History of St. Joseph County, Michigan; [Vol. 2]
Cutler, H. G. ed. (Harry Gardner), b. 1856., Lewis Publishing Company.

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Page  [unnumbered] HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY MICHIGAN PREPARED UNDER THE EDITORIAL SUPERVISION OF H. G. CUTLER, GENERAL HISTORIAN HON. R. R. PEALER, CHARLES B. KELLOGG, E. B. LINSLEY, MRS. DELIA S. CROSSETTE, MRS. ALICE M. BOSSET, MRS. HENRY CHURCH, MRS.W. C. CAMERON AND OTHER LEADING MEN AND WOMEN, ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORS. ILLUSTRATED VOLUME II PUBLISHERS: THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY CHICAGO NEW YORK

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Page  451 History of St. Joseph County ROBERT CALDWELL HAMILTON was born in La Grange county, Indiana, June 10, 1830. His parents were Alice and Robert Hamilton, who came to this country about 1820, and after some looking about for a suitable place, they settled near the town of Lima, then the county seat of La Grange, Indiana. Here they built a home on the banks of beautiful Crooked Creek, where after battling with the hardships pertaining to pioneer life they as the years passed gathered about them by diligence and labor a fine estate. Here the subject of this sketch, Robert C. Hamilton, was born, one of a family of twelve children. His parents being educated people, they used every effort to give their children educational advantages. The two oldest sons were sent to Gambier College, both taking a classical course in that institution. The oldest,William, after graduating went to Iowa and taught school, and Hugh, the second brother, graduated with honor in the same class with President Hayes. After graduating Hugh joined his brother in Iowa City where they opened the Mechanics Academy. There Robert C. finished his education and later taught school both in Iowa and Indiana. His life has been one of strenuous labor and whether it was farming or other business he did it with all his might. In 1856 he was married to Miss Josephine Ayres. Two children were given them, one son and one daughter, who are to-day valuable citizens. In 1862 Mr. Hamilton moved from the farm to Sturgis, Michigan, where he still lives a much loved and respected citizen. HON. EDWIN W. KEIGHTLEY, a leading attorney of Constantine, Michigan, was born in La Grange county, Indiana, August 7, 1843. His father, Peter L. Keightley, was a native of Boston, England, and came to the United States when sixteen years of age; he was a farmer and millwright, and settled in Indiana in 1836. Peter L. Keightley was the first man to own a threshing machine on White Pigeon Prairie; he died in his eighty-second year. He 451

Page  452 452 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY married Elizabeth Winters, also a native of England, who came to the United States when a girl. They had four children, two sons and two daughters, of whom Edwin is the youngest living. Mrs. Keightley died also in her eighty-second year. Edward W. Keightley attended the common school and academy, and was graduated from the law department at Ann Arbor University in 1865. He established an office in White Pigeon, where he remained until 1867, and at that time located in Constantine; the first year he spent in White Pigeon he published the White Pigeon Republican. In 1872 Mr. Keightley was elected prosecuting attorney, and two years later received the appointment of circuit judge of the Fifteenth Federal District, to fill an unexpired term; in 1875 he was elected for a full term of six years. In 1876 Judge Keightley was elected to Congress and in 1879 was appointed third auditor of the treasury department of U. S., serving until 1885, when Grover Cleveland was elected. In 1886 Judge Keightley removed to Chicago, where he lived until 1899 and then returned to Constantine. He retained his home in Constantine while residing in Chicago. Honorable Keightley has been a lifelong Republican, and an earnest worker in the interests of the party, in other states as well as Michigan; for many years he has been a member of the Masonic order, and has been for thirty-five years a Knight Templar. For thirty-seven years he has been connected with the First State Bank, of which he is a director and the vice president. He owns a fine farm of one hundred eighty-one acres in Colon township, St. Joseph county. Honorable Keightley is well known throughout the county, where he has a host of friends, and is universally liked and respected. In 1868 Honorable Keightley married Mary S. H., daughter of Honorable Thomas Mitchell, of Constantine, who died in 1890; they had four children, all of whom are deceased. He married (second) in 1894, Mrs. Lottie E. Haslett, daughter of Thomas Knowlen, of Constantine. HON. FRANK W. WAIT.-The genealogy of the family of which the subject of this sketch is a representative has been traced back as far as 1075, to William the Conqueror, who gave the earldom, city and castle to Ralph D. Waiet, the son of an Englishman by a Welsh woman, and who married Emma, a cousin of the Conqueror. Among their descendants were Richard, John, and Thomas, who were among the early settlers of New England. Thomas was

Page  453 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 453 the father of Josiah and in turn Josiah was the father of Jonathan G. Waite, the father of Frank W. The older generations of the family spelled their names in many different ways, the variations being as follows: Wayght, Waight, Wait, Waitt, Watt, Weight, Waiet, etc. Jonathan G. Wait was born in Livingston county, New York, November 22, 1811, son of Josiah and Ann (Graham) Wait, natives of Alstead, New Hampshire, where they were reared and married, afterward moving to Livingston county, New York, and later to Lake county, Ohio. Jonathan G. accompanied his parents on their removal to Ohio, and from there, in 1834, came to Michigan, before she had attained the dignity of statehood. He had been reared on a farm, receiving only a district school education, and when he landed in Michigan, a young man of twenty-three, he first settled on Sturgis prairie. Later he became interested in manufacturing, railroading, and politics, and figured in affairs that were state-wide. For a time he was engaged in the manufacture of boots and shoes, later turned his attention to the lumber business, and in 1850 was in the employ of the Southern Railroad Company, securing rights of way, and was a heavy contractor for the road. In 1857 he helped to organize the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad Company; was a director of the company, and superintended the grading of the road. In 1860 he established the Sturgis Journal, which was conducted under his management for a period of ten years, and which exerted an influence for good that was far reaching. His political career covered many years. After serving acceptably in numerous local offices, such as township supervisor, clerk, etc., he was in 1850 elected on the Whig ticket to the State legislature. In 1860 he was honored by election to the State Senate, was re-elected two successive terms, and filled the office with credit to himself and his constituents. October 20, 1839, he married Miss Susan S. Buck, daughter of George and Mary (Hersehey) Buck; she being a native of Erie county, New York, born January 8, 1821. To them were given the following named children: William H. H., born April 25, 1842; Daniel G., March 24, 1844; George, June 18, 1846; Mary E., September 28, 1847; Thaddeus P., December 28, 1849; Arthur H., April 2, 1851; Jay G., August 1, 1854; Jessie, October 14, 1856; Frank W., December 22, 1858, and Lee E., July 22, 1861. Of the Buck family, we record that George Buck was a native of Canada. In 1828, he came west to Michigan, and to him belongs the distinction of having built the first house in the present limits

Page  454 454 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY of the corporation of Sturgis. Susan S. Wait, widow of Jonathan G. Wait, lived in Sturgis eighty-one years, sixty-five years of that time in one house; and died in March, 1909, at the age of eightyeight years. Frank W. Wait, the direct subject of this review, was born and reared in Sturgis. After finishing his studies in the high school, he was one year a student at Hillsdale, Michigan, and in 1877 he went out on the road as a traveling salesman, representing his father's furniture factory, and in this capacity met with marked success. He continued to travel until 1885, when he succeeded his father in the manufacture of furniture, and had charge of the plant until 1888, when it burned, without insurance; a total loss to him. That same winter he rebuilt. He continued the manufacture of furniture until 1897, when he went out of business. Later he turned his attention to the manufacture of ties and hardwood timber, in connection with farming operations, which latter he is still following. He owns 440 acres in St. Joseph county, Michigan, and a thousand acres in Kalamazoo county, this state, both of which are excellent farms, highly improved. At his home farm in St. Joseph county he carried on general farming and stock raising, making a specialty of potatoes, and shipping all his products. Like his father before him, Mr. Wait has long been an important factor in the affairs of his town. His influence has gone far toward locating factories in Sturgis, and in various other ways promoting its best interests. For years he has been active in politics. Two years he was a member of the Board of Guardians at Adrian, Michigan, a position of prominence and trust; and in 1898 he was appointed Special Commissioner of Court Claims, at Washington, D. C., and served a short time, resigning on account of personal business pressure. Later he was appointed by President Roosevelt to the office of United States Marshal, a position he still holds. Mr. Wait is a member of the A. O. U. W., Maccabees, K. of P., I. O. O. F., and F. and A. M., in the last named he having advanced through the degrees of Knight Templar and is a 32d degree Mason. In his religious views he is liberal, inclining toward the Unitarian church. LAWRENCE D. KNOWLES, M. D., was for many years engaged in the practice of his exacting profession in Three Rivers and he long held prestige as one of the able and essentially representative physicians and surgeons of the state of Michigan. He labored with all of self-abnegation and devotion for the alleviation of human dis

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Page  457 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 457 tress and suffering and his sympathy transcended mere sentiment to become an actuating motive for good. Like so many others who have brought to the medical profession the equipment of great minds, marked technical skill and high purpose, he accomplished much, and his gracious personality not less than his professional ability gained and retained to him inviolable friendship among all classes, the while he had the affectionate regard of the many to whom he ministered with so much ability and earnestness. He held a secure place in the regard of his professional confreres and no citizen has enjoyed more unequivocal popularity in his home city and county than did the honored subject of this brief memoir. It is most fitting that in this publication there be incorporated a brief record of the life and labors of this sterling citizen and talented physician. Dr. Lawrence Darling Knowles was born at Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania, on the 30th of November, 1849, and was a son of Lawrence D. and Almira (Fellows) Knowles. The doctor's father was a native of England, where he was reared and educated and whence he came to America in company with his widowed mother, three brothers and one sister. The family home was established in Pennsylvania. Lawrence D. Knowles, Sr., was a skilled mechanic and for a time he was employed as a boat-builder. Later he became identified with the great coal-mining industry in the Keystone state, and he was a successful coal dealer at Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania, at the time of his death. His wife, who was born in Luzerne county, that state, survived him by a number of years. She finally contracted a second marriage, by becoming the wife of Samuel P. Kellam, and both passed the closing years of their lives in the historic old city of Elizabeth, New Jersey. Of the children of the first marriage, six attained to years of maturity, namely: Amanda S., Charlotte, William, Austin, Lawrence D., and Almira. Dr. Lawrence D. Knowles gained his early educational discipline in the common schools of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and in preparation for the work of his chosen calling he first attended a course of lectures in the medical department of the University of Michigan, to which state he came when a young man. He next went to New York City, where he completed the prescribed course in the celebrated Bellevue Hospital Medical College, in which he was graduated as a member of the class of 1874, and from which he received his well earned degree of Doctor of Medicine. Shortly after his graduation the doctor returned to Michi

