens, French & Company, 342 Stevens, Harrison, 592 Stevens, James, 429 Stevens, William 1I., 400 Stewart, Gardner L.. 455 Stewart, Nellie, 366 Stewart, W. E., 366 Stimson, }Horace, 82, 546, 553, 556 Stolddard, John II., 556 Stone, William, 592 Stone River (battle), 198 Stoughton, Antoinette, 525 Stratton, Truman, 523 Stratton, Willard, 523 Streator, Prenett T., 625 Stuart, Charles E., 109, 197 Sturgis, Joseph, 609 Summers, William, 980 Sunmy, Eri, 468 Surdam, Nathaniel L., 407 Sutton, Luther, 362, 515, 546 Sutton, Orrin, 546, 556 Sweet, Charles P., 358, 359 Sweet, William, 1019 Swift, H. D., 485 Taft, Geraldine, 478 Tanner, E. A., 529 Tarbell, Henry Y., 820 Tarbell, John, 348 'I'aylor, (harles A. 439 Taylor, Daniel, 84, 439 Taylor, Ephraim, 549 Taylor, P. W., 367 Taylor, Howland C., 521 Taylor, N. S., 350 Taylor, William N., 407, 426 Tedrow, Frank J., 1117 Teed, Jeremiah, 488 Teed, Philip N., 400 Telephone lines, 353 Tenth Michigan Cavalry, 291 Tenth Michigan Infantry, 284 Territorial road, 99, 553 Thayer, Haviland, 450 Third Michigan Cavalry, 239, 242 Third Michigan Infantry, 283 Thirteenth Michigan Cavalry, 293 Thirteenth Michigan Infantry, 197 Thirtieth Michigan Infaintry, 288 Thomas, Jesse, 521 Thomas, Nathan, 751 Thomas, William, 521 Thomipson, Albert, 605 Tholmpson, Edlin A., 358 Thompson, Jasper.1', 521 T horn, John S., 521 Thre(e Mile lake, 565 Thresher, W. E., 364 Tittle, (eorge, 485 Tobey, Samuel, 366 Tod(l, A. M., 597 'loledlo & South Haven Railroad, 111 Tolles, Goodwin S., 496, 110)9 Tolles, James T., 136, 496 Tolles, William R., 496 Tomlinson, Joel, 403 Torrey, A. W., 454 Torrey, Arthur, 1133 T'ownsien(i, Charles, 81 Townsend, Loren I)., 470 Trafford, William F., 474 Traver, William M., 670 Tra-ver canning factory, 531 Travis,.J. B. 366 Traxler cianning factory, 5:1 Trini, (harles E., 455 Tripp, John H., 939 Tripp, Robert H., 985 Trowbridge, S. MI., 496 "True Northerner," 356 Truesdell, Merritt J., 1041 Truex, John M., 1033 Tubbs, Nathan, 85, 495, 496 Turner, George, 1059 Turner, Samuel, 400 Tuttle, William, Jr., 535 Twelfth Michigan Infantry, 188 Twell, Joseph, 361 Twenty-fourth Michigan Infantry, 225 Twenty-fifth Michigan Infantry, 226 Twenty-eighth Michigan Infantry, 227 Tvner, Thomas C., 556 Universalist church. Decatur, 491 Upton, John B., 556 Valleau, Peter T., 624 Valleau, Theodore W., 624, 908 Valuation of county property (1851-1911), 75 Van Antwerp, Daniel, 407, 412 Van Antwerp, Daniel C., 841 Van Antwerp, Mrs. Harriet (Cook), 600 Van Blaricon, Frank, 664 Van Buren (paper town), 555 Van Buren county-Population of (1840-1910), 74; property valuation (1851-1911), 75 Van Buren County Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 352 Van Buren County Pioneer Association, 89 "Van Buren County Press," 355 "Van Buren County Republican," 360 Van Fleet, William Norris, 551 Van Fossen, Isaac W., 355, 356, 645 Van Hise, Joseph, 486, 487 Van HIise, Stephen 0., 490 Van Hise, William 0., 488

Page  XXVIII xxviii INDEX Van Horn, James, 911 Van Nise, William K., 488 Van Ostrand, Spencer, 839 Van Ostrom, John, 529 Van Ostrom, Maggie, 529 Van Riper, Charles A., 602 Vaughan, Orley M., 1077 Veterinary practitioners, 392 Vickers, Robert E., 452 Vining, G. M., 364 Vining, Lewis HI., 1031 Waber, George T., 929 Waber, Thomas, 923 Wagner, Amos B., 504 Wagner, Joseph S., 610 Wagner, L. R., 811 Waite, Caroline M., 739 Waite, Henry, 738 Waite, Rufus M., 400 Wakefield, Mason, 508 Wakeman, Frank N., 359, 631 Wakeman, Seth L., 1010 Waldo, Campbell, 395 Waldron, Elver E., 602, 1089 Walker, Lewis P., 678 Wallace, George A., 1040 Wallace, William, 1006 Walter, James A., 110 Wapsey, 14-19, 40 Ward, Thomas O., 358 Warner, Bangs F., 643 Warner, Elam L., 94 Warner, Elijah, 602 Warner, Frank E., 496 Warner, Glenn E., 634 Warner, Jerome C., 575, 632 Warner, Junia, Jr., 80, 394, 395, 398, 584 Warner, Levi H., 379 Warren, Grace F., 680 Warren, Nellie M., 819 Warren, Robert L., 360, 364 Waterford road, 552 Waterman, J., 467 Waters, Harlan P., 412, 779 Watkins, Andrew J., 1002 Watson, Jerome B., 496 Watson, Leonard, 467 Watson, M. P., 445 Watson, Ralph F., 496 Waverly Grange No. 37, P. of H., 399 Waverly township-Mention, 83; physical features, 620; the township named, 621; the Myers family, 621; first wedding between pioneers, 622; Covey Hill, 623; John Scott, 623; other early settlers, 624; from the official records, 625; village of Glendale, 626 Weber, Henry F., 980 Weeks, James M., 504 Weidenfeller, Charles A., 455 Welch, J. L., 351 Welch, O. T., 488 Weldin, George, 1142 Weldin, Joel M., 1047 Welker, Jeremiah, 1080 Wells, Hiram K., 432 Wenban, W. W., 496 Weso, 33-37 Westgate, Orlo, 605 'West Michigan Advance," 363 West Michigan Savings Bank, Bangor, 350 Whipple, Charles W., 162 Wicksall, Guy J., 73, 179 Wickwire, J. H., 361 Wiggins, Milan D., 351, 1151 Wigglesworth, C. H., 323 Wilcox, John B., 1036 Wild pigeons, 45-52 Wildey, Albert R., 327, 328, 570, 574 Wildey, Edwin A., 177, 178, 327, 359, 575 \Vildey, W. C., 327, 575 Willard, Isaac W., 73, 105, 109, 178, 574, 576, 578, 580 Williams, Charles W., 917 Williams, Henry S., 358 Williams, John, 323, 612 Williams, Nathan, 397 Williams, Norris A., 987 Williams, Oscar J., 412 Williams, Orsimus, 602 Williams, Philip, 410, 411 Williams, William R., 551 Williamson, Mrs. Prudence, 540 Willis, Lewis E., 984 Wilmot, Marlin L., 906 Wilson, Eugene A., 177 Wilson, S. H., 367 Wilson, Samuel P., 605 Wise, Abram S., 504 Withington, William H., 215 Wolcott, James, 523 Wolf stories, 333 Wolfs, C. A., 343 Wood, Walter A., 1094 Woodman, David, 327, 571, 575 Woodman, David, Jr., 571, 572 Woodman, Edson, 327, 328 Woodman, Jason, 325, 574 Woodman, Jonathan J., 94, 177, 404, 412 Woodman, Joseph, 337, 403, 404, 571, 578 Woodman, Lucius C., 239, 380 Woodman, Olivia J., 404 Woodruff, George, 163 Woodward, Marquis, 432 Wooster, A. M., 360 World's Fair (Chicago), 3, 6 Worthington, Henry, 541 Wygent, John, 477 Yates, James A., 445 Yeckley, George G. B., 504 Young, Benoni, 476 Young, Charles W., 575 Young, David, 472 Young, George F., 946 Young, Merle H., 576, 707 Zook, William E., 1012

Page  [unnumbered] 3 ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Page  [unnumbered] The above are supposed to have been la(le by the mound builders who had sway in Van lBurell county long before the Algonquin race had taken possession of Michigan, from tile fact that many of these implements are found buried with their clead in the mounds scattered throughout the county. The cuts which have no notches at the base were used for various purposes as we use our knives. All notched at the base were used for arrow points. They were held in place in a spllit in one end of the arrow, securely held by the sinews of animals. Although our present Indians knew nothing about how they were manufactured, still when found they were successfully used by them. The above illustrations were furnished by E. B. Starks, an old settler of Van Buren county —alnd consi(lered good authority in al)originl Imatters. The above cuts, excepting those notched at the base, were used as we use axes or pick axes. They were securely fastened to the helves made of a crotched stick of proper size, securely held in place by animal thongs. The specimens from which the illustration was made were found in Van Buren county, and furnished by Conklin & Smith.

Page  1 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY CHAPTER I ABORIGINAL HISTORY FIRST CHURCH BUILT BY INDIANS-CHIEF POKAGON'S ADDRESSPOKAGON'S LAST WIGWAM-JULIA POKAGON'S ADDRESS-OLD WAPSEY-DO INDIANS CRY, LAUGH OR JOKE?-ALGONQUIN LEGEND OF MAN'S CREATION-LEGEND OF PAW PAW AND THE PAW PAW VALLEY-ALGONQUIN LEGENDS OF SOUTH HAVEN-AFTER ME-ME-OG (SQUABS) IN VAN BUREN COUNTY-THE "BUCK PONY" RIDE-"NEVER CARRY A REVOLVER, BOYS "-S-KAW S LOVE STORY —E-ME-OG, THE WILD PIGEONS. By C. H. Engle, Associate Editor. "Is not the Redman's wigwam home As dear to him as costly dome Is not his loved ones smile as bright As the dear ones of the man that's whited Freedom-this self-same freedom you adoreBade him defend his violated shore. * * * "The past can never be undone. The new day brings the rising sun To light the way of duty now To children with the dusky brow." While we leave on record the history of our own people, let us not forget the Red Man who once owned this beautiful land and welcomed our pioneers when they first came to this county, and when in need sheltered and shared with them "man-do-min and suc-see" (corn and deer). It is a lamentable fact that those who know least of the Indian race cry out against them most bitterly, as being vindictive, treacherous and cruel; while those who have lived among them and associated with them for years, frankly acknowledge that as a race they are no worse than we are. Of course when their lands were 1

Page  2 2 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY invaded they fought like demons for home and native land; and so we might say of every race. General Sherman, when lie led the boys in blue to the Sea, during the late rebellion, witnessed so much wantonness and cruelty that he cried from his heart, "War is Hell!" and truthfully he might have added "alike with savage and with sage." As far as we can learn from history Pere Marquette was the first white man who visited Southwest MIichigan about two hundred and fifty years ago. A few years after he was followed by La Salle who built a fort at the mouth of St. Joseph river, Michigan, on the highlands west of the junction of Paw Paw and St. Joseph rivers, the main object of which seems to have been to monopolize the trade in buffalo hides. The natives of Michigan were firm in the belief that the country many years before their time was inhabited by a race much further advanced in the arts and sciences than were they. Their legends show it and the domestic implements and weapons of warfare which they found scattered broadcast over the land clearly proved it. Again, it was generally talked of and known among the Indians of Michigan, as near as they could estimate time, that about two hundred and fifty years ago one of their chiefs, We-me-gen-de-bay, while hunting in the wilderness discovered a great copper kettle which was partly underground. The roots of large trees had grown over it, and when taken up it appeared as if it had never been used, but seemed to be just as it came from the maker, as there was yet a round bright spot in the center of the bottom of it. This kettle was large enough to cook a whole deer or bear in. For a long time the Indians kept it as a sacred relic. They did not keep it near where they lived, but securely hidden in a place most unfrequented by human beings. They did not use it for anything except great feasts. Their idea was that it was made by some deity who presided over the country where it was found and that a copper mine must be near that place. It had no iron rim around it, nor bail for hanging while in use, but the edge of the upper part was much thicker than the rest and was turned out square about three fourths of an inch, as if made to rest on some support while in use. When the Indians began to be civilized they used it in common to boil down maple sap to sugar, instead of cooking bear for feast. I first read an account of this magical kettle in the writings of the late Chief Blackbird, an educated Ottawa Indian. I lhave talked with him frequently since regarding this strange find. He told me that while a young man he worked in a government blacksmith shop, that it was brought to him to have a bail put in it, and that he fixed it up according to order. When I talked with him he was nearly one hundred years old and confirmed in full

Page  3 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY BARK AND QUILL WORK Having presented our readers with photo-cuts of iimleineints made by a prehistoric race of this country, we now present them photo-cuts of the presentday work of our Michigan Indians, showing their artistic creations in bark and porcupine quill work, etc. About the time of the opening of the Worl(d's Fair in Chicago, in 1893, our late Chief Pokagon published a booklet on the manifold bark of the white birch tree, entitled "The Red Man 's Greeting;"' afterwards it was called by the public "'The Red Man's Rebuke; " also " The Red Man's Book of Lamentation." In order that future generations of our county may understand the Indian love and appreciation of the white birch tree, I deem it best to here lubl)ish the preface of the bark book in full. PREFACE OF " THE RED MiAN 'S GREETING " My object in publishing "The Red Man's Greeting" on the manifold bark of the white birch tree is out of loyalty to my own people and gratitude to the Great Spirit, who, in his wisdom, provided for our use, for untold generations, this most remarkable tree with manifold bark, used by us instead of p1aper and being of greater value to us, as it could not be injured by sun or water. Out of the bark of this wonderful tree were made hats, caps and dishes for domestic use, while our maidens tied with it the knot that sealed the marriage vow. Wigwams were made of it, as well as the largest canoes that outrode the most violent storms on lake and sea. It was also used for light and fuel at our war dances and spirit councils. Originally the shores of our northern lakes and streams were fringed with it and evergreen; and the white, charmingly contrasted with the green mirrored from the waters, was indeed beautiful; but, like the Red Man, this tree is vanishing from our forests. "Alas for us! our day is o'er, Our fires are out from shore to shore; No more for us the wild deer bounds; The plough is on our hunting grounds; The pale man's axe rings through our woods. The pale man's sails skim o'er our floods, Our pleasant springs are dry. Our children-look by power oppressed! Beyond the mountains of the West, Our children go to die! "

Page  4 4 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY the above account of the kettle. He further added: "From this evidence of working in metals and from many other relics of former occupants, it is evident that this country has been inhabited for many ages by a people further advanced in the arts and sciences that are we." Our own people who have investigated as far as possible the prehistoric race that occupied this country long before the Algonquins, are of the opinion that they were the mound builders who have left so many earth works of various sizes scattered throughout this continent, traces of which still may be seen in nearly every township of Van Buren county; and that the flint arrow points, knives, spears, stone axes, etc., which are so profusely scattered throughout the county are the handiwork of those people. Whence they came or where they went no one knows, but some conjecture that for ages they slowly migrated southward and finally established the ancient kingdom of Mexico. Cortes, the Spanish conqueror who invaded Mexico in 1519, declared that the natives were just about as far advanced in the arts and sciences as were the Spaniards, except in the implements of warfare and the manufacture of gunpowder, of which they had no knowledge whatever. FIRST CHURCH BUILT BY INDIANS The Pottawattamies claim to have erected the first church in Van Buren county. It was built of logs on the south side of Rush lake, township of Hartford, in 1840. In 1856 they built a frame church, forty feet by sixty, just east of the log church. Both were Catholic churches. The frame church is still standing. I well remember when it was built from this fact: They came to me to get a job of cutting down about ten acres of timber that they might obtain money with which to buy shingles. They agreed to commence the job on the following day. I told them I would be over in the afternoon to see what kind of a job they were doing. I was rather late and did not get there until nearly sundown. When I was within eighty rods of the job I was surprised to hear what I thought must be a war-whooping pow wow. I hardly could decide whether to go ahead or retreat. While I paused I heard the falling of the great trees as if a cyclone was abroad in the timber. Advancing in haste I saw the timber crashing down the whole width of the ten-acre job. Again I paused, for the crashing of the falling timber, intermixed with the pow wow war-whoops, created such confusion of sounds, "As if all the fiends from Heaven that fell Had pealed the banner cry of Hell."

Page  5 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 5 As I met the tribe starting home, they informed me that the whole tribe had turned out and commenced cutting the timber part way down on the east side of the job and when they reached the west side they had formed in line across the entire front and felled the timber eastward and that one tree had pushed down the next and all had fallen, saving them much chopping. But what a job! It is generally believed by the best men and women who have made a careful study of the issues between the two races that if the Indians had been treated under the golden rule, "Do to others as you would that they should do to you," they would have been the best kind of Christians. They never worshiped idols from the fact than they believed in one Great Spirit, known by them as "Ki-tchi Man-i-to," and one Great Spirit called "Mau-tchi Mani-to." The first they believe to be all wisdom and goodness, who created all things and governs all. The other was bad and did all the evil he could. Hence it was that they loved and adored the first missionaries who taught them that the Great Spirit had revealed His will to man through Christ, His only Son. But when bad designing white men went among them to steal and rob, they naturally thought that all our race, of course, were Christians, and in their innocence looked upon their acts as the offspring of their religion; hence concluded that the white man's God was not "Ki-tchi Man-i-to" who loved and cared for them and their children. In considering the natural character of the red man from what we read about him in our books, we must bear in mind that his history has been written by white men-by a race that invaded his country for conquest and settlement-and that it is a hard matter for the historian to write a correct history of a race that his own people are trying to subdue. In order that future generations of this county may have unprejudiced views of the natives who were the former occupants of this beautiful land which they inherit, I will introduce them to the writings of the late Chief Pokagon, an educated Indian who spent over seventy years in this county. I will first present his address given under the auspices of Oricono Tribe No. 184, I. O. R. M., at Liberty, Indiana, on January 7, 1898. Read it carefully and note his opinion regarding the issue between the two races. CHIEF POKAGON 'S ADDRESS For many years I have had a warm heart for the pale-faced "Redmen," but never expected to be invited to address them. I would not have you think that I flatter myself that I have been invited here on account of my intelligence or reputation, as I most keenly realize you have looked forward to my coming here with a sort of novel pride that you might point me out to your (Continued on page 7)

Page  6 6 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY CHIEF POKAGON A correct likeness of Chief Pokagon in his tribal attire as he appeared at the World's Fair on Chicago Day, October 9, 1893, as painted by M. O. Whitney. Being an invited guest of the city on that day, the old veteran rang the new liberty bell for the first time, and was honored by addressing the vast throng in behalf of his race. The old chief gained, while a guest of the World's Fair, a national reputation for native ability. HIe wrote in his lifetime several articles for leading magazines, which were highly eulogized by the press, both in this country and abroad. He is the only Indian who ever wrote his own courtship and married life, which is most touchingly told in his "Queen of the Woods." His words came from his heart and apparently never fail to reach the heart of the reader. It is the only book written by an Indian that was ever dramatized. This wonderful book has been so well received that the third edition is now being closed out. Van Buren county has just reasons to be proud of having produced the most remarkable Indian writer in America. "Queen of the Woods" was in the press at the time of the old chief's death in 1899. Published and for sale by C. H. Engle, Hartford, Van Buren county.

Page  7 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 7 children and say: "Behold a living specimen of the race with whom we once neighbored-a race we sometimes loved; and yet that love was mingled with distrust and fear." No greater compliment could have been bestowed upon our vanishing race than by naming one of the grandest orders after them. And that compliment was made perpetual in giving each officer of the Red Men's order Indian names pure and simple, as well as by giving each lodge some appropriate Indian name. IMy heart is always made glad when I read of the Daughters of Pocahontas kindling their council fires. I have often thought if they dressed as be(omningly as our maids and matrons did in their native style, I would be glad indeed to see them confer the Pocahontas degree work. The name Pocahontas and my own name were derived from the same Algonquin word, "Poka," meaning a " shield," or "protector. " And again we are highly complimented by the order of Red Men in dating their official business from the time of the discovery of America. I suppose the reason for fixing that date was because our forefathers had held for untold ages before that time, the American continent a profound secret from the white man. Again, the Red Men's order highly compliments our race by dividing time into suns and moons, as our forefathers did. All of which goes to show that they understood the fact we lived close to the great heart of Nature and that we believed in one Great Spirit who created all things and governed all. Hence that noble motto, born with our race, "Freedom, Friendship and Charity!" Yes, freedom, friendship, charity! Those heaven-born principles shall never, never die! It was by those principles our fathers cared for the orphan and unfortunate, without books, without laws, without judges; for the Great Spirit had written his love and law in their hearts and they obeyed. Tradition, as sacred to us as Holy Writ, has taught us that our forefathers came here from the Atlantic coast. When they first entered these woodland plains they said in their hearts "'surely we are on the border-land of the happy hunting grounds beyond." Here they found game in great abundance. The elk, the buffalo and the deer stood unalarmed before the hunter's bended bow. Fish swarmed in the lakes and streams close to shore. Pigeons, ducks and geese moved in great clouds through the air, flying so low they fanned us with their wings, and our boys whose bows were scarcely a terror to the crows would often with their arrows bring them down. Here we enjoyed ourselves in the lap of luxury. But our camp fires have all gone out! Our council fires blaze no more! Our wigwams and they who built them, with their children, have forever distlppeared from this beautiful land, and Pokagon alone of all the chiefs is permitted to behold it once again! But what a change! Where our cabins and wigwams once stood, now stand churches, school houses, cottages and castles. And where we walked in single file along our winding trails, now locomotives scream, and as they rush along their iron trails like monstrous beasts of prey, dragging after them long rows of palaces with travelers therein outstripping the flight of eagles in their course! As I behold the mighty change all over this broad land, I feel about my heart as I did in (childhood when I saw for the first time the rainbow spanning the departing storm! T do not speak of the past complainingly. I have always taught my people lot to sigh for years long gone by, nor pass again over the bloody trails our fathers trod. I have stood all my life as a peacemaker between the white people and my own people.. Without gun or bow, I have stood between the two contending armies, re(eiving a thousand wounds from your people and my own.

Page  8 8 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY I have continued to pray the great Father at Washington to deal justly with my people. When they were robbed of their homes and lands, and felt mortally offended, I said to them: "Wait and pray for justice; the war path will lead you but to the grave!" At the beginning of the present century my father became chief of the Pokagon tribe. At that time the heroic Tecumseh with his great eloquence stirred up the Algonquin tribes to unite as one and strike for liberty. My father most emphatically declared in all their war councils that they might as well attempt to stay a cyclone in its course as to beat back the onmarching hordes of civilization toward the setting sun. But in their loyal zeal they could not comprehend their own weakness and strength of the dominant race, but, being pressed onward by as noble motives as ever glowed in mortal hearts, they fought most desperately for home and native land. Historians have recorded of us that we are vindictive and cruel, because we fought like tigers when our homes were invaded and we were being pushed toward the setting sun. When white men pillaged and burned our villages and slaughtered our families, they called it honorable warfare; but when we retaliated they called it butchery and murder! When the white man's renowned statesman, Patrick Henry, proclaimed in the ears of the English colonies "Give me liberty, or give me death," he was applauded by his people; and that applause still rolls on, undying, to freedom's farthest shore. When William Tell pierced the apple on the head of his son, Gesler noticed a second arrow drop from his vest. In tones of thunder he demanded, "Slave! why didst thou conceal that arrow " As quick as lightning came the bold response, "To shoot the tyrant, if I had harmed my son." And all the civilized world since then, through the centuries of time, have continued to applaud that sentiment. But let Pokagon ask, in all that is sacred and dear to mankind, why should the red man be measured by one standard and the white man by another? The only answer I can give is that "mine and thine" the seed of all misery, predominates in the hearts of men when they become civilized and wealthy. In conclusion, permit Pokagon to say: I rejoice with the joy of childhood that you have granted a son of the forest a right to address you; and the prayer of my heart, as long as I live, shall ever be that the Great Spirit will bless you and your children, and that generations yet unborn may learn to know that we are all brothers of the same fold under one Shepherd and that the Great Spirit is the father of all. Chief Pokagon seemed to glory in the fact that Van Buren was the banner temperance county in the state of Michigan. In view of that fact, in justice to his temperance proclivities, I wish to leave on record an extract from his last speech delivered at Plymouth, Indiana, near Twin Lakes, from which his people were banished in 1838. Since then the state of Indiana has erected a splendid monument in memory of the unjust banishment of his people from that commonwealth. Ilis granddaughter, Julia Pokagon, a graduate of Lawrence Indian school, Kansas, delivered the unveiling address. I was present on that occasion. Her speech was wonderfully eloquent, insomuch the great crowd was moved to tears. That night I said to her "Julia, during your talk, I saw not a dry eye." She simply said "I wept too."

Page  9 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 9 The old chief, in his speech referred to, in conclusion said: " My dear friends; listen! Is there a father or mother among you who have laid in the grave all your children but the youngest of the flock, cut down by that fatal disease consumption, just as they were about to step upon the stage of manhood or womanhood? And have you looked upon that one spared you with bright hopes and prayers that he might live to support and comfort you in old age; and has that hope been cut short as the dreaded monster, consumption, has fallen like lead upon your heart? If so you can form some faint shadowy idea of my feelings at the thought of that accursed 'fire water' ever falling like death upon my heart, mortally wounding my highest hopes which, like a soaring eagle by a poisoned arrow pierced, fluttering falls! "By adoption I am a citizen of these United States, therefore I beg of you, my white countrymen, who now occupy and enjoy this loved land of my infancy, draw near me in your hearts as a mother to her sorrowing child, and tell Pokagon frankly, 'Do you know of any good reason why that loathsome monster, born of your race, which is coiling about the vitals of your children and ours, should not be utterly destroyed?' You send missionaries across the great deep to save Hindu children from being drowned in the Ganges, or crushed under the wheels of the idol Juggernaut, and yet in your own Christian land, thousands yearly are being drowned in the American Ganges of Firewater, while the great Juggernaut of King Alcohol is ever rolling on night and day, crushing its victims without mercy. Hark! Do you not hear the agonizing wails on every side? Fathers and sons are falling into drunkards' graves. Mothers and daughters are weeping over them. Wives are lamenting as they bend over the bruised heads of their husbands as they return from their midnight brawls. Maidens weep in shame as they wipe the death damp from the brows of their drunken lovers, and briars of the deepest disappointment encumber the bridal chamber. Brave men and women who have fought long and well to redeem and save the fallen shrink before the power of the saloon and its votaries, and the pious are almost beginning to doubt the favor of God. But a few more words and I must close. "My dear white friends, listen! This place is the cradle of my infancy. As Pokagon thinks of it and considers it, there comes creeping through his old and feeble frame an electric inspiration not born of earth but of Heaven. The Great Spirit whispering in my soul tells me to say to you who now own and occupy this, my native land: 'All of you from the least to the greatest join hands with Pokagon.' Let us kindle here a great temperance fire and commence at once with sledge and anvil of total abstinence

Page  10 10 HISTORY OF VAN BTUREN COUNTY CHIEF SIMON POKAGON The photograph of the above portrait was taken at the request of the governor of Michigan on the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the city of Holland, Michigan. The guests of honor were The Holland Society, of Chicago, and many important residents of Michigan. The orators of the day were Governor Pingree, Hon. Alden Smith, and Chief Pokagon. The rosette which appears in the picture was the badge of the day, and was pinned on by the governor. to forge the greatest chain on earth. Shrink not from the task. Then others about you, seeing your good works, will join hands with you by the millions and help you complete one mighty chain which will reach from sea to sea and from the gulf to the great lakes. Then shall appear that angel spoken of in your Holy Writ who carries the key of the bottomless pit, descending out of Heaven crying with a loud voice, saying: 'Well done ye workers for God and humanity;' and grasping in his hands the mighty chain you have forged, he will lay hold of the dragon, that cruel serpent, which is King Alcohol, the devil, and bind him and cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal over his mouth that he shall deceive the sons of men no longer. Then shall appear the worshippers of the beast, and those who fought against him, and they shall shake hands with each other, and rejoice to

Page  11 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 11 1)OK AGON 'S WTIGN WAM This is a photo of the late Chief Pokagon 's wigwam, which stood for several y-ears after his death on the lawn of C. H. Engle at Hartford. Last summer (1911) it was purchased by the State Normal School at Ypsilanti, and now stands in front df the science building protected from relic vandals by an iron tubular fence. The granddaughter of the old chief, Julia Pokagon, appears in the door of the wigwaml. which is made of two thicknesses of the manifold white birch bark. It is a pyramidal decagon, sixteen feet base and twenty-four feet high. gether; and their voices shall be like the miingling of many waters as they roll on undying to freedom 's farthest shores. And their jokyous song shall he 'Glory to God in the highest. Who hath re(leemedl and savedl us. and on earth peace and good will to all lmen! "And now farewell! Relmembler the words I have spoken in weakness are words of soberness and truth, and by reason of old age, envy, malice, hatred and revenge have long since faded from my heart. Hence Pokagon's words should be received as the confessions of a dying man; for already with one hand I have pulled the latcl string of time and one foot is passing over the threshold of the open door of the wigwam of life into the happy hunting

Page  12 12 HISTORY OF VAN BTJREN COUNTY grounds beyond. Soon Pokagon will stand in the presence of the Great Spirit, where I shall plead with Him as I have pleaded on earth, that he will lead all by the hand who have so bravely fought that old Dragon, Alautchi Manito (the Devil), the destroyer of your children and ours and lead them on to glorious victory!" CHIEF POKAGON'S LAST WIGWAM On the preceding page is a picture of Chief Pokagon's last Wigwam. It stood for several years on the lawn of C. H. Engle, opposite the Hartford public park. It is a pyramidic decagon in shape, made of the manifold bark of the white birch tree, being sixteen feet at the base and twenty-four feet high. During the past summer it was procured by the advanced class of the study of nature at Ypsilanti, and now stands on the campus in front of the science building in the grounds of the State Normal School of Michigan. It is protected from relic fiends by a high tubular fence. When dedicated, C. II. Engle, of Van Buren County, after giving a brief history of the chief and his wigwam, introduced to the vast audience the granddaughter of the late chief, Julia Pokagon, who gave the 'dedicatory address, a portion of which is given below. JULIA POKAGON 'S ADDRESS I am glad that I am here; indeed glad that you have granted to a child of the forest an opportunity to address the teachers and students of the greatest institution of Michigan; am glad this college has honored my race by placing on these grounds the wigwam of my fathers. There is nothing more sacred to our people than "wigwam." It is as dear to our hearts as "home" to the white race. It brings to us all the kindred ties of father, mother, sister, brother, son and daughter. We too can sing with overflowing hearts "Wigwam, Sweet Wigwam: there is no place like Wigwam!" About one year since I was honored, by making the unveiling address of an Indian statue erected in memory of the unjust banishment of my people from the state of Indiana in 1838. As I there stood in the presence of a great multitude gathered to atone as far as possible for the wrongs their fathers had dealt out to our people through the influence of bad men, my heart mourned; for well I knew that the broad stretch of land about me, with its beautiful lakes and streams, just seventy years before was wrenched without cause from my ancestors. As I stepped down from the platform to unveil the Indian statue, I realized it stood on the very spot where my people had built a church in the wilderness after their conversion to Christianity, and that the last time they met there for worship it was surrounded by an army of white soldiers, who barred the windows and door and demanded that the worshipers surrender as prisoners of war. They were then marched out between lines of soldiers into the smoke of their burning wigwams and the church, where they had taught their lisping children to repeat "Our FATHER, who art in HEAVEN, hallowed be Thy name" was burned to the ground before their eyes. As I thought of that great wrong my heart was sad and I wept. Thank Heaven, not so here on this occasion; for my heart is joyous as I con

Page  13 HISTORY OF VAN B3UREN COUNTY 13 template the fact that the Pokagon band at that time fled into this state to escape banishment. They were here received with open arms. Michigan at that time, as a state, was less than one year old. Indiana had passed her twenty-first birthday. She demanded of infant Michigan that we should be given up and exiled with the rest of the Pottawattamie tribe. All praise to infant Michigan! She boldly said to her sister state "Stand back! You shall JULIA POKAGON not molest a single child of the forest within all our borders! " and a few years thereafter every Indian in Michigan was granted the right of citizenship, so we now can sing with you "Michigan, Michigan, our Michigan! Long may she wave the flag O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave." I must frankly confess I am sorely vexed regarding certain publications read in the home and schools of our state, the authors of which depict our race as vindictive and cruel, illustrating their works with war dances and bleeding scalps, and yet some of these authors never saw an Indian in their life; but the sole purpose of their mischievous publications has been to make money, irrespective of the result of creating a prejudice against our race. Again, many parents use their tongue instead of the whip to frighten their children into obedience by telling them, "Look out or the Inguns will git you,"

Page  14 14 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY thereby creating a prejudice against us in the minds of their children that cannot be eradicated. Again I thank you for this opportunity to address you, and please do not forget that I, a child of the forest, will ever pray that all you teachers who go forth from this school may be imbued with such noble principles that you cannot fail to impress upon the young that we are all brothers and'sisters and that the Great Spirit is God of all. OLD WAPSEY Having given Chief Pokagon's address in full before the Order of Red Men and his last speech in part at Plymouth, Indiana, as well as his granddaughter's address at the dedication of her grandfather's wigwam at Ypsilanti, Michigan, I will now introduce you to old Wapsey, an unlettered Indian who was known in Van Buren county among the Pottawattamies as a mighty bear hunter. It was said of him that he killed more bears than any ten of his tribe and that he always drove them near to his wigwam to kill them. He was a better shot with his bow and arrow at a distance of two hundred feet than any of his white neighbors with their rifles. In order that my readers may better understand the peculiar char-. acter of this Nimrod among his people I will give an account of my visit to his wigwaml fifty-five years ago. What though his form was bent with age, What though he never read a single page, His heart was full of native lore, He shared with me his muskrat dish With Ingen soup and fine dogfishAll he had;-a King could do no more. When I first became acquainted with the Pottawattamie Pokagon tribe of Van Buren county in 1856, I was frequently told that old Wapsey was the most successful hunter among them, and that he killed more large game with his how and arrows than any ten of their tribe could with the( best white man's gun. Among other things the Indians told me he never left a bear's track night or day until he got his hide; and further, that he always drove the bears near to his wigwam to kill them. Ience it was frequently said "Wapsey drives bears home to kill them." Mr. Northrup, a white man who lived near these Indians several years before I knew them, told me of a remarkable bear chase in which he took a hand with old Wapsey. He said: Early one morning late in December, old Wapsey routed me out of bed telling me he had treed a big bear up a large white-wood tree which stood just below my clearing. He said " Now Norup, me want to git um your gun to shoot 'imn ma-kwa (a bear). Me shoot um, my arrows in top of

Page  15 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY OLD "WAPSEY" (SEES ALL) Pottawattamie Indian who participated in the massacre of Fort Dearborn in 1812. This photograph was taken in January, 1897, when he was 110 years old.

Page  16 16 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY tree and they no come back." I told him to go back and watch the bear and just as soon as I could dress myself I would come down with the gun. Arriving at the tree I said "Wapsey, I have always wanted to kill a bear. Let me shoot him. You can have his meat and hide the same as if you had shot him yourself." Wapsey said "You shoot um, in odo (heart)-shoot um dead, or meby um get away-meby kill us." I shot, grazing his head, he came tumbling to the ground and started off on the run. In passing Wapsey, he straddled the bear as a farmer would a hog in butchering time, sticking him in the neck until he fell for loss of blood. While he lay dying Wapsey said "Dare Norup: me tells you to shoot um dead, but you no do it." We found three arrows in the bear. One was shot clear through his side protruding three or four inches. After hearing so much about this wonderful hunter and stirred up by Northrup's account of his straddling and killing the bear, I determined I would go and spend one night at least with the remarkable Redskin Nimrod of America. Learning that he lived north of Paw Paw lake, about ten miles west, with an Indian boy as guide, late in November I started through the unbroken wilderness. Arriving at the lake, the boy pointed out to me his wigwam just across a little bay. There he left me, remarking "me be afraid to go fader for Wapsey meby take us for ma-kwa ond-gans (bear and cub) and kill us both." About sunset I stood before the wigwam of the mighty hunter. It was rudely built of elm bark with a smoke-hole at the top. I saw at a glance that the old man used a bear skin for a door. As I carefully approached I said "Hello! Hello! Hello!" The third time the bear skin was pushed aside, and before me stood a short thick set Indian. On his head was a coon skin cap, with the animal's ringed tail in the place of feathers. He had on a fur blouse of musk rats' hide, and buck skin pants, with moccassins of bearskin with the hair outside. In his left hand he held a bow as long as he was tall, with some arrows in his quiver that no doubt had pierced many a bear. I asked, in my heart, "Is it possible they will pierce me?" He eyed me apparently with much distrust, as silent as the grave. I said "Bo-sho Ni-con?" (How do you do, my friend?) He slowly responded "Bo-sho?" omitting ni-con, as if he doubted my friendship. I then said "Your chief, Pokagon, has told me much about you being the greatest hunter in his tribe. I am C. H. Engle, of Hartford. I have come to stay all night with you." He then walked up to me, and we shook hands. He asked if 1

Page  17 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 17 knew certain Indians who lived in Hartford in certain places that he described very particularly. I said I did. He asked "What be them called?" "Well," I said "Jo Kaw-kee, John Mix, Bert-rand, Little and Big Weso. " He again grasped my hand saying "You know um. Come in wigwam." I was pleased, for well I knew I had won his confidence and I have never known an Indian to betray a true friend. He seated me on a large bearskin in front of the fire in the center of the wigwam. I asked him if he could speak white man's talk? He replied "Me can little." I then said "Wap-sey, I have come to stay all night with you. Will you let me?" He replied "Guess meby me will." He then asked "Can you sleep um in wigwam?" I replied I was something of an Indian myself and had slept in all kinds of places. "Meby you be hun gry," he said. I frankly said "I am." "Me lib alone," he said, "and me fear you no like um my stuff and cooking." I replied "I can eat anything, except musk rats, that goes on four legs." He said "Me will feed you. Me am cooking to eat ur now." He then went to a wooden trough that would hold perhaps eight gallons, stirred up the contents with a wooden paddle, took out a piece of meat, tasted it, shook his head. He then took a red-hot stone out of the fire about the size of his head and plunged it into the trough. It sizzled and soon filled the wigwam full of steam. He waited a few minutes and asked "Do um smell good?" I answered "Fine." In a short time he said "Sit um down here and eat um." I reclined on one side of the trough and he on the other, and handing me a wooden spoon saying "eat um, good cooked." I dipped into the rude dish drawing out the hind leg of some small animal. I said "I like squirrel." "Me be glad of dat," he said, "me do too." I ate several fore legs and hind legs. I thought it the finest squirrel I had ever eaten, and such nice soup I never expected to eat again. Wapsey, seeing how I enjoyed the soup, handed me a gourdshell, saying "Drink um like water." I did as he said, drinking down the soup like coffee until I was pleasantly satisfied. Supper over Wapsey asked "What meby you bin eatin?" "Squirrels, of course," I said. He straightened back and laughed so heartily that I could see all his double grinding teeth. "What you laugh so about?" I asked. He answered "No, no, no um squirrel-mush rat! mush rat!" handing me two green musk rats' tails. I was astonished! I never before nor since felt so completely sold. I Vol. I —

Page  18 18 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY walked out of the wigwam, for I began to feel sea sick. Coning back into the wigwam Wapsee said "Me be sorry you feel uln so bad." Putting on a bold front I said "I am feeling good," and added "I came here to learn from your own lips if in chasing bear you can drive them home to kill them. Come tell me all about it." "Well," said the old man, "at sun-up tomorrow, me be goin' to hunt um bear. Me ready now. Here see um dis mokak (bark box)." He put his hand into it and took out three or four pounds of jerked venison and a lot of popped corn. "Now," said le, "when me find urn bear track me foller im till dark, den me lay uml down and sleep um till day, sun-up. When me get hugry me eat um deer and corn. Meby foller his track two day; then Ima-kwa start um back towards im wigwam. When im get where me first find um track, me run bery fast after ir. Me tire im out. Hie git bad tired. He find um big tree and climb urn, and say 'come old Wapsey or come Mau-tchi Man-i-to (the Devil). Me can go no furder.' And Wapsey kill im close to wigwam." Remaining silent for a few moments with that stoical look peculiar to his race. he said "Yes, good many Ingun tink Manito help Wapsey drive ma-kwa near wigwam to kill urn. Me tell uin to foller unl day and night as Wapsey do and dey will kill um ma-kwa as Wapsey do." He then stepped outside of the wigwam, took a stick, marked out on the ground a small circle, making a number of them starting from the same point, increasing their size until the last one was very large. He then said "The small circle wa-boos (the rabbit) take when chased. Next sized circle es-si-kan (the raccoon) take. next sized circle him de wa-gosh (the fox) take. Next larger, him de ma-in-gam (the wolf) um take and next larger um suc-see (tile deer) take. Next larger him ma-kwa (the bear) take. And dis longest line him mons (the moose) take. Foller track, im will go and go; you tink im neber will come back. Stick to im night and day, three times, and im will start back toward wigwam where im track am first found." "Is it possible," I said, "that all animals will come round in that way when they are chased? Why do they do so?" I asked. He replied "All me can tell is dat the Great Spirit made umr so. Should dey keep goin' farder and farder away from wigwam. when killed poor Ingun would die before he got um pulled home." I asked no more questions, accepting his version of what the Great Spirit had done for the Indians. We slept that night between two green bear skins next to the hair. When I got up in the morning I found the old man cooking fish. He was just hauling them out of the ashes. I noticed he scaled them after they were cooked. I said "Where did you get

Page  19 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 19 your fish?" "Me went to de lake before sun-up," he said, "and killed um." I ate them with a. fair relish, as they were very soft and juicy. After eating I asked what kind of fish they were. He replied very stoically "O-nim gi-go (dog fish)." The last time I saw old Wapsey was in July, 1893. Chief Pokagon had just come from Chicago, where he had been a guest of the city at the World's Fair, and requested me to go with him to see Uncle Wapsey, as he called him, as he had been requested to bring him to the fair, from the fact, it had been learned, that lie was the only surviving Indian who took part in the massacre of Fort Dearborn in 1812. The Chief told mie the old man was one hundred and ten years old. Arriving at his wigwam. we found the old man smoking a big cigar he had made out of home-grown tobacco. It was a foot long and he offered us each another. lie seemed pleased to see the chief and lie asked him "If he had killed any ma-kwa lately?" He said "No kill um any more. Wapsey gitting bery old." The chief began to talk to him in his native tongue. Ite told him he was the only Indian now living wlho took part in the Fort Dearborn massacre and that he had been sent to bring him to the World's Fair at Chicago. Then he asked "You took part in that massacre did you not?" He replied "Me did." "How old were you at that time?" in(quired the chief. The old man began to count his fingers out loud, in his native tongue, taking hold of each finger as he counted it-"Be-gig, Nig, Nis-wi, Ni-win, Na-nan, Nin-get-was-wi, Nin-gwas-wi, Nish-was-wi, Jang-as-wi, Mi-das-wi" up to ten. HIe then raised his hand up three times, repeating ''1"i-das-wi (ten):" then said "Nis-si-miida-na Bi-bon (thirty years)." The chief then said "You must then ble certainly one hundred and ten years old! WAill you go to Chicago w\ith us?" He replied "Me fear to. They want to kill Wapsey." lTp to this time the old man had been walking about telling how well he felt. But now lhe sat down and humped up saying "Nind a-ki-we-si Nind-a-kos (I am old, I am sick). Nind be-si-ka (I can hardly crawl about)." The chief then said "Colme go witll us, \wo'lt you?" He shook his head firmly, saying "Kaw-es-so mika (No. I will not go.) Win-a-wa nish-i-we Wapsey (They will kill Wapsey). Nin-da-i-we tchi Sino-ka-man an-am-a-ka-miig (and send him to the white man's hell)." I never saw the old man again. He passed away soon afterward, to the happy hunting ground of his race.

Page  20 20 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Do INDIANS CRY, LAUGH OR JOKE? I am often asked, Do Indians ever joke, cry or laugh? They certainly do just as much among themselves as we do. Get well acquainted with them and that stoical characteristic for which they are noted disappears almost entirely. I have known Indians in the prime of life with whom I have hunted but a few days to shed tears as they bid me "An-a-mi-ka (good-bye)." Many times I have been present when friends meet each other, taking hold of each other's right hands and grasping with their left hands each others elbows, warmly shaking each other's arms, laughing and shedding tears at the same time. As regards joking, they are the greatest jokers of any race I have ever met and many times their jokes are very effective. Mr. Brown, a white man in this place, one morning found his axe gone. From where it was taken he found moccasin tracks. He followed them into the woods where he found an Indian cutting down a bee tree. He openly charged him with stealing his axe, saying to him "I have been told that Indians did not steal, but certainly this is my axe and you stole it. " The Indian looked him square in the face saying "Yes, me steal im. No steal im before white men come, but now we am gitting cibilized!" One of our bishops stayed all night with an Indian chief in Minnesota, and as he was about leaving in the morning to visit a distant charge with the old chief he asked, "Do you think my valise will be safe left here until our return?" "Ob cose it will," he responded, "Not a white man lives within forty miles of here." While I was acting as magistrate in the early days, an Indian claimed that a white neighbor had stolen his geese. He was arrested and brought into court. On the day of trial he brought a goose with him for evidence. He swore he had found the geese as goslings when hunting, and raised them; that they were the only domesticated wild geese in the country. He proved clearly that he had lost part of his flock, and that they were found shut up in an old smoke house where the defendant lived. The defendant's attorney from Bangor had him repeat several times how and where he got them and that there were none others like them in the country. The attorney finally faced down poor "Lo," telling him he had sworn falsely and stating to him with great pomposity, "Sir, I have a pair of geese marked exactly as the goose you brought to this court! What have you to say for yourself for the oath you have taken?" The Redskin looked at the lawyer as if surprised beyond measure and turning to the court said, "Me tink, him big law man, tellum

Page  21 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 21 truth. Me hab two more of dem goose stole afore dis man steal U111. ' It is unnecessary to state the uproar in the court room. The jury, after due deliberation, brought in a verdict of "guilty." An old man in the court room piped out "Who is guilty, the defendant or his lawyer '" The three following Indian legends entitled "Legend of Man's Creation," "Legend of Paw Paw and the Paw Paw Valley" and "Legend of South Haven" were published by the late Pokagon in booklets made of the manifold bark of the white birch tree. Only a few copies are now known to be in existence and they will be valuable relies in the fututre. This is the first time any of them were ever printed on paper. They came into my possession as administrator of the old chief's estate. I am indeed glad that I have the opportunity of publishing them for the perusal of the people of Van Buren county, believing they will be highly appreciated, coning as they do from an Indian citizen of our county who was highly educated. ALGONQUIN LEGEND OF MAN'S CREATION By Pokagon.* Within the inmost recess of the native soul There is a secret place, which God doth hold; And though the storms of life do war around, Yet still within, his image fixed, is found. There is an old Pottawattamie tradition among our people, dimly seen through the mists of time, that Ki-ji Man-i-to (the Great Spirit) after he had created No-mash (the fish of the waters), bones-sig (the fowls of the air) and mo-naw-to-auk (the beasts of the land), his works still failed to satisfy the grand conceptions of his soul. Hence he called a great council of Man-i-to-og (the spirits) that ruled over land and sea, his agents, and revealed unto them how it was the great desire of his heart to create a new being that should stand erect upon his hind legs, and possess the combined intelligence of all the living creatures he had made. Most of these spirits whom he had delegated to hold dominion over the earth, when they met in the grand council, encouraged his divine plans, but the head leading spiritual chiefs, when they considered the great power the proposed being might wield, quietly sneaked away from the council and held a private pow-wow of their own to frustrate, if *Used by permission of C. H. Engle, administrator of the estate of the late Chief Pokagon.

Page  22 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY possible, How-waw-tock (the Almighty). The loyal Man-i-to-og who remained at the grand council stood aghast as Ki-ji Man-i-to revealed unto them his divine plan, that awaited the new creature he had conceived in his heart to create. The divine council was prolonged by debate, from the set of sun until morning dawn. Ke-sus (the sun) arose in greater brilliancy than ever before. The spirits anxiously began to inquire of His Majesty, how many suns and moons would pass before he could accomplish His wonderful work? While yet the inquiry hung on "kio-don-o (their lips,) He said unto them "Follow me." He led them into a great wilderness to Sa-gi-i-gan, a most beautiful inland lake, and as lie stood upon the shores thereof in presence of themn all. His eyes flashed " Waw-saw-umo-win (lightning)." The lake began to boil; hissing streams rose high in the air; the earth tremblled. He then spake in tones of thunder: "Come forth ye lords of Au-kee (the world!)" The ground opened and from out the red clay that held the lake came forth Au-ne-ne wa-ga-e i-kwe (man and woman) like flying fish from out the waters. In presence of the new-born pair, all was still as death. A dark cloud hung over the lake. Again it began to boil. Again Ki-ji Man-i-to said: "Come forth, ye servants of Au-nish-naw-be!" Forth leaped at once from out waters "Ni-ji Wa-be gon O-nim-og (a pair of snow white dogs") and lay down where stood the new made pair, kissing their feet and hands. The bride and groom then each other fondly kissed, as hand in hand they stood in naked innocence in the full bloom of youth, perfect in make and mold of body and of limb. "Ki-gi-nos maw-kaw Inis-taw-kaw (their long black hair) " almost reached the ground which gently waving, in "nip-nong oden (the morning breeze,)" in contrast with their rich color, grace, and formns erect, they outrivaled in beauty all other creatures he had made. They gazed all about in wonder and surprise; surveyed all living creatures that moved in sight; gazed upon the trees, the grass, the flowers, the lake, the sunshine and the shade. Again each other fondly kissed, as their eyes looked love to eyes, with no other language their feelings to express. At length I-kwe, the maiden fair, slyly let go Os-ki-naw the young man's hand, and stole away into the dark shades and hid herself that she might watch and test his love, and learn thereby if it was akin to hers. With unbounded joy she watched him as vainly he sought to find her. At length the snow-white dogs following her trail, joyfully howled out "Here she is." Now when "Mau-tchi Manito (the dis. loyal spiritual chiefs) " first learned that Ki-ji Manito had finished his crowning works, as he had proposed to do, they sought diligently for the new made pair until they found them. As they surveyed the beauty of their forms standing erect and their surpassing love

Page  23 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 23 liness of body and of limb, their wonder and admiration was unbounded. But when they saw the soul of the Divine reflected in their faces, like the noonday sun, their hearts were stung through and through by "mnutchi a-mog (the cruel wasps)" of envy and jealousy, they were mortally offended. Hence they resolved in "nin-o-daw (their hearts) " that instead of trying to live in peace with them, as they had done with the first creation, they would do all they could to make them discontented, unhappy and miserable. As time rolled on, "O-nig-go-maw (our first parents) " and generations after them began to realize there were bad and good spirits that held dominion over mountains, lakes, streams and plains, and that they were in a measure controlled by them. They also began to learn that " au-nish-naw-be" possessed the nature and intelligence of all the combined animal creation, and that he was endowed with a spiritual nature, given by the creator of all things on earth and in heaven. Hence, when they were unfortunate in securing game, or unsuccessful in battle, it was all attributed to bad spirits that held dominion over the country wherein they dwelt. But when successful in tile chase or battle it was attributed to good spirits that had control over the country in which they lived. In order to appease the bad spirits, they often made offerings of fruit and grain; but they sacrificed animals to Man-i-to Wew-quin (the God of Ieaven) who alone they recognized as the great creator and ruler of all things in heaven and on earth. Our fathers and mothers in their primeval state, did not name their children as do the civilized races simply that they might be known and designated by them. When a child was born whatever animal or bird they imagined it most resembled they called it by that name and, strange as it may appear to the white race, in after generations those bearing the name claimed to have descended from the animal bearing their name. It might be maw-qua, wa-gos or migi-si (the bear, fox, or eagle). And so it was in after generations, each tribe or clan adopted as their totem the animal whose name the patriarch of the tribe was called when a child. Sometimes, when in war, the animal was taken with them alive, but generally it was painted on a tanned hide, and used as white men use their flags. It was an emblem of royalty, as well as a symbol of loyalty, and when engaged in battle a warrior would rather die than surrender his totem. It matters not how foolish our legends may appear to those races who call themselves civilized, they were as sacred to us as holy writ to them.

Page  24 24 HIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY LEGEND OF PAW PAW, AND THE PAW PAW VALLEY By Chief Pokagon.* His was this broad and grand domain. The hills and vales, the sweep of plain, The hunting grounds, the rivers wide — They all belonged, before he died, To Abel, my brother. ''e-wi-ja, Me-wi-ja (Long, long time ago) " a great inland lake covered all the lands where Paw Paw village now stands, except the higher undulating lands extending as far as the village of Lawton, and westward near to the village of Decatur. At that time the Paw Paw valley was occupied by a race of Indians who manufactured flint arrow points and all those utensils made of flint found so profusely scattered throughout the valley. That prehistoric race is designated by the whites as the "Mound Builders." They must have occupied this country at least "Mi-das-wak Bi-bon (a thousand years ago)." Paw Paw river was called "Sihi-gan (River of Lakes.)" In fact, it appears from various legends that this once noted river, was a succession of small and great lakes, from source to mouth. On the highlands just south of Paw Paw village, covering Prospect hill and beyond, was "Ki-tchi O-de-na (Big village of the valley)." This lake was called "Nib-i-wa (Lake of Plenty)" and supposed to be on the border-land of the spiritual kingdom, "wa-kwi (the happy hunting grounds)." Deer, moose, elk and buffalo roamed in multitudes around all its shores. Swans, geese and ducks moved like clouds over its surface, while myriads of all kinds of fish swarmed in its waters close to shore. It might well have been called the great commercial city of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Here, from the north and west, came the different tribes to exchange "sis-i-ba-kwat (maple sugar)," smoked fish, dried meats and all kinds of flint utensils then in use. The tribes also came from the east and from the south to exchange "Mando-min and Naw-ni-maw (corn and tobacco)" for flint work, and Sis-i-ba-quat, of which large quantities were always kept in store, as sugar was generally used by many tribes in place of salt. While O-de-na was in all its glory, receiving tribute from the surrounding tribes, it's commercial importance was suddenly cut short. One night about midnight, in the full of the moon, its inhabitants were aroused by a deep roaring sound as though a cy *Used by permission of C. H. Engle, administrator of the estate of the late Chief Pokagon.

Page  25 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY clone or earthquake was being. born. The alarming sound appeared to be located at the west end of the lake near its outlet. A large number of the inhabitants, followed by crying children and whining dogs, started cautiously in the direction of the alarming sound. To add new fears to their imagination, all the waterfowls appeared to rise as one and circle to and fro about the lake in the utmost confusion. apparently screaming the cry of "ni-saw! (murder!)." At length the outlet of the lake was reached, and to their amazement they saw at a glance that the shore, which for ages had bound the lake at its outlet, had given way, and great forest trees were plunging into the abyss, with commingled rocks and masses of earth. Ever now and then a canoe with its occupant would plunge into the vortex to certain death. In dismay they returned to their village, there to await the consequences. When morning came they beheld, not "Nib-i-wa," their beautiful lake, but (where it lay the night before in all its sunset glory) a slimy mass of mud, alive with struggling, dying fish, while overhead the fowls of the air were still flying, uttering their notes of deepest sorrow. Their navy of canoes that were left unanchored the night before were swept away, and those that were tied to the shore were on dry land far from the water's edge. As the people stood on the line that marked the ancient shore, looked far out into the basin of the lake, and only saw in place of it a winding stream that, like some great serpent, was slowly moving on half concealed by mud and dying fish, they were so wrought upon by the change that they wept. Be-mi-ba-tod-og, their fastest runners, were sent by the chief to go down the valley as far as Lake Michigan and report as soon as possible what effect the deluge of water from their lake had on those lakes farther down the stream. On the third day they returned saying "All the lakes in the valley below have been swept into lake Michigan. The Miami (the St. Joseph) river is dammed up at its o-don (mouth) and flowing inland forming a great lake. The big lake, three hours' travel from here, that no one could paddle round betwixt sun and sun, is gone, and the river flows through where it was; and nearly all the people who lived there are gone too. We suffered much from decaying fish which without number were steaming in the sunshine; the stench was so bad that all animals except "chi-kog (the skunk)" fled away; and all the fowls of the air except "ka-ga-gi and an-dek (the buzzard and the crow)" had disappeared. Mountains of stone and gravel and trees appeared on every hand; nothing remains of our loved "wadi-na (valley) " but mud and desolation. This report so worked on the minds of the natives that they were

Page  26 26 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY led to believe that evil spirits that were envious of their prosperity were the cause of the great catastrophe. And so it was, that one of the most beautiful valleys of Michigan became depopulated, and so remained for hundreds of years, all on account of their perverted spirituality. lokagon fully realizes that some who read the above Legend will say of our race, "hIow spiritually weak they are." That is true, and it can be as truthfully said of the whole human family. Many times since I have been educated in the white man's books, I have been astonished to witness well informed men of the domninant race show, without blushing, an old dried rabbit's foot, or an old horse chestnut, or withered potato, and say, as if proud of it, "This is my mascot; it brings good luck." How or why it is that a Christian people can put their trust in such ridiculous things, ignoring their God, contrary to all the precepts of their religion, Pokagon cannot say. The only excuse he can give is that spiritual superstition is akin, alike, with savage and with sage. I once camped out with a white preacher several days, hunting deer. He called me a red heathen because I refused to shoot at a white deer, which our people regarded sacred, and yet lie would sit around the wigwam fire and shiver all day on Friday, claiming it was an unlucky day and he might get killed if he went out. AILGONQITN LEGENDS OF SOITTrI i HAVEN By Chief Pokagon.* No more for us the wild deer boundls; The plough is on our hunting grounds. Our traditional account of South Haven giveni us by ki-os-ag (our forefathers) was held as sacred by them as Holy Writ by the white man. Long, long bi-bong (years) ago Ki-ji Man-i-to (the Great Spirit) who held dominion over Mi-shi-gan (Lake Michigan) and the surrounding country, selected Haw-waw-naw a place at tlhe o-don (mouth) of Maw-kaw-te (Black river) as his seat of government. His royal throne (Ki-tchi-wik) was located on the highest point of that neck of land lying between Maw-kaw-te liver and Lake Michigan. This high point of land nws called Tsh-pemr-ing, neaning a high place. Here it was that Ki-ji Man-i-to worked out the grand conceptions of his soul. With giant strides he scattered broadcast along *Used by permission of C. H. Engle, administrator of the estate of the late Chief Pokagon.

Page  27 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 27 the shore, a day's journey northw ard, a multitude of beautiful stones of various colors, shape and size, that in sunshine outshone tchi-be-kan-a (the galaxy on high). No such charming stones elsewhere could be found around all the shores of the Great Lake. He also planted in saw-kaw (the forest) the most beautiful woodland flowers that ever bloomed on earth and filled all the trees with birds that sang the sweetest songs that ever fell on mortal ears. He also made a great mit-ig-wa (bow) at least ten arrow flights in length and laid it along the beach. I-e then painted it from end to end with beautiful lines, of various hues, that outshone the countless stones he had scattered along the shore. While thus at work a cyclone from the setting sun swept across the great lake. TWaw-saw nlo-win (lightning) flashed across Waw-kwi (the heavens) An-a-mi ka (thunder) in concert with ti-gow-og (the roaring waves) rolled their awful burden on the land. The earth shook. Hail and rain beat against Him. But he stood in his majesty, smiling in the teeth of the storm. At length the gloom clouds rolled away and tile setting sun lighted up the passing storm. He then picked up the giant bow he had made, bending it across mika-tik (his knee). Then with his breath he blew a blast that swept it eastward betweenl the sun and clouds. As there as it stood each end resting upon the trees, it painted them all aglow, which, in contrast with their robes of green, added still more glory to the scene. As he gazed upon its beauty and grandeur, arching the departing storm, He shouted in triumph above the roaring waves, saying in tones of thunder "Kaw-ka-naw in-in-i nash-ke nin-wab-sa awni-quod (All men behold my bow in the cloud). See it has no mit-ig 'Bim-ins-kwan ke-ma pin-da-wan (bow, arrow, string or quiver). It is the bow of peace. Tell it to your children's children that Ki-ji Man-i-to made and placed it there, that generations yet unborn, when they behold it, might tell their children that Ki-ji Man-i-to placed it there, without arrow, string or quiver, that they might know he loved peace and hated war." The tradition above given was handed down to us by a tribe of Au-nish-naw-be-og (Indians) that lived in Michigan before my people, the Pottawattamnies. They were called Mash-ko-de (Prairie tribe), on account of their clearing up large tracts of woodland and living somewhat as farmers. They were said to be very peaceful, seldom going on the war-path. The Ottawas, who have always been very friendly with our people tell us they drove them out of this country and nearly exterminated them about four hundred years ago. We had great reverence for their traditions, as we occupied the land of their principal odena (village) about Black river. We named it Nik-onong, which

Page  28 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY was derived from two Algonquin words "nik" (sunset) and o-nigis (beautiful). It was a lovely, as well as an important place, Ki-tchi Mi-kan, the great trail, over which for ages all the northern and western tribes went around Lake Michigan to and from the great prairies of the west passed near this place. Traces of that great highway may still be seen along the grand sweep of country near the great lake between the Black and Kalamazoo rivers. In the dense forest north, south and east of us were great numbers of deer, elk and bears; while ducks, geese and swans clouded our waters, which were swarming with fish. One half a mile walk north of our village was a sacred campilng ground where we celebrated "Tchi-be-kan A-ke-win (our yearly six days' feast for the dead). During this feast bonrfires were built along the shore, casting a lurid light far out into the lake and painting the crested waves all aflame. Children, young men and maidens, fathers and mothers, went about the camp, feasting and saluting one another, throwing food into the fire, and as it was being consumed, would sing, '"Nebaw-baw tchi baw win (We are going about as spirits feeding the dead)." This feast kept alive the memory of the dead, as do the stones, that rise above the white man's tomb. Nik-a-nong, in its day, was quite a manufacturing town. Large quantities of white birch bark were brought there by canoe loads and, as it never decays, was buried in the earth for use or trade when called for. Out of this wonderful manifold bark our fathers made canoes, hats, caps, wigwams and dishes for domestic use, and our maidens tied with it the knot that sealed the marriage vow. Sis-si-ba-kwat (maple sugar) was also made and kept in large quantities near this place and sold to southern and western tribes for wampun or in exchange for pi-jis-ki-we-win (buffalo robes). South Haven of the white man, with all its shipping, docks and cottage-crowned shores, does not compare with Nik-o-nong of the red man, with its deep wildwoods, and wigwamed shores. As tradition informs us, here our fathers lived for many generations in the lap of ease and plenty; but after the advent of the white man Nature frowned upon us; our forests were cut down; the game became scarce and kept beyond the arrow's reach; ke-go (the fish) hid themselves in deep waters; the woodland birds no more cheered us with their songs; the wild flowers bloomed no more. All, all has changed, except the sun, moon and stars; and they have not, because their God, and Ki-tchi Man-ito (our God), hung them beyond the white man's reach. Pokagon does not wish to complain; still, in nin-o-de (his heart) there lingers a love for Niko-nong, the o-de-na of his fathers. And now in old age, as with

Page  29 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 29 feeble steps and slow he is passing through the open door of his wigwam into Waw-kwin (the world beyond) he must sing in his mother tongue, his last song on earth: "Nik-o-nong, nik-o-nong nin-im-en-dam mi-notch-sa bi-naw ki-kaw-ka-kaw-ka-naw kiketchi-twan-in nin-sa-gia. Nik-o-nong, nik-o-nong, nik-o-nong (I yet shall behold Thee in all Thy glory)." AFTER ME-ME-OG (SQUABS) IN VAN BUREN COUNTY By C. H. Engle In the spring of 1858 in company with Jacob Corwin, late of Keeler township, this county, an old hunter, seventy-five years of age, I went on a wild pigeon chase towards Lake Michigan. At that time there was a vast body of these birds nesting for miles along the lake south of South Haven, extending easterly along the north part of the county to and beyond Saddle lake, covering many square miles where every tree was spotted with their nests. Many times, while going out to feed, they moved in such clouds that they would obscure the sun. One hearing them, not knowing the cause, would imagine a whirwind was abroad in the land. After netting over one thousand dozen of these birds near Hartford, we noticed that they were changing their flight, and the main body was moving northward. From our knowledge of these strange birds, we were convinced that their young were nearly ready to leave their nests. Learning that a large band of Indians were encamped on the edge of their nesting grounds, we procured an old shingle-weaver with an ox team and double wagon to take us to the nesting grounds. We started in a northwest direction, cutting our way through underbrush as we advanced into the unexplored forest. On our way we passed an Indian shooting arrows into the top of a high tree. I said to him: "What are you shooting at?" "Nofin," he replied. I shook my head with a doubtful look. HIe then motioned for me to come to him. I did so. He told me in broken English, as well as he could, how he had lost an arrow shooting at a me-me and as he watched to see where it fell, he lost his arrow, and was shooting to find it. His scheme was this-to stand as near as possible in the same place from which he shot the bird and shoot other arrows in the same direction with like force, carefully noting where they fell with the hope that they would show where the missing arrow might be expected to be found. After shooting the third arrow he motioned me to follow him and I did so. Pointing out to me three arrows he exclaimed "There im am." And sure enough there in plain sight lay the lost arrow. It was made

Page  30 30 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY INDIAN BASKET MAKING i Wi liter tille our p}resent girls and women of tile In(iian race are most industriously engaged in manufacturing splint baskets of mixed colors in all imaginable designs, varying in size from ladies' thimbles to hampers holding two bushels or more. They are quick to originate designs Their finest work is made of white birch bark, sweet grass and porcupine quills. You can scarcely name an article in domestic use among the white people which they do not pattern a fter; tablets, napkin rings, watch cases, and even miniature houses and c.hurches-all fall from their nimble fingers with equal skill. The porcupine quills are stained in all the colors of the rainbow. These they work into the bark of which the articles are made, representing leaves and flowers in all their natural colors. Some western tribes decorate with colored beads, but our Indian women will use only such material as they can get from Nature's store. which speaks volumes for their ingenuity and originality. They use sweet grass on account of its fragrance, which it retains for many years. Their work is much sought for by summer tourists, for which good prices are paid. No true lover of the beautiful can look through a well arranged collection of their goods without feeling they must have been washed in the rainbow and dipped in the sun.

Page  31 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY s31 of hickory, with a triangular, bluntish head for killing small game so as not to tear the skin. I bought it of him and still keep it as a relic of native shrewdness. On nearing the camping grounds we met an Indian boy who certainly must have been Yankeeized. He was almost naked, wearing only a breech clout, showing clearly that he was a full blooded Indian, and yet he could speak broken English quite well for one of his years. He ran along the side of the wagon crying out "Stop, stop! Me want to talk wid you." "Whoa," said the ox driver and the cattle stopped. The little redskin climbed into the wagon and grabbed me by the hand saying "You am my fader; inuder want to talk wid you bad." "What do you mean" I said, 'vyo little red skin?" Still holding my hand he said, "Do come and see mnuder." Uncle Corwin and the shingle-weaver both said "'Go, Engle; the boy knows what he is talking about." A few feet away, in the door of a wigwam, stood one of the dirtiest, greasiest looking squaws I had yet seen. I held back but the little rascal still held fast, repeating "Do come fader; muder want to see you bad." Suddenly it occurred to me that he had learned a Yankee trick to extort money. So I quickly handed him out a quarter, and he jumped out of the wagon handing it to the squaw who stood by the wigwam. I was astonished, as well as chagrined. I have lived with several of the Algonllquii tribes; hunted, fished and dealt with them for over fifty years; and yet I have never known one of them, to resort to trickery, to extort money, except that little rascal; and where he caine from, where he went, or how he fared, I never knew and I never cared. We soon reached the caNmping ground which was located on the south side of the nesting grounds, on either side of a small stream. I inquired if Kek-kek. their interpreter, w(as there? All shook their heads. saying '"lne 1no see iun." I afterward learned that he had been arrested a few days before and they feared we might be after him again. Finally they came up around the wagon, examined the boxes and barrels filled with ice, and asked "Meby wat you want?", We explained to them that we wanted to buy a wagon load of me-me-og (squabs). An Indian then asked, "Do you want to see im Kek-kek?" I nodded "yes," and again asked if he was there? 'hey then pointed out to me a tall Indian, a middle aged man, saying "There im he." He had a sort of stoical grin on his face. I said "Come here." He walked slowly up to the wagon, as if he doubted whether he should come or not. He could speak fair English and we made arrangements with him that we would pay then one shilling per dozen for all the squabs they would get us, dead or alive. Kek-kek, now being convinced that no harm was

Page  32 32 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY meant for him, took much pride in giving us an insight into their domestic affairs. He took us all about the camp, pointing out to us long racks of poles and bark on which were spread hundreds of dozens of squabs, being smoked and dried over a slow fire. As we expressed our surprise over such great quantities of birds, he said "Look um dis way," and pointed out to us many mokets (bark boxes) that would hold a bushel or more, each packed full of these young birds cured for future use. I asked him if they would keep. "Dem vill neber rot," he replied. "Are they good eating?" I asked. He nodded his head saying "Num! Num! Num!" and handed me a mummy squab, saying "Eat um. It be gooder than white man's doves." I did so with a relish, for I was hungry. "How you like im?" he asked. "It is all right," I replied. He then pointed out to me some mokets that he said were filled with "me-me bi-mi-da (squab butter;) "gooder," he said, "than cow butter." He then handed me a piece of corn bread and wooden knife, saying, "Eat um it wid de squab butter." I did so finding it quite pleasant to the taste. I finally said "Say, Kek-Kek, we are waiting here for your people to bring us in a wagon load of squabs." tIe then went and held a long pow-wow with the tribe; then came and told us, "De Inguns no no um shilling dozen. Da say give one cent, one pigeon, two cent, two pigeon, three cent, three pigeon; then urn vill go." "Well," I said, "we will pay then one cent for each squab. Kekkek then gave a sort of war whoop and in less than five minutes the camp was all astir. The men formed in single file moving northward, followed by the women on pony back, with their papooses strapped to their backs, while the children and dogs followed behind and we, with our stag team, brought up the rear. About one mile distant they halted among thick hemlock trees, not far from where the Packard mills were afterward built in the township of Covert. Here they started in all directions, the squaws sitting their papooses up against the trees leaving them in our charge. Uncle Corwin said he was "mighty glad there was no hogs running in the woods." The squabs at this time were as large as the parent birds, though still in their nests. In less than two hours, the band began to return, each one with a back load of me-me-og. It was a hot day and there was no water in that locality. They were thirsty, and began to climb into the wagon, helping themselves to ice. We protested, telling them we could not buy their birds without ice to pack them in. One old Indian said, "We can lib with no muny, but die come wid no vater." They continued to take our ice until every pound was gone. We then counted their birds and paid for them. There were two hundred and ten dozen and they filled the

Page  33 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 33 wagon box chock full. The old shingle weaver declared it would kill his team to draw them home. On our way back we came to a stream where we poured water onto the load until the birds were cooled off. We sent them to Boston and New York where they were sold for $1.50 per dozen. TIE " BUCK PONY" RIDE In order that the reader may more fully understand the joy, love and fear of the red man I place tile following experience on record. The rude Indian with untutored mind. To all our pride and glory blind, Could we his inward feelings gain We'd find affection, in white and red the same. In the autumn of 1856 an Indian known as Little Weso came to see me on pony back saying "The chief has'sent me to get you meby to go wid me to go on pony back, Saddle Lake to find um Joe Kawkee." "Is he lost," I inquired? With a tremulous voice he replied "Bad, very bad! Some white man say him be killed by a white hunter cause il kill um so many deer and make him mad." "Say Inglain, will take your pony and go wAid me? Poor Joe, him good man, kill um lots of deer." I got out my pony. a tall lank lean horse, and we started to find Joe. My horse was a fast walker and I laughed at Weso, telling him his pony was lazy and could not keep up. HIe said "Say Inglain, dis pony am very smart. Him can outrun your big pony." I said "we will try it," and started my big pony on the run. As lie galloped off at full speed and I was beginning to think I would get out of sight of the Indian, I heard him give a loud war cry for me to clear the way. I urged my horse on with fwhip and heels, but all in vain. Poor Lo passed me like the wind and was soon out of sight among the trees. I felt dumfounded and stopped my horse in amazement. Soon I saw the redskin galloping back towards me. As he came up he said, "Inglam, what tink now of my pony?" "He can keep up all right enough," I said. As we rode on deeper into the north woods, Weso asked if I was hungry? I told him I was, for in my haste to start I had forgotten to eat dinner. He asked "Do you like um jerk venson?" I replied that I had never seen any. He took from an old bark sack about his shoulders something that looked like a dark clay ball, gnawed at it a few times himself and then handed it to me saying "Take im; eat im; it am jerk venson; very good." I grabbed it with half closed eyes so as not to spleen against it, but as I dimly VoL 1 —a

Page  34 34 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY saw teeth prints all around it, I closed my eyes, gnawed at it several times and handed it back to the Indian, telling him he had saved me from starving. It had a kind of sweetish smoky taste and tasted fairly well to a hungry man. I thought if it had been salted it would have been very palatable. We rode on in silence, with the redskin ahead, until darkness began to close about us, when all at once the monotony was broken, as the Indian cried out "Me see um light. Me tink it am Kaw-kee's wigwam. Me know it am, for me see Saddle lake, dat way and de small lake de uder way, and me know Kaw-kee's wigwam am tween um. " We dismounted, walked to the wigwam and, in true Indian style, peeked in to see if anyone was there. The redskin said, "Me see um Joe's wife, but no Joe." We then rapped at the door. A tall white woman opened it and Weso asked, "Am Joe alive." " Why yes, he is gone to the spring for a pail of water." Weso then told her: "We heard him am killed, and Inglam, with me, hab come good ways from Hartford to know if so." I now began to realize that she was his wife, for she was wonderfully excited and threw up her arms exclaiming "De Lord will punish um for lying about Joe! De Lord will punish um! Yes He will. This be the fourth time they have had poor Joe killed!" Kaw-kee came in as the last words were spoken, but his wife was so excited that she continued to do all the talking, telling Joe all about our mission there, until Kaw-kee said: "Shut up! Sit down, you old squaw!' She did so and cried like a child. I concluded she felt mortally offended to think she had made such a big fool of herself in marrying an Indian. The two Indians talked for an hour in their native tongue, of which I could understand but little. I understood he had killed fifty deer, three bears, and one wolf in four weeks and that the white hunters had stolen five of the deer, and were mad because he had killed so much game. I know I thought they could hardly be blamed for their feelings of bitterness. About ten o'clock, Kaw-kee told his wife she had pouted long enough and to get up and get supper. She sprang to her feet like a jumping-jack, soon having a deer liver and tongue stew, with corn soup on the table and announced: "Your supper is ready. " I was indeed glad to hear that, as I had eaten nothing in twelve hours but a little jerked venison. We three men sat down on a log before a slab table while the hostess waited on us as best she could under the circumstances. We had but two plates and two knives and forks to accommodate three, but the good wife cut the meat up for us in fine shape so we could handle it to the best advantage. The two Indians ate off of one plate, that I might enjoy the other all to myself. I must admit that I never before or since

Page  35 HISTORY OF VAN 1BJREN COUNTY 35 enjoyed a better supper. In fact., I congratulated Kaw-kee on being so lucky in procuring a wife, but she kindly kicked it over by saying, "And you old Ingun don't know enough to know it!" We slept that night on hemlock boughs between green deer skins. I slept soundly all night. At breakfast we finished what was left of the evening meal. Kaw-kee, after our meal, said "'le want you come out dis way." Following him a short distance, he said '"See urn big buck. Him am yours, to take home wid you.'" We both told him we did not think it possible to take him on pony back. Kaw-kee looked sad and finally said, "Me feel um bad if you no take im. You be good to come way up here in de storm to find um Kaw-kee dead, and find me live Ingun." "How can we take imn?" asked Weso. "Me will load iml on pony back as tight as an arrow point to um arrow." So saying he stepped to a small basswood tree and stripped off some long pieces of the inner bark. Then he requested Weso to bring his pony forward, telling him to take hold of the buck's hind legs and he at the same time grasped the fore legs, throwing the big buck astride of the pony, when he fastened Iimn so securely one might think they were born together. The deer's big horns reached just above the pony's head, while their noses reached out about the same distance. Both pony and deer had short tails which extended behind nearly the same distance. Tile two Indians laughed aloud as they surveyed the double monstrosity and so did I. Weso proposed to lead his pony home, but I persuaded him to straddle the buck and he (id so. That put on the capsheaf and so THE START FROM SADDLE LAKE

Page  36 36 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY pleased Kaw-kee, that he yelled out to Polly Ann, his wife, to come out and see the sight. She did so, exclaiming "Holy Moses and all the saints!" It had a good influence over Polly Ann for that sober face of hers, which had not smiled since the night before when she was ordered to shut up her mouth, now grinned from ear to ear until she laughed so loud that Kaw-kee told her to quiet down or she would scare all the game out of the woods, and all the fish out of Saddle Lake! I went and brought my horse out from the underbrush so as to start home, but when he caught sight of the monstrosity, he broke into a run and beat the record for all past time. I finally got him stopped and turned him round to be sure the pony, passenger and baggage were coming behind. As I glimpsed the oncoming train, my horse snorted like an engine, wheeled and ran again as if to escape death. After much coaxing I got him quieted down so as to get within speaking distance of Weso. Kaw-kee was coming along with him carrying a long strip of bass-wood bark. Ile yelled to me to hold on and after much careful maneuvering he got within fifty feet, telling me that Weso had given up a riding buck back and wanted to know if my pony would carry double? I replied "I thought so." Ie then ran back to Weso. helped him dismount, tied a long strip of bark to the pony's halter, came forward with Weso, and after carefully petting my horse, assisted Weso to mount behind me on the blanket. Then handing him the end of the long bark halter, he said "Now start, and go bery slow, and vous will be home wid deer meby by sunset." We obeyed instructions, reaching Bangor a little after noon where we found a sort of wagon road. About a mile south of this place we met an old man and woman, driving a rack-a-bone horse. The horse no sooner saw us than he gave a snort, ran into the woods and tipped over the wagon, spilling out the passengers with a load of pumpkins. Leaving my horse in care of Weso, I ran to assist the unfortunate couple. No one was seriously hurt, but my, how mad! The old man said "You will pay dear for this. I will put you in state prison!" I said "Uncle, you should not drive such a skittish young horse." "Young horse" said he, "I have driven him twenty-five years. I brought him with me from York State. I never saw him scart before. That rig, or whatever it is, is enough to scare any animal or man!"' His wife who had remained quiet until now, piped out in a sharp nasal tone, "Pa says that thing would scare any animal or man. I say it is enough to scare the Divil himself!" I finally, with their help, got things together in good shape, reloaded the pumpkins and they started off quite good naturedly.

Page  37 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 37 We reached home about sunset, as predicted, with our big buck. For forty years after, I never met Weso without a broad grin, saying "Well, Inglam, how you like um now, buck pony ride?" "NEVER CARRY A REVOLVER, BOYS" Often when our fears are greatest There are no dangers near us And sometimes when we feel the safest A sword may hang above us Suspended by a single hair! In the fall of 1856, while buying fur among the Indians in Bangor township, I was obliged to stay all night with an Indian family. It was in a log house with one room below and an upper room above that might be called a garret. In this room I lodged. The only access to it was by a ladder through a small opening in the ceiling large enough to let a mediun-sized man pass through. Climbing into this room I found there was a sort of bed and an open place in one end of the chamber. The old Indian said to me before retiring, "Yous vil have to lay down widout candle, for poor Ingun haint got im." I have always made it a rule in life to conform to circunstances as cheerfully as possible; and so I did in this case. I found in the place of a bed-stead a few poles laid across some small logs. On these were piled a quantity of hemlock brush, over which was spread several wolf robes, with a large bear skin in place of sheets and quilts. Into this strange nest I crawled, wondering what redskin had last rested there. Soon I was fast asleep, enjoying my slumbers just as well as though I were in the best kind of a white man's bed. At midnight I awoke, feeling fully convinced that some one was elimbing the ladder into my room. I watched and listened. My heart beat like a snare drum. Instead of one person, I was convinced there were two. Then, to still add a new feature, I could see something was being hauled up the ladder into the chamber and, as I listened more intently, I heard a sort of whining noise. and dimly saw by the light of the moon two big Indians pull up a great dog into the room. That almost paralyzed me. The dog snuffed and whined as though he expected to be pounced upon by a eatamount. The two men walked very slowly towards me and the slab floor squeaked out at every step the cry of murder! Oh how I did wish I had my revolver with me, which I had left at home. I placed my Taack firmly against the wall and drew the old bear skin close about me, preparing for my last struggle on earth. The intruders

Page  38 3I HISTORY OF VAN 1UREN COUNTY reached the bed and there stood still, as if to pause before taking my life. Their eyes glared like cats' eyes in the night time. Suddenly it occurred to me that it might be barely possible that I was in their nest. Trembling I said "Nin ni-baw o-maw? (Do you sleep here?) " Slowly a voice replied "E-n-c-h, E-n-c-h (Y-e-s, Y-e-s)." I now asked "Can you talk white man's talk?" An answer came: "Me am a white boy." A great burden was lifted. I unrolled the bear skin from my body and spread it out to its full bigness, saying "get into bed." Both laid down with their clothes all on, as I had done the night before. And we, brave foemen, with the dog, lay side by side, Peacefully like four brothers tried, But slept not until the morning beams, Purpled the woodlands and the streams. I learned during the night that they were boys about fourteen years old; that the white boy had been brought up among the Indians; that the day previous the Indian boy went to stay with him all night so they might go out on a coon hunt in the evening, that the dog had treed a coon a short distance from where I was staying, so they concluded to come and stay there; and the reason why the parents did not let nme or the boys know the situation was because the boys avoided waking up the old folks. They said when they pulled the old coon dog into the room lhe gave a sort of whining sniff, which convinced them something was wrong in the room and that they dimly saw the bear skin moving about and feared the old old bear himself had come back and was crawling into his hide again! They further said "We be scared most to def!" I was mighty glad they did not know how I felt at that time, as I rolled the bear's hide about me. Since then I have often wondered what the result would have been if I had had my revolver with me. It is possible I might have been tried for murdering the whole household and have to show I did it in self-defence, in order to save myself from a life sentence, or on the other hand I might have been scalped or killed. On my return home I disposed of my revolver, and have never owned or carried one since, and am fully convinced that in a country like ours one is much safer without a revolver than with one; hence my advice to boys ever since then has been "Never carry a revolver. " SAW-KAW 'S LOVE STORY From Saw-kaw's own story: "The course of true love never does run smooth" even in the natives heart; under the most favorable circumstances, its joys are marred with many doubts and fears.

Page  39 IISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 39 Se-gitan Saw-kaw I-kwe (Listen to the child of the forest). My grandfather, during my early girlhood, took great pride in teaching me and a boy chum of mine how to bend the bow and direct the arrow in its course. Almost daily this little boy and 1 would contest in archery for a prize to be awarded by grandfather. It was generally conceded I was the best shot. White boys of the neighborhood often joined in our sports, contesting with powder and ball for the prize at a distance of one hundred feet or less. An old white man was sure to be present on such occasions to act as umpire. Our arrows seldom failed to win the prize. I can now see the old man limping along to see who had centered the mark and hear him say "Wall, wall,-I do declare! The little redskins have won." Or "Wall, wall, I do declare! The little redskins have lost this time." In order that we might know our arrows apart, Kaw-kee's were painted red and mine white. The old man gave each prize as it was won-a turkey, goose or pheasant was generally provided by some white man. All these endearing sports were suddenly cut short ais, at fourteen years of age, it had been decided that I should be sent to the Indian school at Lawrence, Kansas. I felt almost mortally offended, I feared to meet strangers in a strange land. I continued to sob and cry until my parents feared my heart would break. Grandfather was consulted. Ite said "Nin Sawkaw (my dear child) weep no more. It is best that you should go. I have visited the school Inany times. You will like the children there and find the teachers good and kind." In vain I plead not to be sent away. Finally I opened to him the full burden of yiv soul. I told him how much I loved my people and our woodland horne; how ardently I loved my bow and arrows which he gave and all mny sports. "Is that all?" lie asked. I replied: "Oh! Do forgive my childish heart, and do tell me how I can leave my dear Kaw-kee and see him no more. I love him far beyond my power to tell; you have the secret of my heart. Do be good and let me stay here." Nodding his head, he finally said "Is it possible that one so young can love so great?" With astonishment he looked me square in the face and asked "Does he love you?" "He has never told me so" said I. " Iave you ever told Kaw-kee that you loved him?" he asked. "I never have." "Why not?" he asked. I made reply: "Because deep down in my heart I felt his feelings were akin to mnine." Thoughtfully lie bowed his head. Then looking up, the dear old man seemed filled with pity and finally said, as he kissed me, "My dear child, I well remember the days of my youth. I know full well how wicked it is to trifle with the cords of heaven

Page  40 40 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY born love. The best I can promise is that after you have spent two years at school I will send for you to come home, and we will all go into the north woods for several months and there dress and hunt as our fathers did before the white men came. "Can Kaw-kee go too?" I asked. "Yes," he replied, "he can go too. Think of it, Saw-kaw; that will give you both a chance to hunt and test your skill in shooting game with bows and arrows!" A soothing feeling of reconciliation came over me as the rainbow over the departing storm. I had full faith in grandfather's promise. Cheerfully I went forth to a strange land, and there pored over the white man's books, cheered on day by day with the bright promise from the lips of one who failed not to do as he agreed. Two long years had nearly passed. I began to wonder if it could be possible for grandfather to forget his promise. One morning my teacher handed me a letter. I looked it over; it was post-marked Hartford, rMichigan. I felt sure it must be from grandfather. As soon as school was out for noon I ran to my room. Quickly I opened the letter. Saw-kaw was indeed proud that she could read it for herself. In it I heard dear grandfather sayv "My dear Saw-kaw:-Find enclosed twenty dollars to bring you home. I have found good hunting grounds and, as I promised, on your return we will go there, hunt and fish, dress and live as our fathers did before the white man came." Again and again I read the letter, but, alas! Kaw-kee, no Kaw-kee, was there. Saw-kaw slept not that night. The night following I dreamed of going home. All seemed overjoyed to meet me, but no one lisped the name of Kaw-kee. I felt him in my heart. Just then I heard him say "Bo-sho nic-con Saw-kaw." I answered back "Bo-sho nic-con Kaw-kee," and tried to grasp his hand, when lo! his form was changed into an angry wolf. Upright he stood, so close that I could smell his sickening breath. I awoke while yet his growls and snarls rang in my ears. So real it seemed, I could not believe it all a dream. Three days later I reached our wigwam. None of our people at first knew me, but when I greeted them "Bo-sho nic-con?" (how do you do, my friends?) " an old time pow-wow ensued, all trying to embrace and greet me first in broken English. During the evening, old Wapsee, a noted bear hunter who had the reputation of driving bears to his wigwam to kill them, called to see me. This old man thought he could speak better English than the young Indians who had been to the white man's school. Grasping my hand he said: "Saw-kaw, me am eber so glad to see you. Me tink you tink meby, you can speak all de white man's words. Me no like um white talk much;' dem say ebry ting wrong.

Page  41 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUN TY 41 Ingun call ebry ting right. You know um all him talk about. De young Inguns come from school and can't tell nofin. If dem be sick or well and try to tell um, de old folks can't guess um what dey mean." Owing to his deafness he could not understand a word I said: When leaving he said, "You know uln Kaw-kee. Him talk much bout you him do; me tink him lub you bery much." However embarassing his parting words, I drank them in; for I was starving! starving in my soul! Grandfather came at last. We kissed each other with joy and gladness. Frankly he assured me I had greatly improved both in appearance and conversation. With a tremulous voice he said "Saw-kaw, how I have missed you!" Then he added "I still hold the promise made you sacred. All things are now ready. Tomorrow we start for the hunting grounds. I am anxious to have you try your skill among the deer with the bow and arrows which I gave. I said: "Say grandfather, what has become of Kaw-kee?" IHe simply made reply: "After you left he went away to live with the Ottawas over two hundred miles north of here. Early the next morning our family witl their ponies well loaded took their line of march along an ancient trail through dense forests of hemlock and pine, where the day. through lofty archways of overhanging boughs, could scarcely find its way. Now and then our arrows brought down me-me-og and as-sana-go (pigeons and squirrels) from the trees, and frequently the dogs brought to us maw-boos (the rabbit). At nightfall we reached Mat-a-won, a point where two streams meet, pouring their waters into one and forming the Great Se-be. As we surveyed the romantic scene before us and listened to the voice of a mighty cataract just below. my grandfather said with great feeling in his soul "It was on the shores of this stream I first met my dear Lonida, the wife of my youth that long since passed to the happy hunting grounds beyond." I said not a word but thought in my heart "I wish I knew if Kaw-kee has gone there too." Here we unloaded our ponies and prepared lodgings for the night. Fire was built and soup made out of the game we had secured on our way, mixed with man-do-win (dried corn) and salt, which we ate with a relish that can only be enjoyed after a long march through evergreen forests. At break of day our little camp was all astir. Grandfather superintended laying out the grounds and building the wigwam, which was made of bark and poles with a smoke hole at the top. according to our ancient custom. No prince or king could have felt prouder of his castle than we did of our wigwam. The day following grandfather called the family together telling them

Page  42 42 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY that before commencing a general hunt, according to ancient clustom, we must enjoy a regular corn dance which lie said eight could do in fine style. "Further," he said, "I have a little surprise for you." Judge if you can of our surprise as he opened a large mo-cot (birch bark box) and handed each of us a clean new Indian buckskin suit of clothes that fitted each perfectly. When all were dressed, grandfather started off with a swaying motion to lead the dance. I, laughed saying, "Hold on grandfather, you said it required eight to give the corn dance. There are but seven of us." "Well," said he, "Saw-kaw, as you have no partner, go stand in the door of the wigwam and enjoy seeing the rest of us dance." I did as he requested and ran into the wigwam. As I entered, to my great surprise, before me stood a tall Indian dressed like a chief in a new buckskin suit, with fur cap trimmed with eagle feathers. Trembling, I gazed at him in fear and astonishment; still as a statue and as dumb. Finally he broke the silence and in soothing tones said, "Saw-kaw, don't you know me?" I finally replied, "Oh! Kaw-kee, is that you?" and rushed weeping into his arms. After recovering from my great excitement, }ie explained to mae how grandfather originated the whole scheme, so as to give mne a joyful surprise, and that the whole family were on tle joke excepting nyself. and I was "innocence ablroad." Ais we walked out to join the dance, the little party gave cheer on cheer until tile echoes made the welkin ring. Within my heart I felt "One hour like this is worth more than I hlave learned in two years at school." The followinlg day grandfather arranged the distribution of Ilis forces. At that lime of the year a still hunt wnas necessary and only father was allowed to use the wlhite maI 's gun. The rest of us-that is, Kaw-kee. grandfather and, —our bows and arrows. Mother, two sisters and my little brother, not loving the chase, were to fish and keep things about the wigwam in order. Grandfather took his point farthest down the stream, while Kaw-kee and I watched the trail above him, a few rods apart. All reported,seeing deer the first day, but no shots were made. A week passed; many dear had been seen, but none killed and I was deeply disappointed and called to mind grandfather's saying of years before-that since the advent of the white man, "all game is wild and keeps beyond the arrow's reach, and the fish hide themselves in deep water." That night grandfather gave orders: That all must be on their runways at peep of day the next morning. He then told the following story which he said was of white man's origin: "A renowned statesman passed over a bridge at sunrise. On it sat a man

Page  43 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 43 fishing. At sunset he recrossed the same lbridge, finding the man still fishing. He said he had fished there all day. 'Well,' inquired the statesman 'have you caught any fish?' 'Oh no,' he replied, 'but I have had one glorious nibble.' Now that man had the pluck. Go and do likewise." Morning dawn found us all at our stations. Just as the sun had tinged with red the highland trees, I was startled by the report of a rifle, which, in the morning stillness, was repeated back from shore to shore until it died away the merest whisper. My heart fluttered like a caged bird struggling to get free. I well knew it was my father's gun, and if he had missed a deer it might pass me any moment. Listening and peering through the underbrush that fringed the stream, I faintly heard a crackling sound. On towards me came a monstrous buck with antlers broad;nd white as snow. He stopped so close, that I could see him wink and hear him breathe. Summing up all the powers within me, in two heart beats of time I sent two successive arrows deep into his right side. He made one monstrous leap, falling in mid stream. "Kaw-kee! Father, Father!" I cried. "Come quick!" Soon both came on the run, with grandfather in the rear, fearing some great disaster had befallen me. But when I pointed out the monarch of the woods struggling in the water, their fears were turned to joy. Kaw-kee jumped headlong into the stream and hauled the noble deer upon the shore. It was found that a ball had pierced one ear. "Mly rifle ball did that," my father said. From his neck an arrow dangled. "I shot that arrow," Kaw-kee explained. See it is painted red." Transfixed in his right side were two arrows painted white. "Now who killed the deer?" grandfather asked. "Saw-kaw killed the (leer!" Kaw-kee and father both exclaimed. "Her white arrows cannot lie." Tt is unnecessary for me to say that the greatest ambition of my life was now a reality. We remained in camp several weeks longer and each killed several deer. Besides Kaw-kee killed a wolf, and grandfather (bless the dear old man!) killed a bear and caught two cubs. During our stay a French trader came down the stream and landed at our shore. He appeared pleased to meet grandfather, addressing him as "chief." "Who is that?" I asked. Father made reply "Ish-cot-a-wa-bo (whiskey)." His real name is Lapaz. He smiled on me in such a bold manner that I avoided having any conversation with him.. He remained with us several days. One morning he started to go with me to my runway. T slighted him, and Kaw-kee went with me. He was mad and called Kaw-kee "the smallest end of the red trash." The next day he grew much more holder in his attention to me, which I

Page  44 44 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY avoided at every point. Stung by "a-mo (the wasp of jealousy) " he opened his heart to father, telling him how much lie admired my skill, how dearly he loved me; then boldly asked, "Can I marry Saw-kaw?" Father said, "Saw-kaw is under her grandfather's control. Lay your case before him." Now grandfather well knew Lapaz. The year before he told some of his people that the needle maker was dead and thereby induced them to pay him one dollar per needle. On his next trip among them he sold them for five cents each. An old squaw told Lapaz, "Me gib you when here before one dollar for one needle 'cause you say 'needle maker am dead.' " "He did die," said the trader, "but another man learned how to make them." From this and other tricks grandfather hated him as "Satan hates holy water." So he concluded to get rid of the nuisance forever. He told Lapaz that Saw-kaw was engaged to young Kaw-kee; that the two had been bosom companions since childhood, but that in-as-much as he had keen sympathy for an ardent lover, he found it in his heart to give him a chance to secure the darling of his heart. Encouraged by this promise, Lapaz was very happy. He told Lapaz: "Tomorrow we will arrange for a contest between Kaw-kee and you for the hand of Saw-kaw. I will suspend a live duck by one leg to a limb, by a string at the distance of one hundred feet and you may have the first chance with your rifle; then Kaw-kee with his bow and arrow. The one that cuts the string and lets fall the duck, shall claim the girl." 'That's fair," said Lapaz "Saw-kaw is mine!" "Hold on," grandfather said, "you are too hasty. Now listen! In case the loser wishes another chance he can have it by taking a square-hold wrestle with his opponent. If he wins in the second contest, Saw-kaw shall be his wife." "All right," said Lapaz. Morning came and the family met on the river's bank to witness the contest. All understood the come-out but Lapaz. A duck hung dangling in the air from the branch of a tree. Lapaz took aim and fired. No duck fell. Kaw-kee then drew his bow and let the arrow fly. Down came the duck! Lapaz seemed confounded, but without a word, rushed at Kaw-kee clinching him for a square-hold wrestle, big with hope to win the prize. Now came the tug-of-war. Kaw-kee stepped backward near the river bank and there on his shoulders he backward fell, followed by Lapaz, muttering between his teeth "I've got you now." Quick as thought Kaw-kee planted both his feet between the hips of his rival, then with a mighty spring with both legs hurled his adversary headlong into the stream at least ten feet below. Poor Lapaz, like a drowning rat, crawled into his boat, looking as though he hated everybody and himself as he floated down the stream and disappeared. Where he went and how he fared nobody knew and nobody cared.