Page  458 458 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY gan and located in the village of Kendall, Van Buren county, where he was engaged in the practice of his profession for the ensuing six years, within which he made an admirable record and met with excellent success. In 1880 he removed from Kendall to Three Rivers, where he entered into a professional partnership with Dr. William Ikeler, with whom he continued to be associated in practice for several years. After the dissolution of this alliance Dr. Knowles continued in an individual professional business until his death, which occurred on the 29th of December, 1908. He gained precedence as one of the distinguished representatives of his profession in southern Michigan, and for many years he controlled a large and substantial practice, the extent and importance of which gave effective evidence not only of his splendid professional ability, but also of his personal popularity. He kept in close touch with the advances made in the sciences of medicine and surgery, and his devotion to his profession was constant and appreciative during the long years of his faithful and able service. He was humanity's friend and he labored with much of skill and unselfish zeal for the alleviation of suffering. He was kindly, generous and tolerant, and his heart ever responded to the gracious harmony of sympathy, so that he held a secure place in the affection and confidence of those to whom his services were accorded. Dr. Knowles was essentially a man of action, and his energies found exemplification in marked civic loyalty and public spirit, as well as through his active association with various professional, fraternal and social organizations, as well as with the militia of his home state. At the time of his death these organizations offered tributes and resolutions of respect and honor to one who had proved so true and worthy in all the relations of life. The military department of the state, in General Order No. 57, issued from the office of the adjutant general, gave testimony to the high official and professional character of Dr. Knowles, and also offered resolutions of respect and sorrow when he was summoned from the scene of life's mortal endeavors. Resolutions were also adopted by the Michigan State Medical Society and the St. Joseph County Medical Society, both of which indicated high appreciation of the professional talents and personal character of their deceased brother. Three Rivers Lodge, No. 43, Knights of Pythias, prepared and published resolutions of most appreciative order, and another specially generous tribute was that given in a poem contributed by Mary B. McGill, of Constantine, as a memorial to the honored physician and noble friend.

Page  459 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 459 Doctor Knowles was colonel and brigade surgeon of theMichigan National Guard, and with the same, enlisted for service at the inception of the Spanish-American war, in which he became division surgeon, with the rank of colonel, in the United States Volunteers. IHe served as registrar of the Michigan organization of the Military Order of Foreign Wars of the United States, was a member of the United States board of examining surgeons for pensions for St. Joseph county, was a member of Association of Military Associations of the United States, and in addition to being a member of the Michigan State Medical Society, the St. Joseph County Medical Society, and the Kalamazoo District Medical & Surgical Society, of which he was at one time president, he was also an appreciative member of the American Medical Association and was local medical examiner for a large number of the leading lifeinsurance companies. Dr. Knowles was affiliated with the lodge, chapter and commandery of the Masonic fraternity in Three Rivers and with the temple of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine in the city of Grand Rapids. He also held membership in the local lodge of the Knights of Pythias, as already intimated in a preceding statement. He was specially progressive as a citizen and was ever ready to lend his influence and tangible co-operation in the furthering of all movements and enterprises advanced for the general good of the community. In politics the doctor was aligned as a stanch supporter of the principles of the Jacksonian Democratic party, but he had naught of ambition for public office, preferring to give his time and attention to the profession for which he had so admirably equipped himself. On the 26th of April, 1873, was solemnized the marriage of Dr. Knowles to Miss Francella E. Wagar, who was born in Texas township, Kalamazoo county, Michigan, and who is a daughter of Henry and Mary A. (Boylan) Wagar. Hector Wagar, grandfather of Mrs. Knowles, was born and reared in the state of New York, and became one of the sterling pioneers of Kalamazoo county, Michigan, to which locality he came by way of the canal and the Great Lakes to Detroit, from which point the remainder of the journey to Prairie Ronde was made with team and wagon. He secured a tract of wild land in the township of Prairie Ronde, and from this government land he reclaimed a productive farm. He contributed his quota to the development and upbuilding of that section of the state and lived to see the wild country transformed into a well settled and prosperous farming community. The maiden name of Hector Wagar's wife was Sarah Bailey, and she

Page  460 460 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY likewise was a native of the old Empire state; both continued to reside in Kalamazoo county until their death, and their names merit an enduring place on the roll of the worthy pioneers of Michigan. Henry Wagar, father of Mrs. Knowles, was born in Canandaigua, New York, and was a boy at the time of the family immigration to Kalamazoo county, Michigan, where he was reared under the conditions and influences that marked the pioneer epoch. After attaining to years of maturity he purchased a tract of timbered land in Texas township, that county, and in the midst of the forest he erected his primitive log cabin, in which he and his young bride established their Lares and Penates. Laboring with indomitable perseverence, he cleared and improved a fine homestead, and upon the same he continued to maintain his residence until his death, at the age of fifty-one years. His wife, whose maiden name was Mary Ann Boylan, was born in the state of New York and was a daughter of Aaron Boylan, who was either born in Scotland or in America soon after the immigration of his parents to this country. He was reared to manhood in the state of New York, where he continued to maintain his home for a number of years after his marriage. Finally he came with his wife and seven children to Michigan and became one of the early settlers of Kalamazoo county. He purchased land in Texas township and by sturdy and unremitting application he reclaimed from the forest a productive farm, upon which he made substantial improvements, including the erection of well arranged frame buildings. Of the seven children only three attained mature years-William, Mary A. and Albert-and all of these are now deceased. Aaron Boylan and his wife, whose maiden name was Eliza Secoy, and who was born at Batavia, New York, both continued to reside on their old homestead farm until their death, and the latter was seventy-two years of age when summoned to the life eternal. Henry and Mary A. (Boylan) Wagar became the parents of four children-Francella E., the widow of the honored subject of this memoir; Ella S., who is the wife of Albert L. Campbell, now sheriff of Kalamazoo county; William I., who died at the age of thirty-two years; and Dr. Percy E., who died while serving the United States government as governor of one of the Philippine Islands; he was a graduate of the Detroit Medical College and was an able physician and surgeon. Dr. and Mrs. Knowles had no children. Mrs. Knowles has long been a prominent and popular factor in connection with the leading social activities of Three Rivers, where she is a member of the Presbyterian church and also of the Three Rivers Wo

Page  461 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 461 man's Club. Her beautiful home, on Portage avenue, is one of the attractive ones in the little city, and has all the evidences of cultured and refined tastes, and its gracious mistress finds much gratification in opening its hospitable portals for the entertainment of her wide circle of friends. AUGUSTUS M. DUDLEY.-In every community the newspaper press not only exercises most important functions as an exponent of local interests but it represents a most potent and beneficent force where its objective relations are so intimate as in towns of such character as the thriving and attractive village of White Pigeon. Through the columns of newspapers of this class are shown forth the leading business and civic interests of the community, and in the management of an enterprise of this order there is ample field for successful and dignified efforts of most productive character. The White Pigeon News, under the direction of Augustus M. Dudley, its editor and publisher, wields much influence and its progressive policy has been a distinct factor in the conservation and promotion of the best interests of the village. As one of the essentially representative members of the newspaper fraternity of St. Joseph county and as a business man of utmost liberality and progressiveness, Mr. Dudley is well entitled to consideration in this historical publication. Mr. Dudley, who is known to his intimates as "Gus," finds a due meed of gratification in reverting to the Wolverine state as the place of his nativity, as well as of his successful efforts in the newspaper field. He was born in Berrien county, Michigan, on the 6th of January, 1859, and was the fourth of five childrenfour sons and one daughter-born to Oscar A. and Eunice (Carpenter) Dudley. All of the children are still living, and concerning them the following brief data are given: Charles C., who is an optician by profession, resides at Alba, Antrim county, Michigan; Ada, who was graduated in the Michigan State Normal School at Ypsilanti, is now the wife of Rev. J. N. Morris, a resident of Piermont-on-Hudson, New York, and a member of the clergy of the Reformed church; William L. is engaged in the newspaper business at Grand Forks, North Dakota; Augustus M., subject of this review, was the next in order of birth; and Frank O., who is a mechanical engineer, is a resident of Rosendale, Ulster county, New York. Oscar A. Dudley, father of him whose name initiates this article, was a scion of a stanch New England family, founded in

Page  462 462 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY America in the colonial days, and he was born at Guilford Court House, now known as Guilford, New Haven county, Connecticut. He received in his native state, a good common school education, and there he learned the carpenter's trade in his youth. He came to Michigan in the '50s and settled in Berrien county, becoming one of the pioneer carpenters and contractors of the county. He passed the closing years of his life in Antrim county, this state, where he died at an advanced age. He was a representative in the seventh generation of the Dudley family in America, and the original progenitor came from England and settled in Connecticut in 1630. Oscar A. Dudley was a man who ever maintained an inflexible standard of integrity and honor, and he thus commanded the unequivocal confidence and esteem of his fellow men. Through his well directed endeavors he attained a due measure of success in connection with the temporal affairs of life, and he was known as a man of positive views and marked intellectual strength. He gave his support to the Republican party from the time of its organization until his death. Mrs. Eunice (Carpenter) Dudley was a native of Ohio, was a woman of gentle and gracious personality, and was a resident of Berrien Springs, Michigan, at the time of her demise. "Gus" M. Dudley is indebted to the public schools of Berrien county for his early educational discipline, which has been supplemented by individual application and reading, as well as by the training of a newspaper office, whose discipline has been well said to be tantamount to a liberal education. At the age of fourteen years he initiated his association with the "art preservative of all arts" by assuming the dignified and versatile office of "devil" in the office of the St. Joseph. Herald at St. Joseph, Michigan. For a quarter of a century he was connected with the Berrien Springs Era, at Berrien Springs, the judicial center of his native county, and in 1891 he located at Reading, Hillsdale county, where he purchased the plant and business of the Telephone-News, a weekly paper of which he continued editor and publisher for the ensuing seven years. In December, 1908, Mr. Dudley located in White Pigeon, where he became the founder of the White Pigeon News, which is issued on Friday of each week in quarto form, and has gained repute as one of the best country papers in southern Michigan,-a model in letter-press and in handling of subjectmatter. As a worthy exponent of the interests of the community, its news columns are always bright and attractive, and the paper is regarded with pride as a local institution by the people of the