Page  45 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 45 A few days after this, while we were making preparations to break camp, grandfather called the family together. He spoke of the glorious time we had enjoyed, living as our fathers lived. He referred to the true love which had existed so long between Kaw-kee and myself without being interfered with. He further said, 'It is a fact that among our people in their native state, they regarded true love so sacred that they never tried to plague their children about it. Hence, in after years, they were consulted by them in all such affairs." "But," said he, "with the white man it is not so. Their little children are so much laughed at about the opposite sex, that in after years they hide their true feelings as if it were a great sin to fall in love. I am indeed glad that none of you have tried to plague Saw-kaw and Kaw-kee, thereby living up to the customs of our fathers." He then said, pointing at Kawkee and myself, "I propose that now, and here, we close our outing with a marriage between Kaw-kee and Saw-kaw, according to native custom." After consulting each other we both stood up at the same time and there, under the evergreen archways above us, we promised grandfather, in the presence of the family, that as we had loved each other in the past, so we would in the future. He then said. "Face each other; clasp your hands together." And we did so. As there we stood, face to face. lie said: "As your hands are joined together, so may your hearts be, in true love, that faileth not. Now in the presence of Ki-tehi Man-i-to (the Great Spirit) I declare you 'In-aw-kaw ne-naw (husband and wife).'" The family then, in subdued tones, repeated, "Mawge-ong, Maw-ge-ong! (Amen! Amen!)" The streams below and trees above murmured "Maw-ge-ong! Maw-ge-ong!" Then we two were known as one, and so have lived. ME-ME-OG, THE WILD PIGEON In springtime when the rosy hand of morning light Unfolds the curtain of an April night. And golden clouds float in the liquid blue. As guardian spirits, weeping crystal dew, The frightened woodsman, in wonder list'ning stands! Thinks a whirlwind is abroad in the land! Darkness increases, his eyes grow dim. And as he seeks shelter from the impendirg wind, Suddenly his fears are turned to joy, for he sees Sweeping through and high above the forest trees Millions of pigeons, on their north-bound way, Almost shutting out the morning light of day! In closing the aboriginal sketch of Van Buren county, I deem it appropriate to present an article written by the late Chief Pokagon entitled "Me-me-og" (the migratory or wild pigeon of North

Page  46 4-6 H1ISTORIY OF' VAN B.ItUREN COUNTY America). It was published by the Chautauqua Magazine of New York which paid nearly one hundred dollars for the contribution. It is acknowledged by our best ornithologists to be the most exhaustive article ever published regarding those wonderful birds, which, for unknown centuries had one of their main breeding grounds in Van Buren County, generally every other year, during April and May. Audubon, the great American ornithologist, declared their numbers were absolutely countless both at their roosts and breeding places. in his exhaustive work on ornithology, he states that in 1813, near Henderson, Kentucky, he made a careful computation of a body of birds that passed northward in spring, estimating that it contained not less than one billion one hundred and fifty millions one hundred and thirty-six thousand pigeons and, as each pigeon would consume at least half a pint of mast per day, it would require to feed such a flock eight millions seven hundred and twelve thousland ibushels per day. Think of it! Residents of this county under forty years of age will probably read the old chief's account of them with many doubts, but those past that age will verify its truth. Notwithstanding the countless millions of these birds thirty-five years ago, there has been a standing offer for years of five hundred dollars for a single pair of them; yet no one has been able to produce them. Many theories have been advanced regarding their total disappearance. One is that they undertook to cross one of the Great Lakes in a body, were overtaken by a tornado and drowned. Others claim they must have been wiped out by some contagious disease. While it seems to be well authenticated by some old sailors, that they witnessed, about the time of their disappearance, great bodies of these birds moving south across the Gulf of Mexico, in such great clouds that they shut out the light of day for several hours, and that in their opinion, unless they were drowned in the gulf, they are located somewhere in South America. From all I have been able to learn, for ages, they generally wintered in Arkansas, where mast was wonderfully plenty, and that in spring time they moved northward, nesting in Tennessee and Kentucky in February, in Indiana in March and Pennsylvania and Michigan in April and May. Their great wintering places in the south being broken up and the timber in the north that supplied them with such great quantities of mast, being cut down, so demoralized them that they could no longer exist in such vast bodies. Thus they scattered, and, like bees that abandon their hive, most of them could not survive an unsocial condition and finally died. When our western plains in the spring and fall were covered with vast herds of buffalo moving north or south, migrating to

Page  47 HISTORY OF VrAN BUREN COUNTY 47 their sunmmer or winter feeding grounds, they were followed by immense flocks of wolves and other animals that fed on the calves and the old animals that were left in their rear, but with the pigeons it was not so. No birds of prey were swift enough to follow them in their flights. They were only preyed upon by such birds as lived where they located. They were followed and preyed upon by cruel man, who had knowledge of their breeding places, as described by the old chief in his article. Some years since while ploughing, close in front of ime a hawk swooped down and carried off in his talons a robin. It awakened in me an intricate train of thought. I began to inquire "How can an all-wise creator excuse himself for creating one creature to live upon another?" While my feelings were wrought upon by this thought, I heard in a thicket close by a touching sound like the crying of a strangling babe. Quickly I ran to see what it was. To my surprise I found a large black snake coiled about a. rabbit that was begging for its life. Quick as thought, with lmy knife I severed the coils of the snake and release( its victimt so quickly that it escaped without a "tlhank you." I tlhen sat dow\n on a log to consider and analyze my acts. Result: I lhad saved the innocent rabbit through sympathy anld had l)utellere( tlme snake through revenge! I finally concluded not to meddle furtler witlh great Nature's laws, llut to accept the Darwinian theory of the survival of the fittest, which, physically speaking, is true. MALE AND FEMALE PIGEONS The female on the right shows the size of the dove [From photo furnished by Prof W. B. Burrows, Michigan Agricultural College.]

Page  48 48 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY The migratory or wild pigeons of North America, were known to our race as "me-me-og." Why the European race did not accept that name, was, no doubt, because the bird so much resembled the domesticated pigeon; as they called us, wild men. This remarkable bird differs from the dove or domesticated pigeon, which was imported into this country, in the grace of its long neck, its slender bill and legs, and its narrow wings. Its length is seventeen inches. Its tail is eight inches long, having twelve feathers, white on the under side. The two center feathers are longest, while five arranged on either side diminish gradually each one-half inch in length, giving to the tail when spread an almost conical appearance. Its back and upper part of its wings and head are a darkish blue, with a silky, velvety appearance. Its neck is resplendent in gold and green, with royal purple intermixed. Its breast is reddish brown, fading towards the belly into white. Its tail is tipped with white, intermixed with bluish black. The female is one inch shorter than the male, and her color less vivid. Its length of wings when spread is twenty-eight inches. It was proverbial with our fathers, that if the Great Spirit, in his wisdom, could have created a more elegant bird in plumage, form and movements, he never did. When a young man I have stoad for hours admiring the movements of these birds. I have seen them fly from horizon to horizon, from morning until night, in unbroken columns, like an army of trained soldiers pushing to the front, while detached bodies of the birds appeared in different parts of the heavens, pressing forward in haste like raw recruits preparing for battle. At other times I have seen them move for hours in one wide unbroken line across the sky, like some great river, ever varying in course and as some mighty stream, sweeping on at sixty miles an hour, reached some deep valley, it would pour its living mass headlong down hundreds of feet, sounding as though a cyclone was abroad in the land. I have stood by the grandest cataracts of America and witnessed their descending torrents in wonder and astonishment, yet never have I been so moved and awakened in admiration as when I have seen these living columns drop from their course like meteors from heaven. While feeding they always have guards on duty, to give alarm of danger. It is made by the watch bird as it takes its flight, beating its wings together in quick succession, sounding like the rolling beat of a snare drum. Quick as thought each bird repeats the alarm, as the flock struggles to rise, leading a stranger to think a young cyclone is being born. I have visited in the southern states many roosting places of these birds, where the ground under the great forest trees for thousands of acres was covered with branches torn from the parent trees, some from eight to ten inches in diameter. At such a time so much confusion of sound is caused by the breaking of limbs and the continued fluttering and chattering that a gun fired a few feet distant cannot be heard, while to converse, so as to be heard, is almost impossible. About the middle of May, 1850, while in the fur trade, I was camping on the headwaters of the Manistee river in Michigan. One morning while leaving my wigwam I was startled by hearing a gurgling, rumbling sound, as though an army of horses laden with sleigh bells was advancing through the deep forests toward me. As I listened more intently, I concluded that instead of the tramping of horses it was distant thunder; and yet the morning was clear, calm and beautiful. Nearer and nearer came the strange commingling sounds of sleigh bells, mixed with the rumbling of an approaching storm. While I gazed and listened, in wonder and astonishment, I beheld moving toward me in an unbroken front millions of pigeons, the first I had

Page  49 IIISTORY OF VAN 13UREN COUNTY 49 seen that season. They passed like a cloud through the branches of the high trees, through the underbrush and over the ground, apparently overturning every leaf. Statue-like I stood, half concealed by cedar boughs. They fluttered all about me, lighting on my head and shoulders. Gently I caught two in my hands andl carefully concealed them under my blanket. I now began to realize that they were mating, preparatory to nesting. It was an event which I had long hoped to witness, so I sat down and carefully watched their movements, amid the greatest tumult. I tried to understand their strange language and wXhy they chattered in concert. In the course of the day the great on-moving mass passed by me, but the trees were still filled with them sitting in pairs in convenient crotches of the limbs, now and then gently fluttering their half spread wings and uttering to their mates those strange bell-like wooing notes which I had mistaken for the ringing of bells in the distance. On the third day after, this chattering ceased and all were busy carrying sticks with which they were building nests in the same crotches of the limbs they had occupied in pairs the day before. On the morning of the fourth day their nests were finished and eggs laid. The hen birds occupied the nests in the rorning while the male birds went out into the surrounding country to feed, returning about 10 o'clock, taking the nest, while the hens went out to feed, returning about 3 o'clock P. M. Again changing nests, the males went out the seconil time to feed, returning at sundown. The same routine was pursued each day, until the young were hatched and nearly half grown, at which time all the parent birds left the breeding grounds about daylight. On the morning of the eleventh day after the eggs were laid, I found the nesting grounds strewn with egg shells, convincing me that the young were hatched. In thirteen days more the parent birds left their young to shift for themselves, flying to the east about sixty miles, where they again nested. The female lays but one egg during the same nesting. Both sexes secrete in their crops milk or curd, with which they feed their young, until they are nearly ready to fly, when they stuff them with mast and such other raw material as they themselves eat, until their crops exceed their bodies in size, giving to them an appearance of two birds with one head. Within two days after the stuffing they become a mass of fat (a squab). At this period the parent birds drive them from their nests to take care of themselves, while they fly off within a day or two, sometimes hundreds of miles, and again nest. It has been well established that these birds look after and take care of all orphan squabs whose parents have been killed or are missing. These birds are long lived, having been known to live twenty-five years while caged. When food is abundant they nest each month in the year. Their principal food is the mast of the forest, except when curd is being secreted in their crops, at which time they denude the country of snails and worms for miles around the nesting grounds. Because they nest in such immense bodies, they are frequently compelled to fly one hundred miles for food. During my early life I learned that these birds in spring and fall were seen in their migrations from the Atlantic to Ki-tchi-se-be (the Mississippi river). This knowledge, together with my personal observation of their countless numbers, led me to believe they were almost as inexhaustible as the great ocean itself. Of course, I had witnessed the passing away of the deer, buffalo and elk, but I looked upon them as local in their habits, while these birds spanned the continent, frequently nesting beyond the reach of cruel man. Between 1840 and 1880 I visited in the states of Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana and Michigan. Vol. 1-4

Page  50 50 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Many breeding places were from twenty to thirty miles long and from three to five miles wide, every tree in its limits being spotted with nests. Yet notwithstanding their countless numbers, great endurance and long life, they have almost entirely disappeared from our forests. We strain our eyes in spring time and autumn, in vain, to catch a glimpse of these passing pilgrims. White men tell us they have moved in a body to the Rocky mountain region, where they are as plenty as they were here, but when we ask red men about them, who are familiar with that region, they 'we-we-bi-kwen" (shake their heads) in disbelief. A pigeon nesting was always a great source of revenue to our people. Whole tribes would wigwam in the breeding places. We seldom killed the old birds, but made great preparations to secure their young, out of which the squaws made "bi-mi-de" (squab butter) claimed by them to be better than 'c( ow butter." They also smoked and dried them by thousands for future use. Yet under our practice of securing them they continued to increase. White men commenced netting them for shipping to market between 1830 and 1840. These men were known as professional pigeoners, from the fact that they banded themselves together, so as to keep in touch with these great moving bodies. In this way they managed to keep almost continually on the borders of their breeding places. As they were always prepared with trained stool pigeons and flyers which they carried with them, they were enabled to call down the passing flocks and secure as many by net as they wished to pack in ice and ship to market. In 1848 there were shipped over one hundred tons of these birds from western New York and from that time to 1878 the wholesale slaughter continued to increase and in that year there must have been shipped to market over five hundred tons of these birds. Think of it! During that time hunters from all parts of the country were killing them without number; demoralizing them in their breeding places without mercy. A great cry has gone up at the north because the robins which breed in the northern states are killed as game birds in the south and no law to protect them. They, too, will become extinct like the pigeons, unless stringent laws are passed to protect them. These traveling experts above referred to finally learned that the pigeons, while nesting, were frantic for salt, so they frequently made, near the nesting what they called salted mud beds, to which the pigeons flocked by the millions. In April, 1876, I was invited to see a net sprung over one of these death pits. It was near Petoskey, Michigan. I think I am correct in saying that the birds piled upon each other at least three feet deep. When the net was sprung, it appeared that nearly all escaped, but when killed and counted there were over three hundred dozen, all nesting birds. When squabs in a nesting become fit for market, these experts prepared with climbers would get into some convenient place in a tree top loaded with nests and with long poles punch out the young, which would fall with a thud like lead, to the ground. In May, 1880, I visited the last nesting place of any size known in the United States. It was in Benzie County, Michigan, on Plat River. There were on these grounds many large white birch trees filled with nests; these trees have manifold bark, which, when old hangs in shreds like rags, along the trunks and limbs. This bark will burn like paper soaked in oil; here for the first time I saw with shame and pity, a new mode for robbing these birds' nests, which I looked upon as being devilish. These outlaws to all moral sense would touch a lighted match to the bark of the trees, when, with a flash more like an explosion, the blast would reach every limb of the tree and while the affrighted young birds would leap simultaneously to the ground, the parent birds would rise high in air amid flame and smoke. I noticed

Page  51 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 51 that some of the squabs were so fat and clumsy they would burst open on striking the ground. Several thousand were obtained during the day by this cruel process. That night I stayed with an old man on the highlands just north of the nesting. In the course of the evening I explained to him the cruelty that was being shown to the young birds in the nesting. He listened to me in utter astonishment and said "My God, is it possible! " Remaining silent a few moments with bowed head, he looked up and said "See here, old Ingun; you go out with me in the morning and I'11 show you a way to catch pigeons that will please any red man and the birds too." Early the next morning 1 followed him a few rods from his hut, where he showed me an open pole pen about four feet high, which he called his bait bed. Into this he scattered a bucket of wheat. We then sat in ambush so as to see through between the poles into the pen. Soon the pigeons began to pour into the pen and gorge themselves. While I was watching and admiring them, all at once, to my surprise they began fluttering and falling on their sides and backs and kicking and quivering like a lot of cats with paper tied over their feet. He jumped into the pen saying "Come on, you red skin! " I was right on hand by his side. A few birds flew out of the pen apparently crippled, but we caught and caged about one hundred live birds. After my excitement was over I sat down on one of the cages and thought in my heart "Certainly Pokagon is dreaming, or this long haired white man is a witch." I finally said "Look here old fellow, tell me how you did that." He gazed at me, holding his long white beard in one hand and saying with one eye half shut and a sly wink with the other " That wheat was soaked over night in whisky. " His answer fell like lead upon my heart. We had talked temperance together the night before and the old man wept as I told him how my people had fallen by the intoxicating cup of the white man, like leaves before the blast of autumn. In silence I left the place, saying in my heart "Is it possible? Is there some of the white race in league with Maw-tchi-manito (the Devil) to deal out Ish-kot-i-wa-be (whiskey) to even the animal creation?" I have read recently in some of our game sporting journals: "A warwhoop has been sounded against some of our western Indians for killing game in the mountain region." Now if these red men are guilty of a moral wrong which subjects them to punishment, I would most prayerfully ask in the name of Him who suffers not a sparrow to fall unnoticed, What must be the nature of the crime and degree of punishment awaiting our white neighbors who have so wantonly butchered and driven from our forests these wild pigeons, the most beautiful flowers of the animal creation of North America In closing this article I wish to say a few words relative to the knowledge of things about them that these birds seem to possess. In the spring of 1866, there were scattered throughout northern Indiana and southern Michigan vast numbers of these birds. On April 10th, in the morning, they commenced moving in small flocks in diverging lines toward the northwest part of Van Buren county, Michigan. For two days they continued to pour into that vicinity from all directions, commencing at once to build their nests. I talked with an old trapper who lived on the breeding grounds, and he assured me the first pigeons he had seen that season were on the day they commenced nesting and that he had lived there fifteen years and never knew them to nest there before. From the above instance and many more I could mention, it is established in my mind beyond a reasonable doubt, that these birds, as well as many other animals, have communicated to them by some means unknown to us, a

Page  52 52 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY knowledge of distant places and of one another when separated and that they act on such knowledge with just as much certainty as if it were conveyed to them by ear or eye. Hence we conclude it is possible that the Great Spirit, in his wisdom, has provided them a means to receive electric communications from distant places and with one another. The buffaloes have gone, the pigeons are extinct and other game, once so abundant, is rapidly disappearing and the Indians themselves are a disappearing race, rapidly journeying to their "happy hunting ground." If Mr. Engle is right, and he must be, for he speaks from observation and many years of experience and intimate acquaintance with them, the often-heard saying that "the only good Indians are dead Indians," is a base slander of a sadly maligned and misunderstood people. While there were bad Indians, as there are bad white men, they were by no means all bad. Among them, as among the Caucasian race, the good, no doubt, was predomlinant.

Page  53 CHAPTER II FOREIGN AND AMERICAN GOVERNMENT FRENCH PERIOD (1634-1764)-ENGLISH PERIOD (1760-1796)TERRITORIAL (AMERICAN) PERIOD —MICHIGAN AS A STATEPOPULATION OF THE STATE (1810-1910)-POPULATION OF THE COUNTY (1840-1910 )-PROPERTY VALUATION OF STATE AND COUNTY (1851-1911). Any history of the county of Van Buren would be incomplete without an historical sketch in the outline of the early history of the great state of which it forms so important a constituent part. Michigan, the twenty-sixth state of the Union, became a full fledged commonwealth by an act of congress, approved January 20, 1837. FRENCH PERIOD (1634-1764) Like many other historical occurrences not absolutely authentic, it is alleged that the first white man who ever set foot within the present boundaries of the state was Jean Nicolet, who was in the service of Governor Champlain, and that he first landed at the site of the city of Sault Ste. Marie, at which place he arrived in the summer of 1634. After remaining there for a short time he descended the strait and made a short stop at Michilimackinac, the Moche-ne-mok-e-nung of the Indians, and which is now known as Mackinac or, as it is sometimes written, Mackinaw. Following Nicolet were the two Jesuit missionaries, Rambault and Jougues. who arrived at the Sault seven years later, in 1641. They found a large assembly of Indians there who received them in a very friendly manner and desired that they should remain among them, but their stay was brief and they soon returned to eastern missionary points. In 1660 Pere Menard undertook to form a mission on the shores of Lake Superior and in October of that year he reached the head of Keweenaw bay, where he spent the winter among the Indians and in the spring he resumed his travels. He was accompanied by an Indian guide, but was either lost or murdered, as nothing further was ever heard of him. 53

Page  54 54 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Five years afterward a mission was established and a chapel erected by Pere Claude Allouez, at La Pointe, the first house of worship ever built west of Lake Huron. The second mission was founded at the Sault Ste. Marie, in 1668 by Pere Marquette, whose name is identified with Michigan history and is perpetuated in one of the great railways that have so largely aided in developing the marvelous resources of the state. A year later, Marquette was joined at the Sault by Pere Dablon and they speedily established themselves in a fort constructed of cedar pickets, enclosing both the chapel and a residence for their personal occupancy, as well as a space for the growing of grain and vegetables-probably the first attempt at agriculture by white men within the boundaries of the state. In the fall of the same year that Marquette assumed charge of the La Pointe mission Allouez went to Green Bay and Dablon remained at the Sault. Since the time of the founding of these missions, the Sault has been inhabited by Europeans and Americans and is the oldest settlement in Michigan. Special messengers were sent out among the tribes, in the spring of 1671, for the purpose of calling a great council of the Indians at the Sault. Fourteen tribes sent representatives to this council to meet the French officers, who, with all due formality and ceremony, took possession of the country. Pere Allouez raised the cross and lilies of France and delivered an address on the occasion representing his King, Louis XIV, as "the chief of chiefs having no equal in the world." During the same year Marquette's mission at La Pointe was practically abandoned and himself accompanied a band of Hurons to the straits of Mackinac, where he founded the mission of St. Ignatius (now St. Ignace). Father Marquette was buried near this mission which he founded nearly two hundred and fifty years ago. A monument to his memory is erected there, but his mortal remains have been deposited at the Marquette college, Milwaukee. For the next nine years, 1671 to 1680, Pere Druilletes was the leading spirit at the Sault. Several times his chapel was destroyed by fire, but the aged missionary was full of energy and continued his work until his advancing years and increasing infirmities compelled him to abandon it. He returned to Quebec, where he died in 1680. The first settlements made in this new land were largely under the auspices of companies organized for the purpose of engaging in the fur trade and for years there was little development of the country. On the 7th day of August, 1679, the schooner, "Griffin" set sail for the first voyage ever made on any of the great lakes that wash the shores of the Peninsular state. This vessel was

Page  55 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY )55 commanded by Chevalier La Salle (who was accompanied by Father Hennepin, the missionary) and manned by a crew of fur traders. They were entirely ignorant of the waters over which they sailed and felt their way with great caution, finally reaching the mouth of the Detroit river on the 10th of August, and sailing northerly passed the Indian village of Teuchsagrondie, now the site of the great city of Detroit. This place had been previously visited by the French missionaries and traders but no attempt had been made to form a settlement. They continued their voyage through Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair river, into Lake Huron, where they experienced a severe storm, but finally succeeded in reaching the harbor of St. Ignace. Soon afterward La Salle, resuming his voyage, crossed Lake Michigan and cast anchor in Green Bay, where the "Griffin" was loaded with furs and sailed for Niagara, under orders to return to the mouth of the St. Joseph river as soon as possible, but she never reached her destination. A terrible storm swept over the lake almost immediately after her departure and it is altogether probable that she found a watery grave at the time. La Salle, with a few men, followed the coast of Lake Michigan to the mouth of the river, now the site of the city of St. Joseph, where he built a rude fort and shortly afterward was joined by a party from Mackinac under Tonty, La Salle's trusted agent. Losing hope of the return of the "Griffin" with the sorely needed supplies, the near approach of winter made further delay dangerous and they began the ascent of the St. Joseph river. Near the present site of the city of South Bend, Indiana, they made a portage and continued their explorations, going down the Illinois river to the point where they built Fort Creve Coeur. The first European settlement at Detroit was founded by Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac on the 24th day of July, 1701. He brought with him a company of fifty soldiers and fifty traders and artisans, and proceeded at once to the construction of a fort which he named Fort Ponchartrain; around the fort were soon erected log houses thatched with grass in which the settlers found shelter and a home. Cadillac remained in charge of the new settlement until 1710. The colony continued to exist, but did not increase very much during the period of French control. In the meantime the rival claims of the French and English, in this valley of the Ohio and elsewhere, led to disputes which eventually culminated in a war, during which the French lost control of Forts Niagara, Ticonderoga and Crown Point. Finally the fall of Quebec decided the contest and all the vast territory was abandoned to English rule and New France became a memory. The most prominent feature of the French rule of the territory

Page  56 56 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY was the neglect to develop the resources of the country, agricultural and otherwise. Very little land was cleared, few permanent improvements were made and the settlements were of little importance. The fur trade was the chief occupation of the people and this was not calculated to build up and sustain thriving communities. Hence, at the close of the French and Indian war, the little trading posts of Sault Ste Marie, Michilimackinac and Detroit were the meager results of a hundred years of French colonization and control of the great state of Michigan that was destined soon to be. ENGLISH PERIOD (1760 TO 1796) Shortly after the surrender of the territory to the British Major Robert Rogers took possession of the 'post at Detroit, which at that time contained an estimated population of about 2,500 inhabitants. The posts of Michilimackinac, Sault Ste. Marie and St. Joseph were not occupied by the English until the fall of 1761. Although the French had abandoned the territory and their chief military leaders had returned to France, the English were not destined long to remain in peaceful occupation of their neiw possessions. Less than three years of intercourse with the Indian tribes aroused intense hostility against the new occupants of the country. Many of the French inhabitants remained and, as they had little love for the English, they made common cause with the red men, and with them hoped for a speedy downfall of British domination. A conspiracy was formed for the purpose of attempting the overthrow of English rule. An able leader was found in the person of Pontiac, an Ottawa chief. He was well fitted for the daring enterprise; an eloquent orator, a brave and crafty warrior who had won first place among the Indians of his day, and, what was more than all the rest, he was a real military genius, thoughtful and far seeing and able both to originate and manage complicated plans. In this latter respect, he was probably the greatest chief of his race ever produced. His plan was to simultaneously attack all the English posts west of the Alleghany mountains and to accomplish the massacre of all the garrisons at a single stroke, hoping thus to rid the country of a people whom they hated and whom they regarded as intruders in the valleys of the west which had, from time immemorial, been the possession of the Indians themselves. There were at this time twelve posts scattered from Niagara to Chicago, three of which, Detroit, Michilimackinac and St. Joseph, were within the boundaries of the present state of Michigan. Pontiac sent his ambassadors throughout the west and south and all the various tribes, from the Ottawa to the lower

Page  57 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 57 Mississippi, were visited, and all the Algonquins, most of the Wyandottes and some of the southern tribes were enlisted in the enterprise. A great council was held at a point on the River Ecorse, near Detroit, on the 27th day of April, 1763, at which arrangements were made for an attack on the posts in May. The attack on Detroit was led by Pontiac in person. The crafty chief sought an interview with Major Gladwin, commander of the post, on the 7th day of May and' was admitted, accompanied by a band of some sixty warriors, who, to all appearances were unarmed, their weapons being carefully concealed beneath their blankets. The plan was for Pontiac to make an address to the commander of the fort and the presentation of a string of wampuin was to be the signal for the beginning of the massacre. This plan would, without doubt, have been successfully carried out, had it not been revealed to Major Gladwin by an Ojibwa maiden the evening previous to the intended attack, and he was prepared for it. When the red men were admitted to the fort they found the garrison under arms and ready to meet any hostile demonstration that might be attempted. Being convinced that the commander had been made aware of his plans, Pontiac was at a loss what course to pursue, or what to say and made his speech very brief. Major Gladwin told the Indians that the English would be their friends as long as they merited it, but that any hostile act would meet with instant vengeance. Two days later Pontiac sought to gain an entrance with a greater number of warriors, but did not succeed. The Indians then set up a war-whoop and murdered a number of the English who were outside the fort. The garrison were expecting reinforcements and on the 30th of May a sentinel reported that a fleet of boats was approaching, but the hopes of the garrison for assistance and supplies were not to be realized, for the Indians had learned of the approach of the fleet, consisting of twenty-three batteaux, and had captured all the supplies and massacred all but one officer and thirty men who escaped in a boat and crossed the lake to Sandusky bay. The siege lasted from May until late in October, when scarcity of food in the camp of the Indians compelled them to withdraw. In anticipation of a possible renewal of hostilities on the part of the Indians, the commandant laid in a good supply of provisions, but the savages made no further demonstration, and in the spring the negotiations of Sir William Johnson and the opportune arrival of General Bradstreet induced them to refrain from further hostilities. Fort St. Joseph, which was garrisoned by Ensign Schlosser and fourteen men, was captured on the 25th of May, 1763, by a band

Page  58 58 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of Pottawattainies, who gained admission through pretended friendship and massacred all the little band except the commander and three men, who were afterward taken to Detroit and exchanged. Fort Michilimackinac, which was situated on the south side of the strait a short distance southwest of the present site of Mackinaw City, was garrisoned by a force of nearly a hundred soldiers under the command of Major Etherington, who had full and ample warning of the hostile intentions of the Indians, but, disbelieving the reports, carelessly and foolishly neglected to take any precaution against possible attack, and on the second day of June, 1763, the Indians engaged in a game of ball just outside the gates of the fort, the officers and soldiers being interested spectators of the sport. About noon the ball was thrown into the fort and the red assassins rushed after it through the open gate. The Indians were furnished with tomahawks by the squaws who stood near the gate with the weapons concealed within their blankets. The garrison was taken completely by surprise and had little or no opportunity for defense. Lieutenant Jamette and seventy men were killed. Major Etherington and twenty-six men were taken prisoners and subsequently released. After burning the fort and appropriating all the supplies therein, the savages for greater security from deserved retribution encamped on Mackinac Island. As a result of this Indian uprising, eight of the twelve English posts were captured, hundreds of Englishmen were slain and a reign of terror prevailed throughout the valleys of the west. But as far as accomplishing the real object of the conspiracy, the removal of the English from the interior of the country, the scheme of the great red chieftain was a complete failure. In the summer of 1764, General Bradstreet arrived at Detroit with an army of three thousand men. The Indians, realizing that it was useless for them to contend against so great a force, laid down their arms and thus the war was ended. From this time forth, the settleiments grew slowly during the remainder of the English occupation. Being so far removed from the scenes of conflict, the few settlers in this then far west had no occasion or opportunity to participate in the War of Independence, and although the treaty of peace between the colonies and the mother country, concluded at Paris in 1783, provided for the surrender of the English posts to the United States, it was not until July, 1796, that Detroit and Michilimackinac were given over into the possession of the new republic and Michigan for the first time became an American possession.

Page  59 HISTORY OF VAN 3BUREN COUNTY 59 TERRITORIAL (AMERICAN) PERIOD Although the ordinance creating the Northwest territory was passed by congress in 1787, the retention of the Michigan posts by the English until 1796 made the latter date the practical beginning of the American territorial period. The anti-slavery clause contained in this ordinance was at first rejected by the committee having it in charge, but was subsequently accepted, although a majority of the committee were from the then slave states. Except the Declaration of Independence, it was, at the date of its adoption, the most important declaration of fundamental law ever adopted by a free people. It provided for the government of the vast territory lying between the Ohio river and Lake Superior, and was framed with such wisdom that a modern jurist, Judge Cooley of the Michigan Supreme court, has said of it: "No charter has so completely withstood the tests of time and experience. It was not a temporary adaptation to a particular emergency, but its principles were for all time and worthy of acceptance under all circumstances." The ordinance was a compact between the original states and tile people and states of the territory, and it provides that these articles shall forever remain unalterable, except by common consent. This ordinance is the second of the four great and immortal doculments that insure to the American people their religious and political freedom, viz: The Declaration of Independence, the Ordinance of 1787, the Constitution of the United States and the Proclamation of Emancipation. Of these four documents, the ordinance is less generally known among the people at large than either of the others, although it might as well be instilled into the minds of the rising generation as the Declaration itself. The important provisions of the ordinance were embodied in the six following articles: Art. I. No person demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly manner, shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or religious sentiments, in the said territory. Art. II. The inhabitants of said territory shall always be entitled to the benefits of the writ of habeas corpus and of the trial by jury; of a proportionate representation of the people in the legislature, and of judicial proceedings according to the course of the common law. All persons shall be bailable unless for capital offenses, where the proof shall be evident or the presumption great. All fines shall be moderate, and no cruel or unusual punishments shall be inflicted. No man shall be deprived of liberty or property, but by the judgment of his peers or the law of the land, and should the public exigencies make it necessary for the common preseryation to take any person's property, or to demand his particular services, full compensa

Page  60 60 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY tion shall be made for the same. And in the just preservation of rights and property, it is understood and declared that no law ought ever to be made, or have force in the said territory, that shall in any manner whatever, interfere with or affect private contracts or engagements, bona fide and without fraud previously formed. Art. III. Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged. The utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians; their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent and in their property, rights and liberty, they shall never be invaded or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by congress; but laws founded in justice and humanity, shall, from time to time, be made for preventing wrongs being done to them and for preserving peace and friendship with them. Art. IV. The said territory and the states that may be formed therein shall forever remain a part of this confederacy of the United States of America, subject to the articles of confederation and to such alterations therein as shall be constitutionally made, and to all the acts and ordinances of the United States in congress assembled, conformable thereto. The inhabitants and settlers in the said territory shall be subject to pay a part of the federal debts contracted or to be contracted, and a proportional part of the expenses of government, to be apportioned among them by congress according to the same common rule and measure by which apportionments thereof shall be made on other states, and the taxes for paying their proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the district or districts, or new states, as in the original states, within the time agreed upon by the United States in congress assembled. The legislatures of those districts or new states shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States in congress assembled, nor with any regulations congress may find necessary for securing the title in such soil to the bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the property of the United States, and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, shall be common highways and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said territory as to the citizens of the United States and those of any other state that may be admitted into the confederacy, without any tax, impost or duty therefor. Art. V. There shall be formed in the said territory not less than three nor more than five states and the boundaries of the said states, as soon as Virginia shall alter her act of cession and consent to the same,* shall become fixed and established as follows, to-wit: The western state in the said territory shall be bounded by the Mississippi, Ohio and Wabash rivers, a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post St. Vincent's due north to the territorial line between the United States and Canada and, by the said territorial line, to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The middle states shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Post St. Vincent's * In the Virginia act of cession of December, 1783, the cession was made on condition that the territory so ceded should be laid out and formed into states, containing suitable extent of territory, not less than one hundred nor more than one hundred and fifty miles square.' or as near thereto as circumstances would permit. Five years later, in December, 1788, Virginia altered her act of cession and consented to the boundaries of the new states as fixed in the ordinance of 1787.

Page  61 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 61 to the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line, drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to the said territorial line, and by the said territorial line. The eastern state shall be bounded by the last mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania and the said territorial line: Provided, however, and it is further understood and declared, that the boundaries of these three states shall be subject, so far to be altered that, if congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two states in that part of said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever any of the said states shall have sixty thousand free inhabitants therein, such state shall be admitted, by its delegates, into the congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the original states in all respects whatever, and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and state government: Provided, the constitution and government so to be formed shall be republican and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles; and, so far as it can be consistent with the general interest of the confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less number of free inhabitants in the state than sixty thousand. Art. VI. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted: Provided, always, that any person escaping into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original states, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or service as aforesaid. The congress that adopted the foregoing ordinance was the old continental congress, which, under the articles of confederation, had carried the new nation through the War of the Revolution. H-owever, as soon as the colonies had won the contest with the mother country and had secured their independence, it was perceived that the loosely drawn articles of confederation were not sufficient to hold the several colonies together under one government, and steps were taken by the people of the several states "to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare and secure the blessings of liberty." At the very time when the Ordinance of 1787 was adopted, the constitutional convention which would "secure a more perfect union" was in session. The ordinance and the constitution each contains the same patriotic conditions and both of the great documents were the product of practically the same wise Fathers, who laid so broad and deep the foundations of the new republic that it has ever since been able to successfully resist all assaults from without, as well as to survive all domestic contention and discord. By the adoption of the Ordinance of 1787, at the very beginning of its political existence, this vast region was pledged to education, freedom and equal rights for all. In the fall of 1787 congress appointed General Arthur St. Clair governor of the Northwest territory, but owing to the failure of

Page  62 62 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY the British to surrender the posts in this section until 1796 the first pages of territorial history have only slight connection with Michigan affairs. Indiana territory was formed by act of congress in 1800, and two years later the lower peninsula of the present state of Michigan was made a part of the new territory and so remained until 1805. The most important event that occurred in the history of Michigan during the period while it was attached to Indiana territory, was an act of congress enacted in 1804, providing for the disposal of public lands within the territory, by which section sixteen, in each township, was reserved for the use of schools, and one entire township in each of the districts afterwards forming the states of Michigan, Indiana and Illinois, was to be located for the benefit of a seminary of learning. This act was the germ of the primary school fund in the state of Michigan and was the original source from which sprang the great university of the state, which has become one of the world's foremost educational institutions. Several different plans were evolved for the division of this great Northwest territory into states, besides the Virginia plan, in the original deed of cession, and the plan embodied in the Ordinance of 1787. The first congressional plan contemplated the formation of seventeen individual states, eight states to be between the Mississippi and a line due north from the Falls of the Ohio, at Louisville, eight more to be between the Ohio Falls line and a parallel line running north from the western side of the mouth of the Kanawha river. On the extreme east was to be the seventeenth state. This plan did not meet with favorable consideration. What is called the Jeffersonian plan, because Thomlas Jefferson was one of its chief originators, proposed a division into ten states. This plan is of interest chiefly for the names by which the proposed states were to have been called. Some of these names were Latin, some were Greek and some were of Indian derivation. The proposed states were to be about two degrees in width, north and south, and bounded on the east and west, as nearly as practicable, by the north and south lines of the first congressional plan, above noted. That part of the territory north of the forty-fifth parallel, covering the then heavily timbered regions of northern Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, was to be called Sylvania. The remainder of the present state of Michigan was to be called Chersonesus, a. Greek word signifying peninsula. South of Sylvania and covering a part of the present state of Wisconsin was to be the state of Michigania. Soulth of Michigania and extending to

Page  63 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 63 the forty-first parallel was to be the state of Assenisipia, an Indian word signifying Rock river. East of Assenisipia and extending north to the shore of Lake Erie, was to be the state of Mesopotamia. South of Assenisipia, to the 39th parallel, was to be the state of Illinoia. To the east of Illinoia was to be the state of Saratoga, and east of Saratoga, bounded by the Ohio river, the west line of Pennsylvania and the eastern part of the south shore of Lake Erie, was to be the state of Washington. South of Illinoia and Saratoga and lying along the Ohio river, was to be a state called Polypotamia. East of Polypotaimia was to be the tenth state called Pelisipi, from a Cherokee word sometimes given to the Ohio river. While all these proposed state lines have disappeared and most of the proposed names are recalled only as matters of curiosity, it will be noticed that the name of the Father of his country has since been conferred on the extreme northwest state of the Union lying on the border of that greatest of oceans, which, at that date, no man had ever dreamed would one day become the western boundary of the United States and that even that ocean itself would not stop the westward march of the American people, but that they would cross to the islands of tlhe sea and still farther onward, until tile far west should have become also the far east and American civilization should have practically encircled the earth and that the "sun should never set" upon the flag of the free. Two of the other proposed names, Illinoia and Michigania, hafve been preserved with only slight changes in orthography. Iad the proposed plan been adopted Van Buren county would now be located, not in the state of Michigan, but in the state of Chersonesus. On the eleventh of January, 1805, congress passed an act for the organization of Michigan territory, which was to embrace all that portion of Indiana territory lying north of a line drawn east from the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan until it intersected Lake Erie, and lying east of a line drawn fromn the same southerly bend through the middle of Lake Michigan to its northern extremity and thence due north to the northern boundary of the United States. General William Hull was appointed governor of the newly organized territory and arrived at Detroit in the month of July, 1805. A few weeks previous to his arrival the town had been destroyed by fire and he found the inhabitants encamped in the fields with a scanty supply of food and little shelter. But they were an indomitable people, not discouraged by their misfortune, and they immediately began to rebuild the town, which was made the capital of the new territory. Detroit. which at the last census (1910) contained a. population of 465,766

Page  64 64 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY souls, was then a hamlet of not to exceed 4,000 inhabitants, and at that time there appeared to be little inducement for immigration into the new territory, the great natural resources of which were almost wholly unknown. About two years after Governor Hull had assumed control of the territory, signs of Indian troubles became manifest. Instigated by British fur traders, a plan similar to that of Pontiac was devised, but was not then ready to be put into execution, although well-founded rumors of ill-feeling, discontent and evil designs came to the governor and the people from time to time, causing much anxiety and greatly retarding the settlement of the territory. Tecumseh and his brother, commonly called the Prophet, being the Indian leaders. Such was the condition of territorial affairs when the impressment of American seamen and other British insults brought on a second conflict with Great Britain. Encouraged by the gathering war clouds, the Indians, long before the beginning of actual hostilities, assembled in great numbers on the banks of the Wabash river, but, fortunately, not only for Indiana, but for Michigan and the entire northwest, General William Henry Harrison, afterward president of the United States, was the governor of that territory. Governor Harrison was an able, brave and energetic officer and took no chances and lost no time in instituting vigorous measures for the protection of the people against the redskins. With an army of about nine hundred men, he marched to the camp of the Indians called Prophet's Town. There he was met by a delegation of chiefs who professed to be greatly surprised at the visit, and assured the general that their intentions were peaceful and that they had no thought of fighting and asked for a conference on the morrow. The general replied that he would be glad to give them an opportunity to show their peaceful intentions and would grant them the desired council. But, being somewhat versed in the treacherous nature of the savages, on going into camp for the night, every precaution was taken to prevent a surprise in case the redskins should attack the camp. As the general had anticipated, the savages had only requested a council for the purpose of throwing the command off its guard and gaining an easy victory by means of a night attack. About four o'clock in the morning the Indians assaulted the camp, but, contrary to their expectations, they found the soldiers fully prepared for them. The engagement that followed is known in history as the battle of Tippecanoe and resulted in the complete rout of the Indians. This battle played no small part in elevating General Harrison to the presidency. There are yet surviving a considerable number of people who well remember the refrain of a campaign song of 1840 which ran as follows: "Tippecanoe and

Page  65 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 65 Tyler too," John Tyler being General Harrison's running mate in the presidential campaign of 1840, known as the "hard-cider campaign." Governor Hull, of the Michigan territory, was given command of a military force for the protection of the frontier and the invasion of Canada, should war ensue. With an army of about fifteen hundred men, he started from Dayton, Ohio, and after a tedious march of three weeks, reached Detroit on the sixth day of July, 1812. War had been declared on the 18th day of June, but Governor Hull did not receive notice of that fact until the second day of July. At that time, Fort Mackinac was garrisoned by a little band of fifty-seven men, under the command of Lieutenant Porter Hanks. The British commandant on St. Joseph's island learned of the declaration of war about the middle of July and immediately started for Mackinac with a force of about one thousand men, with which force he landed and took up a commanding position above the fort. Being at the mercy of the foe with his little garrison, Lieutenant Hanks was.obliged to surrender and, with his men, was paroled and sent to Detroit. Thus, on the 17th day of July, 1812, the post at Mackinac again passed under English control. Orders were given to General Hull to cross the Detroit river, take possession of Canada and dislodge the British at Fort Malden, which was garrisoned by only a small force and probably would have been easily captured had General Hull moved forward in the same vigorous manner as did General Harrison at the battle of Tippecanoe. But Commander Hull was not a man of the same caliber and mental vigor as General Harrison, and "under pretext that heavy artillery was necessary to an attack on the fort at Malden, the army lay inactive at Sandwich from the 12th of July to the 8th of August." During this interval, while Hull was "marking time" at Sandwich, General Brock moved toward Fort Malden with a considerable military force. On the ninth day of August, General Hull recrossed the river, entered the fort at Detroit and abandoned Canada. No man can say what different history might have been written if Hull had pushed forward and taken possession of Malden, as he was ordered to do. It is possible, perhaps probable, that in that event Canada might have become a constituent part of the United States, instead of being, as it is, a foreign country on our northern border, identical in interest with her great southern neighbor and separated from this nation only by an imaginary line. The next day after his arrival at Malden General Brock moved up to Sandwich and summoned General Hull to surrender. This summons being refused, a cannonade was at once opened on the Vol. I- 5

Page  66 66 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY American fort and the fire was returned, little damage being done to either side. On the morning of the 16th day of July General Brock crossed the river and repeated his demand for the surrender of the post. The English commander had a force of about thirteen hundred men, and Hull had not less than a thousand. Without holding any council of war or in any way consulting with his officers, and without waiting to make any stipulation as to terms, General Hull at once hoisted a white flag and sent word to the English general that he would surrender the fort. The American officers were incensed beyond measure at the cowardly action of their commander. Hull was accused of treason, cowardice and criminal neglect of duty, and, although he was acquitted of the charge of treason, he was convicted of the second and third offenses and, by a court martial, was sentenced to be shot. This sentence was not carried into execution, as, in consideration of valuable service he had rendered the country in the War of the Revolution, he was pardoned by the president. Hull's name was for many years held in contempt by the people of the country and was regarded a synonym of cowardice and poltroonery. Let General Hull be counted null, And let him not be named, Upon the rolls of valiant souls, Of him we are ashamed. was a quatrain that was familiar to every school boy in the early part of the nineteenth century. With the surrender of Detroit, the territory of Michigan became for a time a British province. General Brock placed Colonel Proctor in command of both the fort and the territory. Proctor assumed the title of governor and proceeded to organize the civil government. He appointed Judge Woodward as his secretary. Woodward had considerable influence with Proctor and was of great service to the people, whose interests he was instrumental in protecting in a large degree. In the fall and winter following Hull's surrender of Detroit, General Harrison organized an army and moved northward for the recapture of the frontier posts, sending General Winchester in advance to the Maumee river. A few days later General Winchester moved forward and encamped on the River Raisin, where on the 22d of January, 1813, he was attacked by the British and Indians under the command of Proctor. The American force was taken by surprise and compelled to surrender. During the night following the surrender, the savages butchered the wounded soldiers and defenseless inhabitants without mercy.

Page  67 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 67 The great naval victory at Put-in-Bay, won by Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, on the 10th day of September, 1813, by which the entire naval force of the British commander, Commodore Barclay, was captured, was a decisive stroke and paved the way for the recovery of Michigan territory and the entire northwest. This victory was the most complete in naval history up to that date, and the only naval battles comparable to it in after years are the victories of Admiral Dewey at Manila bay and the capture of the Spanish fleet by Admirals Schley and Sampson at Santiago, during the war with Spain. The captured vessels were used by General Harrison for the transportation of his command across Lake Erie, preparatory to a vigorous Canadian campaign, but the British forces evacuated Maiden and Detroit, Colonel Proctor making a speedy retreat. He was overtaken and defeated at Moravian town, Tecumseh, the great Indian leader, was killed, and Proctor fled. On the 29th of September, 1913, Detroit again passed into the possession of the Americans and Colonel Lewis Cass was placed in command, and on the 9th of October next he was appointed by President Madison as governor of the territory. An attempt was made, in the summer of 1814, to regain possession of Mackinac island, which was still held by the British. Lieutenant Croghan was sent with a force to effect its capture, but he delayed his movements so long that the English commander was enabled to strengthen his position and to increase his force to such an extent that the expedition ended in an ignominious failure. It was not until the close of the war that the island came once more into the possession of the Americans, the post being evacuated in the spring of 1815 and being again occupied by a force of American soldiery. At the beginning of the administration of Governor Cass, there was but a small population in the entire territory and that was confined to a few settlements on the eastern border. The entire interior of what was destined to be, in the not distant future, one of the great and most prosperous states of the Union, was practically an unknown wilderness, and, what was greatly to its disadvantage, it was regarded as being an almost impenetrable swamp and of little value, possessing no attraction for other than trappers and hunters. Some of the civil engineers sent out by the general government to make the survey of bounty lands for the soldiers were responsible, in a large degree, for reports that served to injure the territory and retard its settlement. Governor Cass took great pains to counteract these reports and to remove the erroneous impressions that had been created thereby. He made treaties with the Indians, dealt with them fairly and honorably,

Page  68 68 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY secured cession of their lands to United States, and by his untiring efforts in behalf of much maligned territory, he won imperishable renown. After the necessary treaties had been concluded, the country was opened for settlement. The survey of public lands was begun in 1816, and after the lapse of two years the authorities began their sale. Farmers would not come in any considerable numbers until there was an opportunity to procure lands to which they could obtain a sure title, and, without tillers of the soil, there could be little growth or prosperity, but, with the settlement of the interior, which really began in 1818, the territory commenced to make a substantial growth. The first steamboat that ever sailed on the great lakes, the "Walk-in-the-Water," arrived at Detroit in the summer of 1818, and from that time forth, westward bound settlers had less difficulty in coming to Michigan. The "Walk-in-the-Water " was wrecked three years afterward, but the "Superior" and other steamers soon took her place and steam navigation contributed in no slight degree to increasing prosperity of the growing territory. Another pressing need was the matter of roads. Immigrants could not come in any considerable numbers to the new territory as long as the only method of finding their way through the forests was by trails or by roads cut out, but never worked, and which were often practically impassable. Roads around the west end of Lake Erie to Detroit, and from the latter place to Chicago, and other highways of importance, were constructed as soon as practicable through the energetic work of Governor Cass and his efficient secretary, Woodbridge. The opening of the Erie canal in 1825 was also an event of great importance to Michigan. Steamers and sailing craft rapidly increased in number and it is estimated that at least three hundred passengers a week were landed in Detroit during the fall of that year. George G. Porter, of Pennsylvania, succeeded Cass as governor of the territory and Stevens T. Mason became his secretary. As Governor Porter was absent for a considerable portion of the time, his duties were performed by Secretary Mason. When Porter died in 1834, no change was made and Mason continued to perform the duties of governor during the remainder of the territorial period. In the meantime, the population of the territory had reached and passed the number (60,000) prescribed in the Ordinance of 1787, and the people desired admission into the Union. It was about this time that a serious dispute arose in regard to the boundary line between Michigan and the state of Ohio, which had been admitted in 1802 with an indefinite northern boundary. The act of 1805, by which the territory of Michigan was organ

Page  69 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 69 ized, fixed the southern boundary of the territory at a line running due east from the southern bend of Lake Michigan. This line included Toledo and a considerable strip of land to which Ohio laid claim, and of which, by proclamation of Governor Lucas issued in 1835, the Ohio authorities assumed control, the legislature of that state passing an act for its organization as the county of Lucas. This action was resented by the Michigan authorities and Acting Governor Mason called out the militia and proceeded to Toledo for the avowed purpose of preventing the Ohio officials from taking possession and exercising control over the disputed strip. Although some shots were fired it was a bloodless war, as nobody was injured. Congress, anxious for a peaceable solution of the matter, offered Michigan all that portion of the present state lying north of the straits known as the Upper Peninsula, on condition that she should relinquish all claim to the land claimed by Ohio. This compromise was reluctantly accepted by the Michigan authorities, practically nothing being known of the resources of the territory which she received in exchange for that which she abandoned to the state of Ohio. Subsequent events, however, proved that it was a most valuable exchange, the mineral resources of the Upper Peninsula, especially iron and copper, which were then entirely unknown, having added many millions of dollars to the value of the state. The first state convention looking to the adoption of a constitution for the embryo state was held at Detroit in May, 1835. The document framed by the convention was submitted to a vote of the people and adopted on the first Monday of the following October, state officers being chosen at the same time. Stevens T. Mason was elected governor and Edward Mundy, lieutenant governor. Mason is distinguished in Michigan history by the title of the "boy governor," he being but nineteen years of age when he first assumed gubernatorial duties as acting executive of the territory, and but twenty-three years old when elected as the first governor of the new state that was soon to be. He was born in the state of Virginia in 1812 and died January 4, 1843, aged not quite thirty-one years. The Michigan legislature met in November, 1835, and elected Lucius Lyon and John Norvell as United States senators. Everything was ready for her admission, but the dispute with the state of Ohio as to the southern boundary of the state prevented favorable congressional action at that time, and it was not until January 26, 1837, that congress acted favorably on the question and Michigan became the twenty-sixth state of the Union.

Page  70 70 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY MICHIGAN AS A STATE Under the first constitution of Michigan, the governor and the lieutenant governor were elective. The other state officers-secretary of state, attorney general, auditor general, superintendent of public instruction and the judges of the supreme court-were to be appointed by the governor by and with the consent of the senate, except as to the superintendent of public instruction, whose appointment was to be ratified by both houses of the legislature, in joint session. A state treasurer was also provided for, who received his appointment from the legislature by a joint vote of the two houses. The governor also had the appointment of a prosecuting attorney for each county, subject to the approval of the senate. Another peculiar provision of the constitution of 1835, deserving of especial notice, was that in regard to internal improvements, which was as follows: "Internal improvements shall be encouraged by the government of this state and it shall be the duty of the legislature, as soon as may be, to make provision by law for ascertaining the proper objects of improvement in relation to roads, canals and navigable waters; and it shall also be their duty to provide by law for an equal, systematic, economical application of the funds which may be appropriated to these objects." Governor Mason was in full sympathy with the proposed system of internal improvement by the state, and as his recommendation and with his approval the scheme was speedily put into execution. Arrangement was made for the issue of five million dollars of state bonds and the governor was given authority to negotiate the loan. Among the more important projected improvements were two lines of railway, the Michigan Central and the Michigan Southern. The former was projected to begin at Detroit, extend across the state and end at St. Joseph on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. Of this project we shall have occasion to speak further in another chapter. The other line was projected to extend from \Ionroe to New Buffalo. After an unsuccessful experience of five years in the prosecution of these enterprises and others of lesser note, it became evident that it would be for the best interests of the state to dispose of these railroads, neither of which was completed, to private corporations. They were accordingly sold in 1846 for the sum of two and a half millions of dollars, which was very much less than the state had invested in them, but which was, doubtless, a very good sale for the interests of the people. Under the management of the purchasers the roads were soon completed, but some changes were made along the western portion of their routes.

Page  71 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 71 The new state also had an unique and disastrous experience with its banking system which afterward came to be known as and called "wild-cat banking." Among the crude and ill-digested theories of that primitive day was the notion that banking, like farming, store-keeping and other ordinary business, should be free to all. When the state was admitted there was fifteen banks doing business within its borders, and, in the spring of 1837, the legislature passed a general banking law. This act provided that any ten or more freeholders might engage in the business of banking with a capital of not less than $50,000, nor more than $300,000. This law was loosely framed and without proper safeguards, and proved in practice to be utterly worthless. Among other things, it was provided that not less than thirty per cent of the entire capital should be paid in, in specie, before commencing business; that debts and bills issued should be secured by mortgages on real estate, etc. Banks were to be subject to examination and supervision by commissioners, but all these statutory provisions for safety were successfully evaded. Banks were started by irresponsible parties, mere adventurers, who were wholly destitute of either capital or credit. Whenever the banking commissioners started on their tours of investigation, bags of coin were secretly carried from one bank to another, so that the commissioners were constantly deceived. It is said that nails, with specie in the tops of the kegs were palmed off on the commissioners as full kegs of coin, but as this is not properly vouched for, it may not be true. At all events every possible ruse was made use of to make a showing of the legal amount of coin, and by means of the speedy and surreptitious transfer of specie from bank to bank, the same coin was made to do duty over and over again, and in the meantime these wild-cat institutions were putting into circulation a vast amount of utterly worthless currency. The year 1837 is memorable as a time of great financial panic throughout the entire United States. In June of that year the Michigan legislature passed an act authorizing the suspension of specie payment until the middle of May of the following year, hoping thereby to relieve in some degree the financial stress that prevailed, not only in Michigan. but in the entire country. But as the wild-cat banking law remained unrepealed, banks continued to be organized and a constant stream of worthless currency continued to be issued, and was put into circulation as rapidly as possible. Banks were located anywhere and everywhere. One was found doing a flourishing business in an old saw mill, and it was humorously asserted that a hollow stump served as a vault. The bank of Singapore, located in the woods where now is the site of the flourishing village of Saugatuck, in

Page  72 72 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY the county of Allegan which adjoins Van Buren county on the north, was a typical institution of the kind. The writer has a bill of that bank in his possession that was issued in 1837. By the close of the year 1839, most of these wild-cat banks had gone out of business, but more than a million dollars of worthless currency, which was a total loss to the people, had been put into circulation. In 1844 the banking law was declared to be unconstitutional, and that decision closed out the last of the "wild-cats." One of the first steps of interest taken by Governor Mason, after the admission of Michigan into the Union, was the appointment of a superintendent of public instruction. Rev. John D. Pierce was selected for this important office. He was the founder of the Michigan primary school system, a system that is acknowledged to be second to that of no other one of the states of the Union. Father Pierce, as he is affectionately termed, wished to place the primary school within the reach of every child of school age in the state, and also to establish a state university for the higher culture of the more advanced students. How well he succeeded in his efforts along these lines the present admirable Michigan system of educating her children bears ample testimony. The plan which he developed contained most of the essential features of the present school system, and when it is remembered that he was the first superintendent of public instruction in the United States, and that he had to formulate the entire educational plan, we are better prepared to appreciate the wisdom and foresight displayed by this founder of the justly celebrated Michigan school system. A majority of the pioneers who settled in the interior of Michigan came from the New England states, New York and Ohio. Some of them came from the very birthplace of the town meeting, and all of them took an active and earnest interest in the good government of the state of their adoption. They were an intelligent and public spirited people, prudent and industrious, desirable citizens in any community. Their style of living was unavoidably plain; their dwellings were structures built of logs from the forests, primitive, but comfortable; their clothing cheap and coarse, but that mattered not to the hardy settlers, so long as it possessed the qualities of wear and comfort. Hard work was the order of the day and while neighbors were few and far between, genuine friendship and hospitality were marked characteristics of the "pathfinders" of the vast Michigan wilderness. From 1701, when Cadillac first occupied Fort Pontchartrain, until 1847, Detroit had been the seat of government, but in the latter part of that year, the legislature located the capital at Lansing, which was then an unbroken forest forty miles distant from any railroad, but which is now a flourishing city of upwards

Page  73 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 73 of 30,000 inhabitants. This action of the legislature met with much ridicule and opposition, but the event justified the location, which has proved to be satisfactory to the people of the state. The township of Lansing, in which the capital city is situated, was organized by an act of the legislature of 1842, as follows: "That all that part of the county of Ingham designated by the United States survey as township number four north, of range number two west, be set off and organized into a separate township, by the name of Lansing, and the first township meeting shall be held at the shantee near the cedar bridge in said township." After an experience of more than a dozen years under the constitution of 1835, it became manifest that some radical changes were needed in the fundamental law of the state, and a convention was called to meet at Lansing in June, 1850, for the purpose of preparing and submitting a new constitution. This duty was performed and the work of the convention submitted to the people at the general election held on the 5th day of November, 1850.* Hon. Isaac W. Willard, a man prominent in the development of Van Buren county, was a delegate to this convention. The constitution of 1850 remained as the supreme law of the state until 1908, when it was superseded by the present constitution which was adopted by a vote of the people at the general election of November in that year. The present constitution was framed by a convention that met at Lansing, October 22, 1907, and remained in session until March 3, 1908. At this convention, tIon. Benjamin F. Heckert and Hon. Guy J. Wicksall were delegates from Van Buren county. At the time of the admission of Michigan into the Union, the Democratic party was in power and the first governor of the state was affiliated with that party. He was succeeded by Governor Woodbridge, a Whig, for a single term, after which the Democrats again came into control of the state and remained as the dominant party until the organization of the Republican party in 1854, since which date that party has, with the exception of two terms, been in full control of the state government. During the Civil war the state was fortunate in having Hon. Austin Blair, known as her great "war governor," as her chief executive. No state was more earnest in supporting the general government and in upholding the hands of the immortal Lincoln, than was Michigan. None made greater sacrifice for the suppression of the Rebellion and none sent better or braver soldiers into the field. Altogether, Michigan furnished 93,700 men, of whom * Among other changes, this constitution made judges of the supreme court and state officers, heads of departments, elective instead of appointive.

Page  74 74 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 14,855 died in the service of their country. Upwards of 4,000 Michigan men were enlisted in the more recent Spanish-American war. The first half century of the history of Michigan witnessed many wonderful changes. In 1837 the interior of the state was almost wholly an unbroken wilderness, inhabited only by the Indian tribes and the beasts of the forest, and there were very few signs of civilization to be seen. Postal arrangements were of the crudest character and correspondence was an expensive luxury. The entire population of the state at that time was but 174,467, and that largely along the borders of the state next the great lakes. The census of 1910 places Michigan, in point of numbers, as the eighth state in the Union, giving to her a population of 2,810,173, an increase of sixteen-fold in seventy-three years. Detroit, the metropolis of the state, is now the ninth American city, having by the last census a population of 465,766. The following table shows the population of the state at each decennial year, for the past century, and of the county of Van Buren at each decennial census since the admission of Michigan as a state. MICHIGAN Date. Population. Increase. 1810................... 4,762....... 1820................... 8,896 4,134 1830................... 31,639 22,743 1840................... 212,267 180,628 1850................... 397,654 185,387 1860................... 749,113 351,497 1870................... 1,184,282.435,869 1880................... 1,636,937 452,655 1890................... 2,093,889 456,952 1900................... 2,420,982 327,093 1910................... 2,810,873 389,191 V,\N BUREN COUNTY Date. Population. 1840................................................ 1,910 1850................................................ 5,800 1860.........:......................... 15,224 1870........................ 28,829 1880.30,807 1880...............................'................. 30, 807 1890............................................ 30,541 1900.......................................... 34,965 1910............................ 33,18'5

Page  75 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 75 While there has been the above remarkable increase in the population of the state, there has been a corresponding increase in its financial prosperity, as may be seen by the following tabulation, showing the valuation of the state and also of Van Buren county for the past sixty years, as fixed by the state board of equalization. Date State. County. 1851................$ 30,976,270.$ 541,663 1853................ 120,362,470 1,683,561 1856................ 137,663,009 2,132,374 1861................ 172,055,805 2,591,490 1866................ 307,965,842 4,926,238 1871................ 630,000,000 11,550,000 1876................ 630,000,000 11,000,000 1881................ 810,000,000 14,000,000 1886................ 945,459,000 14,000,000 1891................ 1,130,000,000 15.000,000 1896................ 1,105,100,000 14.500,000 1901................ 1,578,100,000 16,000,000 1906................ 1,734,100,000 17,000,000 1911................ 2,390,000,000 27.300,000 A glance at the foregoing tables will show that during the past sixty years the state of Michigan has increased in wealth seventyseven fold and, that during the same length of time. from 1850 to 1910, its population has been multiplied nearly eight times, while Van Buren county during the same period increased in wealth fiftytwo fold, probably as great an increase as would be shown by any other rural county in the entire state; its population during the same time has increased nearly six-fold. When we realize something of the greatness of our state and take cognizance of its various industrial interests, its mines of iron, copper and coal, its beds of cement, its magnificent orchards, vineyards and farms, its unsurpassed manufacturing industries, its salt and its sugar, its beautiful cities and villages, its great transportation facilities, both by land and by water, its fisheries around the great lakes that lave its borders, its beautiful inland lakes and streams, its thousands upon thousands of handsome and commodious dwellings, in country as well as in city, and a thousand and one other attractions, it would seem that there is no other state in the Union that can excel it, or that can bestow upon its fortunate inhabitants more of the comforts and luxuries of life. If Michigan were to be cut off from all communication with the rest of the world, her people would still be a prosperous people and would lack none of the real necessities and' few of the luxuries to which they have been accustomed. It was indeed a happy thought when her pioneer statesmen chose for her motto, that most appropriate legend Si Quae-ris Peninsulam Amoenam Circumspice.

Page  76 76 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY A BH2LO L ^^ V& 0a ri i:r }L THE COUNTY OF TODAY

Page  77 CHAPTER III CIVIL AND EARLY HISTORY FIRST MICHIGAN COUNTY-VAN BUREN COUNTY CREATED-CIVIL AND JUDICIAL ORGANIZATION-TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION-PIONEER PICTURES-VAN BUREN COUNTY PIONEER ASSOCIATION-EDWIN BARNUM'S POEM-OSLERISM REVIEWED. I hear the tread of pioneers, Of nations yet to be, The first low wash of waves where soon Shall wave a human sea. The rudiments of empire here Are plastic yet and warm, The chaos of a mighty world Is rounding into form. It is popularly supposed that Van Buren county once formed a part of the county of Wayne, but this supposition, strictly speaking, is incorrect. It is true, however, that on the 15th day of July, 1796, General Arthur St. Clair, at that time governor of the Northwest territory, issued an executive proclamation by which he assumed to organize the county of Wayne, and in which he included the northwestern part of Ohio, the northeastern part of Indiana and the whole of Michigan, which at that time included a part of the state of Wisconsin, truly a magnificent extent of territory to be included within the boundaries of a single county. But at that time the county of Van Buren had not been named or thought of as a distinct entity, and the Indian title to a large p)ortion of the widely extended county thus attempted to be created had not been extinguished, so that the proclamation of Governor St. Clair, in-so-far as the territory which subsequently became Van Buren county was involved, was a mere nullity, it being then, as it has always since been, the policy of the general government to recognize the title of the Indian tribes to the lands occupied by them and not to attempt to exercise jurisdiction therein until such time as their title should be extinguished and vested in the United States. 77

Page  78 78 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY FIRST MICHIGAN COUNTY The first actual county organization within the territory of Michigan was created by proclamation of General Lewis Cass, governor of the territory, dated November 21st, 1815, as follows: "To all to whom these presents may come, greeting: Know ye, that I do hereby lay out that part of the territory of Michigan to which the Indian title has been extinguished into a county to be called the County of Wayne, and the seat of justice of said county shall be at the City of Detroit." (Territorial Laws, Vol. I. p. 323). The proclamation of Governor Cass, above quoted, makes the new county cover all the territory to which the "Indian title has been extinguished, " and as the title to the territory included within the boundaries of Van Buren county remained in the Pottawattamies until what is called the Chicago treaty of 1821, some six years after the proclamation creating the county of Wayne, such proclamation did not affect the territory now included within boundaries of this county. This treaty was signed by General Cass and Solomon Sibley, as commissioners of the United States, and had attached to it the totemic signatures of Topinabee, Wesaw and fifty-three other chiefs of the Pottawattamies. By this treaty the Indian title was extinguished to all the present county of Van Buren, as well as to certain other lands, being nearly all of Berrien county; nine entire counties and a part of five others, all in southwest Michigan, and also a strip of land ten miles in width south of the state line between Michigan and Indiana. By executive proclamation, dated September 10, 1822, made by Governor Cass, it was ordered that "All the country within this territory to which the Indian title was extinguished by the treaty of Chicago shall be attached to, and compose a part of the county of Monroe," so that for municipal purposes the territory afterward organized as the county of Van Buren was first within the jurisdiction of Monroe county. (Territorial Laws, Vol. I. p. 335-336). VA:N BUREN COUNTY CREATED The first act of the legislature of the territory affecting Van Buren county was placed upon the statute books in 1829 and was as follows: "That so much of the territory included within the following limits-viz., beginning where the line between ranges twelve and thirteen west of the meridian intersects the base line, thence west to the shore of Lake Michigan, thence southerly along the shore of said lake to the intersection of the line between townships two and three south of the base line, thence east on the line between said townships to the intersection of the line between

Page  79 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 79 ranges sixteen and seventeen west of the meridian, thence south on the line between said ranges to the intersection of the line between townships four and five south of the base line, thence east on the line between said townships to the intersection of the line between ranges twelve and thirteen west of the meridian, thence north on the line between said ranges to the base line be and the same is hereby set oft into a separate county and the name thereof shall be Van Buren." (Territorial Laws, Vol. II. p. 736). This act embraced the territory included within the present county of Van Buren. In the same year. the legislature passed an act organizing the county of Cass, establishing a county court therein and providing for the holding of two terms of court in said county each year. Section four of the same act provided "that the counties of Berrien and Van Buren and all the country lying north of the same to Lake ]Michigan, shall be attached to and form a part of the county of Cass.' (Territorial Laws, Vol. II. p. 745). By this act Van Buren. still unable to stand alone, found her second municipal copartner. By the same act of the legislature the counties of Calhoun and Jackson came into existence, thus placing with others, in the two southern tiers of counties, Van Buren, Cass, Calhoun, Jackson and Monroe, the namles of these noted Democratic statesmen plainly indicating the prevailing political sentiment in the territory. Just why Michigan was not, at the same time, honored by having a county named Jefferson, as well as after these other distiguished statesmen, is a. little singular. CIVIL AND JUDICIAL ORGANIZATION In 1835 the legislative council of the territory ordained "that the county of Van Buren shall be a township by the name of La Fayette, and the first township meeting shall be held at the schoolhouse near Paw Paw mills, in said township." (Territorial Laws, Vol. III. p. 1403). However, it was not until Michigan had been admitted as a state that the county w-as fully organized and endowed with the necessary political machinery for the management of her own municipal affairs. In 1837 the first legislature of the newly admitted state enacted a. law providing, among other things "that the county of Van Buren be, and the same is hereby organized, and the inhabitants thereof entitled to all the rights and privileges to which by law the inhabitants of the other counties are entitled. "All suits. prosecutions and other matters now pending before

Page  80 80 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY any court, or before any justice of the peace of the county to which said county of Van Buren is now attached for judicial purposes, shall be prosecuted to final judgment and execution, and all taxes heretofore levied shall be collected in the same manner as though this act had not passed. "The circuit court for the county of Van Buren shall be held for one year from the first day of November next, at such place as the supervisors of said county shall provide in said county, on the first Monday in June and December in each year, and after the first day of November, 1838, at the seat of justice in said county. "There shall be elected in said county of Van Buren, on the second Monday of April next, all the several county officers to which by law the said county is entitled, and whose terms of office shall expire at the time the same would have expired, had they been elected on the first Monday and the next succeeding day of November last, and said election shall in all respects be conducted and held in the manner prescribed by law for holding elections for county and state officers. "In case the election for county officers shall not be held on the second Monday of April, as provided by the eighth section of this act, the same may be held on the first Monday of May next." (Laws of Michigan, 1837, pp. 97-98.) In those early days, it will be observed, it was the practice to hold elections on two successive days and should they not be so held the statute gave the people another opportunity to exercise their right of franchise. Just imagine, if such a thing be possible, the voters of the present day neglecting an opportunity to hold an election. And they do not need two days for it at that. The election was held at the appointed date, to-wit, on the 11th day of April, 1837, and resulted in the choice of the following named officers: First county judge, Wolcott H. Keeler, of Covington; second county judge, Jay R. Monroe, of South Haven; county treasurer, Daniel O. Dodge, of Lafayette; judge of probate, Jeremiah H. Simmons, of Lafayette; sheriff Samuel Gunton; register of deeds, Jeremiah H. Simmons, of Lafayette; county clerk, Nathaniel B. Starkweather; county surveyor, Humphrey P. Barnum, of Lafayette; coroners, John R. Haynes, of Lawrence, and Junia Warner, Jr., of Antwerp. The highest number of votes cast for any candidate was ninety and the least number was sixty-two. At that date the county consisted of seven townships, viz., South Haven, Clinch, Lawrence, Lafayette, Antwerp, Covington and Decatur. The vote by townships, as returned and canvassed,

Page  81 IISTORY OF VAN IBUREN COUNTY 81 was as follows: South Haven, 10; Lawrence, 13; Lafayette, 23; Antwerp, 17; Covington, 27. No returns were received from the townships of Decatur and Clinch, and the presumption is that no election was held in those townships. Pursuant to the requirements of the statute above quoted the board of supervisors of the newly organized county convened on the 27th day of May, 1837, for the purpose of designating the place where the circuit court in and for said county should be held. This was the first meeting of that august body, which is sometimes designated as the county legislature. The record of this meeting is very brief and reads as follows: "The supervisors of the towns of Van Buren County met at the village of Paw Paw, on the 27th day of May, A. D. 1837, and organized by appointing D. 0. Dodge clerk. "The business of said meeting being for locating the place for the circuit courts of said county: Whereupon, it is decided that the courts of said county be held at the schoolhouse in the village of Paw Paw. "D. O. DODGE, Clerk." This action of the board of supervisors, while having no special reference to the final location of the county seat of the county, may well be considered as the entering wedge to a long and more or less bitter and hard fought contest over that matter which eventually resulted in the permanent location of the county buildings at Paw Paw, where they are likely to remain indefinitely. This matter is presented at length in its proper place in this work. TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION To further provide for the complete organization of the county, the legislature of 1837 enacted as follows: "All that portion of the county of Van Buren known as township number three south of range number thirteen west, be, and the same is hereby set off and organized into a separate township by the name of Antwerp; and the first township meeting therein shall be held at the house of Philip Williams, in said township. (This is the only town in the county that has undergone neither change of name nor territory since the organization of the county.) "All that portion of the county of Van Buren designated by the United States survey as townships one and two south of range thirteen and fourteen west, be, and the same is hereby set off and organized into a separate township by the name of Clinch, and the first township meeting therein shall be held at the house of Charles Vol. I —f

Page  82 82 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Townsend, in said township. (The township of Clinch disappeared from the map of Van Buren county so many years ago that very few of its citizens are aware that there ever was a township by that name. The territory embraced within the boundaries of this ancient township now constitutes the townships of Pine Grove, Bloomingdale, Waverly and Almena). "All that portion of the county of Van Buren, designated by the United States survey as township three south of range fourteen west, be and the same is hereby set off and organized into a separate township, by the name of Lafayette; and the first township meeting therein shall be held at the house of D. O. Dodge, in said township. (This township, as above designated, is now the township of Paw Paw. Few people are aware that Berrien county first had a township named Paw Paw, but such is the fact.) (Laws of Michigan, 1837, p. 38.) "All that portion of the county of Van Buren designated by the United States survey as townships four south in ranges thirteen and fourteen west, be, and the same is hereby set off and organized into a separate township by the name of Decatur, and the first township meeting, shall be held at the schoolhouse near Little Prairie Ronde in said township. (The west half of the territory so organized into a township still remains as the township of Decatur, while the east half of the same constitutes the present township of Porter). "All that portion of the county of Van Buren designated in the United States survey as township one south in ranges fifteen, sixteen and seventeen west, and township two south in ranges sixteen and seventeen west, be, and the same is hereby set off and organized into a separate township by the name of South Haven; and the first township meeting therein shall be held at the house of J. R. Monroe, in said township. (The territory so organized into a single township now comprises the townships of South Haven, Geneva, Columbia, Bangor and Covert). "All that portion of the county of Van Buren, designated by the United States survey as township two south in range fifteen west, and township three south in ranges fifteen and sixteen west, be, and the same is hereby set off and organized into a separate township by the name of Lawrence; and the first township meeting therein shall be held at the house of Horace Stimpson in said township. (The territory so organized now comprises the present townships of Lawrence, Arlington, and Hartford). "All that portion of the county of Van Buren designated by the United States survey as township four south in ranges fifteen and sixteen west, be, and the same is hereby set off and organized into a separate township by the name of Covington; and the first town

Page  83 HISTORY OF VAIN BUREN COUNTY 83 ship meeting therein shall be held at the Keelerville postoffice in said township" (Covington, which covered the present townships of Keeler and Iamilton, sank into oblivion, as did its sister township of Clinch, and is not now even a memory save only to a few of the oldest inhabitants of the county). The foregoing quotations are from the Laws of Michigan for 1837, pages 35, 37 and 38. The legislature of 1839 (Laws of Michigan, 1839, p. 27) enacted that townships number three and four south, of range number sixteen west, should be set off and organized into a separate township to be called Keeler, and that the first township meeting should be held at the house of W. H. Keeler in said township. This new township comprised the present township of Hartford, then a part of Lawrence. and the west half of the then township of Covington. At the same session of the legislature (Laws of Michigan, 1839, p. 24) an act was passed organizing township number four south, of range number fifteen west, into a separate township to be known as the township of Alpena, and providing that the first township meeting should be held at the house of Henry Coleman in said township. By these two acts the township of Covington was entirely wiped off the map of the' county. Another law, enacted in 1840, changed the name of the township of Alpena to Hamilton, and as such it still remains. (Laws of Michigan, 1840. p. 80.) By the same leuislature township number three south, of range number sixteen west, was organized into a new township to be known as Hartford. and the first township meeting was ordered to be held at the house of Smith Johnson in said township. (Laws of Michigan, 1840, p. 79.) This township comprised the north half of the township of Keeler. The legislature of 1842 (Laws of Michigan, 1842, pp. 83 and 84) passed an act organizing three new townships in the county of Van Buren; to-wit. townships number one and two south, of range number fourteen west, then a part of the township of Clinch, were set off and organized into a township to be called Waverly, the first township meeting to be held at the schoolhouse near Ashbel Herring's. in said township. (The name should have been Herron, instead of Herring.) Townships number one and two south, of range number thirteen west, also a part of the township of Clinch, were set off and organized into a township to be called Almena, the first town meeting to be held at the schoolhouse near Willard Newcomb's in said township. By the organization of these two townships,

Page  84 84 4HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY the township of Clinch ceased to exist and has been practically forgotten. By the same act of the legislature township number two south, of range number fifteen west, at that time a part of the township of Lawrence, was set off and organized into a separate township under the name of Arlington, the first town meeting to be held at the house of Allen Briggs in said township. In 1845 (Laws of Michigan, 1845, pp. 50 and 51) the following township organizations were effected, viz.: Township number one south, of range number fourteen west, then constituting the north half of the township of Waverly, was set off and organized into a township to be known as and called the township of Bloomingdale, the first town meeting to be held at the house of Elisha C. Cox in said township. Townships number one south, of ranges number fifteen and sixteen west, then being a part of the township of South Iaven, were set off and organized into a township under the name of Columbia, the first township meeting to be held at the schoolhouse iln district number four in said township. Township number four south, of range number thirteen west, being the east half of the then township of Decatur, was set off and organized as the township of Porter, the first township meeting to be held at the schoolhouse near the residence of Benjamin Reynolds. This same act also provided that township number two south of range number sixteen west, should be organized into a township to be called South Haven, the first town meeting to be held at the house of Daniel Taylor in said township. This embraced what is now the present township of Bangor, and was already a part of the township of South Haven, as theretofore organized, which organization was left intact, except that the township of Columbia had been detached therefrom, as hereinbefore noted. It is evident that there must have been some mistake in this matter. This township does not border on Lake Michigan and there was nothing in the situation that could possibly have suggested the name "Haven," south or in any other direction, and it has never been known as the township of South Haven, nor in any way treated as such, except as it formed a part of said township as originally organized in 1837. The legislature of the next year, 1846, appears to have been informed of the error and so passed a new law, the third, for the organization of the township of South Haven. This statute provided that fractional townships number one and two south of range number seventeen west, fractional township number two south of range number eighteen west, and township number two south of range number sixteen west,

Page  85 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY should be organized into a township by the name of South Haven, and that the act of 1845, above noted, be repealed. This left the township of South Haven the same as originally organized in 1839, except that township number two south of range number eighteen west, a small triangular piece of land jutting into the lake, containing about one section, was added, and that townships number one south of ranges numbers fifteen and sixteen west had been detached and organized into the township of Columbia, as above noted. (Laws of Michigan, 1846, p. 126.) The legislature of 1849 enacted that township number one south, of range number thirteen west, the north half of the then township of Almena, should be set off and organized into a township to be called Pine Grove, and that the first town meeting should be held at the house of Henry F. Bowen in said township. (Laws of Michigan, 1849, p. 105.) The townships of Bangor, Geneva and Deerfield were organized, not by act of the legislature, but by resolution of the board of supervisors. On the 11th day of October, 1853, at the annual session of the board, a resolution was adopted, reading in part as follows: "Resolved, that township number two south of range number sixteen west, situate at present in and belonging to the township of South Haven, be and the same is hereby set off from said township and organized into a new township by the name of the township of Bangor, and that the time and place of holding the first annual meeting in said township of Bangor shall be on the first Monday of April next, 1854, at the schoolhouse situated on section twelve, in said township." At a special meeting of the board of supervisors held on the 5th day of January, 1854, a similar resolution, in part as follows was adopted: "Resolved, that township number one south of range number sixteen west, situate at present in and belonging to the township of Columbia, be and the same is hereby set off from said township and organized into a new township by the name of Geneva, and that the time and place of holding the first township meeting in said township of Geneva shall be on the first Monday of April next, 1854, at the dwelling house of Nathan Tubbs, on section two in said township." At a session of the board of supervisors, held on the 8th day of October, 1855, a resolution reading in part as follows was adopted: "Resolved, that township number two south of range number seventeen west, situated at present in and belonging to the township of South Haven, be and the same is hereby set off and organized into a new township by the name of Deerfield, and that the time and place of holding the first annual township meeting in said township of Deerfield shall be on the first Monday of April next,

Page  86 86 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 1856, at the dwelling house of Hiram Fish, on section number 21 in said township." This action on the part of the board of supervisors of the county completed the organization of the county into eighteen townships, each of which, with the exception of the fractional townships of South Haven and Deerfield, (now Covert) was six miles square and contained thirty-six sections of land. No change has been made in the boundaries of any township since the date last mentioned, except that, by action of the board of supervisors at their October session, 1871, section number thirty-two and the west half of section number thirty-one of the township of Waverly was set off from said township and attached to the township of Paw Paw, and the southeast part of the township of Arlington, south of the Paw Paw river about one-third of section thirty-six, has been set off and attached to the township of Lawrence. The only other changes that have taken place have been changes of name, the township of Lafayette having been changed to Paw Paw and the township of Deerfield having been renamed Covert. It is altogether unlikely that any other alterations will be made, at least for many years to come. PIONEER PICTURES The following extracts from an article written by Hon. Alexander B. Copley, and read at the meeting of the Van Buren County Pioneer Association in 1894, will serve to give some idea of the customs, the difficulties and the hardships encountered by the brave and hardy pioneers to whom we are indebted for this prosperous and beautiful land they have bequeathed to us. He says: "At the time of which I am writing, (the early thirties) it is doubtful if there was a cabin with rafters and board gable in either Cass or Van Buren county, and for years thereafter one could distinguish the eastern settler from the southern by the board gable with rafters, the logs squared at the corners, and the chimney built on the inside without jams and supported on the curved timbers of a natural crook. "The farming tools of the pioneer were of the simplest kind, hardly differing from their ancestors of fifty to a hundred years before. An ax, iron wedge, bar share plow (which was a plow with share and landslide combined) to which a wooden mould board was attached, shovel plow (sometimes iron harrow teeth, more often wooden ones), a heavy hoe, and a sickle for cutting grain, which, after being cut, was stacked around a circular threshing floor of dirt, upon which it was tramped out by horses and winnowed by one man throwing it into the air, while two men flopped a sheet to fan it.

Page  87 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 87 "The first fanning mill in the settlement was in 1831. The wheat was in poor condition for flour, the smut and dirt were mixed with it, and the rude mills of that day had few appliances to clean and scour the grain as compared with the complicated machinery of modern days. The result was a leaden-colored product much unlike, in appearance, taste or smell, the snow-white roller process flour of today, and owing to the difficulty of threshing, on account of stormy weather at times, bad roads and the mills a long distance away, the settlers were often entirely out of flour and borrowing was the rule and general practice. Sometimes even borrowing was unavailable, as, for instance, Dolphin Morris (of Decatur township) and his brother were gone fourteen days to mill, Lacey's mill, near Niles, although the distance was but thirty miles. Some difficulty at the mill at first, then a severe storm of rain and sleet and snow, compelled them to abandon their loads and wagons, except the forward wheels of one wagon upon which they placed a small supply of flour for temporary use; and even then they were three days in going twenty miles to reach their families, who were out of bread and fearing the worst that could have happened to the absent husbands. "The spring of 1832 was particularly unfortunate; the Sac war for one thing, when everyone expected an uprising of the resident Indians and nearly all the settlers were called out to resist the threatened invasion of Blackhawk and his warriors. Happily this scare soon passed away and the settlers returned to their families, but the weather was very unfavorable for crops, the corn having been twice cut down by frosts and there being no seed for replanting. As a last resort, Mr. Morris sent a boy of fifteen with pack horses to Defiance, Ohio, a distance of over a hundred miles, to procure seed corn. The lad was successful in procuring two bushels, arriving home late one Saturday night and the next day all hands turned out and planted it, the product of which was all the corn raised in the neighborhood that year. "The dress of the settlers was of the most primitive style, both as to fashion and material. With the men the old time hunting shirt had given way to a garment called a 'wamus,' a loose blouse with a narrow binding at the top and a single button at the throat. the skirt reaching to the hips when loose, or to the waist when tied by the corners as it was usually worn. The material was linsey, a homespun cloth of cotton and wool woven plain. Pantaloons were of jeans, blue or butternut. with different shades of color as the different skeins of yarn took on a light or dark hue in the dyeing. Occasionally buckskin trousers were worn, or trousers faced with buckskin, fore and aft, as a sailor would say, where the protection would be the most serviceable.

Page  88 88 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY "Feminine fashions were at a standstill, and it would be presumptuous for me to attempt to describe them, still it would be an easier task then than now, for as I look on this beautiful scene before me, who could describe the lovely toilets which meet the eye on every side, their style, color and material eclipsed only by the charms of the wearers? Suffice it to say that notwithstanding the poke bonnets from five to ten years old, the belles and matrons who wore them were worthy of being the mothers and grandmothers of the radiant maidens of today. "The chief business of the pioneer was to live. Speculation and money-making was not considered, as their locations and first settlements show. An easy place to farm was sought for; hence a choice location on a prairie was taken without taking into consideration the distance from market. Rich lands were available near the St. Joseph river, navigable to the lake and thence by water, but the emigrant passed on for thirty miles to a prairie, even if it took several days to get a barrel of salt. What was time to men whose wants were so few? The forests, the swamps and the lakes were to them vast storehouses furnishing both amusement and subsistence. Game of many kinds abounded in the forest, the streams and lakes teemed with fish, wild honey from the woods, huckleberries and cranberries from the swamps, and various other kinds of wild fruits in plenty, all served to make life at times a holiday. Not all sunshine, however. In 1835 there was a great frost in June, almost totally destroying a promising crop prospect and very nearly causing a famine, only a few favored localities escaping the general destruction. The roads of those early days were execrable, especially in the timbered lands. Wagons were generally covered, and an axe and log chain were always taken on trips of any considerable distance, such as going to mill or market, as the roads were liable to be obstructed by trees blown down during heavy rain storms or high winds. "As an example of the early roads and teaming in Van Buren county, on the 21st day of September, 1834, John Shaw, a prominent settler of Volinia, with a wagon and a team of three horses and a hired man sent by my father with a wagon and two yoke of oxen, started on a trip from Little Prairie, Ronde to St. Joseph with wheat. The first day they reached Paw Paw; the second day Prospect Lake; the third day camped in the woods, and the fourth day reached St. Joseph. The fifth day they sold their loads, made their purchases, started home, and reached Rulo's, a French settler ten miles from St. Joseph; the sixth day they got to Paw Paw, and the next day they reached home, having camped out every night except the two nights at Dodge's tavern, Paw Paw, which at that time was little more than a shanty, he having just

Page  89 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 89 commenced building his hotel. My father's account book says: 36 bushels of wheat at 60 cents, $21.60; one barrel of salt, $2.50; expenses, $1.94; cash brought home, $1.82; the rest in sundries. This year (1834) was the first opening up of trade and business between the prairie and Paw Paw. The next year, the winter of 1835, I accompanied my father on a trip to St. Joseph, with a load of oats to be exchanged for salt. The oats sold for 371/2 cents a bushel and the salt cost $2.621/2 per barrel. We accomplished the round trip in six days. The only settler at that time between Plaw Paw and St. Joseph, was John B. Rulo, the Frenchman above mentioned, who lived in the township of Bainbridge, Berrien county. A log barn had been built at Prospect Lake and several miles farther west was a log house, but no roof; otherwise no improvements whatever. But the snows of that winter had hardly melted before the road, so desolate at that time, had become an artery of life to the thronging settlers overrunning Van Buren county to found homes for themselves and their posterity." VAN BUREN COUNTY PIONEER ASSOCIATION Trie Van Buren County Pioneer Association was organized at the village of Lawrence, on the 22d day of February, 1872. Pursuant to a call, which had been previously issued, a large number of the older settlers of the county assembled at Chadwick's hall in that village, for the purpose of effecting some kind of an organization in honor of the pioneers of the county and to commemorate the scenes and days of pioneer life. General Benjamin F. Chadwick was chosen chairman of the meeting, Hon. Morgan L. Fitch, assistant chairman, and S. Tallnadge Conway, secretary. A committee was appointed on permanent organization, consisting of Messrs. Chas M. Morrill, John Smolk, William Markillie, Silas Breed and Orrin Sisson. HIon. Jonathan J. Woodman and Charles U. Cross were appointed to draft a constitution. The committee on permanent organization recommended that the officers of the association be Judge Jay R. Monroe, president; Edwin Barnum, vice-president, and S. Tallmadge Conway, secretary, which recommendations were adopted. Dr. Josiah Andrews was elected treasurer. The committee appointed to draft a constitution presented its report, of which the following is the preamble: "We, the pioneer residents of Van Buren County, in order to perpetuate the memory of old associations and interesting events of our pioneer life, do hereby organize ourselves into an association to be called 'The

Page  90 90 IHISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Van Buren County Pioneer Association.' " The constitution provided for annual meetings, for keeping record of the age, nativity, etc., of each member, outlined the duties of the officers, and prescribed that all persons who had been residents of the county for twenty years should be eligible to membership in the association. The following executive committee was appointed: David D. Wise, Pine Grove; Silas Breed, Almena; Charles M. Morrill, Antwerp; Sanford Corey, Porter; Ashbel Herron. Bloomingdale; Reuben J. Myers, Waverly; Nathaniel MA. Pugsley, Paw Paw; Elisha Goble, Decatur; Jonathan N. Howard, Columbia; Duane D. Briggs, Arlington; Eaton Branch, Lawrence; Calvin Fields, Hamilton; Clark Pierce, Geneva; Charles U. Cross. Bangor; Lewis Miller, Hartford; Roderick Irish, Keeler; D. T. Pierce, South Haven; Miram Fish, Deerfield. Of the gentlemen above named as officers and committeemen, not one remains. All have passed into the great Beyond. EDWIN BARNUM'S POEM The Second meeting of the association was held in the Town Hall in the village of Paw Paw, on the 22d day of February, 1873. At this meeting the date of holding the annual meetings was changed to the second Wednesday in June of each year. The feature of this meeting was the following address of welcome written and read by Edwin Barnum of Paw Paw. The old settlers have a meeting; we have it every year. Last year we met at Lawrence; to-day we have it here. We've made the preparation and sent abroad the call, We give you all a welcome here in this spacious hall. These old pioneers who assemble here to-day, Mostly had their birthplace in lands now far away: Some came from merry England, and some were born in Cork; Some had their birth in Canada and some in old New York. New England sent us Yankees from off her rocky coast, And like the frogs of Egypt, there came a mighty host. New Jersey sent a few, about a half a scoreVirginia doubled that, perhaps a trifle more. Her noble hardy sons were first upon the ground, And four and forty years ago took Little Prairie RondeOur sister, Indiana, that's just across the line, Sent up a troop of Hoosiers, all stalwart men and fine. Ohio furnished Buckeyes, their help we needed much; While Pennsylvania sent up to us the honest Dutch. No matter where your birthplace, no matter in what land, We welcome you as brothers in this "'Old settlers' land.' We welcome you, our brothers in labor, toil and care; We welcome you, our sisters, you've nobly done your share.

Page  91 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY9 91 The hardships we have suffered have served like iron bands To bind us firm together, to bind our hearts and hands. Together, o'er life's journey, we've traveled on the road And shared each other's trials and borne each other's load; We drank the cup of sorrow with many a bitter sigh, We drank it all together, we drank the fountain dry. Although your forms are bending, your step in somewhat slow, Your faces much more wrinkled than thirty years ago; Although you lean on crutches, your heads are silvered o'er, Old pioneers, we love you as loved in days of yore. We hail you, noble brother, as the early pioneer I know your early history, for I was with you here. ['ve met you in your cabins, I've slept upon your floor; Your house had not a window, a blanket formed the door. It scarcely was one story, no help to raise it higher Your wives they did the cooking outdoors there by a fire. Sometimes you had a plenty at morning, night and noon; Sometimes your store was shortened to a squirrel or a coon. But though your stock was scanty, I ne'er among you come, But that you raised the blanket-I felt myself at home. I 've seen you in your sorrow, your hunger and despair, When corn meal and potatoes made up your humble fare. You had a little clearing around the cabin doorIt might have been an acre, perhaps a little more. You burned away the brush heaps, the logs you did not heed, But planted right among them your corn and pumpkin seed. The soil was rich and fertile, quite free from clods and lumps, And pumpkin vines for want of room, crept over logs and stumps; And then for their protection you hedged it.round about With jampiles made of timber to keep the cattle out. And then with patient waiting the spring and summer rains Came oft upon your labor, rewarding all your painsAnd when the crop was ripened and gathered in the fall, Of all the crops you ever raised, you praised it most of all. I've seen the sturly axInen, with well directed blow, Attack the mighty forest and lay the monarchs low. I've seen the hungry fire consume your heaps of logs, And seen the ditcher's spade remove the marshy bogs; And here upon the openings, no timber in the way, I've seen the patient oxen move on from day to day. The sod was quite unyielding, the roots were tough and long, To draw the heavy "breaker," the team it must be strong. Sometimes eight yoke of cattle were tethered in a row, Their march across the breaking was powerful, but slow. The steady, watchful driver made each perform his toil; The father held the plow that turned the virgin soil, For he had early learned that by the plow to thrive, Himself must either hold, or take the whip and drive. Thus by your patient labor and well directed skill You have subdued the county and conquered it at will; Have swept away the forests, removed the stumps and stones,

Page  92 92 -ltSTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Torn down your lowly cabins and built your stately homes; Have planted fruitful orchards whose tops now kiss the breeze. Have made our pleasant highways and lined them well with trees; Have drained the stagnant marshes and bridged the brooks and rills, Threw dams across our rivers and built thereon our mills. As said an ancient prophet, although 'twas said in prose, You have removed the bramble and planted there the rose; Cut down the noxious thistle, removed the ugly thorn, And planted out the fir tree, your dwellings to adorn. We know your task was arduous and troubles thick and fast. We welcome you as victors; you overcame at last. We welcome you, our brothers, as men of good renown. We welcome you from Keeler, our southwest corner town; From Hamilton and Hartford, Bangor and Waverly too, Columbia and Geneva, we gladly welcome you. You're welcome from South Haven, the town of boats and oars; You're welcome, too, from Deerfield, where Thunder mountain roarsFrom Arlington, from Lawrence, the home of Judge Monroe, Who settled in this county some forty years ago. You're welcome from the hilltop, you're welcome from the valeFrom Porter and Almena, Antwerp and Bloomingdale. Our brothers from Decatur, we're glad to meet you here; The pioneers of Paw Paw all hail you with a cheer. We meet today in friendship, as in the days of yore. We meet today as neighbors to talk our conquests o 'er. We meet today as veterans who have subdued the land. We meet today as brothers to clasp the friendly hand. We meet to live in memory those early stirring scenes, Through which we passed together, becoming Wolverines. Among the early settlers it very soon was found We had a modern Egypt ('twas Big Prairie Ronde) On which we were dependent and thither had to go, Whenever flour was minus or meal was getting low. The wheat there grew abundant, potatoes large and fine, And like the land of promise, it yielded corn and wine. The father loved his children-for bread he heard the cryHe yoked old Buck and Brindle and went for fresh supply. The corn he had to husk, 'twas standing on the hill, The wheat he helped to thresh, then took it off to mill. The tiresome road was long, the mill was far away, And when the father would return, he could not set the day. He started early Monday, above him shone the stars, Behind, his wife and children stood weeping at the bars. They saw him drive away, their love for him did burn; Back to the cabin then and prayed his safe return. There in the lonely forest, with not a neighbor near, The wife and children waited, each day seemed like a year. The week would wear away and Saturday would come Before that absent father could reach his lonely home. Meanwhile, the faithful wife the last crust would divide, Then told her children dear ''the Lord must now provide."

Page  93 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY'r 93 Those quizzing little ones, to their dear mother said "'Has the Lord an oven got, and can the Lord make bread?"' God bless these noble women, our glory and our pride, God bless these noble women who labored by our side! When neighbors were far distant and laborers were few, You helped to build our cabins, did all that you could do. You helped us roll the log heaps, you helped us burn the brush, You baked for us the johnnycake, you cooked for us the mush. You patched our worn-out garments, our trousers and our coats, And some you patched so often that we were left in doubtsThe mending was so frequent, the work was done so well, That which was coat and which was patch, it puzzled us to tell. You guarded well our cabins and saved with jealous care The scanty little comforts that we had gathered there. You helped us tend our gardens, you helped us plant the corn, And from such worthy mothers our children all were born. And when the burning fever was coursing through our veins, Or when the shaking ague was racking us with pains, By day and night you watched us and stood beside our beds, Like watchful angels ever, and fanned our aching heads. God bless these noble women, Van Buren county's pride, We welcome you as equals-you labored by our side! But some who started with us, I see not here today; The road was long and weary, they faltered by the way. We stood around their bedside and heard th' expiring breath, And wiped from off their foreheads the cold damp dews of death. We did what e'er we could, their precious lives to save, Then closed their weary lids and laid them in the grave. Until the current year the association has never missed holding its annual meeting, although the real pioneers of the county have nearly all passed over the "great divide," gone to join the great majority on the other side. A meeting was advertised to be held last summer at the usual time, but other matters caused it to be postponed and afterward it was permitted to go by default. Judge Monroe continued to hold the position of president of the association until his death, which occurred in the fall of 1876. At the next meeting of the association after his decease, which was held at the village of Paw Paw, the following resolutions in part, were adopted: "Whereas, since our last meeting, our worthy friend and late president, has entered upon that long journey we must also soon undertake; therefore "Resolved, that in his death we recognize the loss of a good man, a worthy member, an efficient officer of this association and a sturdy old pioneer; that as we see our friends and brothers, full of years, falling around us like the tall trees of the forests they helped to subdue, we realize the fact that ere long our reunions will be held, not in the houses of earth, but in a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens."

Page  94 94 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY The committee that drafted these resolutions was composed of the following named gentlemen: Fernando C. Annable, Samuel H. Blackman, Charles M. Morrill, Eaton Branch and Irving W. Pierce. The first four of the committee have gone to find a home in that "house not made with hands." TMr. Pierce still remains on this side of the stream that divides Time from Eternity. Eaton Branch succeeded Judge Monroe as president of the association. IHe continued to occupy the office until the meeting in June, 1885. at which Charles M. Morrill was chosen as president. Mr. Morrill filled the office for two years, when he was succeeded by Hon. Jonathan J. Woodman, who held the office for the next nineteen years, when he was compelled to decline further service on account of failing health. Mr. Woodman died within a few weeks afterward. His successor in the office of the presidency of the association was HIon. Charles J. Monroe. The other officers of the association have been as follows: Vicepresidents-Edwin Barnum, Jonathan J. Woodman, Alexander B. Copley, Charles J. Monroe, E. Parker Hill, A. W. Haydon, and O. W. Rowland. Secretaries-S. Tallmadge Conway, Josiah Andrews, Benjamin A. Murdock. John W. Free, Elam L. Warner, and Israel P. Bates. Treasurers-Josiah Andrews, Franklin M. Manning, Benjamin A. Murdock, William R. Hawkins, and Albert S. Haskin. The present officers are Charles J. Monroe, president; Oran AW. Rowland, vice-president; Israel P. Bates, secretary; Albert S. Haskin, treasurer. The association has not only been a source of gratification to its members, but it has also been of great utility as well, by way of preserving for future generations many interesting facts, scenes and incidents of the pioneer days of the county, valuable historical matter that otherwise would have been wholly lost and forgotten. And while it is true that there is left only here and there a person who is entitled to be classed as a real pioneer, it is altogether likely that the association will be continued in remembrance of those brave and noble men and women whose labors and sacrifices gave us this prosperous and beautiful land which is the heritage of those who succeeded them. OSLERISM REVIEWED Besides, these annual meetings. are a source of much pleasure and profit to those who attend them. On these occasions they have listened to addresses from senators and representatives, judges and lawyers, state officers and laymen, all of which were interesting and more or less profitable and instructive. Some of these ad

Page  95 HIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY dresses were sedate and replete with wisdom, while others were amusing and humorous. A brief skit of the latter kind was read by the vice president of the association at the thirty-sixth annual meeting held at Bangor in 1906. This -was just at the time when the public press was exploiting what was said to be the advice of the celebrated Dr. Osler, that men should be quietly and painlessly passed into the future world on arriving at the age of sixty years, and it was this that inspired the sketch, as follows: "Long, long years ago, when you and I were young. there were no telegraphs, no ocean cables, 1no electric railways, no automobiles, no lighting of our dwellings by the simple push of a button, no Marconigrams sent through earth and air, no standard oil octopus, no beef trust, no steel trust, no multimillionaries, no financial 'system,' no daring Wellman had conceived the astounding idea of sailing to the pole in a dirigible airship and, strange as it may appear, there was no such fashionable ailment as appendicitis; the people did not even know that among them all there was such a thing as a vermiform appendix! "In those days, people were born as they are today, lived out their three-score years and ten, more or less, as the ease might be. and died what was called a natural death. They lived in a simple manner, ate of the fat of the land and reeked not of the risk they ran in the consumption of their daily diet. They knew naught of the lurking poison concealed in their daily bread, of the deadly ptomaines lying in wait for them in the meat they ate, or of the fatal tyro-toxicon hidden in the milk they drank. They did not know, as do the so-called scientists of these modern days, that there is not a single article of diet that is not dangerous to life. They only knew that a man would die if he didn't eat. They did not know that he would, if he did. And yet, they seemed to have a glimmering of modern, scientific teaching along this line, for they had, even then. a saying that 'what is one man's meat is another man's poison.' And more than all else, they knew naught of the 'germ theory of disease. They had not even dreamed of the malignant bacillus and were absolutely ignorant of the deadly bacteria that abound in earth and air and sky, that permeate the food we eat, that pollute the water we drink. Bacteria and bacilli, all lying in wait to seize upon our vital organs and to bring upon us dire disease, suffering and pain and death! Creatures so minute that if one were magnified so as to appear an inch in length, an ordinary man. under the same magnifying power, would appear to be a towering giant twenty-five miles in altitude! Creatures that possess such marvelous powers of reproduction that, unmolested, a single pair would soon fill the whole earth! "And then there are so many varieties of these diminutive little

Page  96 96 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY demons-the bacillus of rabies, the bacillus of yellow fever, which is said to be so carefully planted beneath the human epidermis by that villainous little songster, Stegomya Fasciata; the bacillus of diphtheria; the bacillus of small pox, which has as yet eluded capture; the bacillus of tuberculosis, of cancer, of typhoid fever, and nobody knows how many others. The marvel is not that the population of earth does not increase more rapidly, but rather that the human race has not been wholly destroyed by the great multitudes of these malicious mites that are constantly preying upon it. "Perhaps the time may come when those scientists who claim that they have originated some of the lower forms of life, will, contrary to the expressed preference of Mrs. Partington, succeed in producing men and women in the chemical laboratory, instead of Nature's laboratory, and in endowing the newly invented race with power to absolutely resist the horde of malignant germs that now seems to have it in for us all. "Methinks, however, that before that time shall have arrived, some great German savant, born and bred, probably, in the Nutmeg State, will have astonished the world by the discovery or invention of an universal germ panacea. In my mind's eye, I can see his initial announcement: 'The Greatest Discovery Since the World Began! A Boon for all Mankind! Professor Von Hombogg's Great German Germicide, Bacilli Balm and Bacteria Buster! Warranted to destroy all Disease Germs, Bacteria and Bacilli and to render the Iuman System Absolutely Immune to all Disease of Whatsoever Kind or Character! One Bottle only is Required to produce the desired result; Satisfaction Guaranteed or Money Refunded!' "What a rush there will be for Professor Von Hombogg's new elixir of life, and what an immense fortune will be his! No future Rockefeller, or Morgan, or Carnegie, will be in the same class with Von Hombogg. Just think of it! No more pain, no more sickness, no more disease, no more death! Just one everlasting, unending era of good health! This will beat even Bob Ingersoll, who said if he had the ordering of things on this mundane sphere, he would have made good health catching, instead of disease. "When this time shall have arrived, Oslerization will be the only remaining method of shuffling off this mortal coil. Perhaps, after the lapse of a thousand years or so, life may become a burden too grievous to be borne and one may have an insatiable desire to depart and be at rest. "When trouble and care are weighing us down And pleasures are minimized

Page  97 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 97 Oh, then, but one refuge remains, We'll gladly be Oslerized. ''When the burdens of life so great have become That death is a boon to be prized, Iow cheerfully we'll lay thetl all down And gladly be Oslerized. '"When life on this earth is no longer desired, A truth by us all recognized, How good it will seem to escape And quickly be Oslerized! "But, hold! No death save a death by violence will be possible. The guillotine, the hangman's rope, the electric chair, the stilleto or the musket! Which will you choose? Ah, me! Will Prof. Von Hombogg's discovery prove a blessing, or will it prove a curse? I don't know-do you? "And so, old pioneers, farewell, adieu, good bye. Soon there will be none of you remaining. May you all reap a rich reward in the world beyond for the good you wrought in your earthly lives. " VoL 1-7

Page  98 CHAPTER IV ROADS AND RAILROADS NOTED INDIAN TRAILS-FIRST MICHIGAN WHITE MAN'S ROADTERRITORIAL AND STATE ROADS-THE OLD STAGE ROUTES-.PLANK ROADS-THE PAW PAW RIVER-RAILROADS-THE MICHIGAN CENTRAL-KALAMAZOO AND SOUTH HAVEN RAILROAD-THE PAW PAW RAILROAD-TOLEDO AND SOUTH HAVEN RAILROAD (FRUIT BELT LINE) —THE PERE MARQUETTE RAILWAY. When the first settlers came to Van Buren county there were, of course, no roads other than Indian trails. Certain portions of the county, however, that consisted of what were termed "oak openings" permitted of travel, even with teams, in almost any direction, and this was one attractive feature to the pioneer. Other parts of the county were heavily timbered with beech, maple, elm, oak, walnut, pine, hemlock, whitewood and other varieties of timber, so that the making of roads was almost a Herculanean undertaking. Getting rid of this timber was one of the first objects of the pioneer, for upon these timbered lands no crops could he grown until the timber was removed. On many of the finest farms in the county, now in the highest state of cultivation, the timber would be worth more at the present time, as it stood sixty or seventy years ago, than the same farms, with all their fine buildings and modern improvements, are worth today. Road building was one of the first matters that necessarily engaged the attention of the pioneers. Even in the "openings" it was sometimes necessary to clear a way through intervening thickets, to construct some kind of bridges for crossing the streams, or to lay causeways across marshes and low-lands, while in the heavily timbered portions of the county the task of constructing even the rude roads of those primitive days was a stupendous one. NOTED INDIAN TRAILS OF THE REGION The first roads were the Indian trails, two of the principal ones passing through the county. One of them, coming from Little Traverse bay, extended southward and passed through the 98

Page  99 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 99 counties of Kent, Allegan and Van Buren to the Pottawattamie villages on the St. Joseph river. Another, starting from the vicinity of Saginaw, passed up the Saginaw and Shiawassee rivers to the present location of the City of Ionia, thence southwesterly through the counties of Barry and Van Buren to the same Pottawattamie villages. Another, and the most important of these great Indian highways, which, however, did not enter Van Buren county, started southward on the west side of Lake Michigan and led toward the south from Green bay and the rivers of Wisconsin, around the southern extremity of the lake, thence northeasterly through the headquarters of Chief Pokagon in the southeastern part of Berrien county and on easterly through the wilderness to the Detroit river. It was over this trail that the warriors of the tribes had passed from time immemorial, and it was along this primitive highway that for many years the red men with their entire families passed to Malden in Canada to receive from the British government the small pension paid them (to men, women and children alike) for services rendered in the War of 1812. FIRST MICHIGAN WHITE.MAN'S ROAD It was over this route that the old "Chicago road" was constructed, which was commenced in 1825, under authority of an act of congress, and was the first laid-out thoroughfare that traversed the state of Michigan. The road was not completed until 1836, and it was over this thoroughfare that many of the early settlers of southwest Michigan passed, finding their way into Van Buren county, as well as elsewhere. A mania for the construction of roads seems to have possessed the authorities of the territory of Michigan and this spirit was equally evident after it became a state, as was manifest by the internal improvement clause embodied in the constitution of 1835 and by the acts of the legislatures immediately following. From 1833 to 1840, at least two hundred and fifty territorial and state roads were authorized by legislative enactment. TERRITORIAL AND STATE ROADS The road that is known to the inhabitants of Van Buren county and all along the line of the route as "the Territorial road," a highway passing through the state from east to west, was surveyed in 1836 and opened the following year. This road enters Van Buren county near the northeast corner of Antwerp and passes through that township and the townships of Paw Paw, Lawrence, Hamilton and Keeler into the township of Bainbridge, Berrien county, thence through that county to the cities of Ben

Page  100 100 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY ton Harbor and St. Joseph. It is still the Territorial road, although along a very considerable part of the original route it has been taken up and relaid on the section lines, or the east and west division lines of the sections through which it passes. Other territorial and state roads in which Van Buren county had or might have had an interest, if they had ever been constructed as authorized, are as follows: Authorized by the legislative council of 1833: "A road from the village of Schooleraft, in Kalamazoo county, on the most direct and eligible route, by Paw Paw Landing, to the mouth of Black river." The statute authorizing these roads also appointed commissioners to lay out and establish them. Joseph Smith, John Perrine and Abiel Fellows were so appointed for this road. "A road from Adarnsville in Cass county, by the most direct and eligible route to the Paw Paw river, at or near the center of Van Buren county." Sterling Adams, Charles Jones and Lyman I. Daniels, commissioners. Authorized by the legislative council of 1834: "A road from Marshall, Calhoun county, through Climax Prairie, by the most direct and eligible route to the county seat of Van Buren county. " Michael Spencer, Benjamin F. Dwinnell and Nathaniel E. Matthews, commissioners. Although Michigan was not admitted until 1837, the first constitution was adopted in 1835 and the first legislature convened on the second day of November, 1835, and remained in session until the 14th of the same month. Two sessions were held in 1836, the first from February 1st to March 28th, and the second from July 11th to July 26th. During the sessions of 1836, quite a number of state roads were authorized to be laid out and constructed. Among them were the following: "A state road from Edwardsburg, in Cass county, via Cassopolis, Volinia and Paw Paw Mills, to Allegan in Allegan county." David Crane, Jacob Silver and John L. Shearer, commissioners. "A state road from Paw Paw Mills, in the village of Paw Paw, Van Buren county, leading through the village of Otsego, to the Falls of Grand river, in the county of Kent." John Wittenmeyer, Jacob Enos and Fowler Preston, commissioners. Authorized by the legislature of 1837: "A road from Berrien in Berrien county, through Bainbridge to South Haven, in Van Buren county." Pitt Brown, John P. Davis and E. P. Deacon, commissioners. Authorized by the legislature of 1838: "A state road from the village of Niles, in the county of Berrien, to the village of Kalamazoo, in the county of Kalamazoo, making the Twin Lakes in section sixteen of town five south, in range fifteen west, at Henry

Page  101 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 101 Barney's, a point on said road." Uriel Enos, Richard V. V. Crane and Isaac W. Willard, commissioners. Authorized by the legislature of 1841: "A state road leading from Centerville, in the county of St. Joseph, to Waterford, in the county of Van Buren, through the villages of Three Rivers, Little Prairie Ronde and Keelersville." W. H. Keeler, J. MIoffit and John H. Bowman, commissioners. (The western terminus of this road was evidently intended to be Watervliet, in the county of Berrien, as that village used to be called "Waterford;" it is not and never was within the boundaries of Van Buren county.) It should be remembered that a statute directing that a road should be laid out and established-particularly in the earlier years-did not necessarily mean that such road would be promptly constructed. In numerous instances years elapsed after the passage of an act authorizing a road and after it was laid out by the commissioners. before it would be made passable for vehicles, and frequently such roads were never opened. The collapse of tih "wild cat" banking business seriously crippled the state finances and materially delayed the many plans for contemplated internal improvements. TIlE OLD STA.GE ROUTES For many years, in fact until the railroads of the county superseded them. stages carried passengers frolm lawton to St. Joseph and from Decatur to South Iaven. Great Concord coaches, drawn by four horses were used and the passenger traffic carried on by them was no small item. Until the completion of tlhe Michigan Central Railroad to Chicago the stage lines between the above mentioned towns embraced the most feasible and the direct routes between that city and eastern points. In addition to the passenger traffic, mail was also transported over the same lines which was an additional source of revenue to the proprietors of the routes. The completion of the Toledo and South Haven Railroad, as it was then called, between the villages of Lawton and Hartford, sent the last stage coach in the county to the scrap heap. As an illustration of the value of the stage routes to the commnunity the following statute enacted by the legislature of 1845 is apropos, and serves to emphasize the changes that time has wrought and to show the different conditions that exist in this twentieth century from those that obtained even as late as the middle of the nineteenth century. "Whereas, The regular stage road leading from the village of Paw Paw, to the village of St. Joseph, passes through a thinly settled district of country where the highway taxes are insufficient to keep the road in good repair; and whereas, the revenue of the

Page  102 102 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Central Railroad depends in a great measure upon said stage road being kept in good repair for the safe and comfortable transmission of passengers to and from the western termination of said railroad: "Therefore, Be it enacted that all the non-resident highway taxes which shall be assessed upon non-resident lands within one and a half miles on each side of said stage road, between the village of Paw Paw in the county of Van Buren and the village of St. Joseph in the county of Berrien, be and the same are hereby appropriated to be expended in improving said stage road between the village of Paw Paw and the village of St. Joseph aforesaid for the period of two years from the date of this act." A similar statute was passed in 1847 appropriating non-resident highway taxes to apply on the road "commencing on the east side of section ten, town three south, range fifteen west, thence westerly through the village of Brush Creek (Lawrence) in Van Buren county and Waterford (Watervliet) in the county of Berrien," and thence westerly to St. Joseph. In 1857, a similar act of the legislature appropriated for three years all the non-resident highway tax within two miles of the center of the road leading from Dowagiac, county of Cass, to the territorial road in Van Buren county, for the improvement of such road. In 1859 the road leading from Breedsville to South Haven, one of the principal stage roads of Van Buren county, was given the non-resident highway tax assessed within one mile on either side of such road. The congress of 1841 appropriated and set apart to the state half a million acres of public lands for internal improvement purposes, the minimum price of which was fixed by act of the legislature of 1844 at $1.25 per acre. In 1848 the legislature appropriated seven thousand acres of such lands for opening and improving the state road from Constantine, St. Joseph county, through Cassopolis. Cass county, to Paw Paw, in Van Buren county. But few of these old lines of road now remain as originally laid out. Most of the statutes authorizing them provided that they should be laid on the most direct and eligible route. This resulted in many crooked and angling roads, most of which have been changed and relaid on section, half section or quarter section lines, so that there are comparatively few roads in the county but run parallel with or at right angles to each other; and such is the general rule throughout the state. Of course there are exceptions. Lakes, of which there are many scattered throughout Van Buren county, and other localities as well, and other natural obstructions

Page  103 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 103 have prevented some roads from being laid on direct lines, but such highways are the exception and not the rule. PLANK ROADS The next transportation idea that seems to have struck the people of Michigan was that of plank roads, and the craze was about as virulent as that of territorial and state roads had been; but the fever did not last as long. The legislature of 1848 enacted a general plank road law, authorizing the incorporation of plank road companies, permitting theml under certain conditions to occupy the country highways and the streets of villages, prescribing that the planks used in the construction of such roads should be not less than three inches in thickness and fixing the following maximum rates of toll: For a vehicle or carriage drawn by two animals, two cents per mile, and one cent per mile for every sled or sleigh so drawn, if drawn by more than two animals; three-quarters of a cent per mile for every such additional animal; for any kind of a vehicle drawn by one animial. one cent per mile; for every score of sheep one half a cent per mile; for every score of neat cattle, two cents per milethere was no provision in the statute fixing toll for less than a score of domestic animals-and for every horse and rider or ledhorse. one cent. per mile. Farmers were exempt fromn toll in passing from one part of the farm to another while engaged inl the business of the farm. Toll gates might be erected at such points as the company chose and the penalty for illegally passing any toll gate was a forfeiture to the company of the sum of twenty-five dollars. It will be noticed that it cost a person driving his own tea m and carriage along one of those roads exactly the same sum that he now has to pay for riding in a palace car along the great railroad lines of the state. Timber was plenty in those days and planks were cheap, and yet the plank road companies,. with very few exceptions, were not a financial success. To build such roads in these modern days when lumber has become so scarce and valuable would cost many times more than in those early days. Van Buren county had her full share of plank road corporations, but only comparatively few plank roads. The "Paw Paw Plank Road Company" was chartered by the legislature of 1848, "with power to lay out, establish and construct a plank road from the village of Paw Paw, in the county of Van Buren, to some point on the Central Railroad, at or near where the Little Prairie Ronde road crosses said railroad." The capital stock of said company was fixed at $10,000, in shares of twentyfive dollars each. Isaac W. Willard, James Crane and Nathan

Page  104 104 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Mears were appointed commissioners to receive subscriptions of stock. By the legislature of 1849 a charter was given to the "Decatur, Lawrence and Breedsville Plank Road Company," which was authorized "to lay out, establish and construct a plank road and all necessary buildings from the village of Decatur to the village of Lawrence, thence to the village of Breedsville, in Van Buren county." Aaron W. Broughton, Marvin Hannah, William B. Sherwood, Henry Coleman, Jonathan N. Hinckley, Milo J. Goss, Benjamin F. Chadwick, Horatio N. Phelps, Israel Kellogg and John Andrews were appointed commissioners to receive subscriptions to the stock of the company, which was fixed at the sum of $40,000, divided into forty dollar shares. Seven companies, the line of whose proposed roads lay wholly or in part within Van Buren county were incorporated by the legislature of 1850, as follows: The Breedsville and South Haven Plank Road Company, with power to "lay out, establish and construct a plank road and all necessary buildings from Breedsville to the mouth of Black River, Van Buren county, by the most eligible route." The capital stock of this company was fixed at the sum of $25,000 divided into twenty-five dollar shares, and Marvin Hannah, Elijah Knowles, Joseph B. Sturgis, Smith Brown and Jonathan N. Hinckley were appointed commissioners to receive stock subscriptions. The Paw Paw and Lawrence Plank Road Company, with like power to lay out and construct a plank road from the village of Paw Paw to the village of Lawrence in Van Buren county. The capital stock of this company was fixed at the sum of $25,000, in shares of twenty-five dollars each. Fitz H. Stevens, John R. Baker and Nelson Phelps were appointed commissioners. The Paw Paw and Schoolcraft Plank Road Company, with authority to lay out and construct a plank road from Paw Paw Station (now Lawton) on the Central Railroad, in the county of Van Buren, to the village of Schoolcraft in the county of Kalamazoo. Capital stock, $20,000, divided into twenty-five dollar shares. Commissioners, Edward A. Parks, Uriah Kenney, Evert B. Dyckman and Isaac W. Willard. The Paw Paw and Allegan Plank Road Company was empowered to lay out, establish and construct a plank road company from the village of Paw Paw, to intersect with the Kalamazoo and Grand River Plank Road Company at the most eligible point in the county of Allegan. Capital stock, $25,000; shares twenty-five dollars each. Commissioners, Isaac W. Willard, James Crane, John R. Baker, Henry H. Booth, Joseph Fisk, Abraham Hoag,

Page  105 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 105 Joshua Hill, Charles Parkhurst, D. W. C. Chapin, Eber Sherwood and A. Rossman. The Decatur and St. Joseph Plank Road Company was created and empowered to lay out, establish and construct a plank road from the village of Decatur, Van Buren county, to the village of St. Joseph, Berrien county. Capital stock $30,000; shares twentyfive dollars each. Commissioners, Solomon Wheeler, B. C. Hoyt, Henry Morton, Samuel McRoys, Henry Coleman and W. 11. Keeler. The Lawrence and St. Joseph Plank Road Company was chartered and authorized to lay out, establish and construct a plank road from such point in the township of Lawrence, in Van Buren county, as the commissioners should determine, to St. Joseph, in the county of Berrien. Capital stock, $50,000; shares twenty-five dollars each. The Kalamazoo and Breedsville Plank Road Company was incorporated and given power and authority to lay out, establish and construct a plank road from the village of Kalamazoo, in the county of Kalamazoo, to the village of Breedsville, county of Van Buren. Capital stock, $30,000; shares fifty dollars each. Commissioners, D. 13. Webster. 1. Drake, T. P. Sheldon and Marvin Hannah. The term of all these corporations was fixed at sixty years, but they were all dead long before the lapse of that period of time. Out of this multiplicity of roads authorized, the only plank roads constructed in Van Buren county were the road from Paw Paw to the Central Railroad, which was controlled by Hon. Isaac W. Willard of Paw Paw, and that from Paw Paw to Lawrence, of which John R. Baker, also of Paw Paw, was the controlling spirit. Both of these roads went out of commission about the year 1853, and neither of them was the source of any gain to the stockholders. The remains of them, however, were visible for many years thereafter. Indeed some of the planks are yet in evidence-not as part of the highway, however. Van Buren, the eastern part of the county in particular, has numerous gravel beds which afford excellent road material and there are many miles of fine gravel roads in the county. THE PAW PAW RIVER Perhaps it would not be strictly correct to call a river a road, but as a not very successful attempt was made to make the Paw Paw river a highway of commerce and an avenue of transportation between the villages of Paw Paw and St. Joseph, on the shore

Page  106 106 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of Lake Michigan, there is no impropriety in mentioning it in connection with the "roads and railroads" of the county. Before the days of railroads, the subject of water transportation was a much more important matter than at the present day. The idea of the Paw Paw as a navigable stream was born at an early date, and was not abandoned for a considerable number of years. With this idea in mind, the territorial government, in 1833, authorized the construction of roads connecting the "Forks of the Paw Paw" (which was supposed to be the head of the navigable waters of the stream) with Schoolcraft, and other places in Kalamazoo, Van Buren and Barry counties. In 1840 Isaac W. Willard built two large fiat boats and loaded them with flour from the "Paw Paw Mills" and dispatched them for the village of St. Joseph. It was a comparatively easy matter to make the run down the river, but the labor of poling the boats back to Paw Paw against the current was a difficult matter and only accomplished by a great expenditure of time and muscle. These two boats of Mr. Willard's were named the "Daniel Buckley," Albert R. Wildey, commander, and the "Wave," commanded by William H. Hurlbult. It is not to be supposed that the exalted position of "flat boat commander" was, by any means, a sinecure. There was, however, for a time, a considerable flat boat traffic on the river from Paw Paw to Lake Michigan, but it did not prove to be very profitable. Interest in the matter was revived in 1848 by the enactment of a statute appropriating ten thousand acres of the internal improvement lands of the Lower Peninsula "for the improvement of the navigation of the Paw Paw river." Nothing of value to the people resulted from this legislation and the river remains to this day a beautiful, winding stream, passing through forest, field and farm, one of the crookedest streams in Michigan, and watering as fine a stretch of country as may be found in the entire Peninsular state. RAILROADS It has been said and has been recorded as an historical fact that the act of the legislative council incorporating a railroad from Detroit to St. Joseph was the first official movement looking to the construction of a railroad within the territory of Michigan, but such is not the fact. The first railroad corporation in the territory was that of the Pontiac and Detroit Railway Company, which was approved July 31, 1830, nearly two years before the date of the act of incorporation looking to the construction of a line of railroad across the state, from east to west.

Page  107 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 107 The legislative council of 1832 passed the act that created a railroad corporation for the construction of a railroad to be known as the Detroit and St. Joseph Railroad, with authority to "construct a single or double railroad from the city of Detroit to the mouth of the St. Joseph river, commencing at Detroit, and passing through, or as near as practicable, to the village of Ypsilanti, and the county seats of the counties of Washtenaw, Jackson and Kalamazoo, with power to transport, take and carry property and persons upon the same, by the power and force of steam, of animals, or any mechanical or other power, or any combination of them." The company was bound, under penalty of forfeiture of its charter, to begin the work within two years, and within six years to construct and put in operation thirty miles of the road, within fifteen years to complete one-half the line and to have the entire road in operation within a period of thirty years. The proposed line was surveyed by Lieutenant Berrien, a regular army officer, and some work, enough to retain the corporate rights of the company for the two years prescribed in the act, was done on the eastern end of the route. The question of whether the company could have completed thirty miles of road within the prescribed six years was never solved, as before the expiration of that time new and important official a(ction was taken. THle MAICIIGrAN C(ENTRAL One of the first things tlhat engaged the attention of the state, after its admission, was an extended system of internal imlprovements. With this policy Governor Mason was in full symnpathy. A Board of Internal Improvements was authorized by statute and appointed by the governor, upon which large discretionary powers were conferred, and a magnificent scheme of such improvements was at once entered upon by the state. Among them three lines of railways across the entire breadth of the state were authorized, to be known as and called the "Northern" the "Central" and the "Southern"-a magnificent scheme, indeed, for the young state, and one that eventually came to full fruition, by the construction of the Michigan Central. the Michigan Southern and the Detroit and Milwaukee lines of road, the latter being now a part of the Grand Trunk system. Special authority was conferred upon the Board of Internal Improvements to purchase for the state the rights of the Detroit and St. Joseph company. The legislature made an appropriation of $400,000 for the Central road and lesser sums for the other two. In order to procure the necessary funds for carrying out the extensive improvements planned, the legislature authorized the ne

Page  108 108 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY gotiation of a loan of five millions of dollars. This provided means with which the commissioners undertook the work of constructing the Southern and Central roads. The roads of that day were laid with strap rail, that is, with a flat rail spiked onto wooden stringers, and "snake heads" were not of infrequent occurrence. These so-called snake heads were occasioned by the end of the iron straps becoming loosened, curling up and coming through the floor of the coaches, endangering the lives and persons of travelers. An illustration of the primitive character of those early roads is afforded by the following joint resolution of the legislature of 1842: "Resolved, That the commissioner of internal improvement be instructed to cause a train of passenger cars to run over the Central railroad on the first day of the week, at the same hours that it does on other days." Another joint resolution, adopted by the same legislature, required the Board of Commissioners of Internal Improvements to restrain Sunday trains, when, in their opinion, it was not for the interest of the state to run them. The progress made in the construction of the road was slow and in 1846, after the lapse of nine years, the Central line had only been completed to Kalamazoo, a distance of 144 miles. In the meantime the state had exhausted its funds, and the people had become heartily tired of having its railroads built by its politicians, some of whom, without doubt, had waxed fat while the "ddar people" had to foot the bills. By an act of the legislature approved March 28, 1846, the Michigan Central Railroad Company was organized and given authority to purchase the road from the state for the sum of $2,000,000, which was much less than it had cost the people, but nevertheless a good bargain, for by it the state disposed of a property that bade fair to become a financial incubus on its prosperity. By the terms of the purchase and sale of the road to the company it was not compelled to follow the route originally planned, to make St. Joseph its western terminus, but was only required to construct the road to some point within the state of Michigan, on or near Lake Michigan and accessible to steamboats. This was an unfortunate provision for Van Buren county, as the new company at once changed the route, making New Buffalo the western terminus instead of St Joseph. By this action, instead of passing diagonally through the central part of the county, the road merely cut off a small portion from the southeastern corner thereof, and instead of reaching St. Joseph, one of the best harbors on the east shore of the lake, it stopped at New Buffalo, which had no harbor of consequence and never can have. The road was completed to Niles in

Page  109 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY' 109 1848, to New Buffalo in 1849, to Michigan City, Indiana, in 1851 and to Chicago the next year. Van Buren county stations on the Central are Mattawan, a small unincorporated village; Lawton, at first called Paw Paw Station, four miles southeast of Paw Paw, with a population according to the census of 1810, of 1,042; and Decatur, with a population of 1,286, according to the same census. KALAMAtZOO AND SOUTH HAVEN RAILROAD A line of railroad from the village of Bronson, now the flourishing city of Kalamazoo, to the mouth of Black river, now the site of the prosperous city of South Haven, was one of the dreams of the early pioneers-a dream that was destined to complete fulfilment in the course of time. On the 28th day of March, 1836, an act was passed by the legislature incorporating the Kalamazoo and Lake Michigan Railroad Company and authorizing it to construct a line of road 'from the mouth of the South Black river, in the county of Van Buren, to the county seat of Kalamazoo county. The parties mentioned in the articles of association were Epaphroditus Ransom, Charles E. Stuart, Edwin H. Lothrop, Horace IH. Comstock and Isaac W. Willard. The capital stock of the company was fixed at $400,000. However, before anything was done looking to the building of the road, the panic of 1837 cane on, the banking system of the state reached an inglorious end, and the powers of the company lapsed because of non-user. Although there may have been more or less discussion of the project thereafter, it was more than thirty years before new life was infused into the scheme, and when it was again revived there was much discussion as to whether the road should be built direct from Kalamazoo to South Haven or whether it should start at Lawton on the main line of the Central and run thence to South Haven. Railroad meetings were held in various localities to discuss the project. At a meeting held in Paw Paw to take into consideration the matter of giving aid to a line over the latter route. which would have been entirely within the county of Van Buren, one prominent man remarked that lie would give the devil his head for a football whenever the road should be built direct from Kalamazoo to South Haven. The prevailing sentiment seemed to be that the Van Buren county route would be chosen in any event and nothing in the way of aiding the project was offered by the citizens of Paw Paw and vicinity, although they had been found willing at various times to help other and less promising schemes, which had all come to naught. Perhaps that was the reason that they would offer nothing on this occasion. They had been victimized

Page  110 110 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY too often. This would seem to have been the one time when they missed the mark, for no place in the county would have received greater benefit from such a line than Paw Paw. On the 14th day of April, 1869, articles of association were filed organizing the Kalamazoo and South Haven Railroad Company, and the following named gentlemen were named as directors: Allen Potter, Lucius B. Kendall, John Dudgeon, David Fisher, Stephen W. Fisk, Charles D. Ruggles, Amos S. Brown, Samuel Hoppin, Stephen Garnet, John Scott, Samuel Rogers, Daniel G. Wright and Barney H. Dyckman. Allen Potter was chosen president of the company, but resigned soon afterward and was succeeded by James A. Walter. During M\r. Walter's administration, arrangements were perfected by which the Michigan Central Company guaranteed the bonds of the new company to the amount of $640,000, the people of Kalamazoo aided the project by bonds and subscription and the townships along the line also voted a large amount of aid in the way of township bonds. Such bonds were held to be unconstitutional by the supreme court of the state, but were upheld by the United States supreme court, and where such bonds were held by non-residents who could bring suit in the federal court they were collectible and were eventually paid. By these various means money was obtained for the construction of the road which was opened as far as Pine Grove, in Van Buren county, in the month of January, 1870, and was completed to South Haven in December of the same year. And, as far as heard from, the devil got nobody's head for a football. The road has been of great benefit to the county, has been especially helpful in developing the northern tier of townships through which it runs, and has been the principal cause of the building up of a number of flourishing villages along the line. The road long since passed into the hands and under the control of the Michigan Central and is now designated as the South Haven division of that company. The Van Buren county stations along the line are Mentha, a little burg so named from the large peppermint interests that were the sole reason for its birth; Kendall, an unincorporated village; Pine Grove, likewise unincorporated; Gobleville, a village of 537 inhabitants according to the census of 1910; Bloomingdale, population 501; Berlamont, Columbia, Grand Junction, Lacota, Kibbie, all unincorporated villages; and South Haven, with a population of 3,767 inhabitants, the largest place and the only city in the county.

Page  111 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 111 THE PAW PAW RAILROAD From the days of the pioneers the people of Paw Paw had desired and expected some kind of railroad connection. It was a great disappointment to them when the route of the Michigan Central was changed so as to run to New Buffalo instead of to St. Joseph. Paw Paw was to be a point on that road, as originally laid out, and had the route not been changed the history of the county would, without doubt, have been far different from what it is at the present time. Numerous projects had been presented that seemed to promise the desired railroad connection, but none of them had been realized. The town had even undertaken to build a little road of its own, connecting with the line of the Central, between the villages of Lawton and Mattawan, instead of running direct to the latter village as it obviously should have done. The real reason of this action grew out of jealousy between the two towns. Lawton did not care so very much about the matter as she had the Central and could get along very well without a little road to Paw Paw. This project proceeded as far as the grading of a considerable portion of route, when for some reason, probably a lack of funds, it was abandoned and was afterward derisively named the "calico grade." Afterward, in 1867, the citizens of the vicinity became convinced that if they ever had a railroad, they must nake one for themselves. A local company was organized and the Paw Paw Railroad was constructed direct from Paw Paw to Lawton, connecting at the latter place with the Michigan Central. The road was a short line, only four miles, but it gave the people of Paw Paw an outlet and its opening was an occasion of great rejoicing. It continued in operation for a period of ten years before any change was made. One engine and one passenger coach comprised its principal equipment and the memory of the old "Vulcan," as the engine was named, still remains with many of the older inhabitants. The means for the building of this road came principally from Paw Paw township ten per cent bonds which were voted to the amount of $50,000, in aid of the project, and which, before they were fully canceled, cost the town double that sum, as, under the decision of the supreme court, a tax could not be legally levied for their payment until after suit had been brought and judgment rendered in the federal court. TOLEDO AND SOUTH HAVEN RAILROAD (FRUIT BELT LINE) This road, with the high sounding name, was at first only a narrow gauge road nine miles in length extending from Paw Paw to the village of Lawrence on the west. The company that built it was organized in the winter of 1866-7. The late John Ihling

Page  112 112 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY was the moving spirit in the construction of this road. Without means and associated with F. B. Adams, Henry Ford and George W. Lawton of Lawton, and John W. Free and Edwin Martin of Paw Paw, who were all public spirited citizens, comfortably situated, but none of them wealthy enough to finance much of a railroad project, Mr. Ihling commenced the work of building the road. Local subscriptions were solicited and some considerable amount secured, the larger amount from citizens of Lawrence, who were anxious to have some kind of railroad connection with the outside world. By the help thus acquired and by indomitable energy and "push," by what is sometimes aptly designated as "cheek," the road was completed to Lawrence, and on the first day of October, 1877, was opened for traffic. The writer had the pleasure of being a guest of Mr. Ihling on the first passenger trip over the road. The only one of the gentlemen above named as promoters of the road that is yet in the land of the living is John W. Free, now president of the Paw Paw Savings Bank. But this road was only a three feet gauge, while the Paw Paw road was of standard gauge, which necessitated much unloading and reloading of freight at Paw Paw, and it was desirable that the gauge of the latter road should be narrowed up so that this extra handling of freight and change of cars could be avoided. To this plan there was a good deal of opposition and it was sought to be blocked by injunction of the court. To avoid this, a gang of men were assembled one Sunday morning when legal process could not issue and be served, and before the close of the day there was a narrow gauge road all the way from Lawton to Lawrence. The road did not stop permanently at Lawrence, but within a few years was extended to Hartford, connecting there with the Chicago and West Michigan, now the main line of the Pere Marquette, and eventually was continued on to South Haven. So at last there was a line of railway from the Michigan Central to South Haven, just as years before it had been hoped there might be; but it was a narrow gauge and this proved to be unsatisfactory. So it was determined that the road should be widened, and again Paw Paw came to the aid of the project with ten thousand dollars of bonds to be devoted to "public improvements," which really meant the improvement of this road. A proceeding to hold up the payment of these bonds was begun in the circuit court, which sustained their validity. The case was appealed to the supreme court, where the decision of the lower court was reversed, but the bonds had found their way into the hands of innocent (?) non-resident parties, were beyond the jurisdiction of the Michigan court and were eventually paid. The road was converted into

Page  113 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 113 a standard gauge and has since been doing good service for the people. It passed from the control of the building company into the hands of the bondholders, and its ambitious name was changed to the "South Haven and Eastern," possibly because it ran easterly from South Haven. It was uncertain just how far east it would eventually get, but there was no probability that it would ever reach the City of Toledo, its first paper terminus. Dventually it passed into the control of the Pere Marquette Company and was run as a feeder for that road at Hartford. In 1905 a company had been formed, of which S. J. Dunkley of South Iaven was a prime mover, with the avowed object of constructing an electric interurban railway between the cities of Kalamazoo and South Haven. The company purchased the rightof-way for a large part of the route through Van Buren county, built a line between the villages of Paw Paw and Lawton and operated it as a steam road for one season (1906), and so for a brief period of time Paw Paw actually had two railroads. This new road utilized, for part of its route, the old "calico grade." Meanwhile, the Michigan Central had relayed and double tracked its road between Kalamazoo and Lawton, leaving its old road bed and a considerable portion of its iron unoccupied. This passed into the hands of the new company and they actually operated the road from Paw Paw to Kalamazoo. Some sort of a deal was eventually made by which the line first occupied by the old Paw Paw road between Paw Paw and Lawton passed into the possession of this new company, and not needing two lines between these points the newly laid iron was taken up and Paw Paw once more had but one railroad. This road again changed its name and assumed one as ambitious as its first, being called the "Kalamazoo, Lake Shore and Chicago," but it is popularly known as "the Fruit Belt Line." Recently another change of ownership has taken place and the road is now controlled and operated by the "Michigan United Railways Company," which has announced its intention to electrify the line in the near future, thus providing an Iinterurban line across the state from Detroit to South Haven. The principal Van Buren county stations along this line are the villages of Mattawan, Lawton, Paw Paw, Lawrence, Hartford, Covert and South Haven. Lawton has a population, according to the last census of 1,042; Paw Paw, 1,643; Lawrence, 663; Hartford, 1,268; Mattawan and Covert are unincorporated. THE PERE MARQUETTE RAILWAY In 1869 a company was organized under the general railroad law of the state, called the Chicago and Michigan Lake Shore RailVol. — R

Page  114 114 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY road Company, the object of which was to build a railroad along the lake shore from New Buffalo northward. A. H. Morrison, of Berrien county, was the first president of the road. This was essentially a Berrien county project, although the route of the proposed road passed through the townships of Hartford, Bangor and Columbia in Van Buren county. The road was opened for traffic from St. Joseph to New Buffalo in February, 1870, and one year later had reached Grand Junction near the north line of Van Buren county, at which point it intersects the South Haven division of the Michigan Central. The road was continued to the north, reaching Pentwater on the first day of January, 1872, and being subsequently extended to Petoskey. Another part of the line was built from Holland to Grand Gapids. The road continued in possession of the original company until 1874, when it was surrendered to the bondholders and its name changed to the Chicago and West Michigan Railroad. A considerable number of years since it was purchased by the Pere Marquette and by that company extended from New Buffalo to Chicago. The road has become a part of the main line of the Pere Marquette system, one of the great railroad systems that "gridiron" the state of Michigan. The principal Van Buren county stations on this line are the villages of Hartford, Bangor, Breedsville, Grand Junction. Hartford is a village of 1,268 inhabitants, as shown by the census of 1910, Bangor has a population of 1,158, and Breedsville has a population of 219 souls. Grand Junction is not incorporated. Of the eighteen townships in the county there are but three that no railroad touches-Almena, Keeler and Waverly; although there are three others,-Arlington, Hamilton and Porter-that have only a small corner cut off, Porter being barely touched. Two of these roads make close connection with steamship lines to-Chicago: the South Haven branch of the Central at South Haven, and the Fruit Belt Line at the same place, and also, by reason of its connection with the Pere Marquette at Hartford, at Benton Harbor and St. Joseph in the county of Berrien, thus giving the people of the county the benefit of water transportation to the great metropolis of the west during the season of navigation.

Page  115 CHAPTER V EDUCATIONAL HISTORY ACT OF 1827 MODIFIED-HARASSED SCHOOL INSPECTORS-TIHE TEACHERS' QUALIFICATIONS-MRS. ALLEN RICE'S REMINISCENCES -THE OLD AND THE NEW. Schools went hand in hand with the pioneers and their support was regulated by statute at an early day. By an act of the legislative council of the territory of Michigan for the establishment of common schools, approved April 12, 1827, it was provided among other things:."That every township within this territory containing fifty families or householders shall be provided with a good schoolmaster or schoolmasters, of good morals, to teach children to read and write and to instruct them in the English or French language, as well as in arithmetic, orthography and decent behavior, for such time as shall be equivalent to six months for one school in each year. And every township containing one hundred families or householders shall be provided with such schoolmaster or teacher for such time as shall be equivalent to twelve months for one school in each year. And every township containing one hundred and fifty families or householders shall be provided with such schoolmaster or teacher for such term of time as shall be equivalent to six months in each year, and shall, in addition thereto, be provided with a schoolmaster or teacher as above described, to instruct the children in the English language for such term of time as shall be equivalent to twelve months for one school in each year. And every township containing two hundred families or householders shall be provided with a grammar schoolmaster of good morals, well instructed in the Latin, French and English languages, and shall in addition thereto be provided with a schoolmaster or teacher, as above described, to instruct children in the English language, for such term as shall be equivalent to twelve months for each of said schools in each year." The statute also provided penalties for refusal or neglect to comply with its provisions, as follows: The penalty imposed on any township having fifty and less than one hundred families or householders was a forfeiture of fifty dollars; on the next grade, 115

Page  116 116 l [STORY OF VAN UITREN COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL, PAW PAW ns9riaR;5si: ~*C ~- —;;~ jllr C LAWTCN HIGH SCHOOL

Page  117 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 117 comprising townslips from one hundred to one hundred and fifty families or householders, a forfeiture of one hundred dollars; and on the higher grade of one hundred and fifty families or householders or mlore, a forfeiture of one hundred and fifty dollars. These penalties were all made proportionable for any neglect for a less time than one year. The same statute provided that a board of inspectors. not exceeding five in number, should be chosen in each township, three or more of whom should be competent to examine both the teachers and the schools; that no person should be employed as a teacher without a certificate issued to him by the board of inspectors; and "that if any person shall presume to keep such school, without a certificate as aforesaid, he or she shall forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding two hundred dollars to be recovered in any court having jurisdiction thereof, one moiety thereof to the informer and the other moiety to the use of the poor of the township where such school may be kept. "Provision was likewise made for the division of townships into school districts, for the election of a board of trustees in each district to have control of the concerns of the district and for the electors of the township to vote a tax for the support of schools. "Schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." These words are found in the ordinance of 1787. which provided that section sixteen in each township should be set apart as school land; and by act of the legislative council approved July 3, 1828, townships were authorized to choose a board of trustees to have charge of such school lands and to lease the same or any part thereof and to apply the proceeds toward the payment of the school teachers employed in their several townships. ACT OF 1827 MODIFIED By an act of the legislative council of the territory, approved November 5, 1829, the system inaugurated in 1827 was modified in a considerable degree. This act provided, among other things, that a board of "commissioners of common schools" consisting of five members should be elected in each township, who should lay out and number the school districts of their several townships and perform certain other prescribed duties; that three school directors should be chosen in each district whose duty it should be to levy a tax for the building of schoolhouses where such structures had not been previously provided; to employ qualified teachers in their respective districts for a term of three months at least in each year and for such longer time as the inhabitants in publicschool meeting should direct, said schools to commence on or be

Page  118 118 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY fore the tenth day of December in each year; to make out a rate bill for the collection of the wages of the teacher, to be levied on the inhabitants of the district, proportional to the number of days' attendance of the pupils from the family of each patron of the school. Provision was also made for the same proportional furnishing of fuel for the school, which might be delivered in kind, otherwise to stand as a personal tax. These early laws may be considered as the beginning of Michigan's magnificent common school system, which is universally acknowledged to be second to none. HARASSED SCHOOL INSPECTORS It may well be supposed that in those pioneer days it was not always easy to find teachers fully equipped as the law required, and still less easy to fill the position of school inspectors duly qualified to pass upon the qualifications of those persons who applied for the necessary certificates. And this was not only true in those territorial days, but it continued in a greater or less degree long after Michigan became a state, indeed as long as the township system of examination of teachers continued in existence. The following well authenticated anecdote will illustrate this matter: It is said to have transpired in the township of Pine Grove, where William Adair, an American citizen of Irish descent, being considered well equipped for the office, was elected as a school inspector and was the only one of the three chosen who took the oath of office, and he, if he had been better posted as to his official duties, would, without doubt, have declined the honor. One morning, while "Billy" was industriously attending to his more congenial duties in his saw-mill, word was sent to him that a young lady had presented herself at his residence and wished to interview him. "Eh," said Billy, "What fur?" "To be examined for a certificate to teach school," was the reply. "Ain't got no time to attind to it this mornin'. Tell her to come agin," said Billy. "No," was the response, "you are sworn in and must examine her now." After some hesitation, Billy finally stripped off his "wamus," went to his house, washed and shaved, combed out his bushy locks, donned his Sunday-go-to-meeting garments and a pair of new moccasins, and bashfully presented himself before his fair visitor. "Are you Mr. Adair, the school inspector?" asked the young lady. "Indade, mum," said Billy, reaching up and pulling the "cow lick" that graced the top of his head, "I suppose I be, mum." "I have come to be examined for a certificate to teach school," continued the lady. "Surtificut, is ut?" said Billy. "Yes, sir," she replied. "I must surtify ye kin?"

Page  119 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 119 enquired Billy, "Nade it be a paper, a writin?" he continued with a groan. "I think it should be," was the reply. "Kin ye write?" responded Billy. The lady informed him that she possessed that necessary qualification. "Well thin," said Billy, "jest ye write it out and let me see ye do it." The applicant wrote what she thought would answer the purpose. "Rade it if ye will," said Billy, with a show of confidence that he was for from possessing. The lady complied and read over what she had written. "Now," said Billy, "let me see ye write William Adair on it if ye plase." The young lady, after some hesitation, did as directed. "Now," said Billy, "will ye take thot as yer surtificut and go yer way?" "No," was the reply, "you must sign it or it will do me no good, they will dispute it." "They will?" said Billy. "Show me the mon that dare dispute the word of a lady and I will tach him better manners." But the young woman persisted, and Billy finally set to work to write his name. Beginning well at the left side of the sheet in order that he might have plenty of room, he succeeded in spelling out "William Adair," in letters that nearly obliterated the calligraphy of the applicant for the necessary document, but he would have preferred that she had asked him to tackle the largest monarch of the forest or thrash a schoolhouse full of doubters as to the regularity of his certificate, which was the only one he ever gave, but it served its purpose. Billy resigned his office shortly afterward. Another instance is recalled of the perspicuity of a Inember of a board of school inspectors which was exhibited as late as 1860. The writer was at that time a young man, barely turned twentyone, and his fellow citizens had done him the honor of choosing him for an inspector of schools. The two other members of the board were elderly men-one of them a teacher of years' standing, the other a minister of the Gospel, highly educated. A class of young ladies and gentlemen were being examined before the board, when this question was propounded by the gray haired schoolmaster member: "Why is a nautical mile longer than a statute mile?" None could answer. Indeed the only correct answer that could have been given would have been, "Because it is;" but the schoolmaster proposed to enlighten the class on the matter, and proceeded to explain that the nautical mile was measured over the level sea, while the statute mile was measured over hill and valley and therefore does not reach as far as it would on a level and that the difference in their length was an allowance made for the inequalities of the earth's surface. Being scarcely more than a boy, we did not dare to dispute the absurd proposition of the schoolmaster. No so, however, with the preacher, who, to the great confusion of the would-be savant, promptly replied "It

Page  120 120 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY isn't so. It isn't so. There isn't a word of truth in such a proposition. " The following quoted extracts from a paper written in 1899 by the late Charles D. Lawton, one of the regents of the Michigan University, will serve to illustrate the methods of conducting the schools of early pioneer days. "Every old pioneer," said Mr. Lawton, "and all who have passed the three-score mark, will vividly recall the primitive educational facilities of their early school days in Van Buren county, if perchance, they were so fortunate as to have their lot cast so long ago in this far away wilderness. But, whether here or elsewhere, the experiences of school life in this northern or western country, where the conditions were the same, did not greatly differ. So long as memory retains its grasp upon any of the past events of life, the lights and shadows of school days in the little old log schoolhouse will remain among the most permanent of one's reminiscences. 'Memory reveals the rose, but secretes the thorn,' and thus we are apt to recall the lights and ignore the shadows of those early school days, when in truth, school life was not a period of unalloyed delight. We did not, at that time, consider it so very much fun to sit all day on the high benches made without backs that extended around three sides of the school room." So high in fact were these seats that were simply slabs with legs under them-tempting, indeed, to the pocket knives of the lads-that the younger pupils could not "touch bottom" so to speak, but were compelled to sit during the long hours of school with their feet just aching to touch the floor. Back of these seats, or in front of them, it depended how one sat, was a wide board for a desk, with a shelf underneath to hold the few books that the pupils were so fortunate as to possess. The usual position for the more advanced scholars who had attained to the dignity of studying the three R's was facing these desks with their backs toward the teacher, which gave the schoolmaster or ma'am what seemed to be an undue advantage, enabling him or her to see without being seen, save only by an occasional furtive glance. TIHE TEACHERS' QUALIFICATIONS To quote again from Mr. Lawton: "TUnfortunately for the happiness of the pupil, the teacher was generally chosen for his muscular development, for his ability to punish and from his willingness to put this ability into constant practice, rather than for his superior mental acquirements and ability to impart instruction." Especially was this the case with the winter schools, which were practically the only terms attended by the "big" boys and girls. "As a rule, in the schoolhouse of pioneer days, the whip and fer

Page  121 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 121 ule predominated and the chief ingenuity shown by the teacher was in his methiods of administering punishment. Many an elderly man can recall the torture he endured by being compelled to hold his finger on the head of a nail in the floor, or forced to lie over a chair and grasp the lower rungs with the hands, thus placing himself in the best possible position for application of rawhide or birch. Possilly, to vary the method of punishment in the case of girls, resort was had to the ferule applied to the hand until it was blistered. There was sometimes a sequel to these punishments, the scene of which was laid in the home, where, if the school episode became known, there resulted a further trouncing administered by the paternal hand, so that it became an important matter for the pupil to suppress information." And sometimes there was a good deal of ingenuity displayed on the part of the pupil in trying to "get even." Occasionally the master would sit down on a bent pin or receive a severe thrust from a darning needle, which by some device would be vigorously projected through a hole in his chair causing him to make a sudden spring from his seat, much to the amusement of those who were in the secret and to the great surprise and mystification of those who were not. In some districts the pupils asquired an unenviable reputation for "cleaning out" the teacher, the "big boys" being too many for him. When a teacher was disposed of in this way another and more muscular one was procured if possible. An instance of this kind is related as follows: Two or three teachers had been turned out in this manner by the unruly pupils, and the officers of the district were beginning to despair of finding anybody who could "keep" the school successfully. Finally an application was made by a young man who did not appear to be particularly "husky." The directors explained the condition of things to him and suggested that his appearance did not seem to indicate that he would be able to fill the bill. The young man insisted that he could manage the school and as a last resort was given a trial. Things moved along very smoothly for two or three days, when the ringleaders concluded the time had arrived to test the teacher's mettle. Standing by the fire near the master, one of the boys picked up the poker, and, assuming a military attitude, brought it briskly to his shoulder and in a loud voice commanded "shoulder arms." Instantly the schoolmaster's fist came in contact with the point of the young man's chin, and, as he went down, the master commanded "ground arms." This speedy adaptation to the situation so pleased the boys that they became the teacher's firm friends, and the entire school term was completed without. further trouble.

Page  122 122 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY The lot of a teacher in those early days was not a 'bed of roses" and he had to put up with many unpleasant experiences. He had to "board around;" that is, board and lodge with each of the families patronizing the school, apportioning his stay according to the number of children that attended from each particular family. Some of his boarding places would prove to be very pleasant and agreeable, while others were-well, let us say not quite so satisfactory. Teachers were prone to overstay their time in the pleasant homes, where they were always welcome, and cut short their allotted time at the other places, but these latter could not be wholly ignored, as that would be the cause of immediate trouble, and if he delayed too long he was sure to receive a message sent by one of the little boys or girls, as follows: "Teacher when are you coming to our house?" And that was a question that it would never do to ignore. Frequently the sleeping accommodations in these pioneer homes were very limited; the teacher would have to sleep with the children, and often the space was too limited for any great degree of privacy. The schoolmaster was paid but a meager salary-the school ma'am a good deal less-the major portion of which had to be collected by a "rate bill" and came very slowly, the people of those days not usually having very much ready money at their command and some of the patrons of the school furnishing only children and promises. Text books were crude and scarce, consisting principally of the "English Reader," "Daboll's Arithmetick" (as it was spelled), "Kirkham's Grammar" and a "Webster's Elementary Spelling Book," with an occasional copy, perhaps, of "Hale's History of the United States," which was not studied as a history, but used as a "reading book." One set of these books had to serve for the entire family, if indeed they were fortunate. enough to possess them all. MRS. ALLEN RICE'S REMINISCENCES The following sketch written by Mrs. Allen Rice, of Lawrence, one of the very, very few remaining pioneers of those early days, is a fair illustration of pioneer schools. Mrs. Rice, teaching a summer school, did not have any unruly "big" boys and girls, who so often made the teacher's life a burden grievous to be borne. She says: "In my sixteenth summer it was my fortune to teach the first school in the township of Bangor, which was then known as South Haven, as that township embraced all the territory from the west line of Arlington to the lake, the town of Arlington being included in Lawrence. "Some six or eight families had settled in the southeast corner

Page  123 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 123 of the town and across the line in Lawrence, and they were anxious that their children should be sent to school. Accordingly, in the spring of 1840, they were organized as the first fractional district of Lawrence and South Haven. As there was no money with which to build, they proceeded in pioneer fashion to roll up a log cabin about fourteen by eighteen feet in dimension. They had no money with which to buy shingles and lumber was scarce, as it was a long way to a saw-mill, and so the cabin, which was shanty roofed, was covered with troughs-that is, with logs hollowed out, one tier being placed hollow side up and the other hollow side down, breaking joints and thus effectually excluding the rain. Two holes were cut for windows, but they were guiltless of either sash or glass; a rude door was made, and a table constructed by nailing a board across a frame made of poles. They did not have quite boards enough to complete the floor and so a space about two feet wide was left on one side. Seats were made by putting legs into a couple of thick slabs; a little shelf was made in one corner near the door, by driving pins into the logs; lastly some one furnished an old chair for the use of the teacher. "When these preparations were complete, they looked around for a teacher. The director came to me and said: 'We want you to teach our school this summer. The schoolhouse is all ready and we want school to begin next Monday.' I told them I did not feel competent and, besides, I thought my mother could not spare me. My objections were overruled, and, with my mother's consent, it was agreed that I should begin school the first Monday in July and teach three months at a salary of one dollar per week, which was the usual pay of pioneer teachers, although in some districts, where there were thirty or forty pupils, they paid $1.50 per week. "The following Monday found me at my task with nine pupils ranging from five to fourteen years of age, five of them being members of one family. The books used were 'Webster's Elementary Spelling Book,' Cobb's First Reader,' 'Peter Parley's Geography,' 'Daboll's Arithmetic,' and the 'English Reader,' all of which are unknown to the present generation. "After I had begun my school I was informed that I was expected to teach six days every week and thirteen weeks for a three-months' term, so that the district could draw public money. Of course I boarded around, and so I had about six weeks to board in one place. "One day near the close of August I was surprised by the entrance of three stalwart men into my little school room, who announced themselves as the township school inspectors. I gave one of them my chair and seated the others on the bench with the pupils and proceeded with my work as well as my embarrassment

Page  124 124 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY would allow, and, I must say, never were better behaved pupils. Well, the time passed at length, and I dismissed my little charges. Then the inspectors proceeded to ask questions, and, after about an hour of questioning, I found myself in possession of a document certifying that I had been examined as to moral character, learning and ability to teach a common school, etc. The nalme attached to this certificate were Nelson S. Marshall, George Parmalee and Mansell M. Briggs. These men, as I afterward learned, reported my little school as a model school, at which I was not a little vain. "As the season advanced and the weather became rainy and chilly, I procured some cotton cloth and nailed it over the window spaces; then we built large fires, using the dead wood that lay all about, and carried coals in an iron kettle into the school room to warm it. "Teachers' wages had to be collected by a rate bill and the law allowed sixty days for collection, but I did not get my pay until New Year's, and then I found myself in possession of twelve dollars and two pigs. The possession of the pigs is a part of my story. "Soon after I began my school, my two little brothers came to see me and went home with one of the little boys who told them that their father had a swine that had more young than she could care for, and he was going to kill a couple of them. My brothers begged that they might not be killed until they had asked their father if they might get them, and the next day they returned and got the pigs. Nothing more was thought about the matter until I received my pay for teaching the school, when I found myself charged with two pigs at fifty cents each. I did not like it very much, but the pigs had grown to thrifty swine and my father said 'let it go,' but we had more than a dollar's worth of fun over my pigs. "Although this term of school did not leave me in possession of much money, it was not an unprofitable season. Books were not abundant in the pioneers' cabins, but I found a number of valuable ones and I read all I could get hold of from 'Scott's Pirate' to a volume of sermons, and I even took a dip into the 'Book of Mormon,' which I should have read through, if the owner had not gone away taking the book with him." Occasionally a teacher like Mrs. Rice, would be secured who was broad minded, resourceful and really in love with the work. Such a teacher was a power for good in the community that was so fortunate as to secure his services, and the time under his instruction passed all too swiftly. In those days the teacher was without the aids that are provided in these modern days. He had

Page  125 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 125 no books different from those studied by his scholars, no maps, no globes, no apparatus, no aids of any sort, but was thrown entirely on his own resources. What wonder that so many failed to make a success of the work they had undertaken. An abundance of books of reference, convenient rooms, suitable seats and desks, maps, globes and scientific apparatus, together with an enlightened public sentiment to support him, make the profession of a present day teacher altogether different from those days in the little old log schoolhouse, and although a much more efficient equipment is required at the present time, the work is not as difficult as it was seventy-five or even fifty years ago. THE OLD AND THE NEW It is doubtful, however, if the scholars or the parents of these modern days enjoy themselves any better or are any happier than they were in those primitive times. Who that ever participated in them will ever forget the old fashioned spelling schools, the singing schools and the debating schools-they would be termed "lyceums" in modern parlance-when, packed closely in the box of the big sled half filled with straw, wrapped in blankets and robes, hitched behind old "Buck and Bright" the family ox team, they traveled miles over the sparkling snow, with the mercury down to the zero mark (they knew nothing about zero in those days and cared less) to attend a spelling school? How eagerly they looked forward to the longed-for victory in the final "spelling down," a victory that was the source of as great degree of satisfaction to the victors as the winning of the game is to a lot of modern baseball fans! In nothing are the wonderful changes that have taken place within the past seventy-five years more marked or more strongly emphasized than in the progress made by the common schools of the county. As the first settlers began to overcome the difficulties incident to converting the wilderness into productive farms, the primitive structures of logs and shakes gave way to the "little red schoolhouse," and as the people increased in prosperity and financial ability, these in turn, were superseded by the present modern schoolhouse, with all of its up-to-date equipment and appliances to aid both teacher and pupil in their labors-buildings which, in many instances well deserve the honorable distinction of being "temples of education." At the present time there are 149 school districts in the county and the number of school children, which includes all persons between the ages of five and twenty, at the school census of 1911 was 9,065. The number of school houses is 154, and, with very few excep

Page  126 126 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY tions, they are all modern buildings, fully equipped with everything needful to assist the student in acquiring a knowledge of the arts and sciences, beginning at the kindergarten and ending with his graduation from the high school, with a diploma entitling its owner to enter into the Michigan University at Ann Arbor, an institution conceded to be the peer of any educational institution in America, upon presentation of his certificate of graduation, without further examination or other condition. These schoolhouses are so plentifully scattered throughout the county that a person passing through it scarcely leaves one out of sight before another comes within the range of his vision. And some of these school buildings are among the finest buildings in the county, costing thousands of dollars. There are eleven "high schools," from five of which the graduates are entitled to enter the university on presentation of diploma of graduation. Almost every school district in the county maintains a district library. These various libraries contain about 24,000 volumes, thus giving pupils easy access to much of the first class literature of the world and aiding them greatly along the pathway of knowledge. The value of the school property, as returned by the various school boards in reports for 1911, is $343,475. During the school year ending on the tenth day of July, 1911, there were 269 teachers employed in the schools of the county, 35 men and 235 women. There was paid for teachers' wages during the past school year the sum of $111,985.25. The salaries ranged from $30 to $166.66 per month. The average salary of the teachers in the country schools was about $40 per month, the higher salaries being paid to superintendents and principal teachers in the city and village schools. The aggregate number of months taught in the various schools was 2,219. The ordinary English branches, reading, writing, orthography, grammar, arithmetic, geography, physiology, civil government and United States history, were taught in all the country schools, with an occasional class in agriculture, algebra and music. The curriculum of the high schools embraced all the foregoing studies and, in addition thereto, higher mathematics, languages (ancient and modern), botany, manual training, physics, astronomy, domestic science, agriculture and all other studies required to prepare the student for a course in the university. Van Buren county has just reason to be proud of her school system. The graduates of her schools are filling many important positions in the business world. They are doctors, lawyers, merchants, divines, agriculturists, horticulturists, insurance men, bankers, public officials, journalists and other equally honorable

Page  127 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 127 and responsible positions, and few, very few indeed, have been the instances in which they did not "make good." They are scattered all over this broad land, from the far east to the distant west, from the frozen north to the sunny south; perhaps not a single state in the Union where some of them may not be found, and in foreign countries as well. The Peninsular state has certainly obeyed the injunction of the famous old ordinance of 1787, that "schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged" and Van Buren county has kept fully abreast of her sister counties in carrying on this grand work of educating the generations that have been born within her jurisdiction, or that have sought her hospitable borders from other counties, states and nations..,.F

Page  128 128 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 0 Qi z

Page  129 CHAPTER VI TIIE COUNTY SEAT LAWRENCE AS THE COUNTY SEAT —PAW PAW DISPLACES LAWRENCE -PROPOSED COUNTY BUILDINGS-OLD COURT HOUSE COMPLETED-SOUTH HAVEN BIDS FOR COUNTY SEAT-POPULAR VrOTE FOR PAW PAW-NEW COUNTY BUILDINGS-COURT HOUSE CORNERSTONE LAID-COST OF PRESENT COUNTY BUILDINGS. As hereinbefore intimated, there was much contention and controversy over the location of the county seat of Van Buren county. The county was not organized until the spring of 1837, although it had been set off and named nearly eight years before. As has been said: "The formation of a county at that period, by no means necessitated the exercise of the usual functions pertaining to a county, nor even made it certain that there were any people within the designated boundaries. It merely indicated that, in the opinion of the state authorities, the territory described in the act would, at some future time, make a good county." No mistake in that regard was made in organizing Van Buren county. LAWRENCE AS THE COUNTY SEAT The citizens of the village of Lawrence, nine miles west of the village of Paw Paw, claimed strenuously and vigorously that there was the proper place for the location of the seat of justice of the county, a claim not without reasonable foundation and not entirely abandoned for a period of sixty years. When that pretty and pleasant village was platted, in 1846, an entire block in the center of the plat was set apart and dedicated as a public square, upon which for many years the people of that town and vicinity fondly hoped some day to see the county buildings erected. The town was centrally located and, in those early days, was the most prominent village in the county except Paw Paw. It is, perhaps, not generally known that the county seat was originally located at Lawrence, although that claim has often been made and as often denied, but such was the fact. In 1835, a year before the organization of the county, the govVol. 1 -9 129

Page  130 130 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY ernor of the territory, acting under the provisions of a general statute, appointed three commissioners-Charles IHascall, Stillnan Blanchard and John W. Strong-to locate the county seat. These commissioners selected Lawrence as the proper place and stuck the stake that designated the site in the center of the block subsequently designated as the "public square." On the 28th day of March, 1836, the following statute was passed: "Be it enacted, that the governor be and he is hereby authorized to issue his proclamation confirming and establishing the seat of justice for the county of Van Buren at the point fixed for the said seat of justice in said county by Charles Hascall, Stillman Blanchard and John W. Strong, commissioners appointed for that purpose, as appears by their report on file in the office of the secretary of state; provided, that the proprietors of said seat of justice for said county shall pay into the treasury of this state the amount advanced from the territorial treasury for said location, with interest. thereon from the date of such advance and shall produce the certificate of the said payment to the governor within sixty days. " But, as hereinbefore noted, the legislature authorized the board of supervisors of the county to designate for a limited period the place where the circuit courts should be held and at the first meeting of that body, held in 1837, the village of Paw Paw was so designated. The legislature of 1838 again directed that "all circuit courts to be held in and for the county of Van Buren, previous to the first day of January, 1840, shall be held at such place within said county as the board of supervisors shall direct." (Laws of Michigan, 1838, p. 99.) Acting under authority of this statute, the board of supervisors, at their annual meeting in October, 1838, adopted the following resolution: "The supervisors of the county of Van Buren direct that the circuit court for said county shall be held at the schoolhouse in the village of Paw Paw." It is a fair presumption, perhaps, that Paw Paw was selected by the board because the accommodations were better there than at Lawrence, although they were meager enough in either place. PAW PAW DISPLACES LAWRENCE Previous to this action, however, at a special meeting held on the twenty-third day of June, 1838, the board of supervisors had directed "That the sheriff be authorized to build a suitable building to serve as a jail for said county, the expense of said building not to exceed four hundred dollars. That the said jail shall be

Page  131 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 181 built on the ground appropriated for that purpose by the proprietors of the village of Paw Paw in said county." That the legally established county seat was understood as be. ing at the village of Lawrence is evidenced by the fact that in 1840, the legislature passed the following act entitled "An act to provide for the vacation of the present seat of justice of Van Buren county, and to locate the same in the village of Paw Paw, in said county. "Section 1-Be it enacted by the senate and house of representatives of the state of Michigan that the county seat of Van Buren county be and the same is hereby vacated and removed to the village of Paw Paw in said county, upon such land as shall be deeded to the county for that purpose: Provided, that the quantity of land shall not be less than one acre, to be located under the direction of a majority of the county commissioners, or board of supervisors, as the case may be, who are hereby required to make such location and fix the site for such county seat in said village, within one year from the passage of this law, and to take a deed of the land aforesaid to them and their successors in office for the use and purpose of the county of Van Buren, and shall have the deed recorded in the register's office in that county; And provided further, that the title to said land so conveyed shall be good, absolute and indefeasible and the premises free from all legal incumbrances. "Section 2-All writs which have been or may be issued out of the circuit court of said county since the last term thereof, whether the same were made returnable at the village of Paw Paw or at the present county seat, shall be returned to, and heard and tried at the village of Paw Paw aforesaid, at the time they were made returnable." (Laws of Michigan, 1840, pp. 36-37. ) By this act of the legislature, Paw Paw became the legal, as it had previously been the actual seat of justice for the county. No session of the circuit court was ever held elsewhere and no county buildings were ever erected at any other place. But it did not follow, by any manner of means, that the question was settled beyond all controversy by the enactment of the foregoing statute. The citizens of Lawrence were not disposed to abandon the fight. They believed that they had been unjustly deprived of that which rightfully belonged to them, and the question of the removal of the county seat from the village of Paw Paw became a vital one, and many unsuccessful efforts were made to have such removal submitted to a vote of the people. In order to secure such submission, the law required a two-thirds vote of the board of supervisors in favor of such proposition, and although this was frequently attempted every such effort met with failure

Page  132 132 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY until the lapse of sixty years after its location at Paw 'aw. It is a matter of much uncertainty as to what would have been the result if the question of the removal of the county seat from Paw Paw to Lawrence had been submitted to a vote. Only a majority vote would have been necessary to decide the matter, and there were times very probably, when a majority in favor of such removal might have been obtained, but the electors of the county never had an opportunity to express their choice as between those twe villages. PROPOSED COUNTY BUILDINGS Immediate steps were taken after the above noted action of the legislature, looking to the erection of county buildings at the newly established county seat. At a meeting of the board of county commissioners held at the office of the county clerk on the first day of April, 1840, the following resolutions were adopted, to-wit: "Resolved, that the site for the seat of justice for the county of Van Buren be and the same is hereby located and fixed on that portion of block number eleven known and described as lots numher one, two, three, four, five, six, seven and eight, in the village of Paw Paw, being the same land appropriated for that purpose by the proprietors of said village, the aforesaid location being made agreeable and in conformity with the act of the legislature of the State of Michigan, approved March 6, 1840. "Resolved, that the clerk of said county be and he is hereby required to procure a quit claim deed from the proprietors of said village for the land mentioned in the foregoing resolution and cause the same to be recorded in the register's office of this county." However, the county buildings were not erected on the site so designated, although the present court house and jail now occupy the same. At a special meeting of the board of county commissioners held on the 30th day of January, 1841, the following action was taken: "It appearing that the title for the county seat, as located and fixed by the board of commissioners on the first day of April, 1840, not having been perfected, therefore it is "Resolved, that the act or resolution of the commissioners locating and fixing the site for the seat of justice in the county of Van Buren on block number eleven in the village of Paw Paw is hereby annulled and vacated. "Then, resolved and determined that the site lor the seat of justice for said county of Van Buren (title having been given) be and the same is hereby located and fixed on block number forty in the village of Paw Paw, in this county."

Page  133 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 133 But neither were the proposed county buildings ever erected on this site which for many years has been occupied by the Free Will Baptist church of Paw Paw and private residences. On March 6, 1841, the board of county commissioners passed the following resolution: "Resolved, that the sum of four thousand dollars be and the same is hereby appropriated for the purpose of building a court house in and for the county of Van Buren. "The board directed W. Mason to draft or cause to be drafted a plan for a court house." This action of the county commissioners seems to have accomplished nothing, except to make an appropriation of funds, and at a meeting held April 3, 1842, the same body, having apparently come to the conclusion that four thousand dollars for a court house was a piece of unwarranted extravagance, adopted another resolution in reference to the matter, as follows: ''Resolved by the board of commissioners to contract for the building a court house, provided that some responsible person or persons contract to furnish materials, build and furnish a good and substantial house for a sum not to exceed three thousand dollars. "The board directed R. E. Churchill to make a draft, etc." Four days later the board gave notice that the "county board will continue to receive proposals for building a court house until twelve o'clock noon, on the 8th inst." On the afternoon of that day, the following entries appear on the official record, to-wit: "On examination of the several proposals for building the court house, it was ascertained that Reuben E. Churchill and Stafford Godfrey had proposed to furnish materials, build and finish the woodwork of said house for the lowest sum-that is, for the sum of $2,410, and that Henry W. Rhodes had proposed to furnish materials and do the mason work for the lowest sum-that is, for $494. "Whereupon, Reuben E. Churchill and Stafford Godfrey entered into a stipulation or agreement, with a penal sum of five thousand dollars with approved security, to build said court house and complete the same (agreeably to draft and specifications lodged in the county clerk's office) in eighteen months from this date; for which an order on the treasury was given to said Churchill and Godfrey for two thousand four hundred and ten dollars to be paid out of the money appropriated by the county board of commissioners at their meeting at the clerk's office, March 1, 1841, for the building of a court house." Also Henry W. Rhodes gave a bond, with approved surety, to furnish materials and finish the mason work of said house in eighteen months from date, for which an order on the treasury was given for four hundred and ninety-four dollars, to be paid out of

Page  134 134 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY the money appropriated for building a court house, March 1, 1841, by the county board of commissioners. "The county board then procured a warranty deed of I. W. Willard to the county of Van Buren for lots 5, 6, 7, and 8, in block No. 12, in the village of Paw Paw, on which to build said court house, and in consideration thereof quit claimed to said Willard, block 40, the present site; also gave an order on the county treasury for $331 to J. F. Noye to clear the above lots from incumbrance, and received the security of Willard, Gremps & Company for the repayment of the same to the treasury. (It was on this site that the court house and jail were built.) "The county board then appointed Josiah Andrews to oversee (on the part of the county) the building of said court house." After allowing a few miscellaneous claims, the board of county commissioners adjourned "never to meet again," having been legislated out of existence by an act passed by the legislature of 1842, which took effect on the second Monday of April of that year, the duties theretofore devolving on such board being conferred upon the board of supervisors. The first meeting of the board of supervisors under the new regime was held at the office of the county clerk in the village of Paw Paw, on the fourth day of July, 1842, as required by the new statute, and was organized by choosing Gen. Benj. F. Chadwick as chairman. The only action taken at that meeting relative to the building of the court house was as follows: "Resolved, that this board call upon the county treasurer for a statement of the financial concerns of the county, information respecting the erection of the court house, the amount of funds paid out, and all other information relative to the office and that the treasurer report to this board at their next meeting. " The next entry on the records relative to the new building appears at the meeting of the board of supervisors on the 13th day of October, 1842, at which time Theodore E. Phelps, Philotus Haydon and Joshua Bangs were appointed as a committee "to paint the court house, the same to be painted when the outside is finished, ready to receive the paint, also for the building a fence or yard around the court house when the said committee in their opinion deem it necessary." OLD COURT HOUSE COMPLETED The contractors, evidently, did not get their job completed in the stipulated eighteen months, as on the 14th day of August, 1844, considerably more than two years after the date of their contract, we find the following entries on the proceedings of the board for

Page  135 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 135 that year: "Resolved, that we will appoint a committee to examine the work which Messrs. Churchill & Godfrey have done on the court house and report to the board relative to the materials and workmanship of the same, and that T. E. Phelps and George A. Bentley be appointed said committee. "The committee appointed to examine the court house reported the workmanship and materials on the house was according to contract, as far as it had progressed, which report was received by the board. "Resolved, that there shall be a gallery built in the south end of the court house and that Mr. Godfrey and Mr. Mason be requested to draft a plan for the same." On the 7th day of January, 1845, almost three years after the contract for building the court house was entered into another committee consisting of Messrs. Humphrey P. Barnum, Jonathan N. Hinckley and George A. Bentley were appointed to examine the building. After receiving the report of this committee, the board adopted the following resolution: "Resolved, that the report of the committee on examination of the finishing of the court house be received, which is as follows, viz: That the finishing of the joiner work of the court house be accepted from the hands of Stafford Godfrey and Reuben E. Churchill as finishel agreeable to their contract and the committee be discharged." With the exception of some of the inside work and the building. of the gallery, the house at this time appears to have been finished. The board, however, apparently had some difficulty in getting the plastering all completed. Several times attention was called to the matter at different sessions of the board. Finally, on the 7th day of March, 1845, the official record shows that the following action was taken: "On motion, Resolved, that Joseph B. Barnes be appointed a committee to see H. W. Rhodes and inform him that he must have the remainder of the court house finished-that is, the plastering-by the first of May next or suffer damage for the same." It is impossible to ascertain from the records when the first term of court was held in the new court house, but it is probable that it was at the June term, 1845. This court house served the county for fifty-five years before any action was taken looking to new county buildings. There had been kept up, however, a constant agitation for the removal of the county seat from Paw Paw to some other place, Lawrence being the point generally under consideration, although some of the other villages of the county that had outstripped that place in growth began to have aspirations to become the favored site.

Page  136 136 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Meantime the population of the county had increased from less than 2,000 in 1845 to more than 33,000 in 1900, the county buildings which had served for more than half a century had become old and entirely inadequate for the needs of the people, and the board of supervisors realized, as did the citizens of the county in general, that new and more commodious accommodations for the transaction of the public business had become an absolute necessity and that action looking to a new and modern court house and jail could not longer be delayed. SOUTH HAVEN BIDS FOR COUNTY SEAT In the meantime the village of South Haven had become the largest town in the county and was about ready to don city garb, and her people thought that her importance as a thriving manufacturing town and as a lake port, entitled her to be considered as in the running for the proposed new location of the county seat of justice. At the session of the board of supervisors held in January, 1900, Supervisor Peter J. Dillman, of Bangor, offered the following resolution: "Whereas, the county buildings of Van Buren County are in condition requiring the building of new ones, therefore, "Resolved, by the board of supervisors of this county, that the county seat of Van Buren County be removed to some other place in Van Buren County." This resolution was first laid on the table by a vote of ten to eight, but, on reconsideration, was adopted by a vote sixteen to two, the only supervisors voting in the negative being D. A. Squier of Decatur and Dwight Foster of Keeler, and thus for the first time, after many trials, a two-thirds vote of the board was secured favorable to a submission of the question to a vote of the electors of the county. Following this action of the board, Supervisor J. T. Tolles of Geneva, offered the following resolution: "Whereas, this board has passed a resolution providing that the county seat of Van Buren County be moved from its present location, therefore: "Be it resolved, that the county seat of Van Buren County be removed from its present location to the village of South Haven, and this board does hereby designate the village of South Haven as the place to which it shall be removed." Supervisor Amos Benedict of Lawrence moved to amend the resolution by substituting Lawrence in the place of South Haven. Supervisor Howard Lobdell of Hartford moved to amend the proposed amendment by substituting Hartford in the place of Lawrence.

Page  137 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 137 Mr. Lobdell's amendment was lost by a tie vote, nine to nine; Mr. Benedict's motion shared the same fate by the same vote, and in that vote vanished the hope that Lawrence had cherished for sixty years, that some day she might become the county seat of Van Buren county. The board then proceeded to vote on the resolution of Supervisor Tolles providing that the county seat be removed to South Haven, which was adopted by a vote of twelve to six, exactly the required two-thirds. The vote by townships was as follows: Yeas-Supervisors Brown of Almena, Mitchell of Antwerp, Dillman of Bangor, Smith of Bloomingdale, Gaynor of Columbia, Lampson of Covert, Tolles of Geneva, Wildey of Paw Paw, Waber of Pine Grove, Cornish of Porter, French of South Haven and Chase of Waverly. Nays-Supervisors Monroe of Arlington, Squier of Decatur, Byers of Hamilton, Foster of Keeler, Benedict of Lawrence, and Lobdell of Hartford. It required the vote of the supervisor from Paw Paw to make the necessary two-thirds. His vote, like that of several others, was not cast in favor of the proposition, because he favored a removal from Paw Paw, but because he realized that the time had come when new buildings must be erected and when the people themselves must finally settle by their votes, beyond all further agitation, where the county seat should be located. Immediately following this action of the board, Supervisor Wildey offered a resolution providing "That there be submitted to the qualified electors of said county at the annual spring election to be held on the first Monday in April, A. D., 1901, the proposition to borrow on the faith and credit of the county and to issue its evidence of indebtedness therefor the sum of sixty thousand dollars, the proceeds to be used solely for the purpose of erecting a suitable building to be used as a court house, and a suitable building or buildings to be used and occupied as a county jail, and a suitable building or buildings to be used and occupied as a sheriff's residence in said county of Van Buren." This resolution was adopted by a vote of fourteen to four. Immediately the "county seat war" was on in earnest. Meetings were held in different localities, either favoring or opposing one or both of the propositions submitted; but the battle was fought largely through the columns of the public press. The two Paw Paw papers led the opponents of removal, while the South Haven papers took charge of the other side of the contest, and from then until the vote was taken there was no cessation of the battle. A majority of the newspapers of the county opposed the plan to remove the county buildings to South Haven, some of them because

Page  138 188 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY they wanted no change and others, perhaps, because they hoped if the proposition was defeated that "county seat lightning" night possibly strike their own town. During the three months that elapsed before the vote was taken, the county seat question was the principal topic of discussion and conversation throughout the county and also occupied the most prominent position in the columns of its newspapers. It was not expected when the proposition was submitted that any locality would be called upon to offer any pecuniary consideration to secure the location of the new court house, but South Haven was determined to win out if there was any possible chance, and Paw Paw was equally determined to retain what had been hers for more than sixty years, so neither of the contestants left anything undone that would tend to settle the fight in its own favor, and, as it chanced, the legislature of the state was in session, and so South Haven procured the passage of an act authorizing that township to issue bonds to an amount not exceeding fifty thousand dollars, "which shall be expended for the purchase of a site for and to aid in the construction of a court house and jail for the county of Van Buren, to be located in said township of South Ilaven, * * * provided that a majority of the electors of said township * * * shall vote in favor of the said loan in the manner specified in this act." Paw Paw realized that this move on the part of the enterprising lakeside village would be a body blow unless its effect could be counteracted, and so immediately secured the passage of a precisely similar act, except that Paw Paw was mentioned therein in place of South IIaven. South haven called a special election to be held on the 25th day of March, at which the question of issuing township bonds should be submitted to a vote of the people, and Paw Paw followed suit by calling an election for the same purpose to be held two days later. The result of the South Haven election was 765 votes in favor of bonding and 44 against the proposition. Paw Paw voted 587 for the bonds and 56 against. POPUI.AR VOTE FOR PAW PAW Immediately after this the battle waged hotter than ever. Each party accused the other of bluffing and of not intending to issue the bonds so voted. As the date of the election drew near (April Ist) the excitement increased and practically nothing else was heard but "county seat." The result was an overwhelming defeat for the $60,000 county bonding proposition, the majority

Page  139 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 139 against it being 2,797. The proposition to remove the county seat from Paw Paw was also defeated by a majority of 356 in a vote of 8,520, the largest vote ever polled in the county, either before or since. It is not likely that anybody's vote was challenged on that day. The vote in detail was as follows: Township. Yes. No. Almena.......................... 7 259 Antwerp........................ 174 415 Arlington........................ 186 147 Bangor.......................... 554 90 Bloomingdale................. 262 193 Columbia........................ 345 41 Covert........................... 359 30 Decatur..................... 106 400 Geneva.......................... 407 21 Hartford......................... 102 485 Hamilton....................... 20 183 Keeler........................... 65 176 Lawrence......................... 71 361 Porter........................... 17 230 Pine Grove...................... 147 263 Paw Paw........................ 13 841 South Haven....................1213 26 W averly......................... 33 277 Total vote.................4082 4438 As soon as possible after the result of the vote was known Paw Paw issued and negotiated $50,000 of bonds, and when the board of supervisors mlet on the 18th day of April to canvass the vote. the money was in the hands of the treasurer and was by him tendered to the board to aid in the construction of new county buildings at Paw Paw. The bonds having sold for a premium of $356.44, the town had more than fulfilled its financial pledge. After the canvass of the vote had been completed, Supervisor Chase of Waverly offered the following resolution, which was adopted by a vote of 12 to 6: "Whereas, the treasurer of Van Buren County has in his hands the sum of fifty thousand three hundred and sixty-six and 44-100 dollars donated by the township of Paw Paw for the purpose of purchasing a site and to aid in the construction of a court house, jail and sheriff's residence in the village of Paw Paw in said county, and '"Whereas, said buildings are necessary and essential and should be built by said county with all convenient speed; now therefore he it,

Page  140 140 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY "Resolved by the board of supervisors of Van Buren County at a session thereof held at the court house, on Thursday, the 18th day of April, A. D. 1901, that a site for such building be purchased and that a new, modern and commodious court house, jail and sheriff's residence be constructed and erected in said village of Paw Paw; that to carry out the provisions of this resolution said sum of money so offered and donated by the township of Paw Paw be accepted and placed to the credit of the county of Van Buren in a separate fund to be known and designated as the 'Court House construction fund.' A building committee was appointed with power to interview architects, and receive bids, plans and specifications for the proposed buildings. A resolution was presented and adopted providing that the board should not, in any case, use more that seventy-five thousand dollars, including the sum donated by the township of Paw Paw. This resolution was never rescinded, but a much larger sum wias expended. A special meeting of the board was held June 3d and 4th, 1901, at which several bids were received for the construction of the new county buildings, the lowest being that of George Rickman & Sons of Kalamazoo, for the sum of $54,500 for the court house and $22,700 for the jail and sheriff's residence, and the county clerk and building committee were authorized and instructed to enter into a contract with that firm for the construction of the proposed buildings according to the plans and specifications that had been placed on file in the office of the county clerk. A resolution was adopted by the board, reading in part as follows: Whereas. the building now occupied and used as a court house in and for Van Buren County, is no longer suitable for such purpose; now therefore: "Be it resolved by the board of supervisors of the county of Van Buren, that it is necessary to raise the sum of thirty-five thousand dollars in addition to the sum above mentioned (the money received from Paw Paw) and that the same be raised by a loan: "Be it further resolved, that there be submitted to the qualified electors of said county at a special election to be held on the 15th day of July, 1901, the proposition to borrow on the faith and credit of said county the sum of thirty-five thousand dollars, the proceeds to be used solely for the erection of a suitable building to be used as a court house and a suitable building or buildings to be used and occupied as a county jail and sheriff's residence in said county of Van Buren."

Page  141 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 141 NEW COUNTY BUILDINGS The board voted to purchase the block immediately south of the block on which the county buildings then stood as a site for the new court house and jail. This block was at the time almost entirely occupied by residences and is the same block upon which the old buildings were first ordered to be located soume sixty years before. This site cost the county about $10,000. The board again met on the 24th day of June, 1901, at which action was taken looking to the condemnation of certain private property on the newly designated site for the conveyance of which the committee and the owners had failed to come to an agreement. Again, on the 29th day of July the board met for the purpose of canvassing the vote of the special election on tile county bonding question and ascertained that the proposition to issue $35,000 of county bonds had carried by the following vote: Yes, 1,355; No, 1,097. The result of this vote placed a little more than $85,000 in the building fund. COURT HOUSE CORNER-STONE LAID The corner-stone of the new court house was laid with appropriate ceremonies on the second day of September. 1901, and was attended by a large concourse of people from all parts of the county. No event in the history of the county is more worthy to be preserved in its annals than the laying of that corner-stone. The following is a full and complete report of the ceremonies of the day as contained in the report of the building committee made to the board of supervisors one week thereafter: "Gentlemen- Your building committee beg leave to submit the following report: In accordance with the resolution submitted by Supervisor French and passed by the board of supervisors on June 25th A. D. 1901, your chairman appointed the following executive committee to make the necessary arrangements for the laying of the corner stone of the new court house: Executive Committee.-R. W. Broughton, E. F. Parks, B. F. Heckert, T. J. Cavanaugh, M. O. Rowland. Soon after the appointment of said committee we conferred with the contractors, Messrs. George Rickman Sons & Co., to ascertain the date upon which the building would be ready fcr the corner stone ceremony. Being assured that labor day, Sept. 2, would be a convenient time and the earliest date they could safely name, said date was accepted and agreed upon as the day for said ceremony. The executive committee appointed the following sub-committees and began active preparations for the proper observance and celebration of said day. Reception Commiittee-W. J. Thomas, L. H. Titus, Daniel Spicer, 1. B. (Conner, B. F. Warner, W. J. Sellick, J. H. Johnson, G. W. Longwell, 0. W. Rowland, H. A. Cole, C. W. Young, C. R. Avery, John Marshall, J. M:. Longwell, F. B. Ocobock, J. C. Warner, Wm. Butler, A. C. Martin.

Page  142 142 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Business Committee-Geo. M. Harrison, E. B. Longwell, E. F. Parks. Committee on Archives —F. N. Wakeman, J. W. Free, J. C. Maxwell, C. S. Maynard, H. L. McNeil, W. F. Hoyt, L. W. Curtiss, C. E. Thompson. Decoration Committee-David Anderson, M. D. Buskirk, W. R. Sellick, H. C. Waters, W. L. Miller, Elmer Downing. Arrangement Committee-Wm. Killefer, R. A. Shoesmnith, A. H. Dodge. Transportation Committee-I. Jay Cumings, J. D. Holmes, H. W. Showerman, D. H. Patterson, W. H. Longwell. Entertainment Committee-W. C. Y. Ferguson, J. A. O'Leary, E. S. Briggs. Music Committee-J. F. Taylor, W. J. Barnard, E. A. Aseltine. The Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Michigan were invited to lay the corner stone of the building which invitation was accepted by Mr. Frank 0. Gilbert, grand master. Hon. Frank T. Lodge of Detroit was engaged to deliver the address for the occasion. The Peninsula Commandery Knights Templar of Kalamazoo, all organized societies of the county and citizens in general were invited to be present and assist in the exercises of the day, which invitation was accepted. On Monday, September 2, A. D. 1901, at half past one o'clock in the afternoon, the various societies that took part in the parade assembled at the school house park and there awaited the arrival of the Peninsular Commanidery Knights Templar, of Kalamazoo. On the arrival of the said commandery the parade started at once and proceeded over the course previously arranged and from thence directly to the court house grounds where a vast crowd was assembled and the Grand Lodge of F. & A. M. of Michigan, proceeded to lay the corner stone with the following ceremonies: The Grand Marshal commanded silence as follows: "In the name of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the state of Michigan I do now command all persons here assembled to keep silence and to observe due order and decorum during the ceremonies. This proclamation I make that each and every person may govern himself accordingly."' Mr. T. J. Cavanaugh invited the Grand Master in these appropriate words to lay the corner stone: "Most Worshipful Grand Master-The people of this county have undertaken to erect on the place where we now stand an edifice to be devoted to the uses of the county. We hope it may long serve the purposes for which it is being constructed; that strength and beauty may adorn all its parts, and wisdom continually go forth from within its walls to enlighten the community. On behalf of those engaged in its erection I now most respectfully request that you lay the corner stone thereof according to the forms and ceremonies of your ancient and honorable fraternity." Grand Master: —"From time immemorial it has been the custom of Free Masons to join their operative brethren upon occasions such as this, and to lay with fitting ceremonies the corner stones of important public buildings. "In accordance with that custom we accept your invitation so graciously given. We have assembled our Grand Lodge in special communication for that purpose and will now proceed to lay this foundation stone according to ancient Masonic usage. ''One of the first lessons which Free Masonry teaches is that in all our work, great or small, begun or finished, we should first seek the aid of Almighty God. It is therefore our first duty upon this present occasion to ask the

Page  143 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 143 aid of the Supreme Architect of the Universe upon the undertakings in which we are now about to engage and request that everyone present will unite with our grand chaplain in an address to the Throne of Grace.'' Grand Chaplain:-"Let us Pray. Almighty God who hath given us grace at this time, with one accord, to make our common supplication unto Thee, we most heartily beseech Thee to behold with favor and bless this assemblage. Pour down thy mercies like the dew that falls upon the mountains upon thy servants engaged in the solemn ceremonies of this day. Help us wisely and well to do the work assigned to us, and may this corner stone, be safely deposited in its allotted place. Well and fittingly may it be laid. "May there be erected upon it a structure worthy of the purpose it is designed to fill and may this building so auspiciously begun progress to its completion under Thy gracious care. As to-day with exultant hearts we lay its corner stone, so with ever heightening joy may we witness its progress until safely and happily the top-most stone shall be laid and those who work and those who behold shall rejoice together in its completion. Bless, we pray Thee, all the workmen who shall be engaged in its erection; keep them from all forms of accident and of harm and grant them in health and prosperity to live. Fulfill the desire of all Thy servants as may be most expedient for them, granting unto all of us in this work, knowledge of the truth, and in the world to come everlasting life. Amen." Response by brethren:- So mote it be." The Grand Marshal introduced the chairnan of the building committee as follows: "Most Worshipful Grand Master, I now present W. C. Wildey; chairman of the building committee to whose hands has been intrusted the work of erecting this building. " The chairman of the building committee then addressed the Grand Master as 'follows: "Most Worshipful Sir:-The Committee charged with preparing the foundation stone for this building have completed that part of their labors and it is now ready to be made the chief foundation stone of this building." Grand Master:-"It has ever been the custom to deposit within the cavity in corner stones, certain memorials of the period at which the building was erected, so that in the lapse of ages, if the fury of the elements or the slow but certain ravages of time should lay bare its foundation, an enduring record may be found by succeeding generations to bear testimony to the industry, energy and culture of our time. "Have you prepared any articles to be deposited in this stone? If so, please present them and a copy thereof. " W. C. Wiley:-"Most Worshipful Sir: They are safely sealed within this box and here is a list of them." Grand Master: —" Right Worshipful Grand Secretary, you will read the list. '' Grand Secretary:-" Most Worshipful Grand Master, with your permission I will cause the list to be published without reading as it is somewhat lengthy and the hour is late. " Grand Master:- "Right Worshipful Grand Treasurer, assisted by the Grand Deacons you will deposit this box in the stone and may Almighty God in His wisdom grant that ages and ages shall pass away ere it shall again be seen by men." Grand Treasurer:-"' Most Worshipful Grand Master, your orders have been duly executed.''

Page  144 144 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY The box which was at this time placed in the corner stone, was a small copper box, six by six by ten inches, securely sealed and containing the following articles to-wit: 1 Holy Bible. 2 United States flag. 3 True Northerner, date Aug. 30, 1901. 4 Free Press & Courier, date Aug. 22, 1901. 5 Morning Sentinel, date Aug. 29, 1901. 6 South Haven Sentinel, date July 22, 1899. 7 South Haven Messenger, date Aug. 23, 1901. 8 Weekly Tribune, date Aug. 23, 1901. 9 Daily Tribune, date Aug. 30, 1901. 10 Bangor Advance, date Aug. 30, 1901. 11 Van Buren Co. Visitor, date Aug. 30, 1901. 12 Hartford Day Spring, date Aug. 28, 1901. 13 People's Alliance, date Aug. 29, 1901. 14 Lawrence Times, date Aug. 30, 1901. 15 Decatur Republican, date Aug. 29, 1901. 16 Bloomingdale Leader, date Aug. 23, 1901. 17 Lawton Leader, date Aug. 30, 1901. 18 Gobleville News, date Aug. 23, 1901. 19 List of officers Grand Lodge F. & A. M. of Michigan. 20 Autograph letters from President McKinley's private secretary, Vice President Theodore Roosevelt, Governor Aaron T. Bliss, Senator James McMillan, Senator Julius C. Burrows and Congressman Edward L. Hamilton. 21 Proceedings of first board of supervisors in Van Buren county, May 27th, 1837. 22 Proceedings of first term of circuit court in Van Buren county June 6th, 1837. 23 List of first county officers in Van Buren county, April, 1837. 24 Copy of first marriage recorded in Van Buren county, George L. Reynolds to Rebecca Luke, by D. O. Dodge, justice of the peace, July 24, 1836. 25 Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Peter Gremps who came to Paw Paw in 1833. Mr. Gremps was one of the founders of Paw Paw, its first merchant and first post-master. 26 Sketch of county buildings, old and new. 27 Official canvass of vote for November election, 1900. 28 Election returns by townships for November, election, 1900. 29 Proceedings of board of supervisors, October, 1900 and January, 1901. 30 List of jurors for September term of court, 1901. 31 Standing committee of board of Supervisors for year 1901. 32 Picture of old court house and county buildings. 33 Circuit court calendar, September term, 1901. 34 List of state officers, senators, representatives in congress, and members of Michigan state legislature for 1901-2. 35 List of county officers for state of Michigan for years 1901-2. 36 List of township officers in Van Buren county, 1901. 37 List of village officers in Van Buren county, 1901. 38 List of qualified teachers in Van Buren county, 1901. 39 Autographs of Van Buren county officials, deputies, clerks, etc., 1901. 40 Autographs of village officers of Paw Paw, 1901. 41 List of officers Decatur Hive No. 540, L. O. T. M.