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Page  465 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 465 locality in which it is published and receives their loyal support. The mechanical equipment is of modern order, giving ample facilities for the execution of the best class of job work, for the high grade of which the establishment enjoys a wide reputation. In politics Mr. Dudley has always been a Republican. Both he and his wife hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal church, and the latter has been a teacher in the Sunday school for a considerable period of time, besides taking active interest in other departments of church work. Mr. Dudley is held in high esteem as one of the progressive business men and loyal citizens of White Pigeon, and thus it is pleasing to accord this brief review of his career. On the 2nd of December, 1892, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Dudley to Miss Ada B. Bishop, and to them have been born three children, concerning whom the following specific mention is made: Verna H., who was afforded the advantages of the Michigan State Normal School at Ypsilanti, has been a successful teacher in the public schools of the state; Lynn Bishop, the second, received a high school education and is now employed as advertising manager of the Hillsdale Daily Standard Herald; Dorothy is a member of the class of 1914 in the White Pigeon high school. Mrs. Dudley was born at Allen, Michigan, and is a daughter of Horace L. and Emeline (Allison) Bishop, the former of whom was born in Genessee county, New York, and the latter in Hopewell, Ontario county, New York. Her father was a farmer and contractor, and was an uncompromising advocate of the principles of the Republican party. He died at Allen, Michigan, in 1893. Mrs. Dudley's grandfather, Isaac Bishop, was a valiant soldier of the Continental line in the war of the Revolution, in which he served under General Washington at Monmouth and Valley Forge, and was present at the surrender of Burgoyne at Ticonderoga. Her maternal grandfather, Joseph Allison, was a soldier in the war of 1812. HON. CHARLES B. KELLOGG.-In the annals of Florence township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, we find personages who figure largely in the history of the county, both in the past and present. The following sketch is a brief review of the life of Charles B. Kellogg, one of the most widely known citizens of St. Joseph county. is a native son of the Wolverine state, born in White Pigeon, February 6, 1840, and is the eldest of four children, all sons, born to Charles and Jane (Burnett) Kellogg, but only two are now living:

Page  466 466 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Charles B. and his brother, Norman B. The latter, who is a resident of San Francisco, California, graduated at the Detroit Polytechnic School of Civil Engineering, which profession he now pursues. The father of Hon. Charles B. Kellogg was a native of the Berkshire Hills, in Massachusetts, and was born May 28, 1810. He was there reared and educated, though he was what is termed a selfmade man. He emigrated to Michigan in a very early day, coming to White Pigeon when this country was almost a wilderness, and the Pottawattamie Indians were the principal inhabitants in this region. He erected the first store building in White Pigeon, and of the colonial style of architecture with heavy colonnades in the front entrance. He followed the pursuit of a general merchant for seventeen years in this town. He was a man of great ingenuity and very methodical in his habits. He built with his own hands the first church organ ever in St. Joseph county and his son now has the instrument in his home. The keys are made of horse ribs, and the pipes are made of cedar which he selected from the banks of Pigeon river. This instrument was made in 1840 and is in a good state of preservation. When Mr. Kellogg came to Michigan in 1830, the red men of the forest were plentiful and wild animals abounded. There was not a railroad in the state, telephones and telegraphs were not even dreamed of. He was an enlisted soldier in the Black Hawk War of 1832 but never was sent to the front, as hostilities with the Indians were quelled. Besides being a merchant for many years, he erected the first sugar beet plant in the United States and the building stood on the present site of the paper mill in White Pigeon. His methodical habits were portrayed in the beautiful copper plate penmanship in his bookkeeping, his ledger and cash books are now shown with pride by his son. He could execute engraving upon silver, which was very artistic. Religiously Mr. Kellogg clung to the belief of his Scotch progenitors, the Presbyterian. He was a gentleman well known for his strict business principles and integrity. Politically he was an advocate of the Whig policies, and very ardent in his belief. He died April 12, 1847, and was interred in White Pigeon Cemetery. His wife was a native of Yorkshire, England, born May 15, 1817, and she died February 5, 1892. She received a common school education and was a devout member of the Presbyterian church. She was a faithful wife, a loving mother and a friend to the poor and needy. Charles B. Kellogg of this sketch was educated in the common schools. He early began to hew out his own way in life, and for

Page  467 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 467 twenty-five years he acted in the capacity of a mercantile salesman in the towns of White Pigeon, Mishawaka, Middlebury and Constantine. He well remembers when he was a boy of the primeval conditions of St. Joseph county, Indians were plentiful and ofttimes he has seen a herd of deer and has seen wolves and bears. White Pigeon was the principal stage depot on the Chicago road, which was once an Indian trail. There were no fences, no laid out highways, only an Indian trail. During the cold severe winters he tells of the suffering and death of some of the stage drivers. December 3, 1868, Mr. Kellogg married Miss Anna Dickinson, and one son has graced this union, Charles Marmaduke. "Duke," as he is known by his friends, was reared as a farmer's lad and educated in the Constantine public schools. He spent three years of his life as a salesman in Constantine. He wedded Miss Mary Ketcham and two children were born to them: Gladys J. and Robert N., both in school at present. The mother of these children died February 1, 1902, and Duke chose for his second wife Miss Meda B. Christian, being married December 2, 1903. He is a Democrat and cast his first presidential vote for Grover Cleveland. He resides with his father on the homestead. The mother of Duke Kellogg was born in St. Joseph county on White Pigeon Prairie, October 14, 1840, and educated in common schools. She was of English parentage and was one of six children, three sons and three daughters, born to George, and Sarah (Johnson) Dickinson. None of the family are living, Mrs. Kellogg having died February 28, 1903. She was a loving wife and mother and an earnest member of the Methodist Episcopal church at White Pigeon and was also a worker in Home and Foreign Missions. Mr. Dickinson, her father, came to America when a young man and located at White Pigeon and was one of the early stage drivers. Politically Hon. Chas. Kellogg in his former years was an advocate of the Republican doctrines. The first presidential vote he cast was for Lincoln. He recalls to mind the great Lincoln campaign at White Pigeon and drove four white horses to one of the floats in the parade. When the Populistic idea was spread before the people with its convincing arguments, he embraced that faith and with that party and the Democratic party he has cast his lot. In 1893 Mr. Kellogg was elected on the Fusion ticket as representative of St. Joseph county in the state legislature by one of the largest majorities. The St. Joseph County Pioneer Society was organized in 1873 and he was one of the charter members, and at present is secretary

Page  468 468 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and treasurer of this society and has been for ten years. He is a great friend of the public school system and especially of practical education. His religious faith is that of his Scottish progenitors-the Presbyterian. He is the owner of a beautiful estate of 200 acres of land on White Pigeon Prairie, lying three and one-half miles from White Pigeon and two and one-quarter miles from Constantine. He is a gentleman who has passed almost three-fourths of a century as a resident of St. Joseph county, a gentleman of strict integrity of character and whose aspirations have always been for the elevation of his town, county and state. CHRISTIAN WILHELM is now serving as the mayor of Sturgis, the highest office within the power of his fellow townsmen to bestow, and he is also connected with the city's business interests as one of the proprietors of one of its leading manufactories. 'He is a native son of the fatherland of Germany, born on the 9th of January, 1860, to the marriage union of Peter and Eliza (Ihrig) Wilhelm. The father was a school teacher, and followed that profession for fortytwo years. The son Christian continued his studies until his fifteenth year, receiving in the meantime a good German education, and at that age he began learning the cabinetmaker's trade, also attending night school. He served an apprenticeship of two and a half years as a cabinetmaker, and then became a journeyman. In the fall of 1881 he left Germany for the United States, and making his way to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, where he arrived a poor boy, he found employment within a few days and remained there until 1890. It was in that year that he came to Sturgis, Michigan, as the superintendent of the Grobhiser and Crosby Company, becoming a stockholder of the corporation after the first year, and he remained there for seventeen years or until he organized the Stebbins-Wilhelm Furniture Company, manufacturers of office and parlor tables, as well as special articles. This corporation succeeded the Stebbins Manufacturing Company, and it is now one of the well known and substantial institutions of St. Joseph county. Mr. Wilhelm married in 1887 Anna B. Irick, born in Pennsylvania, and they have had two sons and a daughter: Robert, born in 1888 and now a student in the Lansing Agricultural College; Gladys, born in 1899; and George, who was born in 1890, and died in 1897. Mr. Wilhelm is a member of Meridian Sun Lodge No. 49, and is now a thirty-second degree Mason. MRS. DELIA S. CROSSETTE.-Within the pages of this historical publication there is much that touches upon the lives and deeds of

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Page  474 rRESIDENCE OF MRS. DELIA S. CROSSETTE CONSTANTINE MICHIGAN