Page  145 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 145 List of officers Lawton Hive No. 427, L. O. T. I. List 4f officers Paw Paw Hive 418, L. O. T. M. 42 List 4f officers Decatur lodge No. 112, K. of P. List c f officers Vienna lodge No. 48, K. of P. List cf officers Maple Grove lodge No. 198, K. of P. 43 List cf officers Edwin Colwell Post No. 23, G. A. R. List 4f officers A L.incoln Post No. 19, G. A. R. List of officers Brodhead Post No. 31, G. A. R. List of officers L. C. Woodman Post No. 196, G. A. R. 44 List of officers Lacota lodge No. 33, T. O. O. F. List of officers Paw Paw lodge No. 18, 1. 0. O. F. List of officers Paw Paw Encampment No. 30, I. 0. O. F. List of officers Fidelity Rebekah lodge No. 70, I. O. O. F. List of officers Hartford Rebekah lodge, I. O. O. F. List of officers Lawton lodge No. 83, I. 0. O. F. 45 List 4of officers Lawton Chapter No. 246, 0. E. S. List of officers Bloomingdale Chapter No. 185, 0. E. S. List of officers Acacia Chapter No. 211, 0. E. S. List of officers Paw Paw Chapter, O. E. S. 46 List of officers L. C. Woodman, W. R. C. List of officers Hartford, W. R. C. List of officers Ellsworth No. 46, W. R. C. 47 List of officers Hartford Division Court No. 29, Patricians. List of officers Paw Paw Court No. 33, Patricians. List of officers Lawrence Division Court No. 131, Patricians. 48 List of officers Van Buren county, W. C. T. U. 49 List of officers Bangor Grange No. 60, P. of H. List of officers Van Buren county Pomona Grange No. 18, P. of H. 50 Rising Sun Lodge No. 119, F. & A. M. Paw Paw Lodge No. 25, F. & A. M. Paw Paw Chapter No. 34, R. A. M. Lawrence Chapter, R. A. M. 51 So. Haven Lodge, A. O. U. W. Paw Paw lodge No. 37, A. O. U. W. 52 Lawrence Camp No. 3219, M. W. A. Paw Paw Camp No. 3103, M. W. A. 53 So. Haven tent, K. 0. T. M. Paw Paw tent No 108, K. O. T. M. Lawton tent No. 307, K. O. T. M. 54 Glendale camp, R. N. A. Maple camp No. 36, R. N. A. 55 List of officers and number of members of the Free Will Baptist church of Van Buren County. List of officers and number of members of M. E. Church of Paw Paw. List of officers and number of members of M. E. Church of Mattawan. List of officers and number of members of M. E. Sunday school of Mattawan. 56 Iist of members of Lawton school board. Annual of Lawrence public schools, 190(1-2. Teachers of Covert public schools, 1901-2. Announcement of Paw Paw public schools, 1901-2. List of teachers of Hamilton township. 57 Historical notes of Lawrence township. vol. r — 1 o

Page  146 146 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 58 Program of Up-to-date Farmers club. 59 Program of Farmers Association. 60 Roster Lafayette Light Guard. 61 Corner stone poster program. 62 Officers of Van Buren County Pioneer Association. 63 Copy of Patrician August, 1901. 64 List of Corner stone celebration committees. 65 Copy of Michigan Manual for year 1901. 66 Copy proceedings Michigan Grand lodge I. O. O. F. for 1900. 67 Copy McClure's Magazine for Sept., 1901. 68 Copy Cosmopolitan for Sept.. 1901. 69 List of Coins as follows: Copper cent date 1847. Ancient copper penny. Three-cent piece date 1852. One-cent piece (date 1899. Five-cent piece date 1901. Ten-cent piece date 1900. Twenty-five cent piece date 1898. 70 List of postage stamps as follows: 1 cent, 2 cent, 3 cent, 4 cent, 5 cent, 6 cent, 8 cent, 10 cent and 15 cent. Pan-American Postage stamps: 1 cent, 2 cent, 5 cent. U. S. Revenue stamps, 1 cent, 2 cent, 5 cent. 71 Names of architect, contractors, and mechanics employed on new court house. 72 List of articles deposited in corner stone. The craftsmen, under direction of the Grand Marshal brought forth the cement, a portion of which was spread upon the stone by the Grand Master and the "'Public grand honors " were given by the grand officers. Grand Master:- 'Almighty and Eternal God, maker of all things, grant that whatsoever shall be builded upon this stone shall be builded to Thy honor and the glory of Thy name to which be praise forever more. Amen." Grand Master:-" Worshipful Grand Architect, present your working tools. ' " Grand Marshal, you will present these working tools to the proper officers. ' This being done the Grand Master addressed the grand officers as follows: Grand Master:-"Deputy Grand Master, what is the proper implement of your office " Deputy Grand Master:-" The square." Grand Master:-"What are its moral and Masonic uses?" Deputy Grand Master:-"To square our actions by the square of virtue and prove our work." Grand Master:-" Apply the square to that foundation stone and make report. ' The deputy grand master received the square from the grand master, tried the stone and reported: " Most Worshipful Grand Master, I find the stone to be square. The craftsmen have performed their duty. Grand Master:-"Senior Grand Warden what is the proper implement of your office?" Senior Grand Warden:-" The level." Grand Master:- What are its moral and Masonic usesT"

Page  147 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 147 Senior Grand Warden:-" Morally it teaches equality and we use it to lay horizontals. ' Grand Master:-' 'Apply the level to this foundation stone and make report." Senior Grand Warden, received the level from the Grand Master, tried top of stone and reported: "Most Worshipful Grand Master, I find this stone to be level. The craftsmen have performed their duty." Grand Master:-"Junior Grand Warden, what is the proper implement of your office?' Junior Grand Warden:- The plumb." Grand Master:-"What are its moral and Masonic uses?" Junior Grand Warden:-" Morally it teaches rectitude of conduct. We use it to lay perpendiculars."' Grand Master: —"Apply the plumb to the several edges of this foundation stone and make report." Junior Grand Warden received the plumb from the Grand Master, tried sides of stone and reported. "I find the stone to be plumb. The craftsmen have performed their duty." Grand Master: —"This stone has been tested by the proper implements of Masonry. I find that the craftsmen have faithfully and skillfully performed their duty, and I do declare the stone to be well formed square, level and plumb; and correctly laid according to the rules of our ancient order. Let the elements of consecration be now presented." The Grand Marshal presented the vessel of corn to the Deputy Grand Master, the wine to the Senior Grand Warden and the oil to the Junior Grand Warden, each of whom advanced separately to the stone consecrating it as follows:Deputy Grand Master:- "I scatter this corn as an emblem of plenty. May the blessings of bounteous Heaven be showered upon this and all like patriotic and benevolent undertakings and inspire the hearts of the people with virtue, wisdom and gratitude. Amen." Senior Grand Warden: —"I pour this wine as an emblem of joy and gladness, may the Great Ruler of the Universe bless and prosper our national, state and city governments, preserve the union of the states and may it be a bond of friendship and brotherly love that shall endure through all time. Amen." Junior Grand Warden:- "I pour this oil as an emblem of peace. May its blessings abide with us continually and may the Grand Master of Heaven and Earth shelter and protect the widow and orphan, shield and defend them from the trials and vicissitudes of the world and so bestow His mercy upon the bereaved, the afflicted and the sorrowing that they may know sorrow and trouble no more. Amen." Grand Master:-" May the All Bounteous Author of Nature benevolently bless the inhabitants of this place with the necessaries, comforts and conveniences of life, assist in the erection and completion of this building, protect the workmen against every accident; long preserve the structure from decay, and grant to all of us a bountiful supply of the corn of nourishment, the wine of refreshment and the oil of joy." Response of the Brethren:-' So Mote it Be.'' The Grand Master being in his place the Grand Marshal presented the architect as follows: "Most Worshipful Grand Master, I now present to you the architect of this

Page  148 148 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY building. He is ready with craftsmen for the work and asks the tools for his task.'' The Grand Master then gave him the square, level, plumb, and plan of the building saying: ''Having as Grand Master of Masons, laid the corner stone of this structure, I with pleasure return to you, your working tools and confide to your hands the plan of this building. Labor on, my brother, in this task and be blest in your work. May there be wisdom in the plans, strength in the execution and beauty in the adornment and when completed, may there be wisdom within its walls to enlighten, strength to encourage and support its rulers and the beauty of holiness to adorn their work." Grand Master: —" Men and Brethren here assembled, Be it known unto you that we be lawful Masons true and faithful to the laws of our country and engaged by solemn obligations to erect magnificent buildings to be serviceable to all men and to love God, the Great Creator of the Universe. We have among us certain secrets which cannot be divulged, but which are lawful and honorable and not repugnant to the laws of God or man. They were intrusted in peace and harmony to our ancient brethren and having been faithfully transmitted by them it is now our duty to convey them unimpared to the latest posterity. Unless our craft was good and our calling honorable, we should not have lasted for so many centuries, nor should we have been honored by the patronage of so many illustrious men in all ages who are ever ready to protect our interests and defend us against any adversary. We are assembled to-day to lay the corner stone of a building, which we pray God, may deserve to prosper by becoming a place of concourse for good men and promoting peace and brotherly love throughout the world until time shall be no more. Amen." '' Worshipful Grand Marshal, make your proclamation.'' Grand Marshal:-"In the name of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Michigan, I proclaim that this corner stone has this day been found to be square, level and plumb and has been laid in ample and ancient form by most worshipful Frank O. Gilbert, Grand Master of Masons according to the ancient custom of the ancient craft. " Hon. B. F. Heckert presented to the Grand Master on behalf of Paw Paw Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, a handsome silver trowel bearing the following inscription: "Presented to Frank O. Gilbert, Grand Master F. & A. M. at the laying of the corner stone September 2d, A. D. 1901, from Paw Paw Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star." Mr. Heckert in making the presentation spoke as follows: ''Most Worshipful Grand Master, the pleasing duty of speaking for the Paw Paw Chapter of the Order of Eastern Star, on this occasion has been assigned to me. "The time has come in the history of our ancient and honorable institution, when the sisters of this order occupy no unimportant position. While they are not admitted to seats of our council chamber and are not invested with the unwritten work of the order, yet they are recognized by the several grand bodies of masons throughout our country as valuable auxiliaries. "Their intelligence, sympathy and affection are fully enlisted in behalf of our fraternity and their earnest efforts have contributed no small part to the growth and present prosperous condition of the subordinate lodges throughout the masonic jurisdiction, over which you have the honor to preside. "They appreciate in a large degree the objects and aims of our order, and

Page  149 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 149 are proud of the dlistinction conferre(l upon them in being grafted as scions onto the trunk of the ancient tree of Masonry, whose spreading branches have extended and grownl until they overhang the civilized worldl. "As a slight token of this appreciation and to signify in a small degree the honor they feel by your presence here to-day they have delegated me to present to you this silver trowel, with the hope that from your commanding position in the order, you will use it in spreading liberally the cement of brotherly love. W.hen you depart from this place you will bear with you not only the best wishes of the chapter of this order but of the whole community for the memorable services y),u have rendered here to-day, and the honor which you have conferre(l upon the people and this entire county. Accept this as a token of our appreciation of your presence here to-day rand the valuable services you have rendered us." The Granld Mastrer replied as follows: "My )ear Brother, I realize thle honor conferred uipon myself anrl Iln1 brother grand officers in being invitel to lparticipate in the ceremonies of lasing the corner stone of this court house andl we deem it still more (of an honor because it is in the home of our honoredl anal respected Senior (rand Warden where we have all wanted to come. "I accept this little token from the sisters of the Eastern Star, and, by tho way, I might say T am a member of the Eastern Star-and will treasure it as long as anything that 1 have in my possession in a masonic line and I would simply (lelegate you, my brother, to pay my honest respects to the sicters of this chapter oil my behalf, if you will be so kind. ' The Grand Marshal introduced the Hon. Frank T. Lodge of Detroit, as orator of the (ay, who in an eloquent manner delivered a masterly address as follows: Mr. Chairiman, Ladies (tand Gc'ntleieno:-The interesting ceremnonies of this occasion have been important only as types and symbols. From a material standpoint, the stone we,have just laid is no different from any other of the many stones which will become a part of this beautiful building. To the materialist's eye, it will not be even so important as the keystone in the entrance which binds the whole arch into one beautiful. stable curve, upon which may be safely laid the great weight of the stately walls. But, to tlhe finer, keener eye of the mind. this granite block is the chief stone of the building. It shapes and determines the character of the whole fabric, and the imlposing structure will take its entire tone an(l significance from this. its "chief corner stone." It is, then most appropriate, when the time has come for this important part of the chief public building of this great county to be placed iln its permanent position, that its layving should be marked with pub}lic (' ceremonials, that the citizens of tllis community should witness those ceremnonies, that the finer, spiritual tilings for which this corner stone stands should be publiely mentioned, that souvenirs indicative of the (charatcter of this age and historical memorials of this occasion should be deposited in this secure hiding place, to be transmitted to future generations, and that the lessons of this occasion should be recounted for our entertainment andl instruction. For these reasons those who have charge of ceremonies have endeavored to secure the attendance of as large a number of the citizens of this county as possible; and,( it is a fortunate coincidence t lat they invited to lay the corner stone of this temple, wherein justice is to be imnpartially a(lministered to rich and poor alike, the great Fraternity of equality. which is the oldlest institution of organized labor in the world, that those representing the first class of laborers, the tillers of the soil. should be present in such large numbers, and that these cere.

Page  150 150 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY monies should be celebrated on the day which has been set apart by law as a legal holiday, devoted to the interests of the great hosts of labor in this commonwealth. The building whose corner stone we lay to day will be one of the choicest products of the skill of the operative workman. The public spirit of this flourishing county will demand of the builders their choicest handiwork. Here will be found the cunning tracery of the artist. The finest stones of the quarry, the polished woods of the forest, the choice products of the loom, will be wrought by skillful hands, into its fabric, that it may be worthy of the wealth and munificence of the community which it represents. It is fitting, then that its chief corner stone should be laid with appropriate ceremonies by the great Fraternity, which was framed, reared and dedicated by its founders to the great work of building. The first Masons were operative workmen-builders, manual users of the Plumb, Square and Level. In the dim, traditional past, the world's greatest and most imposing architectural piles were built by our ancient brethren. One of our first known Grand Masters, Sir Christopher Wren, was the father of English architecture, and in the stone cutter's sheds around the splendid monument to his memory-St. Paul's Cathedral in London-the operative workmen formed the first of the modern Masonic lodges. Since then the progress of our art has developed as from operative unto speculative Masons. From toiling workmen, handling the actual tools of the Mason's craft, we have become laborers in a spiritual field, using the workmen 's tools as symbols of moral truths. The buildings we now erect are human characters; the temples we now build are the temples of the soul. The plans we draw, the specifications we construct, are to be good men and true, in the State to be quiet and peaceful subjects, true to our government and just to our country; not countenancing disloyalty nor rebellion, but patiently submitting to legal authority, and conforming with cheerfulness to the government of the country in which we live. Our tenets are obedience to God, fairness and loyalty to our brothers, and just care for our bodies and souls. It is these things that make good citizens, and wherever men have banded themselves together for the accomplishment of these lofty aims, the moral tone of that community has received sensible uplift. The modern representatives of this ancient association of laborers across the great gulf which separates the venerable past from the youthful, vigorous present, join hands in fraternal greeting with the hosts of operative laborers on this, labor's festal day, and ask that together we con the lessons of this occasion. What do these ceremonies mean? for what does this corner stone stand? What will be the future of the building which we have launched to-day? To no one else is the even handed, impartial, unbiased, inexpensive and equitable administration of the law so important as to the workingman, the members of the great middle classes. His sole capital and stock in trade is his hands and his brains. He has absolutely no time to cultivate friendship among judges, jurymen and other court officers. His duties are onerous and exacting; they keep him at work in the factory, the foundry and the workshop during business hours; the nature of his occupation is such as to engross his entire attention and prevent him from learning the arts by which the verdicts of juries are manipulated and the opinions of judges biased. When the misfortunes of life force him into court, his cases are relatively insignificant in amount compared with the vastly larger sum over which the business men and the capitalist litigate. But to him these small amounts are even more im

Page  151 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 151 portant than the larger sums of the capitalist, for they represent all that he has in the world. His cases are about exemptions of household goods from execution, the protection from garnishment of his small weekly earnings, the loss of which means starvation to himself and family; or the settlement of a dispute between himself and his landlord as to the tenure upon which he holds the house he calls his home. And the saying is a true one, that the workingman's lawsuit is located very close to the fibers of his heart. His scanty earnings will not permit him to employ the skillful and highpriced leaders of the bar to defend his interests in court; and unless the judge upon the bench is clear-sighted, broadminded and impartial, unless the jurymen in the box are absolutely honest, fearless and unbiased, the justice which the workingman invokes when he goes into court, is but a mockery, the bitter Dead Sea fruit, the unsubstantial apples of Sodom which turn to ashes in his grasp. No one, then, is more deeply interested in making and keeping the administration of justice absolutely honest and impartial than is the workingman, the poor man, the farmer, the member of the great middle classes. Now, the theory of the law is absolutely perfect, and that theory deserves the highest encomiums which the greatest thinkers and scholars of every age have paid it. Some of the choicest gems of ancient classic literature are the beautiful diction in which the sages of the past have eulogized the perfection of municipal law. But we live in a practical age. We care nothing for fine spun, elegant theories, unless the practical reality corresponds with them, and we ask ourselves, "Does to-day's practical administration of the law deserve the high praise which has been paid it in the past?'" And to this question every practicing lawyer, no matter how optimistic, must answer with an unqualified negative. In every court room in this land, it frequently happens that men either forget their solemn oath to testify to the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth or else intentionally violate that oath. How many witnesses lose sight of every one of the three parts of the oath, and wilfully refuse to tell either the truth, the whole truth or nothing but the truth. How many even conscientious witnesses, on cross examination, bear in mind only the first injunction of the oath, to tell the truth, but do not tell the whole truth, unless a skillful cross-examiner, armed with a perfect knowledge of every detail of the transaction, forces the whole truth from their unwilling lips. How many witnesses, while telling the truth, evade the last part of the oath, to tell nothing but the truth, and so shade and color the truth to suit the purpose of their side of the case as to totally distort and pervert their entire testimony. There was a time when judges of the courts delighted to call to their aid expert witnesses to help them in the great task of establishing the exact truth in matters which were in controversy before them, but to-day the courts of last resort have taken judicial notice of the fact that the expert witness is too often nothing more nor less than the paid attorney for the side on which he is called; that he too often expresses not facts and opinions, but arguments under oath, suppressing those facts and opinions that are unfavorable and exaggerating those that are favorable to his side; that his entire testimony is too often not a lucid exposition and explanation of complicated, scientific facts, but a cunning, sophistical perversion of the truth regarding those facts. Then, again, the defects of our present jury system have become a crying evil, which is deplored by every class of citizens. Theoretically, the jury system is well nigh perfect. It recognizes that judges on the bench, whose sole occupation it is to hear cases, and who are withdrawn from the every day walk of life, are very apt to fall into a rut, to have incomplete knowledge of

Page  152 152 HISTORY OF VAN BUIREN COUNTY practical affairs, to have warped and distorted ideas where the practical man of affairs would have more just views. For this reason the jury system takes men for short periods from different walks of life, and asks them to bring to the decision of the matters in controversy before them their practical knowledge of similar affairs. These jurymen bring to the discharge of their (duty the ardor and freshness of men who are dealing with new experiences, and are then dismissed before the monotony of constant reiteration has palled upon thelm anld dulled their keen perception of the little things which go so far toward indicating the truth or falsity of testimony. It requires that they must be kept free from any acquaintance with the parties, their attorneys, or the facts in dispute. which would in any way bias their verdict, and theoretically, no better system could be devised for administering justice imnpartially, in the decision of questions of fact, than the jury system. Yet, today, this splendid system theoretically, as it is practically carried out, is a shame and a scoff to those who know it best. Ignorart men are frequently, more frequently in large cities than in an intelligent community like this —but nevertheless drawn upon our juries, who while they may have political influence with their ignorant fellows which makes the placing of them upon the jury panel a shrewd political move, yet they are unable to fairly understand either the testimony of the witnesses, or the arguments of the lawyers, much less making a righteous decision of the ease. Again, too many jurors are easily susceptible to artful appeals to passion or prejudice, and many a shrewd lawyer has won his case by throwing aside argument, losing sight of facts, disregarding reason, and simply inflaming the passions and prejudices of the jurors, while the jurors forgetting that they were impartially to decide the cases submitted to them upon the law and the evidence, have rendered grossly unjust verdicts. Again, in our large cities, many a juror has added to the faults of ignorance and prejudice the absolute crime of dishonesty. In sonime of our larger cities, it soon becomes known to the lawyers who have many cases at the bar that certain jurors are for sale, and that their verdicts may be secured for a consideration. Certain classes of corporations which have much business in the courts have, naturally enough, made it their business to learn the characteristics of every man who has been drawn as a juryman, and those who are interested notice that the cases against those corporations which are tried at the first of the term are decided partly for and partly against those corporations, as one would naturally expect in such cases, while it has become proverbial that towards the last of each term, after the agents of these parties have had opportunities to become acquainted with the jurymen, these same corporations win every case that is submitted to certain jurors and soon after the term of court ends certain of the members of these same juries receive lucrative situations from those same corporations. I may go one step further and say that, in a few cases, judges are elected to the bench who forget that their duty is to stand out fearlessly against publie opinion when the public opinion is at variance with the principles of law and equity, and whose decisions of certain cases are biased by the effect which those decisions will have upon their political future.. Then, too, charges of corruption in legislative halls are now-a-days so common as to cause no special comment. And in certain communities it is as much as a high-minded honest and honorable man's reputation is worth to become interested in politics and become a member of a city council or a state legislature. No one who is familiar with legislative assemblies can truthfully deny that the legislature is subjected to a fierce fire of temptation and cor

Page  153 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 153 ruption, which requires heroic virtue successfully to withstand, andl many a law is upon our statute books and must be administered in our courts whose enactment has been purchased by a special class influence using the arts of the lobbyist and the corruptionist in legislative halls. Now, all of these evils mean trouble for the future unless tllhey re successfully reme(lied. That man was never yet cheated, who knew lie was lcheated, and yet was perfectly satisfied. That man was never yet defeated in a lawsuit, who felt please(l a1nI colll}ilaceiit when hle was absolutely cert:in that his defeat was due to ia lishoiest jury or a weak, incoipletelit or dishonest judge. The instinct for fair plla has been planted by the Go(l of Justice deep in the heart of every ni:l. no matter lhow mean his station or humble his rank. and lwhien the instinct is tlhwarted, w-lien the body of our citizenship are fully aware tlat there is dislhonesty in courts and legislative halls, tle punishmnent will be swift and it will be effective. It takes the people a long time to become thoroughly arousel. but -wlen once the common sense of tlie whole community is aroused, something must give away. Public opinion is slow in action, but swift in executiion. It breathed upon the crime of slavery, and slavery vanisihed like a foul mist before tile King of Day. It suffered long under the misrule of Boss Tweed andl his cohorts in New York; but. one day, it arose in its might andl the King of the Metropolis dies disgraced, in fetters in a felon's cell. Now, my friends, I am not here on this great day of rejoicing to drape your.horizon in black; to give you pessimistic views of things, but we are here to take note of the future, to see how that future may be brightened, to make our generation better than any generation ever was before, and we can only (ldo this by discovering where are our weak points and how they may be strengthened; and. on this occaision, when we are laying the corner stone of a new Temple of Justice, it seenis to me the best and most important lesson is to see in what respect our judicial system may be strengthened and improved. Now, if you have thoughtfully considered eac.h one of the evils I have recounted to you, vou will have noticel the trouble has been, not with the system, but with the persons by whom that system must be worked out. Our system of giving evidlence in court, thle oath which is administered to the witness, andl the punishment prescribedl for per'jury, are all the best than ca n be devised. The trouble is with the persins who take the oath and wllo violate it, with the dishonest, litigants anil lawyers who suborn those witnesses to swear falsely, with the weak andl incomlpetenlt prosecuting attorneys and juuiges who fail to lpunish perijurers when their perjury is palpably apparent. The jury system is perfetct in theory; the trouble is with the jury com-l imissioniers and other like officers who put igniorant and lishonest lmen upon the Ialnels; withl the judges who allow these ignorant or dishonest mien to sit as ijurors; with the jurors who are swayed by passion and prejudice( or who take bribes as the price of their verdicts; with the dishonest litigants who offer those bribes, either directly or indirectly; with the prosecuting attorneys and julges, to whom these indicationls of bribery are so manifest, and yet who weakly refuse to set in motion the grand jury, or other means provided by law for punishing dishonesty. Our system of electing legislators, and passing laws is perhaps as good as can be dlevised; the trouble is with the d!ishonest legislators, and those vwho corrupt them, and with the weak and incompetent judges and prosecuting attorneys who fail to investigate cases where bribery is suspected. The fault is not with the system, but with the persons who abuse the system; and the lesson to you and me, my friends, on this momentous occasion, is not, how shall

Page  154 154 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY we reform the systems, but how shall we reform the persons, to whom we entrust the carrying out of these systems? This can only be done by the aggressive, persistent action of every honest man and every honest woman. So long as the dollar is deified and no questions are asked as to how that dollar has been acquired, so long as success is worshipped and men's eyes are tightly closed to the means by which that success has been attained, just so long will unscrupulous men continue to do the wicked things which we deplore. There is no force, save that of Diety Himself, which is so potent as that of enlightened determined public opinion. Thrones have crumbled before it; statutes and constitutions derive their binding force from its powerful sanction. It will cleanse public places when, without it, press and pulpit may plead in vain for the cleansing. To it, when thoroughly inspired with earnest purpose, the greatest autocrat must bend the suppliant knee. From it, when inflamed with righteous wrath, the most strongly intrenched political scoundrel will flee in trembling haste. Suppose the glib perjurer should be arrested on a bench warrant for his perjury as soon as he leaves the witness stand, and should be brought to speedy trial for his false swearing. Do you think he or those who knew of his case would repeat the offense? Suppose the suborner of perjury should be brought to swift and sure punishment. Would not the subornation of perjury soon become a very unpopular method of winning lawsuits? Suppose the weak judge and the spineless prosecuting attorney realized that their constituents were watching their failure to prosecute, and that those constituents despised them for it, and would show their disapproval in no uncertain tones at the next election. Would not the official be speedily rendered more ardent? Suppose that the members of legislative bodies should feel that every suspicious vote would be examined by a watchful constituency, that any suspicion of bribery would be promptly examined by the proper authorities and that criminal prosecutions would be instituted should there be a fair prospect of conviction. Suppose they were given to understand that their official record was as fragile as a woman's reputation, and that the slightest breath of suspicion would blast it forever. Would there not be a speedy stiffening up of official backbone and a sudden and tremendous awakening of official consciences? I tell you, my friends, the men and women of every community have its official honesty and ability in their own keeping. If every man, by his voice and by his vote, should sternly rebuke official wrongdoing wherever he sees it, and, besides, should vigilantly scrutinize the official action of the public servants to see whether it meets his conscientious approval; if every woman, instead of blindly worshipping the possessors of wealth, should closely scrutinize the methods by which that wealth has been acquired, if she should refuse to honor with her friendship any person, rich or poor, the history of whose life is not clean and the pedigree of whose dollars is not stainless, the future of our offices and officeholders, the honor of our government and the purity of our judicial ermine would be safe. This, then, is the lesson of this day. The kind of official action which will emanate from the walls of this new building will depend upon the character of the citizenship of this county. The stream never rises higher than its source and public servants are seldom more virtuous than their masters. We lay here to-day something besides a mere material block of senseless stone. We also commence to erect an unseen but none the less substantial temple of human character, which is more stable than the strongest ramparts the cunning workmanship of man can build. In the unseen structure every man and woman of this county must fill his own place. We lay its invisible corner

Page  155 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 155 stone on the broad foundation of respect of law. We bind it fast to the bedrock of liberty with the binding cement of love for our fellows and justice in our dealings with them. We dedicate it to the great God above, whose government is mercy and peace, wisdom, justice and righteousness. The watchful care of this community will attend the erection of the material building. The welfare of the unseen structure rests upon the heart and conscience of every man and woman in this county. If they have lighted the altar-fires of consecration to the duties of citizenship, the future of the county is safe. "Build to-day, then, strong and sure With a firm and ample base, And, ascending and secure, Shall to-morrow find its place." When completed, may this building be a veritable Temple of Justice. Here may the important business of the county be carefully and honestly transacted. May no spot soil the ermine of the judges nor stain mar the verdict of the juries within these walls; but may evenhanded justice be promptly and fearlessly administered. May wrongdoing here meet swift and condign punishment, and honesty and virtue receive their just reward. Here may wisdom here find her welcome home and the revolving years see naught by the purest good issue from these walls. The ceremonies attending the laying of the corner stone of Vaif Buren county court house were now at an end and the vast multitude of Van Buren county's citizens dispersed. This report is respectfully submitted and signed by the building coninittee. W C WILDEY, E A CHASE, P J DILLMAN, GEO T WABER, CHAS W BYERS, Building Committee. COST OF PRESENT COUNTY BUILDINGS The new court house was first occupied in February, 1903, the first case tried in the circuit court after such occupancy being an action for damages begun by William Culver against the South Haven & Eastern Railroad Company for damages on account of the loss of both legs by being drawn beneath the wheels of a freight car, and which became a cause celebre in the state, resulting, after every legal recourse was exhausted by the railroad company and its surety, in a judgment in favor of the plaintiff for the sum of $25,000, which was eventually paid. At a session of the board of supervisors held on the 9th day of February, 1903, the contractors submitted the following itemized bill which was allowed and ordered paid: Contract price for court house......................$54,500.00 Contract price for jail.............................. 22,700.00

Page  156 156 156 IIIS-TORY OF VAN IUE CUT ( )lNTY.JAIL AINTI) SIuERlFF 's,, RESIDENCE. PAWx PAW F, - -, —,- - -- - - -- - - 1 -7. 1 i IA J C'OUNTY HotuSE, HARTFORD

Page  157 HISTORY OF VAN IBUREN COUNTY 157 Finishing entire basement of court house complete and placillg tile roofing on court house and jail instead of slate........................................... $3,000.00 (Changing cornice and other galv. iron work on ourlt house and jail to 16 oz. copper................... 3,175.00 Wiring basement duct and attic C. II................. 200.00 4479 lbs. galv. iron pipe ventilating attic court house and jail at 20c put up................................ 895.80 Cove lase for marble wainscoting................... 175.00 Extra foundation in jail 22 perch, excavating included at $3.00........................................ 66.00 Carving bust..................................... 25.00 Lowering coal and boiler room...................... 900.00 Changing iron door from register of deeds office to new court house.............................. 11.50 Carvino gables..................................... 250.00 One dry well and connections from cistern at jail...... 33.00 Oiling floor.................................... 37.50 Building cistern, dry well and connecting same C. II... 195.00 Building wall and finishing same, public toilet closet basement court house................................ 87.00 Putting in cement steps jail to duct.................. 11.50 Building stone porch, jail........................... 235.00 Marble thresholds.............................. 100.00 Extra work on mantels............................. 50.00 Extra copper globe ventilator on west side court house.. 35.00 Enlarging one on east side.......................... 20.00 Building new stack complete........................ 971.50 Cutting strips in floor account gas pipe............... 37.50 Copper ventilator in jail, complete................... 273.00 Takine down and reluilding boiler room smoke stack.. 220.00 Letterin, corner stone............................. 35.00 Speakina tube from clerk's office to judge's desk...... 15.00 lumbner for judge probate's platform desk............ 4.40 Five steel shutters put up complete, basement.......... 125.00 Changing food opening in jail...................... 20.00 Chang'ing juvenile female hospital cell and cutting additional slots in wall................................ 50.00 T)rilling holes for clock dial......................... 20.00 Extra for gildinr iron stairways and railings and railinll around well hole................................. 43.50 One cess pool for sewer connection................... 25.00 l'iping and heating basement court house, plumbing and urinals, bronzing radiators, painting pipes, etc...... 688.12 Building duct from court house to jail................ 1,400.00 Total.............................. 2........90,630.32

Page  158 158 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY This sum included only the cost of the unfurnished buildings. The furniture cost $5,000, the architect was paid $600 and the site cost about $10,000, in addition to which was the expense of electric lighting, water works, sewers, grading of the court house yard, putting down cement walks and other miscellaneous and unavoidable items which made the total cost of the new buildings and their surroundings about $120,000. For many years Van Buren had been pointed out as having about the poorest public buildings of any county in Michigan, but she then became possessed of one of the finest and most up-to-date court houses and jails in the state, and which are excelled only by the public buildings of some of the larger cities. And not a hint of graft or tinge of dishonesty attached to anybody or anything from the time the plan was originated until all was coinplete, which is more than can be said of the construction of many public buildings. And the county seat war in Van Buren county is forever ended and while some were disappointed, which was inevitable, all are proud of the new buildings and the prestige which they give the county as being one of the front-rank counties of the Peninsula state. The old court house, removed from the proud position it once occupied, stands on the main street of the village reduced to the humble status of a feed and seed store. It is likely to last many more years, a testimonial to the substantial manner in which the buildings of a former generation were constructed. The old jail, removed to another street, has been converted into a dwelling and boarding house. What harrowing tales it could relate, if it were endowed with a voice to utter them!

Page  159 CHAPTER VII BENCH AND BAR STATE SUPREME AND CIRCUIT COURTS-COUNTY COURTS-FIRST CIRCUIT JUDGE-SUCCESSORS OF JUDGE RANSOM-JUDGE FLAVIUS J. LITTLEJOHN-THIRTY-SIXTH CIRCUIT CREATED-PROBATE JUDGES-VAN BUREN COUNTY BAR. The first constitution of Michigan vested the judicial authority in a supreme court and such other courts as the legislature might from time to time establish. The judges of the supreme court were nominated and appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate. This court consisted of one chief justice and three associate justices. Their term of office was seven years. The terms of this court were held at different places, as follows: Twice a year at Detroit, twice at Ann Arbor, once at Kalamazoo and once at Pontiac. When in session at Kalamazoo the supreme court exercised appellate jurisdiction in all cases originating in the counties of Branch, St. Joseph, Cass, Berrien, Van Buren, Kalamazoo, Calhoun and Allegan. CIRCUIT COURTS This constitution also provided for a separate court of chancery, the powers and authority of which were vested in the chancellor. There were three chancery circuits in the state, Van Buren being in the third circuit, together with the counties of Branch, Cass, St. Joseph, Berrien, Kalamazoo, Kent, Ionia and Allegan. The sittings of this court for the third circuit were held twice each year, at Kalamazoo. The state was further divided into four judicial circuits for the purpose of holding the circuit courts. The statute provided that each of the justices of the supreme court, twice in each year, should hold a term of circuit court in each of the counties designated in his appointment, with this peculiar exception, that in certain counties (Van Buren among the number), a second term need not be held "unless the sheriff and county clerk of any or either of said counties shall, at or before the time fixed by law for the 159

Page  160 160 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY drawing of jurors, determine that it is necessary." While holding the circuit courts, the supreme justices were by statute designated circuit judges. In 1848 the legislature increased the number of judges of the supreme court to five and directed themi to divide the state into five circuits, and again, in 1851, the number of circuits was by legislative act increased to eight in number, Van Buren beingl in the fifth circuit with Calhoun, Kalamazoo, Eaton and Allegan. In 1867 a partial reorganization of the judicial circuits of the state took place, the number being increased to fourteen and the counties of Allegan, Van Buren and Kalamazoo being placed together in a circuit numbered as the ninth. This arrangement continued until 1873, when a new arrangement of circuits was made, Allegan county being placed in another circuit (the twentieth), leaving Kalamazoo and Van Buren as the ninth. In-so-far as Van Buren county is concerned that arrangement continued until 1899, when it was joined with Cass county, the two composing the thirtysixth circuit. The number of circuits in the state has been increased from time to time as the population increased until at the present time there are thirty-nine circuits in the state. The constitution of 1850 made the circuit judges elective and provided that for a term of six years, and thereafter until the legislature should otherwise provide, the judges of the circuit courts should constitute the supreme court of the state. In 1857 the legislature enacted a statute creating a supreme court, to consist of one chief justice and three associate justices, entirely separate and distinct from the circuit court, the office of justice of such court being made elective. This system still continues, except that the number of justices has been increased to eight, the one whose term of office soonest expires always filling the position of chief justice. The circuit courts, as at first constituted consisted of the presiding supreme court justice and two associate judges by the voters of each county, but who were snore ornamental than useful, for the decisions of the presiding judge were invariably coincided in by, his associates on the bench. The revised statutes of 1846 contain the following provisions: "The several circuit courts of this state shall be courts of chancery within and for their respective counties, thie powers of which shall be exercised by the circuit judges thereof." "The court of chancery as now established by law is hereby abolished. '

Page  161 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 161 COUNTY COURTS Prior to the adoption of the constitution of 1850, there was also a county court in each county, which was a court of record with limited jurisdiction, being an intermediate court between the justice courts and the circuit courts, but that constitution provided that "The judicial power is vested in one supreme court, in circuit courts, in probate courts and justices of the peace. Municipal courts of civil and criminal jurisdiction may be established by the legislature in cities," and such has continued to be the judicial system of the state. The date when the constitutional provisions concerning the changes made in the judicial system should go into effect was fixed in the schedule of the then new constitution as January 1, 1852. The bar of Van Buren county has always been composed of men who were an honor to their profession and seldom, indeed, has there been any just cause for criticism, either as to ability, probity, or faithfulness to the ethics of the profession. The men who have sat upon the judicial bench of the county have been men who were learned in the law and who have been an honor to themselves and a credit to their constituents. FIRST CIRCUIT JUDGE The first judge to hold a circuit court in Van Buren county was Hon. Epaphroditus Ransom, who was subsequently governor of Michigan, having been elected to that office at the general election in 1848. The first entry made upon the journal of the court was made on the 6th day of June, 1837, and reads as follows: "State of Michigan, Van Buren County, ss.: Be it remembered that at a session of the circuit court of the state of Michigan, within and for the county of Van Buren, begun and held pursuant to law at the court in La Fayette in said county on the first Monday (being the sixth day) of June, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven; present Hon. Epaphroditus Ransom, Cir. Judge, Wolcott H. Keeler and Jay R. Monroe, Esqrs, associate judges. "The grand jury being called, the following persons appeared and answered to their names, to-wit: Peter Gremps, Jeremiah H. Simmons, Joseph Woodman, Rodney Hinckley, Joshua Bangs, Edwin Barnum, John Reynolds, John D. Preeman, George S. Reynolds, Dexter Gibbs, Joseph Luce, Asa G. Hinckley and Enoch L. Barrett. "Peter Gremps was appointed by the court as foreman of this grand jury and authorized to issue subpoenas for and to administer oaths to witnesses. The grand jurors having been sworn and having received the charge of the court, retired to consider the business before them. "The grand jury having been a short time absent, came into court and informed the court that they had no business before them and knew of none for Vol. 1-11

Page  162 162 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY their consideration; whereupon they were discharged from further attendance at this term of court. "Rule-Ordered by the court that in all cases now pending in this court and not at issue, declaration shall be filed within forty days from the present.term and pleas within forty days from the time limited for filing declaration, and all causes appealed from the judgment of justices of the peace shall be deemed at issue at the first term after the appeal so taken, unless otherwise ordered by the court in particular cases. "There appearing to be no further business, the court then and there adjourned without day. "Read, corrected and signed in open court this sixth day of June, 1837. "EPAPHRO. RANSOM, " Presiding Judge.' Judge Ransom's signature being rather unusually long, it was his custom to abbreviate his Christian name to "Epaphro." The files and records of the court, prior to 1844, are so imperfect and incomplete that it is impossible to ascertain the titles of the first suits that were begun, either law, criminal or chancery. The first civil case tried in the circuit court was at the Decetmber term, 1837, and was an appeal from the justice's court (Robert Nesbitt, plaintiff, and George S. Reynolds, defendant), in which the jury rendered a judgment of sixteen dollars and forty-two cents with costs, to be taxed in favor of the plaintiff. The first criminal case tried was that of the People vs. Nathan Mears, at the same term of court, the respondent being charged with assault and battery. The jury in this case returned a verdict of "not guilty." Judge Ransom continued to preside over the circuit court of the county for the first ten years of its existence, his last term being held in April, 1847. SUCCESSORS OF JUDGE RANSOM The next terni of the circuit court for the county was held in March, 1848, and was presided over by Hon. Sanford M. Green, associate justice of the supreme court of the state. Judge Green is best remembered by the legal profession as the author of "Green's Practice," a work that was of great value in its day to both bench and bar, and which has recently been revised and brought down to date. Three terms of the court were held during the years 1849 and 1850, at which Judge Charles W. Whipple, circuit judge and associate justice of the supreme court presided. Judge Whipple was the first speaker of the house of representatives of the state after it was admitted into the Union. Very little legal business was transacted, either by Judge Green or Judge Whipple. In-so-far as the journal shows, there was no session of the circuit

Page  163 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 163 court during the year 1851, the next entry after the close of Judge Whipple's record, October 3, 1850, being on the second day of March, 1852, when Judge Abner Pratt, another associate justice of the supreme court, began his administration as judge in the Van Buren circuit and continued to officiate in that capacity for the succeeding five years. Judge Pratt was succeeded on the circuit bench of the county by Judge Benjamin F. Graves, who was elected to office of circuit judge by the electors of the fifth judicial circuit, to which Van Buren was at that date attached. Judge Graves' bold signature, characteristic of the man, adorned the records of the court for the next nine years, he being re-elected in the spring of 1863 for another six years but resigned before the expiration of his term of office. Judge Graves was a man of much more than ordinary ability and the people of the state, recognizing that fact, promoted him to the supreme bench in the spring of 1867, where he became known to fame and to the legal profession throughout the entire country as one of the "big four" of the Michigan supreme court, which was composed of Justices Graves, Cooley, Christiancy and Campbell. Judge Graves was succeeded on the circuit bench by Judge George Woodruff, who was elected at a special election held July 14, 1866, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Judge Graves. The county of Allegan had been in the fifth circuit with Van Buren and other counties, but the reorganization of the circuits of the state in 1851 placed that county in the ninth circuit, while Van Buren remained in the fifth. In 1867 the ninth circuit was made to consist of the counties of Allegan, Kalamazoo and Van Buren. JUDGE FLAVIUS J. LITTLEJOHN By this legislative action Van Buren ceased to be a part of the circuit presided over by Judge Woodruff and came under the jurisdiction of Judge Flavius J. Littlejohn of Allegan county. Judge Littlejohn was the presiding judge of the Van Buren circuit court until 1869. He was a gentleman of the old school, the very personification of dignity when on the bench, genial and companionable when off duty. It was the good fortune of the writer to serve under this fine old gentleman, learned lawyer and upright judge during a portion of his term of office as clerk of the court, and he can see him even now as he ascended the bench and took his seat on the woolsack at the opening of the court in the morning and hear him say, with all due solemnity, as soon as proclamation of the opening of court had been made "Mr. Clerk, read the journal." Being at

Page  164 164 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY that time a young man entirely without knowledge or experience in court proceedings or other legal affairs, it was with great diffidence that the duties of clerk of the court were assumed by him, and he feels that right here he should acknowledge the great kindness and courtesy with which "His Honor" bore with his inexperience, instructed him in the modus operandi of conducting the proceedings of a court of justice and initiated him into the mysteries of the law, laying for him the foundations of a profession which he has followed with more or less assiduity for over forty years. No more upright, honorable man than Judge Flavius J. Littlejohn ever graced the judicial bench of Michigan. Judge Littlejohn was succeeded by Judge Charles R. Brown, who was elected at the April election in 1869 and who presided over the Van Buren circuit until the summer of 1874, when he resigned the office and was succeeded by Judge Darius E. Comstock, who was appointed by Governor John J. Bagley to fill the unexpired term of Judge Brown. There was another vacancy in this office before the expiration of the term caused by the death of Judge Comstock who died on the third day of February, 1875, but a few months after his appointment. Judge Comstock was the first Van Buren county man to occupy the circuit bench. Ife was succeeded by Judge Josiah L. Hawes, who was elected at the April election of 1875. Two years prior to this election, Allegan had been taken from the ninth judicial circuit and placed with Ottawa county, forming a new circuit and leaving the ninth composed of Kalamazoo and Van Buren. Both these counties were strongly Republican, but owing to a difficulty between the two counties as to which should furnish the Republican candidates, two Republicans were nominated-Judge Geo. W. Lawton of Van Buren, and Hon. Dwight May of Kalamazoo. This so divided the Republican strength that Hon. Josiah L. Hawes of Kalamazoo, the Democratic candidate, won an easy victory. However, the people lost nothing by this, as Judge Hawes was a competent, able and upright judge. He served his full term of six years and was succeeded by Hon. Alfred J. Mills of Paw Paw, the second Van Buren county man to be honored by a seat on the judicial bench of the circuit court. Judge Mills was elected in the spring of 1881 by the closest vote ever cast in the circuit and it was not until the official count from every voting precinct had been received that the result was known. The manner in which he discharged the duties of his important office fully justified the choice of the voters, as he was one of the most efficient judges that ever served the county. Hon. George M. Buck, of Kalamazoo, was elected in the spring

Page  165 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 165 of 1887 as the successor of Judge Mills. The people of the circuit showed their appreciation of the manner in which he administered his office, reelecting him to a second six-year term in the spring of 1893. THIRTY-SIXTH CIRCUIT CREATED Judge Buck served the people of Van Buren county for a little more than five years of his second term, when a new judicial circuit was formed by detaching the county from the ninth circuit and uniting it with Cass county, thus forming a new circuit, the thirty-sixth, which is still unchanged. There being no judge resident within the boundaries of either county of the new circuit, Hon. Hazen S. Pingree, then governor of Michigan, appointed Hon. Harsen D. Smith of Cassopolis, to the judgeship until such time as the position should be filled by election. At the first election held in the new circuit on the first Monday of April, 1899, the rival candidates for the office were Hon. Benjamin F. Heckert of Van Buren county and Hon. John R. Carr of Cass, the former being a Republican and the latter a member of the Democratic party. Judge Carr was chosen, served for the full term of six years and was a prominent candidate for another term, his opponent being Hon. L. Burget Des Voignes, of Cass county, who was elected to the office at the April election of 1905 and is now serving the last year of the term. That the people are well satisfied with his administration of justice is evinced by the fact that at the April election of 1911 he was chosen for a second term by a nearly unanimous vote, his only opponent being the candidate of the Socialists. No county in the state, perhaps, has been represented on the judicial bench by a more able, upright and learned judiciary than has our own Van Buren. Those who still survive are Judges Mills, Buck, Carr and Des Voignes. PROBATE JUDGES The several probate judges of Van Buren county have been as follows: Jeremiah Simmons, two terms, 1837 to 1844. Frederick Lord, one term, 1844 " 1848. Elisha Durkee, two terms, 1848 " 1856. * Augustus W. Nash, two terms, 1856 " 1864. Chandler Richards, one term, 1864 " 1868. George W. Lawton, two terms, 1868 " 1876. Alfred J. Mills, one term, 1876 " 1880. Orrin N. Hilton, two terms, 1880 " 1888.

Page  166 166 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Benj. F. Heckert, two terms, 1888 " 1896. James H. Johnson, two terms, 1896 " 1904. David Anderson, two terms, 1904". Judge Anderson is still serving on his second term which will expire on the 31st day of December, 1912. Judges Mills, Hilton, Johnson and Anderson, are the only ones living. VAN BUREN COUNTY BAR The bar of the county, for the first twenty years after the admission of the state and prior to 1860, consisted of the following named gentlemen, as nearly as can now be ascertained from the records of the court, which, for those earlier years, is somewhat incomplete: John R. Baker, A. W. Broughton, S. H. Blackman, Nathan H. Bitely, Hiram Cole, Elisha Durkee, S. N. Gantt, J. W. Huston, Frederick Lord, Joseph Miller, Chandler Richards, T. H. Stephenson, J. B. Upton, William N. Pardee. None of these gentlemen is now living. Since 1860, the following named attorneys have been members of the bar of the county. Those marked by a star are still members and those marked (d) are deceased. E. R. Annable (d) David Anderson* Horace H. Adams* Isaac E. Barnum (d) W. Scott Beebe Wm. C. Buchanan Geo. E. Breck (d) John I. Breck Wm. J. Barnard* W. G. Bessey Earl L. Burhans* C. W. Benton* D. E. Comstock (d) Edgar A. Crane (d) Calvin Cross (d) Jerome Coleman (d) F. C. Cogshall* J. E. Chandler* Hiram T. Cook* A. H. Chandler* Wm. N. Cook (d) T. J. Cavanaugh* R. M. Chase B. H. Cockett B. F. Chase* Thos. Dorgan Andrew Donovan David Dillon Cenius H. Engle* G. M. Eggleston Newton Foster (d) Oscar Field (d) Chas. L. Fitch A. Lynn Free* D. F. Glidden Oliver A. Goss (d) Ashbel H. Herron (d) T. E. Hendrick (d) Orrin N. Hilton Samuel Holmes (d) Chas. A. Harrison Harry M. Huff (d) Benj. F. Heckert (d) Austin Herrick W. W. Holmes* Jas. H. Johnson* Albert Jackson John Knowles

Page  167 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 167 Geo. W. Lawton (d) Geo. L. Linder O. C. Lathrop II. M. Lillie Suaby Lawton L. J. Lewis* Eugene W. Lawton Melanethon Millard Win. H. Mason* Arthur L. Moulton* W. S. McKinney Geo. W. Merriman* Harry L. McNeil* Chas. J. Monroe* S. B. Monroe* Alfred J. Mills J. G. Parkhurst (d) L. MIyrl Phelps* Oran W. Rowland* Chas. Shier John J. Sherman J. C. Spencer (d) F. W. Smith Arthur Stevens Jos. L. Sturr* Win. H. Tucker (d) Lincoln II. Titus Lester A. Tabor (d) W. P. Traphagen Albert H. Tuttle* W. E. Thresher A. P. Thomas (d) C. M. Van Riper* Guy J. Wicksall (d) J. J. Wilder Thos. O. Ward (d) F. E. Withey Glenn E. Warner* The foregoing list presents an array of legal talent that would compare favorably with any county in the state.

Page  168 CHAPTER VIII POLITICS OF THE COUNTY GENERAL ELECTIONS-THE PARTIES IN THE COUNTY-COUNTY OFFICERS —MEMBERS OF THE STATE LEGISLATURE-CHAIRMEN OF THE BOARD OF SUPERVISORS-OTHER IMPORTANT OFFICIALS FROM VAN BUREN COUNTY-CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONSPROPOSED CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS-VAN BUREN COUNTY AND THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC. In the earlier years of the history of Van Buren county, and prior to the organization of the Republican party in 1854, under the historic oaks in the city of Jackson, Michigan, the political parties, Democratic and Whig, were rather evenly divided, the Democrats being slightly in the lead and gaining on their opponents as the population of the county increased. Since that event the county has invariably cast its vote in favor of the Republican candidates. So strongly intrenched has been that party that, with only two exceptions, no county official has been chosen from any other organization, and it long ago passed into an axiom that a nomination on the Republican ticket in Van Buren county was equivalent to an election. GENERAL ELECTIONS It will, perhaps, be a matter of interest to note the total vote cast at each general election, a fair indication of the growth of the county. 1837................... 90 1847................... 868 1838............. 256 1848................... 979 1839............. 320 1849................... 897 1840............. 433 1850................... 954 1841............. 402 1851................... 716 1842................. 438 1852................... 1476 1843............. 454 1854.................. 1542 1844............. 669 1856................... 2776 1845............. 569 1858................... 2744 1846............. 814 1860................... 3478 168

Page  169 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNrTY 169 1862................... 3151 1886................... 7170 1864................... 3640 1888................... 8247 1866................... 3880 1890................... 6245 1868................... 5930 1892................... 7045 1870................... 4501 1894................... 5859 1872................... 5654 1896................... 8724 1874................... 4832 1898................... 7067 1876................... 7155 1900................... 8443 1878................... 6253 1902................... 6241 1880................... 7287 1904................... 7246 1882................... 6627 1906................... 4519 1884................... 7609 1908................... 7228 1910................... 4626 THE PARTIES IN THE COUNTY Prior to the adoption of the constitution of 1850, there was an annual general election held in November; subsequently the elections were biennial. The principal partisan political contests in the county since 1854 have been between the Republicans and the Democrats, with the former constantly in! the ascendency, but it has not always been a majority party. At two general elections, 1878 and 1890, the candidates of the Republicans had only a plurality of the votes cast, not a majority. This was occasioned by the great political upheaval over the whole country over the currency question, greenbackism and free silver. In 1876 and 1878 the Greenback party was at its zenith and in the latter year actually became the second party in the county in point of numbers, polling double the number of votes that were cast for the Democratic candidates. In 1890 the Republican party again cast only a minority of the entire vote, its candidates being elected, but only by a plurality. A new organization, under the name of the Industrial party, appeared on the scene of action and polled nearly a thousand votes in the county. The Prohibition party made its appearance as a political factor in 1882, polling about a hundred votes. In 1890 this party cast 542 votes, since which date its vote has been gradually decreasing until at the last general election, in 1910, it was less than one hundred. The Democratic People's Union Silver party as a successor of the Greenback party, became an important factor in the politics of the county, and in 1896 polled 3,976 presidential votes, reducing the regular Democratic vote to less than 100, and practically supplant

Page  170 170 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY ing that party for the time being, but the course of events has again narrowed the contest to a fight between the former political foes, Republicans and Democrats, although there have been a number of other political organizations seeking the support and the votes of the people. Besides the parties already mentioned there are now, or have heretofore been, the Socialist party, Peoples' party, National party, Social Democrat party, Independent party and the Social Labor party, but none of these has, as yet, attained sufficient prominence to exercise any appreciable influence on the political situation in Van Buren county. PRESIDENTIAL VOTE IN THE COUNTY 1840-Harrison, Whig, 182; Van Buren, Democrat, 251. 1844-Clay, Whig, 275; Polk, Democrat, 350. 1848-Taylor, Whig, 353; Cass, Democrat, 508. 1852-Scott, Whig, 683; Pierce, Democrat, 771. 1856-Fremont, Republican, 1710; Buchanan, Democrat, 1031. 1860-Lincoln, Republican, 2175; Douglas, Democrat, 1274; Bell Const. Union, 26. 1864-Lincoln, Republican, 1985; McClellan, Democrat, 1400 (a). 1868-Grant, Republican, 3662; Seymour, Democrat, 2256 (b). 1872-Grant, Republican, 3549; Greeley, Liberal Democrat, 1805; O'Connor, straight Democrat, 162. 1876-Hayes, Republican, 4046; Tilden, Democrat, 2599; Cooper, G. B., 509; Smith, Prohibition, 2. 1880-Garfield, Republican, 4131; Hancock, Democrat, 2004; Weaver, Greenback, 1062; Dow, Prohibition, 10. 1884-Blaine, Republican, 4219; Cleveland, Democrat, 2933; Butler, Greenback, 845; St. John, Prohibition, 361. 1888-Harrison, Republican, 4783; Cleveland, Democrat, 2986; Streeter, Union Labor, 13; Fisk, Prohibition, 458. 1892-Harrison, Republican, 3788; Cleveland, Democrat, 2182; Weaver, People's, 635; Bidwell, Prohibition, 403. 1896-McKinley, Republican, 4510; Bryan, Silver Democrat, 3982; Palmer, Gold Democrat, 93; Bentley, National, 24; Levering, Prohibition, 73. 1900-McKinley, Republican, 4892; Bryan, Democrat, 3235; Debs, Social Democrat, 21; Wooley, Prohibition, 151; Maloney, Social Labor, 30; Barker, People's, 2. (a) Exclusive of Soldiers' vote in the field. (b) The vote of Van Buren county for this year, 1868, was not included in the official canvass of the state for the reason that it was not returned to the state canvassing board within the time required by law.

Page  171 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 171 1904-Roosevelt, Republican, 5254; Parker, Democrat, 1634; Debs, Socialist, 71; Swallow, Prohibition, 217; Watson, People's Party, 45; Corrigan, Social Labor, 9. 1908-Taft, Republican, 4531; Bryan, Democrat, 2313; Debs, Socialist, 124; Chafin, Prohibition, 193; Gilhaus, Social Labor, 13; IIisgen, Independent, 36. COUNTY OFFICERS Following is a list of the principal county officials chosen by the electors of the county since its organization. Associate judges of the Circuit Court: 1837, Wolcott H. Keeler and Jay R. Monroe; 1840, Evert B. Dyckman and John R. Haynes; 1842, Henry Coleman; 1844, Wolcott H. Keeler and Daniel Van Antwerp. County Judges: 1846, Aaron W. Broughton, first judge, John R. IIaynes, second judge; 1847, Frederick Lord, second judge; 1850, Jason A. Sheldon, first judge, and Lyman G. Hill, second judge. County Commissioners-Under the territorial laws of Michigan a board of three county commissioners was appointed by the governor of the territory whose duty it was to have charge of the financial concerns of their respective counties. This system was continued after the admission of Michigan as a state until the duties of such board were conferred upon the board of supervisors and the office of county commissioner was abolished by statute. After the state was admitted this office became elective instead of appointive, and the following named persons were chosen as commissioners by the electors of the county: 1838, Wolcott H. Keeler, Peter Gremps and Morgan L. Fitch; 1839, Jay R. Monroe; 1840, Andrew Longstreet; 1841. Lyman G. Iill. Probate judges: 1837, Jeremiah H. Simmons; 1840, Jeremiah H. Simmons; 1844, Frederick Lord; 1848, Elisha Durkee; 1852. Elisha Durkee; 1856, Augustus W. Nash; 1860, Augustus W. Nash; 1864, Chandler Richards; 1868, George W. Lawton; 1872, George W. Lawton; 1876, Alfred J. Mills; 1880, Orrin N. Hilton; 1884, Orrin N. Hilton; 1888, Benjamin F. Heckert; 1892, Benjamin F. Heckert; 1896, James H. Johnson; 1900, James H. Johnson; 1904 and 1908, David Anderson. Of the before named probate judges Messrs. Mills, Hilton, Johnson and Anderson are living. Sheriffs: 1837, Samuel Gunton, resigned; 1837, Andrew Longstreet (to fill vacancy); 1838, Andrew Longstreet; 1840, John McKinney; 1842, William Hill; 1844, John Smolk, Jr.; 1846, William Hill; 1848, Henry C. Clapp; 1850, William Hill; 1852, Henry C. Clapp; 1854, William Hill; 1856, Noble D. Richardson; 1858, John H. Stoddard; 1860, Calvin Durkee; 1862, Calvin Durkee; 1864, Noble D. Richardson; 1866, Edwin R. Farmer; 1868, William R.

Page  172 172 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Sirrine; 1870, William R. Sirrine; 1872, John E. Showerman; 1874, John E. Showerman; 1876, Nathan Thomas; 1878, Nathan Thomas; 1880, Aaron Van Auken; 1882, Aaron Van Auken; 1884, John G. Todd; 1886, John G. Todd; 1888, Hulett P. McFarlin; 1890, Nathan Thomas; 1892, Nathan Thomas; 1894, Charles A. Lainberson; 1896, Charles A. Lamberson; 1898, Wesley J. Thomas; 1900, Wesley J. Thomas; 1902, John H. Britton; 1904, John H. Britton; 1906, Charles C. Chappell; 1908, Charles C. Chappell, and 1910, Byron L. Sowle, the present incumbent. Of the before named gentlemen Messrs. Sirrine, Nathan Thomas, Van Auken, Todd, Lamberson, Wesley J. Thomas, Britton, Chappell and Sowle are living. County clerks: 1837, Nathan B. Starkweather; 1838, Edward Shultz; 1840, Jeremiah H. Simmons; 1842, Joseph Gilman; 1844, James B. Crane; 1846, Lyman Fitch; 1848, S. Tallmadge Conway; 1850, S. Tallmadge Conway; 1852, Franklin M. Manning; 1854, Stillman F. Breed; 1856, Stillman F. Breed; 1858, S. Tallmadge Conway; 1860, Martin Ruggles; 1862, Martin Ruggles, resigned; 1864, Ashbel H. Herron, to fill vacancy; 1864, Ashbel H. Herron; 1866, Ashbel TI. Herron; 1868, Oran W. Rowland; 1870, Oran W. Rowland; 1872, Samuel Holmes; 1874, Samuel Holmes; 1876, Henry S. Williams; 1878, Henry S. Williams; 1880, Charles E. Heath; 1882, Charles E. Heath; 1884, George W. Myers; 1886, George W. Myers; 1888, A. Throop Anderson; 1890, A. Throop Anderson; 1892, Harley E. Squier; 1894, Harley E. Squier; 1896, Joseph S. Buck; 1898, Joseph S. Buck; 1900, Frank N. Wakeman; 1902, Frank N. Wakeman; 1904, William C. Mosier; 1906, William C. Mosier; 1908, William C. Mosier; 1910, Harry A. Cross, the present incumbent. Of the aforesaid county clerks, Messrs. Rowland, Myers, Anderson, Squier, Buck, Wakeman, Mosier and Cross, at this date are living. Registers of deeds: 1837, Jeremiah H. Simmons; 1838, Jeremiah H. Simmons; 1840, Fitz H. Stevens; 1842, Fitz H. Stevens; 1844, Emory O. Briggs; 1846, Elisha C. Cox; 1847, John Smolk, Jr., vacancy; 1848, Joseph Cox, Jr.; 1850, William H. Hurlbut; 1852, Eusebius Mather; 1854, Edwin A. Thompson; 1856, Samuel H. Blackman; 1858, Thomas B. Irwin; 1860, Thomas B. Irwin; 1862, Stephen W. Duncombe; 1864, Stephen W. Duncombe; 1866, E. Parker Hill; 1868, Don C. Rogers; 1870, Milan U. Richardson; 1872, Kirk W. Noyes; 1874, Kirk W. Noyes; 1876, Samuel Ellis; 1878, Samuel Ellis; 1880, Samuel Ellis; 1882, Samuel P. Wilson; 1884, Samuel P. Wilson; 1886, Joel D. Monroe; 1888, Joel D. Monroe; 1890, Thomas C. Tyner; 1892, Thomas C. Tyner; 1894, Thomas M. Harvey; 1896, Thomas M. Harvey; 1898, John F. Taylor; 1900, John F. Taylor; 1902, Milton L. Decker; 1904, Milton L. Decker; 1906, John Mutchler; 1908, John Mutchler; 1910, Henry E. Shaefer, the present in

Page  173 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 173 cumbent. Of the above named gentlemen Messrs. Noyes, Tyner, Decker, Mlutchler and Shaefer are in the land of the living. County treasurers: 1837, Daniel O. Dodge; 1838, Joshua Bangs; 1840, Frederick Lord; 1842, John McKinney; 1844, John McKinney; 1846, Theodore E. Phelps; 1848, Emory O. Briggs; 1850, Enmory 0. Briggs; 1852, Emory O. Briggs; 1854, Alexander II. Phelps; 1856, John M. Ridlon; 1858, John M. Ridlon; 1860, Aaron S. Dyckman; 1862, Aaron S. Dyckman; 1864, Samuel I. Blackman; 1866, Edwin Barnum; 1868, Edwin Barnum; 1870, Edwin Barnum; 1872, Stephen W. Duncombe; 1874, Stephen W. Duncombe; 1876, Hannibal M. Marshall, resigned; 1878, Stephen W. Duncombe; 1880, Samuel H. Blackman; 1882, John C. McLain; 1884, John C. McLain; 1886, Charles H. Butler; 1888, Charles H. Butler; 1890, Hiram K. Wells; 1892, Hiram K. Wells; 1894, Gilbert Mitchell; 1896, Gilbert Mitchell; 1898, John Marshall; 1900, John Marshall; 1902, Daniel M. Allen; 1904, Daniel M. Allen; 1906, Frank H. Fuller; 1908, Frank H. Fuller; 1910, Warner M. Stoughton, the present incumbent. Of the above named gentlemen the following are yet living: Ridlon (aged 93 years), H. Al. Marshall, McLain, John Marshall, Allen, Fuller and Stoughton. Prosecuting attorneys: *1850, Frederick Lord; 1852, William N. Pardee; 1854, Frederick Lord; 1856, Nathan H. Bitely; 1858, Chandler Richards; 1860, Chandler Richards; 1862, Hiram Cole; 1864, Hiram Cole; 1866, John B. Upton; 1868, John B. Upton; 1870, John B. Upton; 1872, Darius E. Comstock; 1874, Benjamin F. Heckert; 1876, Benjamin F. Heckert; 1878, Benjamin F. Heckert; 1880, Oran W. Rowland; 1882, Alonzo H. Chandler; 1884, Alonzo H. Chandler; 1886, Alonzo H. Chandler; 1888, John I. Breck; 1890, Oliver A. Goss (died in office); 1891, Edward R. Annable (appointed to fill vacancy); 1892, Lincoln H. Titus; 1894, Lincoln H. Titus; 1896, James E. Chandler; 1898, James E. Chandler; 1900, David Anderson; 1902, David Anderson; 1904, Russell M. Chase; 1906, Russell M. Chase; 1908, Glenn E. Warner; 1910, Glenn E. Warner, the present incumbent. Eight of the above named gentlemen are living-Messrs. Rowland, A. H. Chandler, Breck, Titus, J. E. Chandler, Anderson, Chase and Warner. Circuit Court Commissioners: 1852, John R. Baker; 1854, Nathan H. Bitely; 1856, Nathan H. Bitely; 1858, Samuel H. Blackman; 1860, Hiram Cole; 1862, John B. Upton; 1864, Joseph W. Huston; 1866, George W. Lawton; 1868, Ashbel H. Herron; 1870, William H. Tucker and John Knowles; 1872, Benjamin F. Heckert and John J. Sherman; 1874, Oran W. Rowland and John J. Sherman; 1876, *This office did not become elective until the adoption of the constitution of 1850.

Page  174 174 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Albert Jackson and James Manry; 1878, John Knowles and John J. Sherman; 1880, James H. Johnson and John J. Sherman; 1882, James H. Johnson and John J. Sherman; 1884, Arthur L. Moulton and Samuel Holmes; 1886, John I. Breck and Samuel Holmes; 1888, Oran W. Rowland and John I. Beck; 1890, James E. Chandler and Lincoln H. Titus; 1892, James E. Chandler and Stephen B. Monroe; 1894, Oran W. Rowland and Stephen B. Monroe; 1896, Guy J. Wicksall and Oran W. Rowland; 1898, David Anderson and Guy J. Wicksall; 1900, Oran W. Rowland and Russell M. Chase; 1902, Fred C. Cogshall and Oran W. Rowland; 1904, Fred C. Cogshall and Oran W. Rowland; 1906, Fred C. Cogshall and Oran W. Rowland; 1908, L. Myrl Phelps and Oran W. Rowland; 1910, L. Myrl Phelps and Oran W. Rowland, the present incumbents. Of the gentlemen who have filled this office Messrs. Knowles, Rowland, Johnson, Moulton, Breck, Chandler, Titus, Monroe, Anderson, Chase, Cogshall and Phelps are still living. The revised Statutes of 1846 provided for the appointment of a circuit court commissioner in each organized county of the state, and in 1852, the office, by provision of law, became elective. Each circuit court commissioner is vested with judicial powers, not exceeding the power of a circuit judge at chambers. No person but an attorney of the supreme court of the state is eligible to this office. Since 1868 the county, by virtue of the statute, has been entitled to two circuit court commissioners. County Surveyors: 1835, Humphrey P. Barnum; 1838, John D. Compton; 1840, Eleazer Keeler; 1842, Alonzo Crane; 1844, Samuel H. Blackman; 1846, Samuel H. Blackman; 1848, Jeremiah H. Simmons; 1850, Jeremiah H. Simmons; 1852, Jeremiah H. Simmons; 1854, William H. Harrison; 1856, Samuel A. Tripp; 1858, Samuel A. Tripp; 1860, Orville S. Abbott; 1862, Peter J. Speicher; 1864, Charles J. Monroe; 1866, Charles D. Lawton; 1868, Almon J. Pierce; 1870, Almon J. Pierce; 1872, Augustus J. Teed; 1874, Almon J. Pierce; 1876, Almon J. Pierce; 1878, Almon J. Pierce; 1880, Charles D. Lawton; 1882, Albert Fosdick; 1884, Albert Fosdick; 1886, Albert Fosdick; 1888, Albert Fosdick; 1892, F. Percy Lawton; 1894, F. Percy Lawton; 1896, George Mutchler; 1898, George Mutchler; 1900, George Mutchler; 1902, Warren Goss; 1904, Warren Goss; 1906, Warren Goss; 1908 and 1910, Whitfield V. Ackley, the present incumbent. There are living of the aforesaid gentlemen Messrs. Monroe, Pierce, F. Percy Lawton, Mutchler, Goss and Ackley. Fosdick was murdered and his slayer was never brought to justice. County Commissioners of Schools: 1893, John A. O'Leary; 1895, John A. O'Leary; 1897, Wells G. Brown; 1899, Wells G.

Page  175 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 175 Brown; 1901, Elmer A. Aseltine; 1903, Elmer A. Aseltine; 1907 and 1911, Volney A. Hungerford, the present incumbent. The office of school commissioner was made elective by statute in 1893. By legislative enactment in 1895, the term of this office was extended to four years. MEMBERS OF THE STATE LEGISLATURE Representatives: Henry Coleman, Fernando C. Annable, John Andrews, Philotus Haydon, Josiah Andrews, John McKinney, Amos S. Brown, Morgan L. Fitch, Charles P. Sheldon, Joseph Gilman, Elisha J. House, Fabius Miles, Jonathan J. Woodman (speaker), Buell M. Williams, William H. Hurlbut, Samuel H. Blackman, Alexander B. Copley, Emery H. Simpson, William Thomas, James E. Ferguson, E. Parker Hill, George G. B. Yeckley, Harvey H. Howard, Robert L. Warren, John S. Cross, Jonathan G. Parkhurst, Milan Wiggins, Charles S. Eaton, Edwin A. Wildey, Charles C. Phillips, C. Spencer Adams, Nathan F. Simpson, Benjamin F. Heckert (died in office). Senators: Philotus Hayden, John McKinney, Fitz H. Stevens, Lyman A. Fitch, Samuel H. Blackman, Nathan H. Bitely, George Hannahs, David Anderson, Albert Thompson, William O. Packard, Henry Ford, Charles J. Monroe, George W. Merriman, Jason Woodman and Milan Wiggins, the present incumbent. The constitution of 1835 provided that the state should be divided into not less than four nor more than eight senatorial districts. In 1838, the legislature placed Van Buren county in the seventh senatorial district, together with the counties of St. Joseph, Berrien and Cass, and assigned two senators to the district. (Laws of Michigan, 1838, pp. 169-170.) In 1841 a new apportionment was made, Van Buren being placed in the fifth district, along with the counties of St. Joseph, Cass, Berrien, Kalamazoo, Allegan, Barry, Ottawa, Oceana, Kent, Ionia and such other counties as were attached to the counties of Kent, Ionia and Ottawa, and three senators were assigned to the new district. (Laws of Michigan, 1841, p. 147.) The constitution of 1850 provided that the state should be divided into thirty-two senatorial districts, one senator to be chosen from each district. The state was reapportioned in 1851, Van Buren and Allegan being constituted the twenty-ninth district. (Laws of Michigan, 1851, p. 304.) The county remained districted with Allegan county until 1871 when it became a district by itself and so remained until 1881, when it was again districted with Allegan county where it has

Page  176 176 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY remained until the present time, the two counties forming the eighth senatorial district. Prior to 1847 Van Buren and Cass counties constituted a single representative district, after which, and until 1864, the county alone constituted a district. From 1864 to 1892, two representatives were apportioned to the county and it was divided into two separate districts. In 1892, under a new legislative apportionment, it again became a single district, and so remains at the present time. Since the death of Representative Heckert the office has remained vacant. CHAIRMEN OF THE BOARD OF SUPERVISORS Prior to the abolishment of the board of county commissioners by the legislature of 1842 and the conferring of the duties of that board on the supervisors, there had been occasional and irregular meetings, but the only organization of such body was by selecting one of their number to act as clerk for the time being. The statute of 1842 prescribed the dates at which the meetings of the board should be held and the manner of organization (which was by choosing one of their number as chairman of the board), and also provided that the county clerk should be clerk of the board and should perform his duties as such under its control and direction. Following is a list of the several chairmen of the board and the townships they represented: 1842, Benjamin F. Chadwick, Lawrence; 1843, Philotus Haydon, Hamilton; 1844, Isaac S. Borden, Antwerp; 1845, John R. Pugsley, La Fayette; 1846, Joshua Bangs, Antwerp; 1847, John McKinney, Porter; 1848, Henry Barnum, Almena; 1849, Charles M. Morrill, Pine Grove; 1850, Fernando C. Annable, Almena; 1851, John McKinney, Porter; 1852, John Andrews, Lawrence; 1853, John Andrews, Lawrence; 1854, John McKinney, Porter; 1855, Philotus Haydon, Hamilton; 1856, L. G. Hill, Keeler; 1857, Edwin Barnum, La Fayette; 1858, Edwin Barnum, La Fayette; 1859, Nelson Rowe, Lawrence; 1860, Nelson Rowe, Lawrence; 1861, Nelson Rowe, Lawrence; 1862, Nelson Rowe, Lawrence; 1863, Nelson Rowe, Lawrence; 1864, E. Parker Hill, Decatur; 1865, E. Parker Hill, Decatur; 1866, E. Parker Hill, Decatur; 1867, Silas Breed, Almena; 1868, Charles Duncombe, Keeler; 1869, John B. Potter, Lawrence; 1870, Kirk W. Noyes, South Haven; 1871, Charles Duncombe, Keeler; 1872, George G. B. Yeckley, Hamilton; 1873, George G. B. Yeckley, Hamilton; 1874, Orsimus Williams, Porter; 1875, Prenett T. Streator, Waverly; 1876, Ransom Nutting, Decatur; 1877, Charles E. Heath, Bangor; 1878, Ransom Nutting, Decatur; 1879, Charles

Page  177 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 177 Rockwell, Lawrence; 1880, Amasa M. Brown, Columbia; 1881, Samuel P. Wilson, South Haven; 1882, Charles W. Young, Paw Paw; 1883, Warren F. French, Almena; 1884, Jefferson D. Harris, Arlington; 1885, Jefferson D. Harris, Arlington; 1886, William Killefer, Bloomingdale; 1887, Peter J. Dillman, Bangor; 1888. Gilbert Mitchell, Geneva; 1889, William K. Van Hise, Decatur; 1890, Thomas C. Tyner, Lawrence; 1891, H. E. Dewey, South Haven; 1892, Harlan P. Waters, Antwerp; 1893, Jacob Gunsaul, Covert; 1894, John Marshall, Porter; 1895, John C. McFellin, Pine Grove; 1896, Adolph Danneffel, Keeler; 1897, E. A. Chase, Waverly; 1898, Varnum H. Dilley, Geneva; 1899, C. W. Byers, Hamilton; 1900, David A. Squier, Decatur; 1901, William C. Wildey, Paw Paw; 1902, George T. Waber, Pine Grove; 1903, John H. Cornish, Porter; 1904, Kirk W. Noyes, South Haven; 1905, John C. Kennedy, Almena; 1906, Jerome C. Warner, Paw Paw; 1907, Milan D. Wiggins, Bloomingdale; 1908, George J. Danneffel, Keeler; 1909, F. G. Cleveland, Arlington; 1910, John McAlpine, Hartford; 1910, John Gault, Waverly*; and 1911, Shepard H. Shattuck, Covert. OTHER IMPORTANT OFFICIALS FROM VAN BUREN COUNTY Presidential electors: 1880. Charles Duncombe; 1900, Charles J. Monroe. Lieutenant governor: 1907 to 1910, Patrick H. Kelley. Secretary of state: 1855 to 1858, John McKinney. State treasurer: 1859 to 1860, John McKinney. Commissioner of state land office: 1901 to 1904, Edwin A. Wildey. Superintendent of Public instruction: 1905 to 1906, Patrick H. Kelley. Members State Board of Education: 1892 (six years), Eugene A. Wilson; 1901, Patrick H. Kelley (a). Regent of University: 1898 to 1905, Charles D. Lawton. President pro tem state senate: 1887, Charles J. Monroe. Speakers of house of representatives: 1869 to 1872, Jonathan J. Woodman; 1867, Jonathan J. Woodman pro tem. Commissioner of insurance: 1911, Marion O. Rowland (b). Commissioner of mineral statistics: 1885 to 1891, Charles D. Lawton. *Appointed, vice McAlpine, who died before the expiration of his term of office. (a) Appointed to fill vacancy; elected 1902; resigned to accept office of superintendent of public instruction. (b) Appointed by governor to fill vacancy; resigned to accept presidency of Detroit National Fire Insurance Company. Vol. I- 2

Page  178 178 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Adjutant General: 1893 to 1895, Charles L. Eaton. State salt inspector: 1905 to 1907, Edwin A. Wildey. Circuit judge, Ninth judicial circuit: 1874, Darius E. Comstock (c); 1882 to 1888, Alfred J. Mills. CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONS The first constitution of Michigan was framed by a convention that convened at Detroit, May 11, 1835, and adjourned June 24, 1835. Van Buren county was not represented at this convention, The proposed constitution was ratified by a vote of the people in October, 1835, the vote being 6,299 yeas and 1,350 nays. In 1836 congress passed the first act for the admission of Michigan into the Union. This act required the assent of the state to cutting off the city of Toledo and adjacent territory from the southern boundary of the state, assigning it to the state of Ohio and giving what is now the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in exchange therefor, and required the assent of the voters of Michigan before the act of admission should become effective. A convention of assent met at Ann Arbor, September 26, 1836, and after remaining in session four days rejected the proposed terms of admission. Van Buren was also unrepresented at this convention. A second convention of assent assembled at Ann Arbor, December 14, 1836, adjourning the next day. This convention ratified the conditions of admission proposed by the act of congress by what appears to have been a unanimous vote. Van Buren's delegate to this convention was Hon. Charles B. Avery of Paw Paw. The next constitutional convention was held at Lansing from June 3 to August 15, 1850. This convention framed a new constitution which was adopted by a vote of the people in November of that year and it remained in force, with certain amendments. as the supreme law of the state until 1908. Van Buren was represented in this convention by Hon. Isaac W. Willard of Paw Paw. In 1867 another constitutional convention was held at Lansing from May 15 to August 22. The constitution proposed by this convention was rejected by a vote of the people at the spring election of 1868. Hon. Samuel H. Blackman of Paw Paw and Hon. Charles Duncombe of Keeler, were delegates to this convention from Van Buren county. A constitutional commission consisting of two members from each congressional district of the state, at which Van Buren was unrepresented, assembled at Lansing, August 27, 1873, and ad(c) Died in office.

Page  179 HISTORY OF VAN BIUREN COUNTY 179 journed October 16, 1873. This commission submitted a proposed constitution, but the people refused to ratify it when it came before them at the general election held in November, 1874. On the 27th day of October, 1907, another constitutional convention assembled at the capital city and remained in session until the 3d day of March, 1908. Van Buren was represented in this convention by Hon. Benjamin F. Heckert of Paw Paw, and Hon. Guy J. Wicksall of South Haven, both of whom are since deceased. The constitution proposed by this convention was ratified at the next general election held November 3, 1908, by a vote of 244.705 to 130,783, and is now the supreme law of the state. PROPOSED CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS A proposed amendment granting equal suffrage to colored persons was submitted to a vote of the people in November, 1850, and rejected by the following vote: For 12,840, against 32,026, Van Buren's' vote on this proposition was: Yes, 183; No, 583. An amendment providing "that in time of war, insurrection or rebellion, no elector shall be deprived of his right to vote by reason of his service in the army or navy at such time," was proposed and adopted in November, 1866, although there were 13,094 Michigan patriots (?) who voted against the proposition. Van Buren county voted as follows: Yes, 2,433; No, 239. The soldiers of the Civil war, in 1864, had cast their vote in the field, but such was not included in the official canvass of the vote of tile state. The soldiers' vote of the state for president cast that year was as follows: For Abraham Lincoln, 9,402; for George B. McClellan, 2,959. By an amendment submitted and adopted by a vote of the people at the November election in 1869, the word "white" was stricken from section one of article seven of the constitution prescribing the qualifications of electors, thus conferring the right of suffrage on colored citizens under the same rules and restrictions as upon the white voters. Van Buren county voted as follows on this amendment: Yes, 1,810; No, 1,522. The question of woman suffrage was submitted to a vote of the people at the November election of 1874. This proposition was, in effect, to substitute the word "person" for the words "male inhabitant" in that article of the constitution prescribing the qualification of electors, thus conferring on the qualified female inhabitants of the state the same right of franchise as enjoyed by men. The proposition met with defeat in the state by the following vote: Yes, 40,077; No, 124,034. Van Buren county voted: Yes, 1,166; No, 2,987.

Page  180 180 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY VAN BUREN COUNTY AND TIE LIQUOR TRAFFIC Van Buren county occupies an unique position in reference to the traffic in intoxicating liquors, having constantly and consistently registered its vote in opposition thereto at every offered opportunity. The first time the voters of the county had occasion to express themselves on this question at the ballot box was in the month of June, 1853, at a special election called for the purpose of ascertaining the will of the people in reference to a prohibitory amendment to the constitution of the state, which was at that time submitted to them for adoption or rejection. The total vote of the county at that election, as shown by the old records, was 1,112: Yes, 707; No, 412; an affirmative majority of 295. This same question of a prohibitory amendment to the constitution was submitted to a vote in 1868 and again Van Buren registered an affirmative vote, as follows: Prohibition yes, 2,362; prohibition no, 1,982; a prohibition majority of 380. Both of the foregoing proposed amendments met with defeat at the hands of the voters of the state. The third test of public sentiment on this question was had in November, 1876. A law prohibiting the manufacture and sale of intoxicating beverages had been on the statute books of the state since 1855, but it was not so framed and had not been so enforced as to commend itself to the judgment of a majority of the electors of the state. The constitution of the state then contained the fol lowing clause: "The legislature shall not pass any act authorizing grant of license for the sale of ardent spirits or other intoxicating liquors. The question of striking this clause from the constitution was submitted to the voters of the state at the general election held in November, 1876, the result being that the prohibitory provision was stricken out. The vote of Van Buren county on this occasion was as follows: Yes, 1,044; No, 1,056; a majority of 12 votes in favor of the retention of the prohibitory clause. This was the closest vote ever recorded in the county on the liquor question. At the April election in 1887 another prohibitory amendment was proposed by the legislature and submitted to the people, and on this amendment Van Buren's vote was as follows: Yes, 5,111; No, 1,549; a majority of 3,562 in favor of the proposition, which failed of adoption only because of the large adverse vote cast in the city of Detroit and Wayne county. The legislature of 1887 also enacted a local option law, the first of that class of legislation ever attempted in Michigan. Under the provisions of this law, an election was held in Van Buren county as soon as practicable. The vote was as follows: Yes,

Page  181 HISTORY OF VAN IBUREN COUNTY 181 3,607; No, 456; a majority of 3,251 in favor of the new law. Before any attempt was made to enforce its provisions the supreme court of the state declared the law to be in conflict with the constitution, thus making it null and void. Another local option statute which avoided the unconstitutional features of the law of 1887 was enacted by the next legislature in 1889. Under the provisions of this act, an election was held in Van Buren county on the 24th day of February, 1890, which resulted in the adoption of the new law by the following vote: Yes, 2,559; No, 1,320; a prohibitory majority of 1,279, every precinct voting in favor of the law. This law, by resolution of the board of supervisors, became operative on the first day of Mlay, 1890, and since that date the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors has been outlawed in Van Buren county, except as sale is permitted by druggists and registered pharmacists for medicinal, mechanical, scientific and sacramental purposes, and since that date such a thing as an open saloon has been unknown in the county. Two years later, at a special election called for that purpose, the question was again submitted to the electors of the county and the law was sustained by a vote of 2,918 to 2,450; a majority of 468 in favor of the retention of the statute. An unsuccessful attempt was made in 1895 and 1896 to have the question again tested by a vote of the electors of the county. However, in 1897, another vote was ordered by the board of supervisors and an election called to be held on the first day of November of that year. Again the law was sustained by the following vote: Yes, 4,158; No, 2,613; a prohibitory majority of 1,545. Five years elapsed before the question was again submitted, the board of supervisors, in response to petitions presented, ordering an election to be held on the 6th day of April, 1903, to once more test the sentiment of the people in regard to the retention of the law. This election resulted as follows: Yes, 4,476; No, 3,077; thus sustaining the law by a majority of 1,399. Again, on the 2d day of April, 1906, the question was submitted to a vote of the people, and the law was again sustained by a vote of 4,323 to 3,626; a. majority of 677 in favor of its retention. An attempt was again made in 1908 to submit the matter to a vote. This was unsuccessful and another petition was filed at the January session of the board in 1910. After an examination of the petition the board declared it to be insufficient and refused to order an election. An appeal was made to the circuit court for a writ of mandamus to compel the board to reverse its action, but that court sustained the board and refused to issue the writ

Page  182 182 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY The matter was then appealed to the supreme court which re. versed the decision of the circuit court and issued a writ ordering the board to reassemble and call an election according to the prayer of the petitioners. In obedience to this mandate of the court an election was called for the 4th day of April, 1910, and again the voters sustained the law by the following vote: Yes, 4,410; No, 3,600; a majority of 810 in favor of retaining the law. By the operation of this law, Van Buren county has had legal prohibition for upwards of twenty-one years, and for a major portion of the time there was no other county in the state in which the provisions of the law were operative, although in several counties it had been in force for limited periods. At the present time, however, nearly one-half of the state is under the operation of its provisions

Page  183 CHAPTER IX CIVIL WAR INFANTRY SIXTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY-TWELFTH MICHIGAN INFANTRYTHIRTEENTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY-STONE RIVER-SEVENTEENTH MICHIGAN AT SOUTH MOUNTAIN-NINETEENTH MICHIGAN-TWENTY-FOURTH REGIMENT-TWENTY-FIFTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY-TWENTY-EIGHTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY-SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR. The military history of Van Buren county really begins with' the outbreak of the Civil war in the spring of 1861, although there was here and there a representative of the county in the war with Mexico, 1846 to 1848. It is wholly impracticable to give the name and service of every Van Buren soldier of the great conflict of 1861-5, as such an exhibit would necessitate not only a careful research of the records of every Michigan regiment, but also of numerous companies and regiments from the other northern states of the Union. The most that we can hope to do is to make a fair approximation to accuracy and completeness, and this we believe we have accomplished in the following pages that are devoted to this matter. When the news was received that Fort Sumter had been fired upon such a wave of patriotism swept over the entire northland as the world had never before witnessed, and Michigan was in-nowise behind her loyal sister states in her readiness to resent the insult to the flag, and Van Buren county was no whit behind in its readiness to respond to its patriotic duty. SIXTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY The first Michigan infantry regiment in which the names of any considerable number of Van Buren county men appear was the Sixth. Onward then, our stainless banner, Let it kiss the stripe and star, Till in weal and woe united, They forever wedded are. 183

Page  184 184 HISTORY OF VAN BIUREN COUNTY The Sixth Infantry was organized at Kalamazoo under the command of Colonel Frederick W. Curtenius and was mustered into the service of the United States on the 20th day of August, 1861. The regiment started from its rendezvous to join the army of the Potomac on the 30th day of August, 1861, having a total enrolment of 944 officers and enlisted men. While this regiment expected to become a part of the Army of the Potomac, the fortunes of war transferred it to the southwest, and the greater part of its service was performed on the Mississippi and the Gulf of Mexico. The regiment was recruited for the infantry arm of the service and served in that capacity until July, 1863, when General Banks converted it into a regiment of heavy artillery. The regiment is therefore, frequently referred to as the Sixth Heavy Artillery. The regiment spent the winter of 1861-2 in camp at Baltimore, Maryland, and the following spring was embarked upon steamers for Fortress Monroe, where it arrived February 23, 1862. Again embarking with other Union troops, it proceeded by sea to Ship Island, 'Mississippi, and soon after was sent to join General Butler 's forces in an attack upon New Orleans, Louisiana, and arrived at the city May 2d, after the fall of Forts Jackson and St. Phillips and the capture of the city. From this point the regiment, as a whole or in detachments, made many excursions into the surrounding country and up and down the Mississippi river, capturing and destroying public property and Confederate supplies, many of the excursions being of extremely hazardous nature. On August 5, 1862, the Sixth made a brilliant record in assisting to repulse a heavy attack on the Union forces at Baton Rouge, and in a desperate charge upon the enemy's works captured the flag of the Ninth Louisiana battalion. The regiment suffered severely in killed and wounded in this engagement and General Thomas Williams, IT. S. A., in command of the Union forces, was killed. In January, 1863, the regiment participated in an expedition under General Weitzel to Bayou Teche, destroying the rebel gunboat "Cotton" and also took part in the expedition against Ponchatoula in March, where the regiment had nine men wounded, but captured a number of the enemy. In April the Sixth was engaged at Amite river and Tickfaw river, and made a raid upon the Jackson railroad at Pangipabo, where it captured sixty prisoners and destroyed an immense amount of public property. From May until July the Sixth was engaged in the siege of Port Hudson, when it received special commendations for its gal

Page  185 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY t185 lantry and daring. It made a desperate charge upon the enemy's entrenchments on the 27th of May and though the works were carried at the point of the bayonet, the attack was unsuccessful by reason of the overwhelming numbers of the Confederates. After the siege of Port Iudson the regiment remained there until March, 1864, when 247 men re-enlisted and started for Mlichigan on veteran furlough. The regiment reassembled at its former camp at Kalamazoo after the expiration of the thirty days' furlough and returned to Port Hudson, where it arrived May 11. The Sixth moved to Vicksburg, Mississippi, where it served as engineers, and then moved to White River and soon after to Ashton, Arkansas. The regiinent was divided into detachments to serve as heavy artillery and was stationed at Fort Morgan, Fort Gaines, Dauphin island, and Mobile bay. The regiment performed valuable service under its assignments as heavy artillery until August, when it received orders to return to Michigan. It arrived at Jackson August 30th, and was paid off and discharged September 5, 1865. The regiment during its term of service met the enemy at Sewell's Point, Virginia, March 5, 1862; Fort Jackson, Lousiana, April 25, 1862; Vicksburg, Mississippi, Mlay 20, 1862; (Grand Gulf, Mississippi, May 27, 1862; Amite River, Mississippi, June 20, 1862; Baton Rouge, Lousiana, August 5 and 17, 1862; Bayou Teche, Lousiana, January 14, 1863; Ponchatoula, Lousiana, March 24, 25 and 26, 1863; Barataria, Lousiana, April 7, 1863; Tickfaw River, La., April 12, 1863; Amnite River, Mississippi, May 7, 1863; Ponchatoula, Lousiana, May 16, 1863; Siege of Port Hudson, May 23 to July 8, 1863; Tunica Bayou, Lousiana, November 8, 1863; Ashton, Arkansas, July 24, 1864; Fort Morgan, Alabama, August 23, 1864; Spanish Fort, Alabama, April, 1865; Fort Blakely, Alabama, April, 1865; Fort Huger, Alabama, April, 1865; Fort Tracey, Alabama, April, 1865; siege of Mobile, Alabama, from March 20 to April 12, 1865. Total enrolment, 1992; killed in action, 45; died of wounds, 25; died in prison, 13; died of disease, 432; discharged for disability (disease and wounds), 327. Following is a list of the names of the Van Buren county members of the regiment: Ball, James; Company C; enlisted at Schooleraft; corporal; discharged August 20, 1865. Davis, Benjamin F.; Company F; enlisted at Kalamazoo, August 20, 1861; died at New Orleans, August 31, 1862, of wounds received in action; buried in National cemetery at New Orleans, grave No. 5601.

Page  186 186 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Schermerhorn, Cornelius; Company F; enlisted August 20, 1861, at Kalamazoo; discharged November 12, 1862, to enlist in regular army. Sparling, George W.; Company F; enlisted August 20, 1861, at Kalamazoo; corporal; discharged August 23, 1864. Company D: Alford, George W., Lawton; enlisted August 3, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; died of wounds received in action, at Baton Rouge, July 28, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Baton Rouge, grave No. 2381. Argabrite, William J.; enlisted August 10, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; discharged August 20, 1864; reenlisted in Hancock's corps, March 28, 1865, at South Haven; discharged March 27, 1866. Bankman, Charles K.; enlisted August 8, 1861, at Dowagiac; died at Baltimore, Maryland, November 21, 1861; buried in London Park National cemetery, at Baltimore. Broadwell, William; enlisted August 10, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; discharged August 23, 1864. Brooks, Bradford; enlisted August 20, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged August 23, 1864; died November 15, 1895. Brown, Silas W.; enlisted August 7, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged August 23, 1864. Coggswell, Alanson H.; enlisted August 8, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged for disability at Baltimore, October 18, 1861. Crabb, John H.; enlisted August 11, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; discharged August 23, 1864. Culver, Meeker M.; enlisted August 12, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged August 20, 1865. Dopp, Harrison H.; enlisted August 11, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; discharged August 23, 1864; died September 17, 1901; buried at Paw Paw. Finch, Charles H., Lawton; enlisted August 3, 1861, at Dowagiac; wagoner; died at Port Hudson, Lousiana, November 20, 1863. Finch, Nathan V., enlisted at Fort Wayne, Indiana, June 19, 1861; corporal, promoted to sergeant; discharged for disability, May 7, 1864; died in 1901, buried at Lawton. Green, Orsemus; enlisted August 8, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged September 6, 1865. Halsey, John; enlisted August 8, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged for disability, February 10, 1863. Hawley, William C.; enlisted August 4, 1861, at Dowagiac; killed on steamer "Ceres" by collision with gunboat, May 18, 1862. Hurlburt, Horace H.; enlisted August 6, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; discharged August 20,. 1865. Heath, George F.; enlisted August 4, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal, promoted to sergeant; discharged August 29, 1865.

Page  187 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 187 Jackson, Andrew; enlisted August 5, 1861, at Dowagiac; died at Camp Williams, Lousiana, September 4, 1862. Johnson, Abner L.; enlisted August 2, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged August 23, 1864. King, Nathaniel H.; enlisted August 3, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged for disability, October 14, 1862. Kellogg, William R.; enlisted August 8, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; discharged August 20, 1865. McDonald, William; enlisted August 7, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged August 23, 1864. Morrison, Oscar; enlisted August 7, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; discharged August 20, 1865. Mather, George W.; enlisted August 8, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged to enter regular army in December, 1862. Mullen, Samuel D.; enlisted August 7, 1861, at Dowagiac; died at Baltimore, Maryland, November 21, 1861; buried in London Park National cemetery, at Baltimore. Palmer, Thomas K.; enlisted August 2, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged August 23, 1864. Pease, John W.; enlisted August 1, 1861, at Dowagiac; died at Baton Rouge, Lousiana, July 27, 1862. Perkins, Charles R.; enlisted August 1, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged for disability March 24, 1862. Porter, Tobias; enlisted August 7, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged August 23, 1864. Scott, Francis M.; enlisted June 19, 1861, at Fort Wayne, Indiana; corporal; died at New Orleans, Lousiana, August 12, 1862; buried in National cemetery at New Orleans, grave No. 5549. Steadman, John J., Hartford; enlisted August 8, 1861, at Dowagiac; died June 23, 1863, at Port Hudson, Lousiana, of wounds received in action; buried in National cemetery at Baton Rouge, grave No. 5432. Stevens, George E., Mattawan; enlisted August 7, 1861, at Dowagiac; died at Port Hudson, Lousiana, August 2, 1863. Smith, Joseph, Lawton; enlisted August 8, 1861, at Dowagiac; died at New Orleans, February 22, 1863. Sweet, Thomas O., Lawrence; enlisted August 7, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged August 23, 1864; died at Lawrence, August 1, 1911; buried at Lawrence. Van Ostran, Holley; enlisted August 7, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged for disability October 22, 1861. Voorhees, Orlando; enlisted August 7, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; discharged August 23, 1864. White, George; enlisted August 7, 1861, at Dowagiac; died at Baton Rouge. La.. June 5, 1862.

Page  188 188 I-ISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Wilcox, Seth D.; enlisted August 7, 1861, at Dowagiac; died at Camp Williams, Lousiana, September 18, 1862. TWELFTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY We're fighting for the Union, We're fighting for the trust, We 're fighting for the land Where sleeps our fathers' dust. The Twelfth Michigan Infantry was organized at Niles by Colonel Francis Quinn of that city, and was mustered into service March 5, 1862, with an enrolment of 1,000 officers and men. The regiment left the state, March 18th, going to St. Iouis, Missouri, where it embarked for Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, joining General Prentiss' division of the Army of the Tennessee commanded by General U. S. Grant. The regiment, with others newly organized and wholly without any military experience, was pushed to the front, and on Sunday morning, April 6th, only one month after its organization, received its first baptism of blood in the attack made by the Confederate forces under the command of General Albert Sidney Johnston, in which that brilliant officer lost his life, being succeeded by General Beauregard. The troops lay upon their arms during the night, and before morning General Buell's army arrived, when the battle was resumed Monday, culminating in driving General Beauregard and his troops from the field. The losses of the Twelfth in this engagement were serious. The regiment during the rest of the year occupied stations at IBolivar, Tennessee, Iuka, Mississippi, and Metamora, and from November, 1862, to May, 1863, was guarding the Mississippi Central Railroad, with headquarters at Middleburg, Tennessee. At this place in December a detachment of the regiment was besieged in a block house which was gallantly defended against an attack by General Van Dorn's forces, estimated at 3,000 strong. Colonel Graves refused to surrender and succeeded after an engagement of two hours and a half with the assistance of a detachment of the Third Michigan Cavalry that came to his relief, in driving off the Confederate forces. The command was complimented by General Grant in General Orders for this brilliant work. The regiment was ordered to Vicksburg, Mississippi, in June, 1863, where it took post at Haynes' Bluff and remained until the fall of Vicksburg. In July, 1863, the Twelfth comprised a part of the force under General Steele, when he invested Little Rock, Arkansas. At this point the regiment veteranized, 334 reenlisting, and in January, 1864, started for Michigan on veteran furlough. After the expi

Page  189 IIlSTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 189 ration of the thirty days' furlough, the Twelfth reassembled at Niles and returned to Little Rock, Arkansas, where it arrived April 1st. The regiment was engaged in long marches and frequent skirmishes with the enemy, and in doing picket and guard duty until October, when it arrived at De Vall's Bluff, Arkansas. The regiment was then separated into detachmenets, the different companies occupying posts wherever their services were needed until January, 1866, when the detachments were ordered to assemble at Camden, where the regiment was mustered out of service February 15, 1866. The Twelfth started at once for Michigan, arrived at Jackson the 27th, and was paid off and disbanded the 6th of March. The Twelfth was engaged with the enemy at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, April 6, 7, 1862; Iuka, Mississippi, September 19, 1862; Metamora, Tennessee, October 5, 1862; Middleburg, Tennessee, December 24, 1862; Mechanicsville, Mississippi, June 4, 1863; siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, June and July, 1863; siege of Little Rock, Arkansas, August and September, 1863; Clarendon, Arkansas, June 26, 1864; Gregory's Landing, September 4, 1864. Total enrolment, 2357; killed in action, 29; died of wounds, 26; died in confederate prisons, 17; died of disease, 316; discharged for disability (wounds and disease), 221. Following is a list of the names of the members of this regiment from Van Buren County: Company A: Alexander, Horace N., Keeler; enlisted February 5. 1864, at Keeler; discharged June 10, 1865. trown, Caleb J., Decatur; enlisted November 21, 1861, at Decatur; corporal; discharged February 13, 1866; died December 10, 1895. Buckley, John; enlisted February 24, 1865, at Geneva; dis(harged February 15, 1866; died May 7, 1895; buried at Monk, Michigan. Freelove, Joseph, Hamilton; enlisted March 16, 1865, at Hamilton; discharged February 15, 1866. Horton, Samuel, Columbia; enlisted January 24, 1865, at Columbia; discharged January 24, 1866. Hess, Calvin, Columbia; enlisted January 24, 1865, at Columbia; discharged January 24, 1866. Welcher, Albert, Decatur; enlisted November 23, 1861, at Decatur; discharged May 31, 1862. Welcher, John, Decatur; enlisted November 22, 1861, at Decatur; discharged May 31, 1862. Company B: Beal, Franklin, Covert; enlisted November 6, 1862; discharged November 11, 1865.

Page  190 190 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Bucknell, Uriah; enlisted February 14, 1865, at Antwerp, discharged February 15, 1866. Evans, Robert K., Keeler; enlisted February 5, 1864, at Keeler; discharged February 15, 1866. Gates, Franklin D.; enlisted March 27, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866. Hall, James H., Lawton; enlisted November 6, 1861, at Lawton; sergeant and commissary sergeant, promoted to second lieutenantt and to first lieutenant; discharged February 15, 1866; present residence, Lawton. Matran, Morgan W.; enlisted December 20, 1863, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866. Lamson, William W., Covert; enlisted November 20, 1861, at Covert; died at Camp Prentice, Tennessee, April 21, 1862. Teachout, Henry, Covert; enlisted November 26, 1862, at Covert; discharged June 20, 1865. Timmons, Bedient; enlisted December 30, 1863, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866. Company D: Davidson, Andrew L.; enlisted March 6, 1866, at Keeler; discharged February 15, 1866. Dougherty, George W.; enlisted March 15, 1865, at Hamilton. died at De Vall's Bluff, Arkansas, June 2, 1865. Keyes, Nathaniel; enlisted March 18, 1865, at Hamilton; discharged for disability, June 12, 1865. McMillan, John; enlisted March 6, 1865, at Keeler; discharged February 15, 1866. Smith, Estell H.; enlisted March 7, 1865, at Keeler; discharged February 15, 1866. Company E: Crippen, David G.; enlisted February 15, 1865, at Antwerp; discharged May 22, 1865. Company F: Barrett, Charles; enlisted February 29, 1864. at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866. Hamlin, Shadrach; enlisted September 6, 1864, at Hamilton: discharged September 9, 1865. Johnson, Elias V.; enlisted February 15, 1865, at Antwerp; discharged February 15, 1866. Smith, Eber A.; enlisted April 4, 1865, at Antwerp; discharged June 20, 1865. Tryon, Israel D.; enlisted November 3, 1864, at Kalamazoo; died at Washington, Arkansas, July 22, 1865. Company G: Barnes, Robert; enlisted February 24, 1865, at Lawton; discharged February 15, 1866. Bratton, Andrew W.; enlisted December 29, 1863, at Kalamlazoo; discharged for disability July 19, 1865.