Page  475 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 475 the noble and gracious women who have contributed their quota to the social and material development and progress of St. Joseph county, and these records, whether incidental or individual, constitute a most important part of the annals of the county from the time of its formation to the present. In the connection it is a matter of special gratification to be able to present a review of the life history of Mrs. Delia S. Crossette and that of her husband. She is a resident of the attractive village of Constantine, which town figures as the place of her nativity, and is a representative of one of the old and honored pioneer families of the county. Further interest attaches to the record here offered by reason of the fact that Mrs. Crossette has proved a valued factor in connection with the business, social and religious activities of her native village, where she holds a secure place in the confidence and regard of all who know her. Mrs. Delia S. (Harvey) Crossette was born in Constantine, on the 3d of May, 1835, when Michigan was a territory, and is a daughter of Norman and Rhoda (Moore) Harvey, both of whom were born at Rupert, Bennington county, Vermont, where they were reared and educated and where their marriage was solemnized. Both families were founded in New England in the colonial epoch of our national history and both are of stanch English lineage. The parents of Mrs. Crossette were numbered among the many sterling citizens of New England, who contributed so generously to the development of and upbuilding of southern Michigan. which section from the beginning of its settlement drew largely upon New England and New York for the citizenship that has made it one of the most opulent and attractive social and industrial portions of the middle west. In 1833 Norman Harvey and his young wife severed the ties that bound them to their old home and set forth to establish a new home in the comparative wilds of St. Joseph county, Michigan. Both by training and intrinsic strength of character they were well fortified for the tension of pioneer life, and-upon coming to St. Joseph county Mr. Harvey secured a tract of land and established his primitive home on Broad street in the town of Constantine, locating on the land which he purchased from an uncle who had bought it from the government in that early day, the price being $1.25 per acre. Mr. Harvey became the owner of four hundred acres of land and from the forest wilds he developed a productive farm. He was a man of strong character and of insuperable integrity, and he was an influential figure in the early history of the county. Here and in the village Vol. II 2

Page  476 476 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY of Constantine he continued to maintain his home until his death, which occurred on the 17th of April, 1866, and his cherished and devoted wife was summoned to the life eternal on the 5th of March, 1863. He was a Whig in his political allegiance and both he and his wife held membership in the Congregational church of Rupert, Vermont, he as an adherent, and his wife a member in the Dutch Reformed church of Constantine. Of their twelve children Mrs. Crossette was the fourth in order of birth, and of the number only three are now living. Mrs. Delia S. Crossette was reared to maturity in Constantine, to whose pioneer schools she is indebted for her early educational training, which was supplemented by one year of study in Albion College, at Albion, this state. In 1853, she was united in marriage to Millard F. Thayer, who was born in Bennington, Vermont, and who was named in honor of his mother's cousin, Millard Fillmore, at one time president of the United States. Mr. Thayer's death occurred in 1854 and the one child born of this union, Simeon Harvey Thayer, born March 9, 1854, died August 27, 1854. On the 13th of November, 1856, Mrs. Thayer was united in marriage to George I. Crossette, concerning whom more specific mention is made in the following paragraphs. George I. Crossette, of Puritan ancestry, was born in Bennington, Vermont, on the 5th of January, 1823, and was a son of Isaac and Samantha (Pratt) Crossette, the former of whom was a native of historic old Salem, Massachusetts, and the latter was born at Bennington, Vermont. Isaac Crossette was a cabinetmaker by trade and he was also an inventor of no slight ability. His most useful invention was a stave cutter, for which he received a medal from Cooper Institute, in New York City. George I. Crossette was reared to maturity in Bennington, and his initial business experience was there gained as a workman in his father's shop. There he continued to maintain his home until 1856, when he came to the west and located in Joliet, Illinois, where for the ensuing four and one-half years he was engaged in the manufacturing of barrel staves and heading for the wholesale trade. From Joliet he removed to New Buffalo, Michigan, where he established a factory of similar order and where he also engaged in the general merchandise business. After maintaining his residence in New Buffalo for two and one-half years Mr. Crossette removed to Constantine, with whose more important business and civic interests he was thereafter identified until the time of his death. In 1864 he became one of the organizers and incorporators of the First

Page  477 "I HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 477 National Bank of Constantine, and in 1869 he was chosen president of this old and substantial institution,-an office of which he continued incumbent for twenty consecutive years. In June, 1894, after the expiration of its charter, this bank was re-organized as the First State Bank of Constantine, and of the same Mr. Crossette was president from the beginning until he was summoned from the scene of life's mortal endeavors. His liberality and public spirit were potent in the promotion of the industrial and civic upbuilding of Constantine and for many years he held prestige as one of its leading business men and most influential citizens. He was stockholder and executive officer in various industrial and commercial corporations and his capitalistic interests were of wide and varied order. He was loyal to all the duties of citizenship, maintained high civic ideals and was active in public affairs of a local order. Though never ambitious for official preferment, he served one term as president of the village corporation and gave his services in other positions of trust to which he was called through popular demand. He was a valued member of the board of education for the long period of twenty-one years and ever did all in his power to further every project and enterprise tending to advance the general welfare of the community. He was affiliated with the blue lodge, chapter and commandery bodies of the Masonic fraternity, and was also zealous and devoted in connection with religious work. For many years he was an earnest adherent of the Presbyterian church in Constantine, and after its consolidation with the First Cbongregational church he became a member and earnest and liberal supporter of the latter. He was a man of generous impulses and was ever ready to contribute of influence and means to worthy charities and benevolences, though he brought to bear in such connection his fine judgment and discrimination and never made compromises with his convictions for the purpose of gaining popular plaudits. He was a man of more than ordinary intellectual strength, and though he attended school very little after he had attained to the age of twelve years, he had splendid powers of reception and retention, and through his wide and varied reading and his wide association with men and affairs he broadened his mental ken and became a man of extensive and exact information, and of marked culture and refinement. His success was large in connection with the practical affairs of life, and the same was the direct result of his own industry and well directed efforts. He was a veritable optimist, was genial and kindly in his intercourse with all sorts and conditions

Page  478 478 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY of men, and in the midst of the cares and exactions of a long and busy life he never lost his high ideals or his generous tolerance and sympathy. His interests centered in his home and within its sacred precincts he found his greatest happiness, as its relations were ever of idyllic order. He was a musician of no inconsiderable talent and found great pleasure in all kinds of musical interpretations. As a youth he became leader of a band that gained no little reputation in the vicinity of his boyhood home in Vermont, and for nearly fifty years he was found enrolled as a member of a church choir, his love for music having never waned. His political allegiance was given to the Republican party and he was well fortified in his opinions as to matters of public polity. Both Mr. and Mrs. Crossette attended the convention and had seats in the wigwam in Chicago, when Abraham Lincoln was nominated president of the United States in 1860, and they have heard Mr. Lincoln speak. Mr. Crossette was twice married. At Berlin, New York, on the 13th of October, 1851, he wedded Miss Minerva A. Hull, who died four months later. Of his second marriage record has already been made in this context. M'r. and Mrs. Crossette had no children of their own, but out of the kindness of their hearts adopted two children, one of whom is now living,-Emma Crossette who is the wife of Levi A. Strohm in Constantine. This adopted daughter was first married to John J. Proudfit, who died in 1899, and they became the parents of three children, concerning whom the following brief record is but consistent, as Mrs. Crossette finds her claim upon their affections as secure as her interest in them. George A. Proudfit was graduated in the Detroit University School of Detroit, Michigan, and is now a bookkeeper in the employ of the Schwarzschild & Sulzberger Packing Company in the city of Chicago; Mary J., who was educated in the public schools and The Young Ladies' School at Winona, Indiana, having been a student in the art and domestic science departments, now remains at the parental home; Delia Crossette Proudfit, the second of the children is a student in the high school in Constantine. Mr. and Mrs. Strohm have one son, Edward H., who is now attending the public schools. Mrs. Strohm is a lady of more than usual business capacity and very domestic in her tastes. She is original, ig well educated, having also a good musical education. She is refined and admires the beautiful and the best. A lady of great charity, she is always caring for those less fortunate than herself, and she has ever been a loyal and devoted daughter.

Page  479 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 479 Mr. Crossette passed away on the 17th of December, 1894, secured in the high regard of all who knew him and leaving the gracious heritage of worthy thoughts and worthy deeds. One year after the death of her honored husband, Mrs. Crossette became president of the First State Bank, and she retained this office for five years, at the expiration of which she declined reelection, though she is still a member of the directorate of the institution, as was she also of the First National Bank for a period of thirteen years. She has had wide and intimate business discipline and has shown mature judgment and ability in the handling of business affairs of large importance. She has interests in the city of Chicago as well as in Constantine, and has ably managed her portion of the large estate left by her husband. She is a woman of excellent education and of distinctive culture, while her gentle and gracious attributes of character have drawn to her the affectionate regard of those who have come within the sphere of her influences. Her views have been broadened by extensive travel and she is cosmopolitan in her ideas and tastes, though her interests and affections still center in her native town and county in whose history she is well versed and in whose welfare she maintains an abiding interest. In the year 1899 Mrs. Crossette made a tour of Europe and during the same she visited the principal cities and points of interest in Italy, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, France, Spain, England, and Scotland. She has visited the cities of the provinces of Canada, down the St. Lawrence river. She has visited every state in the Union except five and every territory except Alaska and Hawaii. She is a close observer and has made the best use of the fine opportunities afforded her in her travels. During her European tour she took copious notes and after her return to her home she compiled the same into an interesting and instructive paper, which she presented by request before the public schools of Constantine and before the Constantine Woman's Club, with which she is actively identified. Her travels in Mexico, in 1902, also proved a source of great interest and gratification to her and on this trip she visited the Grand Canyon of Arizona. Her tour of the wonderful Yellowstone National Park was also of great pleasure and interest to her. She is an excellent raconteur and her descriptions and reminiscences concerning her extended travels are ever graphic and interesting. Mrs. Crossette traces her ancestral history back to the early colonial epoch in New England. Zachariah Harwood, the father

Page  480 9 480 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY of her paternal grandmother, Mrs. Parmelia (Harwood) Harvey, was one of the patriot soldiers of the Revolution whose company was organized in the town of Bennington, Vermont, October 24, 1764, and which took part in the memorable battle of Bennington, Vermont, under command of General Stark, who on that occasion delivered the memorable words "We will whip the Britishers tonight or Molly Stark will be a widow. " Mrs. Crossette has found much pleasure in genealogical research in both her paternal and maternal lines, and through the service of her ancestors in the Revolution she is eligible for membership in the Daughters of the American Revolution and also the Colonial Dames. She is a most zealous worker in the First Congregational church of Constantine, of which she is a member and gives liberally to the support of its various collateral benevolences, being identified with both the home and foreign missionary societies of the generic church organization. She was president of the Ladies' Aid Society of the Congregational church for five years; since then she has been treasurer holding this position for over sixteen years. She is also treasurer of the Home and Foreign Missionary Societies of the church, which position she has held for twenty consecutive years and is still serving in both societies. Her beautiful and stately home, one of the most attractive in Constantine, was erected by Mr. Crossette, in 1870, and it has ever been a center of most gracious and cordial hospitality. Since her girlhood days Mrs. Crossette has witnessed the wonderful and remarkable progress and development of the United States. She has seen the great railroad systems stretched across the continent like a net work. The invention and introduction of the telephone and telegraph, of natural and manufactured gas, of gasoline, matches, sewing machines, and the clothing which used to be made by hand in the homes now manufactured in the factories. She has watched the advent of electricity into the homes, her own beautiful home being thus lighted and all the cooking being done by manufactured gas. HoN. SAMUEL GIBSON, president of the Commercial State Bank, of Constantine, was born in Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, September 22, 1830, and is a son of John Gibson. John Gibson was a native of Ireland, who came to the United States with his parents when but two years of age, and they settled in Ohio, where he was reared. He was a farmer, and came to Michigan in 1848, locating in St. Joseph county. He held local offices in the township, was a Presbyterian and lived to be about eighty

Page  481 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 481 years of age. He was very successful as a farmer. John Gibson married Elizabeth DeFrance, also a native of Pennsylvania, whose father was French and her mother Irish. Mrs. Gibson died at the age of sixty-five. They have seven children, all of whom grew to maturity, and five are living at this writing, Samuel being the oldest son and third child. Samuel Gibson was in his eighteenth year when the family moved to Michigan. He received a common school education and began working for himself when a young man; he had charge of most of his father's business, and he carried on the farm of two hundred acres, in Constantine township. At the death of his father the homestead was willed to Samuel, on the condition that he pay his brothers and sisters a stipulated sum, and he continued to live here until 1903. He then moved to the town of Constantine, where he now resides. He increased the farm to four hundred and forty acres, paying $100. per acre for one hundred and three acres and $112.50 per acre for the remainder. Mr. Gibson is president of the Central State Bank in Geneseo, Kansas, and besides his interest in the Commercial State Bank of Constantine, has many other interests in the state of Michigan. He has always been actively interested in political affairs, and was a state representative under Governor Pingree's administration. He was also chosen a delegate to the Farmers' National Congress, at St. Paul, Minnesota, in 1897. Mr. Gibson is a member of the Congregational church, and acted many years as trustee. He appreciates the value of a good education, and after sending his children to the public schools of the vicinity, sent them away to acquire the benefits of a higher education. His sons went to Poughkeepsie, New York, and all are doing well. Mr. Gibson himself is a man of liberal ideas, is a great friend of progress, and has a wide experience, having traveled extensively through the west and south. He stands well in the community, where he is well known, and his character appreciated. In 1860 he married Martha J. Greene, and they have six children, namely: Elizabeth J., wife of Thomas Balkwill, of Detroit, Michigan; Caroline, unmarried, living at home; John S., vice president of the Central State Bank, of Geneseo, Kansas; Frances I., wife of William I. Fell, of Battle Creek; Gertrude, at home; and William, living on the old homestead, on Broad Street, Constantine township.

Page  482 482 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY CHAUNCEY J. HALBERT is the present postmaster of Sturgis, and he is one of the prominent public men of St. Joseph county. He was born near Battle Creek in Bedford township, Calhoun county, Michigan, January 11, 1858. He was born on a farm, but after he had attained his fifth year his father, a millwright, lived in different towns in Michigan, and the son in the meantime received a graded school training. At the age of eighteen he was made a freight and ticket agent by the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad Company, filling those positions in Indiana and at Mendon, this state, and for twenty-two years he was their agent at Sturgis. He has since early life been interested in public affairs, and he has served Sturgis as mayor, councilman and postmaster. He filled the office of mayor for two terms, and on the 1st of June, 1906, he was appointed postmaster, under the administration of Roosevelt, a position he has since continued to fill with ability and efficiency. Mr. Halbert is a substantial citizen, taking an active and helpful part in the progress and welfare of his community. He has been twice married, wedding first Miss Lenora Barnebee from Mendon. Two daughters were born to this union, Mary A. and Almeda. The former is a graduate of the Sturgis High School, and was a teacher until her marriage to Walter J. Leinbach, of Three Rivers, this state. Almeda is a graduate of Michigan Seminary, and is the wife of Homer B. Jacobs, a merchant of Sturgis. Mr. Halbert married for his second wife Ella M. Reid, of Mendon, Michigan. Mr. Halbert is a member of Meridian Sun Lodge No. 49, F. & A. M., of Sturgis Chapter No. 26, R. A. M., of Sturgis Council No. 13, R. & S. M., and of Columbia Commandery No. 18, K. T. He stands high in the local councils of the Masonic fraternity. In politics he is allied with the Republican party. The Halbert home is at 205 South Jefferson street, Sturgis. EDWARD W. HOWARD, one of the substantial citizens of White Pigeon, was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, November 16, 1879, and is a son of Horace and Emma (Smith) Howard. He came to White Pigeon with his parents when about one year old, and has since been a resident of this town. Here he received his education in the public schools, and at the age of seventeen years purchased stock and started a livery stable at his father's farm. He started as the youngest business man of the town, and has remained continuously in the same line, nearly as long as any resident of the town, though still young in years. He possessed natural business ability and foresight, and has been very success

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Page  485 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 485 ful. In 1898 Mr. Howard built his present barn. By his strict attention to the wants of his customers, and the upright manner in which his business has been conducted, Mr. Howard has won the confidence of all with whom he has had business dealings, and is considered a representative, useful citizen. He is a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Elkhart Lodge No. 425, and is also insured in the New York Life Insurance Company. September 16, 1900, Mr. Howard married Camilla Houpt, a native of St. Joseph county born in January, 1877. They are the parents of three children, namely: Julia, born July 10, 1902; Emma, April 18, 1904; and Lorraine, April 23, 1908. REV. NEWELL A. McCuNE.-The intellectual powers and consecrated zeal of Mr. McCune have given him prestige as one of the able and honored representatives of the clergy of the Methodist Episcopal church in the state of Michigan, and he is laboring with all of earnest devotion and with marked administrative ability as pastor of the First Methodist Episcopal church of Three Rivers, whose spiritual and temporal affairs are being signally prospered under his regime. Newell Avery McCune was born in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 21st of July, 1881, and is a son of William John and Angeline (Snow) McCune, of whose two sons he is the younger. The elder son, William G., who attended Albion College, in pursuing his studies along academic lines, was later graduated in the law department of the University of Michigan, and he is now engaged in the successful practice of his profession in the city of Petoskey, Michigan, where he is also prominently identified with the insurance business. He and his wife are zealous members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and in his home city he is the valued superintendent of one of the largest Sunday schools in the northern part of the state. William John McCune was born in the city of New York, on the 28th of May, 1843, and he and his wife now reside in Petoskey, Michigan, where he is successfully established in the real estate and insurance business, being one of the honored and influential citizens of that city. He was reared in New York city and Detroit, Michigan, and received collegiate training. His father was born in Scotland, and the present-day scions of the stanch old family manifest the sterling traits that are so characteristic of the people of the land of hills and heather. William J. McCune

Page  486 486 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY is an earnest and consistent advocate of the cause of the Prohibition party and has been from his youth a zealous member of the Methodist Episcopal church, in which his cherished and devoted wife also labored with much of zeal and devotion. She was born in 1846, in the state of New York, and was educated in Cazenovia Seminary. She was a woman of culture and most gracious personality. She passed the closing years of her life in Petoskey, where she died in the year 1891. Rev. Newell A. McCune has been a resident of Michigan from his childhood days and he was reared to years of maturity in the city of Petoskey, to whose public schools he is indebted for his early educational training, which was effectively supplemented by a course in the Michigan Agricultural College, at Lansing, in which he was graduated as a member of the class of 1901. After his graduation, he went to Berea, Kentucky, where he was instructor in agriculture and biology until 1903, after which he was a special student in the University of Michigan for one year. He matriculated in the Union Theological School in the city of Boston, and in this institution he completed the prescribed course, being graduated as a member of the class of 1907, with the degree of Bachelor of Sacred Theology. After effective post-graduate work in the same institution he received therefrom the degree of Master of Arts. In May, 1907, he came to Three Rivers and assumed the duties of his assignment to the pastorate of the First Methodist Episcopal church, one of the oldest and most representative religious organizations in St. Joseph county. Within the pastorate of Mr. McCune the church has expended three thousand dollars in refurnishing and otherwise improving the church edifice, which is now essentially modern and attractive in its appointments, which include a fine pipe organ, installed at a cost of twenty-one hundred dollars. All departments of the church work have been vitalized by Mr. McCune, with the earnest and sympathetic cooperation of the church people, and the membership roll now shows an aggregate of fully four hundred names of those who are active communicants. Mr. McCune is an earnest and effective speaker, and his sermons show careful study and broad intellectual grasp, the while his abiding human sympathy and kindly tolerance add materially to the power of his pulpit utterances as well as to the effectiveness of his other pastoral labors. He and his gracious wife have a secure place in the affection and esteem of the citizens of Three

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Page  489 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 489 Rivers, and Mrs. McCune has proved a most able coadjutor of her husband in connection with his pastoral work. He is a Republican in his political allegiance and as a citizen he exemplifies the highest civic ideals, doing all in his power to further educational, moral and social advancement. On the 19th of June, 1907, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. McCune to Miss Caroline R. Jennings, who was reared in the city of Petoskey, Michigan, in whose public schools she secured her early educational training, which was supplemented by study in the Northern Indiana University, at Valparaiso, and Olivet College, at Olivet, Michigan. Prior to her marriage she had been a successful teacher in the public schools and had also been an instructor in instrumental music. Her parents, William H. and Rachel (Devitt) Jennings, still reside in Petoskey, where her father is a successful horticulturist and business man. THOMAS J. HILL.-Since the coming of Elisha Hill and his family from New York to Colon, Michigan, in 1849, they have played a prominent and praiseworthy part in the affairs of the community. Of the four sons of this worthy gentleman, Thomas J. Hill is the sole survivor, Edwin R. Hill having passed on to his reward in 1909. Thomas J. Hill, the subject of this sketch, is one of the stable men of Colon's commercial citizenship. He is the youngest member of his family, his father and mother and part of their family having come from the Empire State to Indiana, where they stayed for a few years previous to their removal to Michigan. It was in Liberty, Union county, in the Hoosier state that the birth of Thomas J. Hill occurred, the date being October 5, 1840. His parents were Elisha and Pamelia (Pope) Hill, the former being a native of Lebanon, Madison county, New York, where his birth occurred in 1810. He lived to see the greater part of the nineteenth century, his demise occurring in the year 1894. He identified himself with Colon in a manner which has made his memory an honorable heirloom to the younger generation of the town. Although never robust in health his indomitable will and executive ability were such that he enjoyed much success. For some years previous to his establishment of himself in the banking business he engaged in the merchandise business in Colon. He was known for his strict integrity of character and he and his wife were valued members of the Baptist church, having affiliated with it in 1855. Fraternally he was a member of the great Masonic order and politically he subscribed to the principles of Jacksonian Democracy, being ardent in his sup