Page  191 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 191 Company H: Atkinson, William E., Lawton; enlisted November 6, 1861, at Lawton; supposed to have been taken prisoner and murdered by guerrillas in May, 1863. Allen, Owen L.; enlisted February 29, 1864, at Decatur; discharged February 15, 1866. Andrews, Wallace W., Lawton; enlisted November 29, 1861, at Lawton; discharged February 5, 1865. Armitage, Richard, Decatur; enlisted November 25, 1861, at Decatur; corporal; died at Washington, Arkansas, August 7, 1865. Barnes, George, Mattawan; enlisted December 14, 1861, at Lawton; killed in action at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862. Baker, Franklin; enlisted February 22, 1865, at Antwerp; discharged February 15, 1866. Beals, William, Lawton; drummer; enlisted October 16. 1861, at Lawton; discharged February 15, 1866. Bitely, Stephen; corporal; enlisted November 1, 1861, at Lawton; promoted to commissary sergeant, commissioned first lieutenant and quartermaster; discharged February 15, 1866. Bitely, Cyrus, Lawton; enlisted November 26, 1861, at Lawton; corporal, promoted to commissary sergeant; discharged February 15, 1866. Bowman, James M., Lawton; enlisted October 20, 1861, at Lawton; died April 17, 1862, on hospital boat opposite Cairo, Illinois, of wounds received in action at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, section 53, grave No. 955. Brott, William, H., Porter; enlisted August 25, 1862, at Lawton; discharged September 30, 1865. Burgess, David; enlisted February 18, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866. Burrell, Joseph; enlisted February 15, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged February 15, 1866. Case, Randall Z., Lawton; enlisted November 1, 1861, at Lawton; discharged February 15, 1866. Chase, Jonathan L., Lawton; entered service at Lawton as second lieutenant; resigned May 5, 1862, on account of wounds received in action at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862. Cole, Danford D.; enlisted March 15, 1865, at Hamilton; discharged February 15, 1866. Cole, John J., Lawton; enlisted November 6, 1861, at Lawton; supposed to have been taken prisoner and murdered by guerrillas, in May, 1863. DeBolt, William H., Decatur; sergeant and first sergeant, promoted to second lieutenant; resigned August 20, 1864; died at I)ecatur, January 11, 1902. Dibble, David W., Lawton; enlisted October 28, 1861, at Law

Page  192 192 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY ton; wounded at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862; discharged for disability, July 8, 1862. Iibble, Charles J., Lawton; enlisted October 28, 1861, at Lawton; died at Little Rock, Arkansas, November 13, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Little Rock, grave No. 171. Dine, Adam, Lawton; enlisted October 26, 1861, at Lawton; corporal; discharged February 15, 1866. Dine, Benjamin F., Decatur; enlisted December 19, 1864, at Decatur; discharged February 15, 1866. Dine, Lewis, Porter; enlisted December 16, 1861, at Porter; discharged November 17, 1865, from Veteran Reserve corps. Doolittle, Alfred, Lawton; enlisted November 6, 1861, at Lawton; discharged February 15, 1866. Durden, James E., Keeler, enlisted March 7, 1865, at Keeler; discharged June 20, 1865. Eggleston, Harvey, Porter; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Lawton; discharged September 30, 1865. Eastman, George, Porter; enlisted January 8, 1862, at Porter; discharged May 8, 1863. Farrow, John; enlisted February 24, 1865, at Lawton; discharged for disability, May 3, 1865. Flanders, Edwin; enlisted March 15, 1865, at Hanilton; discharged February 25, 1866. Flanders, Milan; enlisted March 15, 1865, at Hamilton; discharged February 15, 1866. Follett, Luther D., Lawton; enlisted November 7, 1861, at Lawton; died at St. Louis, Missouri, June 6, 1862; buried in National cemetery, Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, grave No. 823. Fuller, Isaac H., Arlington; enlisted February 15, 1864, at Arlington; died May 14, 1864, at Little Rock, Arkansas; buried in National cemetery at Little Rock, grave No. 451. Gustin, Clinton J., Keeler; enlisted March 17, 1865, at Keeler, discharged February 15, 1866. Hall, James H., Lawton; enlisted November 6, 1861, at Lawton; sergeant and commissary sergeant, second lieutenant Company B and first lieutenant Company C; discharged February 15, 1866. Iall, Wesley M., Lawton; enlisted October 29, 1861, at Lawton; corporal; wounded at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862; discharged for disability August 25, 1862; present residence, Paw Paw. Harper, Harvey, Lawton; enlisted December 10, 1861, at Lawton, discharged August 18, 1863, for disability. Iartman, Conrad R., Hamilton; enlisted December 9, 1861, at Hamilton; discharged June 21, 1863.

Page  193 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 193 Hawkins, Daniel, Lawton; enlisted February 1, 1862, at Lawton; discharged February 15, 1866. Hincher, Eli J., Decatur; enlisted March 18, 1865, at Hamilton; discharged February 15, 1866. Hopkins, George P.; enlisted February 22, 1864, at Lawton; discharged February 15, 1866. Hopkins, Cyrus; enlisted March 31, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866; died July 21, 1903. Johnson, Gilbert D., Lawton; entered service October 14, 1861, at Lawton, as captain of Company H; wounded in action at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862; resigned October 8, 1862; dead, buried at Lawton. Johnson, Uriah, Decatur; enlisted February 10, 1862, at Decatur; died June 1, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, section 52, grave No. 912. Kennard, William, Lawton; enlisted November 6, 1861, at Lawton; discharged for disability, June 20, 1862. Kinney, George R.; enlisted March 15, 1865, at Hamilton; discharged February 15, 1866. Kidney, Samuel A.; enlisted January 5, 1864, at Lawton; discharged February 15, 1866. Lee, Henry W., Lawton; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Lawton; discharged September 30, 1865. Leet, Franklin, Porter; enlisted December 30, 1861, at Lawton; died at Pittsburg Landing, April 23, 1862. Longcor, William H.; enlisted February 13, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866. McNeil, Livingston; enlisted February 9, 1864, at Lawton; died at Little Rock, Arkansas, July 21, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Little Rock, grave No. 763. Mayo, Lyman, Lawton; enlisted October 24, 1861, at Lawton; discharged for disability October 24, 1862. Miller, Nicholas, Lawton; enlisted November 8, 1861, at Lawton; died at St. Louis, Missouri, June 1, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, section 52, grave No. 878. Minnick, William, Porter; enlisted November 29, 1861, at Lawton; died at Atlanta, Georgia, June 17, 1862, while prisoner of war. Monroe, Richard, Lawton; enlisted October 23, 1861, at Lawton; discharged for disability, November 10, 1862. Munger, Alpheus D., Lawton; enlisted November 6, 1861, at Lawton; discharged for disability, July 18, 1862. Myers, Alfred, Lawton; enlisted November 6, 1861, at Lawton; discharged February 15, 1866. Nash, Samuel D., Hamilton; enlisted November 16, 1861, at Vol. 1-18

Page  194 194 HIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY IHamilton; died at Little Rock, Arkansas; July 12, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Little Rock, section 2, grave No. 713. Nash, William A., Lawton; enlisted October 31, at Lawton; died at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 27, 1862. Nichols, Joseph; enlisted February 20, 1864, at Decatur; corporal; discharged February 15, 1866. Parker, Dyer, Porter; enlisted August 13, 1862, at Porter; died at Little Rock, Arkansas, August 17, 1863. Parker, Ira, Porter; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Porter; discharged for disability, November 23, 1862. Parker, James; enlisted December 21, 1862, at Kalamazoo; died at Lawton, Michigan, January 11, 1865. Parker, James M.; enlisted January 5, 1864, at Kalamazoo; died in Michigan, March 25, 1864. Parsons, Christopher; enlisted March 1, 1862; discharged for disability, July 14, 1862. Pattingill, Clark, Lawton; enlisted December 26, 1861, at Lawton; discharged September 25, 1862. Prince, Daniel; enlisted February 25, 1864, at Lawton; died at Lawton; November 21, 1864. Rice, Edward H., Arlington; enlisted October 26, 1861, at Arlington; sergeant; discharged February 15, 1866. Robards, Barney S., Iamilton; enlisted November 22, 1861, at H-amilton; wounded in action at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862; discharged March 5, 1864. Robinson, Lucius K., Lawton; enlisted October 14, 1862, at Lawton; discharged for disability, July 7, 1863. Robinson, Walter P., Paw Paw; enlisted October 23, 1861, at Lawton; discharged for disability, December 11, 1862. Rough, UTriah W.: enlisted March 15, 1864; discharged February 15, 1866. Sams, James; enlisted February 25, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866. Scott, Thomas J.; enlisted February 17, 1864, at Kalamazoo; died at De Vall's Bluff, Arkansas, July 26, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Little Rock, Arkansas, section 10, grave No. 407. Sheldon, Luther D.; enlisted February 25, 1864, at Decatur; died at De Vall's Bluff, Arkansas, November 23, 1864. Showers, Jacob, Jr.; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged February 26, 1866. Smith, Allen; enlisted at Kalamazoo, February 9, 1864; discharged February 15, 1866. Smith, Bennett; enlisted February 9, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866.

Page  195 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 195 Stambrook, Samuel F., Lawton; enlisted October 30, 1861, at Lawton; corporal; discharged February 15, 1866. Stephens, George, Lawton; enlisted November 7, 1861, at Lawton; died at Pittsburgh Landing, Tennessee, May 11, 1862. Sternbergh, William, Lawton; enlisted November 2, 1861, at Lawton; discharged August 22, 1865. Stilwell, Isaiah, Lawton; enlisted October 16, 1861, at Lawton; discharged February 15, 1866. Stilwell, James; enlisted August 9, 1862, at Lawton; discharged September 30, 1865. Tomlinson, Clauson, Lawton; enlisted October 22, 1861, at Lawton; died at Pittsburgh Landing, Tennessee, June 6, 1862. Tomlinson, James H.; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 26, 1866. Tyler, James P.; enlisted December 5, 1861, at Lawton; discharged for disability, October 24, 1862. Van Hise, Jared P., Decatur; enlisted February 27, 1865; discharged June 17, 1865; died January 11, 1903; buried at Decatur. Van Hise, Runyan, Lawton; enlisted October 26, 1861, at Lawton; taken prisoner April 6, 1862; returned to company, January 26, 1863; promoted to commissary sergeant and to second lieutenant of Company K, commissioned first lieutenant Company H; resigned December 31, 1864. Van Hise, William K., Decatur; enlisted December 9, 1863, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866. Vannetten, William, Porter; enlisted November 16, 1861, at Porter; missing in action at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862; no further record. Vought, Samuel, Decatur; enlisted February 29, 1864, at Decatur; discharged June 17, 1865. Vought, Thomas A., Decatur; enlisted February 20, 1864, at Decatur; discharged February 15,. 1866. Wait, Stephen E.; enlisted April 19, 1864, at Lawton; discharged February 15, 1866. Wilson, Charles, Lawton; enlisted November 27, 1861, at Lawton; died at De Vall's Bluff, August 23, 1863. Wilson, William, Lawton; enlisted November 22, 1861, killed in action at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1861. Wilson, William; enlisted February 13, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866. Wright, Adelbert; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866. Company K: Ames, Roswell, Lawrence; enlisted December 15, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged January 7, 1865.

Page  196 196 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Blackmer, David C., Keeler; enlisted November 15, 1861, at Keeler; died at Little Rock, Arkansas, September 24, 1863. Blackmer, John R., Hamilton; enlisted November 12, 1861, at Hamilton; discharged for disability June 1, 1865. Barnum, Amos; enlisted March 18, 1865, at Hamilton; died at Washington, Arkansas, July 3, 1865. Barnum, William; enlisted March 18, 1865, at Hamilton; discharged February 15, 1866. Chubbuck, Russell L., Lawrence; enlisted November 4, 1861, at Lawrence; sergeant; discharged February 15, 1866; dead. Code, John; enlisted March 16, 1865, at Hamilton; discharged February 15, 1866. Corder, Eli M.; enlisted March 5, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866. Earl, John T., Decatur; enlisted December 10, 1861, at Decatur; corporal; discharged February 15, 1866. Earl, Samuel E., Hamilton; enlisted March 15, 1865; discharged February 15, 1866. Field, Othniel H., Hamilton; enlisted November 13, 1861, at Hamilton; sergeant, discharged February 15, 1866. Geer, Charles M., Hamilton; enlisted November 15, 1861, at Hamilton; died at St. Louis, Missouri, May 10, 1862. Geer, William A., Hamilton; enlisted November 16, 1861, at Hamilton; died December 22, 1864,. while a prisoner of war at Camp Tyler, Texas. Hartman, Conrad R., Hamilton; enlisted December 9, 1861, at Hamilton; discharged June 21, 1863. James, William I., Hamilton; enlisted November 15, 1861, at Hamilton; discharged for disability October 25, 1864. Jordan, Allen J., Hamilton; enlisted November 15, 1861, at Hamilton; corporal; discharged February 15, 1866. Luce, Charles C., Arlington; enlisted October 18, 1861, at Arlington; discharged January 7, 1865. Morrison, John H., Decatur; enlisted November 21, 1861, at Hamilton; discharged for disability, July 18, 1862. Parker, Henry C.; corporal; discharged February 15, 1864. Peck, John A., Hamilton; enlisted November 22, 1861, at Hamilton; discharged January 7, 1865. Pletcher, Daniel E., Keeler; enlisted March 7, 1865; discharged February 15, 1866. Redding, John D.; enlisted February 16, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 15, 1866. Rider, William B., Keeler; enlisted December 7, 1861, at Keeler; died at Keeler, July 15, 1862. Roberts, Russell; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Kalamazoo;

Page  197 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 197 died at De Vall's Bluff, Arkansas, September 1, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Little Rock, Arkansas, section 10, grave No. 373. Stearns, William W.; enlisted March 15, 1865, at Hamilton; discharged for disability, October 5, 1865. Sweet, Allen; enlisted February 16, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability, June 12, 1865. Wilson, Burney 0., Hamilton; corporal; enlisted November 15, 1861, at Hamilton; wounded in action at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862; died at Paducah, Kentucky, May 30, 1862. THIRTEENTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY Onward, onward, then to Battle, For bright Freedom points the way, Though the grape shot thickly rattle, Onward, onward, to the fray. The Thirteenth Michigan Infantry was organized at Kalalna zoo, under the direction of Colonel Charles E. Stuart of that city, and was mustered into the service of the United States, January 17, 1862, with an enrolment of 935 officers and enlisted men. It left the state February 12th, under command of Colonel Michael Shoemaker (Colonel Stuart having resigned), and proceeded to Nashville, Tennessee, where it was assigned to Wood's division of General Buell's army, and marched to Pittsburgh Landing to reinforce General Grant, arriving just after the two days' battle with the Confederate forces under Generals Johnston and Beauregard. General Buell moved his headquarters to Dechard, north of Stevenson, on the line of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railway, and left the Thirteenth with a small garrison to hold Stevenson. The enemy attacked before the Union forces left Stevenson, but were repulsed, and then a long march continued night and day over horrible roads across the mountains until Cowan was reached, where Colonel Shoemaker learned the army had left Dechard. He pressed forward and reached Tullahoma September 2nd, where he joined General Smith's division of Buell's army. Colonel Shoemaker was highly complimented by the commanding general for bringing in all his forces, artillery, and baggage, without loss of either men or equipment. The Thirteenth, with the balance of the army, then fell back to Nashville and joined in the pursuit of General Bragg's army to Louisville, Kentucky. In December the regiment belonged to the Third Brigade, First Division, General Thomas' corps, and joined the army commanded by General Rosecrans on his advance upon Murfreesboro, Tennessee.

Page  198 198 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY STONE RIVER The regimenit was engaged at Stone River the 30th and 31st of I)ecember, 1862, and in January, 1863, where it distinguished itself by its desperate valor and was most warmly commended for the heroic work that checked the onward rush of the Confederate forces. The brigade of which the Thirteenth formed a part was comlmanded by Colonel Charles G. Harker, and was detached fron its division and sent to the extreme right of the Union line, where the enemy had crushed that wing, when it formed a line in the immediate front of the Confederates and a desperate conflict commenced. The Union forces were steadily pressed back by the enemy, but the Thirteenth held its position until nearly surrounded, when it fell back a short distance and reformed, continually showing a bold front to the enemy. Colonel Shoemaker ordered a bayonet charge and the Thirteenth sprang forward with a yell, driving the enemy from the field in confusion and capturing a large number of prisoners. The regiment lost nearly one third of its strength in killed and wounded in the action on this part of the field. It recaptured two pieces of artillery of the Sixth Ohio Battery. which had been abandoned when the Union forces were driven back by the furious onslaught of the enemy. The Thirteenth commenced its advance toward Chattanooga in August and marched over the Cumberland mountains, crossed the Tennessee river at Shell Mound and was one of the first regiments to march into Chattanooga on the morning of the 13th of September. It proceeded almost at once to Chickamauga, where it was.engaged the 19th and 20th of September, coming in contact with the enemy near Lee and Gordon's Mills, and before the close of the battle lost 107 killed, wounded and missing, out of a total of 217, the number of officers and men the regiment carried into action. Such a record tells how the Thirteenth sustained its part in this historic engagement far more eloquently than words can describe. After the battle of Chickamauga the regiment was in the trenches about Chattanooga and took part in the movements about Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. In November, 1863, the Thirteenth was organized with other regiments into a brigade of engineers and was attached to the headquarters of the Army of the Cumberland. In January, 1864, it veteranized and returned to Kalamazoo, where it arrived on the 12th and was furloughed for thirty days. It returned to Chattanooga on the 20th of April with a large number of recruits and was soon engaged in the construction of

Page  199 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 199 military hospitals on Lookout Mountain, and in the pursuit of Forrest's forces until the month of November, when it joined the army under the command of General Sherman, being assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division of the Fourteenth Corps. The regiment marched with Sherman to the sea and reached Savannah on the 16th of December. After the surrender of the city the regiment continued with Sherman's army through South Carolina and North Carolina, meeting with Johnston and Hardee's forces at Bentonville, on the 19th of March, 1865, where it sustained a severe loss. This was the last battle of importance fought by Sherman's army. After Johnston's surrender the regiment marched to Richmond and thence to Washington, where it participated in the grand review. On the 9th day of June the regiment proceeded to Louisville, Kentucky, where it was mustered out of the service, proceeding to Jackson, Michigan, where it was paid off and disbanded July 27, 1865. The Thirteenth participated in the following engagements: Shilol, Tennessee, April 7, 1862; Farmington, Mississippi, May 9, 1862; Owl Creek, Mississippi, May 17, 1862; siege of Corinth, May 10 to 31, 1862; Stevenson, Alabama, August 31, 1862; Munfordsville, Kentucky, September 14, 1862; Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862; Danville, Kentucky, October 17, 1862; Gallatin, Tennessee, December 5, 1862; Mill Creek, Tennessee, December 15, 1862; Lavergne, Tennessee, December 27, 1862; Stewart's Creek, Tennessee, December 29, 1862; Stone River, Tennessee, December 29, 1862 to January 3, 1863; Eagleville, Tennessee, January 20, 1863; Pelham, Tennessee, July 2, 1863; Lookout Valley, Tennessee, September 7, 1863; Lookout Mountain, Tennessee, September 10, 1863; Chickamauga, Georgia, September 12, 18, and 19, 1863; Chattanooga, Tennessee, October 6, 1863; Mission Ridge, Tennessee, November 26, 1863; Florence, Alabama, October 8, 1864; Savannah, Georgia, December 17 to 21, 1864; Catawba River, South Carolina, February 28, 1865; Averysborough, North Carolina, March 16, 1865; Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865. Total enrolment, 2092; killed in action, 47; died of wounds, 33; died in Confederate prisons, 7; died of disease; 253; discharged for disability (wounds and disease), 216. Following are the names of the Van Buren county members of the regiment: Culver, Joshua B., Paw Paw; entered service at organization of the regiment as first lieutenant and adjutant; major, July 4, 1862; lieutenant-colonel, February 26, 1863; colonel, May 26, 1863; commanding brigade July 23, 1864; final discharge July 25, 1865.

Page  200 200 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Whitcomb, Lewis J., Paw Paw; entered service as chaplain, comnnissioned August 7, 1863; discharged for disability March 17, 1865; died August 10, 1903; buried at Milford, Michigan. Company A: Brown, Jesse M., Paw Paw; enlisted August 16, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged June 8, 1865; died at Paw Paw, April 14, 1911. Bush, Philemon, Waverly; enlisted December 20, 1863, at Oshtemo; corporal; discharged July 25, 1865. Hoyt, Benjamin F., Paw Paw; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged July 25, 1865. Merritt, Charles A., South Haven; enlisted February 24, 1864, at Sturgis; discharged July 25, 1865. Rice, Orville A.; enlisted February 24, 1864; discharged from hospital, May 23, 1865; present residence, Paw Paw. Whitford, De Forest A., Waverly; enlisted December 20, 1863, at Oshtemo; discharged July 25, 1865. Chapman, Dewey D., Columbia; enlisted August 19, 1864, at Columbia; discharged July 25, 1865; died September 5, 1898; buried at Arlington. Waldron, Frederick; enlisted January 24, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 25, 1865. Company 3: Collins, Edgar; enlisted August 26, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged June 8, 1865. Coon, Carlton, Paw Paw; enlisted August 26, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged June 8, 1865. Coon, Edwin H., Paw Paw; enlisted August 26, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged June 21, 1865. Loveland, George B., Paw Paw; enlisted August 26, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged June 8, 1865. McGrady, James, Paw Paw; enlisted August 26, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged June 8, 1865. McVey, James W., Paw Paw; enlisted.September 3, 1864, at Jackson; substitute for Joshua Bangs; discharged June 8, 1865. Smith, Junius, Paw Paw; enlisted August 26, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged June 8, 1865; died April 20, 1891; buried at Paw Paw. Woodbeck, David; enlisted December 31, 1863, at Waverly; discharged January 31, 1865. Company C: Austin, William F., Paw Paw; enlisted August 13, 1864, at Paw Paw; died June 29, 1865; buried in National cemetery, Arlington, Virginia. Arnold, William W., Antwerp; enlisted February 16, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged July 25, 1865. Butler, William D., Mattawan; enlisted October 23, 1861, at Mattawan; died at Nashville, Tennessee, May 20, 1863; buried in National cemetery, Nashville.

Page  201 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 201 Britton, William H., Mattawan; enlisted February 24, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 25, 1865. Calkins, Orlando W., Mattawan; enlisted December 6, 1861, at Mlattawan; died at Mattawan, May 10, 1862. Covey, Hiram F., Waverly; enlisted April 29, 1861, at Paw Paw; died at Savannah, Georgia, March 18, 1865; buried in National cemetery, Beaufort, South Carolina, section 41, grave No. 4655. Dailey, Ira I-I., Lawton; enlisted March 29, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 25, 1865. Dailey, William S., Lawton; enlisted December 13, 1861, at Porter; corporal; discharged July 25, 1865. Davis, Andrew J., Hartford; enlisted September 1, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged May 31, 1865. Dunbar, Edwin G., Decatur; enlisted October 9, 1861; sergeant; second lieutenant May 15, 1862; first lieutenant and quartermaster August 18, 1862; captain January 4, 1864;. major August 1, 1865; breveted lieutenant-colonel for gallant services March 13, 1865; discharged November 22, 1865. Edick, George W., Decatur; enlisted November 2, 1861, at Decatur; musician; discharged July 25, 1865. Fox, George N., Waverly; enlisted August 24, 1864, at Kalamazoo; sick at Tilton November 1, 1864; no further record. Fox, Henry, Mattawan; enlisted October 23, 1861, at Mattawan; sergeant, color sergeant; killed in action at Chickamauga, Georgia. September 19, 1863. Greenman, Miles, Decatur; enlisted December 23, 1861, at Decatur; died at Louisville, Kentucky, April 22, 1862; buried in National cemetery, Louisville. Griffith, Collins D.; enlisted February 15, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged July 17, 1865. Hand, Alden S., Decatur; enlisted December 21, 1861, at Allegan; killed in action at Stone River, Tennessee, December 31, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, grave No. 2911. Huff, Henry, Mattawan; enlisted February 23, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged July 11, 1865. Huff, Marion, Mattawan; enlisted February 15, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged June 9, 1865. Johnson, Henry M., Porter; enlisted December 13, 1861, at Porter; died at Danville, Kentucky, November 20, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Lebanon, Kentucky. Lee, Edward; enlisted October 19, 1861, at Decatur; sick at Nashville, Tennessee; no further record.

Page  202 202 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Lent, Champlin; enlisted at Antwerp, February 27, 1864; wounded in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865; discharged June 20, 1865. Lynden, Elbridge G., Lawton; enlisted February 25, 1864, at Porter; discharged July 25, 1865. Nash, Eugene D., Paw Paw; enlisted August 30, 1864, at Waverly; discharged June 8, 1865. Niles, Augustus; enlisted August 30, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged August 30, 1865. Oaks, Samuel E.; enlisted February 27, 1864, at Antwerp; died at Alexandria, Virginia, May 28, 1865; buried in National cemnetery at Alexandria. Pratt, Warren, South Haven; enlisted December 24, 1861, at South Haven; transferred to U. S. Engineers; discharged September 20, 1865. Price, Andrew A.; enlisted November 6, 1861; discharged for disability July 31, 1862. Prindle, Lawrence E., Waverly; enlisted August 30, 1864, at Waverly; discharged June 8, 1865. Stilwell, Ira, Porter; enlisted December 30, 1861, at Porter; wounded in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 20, 1863; discharged January 30, 1865. Van Wickle. William 1B.; enlisted February 15, 1864, at Antwerp;: taken prisoner at Goldsboro. North Carolina: discharged June 3, 1865. Varnum, John, Ilattawan; enlisted A-ugust 21, 1864. at Kalianazoo; discharged June 8, 1865. Welch, John A., Paw Paw; enlisted August 30, 1864; discharged June 15, 1865. Williams, Cantine R., Mattawan; enlisted February 15, 1864, at Antwerp; corporal; discharged July 25, 1865. Williams, Smith G., Mattawan; enlisted October 23, 1861, at Mattawan; sergeant; wounded in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19, 1863; second lieutenant, March 19, 1864; first lieutenant, May 12, 1865; captain July 5, 1865; discharged July 25, 1865. Company I: Allen, Anson, Paw Paw; enlisted December 10, 1863, at Bloomingdale; discharged July 25, 1865. Bell, Ephraim N.; enlisted December 20, 1863, at Bloomingdale; died at Nashville, Tennessee, March 28, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Bush, Sylvanus, Bloomingdale; enlisted December 16, 1863, at Bloomingdale; discharged July 12, 1865. Cadwell, Levi, Lawrence; enlisted September 3, 1864, at Cooper; discharged June 8, 1865.

Page  203 HISTORY OF VAN BIREN COUNTY 203 I)oran, William, Decatur; enlisted November 1, 1861, at )ecatur; discharged July 25, 1865. Foote, Cortes F., Paw Paw; enlisted October 19, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability July 16, 1862. Howard, Orange F., Paw Paw; enlisted February 3, 1863, at Bloomingdale; died at Lookout Mountain, Tennessee, August 13, 1864; buried in National cemetery, Chattanooga, Tennessee, grave No. 1393. Joy, Andrew J.; enlisted December 14, 1863, at Waverly, died at Stevenson, Alabama, February 10, 1864. Lull, Abner, Mattawan; enlisted December 31, 1861, at Mattawan; died at Hillsboro, Tennessee, August 4, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, grave No.- 3059. Northrup, John L., Lawrence; enlisted November 17, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged for disability, July 12, 1862; died May 7, 1888. Reynolds, Oscar A., Bangor; enlisted September 7, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 27, 1865. Reynolds, Simeon, Bangor; enlisted in September, 1864, at Arlington; discharged June 8, 1865; died February 6, 1903. Stedman, George, Paw Paw; enlisted December 10, 1863, at Waverly; died at Bridgeport, Alabama, January 14, 1865; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga, Tennessee, grave No. 10976. Vanderveer, Oscar I)., Paw Paw; enlisted August 31, 1861, at PIaw Paw; discharged June 28, 1865; died at Paw Paw. Vandervoort, Clark; enlisted November 21, 1861, at Hartford; died at Nashville, Tennessee. September 4. 1863: buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Vaughn, George W., Bloomingdale; enlisted December 14, 1863, at Bloomingdale; discharged May 20, 1865. Company E: Acker, Charles W., Hartford: enlisted January 5, 1862, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability July 12, 1862. Brown, Orra S., Paw Paw; enlisted December 7, 1863, at Waverly; sergeant; discharged July 25, 1865. Burridge, George W., Keeler; enlisted October 13, 1861, at Hamilton; died at Nashville, Tennessee, December 6, 1862: buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Cannum, James; enlisted October 5, 1861, at Lawton; traiisferred to Invalid Corps, September 30, 1863. Cotton, Joshua, Paw Paw; enlisted February 11, 1862. at Dowagiac; discharged in June, 1863. Fowler, John R.; enlisted October 22, 1861, at Silver Creek; discharged January 16, 1865. Henry, William, Lawrence; enlisted December 12, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged September 12, 1862; dead.

Page  204 204 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Jay, Henry; enlisted October 5, 1861, at Decatur; transferred to Invalid Corps September 1, 1863. Johnson, Andrew, Jr.; enlisted September 19, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability October 8, 1863. Lillie, Arthur L., Waverly; enlisted March 27, 1865, at Waverly; discharged July 25, 1865. McNeil, David; enlisted October 22, 1861, at Keeler; discharged September 14, 1862. Parrish, Nathaniel C., Paw Paw; enlisted September 20, 1861, at Paw Paw; died at Nashville, Tennessee, April 4, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Robbins, William; enlisted Decelmber 5, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged January 18, 1865. Rogers, Henry A.; enlisted October 6, 1861, at Lawton; musician; discharged October 5, 1862. Sams, George W.; enlisted at Paw Paw, October 23, 1861; discharged for disability September 27, 1862; reentered service in Company II, Twelfth Infantry; discharged February 15, 1866. Saxton, Byron; enlisted Septemnber 10, 1861, at 'aw Paw; discharged January 20, 1863. Slocum, Henry E., Lawrence; enlisted February 11, 1862, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability, July 22, 1862. Tatman, William S.; enlisted October 22, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged July 25, 1865. Trumbull, Guy E.; enlisted February 11, 1862, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability, July 29, 1862. Tyler, Elisha, Jr., Paw Paw; enlisted September 14, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged July 25, 1865; died at Paw Paw, November 3, 1902. Wilson, James, Paw Paw; enlisted October 19, 1861, at Paw Paw; sergeant; transferred to Invalid Corps, September 30, 1863; discharged January 17, 1865; served in regular army from 1862 to 1867. Wetherbee, John B.; enlisted August 30, 1864, at Kalamazoo; died at Savannah, Georgia, December 19, 1864. Company F: Beaman, Azor; drafted from Hartford, mustered September 24, 1864; died of disease at Savannah, Georgia, January 12, 1865; buried in National cemetery at Beaufort, South Carolina, section 41, grave No. 4648. Cady, Philo; enlisted April 11, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged May. 15, 1865. Hamimell, John I., Hartford; drafted, mustered September 24, 1864; wounded in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865; discharged June 29, 1865.

Page  205 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 205 Stratton, Hiram L., IHartford; drafted, mustered September 24, 1864; discharged June 8, 1865. Company G: Allen, IHenry, Waverly; enlisted December 23, 1863, at Waverly; discharged for disability May 16, 1865. Ashley, William H.; enlisted August 30, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability October 26, 1864. Babbitt, William A.; enlisted February 25, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged July 25, 1865. Belden, George W., Breedsville; enlisted October 23, 1861, at Breedsville; discharged January 16, 1865. Bell, James, Waverly; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Waverly; discharged July 15, 1865. Bewley, George W.; enlisted November 16, 1861, at Breedsville; sick at lMurfreesboro, Tennessee, March, 1863; no further record. Bewley, Timothy; enlisted October 26, 1861, at Breedsville; discharged February 25, 1863; died March 14, 1894; buried at Breedsville. Bogardus, Joseph L., Breedsville; enlisted February 10, 1864, at Columbia; corporal; discharged July 25, 1865. Bush, Levi, Waverly; enlisted December 14, 1863, at Waverly; corporal; discharged July 25, 1865. Campbell, Walter H., Waverly; enlisted August 29, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged May 26, 1865. Campbell, Willard N., Waverly; enlisted August 29, 1864, at Kalamazoo; sick at Goldsboro, North Carolina; no further record. Cleveland, Lucius, Breedsville; enlisted October 28, 1861, at Breedsville; corporal; discharged July 25, 1865. Dean, Euberto, Almena; enlisted August 30, 1864, at Almena; killed in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865. Dean, Marshall, Paw Paw; enlisted August 20, 1864;'taken prisoner March 10, 1865; discharged July 29, 1865. Davis, John H.; drafted from South Haven; mustered September 24, 1864; died at Indianapolis, Indiana, October 24, 1864; buried at Indianapolis. Fox, James P.; enlisted March 27, 1865, at Waverly; discharged May 15, 1865. Foster, Simon P.; enlisted October 26, 1861; taken prisoner at Milledgeville, Georgia, November 25, 1864; released February 26, 1865; discharged June 27, 1865. Hannah, John H.; drafted from Hartford; mustered September 24, 1864; sick June, 1865; no further record. Hays, Daniel F., Waverly; enlisted December 18, 1863, at Detroit; discharged July 25, 1865.

Page  206 206 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Hooper, Charles 1)., l'orter; enlisted. February 25, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 25, 1865. Howard, James M.; enlisted February 23, 1864, at Columbia; died at Tullahoma, Tennessee, June 16, 1864. Johnson, George; enlisted February 20, 1864, at Waverly; discharged July 25, 1865. Johnson, Henry B.; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Plaw Paw; discharged July 25, 1865. Johnson, William IH.; enlisted October 16, 1861, at Schoolcraft; sergeant; wounded in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19, 1863; discharged July 29, 1865. Joy, Obadiah, Bloomingdale; enlisted December 20, 1863, at Waverly; discharged July 25, 1865. Kent, George, Waverly; enlisted February 20, 1864, at Waverly; discharged July 25, 1865. Kidney, Byron H., Porter; enlisted January 13, 1862, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability, August 4, 1863. Lyon, Amasa; enlisted November 6, 1861, at Breedsville; discharged June, 1863; re-entered service in Company C, First Cavalry, January 28, 1864; discharged for disability June 18, 1865. Murch, William; enlisted September 6, 1861, at Waverly; sergeant, and first sergeant; discharged for disability April 21, 1862; re-entered service January 11, 1864, as second lieutenant; resigned on account of disability May 26, 1864. Myers, Chauncey A.; enlisted February 23, 1864, at Waverly; died at Jackson, Michigan, May 26, 1864. Niles, John W.; enlisted October 23, 1861, at Breedsville; discharged January 16, 1865. Price, Andrew A.; enlisted November 6, 1861; discharged for disability July 31, 1862. Rice; Charles H.; enlisted December 12, 1861, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability, July 8, 1862. Robinson, John T., Bloomingdale; enlisted December 14, 1863, at Bloomingdale; discharged July 25, 1865. Rundell, James S., Breedsville; enlisted January 17, 1862; died at Gallatin, Tennessee, December 30, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Smith, John P., Paw Paw; enlisted September 3, 1864, at Jackson; died December 15, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Beaufort, South Carolina, section 48, grave No. 5799. Taylor, Ezekiel V.; enlisted October 26, 1861, at Breedsville; discharged for disability, October 20, 1862. Valleau, William, Waverly; enlisted December 22, 1863, at Waverly, died at David's Island, New York, March 8, 1865, buried in National cemetery at Brooklyn, New York, grave No. 2355.

Page  207 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 207 Walker, Robert; enlisted April 10, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged May 15, 1865. Company II: Abrams, Albert; enlisted August 31, 1864, at IPaw Paw; died at Savannah, Georgia, January 10, 1865; buried at Detroit, Michigan. Barton, Nathan S., Lawrence; enlisted January 1, 1862, at Lawrence; corporal; discharged June 26, 1865, on account of wounds received in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865. Bennett, James; enlisted at Waverly, February 27, 1864; discharged July 18, 1865. Bovier, James; drafted from Hartford; mustered September 24, 1864; discharged June 13, 1865; died December 10, 1896. Brooks, George W., Hartford; enlisted February 10, 1863, at Hamilton, (substitute for Ansel Goodspeed drafted at Hartford, February 12, 1863); discharged July 25, 1865. Burch, Wilson; enlisted February 18, 1863, at HIamilton, (substitute for Archibald Richardson drafted February 10, 1863, at Bloomingdale); discharged for disability, May 5, 1864. Clark, Joshua; enlisted February 27, 1864, at Paw Paw; wounded in action at Bentonville. North Carolina, March 19, 1865; discharged June 16, 1865. Coon, Edward M., Paw Paw; enlisted August 26, 1864, at Antwerp; taken prisoner near Rockingham, South Carolina, March 8, 1865; confined in prison at Danville, Virginia; discharged June 7, 1865. Davis, John H.; drafted from South Haven; mustered September 24, 1864; died of disease at Indianapolis, Indiana, October 24, 1864. De Long, George, Hamilton; enlisted August 29, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged May 6, 1865. Dustin, William D.; enlisted February 27, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 25, 1865. Dustin, Albert M.; enlisted February 27, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 25, 1865. Dunton, Edwin; enlisted April 6, 1865, at Almena; discharged May 15, 1865. Edson, Mortimer J., Paw Paw; enlisted February 27, 1864, at P'aw Paw; discharged July 25, 1865. Ellison, James; enlisted February 27, 1863, at Hamilton, (substitute for Milo J. Barton; drafted February 14, 1863, at Hamilton); discharged for disability November 15, 1863. Erkenbeck, Martin V., Mattawan; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged May 25, 1865.

Page  208 208 IHISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Gibson, Charles; drafted from South Haven; mustered September 24, 1864; discharged July 13, 1865. Hale, Jerome; drafted from South Haven; mustered September 24, 1864; discharged June 8, 1865; dead; buried at South Haven. Hill, Henry W.; drafted from South Haven; mustered September 24, 1864; sick, January 31, 1865; no further record. Hill, Ira M., Paw Paw; enlisted February 22, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged June 16, 1865. Holmes, Alvin P., Antwerp; enlisted October 5, 1861, at Antwerp; discharged July 28, 1865. Holmes, Philemon B., Mattawan; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 8, 1865. Huey, Enos; enlisted February 27, 1864, at Waverly; died at Millen, Georgia, December 4, 1864. Hannah, John H.; drafted at Hartford; mustered September 24, 1864; sick, June, 1865; no further record. Herron, Ashbel; enlisted March 9, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 25, 1865. Loveridge, John, Paw Paw; enlisted August 26, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged June 8, 1865; died January 15, 1901. Lane, Irving H.; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 25, 1865; died November 29, 1900; buried at Paw Paw. McGregor, Malcolm; drafted from South Haven; mustered September 24, 1864; discharged May 25, 1865; died July 11, 1899; buried at South Haven. Mather, Spencer; enlisted February 22, 1864, at Paw Paw; died at Lookout Mountain, Tennessee, July 20, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga, Tennessee, grave No. 1300. Myers, Francis P., Paw Paw; enlisted February 27, 1864, at Bloomingdale; discharged July 25, 1865. Myers, George W.; enlisted February 20, 1864, at Waverly; discharged July 20, 1865. Osborne, Eugene; enlisted August 20, 1864, at Paw Paw; died on march through Georgia; buried in National cemetery at Beaufort, South Carolina, section 41, grave No. 4645. Rhoades, Orrin, Almena; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 25, 1865. Riehl, Charles; enlisted February 20, 1864, at Waverly; killed in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865. Sirrine, William R., Paw Paw; enlisted February 27, 1864, at Paw Paw; sergeant and first sergeant; commissioned second lieutenant, July 19, 1865; discharged July 25, 1865; present residence Paw Paw.

Page  209 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 209 Soules, George W., Mattawan; enlisted August 24, 1864, at Jackson; discharged June 8, 1865. Strong, Elijah; enlisted March 3, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 25, 1865. Warner, Jerome C., Paw Paw; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Paw Paw; corporal; wounded in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865; discharged June 22, 1865; present residence Paw Paw. Welch, Charles, Waverly; enlisted August 30, 1864, at Waverly; discharged June 8, 1865. Woodman, Edson, Paw Paw; enlisted August 27, 1864; discharged July 22, 1865, on account of wounds received in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865; present residence, Paw Paw. Wood, George, Paw Paw; enlisted August 20, 1864, at Kalamazoo: discharged June 8, 1865. Company I: Byers, James A.; drafted from South Haven; mustered September 24, 1864; discharged June 8, 1865. Chapman, Alvin, Arlington; drafted from Almena; mustered September 26, 1864; discharged June 8, 1865. Cook, Joseph S.; enlisted as substitute for Edwin Olds, (drafted from IHartford); mustered October 7, 1864; no further record. Culver, Arvis B.; enlisted December 5, 1863, at Paw Paw; discharged June 19, 1865. Fish, Miram; drafted from South haven; mustered September 24, 1864, discharged July 10, 1865. Freeman, David II.; enlisted Mlarch 31, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 25, 1865. Gorham, Bradford C.; enlisted December 29, 1863, at Keeler; discharged July 25, 1865. Lee, James F.; drafted from South Haven; mustered September 24, 1864; discharged June 8, 1865; died August 14, 1898. Kidney, Zenas, Lawton; enlisted February 29, 1864, at Lawton; discharged July 25, 1865. Kinney, Warren G., Antwerp; enlisted March 9, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 29, 1865. Martin, James; enlisted August 29, 1864, at Kalamazoo; died April 23, 1865, of wounds received in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865; buried at New Berne, North Carolina. Company K: Allen, Edmund R.; enlisted November 12, 1861, at Mattawan; sergeant; first sergeant; wounded in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19, 1863; discharged January 16, 1865. Allen, Erastus V.; enlisted February 1, 1862, at Mattawan; discharged for disability, November 15, 1863; died March 5, 1894. Vol. 1-14

Page  210 210 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Anderson, George E., Mattawan; enlisted February 27, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged July 25, 1865. Anderson, William, Mattawan; enlisted February 12, 1862, at Lawton; corporal, discharged July 25, 1865. Baker, Alverton, Lawrence; enlisted February 7, 1862, at Lawrence; died at Hamburg Landing, Tennessee, June 26, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Shiloh, Tennessee. Baker, Charles A.; enlisted February 13, 1865, at Antwerp; discharged July 19, 1865. Baker, Chester, Mattawan; enlisted March 15, 1862; at Mattawan; discharged July 25, 1865. Baker, Royal W., Hartford; enlisted December 12, 1861, at Bangor; discharged for disability, July 12, 1862. Baker, Williamn I., drafted from Hartford, mustered September 24, 1864, wounded and missing in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865, no further record. Balfour, Harrison, Mattawan; entered service at organization of regiment as second lieutenant. First lieutenant, July 13, 1862; resigned on account of disability, March 5, 1863. Balfour, Harrison M., Lawrence; enlisted November 12, 1861, at Bangor; corporal; died at Cave City, Kentucky, November 5, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Nashville, Tennessee. Berzley, Francis A., Pine Grove; enlisted August 22, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 8, 1865. Berzley, William R., Pine Grove; enlisted February 25, 1863, at Bloomingdale, (as substitute for Starr I. Butler, drafted February 10, 1863, from Bloomingdale); discharged July 25, 1865. Birge, Washington I.; enlisted December 12, 1861, at Hartford; corporal; discharged for disability May 30, 1863. Bishop, Joshua, enlisted December 14, 1861, at Mattawan; taken prisoner at Crawfish Springs, Georgia, September 20, 1863; discharged July 1, 1865; died January 13, 1910; buried at Paw Paw. Blandon, Othniel H., enlisted December 9, 1861, at Bangor; discharged June 9, 1862. Boss, Andrew J., Antwerp; enlisted November 23, 1861, at Mattawan; discharged for disability June 25, 1865. Boss, William, Mattawan; enlisted November 15, 1861, at Mattawan; discharged for disability September 9, 1862; dead; buried at Fairgrove, Michigan. Bush, Elijah, Waverly; enlisted December 14, 1863, at Waverly; died near Sister's Ferry, Georgia, January 20, 1865. Butler, Dimick, Mattawan; enlisted November 15, 1861, at Mattawan; discharged July 25, 1865.

Page  211 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 211 Butler, Ellis, Mattawan; enlisted February 13, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged July 25, 1865. Byington, Elmore A., Bangor; enlisted November 14, 1861, at Breedsville; sergeant; died at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, March 22, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Murfreesboro; grave No. 5689. Brick, Jeremiah; (substitute for Andrew Monroe drafted,) mustered October 7, 1864; discharged June 9, 1865. Clark, Cyrus F.; enlisted November 12, 1861, at Bangor; discharged for disability March 3, 1863. Cleveland, William; enlisted December 7, 1861, at Bangor; corporal; discharged January 16, 1865. Clugston, George; enlisted December 11, 1861, at Mattawan; died March 21, 1865, of wounds received at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865. Cook, Joseph O., Lawrence; enlisted November 29, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged for disability, July 12, 1862. Covey, Alphonso, Paw Paw; enlisted December 20, 1863, at Waverly; taken prisoner March 4, 1865; discharged July 20, 1865. Curtis, Charles L.; enlisted November 30, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability September 8, 1862. Daggett, Danford; enlisted December 7, 1861, at Bangor; discharged January 17, 1861; died May 5, 1903. Dean, William W., Bangor; enlisted December 14, 1861, at Bangor; discharged July 25, 1865. De Long, Nathan, enlisted December 9, 1861, at Hartford; discharged for disability June, 1863; drafted from Hartford; mustered September 24, 1864; discharged June 8, 1865. Dyckman, Michael F.; enlisted August 26, 1864, at Paw Paw; died at Savannah, Georgia, February 1, 1865; buried in National cemetery at Brooklyn, New York; grave No. 2388. Dye, Horace, Mattawan; enlisted February 27, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 25, 1865. Earle, Adelbert T., Mattawan; enlisted December 15, 1861, at Mattawan; killed in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19, 1863. Earle, Albert, Arlington; enlisted December 13, 1861, at Arlington; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged July 25, 1865. Earle, James L., Mattawan; enlisted November 12, 1861, at Mattawan; killed in action at Chickamauga, Georgia; September 19, 1863. Fitch, De Witt C., Mattawan; entered service at organization of regiment as captain; promoted to major, September 22, 1862; resigned on account of disability April 12, 1864; died at Paw Paw.

Page  212 212 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Gilpin, William T.; enlisted December 7, 1861, at Breedsville; corporal; wounded in action September 19, 1863; discharged January 18, 1865. Griffin, Alexander; enlisted September 5, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged June 8, 1865. Hamlin, Amos M., Lawrence; enlisted August 29, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged July 11, 1865. Hamlin, Frederick J. D., Paw Paw; enlisted February 23, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged July 25, 1865. Hamlin, Julius P., Lawrence; enlisted August 29, 1864, at Paw Paw; died at Chattanooga, Tennessee, November 25, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga; grave No. 1477. Hamlin, William C.; enlisted December 13, 1861, at Arlington; corporal; missing in action at Chickamauga, Georgia; September 19, 1863; no further record. Handyside, Reuben; enlisted November 12, 1861, at Mattawan; discharged for disability November 8, 1862. Hoppin, Franklin; enlisted November 12, 1861, at Mattawan; wounded in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19, 1863; discharged April 4, 1865. Hosner, Sylvester, Mattawan; enlisted February 20, 1864, at Antwerp; wounded in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865; discharged July 18, 1865; dead; buried at Geneva, Michigan. Hudson, Charles; enlisted D)ecenmber 24, 1863, at Almena; discharged July 25, 1865. Hudson, Joel, Mattawan; enlisted December 13, 1861, at Mattawan; wounded in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19, 1863; corporal; discharged July 25, 1865. Hurlbut, Chester, Lawrence; enlisted August 27, 1864, at Kalamazoo; died at De Camp hospital, New York harbor, March 7, 1865; buried in Cypress National cemetery, Brooklyn, New York. Jackson, Joshua; enlisted November 23, 1861, at Mattawan; corporal; taken prisoner at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 10, 1863; discharged March 10, 1865. Johnson, Aaron H.; enlisted December 4, 1861, at Mattawan; discharged September 27, 1862. Johnson, William 0., Bangor; enlisted November 22, 1861, at Bangor; died at Nashville, Tennessee, June 7, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Kemp, Solomon, Hartford; enlisted February 25, 1863, at Hartford (substitute for John Travis, drafted from Hartford); died at Nashville, Tennessee, June 30, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville.

Page  213 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 213 Ketchum, Oliver, Almena; enlisted December 10, 1861, at Mattawan; corporal; discharged July 25, 1865. Ketchum, John; enlisted February 27, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 26, 1865. Kidder, James F.; enlisted December 19, 1861, at Arlington; corporal; discharged March 10, 1865. Kidder, Moses L., Lawrence; enlisted August 29, 1864, at Kalamazoo; wounded in action December 28, 1864; taken to hospital at Savannah, Georgia; no further record. Kidder, Sherburne, Lawrence; enlisted December 13, 1861, at Arlington, corporal; promoted to sergeant and to first sergeant; discharged July 25, 1865. King, Samuel J., Mattawan; enlisted November 12, 1861, at Mattawan; died at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, April 22, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Shiloh, Tennessee; grave No. 597. Layton, Harvey E., Arlington; enlisted November 26, 1861, at Arlington; died at Nashville, Tennessee, December 1, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Lett, Aquilla, Paw Paw; enlisted September 1, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged June 8, 1865; died February 20, 1902. McManigal, William H., Mattawan; enlisted December 10, 1861, at Mattawan; died at Kalamazoo, February 21, 1862. McPherson, William; enlisted November 18, 1861, at Mattawan; discharged for disability August 20, 1862. Marcellus, Andrew, Bangor; enlisted November 18, 1861, at Bangor; discharged July 25, 1865. Marshall, Nelson S.; enlisted December 12, 1861, at Bangor; discharged June 14, 1862. Miller, George F., Antwerp; enlisted November 15, 1861, at Mattawan; died at Lookout Mountain, May 17, 1864, buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga, Tennessee; grave No. 1199. Miller, Jeremiah, Mattawan; enlisted November 14, 1861, at Mattawan; corporal; discharged July 25, 1865. Monroe, Richard, Mattawan; enlisted February 10, 1863, at Hamilton (substitute for James Comley, drafted from Hamilton); discharged August 9, 1865. Nelson, Francis M., Lawrence; enlisted February 7, 1862, at Lawrence; died at Nashville, Tennessee, August 5, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Nichols, Edmond, Mattawan; enlisted December 2, 1861, at Mattawan; died October 19, 1863, of wounds received in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville.

Page  214 214 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Nightingale, Anthony; enlisted December 10, 1861, at Mattawan; discharged June 1, 1862. Palmer, Alfred B.; enlisted August 29, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged July 25, 1865. Reynolds, Oscar G., Hartford; enlisted August 30, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 27, 1865. Robinson, William H. H., Breedsville; enlisted Nov. 12, 1861, at Mattawan; died at New Albany, Indiana, November 9, 1862; buried in National cemetery at New Albany; grave No. 1151. Rooker, Myron D.; enlisted November 20, 1861, at Breedsville; discharged October 6, 1862. Rowe, Rufus M., Lawrence; enlisted December 2, 1861, at Lawrence; corporal; promoted to sergeant and to first sergeant; discharged January 16, 1865. Samson, Edwin 0., Lawrence; enlisted February 7, 1862; discharged for disability July 25, 1862. Shaver, Isaac, Arlington; enlisted November 12, 1861, at Arlington; musician; died at Nashville, Tennessee, September 12, 1862; buried in National cemetery, at Nashville. Shulters, David H., Mattawan; enlisted November 14, 1861, at Mattawan; killed in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865. Smith, Robert C.; enlisted December 6, 1861, at Arlington; discharged for disability October, 1862. Smith, Samuel H., Lawrence; enlisted January 25, 1862, at Bangor; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged July 25, 1865. Spencer, Charles F.; enlisted December 6, 1861, at Bangor; discharged June 20, 1862. Story, Edgar; Mattawan; enlisted December 13, 1861, at Mattawan; died October 18, 1863, at Chattanooga, Tennessee, of wounds received in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19, 1863. Story, Lorenzo D., Pine Grove; enlisted December 9, 1861, at Mattawan; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged July 25, 1865. Story, William R.; enlisted December 9, 1861, at Mattawan; discharged for disability January 26, 1864. Stover, Martin, Antwerp; enlisted November 21, 1861, at Mattawan; discharged for disability June 25, 1865. Sumner, Noble, Lawrence; enlisted November 21, 1861, at Lawrence; died at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, March 9, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Murfreesboro; grave No. 7. Stanton, John L.; enlisted April 12, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged May 15, 1865.

Page  215 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 215 Taplin, George A., Lawrence; enlisted November 21, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged June 30, 1865. Vandervoort, Nathan G. Hartford; enlisted September 3, 1864, at Hickory Corners; died at Savannah, Georgia, January 18, 1865; buried in National cemetery at Beaufort, South Carolina, section 41, grave No. 4652. Van Ostrom, Hawley; enlisted February 7, 1862, at Hartford; discharged December 15, 1862. Van Sickle, Benjamin, Lawton; enlisted December 9, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged July 25, 1865. Waite, Amos, Paw Iaw; enlisted December 2, 1861, at Mattawan; discharged July 25, 1865. Wallace, Henry C., Lawrence; enlisted August 29, 1864, at Paw Paw; wounded in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865; died at De Camp hospital, New York Harbor, May 29, 1865; buried in Cypress Hill cemetery, Brooklyn, New York. Ward, Abram R., Mattawan; enlisted November 12, 1861, at Mattawan; died at Town Creek, Alabama, June 27, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Corinth, Mississippi. Welker, John, Lawrence; enlisted November 29, 1861, at Bangor; killed in action at Stone River, Tennessee, December 31, 1862. West, Hopkins; enlisted August 26, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged June 8, 1865. White, James, Jr., Lawrence; enlisted November 21, 1861, at Hartford; discharged for disability July 12, 1862. Williams, Daniel F.; enlisted November 30, 1861, at Mattawan; mustered January 17, 1862; no further record. Unassigned: Cannum, James; enlisted October 5, 1861, at Lawton; transferred to Invalid Corps, September 39, 1862. Harris, George W.; enlisted August 27, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged May 6, 1865. Heffron, Eugene; enlisted September 2, 1864, at Paw Paw; mustered same date; no further record. SEVENTEENTH MICHIIGAN INFANTRY Then up with the Banner, let Southern breezes fan her, It shall float o 'er Columbia evermore, In glory we'll sustain her, in battle we'll defend her, With heart and with hand like our fathers before. The Seventeenth Infantry, the celebrated "Stonewall Regiment," rendezvoused at Detroit in the spring of 1862 and started for Washington on the 27th day of the succeeding August under command of Colonel William H. Withington, with an' enrolment

Page  216 216 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of 982 officers and enlisted men, was at once assigned to the First Brigade, First Division, Ninth Army Corps, and continued to form a part of this celebrated corps during its entire period of service. AT SOUTH MOUNTAIN Perhaps no other Michigan regiment had such a serious test of its patriotism, courage and soldierly qualities so soon after arriving in the field as the Seventeenth. Scarcely two weeks after it left the state it participated in one of the severest engagements of the war, considering the numbers engaged-the battle of South Mountain, Maryland, where the Ninth Corps attempted to cross the mountain through Turner's gap and drive the Confederates from the summit. The Seventeenth had been so recently organized and was so inexperienced in actual warfare that the men did not realize the desperate task they were assigned until the enemy's shot and shell were crashing through their ranks. Almost at a moment's notice the regiment was plunged into the horrible realities of a pitched battle. On the crest of the mountain, behind stone walls, the enemy awaited the advance of the Union forces. The orders came for the Seventeenth to charge, when with wild cheers the regiment rushed through a storm of lead, drove the enemy from his stone defences and sent him retreating down the slope of the mountain. In this charge the Seventeenth secured the title of the "Stonewall Regiment," which clung to it as an honorable distinction during the war. The regiment carried approximately 500 men into this engagement and lost 140 in killed and wounded. The Seventeenth had strenuous work during the entire period of its service. Some of the more important battles in which it participated were South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, siege of Vicksburg, siege of Knoxville, The Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg and Weldon Railroad. After the battle of the Wilderness, in which the regiment was nearly annihilated, it practically lost its position in the brigade for want of numbers and lack of regimental organization and the few that remained were detailed in the engineer corps and at headquarters. After Lee's surrender, the regiment proceeded to Washington and participated in the Grand Review on the 23d of May, 1865, after which it was ordered to Michigan, arriving at Detroit, June 7th, where it was paid off and disbanded. Total enrolment, 1,224; killed in action, 84; died of wounds, 48; died in Confederate prisons, 54; died of disease, 84; discharged for disability, wounds and disease, 249.

Page  217 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 217 There were but comparatively few Van Buren county men in the Seventeenth. Following is a list: Company I: Bailey, Harry, Lawrence; enlisted May 29, 1862, at Lawrence; died at Newport News, Virginia, March 8, 1863. Brotherton, Frederick, Decatur; enlisted Mlay 29, 1862, at Decatur; died at Washington, District Columbia, September 12, 1862. Combs, William, Lawrence; enlisted May 29, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged for disability, September 12, 1862. Dilts, Hezekiah, Lawrence; enlisted May 29, 1862, at Lawrence; wounded in action at South Mountain, Maryland, September 14, 1862; sergeant; discharged June 3, 1865. I)unning, John T., Decatur; enlisted May 29, 1862, at Decatur; taken prisoner at Knoxville, Tennessee, November 20, 1863; returned to regiment April 30, 1864; promoted to sergeant; discharged April 20, 1865. Dexter, Norman; enlisted at Decatur May 29, 1862; discharged. Flanders, Henry, Paw Paw; enlisted August 12, 1862, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 3, 1865; died March 29, 1882; buried at Pawr Iaw. Grey, James, Decatur; enlisted May 29, 1862, at Decatur; died at Camp Nelson, Kentucky, November 11, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Camp Nelson; grave No. 1544. Griffin, Ross A., Lawrence; enlisted June 7, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged for disability November 5, 1862. Hodges, Iterrick, Lawrence; first enlisted in Company C, Seventieth New York Infantry; discharged for disability October 24, 1861; enlisted in Company I, Seventeenth Michigan Infantry, May 29, 1862, at Lawrence; sergeant; wounded in action at Antietam, Maryland, September 17, 1862; dischargedc for disability June 1, 1863; present residence, South Haven. Hodges, Orrin W., Lawrence; enlisted May 29, 1862, at Lawrence; corporal; wounded in action at Antietam, Maryland, September 17, 1862; discharged for disability, April 14, 1863. Lindsley, Floyd, Lawrence; enlisted July 23, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged for disability, January 5, 1863. McGann, Porter, Decatur; enlisted August 15, 1862, at Decatur; wounded in action at Sharpsburg, Maryland, September 17, 1862; discharged. Nichols, John, Lawrence; enlisted May 29, 1862, at Lawrence; taken prisoner at Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 12, 1864; discharged June 3, 1865. Pritchard, George, Decatur; enlisted July 22, 1862, at Decatur; discharged November 27, 1863. Robb, John, Lawrence; enlisted May 29, 1862, at Lawrence;

Page  218 218 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged July 17, 1865; died at Paw Paw. Smith, John Philip, Lawrence; enlisted May 29, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged December 30, 1862; present residence, Waverly. Other Companies: Slover, John F. Waverly; enlisted in Company B, July 22, 1862, at Niles; discharged June 3, 1865. Hadsell, Stephen B., Bloomingdale; drafted February 26, 1863; assigned to Company E; discharged December 16, 1863. NINETEENTII MICHIGAN INFANTRY Come, come, ye braves-aye come! The battle dawn is nigh; The screaming trump and rolling drum Are calling you to die! The Nineteenth Michigan Infantry was organized at Dowagiac under the direction of Colonel Henry C. Gilbert, and was mustered into service September 5, 1862, with an enrolment of 995 officers and enlisted men. The regiment left its camp for Cincinnati, Ohio, September 14, 1862, and became a part of the First Division of the Army of the Ohio. In January, 1863, it was incorporated into Baird's Division of the Army of Kentucky, subsequently absorbed by the Army of the Cumberland. The first serious engagement in which the Nineteenth participated was at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, where it displayed those soldierly qualities of heroism and bravery that afterward distinguished it on many a hard-fought field of battle. The division to which the regiment was attached was furiously assaulted by a Confederate force under General Van Dorn, estimated at 18,000 men, and a fierce conflict ensued. The Confederates made three separate charges which were gallantly repulsed, in one of which the Nineteenth captured the colors of a Mississippi regiment. The battle lasted five hours and until the ammunition was exhausted and the overwhelming number of the Confederates made it necessary to surrender. The loss of the Nineteenth in this engagement was 113 killed and wounded. Nor did the Union troops surrender until the enemy had paid dearly for his victory. After the officers had been exchanged and the enlisted men paroled, the regiment was reorganized at Camp Chase, Ohio, and in June returned to Nashville and took part in the advance upon Tullahoma. The Nineteenth assisted in fortifying McMinnville, Tennessee, in October, and at that time was in the Second Brigade, Third Division, Twentieth Corps. The regiment was employed on the fortification about McMinnville in building bridges and block houses until May, when it joined General Sherman's army on the Atlanta campaign.

Page  219 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 219 At Resaca, Georgia, May 15, 1864, the Nineteenth made a desperate charge upon the enemy's line and almost in the nature of a forlorn hope gallantly captured a battery, but at a fearful loss of life. Colonel Gilbert was mortally wounded and the regiment lost 80 officers and men killed and wounded. Major E. A. Griffin succeeded to the command of the regiment after the death of Colonel Gilbert, which occurred May 24th, and on the 25th of May, fought a severe engagement at New Hope Church, Georgia, with a loss of over 50 killed and wounded. The Nineteenth took an active part during the entire campaign, engaging the enemy at Golgotha Church, where Major Griffin was mortally wounded, at Culp's Farm and at Peach Tree Creek, near Atlanta, where it was assailed by the enemy and lost 40 in killed and wounded in repulsing the attack. Upon the surrender of Atlanta, the Nineteenth moved into the city and remained until October. Major Baker succeeded to the command of the regiment and when General Sherman started with his army on his march from "Atlanta to the Sea," the Nineteenth was still a part of the Second Brigade, Third Division, Twentieth Corps, and moved by way of Madison, Louisville, and Millen upon Savannah. After the fall of Savannah, the Nineteenth, under command of Major Anderson, started on the campaign through the Carolinas. It shared the long marches and vicissitudes of Sherman's army and arrived befort Averysboro, North Carolina, January 16, 1865, where the Confederate Generals Johnston and Hardee had thrown up strong works and massed their infantry to oppose General Sherman's farther advance. The brigade of which the Nineteenth formed a part was ordered to storm the works and by a gallant charge carried them, taking many guns and prisoners. This was the last hard fought battle in which the Nineteenth was engaged, as General Lee surrendered the army of Northern Virginia to General Grant, April 9th, and General Johnston surrendered his army to General Sherman a few days later. The Nineteenth marched from Bentonville to Raleigh, and then to Alexandria, Virginia, and participated in the grand review of Sherman's army at Washington, D. C., May 24th. The Nineteenth was mustered out of service June 10, 1865, and arrived at Detroit, Michigan, the 13th, when it was paid off and disbanded. The Nineteenth was in engagements at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1863; Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, Tennessee, October 5, 1863; Resaca, Georgia, May 15, 1864; Cassville, Georgia, May 19, 1864; New Hope Church, Georgia, May 25, 1864; Golgotha, Georgia, June 15, 1864; Culp's Farm, Georgia, June 22, 1864; Peach Tree Creek. Georgia, July 20, 1864; siege

Page  220 220 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of Atlanta, Georgia JTuly 22, to September 2, 1864; Savannah, Georgia, December 11, 18, 20, 21, 1864; Averysboro, North Carolina, March 16, 1865; Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865. Total enrolment, 1,206; killed in action, 54; died of wounds, 31; died in Confederate prisons, 7; died of disease, 132; discharged for disability, wounds and disease, 182. Following is a list of the names of Van Buren county soldiers who served in the Nineteenth: Company A: Brodhead, Daniel W., Lawrence; enlisted August 24, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 10, 1865. Freelove, Joseph, Keeler; enlisted August 4, 1862, at Dowagiac; discharged for disability, March 24, 1863. Larzelere, Reuben B., Hamilton; enlisted at organization as second lieutenant; resigned August 8, 1863; died at Lansing, Michigan, in November, 1902. Lee, George, Keeler; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Dowagiac; discharged June 10, 1865. Stever, Charles E., Keeler; enlisted August 2, 1862, at I)owagiac; killed in action at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1863. Frost, Frank, Lawrence; enlisted August 15, 1864, at Lawrence; discharged June 10, 1865. Company G: Bailey, Augustus, South Haven; enlisted July 16, 1862, at South Haven; sergeant; promoted to first sergeant; wounded in action at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1863; died at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, September 5, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Murfreesboro. Beechner, John, Decatur; enlisted August 9, 1862, at Decatur; died at Lynchburg, Virginia, March 22, 1863; buried at Lynchburg. Bigelow, Charles W., South Haven; entered service as captain, July 17, 1862, at South Haven; died near Chattanooga, Tennessee, of wounds received in action at New Hope Church, Georgia, May 25, 1864. Brainard, Clark D.; enlisted August 9, 1862, at Decatur; died at Lexington, Kentucky, December 30, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Lexington; grave No. 186. Breed, William, South Haven; enlisted July 14, 1862, at South Haven; taken prisoner at Thompson Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1863; died at Richmond, Virginia, March 19, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Richmond. Brown, Charles HI., South Haven; enlisted July 18. 1862, at South Haven; died at Nicholasville, Kentucky, December 15,

Page  221 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 221 1862; buried in National cemetery at Camp) Nelson, Kentucky; grave No. 1574. Brown, Elijah M., Keeler; enlisted December 15, 1863, at I'ontiac; discharged July 19, 1865. Company I: Brown, Elijah M., Keeler; enlisted November 28, 1863, at Pontiac; discharged July 19, 1865. Buttrick, William L., Keeler; enlisted January 4, 1864, at Wayne; discharged June 10, 1865. Klett, John M., Keeler; enlisted December 30, 1863, at Kalamazoo; wounded in action at Altoona, Georgia, May 26, 1864; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged July 23, 1865. Klett, George, Keeler; enlisted December 30, 1863, at Kalamazoo; died at Chattanooga, Tennessee, of wounds received at Chattanooga River, Georgia, June 10, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga. Linsenmeyer, Christian, Keeler; enlisted January 2, 1863, at St. Joseph; discharged July 19, 1865. Linsenmeyer, William, Keeler; enlisted January 4, 1864, at Keeler; discharged July 19, 1865. Palmer, John, Keeler; enlisted December 19, 1863, at Pontiac; discharged July 19, 1863. Brown, Erastus P.; enlisted July 16, 1862, at Pine Grove; discharged for disability November 24, 1863. Butterfield, Charles A., Paw Paw; enlisted September 12, 1862, at Hartford; wounded in action at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1863; corporal; discharged June 10, 1865. Carroll, Thomas W., South Haven; enlisted July 14, 1862, at South Haven, died at Covington, Kentucky, November 22, 1862; buried in National cemetery, Covington; grave No. 1895. Chambers, William, Decatur; enlisted August 8, 1862, at Decatur; discharged for disability, June 8, 1863. Chapman, Newton F.; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Decatur; corporal; promoted to sergeant; wounded in action at Resaca, Georgia, May 15, 1864; discharged June 5, 1865. Clark, Chester, Decatur; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Decatur; discharged for disability February 25, 1863. De Long, Silas B., Hartford; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Arlington; discharged August 1, 1865, on account of wounds received in action at Peach Tree Creek, Georgia, July 26, 1864: Delongay, Henry, Breedsville; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Arlington; discharged June 10, 1865. Dopp, Cyrus B., South Haven; enlisted August 11, 1862, at South Haven; discharged June 10, 1865. Dunham, John A., Hartford; enlisted August 1, 1862, at Iartford; died May 17, 1864, of wounds received in action at Resaca,

Page  222 222 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Georgia, IMay 5, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga, Georgia; Brave No. 8993. Eaton, Moses E. F.; enlisted August 2, 1862, at Covert; discharged for disability June 22, 1862. Evans, Isaac K., Keeler; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Dowagiac; discharged for disability, April 19, 1863; dead; buried at Grand Junction, Michigan. Evans, Selah I., Keeler; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Keeler; discharged for disability June 17, 1863. Foster, Jonathan W., South Haven; enlisted August 4, 1862, at South Haven; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged June 10, 1865. Freeman, Charles, South Haven; enlisted August 7, 1862, at South Haven; corporal; promoted to sergeant; wounded in action at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1863; discharged May 19, 1865. Gilpin, Elias E. Geneva; enlisted July 18, 1862, at Geneva; corporal; wounded July 22, 1864; killed in action at Averysboro, North Carolina, March 16, 1865; buried in National cemetery at Raleigh, North Carolina. Gowers, George, Keeler; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Keeler; taken prisoner at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1863; paroled; died at Annapolis, Maryland, April 5, 1863. Graham, John, Decatur; enlisted August 15, 1862, at Decatur; wounded in action at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1863; sergeant and color bearer; second lieutenant, June 15, 1865; dead; buried at Decatur. Hand, Patrick, Decatur; enlisted August 8, 1862, at 1)ecatur; corporal; no further record. Harvey, Thomas M., Bangor; enlisted August 1, 1862, at Bangor; corporal; wounded in action at Resaca, Georgia; discharged June 19, 1865; died at Bangor. Heald, James, Hartford; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Hartford; transferred to Marine Brigade; discharged January 18, 1865. Hinckley, Gershom, South Haven; enlisted August 11, 1862, at South Haven; died at Nashville, Tennessee, March 20, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Horton, Thomas Arlington; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Arlington; corporal; promoted to sergeant; taken prisoner at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1865; confined in Libby Prison; discharged June 10, 1865. Hubbard, William H., South Haven; enlisted July 14, 1862, at South Haven; discharged June 12, 1865.

Page  223 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 223. Iughes, Janes, Arlington; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Arlington; corporal; discharged June 10, 1865. Hughes, Philip, Keeler; enlisted August 15, 1862, at Keeler; discharged June 10, 1865. Hugnin, Van Renssellaer R., Waverly; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Columbia; sick at Camp Chase, Ohio, June, 1863, reentered service in Co. II, 13th Infantry, February 25, 1864; discharged July 25, 1865. Kingston, John W., Breedsville; enlisted August 12, 1862, at Columbia; discharged June 10, 1865. Kleckner, Frederick, South Haven; enlisted August 7, 1862, at South Haven; wounded in action at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1863; wounded in action at Peach Tree Creek, Georgia, July 20, 1864; discharged June 27, 1865. Lewis, Jacob H., Keeler; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Keeler; discharged June 10, 1865. McLaughlin, Archibald, Bangor; enlisted July 16, 1862, at Bangor; first sergeant; second lieutenant, January 6, 1863; resigned on account of disability May 25, 1864; died 1890; buried at Goodrich, Tennessee. McNitt, Manley B.; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Iartford; wounded in action at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1863; wounded in action at Resaca, Georgia, May 15, 1864; promoted to corporal; discharged June 10, 1865. Messenger, Aaron, Decatur; enlisted July 31, 1862, at Decatur; died at Columbia, Tennessee, March 31, 1863, while a prisoner, of wounds received at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1863. Nymnan, A. J., Bangor; enlisted August 31, 1862, at Bangor; sergeant; second lieutenant, June 1, 1864; taken prisoner October 27, 1864; paroled; resigned and honorably discharged April 24, 1865. Olds, Albert J., Hartford; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Hartford; corporal; discharged June 10, 1865. Olds, Allen O., Hartford; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Hartford; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged June 10, 1865. Olds, Almon H., Decatur; enlisted September 5, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 10, 1865. Page, Ephraim R., South Haven; enlisted August 4, 1862, at South Haven; corporal; discharged June 10, 1865. Page, James L., South Haven; enlisted August 4, 1862, at South Haven; discharged June 5, 1865. Page, John, South Haven; enlisted August 4, 1862, at South Haven; died at Nashville, Tennessee, June 14, 1864, of wounds

Page  224 224 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY received in action at Resaca, Georgia, May 15, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Pierce, Almon J., South Haven; enlisted August 15, 1862, at South Haven; transferred to Marine Brigade; discharged January 17, 1865. Rea, John, Bangor; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Bangor; corporal; wounded before Atlanta, Georgia, August 3, 1864; died April 9, 1898; buried at Taylor, Michigan. Reams, Uriah, Arlington; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Bangor; discharged for disability July 15, 1863; died at Bellevue, Michigan, March 3, 1904. Root, Henry D., Porter; enlisted August 12, 1862, at Porter; discharged for disability November 18, 1862. Sayles, Benjamin C., Decatur; enlisted August 12, 1862, at Decatur; died at McMinnville, Tennessee, May 23, 1864. Shaff, Andrew J., Geneva; enlisted July 15, 1862, at Geneva; discharged June 10, 1865; present residence, Lawton. Shearer, John M., enlisted March 4, 1864, at Hamilton; transferred to 10th Infantry; discharged July 19, 1865. Shepard, Sears J., South Haven; enlisted August 9, 1862, at South Haven; wounded in action at Culp's Farm, Georgia, June 22, 1864; discharged June 10, 1865. Smith, Charles D., Lawrence; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Lawrence; corporal; discharged June 10, 1865. Stafford, John A., Decatur; enlisted as second lieutenant at organization of regiment; promoted to first lieutenant; resigned on account of disability July 27, 1863. Stone, Jerome, Decatur; enlisted August 12, 1862, at Decatur; discharged June 10, 1865. Stone, Solomon R., Decatur; enlisted August 12, 1862, at Decatur; discharged June 10, 1865. Stone, William S., Decatur; enlisted August 9, 1862, at Decatur; discharged for disability November 14, 1862. Stuyvesant, Azariah D., Decatur; enlisted August 9, 1862, at Decatur; discharged June 10, 1865. Sweet, Aaron, Decatur; enlisted August 8, 1862, at Decatur; discharged for disability April 25, 1863. Sweet, Lyman S., Decatur; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Decatur; wounded in action at Peach Tree Creek, Georgia, July 20, 1864; discharged June 10, 1865. Sweet, Samuel L., Decatur; enlisted August 6, 1862, at iDecatur; discharged for disability April 23, 1863. Tittle, George W., Porter; enlisted August 8, 1862, at I)calur; accidentally killed at Porter, Michigan, June 2, 1863.

Page  225 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 225 Todd, Gilmore, Hamilton; enlisted August 12, 1862, at Hamilton; discharged June 10, 1865. Van Hise, Orlando, Decatur; enlisted July 31, 1862, at I)ecatur; sergeant; promoted to first sergeant; discharged December 3, 1863, to accept promotion in 17th U. S. colored troops. Van Horn, Jared, Bangor; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Ba3ngor; died at Nashville, Tennessee, March 12, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Vincent, John W., Decatur; enlisted August 9, 1862, at Decatur; discharged June 10, 1865. Watson, Phineas F., Geneva; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Geneva; fifer; discharged June 10, 1865. White, Henry, Columbia; enlisted August 8, 1862, at Breedsville; discharged June 10, 1865. Wilson, John, South Haven; enlisted July 14, 1862, at South Haven; first sergeant; first lieutenant November 1, 1864; discharged June 10, 1865. Other Companies: Crofoot, Benjamin, Porter; enlisted August, 1862, in Company F, at Schoolcraft; discharged May 26, 1865. Graham, William A., Decatur; enlisted August, 1862, at Decatur, in Company H; died at Richmond, Virginia, from exposure while a prisoner, April, 1863. TWENTY-FOURTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY Our country! Forever we swear 'neath the blue, Thy name and thy fame spotless forever shall be. Thine honor we'll guard-hearts and hands ever trueColumbia! We owe all and give all to thee. The Twenty-fourth Michigan Infantry was largely recruited in the eastern part of the state and rendezvoused at Detroit. The regiment was mustered into service on the 15th day of August, 1862, under command of Colonel Henry A. Morrow. Its service was almost wholly in the east and it participated in a large number of battles, notably at Fredericksburg, Port Royal, Chancellorsville, The Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Cold Harbor and the siege of Petersburg. The regiment was eventually ordered to Springfield, Illinois, for special duty and while there acted as escort at the funeral of our first martyred president, the immortal Abraham Lincoln. It was mustered out of the service at Detroit, June 30, 1865. Total enrolment, 2,104; killed in action, 125; died of wounds, 42; died in Confederate prisons, 28; died of disease, 109; discharged for disability, wounds and disease, 254. There were but few Van Buren county men in the Twentyfourth. Their names were as follows: Campbell, David H.; enVol. 1-15

Page  226 226 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY listed in Company F, July 30, 1862, at Detroit; missing in action at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1, 1863; returned to regiment in August, 1863; corporal, promoted to sergeant; discharged June 30, 1865. Daniels, Chester, Hamilton; enlisted in Company F, August 25, 1864; discharged June 30, 1865. Dean, Porter A., Paw Paw; enlisted in Company H, 3larch 21, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged June 30, 1865. Hawkins, Anthony; enlisted in Company B, March 20, 1865, at Antwerp; discharged June 30, 1865. Head, Jerome, Decatur; enlisted in Company C, August 22. 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 30, 1865. Parrish, Isaac F., Lawton; enlisted in Company K, February 14, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 30, 1865. Ward, Richard A., Lawton; enlisted in Company K, February 14, 1865; discharged June 30, 1865. TWENTY-FIFTH MICHIG(AN INFANTRY Trhe following named soldiers were members of the Twentyfifth Michigan Infantry: Bennett, John J., Porter; enlisted August 12, 1862, at Lockport, in Company G; discharged June 24, 1865. Fitch, De Witt C., Mattawan; major, formerly captain Company K, Thirteenth Michigan Infantry; resigned February 12, 1864, on account of disability. Kinney, Stephen -I., Porter; enlisted April 11, 1862, at Lockport, in Company D; discharged' June 10, 1865. Ridlon, John M., Paw Paw; enlisted August 27, 1862; first lieutenant and quartermaster; discharged June 24, 1865; present residence, Lawrence. Ryder, Jonathan, Keeler; enlisted August, 1862, at Keeler, in Company C; died of disease at Louisville, Kentucky, February 29, 1864; buried in Cave Hill National cemetery, Louisville. Snow, Franklin C., Lawton; enlisted August 11, 1862, at Niles; in Co. F; discharged for disability February 5, 1863. Stevens, Jared A., Almena; enlisted August 13, 1862, at Oshtemo, in Co. H; discharged June 24, 1865. Vining, Leander O., Arlington; enlisted August 10, 1862, in Conmpany I, at Oshtemo; died at Washington, District Columbia, March 9, 1865; buried in National cemetery at Arlington, Virginia.

Page  227 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 227 TWENTY-EIGHTII MICHIGIAN INFANTRY Ho! comrades, see the starry flag, broad waving at our head! Ho! comrades, mark the tender light on the dear emblem spread! Our fathers' blood has hallowed it, 'tis part of their renown, And palsied be the caitiff that would pull its glories dowin. The Twenty-eighth was organized by consolidating the Twentyeighth, which rendezvoused at Marshall, and the Twenty-ninth, which rendezvoused at Kalamazoo. The several companies were mustered into service at different dates, and the organization of the regiment was completed at Kalamazoo, October 26, 1864, with an enrolment of 886 officers and men. The Twenty-eighth left Kalamazoo, October 26th, for Louisville, Kentucky, and upon arrival was sent to Camp Nelson, Kentucky, where it took charge of a wagon train en route for Nashville, Tennessee, where it arrived December 5th, and reported for duty to General Thomas. The regiment, under command of Colonel Wheeler who had formerly served in the Twenty-third Infantry, took a gallant part in the battle of Nashville Dec. 12th to the 16th, in repelling the Confederates under General Hood, who was defeated with great loss and driven in confusion out of the state. After the battle of Nashville, the Twenty-eighth was assigned to the Twenty-third Corps, and when at Louisville, Kentucky, was ordered early in January, 1865, to proceed with its corps to Alexandria, Virginia, where it embarked upon transports for Morehead City, North Carolina. It then moved to Newberne and then to Wilmington, to cooperate with General Sherman's army, then marching north through the Carolinas. At Wise Forks, the Twenty-eighthl was engaged for three days, the enemy making determined assaults on the Union lines, but were repulsed in every instance. The Twenty-eighth was in the thickest of the fighting, and lost during the engagements seven killed and thirteen wounded. The regiment then marched inland to Kingston and reached Goldsboro, North Carolina, on the 21st, where it was assigned to duty in guarding the Atlanta and North Carolina railroad. After General Lee and General Johnston surrendered, the Twentyeighth was on duty at Raleigh, Charlotte, Wilmington and Newberne until it was mustered out of service, June 5, 1866, at Raleigh, North Carolina. The regiment at once returned to Detroit, Michigan, where it was paid and disbanded, June 8, 1866. Total enrolment, 980; killed in action, 7; died of wounds, 3; died of disease, 101; discharged for disability (wounds and disease), 47.

Page  228 228 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY The names of Van Buren County soldiers serving in the Twentyeighth are as follows: Company G: Allen, Erastus V.; enlisted September 3, 1864, at Hartford; acting sergeant major July, 1865; discharged June 5, 1866. Andrews, Sherman; enlisted September 1, 1864, at Columbia; killed in action at Wise's Forks, North Carolina, March 10, 1865. Baldwin, Moses; enlisted September 5, 1864, at Hartford; discharged February 15, 1866. Bancroft, Daniel J.; enlisted September 24, 1864, at Hartford; died at Alexandria, Virginia, February 14, 1865; buried in National cemetery at Alexandria. Barnes, James; enlisted September 20, 1864, at Covert; discharged for disability, December 21, 1865. Bartlett, Andrew; enlisted September 9, 1864, at Hartford; sergeant; discharged April 14, 1866. Beebe, Eri, Decatur; entered service at organization of regiment as second lieutenant; promoted to captain; resigned September 12, 1865; died at Decatur. Birge, Washington I.; enlisted September 2, 1864, at Decatur; discharged June 5, 1866. Blackmer, Daniel R.; enlisted September 15, 1864, at Decatur; discharged June 5, 1866. Butcher, Charles C.; enlisted September 5, 1864, at Lawrence; died at Newberne, North Carolina, March 26, 1865; buried at Newberne. Cannon, James; enlisted September 7, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged June 5, 1866. Clay, William H., Lawrence; enlisted September 5, 1864, at Lawrence; commissary sergeant; discharged Sept 13, 1865; died April 4, 1896; buried at Lawrence. Cooper, James L.; enlisted September 5, 1864, at Decatur; discharged May 21, 1865. Cook, Joseph C.; enlisted September 5, 1864, at Lawrence; discharged May 26, 1865. De Long, Henry, Hartford; enlisted September 3, 1864, at Kalamazoo; corporal; discharged June 5, 1866. Doty, Charles, Hartford; enlisted September 19, 1864, at Hartford, discharged June 5, 1866. Dowzer, John; enlisted September 6, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged June 5, 1866. Drake, Israel M., Arlington; enlisted August 31, 1864, at Arlington; discharged June 5, 1866. Drake, James N., Hartford; enlisted September 1, 1864, at Lawrence; discharged for disability, December 6, 1864.

Page  229 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 229 Draper, Augustus H., Lawrence; enlisted September 20, 1864, at Lawrence; quarter-master sergeant; discharged May 14, 1866; died April 21, 1903; buried at Lawrence. Dyer, La Rue; enlisted September 2, 1864, at Decatur; discharged June 5, 1866. Earl, George H.; enlisted September 2, 1864, at Decatur; discharged June 5, 1866. Easton, Pulaski; enlisted September 12, 1864, at Hartford; discharged May 22, 1866. Farmer, Edwin R., Decatur; entered service as first lieutenant at organization of regiment; promoted to captain; discharged June 5, 1866. Fitzpatrick, John; enlisted September 5, 1864, at Hartford; died at Alexandria, Virginia, February 1, 1865; buried at Alexandria. Foreman, Edward, Lawrence; enlisted September 5, 1864; discharged June 7, 1865. Gibbs, Amos; enlisted September 14, 1864, at Bangor; died at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, February 9, 1864; buried in Alleghany cemetery at Pittsburg. Gray, Charles C.; enlisted October 3, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged June 5, 1866. Herrington, Lewis; enlisted September 12, 1864, at Antwerp; corporal; discharged June 5, 1866. Irish, Justus A., Keeler; enlisted September 21, 1864; discharged June 5, 1866. Kelly, Charles; enlisted September 3, 1864, at Bangor; corporal; discharged September 13, 1865; died April 14, 1890. McAllister, Ezra; enlisted September 1, 1864, at Decatur; discharged June 5, 1866. McNitt, Orville F.; enlisted September 13, 1864, at Lawrence; first sergeant; promoted to second lieutenant; discharged June 5, 1866. Mahard, John, Lawton; enlisted September 13, 1864, at Lawton; sergeant;' discharged April 16, 1866; previously served in Company C, Third Michigan Cavalry. Mahoney, Ned, Lawton; enlisted September 2, 1861, at Antwerp; discharged November 9, 1865; deceased; buried at Dowagiac. Mance, Henry; enlisted September 2, 1864, at Waverly; corporal; discharged June 5, 1866. Mason, Marion; enlisted September 20, 1864, at Decatur; discharged November 15, 1864. Mentor, Russell W.; enlisted September 2, 1864, at Decatur; discharged June 5. 1866.

Page  230 23;0 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Nesbitt, Thomas S.; enlisted September 20, 1864, at Porter; discharged June 5, 1866. Nichols, Tyler; enlisted September 5, 1864, at Decatur; discharged June 14, 1865. Olcott, Orlin F.; enlisted August 3, 1864, at Hartford; discharged June 12, 1865. Olds, Ira C.; enlisted September 23, 1864, at Decatur; died at Detroit, March 4, 1865; buried at Detroit. Page, Wallace I., Lawrence; enlisted September 5, 1864, at Lawrence; corporal; discharged June 5, 1866. Potter, Harvey; enlisted September 24, at Bangor; discharged May 26, 1865. Privette, Robert H.; enlisted September 6, 1864, at Porter; corporal; discharged August 25, 1865. Rhodes, Forice, Bangor; enlisted September 5, 1864, at Lawrence; discharged September 13, 1865. Root, Reuben, Lawrence; enlisted September 1, 1864, at Decatur; discharged June 5, 1866. Root, Stephen; enlisted September 27, at Bangor; discharged June 5, 1866; died September 5, 1889; buried at Bangor. Russell, Philo M.; enlisted September 2, 1864, at Lawrence; discharged June 5, 1866. Ryan, William; enlisted September 5, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged June 5, 1866. Salisbury, Joseph; enlisted September 15, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged June 5, 1866. Salisbury, Joseph A.; enlisted September 3, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged June 5, 1866. Shaffer, Jefferson D.; enlisted September 2, 1864, at Decatur; discharged May 10, 1865. Smith, Lyman T.; enlisted September 28, 1864, at Bangor; died on board of transport in New York harbor, August 22, 1865; buried in Cypress Hill cemetery at Brooklyn, New York, grave No. 3161. Spicer, Daniel, Lawton; enlisted September 2, 1864, at Antwerp; promoted to second lieutenant; discharged May 15, 1865, on account of wounds received in action at Wise's Forks, North Caroline, March 8, 1865; present residence Paw Paw. Stedman, Morris; enlisted September 2, 1864, at Lawrence; discharged June 8, 1865. Tillou, James D.; enlisted September 10, 1864, at Antwerp; corporal; discharged June 5, 1866. Traver, Cassius M. C.; enlisted September 10, 1864, at Hartford; died at Charlotte, North Carolina, August 28, 1865. Uipton, John B., Lawrence; entered service as first lieutenant

Page  231 HISTORY OF VAN B1JREN COUNTY 231 and quartermaster at organization of regiment, discharged June 5, 1866; died October 21, 1896; buried at Big Rapids, Michigan. Van Sickle, John M., Lawton; enlisted September 12, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged June 5, 1866. Wells, George W.; enlisted September 19, 1864, at Antwerp; discharged June 13, 1865. Witter, William; enlisted( September 20, 1864, at Porter; discharged May 25, 1865. Young, John G.; enlisted September 1, 1864, at Decatur; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged June 5, 1866. Other Companies: Gorham, Allen, Almena; enlisted in Company C, October 4, 1864, at Kalamazoo; sergeant; promoted to first sergeant; discharged June 5, 1866; previously served in Company C, Seventh New York Infantry. Cook, Joseph A., Lawrence; enlisted in Company A, August 30, 1864; discharged for disability, June 26, 1865. Conley, Dorey; enlisted in Company D, August 27, 1864, at Columbia; discharged June 5, 1866. Graham, Isaac, enlisted in Company I), September 3, 1864, at Kalamazoo; died at Louisville, Kentucky,.March 30, 1865; buried in Cave Hill cemetery, at Louisville. Storey, Barker C.; enlisted in Company E, September 15, 1864, at Bloomingdale; discharged for disability February 18, 1865. Wetmore, Edward M.; enlisted in Company E, September 12, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 5, 1866. Coburn, Delmont J.; enlisted in Company [I, Septelmber 10, 1864, at Decatur, first sergeant; discharged June 5, 1866. Platts, George, Bloomingdale; enlisted in Company II, September 10, 1864, at Decatur; first sergeant; promoted to second lieutenant, aide-de-camp and acting assistant adjutant general; commissioned first lieutenant; discharged June 5, 1866. Gallegher, Daniel; enlisted in Company I, October 3, 1864, at Bangor; discharged July 13, 1865. Nichols, William H.; enlisted in Company I, September 12, 1864, at Kalamazoo; corporal; discharged June 5, 1866. Smith, Abram A.; enlisted in Company I, September 27, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 5, 1866. Valleau, Freeman, Waverly; enlisted in Company K. September 30. 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 5, 1866.

Page  232 CHAPTER X CIVIL WAR CAVALRY FIRST MICHIGAN-THIRD CAVALRY-JUSTICE TO CAVALRY REGIMENTS-FOURTH MICHIGAN CAVALRY-CAPTURE OF JEFFERSON DAVIS-NINTTH MICHIGAN-CAPTURE OF MORGAN-FIRST AND LAST. The combat deepens, On, ye brave, Who rush to glory or the grave! Wave, Michigan, all thy banners wave, And charge with all thy chivalry! The First Michigan Cavalry was organized at Detroit and mustered into the service of the government September 13, 1861, with an enrolment of 1,144 officers and enlisted men. The regiment left the state September 29, 1861, for Washington, D. C., and went into camp at Frederick, Maryland, at which place it remained for several months. It comprised a part of General Banks' forces and in February, 1862, moved to Harper's Ferry and later entered the Shenandoah valley, advancing as far as Winchester and pushing the enemy before them. The regiinent distinguished itself in many skirmishes while advancing up the valley, and made a number of brilliant charges which attracted the attention of the commanding general and which received complimentary mention in orders. Banks had too meager a force to hold his advanced position and so fell back to Williamsport fighting most of the way, as the enemy had succeeded in getting between him and Willamsport and at the same time were pressing his rear with a force that outnumbered his command. In this movement the First Cavalry did brilliant work and only fell back when greatly outnumbered by the Confederate forces. The regiment remained at Williamsport until June 12th, when it began to take part in General Pope's Virginia campaign. It was in Banks' command when he fought the battle of Cedar Mountain. The regiment was engaged in the battle of Manassas, August 30, and suffered severely, the brave Colonel Brodhead losing his life on that occasion. The regiment afterward became a part of the famous Michigan Cavalry Brigade commanded by the brilliant young General Cus232

Page  233 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 233 ter, and remained with that brigade until the close of the war. The regiment participated in Sheridan's celebrated raid in the rear of Lee's army, and took part in the severe fighting that occurred in the advance upon Richmond and upon the return. After the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, tlle First was ordered to North Carolina, but returned to Washington in time to take part in the Grand Review at Washington on the 23d of May, 1865, after which it was ordered to the then far west and suffered many hardships in a campaign against the Indians. This action on the part of the war department was the subject of severe criticism. The war was ended and the regiment had completed its term of service, which, like all the volunteer troops, was "three years or during the war" and to exact this further service after the brilliant record made by the regiment, was regarded as rank injustice. The official records show that the First Cavalry participated in seventy different battles and skirmishes with the Confederate forces, some of the principal ones being as follows: Winchester, March 23, 1862; Winchester, May 24, 1862; Cedar TMountain, August 9, 1862; Manassas, August 30, 1862; Gettysburg, July 3, 1863; Culpepper Court House, September 14, 1863; Richmond, March 1, 1864; Wilderness, May 6 and 7, 1864; Cold Harbor, May 30 and June 1, 1864, and again at the same place July 21, 1864; Winchester, August 11, 1864; Appomattox, April 8 and 9, 1865; and with the Indians at Willow Springs, Dakota, August 12, 1865. The regiment was paid off and disbanded at Salt Lake, Utah, March 10, 1866, after four and one-half years of hard and faithful service. Total enrolment, 2,490; killed in action, 96; missing in action, 40; died of wounds, 52; died as prisoners of war, 58; died of disease, 172; accidentally killed, 4; drowned, 2; killed by Indians. 1; discharged for disability, 209. Company D: Boudoin, Cyrus; enlisted January 20. 1864, at Bangor; discharged June 3, 1865. Cuthbertson, Thomas; enlisted January 15, 1864, at Bangor; discharged June 9, 1865. Defoe, John; enlisted January 15, 1864, at Bangor; absent without leave October 10, 1865; no further record. l)onahue, Thomas; enlisted January 25, 1864, at Bangor; discharged June 6, 1865. Keating, Philip; enlisted January 20, 1864, at Bangor; discharged for disability, June 6, 1865. Company E: Beach, Levi S.; enlisted February 27, 1865; died January 2, 1866; buried at Alexandria, Virginia, grave No. 2949. Bugby, Alvin I.; enlisted March 2, 1865, at Columbia; died

Page  234 234 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY June 11, 1865; buried in National cemetery at Benton Barracks, Missouri, grave No. 1416. Burch, William H.; enlisted February 15, 1865, at Porter; discharged MIarch 25, 1866. Cleveland, Jewett; enlisted February 8, 1865, at Columbia; discharged October 7, 1865. Cleveland, Zelon; enlisted February 9, 1865, at Columbia; discharged July 17, 1865. Company I: Bentley, Augustus W., Paw Paw; enlisted September 5, 1861, at Kalamazoo; corporal; killed in action at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3, 1863. Eastman, Oscar A., Paw Paw; enlisted August 21, 1861, at Kalamazoo; sergeant. died October 25, 1864, of wounds received in action at Winchester, Virginia; buried in National cemetery at Winchester, lot No. 73. Hungerford, Lucius E., Paw Paw; enlisted September 5, 1861, at Detroit; died at Washington, D. C., November 1, 1861. Judson, LJucius L., Paw Paw; enlisted September 4, 1861. at Kalamazoo; corporal; discharged May 11, 1866. Munger, Ira A., Paw Paw; enlisted August 21, 1861, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability. Munger, Samuel E., Paw Paw; enlisted September 2, 1861, at Kalamazoo; wagloner; discharged iAgust 23, 1864; (lied at Paw lPaw. Rickard, Edward,J., Paw Paw;: enlist(ed Sep)tetlmtle 2, 1861, at Kalamazoo; discharged,June 30, 1866. ShaNw. Richmlond L.., Paw P1aw; enlisted Septeimber 7, 186.1, at I)etroit, taken p)risoner at Trevellian Station, Virginia, TJune 11, 1864; discharged January 23, 1866. Skinner, Trving TI., Paw P.aw; enlisted Septetulber 4, 1861, at Kalamazoo; bugler; promoted to quartermaster sergeant; discharged for disability, November 14, 1862. Whitford, Alexander L., Paw Paw; enlisted September 5, 1861, Iat Kalamazoo; (lied at Washington, D. C., July 10, 1862. Company K: Anger, Abner; enlisted October 31, 1863, at l)ecatur; takeni prisoner at Trevellian Station, Virginia, June 11, 1.864; discharged June 16, 1865. Ayers, Hiramr enlisted November 23, 1863, at Colunmbia; discharged July 24, 1865. Bashford. Truman R.; enlisted October 31, 1863, at Decatur; blacksmith; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged August 21, 1865. Bisbee, Floyd; enlisted February 22, 1865, at Paw PIaw; discharged March 10, 1866.

Page  235 IISTORY OF VAN BUSREN COUNTY 235tt Bronson, John G.; enlisted Novembtyer 21, 1863, at Colullmbia; discharged May 24, 1865. Caryl, Charles S., Columbia; enlisted November 23, 1863, at Columbia; discharged June 28, 1865. Conner, Isaac B., Paw Paw; enlisted February 17, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged March 10, 1866; died at Paw Paw. Cornell, David A.; enlisted February 22, 1865, at Paw Pavw; discharged March 10, 1866. Dailey, Ebenezer; enlisted November 30, 1863, at Decatur; discharged March 10, 1866. Field, Cassius M.; enlisted December 5, 1865, at 1)ecatur; trumpeter; promoted to sergeant; discharged March 10, 1866. Finley, William, Jr.; enlisted November 6, 1863, at Decatur; promoted to regimental quartermaster sergeant; discharged March 10, 1866. Flage, Martin; enlisted November 0(). 1863, at 1)ecatur; disc(harged July 10, 1865. Fonger, William; enlisted November:30 1863, at I)ecatir; died (October 7, 1864; buried at Baltimore, Maryland. Gibbs, Itiram F.; enlisted Novembet 30, 1863, at Decatur; corporal; died September 2, 1865; buried at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. (reen, Clark -I., Jr.; enlisted November 11, 1863, at Decatur; (tied at Andersonville, Georgia; buried in Naftional cemetery at Andersonville, grave No. 6482. lHammond, Henry M. C., Hartford; enlisted Nov(mbler 26, 1863, at Iartford; discharged June 16, 1865. IHanna, Hezekiah D.; enlisted November 26, 186., at l)ecatur; died at Washington, 1). C., July 2, 1864; buried at Arlington, Virginia. Hayes, Orange, Decatur; enlisted I)eeeillber 10. 1863; discharrel for disability, September 27, 1864. IHoard, Orlando; enlisted November 23, 1863, at 'Paw 1'aw, corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged June 30, 1866. Hudson, Gilbert HI.; enlisted November 23, 1863, at (olmlllbia: discharged July 7, 1865. Huntley, Cadmus C.; enlisted October 21, 1863, at Hartford; corporal; discharged for disability May 3, 1865: died June 8, 1893; buried at Hartford. Irish, Charles II.; enlisted November 28, 1863, at Hartford; died at Point Lookout, Maryland, July 3, 1864. Johnson, Irving; enlisted November 21, 1863; mustered December 8, 1863; no further record. Jones, Joseph W.; enlisted November 26, 1863, at Geneva; discharged June 16, 1865.