Page  490 490 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY port of its tenets. He and his sons, Edwin R. and Thomas J. Hill, instituted the E. Hill & Sons Bank in 1870, the father being president, Edwin R. Hill acting as cashier and Thomas J. Hill holding the office of assistant cashier. Pamelia (Pope) Hill was born in Cherry Valley, New York, November 22, 1810. A descendant of General Pope and coming from one of the best known families of the New England states, she inherited strength of character and intelligence to an unusual degree. Always interested in every good work for the benefit of humanity, she had no small part in the upbuilding of the community in which she lived. With her marriage to Elisha Hill in 1836, she accepted the responsibility of helping to rear his three sons by a former marriage, and to them, as well as her own son, Thos. J., she was an ideal mother. To her wise counsel, good judgment and industry may be attributed largely the success of the firm of E. Hill & Sons. In 1897 a beautiful opera house was erected by this firm, and on the night of the opening play, Mrs. Hill, then in her eightyeighth year, was able to attend. As she leaned upon the arm of her son, Thos. J., who assisted her to enter their box, she was greeted with cheers by the audience, many of whom had known and honored her for over half a century, and by whom she is still spoken of as being the life of every social gathering which she attended. In the winter of 1901 she was stricken with paralysis from which she never recovered, her death occurring in March of that year. Thus ended a life of nearly ninety-one years rich in service for the Master and of blessing to mankind, and when the call came "Well done, good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord," it found her ready to go. Thomas J. Hill has passed virtually all his life in St. Joseph county, Michigan. His interests have always been co-incident with the best interests of Colon and he is a successful business man in the truest sense of the word. He attended the public schools and what supplementary education he acquired was of a practical nature. At the age of seventeen he began his experience as a salesman in his father's store, and his career in a mercantile field covered about seven years, in the foregoing capacity and also in a more independent way. As referred to above, in 1870 the father and sons formed a partnership for the establishing of the E. Hill & Sons Exchange Bank, which at a much later date became known as the E. Hill & Sons State Bank. This has a capital of $40,000 and since 1909 Thomas J. Hill has been president of the institution, his son Frank E., filling the office of cashier with entire competency. The

Page  491 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 491 bank is indeed looked upon as one of the solid and substantial institutions of St. Joseph county. Mr. Hill's interests, however, have not been confined to banking. In 1891 he assumed the management and superintendency of the "Lamb Knit Goods Company," which had been organized two years previously. Under the captaincy of Mr. Hill this became one of the leading industries of Colon, its capital stock increasing from $14,000 to $40,000, the business of the concern annually averaging between $200,000 and $250,000. Mr. Hill resigned from the management of "The Lamb Knit Goods Company" in May, 1910, his connection therewith having been of nineteen years' duration. Mr. Hill has been four times married. His first wife was Miss Fannie Crippen, a native of Michigan and the mother of two children. The elder is deceased, but the son, Frank E. Hill, is cashier of the State Bank and one of Colon's favorite sons. After pursuing his education in the public schools he became a student at Hillsdale College. Frank E. Hill has been twice married. His first wife was Miss Mertie Smith and two daughters named Charlotte and Fannie were born. Miss Bertha Good became the second wife and this union has been blessed by the birth of a son, Raymond G., and a daughter, Ruth. Frank E. Hill is a Republican of stanch convictions and is prominently identified with the Masonic fraternity. Thomas J. Hill's present wife was before her marriage to tthat gentleman Mrs. Evelyn (MLcNiel) Doak. Mrs. Hill is prominent in club work and is a member of the Baptist church. She was born in Springport, Michigan, March 31, 1870. She was the youngest daughter of Charles and Sarah (Deyoe) McNiel, who are among the early settlers to come from the state of New York to build a. home in the wilds of Michigan. She received her education in the public school of her home town, and at the high school in Lansing, later being a teacher. Her union to Thomas J. Hill occurred June 8, 1898. They have three children, Marian Elizabeth, born May 23, 1900, who is very proficient in her school work, and gives promise of ability in music and art. Edwin R. Hill, Jr., born Oct. 7, 1901, was named for his uncle, who later had a son by the same name. Edwin, Jr., is now nine years of age, and is by nature fitted to follow his father's foot-steps in the banking business, having been imbued with a strict sense of honesty, which even at his early age gives promise that "as the twig is bent the tree is inclined." Thos. J. Hill, Jr., named for his father, was born July 18, 1910, and at the present time is four

Page  492 492 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY months old, and a source of comfort and pleasure to his parents and brother and sister, especially to his father, who is nearly seventy years of age. The Republican party finds a loyal adherent in Thos. J. Hill and he has been called upon at various times to serve as delegate to county conventions. It would be hard to find anywhere a warmer friend of the cause of good education and the elevation of the standards of the public schools. He is public spirited, and ready to support all measures likely to result in the greatest good to the greatest number, and his genial and cordial manners have gained for him a large following of friends. His residence is one of the most attractive in Colon, which might well be called the town of pretty homes. DR. DENTON SLEEPING GARMENT KNITTING MILLS.-One of the leading industries of St. Joseph county is becoming known throughout the country under the title named above, by those who realize the hygienic necessity of being even more particular in adopting sanitary sleeping garments than those which are worn in the waking hours. At this period of all others, when nature builds up strained or exhausted vitality, it is absolutely essential to health and useful work that everything should be done to assist her in this re-creation of life. The inventor of this garment, those who have improved upon his original ideas, and the manufacturers who have practically carried out every scientific and hygienic requirement to the letter, should be classed as public benefactors. In this class no one can be mentioned who has been more fertile in ideas or more energetic and successful in bringing them into the practical and marketable form of hygienic garments, than Frank S. Cummings of Centerville, secretary and treasurer of the company at that place. The mill was built in 1872 and operated as the Centerville Knitting Company by leading business men and farmers of the vicinity. Among the prominent subscribers to the original stock were H. C. Campbell, Harvey Cady, John C. Joss, W. J. Major, John I. Major, George Yauney and the five Wolf brothers. The first period of the business may be said to have concluded in 1885 and was characterized by considerable friction and rivalry the result being that it was thrown into the courts and assigned to one of the factions. In the year named it was sold to W. D. Ingham and Dr. Whitney Denton and until 1891 was operated under the style of Ingham & Denton.

Page  493 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 493 Mr. Ingham retired from the business in 1891, and his interest was purchased by Frank S. Cummings, H. P. Stewart, and Frank Wolf, all of Centerville. The resulting firm of W. Denton & Company then assumed as a specialty the invention of Dr. Denton, a sleeping garment, the manufacture of the mills having been virtually confined heretofore to men's underwear. At this juncture Dr. Denton emphasized and increased the hygienic quality and features of the goods turned out by the factory, particularly the sleeping garment specialty, and give the business a decided impetus. After the death of Dr. Denton in 1896, the business affairs of the company were much involved for several years, a receivership being appointed in 1899, in order to bring matters into court for adjustment. In 1900 the business was assigned to Messrs. Cummings, Stewart, and Wolf, who immediately inaugurated a revival and expansion of the concern which has resulted in the prosperous manufactory of the present. For a year the enterprise was conducted under the name of the W. Denton Company, but was reorganized in 1901 as a stock concern, called the Michigan Central Woolen Company. The machinery was increased in quantity and improved in quality, a large addition to the original plant was made, and the underwear turned out was of a much higher grade and in far greater bulk. Other parties became financially interested so that the means became fully adequate to the continuous expansion and the improvement along all lines. The increasing sale of the Dr. Denton Sleeping Garment became so emphatic during the first few years of the reorganized business that in 1909 the management deemed it best to discontinue all other lines of manufacture and also to re-incorporate under its present name. The capital stock of the Dr. Denton Sleeping Garment Mills is $50,000. Much credit for the largely increased business is due to W. S. Herron, vice-president, and sales manager and F. W. Thomas, general manager. Both of these gentlemen come from Toledo, Ohio, and have had much business experience. The officers of the company are as follows: Hugh P. Stewart, president; W. S. Herron, vice-president; Frank S. Cummings, secretary and treasurer; F. W. Thomas, general manager; W. E. Clogher, superintendent; and Frank Wolf, director. FRANK SOLOMON CUMMINGS, secretary and treasurer of the Denton Sleeping Garment Mills, with numerous additional interests, is a man whose executive ability has won for him recogni

Page  494 494 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY tion in the business world and whose principles and standards, being above par, have gained for him the respect of the community in which he makes his home. He was born on a farm midway between Centerville and Three Rivers, November 6, 1860, and he is proud of the date, not from any sense of personal gratification, but because it was upon this day that Abraham Lincoln was for the first time elected president of the United States. His parents were Charles and Hannah (Grinnell) Cummings, both natives of New York state. The Cummings family originated in Italy, or rather the genealogy begins in Lombardy, in the fourth century. They crossed the Alps into France in the sixth century, going from there to Scotland, where they remained for centuries and seem to have been conspicuous in many wars. The family was designated as the Cumin Clan and their badge was the cumin plant. The name originated from association with the town of Comines, near Lille, on the boundary between France and Belgium. The direct ancestor of Mr. Cummings came from England (where he had earlier gone from Scotland), to Salem, Massachusetts, in 1627, seven years after the historic "Mayflower" came. This immigrant's name was Isaac Cummings, and he was one of that large colony which formed a settlement in what is now Topsfield and Ipswich, Essex county, Massachusetts. The lineage in the male line is as follows: Isaac, John, Abraham, Jacob, Solomon, Solomon, Charles and Frank Solomon, Mr. Cummings being the eighth generation in this country and named in honor of his grandfather, Dr. Solomon Cummings. When the farm was sold and the family came into Centerville to live, Mr. Cummings was only five years old, and here he has ever since made his home. The father, upon his abandonment of an agricultural career, engaged in the furniture and undertaking business, and to this the son succeeded upon his father's demise in 1883. Mr. Cummings is the second in a family of four children. An elder brother is John G. Cummings and two younger sisters are Mrs. Nellie Shaffer and Mrs. Clara Gladding. With the exception of the father the original family survives. Frank S. Cummings was twenty-two years of age when he assumned the management of his father's business. Some eight years later, in 1891, he made a step which was to prove of importance in his career. In company with Hugh P. Stewart and Frank Wolf he purchased an interest in the Knitting Mills located in Centerville. They were subsequently incorporated under the name of the

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Page  497 RESIDENCE OF MR. AND MRS. EDWARD B. LINSLEY THREE RIVERS, MICHIGAN

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Page  499 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 499 Dr. Denton Sleeping Garment Mills with Mr. Cummings as secretary and treasurer of the concern. This has a capital stock of $50,000, and has proved a successful and growing affair. He is also secretary of the Centerville Power Company; one of the board of managers of the Centerville Water & Electric Light Company, and superintendent of the Prairie River Cemetery. Mr. Cummings is a citizen who keeps in touch with the progress of events and gives his hand to any movement likely to conduce to the common good. He is a straight Republican in politics, and as he himself says, he stays straight by crossing out every crooked man on the ticket. He believes that his party stands for honesty, honor and progressiveness and that there are plenty of good men in it, and that if in a moment of forgetfulness its leaders place in nomination a crooked man, the best interests of the country and the party demand that he should be defeated. He has little use for political bosses and easily recognizes the difference between a boss and a leader. Mr. Cummings regards as the crowning glory of his life, his selection as a delegate to the National Republican Convention, held in Chicago in 1908. His selection as a representative of the Fourth Congressional District resulted from the unanimous request and endorsement of the St. Joseph County Republican Convention. He has also been honored by the village by being created president of the common council. In his youth Mr. Cummings united with the Methodist Episcopal church and he is actively interested in its affairs and gives his support to its good causes. On October 16, 1890, Mr. Cummings took as his bride Miss Eloise S. Peeke, eldest daughter of Rev. and Mrs. A. P. Peeke. Rev. Mr. Peeke was at that time pastor of the Centerville Dutch Reformed Church. Whatever of success or usefulness he may have achieved, Mr. Cummings attributes largely to his wife's aid and sympathy. They have four daughters, Margaret Eloise, Jean Grinnell, Deborah Provost and Josephine Starr. Mrs. Cummings and her daughters are members of and actively identified with the Centerville Presbyterian church. HO-. EDWARD B. LINSLEY.-A citizen who has contributed in a generous measure to the industrial and civic progress of the city of Three Rivers and why may consistently be designated as one of the "captains of industry" in this favored section of the Wolverine state, is Hon. Edward B. Linsley, recently state senator from the sixth district, comprising the counties of Branch, Hillsdale and Vol. II-3

Page  500 500 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY St. Joseph. He has not only shown marked initiative and constructive ability as a business man but he has also been an influential factor in public affairs and has exemplified the most liberal and public-spirited citizenship. He has had much to do with the upbuilding of the business of the Sheffield Car Company, one of the important industrial concerns of the state and one that has added materially to the commercial prestige and business stability of Three Rivers. As one of the essentially representative citizens of St. Joseph county Senator Linsley is entitled to special recognition in this publication. Hon. Edward Baldwin Linsley was born in Henrietta, Monroe county, New York, on the 27th of July, 1847, and is a son of Darius M. and Margaret L. (Baldwin) Linsley. The genealogical line in America is traced back in a direct way to John Linsley, who landed at New Haven, Connecticut, in 1636, and who was living at Branford, Connecticut, in 1644. From 1648 to 1655 he was a resident of Guilford, that colony, where his death occurred, as did also that of his wife, Ellen. Their son, John Linsley, Jr., was born in Branford, Connecticut, in 1644, and at that place, in 1669, was solemnized his marriage. The family name of his wife is not recorded but her Christian name was Hannah. Benjamin Linsley, second son of John and Hannah Linsley, was born in Branford, in 1673. Abial Linsley, the eldest son of Benjamin and Mary Linsley, was born March 22, 1700, and his eldest son, Abial, Jr., was born in 1730. The latter married Thankful Pond, on the 5th of October, 1752. The eldest son of this union was Joel, who was born in North Branford, Connecticut, on the 7th of February, 1756. Abial Linsley, Jr., was a resident of Litchfield county, Connecticut, in 1761, and with a number of other citizens of that county, he became one of the original grantees of the town of Cornwall, Addison county, Vermont; his name appears on the original charter or grant from King George III of England, by the hand of B. Wentworth, governor of the province of New Hampshire. At a later period he was engaged in trade with the Indians on the border of Lake Erie. Joel Linsley, son of Abial Linsley, Jr., was born February, 7, 1756, as already stated. In 1775 he removed from Woodbury, Connecticut, to Cornwall, Vermont, where he became one of the first settlers. At the outbreak of the war of the Revolution the depredations of the Indians made it impossible for the settlers to remain at Cornwall, and Joel Linsley, therefore, returned to Connecticut in 1777. He and his father were both soldiers in the Connecticut

Page  501 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 501 troops in the Revolutionary war, as was also the younger brother, Abial (III). In 1783 the father and sons returned to Cornwall, Vermont, where they made permanent settlement and where the father died in 1800, at the age of seventy years. After a few years Abial (III) removed to Augusta, Oneida county, New York. The following data concerning his children are given, the respective dates of birth being entered in connection with the names: Laura, July 6, 1784; Thankful, July 12, 1786; Clarissa, July 17, 1787; Henry Gilbert, August 3, 1789; and Nancy, September 7, 1791. Joel Linsley, of Cornwall, Vermont, was the great-grandfather of him whose name initiates this article and was a prominent and influential citizen of the old Green Mountain state in his day and generation. He was appointed town clerk of Cornwall at the time of the organization of the town in 1785, and he held this office consecutively for thirty-three years, save for an interim of two years, having been incumbent of the position at the time of his death, in 1818. He also served as chief judge of the county court and represented his town for several years in the state legislature. Judge Joel Linsley married Lavina Gilbert, who was born in December, 1758, and the names of their children are here given, with respective dates of birth: Sally, May 11, 1783; Betsey, September 11, 1785; Horace, December 13, 1787; Joel Harvey (who was for many years well known in New England as the pastor of the Park Church, Boston, and later of the Congregational Church of Greenwich, Connecticut), July 15, 1790; Gilbert, May 9, 1793; Charles, August 29, 1795; Lucius, May 26, 1798; and Julius, February 6, 1801. Sally married Rev. Truman Baldwin, who was for many years engaged in the work of the ministry in the state of New York and who was born in Granville, Massachusetts, September 27, 1780. He died at Cicero, Onondaga county, New York, in 1865, where his wife had passed away in 1862. Their children were: Aurelia, Elizabeth, and Margaret Lavinia, the last mentioned of whom became the wife of Darius M. Linsley, as will be noted more specifically in a later paragraph. Horace Linsley, eldest son of Judge Joel Linsley, was born at Cornwall, Vermont, December 13, 1787. About 1812 he married Temperance Sampson, daughter of Eliphalet Sampson, and their children were Lavina, who was born in 1814, and died in 1834, and Gilbert P., who was born in 1816 and died in 1874. After the death of his first wife Horace Linsley married Abigail Matthews, in 1819. She was a daughter of Dr. Darius Matthews, of Cornwall, Vermont, and her death occurred August 20, 1820. The only

Page  502 502 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY child of the second marriage was Darius M., who was born July 20, 1820, and who was the father of Senator Linsley, the subject of this review. Darius Matthews Linsley was graduated in Middlebury College, Connecticut, as a member of the class of 1841, received the degree of Bachelor of Arts at this time and later his alma mater conferred upon him the degree of Master of Arts. He was twice married. On the 6th of September, 1846, he wedded Miss Margaret L. Baldwin, daughter of Rev. Truman and Sally (Linsley) Baldwin, mentioned in a preceding paragraph. The only son of this union is Edward Baldwin Linsley, to whom this article is dedicated. Darius M. Linsley was a man of fine intellectual attainments and was for many years a successful teacher. For a time he was principal in the city schools of Rochester, New York, later being engaged in educational work in Watertown and Syracuse, New York, and Lyons, Iowa, locating in 1857 in Kalamazoo, Michigan, where he was engaged in the establishment of the Michigan Female Seminary at that place for many years an important factor in the educational system of the state. He passed the closing years of his life near Medina, New York, where he died in 1894. His first wife, mother of the subject of this sketch, was summoned to the life eternal in 1865. Both were devout members of the Presbyterian church. Edward Baldwin Linsley gained his rudimentary education in the public schools of his native state and Iowa, and was a lad of about ten years at the time of the family removal to Kalamazoo, Michigan. There he continued his studies until he had completed the curriculum of the public schools, and in 1867, at the age of twenty years, he came to Three Rivers, where he has since maintained his home and where he has won large and worthy success through his well directed efforts. Upon taking up his residence in Three Rivers, Senator Linsley secured a position as clerk in the drug store of Wing & Major, with whom he remained four years, at the expiration of which he formed a partnership with Ashbel W. Snyder, with whom he was associated in the drug business for a number of years, under the firm name of Snyder & Linsley. In 1881 Senator Linsley became one of the interested principals in the firm of Geo. S. Sheffield & Co. and engaged in the manufacturing of small railway cars and railway velocipedes. From a modest inception has been built up the large and important industrial enterprise now controlled by the Sheffield Car Company, which was organized and incorporated in 1882 and of which he was chosen sec