Page  236 236 HISTORY, OF VAN BUREN COUNTY June, Benjamin C.; enlisted November 30, 1863, at Decatur; discharged March 10, 1866. Kenney, James; enlisted November 30, 1863, at l)ecatur; discharged July 10, 1866. Knowles, John; enlisted November 21, 1863, at Columbia; discharged July 7, 1865. Manuel, Peter; enlisted November 30, 1863, at Lawrence; died at Washington, D. C., July 29, 1864, of wounds received in action; buried in Arlington National cemetery at Washington. Manuel, William H.; enlisted December 7, 1863, at Decatur; discharged March 10, 1866. Mather, Charles H.; enlisted November 28, 1863, at Hartforl; discharged June 21, 1866. Meachum, Simeon; enlisted November 23, 1863, at Iwawrence; discharged May 18, 1865; died February 3, 1884; buried at Iartford. Munson, John, I)ecatur; enlisted November 30, 1863, at Volinia; saddler; promoted to first sergeant, second lieutenant and first lieutenant; discharged March 10, 1866. Northrup, Theodore G.; enlisted October 29, 1863, at Decatur; quartermaster sergeant; discharged May 19, 1865. Painter, Samuel H.; enlisted December 14, 1863, at Arlington; died December 1, 1864; buried at Salisbury, North Carolina. Parmalee, Edward M.; enlisted November 30, 1863, at Decatur; corporal; discharged July 10, 1865. Pierce, Charles 1I.; enlisted October 29, 1 863, at Paw Paw; taken prisoner at Jericho Ford, Virginia, March 18, 1865; discharged June 1, 1865. Ransom, William W.; enlisted November 17, 1863, at Hartford; corporal; promoted to sergeant; died at Washington, D. C., August 3, 1864, of wounds received in action; buried in Arlington National cemetery at Washington. Reed, Charles D.; enlisted November 21, 1863, at Columbia; corporal; killed in action August 20, 1864. Revere, Hiram; enlisted February 27, 1865, at Hartford; discharged August 18, 1865. Robinson, Walter; enlisted February 24, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged July 29, 1865; died at Paw Paw. Shaul, Norman; enlisted November 17, 1863, at Decatur; sergeant; discharged June 27, 1865. Smith, Luther J.; enlisted November 27, 1863, at Hartford; died at Washington, D. C., July 29, 1864. Smith, Topham; enlisted December 12, 1863, at Hartford; discharged June 16, 1865.

Page  237 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 237 Southworth, Gillespie B.; enlisted November 26, 1863, at Decatur; discharged July 17, 1865. Present residence Paw Paw. Shattuck, Dewitt C.; enlisted February 17, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged December 5, 1865. Stephenson, Thomas H., Paw Paw; entered service as first lieutenant; commissioned October 3, 1862; discharged for disability May 28, 1864; died at Paw Paw. Stoddard, Henry; enlisted March 11, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged March 10, 1866. Sutter, John; enlisted October 29, 1863, at Decatur; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged November 14, 1865. Taylor, Isaac; enlisted December 10, 1863, at Decatur; sergeant; died August 30, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Philadelphia, grave No. 293. Truesdale, Lewis B.; enlisted November 21, 1863, at Geneva; corporal; promoted to sergeant; died at Winchester, Virginia, September 27, 1864, of wounds received in action. Tucker, William H.; enlisted October 28, 1863, at Decatur; first sergeant; promoted to second lieutenant and first lieutenant; discharged March 10, 1866. Wescott, James M.; enlisted October 28, 1863, at Paw Paw; killed in action at Hawes' Shop, Virginia, May 28, 1864. West, John; enlisted December 9, 1863; discharged for disability January 10, 1865. Williams, Isaac; enlisted November 23, 1863, at Lawrence; killed in action at Yellow Tavern, Virginia, May 11, 1864. Worix, William; enlisted November 30, 1863, at Decatur; killed in action at Yellow Tavern, Virginia, May 11, 1864. Wilson Charles; enlisted November 30, 1863, at Decatur; taken prisoner at Trevillian Station, Virginia, Juhe 12, 1864; discharged July 7, 1865. Company AI: Babcock, Henry B., Keeler; enlisted August 20, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; discharged March 25, 1866. Bartholomew, Benjamin F., Mattawan; enlisted August 10, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged on account of wounds received in action October, 1862. Burgher, Matthew B., Decatur; enlisted August 4, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; wounded in action; discharged for disability, March 13, 1863. Cleland, Thomas; enlisted February 13, 1865, at Decatur; discharged December 5, 1865. Field, Onslow L., Lawrence; enlisted August 20, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged for disability October 6, 1862. Gregory, Stephen A., Keeler; enlisted December 5, 1862, at Keeler; absent sick July, 1865; no further record.

Page  238 238) IISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY I-ungerford, Iester; enlisted February 9, 1865. at [Hartford; discharged December 5, 1865. King, John R., Porter; enlisted October 10, 1862; taken prisoner at Robinson River, September 23, 1863; died February 3, 1864; buried at Richmond, Virginia. Knight, Daniel, Keeler; enlisted August 15, 1861, at )owagiac; wounded in action at Winchester, Virginia; discharged June 19, 1862. McElheny, James S., Mattawan; enlisted August 15, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; promoted to sergeant and to sergeant major; commissioned second lieutenant and promoted to first lieutenan-t; killed in action at Fairfield Gap, Maryland, July 4, 1863. Poor, Lorenzo D. F., Iecatur; enlisted August 17, 1861, at Dowagiac; quartermaster sergeant; taken prisoner at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; discharged August 22, 1864. Sirrine, Ezra, Decatur; enlisted August 16, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged for disability May, 1862. Shaw, John N., Dec'atur; enlisted August 16, 1861, at Dowagiac; corporal; taken prisoner at Trevillian Station, Virginia, June 11, 1864; discharged March 25, 1866. Shilling, Watson N., Decatur; enlisted August 22, 1861, at Dowagiac; taken prisoner at Emmetsburg, Maryland, July 4, 1863; returned to regiment November 3, 1863; promoted to hospital steward; discharged November 7, 1865. Vincent, Albert, Decatur; enlisted August 20, 1861, at Dowagiac, corporal; taken prisoner at Trevillian Station, Virginia, June 11, 1864; promoted to sergeant; died August, 1865. Vincent, Gilbert; enlisted August 20, 1861, at Dowagiac; discharged for disability November 1, 1862. Other Companies: Dailey, David M., Porter; enlisted in Company A, February 22, 1863, at Detroit, substitute for Samuel Whitlock drafted from Hamilton; discharged July 10, 1865; died September 2, 1892. Mills, William R.; enlisted in Company A, February 27, 1865, at Hartford; discharged February 18, 1866. Ellenwood, Alonzo; enlisted in Company B, February 24, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged July 10, 1865. Galligan, Charles E., Paw Paw; enlisted in Company B, February 20, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged August 11, 1865. LJamb, Charles C., Porter; enlisted in Company B, February 10, 1863, at Detroit; substitute for Ransom J. Olds drafted from Hartford; discharged November 7, 1865. Hoover, George W., Porter; enlisted in Company C, February 24, 1863; substitute for Pulaski Eaton drafted from Hartford, on detached service, July, 1865; no further record.

Page  239 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 239 Taplin, Nathan; enlisted in Company C, February 27, 1865, at Hartford; discharged December 5, 1865. Terrill, Walter M., Porter; enlisted in Company C, February 24, 1863, at Hartford; substitute for Webster Goodenough drafted from Lawrence; taken prisoner near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 4, 1863; returned to regiment October 4, 1863; discharged May 6, 1865. Amick, Charles; enlisted in Company F, March 2, 1865, at Columbia; discharged July 10, 1865. Ryan, Michael; enlisted in Company G, February 2, 1862, at Kalamazoo; discharged January 20, 1866. Sheldon, Benjamin; enlisted in Company (l, February 9, 1865, at HIartford; discharged May 14, 1866. Clay, John P.; enlisted in Company L, February 23, 1865; discharged December 1865. Baker, Willia n; enlisted February 27, 1865, at Lawrence; unassigned; discharged July 10, 1865. Maxan, Horace W.; enlisted February 13, 1865, at Lawton; unassigned; discharged June 12, 1865. Webster, Anthony; enlisted February 7, 1865, at Decatur; mustered February 7, 1865; unassigned; no further record. THIRD MICHIGAN CAVALRY The squadron is forming, the war bugles play, To saddle, brave comrades, stout hearts for the fray, Our commander is mounted, strike spurs an(d away. The Third Michigan Cavalry was organized at the city of Grand Rapids in September, 1861, and was mustered into the service of the United States, October 4th following, with an enrolment of 1,163 officers and men. The following named members of the field and staff were froin Van Buren County: Dr. Josiah Andrews, of Paw Paw, was the regimental surgeon; Dr. Lucius C. Woodman, of the same place, assistant surgeon; William S. Burton, of South Haven, major of Third battalion. Dr. Andrews was mustered out of the service and honorably discharged October 24, 1864, a.nd died at Paw Paw. August 29. 1886. Dr. Woodman was collnissioned surgeon of the Eleventh Mlichigan Cavalry, October 7, 1863; taken prisoner October 2, 1864; confined in Libby prison; exchanged October 29, 1864; mustered out of service and honorably discharged, August 10, 1865. Died April 11, 1883, buried at Paw Paw. Major Burton resigned and was honorably discharged, Decelmter 2, 1864.

Page  240 240 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY The regiment left Grand Rapids November 28, 1861, for St. Louis, Missouri, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Robert H. G. Minty. In March, 1862, the Third was in the army commanded by General Pope, who at that date was operating against Island No. 10, in the Mississippi river, the regiment being located at New Madrid, Missouri, and was constantly under fire for several days. The water at this place was extremely bad, and more sickness was contracted here than at any one period of the four and a half years' service of the regiment, the death rate being very heavy. Governor Blair commissioned Captain John K. Mizner, U. S. A., colonel of the regiment March 7, 1862, and he immediately assumed command. Its first engagement was at New Madrid, Missouri, where it began a most creditable career, giving the foe a lively idea of the mettle of the Michigan cavalry boys, of which the southern troops were destined to have a large experience before the close of the war. After the evacuation of New Madrid and the surrender of Island No. 10 the regiment was sent up the Tennessee river to the battlefield of Shiloh and took part in the siege of Corinth, Mississippi, which lasted until the end of May, and during that time the regiment performed most efficient service and was highly comnended by officers in high command. After the fall of Corinth the Third served under General Rosecrans in the campaign in Mississippi and Alabama, which was directed by General Grant. It bore a conspicuous part in the battle of Iuka, September 19, 1862, and acted so gallantly that General Rosecrans acknowledged its meritorious services in general orders. One of its hardest fought battles was that of Corinth, Mississippi, October 3 and 4, 1862. For several days some portions of the regiment were in the saddle without intermission day and night. On the retreat of the rebels south the Third Cavalry were constantly on their flanks and rear, capturing many prisoners. This pursuit extended over seventy-five miles into the heart of Mississippi. During the following months of that year the regiment was constantly on scouting duty, and its marches and engagements with the enemy were continuous and incessant. During this period it was under command of Major Lyman G. Wilcox, Colonel Mizner having been made chief of cavalry for the Sixteenth Army Corps, while Lieutenant Colonel Minty was commissioned colonel of the Fourth Cavalry and returned! to Michigan and organized that regiment. In November the Confederates destroyed telegraphic communications between General Grant and General Sherman, the former at La Grange and the latter at Memphis, Tennessee. It was im

Page  241 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 241 portant that General Grant should communicate with General Sherman. Captain Cicero Newell, who had been commissioned captain of Company K, April 11, 1862, vice Davis, resigned, was selected, with his company, to carry the dispatches, although the country was held by the enemy in strong force and every road guarded. By persistent effort and marked tact and bravery Captain Newell succeeded in delivering the dispatches and received a complimentary letter from General Sherman for the daring deed. This was only one of the many daring expeditions by the officers and men of this regiment during that momentous period. The regiment did efficient service in northern Mississippi and Tennessee during the winter of 1863, and took part in a severe engagement at Jackson, Tennessee, in July of that year. In August it was engaged with the enemy at Grenada, Mississippi, and destroyed an immense amount of railroad stock, including sixty locomotives and nearly five hundred cars. During the following months of the year, by, continuous marches and fighting, it succeeded in driving from the country the notorious bands of guerrillas that had long infested that section. It met on several occasions the forces under Generals Forrest and Chalmers, and severe engagements took place at Ripley, Orizaba and Ellistown, Mississippi. and at Purdy and Jack's Creek, Tennessee. JUSTrICE TO() CAVIALRY REGIMENTS.i comprehensive history of va cavalry regimlent can only be written by recording its daily movements. When not moving witlh its brigade it is often sent on dangerous and important missions far from its support, and has to depend upon the officer in command for a successful termination, and frequently he finds most exacting and trying conditions confronting him. The different companies of this regiment were daily sent on dangerous scouting duty, either separately or by detachments, and often secured information that was of vital importance to the commanding general. These separate companies or detachments had to rely upon themselves in critical situations, and they often displayed during the war the genius of generalship that would have distinguished them in history were such circumstances not so frequent or were they written up at the time and made public. In the movements of a great army the minor movements of regiments and companies are overshadowed and unknown except to those who take part. A regiment of cavalry performs most incessant and arduous service during a campaign, but its reconnaissances and scouts, its skirmishes and charges, are only a part of the main army and are seldom mentioned with the importance Vol. I -1 r,

Page  242 242 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY they deserve. The frequent charges, marches, battles and skirmishes of a cavalry regiment cannot be recorded with justice in a brief outline of its history. In January, 1864, the Third, was at La Grange, Tennessee, where the regiment reenlisted and was sent to Michigan on veteran furlough. The reputation it had attained drew a large number of recruits to its ranks at this time, and at the termination of the thirty-day furlough the regiment reassembled at Kalamazoo and again, under command of Colonel Mizner, returned to St. Louis, Missouri, where, in May, 1864, it was sent to Little Rock, Arkansas, and was soon engaged in scouting and driving General Shelby and the Confederates he commanded beyond the Arkansas river. From November, 1864, to February, 1865, the headquarters of the Third were at Brownsville Station, Arkansas, and many marches and scouts were made in the surrounding country, securing large supplies for the Union army, thus immeasurably crippling the Confederates, whose resources were constantly being curtailed. In March, 1865, the Third was transferred to the Military Department of the Mississippi commanded by General Canby, to operate against Mobile. After the fall of that city it marched across Alabama and Mississippi to Baton Rouge, Lousiana. When General Sheridan was sent west to command the Military Department of the Southwest the regiment was ordered to report to him for duty, and immediately joined the expedition to San Antonio, Texas, where it arrived August 2nd, after a long and fatiguing march. Here it was employed in guarding the Mexican border, where it performed garrison duty and engaged in constant scouting. Its headquarters were at San Antonio, Texas, until February 15, 1866, when it was dismounted and marched to Indianola, where it took a steamer for Cairo, Illinois, via New Orleans. On its return to Michigan, March 10, 1866, the regiment was rendezvoused at Jackson, where it was paid off and disbanded. The veterans of 1861 in this organization saw four years and six months' service and a great majority of its recruits served well and faithfully for over three years. Its members, both officers and enlisted men, came from all sections of the state, and in a short time after their muster out could be found at their former avocations, the better citizens for having been good soldiers. Their long and arduous service added luster to the lasting reputation won by the cavalry regiments from Michigan. From March, 1862, until December, 1863, the regiment took part in the following engagements and skirmishes: New Madrid. Missouri, March 13, 1862; siege of Island No. 10, Missouri, March

Page  243 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 243 14 to April 7, 1862; Farmington, Mississippi, May 5, 1862; siege of Corinth, Mississippi, May 10 to 31, 1862; Spangler's Mills, Mississippi, July 26, 1862; Bay Springs, Mississippi, September 10, 1862; luka, Mississippi, September 19, 1862; Corinth, Mississippi, October 3 and 4, 1862; Hatchie, Mississippi, October 6, 1862; Holly Springs, Mississippi, November 7, 1862; Hudsonville, Mississippi, November 14, 1862; Lumkin's Mill, Mississippi, November 29, 1862; Coffeeville, Mississippi, November 29, 1862; Oxford, Mississippi, December 2, 1862; Coffeeville, Mississippi, December 5, 1862; Brownsville, Mississippi, January 14, 1863; Clifton, Mississippi, February 10, 1863; Panola, Mississippi, July 20, 1863; Grenada, Mississippi, August 14, 1863; Byhalia, Mississippi, October 12, 1863; Wyatt's Ford, Mississippi, October 13, 1863; Ripley, Mississippi, November 29, 1863; Orizaba, Mississippi, November 30, 1863; Ellistown, Mississippi, December 3, 1863; Purdy, Mississippi, December 22, 1863; Jack's Creek, Tennessee, December 24, 1863. Shortly after the engagement at Jack's Creek the regiment returned to Michigan on veteran furlough, and on its return to the front was closely identified with the skirmishes and battles in the southwest, including the battle at Mobile, and at the surrender of the last rebel troops under General Richard Taylor. It is the record of the regiment that it did active service in ten states, occupying more territory and marching more miles than any regiment that left the state. The official records show that the regiment actually marched a distance of 10,800 miles exclusive of marches by separate companies and detachments. Volumes could be written from the few statistical lines recorded beneath, every figure of which represents an individual part taken by some soldier in the great War of the Rebellion. Total enrolment, 2,264; killed in action, 24; died of wounds received in action, 9; died in Confederate prisons, 8; died of disease contracted in the service, 333; discharged for disability (wounds and disease), 319. Company A: Baughman, IIomer; enlisted September 9, 1861; saddler; discharged February 12, 1866. Bridges, Benjamin F., Bloomingdale; enlisted September, 1861, at Bloomingdale; discharged February 12, 1866. Brown, Charles M.; enlisted August 31, 1861; discharged for disability December 9, 1862. Brown, Cyrus, Waverly; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Waverly; discharged, February 3, 1863. Brown, Lorenzo, Bloomingdale; enlisted October 3, 1861, at Bloomingdale; discharged for disability July 25, 1862.

Page  244 244 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Clark, Marcus F., Bloomingdale; enlisted Septemnber 9, 1861, at Allegan; discharged for disability, July 13, 1862. Colwell, Edwin A., Bloomingdale; enlisted September, 5, 1861, at Bloomingdale; on duty with Ninth Illinois Cavalry from January 31 to May 30, 1864; discharged October 24, 1864. Coon, Charles M., Bloomingdale enlisted September 6, 1861, at Bloomingdale; discharged December 1, 1864. Coy, Daniel, Bloomingdale; enlisted September 3, 1861, at Bloomingdale; discharged July 24, 1861. Fowler, George, Bloomingdale; enlisted September 9, 1861, at Bloomingdale; died at St. Louis, Missouri, May 17, 1862; buried in St. Louis National cemetery, grave No. 979. Holbrook, William A.; enlisted September 3, 1861; corporal; discharged for disability, July 25, 1862. McMeeken, William, Bloomingdale; enlisted September 5, 1861, at Bloomingdale; discharged for disability March 28, 1864; died at Petoskey. Miller, James H., Bloomingdale; enlisted September 4, 1861, at Bloomingdale; promoted to sergeant; discharged February 12, 1866. Moore, John, Bloomingdale; enlisted August 25, 1863, at Bloomingdale; (lied July 30, 1864. Parsons, Francis M., Bloomingdale; enlisted September 4, 1861, at Bloomingdale; discharged for disability. Quint, Obed W., Bloomingdale; enlisted September 25, 1861, at Bloomingdale; on duty with Ninth Illinois Cavalry from TJanuary 31 to May 30; lischarged October 24, 1864. Richard, John, Pine Grove; enlisted February 29, 1864, at Pine Grove, died at St. Louis, Missouri, November 6, 1864; buried in National cemetery at St. Louis, grave No. 3140. Robinson, William A.; enlisted September 3, 1861, at Allegan; discharged for disability January 20, 1863. Scott, Aaron; enlisted August 31, 1861, at Allegan; discharged February 12, 1866. Smith, Marion M.; enlisted August 15, 1862. at Paw Paw; discharged June 2, 1865. Whaley, Ezra, Bloomingdale; enlisted October 7, 1862, at Bloomingdale; promoted to corporal and to sergeant; discharged February 12, 1866; dead; buried at Charlotte, Michigan. Company C: This company was, in the first place, wholly made up of Van Buren county men, although there were numbers of recruits from other parts of the State. There were over two hundred men in its ranks during its period of service. The following list contains the names of those from Van Buren County: Hudson, Gilbert J., Paw Paw; first captain of the com

Page  245 IISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 245 pany, commissioned major November 1, 1862; honorably discharged, June 6, 1865; died at Paw Paw, December 19, 1881. Rowland, Oran W., Lawrence; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawrence; appointed sergeant at organization of company; subsequently promoted to first sergeant; commissioned second lieutenant Company E, April 29, 1863; first lieutenant Company I, October 24, 1864; acting assistant adjutant general at brigade headquarters, January, February and March, 1865; captain Company C, November 17, 1864; honorably discharged, June 6, 1865; present residence, Paw Paw. l)yckman, Barney II., South Haven; entered service as second lieutenant Company C, at South Haven, September 17, 1861; promoted to first lieutenant January 13, 1862; captain Company A, May 25, 1862; resigned and honorably discharged October 31, 1864; died November 25, 1890. Huston, Joseph W., Paw Paw; entered service as first lieutenant September 17, 1861; resigned January 12, 1862; major Fourth Michigan Cavalry September 1, 1862; resigned and honorably discharged, August 25, 1863; died at Boise City, Idaho. Thompson, Albert H., Lawton; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawton; first sergeant and sergeant major; second lieutenant Company C, January 13, 1862; resigned and honorably discharged, October 12, 1862; died at Lawton. Chatfield, Henry, South Haven; enlisted September 17, 1861, at South Haven; promoted to quartermaster sergeant; second lieutenant September 22, 1864; first lieutenant November 7, 1864; honorably discharged on account of disability, June 12, 1865; died at South Haven, August 20, 1906. Abbott, John, Bangor; enlisted December 21, 1863, at Bangor; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence, South Haven. Baker, Orson M., Lawrence; enlisted February 29, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability, October 7, 1864; dead. Bates, Isaac L., Porter; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Porter, as corporal; promoted to sergeant, January 19, 1864; discharged October 5, 1865; present residence, Andover, South Dakota. Beardsley, Eli, Lawrence; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Lawrence; died at DeVall's Bluff, Arkansas, August 14, 1864. Beaver, Watson H., Bangor; enlisted October 16, 1862; discharged October 15, 1865; present residence, Bangor. Bedell, Edward R.; enlisted January 1, 1862; taken prisoner August 24, 1864; returned to regiment January 2, 1865; discharged February 12, 1866. Benjamin, Marion D., Lawrence; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Lawrence; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Big Rock, Illinois, January 27, 1908.

Page  246 246 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Blaisdale, John, Arlington; enlisted as corporal; September 17, 1861, at Arlington; discharged for disability November 22, 1862; died at Arlington, May 1, 1902. Bonesteele, John Q., Arlington; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Arlington; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Evart, Michigan, March 5, 1907. Bowman, Walter, Lawton; enlisted June 20, 1863, at Lawton; missing in action at La Grange, Tennessee; reported prisoner of war; no further record. Branch, Charles, Lawrence; enlisted August 16, 1862, at Paw Paw; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; died at Washington, D. C., March 24, 1865. Branch, Frank, Lawrence; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawrence; corporal January 1, 1865; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence, Lawrence. Branch, Luther, Lawrence; enlisted September 16, 1863, at Lawrence; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence, Yaquina, Oregon. Bridges, George W., Bangor; enlisted February 23, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence, Bangor. Bridges, James, South Haven; enlisted February 15, 1864, at South Haven; discharged February 12, 1864; dead. Bunnell, Jabe C., Lawrence; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawrence, as saddler; discharged for disability, May 9, 1863; dead. Buss, Horace B., Paw Paw; enlisted February 20, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Evart, Michigan, September 25, 1907. Buys, Cornelius, South Haven; enlisted September 17, 1861, at South Haven; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence, South Haven. Camp, Daniel S., Arlington; enlisted September 7, 1863, at Arlington; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence, Bangor. Chandler, John D., Arlington; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Arlington; corporal; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence soldiers' home, Orting, Washington. Chubbuck, John F., Arlington; enlisted February 20, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged October 5, 1865; dead. This soldier was in the South at the breaking out of the civil war and was conscripted into the southern army, but availed himself of the first opportunity to escape and join the northern forces. Churchill, George W., Paw Paw; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; taken prisoner November 2, 1863; died at Andersonville; buried in Andersonville National cemetery, grave No. 5686. Cochrane, Andrew M., Bangor; enlisted February 29, 1864, at

Page  247 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 247 Kalamazoo; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence Bangor. Cross, Burrill A., Arlington; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Arlington; on duty with Ninth Illinois Cavalry, January 21 to May 30, 1864; discharged October 24, 1864; dead. Cross, George A., Lawrence; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence, Lawrence. Cross, Orrin W., Bangor; enlisted as corporal, September 17, 1861, at Bangor; discharged September 26, 1863, to accept commission in Sixty-first Colored Troops; died September 26, 1865; buried at Bangor. Dailey, Andrew, Porter; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Porter; killed by guerrillas at Corinth, Mississippi, November 14, 1863; buried in Union National. cemetery, Corinth, grave No. 2552. Daskam, Charles S., Paw Paw; enlisted September 17, at Paw Paw; promoted to corporal; quartermaster sergeant; first sergeant; second lieutenant Company F, November 17, 1864; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Albion, Michigan, February 14, 1904. De Haven, David, Arlington; enlisted at Paw Paw, August 14, 1862; wounded and died at Memphis, Tennessee, January 31, 1864; buried in National cemetery, Memphis. Dolson, John I., Lawrence; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged February 12, 1866; died 1876; buried near Covert. Donovan, Andrew, Arlington; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Arlington; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence Bangor. Dopp, Amos, Lawrence; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged December 29, 1862; died at Lawrence, February 12, 1908. Dow, Joseph, South Haven; enlisted September 17, 1861, at South Haven; died of wounds received in action near Corinth, Mississippi, April 29, 1862; the first man killed in the regiment; buried in Union National cemetery at Corinth, Mississippi, grave No. 2555. Durkee, William H., Paw Paw; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal; taken prisoner at Corinth, November 12, 1863, released December 16, 1864; discharged March 3, 1865; died at soldiers' home, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1911, buried at Paw Paw. Earl, Roswell A., Bangor; enlisted at Bangor, September 17,

Page  248 248 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 1861; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Wexford, Michigan, February 23, 1904, buried at Wexford. Ecklar, Wallace, Arlington; enlisted August 15, 1862, at Paw Paw; taken prisoner at Corinth, November 2, 1863; died August 14, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Andersonville. Ewers, Ebenezer, Arlington; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Arlington; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Coloma, Michigan. Ewers, William, Arlington; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Brlington; missing in action at Brownsville, Arkansas; supposed to have been killed by guerrillas. Ewing, Benjamin F., Bangor; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Bangor; sergeant; discharged for disability,. Novenber 30, 1863; died at Bangor. Ferguson, Philo N.; enlisted at Paw Paw, September 17, 1861; bugler; discharged October 3, 1864; died May 17, 1891; buried at Harbor Springs, Michigan. Finley, William W.; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Bangor; farrier; discharged July 9, 1865; dead. Fassett, James S., Lawrence; enlisted August 17, 1863, at Lawrence; died at Corinth, Mississippi, November 8, 1863; buried in Union National cemetery, number of grave unknown. Foster, Abram F., Columbia; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Columbia; discharged for disability, March 28, 1864; dead. Fuller, Daniel P., Decatur; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Decatur; discharged January 2, 1866; died at Charlotte, Michigan, 1898. Fuller, Solon P., Decatur; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Decatur; died at Detroit, October 14, 1862. Gage, Delos, Lawrence; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged for disability, November 1, 1864; died at Lawrence. Geiser, Ernest, Lawton; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawton; discharged for disability, June 1863; died at Lawton, January 21, 1903. Gilbert, James, Arlington; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability February 6, 1863; died at Bangor, March 9, 1901. Goodell, Oliver E., Lawrence; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged October 24, 1864; dead. Goss, John P., Bangor; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Bangor; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence Bangor. Greenman, Columbus; enlisted July 10, 1864, at Lawton; discharged May 26, 1865; no further record. Harris, James; enlisted at Paw Paw, September 17, 1861; discharged for disability, November 8, 1862; dead.

Page  249 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 249 Harvey, Samuel P., Bangor; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Bangor; promoted to corporal, sergeant and first sergeant; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence Bangor. Hennesey, James, Paw Paw; enlisted August 15, 1862, at Paw Paw; on duty with Ninth Illinois Cavalry from January 31 to May 30, 1864; discharged June 2, 1865; dead. Hilliard, Charles, Lawrence; enlisted August 17, 1863, at Lawrence; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence Hartford. Hilliard, Harris W., Lawrence; enlisted February 29, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence Lawrence. TIogmire, Charles, Arlington; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence Portland, Michigan. Hogmire, Edwin S., Arlington; enlisted August 14, 1862, at P'aw Paw; discharged June 2, 1865; present residence, Breedsville. Ilogmire, Mitchell H., Arlington; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Iaw Paw; promoted to corporal and to sergeant; discharged June 2, 1865. House, Frederick A., Paw Paw; enlisted February 9, 1864; discharged July 5, 1865; dead. Iowe, Martin A., Lawrence; enlisted September 17. 1861, at Lawrence; wagoner; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence, Michigan City, Indiana. HIoxie, Orville C., Lawrence; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Lawrence; died at De Vall's Bluff, Arkansas, August 16, 1864. H-unt, Isaiah F., Arlington; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability December 31, 1862. Hurlbut, Albert F., Arlington; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Arlington; corporal; discharged February 21, 1866; present residence, Paw Paw. Hurlbut, Spencer N., Arlington; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Arlington; commissioned first lieutenant, Eleventh Cavalry; unassigned; discharged, special order war department, dated December 1, 1863. Died in California. HTuston, Williami I. II., Plaw Paw; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; promoted to sergeant and sergeant major; second lieutenant, Company B, October 3, 1864; first lieutenant, Company B, December 7, 1864; captain same company, July 4, 1865; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence, San Antonio, Texas. Ives, Charles, Arlington; enlisted August 17, 1863, at Lawrence,

Page  250 250 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY discharged October 5, 1865; present residence, Hesperia, Michigan. Johnson, Freeman G., Bangor; enlisted May 29, 1862, at Jackson; discharged June 2, 1865; subsequently served in Company C, Seventeenth United States Infantry. Kelly, Franklin N., Lawrence; enlisted August 17, 1863, at Lawrence; discharged June 9, 1865; died at Lawrence, April 21, 1897. Kelly, Julius I., Lawrence, enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Lawrence, March 20, 1906. Kinney, John R., Porter; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Porter; promoted to sergeant and quartermaster sergeant; discharged February 12, 1866. Kidney, Marvin N., Porter; enlisted November 16, 1863, at Porter; discharged February 14, 1865; present residence, Kenosha, Wisconsin. King, Charles O., Arlington; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Arlington; promoted to corporal, sergeant and regimental conmissary sergeant; second lieutenant, Company I, November 6, 1865; discharged February 12, 1866; dead. Lanont, Hans, Paw Paw; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw, discharged for disability June 14, 1863; died at Paw Paw. Lamphear, Dempster, Lawrence; enlisted February 17, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 19, 1865; present residence, Olivet. Lamphear, Otis E., Lawrence; enlisted February 24, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 12, 1866; no further record. Lamphear, Loren E., Lawrence; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Lawrence, January 12, 1911. Lamphear, Truman R., Lawrence; enlisted February 24, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged October 5, 1865; dead. Lamphear, Truman, Lawrence; enlisted February 24, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability November 19, 1865; died at Lawrence, October 21, 1904. Lewis, William H., Arlington; enlisted August 17, 1863, at Lawrence; died at Corinth, Mississippi, October 31, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Corinth, grave No. 255. Luce, Joseph W., Paw Paw; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability November 7, 1862; present residence, Dwight, Kansas. Lutz, Samuel, South Haven; enlisted September 17, 1861, at South Haven; discharged for disability October 22, 1865; dead. Mallory, Lemuel C., Bangor; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Bangor; discharged February 12, 1866; no further record.

Page  251 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 251 Mahard, John, Lawton; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawton; discharged August, 1862; subsequently served in Twentyeighth Michigan Infantry from 1864 to 1866. Present residence Lawton. Martin, Oscar D., Bangor; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Bangor; on duty with 9th Illinois Cavalry from January 31 to -May 30,.1864; discharged October 24, 1864; present residence Lawrence. Marshall, Jerome B., Lawrence; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged for disability July 20, 1862; died at Lawrence. McDonald, John; Paw Paw; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal and sergeant; discharged February 12, 1866; dead. McDonald, Ronald, South Haven; enlisted September 17, 1861, at South Iaven; discharged February 12, 1866; died at San Antonio, Texas, February 3, 1889; buried same place, National cemetery, grave No. 851. McNeil, Minard, Lawton; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawton; discharged October 24, 1864; died at Lawton. Miller, Henry II., Lawton; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawton; discharged to accept appointment second lieutenant, Company 1I, Fourth United States Heavy Artillery, colored, Augulst 17, 1864; honorably discharged at Little Rock, Arkansas; present residence, Marshall, Michigan. Mitchelson, Shortis, Paw Paw; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Antwerp, May 16, 1899. Monroe, Ebenezer, Porter; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Porter: corporal; on duty with Ninth Illinois Cavalry, from January 31 to May 30, 1864; discharged October 24, 1865; present residence, Schooleraft. Moon, Eugene F., Paw Paw; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability July 19, 1863; no further record. Moses, Andrew F., Paw Paw; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; died at Hamburg, Tennessee, May 27, 1862. Moses, Judson J., Paw Paw; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability November 8, 1862; died at Arlington, May 17, 1909. Moon, William H., Paw Paw; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability April 16, 1862; dead. Musson, Thomas G., Lawrence; enlisted August 14, 1863, at Lawrence; died at Corinth, Mississippi, October 16, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Corinth; number grave unknown.

Page  252 252 IIIST()RY OF VAN BUREN( COUNTY Murch, Ford, Paw Paw; enlisted February 16,.1864, at Plaw Paw; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence, MIqattawan. Nyrnan, R. C., Bangor; enlisted September 17, 1861, at lBangor; prisoner of war from May to October, 1863; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence, Bangor. Ormsby, Edwin B., Porter; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Porter; corporal; discharged February 7, 1865; present residence, ( reenville. Osborn, Ozias, Lawrence; enlisted December 28, 1863, at Kalimazoo; discharged February 12, 1866; dead. Parrish, James, Porter; enlisted September 17, 1861, at P'orter; discharged for disability, December 16, 1863; dead. Parker, James; enlisted December 23, 1863, at Kalamazoo; died May 30, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Memphis, Tennessee, grave No. 4130. Patterson, William; enlisted February 16, 1864, at Paw Pa\-: discharged February 12, 1866; no further record. Peabody, George W., Arlington; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Arlington; saddler; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Hartford, July 7, 1909; buried at Lawrence. Pease, Enoch M., Geneva; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Geneva; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Grand View, South Dakota. Pierce, Franklin M., Lawrence; enlisted September 10, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged for disability January 10, 1863; dead. Randall, Hiram A., South Haven; enlisted September 17, 1861, at South Haven; discharged for disability June 17, 1864; dead. Rhodes Fernando C.; Arlington; enlisted August 17, 1863, at Lawrence; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Lawrence, December 29, 1908. Richardson, Milan U., Arlington; enlisted at Lawrence, August 1, 1863; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Paw Paw, December 26, 1896. Richardson, Noble D., Arlington; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Arlington; discharged for disability, April 6, 1862; died January 8, 1895; buried at Paw Paw. Richmond, Andrew J., enlisted February 22, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged February 12, 1866; dead. Rogers, Henry A., Paw Paw; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; promoted to quartermaster sergeant and first sergeant, second lieutenant Company H, December 11, 1862; resigned and honorably discharged August 13, 1863; died at Paw Paw. Royal, Hiram L., enlisted September 17, 1861, at Antwerp; discharged February 1, 1866; dead. Russell, Clark G., Bangor; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Ban

Page  253 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 253 gor; discharged to accept promotion in United States Colored Troops, September 16, 1864; assisted in the organization of a regiment of Kentucky State militia; seriously wounded April, 1865; present residence, Lansing, Michigan. Russell, Lyman S., Bangor; enlisted September 17, 1861; discharged to accept promotion in regiment of colored troops; assisted in organizing first colored soldiers; first sergeant Company A, Sixty-first United States Colored Troops; sergeant major one year, second lieutenant and acting adjutant, October 30, 1864; discharged May 23, 1865; died at Lansing, Michigan. Shaver, Talcott A, Lawrence; enlisted August 14, 1863, at Lawrence; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence, Benton Harbor. Showers, John, Lawton; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawton; discharged for disability September 8, 1862; dead. Sinclair, Otis, Covert; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Covert; died at St. Louis, Missouri, August 19, 1862, of small pox; buried at St. Louis. Smith, Hudson D., Bangor; enlisted December 30, 1863, at Bangor; discharged February 12, 1866; removed to Missouri; no further record. Smith, John B., South Iaven; enlisted August 15, 1863, at South Haven; discharged February, 1866. No further record. Smith, William J., enlisted December 19, 1863, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability October 1, 1864; dead. Southwell, Silas J., Lawrence; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawrence; died at St. Louis, Missouri, January 12, 1862. Stearns, Stacy N., Lawrence; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged for disability October 30, 1862; died at Lawrence, March 21, 1879. Stickney, Daniel M., Paw Paw; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged February 12, 1866; dead. Swan, John, Arlington; enlisted August 15, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability, January 11, 1863; dead. Travis, James B.; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Bangor; died at New Madrid, Missouri, April 6, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Memphis, Tennessee. Tucker, George M. D., Arlington; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Arlington; bugler; discharged February 12, 1866; dead. Utley, Urijah, Lawrence; enlisted September 17, 1861. at Lawrence; discharged for disability July 1, 1862; dead. Van Draiss, Frederick, Lawrence; enlisted September 17, at Lawrence; transferred to Ninth Illinois Cavalry, January 31, 1864; no further record. Van Dusen, Henry, Paw Paw; enlisted August 18, 1862, at

Page  254 254 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Paw Paw; discharged for disability, April 21, 1863; no further record. Van Dyke, Joseph G., South Haven; enlisted September 17, 1861, at South Haven; discharged March 28, 1864; died at South Haven, March 11, 1890. Voorhees, Augustus, South Haven; enlisted September 17, 1861, at South Haven; on duty with Ninth Illinois Cavalry from January 31, to May 30, 1864; discharged October 20, 1864; died at South Haven, October 20, 1901. Ward, David M., Porter; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Porter; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence Lawton. Ward, John C., Porter; enlisted August 5, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence Paw Paw. Ward, William H. H., Porter; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Porter; killed in action near Corinth, Mississippi, November 15, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Corinth, grave No. 2555. Wells, Henry A., Lawrence; enlisted August 12, 1863, at Lawrence; promoted to regimental quartermaster sergeant, commissioned second lieutenant Company D, October 17, 1865; discharged February 12, 1866; present residence Soldiers' Home; Grand Rapids. Wells, Hiram K., Lawrence; enlisted August 12, 1863, at Lawrence; discharged February 12, 1866; died July 20, 1893; buried at Lawrence. Widner, James, Lawrence; enlisted February 22, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Lawrence, March 9, 1908. Wood, Daniel, Bangor; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Bangor; died at Bangor, April 24, 1862; buried with military honors. Worallo, William H.; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Bangor; discharged for disability, July 23, 1862; died at Bangor in 1866. Wright, Claudius D., Porter; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Porter; died at Rienzi, Mississippi, July 27, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Corinth, Mississippi, grave No. 2564. Company M: Brott, Charles, Geneva; enlisted February 13, 1864, at South Haven; discharged February 12, 1866; died January 26, 1905, at Geneva. Burnham, Gifford, Covert; enlisted December 16, 1863, at Kalamazoo; died at De Vall's Bluff, Arkansas, July 4, 1864, buried in National cemetery at Little Rock, Arkansas, grave No. 143. Buys, Redford, South Haven; enlisted February 22, 1864, at South Haven; died at Brownsville, Arkansas, November 30, 1864. Camp, Edgar N., Lawrence; enlisted February 23, 1864, at Kalamazoo; (ied April 3, 1864, in Michigan.

Page  255 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 255 Crakes, William, Geneva; enlisted February 15, 1864, at Geneva; discharged February 12, 1866. Hoag, Orrin S., Geneva; enlisted February 15, 1864, at Geneva; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Lacota, Michigan, January 5, 1904. Hess, James S., South Haven; enlisted February 27, 1864, at South Haven; died at St. Louis, Missouri, March 28, 1864. Ingrain, Alfred T., Paw Paw; enlisted February 22, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged January 21, 1866; dead. Jones, James; South Haven; enlisted February 11, 1864; corporal; died at Brownsville, Arkansas, August 29, 1864. Long, Achilles, South Haven; enlisted February 11, 1864, at South Haven; died at De Vall's Bluff, Arkansas, July 12, 1864; buried in National cemetery, Little Rock, Arkansas; grave No. 211. McDonough, John, Geneva; enlisted February 15, 1864; discharged February 12, 1866. McPherson, Hugh, Paw Paw; enlisted March 2, 1864, at Kalamazoo, discharged October 5, 1865; died at Paw Paw, September 20, 1906. Matthews, Billings W., South Haven; enlisted February 16, 1864; discharged February 12, 1866. Newman, Nicholas, South Haven; enlisted at Geneva, February 18, 1864; died at De Vall's Bluff, July 20, 1864. Orr, Robert, Paw Paw; enlisted February 16, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged February 12, 1866. Parker, William S.. South Haven; enlisted at South Haven. February 15, 1864; discharged February 12, 1866. Paul, Jay, Lawrence; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Lawrence; died at Dc Vall's Bluff, Arkansas, August 8, 1864; buried at same place. Pease, Henry, South Haven; enlisted February 15, 1864, at South Haven; discharged February 12, 1866. Pike, Silas B., South Haven; enlisted February 11, 1864, at South Haven; wounded in action May 15, 1865; discharged February 12, 1866. Rathburn, Adrian, Lawrence; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Lawrence; discharged February 12, 1866. Seeger, Lorenzo, Columbia, enlisted February 23, 1864, at Columbia; died in Michigan, May 25, 1864. Shepard, William M., Paw Paw; enlisted February 25, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Paw Paw. Shoemaker, William W., South Haven; enlisted February 15, 1864, at South Haven; discharged February 12, 1866. Swick, William R., Paw Paw; enlisted February 24, 1864, at

Page  256 256 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Paw Paw; died at New Orleans, April 19, 1865; buried in New Orleans National cemetery. Van Tassell, Jason D., South Haven; enlisted February 26, 1864, at South Haven; discharged February 12, 1866; died November 19, 1896. Walker, Absalom, Bloomingdale; enlisted August 20, 1861, at Bloomingdale; discharged February 12, 1866. Other Companies: Hamilton, Julius, South Haven; Company F; enlisted December 12, 1863, at South Haven; discharged February 12, 1866. Koons, John, Lawton, Company F; enlisted February 23, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged May 5, 1865. Mills, Lyman, Paw Paw, Company F; enlisted September 30. 1861, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability August 24, 1862. Glidden, Harrison W., Paw Paw, Company H; enlisted February 9, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged February 12, 1866; died at Antwerp, November 20, 1907. Stanton, Lyman, Lawrence; Company I; enlisted August 27, 1863, at Lawrence; died of wounds received in action, at Memphis, Tennessee, February 12, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Memphis, grave No. 4163. Carpenter, William, South Haven, Company K; died in Michigan, September 14, 1864. Sisson, Benjamin A., Decatur, Company E; enlisted at Decatur, February 20, 1864; discharged February 12, 1866. Harmon, Asa, Paw Paw; enlisted September 15, 1861, at Paw Paw, in Company I, Second Michigan Cavalry; transferred to Third Cavalry, hospital steward; discharged for disability May 30, 1862; reentered service December, 1862, as chaplain; discharged February 12, 1866. FOURTH MICHIGAN CAVALRY Let the flag of our country be flung to the sky; Our arm shall be bared for the glorious fight, As freemen we'll live, or like freemen we'll die! Our Union and Liberty, an(d God save the right. The Fourth Michigan Cavalry was authorized about July 1, 1862, and rendezvoused at Detroit on July 29th. It was mustered into the service of the United States just a month afterward under command of Colonel Robert H. G. Minty. It left the state for Louisville, Kentucky, September 26th, fully armed and equipped, with 1,233 officers and enlisted men on its rolls. Colonel Minty, its commanding officer, had been a major in the Second Cavalry and lieutenant colonel of the Third Cavalry. He conmanded the brigade, of which the Fourth formed a part, for

Page  257 HISTORY OF VAN IBUREN COUNTY 257 the greater part of the time it was in service, the command being known as "Minty's Brigade," which became as famous in the west as was the Michigan Cavalry Brigade in the east. The first real engagement in which the regiment participated was with the Confederate General Morgan, at Stanford, Kentucky, which resulted in a Union victory. From that time to the end of the year the Fourth was constantly on duty, taking the advance of the Union forces from Nashville, and making reconnaissances and scouts in every direction, meeting the enemy almost daily, and invariably was victor when not overwhelmed by superior numbers. During these months of active service the regiment as a whole, or by detachments, made a number of saber charges with brilliant success, or fought on foot with the facility of veteran infantry when occasion required. It routed the enemy on many a field and captured prisoners and destroyed vast amounts of public property which the south could ill afford to lose. In January, 1863, though the weather was severe and the roads almost impassable and rations scarce, the regiment started from Murfreesboro, met Forrest's and Wheeler's Cavalry and drove them back with considerable loss of killed, wounded and prisoners. The following month the regiment was in pursuit of Wheeler and Forrest near Fort Donelson. During this march of two hundred and eighty miles in snow, sleet and rain the regiment captured 145 prisoners and 14 commissioned officers. On the 22d day of May, 1863, the regiment, with its brigade, marched to Middleton, and the Fourth charged through the town and a mile beyond, where it met the First Alabama. Quickly dismounting and advancing on the camp with their repeating rifles, the Confederates fled and the Fourth took possession, capturing the flag of the First Alabama and destroying a large amount of small arms, ammunition, saddles and clothing. The flag, by resolution of the regiment, was presented to the governor of Michigan and is now deposited in the Military Museum at the capitol. In April, 1864, the Fourth marched across the Cumberland mountains to the vicinity of Chattanooga and then crossing Lookout mountain and Taylor's ridge attacked the enemy at Rome, Georgia, on the 15th, where it routed a Confederate brigade. Joining in the Atlanta campaign with the army under General Sherman, the Fourth led the advance of the infantry and took part in all the engagements of the campaign in and around Atlanta. The regiment formed a part of General Kilpatrick's force of 2,500 men in a raid south of Atlanta, and when the Union troops reached Flint river they found the enemy behind formidable en Vol. 1-17

Page  258 258 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY trenchments, but dismounted and, fighting on foot, charged hiin into Jonesboro. Kilpatrick then marched for Lovejoy's Station to destroy the Macon railroad. Here the Union forces were surrounded and, being outnumbered five to one, were in a critical situation. Minty's Brigade was then massed by regiments and with drawn saber cut its way through the enemy's line, thereby securing the safety of the balance of the command. After the fall of Atlanta, the Fourth wzas engaged in scouting, and detachments of the regiment had several severe encounters with the enemy. In October, when General Hood commenced his march north with the intention of taking Nashville, Tennessee, the Fourth. with its brigade, followed in pursuit, and marching through Rome, Kingston and Resaca, Georgia, met Wheeler's cavalry at Little River, Alabama, on the 20th and drove the Confederates five miles, killing and capturing a large number. Early in March, 1865, the regiment started on a long raid through Alabama, meeting the enemy at numerous places, capturing guns and supplies, and arrived before Selma, April 2d, which was strongly fortified and defended by Forrest's men, estimated at 9,000. The Fourth, witl its brigade, was dismounted and assaulted the works, losing heavily in the advance, but, undaunted by the terrific fire, scaled the breastworks and with the balance of the command captured the city and 25 pieces of artillery, a large amount of ammunition and stores, besides 2,800 prisoners. The Fourth then marched through Montgomery to Macon, Georgia, and the Union trops here received the surrender of Major General Howell Cobb, with his entire Confederate force of 380 officers, 2,000 men and 62 pieces of artillery, with all the arsenals, foundries and machine shops in the city. It was here that the commanding general of the Union forces received the news of the surrender of Generals Lee and Johnston, which terminated hostilities east of the Mississippi. It was soon learned that Jefferson Davis, president of the socalled southern Conferedacy, was trying to make his escape to the Atlantic coast. Lieutenant Colonel Pritchard was directed by Colonel Minty to proceed with the Fourth to the Ockmulgee river and try to learn the whereabouts of Davis. Colonel Pritchard learned that Davis was moving towards Irwinsville, Georgia, and, selecting 150 of his best mounted troopers, started in rapid pursuit. He found Mr. Davis encamped in the woods with members of his family and friends, and all were soon made prisoners.

Page  259 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 259 CAPTURE OF JEFFERSON DAVIS The story of the capture of the Confederate chieftain is an interesting one. We give it substantially as related by the chief participants. At Irwinsville, Georgia, Colonel Pritchard learned that a train which probably belonged to the fleeing president of the fallen Confederacy was encamped but a short distance away. Moving out into the vicinity of the camp, he sent Lieutenant Purinton with a. small detail of men to wait on the other side of it. At the break of day Pritchard advanced and arrived within a few rods of the camp without being discovered, and then dashed forward and placed a chain of guards around it before the astonished inmates fairly realized the situation. While this was being done, Corporal George Munger of Colipany C, Fourth Cavalry, a resident of Schoolcraft, Michigan, and Corporal James F. Bullard of the same company, then of Paw Paw, Michigan (now a resident of St. Cloud, Fla.), observed two persons, each dressed in feminine garb, moving rapidly away from one of the tents. "That ought to be attended to," said one of them. "Yes," replied the other, and Munger, closely followed by 1l3llard, rode in front of them and commanded them to halt. "This is my mother-in-law," said one of them. "Can't you let her pass? She is going to the spring for some water." Her companion, a tall, stooping person, wrapped in a woman's waterproof, with a shawl over the head and a pail in one hand, said nothing. "No, you can't pass," was the reply. Seeing that further concealment would avail nothing, the pseudo mother-in-law straightened up, dropped the waterproof and shawl revealing a tall man, with gray hair and whiskers and with but one eye. At first, no one recognized the fugitive as the president of the played-out Confederacy. Mrs. Davis (for the other party was the wife of the fleeing president), threw her arms around her husband's neck exclaiming "Don't shoot him! Don't shoot him!" "Let them shoot," said Davis. "Let them shoot, if they choose. I may as well die here as anywhere." Blt it was not customary for Union soldiers to shoot prisoners of war, and there was no one who had the slightest inclination to slay the ex-Confederate president. Upon being questioned, Mrs. Davis admitted the identity of her companion, saying to Bullard: "MIr. Davis is a very reverend man. I hope he will not be insulted."

Page  260 260 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY "I shall not insult him, if he behaves himself," was the curt reply. Meanwhile Colonel Pritchard had gone to the assistance of Lieutenant Purinton, in whose front heavy firing was heard. The fight proved to be a most unfortunate occurrence. A detachment of the First Wisconsin Cavalry, which was also in pursuit of Davis, had met Purinton's advanced guard and began firing on them before ascertaining their identity. In this lamentable affair several men were killed and wounded. As Colonel Pritchard rode up on his return to the camp he was accosted by Davis, who inquired if he was the commanding officer. The colonel replied in the affirmative and asked by what name he should address his interlocutor. "Call me whatever you please," was the reply. "Then I shall call you Davis," said Pritchard, and after a moment's hesitation, the prisoner admitted that was his name. Then, assuming an attitude of great dignity, he said to Pritchard "I suppose you consider it bravery to charge a train of defenseless women and children; but it is theft; it is vandalism." Without inquiring whether his distinguished prisoner considered himself a woman or a child, the colonel at once set out for Macon, joining the rest of the command on the way. As to attacking a camp of women and children, there were with the captured party, two of Davis' aides-de-camp and several other Confederate officers, the entire party consisting of about thirty persons. The official records show that during its period of service the Fourth Cavalry met the enemy in nearly a hundred different battles and skirmishes, some of the principal ones being as follows: Stone River, Tennessee, December 31, 1862; McMinnville, Tennessee, April 21, 1863; Shelbyville, Tennessee, June 27, 1863; Chickamauga, Georgia, September 19, 20 and 21, 1863, Chattanooga, Tennessee, November 17, 1863; Mission Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863; Rome, Georgia, April 15, 1864; Atlanta, Georgia, August 1 to 14, 1864; Lovejoy's Station, Georgia, August 20, 1864; Macon, Georgia, April 20, 1865. The regiment left Macon at tile close of the war and reached Nashville, June 17, 1865. On the first of July it was mustered out of service and returned to Detroit where it was paid off and -disbanded. Total enrolment, 2,006; killed in action, 30; died of wounds. 15; died while prisoners of war, 7; died of disease, 283; discharged for disability, 230. The following is a list of the Van Buren county soldiers who served in the Fourth Cavalry.

Page  261 IISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 261 Company C: Anderson, Return T., Porter; enlisted July 8, 1862, at Porter; discharged July 1, 1865; deceased; buried at Porter. Austin, Benjamin F., Paw Paw; enlisted July 25, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged May 30, 1865. Barker, Wesley T., Porter; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Porter; discharged July 1, 1865; present residence, Porter. Barnes, Charles W., Arlington; enlisted July 24, 1862, at Arlington; died December 29, 1862; buried in Cave Hill National celmetery at Louisville, Kentucky. Bennett, John, Decatur; enlisted August 5, 1862, at Decatur; corporal; promoted to commissary sergeant and tc first sergeant; taken prisoner at Flint Iill church, July 10, 1864; commissioned second lieutenant and assigned to Company B; brevet first lieutenant, United States Volunteers, for meritorious services in the capture of Jefferson Davis; discharged July 1, 1865. Bierce, James M., Arlington; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Arlington; died at Nashville, Tennessee, January 28, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Bryant, John R., Porter; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Porter; discharged July 1, 1865. Buck, B. Franklin, Keeler; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Keeler; discharged for disability April 28, 1863. Buck, R. Mortimer, I'Paw Paw; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Paw Paw; first sergeant; subsequently commissioned as second lieutenant, first lieutenant and captain; discharged July 1. 1865; died December 9, 1902; buried at Paw Paw. IBuckley, James M., Lawrence; enlisted August 2, 1862, at Lawrence; corporal; wounded in action near Fairburn, Georgia, August 19, 1864; promoted to sergeant; discharged July 1, 1865. Bullard, James F., Paw Paw; enlisted August 2, 1862, at Paw Paw; corporal; was one of the immediate captors of Jefferson Davis and one of the detail of guards that accompanied him to prison; discharged July 1, 1865; present residence, St. Cloud, Florida. Burns, Robert, Paw Paw; entered service at organization of the regiment as first lieutenant; appointed adjutant, commissioned captain and acting assistant adjutant general, brevet lieutenant colonel United States Volunteers for gallant conduct during an assault on the enemy's works at Selma, Alabama; discharged July 1, 1865. Burrell, Charles, Arlington; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Arlington; discharged July 1, 1865. Carr, Peter, Paw Paw; enlisted July 20, 1862, at Paw Paw; taken prisoner at Columbia, Tennessee, April 17, 1865; no further record.

Page  262 262 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Clark. Edwin L., Paw Paw; enlisted July 19, 1862, at Paw Paw; died at Nashville, Tennessee, December 13, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Colburn, Stephen A., Paw Paw; enlisted July 11, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability December 27, 1862; re-entered service in Company C, Thirteenth Michigan Infantry, August 15, 1S64, at Paw Paw; discharged June 8, 1865. Collins, George W., Hamilton; enlisted August 1, 1862, at Hamiltoin; died at MIurfreesboro, Tennessee, February 17, 1863. Conklin, Luman, Porter; enlisted July 26, 1862, at Porter; discharged for disability August 6, 1863; deceased; buried at Lawtoln. Crandall. James C., Hartford; enlisted July 21, 1862, at Hartford; sergeant; discharged January 26, 1863, by reason of accidental wounds. Crane, Edgar A., Paw Paw; enlisted July 5, 1862, at Paw Paw; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged,July 1, 1865; died, 1911; buried at Kalamazoo. Crane, James MI., Paw Paw; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability October 31, 1863. Crawford, Lester B., Arlington; enlisted August 5, 1862, at Arlington; discharged July 1, 1865. Curry, Iavid Q., Decatur; enlisted August 6. 1862, at Decatur; corporal; discharged July 1, 1865. Dake, Hiram P., Paw Paw; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged June 10, 1865. Darling, Gilbert 11., Antwerp; enlisted August 5, 1862, at Antwerp; taken prisoner November 12, 1862; paroled; discharged July 1, 1865. i)avern, Timothy, Antwerp; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Porter; discharged for disability February 3. 1863; died January 16, 1902. Davis, Benajah M\., Waverly; enlisted August 9, 1862. at Waverly; discharged July 1, 1862. lDean, E. Rolla, Hamilton; enlisted August 7, 1862, at HIamilton; discharged for disability March 8, 1863. Delano, Harvey, Paw Paw; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Waverly; died July 30, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville, Tennessee. Denton, John, Lawrence; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Lawrence; wounded in action October 21, 1862; discharged June 5, 1865; died at Lawrence March 27, 1885; buried in Prospect Lake ceimietery. Dickinson, Egbert O., Antwerp; enlisted July 12, 1862, at Antwerp; discharged July 1, 1865. Dillon, David, Paw Paw; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Paw Paw;

Page  263 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged July 1, 1865; present residence Paw )Paw. Dolson, Elon G., LawreIce; enlisted July 21, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged for disability, September 30, 1863. Dopp, James, Lawrence; enlisted July 31, 1862, at Lawrencesergeant; died at MI\urfreesboro, Tennessee, January 18, 1863; buried il National cemetery at Stone River, Tennessee. grave No. 4413. Eastman, Norman W.. Paw Paw; enlisted July 21, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability, March 25, 1863. Ecklar, Daniel, Columbnia; enlisted July 30, 1862; discharged July 1, 1865. Enole, Allen, Paw Paw\; enlisted Au'ust 12, 1862, at Paw PIaw; (iseharged TJune 13, 1865. Farrow, John; enlisted February 4, 1863, at Keeler; (lischarged August 15. 1865. Fernam, August, Itartford; enlisted July 20, 1862, at Iartford; discharged for disability. June 21, 1864. dn account of wounds received in action at Chicikamauga,.Georgia. September 18, 186:3. Field, William A., Lawrence; enlisted.July 22. 1862; transferred to Invalid Corps Novemibelr 1, 186:8. Fisk, George W., Lawrence; enliste(d August 7, 1862. at [Lawrence; died at Nashville, Tennessee, January 26, 1863; lburied in National cemetery at Nashville. IHarrington, Russell, Colulmbia; enlisted July 23, 1862, at Co]umbia; died at MIurfreesboro, Tennessee, MIarch 12, 1863. Harrison, George P., Antwerp; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Antwerp; corporal; taken prisoner September 30, 1863; disllarged July 1, 1865. IHayes, Jeremiah C., Antwerp; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Porter: died at Nashvile, Tennessee. January 18. 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Hazard, Elijah C., Arlington, enlisted July 24, 1862, at Arlington; discharged for disability July 1, 1863; died February 27, 1890; buried at Arlington cemetery. Holly, Henry A., Arlington, enlisted August 5, 1862, at Arlington; discharged for disability July, 1864. Horton, Charles D.; drafted from Pine Grove; mustered November 4, 1863; died at Columbia, Tennessee, May 20, 1864. Ioward, HIosea L., Lawrence; enlisted July 31, 1862. at Lawrence; died at Nashville. Tennessee, February 2, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Howe, I-arry T., Paw Paw; enlisted August 10, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability February 25, 1863. Huston, Joseph W., Paw Paw; entered service in Colpany C,

Page  264 261 HIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Third Michigan Cavalry, as first lieutenant; resigned January 12, 1862; re-entered service in Fourth Cavalry as adjutant, August 8, 1862, at Detroit; promoted to major, September 1, 1862; resigned and honorably discharged on account of disability, August 23, 1863; died at Boise City, Idaho. Irwin, William G., Antwerp; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Antwerp; discharged for disability July 18, 1863. Ismon, Aaron, F., Paw Paw; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Paw Paw; quartermaster sergeant; promoted to first sergeant; commissioned second lieutenant; resigned on account of disability, Deceinber 16, 1863; died December 21, 1863. Jaquays, Oliver, Porter; enlisted July 29, 1862, at Porter; died at Nashville, Tennessee, January 5, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Jenkins, George, Arlington; enlisted August 9, 1862, at Arlington; died at Ooltewah, Tennessee, February 28, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga, Tennessee, grave No. 10844. Jenkins, Marcus D., Paw Paw; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Paw Paw; transferred to Invalid Corps, December 15, 1863; discharged June 6, 1865. Jones Allen, Antwerp; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Antwerp; discharged for disability September 30, 1863. Lane, Edward J., Arlington; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Arlington; discharged July 1, 1865; died at Lawrence. Lanphear, Byron W., Lawrence; enlisted August 5, 1862, at Lawrence; taken prisoner near Nashville, Tennessee, November 2, 1862; paroled; killed in action at Latimer's Mills, Georgia, June 26, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Marietta, Georgia, grave No 2208, section C. Lawton, George W., Antwerp; entered service at organization as second lieutenant, July 8, 1862, at Porter; commissioned first lieutenant and captain; wounded in action at Dallas, Georgia, May 24, 1864; brevet major United States Volunteers for gallant and meritorious conduct at Dallas, Georgia; discharged July 1, 1865; died at Lawton; buried in the Lawton cemetery. Leathers, Charles L., Columbia; enlisted July 30, 1862, at Columbia; corporal; promoted to sergeant and to commissary sergeant; discharged July 1, 1865; present residence Kalamazoo. Leonard, William, Decatur; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Decatur; died at Nashville, Tennessee, December 9, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Loveland, Henry J., Paw Paw; enlisted August 5, 1862, at Paw Paw; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged July 1, 1865; died at Paw Paw, July 9, 1908. McKinney, Thomas J., Porter; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Por

Page  265 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 265 ter; commissary sergeant; wounded at Latimer's Mills, Georgia, June 20, 1864; promoted to quartermaster sergeant; discharged July 1, 1865. McLain, John C., Porter; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Porter; wounded in action at Winchester, Tennessee, September 30, 1863; corporal; discharged July 1, 1865; present residence in Soutl Dakota. Melchor. Thaddeus W., Paw Paw; entered service as captain at Paw Paw, JIly 8, 1862; resigned on account of disability 1arch 31, 1863; died at. Paw Paw. Merriman, Alfred MI., Paw Paw; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Paw Paw: transferred to Invalid Corps, Septenmber 1, 1863; discharged as sergeant June 29, 1865. Merriman, Henry, Paw Paw; enlisted August 7, 1862, at P'aw Paw; died at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, November 22, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Stone River, Tennessee. Moore. William, Columbia; enlisted July 23, 1862. at Columbia; corporal; promoted to sergeant; (lied at Murfreesboro. Tennessee, February 17, 186:3. MTunson. Stephen B., Columbia; enlisted July 26, 1862, at Columbia; paroled prisoner January 11, 1863; discharged July 1, 1865. Niles, Austin D.; enlisted August 5, 1864, at Kalamazoo; substitute for Edmund Iewitt; discharged July 1, 1865. Niles, Gideon P.. Columbia; enlisted July 23, 1862, at Columbia; discharged May- 24, 1865. Page. John F.. Columbia; enlisted July 28, 1862, at Columbia; discharged July 1, 1865. Palmerton, Reuben. Hamilton; enlisted August 1, 1862, at Hamilton; corporal: discharged July 1, 1865. Pierce. George W., Lawrence; enlisted August 5. 1862, at Lawrence; saddler: discharged May 13, 1865. Place, IHowland, Lawrence; enlisted July 31, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged for disability May 27, 1863. Prince, John Jr., Antwerp; enlisted August 5, 1862, at Antwerp; transferred to Invalid Corps; discharged July 5, 1865. Prince, Pomeroy, Geneva: enlisted August 11, 1862, at Geneva; discharged July 1, 1865. Pritchard, Philo, Antwerp; enlisted August 7, 1862, at Antwerp; discharged July 1. 1865. Pugsley, John S., Paw Paw; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Paw Paw: regimental quartermaster sergeant; promoted to first lieutenant and commissary, acting assistant brigade quartermaster; discharged July 1, 1865. Rawson, Silas M., Decatur; enlisted August 5, 1862, at Decatur; veterinary surgeon; discharged July 1, 1865.

Page  266 '2;6 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Rediker, George B1., Porter; enlisted July 28. 1862, at Porter; wagoner; discharged July 1, 1865; deceased; buried at Porter. Rickard, Charles E., Bangor; enlisted August 18, 1862, at Bangor; killed in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 18, 1863. Riggs, Ranselaer, Porter; enlisted Augoust 28. 1862; discharged for disability August 11, 1863; re-enlisted in same company August 18, 1864; discharged July 1. 1865. Rockwell, Jerome, Columbia; enlisted Aug'ust 9, 1862, at Columbia; discharged July 1, 1865. Russ, Isaac P., Arlington; enlisted August 7, 1862; transferred to Invalid Corps. Ryan, John, Lawrence; enlisted August 7. 1862, at Lawrence; discharged July 1, 1865; died at Lawrence, May 7, 1909. Sherwood, Henry, Columbia; enlisted July 23, 1862, at Columnbia; wounded in action at Latirner's MTills, ('eorgia,l June 20, 1864; honorally discharged. Smnead, Thonmas D., Antwerp; enlisted July 16, 1862, at Antwerp; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged July 1, 1865. s-mith, Charles II.. Decatur; enlisted August 9, 1862, at Decatur; discharged July 1, 1865. Smith. Williamn J., Antwerp; enlisted August 8, 1862. at Porter; farrier; discharged June 3, 1865. Stevens, Fitz E., Paw P aw; enlisted August 6. 1862, at Paw Paw; sergeant tnajor; discharged July 1, 1865; present residence Paw Paw. Warner, Oliver W., Paw Paw-'; drafted1; mustered Novellber 4, 186:3; killed in action at Lovejoy Station. Georgia, August 20, 1864. Wilcox. Reuben O., Antwerp; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Antw,-:rp; discharged July 1, 1865. Woolsey, William F., Hartford; enlisted July 21, 1862, at Hartford; died at Nashvile, Tennessee. January 13, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Worthey, George, Arlington; enlisted August 6, 1862, at Arling ton; wounded in action at Latimer's Mills, Georgia. June 20, 1864; discharged July 1, 1865; died at Paw Paw, June 5, 1906. Other Companies: Baty, John; drafted from Hartford; mustered October 14, 1863; assigned to Company A; discharged August 15, 1865. Moon, Josiah B.; drafted from Decatur; mustered November 4, 1863; assigned to Company A; discharged August 15, 1865. Moon, Rodolphus; drafted from Columbia; nustered Novemnber 4, 1863; assigned to Company A; died at Cartersville, (eorgia, June 7, 1864. Cobb, Dennis H., Columbia; enlisted in Company F, August 11, 1862, at Adrian; taken prisoner at Kingston Georgia, May 18,

Page  267 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 267 1864; died in prison at Florence, South Carolina, November 1, 1864. Cross, Ira F.; drafted from Paw Paw; mustered November 4, 1863; assigned to Company (r; discharged Decelmber 27, 1864. Ward, John AW.; drafted froll Antwerp; lmulstered Novemliber 4. 1863; assigned to Company G; in hospital at Edgefield, Tennessee, July, 1865. Driskil, Noah, Porter; enlisted in ComIpany I, Au'gust 11. 1862. at Dowagiac; discharged April 2, 186:3. Lewis, Francis F., Porter; enlisted in CompanIy I, August 11. 1862, at Dowagiac; wounded in action at Lavergce, Tennessee. December 26, 1862; died at Nashville, Tennessee, January 11, 1865. MIorton, Charles L., Porter; enlisted in Company I, August 11, 1862, at Dowagiac; discharged for disability February 27, 1863. Orr, IIugh; enlisted in ComLpan) y T. Mlarch1 14, 1864, at D)ecatur: discharged July 26, 1865. Armstrong. Worden; drafted from Antwerp; mustered November 4, 1863; assigned to Company E (lied at Nashvilille. Tenessee. \larclh 3-, 1865: buried in National cemletery at Nashville. Derby, John L., Bloomingdale; enlisted iAugust 1, 1862. in Company L, at Allegan; (lied at Nashville, Tennessee. February 16. 19863; buried in National cemeetery at Nashville. Burdette. Abraham; drafted froim Hamilton; assigned to Fourth Cavalry, lustered Novemnher 4, 1863; no further record. Dyer, Andrew J.; drafted from Lawrence; assigned to Fourth Cavalry; mustered November 4, 1863: no further record. Finley, Andrew- M.; drafted from GCeneva; assigned to Fourth Cavalry; mustered November 4, 1863: no further record. Labadie, Joseph; drafted from Almena; assigned to Fourth Cavalry; mustered November 4, 1863; no further record. Lawhorn, Henry; drafted from Porter; mustered November 4. 1863; assigned to Fourtl Cavalry; no further record. Nash, Albert H., Paw Paw; joined regiment October 10, 1862. as sergeant major; commissioned as second lieutenant; resigned on account of disability. February 17. 1863. NINTH MIChIIGAN C AVALRY Rally, valiant soldiers. rally, 'Tis the time for vou and me, We will stand by one another, Round the standard of the free. The Ninth Cavalry was organized at Coldwater in 1862 under the supervision of Colonel James I. David and was mustered into the United States service in May, 1863. The total enrolment at organization was 1,073 officers and enlisted men.

Page  268 268 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Many of the officers of this regiment had seen service in the field with other regiments and their experience in military duties and discipline was of great advantage and served to place the Ninth on a war basis much sooner than would have been possible under other circumstances. The regiment was splendidly equipped when it took the field, being armed with the Spencer carbine, a magazine gun that could be fired seven times without stopping to reload-the belst cavalry weapon of that date. CAPTURE OF M:ORGAN The Ninth was also furnished with fine mounts when it left the state and the personnel of the different companies was excellent. Ten companies of the regiment left Coldwater in May for Cincinnati, Ohio. and its first camp in the field was at Covington, Kentucky. In June it was ordered to Mt. Sterling, Kentucky, in pursuit of a band of guerrillas and its first engagement with the enemy was at Triplett Bridge, where it routed Everett's guerrillas and wounded and captured a number of them. The Confederate General John Morgan was in Kentucky at the time the Ninth was sent in pursuit, but Morgan eluded his foes although the Ninth captured his chief of staff and a number of his men. The regiment returned to Danville, Kentucky, July 6, where all the cavalry present was placed under the command of Colonel W. T. Saunders of the Fifth Kentucky. In the meantime the Confederate General Morgan had crossed the Ohio river into Indiana and made his celebrated raid through that state and Ohio, destroying property, burning bridges, looting villages, taking provisions for his men and capturing horses, spreading consternation along his march. The regiment soon assembled at Cincinnati, Ohio, and reported to General Burnside whose headquarters were in the city. Reports were so conflicting as to the location of Morgan that the regiment was divided, companies A, B, F, L, C, and K eventually overtaking the enemy at Buffington Island, where a sharp engagement followed, resulting in a complete rout of Morgan's forces, capturing 500 prisoners, a large quantity of small arms and three pieces of artillery. Companies C, D, E, H, I, and K left Cincinnati on the Little Miami Railroad, and arrived at Mingo Junction. Ohio, on the 25th and marched immediately to Steubenville. On the 26th Morgan was pressed into an engagement near Salineville, Ohio, by a charge of the detachment of the Ninth in which the Confederates were routed with a loss of 23 killed, about 50 wounded and 250 prisoners. General Morgan was driven from the field and in his flight

Page  269 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 269 ran into the forces of General Shackleford, who was marching on the same road Morgan was retreating, and the Confederate General surrendered to General Shackleford. General Morgan and staff were taken to Salineville where they were placed in a coach and sent to Columbus, Ohio. Thle Ninth took part in the expedition against Cumlberland Gap and that stronghold surrendered to the Union forces, with 2.500 men and 13 pieces of artillery. Then followed the East Tennessee campaign which probably was unequaled for hardships during the;war on account of the severity of the climate, the want of clothing and tents, and the scarcity of rations. The Ninth was constatltly on duty and was in frequent contact with the enemy 's cavalry, as the Confederate General Longstreet encamped his corps in the valleys of Tennessee during the winter. The lardships imposed upon the horses by constant marches and the want of forage finally dismounted most of the companies, the men being obliged to see their faithful horses die of hunger, while they themselves were often on the verge of starvation. In the spring of 1864, the regiment, having lost imost of its horses, returned to Nicholasville, Kentucky, to remount and secure new equipments. The first of June found the regiment supplied witlh fine mounts and well equipped. On the 12th the regiment confronted the Confederate General John Morgan (who had escaped from prison) once more, this time at Cynthiana, Kentucky. The Ninth attacked in a splendid charge. driving the enemy into tlhe Licking river and capturing about 300 prisoners and a large supply of stores and small arms. FIRST AND LAST The Ninth joined General Sherman's army on the Atlanta campaign, and before the fall of Atlanta was a part of the force under General Kilpatrick in a raid south of Atlanta on the Montgomery railroad. The Ninth formed a part of the Cavalry Corps commanded by General Kilpatrick, and marched with Sherman from "Atlanta to the Sea," being engaged in frequent combats with General Wheeler and General Wade HIampton's Cavalry. At Waynesboro, Georgia, the Ninth made a brilliant charge upon the forces of General Wheeler, driving the enemy in confusion and capturing 100 prisoners. This charge was especially mentioned by General Kilpatrick in his dispatch to the war department. When the regiment arrived at Savannah, Georgia, it was selected by General Kilpatrick as his escort to march to St. Catherine's Sound on the Atlantic coast and open communication with the federal fleet. This gave the regiment the prestige of being the first regiment of Sherman's army to reach the coast.

Page  270 270 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY The cavalry division started from Savannah, Georgia, on the Carolina campaign the 27th of January, 1865. It marched on the flanks in advance and in the rear of Sherman's army, whenever the enemy's cavalry might appear. The regiment met the eneimy at many points as it moved through the states of South Carolinal and North Carolina, and was at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, when the news of General Lee's surrender was received. In a skirmish with the Confederate General Johnston's forces just before the news of General Lee's surrender and the order came to "cease firing," it is asserted that the Ninth fired the last hostile shot of the war east of the Mississippi. The regiment was at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, when General Johnston surrendered to (General Sherman. The official records show that the Ninth Cavalry was engaged in sixty battles and skirmishes, the following being some of tthe principal ones: Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, September 9, 1863: Zollicoffer, Tennessee, September 23, 1863; Knoxville, Tennessee. December 5, 1863; Fair Garden, Tennessee, January 24, 1864; siege of Atlanta, August 1 to September 3, 1864; Stone Mountain. Georgia, September 13, 1864; Lovejoy Station, Georgia, November 16, 1864; Macon, Georgia, November 21, 1864; Cypress Swamp, Georgia, December 7, 1864; Averysboro, North Carolina, March 14 and 15, 1865; Raleigh, North Carolina, April 12, 1865. The regiment was mustered out of service at Concord, Nortlh Carolina, and immediately started for Michigan, arriving at Jackson, July 30, 1865, where it was paid off and disbanded. Total enrolment, 1,213; killed in action, 32; died of wounds, b: died in Confederate prisons, 32; died of disease, 110; discharged for disability (wounds and disease), 59. Van Buren County soldiers in the Ninth Cavalry were as follows. Company E: Banks, Will H. S., Lawton; captain Company 11. Twelfth Infantry, September 17, 1861; resigned February 20. 1862; re-entered service as second lieutenant Company E, Ninth Cavalry, at organization; promoted to first lieutenant and to captain; discharged July 21, 1865. Bilby, George, Antwerp; enlisted January 12, 1863, at Antwerp; taken prisoner February 4, 1864; died at Andersonville, Georgia; buried in National cemetery at Andersonville. Bliss, Merritt, Antwerp; enlisted January 2, 1863, at Antwerp; taken prisoner at Dandridge, Tennessee, January 16, 1864; died April 16, 1864; buried at Annapolis, Maryland. Bradford, Calvin P., Porter; enlisted December 13, 1862, at Porter; discharged July 21, 1865.

Page  271 HISTORY OF VAN IBUREN COUNTY Brott, Aaron, Antwerp; enlisted 1)ecemrber 14, 1862, at Antwerp; discharged July 21, 1865. Brown, Charles W., Almena; enlisted December 5, 1862, at Almena; commissary sergeant; discharged June 7, 1865. Brown, William, Almena; enlisted November 28, 1862, at AImena; corporal; taken prisoner in March, 1865; paroled in June, 1865; discharged July 12, 1865. Buchanan, William, Columbia; enlisted January 2, 1863, it Jackson; discharged March 14, 1863. Clark, John, Almena; enlisted I)ecember 8, 1862, at Almena; died at Camp Nelson, Kentucky, June 2, 1864; luried in National cemetery at Camp Nelson, grave No. 1432. Clark, Joseph, Antwerp; enlisted December 15, 1862, at An.werp; discharged July 21, 1865. Cook, Willis C., Lawton; enlisted in Company D, Thirteentli Infantry, November 18, 1861; discharged for disability Novelnber 3, 1862; enlisted in Company E, Ninth Cavalry, April 15, 186:-... at Antwerp; farrier; discharged July 21, 1865. Covey, Alphonso, Waverly; enlisted December 9, 1862, at W~: - verly; discharged February 27, 1863. Earl, David, Pine Grove; enlisted December 19, 1862. at Pir.Grove; taken prisoner at Wadesboro, South Carolina, March 4, 1865; paroled in June, 1865; discharged June 23, 1865. Ellison, Joseph, Antwerp; enlisted December 18, 1862, at Paw Paw; taken prisoner in March, 1865; paroled; discharged August 5, 1865; deceased. Finch, Alfred, Pine Grove; enlisted December 18, 1862, at Piin Grove; corporal; discharged July 21, 1865; died December 5, 1889. Finch, Edward E., Pine (Grove; enlisted December 18, 1862. at Pine Grove; taken prisoner at Atlanta, Georgia, August 2S. 1864; paroled June 15, 1865; discharged July 1, 1865. Goff, Dewitt C., Porter; enlisted January 10, 1863, at Porter: discharged July 21, 1865. Hill, George B. A., Antwerp; enlisted December 27, 1862, at Antwerp; sergeant; promoted to second lieutenant and to first lieutenant; discharged July 21, 1865; died at Worcester, Massachusetts, August 8. 1896. Hinche-, John J., Antwerp; entered service at organization of regiment as captain; discharged July 21, 1865. Holden, Elmore, Antwerp; enlisted December 8, 1862, at Antwerp; died at Knoxville, Tennessee, March 1, 1864; buried at Knoxville. IIolden, Orrin, Antwerp; enlisted December 17, 1862, at Ant. werp; discharged July 21, 1865; died July 2, 1903. HIolden, Samuel E., Antwerp; enlisted December 17, 1862, at

Page  272 272 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Antwerp; discharged July 21, 1865; deceased; buried at Lawton, Michigan. Lewis, Frederick L., Paw Paw; enlisted December 11, 1862, at Paw Paw; veterinary surgeon; taken prisoner December 14, 1863; died at Andersonville, Georgia, June 12, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Andersonville, grave No. 1882. Magoon, Edward; Lawton; enlisted April 7, 1863, at Battery L, First Light Artillery; transferred to Ninth Cavalry; discharged July 21, 1865. McKay, Henry M., Porter; enlisted July 22, 1862, at Detroit; substitute for James V. Campbell; no further record. MIcLain, Hamilton II., Porter; enlisted January 12, 1863, at Porter; discharged July 21, 1865. Markillie, Jacob, Antwerp; enlisted December 5, 1862, at Antwerp; discharged February 4, 1864; died at Almena, Michigan. Markillie, John G., Almena; enlisted December 5, 1862, at Almena; corporal; discharged July 21, 1865. Marsh, James G., Antwerp; enlisted December 27, 1862, at Antwerp; corporal; discharged July 21, 1865; deceased; buried at Newburg, Michigan. Morse, Manley M., Pine Grove; enlisted December 18, 1862, at Pine Grove; corporal; discharged June 12, 1865. Niles, Thomas L., Waverly; enlisted December 5, 1862, at Waverly; corporal; discharged May 18, 1865. Phelps, Edwin T., Pine Grove; enlisted December 20, 1862, at Pine Grove; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged August 5, 1865, from Veteran Reserve Corps. Rider, Truman, Antwerp; enlisted December 9, 1862, at Antwerp; sergeant; taken prisoner at Dandridge, Tennessee, January 16, 1864; died while prisoner of war, at Richmond, Virginia, April 4, 1864; buried at Richmond. Sheldon, Joseph F., Pine Grove; enlisted December 10, 1862, at Pine Grove; discharged July 21, 1865. Simmons, Ellis D., Antwerp; enlisted December 8, 1862, at Lawton; first sergeant; discharged for disability June 9, 1865. Smith, Daniel W., Keeler; enlisted February 10, 1863, at Keeler; discharged July 13, 1865. Smith, Eugene E.; enlisted in Company D, Sixth Infantry, June 19, 1861; discharged for disability June 25, 1863; re-entered service in Company 3, Ninth Cavalry, at organization as first lieutenant; discharged for disability December 28, 1863. Smith, Silas A., Paw Paw; enlisted March 6, 1863, at Paw Paw; first sergeant; discharged July 21. 1865; deceased; buried at Paw Paw.

Page  273 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 273 Stevens, Thomas, Antwerp; enlisted December 9, 1862, at Antwerp; discharged July 21, 1865. Tillou, John B., Antwerp; enlisted December 26, 1862, at Antwerp; died at Camp Nelson, Kentucky, August 10, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Camp Nelson, grave No. 1533. Tuttle, George L., Paw Paw; enlisted January 10, 1863, at Paw Paw; sergeant; discharged May 18, 1865; present residence, Paw Paw. Tuttle, Grant W., Paw Paw; enlisted December 19, 1862, at Paw Paw; quartermaster sergeant; promoted to second lieutenant; acting regimental quartermaster; resigned November 24, 1864; present residence, Kalamazoo. Tyler, John B., Antwerp; enlisted January 2, 1863, at Antwerp; died at Camp Nelson, Kentucky, August 20, 1863. Tyler, Kimball, Antwerp; enlisted January 2, 1863, at Antwerp; discharged November, 1863. Veley, William, Pine Grove; enlisted December 17, 1862, at Pine Grove; discharged July 21, 1865. Waldo, Uriah, Antwerp; enlisted December 26, 1862, at Antwerp; discharged July 21, 1865. Williams, Daniel, Antwerp; enlisted January 12, 1863, at Antwerp; taken prisoner May 10, 1865; discharged June 20, 1865. Other Companies: Blakely, Truman G.; enlisted May 6, 1864, in Company K, at Bangor; discharged July 21, 1865. Linfear, George; enlisted May 6, 1864, in Company K, at Bangor; discharged July 21, 1865. Quinn, Martin; enlisted May 6, 1864, in Company K, at Bangor; corporal; discharged July 21, 1865. Sowders, Peter; enlisted May 12, 1864, in Company K, at Bangor; taken prisoner in March, 1865; discharged June 12, 1865. White, Owen C.; enlisted May 8,1864, in Company K, at Bangor; corporal; discharged June 8, 1865. Baxter, Edward, Pine Grove; enlisted August 15, 1864, in Company C, at Kalamazoo; discharged May 3, 1865. Root, Maurice T., Keeler; enlisted in Company L, January 1, 1863, at Keeler; sergeant; transferred to Invalid Corps; discharged August 30, 1865. Vol. I-18

Page  274 CHAPTER XI OTHER COMMANDS FIRST MICHIGAN ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS —FIRST REGIMENT MICHIGAN LIGHT ARTILLERY-VAN BUREN COUNTY SOLDIERS IN OTHER MICHIGAN REGIMENTS-BIRGE'S WESTERN SHARPSHOOTERS -COMPANY C, SEVENTIETH NEW YORK INFANTRY-OTHER COMPANIES OR REGIMENTS. Stand by the flag, all doubt and treason scorning; Believe with courage strong and faith sublime, That it will float until the eternal morning Pales in its glories, all the lights of time. The organization of the Michigan Engineers and Mechanics was especially authorized by the war department. The authority to raise it, with the sanction of Governor Blair, was delegated to Colonel William P. Innes, a practical engineer of Grand Rapids. The regiment rendezvoused at Marshall, was mustered into the service on the 29th of October, 1861, and left for the front oni December 17th following: It was divided into four detachments and assigned to duty with the four divisions of Generai Buell's army. The service rendered by this regiment was very important and valuable. Ten of the companies were with Sherman on his menmorable march from Atlanta to the sea and were required to keep pace with the army, moving at the rate of some twenty miles per day, and at the same time tearing up miles of railroad track, twisting the rails, burning bridges in the rear of the army, repairing and making roads in advance, laying pontoons and building bridges across the streams. After the surrender of Generals Lee and Johnston, the regiment proceeded to Washington where it participated in the Grand Review after which it was sent to Nashville where, on the 22nd day of September, 1865, it was mustered out of service and proceeded to Jackson, Michigan, where it was paid off and disbanded, October 1, 1865. During its four years of service the regiment was engaged at Mill Springs, Kentucky; the siege of Corinth, Mississippi; Perryville, Kentucky; La Vergne, and Chattanooga, Tennessee; sieges 274

Page  275 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, and Averysboro, and Bentonville, North Carolina. Total enrolment, 2,920; killed in action, 2; died of wounds, 4; died in Confederate prisons, 2; died of disease, 280; discharged for disability (wounds and disease), 270. Following is a list of the names of the Van Buren County mlen who served in the Engineers and Mechanics corps. Company A: Coons, George II., Columbia; enlisted December 29, 1863, at Columbia; died at Bridgeport, Alabama, June 22, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga, Tennessee, grave No. 10974. Coons, John T., Columbia; enlisted December 23, 1863, at Columbia; died at Adairsville, Georgia, August 24, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Atlanta, Georgia. Grow, Benjamin J.. Columbia; enlisted December 23, 1863, at Columbia; died at Bridgeport, Alabama, June 23, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga, Tennessee. Keeling, Thomas; enlisted December 23, 1863, at Columbia: discharged September 22, 1865. Peterson, Harvey G.; enlisted December 23, 1863, at Columbia; discharged September 22, 1865. Silkworth, Cyrus, Columbia; enlisted December 29, 1862, at Columbia; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged September 22, 1865. Smith, William H., Columbia; enlisted December 23, 1863. at Columbia; died at Cartersville, Georgia, July 18, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Marietta, Georgia, grave No. 1726. Sparks, Tolbert W.. Columbia; enlisted December 28, 1863. at Columbia; discharged June 30, 1865. Whiting, Price; enlisted in December, 1863, at Columbia: discharged January 1, 1865. Whitney, Asaph; enlisted December 23, 1863, at Columbia: discharged for disability, April 9, 1864. Company G: Allen, Forbes, Waverly; enlisted August 25. 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 6, 1865. Allen, Reuben H.; enlisted November 26, 1861, at Waverly; corporal; discharged October 31, 1864. Austin, Alexander; enlisted October 30, 1862, at Waverly: discharged September 22, 1865. Austin, Darius F., Waverly; enlisted October 10, 1861, at Waverly; wounded in action at La Vergne. Tennessee, January 1, 1863; corporal; discharged for disability, July 23,.1863. Brewer, Clark K.; enlisted September 28, 1861, at Kalamazoo; artificer; discharged October 31, 1864. Brown, Barnabas, Waverly; enlisted December 16, 1861. at

Page  276 276 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Marshall; died at Nashville, Tennessee, October 30, 1862; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Brown, Daniel D., Waverly; enlisted October 17, 1861, at Waverly; discharged October 31, 1864. Brown, James C.; enlisted October 10, 1861, at Waverly; artificer; discharged for disability, August 18, 1862. Bush, Eli; enlisted September 6, 1861, at Waverly; artificer; discharged for disability, April 3, 1862. Brown, Cyrenus, Waverly; enlisted October 9, 1861, at Waverly; died at Louisville, Kentucky, March 13, 1862. Carr, William H., Waverly; enlisted November 1, 1862, at Waverly; artificer; discharged September 22, 1865. Colburn, Eliphalet V., Waverly; enlisted August 15, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 6, 1865. Dyer, Sylvester, Almena; enlisted October 18, 1861, at Kalamazoo; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged October 31, 1864. Fosmire, Ezra H.; enlisted September 20, 1861, at Kalamazoo; discharged October 31, 1864. Gaines, Franklin J., Paw Paw; enlisted December 10, 1863, at Kalamazoo; discharged September 22, 1865. Gault, David I.; Waverly; enlisted September 6, 1861, at Kalamazoo; sergeant; discharged for disability July 12, 1863. Gault, Truman H., Bloomingdale; enlisted December 15, 1863, at Kalamazoo; died at Ringgold, Georgia, August 5, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga, Tennessee, grave No. 10369. Gobel, Eliel P.; enlisted September 20, 1861, at Kalamazoo; discharged September 16, 1862. IIaydon, Edmond N., Almena; enlisted September 12, 1861, at Kalamazoo; corporal; died at Louisville, Kentucky, March 22, 1864. Hayes, Alva; enlisted September 14, 1861, at Lawton; reported sick in hospital at Nashville, Tennessee, June 11, 1863; no further record. Jennings, Henry HI., Antwerp; enlisted August 25, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 6, 1865; died at Paw Paw. Libbe, Alonzo; enlisted October 19, 1861, at Marshall; discharged July 24, 1862; died March 9, 1895; buried at Paw Paw. Murch, Edwin A.; enlisted September 21, 1861, at Waverly; discharged October 31, 1864. Nash, Newland; enlisted September 11, 1861, at Kalamazoo; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged October 31, 1864. Palmer, John M., Waverly; enlisted September 6, 1861, at Waverly; artificer; discharged October 31, 1864. Reed, William, Almena; enlisted September 6, 1861, at Kalama

Page  277 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 277 zoo; died at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, April 23, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Stone River, Tennessee. Richardson, John; enlisted October 31, 1861, at Almena; artificer; discharged October 31, 1864. Rogers, Lucius A., Paw Paw; enlisted January 4, 1864, at Kalamazoo; artificer; discharged September 22, 1865. Root, James H.; enlisted September 21, 1861, at Waverly; discharged October 31, 1864. Root, Stephen V.; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Waverly; artificer; discharged for disability June 23, 1862. Smith, David H., Waverly; enlisted August 25, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 6, 1865. Stanton, Bradley W.; enlisted September 10, 1861, at Kalamazoo; sergeant; discharged October 31, 1864; deceased; buried at Paw Paw. Stephens, Eliphay; enlisted October 10, 1861, at Lawton; no further record. Stephens, Uriah; enlisted September 14, 1861, at Lawton; died at Nashville, Tennessee; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Stevens, Jesse; enlisted August 25, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 6, 1865. Van Tassell, Daniel S., Waverly; enlisted October 7, 1861, at Waverly; artificer; corporal; discharged September 22, 1865. Van Tassell, David F., Waverly; enlisted January 4, 1864, at Columbia; died February 16, 1864. Vosburg, John M., Almena; enlisted October 19, 1861, at Marshall; died at Nashville, Tennessee, October 21, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Wescott, Martin A.; enlisted September 17, 1861, at Kalamazoo; artificer; discharged October 11, 1864; re-entered service in Company G, Thirteenth Infantry; final discharge May 15, 1865. Whipple, John A., Pine Grove; enlisted September 12, 1861, at Kalamazoo; died in Tennessee, February 8, 1864. Other Companies: Scott, George, Decatur; enlisted in Company D, August 27, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 6, 1865. Palmer, Hiram, Paw Paw; enlisted in Company I, August 22, 1864, at Kalamazoo; artificer; discharged June 6, 1865. Chappell, Giles R., Decatur; enlisted in Company M, August 29, 1863, at Bedford; corporal; died at Normandy, Tennessee, April 12, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Nashville, Tennessee.

Page  278 278 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY FIRST MICHIGAN SHARPSHOOTERS The First Michigan Sharpshooters under command of Colonel C. V. DeLand of Jackson, took the field in July, 1863. Van Buren county was not, numerically, largely represented in this organization, following being a list of her soldiers. Company D: Berridge, John, Bangor; enlisted December 29, 1862, at South Haven; sergeant; wounded in action June 15, 1864; promoted to sergeant major, to first lieutenant and to captain; discharged July 28, 1865. Bonfoey, Charles R., Antwerp; enlisted January 3, 1863, at Antwerp; taken prisoner at Petersburg, Virginia, July 30, 1864; returned to company April 29, 1865; discharged June 29, 1865; deceased; buried at Almena, Michigan. Briggs, Charles G., Porter; enlisted November 20, 1862, at Porter; discharged August 11, 1865. Earl, Alvin P., Geneva; enlisted January 12, 1863, at Geneva; discharged July 28, 1865. Meachum, David R., Geneva; enlisted February 7, 1863, at Geneva; discharged June 27, 1865. Noyes, Kirk W., South Haven; enlisted December 27, 1862, at South Haven; wounded in action at Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 31, 1863; promoted to first lieutenant, Company K; again wounded in action and taken prisoner at Peebles Farm, Virginia, September 30, 1864; paroled February 22, 1865; promoted to captain, Coinpany B; discharged July 28, 1865; present residence South Haven, Michigan. Reynolds, John, Antwerp; enlisted December 29, 1862, at Antwerp; absent (sick) September, 1864; no further record. Storey, Nelson A., Almena; enlisted February 11, 1863; at Almena; missing in action at Petersburg, Virginia, June 17, 1864; died on board transport at Hilton Head, South Carolina, November 26, 1864. Taylor, Augustus E., Antwerp; enlisted December 8, 1862, at Grand Haven; discharged July 8, 1865.. Waite, Levi IT., Antwerp; enlisted December 29, 1862, at Antwerp; killed in action at Petersburg, Virginia, June 17, 1864. Watson, Daniel W., Geneva; enlisted December 29, 1862, at Geneva; corporal; discharged July 28, 1865. Wildey, George M., Mattawan; enlisted March 14, 1863; sergeant; discharged July 7, 1865. Other Companies: Guiley, Henry, Paw Paw; enlisted in Company A, July 9, 1863, at Paw Paw; died at Andersonville, Georgia, September 1, 1864. Tozer, Webster E., Antwerp; enlisted in Company B, August

Page  279 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 279 23, 1863; died at Washington, D. C., June 13, 1864, of wounds received in action at Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 12, 1864. Tuthill, Francis H. Lawton; enlisted September 6, 1861, at Jackson; discharged for disability October 24, 1862; reenlisted in Company E, same regiment, October 20, 1864; discharged July 28, 1865. Drake, Francis W., Columbia; enlisted in Company E, February 4, 1863, at Jackson; assigned to Company G, discharged July 5, 1865. FIRST REGIMENT M[ICHIGAN LIGHT ARTILLERY Then shook the hills with thunder riven, Then rushed the steeds to battle driven, And louder than the bolts of heaven, Far flashed the red artillery. The First Michigan Light Artillery consisted of twelve batteries, organized at different dates and assigned to duty in different localities, some being on duty with the Western armies and others with the armies of the east. Regiments of infantry and cavalry ordinarily are kept together as a unit and serve as a single organization, but such is not usually the case with an artillery regiment, each battery being attached to some distinct army, post or regiment, and it is seldom, if ever, that the regiment is all assembled together at one place. The several batteries of this regiment were engaged in many different battles and skirmishes in all parts of the Southern Confederacy and some of the gunners developed a degree of marksmanship that would be creditable, even in these days, of such greatly imnproved guns and gunnery. The writer once was an eye witness to an example of this on the field of battle in the state of Mississippi. A running cavalry fight between the Federal and Confederate cavalry forces had been in progress for several days, the Federals gradually forcing their opponents to retreat southward, although their progress was stubbornly contested. Coming to a valley something like a half mile wide, as the Union soldiers were descending the northern slope, the Confederates suddenly and most unexpectedly uncovered a field gun and opened up with a rapid and vigorous fire of grape and canister. Battery C, of the First Light Artillery, was with the Union cavalry, but had not been called into action. However, one of its guns was speedily unlimbered and gunner Chandler IIamlin, a Van Buren county soldier, told to send a solid shot across the valley, which he speedily did, his first shot striking the enemy's gun full in its muzzle and putting it entirely out of commission, resulting in a considerable degree of demoralization in the ranks of the retreating foe. And this was but

Page  280 280 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY a fair example of the skill with which the guns of this regiment were handled. Total enrolment of the regiment, 3,090; killed in action, 29; died of wounds, 13; died in prison, 4; died of disease, 207; discharged for disability, 390. Van Buren county was represented in the First Light Artillery as follows. Battery A: Carr, Jacob, Waverly; enlisted February 12, 1863, at Hartford (substitute for Huston Taylor, drafted from Hartford); discharged July 28, 1865; present residence, Paw Paw. Garrison, Daniel S., Hartford; enlisted February 12, 1863, at Hartford (substitute for Clark Sampson, drafted from Hartford); wounded in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, in September, 1863; discharged for disability July 22, 1864. Hill, Micajah, Porter; enlisted February 27, 1863 (substitute for Daniel Shein, drafted from Prairieville); killed in action at Chickamauga, Georgia, September 10, 1863. Hyde, Franklin W.; enlisted February 25, 1863, at Hartford; discharged July 28, 1865. Lemon, John; enlisted September 6, 1864, at Hamilton; discharged July 28, 1865. Lemon, William; enlisted September 6, 1864, at Hamilton; discharged July 28, 1865. Munger, Ira A., Paw Paw; enlisted February 14, 1863, at Hamilton; (substitute for George W. Nesbitt, drafted from Hamilton); transferred to Invalid Corps, April 10, 1864. Battery B: Austin, George D.; enlisted January 5, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged June 14, 1865. Beach, James, Antwerp; enlisted October 23, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability, June 26, 1862. Brown, Roswell W., Antwerp; enlisted October 15, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal; taken prisoner at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862; confined at Macon, Georgia; promoted to quartermaster sergeant; discharged June 14, 1865. Charles, William S., Bangor; enlisted October, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal, promoted to sergeant and to second lieutenant; taken prisoner at Shiloh, Tennessee, confined at Macon, Georgia; discharged June 14, 1865; present residence, Bangor. Deremo, Earl, Paw Paw; enlisted August 26, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged June 14, 1865. Freeman, Albert H., Paw Paw; enlisted January, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged June 14, 1865. Freeman, Brad. G.; enlisted at Paw Paw, January 9, 1864; discharged June 14, 1865.

Page  281 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 281 Holmes, Wesley, Antwerp; enlisted October 23, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged June 14, 1865. Mills, Lucius W., Antwerp; enlisted October 1, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability October 25, 1862. Plumb, Nelson, Almena; enlisted October 25, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal; taken prisoner at Shiloh; confined at Macon, Georgia; discharged June 14, 1865. Plumb, Winfield S.; enlisted December 21, at Paw Paw; discharged June 14, 1865. Shepard, Elijah L.. Paw Paw; enlisted October 13, 1861, at Paw Paw; taken prisoner at Shiloh, Tennessee; confined at Macon, Georgia, and other prisons for six months; corporal; discharged June 14, 1865. Teed, Lowell C., Antwerp; enlisted October 5, 1861, at Paw Paw; taken prisoner at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862; in prison at Memphis, Tennessee, Mobile and Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Atlanta, Georgia, and Chattanooga, Tennessee; released May 30, 1862; promoted to second lieutenant and to first lieutenant; discharged June 14, 1865. Thayer, Ransom O., Antwerp; enlisted October 8, 1861, at Paw Paw; taken prisoner at Shiloh, Tennessee, April 6, 1862; discharged for disability January 4, 1863; present residence Paw Paw. Tillou, Charles H., Antwerp; enlisted October 12, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal; discharged December 24, 1864. Battery C: Griffin, James E., Paw Paw; enlisted October 7, 1861, at Grand Rapids; farrier; discharged April 20, 1862. Hamilton, Chandler, Arlington; enlisted September 3, 1861; corporal; discharged for disability, February 4, 1864. Percival, George W., Paw Paw; enlisted October 7, 1861, at Grand Rapids; discharged June 22, 1865. Percival, Stephen, Decatur; enlisted November 25, 1861, at Grand Rapids; discharged June 22; 1865. Ripley, Sterne L., enlisted October 7, 1861, at Grand Rapids; died at St. Louis, Missouri, October 10, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Benton Barracks, Missouri, grave No. 2827. Battery F: Barker, John P., Porter; enlisted August 27, 1862, at Coldwater; corporal; discharged June 9, 1865. Higbee, Charles O.; enlisted December 30, 1861, at Coldwater; discharged for disability February 20, 1863. Battery G: Dunham, Caspar; enlisted Septembert 3, 1864, at Bloomingdale; discharged August 6, 1865. Killefer, William, Bloomingdale; enlisted September 3, 1864, at Kalamazoo; substitute for James C. Clement; discharged August 6, 1865; present residence, Paw Paw.

Page  282 282 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Battery H: Kinney, Elijah M., Porter; enlisted August 15, 1864, at Porter; discharged July 2, 1865; died November 21. 1889. Sherman, Lewis; enlisted November 28, 1861, at Decatur; discharged for disability, June 2, 1862. Battery I: Carr, Moses, enlisted December 24, 1863, at Paw Paw; died at Chattanooga, Tennessee, May 19. 1864; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga, grave No. 1377. Cash, Stephen, Lawrence; enlisted August 1, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged July 14, 1865; died at Lawrence. Clay, William H., Lawrence; enlisted August 24, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged for disability January 24, 1863; died at Lawrence. Delong, Henry; enlisted August 24, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged for disability January 30, 1863; died April 14, 1896; buried at Arlington, Michigan. Delong, John, Arlington; enlisted September 15, 1862, at Arlington; died at Detroit, Michigan, December 14, 1862; buried at Detroit. Hurd, Eben C., Lawrence; enlisted August 24, 1862, at Lawrence; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged July 14, 1865. Rathbun, James L., Lawrence; enlisted August 24, 1862, at Lawrence; died at Annapolis, Maryland, August 17, 1863. Skelton, Joseph, Lawrence; enlisted August 24. 1862, at Lawrence; corporal; promoted to sergeant; died at Chattanooga, Tennessee, July 19, 1864, of wounds received in action July 13, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga, grave No. 1760. Battery M: Hare, William; enlisted September 3, 1864, at Bloomingdale; discharged August 1, 1865. High, Charles W., enlisted July 20, 1863. at Paw Paw; discharged on account of being a minor. VAN BUREN COUNTY SOLDIERS IN OTHER MIICHIG-AN REGIMENTS Onward, then, our stainless banner. Let it kiss the stripe and star, Till in weal and woe united. They forever wedded are. We will plant them by the river.. By the gulf, and by the strand. Till they float, to float forever. O'er a free united land. First Michigan Infantry: Abbott, Howard; enlisted in Company H, October 3, 1861, at Marshall; killed in action at Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 13, 1862. Buss, William; drafted from Bangor. June 10. 1864; assigned to Company D; died at Jeffersonville, Indiana. July 27, 1864.

Page  283 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 283 Gravratt, Abraham P.; drafted from Geneva; mustered June 10, 1864; assigned to Company B; corporal; discharged June 9, 1865. Redner, Charles E., Columbia; enlisted in Company K, Septemher 14, 1861, at Ann Arbor; musician; discharged for disability, March 10, 1863. Strong, John J.; enlisted in Company K. October 3, 1861, at Marshall; killed in action at Gaines' Mill, Virginia, June 27, 1862. Swartout, Louis; drafted from Covert; mustered June 22, 1864; assigned to Company D; discharged for disability June 13, 1865, by reason of wounds received in action at Fort Steadman, Virginia, March 5, 1865. Wilson, Isaac W.; drafted from Geneva; mustered June 10, 1864; discharged July 9, 1865. Second Michigan Infantry: Colvin, Stephen G.. enlisted in Company I, April 22, 1861, at Kalamazoo; killed in action at the Wilderness, Virginia, 5May 6, 1864. Moody, Oscar L.; enlisted in Company I, April 22, 1861, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 21, 1864. Snell, Theodore W.; enlisted in Company K, May 25, 1861, at Kalamazoo; taken prisoner at Petersburg, Virginia, October 27, 1864; died of starvation, while a prisoner of war, in December, 1864. Third Michigan Infantry: Munson, David A., Antwerp; enlisted in Company D, August 28, 1862, at Lawton; discharged for disability August 8, 1863. Fifth Michigan Infantry-Company A: Bachelder, Carlos C.; enlisted August 10, 1861, at Fort Wayne; sick in Michigan in May, 1862; no further record. Burger, James; enlisted August 10, 1861. at Fort Wayne; wounded in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5. 1862; absent (sick) July, 1862; no further record. Everetts, Russell; enlisted August 10, 1861. at Fort Wayne; wounded in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862; discharged for disability September 23, 1862. Gallagher, Peter W.; enlisted August 16, 1861. at Fort Wayne; taken prisoner at Spottsylvania Court House, Virginia, May 12, 1864; no further record. Iaven, Herman R.; enlisted August 16, 1861, at Fort Wayne; wounded in action May 16, 1864; discharged July 5, 1865. Nesbitt, William; enlisted June 19, 1861, at Fort Wayne; corporal; discharged August 28, 1864. Rockwell, James D.; enlisted August 14, 1861, at Fort Wayne; discharged August 27, 1864. Sherman, James; enlisted August 9, 1861; died at Camp Michigan, Virginia, February 19, 1862; buried at Alexandria, Virginia.

Page  284 284 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Spencer, Myron T.; enlisted August 10, 1861, at Fort Wayne; discharged for disability September 14, 1862. Vandecar, Henry; enlisted August 5, 1861, at Fort Wayne; wounded in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862; in general hospital, September, 1862. Vought, Frank M.; enlisted August 18, 1861, at Fort Wayne; corporal; discharged October 21, 1864. Seventh Michigan Infantry: Daniels, Julius W.; enlisted February 21, 1863, at Bloomingdale; wounded in action at Ream's Station, Virginia, August 25, 1864; discharged July 5, 1864. Eighth Michigan Infantry: Morrison, John H., Decatur; enlisted February 24, 1863; unassigned; substitute for Seneca H. Abbott, drafted; no further record. Mouser, John W., Paw Paw; enlisted in Company C, August 30, 1862, at Flint; discharged for disability, March 14, 1863. Munson, John Mr., Paw Paw; enlisted in Company A, October 3, 1862, at Paw Paw; transferred to Invalid Corps; discharged August 11, 1865. O'Brien, John; enlisted in Company G, December 14, 1864, at Kalamazoo; substitute for Andrew G. Coombs; drafted; discharged July 30, 1865. Ninth Michigan Infantry: Clark, James W.; enlisted in Company I, August 15, 1861; discharged August 6, 1862. Lee, Reuben, Covert; drafted from Covert; mustered September 24, 1864; discharged for disability March 14, 1865. Place, James N., Paw Paw; enlisted in Company D, August 18, 1864; substitute for Peter Smith; discharged June 20, 1865. St. Clair, James; drafted from South Haven; mustered September 24, 1864; assigned to Company I; died at Chattanooga, Tennessee, October 26, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga, grave No. 1958. Saxton, Hiram G., Paw Paw; enlisted in Company C, April 27, 1861, at Paw Paw; wounded in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862, and at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2, 1863; discharged April 27, 1864; reentered service September 30, 1864, in Company H; substitute for Edwin M. Eaton, drafted; discharged June 20, 1865. Swift, Le Grand E., Decatur; enlisted in Company B, August 20, 1861, at Niles; corporal; died at Nashville, Tennessee, January 9, 1863. Tuthill, Francis H., Lawton; enlisted in Company C, September 6, 1861, at Jackson; discharged for disability October 24, 1862. Tenth Michigan Infantry: Arms, Christopher (substitute for Jolhn Campbell, Jr.), Almena; mustered March 22, 1865: unassigned; discharged May 15, 1865.

Page  285 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 285 Findley. Andrew, South Haven; enlisted in Company 11, January, 1864. at South Haven; discharged June 19, 1864. Panard, Frederick; drafted from Arlington; mustered October 22, 1864: assigned to Company E, January 1, 1863. Parsons. Johnson. Decatur; substitute for Peter Brinder, drafted; mustered February 6, 1862; corporal; promoted to hospital steward; discharged July 19, 1865. Reynolds. Ansel E.; drafted from Hartford; mustered March 21, 1865; unassigned; discharged May 23, 1865. Trowbridge, Silas M., Geneva; drafted; mustered March 21, 1865: unassigned; discharged May 15, 1865; present residence, South Haven. Van Scoy, George W.; substitute for George Drake, Hartford; enlisted April 8, 1865; unassigned; discharged May 15, 1865. Young, William, Geneva; drafted; mustered March 21, 1865; unassigned: discharged May 15, 1865. Eleventh Michigan Infantry: Bronson, Elisha C., South Haven; enlisted in Company G, July 8, 1861, at Flowerfield; died at Bardstown, Kentucky. January 30, 1862. Brown, Loren W.: enlisted in Company G, July 8, 1861, at Flowerfield; discharged for disability January 24, 1863. Clark, John; enlisted in Company C, January 17, 1865, at Detroit; discharged September 16, 1865. Clement, Allen E.; enlisted in Company F, March 14, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged September 17, 1865. Crandall, Charles N.; enlisted in Company F, March 6, 1865, at Hartford; discharged September 16, 1865; died April 14, 1886; buried at Hartford. Crandall, Edwin R.; enlisted in Company F, March 6. 1865, at Iartford; discharged August 29, 1865. Freeman, A. I.; enlisted in Company G, July 14. 1861, at Waverly; discharged September 30, 1864. Torning, Jacob; enlisted in Company G, February 20. 1865, at Jackson; discharged September 17, 1865. Rice, Charles H.; Lawrence; enlisted in Company D, January 23, 1865, at Lawrence: discharged September 16. 1865. Welbb, James I'. enlisted March 8. 1865, at Pine Grove; nmustered March 15, 1865: unassigned; no further record. Terrill, George T.: enlisted in Company K, February 20, 1865, at Geneva; discharged September 16, 1865; died June 2, 1895; buried at Geneva. Wright, Alfred G.; enlisted in Company E, August 24. 1861, at Three Rivers; discharged September 30, 1864. Fourteenth Michigan Infantry: Austin, Harvey H.. Breedsville; enlisted in Company B, November 25, 1861, at Breedsville; cor

Page  286 286 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY poral; promoted to sergeant; wounded in action March 16, 1865; discharged July 20, 1865. Barnes, Merrill W.; drafted from Arlington; mustered September 24, 1864: assigned to Company D; discharged July 18, 1865; deceased; buried at Arlington. Freeman, Asa, Waverly; enlisted in Company B, February 1, 1862, at Waverly; died August 6, 1862; buried at Evansville, Indiana. Goodale, Hiralm I.; enlisted in Company B, January 4, 1862, at Cheshire; discharged for disability April 16, 1862. Jonkerman, Johannes; substitute for James Ellsworth, drafted from Arlington; mustered October 3, 1864; assigned to Company A; discharged May 31, 1865. Stewart. James A.; enlisted in Company B, January 5, 1862, at Columbia; corporal: wounded in action March 16, 1865; discharged July 16, 1865. Fifteenth Michigan Infantry: Adams, John, Porter; drafted; mustered October 22, 1864; assigned to Company D; discharged August 13, 1865. Blass, Jesse C.; substitute for James Hogmire, drafted from Arlington; mustered October 12, 1864; discharged August 13, 1865. Britten, Joseph N.; drafted from Geneva; mustered April 3, 1865; discharged August 13, 1865. Chatfield, Darius; drafted from Hartford; mustered September 24, 1864; assigned to Company G; discharged May 30, 1865. Chuguimer. Peter; drafted from Geneva; mustered September 24, 1864; assigned to Company D; discharged May 30. 1865. Coleman, John; enlisted in Conmpany A, May 26, 1864, at Hamilton; discharged August 13, 1865. Cook, William. Bangor; drafted; mustered March 21, 1865; discharged July 29, 1865. Disbrow, Lodwick; drafted from Bangor; mustered March 21, 1865; assigned to Company G; discharged May 21, 1865. Eaton, Moses E. F.; drafted from Bangor; mustered March 21, 1865; assigned to Company G; discharged August 15, 1865. Fitzsimmons, Ienry; enlisted in Company A, May 23, 1864, at Hamilton; discharged August 13, 1865. Fleming, James; drafted from Lawrence; mustered March 21, 1865; discharged August 16, 1865. Goetz, Joseph; substitute for Eli Ruggles, drafted from Hartford; mustered November 2, 1864; discharged September 11, 1865. Gruber, Peter; drafted from Arlington; mustered October 22, 1864; assigned to Company A; no further record. Hancock. George; drafted from Porter; mustered October 26, 1864; assigned to Company E; discharged August 13. 1865.

Page  287 HISTORY OF VAN IBUREN COUNTY -w Ingersoll, Daniel S.; drafted from Bangor; mustered March 21, 1865; assigned to Comipany G; discharged August 11, 1865. Kingsbury. Lemuel: substitute for Lafayette Meachum, drafted; mustered April 1. 1865; discharged June 20, 1865. Kochey, Stephen; drafted from IHartford; mustered September 26, 1864; assigned to Company E; discharged May 30, 1865. Lores, Eli; substitute for Hiram Hale, drafted from South Haven; mustered )ecember 1, 1864; assigned to Company F; no further record. McGowan, (teorge; drafted from Hartford; mustered March 21, 1865; assigned to Colmpany F; discharged August 13, 1865; died October 17, 1895. May, John S.: substitute for William H. H. Olds, drafted- from Hartford; mustered October 18, 1864; assigned to Company I; died at Baltimor e, Maryl-and, June 23, 1865; buried in London Park National c lnetery. lBaltimore. Merrill, Portius: drafted from Paw Paw; lmustered Mlarch 21, 1865; no further reord. Merrimlan, Burse: drafted fromi BIangor; mustered March 21, 1865; assigned to Company G; discharged August 13, 1865; present residence lBangor. Russell, Carlton; drafted from Paw Paw; mustered M-arch 21, 1865; no further record. Snyder, Henry; substitute for Edwin DeLong, drafted from Arlington; mustered March 28, 1865; discharged August 13, 1865. Webb, Robert; substitute for David Massey, drafted from Arlington; mustered October 13, 1864; no further record. Whipple, Tholmas J.: drafted from Arlington; mustered October 22, 1864; assigned to Company C; discharged August 13, 1865. Sixteenth MAichigan Infantry: Brown, George W., Pine Grove; enlisted in Company K. February 26, 1863, at Otsego; substitute for Nier Nies, drafted; discharged November 21, 1863. Carr, James; enlisted in Company I, February 9, 1864, at Bangor; corporal: discharged July 8, 1865. Cole Levi; enlisted in Company G, March 23, 1865, at Pine Grove; substitute for Charles Goodwin, drafted from Pine Grove; discharged July 8, 1865.Cole, Nelson I-.; enlisted in Company G, March 23, 1865, at Pine Grove; substitute for Chauncey Wise, drafted from Pine Grove; discharged July 8, 1865. Kennicot, Henry S., Keeler; enlisted in Company I, March 20, 1862, at Keeler; killed in action at Manassas, Virginia, August 30, 1862. Niles, Jerome R.: enlisted in Company I, March 15, 1865, at Kalamazoo (substitute for Abner Lewis); discharged July 8, 1865.

Page  288 288 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Smith, William; enlisted in Company H, February 21, 1865, at Paw Paw; substitute for Dela M. Lewis, drafted; discharged July 8, 1865. Sirrine, Peter, Geneva; enlisted in Company D, Lancers, November 4, 1861; transferred to Company I. Sixteenth Infantry; discharged for disability June 20, 1862. Van Scoy, William E. P.; enlisted in Company G. March 28, 1865, at Arlington, substitute for Miles lMonroe, drafted from Arlington; discharged July 8, 1865. White, Charles; enlisted January 4, 1865. at Arlington; substitute for Philip Nicholas, drafted from Arlington; no further record. Dygert's Sharpshooters, attached to the Sixteenth Michigan: Beiber, George W.; enlisted October 16, 1861. at Detroit; corporal; discharged October 15, 1864. Botsford, Robert G.; enlisted March 18. 1862. at Detroit; discharged October 22, 1862. De Bolt, Henry S.; enlisted March 18, 1862, at Detroit; transferred to Invalid Corps, November 16, 1863. Dick, Frank J.; enlisted October 16, 1861, at Detroit; sergeant; promoted to second lieutenant; discharged July 8, 1865. Farmer, Edwin R.; enlisted October 14. 1861, at Detroit; sergeant; discharged October 28, 1862. Long, James B.; enlisted October 16, 1861, at Detroit; discharged October 15, 1864. Minnis, Frederick E., Decatur; enlisted October 16. 1861, at Detroit; corporal; wounded in action May 6, 1864; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged July 24, 1865. Vought, John C., Decatur; enlisted October 16. 1861. at Detroit; died at Washington, D. C., March 2, 1863. Wenner, Michael; enlisted March 18, 1862; brigade saddler and corporal; discharged July 8, 1865. Twenty-first MIichigan Infantry: Dedrick. Philip: enlisted September 3, 1864, at Kalamazoo; unassigned; discharged for disabilits November 13, 1864. Hilliard, George W., Lawrence; enlisted in Company B. July 25, 1862. at Grand Rapids; corporal; discharged June 8. 1865. Shepard, Daniel, Paw Paw; enlisted September 5. 1864. in Coinpany B, at Paw Paw; died January 2. 1865; buried in National cemetery at Chattanooga, Tennessee, grave No. 1563. Thirtieth Michigan Infantry: Gregory, Guy H.: enlisted Decelmber 17, 1864, in Company B, at Waverly; discharged June 30, 1865. Veder, Louis C.; enlisted December 23, 1864, in Company H, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 23, 1865.

Page  289 HISTORY OF VAN I ITREN COUNTY 289 Michigan Provost Guard: Barnard, John, Lawrence; enlisted December 9, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged May 9, 1865. Burt, Elijah G., Paw Paw; enlisted December 9, 1863, at Paw Paw; discharged May 9, 1865. Chapin, Hiram A., Paw Paw; enlisted at Paw Paw, December 10, 1862; discharged May 9, 1865; present residence, Paw Paw. Culver, Asahel B., Paw Paw; enlisted December 9, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged May 9, 1865. Dunning, George A., Paw Paw; enlisted at Paw Paw, October 26, 1863; discharged May 9, 1865. Dunning, Lester D., Paw Paw; enlisted October 26, 1863, at Paw Paw; discharged May 9, 1865. Francis, Simeon L., Paw Paw; enlisted December 4, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged May 8, 1865. Frazee, Jacob S., Paw Paw; enlisted December 17, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged May 9, 1865. Glidden, Orson J., Paw Paw; enlisted December 10, 1862, at Paw Paw; furloughed. Hayes, Ira, Paw Paw; enlisted December 15, 1862, at Paw Paw; detailed in Army of the West. Hennesey, John, Paw Paw; enlisted December 2, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged May 9, 1865. HIurlbut, Spencer N., Paw Paw; enlisted January 4, 1863, at Flint; originally in service in Company C, Third Michigan Cavalry, detailed at Annapolis, Maryland. Johnson, Thomas, Columbia; enlisted February 21, 1863, at Columbia; discharged May 9, 1865. McCollurn, Charles, Lawrence; enlisted October 24, 1863, at Lawrence; discharged May 9, 1865. Mather, Joseph, Paw Paw; enlisted October 24, 1863, at Paw Paw; discharged MIay 9, 1865. North, Joseph W., Paw Paw; enlisted December 22, 1862, at Paw Paw; corporal; absent (sick). Parsons, Christopher, Paw Paw; enlisted December 10, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged May 9, 1865. Rawson, Fayette, Paw Paw; enlisted January 12, 1863, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability October 29, 1863. Salisbury, Joseph L., Paw Paw; enlisted December 10, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability March 23, 1863. Stoddard, William H., Decatur; enlisted October 24, 1863, at Paw Paw; discharged May 9, 1865. Stoughton, Frederick F., Paw Paw; enlisted December 17, 1862, at Paw Paw; discharged May 9, 1865. Waldorff, Aaron, Antwerp; enlisted October 22, 1863, at Antwerp; discharged May 9, 1865. Vol. 1-19

Page  290 290 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Second Michigan Cavalry: Brotherton, Albert; drafted from South Haven; mustered November 4, 1863; assigned to Company K; discharged August 15, 1865; died at Bloomingdale, Michigan. Caldwell, Oscar; enlisted in Company I, September 1, 1861, at Cooper; sergeant; discharged for disability May 18, 1862. Freeman, James F.; drafted from Waverly; mustered November 3, 1863; assigned to Company K; discharged August 17, 1865. Lamkin, Frank H., Paw Paw; enlisted in Company I, September 11, 1861, at Paw Paw; sergeant; died at Boonville, Mississippi, June 30, 1862; buried in Union National cemetery at Corinth, Mississippi. Lamkin, Reuben R.; enlisted in Company I, September 25, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal; died March 29, 1863, at Nashville, Tennessee, of wounds received in action at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 4, 1863; buried in National cemetery at Nashville. Stewart, George L.; enlisted in Company I, September 7, 1861, at Texas, Michigan; corporal; promoted to commissary sergeant: discharged May 17, 1865. Fifth Michigan Cavalry: Babcock, Edwin J.; enlisted in Company D, March 20, 1865, at Paw Paw, died at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, September 17, 1865. Foote, Cortes, Paw Paw; enlisted in Company L, August 22, 1862, at Kalamazoo; discharged April 15, 1863. Martin, Lawrence, Antwerp; enlisted in Company D, March 20, 1865, at Antwerp; corporal; discharged March 10, 1866; died at Paw Paw. Rawson, Coleman P., Paw Paw; enlisted March 13, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged March 10, 1866; died at Paw Paw, February 26, 1902. Skinner, Iiram H., Paw Paw; enlisted in Company L, August 22, 1862, at Kalamazoo; discharged for disability April 30, 1863. Eighth Michigan Cavalry: Bell, Asa; enlisted in Company L, August 1, 1864, at Kalamazoo (substitute for Russell M. Stickney of Hartford); transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; discharged September 18, 1865. Brown, Rinaldo, Hamilton; enlisted in Company F, November 25, 1862, at Hamilton; taken prisoner on raid to Macon, Georgia, August 3, 1864; returned to company April 28, 1865; discharged September 26, 1865. Chamberlain, James H.; enlisted in Company I, April 7, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged September 22, 1865. Cook, John C.; enlisted in Company M, February 23, 1865, at Bangor; discharged September 22, 1865. Crandall, Leonard; enlisted in Company D, April 11, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged September 22, 1865; present residence Antwerp, Michigan.

Page  291 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 291 Davis, Louden II.; enlisted in Company D, April 8, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged September 22, 1865. Elliott, Martin; enlisted in Company II, February 2, 1865; at Bangor; discharged September 22, 1865. Flanders, Iiram, Paw Paw; enlisted in Company 1), April 7, 1865, at Coe; discharged September 22, 1865. Galligan, John; enlisted in Company L, April 7, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged May 6, 1865. Leonard, George; enlisted in Company 11, March 21, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged September 22, 1865. MIartin, James M.; enlisted in Company H, April 13, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged September 22, 1865. McDowell, Helon, Paw Paw; enlisted in Company [, December 12, 1862, at Paw Paw; missing on raid to Macon, Georgia, August 3, 1864; returned to regiment January 14, 1865; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged September 22, 1865. McElheny, William D., Mattawan; enlisted in Company F, December 22, 1862, at Prairie Ronde; sergeant; promoted to first lieutenant; missing on raid to Macon, Georgia, August 3, 1864; discharged July 20, 1865. McIntyre, John; enlisted in Company I, April 7, 1865, at Kalamazoo; discharged September 22, 1865. Perry, George; enlisted in Company L, April 6, 1865, at Kalamazoo; returned from missing in action May 10, 1865; discharged September 22, 1865. Powers, Richard; enlisted in Company D, April 4, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged September 22, 1865. Price, James; enlisted in Company B, April 4, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged September 22, 1865. Randall, William H., Kendall; enlisted in Company B, August 11, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged June 10, 1865. Rose, John I., Decatur; enlisted; unassigned; discharged for disability March 21, 1863. Smith, Augustus; enlisted in Company A, March 14, 1865, at Pine Grove; discharged September 22, 1865. Van Brunt, Nicholas J.; enlisted in Company H, March 20, 1865, at Kalamazoo; died at Edgefield, Tennessee, April 1, 1865; buried in National cemetery at Nashville, Tennessee. Van Sickle, Harmon; enlisted in Company L, April 2, 1863, at Porter; discharged September 22, 1865. Willerton, John, Columbia; enlisted in Company F, November 22, 1862, at Columbia; missing on raid to Macon, Georgia, August 3, 1864; no further record. Tenth Michigan Cavalry: Dedrick, Philip C.; enlisted in Company B, February 20, 1865, at Decatur; discharged July 7, 1865.

Page  292 292 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Knight, William; enlisted in Company A, January 20, 1865; discharged November 11, 1865. Lewis, Jesse; enlisted in Company A, January 20, 1865; discharged September 16, 1865. Manly, Collins D.; enlisted in Company A, March 2, 1865; discharged November 11, 1865. Ormsby, Edwin D.; enlisted in Company B, February 25, 1865, at Decatur; discharged November 7, 1865. Ormsby, Newton F.; enlisted in Company B, February 22, 1865; discharged November 7, 1865. Osborn, John H.; enlisted in Company C, February 22, 1865, at Decatur; discharged November 22, 1865. Osborne, Rodolphus B.; enlisted in Company A, February 24, 1865, at Decatur; discharged September 23, 1865. Rooker, Chester E.; enlisted in Company F, February 16, 1865, at Columbia; discharged November 11, 1865. Ryan, Michael; first enlisted in Company C, Seventieth New York Infantry, at Paw Paw, May 22, 1861; transferred to Second United States Cavalry; discharged December 6, 1864; enlisted in Company B, February 22, 1865, at Decatur; discharged November 7, 1865. Sweet, Samuel S.; enlisted in Company B, February 23, 1865, at Decatur; discharged November 11, 1865. Sherwood, Fred E., Breedsville; enlisted in Company F, February 16, 1865, at Columbia; discharged November 11, 1865. Vought, Jeremiah S.; enlisted in Company A, February 24, 1865, at Decatur; discharged November 11, 1865. Eleventh Michigan Cavalry: Anderson, John 'W. Covert; enlisted September 19, 1863, at Kalamazoo; first sergeant; discharged September 22, 1864, to accept commission in colored regiment, captain Company A, Fifth United States Colored Cavalry. Bush, George W.; enlisted in Company E, May 12, 1864, at Paw Paw; discharged September 22, 1865. Canning, Thomas; enlisted in Company I, September 19, 1863, at Lawton; discharged August 24, 1865. Colton, Thomas; enlisted in Company I, October 8, 1863, at Paw Paw; discharged September 22, 1865. Courtright, John T.; enlisted in Company I, October 7, 1863, at Lawton; discharged for disability July 15, 1865. Donaldson, James E.; enlisted in Company B, October 11, 1863, at Pine Grove; died at Mount Sterling, Kentucky, February 12, 1865. Elliott, John; enlisted in Company G, October 12, 1863, at Waverly; killed in action at Clinch River, Virginia, December 6. 1864.

Page  293 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 293 George, William I., Decatur; entered service at organization of regiment as captain; promoted to major; discharged August 10, 1865. Huey, Eli; enlisted in Company G, October 12, 1863, at Waverly; discharged September 22, 1865. Lampson, Benoni; enlisted in Company G, November 3, 1863, at Waverly; discharged July 20, 1865; died December 15, 1898. Plopper, Riley L.; enlisted in Company I, October 23, 1863, at Kalamazoo; discharged May 22, 1865. Randall, Stephen; enlisted in Company I, October 6, 1863, at Lawton; sergeant; taken prisoner at Sandy Ridge, Virginia, October 4, 1864; discharged for disability May 26, 1865. Reams, Zephaniah; enlisted in Company G, August 22, 1863, at Porter; died at Bowling Green, Kentucky, February 20, 1865; buried in National cemetery at Nashville, Tennessee. Shears, James H.; enlisted in Company G, October 24, 1863, at Waverly; discharged September 22, 1865. Silkworth, George, Lawton; enlisted in Company A, September 3, 1863; discharged July 20, 1863. Harvey, Henry W., Antwerp; enlisted in Company H, September 23, 1863; discharged September 22, 1865; present residence Antwerp. Skinner, James A.; enlisted in Company G, October 13, 1863, at Waverly; died at Lexington, Kentucky, February 13, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Lexington, grave No. 524. Van Ostrand, Holly; enlisted in Company G, August 27, 1863, at Hartford; discharged September 22, 1865. Waber, James; enlisted in Company I, October 12, 1864, at Pine Grove; taken prisoner at Pendleton, South Carolina, May 1, 1865; returned to regiment June 6, 1865; discharged July 15, 1865. Wigent, John; enlisted in Company G, November 3, 1863, at Waverly; discharged September 2, 1865. Woodman, Lucius C.; surgeon of regiment; first entered service as assistant surgeon of Third Cavalry; died at Paw Paw. Thirteenth Michigan Battery: Parker, Samuel; enlisted November 15, 1863, at Paw Paw; discharged July 1, 1865. Fourteenth Michigan Battery: Crowley, Patrick; enlisted October 13, 1863, at Kalamazoo; blacksmith; discharged for disability April 16, 1865. Coon, Robert; enlisted September 28, 1863, at Kalamazoo; died at Camp Barry, District of Columbia, March 18, 1864; buried in Military Asylum cemetery, District of Columbia. Drake, Benjamin; enlisted October 13, 1863, at Volinia; discharged July 1, 1865.

Page  294 294 HIISTORY OF VAN B3JREN COUNTY Welcher, John; enlisted September 28, 1863, at Decatur; mustered October 7, 1863; no further record. First Michigan Colored Infantry: Bowlin, James; drafted from South Haven; mustered November 4, 1864; assigned to Company G; discharged September 30, 1865. Gayton, Allen, Arlington; enlisted in Company B, October 21, 1863, at Kalamazoo; died at Annapolis Junction, Maryland, April 24, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Baltimore, Maryland. Gayton, Nicholas, Arlington; enlisted in Company B, October 21, 1863, at Kalamazoo; discharged September 30, 1865. Hill, Stephen C.; enlisted February 25, 1863, at Decatur; unassigned; no further record. Lett, Emanuel; enlisted in Company G, February 16, 1864, at Waverly; corporal; discharged September 30, 1865. Lewis, Cassius M.; enlisted in Company II, March 2, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged September 30, 1865. Maxwell, Foster H.; enlisted in Company D, November 14, 1863, at Kalamazoo; sergeant; discharged October 27, 1865; present residence Paw Paw. Miller, James L.; enlisted in Company D. March 6, 1865, at Paw Paw; discharged September 30, 1865. Robinson, James, Bloomingdale; enlisted in Company C, March 28, 1865, at Jackson; discharged September 30, 1865. Russell, John; drafted from South Haven; mustered September 24, 1864; assigned to Company B; discharged September 30, 1865. BIRGE'S WESTERN SHARPSHOOTERS Whether on the scaffold high, Or in the battle's van, The finest place for man to (lie, Is where he dies for man. In September, 1861, a company of sharpshooters was enlisted in Van Buren and Berrien counties. It offered its services to General Fremont and was by him ordered to Benton Barracks, Missouri, where it was assigned to the above named regiment, which was afterward designated as the Sixty-sixth Illinois. Company D was the only Michigan company in the organization. The accoutrements of this regiment were not of a kind prescribed by the army regulations, but consisted of a bullet pouch of bear-skin covering and a powder horn or flask. In the bullet pouch was a compartment where the soldier carried screw driver, bullet mould and patch cutter-singular implements for a soldier-but Birge's men moulded their own bullets, greased and patched them with as much care as would the most expert hunter and used them with the same effect, every man among them being an expert with

Page  295 HISTORY OF VAN BUIJREN COUNTY 295 the use of the rifle. The guns that these men carried were not of the regulation army pattern, but were hunters' rifles of the very best that could be had-muzzle loaders of course, as were the best guns of that day-and each soldier selected such a weapon as best suited his judgment or fancy. It had been the intention of General Fremont to dress this regiment in a complete hunters' garb, but General Halleck, his superior officer, would not permit it to be so done and the only peculiar thing about the uniform worn by the men was the hat, which was a gray sugar-loaf shaped affair adorned by three squirrel tails peculiarly draped over the crown, by which feature they came to be known by both friend and foe as the "Squirrel Tails." The regiment was in service nearly four years, during which time it was actively engaged in various battles and engagements in the states of Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina. Following is a summary of the service of the Michigan company: Total enrolment, 197; killed in action, 17; died of wounds, 2; died of disease, 17; discharged for disability, 40. The following named members of Company D were from Van Buren county: Andrews, John II., HIartford; enlisted October 5, 1861, at Hartford; sergeant; promoted to first sergeant, first lieutenant and captain; died at Allatoona, Georgia, June 24, 1864; from wounds received in action at Dallas, Georgia, May 27, 1864. Arbour, James M.; enlisted September 24, 1861, at Keeler; sergeant; discharged for disability, January 13, 1862. Arner, Benjamin W.; enlisted at Keeler, September 21, 1861; corporal; discharged June 20, 1862. Baird, Omer A., Hartford; enlisted October 2, 1861, at Hartford; discharged on account of wounds in September, 1864. Baird, Walter A., Hartford; enlisted October 2, 1861, at Hartford; wounded in action at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee; discharged for disability August 3, 1862. Balfour, James, Lawrence; enlisted September 23, 1861, at Keeler; killed in action at Corinth, Mississippi, October 4, 1862. Barnes, Harlow G., Lawrence; enlisted November 9, 1861, at Lawrence; corporal; discharged for disability, October 8, 1862. Bidlac, George, Decatur; enlisted November 16, 1862, at Hamilton; wounded in action near Rome Cross Roads, Georgia, May 16, 1864; discharged July 7, 1865. Bigelow, George M., Keeler; enlisted November 16, 1862, at Hamilton; killed in action at Corinth, Mississippi, October 4, 1862. Bliss, George M., Geneva; enlisted September 28, 1861, at Geneva; taken prisoner by guerrillas December 11, 1862; released October 19, 1863; discharged July 7, 1865.

Page  296 :296 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Branch, Vine; enlisted October 12, 1861, at Hartford; discharged for disability July 9, 1862, on account of wounds received while doing picket duty May 14, 1862, at Monterey, Tennessee. Breese, Hiram T. Keeler; enlisted September 23, 1861, at Keeler; corporal; discharged September 16, 1864. Brewster, Samuel F., Keeler; enlisted September 21, 1861, at Keeler; died July 24, 1862, while home on sick leave. Brewster, Dallas, Hartford; enlisted September 23, 1861, at Keeler; discharged July 7, 1865. Bridgeford, George M., Keeler; enlisted September 23, 1861, at Keeler; corporal; wounded in action at Resaca, Georgia, May 9, 1864; discharged June 7, 1865. Bridgeford, Henry, Keeler; enlisted February 15, 1864, at Keeler; died at Rome, Georgia, October 21, 1864. Burnett, Albert, Hartford; enlisted February 14, 1864, at Hartford; discharged July 7, 1865. Burton, James, Columbia; enlisted October 28, 1862, at Columbia; corporal; discharged July 7, 1865. Camp, Charles H., Lawrence; enlisted September 23, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged for disability July 5, 1862. Carris, Henry A., Lawrence; enlisted September 23, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged September 17, 1864; died July 17, 1904. Caryl, Watson, Columbia; enlisted October 28, 1862, at Columbia; discharged July 7, 1865. Chatfield, Isaac, Hartford; enlisted October 5, 1861, at Hartford; discharged July 7, 1865. Cheney, Aaron D., Keeler; enlisted November 4, 1864, at Keeler; musician; discharged July 7, 1865. Combs, John, Arlington; enlisted August 13, 1862, at Arlington; discharged June 2, 1865; died October 15, 1884. Cook, Charles, Lawrence; enlisted August 16, 1862, at Detroit; discharged June 2, 1865. Crobaugh, William, Geneva, enlisted September 28, 1861, at Geneva; discharged July 7, 1865. Darrah, John; Hamilton; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 7, 1865. Dedrick, Philip C., Lawrence; enlisted September 28, 1861, at Lawrence; first sergeant; wounded in action at Fort Donelson, Tennessee, February 14, 1862; promoted to second lieutenant; resigned April 3, 1863. Disbrow, Edward J., Bangor; enlisted November 2, 1862, at Bangor; discharged July 7, 1865. Dix, Franklin M., Decatur; enlisted February 25, 1864, at Decatur; discharged July 6, 1865; died April 6, 1879.

Page  297 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 297 Doyle, Patrick, Hartford; enlisted September 23, 1861, at Hartford; killed in action near Atlanta, Georgia, May 27, 1864. Draper, Willard E., Lawrence; enlisted March 11, 1862, at Dowagiac; discharged April 4, 1865; died February 14, 1903; previously in three months' service. Duncombe, Stephen W., Keeler; entered service September 16, 1861, as second lieutenant; promoted to first lieutenant; resigned July 16, 1862. Dowd, Jefferson S., Hartford; enlisted September 23, 1861, at Hartford; wounded in action at Shiloh, Tennessee; discharged September 17, 1864. Ellis, Daniel, Decatur; enlisted February 24, 1864, at Decatur; discharged July 7, 1865. Erwin, John T., Hartford; enlisted February 24, 1864, at Hartford; disciarged July 7, 1865; died January 25, 1870. Foster, Morris B., Keeler; enlisted September 24, 1861, at Keeler; discharged September 17, 1864. Foster, Newton T.; enlisted October 15, 1861, at Keeler; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged for disability May 20, 1862. Goodenough, Calvin C.; enlisted October 11, 1861, at Iartford; discharged for disability February 5, 1862; died January 27, 1890. Goodenough, Daniel E., Hartford; enlisted October 11, 1861, at Hartford; corporal; killed in action at Corinth, Mississippi, October 4, 1862. Gore, Albert; entered service at organization of company, September 16, 1861, at Keeler, as first lieutenant; resigned on account of disability, June 11, 1862. Gould, Edwin G., Decatur; enlisted February 22, 1864, at Decatur; taken prisoner near Laurel Hill, South Carolina; discharged August 4, 1865; died October 28, 1900. Grimes, Milford D., Decatur; enlisted February 25, 1864, at Decatur; discharged July 7, 1865; died June 27, 1896. Gilson, Alonzo D.; enlisted September 20, 1861, at Hartford; corporal; wounded in action at Atlanta, Georgia, August 1, 1864; discharged July 7, 1865; died December 2, 1889. Hammond, Luther H.; enlisted October 5, 1861, at Hartford; discharged for disability May 24, 1862; died May 30, 1862. Hard, Bartholomew, Columbia; enlisted November 1, 1862, at Columbia; discharged July 7, 1865. Hardy, Eben, Hartford; enlisted February 27, 1864, at Kalamazoo; wounded in action near Dallas, Georgia, May 27, 1864; discharged July 7, 1865. Harris, Charles A., Lawrence; enlisted February 24, 1864, at Lawrence; discharged July 6, 1865.

Page  298 298 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Hazard, Asa D., Lawrence; enlisted March 10, 1862, at Lawrence; discharged for disability July 13, 1862; deceased. Henry, William; enlisted September 26, 1861, at Arlington; wounded in action at Corinth, Mississippi, October 4, 1862; discharged for disability, May 13, 1863; deceased. Hill, Oscar P., Keeler; enlisted September 24, 1861,' at Keeler; died at Owl Creek, Tennessee, April 29, 1862. Ilurlbut, Albert D., Hartford; enlisted February 18, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 7, 1865. Irish, Robert D., Hartford; enlisted October 11, 1861, at Hartford; corporal; discharged July 7, 1865; died February, 1900. Jones, Francis M.; enlisted September 18, 1861, at Geneva; corporal; discharged for disability October 8, 1862; deceased. Jones, George W., Geneva; enlisted September 21, 1861, at Geneva; died near Corinth, Mississippi, August 1, 1862. Jones, Orrin, Decatur; enlisted February 10, 1864, at Hartford; corporal; discharged July 7, 1865. Kennedy, James H., Hartford; enlisted February 23, 1864, at Hartford; discharged July 7, 1865; died May 31, 1888. Long, William W., Keeler; enlisted February 22, 1864, at Keeler; killed in action at Peach Tree, Georgia. July 22, 1864. Mather, William, Hartford; enlisted February 26, 1864, at Hartford; died at Marietta, Georgia, September 14, 1864. Mead, Gilbert E., )Decatur: enlisted February 24. 1864, at D)ecatur; wounded near Atlanta. Georgia, August 11, 1864; discharged July 7, 1864. Miller, Martin, Keeler; enlisted September 23, 1861, at Keeler; corporal; died March 14, 1862, on board steamer Lancaster, between Metal Landing and Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee. Nelson, Marcus S., Lawrence; enlisted March 10, 1862, at Dowagiac; killed in action at Corinth, Mississippi, October 4, 1862. Noble, Ienry W., Decatur; enlisted February 23, 1864, at I)ecatur; killed in action near Dallas, Georgia, May 27, 1864. Northrup, Orrin M., Decatur; enlisted February 26, 1864, at I)ecatur; discharged July 7, 1865. Payne, George, Arlington; enlisted October 26, 1861, at Arlington; discharged July 7, 1865. Phelps, Henry, Lawrence; enlisted August 14, 1862, at Detroit; taken prisoner by guerrillas January, 1863, returned to company October 14, 1863; discharged June 2, 1865; killed by cars in 1884. Polmantier, Seth; enlisted September 24, 1861, at Keeler; discharged for disability June 20, 1862. Prater, Giles W., Paw Paw; enlisted August 16, 1862, at Detroit; corporal; discharged June 2, 1865. Prosser, Henry L., Arlington; enlisted September 26, 1861, at

Page  299 hIISTORY OF VAN I:3UREN COUNTY 299 Arlington; corporal; died near Corinth, Mississippi, July 20, 1863. Riley, George, Decatur; enlisted December 15, 1862, at Iecatur; wounded in action at Dallas, Georgia, left leg amputated; discharged June 5, 1865; died February 13, 1888. Ritter, Philip, Jr.; enlisted October 14, 1861, at Hartford, wagoner; discharged for disability February 23, 1862. Robinson, Alfred D., Hartford; enlisted September 24, 1861, at Hartford; corporal; promoted to sergeant; discharged September 16, 1864; died August 20, 1899. Root, Milo, Bangor; enlisted Novembler 11, 1862, at Bangor: wounded May 9, 1864; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; died March 7, 1876. Rossman, Hiram; enlisted October 11, 1861, at Hartford; tranisferred to secret service December 11, 1862. Rupert, William, Keeler; enlisted September 16, 1861, at Keeler; killed in action near Dallas, Georgia, May 27, 1864. Rupert, John, Keeler; enlisted September 24, 1861, at Keeler; died in hospital at Owl Creek, Tennessee, April 26, 1862. Sanborn. Leander, Hartford; enlisted February 16, 1864, at Kalamazoo; discharged July 7, 1865. Simmons, Hiram P., Hartford; enlisted February 24, 1864, at Hartford; discharged July 7, 1865; died at Lawrence, April 25, 1904. Slnith, James, Keeler; enlisted November 4, 1861, at Keeler; wounded in action near Decatur, Georgia. July 22. 1864; dislcharg'ed July 7, 1865. Stowe, Freeman, Iartford; enlisted October 3, 1861, at Hartford; wounded in action near Dallas, Georgia, M\ay 27, 1864; discharged July 7, 1865. Sutton, Luther; enlisted at Hartford, September '30, 1861; corporal; discharged for disability May 20. 1862; died at Hartford, October 5, 1903. Thompson, Albert C., Keeler; enlisted September 23, 1861, at Keeler; corporal; promoted to sergeant and to first sergeant; taken prisoner near Dallas. Georgia, May 31, 1864; discharged February 11, 1865. Tyler, Enos W., Hartford; enlisted October 17, 1861, at Hartford; discharged September 17, 1864; died August 24, 1903. Tyler, Humphrey P., Hartford; enlisted October 21, 1861, at Hartford; discharged July' 7, 1865. Van Auken, John L., Iartford; enlisted November 2, 1862, at Bangor; discharged July 7, 1865; died March 30, 1897. V\an Ostrand, John G.; enlisted October, 1861, at Hartford; discharged for disability October 25, 1862; deceased.

Page  300 300 HISTORY OF VAN BU[REN COUNTY Van Brunt, Robert W., Lawrence; enlisted September 26, 1861, at Lawrence; discharged September 17, 1864; died August 10, 1904. Vermette, Mason M., Hartford; enlisted September 24, 1861, at Keeler; taken prisoner at Corinth, Mississippi, October 3, 1862; returned to company March 21, 1863; wounded in action at Atlanta, Georgia, August 9, 1864; discharged July 7, 1865. Vincent, HIorace L., Columbia; enlisted October 8, 1862, at Columbia; wounded near Atlanta, Georgia, July 31, 1864; discharged July 7, 1865. Vincent, Theodore C., Breedsville; mustered December 2, 1862; no further record. Webster, Charles J., lBangor; enlisted November 2, 1862, at Bangor; killed in action near Decatur, Georgia, July 22, 1864. Whipple, Elias, Hartford; enlisted February 18, 1864, at Hartford; discharged July 7, 1865; died in 1900. Whipple, Simeon W., Hartford; enlisted February 12, 1864, at Hartford; discharged February 17, 1864. Wygent, William II., Hartford; enlisted December 2, 1862, at Bangor; wounded at Dallas, Georgia, May 31, 1864; discharged July 7, 1865. COM-PANY C, SEVENTIETH NEW YORK INFANTRY To arms! the voice of Freedon c(alls, Nor calls in vain: Up from the fields, the shops, the halls, The busy street, the city walls, Rush martial men. Company C, Seventieth New York Infantry, was organized at Paw Paw and was the first military organization of the Civil war from Van Buren county. A number of Paw Paw young men, in 1859, organized themselves into a military company under the name of the LaFayette Light Guard, the township of Paw Paw being at that time called LaFayette. Early in 1861, shortly after the outbreak of hostilities, they sought to enter the service in some Michigan regiment, but were not accepted, because, forsooth, Michigan needed no more troops. And so they offered their services to and were accepted by the state of New York; became a part of the celebrated Sickles' Brigade, commanded by General Daniel E. Sickles, and were mustered into the service in what was afterward called the Seventieth New York Infantry. Thus the state of Michigan lost one of the finest companies that was organized anywhere during the entire Civil war, and the state military authorities shortly afterward

Page  301 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 301 discovered that they needed, not only such a company as this, but a good many more like it. The Company left Paw Paw for New York City, June 13, 1861, from which place it was sent to Staten Island and there mustered into the United States service June 30, 1861. The company rernained on Staten Island until July 23, 1861, at which time it received orders to leave for Washington, where it arrived July 24, 1861. The regiment then went into camp on Meridian Heights. On April 16, 1862, it took part in the siege of Yorktown and on the evacuation of that city by the enemy it was ordered to Williamsburg, Virginia, where it arrived May 5, 1862, and immediately became engaged with the enemy, suffering very severely and losing eight men killed and 23 wounded and missing. It participated in the engagement at Fair Oaks, again losing very heavily. It then remained in front of the White House, doing picket duty and skirmishing with the enemy until June 26, 1862, when it was again ordered to the front, taking part in the Peninsular campaign and serving gallantly in the several engagements. The regiment was very badly cut up at Bristow Station and Bull Run and took part in Burnside's disastrous attack on Fredericksburg December 15, 1862, after which it received orders to follow General Lee, who was then moving northward through Maryland. It arrived at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in time to participate in the three days' fighting near that place, being attached to the Second Brigade, Second Division, Third Army Corps, commanded by Major General D. E. Sickles. It remained with this corps until April, 1864, when, on consolidation of the Third and Second Corps, it became a part of the Second Brigade, Fourth Division, Second Army Corps. It took part in the battles of Wapping Heights, Kelly's Ford, Mine Run campaign, and Locust Grove, Virginia. May 6, 1864, it entered upon the Grant campaign, being engaged at the Wilderness, May 5, 6 and 7; Spottsylvania, May 8, to 21; North Anna river, May 22 to 26; Tolopotomy, May 27 to 31; Cold Harbor, June 1 to 12; siege of Petersburg to July 7, 1864, when it was mustered out of service, the veterans and recruits being assigned to the Eighty-sixth Regiment, New York Infantry. Total number enrolled, 112; killed in action, 14; died of wounds, 3; died of disease, 6; discharged for disability, 27. The following list comprises the name of the Van Buren county members of this company: Abrams, James E., Paw Paw; enlisted May 14, 1861, at Paw Paw; transferred to second United States Cavalry. Alden, Justin V., Breedsville; enlisted May 2, 1861, at Paw Paw: died at Staten Island, New York, June 29, 1861.

Page  302 302 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Barber, John W.; enlisted May 5, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged July 6, 1865. Barnum, Alfred II., Paw Paw; enlisted Mlay 13, 1861, at l'aw Paw; killed in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862. Barnum, John H., Decatur; enlisted October 16. 1861, at Paw I'aw; discharged for disability November 7, 1862. Branch, Elarn, Lawrence; enlisted April 30, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal; discharged July 24, 1862, on account of wounds received in action. Briggs, David, Hamilton; enlisted May 15, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged July 1, 1864. Brown, Ienry R.; enlisted MIay 1, 1861, at Paw:'aw; wagonerll; discharged June 27, 1865. Brown, Stephen F., Waverly; enlisted Septembller 18. 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged June 6, 1865. Bullard, William HI., 'Paw Paw,; enlisted April 22, 1861, a.t Paw Paw; drummer; transferred to Invalid Corps; present residence, Niles, Michigan. Burnham, Horatio, Lawton; enlisted April 30, 1.861, at Paw Paw; died at Wooster, Ohio, August 15, 1863. Butler, Cyrus Ir., Decatur; enlisted April 30, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability March 15, 1862. Carney, Edward, Decatur; enlisted May 1, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged July 1, 1864. Canoll, William H., Decatur; enlisted May 1, 1861, at Paw Paw; second lieutenant; resigned November 20, 1861. Case, Harvey S., Decatur; enlisted May 1, 1861, at Paw I'aw; discharged in July, 1864. Chaffee, Thomas J., Waverly; enlisted April 22, 1861, at Paw Paw; sergeant; brevet second lieutenant and first lieutenant; discharged July 20, 1864. Died at Paw Paw, December 30, 1910. Chamberlain, Henry, Decatur; enlisted May 1, 1861, at Paw Paw: sergeant; promoted to first lieutenant; killed in action at the Wilderness May 5, 1864; buried in National cemetery at Fredericksburg, Virginia, grave No. 330. Chevalier, John F., Decatur; enlisted April 30, 1861, at l'aw Paw; sergeant; discharged July 1, 1864. Clark, James, Almena; enlisted October 18, 1861, at Paw Paw; wounded in action at Wapping Ieights, Virginia, July 23, 1863; discharged December 10, 1864. Constable, William, Paw Paw; enlisted May 14, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged December 31, 1862, on account of wounds received in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862. Coon, Carlton, Paw Paw; enlisted April 22, 1861, at Paw Paw: discharged for disability, January 5, 1862.

Page  303 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 303 Covey, Armand, Waverly; enlisted April 27, 1861, at Paw Paw; killed in action at Fair Oaks, Virginia, June 25, 1862. Covey, Hiram F., Waverly; enlisted April 26, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability January 20, 1863; re-entered service in Company G, Thirteenth Infantry; died at Savannah, Georgia, March 18, 1865; buried in National cemetery at Beaufort, South Carolina, grave No. 4655. Crandall, Henry, Keeler; enlisted May 14, 1861, at Paw Paw; transferred to United States Cavalry, October 28, 1862. Craw, Joseph W., Hartford; enlisted April 26, 1861, at Paw Paw; died at Mill Creek, Virginia, July 22, 1862, of wounds received in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862. Cockett, Charles S., Decatur; enlisted May 14. 1861, at Paw l'aw; corporal; promoted to commissary sergeant; discharged July 11, 1864. Crofoot, Edward J., Paw Paw; enlisted April 22, 1861, at. Paw Paw; discharged October 4, 1864. Cumings, Adelbert W., Paw Paw; enlisted May 2, 1861, at Paw Paw; fifer; discharged for disability, January 22, 1862; re-enlisted in Company II, Twelfth Infantry, September 2, 1864; discharged May 6, 1865; present residence Paw Paw. Dedrick, Philip C., Lawrence; enlisted April 29, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability August 3, 1861. Dolliver, David, Paw Paw; one of the original Company: no record. I)utton, Leonard, Decatur; enlisted May 1, 1861, at Paw Paw; wounded in action at Bull Run, Virginia, August 29, 1862; discharged July 1, 1864. Enerling, Anthony, Paw Paw; enlisted October 28, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged October 7, 1864. Emery, John, Paw Paw; enlisted October 16, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged June 27, 1865; deceased. Fertig, Andrew N.; enlisted April 23, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged July 1, 1864. Fitzsimmons, Philip; enlisted May 13, 1861, at Paw Paw; killed in action at Spottsylvania Court IHouse, Virginia, May 12, 1864. Fitch, James, Decatur; one of original Company; no record. Garver, Samuel, Lawton; enlisted April 27, 1861, at Lawton; wounded in action at Williamsburg, Virginia; transferred to Second United States Cavalry. Gorham, Allen, Almena; enlisted October 18, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability August 23, 1862; re-entered service in Company K, Twenty-eighth Infantry; first sergeant; discharged June 5, 1866.

Page  304 304 0HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Harrison, Alexander M., Paw Paw; enlisted April 25, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal; discharged for disability July 26, 1862; died at Bangor. Hathaway, W. I., Waverly; one of original Company; no record. Hartman, Jeremiah, Hamilton; enlisted May 15, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged October 26, 1864, on account of loss of left arm in action at Salem Church, Virginia, May 31, 1864. Hayes, Richard, Paw Paw; enlisted April 22, 1861, at Paw Paw; absent wounded at muster out of Company. Died at Paw Paw. Hinckley, Gilman, Antwerp; enlisted November 1, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged June 27, 1865. Hodges, Herrick, Lawrence; enlisted April 29, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability, October 24, 1861; re-enlisted in Company I, Seventeenth Infantry; wounded in action at Antietam, Maryland, September 17, 1862; discharged for disability June 1, 1863; gunshot wound through lung and left leg; present residence South Haven, Michigan. Holt, Benjamin, Paw Paw; enlisted October 28, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability March 4, 1863; died at Paw Paw. House, Edward E., Paw Paw; enlisted May 15, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability, July 10, 1861. Hugo, William H., Paw Paw; entered service as captain June 21, 1861, at Paw Paw; promoted to major; transferred to Twentyfifth Infantry. Hulbert, Nathan, Waverly; enlisted October 18, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal; discharged June 27, 1865. Kilburn, William H., Paw Paw; enlisted May 1, 1861, at Paw Paw; sergeant; promoted to second lieutenant; killed in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862. Lamphere, Albert, Paw Paw; enlisted May 6, 1861, at Paw Paw; died November 21, 1862. Lewis, William H., Hartford; enlisted May 20, 1861, at Paw Paw; wounded in action at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; detailed at Harwood hospital, Washington, D. C.; no further record. Longwell, James M., Paw Paw; entered service at organization as first lieutenant; promoted to captain; resigned November 21, 1862; died at Paw Paw. McDonald, William, Decatur; enlisted May 20, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged July 1, 1864. McGhan, Porter H., Decatur; enlisted April 29, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged January 21, 1863, on account of wounds received in action at Antietam, Maryland.

Page  305 HISTORY OF VAN BI3REN COUNTY 305 McGill, Florence; enlisted May 25, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability November 1, 1862. Melvin, Frederick, Bloomingdale; enlisted April 12,. 1861, at Paw Paw; killed in action at Williamsburg Road, Virginia, June 25, 1862. Miner, Charles W., Paw Paw; enlisted April 26, 1861, at Paw Paw; killed in action at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2, 1863. Moon, Alvah F., Decatur; enlisted April 26, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal; killed in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862. Loveland, Andrew, Paw Paw; one of original Company; no record. Moore, Charles W., Paw Paw; enlisted April 22, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged July 1, 1864. Myers, Henry B., Decatur; enlisted April 30, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal; wounded in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862; discharged June 27, 1865. Newcomb, Seth B., Alnena; enlisted October 20, 1861, at P'aw Paw; died July 28, 1864. Parliman, Byron, Paw Paw; enlisted April 27, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability January 26, 1863. Parrish, Herman S., Lawton; enlisted May 20, 1861, at Paw 1'aw; transferred to Invalid Corps. 'Patrick, Dexter D., Almena; enlisted April 2, 1861, at Paw Paw; died June 3, 1862, of wounds received in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862. Perry, Stephen, Decatur: enlisted April 27, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged June 27, 1865. Price, William H., Paw Paw; enlisted April 22, 1861, at Paw Paw; died May 22, 1862, on account of wounds received in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862. Place, Willard, Hamilton; enlisted May 1, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged July 1, 1864. Priest, Albert, Decatur; enlisted May 1, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability March 15, 1862. Putnam, Ira W., Hamilton; enlisted May 20, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged May 20, 1863. Ransom, Albert. 1., Lawton; one of original Company; no record. Reese, Henry, Porter; enlisted April 30, 1861, at Paw Paw; transferred to Second United States Cavalry. Remalia, Stephen, Almena; enlisted November 1, 1861, at Paw Paw; drowned at Harrison's Landing, Virginia, August 8, 1862. Rickard, John, Paw Paw; enlisted October 16, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability February 14, 1863; died at Paw Paw. Vol. 1-20

Page  306 306 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Robb, Elias, Lawrence; enlisted May 20, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability October 14, 1862. Robinson, Lyman, Paw Paw; enlisted April 22, 1861, at Paw Paw; transferred to Second United States Cavalry.. Rogers, Don C., Decatur; enlisted May 1, 1861, at Paw Paw; sergeant; promoted to first lieutenant; discharged April 9, 1864, on account of wounds received in action. Roundy, Averill J., Lawrence; enlisted April 22, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged Octoler 2, 1862, on account of wounds received in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, June 25, 1862; present residence Paw P'aw. Rowe, Daniel W., Lawrence; enlisted May 20, 1861, at Paw Paw; killed in action at Williamsburg Road, Virginia, June 25, 1862. Ryan, MIichael, Lawrence; enlisted May 22, 1861, at Paw Paw; sergeant; transferred to Second United States Cavalry; discharged December 6, 1864; re-entered service in Company B, Tenth Cavalry; discharged November 7, 1865; present residence Kalamazoo. Saunders, Silas, Paw Paw; enlisted October 30, 1861, at Paw Paw; died at Falmouth, Virginia, February 4, 1863. Saxton, Hiram G., Paw Paw; enlisted April 27, 1861, at PawN Paw; wounded in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862 and at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2, 1863; discharged April 27, 1864; re-entered service in Company IT, Ninth Infantry; discharged June 20, 1865. Sherman, Walter L., Decatur; enlisted May 1, 1861, at Paw Paw; died at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2, 1863. Sirrine, Art, Paw Paw; enlisted April 20, 1861, at Paw l'aw; transferred to Second ITnited States Cavalry. Sirrine, John, Paw Paw; enlisted April 25, 1861, at Paw Paw; transferred to Second Ulnited States Cavalry; wounded in action at Winchester, Virginia, September 19, 1864; discharged for disability December 13, 1864; present residence Paw Paw. Story, Parker, Almena; enlisted May 20, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability January 20, 1863. Swift, 'Francis M., Decatur; enlisted April 20, 1861, at Paw P1aw; transferred to Sixteenth United States Infantry. Teale, Charles W.; enlisted July 13, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged February 10, 1862. Timmons, Lewis G., Keeler; enlisted May 1, 1861, at Paw Paw; wounded in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, June 22, 1862; discharged July 1, 1864. Tucker, Augustus B., Breedsville; enlisted May 3, 1861, at Paw Paw; killed in action at Williamsburg Road, Virginia, June 25, 1862.

Page  307 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 307 Van Fleet, William, Lawrence; enlisted May 6, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged for disability September 29, 1862. Van Ostran, Clare E., Hartford; enlisted April 24, 1861, at Paw Paw; corporal; discharged July 1, 1864. Walrath, Byron, Paw Paw; enlisted October 17, 1861, at Paw Paw; killed in action at Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862. Whitehead, William; enlisted July 7, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged August 15, 1861. Williams, John W., Paw Paw; enlisted April 22, 1861, at Paw Paw; discharged July 1, 1864. Wright, Alfred G., Paw Paw; member of original Company; no record. OTHER COMPANIES OR REGIMENTS Forty-second Illinois Infantry: Mabury, James D., Paw Paw; corporal; Company E; enlisted July 26, 1861; died at Nashville, Tennessee, September 20, 1863. Miller, Jesse, Paw Paw; enlisted Company E, July 26, 1861; discharged December 5, 1862. Mills, Andrew J., Hartford; assistant surgeon; enlisted August 11, 1863; discharged April 16, 1865. Tanner, John, Mattawan; Company H; enlisted August 23, 1861; wounded and taken prisoner at Stone River, Tennessee, December 31, 1862; discharged September 10, 1864. Forty-fourth Illinois Infantry: Andrews, George B., Lawrence; Company H; enlisted August 1, 1861; discharged September 15, 1864. Bennett, John A., Columbia; Company HI; enlisted September 1, 1861; discharged September 25, 1865. Benton, Sylvester, Antwerp; Company H; enlisted September 1, 1861; discharged for disability June 2, 1862. Bliss, John, South Haven; Company H, August 1, 1861; discharged September 25, 1865. Garver, Martin, Lawton; enlisted August 1, 1861; discharged September 25, 1865. Graham, Wells. Pine Grove; Company H; enlisted August 1, 1861; died at Rolla, Missouri, January 20, 1862. Harris, Ira K., Pine Grove; Company H; enlisted August 1, 1861; discharged September 25, 1865. Harris, James II., Wa.verly; Company H; enlisted August 1, C* ~ 1861; died at Rolla, Missouri, February 18, 1862. Harris, James W., Hamilton; Company H; enlisted August 1, 1861; died of wounds, September 20, 1863. Johnson, Job, Columbia; Company H; enlisted September 1, 1861; discharged February 28, 1865. Knowles, Charles, Columbia; Company H; enlisted September

Page  308 808 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 1, 1861; corporal; discharged for disability, June 14, 1865; gun shot wound. Meachum, Calvin, Arlington; Company H; enlisted September 1, 1861; discharged September 25, 1865. Munson, Alfred, Columbia; enlisted March 31, 1864; corporal; discharged September 25, 1865. Orvette, Alvah, Decatur; Company H; enlisted August 1, 1861; died at Rolla, Missouri, March 7, 1862. Patterson, George C., Covert; Company B; enlisted September 3, 1861; discharged for disability, March 31, 1863. Pitts, George W., Decatur; Company H; corporal; enlisted August 1, 1861; supposed to have been killed by guerrillas, at Forsyth, Missouri, April 18, 1862. Regan, Christopher, South Haven; Company H; enlisted September 1, 1861; discharged for disability, February 6, 1863. Sickendick, George D., Columbia; Company H; enlisted September 1, 1861; discharged September 25, 1865. Thompson, George H., Arlington; Company II; enlisted August 1, 1861; killed in action at Stone River, Tennessee, December 11, 1862. Tibbitts, Eugene D., Pine Grove; Company II; enlisted August 1, 1861; discharged September 25, 1865. Van Fleet, Samuel N., Lawrence; Company H; enlisted August 1, 1861; discharged for disability February 28, 1862. Subsequently became entirely blind as a result of his service. MISCELLANEOUS REGIMENTS Andrews, Isaac B., Hartford; Company G, Thirty-ninth Illinois Infantry; enlisted September 10, 1861; killed in action at Drury's Bluff, Virginia, May 16, 1864. Bardwell, Joseph H., Paw Paw; Battery I, First Illinois Artillery; sergeant; enlisted FebIrary 10, 1862; discharged July 26, 1865. Beddo, Horace, Paw Paw; Battery I, First Illinois Artillery; enlisted February 19, 1862; discharged July 26, 1865. Campbell, William W., Paw Paw; Twenty-first Indiana Battery; enlisted September 9, 1862; discharged June 10, 1865. Dunham, Hiram G., Hartford; Company G, Thirty-ninth Illinois Infantry; enlisted August 19, 1861; died at Cumberland, Maryland, February 23, 1862. Magoon, Edward M., Paw Paw; Battery I, First Illinois Artillery; enlisted February 21, 1862; discharged for disability July 11, 1862. Mitchelson, Thomas F., Paw Paw; Battery I, First Illinois Artillery; enlisted February 10, 1862; died at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, July 11, 1862.

Page  309 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 309 Moon, O. F., Decatur; Battery I, First Illinois Artillery; enlisted February 6, 1862; no further record. Pierce, Charles J., Decatur; corporal; Battery I, First Illinois Artillery; enlisted February 12, 1862; discharged July 6, 1865. St. John, George, Hartford; Battery I, First Illinois Artillery; enlisted January 29, 1862; died at Moscow, Tennessee, July 2, 1862. Smith, George, Decatur; Battery I, First Illinois Artillery; enlisted February 6, 1862; discharged July 26, 1865. O'Dell, Barnabas, Paw Paw; enlisted in United States navy, March 1, 1865; served on United States steamers, Collier and Great Western; discharged August 20, 1865. Present residence, Paw Paw. Teed, Augustus, Almena; enlisted United States navy, March 1, 1865. Foster, Ebenezer; enlisted in Nintl United States Colored Heavy Artillery, August 13, 1864, at Decatur; mustered August 13, 1864; no further record. Fowler, (alpin; enlisted in Ninth United States Colored Heavy Artillery; mustered August 13, 1864, at Decatur; no further record. Good, Horace; enlisted in Ninth United States Colored Heavy Artillery, at Decatur; mustered August 13, 1864; no further record. During this great struggle for the life of the nation the state of Michigan furnished to the government something over 90,000 troops, of whom nearly 15,000 lost their lives by sickness or in battle. Van Buren county furnished 1,884 men. When we remember that the total population of the county in 1860 was only 15,224; that the total enrolment of men liable for military duty in December, 1864, was only 1,540; that the war tax of the county was $155,637 and that nearly $100,000 was paid by the county for the relief of soldiers' families, we get some faint idea of the great sacrifices demanded and cheerfully made. Soldiers from Van Buren county were found in seventy regiments from Michigan and other states. But neither figures of arithmetic, nor figures of speech, can record the sacrifices and the suffering, nor the deep underlying current of patriotism that was the dominant spirit in those days that tried men's souls. That this great nation is once more united, that sectionalism and strife no longer exist, that all are animated by the spirit of patriotism that knows no north, no south, no east, no west, is sufficient cause for our everlasting gratitude and thankfulness. We sometimes feel that faith in the perpetuity of our free institutions that was manifested by the little lad when, during the

Page  310 310 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Civil war, he saw a rainbow spanning the eastern heavens. "Mother, mother, oh! mother!" he exclaimed, pointing upward with his innocent little hands, "God is a Union man. I know he is a Union man because I saw his flag in the sky, and it was red, white and blue." SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Van Buren county was well represented in the Spanish-American war. Perhaps no county in the state sent a greater number of young men, in proportion to population, to free the Cubans from Spanish oppression, than did Van Buren. Some were in Cuba, some were in the Philippines and some did not get beyond the borders of their own country. The author regrets that after diligent search, he has been wholly unable to procure a list of the names of the Van Buren county boys who volunteered in that struggle. There seemed to be no way in which a complete list could be procured, as the state has not, as yet, made any compilation of the names of its soldiers who participated in that contest as it did of those who served in the Civil war. Rather than mention a few names picked up here and there, it was thought best not to mention any.

Page  311 CHAPTER XII GEOLOGY OF COUNTY THE CAMBRIAN-ORDOVICIAN-THE SILURIAN AGE-DEVONIANLOWER CARBONIFEROUS-THE PLEISTOCENE (LAST CHAPTER). By R. A. Smith, B.A., M.A., Assistant Geologist Michigan Geological and Biological Survey In order to understand the geological history of Van Buren county, one must know the geological history of the rock formations of Michigan itself, for Michigan may be considered as a geological unit of which Van Buren county is but a small and inseparable part. If the thick screen of unconsolidated sands, gravels, and clays which, almost everywhere, form the surface deposits of the state, could be removed, the bed-rock formations would appear lying one within the other like a pile of very shallow but gigantic basins. The rims of the outer basins are exposed in northern Michigan, on the western side of Green Bay, in northern Illinois, in Ohio, and on the eastern side of Georgian bay in Canada. The rims of the smaller basins occur successively toward the center in a more or less concentric manner, until the smallest basin, the Saginaw coal basin, lies wholly in lower Michigan and almost in its exact geographical center. These beds or formations are sedimentary deposits of sandstones, conglomerates, shales, limestones, etc. Obviously, the lowest bed was deposited first and each successively higher bed followed in order, so that the oldest rocks are the lowest and the youngest are at the top. THE CAMBRIAN For a long time previous to the deposition of the lowermost paleozoic sediments, the region extending from the Arctic ocean to the Gulf of Mexico appears to have been land. Through geological forces, it was slowly depressed from the southwest and the sea slowly came in over Texas following the continued sinking of the land to the northeast, until all of the Mississippi valley and most of the Great Lakes region was occupied by a vast interior or epicontinental sea, which persisted all through Palaeozoic times to 311

Page  312 312 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY the end of the Carboniferous,-a period equal to half the time scale since the Algonkian. This sea was, in the main, shallow, for the deposits were largely those of sands and gravels, which are the marks of wave action, shore currents and rivers. This period is known as the Cambrian. At the close of this period of encroachment by the sea, Michigan was covered by a shallow sea with probable land to the north and east of Georgian bay and to the north of Lake Superior. Since Michigan was the last region to sink beneath the water, only the upper beds of the Canbrian are found in Michigan. They are for the most part red sandstones and are known as the Lake Superior or Potsdam sandstone, of which the Pictured Rocks on the south shore of Lake Superior furnish a most picturesque example. These sandstones, if present at all under Van Buren county, must lie buried beneath several thousand feet of later sediments. THE ORDOVICIAN The Cambrian period was one of steady encroachment of the sea from the southwest. The Ordovician age which followed was one of continued general depression with wider and clearer seas yet shallow and warm, so that, in Middle Ordovician time, enormous deposits of limestone were laid down, now called the Trenton limestone. Naturally, the Lower Ordovician deposits are those of transition from the sandy shore deposits of Cambrian time to those of limestone in Middle Ordovician and show evidences of local emergences, represented by the Calciferous and St. Peters sandstones. The St. Peters is a true emergence sandstone, present in Wisconsin and Minnesota, but unfortunately it is hard to distinguish it in Michigan from other underlying sandstones that are known to belong to the uppermost Cambrian. We find it present at Rapid river in the Upper Peninsula, but nothing definite is known concerning it in lower Michigan. The deposition of limestone was ended in Middle Ordovician time, however, by the raising up of a long low arch or anticline, extending northward from Nashville and Cincinnati through Ohio. This is known as the Nashville and Cincinnati anticline. In western Ohio this arch divides into two branches, one passing northward into western Ontario and southeastern Michigan, and the other northwestward into Indiana. This anticline, together with the "Wisconsin Island" and the ancient Archean highland on the north and northeast, tended to make a great gulf over Michigan running northwest to southeast, thus separating the Michigan basin from the more open sea to the southwest in the Mississippi valley. This emergence resulted in the deposition of muds now represented

Page  313 IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 313 by the Utica, Lorraine and Richmond shales. The Utica, shales in Michigan are black, while the others are mainly blue. The elevation of tile Nashville and Cincinnati anticline was only an expression of a more or less general upward movement of the continent as a whole until the deposits were largely above water and exposed to the agents of erosion, so that when the land again sank below the water the six hundred feet of Utica, Lorraine and Richmond muds of lower Michigan were deposited unconformably upon an eroded and worn down surface. Little is known of this pre-Richlmond emergence in lower Michigan, as very little is known of Ordovician formations as a whole in the Lower Peninsula. They are all so deep that no wells in Van Buren county or in the southwestern part of the state have positively reached them, though borings further from the center of the Michigan basin, as at South Blend, Indiana, at Cheboygan and at Manitoulin island, Lake Huron, indicate the Lorraine to be fairly uniform in thickness and persistent throughout the Lower Peninsula. The Trenton, the great oil horizon of Ohio, has been sought by oil prospectors in all parts of the state, but probably it has not been reached in the solith western counties. TIlE SILURIAN 'rl'e emergence at the end of the Richmond ended the Ordovician and tlhe succeeding submergence of the land and encroachment by the sea was the beginning of the Silurian age. The sea gradually became clearer until the muds, now the Medina, Clinton and Rochester shales-the latter often dolomitic-gave place to the thick (270-600 feet) deposits of dolomites and limestones of Niagaran age. During the period from the Richmond to the Medina and Clinton, there was an abundance of iron in the muddy sediments, especially in the Clinton, which from New York to Alabama and in Wisconsin has an iron content that makes it locally of considerable commercial importance. In the southwestern part of the state, some of these ferruginous shales do not appear to have been deposited. These formations, though often more than 2,000 feet below the surface, are much better known, as drillings at Kalamazoo and in many parts of the state have pierced them. As the Trenton marks the period of the greatest transgression of the sea upon the land in the Ordovician, so the Niagaran marks a similar period in the Silurian. All of Michigan seems to have been covered by the great sea, which extended from the Gulf of Mexico across the Arctic zone and southward into Europe. Vast as the Niagaran sea. was, it was still a shallow sea with a fauna

Page  314 314 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY characteristic of clear, shallow, warm water. The Niagara is one of the thickest and most extensive deposits of coralline limestone known in any age. If forms the shore of western and northern Lake Michigan and of northern and eastern Lake Huron, and the precipice over which the waters of the Niagara river tumble. Its outcrops in Alabama, Iowa, Alaska, Greenland, Spitzenbergen, Great Britain, Scandinavia, Russia, China and Southern Europe give an idea of the enormous extent of the Niagara limestone. Wells in the southwestern part of the state show that the Niagara limestone occurs from about one thousand to nearly two thousand feet below the surface. Following the great limestone age, there came one of excessive aridity. The Michigan sea was nearly, if not quite, enclosed by land, so that great deposits of salt, anhydrite, and limestone were laid down. These form the Salina (or Lower Monroe) of the Middle Silurian age, which carries most of the beds of rock salt in the southeastern part of the state. No rock salt occurs in the strata under Van Buren county and the Monroe is much thinner than it is in the eastern part of the state. This suggests the possibility that the western part of the state may have been out of water for a time, so that there may have been an erosion instead of a deposition of sediments. This western Michigan bar appears to have divided the Michigan sea into two parts,-a closed eastern sea like Great Salt lake, in which both gypsum and salt were deposited, and an open western one in which obviously conditions necessary for the deposition of gypsum or salt could not obtain. Toward the end of Silurian time, normal conditions gradually returned with a corresponding gradual transition upward in the deposits from salt and anhyrite to limestones, now the Lower Monroe dolomite. THE DEVONIAN At. the very end of the Silurian age or at the beginning of Devonian time, a very pure white sandstone, the Sylvania, was laid down. This bed is so pure that it is used for glass manufacture in some states. Toward the north, in Michigan, the bed grades into calcareous sand or into limestone. Above this bed, lie the limestones of the Middle and Upper Monroe formations. These carry beds of anhydrite or gypsum, indicative of the recurrence of arid and Mediterranean conditions. An emergence at the end of the Upper Monroe occurred, as shown by the superposition of the Dundee limestone unconformably upon the eroded surface of the former. This is significant in the explanation of the deposits of salt and anhydrite in the Middle Monroe, as just such an emer

Page  315 IISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 315 gence would cause the Michigan gulf to become a closed or Mediterranean sea. Middle and Upper Ievonian rocks are mainly alternating beds of heavy limestones and shales, indicative of a somewhat variable character of the age as a whole, though the heavy limestone show that stable conditions existed for part of the period. The three divisions of these sediments are the Dundee limestones, the Traverse formation of limestones and shales, and the black Antrim shales. The latter have often been mistaken by the oil drillers for the black shales just above the Trenton. This error has been made in drillings in the southwestern part of the state. The Trenton horizon probably has never been penetrated in Van Buren county, nor in any of the southwestern counties. LOWER CARBONIFEROUS The Berea grit at the base of the Mississippian or Lower Carboniferous, is another very pure sandstone. It is indicative of a general emergence of the land, as it is so widespread in Ohio and Michigan. The brines, which it contains, are extremely salt, so that Mediterranean conditions must have obtained for a time, but the concentration was not carried to such an extent that salt was deposited. This bed, the Berea, is found all along the eastern side of the state in wells but it gradually disappears toward the wrest, so that it has not been recognized in western Michigan. Very muddy seas prevailed for a long time after the deposition of the Berea as nearly one thousand feet of shales lie above it. These are the Coldwater shales, which everywhere underlie the loose surface deposits of Van Buren county. These shales, in the western part of the state, are really shaly limestones rather than shales. The western part of the Michigan sea therefore seems to have been clearer, thus favoring the deposition of calcareous sediments. THE PLEISTOCENE (LAST CHAPTER) If other deposits were laid down upon the Coldwater shales of Van Buren county, they were afterwards eroded away so that no trace of them remains. At the end of the Carboniferous period, the land east of the Mississippi was elevated above water and Michigan was never covered by the sea again. Thus, during the enormous period elapsing between the end of the Carboniferous and the beginning of the Pleistocene, or Ice Age, a period represented by nearly half the time scale since the Algonkian, the land surface of Michigan was exposed to the agents of erosion, so that it may have been much eroded and worn down to base level by great river systems, which must have existed in what is now the Great Lakes

Page  316 316 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY region. Probably a thick mantle of soil had accumulated, but of this we know little or nothing, for in the Pleistocene or Ice age, great continental ice sheets from Canada invaded the whole region north of the Ohio and the Missouri rivers and removed the loose surface accumulations from nearly the whole region. One of the sheets spread from a center west of Hudson bay, and another from Labrador. The ice advanced in the form of tongues or lobes. The basins of Lake Michigan, Green Bay, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay, etc., were each occupied by one of these lobes which not only scoured their respective basins deeper but scraped the soil mantle clean from the adjacent lands. The bed rocks were also much ground and worn away. Their surfaces, where exposed, are nearly always found to be smoothed and polished, with grooves or striae cut in them, showing the direction of the ice movement. The ice movement in Van Buren county was chiefly from the northwrest, as the ice moved radially outward from the Lake Michigan lobe. The hills in general were rounded off and, while valleys as a( rule were worn deeper, some were filled up with loose materials such as clays, sands, and gravels. With the melting away of the ice sheet, the glacial materials beneath and within the ice were left in irregular masses, or in miore or less level sheets, sometimes six hundred feet or more in thickness. In Van Buren county, the glacial drift is not nearly so thick, being sometimes less than one hundred feet, and rarely much more than three hundred feet in thickness. The irregular hilly tracts, the accumulation of glacial materials along the melting ice front, are called moraines, while the level or gently undulating tracts, the accumulations of glacial debris beneath the ice, are the till plains. The latter are mainly composed of clay, except where running water from the melting ice has more or less worked over the glacial material or drift, so that we have beds of sands and gravel. The till plains of clay form the finest of soils and the basis of much of the farming in Michigan. Wherever the water was for a time ponded in front of the ice or in the depressions we have lake sands and clays. A large lake called Lake Chicago occupied the southern end of the Lake Michigan depression, being ponded in front of the ice border to the north. The lake stood at so high a level that its waters flowed through an outlet near Chicago into the Mississippi. The waters of this lake covered much of Van Buren county and in the western part of the county near Lake Michigan there remains an area of the- resulting lake clays and, in the northern and northwestern, there are considerable areas of the light lake sands. Large streams from the melting ice front worked over a large part of the glacial material or drift and, in the eastern part of the county, spread it

Page  317 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 317 out into gravelly or sandy plains called outwash aprons. Most of the material in the central and western parts of the county is a boulder clay, or till, as it is called, and was a direct deposit under the ice. In places, it has been partially worked over by streams, giving rise to sandy or gravelly strips. The long range of irregular hills running north and south through the western part of the county and an irregular hilly area in the central and northern part are morainic accumulations in front of the ice margin, when the latter remained stationary for a considerable time-that is, the ice advanced just about as fast as it was melted away. Thus a great deal of glacial debris would be left in irregular masses, forming a line of hills running parallel to the ice front for hundreds of miles. The moraine, or the range of hills mentioned above, extends from Muskegon county through Van Buren county and around the southern end of Lake Michigan into Wisconsin. It marks the position of the ice front in one of its many halts during its retreat. The materials of these deposits are mainly clays, sandy loams, clay loams, etc., and form good soils, but their hilly character often renders them less adapted to ordinary farming than the till plains. With the deposition of this material from the retreating ice sheet, and its partial reworking by water, the last chapter in the geological history of Michigan was closed.

Page  318 318 HISTORY OF VAN BIREN COUNTY ORCHARIDS IN BLOOM CORN FROM RECLAIMED SWAMP LAND

Page  319 CHAPTER XIII AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE WESTERN VAN BUREN —LAKE MICHIGAN, A BENEFACTOR —FRUIT RAISING AT SOUTH HAVEN-FRUIT BELT WIDENS-COOPERATION THROUGH SOCIETIES-" MASTER L. H. BAILEY" —A. S. DYCKMAN AND T. T. LYON-CROPS OF THE COUNTY-SEMI-AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES-AGRICULTURE IN EASTERN VAN BUREN-" OAK OPENINGS" FIRST CULTIVATED-PIONEER FARM IMPLEMENTS-AFTER THE CIVIL WAR-LIVE STOCK-GOLDEN ERA (1865-90)-TIlE LEAN YEARS OF THE NINETIES-DEVELOPMENT OF TIFE GRAPE INDUSTRY. Fruit has been grown on a commercial scale in the western part of Valn Buren county for over fifty years. The first orchards in this section were set sixty years ago, and for the greater part of those six decades fruit-raising has been its chief industry. It has always been more important in this section than either grain-farming or stock-raising, and this is increasingly true as one approaches Lake Michigan. Except for the earlier years of the community, from its first settlement to the close of the Civil war, during which period the timber industry in its various branches was the leading one, the fruit industry has held undisputed sway as the chief interest and principal support of this thriving and prosperous community. LAKE A[ICHIGAN, At BENEFACTOR Natural causes brought about this condition. Chief among them was the proximity of Lake Michigan which acts as a vast regulator of temperatures. The lake modifies the extremes of heat and cold all through this region; it protects the fruit trees by checking a premature development of their buds in spring, and by retarding their growth in the fall; it prevents in a large degree frosts in spring and fall, and in times of drought is. a great reservoir for disseminating needed moisture. During the earlier days of the fruit industry, and particularly 319

Page  320 320 2IIISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY in the decade of the seventies during which it forged to the front, these influences of the lake were carefully observed and records kept that showed the advantages derived from that body of water. And Van Buren county, situated as it as at the eastern edge of the broadest part of the lake, gains the fullest measure of benefit from this source. Contour of the land for favorable water and air drainage and suitable soil have also been elements contributing largely to the development of the fruit industry, and a no less potent factor has been the nearness and accessibility to markets, particularly the magic city of Chicago, which not only consumes vast quantities of the fruit and other farm products from this section, but affords a center for the speedy and economical distribution of the surplus to sub-centers serving millions of people in the middle west, northwrest, southwest and south, and even east and southeast. FRUIT RAISING AT SOUTH HAVEN Orcharding at South Haven dates from 1852 when Stephen B. Morehouse and Randolph Densmore set out apple orchards, and the former also set out a peach orchard. Mr. Morehouse came to South Haven from Albion for the purpose of engaging in the fruit business His peach orchard stood in what is now the business district of South Haven city, in the block bounded by Center and Phoenix streets and the main ravine. His apple orchard was on the property now owned by E. B. Ketcham along North Shore Drive, and many of the original trees arc still standing and in bearing. The orchard set by Mr. Densmore was just south of that, its southern boundary being about where Wells street now runs. These orchards were set only two or three years after the old Parmelee orchard of seven acres at St. Joseph, so that the birth of the industry in the two localities was nearly simultaneous. It grew more rapidly at St. Joseph for the first few years because of the greater extent there of lands already cleared and ready for trees and vines, while around South Haven were the forests that had first to be removed. Among the other early orchardists of this section were James L. Reid, Joseph Dow, S. G. Sheffer and C. M. Sheffer. The first vineyards were set in 1858-one and one-half acres by Orris Church and one acre by A. S. Dyckman-and Aaron Eames was another early grape grower. Mr. Dyckman was also among the pioneer peach growers, having set an orchard of four acres in 1857. In 1855 and 1856 L. II. Bailey set out the apple orchard that is notable not only as one of the first and one of the largest in this

Page  321 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 321 section but as the school in which his son, Liberty H. Bailey, Jr., received the practical training that started him on the way to becoming the foremost authority on horticulture in this country if not in the world. From these beginnings along and near the lake shore have spread the orchards and vineyards that cover so large a portion of the western part of the county. As the forests receded before the axe of the lumberman and the settler, fruit trees and vines sprung up to replace them and to provide the means through which the settlers should derive so much of their sustenance from the soil that had long been given over to the "forest primeval." FRUIT BELT WIDENS Receding from the lake the proportion of fruit to grain and stock lessened steadily. This was due in large measure to the belief in the earlier years that the beneficent influence of the lake only extended over a narrow strip, estimated by some to be as narrow as two miles in width, but with the gradual dispelling of this notion and the continuing prosperity of the fruit growers, the "Fruit Belt" has been increasing in width until it is now fair to say that tihe fruit industry is the leading one of the western half of the county. It was just alout the close of the Civil war that the fruit industry began to compete with the timber business for supremacy in this section, and for a few years they kept on fairly even terms. But with the fruit steadily gaining and the other standing still or falling behind, it was only a few years before the former and securely established itself in the van where it has since remained. Previous to 1865 the lands were mainly purchased for the timber and the majority of the residents were more or less directly concerned in the various branches of the timber industry. Many of the small clearings made in the pursuit of the timber trade were set to fruit trees and vines, and as these came into bearing with their luscious and profitable crops, attention was turned to the possibilities of their culture. The example of the pioneers who have been named in a preceding paragraph was followed by scores of others, and the beginnings of permanent settlement really occurred in this period of the community's history. Large tracts of land, particularly the cut-over parcels were purchased and set to fruit, mainly to peaches which have since been the leading crop, though in recent years the apple has closely pressed its less hardy sister fruit for first place in extent of orcharding, volume of product and profits derived. The peach has a record of more than half a century of annual crops, except for VoL I-21

Page  322 322 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY two or three years. Aside from the freeze of October 10. 1906, there has never been any loss of trees by severe cold, except from preventable causes, like poor drainage, over-fertilization, late cultivation, and the like, and no loss of trees or fruit by extreme cold in winter, or by spring or fall frosts, when the air current has been off Lake Michigan which has tempered the winds before they reached the orchards and vineyards. COOPERATION THROUGH SOCIETIES Cooperation has, from the outset, been a dominant principle of the fruit-growing interests of this section. Possibly no one factor outside of the natural conditions previously mentioned, has contributed so much to the rapid and healthy growth of this industry in this community as the willingness of the growers to share with each other the lessons learned by experience and observation and the study of successful methods in other fruit sections. The existence of this spirit of cooperation led to the organization in December, 1870, of the South Haven Pomological Society, now known as the South Haven and Casco Pomological society. This society extends its influence and benefits not alone over the townships mentioned in its title but over a wide section of the western portions of Van Buren and Allegan counties. It has an unbroken record of holding weekly meetings part or all of the year for the forty-odd years of its life, to its discussions have contributed the foremost fruit growers of this section, many of whom can justly claim a like preeminence in state and nation, and it is fair to say that the story of the society is the history of the fruit industry in the section from which the society draws its members and over which it spreads its benefits. Concerning the purposes of the society and the record of its first year, let us quote from the report made by its secretary, C. T. Bryant, in December, 1871, to the secretary of the State Pomological Society. Mr. Bryant says: "By way of introduction, it falls to me to write briefly of our organization and its work. Convinced that our superior advantages of climate and soil for growing fruit and facilities for shiping to the best markets, indicated that fruit culture was to be the principal business of this community and justified us in striving for the highest attainments and in expecting the greatest possible success and profit in this branch of agriculture as a reward for well directed effort, those interested, in December, 1870, organized the South Haven Pomological Society; the specific object of which is, 'to develop facts, promulgate information as to the best methods of growing the best varieties of fruits for our vicinity, and for our own profit and improvements.'

Page  323 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 323 "This society has steadily increased in members and interest. The meetings are well attended; the discussions are spirited; the expressions of opinion, and statements of experience, candid; the feeling harmonious; and we are more and more assured that our interests are mutual and that the greatest obstacles in the way of making fruit growing a constantly profitable business may be overcome by cooperation." Such a paragraph as the last night be written is summarizing each year the efforts of the members to carry out the concisely stated but comprehensive purposes set forth in the preceding paragraph. The first officers of the society were: President, Norman Phillips; vice president, C. H. Wigglesworth; secretary, C. T. Bryant; treasurer, C. J. Monroe; executive committee, I. S. Linderman, John Williams, H. E. Bidwell and J. Lannin. From the formation of the society South Haven and its tributary territory took increasing prominence in the field of horticulture. Among the features that contributed toward making the society and its efficiency and energy well-known throughout this state alnd to a considerable extent over the nation was the meeting at South Haven of the State Pomological Society September 3 and 4, 1872. Within two weeks the local society raised the funds and built complete the hall in which the meeting was held, an example of energy and enterprise that received much comment from the visitors in their addresses and discussions at the sessions, and was complimented in the resolutions adopted at the close of the meeting. "MASTER L. H. BAILEY" Just a year later to a day, the State Society again met at South Haven and at that meeting there was read an essay on "Birds" by "Master L. H. Bailey, a lad of fifteen years," as noted in the reports of that meeting. This was probably the first appearance before the state society of this young man who was to become so great an authority on horticulture. His essay is published in full in the annual reports of the state society, and it shows throughout the combination of the practical and the poetic that has so characterized his work as gardener, farmer, educator, lecturer, author and adviser. In recognition of his interest in horticulture and particularly in the relation of birds thereto, the local society elected "Master" L. H. Bailey as its Ornithologist in 1873. The discussions of the local society for 1873, as recorded by the secretary, are published in full in the report of the state society for that year, the only instance of the kind in which any local body has been thus honored in the history of the state organization.

Page  324 324 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY The society and its members have taken awards at ilany of the international expositions, commencing with the Centennial in 1876, and continuing through the Paris exposition to its triumphs at the more recent exhibitions. A. S. DYCKMAN AND T. T. LYON Space forbids individual mention of the many persons who have contributed so much to the development of the fruit industry and to the work and influence of the society. But no sketch of the industry and society would be complete that did not pay tribute to the service of A. S. Dyckman and T. T. Lyon. Mr. Dyckmnan was, as has been seen, one of the pioneers in the business, and was for many years the most extensive grower and shipper of this section. He served the state and local societies as president and in many other capacities. Before coming to Van Buren county from Wayne county, Mr. Lyon had won a national reputation as a pomologist, and that reputation he greatly enhanced during the years that he dwelt in Van Buren. He, too, served the state society as president, and that for a period of fifteen years, through successive annual re-elections. He was the first director of the sub-experiment station established at South Haven in 1889 by the State Board of Agriculture, and arranged its facilities and organized its work on the practical, scientific basis that has enabled the station, despite inadequate space, to be of the greatest benefit to the fruit growers of Michigan. CROPS OF THE COUNTY Over one hundred staple products of farm, orchard, garden and forest have been raised in Van Buren county with remarkable regularity for many years, a considerable number of them for fifty or sixty years. The leading crops are thus summarized and classified in a late official report: Fruit Products: Apples, peaches, pears, plums, cherries, other tree fruits, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, gooseberries, other fruit and grapes. General farm products: Hay, corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, clover seed, grass seed, potatoes, beans, peas, other crops, maple sugar, maple syrup, sugar beets, other roots, cabbage, tomnatoes, sweet corn, onions, cucumbers, celery, melons, poultry sold, eggs sold, honey and wax, flowers, vegetable seeds, nursery products, wood, logs and other timber products. The state census of 1904, the latest official figures yet available. gave some interesting statistics about some of the crops that might

Page  325 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 325 be deemed of minor importance. For instance, on six and onequarter acres of flowers and foliage plants, there was produced in the year preceding, the value of $8,091, or at the rate of $1,293 per acre. The "busy bees" with 1,544 swarms, valued at $6,187, produced in honey and was $6,379. To this every fruit grower would add a very liberal percentage for their services in aiding the fertilization of the fruit blossoms. Poultry valued at $72,801, produced eggs worth $136,360, and poultry sold amounted to $105,654, or the total product worth nearly three and one-third times the value of the "producing plant." SEMI-AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES Indicative of how largely Van Buren county is devoted to agricultural pursuits, the state census of 1904, above mentioned, contains no statistics of any manufacturing establishments within the county. Since that time there have been started at South Haven two piano factories, a wood-working factory, and a pipe organ factory, now in process of erection. There are within the county many industrial concerns whose products directly relate to the agricultural and horticultural interests of the county. Included among these are canning and preserving plants; crushed fruit, grape juice, cider and vinegar factories; pickle factories; basket and package factories; butter and cheese factories and creamery stations; plants for making spraying outfits and preparing spray materials; grist mills, sawmills, planing mills, sash and door factories; manufactories of cement blocks, fence posts, brick and tile; also shops for blacksmithing and the mending of all sorts of farm and orchard tools, wagons, carriages; besides packing houses, warehouses, depots and docks, with special equipment of cars and boats for handling the various products amounting annually to hundreds of thousands of dollars and giving employment to thousands of men, women and children. The compiler is pleased to acknowledge his indebtedness to HIon. Charles J. Monroe, one of his associate editors, for the foregoing able and interesting article on the agricultural and horticultural interests of Van Buren county. No man is better qualified to speak authoritatively concerning these important industries than Mr. Monroe. AGRICULTURE IN EASTERN VAN BUREN By Jason Woodman Very few, if any, of the counties of Michigan can show so great a diversity of soil and timber as the county of Van Buren. Beautiful "oak openings," heavy timbered lands, pine lands, thousands

Page  326 326 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of acres of fat black muck, clay and loam, sand and gravel, with all the varying types of soils composed of these materials; plains, hills and valleys; lakes, streams and woodlands, give an infinite variety to the landscape and furnish the foundation for as diversified an agriculture as can be found anywhere in the United States. On the plains east and north of the village of Paw Paw, the pioneers found unmistakable evidences of fields or "gardens" that had once been cultivated, although again grown up with forest timber. The real agricultural history of the county, however, begins with the spring of the year 1829, on the northern boundaries of Little Prairie Ronde, section thirty-five of the township of Decatur. There, eighty-three years ago, settled Dolphin Morris; on lands still owned by his descendants he turned the first furrow and raised the first crop ever grown in the county by a white man. For two or three years Mr. Morris enjoyed the distinction of being the only settler in the county; but the years 1833, 1834 and 1835 witnesse(d the beginning of the tide of immigration from the east. "O.K OPENINGS" FIRST CULTIVATED The new comers found a broad, well-beaten Indian trail, running diagonally across the townships of Almena, Antwerp, Paw Paw, Lawrence, Hamilton and Keeler. The old Territorial road, when first laid out. generally speaking followed this trail, and along its course the tide of immigration flowed. Nearly all the way, this road ran through oak openings. According to the accounts of early settlers, these openings, in a state of nature, Xwere beautiful beyond description. The surface of the land was level, or gently rolling. The trees grew scattering, some in groups, others standing alone, with wide "openings" or vistas between. The timber was mostly of the various varieties of oak, with low broad-spreading tops. There was little or no undergrowth, and one could see for many rods in any direction. The ground was carpeted with grass and, during the summer months, sprinkled over with flowers. These "openings were great natural parks," wrote one of the early pioneers. Another said: "Coining from the bleak New England hills, the country looked to our eyes like the Garden of Eden." The land was easily cleared and had natural underdrainage. It was fertile and produced abundantly, and twenty years from the time the first settlers made their appearance, while the heavily timbered portions of the county were yet sparsely settled the "oak openings" were dotted over with well improved farms and with substantial, well built, commodious farm houses and barns.

Page  327 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 327 PIONEER FARM IMPLEMENTS The farm operations of those early days were primitive. Hay was mown, raked and gathered by hand. Wheat was cut with a "cradle," bound by hand and threshed with a flail, or the grain trodden out underneath the feet of cattle or horses. The first threshing machine made its advent about 1850, and was operated by David Woodman. It is described by his son, Edson Woodman, who in his boyhood worked with this machine many days, as "a cylinder mounted on a platform and operated by horse-power." The bundles of grain were fed through the cylinder; the straw was raked from the rear of the machine by hand, while the grain and chaff were shoveled to one side, to be afterwards run through a fanning-mill, thus separating the grain from the chaff. Later, a device for separating the grain was attached to the cylinder and this was considered a great improvement. This threshing outfit was used, not only in this county, but in Kalamazoo and Cass counties as well; being for years the only implement of its kind in this immediate part of the state. It was last operated on the farm of the late J. J. Woodman about the year 1861, where it was broken by a too violent pull on the part of a team of fractious horses and never repaired. It was succeeded by a new and improved machine, owned and operated by Mr. A. R. Wildey, the father of E. A. and W. C. Wildey. This new threshing outfit was considered remarklable because of the fact that a bundle of wheat could be run through it whole. with the band uncut, and not stop the machine. AFTER THE CIVIL WAR With the close of the Civil war, Van Buren county agriculture entered upon a new era. In 1864 the population of the county, mainly agricultural, numbered about eighteen thousand, an increase of ten thousand in ten years. The giant forests that covered the heavier, more fertile lands of the county, were rapidly disappearing before the woodman's axe; the age of American invention was on and modern agricultural machinery was replacing the primitive implements of husbandry. Mowers, horse hayrakes and horse forks, grain drills and reapers, improved machines for threshing grains and hulling clover, radically changed the methods of the husbandman. All farms were fenced into fields and carried livestock; clover grew abundantly, furnishing hay and pasture; the farmer sold wheat, wool, mutton, beef and pork. For many years, it is said, more wheat was shipped from Decatur than from any other station on the line of the Michigan Central Railroad between the cities of Chicago and Buffalo. Many thousand pounds of wool

Page  328 328 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY were marketed by the farmers every spring, and the annual shipment of sheep, cattle and hogs amounted to hundreds of carloads. LIVE STOCK Aside from the practice, usual on practically every farm, of fattening home-grown stock for the market, during the three decades following the close of the Civil war a considerable stock feeding industry was built up. John and William Lyle and Albert R. Wildey were the pioneers in this business. Others followed after and the feeding of sheep and cattle purchased for that purpose became common. A large portion of this stock came from the west and many thousands of bushels of "Chicago corn" were consumed every year in addition to the hay and grain grown on the "feeders' " farms. In 1892 seventy-three carloads of stock in car lots were fed for the market within three miles of the writer's home. In the main this business was profitable and the acres of the stockfeeding farmer grew more and more fertile. During the years from 1876 to 1890, Van Buren county became one of the great horse breeding sections of the state. In the former year Mr. Edson Woodman purchased the "Duke of Perche," one of the first six Percheron stallions imported by M. W. Dunham of Illinois. The "Duke" proved to be a remarkable foal-getter and while he was owned by Mr. Woodman sired about 1,700 colts. The uniform excellence of his progeny did much to popularize the Percheron breed in this part of the state. Other breeds of horses also had their advocates, and the introduction of many stallions and pure bred mares, of the Percheron and other breeds, followed. Thousands of colts were raised by the farmers. This industry, for many years, was a most profitable one, and the county became famous for its fine horses. Like the sheep and cattle industry, the raising of horses not only added materially to the income of the farms but also aided in maintaining them in the highest condition of fertility. GOLDEN ERA (1865-90) As one looks back on the eighty years of the history of Van Buren county, this period, from 1865 to 1890, seems to stand out as the "golden era" of its agriculture. The soil was fertile and the farm methods practiced tended to maintain its fertility. Clover grew, blossomed and matured its seed, unhampered and unimpaired by insect enemies. As compared with the cost of production, the prices received for farm products were profitable. There was an abundance of competent and reliable farm help. The more profitable city industries, paying rates of wages with which the farmer

Page  329 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 329 could not compete, had not yet drawn the larger part of competent, skilful young men away from the rural neighborhoods; large numbers of farmers' sons, well trained by industrious fathers, when not needed at home, worked by the day or month for neighboring husbandmen. The intelligent, steady-going, hardworking "hired men" of the sixties, seventies and eighties, not only earned substantial profits for their employers, but, in very many cases, laid for themselves the foundations of future substantial competence. Many of those, who are today among our most successful farmers, professional and business men, were farm laborers in those days. THE LEAN YEARS OF TIlE NINETIES It is said that misfortunes never come singly. Beginning witl 1890, excepting the year 1892 Van Buren county farmers suffered from a series of disastrous droughts. Year after year they saw their crops shortened or destroyed by rainless weather. In 1893 came the clover seed midge and the clover root borer, and a little later the clover leaf beetle, which in the spring destroyed the young clover plants. This latter insect was especially disastrous to young spring seedings. For years, there were practically no clover fields, and as a consequence the soil rapidly deteriorated. During the same years the prices of farm products fell to a ruinous level. Wheat sold as low as forty cents per bushel, wool at eight cents per pound, fat wethers at seventy-five cents per head and hogs at $2.40 per hundred. The best heavy horses sold for from seventy-five to one hundred dollars per head, and in 1896 corn of the best quality sold for seventeen cents per bushel of seventy-five pounds. The prices of other staple crops dropped to the same level; good agricultural lands were offered at from twenty to forty dollars per acre, with few sales even at those prices. The breeding of horses ceased, the fattening of stock for the market came to a sudden termination, while sheep and beef breeds of cattle practically disappeared from the farms. After a time. however, the situation began to improve; the rainfall increased, parasites preyed on the clover insect enemies and clover again grew on well managed farms, although not with its old-time luxuriance; prices of farm produce improved, but livestock farming has never regained its former importance, nor, as a rule, its former profit. DEVELOPMENT OF THE GRAPE INDUSTRY Out of the hardships of the lean years was born the great grapegrowing industry. It is true that for years prior to 1890 the grow

Page  330 330 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY ing of grapes and other fruits in what is known as the Lawton district was a business of some magnitude, but the carloads shipped each year were numbered by the score and not by the thousand. In 1868 A. B. Jones of Lawton set out a plantation of one hundred grape vines, Concords and Delawares. That year, or the next, N. H. Bitely, planted a small vineyard. Mr. Jones made the first shipment of grapes, sending them to Lansing, where they sold from twelve to fifteen cents per pound. These grapes, after being picked, were "wilted" for twenty-four hours, picked over and packed with great care. Mr. Jones, in speaking of his second crop, said: "The grapes were put up in three-pound baskets and crated, twelve baskets to the crate." This fruit was also hipped to Lansing and sold as high as nine dollars per crate/The soil and climatic conditions proved to be exceptionally favorable for producing good crops of finely flavored grapes, and as their culture was found profitable the industry steadily extended. In 1890 there was a considerable acreage devoted to vineyards. This area rapidly increased during the years immediately following. The introduction of the eight-pound basket and of refrigerator cars widely extended the market. In the latter part of the nineties the great majority of the growers were getting substantial incomes from their vineyards. Then it was that hundreds of the farmers of the eastern part of the county, suffering from the low prices of the "lean years," turned their attention to this new industry. Thousands of acres of grapes were planted. The years of low prices and hard times were passing, and the first crops from their new vineyards were very profitable. Then came the "boom;" men with no experience in farming and having no knowledge of agriculture, bought vineyards "set out to sell," or bought land and planted vineyards of twenty, thirty or forty acres in extent. On lowlands and highlands, on table-lands and in valleys and frost holes, on steep side hills, on sand and on the best of beech and maple timbered lands, grapes were set by enthusiastic amateurs. A new era of prosperity, greater than the old, seemed to have set in. And then the inevitable happened. Men who tried to raise grapes at long range found it impossible to hire sufficient numbers of men, skilled in the details of grape growing. Spring frosts cut short the crops on land that lacked air drainage; the great freeze of October, 1906, completely destroyed a large portion of that year's crop and, to a great extent, killed the buds that should have produced the crop of 1907. The cut-worm, the rose bug and other insects exacted a heavy toll and, to crown all, the dreaded "black rot" overspread the grape growing district. Many men who had so enthusiastically rushed into the industry found it wise to get

Page  331 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 331. out. Hundreds of acres of vineyards were pulled and many others have been woefully neglected. The greater number of the growers, however, have stuck manfully to their task. They have learned to handle spraying machinery; they have mastered the chemistry of sprays and the method of their proper and effectual application. The great yields of 1908, 1909 and 1911 have demonstrated the ability of Van Buren county vineyardists to grow grapes, but the problem of marketing crops that are numbered by the thousands of car-loads, in such manner as shall leave a profit for the producer, is yet to be solved Van Buren county, because of its proximity to great markets, its varied soils, and its especially favorable climatic conditions, will always be a great fruit-producing region. The grape, the peach and'the apple grow to a degree of perfection not surpassed in any portion of the country. The great muck beds, once the home of the fragrant peppermint, about which a chapter might be written, are rapidly being utilized for less exhaustive and, in the long run, more remunerative crops, while the great diversity of upland affords the opportunity for an equally varied system of agriculture. The disadvantages of the rural home are being gradually eliminated by modern inventive genius; country life is becoming more desirable, and when the time shall come, as it will, that the profits of agriculture equal those of other industries, then the population will flow toward the farm, instead of away from it. When that time comes, mcen better educated and better trained than we are, working in the light of greater knowledge, will develop systems of agriculture that will enrich rather than deplete the soil and, at the same timne will continue to provide ample supplies of food for the people.

Page  332 CHAPTER XIV TALES OF THE OLDEN DAY DECATUR WAR SCARE-SNOW NOT TURNED TO OIL —FIGHT WITH A WOLF PACK-WOLF BOUNTIES-WOODS FULL OF "PAINTERS" -- RS. RICE'S REMINISCENCES-NARROW ESCAPE OF EDWIN MEA:RS-INDIAN MOUNDS IN LAWRENCE TOWNSHIP-JOSEPH W\OODMA;N LOCATES AT PAW PAW (1835) —STORIES BY MIRS. NA.NCY (HICKS) BOWEN-"GOOD TIMES" OF THE OLDEN DAY. It is related that just after the breaking out of the Civil war, a meteor fell on the south side of the great Decatur swamp, with a loud explosion, and which was the occasion of a good deal of excitement. One valiant and brave citizen of the village, it is said, was sure that the commotion was occasioned by the advance of a column of the enemy on the peaceful village of Decatur. IHe rushed into his home in great excitement shouting "The rebels are shelling us, the rebels are shelling us!" and proceeded to barricade the doors and windows, put his family under arms, and, seizing his trusty fowling piece, he declared that he was ready for them and that he would guarantee to whip a dozen rebels single handed. His misunderstanding of the cause of the explosion was the occasion of much merriment and "joshing" at his expense. SNOW NOT TURNED TO OIL During the "hard winter" of 1842-3 a considerable number of the inhabitants in some parts of the county became much exercised over the predicted approaching "end of the world." This was the time when '"Millerism" was rampant and great numbers of people in different parts of the country so firmly believed the prediction that they gave away their property and prepared their "ascension robes." The idea of some of the people who placed credence in Miller's prophesies was that the great body of snow that had fallen would, by some miraculous power, be turned to oil and set on fire, thus destroying the entire world. It is certain that this notion became so prevalent as to cause no little uneasiness in the minds of superstitious people, which was only dispelled when the warm 332

Page  333 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 333 spring rains and the soft southern breezes turned the snow\ to water instead of oil. FIGHT WITH A WOLF PAVCK Wolf stories without number are related by the earlier settlers of the county. The following incident was told by the late Robert Nesbitt, one of the earliest pioneers of Hamilton and who made the first entry of government land in that township. Coming hoime on foot from Kalamazoo and while passing through the forest alout night-fall, he was attacked by a pack of ravenous wolves. I-e lost no time in climbing a tree. He was only about a mile from his home, and from the tree-top he could plainly see the light in his cabin. The wolves surrounded the tree and, with savage howls, waited for him to descend. The weather was bitterly cold and Mr. Nesbitt soon realized that it was up to him to "get a move on,'" as there was no possibility of any outside aid. Being wholly unarmed, he cut a heavy club and determined to make a fight for life. IHe descended rapidly and made such a vigorous onslaught on the hungry pack that they fell back. Taking advantage of the opportunity, he ran to another tree and braced himself for battle, with his enemies, twhich had returned to the charge. In this manner he fought his way to the shelter of his cabin. which lie reached in safety, although nearly exhausted with the strenuous fight and the attending excitement. WOLF BOUNTIES During the earlier years after the organization of the county both the county and the state paid a bounty on wolves. At their first meeting the board of supervisors "voted to pay five dollars per head for each wolf and panther which may be killed during the ensuing year." The state, at the same time, was paying a bounty of eight dollars, so that wolves (dead ones) were worth thirteen dollars apiece. The following named hunters received such bounties during the year: Luther Branch, four wolves; John Condon, three; Joseph Butler, one; Cahcah, an Indian, one. In 1838 the county bounty was raised to eight dollars, but the next year it was reduced to four. Bounties were paid for twenty-four wolves during that year. From 1840 to 1847, inclusive, bounty was paid on sixty-eight slaughtered wolves and wolf whelps. The breeding of wolf whelps seems to have been a growing industry, and in 1844 the supervisors reduced the bounty on baby wolves to the meager sum of $2.40, which seemed to put a quietus on what promised to be a remunerative occupation. There is no record of the payment

Page  334 334 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of any bounty for killing a panther. Evidently those savage beasts were not very abundant. WOODS FULL OF "PAINTERS" Apropos of panthers, the following amusing story related by one Abe Norwood, who was knowing to the circumstances, may not be out of place. Two young men, Will Shutter and Zade Rosebrook, brothers-in-law, many years ago planned to have a little sport at the expense of the good people of the township of HIamilton. They took a tin can and punched a hole in the bottom, and through this hole passed a stout linen string, which was then well resined. To operate the machine the string was held taut and drawn back and forth through the hole. It required some practice to get the best effect. The result was a noise resembling the growl of some savage beast or the scream of a panther (They used to call them "painters" in those early days). When everything was in readiness, one of the boys went to the house of one of the residents and said he had heard an awful strange noise as he was passing through the woods and that he thought it must be made by some wild beast. Going out of doors they listened, and sure enough they could hear the sound, but it was hard to locate, sometimes seeming near and the next minute far away. Next day all the people in the vicinity knew about the exciting news, and it was planned to put an end to the "panther," as the people believed it to be. They did not succeed in finding the beast although they heard it first in one direction and then in another. Night after night the thing went on. Although the creature was so timid that no one could get near enough to see it, the people were as timid as the supposed wild animal and went armed when they had to pass through the haunted neighborhood. The narrator of the incident says: "I remember one night a wagon load of armed men drove up to a squad of hunters who were listening to the growler. They did not get out of the wagon. They could hear just as well in it. Besides, if the beast should make a charge, those in the wagon would be in the safer position. They could fight just as well and in case of being compelled to make a speedy retreat they would save the time required to clamber into the vehicle and would be in less danger of being left at the mercy of the fierce growler. "Rosebrook's wife being in the secret, told a chum and she told her husband and he in turn told another man and they each made a "panther" and went into the forest to help the boys carry on the farce. And so it seemed as though the woods were full of wild animals. It was several weeks before the secret of the scare was

Page  335 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 335 revealed and then there were a lot of mad fellows. Some were so angry that they threatened to prosecute the originators of the affair and actually went to see the public prosecutor in regard to the matter. After listening to their story he laughed at them and told them to go home and let the boys alone, for they had hurt nobody and that he thought it a pretty good joke. MRS. RICE'S REMINISCENCES Mrs. Allen Rice, of Lawrence, says: "I think I am the oldest person that has lived in Lawrence since 1837. (I am inclined to think she is the only one. —Editor.) My father moved his family to Lawrence in 1837, when I was in my fourteenth year. "My father, Uriel T. Barnes, was the first settler between Lawrence and Breedsville, and in comfortable weather there were very few nights that we were not called upon to entertain people going to or returning from Paw Paw, which was the nearest place where supplies could be obtained, and settlers from the north and east could not make the trip in a single day. The usual reward for the entertainment was 'Thank you, Uncle Barnes. When you come our way, call on us.' The pioneers were poor, but were glad to help each other. "The general election of 1840 was held at my father's house and my mother and I cooked dinner for the town board and as nany of th voters as cared to partake. "Thanksgiving evening of the second autumn of our wilderness life, we were surprised to see a group of eight men emerging froin the woods. They were the captain and crew of a schooner wrecked at the mouth of Black river (now the city of South Haven). Guided by their compass, they had found their way to the 'Barnes Place,' where they were entertained over night, when they went their way hoping to find some conveyance to St. Joseph. "After the road was opened from Lawrence to Breedsville, a postoffice was established at Lawrence and John R. Haynes was appointed postmaster. It was the custom that whoever went to Paw Paw on Friday should bring in the mail. That was the day that we expected to receive the weekly mail. Letters cost twenty-five cents apiece, payable by the receiver. There was no talk of 'penny postage' in those days. On one occasion James Gray, who lived a mile or so east of the postoffice, brought in the mail. Three young girls, of whom I was one, called at his place and Mr. Gray jestingly remarked 'now you girls can carry the mail and save me the journey.' We took him at his word and thought it a great lark. We hung the mail on a stick and a girl at each end carried it along. It wasn't very heavy.

Page  336 336 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY "The first Fourth of July celebration took place, I think, in 1839. (Mrs. Rice evidently has too early a date. See Mrs. Bowen's allusion to this same event.-Editor.) Some of the women thought we should have a celebration and decided to undertake it. They would invite all the settlers to join with them. Two of the ladies planned to put the milk of their cows together and make a cheese which would be ripened sufficiently to be eaten by the time of the celebration. The pioneers were pleased with the plan and joined in heartily. A table was set in the woods near where the Shultz store now is and spread with such dainties as the times afforded. Pies made from huckleberries and wild gooseberries, cakes made with maple sugar, chickens and partridges, and to cap the climax, a young man named De Long brought in a deer roasted whole, with head and horns still on and a knife and fork stuck in its back. It was braced so that it stood up on its feet as in life. The people assembled in the schoolhouse where patriotic exercises were held. The Declaration of Independence was read, a young man sang 'The Star-Spangled Banner,' and John Mellen, the blacksmith, furnished his anvil, and considerable powder was burnedthe first time the surrounding forest was ever awakened by the echoes of a patriotic celebration of the birthday of Freedom." Mrs. Rice relates how young Allen Rice, afterward her husband, met with a pack of wolves in the forest, in the winter of 1837. The trees were too large to climb and he was some distance from home. He armed himself with a cudgel and made the best time possible out of the woods, escaping with nothing, more serious than a bad scare. She says: "The first sheep were brought into the township in 1841 or 1842 by Nelson Marshall. iMy father bought six and I bought two with money I had earned teaching. Late the next fall all of father's sheep, except the buck. were killed by wolves, while they spared mine, and so my sheep became the basis of the flock which my father afterward raised. "Those pioneer days were not free from tragedies. I recall one as I write. It was in the fall of 1841. The weather was very dry and the leaves were falling and forest fires were burning. Warren Van Fleet had harvested his first crop of wheat, which was stacked a few rods from the house. His wife was alone with her babe, just old enough to sit alone. Fearing that the fire would reach the wheat, she placed the child in a place that she thought was entirely safe and began to rake back the leaves to prevent the flames from reaching the stack. Suddenly she heard the screams of the little one and saw it enveloped in flames. The wind had carried a burning leaf to the straw where the child sat. The poor little thing lived but a short time and died in great agony. "In 1840 Norman Bierce, 'Uncle Norman' as he was afterward

Page  337 IISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 337 familiarly known, came to Lawrence and set up a turning lathe and began the manufacture of chairs, bedsteads and spinning wheels. I have now in my possession a wheel on which I have spun yarn to make many yards of flannel, specimens of which I still retain, also several chairs, a rolling pin and a neat wooden cup holding about half a pint, all of Uncle Norman's' make." NARROW ESCAPE OF EDWIN MEARS About the year 1836, Edwin Mears, a young man living in Paw Paw, with a half dozen or so companions, set out on a hunting expedition. Young Mears became separated from his companions and could neither find them nor could he find his way home. He wandered in the forest for four days and nights, suffering terribly with cold and hunger. At the end of the fourth day he found himself on the shore of Lake MIichigan, many miles from home. He had about made up his mind that he would surely perish, when he heard voices and was rescued by a searching party that had set out to find him. He was so nearly dead that it was feared for a time that he would not recover from the effects of his terrible experience, but he survived the ordeal and lived for many a long year thereafter. INDIAN MOUNDS IN LAWRENCE TOWNSHIP There were well defined traces of what were called "Indian mounds" in the township of Lawrence, especially on sections seven and eighteen. Just north of Sutton's lake were three of these mounds, each about four feet in height. They were located in the form of a triangle and were about ten feet apart. Other smaller mounds were found on section eighteen. A hunter opened one of these mounds in 1843 and discovered human bones, arrow heads, etc. At that time trees a foot and a half in diameter were growing on some of the mounds. The Indians had no tradition concerning them and it is generally thought that they were the burial places of some prehistoric race. This is all the more probable from the fact that although the Indians used these arrow heads when they became possessed of them, they did not, themselves, make them. JOSEPH WOODMAN LOCATES AT PAW PAW (1835) Joseph Woodman, one of the early settlers of the township of Antwerp, related the following experience: "I landed at Detroit," said Mr. Woodman, "in the spring of 1835, and made my way to Vol. 1-22

Page  338 338 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Kalamazoo, through mud and mire, with two teams, a span of horses and a yoke of oxen, and I often had to double up my teams in order to get through. I frequently met stages, with the passengers on foot, carrying rails or poles with which to pry the vehicles out of the mud holes. They said it was hard fare and that the driver wanted.them to carry two rails apiece, but they couldn't see it that way. "I started alone from Kalamazoo for Paw Paw, eighteen miles distant. I was told that I could not get through that night; that I would be eaten by wolves, but being young and vigorous I pushed on and, without mishap, reached a cabin known as Dodge's tavern standing upon the site of the now flourishing village of Paw Paw. The next day, Saturday, in company with Silas Breed, I went land-viewing and returned to the tavern that evening. I asked Dodge if they had Divine worship, and was answered in the negative. I told him we had a minister in our party-Mr. Woodman was himself a clergyman-and that we would have a meeting Sunday, which we did, holding it in a slab shanty. The next day, I went out on the Territorial road and located my land. I brought my family on from Kalamazoo-wife and six children-and established them in a blacksmith shop, Rodney Hinckley's shop in Paw Paw. I built a log house into which I moved on the 10th of May, 1835. I went to clearing land, plowed seven acres with a wooden plow, and raised a fine crop of corn, potatoes and other vegetables." STORIES BY MRS. NANCY (HICKS) BOWEN Mrs. Nancy (Hicks) Bowen has told of some of her interesting pioneer experiences. She says: "We came from the state of New York in 1845. Our first home was in the township of Arlington. There were twenty acres cleared on the place; the rest was heavy timbered land and the forest reached for miles around. We had one neighbor, a mile and a half distant. Myself and husband and a little one year old girl constituted our family. It was useless to think of fruit. I made mince pies, using pulnpkin instead of apples, and venison instead of beef. I well remember my uncle calling on me one time on his way home. He was tired and hungry and I gave him a lunch. When he came to his pie he said 'Why, Nancy, where did you find apples?' He could hardly believe me when I told him what I had used. Our house was of logs, with a chimney in the center which supported three fire-places. I did my baking in a tin oven placed before the fire, or in a bake kettle. (The present generation will need to go to their grandmothers to find out what a tin oven was, or how their ancestors baked in a

Page  339 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 339 bake kettle.-Editor.) I was ironing one evening and stepped out of doors to get some wood. I noticed a black log lying by the wood pile and wondered that I had not noticed it before. The next morning the 'log' was gone. It was a bear. We soon found that the bears would come in the night and try to get our pigs out of the pen. There were a good many hogs running in the woods, and sometimes there would come a drove of them near the clearing with their shoulders and sides torn and bleeding where the bears had bitten them. The woods were full of bears, deer, wolves, foxes, wildcats, wild turkeys and many other kinds of game. My husband and Mr. De Long once sat up all night to roast a deer they had killed. They took it to the first Fourth of July celebration held at Brush Creek (now Lawrence) where they arranged it to stand on the table, as it stood in life. "We then had two children, and all the latter part of the fall they were both sick. The little boy had the ague for a long time and the little girl had erysipelas. Her father thought he'd better take her to Paw Paw to see a doctor. He had to go on horseback, a distance of about eight miles, or else with a yoke of oxen and a lumber wagon-there were no carriages in those days. So he got ready, with a pillow in his lap for the little girl, Mertice, to sit on. The doctor readily told him the trouble and also gave him some medicine for the boy. We had something of a task in those days to care for our children and do the work that had to be done. "One winter there was a good deal of excitement about the Indians. It was said that they were going to Canada to prepare to fight the people of Michigan. Indians and snakes were my greatest fears of life in the wilderness. One night we were aroused from sleep by a noise and a light shining through the window. There were several Indians at the door who wanted to come in and stay for the night. It was cold and rainy and Mr. Bowen let them in. They built a fire and lay down in front of it, but it was little sleep I got the remainder of that night. "In the spring of 1848 Mr. Bowen rented the place and we packed up our things intending to go back east, but when we got to Paw Paw Judge Dyckman prevailed on Mr. Bowen to abandon the eastern trip and go to Pine Grove, and so, on the 2d day of July, we went there into what was to be a boarding house. It was an unfinished log house, without doors or windows, and the floor was laid down just as the boards came from the mill. Three days afterward twelve men came to work and the family numbered from that to twenty until the last of the next March. During the summer a number of families came there to live and we had a good neighborhood there in the woods. The next nearest settlement was two miles distant, with 'blazed' trees to mark the way.

Page  340 340 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY "That spring Mr. Bowen was elected justice of the peace. He married one couple and took venison for pay. During the early part of that summer the youngsters thought they would have a little sport with a newly married couple, just across the way from our house, by giving them a little music, what would now be called a charivari. Accidentally a gun was fired into the crowd. The charge struck Jim Clark, passing through his lungs. It was six weeks before he could be removed to his home, but he eventually recovered from the wound. "In 1851 Mr. Bowen bought a farm a little east of Paw Paw. We moved there in January of that year. All the next summer the children and I used to work days and nights until eleven or twelve o'clock, clearing up brush and the roots that were plowed up. In 1853 we had four children, two girls and two boys, and they were all taken sick with scarlet fever. My mother came down to stay with us one Wednesday night. She went home at noon and died before sundown. Our youngest daughter died on Tuesday evening following and our little boy the next Saturday. The other two were not expected to live, but by the mercy of the Heavenly Father they were spared and eventually became established in homes of their own. Mr. Bowen sold his place and we went east, but we returned to Michigan the following year and bought another place on which we made our home." These reminiscences were written by Mrs. Bowen in 1902. She concluded them by saying: "I have been a widow over ten years and now am nearly eighty years old." But recently she passed into the "Great Beyond." "GOOD TIMES" OF TIlE OLDEN DAY These reminiscences might be multiplied indefinitely, but enough has been written to show the hardships that those hardy pioneers of this beautiful and fertile county had to bear; the trials and tribulations they had to undergo, that we who have succeeded to the result of their labors might enjoy the fair heritage they left behind them. After all, it is likely that they enjoyed life equally as well as do their descendants. They knew nothing of many things that we think are indispensable, but, on the other hand, there were many things that contributed to their happiness that we, their successors, know nothing of except by hearsay. We must not think that they or their children were without the means of enjoying themselves in those primitive days. Think of a load of fifteen or twenty young people piled into the box of a double sleigh, half filled with bright, clean straw, and drawn by a yoke of oxen, going for miles through the crisp winter air to a

Page  341 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 341 spelling school, or a debating school-the two were quite generally combined-and returning in the "wee sma hours" of the morning, making the forests ring with their merry shouts, laughter and songs. Be honest now, you grandfathers and grandmotherswasn't it pure and unadulterated fun? And wouldn't you like to try it just once more before you shuffle off this mortal coil? I would. And in the summer time there were parties and country dances at which we all gathered. We didn't have any orchestra, not even a violinist; only just a fiddler; and how he could play "Money Musk" and the two or three other tunes that he knew! No written score for him. He didn't play "by note"-not he; his fiddle and his bow and a piece of "rosin" were all he needed, and he could and would play from early in the evening until daylight in the morning. And the way he could "call off" was simply delightful. We can hear him yet: "All join hands and circle to the left;" "right and left all;" "chlange partners;" "grand right and left," and so on throughout the quadrille-we called them cotillons-and every girl and boy was sorry when the end of the figure was reached and the call came "seat your partners;" and every one was ready for the floor for the next. dance. And we did not dance on waxed floors in elegantly furnished ball rooms, but in private houses. It was no uncommon thing for a. merry party of girls and boys to take possession, uninvited, and pull up the home-made carpets, if any such thing there happened to be, and proceed with the festivities. And the boys were as much addicted to athletic games as are the youths of the present day. They could run races, wrestlethey called it rassling-play "pom-pom-pullaway," and ball ("one old cat" and "two old cat")-yes, and even base ball; but the latter was not the highly developed, scientific game of today. It was not played by "hired men," but by both youths and "grownups" for the pure enjoyment of the game, and it was "lots of fun." ' Let no one think for a. moment that the young people of those primitive days did not have as many "good times," as do the youths of the twentieth century. It is indeed a far cry from the ox sled to the automobile, from the log cabin to the stately mansion, from the once-a-week mail to the daily free delivery, from the spelling-book to the Carnegie library, but none of these modern luxuries of life-we have grown to call them necessitieswere needed that life might be pleasant and enjoyable. But the times are changed, and we are changed with them.

Page  342 CHAPTER XV FINANCIAL AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS FIRST NATIONAL BANK, PAW PAw-THE PAW PAW SAVINGS BANKFIRST NATIONAL BANK, SOUTH HAVEN-THE CITIZENS STATE BANK, AND FIRST STATE BANK, SOUTH HAVEN-BANKS OF DECATUR-HARTFORD BANKS-WEST MICHIGAN SAVINGS BANK, BANGOR-THE PEOPLES BANK OF BLOOMINGDALE-AT GOBLEVILLE, COVERT, LAWRENCE AND LAWTON-SOUTH HAVEN LOAN AND TRUST COMPANY-VAN BUREN COUNTY FARMERS MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY-TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE LINES. There are fourteen institutions in Van Buren county that do a general banking business. Two of them are located in Paw Paw, two in South Haven, two in Decatur, two in Hartford, one in Covert, one in Lawrence, one in Lawton, one in Gobleville, one in Bloomingdale and one in Bangor. The combined paid-up capital of these institutions is upwards of $400,000, besides undivided profits and surplus amounting to about $250,000. The combined commercial and savings deposits in these fourteen banking institutions amount to about $2,700,000. FIRST NATIONAL BANK, PAW PAW The first organized bank in the county was the First National of Paw Paw. The articles of association of this solid institution bear date March 30, 1865, and its charter, No. 1,521, was granted on the 11th day of the ensuing August. The bank was first opened for business on Monday morning, August 21, 1865. For about two years the First National was the only banking institution of any kind in the county, but for several years before there had been a private banking house in the town under the name of Stevens, Holton & Company, successors to Stevens, French & Company. The First National was started with a paid-up capital of $50,000. Its first board of directors were Thomas L. Stevens, Thomas H. Stephenson, Alonzo Sherman, James Crane, Emory O. Briggs, Charles S. Maynard and Nathaniel M. Pugsley. The first officers were Alonzo Sherman, president; James Crane, vice-president; 342

Page  343 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 343 Joe A. Hollon, cashier. In 1871 the capital of the bank was increased to $100,000. Edmund Smith was elected president in 1883 and was succeeded by Horace M. Olney in 1894. Emory O. Briggs was appointed cashier in 1867, followed by F. E. Stevens in 1874. E. F. Parks was appointed cashier in January, 1886. The vice presidents of the institution have been Emory 0. Briggs, Gilbert J. Hudson, E. A. Park, Charles Bilsborrow, Nathaniel M. Pugsley, William R. Hawkins, Edward R. Annable and George M. Harrison. The present officers are Horace M. Olney, president; Geo. M. Harrison, vice-president; E. F. Parks, cashier; W. H. Longwell, assistant cashier. The capital stock of the bank remains at the sum of $100,000, which is double that of any other bank in the county. It has at the present time deposits in the sum of $250,000. This institution is not only the oldest, but it is one of the best and strongest banks in the county. In 1903, it erected a handsome b)lock on Main street and had the ground floor fitted up especially for its headquarters, so that it occupies one of the finest, most convenient and modern suite of banking offices in the county. No expense was spared in order to safeguard the funds that might be intrusted to its custody. THE PAW PAW SAVINGS BANK The Paw Paw Savings Bank was organized in 1886. Its articles of association bear date on the 27th day of March of that year. Its charter was granted just one month later. Its capital stock was originally $35,000, but has since been increased to $40,000. Its doors were first opened for business on the 10th day of May, 1886. (By special request of the president of the bank, we here state that Capt. O. W. Rowland was the first depositor). The first board of directors were Daniel Lyle, John Lyle, F. W. Sellick, John W. Free, William Lyle, Edgar A. Crane, Edwin Martin, William J. Sellick and Jonathan J. Woodman. The first officers were F. W. Sellick, president; Edgar A. Crane, vice-president; John W. Free, cashier. The present officers are John W. Free, president; W. R. Sellick, vice-president; C. A. Wolfs, cashier; W. R. Sellick, Edwin A. Wildey, A. Lynn Free, Howard B. Alien, H. Y. Tarbell, Daniel Morrison and John W. Free, board of directors. The gentlemen who have filled the office of president of the bank are: F. W. Sellick, William J. Sellick, Milton L. Decker and John W. Free; the vice presidents have been: Edgar A. Crane, J. J. Woodman and W. R. Sellick; cashiers, John W. Free, J. B. Showernan and C. A. Wolfs. The present financial condition of the bank is as follows: Cap

Page  344 344 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY ital stock, $40,000; undivided profits and surplus, $10,000; deposits, $285,000. This bank was organized under the state banking law and developel into one of the leading financial institutions of the county. It is located at the corner of Main and Kalamazoo streets, the two principal streets in the town; occupies commodious and convenient rooms for the transaction of its constantly increasing business, and has all the modern accessories for safeguarding the funds entrusted to its care. FIRST NATIONAL BANK, SOUTH HAVEN The second bank to be organized in the county was the First National Bank of South Haven. Silas R. Boardman and Charles J. Monroe started a private bank in 1867 and the business transacted by them showing the necessity of a permanent organization, they joined with other citizens and organized the First National Bank. Judge Jay R. Monroe was the first man who signed the articles of association. Some of the other signers were Augustus Haven, of Bloomingdale; D. B. Allen, Dawson Pompey and the Packards, of Covert; Timothy McDowell and M. H. Bixby, of Casco; C. P. Ludwig, George Hannahs, Marshall Hale, George C. and H. W. Sweet of South Haven; and Henry E. Boardman of Rochester, New York. The bank had $50,000 capital, which was a large sum for those early days, but with the limited deposits, it was needed to carry on the business of the town. When the National charter expired, it was deemed best to reorganize under the general banking law of the state, on account of such organization offering a better opportunity for savings depositors and also permitting the loaning of moneys on real estate security. The capital of the bank remains at the same figure as when it was first started, though, on account of the large surplus and undivided profits, the actual working capital is about $125,000. The "Bank Register" for 1911 gives the following figures: Capital stock, $50,000; surplus and undivided profits, $75,000; deposits, $456,000. Charles J. Monroe remains the active head of the bank. Volney Ross is the vice president and Charles F. Hunt is cashier. M. H. Bixby is still one of the board of directors and S. R. Boardman remains a customer of the bank, but has no active part in its management. All others who were in the first list of directors have joined the great majority on the other side of the "River of Time." The institution has at the present time (January, 1912) over half a million of dollars on deposit, which is a good indication of the growth and prosperity of the section of Van Buren county that it serves, as well as a mark of the confidence of the people in the honor and integrity of those citizens who have built up this solid financial institution.

Page  345 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 345 CITIZENS STATE BANK, SOUTH HAVEN One of the substantial banking institutions of the county-in fact, of this section of the state-and one which owes its satisfactory growth and success largely to the energies, good judgment and business standing of the men back of it, is the Citizens State Bank of South Haven. Organized in the fall of 1892, the bank opened its doors to the public in January, 1893. and, with a capitalization of $50,000 and the confidence of the public as a primary asset, began its career. Today, with a record of nineteen years back of it, this bank has over a half million dollars assets, a surplus and undivided profits of $40,000, and is paying a semi-annual dividend of five per cent to stockholders, as well as the taxes. It numbers among its depositors and business clientage many of the more prominent fruit growers and merchants of this section and occupying one of the handsomest bank buildings in the city, situated on a prominent corner of the down town district, is referred to with pride, not only by those directly interested in it in a financial way but citizens of South Haven and vicinity generally. The personnel of the organizers, directors and officials is worthy of more than passing notice. G. N. Hale, head of the Hale & Company stores of South Haven, was the first president; C. J. Hempstead, vice president, and L. E. Parsons cashier. In 1897 Mr. tale retired and W. S. Bradley was made president of the institution. The present officers are as follows: W. S. Bradley, president; R. T. Pierce, vice president; L. E. Parsons, cashier; R. J. Madill, assistant cashier; R. T. Pierce, L. A. Spencer, S. I. Trowbridge, O. M. Vaughn, C. W. Williams, L. E. Parsons, J. C. Merson, T. A. Bixby, W. S. Bradley, J. K. Barden and L. F. Otis, directors. President W. S. Bradley is an excellent type of the New England "Yankee," of keen, sound business acumen, honesty of purpose and determination which go to spell success for any man. A native of Massachusetts, he served in the Civil war three years, and after being mustered out went to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where he engaged successfully in the leather, hides and rubber belting business, remaining in the Iowa town fifteen years. He then went to Chicago, where he opened offices and continued in the same line of business with continued success. In 1884 IMr. Bradley came to South Haven and, purchasing a then barren tract of land near the city limits, proceeded to convert it by hard work and intelligent effort into a model fruit farm which today stands as a monument to his energy and good judgment. Mr. Bradley, when he assumed the presidency of the Citi

Page  346 346 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY zens State Bank of which he was one of the first directors and organizers, brought to it the training which comes from an active and successful business life, a pleasing, honest personality and the business confidence which is the natural heritage of the man with continuity of purpose and "a square deal" as his motto. A good common school education, sound judgment and a perfect knowledge of business situations here and in the surrounding country combine to happily fit him for the important position as head of this banking institution. W. S. BRADLEY L. E. Parsons, cashier of the Citizens State Bank and one of its organizers, is well equipped for his position. Mr. Parsons "grew up in a bank" (to use the expression) and his knowledge of the details of the business comes from experience. lie is a native of Union City, Michigan, and was identified with the Farmers' National Bank of that city from 1885 to 1892, when he came to South Haven, flatteringly introduced by the president of the Union City banking institution where he had been employed. He took an active part in the organization of the Citizens State Bank here and his energies and interests are united in the one object, viz: continuing the Citizens State Bank in its present success and on its firm foundation of reliahility and business confidence.

Page  347 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 347 In R. J. Madill, assistant cashier, Mr. Parsons has an able assistant and a man who devotes his time and attention to the duties which fall to him. Mr. Madill came to South Haven from Creemore, Ontario, in 1883, and for thirteen years was employed as clerk in the John Mackey hardware store. He accepted a position as teller in the Citizens State Bank in 1896 and in 1908 was made assistant cashier. Ile has twice been elected city treasurer and is a thorough accountant and bookkeeper, his early education in Belleville Commercial college, Belleville, Ontario, and subsequent experience as a school teacher, giving him practical knowledge, which is a valuable asset in his present business occupation. L. E. PARSONS Two South Haven high school young men of more than ordinary ability, C. E. Dilley and Clell Krugler hold positions in the bank as bookkeepers. Mr. Dilley was born at Lacota, but has lived much of his life here and is a young man of clean character, excellent ability and energetic in the discharge of his duties. The bank directors could not have been more happily chosen. In this, a fruit country, where large amounts of money are handled, naturally patrons of a bank are pleased that men of unquestioned knowledge of conditions be identified with it. In the directorate are prominent and influential fruit growers of this section, all men high in the confidence of their fellows and successful in their own business affairs.

Page  348 348 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY With nineteen years of marked success and a steadily increasing business as an indication of public confidence and satisfaction in the conduct of the bank and with the excellent personnel of officers, directors and clerical force referred to, the future of the Citizens State Bank of South Haven seems in the hands of the right men. The deposits in the two banks of South Haven (the Citizens and First State) are not far short of a million dollars, a fine showing for the banks as well as for the city which, according to the last Federal census, had a population of a little less than 4.000. Both of the South Haven banks are centrally located and have fine, con R. J. MADILL venient quarters, fitted up with all the modern appliances for the safe keeping of the funds in their custody and for their protection against loss either by fire or burglary. BANKS OF DECATUR Like the towns of Paw Paw and South Haven, the village of Decatur also has two strong, solid banking institutions-the first State and the Citizens. Previous to 1870, the only banking facilities possessed by the village were such as were afforded by the private banks of John Tarbell and Joseph Rogers. On the 15th day of October of that year the First National Bank of Decatur was

Page  349 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 349 chartered with a capital of $75,000, which was afterward reduced to $50,000. The first board of directors were Charles Duncombe, Charles W. Fisk, Alexander B. Copley, Levi B. Lawrence, E. Parker Hill. O. S. Abbott and A. S. Hathaway. Mr. Copley was chosen president and Mr. Hill cashier. This bank was afterward reorganized under the general banking law of Michigan and has since been a state institution. Its capital stock, at the present time, is $30,000. The "Bank Register" for 1911 places the surplus and undivided profits at $19,000 and the deposits at $262.000. The present officers are as follows: President, E. B. Copley; vice president. Arthur AW. Haydon; cashier, L. Dana Hill. The Citizens, also organized under the state banking law, has a capital stock of $30,000. Its president is George T. Pomeroy; vice president. James Dunnington; cashier, F. C. Stapleton. From the same source as above given, we find the surplus and undivided profits of the institution to be $6,300, and the deposits amount to *153,000. Both banks are doing a flourishing and profitable business, are carefully and conservatively managed and are possessed of the confidence and enjoy the support of the business men of the town and surrounding country. Perhaps no town of its size in Michigan has better banking facilities. HARTFORD BANKS The village of Hartford also has two banking institutions-the Olney National and the Hartford Exchange banks. the latter being a private institution which has been in operation for a considerable number of years. It was established by Hon. Georoe W. Merriman. who has continued ever since as its manager. It was. until a little mnore than a year ago, the only bank in the town, has always transacted a large and profitable business and possesses the fullest confidence of the people. The Olney National Bank was organized in 1910. and was first opened for business on the 27th day of September of that year. The first year's business proved to be very successful and satisfactory to its stockholders. The officers of the bank are as follows: President. Horace M. Olney; vice president. Jacob Oppenheim; cashier, J. Ingalls. The board of directors consists of the following gentlemen: Jacob Oppenheim, M1. C. Mortimer, E. R. Smith, O. 'M. Vaughan and Horace MI. Olney. MIr. Olney is also president of the First National of Paw Paw. The paid up capital of the bank is $25.000. The deposits, as given in the "Bank Register" published last July, were the sum of $84,000. The institution is located in what is called the Postoffice block, a new structure erected by President Olney and finished in modern style,

Page  350 350 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY steam-heated, electric-lighted and with all the appliances and conveniences of present-day business requirements. In the bank offices, especially, great pains was taken and no expense spared to make it an ideal place for conducting the business for which it was intended. No finer banking house can be found in the county. WEST MICHIGAN SAVINGS BANK, BANGOR The West Michigan Savings Bank, another of the solid, prosperous financial institutions of the county, is located in the village of Bangor. The first banking institution in this place was established by E. M. Hipp in 1872 and managed by him for a couple of years, when it was purchased by Messrs. J. E. Sebring & Company, who conducted its affairs for about three years, doing a prosperous business. The bank then passed into the possession of N. S. Taylor, who retained Mr. Sebring as his cashier and general manager. The institution was afterward known as the Monroe Bank and was under the same general management as the First National of South Haven. The present bank, organized under the state law and known as "The West Michigan Savings Bank," was instituted on the 16th day of April, 1880, taking the place of the Monroe Bank, and commenced business on the first day of the succeeding July, with a capital stock of $20,000. The original trustees of the bank were C. J. Monroe, Alvin Chapman, Thompson A. Bixby, William Packard, Anson Goss, J. G. Miller, D. K. Charles, Stephen W. Duncombe and John Scott. The first officers were C. J. Monroe, president; Alvin Chapman, vice president; A. B. Chase, treasurer. The present officers are J. E. Sebring, president; William Broadwell, vice president; J. E. Sebring, cashier. Mr. Sebring took charge of the bank in 1892. At that time the amount of deposits was in the neighborhood of $65,000, that figure fairly indicating the economic condition of the town and the country around. At the present time the deposits are in excess of $400,000, which may be taken as a fair index to the financial progress of the community during the past twenty years, as the radius of territory over which the bank extends its usefulness has not materially changed. This progress is but an earnest of what may reasonably be expected in the next twenty years, as capital and energy shall be expended in the development of the rich and fertile section of country in which the town is situated. The latest figures in the "Bank Register" place the capital of the bank at $25,000, with an undivided surplus of $8,000.

Page  351 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 351 THE PEOPLES BANK OF BLOOMINGDALE The Peoples Bank of Bloomingdale is one of the prosperous private banks of the county, instituted and managed by Hon. Milan D. Wiggins. It has been in successful operation and has possessed the confidence of the community where it is situated for a considerable number of years. Mr. Wiggins is its president and Ellis Simon its cashier. According to the "Register," it has a capital of $25,000, a surplus of the same amount and deposits of $150,000. As there is another bank in the same township, these figures point to a great degree of prosperity in the community tributary to the bank. AT GOBLEVILLE, COVERT, LAWRENCE AND LAWTON In the village of Gobleville, five miles east of Bloomingdale, is located another private bank, called the Gobleville Exchange, which is also doing a flourishing and profitable business. This bank is under the management of Stanley Sackett, its president, assisted by his brother, Frank Sackett, who is its cashier. The "Bank Register" gives the amount of deposits in this institution as $65,000. "The Bank of Covert," as its name indicates, is situated in the thriving little village of Covert. This bank is likewise a private institution, but has a very efficient organization. George C. Monroe is president and A. B. Chase cashier, bot- good business men and experienced in the intricacies of banking. This bank was reported by 1he samne authority as that above mentioned as having a paid-up capital of $10,000 and an undivided surplus of $2,700. It amply provides for the banking requirements of the community, which, especially at the time of the fruit harvest, is quite heavy. paying annually over $100,000 on fruit checks alone. The village of Lawrence is provided with the needed banking facilities by another private institution called the Farmers and Merchants Bank. The officers of this enterprise are as follows: J. H. Baxter, president; J. H. Clark, vice president; J. L. Welch, cashier. It has been in operation for quite a number of years and gives the community ample banking facilities and satisfaction. The reported capital of the bank is $10,000, with deposits of $53,000. The banking house of Juan McKeyes & Company is situated in the village of Lawton. Juan McKeyes is the active manager of the business and Frank McKeyes, his son, is the cashier. This institution does a very large business, especially during the grape harvest, at which season it disburses the funds to pay for thousands of carloads of that delectable fruit, situated as it is in the

Page  352 352 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY very midst of Van Buren's famous "grape belt." The "Bank Register' reports the capital of this firm at $10,000, with a surplus of $5,000 and deposits of $150,000. The institution has been in operation for a number of years and has been uniformly successful since beginning business. SOUTI- HAVEN LOAN AND TRUST COMPANY Another financial institution of importance is the South taven Loan and Trust Company (not incorporated), which is composed of W. P. Breeding, Mfrs. L. S. Monroe, C. J. Monroe and C. O. Monroe, and represents a financial responsibility of upwards of $200,000. The business of the company consists principally of making loans on real estate and investments in bonds for the proprietors and other parties. W. P. Breeding. president and general manager, is the active member of the firm. I-He is the son-inlaw of the late Lyman S. Monroe and succeeded to his interests, having been connected with him prior to his death. HIe is also a director of the First State Bank and vice president and secretary of the Monroe Realty Company. Mrs. L. S. Monroe (capitalist) is the widow of Lymon S. Monroe. Her interests consist of real estate and other investments. Hon. C. J. Monroe is president of the First State Bank of South Haven and of the Monroe Realty Company. a member of the board of directors of the Kalamazoo Savings Bank and a member of the banking firm of C. J. Monroe & Sons at Covert. C. 0. Monroe, son of C. J., is the editor and manager of the South Haven Daily Tribune. FARMERS' MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY The Van Buren County Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Coinpany is one of the valuable financial institutions of the county. It was organized thirty-seven years ago and has been doing business continuously ever since. Milton H. Pugsley of Paw Paw is president of the company and B. L. Breed of Paw Paw is the secretary. The recently filed annual report of the company shows that it has 3,207 members and that the amount of property at risk is $4,833,057. The losses paid during the year amounted to $6,518. The company generally meets all its losses and expenses by making one assessment of one-fourth of one per cent each year, thus providing for its patrons a cheap and secure insurance. The present board of directors are the following substantial citizens and business men of the county: Isaac Monroe, D. C. Hodge, C. B. Charles, S. A. Breed, M. H. Pugsley and M. D. Buskirk.

Page  353 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 353 TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE LINES The Western Union Telegraph extends along the lines of every railroad in the county, bringing the entire population within easy reach of telegraphic communication. There are a number of local telephone companies in the county. The first of these was the Kibbie, which was organized in 1898 and has its lines extended well over the county and into adjoining counties. The South Haven Mutual had its articles of association recorded in 1909. The Citizens was launched in the summer of 1910, and the Lawrence Mutual was organized in the month of March, 1911. Some of these companies reach into every community in the county, and the denizen of city, village or country that has no telephone connection is the exception rather than the rule. These lines connect with the great telephone system that traverses the state, so that oral communication from factory, office, store or homue mnay be had with nearly every place of any importance in the state and in many parts of the states adjoining. lWhat. would the pioneers of Michigan have said had anybody intimated that such a thing were possible? They would have tlought that a man who entertained any such preposterous idea was crazy, and if a man had invented such a thing as a telephone in the day of Cotton Mather lie would have been pronounced ill le-ague with the Devil and burned at the stake. Vol. 1-23

Page  354 CHAPTER N VI THE PRESS ' PAWT PA FREE PRESS — "PAW PAW FREE PRESS AND COURIER" — "THE TRUE NORTHERNER' — " DECATUR REPUBLICAN" -" THE LAWTON LEADER' '"HARTFORD DAY SPRING — "THE BANGOR ADVANCE '-EARLY LAWRENCE NEWSPAPERS —"L A W R E N C E TIMES ' —'' BLOOMINGDALE LEADER "-' ' GOBLEVILLE NEWS -- SOUTH HAVEN NEWSPAPERS. The first attempt at publishing a newspaper in Van Buren county was in January, 1843, when H. B. Miller of Niles, sent his brother-in-law, one Harris, with a press and printing outfit, to Paw Paw, ostensibly to start a newspaper, but chiefly for the purpose of getting the job of printing the delinquent tax lists, which at the date was quite a valuable "plum." Harris started a six column folio sheet and named it the Paw Paw Democrat. He died soon afterward and that ended the career of the paper, the press and material being taken back to Niles. "PAW PAW\ FREE PRESS" For two years thereafter Van Buren county had no newspaper. In January, 1845, Samuel N. Gantt, one of the early lawyers of the county, and a printer named Geiger, brought by wagon from Detroit to Paw Paw, a wooden Ramage press, and the other necessary material for establishing a printing office, and started a five column four page weekly sheet, which they christened the Paw Paw Free Press. After a few months had elapsed, however. Geiger, for some reason, became dissatisfied with the course of events and more especially with his partner, against whom he harbored some kind of a grievance, real or imaginary, and in order to "get even" he removed the screw of the press and threw it into the Paw Paw river and himself fled to Detroit. Gantt did not care at all for the loss of his partner, but lie mnolrned over the loss of the screw, without which the press could not be worked. lie offered a reward of ten dollars for its recovery and return, and A. V. Pantlind, who chanced to know where Geiger had thrown 354

Page  355 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 355 it, fished it out of the river, greatly to the satisfaction of its owner. AIr. Gantt continued the publication of the Free Press until the spring of 1846, when he disposed of it to John McKinney, then county treasurer. McKinney did not long retain the ownership of the paper, but soon sold it to Emory O. Briggs, who published it for a little more than a year. In January, 1848, S. Tallmadge Conway became its owner. Mr. Conway had been a compositor in the office for a considerable length of time and had also done some work on the Paw Paw Democrat during its brief existence. tie retained the ownership of the Free Press until the summer of 1854, when it passed into the hands of a stock company, but the stockholders not finding it to be a bonanza, transferred it to Isaac W. Van Fossen, who is yet a resident of Paw Paw. Soon after becoming possessed of the plant, Mr. Van Fossen changed the name of the sheet by dropping out the -word "Free" and the paper became the Pawl Paw Press, but this change was not satisfactory to the proprietor. It secmed to be too limited in scope and so he soon made another change and called it the Van Bturen County Press. UTnder this name, and by this same publisher, the paper was issued until January, 1868. w'hen the office was destroyed by fire and the publication was discontinued for a few months. However, it was soon revived by Mr. Van Fossen. who continued its publication until 1872, at which time he leased the plant to Frank Drummond. The paper had always been Democratic in its politics and during the campaign of 1872 it supported the Liberal Democrat ticket of Greeley and Brown. Soon after the close of that campaign, the publication ceased to exist and some of the material was purchased by Messrs. G. W. Matthews and E. A. Landphere, who utilized it in the publication of a new sheet which they launched under the name of the Paw Paw Courier. The Courier was a Republican journal, and continued as such while owned by its originators. In 1877 Messrs. Blackman and Park became the owners and changed its political complexion and made it an exponent of the Democratic party. In the meantime, and while Matthews & Landphere were publishing the Courier, Messrs. E. K. Park and George F. Sellick, job printers, started a new Democratic paper, to which they gave the old name of the Van B uren County Press. "PAW PAW FREE PRESS AND COURIER" Perhaps this venture of Messrs. Park & Sellick might be considered as a resuscitation of the suspended paper the name of which they assumed. It is said that a man who once gets his

Page  356 356 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY fingers thoroughly daubed with printer's ink never again gets them thoroughly clean, which is but another way of saying that there is a certain fascination about the business that once engaged in makes it difficult to wholly abandon. At any rate, be this as it may, the business and the name of the sheet with which he had so long been identified, so attracted Mr. Van Fossen that he again became its owner. However, he did not long retain its ownership, but transferred it to O. D. Hadsell, who again changed its name to the Paw Paw Free Press, the name by which the sheet had been first christened-that is, if it be considered as a direct continuation of the original paper. Under this name Mr. Hadsell continued to publish the paper until the summer of 1877, when he sold it to the Paw Paw Courier. The two papers being thus consolidated, there was also a consolidation of names and the publication became the Paw Paw Free Press and Courier, under which name it has since been and still is published. In 1878 Mr. Park withdrew and E. A. Blackman became the sole editor and proprietor. After the consolidation the sheet was published as a semi-weekly for a few months, but soon returned to its once-a-week issue. The next change of ownership was a transfer of a half interest to Mr. James F. Jordan. Mr. Jordan is now the credit man of a wholesale drygoods house in Minneapolis, the largest establishment of the kind in the northwest. About the year 1883, Hiram A. Cole, a practical compositor and job printer, became the owner of Mr. Blackman's interest in the plant and for a time the firm was Jordan & Cole. The property soon afterward passed into Mr. Cole's individual possession and the paper has been managed and published by him down to the present time. It is the only Democratic newspaper in the county and is one of the leading Democratic weeklies of western Michigan. Through all these vicissitudes and changes of name, the publication claims lineal descent from the Paw Paw Free Press, making it the oldest publication in Van Buren county, the last issue being labeled "Volume 67, No. 46." The presses of the Courier as the paper is usually spoken of are run with a gasoline engine. In the spring of 1851, James N. Gantt launched a paper called Th e Paw Paw Journal. This sheet had a comparatively brief existence, but just how long, it is impossible to say, as there is no record of its career, although Dr. O'Dell of Paw Paw, has two or three of the earlier issues, the earliest being No. 5, issued in June 1851. "THE TRUE NORTHERNER" The True Northerner, a weekly publication, was established at Paw Paw in 1855, and is nearing the end of fifty-seven years of

Page  357 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 357 continuous publication without change of name and, so far as can be ascertained, without the omission of a single number, although the entire plant was destroyed by fire in January, 1888, which is a record of which its managers may well be proud. The question is sometimes asked why the paper was christened the Truie Northerner. To those who can remember the antislavery agitation of the years before the Civil war, the bitter contests that were waged and the animosity that was thereby engendered between the north and the south, the answer to that query is self-evident. Tile paper was founded as an advocate of the principles of the new Republican party that had then recently been organized under the historic oaks at the city of Jackson, Michigan, and it has ever since been an unwavering champion of that party. Its founder was George A. Fitch, who was at the time publishing the Kalamazoo Telegraph. Mr. Fitch sent John B. Butler to edit and publish the new paper. The first issue, which by the courtesy of Dr. B. O'Dell is now in the hands of the compiler, bears date April 25, 1855. It is a five-column quarto, well preserved and creditably printed. The opening paragraph of Mr. Butler's salutatory, entitled "To the Public," is as follows: "Citizens of Van Buren county, we have spread before you a Newspaper. We have come among you to advocate the cause of Popular Sovereignty and of human rights. You may call our politics, Fusionism, Republicanism, or any other 'ism, so long as you connect the idea of the name you apply with that of equal rights and the welfare of our whole country. We will adhere to no party which has not for its aim the good of the country, nor advocate any cause which seeks triumph for the sake of the spoils of office, regardless of the rights and liberties, the happiness and prosperity of the people at large If such are your sentiments, citizens, you will support this print; if not we have mistaken the feelings and views which have long actuated the True Northerner, north of Mason and Dixon's line, and which has been so successfully exemplified in your late elections, both in state and county." Further along, Mr. Butler adds: "It is our desire to place our paper on as high and truly independent grounds as possible and, although enlisted in the cause of the Republican party of this State, we will in no manner be tied down by party trammels, or led at the caprice of any political faction." The only local items in the paper are two marriage notices-towit, the marriage of Joseph W. Luce and Miss Martha Richmond, of LaFayette, on the 17th instant, and of William Hodges and Miss Caroline Blowers on the 25th, the day of the birth of the paper; and a notice of the meeting of subscribers to the stock of the Allegan and Paw Paw Railroad, a road that never materialized.

Page  358 358 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY The notice stated that about $30,000 had been subscribed toward the projected road and was signed by the following board of directors: John R. Kellogg, F. J. Littlejohn, Charles L. Mixer, E. D. Follet and John Clifford, Jr., of Allegan county, and John Smolk, Silas Breed, F. M. Manning, F. H. Stevens and S. G. Grimes of Van Buren county. Some of the other articles in the paper were "Scenes in the Kansas Election," "War with Spain," "Loss of the Propellor Oregon," "Arrival of the America" on the 13th of April, with the latest European news, among which appears this item: "The demolition of Sevastopol was not demanded, but a reduction of the Russian power in the Black sea was called for, the recompense being the withdrawal of the allies from Russian territory." Mr. Butler retired from the management of the paper in the latter part of the summer of 1855, and Fitch sold it to John Reynolds and Edwin A. Thompson. Rufus C. Nash was employed as editor but did not long remain in charge, being succeeded the next January by L. B. Bleecker and S. F. Breed. Soon afterward Mr. Breed and Samuel H. Blackman became the sole proprietors of the paper. In 1858 they sold it to Thaddeus R. Harrison, who continued in its ownership until 1866, although during the latter part of that period it was leased to Charles P. Sweet. Mr. Iarrison transferred the publication to Thomas O. Ward, who continued it until August, 1870, at which time S. Tallmadge Conway, formerly owner and publisher of the Paw Paw Press, became the owner of the plant and sole editor and publisher of the paper. He retained the ownership for a period of ten years, when he transferred it to Henry S. Williams, who had been county clerk and school superintendent. Mr. Williams retained the property until May, 1882, at which date he sold it to Messrs. A. C. Martin and O. W. Rowland, Mr. Martin becoming the manager of the concern and Mr. Rowland assuming the editorial chair. This arrangement continued for six years, when Mr. Rowland parted with his interest in the plant, and Mr. Martin became sole owner, although Rowland was retained as editor for a year after the dissolution of the firm of Martin & Rowland. In the fall of 1889, Charles L. Eaton purchased an interest in the plant and the firm became Martin & Eaton, with Eaton as the editor. Two years afterward Eaton retired from the business and Mrs. A. C. Martin, wife of the proprietor, became the editress of the paper. In November, 1892, the property was capitalized at the sum of $10,000 and converted into a stock company and as such it still remains. Mrs. Martin was succeeded in the editorship by M. O. Rowland, a son of one of the former editors. He managed and edited the paper for several years, when he disposed of his interest and removed

Page  359 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 359 to Lansing, having been appointed to a clerkship in the state insurance department. He was afterward appointed deputy insurance commissioner and later insurance commissioner, an office which he resigned on the coming in of a new administration. He is now president of the Detroit National Fire Insurance Company. E. A. Wildey, a former commissioner of the state land office, succeeded Mr. Rowland as editor of the paper, but remained in control only about a year. Frank N. Wakeman, formerly county clerk, has been editor and manager for nearly seven years. The True Northerner has long been recognized as one of the influential weekly publications of the state and has been a successful business enterprise from the date of its first appearance. Its equipment of presses, type and material is very complete. Its machinery is run by an electric motor. The Nationial Independent was established at Paw Paw in-March, 1878, by Dr. Charles Maynard, as an exponent of Greenbackism. The founder continued the paper until January, 1879, when he sold it to Rufus C. Nash. Mr. Nash did not long remain in possession, but transferred the sheet to Messrs. Smith & Wilson. Mr. Wilson soon retired from the firm and W. E. Smith became sole editor and proprietor. The Independent met with sudden death in the latter part of December, 1879, its proprietor leaving the town under somewhat of a dense cloud. The Paw Paw Herald followed after the Independent, but had but a brief, precarious existence. " DECATUR REPUBLICAN The first attempt at publishing a newspaper in the village of D)ecatur was made by Rufus C. Nash, about the year 1859 or 1860. His paper was printed in Paw Paw and circulated in Decatur. 'Rufe" did not find the venture to be such as to warrant a financial success and only a few issues were ever printed, and even tradition does not preserve the name of this pioneer sheet. So quickly it was done for, We wonder what it was begun for. Some time in 1860, C. P. Sweet inaugurated the Decatur TribICue, which he conducted until about 1864, when it was allowed to depart in peace, and for a time Decatur was without a newspaper. In the summer of 1865, Moses Hull came from Kalamazoo and launched the Decatur Clarion on the journalistic sea. Mr. Hull conducted this sheet for about six months and sold it to A. W.

Page  360 360 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY Briggs, who published it about the same length of time, when it met the fate of its predecessors and sank peacefully out of sight. Unawed and undeterred by these previous newspaper fiascos, E. A. Blackman and Prof. C. F. R. Bellows, the latter at the time being superintendent of the Decatur schools, in 1867 founded the Van Buren County Republican, which proved to be a healthy youngster and has continued until the present time. Prof. Bellows did not remain long connected with the paper, and on his withdrawal, Mr. Blackman became sole proprietor. As indicated by its name, the new journal was an advocate of Republicanisim. It continued in that political faith until the presidential campaign of 1872, when, along with its proprietor, it "Greelevized" and the next year became a straight out Democratic sheet. In 1876, Mr. Blackman disposed of the plant to H. C. Buffington, who had formerly been engaged in the newspaper business in Cass county. Tinder the administration of Mr. Buffington, the paper returned to the Republican fold where it has ever since remained. In 1879 Buffington transferred the property to A. \M. Wooster and he, in turn, sold it to Robert L. Warren and he to Andrew Johnson. About 1890 the paper was purchased fromi MAr. Johnson by O. W. and M. O. Rowland, father and son. The father had had several years experience as editor of the True Nortlherner and tie son was an expert compositor and pressman and had had considerable experience as a reporter on different daily papers. The father afterward transferred the plant to the younger man, who, after conducting it successfully for a considerable time, removed the plant to Paw Paw, and once more Decatur was without a paper. When the Messrs. Rowland assumed charge the name had been changed to the Decatur Republican, but they restored the old namne. dropping "Decatur" and substituting "Van Buren County" instead. The paper was conducted at Paw Paw under that namie until its owner became connected with the True Northerner, whlen it was suspended and its list of subscribers transferred to the Northerner. Shortly afterward, Messrs. Secord & Dewey purchased the presses, type and material and took them back to Decatur and started the Decatur Independent. This was soon transferred to A. N. Moulton, who dropped the name "Independent" and resumed the old appellation of Decatur Republican and such it has since remained. Mr. Moulton is still the proprietor and editor and under his direction and management the paper has been prosperous and profitable. It is well equipped with power presses and all the material required for first class newspaper and job printing. The first newspaper in Lawton, the Iron Age, was founded in

Page  361 IISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 361 1860 by one Joseph Twell. The name was derived from the fact that about that time a large blast furnace was established in the place that for a number of years did a large and prosperous business. The Age lived until 1867, when it peacefully breathed its last. After the demise of the.Age, Judge Geo. W. Lawton began the publication of the Lawton Gazette, a weekly sheet the printing of which was done in Paw Paw. The Gazette lived less than two years wihen it surrendered to the inevitable. In September, 1869, J. II. Wickwire founded the Lawzton Tribunec, which passed in succession through the hands of Cowgill & Jennings, Ambrose Moon, Orno Strong and Ezra Haydon and cane to an inglorious end in 1873. "TIlE L.WTON LEDI)ER" In 1887, A. E. Marvin established another weekly in Lawton, under thie name of the La'lton' Leader. In the month of May, 1890, the list, of subscribers and the "good will' was purchased by Messrs. C. E. Lewis and E. Drury, who put in new presses and material and continued the publication of the paper. Drury parted witll his interest about 1898, Lewis at that time becoming sole owner and continuing as such for about eight years. In 1906 he took in as a. partner, Rev. W. K. Lane, but Lewis has recently again become the sole proprietor, which, under his administration and management, lhas becone one of the fixed and valued institutions of the town, and which, having survived the usual vicissitudes of the life of a village newspaper, has gained strength with age and bids fair to have a long and iseful life. The paper is not attached to any political party, but is strongly in favor of temperance and is a. consistent and persistent advocate of the local option law that has been in force in Van Buren county for the past twenty-one years. In this regard, with only one or two exceptions, it does not differ mtaterially from the other newspapers of the county which have almost unanimously accorded their support. to that phase of the temperance question. "HIARTFORD DAY SPRING" The first newspaper to make its appearance in the thriving village of Iartford was the Hartford Day Spring. Its first issue appeared on the 16th day of November, 1871. Its founders were Messrs. O. D. Hadsell and A. H. Chandler, the latter, however, retiring from the venture when the paper was but a few weeks old. It was continued by Mr. IHadsell, who gained a great degree of notoriety, by reason of the quaintness, sarcasm and bluntness

Page  362 362 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY of his writings, until October 28, 1876, when it was purchased by William H. H. Earle. Mr. Earle edited and published the Day Spring about a year, when Luther Sutton assumed the editorship, Mr. Earle continuing as publisher. In 1888 Charles C. Phillips acquired the paper by purchase and remained in its editorial charge until 1893, when the paper again experienced a change of ownership, L. S. Johnson becoming editor and manager. In 1898 H. F. Cochrane assumed charge of the paper under a lease, having associated with him his son, Donald F. Cochrane. A year later a stock company was formed, which purchased the publication from Mr. Johnson. Complete ownership was later acquired by Editor Cochrane and his son, although the Day Spring still appears under the name of the Day Spring Publishing Company. With the formation of the stock company began a period of development, in which the old hand press and meager equipment that had sufficed during a succession of ownerships gave way to new machinery, until the Day Spring has today one of the most modern equipments possessed by any of the weekly newspapers. Editor H. F. Cochrane died February 25, 1905, after which the editorship passed to his son, Donald F. Cochrane, whb has since continued as editor and owner. Of all the men who were identified with the early publication of the Day Spring, none survives except A. H. Chandler. who, then as now, is a lawyer located in the village. Editor lHadsell died in Chicago in 1892, where he had pursued a successful business career. Mr. Earle died while in charge of the paper; Sutton passed away in 1903. Mr. Phillips, who purchased the property of the Earle estate, is now quartermaster at the Michigan Soldiers' Home, Grand Rapids. The Day Spring is now a six-column paper of from eight to twelve pages, all printed on its own presses, and is a lively exponent of its field. Mr. Hadsell was a schoolmaster with a limited newspaper experience when he and Mr. Chandler planned the launching of Hartford's first newspaper. The venture was conceived and planned in a day, and so they christened the paper the Day Spring. Under the editorship of Mr. Hadsell, it was an aggressive Democratic sheet, reflecting the personal opinions of its editor with the emphasis characteristic of the times. With advent of Editor Earle came a change of political policy and the Day Spring has since been continued as a Republican journal, although it is first concerned with the unbiased publication of the news of its immediate field and of the county. The paper has been closely identified with the development of Hartford and few villages are represented by a more aggressive exponent.

Page  363 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 363: During the time when the people of the country were all wrought up over "greenbackismn," "free silverism," the crime of '73 (?) and other evanescent political issues, another newspaper, The People's Alliance was established in Hartford by Sullivan Cook, who was an ardent advocate of what he, with many others, thought was necessary for the welfare of the people, a radical change in the currency system of the country. The Alliance lived for a number of years, but with the decline of the money controversy the paper also declined, until it finally shuffled off its mortal coil and was peacefully laid to rest, another unsuccessful venture in the uncertain field of rural journalism. The first attempt at journalism in the village of Bangor was made by Charles Gillett in February, 1873, who started a newspaper which he christened the Bangor Journal. The venture did not prove a success from a financial standpoint and in the fall of the same year the Journal gently breathed its young life away, unhonored and unsung, and it has practically passed out of mind and memnory. Out of the remains of the Journal arose another and more vigorous plant. W. W. Secord purchased its remains-that is its type and other material-and established the Bangor Reflector, the first issue of which appeared in the month of December, 1873. The new project met with only a limited success under the direction of Mr. Secord, who managed it until April, 1875, when it was purchased by Charles C. Phillips, who made it a valuable property and a paper of influence and fair circulation. "THE BANGOR ADVANCE" The 1West Michigan -Adtlancc waas started by G. F. Burkett, in 1881, and was purchased by L. S. Russell the next year, at which time his son, M. F. Russell. started in to learn the printer's trade, and he has never since got the ink off from his fingers. In 1888 Mr. Phillips leased the Reflector to Mr. Russell, who consolidated the two papers, under the name of the Advanc and Reflector. On the first of January, 1891, Mr. Russell turned over the business to his son, M. F. Russell, who found the venture to be profitable, and after managing it for a year purchased the entire plant mAnd it still remains in his possession. The name was changed to the Bangor Advance, the "Reflector" disappearing from view. The paper was originally started with a Washington hand press. Mr. Phillips purchased a "Prouty," which has been succeeded by a "Potter druni cylinder." The outfit of the Advance is modern and consists of the newspaper press, two job presses, a five-horse

Page  364 364 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY power gasoline engine, abundance of type and all the equipment needful for a first class newspaper and job plant. Bangor had, at one time, three newspapers, the other two being the Bangor Breeze and the Van Blren County Visitor. The locality proved to be too breezy for the Breeze and after a brief career it blew away. There was, for a considerable length of time, a fierce rivalry between the Visitor and the Advance, but the strife ended in 1907 by the amalgamation of the two papers, Mr. Russell purchasing the Visitor outright, its publisher, Mr. B. F. Harris, entering the employ of the Advance as foreman where he has since remained. EARIY LAWRENCE NEWSPAPERS It was not until 1875 that the village of Lawrence could boast of having a newspaper. That year Theodore L. Reynolds established the Lawrence Advertiscr. M1r. Reynolds continued this paper until some time in 1877, when he sold it to Robert L. Warren who published it for three years longer. In 1880, Mr. Warren. becoming the owner of the Decatur Republican, removed the Advertiser plant to Decatur and consolidated the two papers, leaving Lawrence as an open field for some other venturesome newspaper aspirant. A job printing office was continued in the village by different parties, but it was not until November, 1882, that any further effort was made to establish a newspaper, and that effort proved to be exceedingly weak. Messrs. Wilson & Moon started a sheet that they christened the Lawrence Times, but it did not live long enough to learn its own name. Its ambitious originators had no press and their "forms" had to be taken to Paw Paw, nine miles distant, to be printed. Only three issues of the Times ever saw the light of day, and for about three years no further effort was made to publish a paper in Lawrence. In the spring of 1885 G. M. Vining began the publication of a little six-by-nine paper called the Basket of Locals and continued the little sheet until midsummer, when he revived the Times which he continued for five years, but it was too much up-hill traveling; and the Times followed in the wake of its predecessors and lay down and died. For a short time, in 1890, Messrs Cash & Vining published a paper called the Lyre, but it was not a success. Possibly people not up in orthography mistrusted the name and so refused to give it their confidence. The Van Burren County Visitor, mentioned as among the Bangor papers, was first established at Lawrence in 1895 by W. E. Thresher and by him removed to Bangor in 1897.

Page  365 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 365 "LAWRENCE TIMES' After so many abortive attempts to provide the people of Lawrence and the adjacent country with a local newspaper, it seemed that the time was ripe for a successful effort along that line. On the first of January, 1898, Ernest G. Klock, a newspaper man from Holland, Michigan, brought his outfit to Lawrence and started a new paper, taking the old name of the Lawrence Times. It was rather "hard sledding" for the paper and in the fall of 1899 Mr. Klock sold his plant to Miss Vera P. Cobb, of Middleville, Michigan, who conducted it until January, 1901, at which time she disposed of it to James G. Jennings. Mr. Jennings succeeded in giving the paper some prestige and continued to publish it until November, 1909, when he sold it to G. S. Easton of Onsted, Michigan. Mr. Easton has shown himself to be a hustler, has made the Times one of the foremost newspapers in the county and has spared no pains to advance the interests of the town. He has put in a large amount of new material, including a typesetting machine. The business men of the village have accorded him a liberal support and the paper has every appearance of having become one of the well-established, permanent and paying newspaper plants of the county. The first effort at the publication of a newspaper in the little village of Bloomingdale was made in the early seventies when a paper was started at that town, by Mr. W. TW. Secord, under the name of the Bloomingdale Tidings. Mr. Secord continued the publication of this paper for a few years, but it did not prove to be a financial success, finally "lay down and died," and was buried in the newspaper cemetery of the county among numerous other unsuccessful aspirants for journalistic fame and fortune. BL()OOM INGDA.LE LEADER " On the 10th day of June, 1881, undaunted by the fate that overtook the Tidings, Messrs. M. A. Barber and C. F. Smith founded the Bloomingdale Leader, which proved to be possessed of a greater degree of vitality than the Tidings and which is yet, after the lapse of thirty years, still in the ring and doing a prosperous business. Originally, the paper was a five-column folio. Messrs. Barber & Smith continued to publish the Leader for a couple of years when Barber sold his interest to Smith, who became the sole proprietor, and who, in 1892, added new material, put in new presses and enlarged the paper to a five-column quarto, which it has since remained. In 1895 Mr. R. D. Perkins purchased the plant from Mr Smith, and has successfully managed the property

Page  366 366 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY for the past sixteen years. A large two story cement building, which will be the future home of the Leader, is in process of construction and is nearly completed, and the prospect for future successful business was never better than at the present time. " GOBLEVILLE NEWS" The Gobleville News was established in the hustling little village of Gobleville in the fall or 1890, by J. M. Hall, who was its editor and publisher for nearly fifteen years. Under his administration of affairs the paper became a six-column quarto, with two pages only printed at home, the remainder of the sheet being "plate." In August, 1905, the present editor and publisher, J. B. Travis, became the owner of the plant and at once doubled the amount of home matter, giving the patrons of the paper four pages of home news, instead of two as theretofore. In June, 1907, the News moved into new and commodious quarters on State street, which it now occupies. During the six years of the paper under its present management, it has practically doubled its business in all departments, has purchased a full supply of new and up-to-date type and other material including a power press, and now has a superior outfit for a newspaper of its class. Its editor, Mr. Travis. is a "Michigan boy" born in Hillsdale county, and prior to engaging in the newspaper business was superintendent of schools in various localities in the state. SOUTH HAVEN NEWSPAPERS The South Haven Sentinel was the first newspaper to be established in the village (now city) of South Haven. It was founded in 1867, by Capt. David M. Phillips, a veteran of the Civil war, and, unlike most of the first papers started in the county, it proved a success from the start. Captain Phillips, however, did not long retain the ownership of the Sentinel, for one year after it was born he sold it to Dr. Samuel Tobey, who, in turn, transferred it to Capt. W. E. Stewart, another Civil war veteran. Captain Stewart successfully conducted the Sentinel until his death, which occurred on the 11th day of July, 1899. The plant then passed into the possession and management of his daughter, Miss Nellie Stewart, who was a pretty good newspaper man (?) herself. The paper has, since that time, undergone change of name and change of ownership until it has finally landed in the office of the South Haven Daily Gazette. The change of name occurred while the plant was owned and published by Dr. H. M. Spencer, who came into its ownership after Captain Stewart's decease. It was afterward owned and published by O. C. Schmidt. Under his adminis

Page  367 -HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 367 tration the paper was converted into a semi-weekly, but when it passed into its present quarters it was again changed into a weekly. While Captain Stewart owned the Sentinel it was a Republican paper and strenuously advocated the principles of that party. Since his death and since it became an Advocate it has sometimes advocated political ideas which, to draw it mild, have been very much at variance with the convictions of its founder and former owners. In 1878 J. Densmore started a "Greenback" paper in South Haven, which he named the South Haven Record. After less than a year of life in the place of its birth it was sold to Kalamazoo parties and removed to that city where it continued to support the Greenback party until there was no Greenback party to support the Record. There have been numerous other ventures in the newspaper line in South Haven that have had their little day and then passed into oblivion. Among them were the Fonetic Klips, a little monthly sheet issued by Almon J. Pierce. As its title indicates, the purpose of this little monthly novelty was to promote the use of phonetic orthography, of which system the publisher was an ardent supporter. Other papers that have either been consolidated, amalgamated or abrogated are the News, the Avalanche, the Index and possibly others that have had their little day and passed off the stage. There are published in the city of South Haven at the present time, two daily papers-the Tribune and the Gazette; one semiweekly, the Tribune-Messenger, and one weekly, the Citizens Advocate. The Daily Tribune was founded in May, 1899, by Ira A. Smith, who converted it into a stock company. The articles of incorporation were executed on the 31st of July, 1902. The stockholders were Ira A. Smith, Hattie B. Smith and Wilbur G. Smith, and the amount of the capital stock was $10,000. Later the paper passed into the possession of the present owners. The officers of the company are S. H. Wilson, president; C. O. Monroe, vice president, editor and manager; C. J. Monroe, treasurer; F. W. Taylor, manager of advertising and job department. The Tribune is a six column folio sheet. Soon after the paper passed into the possession of the present owners, the Messenger, a weekly paper that was being published in the city at the time, was merged with the weekly edition of the Tribune, under the name of the Tribune-Messenger. This sheet was continued as a weekly until March, 1911, when it was changed to a semi-weekly and so remains. The Daily Gazette was started about the first of May, 1909, with F. T. Lincoln as editor. On the 31st day of July, 1902, articles of

Page  368 368 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY incorporation were filed under the name of the South Haven Gazette Company. The amount of capital stock was fixed at $10,000 and the stockholders were F. F. Rowe and A. E. Kettle, of Kalamazoo, and F. T. Lincoln, of South Haven. Mr. Lincoln continues to be the editor of the paper, which is a seven column folio sheet. The Citizens Advocate, which is the lineal descendant of the Sentinel, the first South Haven newspaper, is also published by the Gazette Company, as a weekly journal. Two dailies, one semi-weekly and one weekly represent a fairly ample supply of newspapers for a town of the size of South Haven, but they all appear to be prospering and to be well patronized. Neither of these journals misses an opportunity to advance the interests of the city and vicinity and the enterprising citizens of the place appear to fully appreciate the efforts of the press in their behalf and to give their papers a generous support.

Page  369 CHAPTER XVII MEDICINE AND SURGERY A[EDICAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH —PREVENTIVE MEDICINE-SURGERYTHE COUNTRY PHYSICIAN AND THE TRAINED NURSE-EARLY PHYSICIANS OF VAN BUREN COUNTY-PAW PAW PHYSICIANS-BANGOR - GOBLEVILLE - HARTFORD - COVERT - LAWRENCE- LAWTON-THE PROFESSION IN SOUTH HAVEN-SOUTH HAVEN CITY IIOSPITAL —DECATUR-WILL CARLETON'S "THE COUNTRY DOCTOR -THE VETERINARY SCIOOL. By Dr. G. W. C(ornish In the compilation of this chapter it has been necessary to digress somewhat from the usual routine of county histories. On account of the wonderful advancement of medicine during the period which this work covers, a general review of the progress of this science would be the history of the progress of medicine in this county. We have summed up as concisely as possible the recent changes that have taken place along this line, and have endeavored to present them in such a manner that they may be readily comprehended and understood by the lay reader and may also prove both interesting and instructive. In a work that covers so much ground it has been necessary to quote (quite freely from the writings of medical profession and others. To those whose kindly assistance and ready response to inquiries have so materially aided us in acquiring much information and data for this chapter, we desire to express our most sincere thanks and hearty appreciation. The problem of public health, always of vital interest, assumes with the advance of civilization, the increase of population, the social and economic condition incident thereto, greater importance from year to year. The one great problem of life is the preservation of health, and this one word covers the whole realm of the physician's labors, and hygiene or science and art of the preservation of health is Vol. 1-24 369

Page  370 370 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY receiving more attention today than ever before. Wherever people have correct ideas as to the requirements of health and make intelligent efforts to obey its laws, sickness is comparatively rare and the very best work both physical and mental is accomplished. Not only does the individual help himself to progress and also those about him, but the community at large is benefited so that "public health is public wealth." There are more people making themselves "physical bankrupts" by violating the laws of health than the great majority of people think. Unfortunately, very few people will regard what the physician says on the subject until it is too late. However, it is the duty of every physician to do all in his power to teach his patrons the laws of the preservation of health and prevention of disease. Roosevelt says: "The preservation of national vigor should be a matter of patriotism." Hygiene can prevent more crime than law. We need education along health lines. "Ignorance is the greatest criminal of the twentieth century. It smothers and strangles more babies, it eats out the hearts of more women, and cuts the throats of more men, it injures more homes, and fills more untimely graves than all the felons who fill the prisons of this world." M-1EDICAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH A marked feature of this age is scientific research, and many great and useful additions have been made to the world's knowledge within the last fifty years. The acquirement of a fuller knowledge of the properties of steam and electricity and their practical employment have revolutionized the world. Iuman conveniences have been multiplied and human comforts have increased, but the results of scientific advancement have not been merely material; they have made for a greater amity and closer union between men and people. Medical science has gone apace with sister sciences. The physician has been no less active than the physicist and the electrician. Within the past three decades a great mass of actual pain has been lifted from off suffering humanity, social conditions have been improved, life has been prolonged, and made better and happier. The world is not ungratefully blind to the fact that progress in medicine and surgery has had an incalculable humanitarian importance. Medical science can boast no less than any other science so far as progress is concerned, though our progress is not so visible to the eye as others are-such as ship-building that made it possible to cross the Atlantic in less than five days; steam and electricity

Page  371 HISTORY OF VAN BIJREN COUNTY 371 which revolutionized the commerce of the world and made it possible to travel sixty miles or more an hour by rail; air ships which fly thousands of feet in the air; the telegraph, telephone, the wireless system which in times of war and storms will be of untold benefit, and I cannot forget the horseless carriages that convey the doctors to suffering patients in almost no time with a speed of from twenty to one hundred miles an hour. These are some of the very conspicuous results of the present day progress in science that strike the eye. But stop and think of the number of human lives saved as a result of medical advancement and of the great undertakings that sanitation and hygiene have made possible as a result of discoveries of causes of disease. It can then be compared more than favorably with the advances made in other branches of science. The doctors are the connecting link between that great medical body which handles the vast majority of the diseases we would prevent and the general public, the victim of those diseases. This means that the doctor is awake and must awaken the people to their duty to themselves and make it plain to them that no man has a right so to keep his house or so to live his life in a civilized community as to jeopardize his neighbor's health or happiness. It is said in China it is the custom to pay the physician a certain amount to keep you well. When the patient is ill the pay ceases. This unique practice has much to recommend it. It means that we, the doctors, shall teach all our people that the duty of keeping clean in a physical sense is as high as that of moral cleanliness. This is accomplished in a great degree by teaching patients how to prevent diseases, how to avoid diseases instead of curing them. PREVENTIVE MEDICINE The Philadelphia Ledger of May 5, 1911, reports in substance the speech of President Taft on preventive medicine: "Whatever,hostages to civilization were given by the United States in the war of 1898 have been wonderfully redeemed. The unwelcome conquest of undesired territory in the tropics has been turned to the world's advantage by the conquest over tropical disease. This is the greatest triumph in the history of the American army. The army did not do it all, nor is the progress achieved since 1898 to be boasted of as a peculiarly national achievement. The study of bacteriology and the causation of disease has been going on in the laboratories and hospitals of the wide world, from British India all the way round the globe, through Europe and America and over the Pacific to Japan. What our army doctors did was to keep

Page  372 372 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY alert to every discovery and suggestion and apply it as the opportunity came to them, with a scientific thoroughness and a military efficiency that changed the whole aspect of life in tropical countries. "Need I remind you of the names of men made famous, who are dear to the hearts of the nation for the great and unselfish work they have done to preserve health and life? Close investigation and experimentation, demonstrated that the dread yellow fever was due to the mosquito and could be banished, and that malaria is not 'bad air' as its name indicates, but it is the poision of a certain kind of mosquito, and 'Yellow Jack' is the same, only a different kind of mosquito. It was early observed that exposure to night air was frequently followed by either malaria or yellow fever, and this as well as other observations gave rise to a supposed similarity of cause of these two diseases. All this is now explained by the discovery of the fact that the two kinds of mosquitoes which communicate these two diseases are night birds. It is all very simple, after we know. It is very gratifying that our country has been able to show to the world one of the most striking examples in the history of preventive medicine by the extermination of yellow fever through the discoveries of Drs. Reed and Carroll, and the practical application of their researches by Colonel Gorgas has made it possible for the nation to undertake a great engineering task for years considered impossible by scientific men of other people. Medical science shall have its share in the glory of the achievement of the Panama Canal, a national dream realized. Were it not for this discovery this great canal could not be completed. If United States had done nothing more than to show the Cubans how to prevent these terrible diseases it alone would have repaid many times over all the loss and suffering of the Spanish war. The redemption of the Philippines from all manner of diseases by efficient sanitation, vaccination and the extermination of disease bearing pests would make the American occupancy of the islands glorious, even if it had accomplished nothing for the mental advancement of the people. " The value of vaccination must be admitted by every sane mind as a preventive of smallpox. In well vaccinated Germany but one person a year in every million dies of smallpox. In England, where vaccination is general but not universal, twenty persons in a million die of the disease. In the Philippine Islands in certain districts where there had been 6,000 deaths annually before vaccination, one year after its completion Dr. Victor G. Heiser reports that not a single death from smallpox has been known. "In the comparative restricted field of military medicine alone

Page  373 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 373 we have but to recall the awful scourge of typhoid fever in the camp at Chickamauga and contrast with it the army reports of today to recognize the astounding progress of twelve years. In the Spanish War hardly a regiment escaped typhoid and the death rate among the affected was appalling. In the division now in Texas living for two months under canvass in a rain soaked country, there has been one case, a civilian, not protected by vaccination against typhoid. Thus by our vaccines and serums, our hygienic and sanitary precautions and by the alert watchfulness of specially trained physicians we are able to prevent epidemics. and how has our mortality decreased." The practitioner of medicine saves lives one at a time, and riglht noble is his calling. But is it not infinitely wiser to prevent the pollution by sewage of a stream supplying a city of a million than to fight that pollution in the bodies of 10,000 innocent victims of filth? Is it not better far to prevent the pollution of our food. houses, vehicles and streets from tuberculosis than to spend millions on treatment and then see our loved ones die by the tens of thousands? Is it not cheaper to spend a hundred million of dollars and rid our country of every mosquito than to see business wither at flood-tide tinder blighting grip of yellow fever, and our kindred and friends perish from the pest. while malaria takes its yearly tribute of thousands of lives in our country and destroys the earning power to the extent of prolalbly $50,000,000() annually and perhaps double that? Shall we not vaccinate all our people at a cost of 25 cents each rather than leave some hundr:ds to die annually, and some other hundreds of thousands to be branded with scars? Vaccination, with re-vaccination until the susceptibility to vaccine is exhausted is an absolute protection from an attack of smallpox, but there is no known remedy which in any way modifies the disease once it is well started. Of no less importance to mankind is the wonderful discovery of diphtheritic anti-toxin. In this country more than 100,000 lives are saved annually by the use of this serum. We shall better estimate the value of disease prevention in our time by considering the losses which the human race has in the past sustained by reason of the non-existence of an adequate and scientific prevention. Take for example the bubonic plague some times called "Black Death," or the "Great Mortality" which is said to be the most dreadful calamity ever visited upon mankind. It is said that when the plague visited London it killed 50,000 people in one year. In Constantinople there were daily more than 10,000 victims. One third the population of Persia is said to have been bestroyed by it and one half the population of Europe was destroyed by this disease in the 14th century. But of the great

Page  374 :374 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY destroyers of mankind none has ever been comparable with tuberculosis —'Great White Plague." It is killing 5,000,000 people in the world every year. However, tuberculosis no longer claims its victims in these days unchallenged as those who contract it are not abandoned as hopeless cases for many in the incipiency of the disease recover. But the cry on all sides is not so much how to cure it as how to prevent it. How to stamp it out. The recent causation of the hookworm disease has likewise been found to have its origin in soil pollution and stagnant waters in a similar manner to that of typhoid as it is an intestinal disease, and now that the cause of this disease is known the spread of it will doubtless soon be under control. Of late years, much interest has been manifested in prevention and cure of one of the most fatal diseases when once infected of any of the contagions, that of tetanus. No doubt the unsuccessfulness of the serum treatment of this disease is largely due to the fact that the treatment is not used sufficiently early. The physicians need the co-operation of legislative bodies in accomplishing a sane Fourth of July, thus doing away with source of infection of a large percentage of this disease. Above we deem sufficient to give the reader some idea of the advancement in medical research in the last few years among infectious and contagious diseases, although many more might be enumerated. The one thing we have done well in the last few years is developing of the preventive side of medicine, the triumph of which we have above mentioned. How is this accomplished? One of the most encouraging features of modern civilization is the general interest which is being aroused in the matter of healthful and hygienic methods of living. All these advances have been the result of agitation and education among the laity, by the progressive physician. Hygienic measures and varied environment have certainly replaced much of the drugging which was the only recourse in former years, but it must be borne in mind that these by themselves have by no means covered the whole treatment of disease as is sometimes fondly imagined, nor do they justify us in withholding other therapeutic agents, already well approved by experience in conjunction with them. Within the last few years there have arisen several non-drug branches of the healing art, such as chiropractic, osteopathy, new thought, Emmanuel movement, magnetic healing, Christian science and other cults or "pathies," nearly all of which could be classed under the head of psycho-therapy or mind cure and massage; each and every one of which has an element of truth on which it bases its claims and in functional troubles, and to some extent in

Page  375 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 375 organic disease, exerts a curative effect. Also infra-red and ultraviolet rays as curative agencies are receiving considerable recognition. Someone says: "One of the most important relationships between the medical profession and citizenship at large exists in the carefully planned and properly carried out system of medical supervision of school children. The influence that physical defects have upon retardation in school work is becoming well recognized. It is a lamentable fact that many school children are unjustly adjudged of being mentally deficient, or dull and backward, when in fact this deficiency is due to remedial physical defects. It is a deplorable fact that thirty per cent of all school children are suffering from diseases of the eye. " Dr. Stanley Hall says: "What shall it profit a child if he gain the whole world of knowledge and lose his own health?" The thinking mind, the equipped mind, and the healthy body are the three things necessary to make the ideal life, and the greatest of these is the healthy body. Our law makers are beginning to recognize the necessity of legislation along these lines. Already a man who risks the spread of tuberculosis and other pulmonary diseases by expectoration in public places is amenable to law. The treatment of children's diseases is now eminently a matter of encouraging national reaction. Air is admitted in abundance, children are properly fed, and they are taught the importance of cleanliness. "Children should be warned against open fruit and candy stands on streets, street soda fountain, open waffle wagons. hokey-pokey ice-cream, and the public drinking cup. Housewives should not buy foods in open, fly-invested markets or those exposed to street dust, flies, animals and promiscuous public handling. Investigate your milkman, your baker, your ice man and your marketman. Know where your ice cream is made and how." These are a few of the instructions of Michigan Board of health. We are becoming forcibly acquainted with the facts of the pernicious character of flies in spreading disease, and are being aroused to the great necessity of destroying them. No longer can we patiently tolerate the little pests good naturedly. Toleration in the matter is a deadly error of omission. We must wage an active warfare upon them in the name of humanity. Never drive a fly from a sick-room but swat him on the spot. SURGERY As to surgery which is p)robably one of the most fascinating divisions of the work of a physician, two prominent discoveries were mnade during the period which we cover that revolutionized the

Page  376 376 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY practice of surgery, namely, anaesthesia and antisepsis. The first abolished pain as a disturbing element during operative procedures, and the second prevented suppuration during the healing process. Together they effect a painless operation and rapid healing of the wound. Operations that a half century ago were unthought of and even unthinkable on account of their danger, are daily performed with the most absolute success. The surgeon of today enters and explores the abdominal cavity with as little hesitancy as he would amputate a toe or finger. The battle field of the late wars bear positive proof of the advancement in surgery. The mortality from wounds being only about one-sixth of that of the wars of a half century ago. Probably no recent discovery has aroused more interest or curiosity in the people of the world than the discovery by Roentgen of Germany in 1895 of the X-ray which is a kind of light produced by electricity and is capable of penetrating wood, flesh, and other organic substances. Practical use of the rays is made in looking within the body so as to determine by sight the condition of the bones and the location of substances imbedded in the flesh. As an adjunct for diagnostic purposes in both medicine and surgery it has proved a wonderful aid. In fractures and dislocations, in locating foreign bodies, in the treatment of some types of skin diseases and cancer, and in the examination of many of the internal organs its value is beyond dispute. THE COUNTRY PHYSICIAN AND TRAINED NURSE The country physician is compelled to handle nearly the entire field of work without assistance. Not even a trained nurse. He usually finds his most difficult cases many miles from help, and nine times out of ten too poor to obtain a nurse or extra physician. Consequently the country physician has to "strip off and sail in." He handles the compound fracture as readily as would a whole hospital staff. Ite comes out as successfully with his transverse or face presentation as the best of the maternity hospital. And many other such cases he handles alone which the city doctor would not undertake without a trained nurse and an extra physician. One of the most valuable accessories in recent years to the successful handling of disease is the trained nurse. Not a few people could bear witness to the fact that they owe their lives to the untiring efforts of the faithful nurse. Only the physician can appreciate at full value her assistance, who during the critical hours, or days or weeks faithfully cares for her patient, watches every symptom, rightly interprets its meaning, whether for good or for

Page  377 HISTORY OF VAN BUREN COUNTY 377 evil, and promptly and intelligently applies the prescribed reinedial measure. Many are the physicians and many are the trustful nurses who have laid down their lives in their efforts to relieve suffering humanity from the ravages of virulent contagions, with no rattle of musketry, no din of battle, no cheers of comrades, no thrilling strains of military music to stimulate and urge them forward to meet the enemy, but calmly and deliberately they place their lives as a bulwark between death and- disease, many times with no prospects of recompense or remuneration other than the conscientious satisfaction of duty to mankind. No annals tell of battles fought and won; no songs tell of their brave deeds; no flowers deck their graves; no anniversaries emulate and commemorate their virtues; no monuments are erected in honor of fallen heroes. And again, the physician who worked and studied hard and long to perfect some wonderful discovery that h