Page  503 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 503 retary and treasurer. He held this dual office until 1902, when he became general manager of the company, a position he has since retained. Concerning his identification with this business enterprise the following statements were made in a newspaper article and are worthy of perpetuation in this connection: "During all these years of service in the company referred to, Mr. Linsley has had much to do in building up the affairs of the company, especially in the way of advertising its productions. He went to England and thence traveled extensively through Europe, and the result was that orders from foreign countries came to the company, whose business was largely increased." The Sheffield Car Company may consistently be said to represent the most important industrial business in Three Rivers, and in the furthering of its affairs Mr. Linsley has done much to promote the industrial and civic prosperity of the city in which he has so long maintained his home and in which he has ever commanded unqualified confidence and esteem. He has ever shown the deepest interest in all that has tended to advance the business and civic welfare of the city and his public spirit and generosity have been shown along many different lines. He was for several years a member of the city board of education, and in this connection he gave most effective and loyal service in bringing the schools up to the highest possible standard. In 1888 he was elected mayor of the city, of which office he continued incumbent for one term, and it is a matter of record that his administration of municipal affairs was characterized by a broad-minded, progressive and essentially practical policy, making his regime as mayor one of the best in the history of the city. Relative to his active identication with other local interests no better tribute can, perhaps, be given than the following, taken from an appreciative newspaper article: "The organization of a building and loan association was first broached in this city by Mr. Linsley and in association with others he laid the foundations of one of the strongest and most ably managed associations of this kind in the state. This organization was effected in January, 1887, and Mr. Linsley was elected president, a position he has held continuously ever since. While he has had many efficient officials to aid him in the management of the affairs of the association, it is conceded by all who have to do with the concern that its present stability and financial prosperity are largely due to his careful management and his intense interest in the association, which is incorporated under the title of the Three

Page  504 504 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Rivers Building & Loan Association. The result of his work in this direction may be seen to-day all over the city, in the many handsome residences that have been erected and that would never have thus materialized had it not been for the interposition of this association. "Coming down to the time of the establishment of the free public library in this city, we find Mr. Linsley again actively engaged, in building up a library that is now the pride of the city. For several years the library was held jointly by Three Rivers and Lockport township, but, as usual in such cases, a few disgruntled persons in the township became dissatisfied with the small tax required of them for the support of the library, and the result was that the city purchased the entire library, of which it has since remained the sole owner. Mr. Linsley has ever been a warm supporter of the library and about 1903 he opened correspondence with Andrew Carnegie, with the result that the latter donated to the city the sum of twelve thousand five hundred dollars for a library building, on condition that the city raise by taxation twelve hundred and fifty dollars each year for the support of the library. The beautiful library building was completed in 1905, on a fine lot in the heart of the city, and it stands as a perpetual monument to Mr. Linsley's faithful work. The lot on which the building is located was donated by Hon. Warren J. Willits, mainly through the influence of Mr. Linsley. Mr. Linsley has been president of the library from the time of its organization, more than a quarter of a century ago." In politics Senator Linsley has ever been aligned as a stanch advocate of the principles and policies for which the Republican party stands sponsor and he has shown a lively interest in the promotion of its cause. He has been active and influential in its local councils and on the 8th of November, 1904, was given a consistent recognition of his eligibility and loyalty when he was elected to represent the sixth district in the state senate, by a gratifying majority. In 1906 he was chosen as his own successor and thus was given the best voucher for popular appreciation of his services. He has been an effective worker on both the floor and in the committee rooms of the senate and his course has been such as to gain to him the unqualified confidence and commendation of his constituency. His second term expired January 1, 1909. The Senator was actively identified with the Michigan National Guard for a period of ten years, and during much of this time he served as a commissioned officer. He still shows a loyal interest in the state militia and is

Page  505 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 505 ever ready to lend his influence and aid in the promotion of its efficiency and well being. He and his wife are zealous and devoted members of the First Presbyterian church of Three Rivers, in which he has been a ruling elder for many years, and he is identified with various fraternal and civic organizations of representative order in his home city. A man of broad views, of quickened human sympathies and tolerance, democratic in his ways and genial and kindly in all the relations of life, Senator Linsley well merits the high regard in which he is held in the community that has so long represented his home and been the scene of his earnest and fruitful endeavors as an able business man.and loyal citizen. In Three Rivers, on the 21st of September, 1876, was solemnized the marriage of Senator Linsley to Miss Emma L. Burch, who was born in Lapeer county and who is a daughter of the late Captain Hosea Burch, who served with distinction in the Twentyeighth Michigan Volunteer Infantry in the Civil war. Senator and Mrs. Linsley have two children: Raymond Burch, and Margaret Ellen, both being natives of Three Rivers. The son is connected with the Sheffield Car Company, being their purchasing agent, and the daughter has entered her Junior year in Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts. LEVERETT AUGUSTUS CLAPP is one of St. Joseph county's native sons and most honored residents. He was born in its town of Mottville on June 24,1837, and he traces his descent through many generations to one of the most prominent of the early colonists. Roger Clapp, born at Salcombe Regis in Devonshire, England, April 6, 1609, came to America in the ship "Mary and John" and arrived at Dorchester, now the city of Boston, Massachusetts, on the 30th of May, 1630. His life was ever a busy one, and he was said to have been a God-fearing man and forward and earnest in works of benevolence. His ability, energy and sterling character were acknowledged by the colony, for at the age of twenty-eight he was chosen selectman and was fourteen times returned to that office, and he was captain of the militia of the colony, and on August 10, 1665, was appointed by the General Court as captain of the Castle, now Fort Independence, in Boston Harbor. He held that office for twenty-one years, resigning it in 1686, when seventyseven years of age, and as he left the office a volley of nine guns were fired as a token of the honor and esteem in which he was held. He died on the 2d of February, 1691.

Page  506 506 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Roger Clapp married on November 6, 1633, Joanna Ford, she having also been a passenger on the same ship which brought him to America. She was born on the 8th of June, 1617, and she died at Boston on the 29th of June, 1695. The line of descent from Roger and Joanna Clapp includes Preserved Clapp, born November 23, 1643; Roger Clapp (2), born May 24, 1684; Asahel Clapp, born in about the year of 1717; Asahel Clapp (2), born in about 1745; Asahel Clapp (3), born in about 1770; Asahel Clapp (4), born January 24, 1804; Leverett A. Clapp, born in Mottville township, June 24, 1837; and Edwin Lacey Clapp, of the ninth generation from Roger and Joanna Clapp. Asahel Clapp, the fourth of the name, was born at Northampton, Massachusetts, and he married on the 25th of July, 1833, Charlotte A. May, a daughter of Chauncey May of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, where the daughter Charlotte was born on the 8th of June, 1814. In November of 1835 they, as early pioneers, located in Mottville township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, as their permanent home. Asahel Clapp held several important offices in his township and county, and in the year of 1854 was elected on the Republican ticket as the register of deeds. After occupying that office for ten years he moved to White Pigeon and embarked in a mercantile business. Both he and his wife were acceptable members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and in its faith they passed away in death in White Pigeon, he on the 1st of December, 1876, and she on the 11th of April, 1904. Leverett Augustus Clapp received a common school training, and leaving the parental home whenca lad of ten years, he afterward resided with an uncle, M. W. Dimick, on a farm in Florence township for four years, and at that time, although but a boy of fourteen, he was able to manage a peppermint oil distillery as well as the most capable of the men. Moving then to the village of Mottville Mr. Clapp became a clerk in a general store, and with his employer he moved to Shelbyville, Indiana, in 1854, and continued along the same line until January, 1857, when he accepted the position of deputy register of deeds in his father's office at Centerville. In the year of 1864 he was elected to the office and served as a register of deeds for two years and then was not a candidate for re-election. On leaving the office he compiled the books of abstracts of titles of St. Joseph county, although they are not now owned by him. The Republican state convention of 1872 placed Mr. Clapp in nomination for the office of Commissioner of the state land office, to which he was elected in November of

Page  507 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 507 that year and by re-election in 1874 served in the office for four years. He had the management and sale of the state lands, and his office as Commissioner entitling him to a membership on the board of State Auditors which audited all the accounts against the state. In the year of 1870 he was elected secretary of the Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company of St. Joseph county, and he has served in that office for forty years, and from the annual published reports of the state commissioner of insurance it appears that he is the oldest representative in years of service of any secretary of any mutual fire insurance company in the state, a high honor and one greatly appreciated by Mr. Clapp. He takes a deep and commendable interest in the welfare of his company. He has served as executor, administrator and guardian of many estates. He is a Knights Templar Mason, was a worshipful master of Mt. Hermon Lodge No. 24 for four years and high priest of Centerville Chapter No. 11, Royal Arch Masons, for two years. He attends the services of the First Baptist church, and although not a member of the church, he has been a trustee of the corporate body of the church during the past twenty-two years. Mr. Clapp married at Centerville on December 6, 1864, Miss Amanda E. Hampson, who was born here on the 12th of August, 1840, a daughter of Henry W. Hampson, born at Mill Creek in Huntingdon county, Pennsylvania, October 17, 1805. He moved to Centerville on the 13th of November, 1833, where he followed his occupations of carpenter and joiner and farmer. He was for many years a faithful member of and a deacon in the Baptist church, and he died on the 14th of May, 1874. He had married Mahala Fletcher, born at Pompey, Onondaga county, New York, July 30, 1813, and in the year of 1829 she located with her parents in Nottawa township, St. Joseph county, and she was thus numbered among the early pioneers of that community. She died at Centerville on the 30th of October, 1901. Mrs. Clapp received a high school education, and before her marriage was a teacher in the common and high schools. She is a member of the First Baptist church at Centerville. Edwin Lacey Clapp, a son of Le verett and Amanda Clapp, was born at Centerville on September 24, 1865, and he received a high school education and also holds a diploma from Eastman's Business College. He is the present postmaster of Centerville, also the secretary of the Water and Electric Company and he is prominently engaged in the insurance business. Edwin L. Clapp married on

Page  508 508 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY the 7th of November, 1894, Miss Emma Genevieve Sadler, born at Centerville July 8, 1867. RUSSEL RALPH PEALER.-One of the most prominent citizens of St. Joseph county, Michigan, in legal, business and political circles, is Russel Ralph Pealer, who has been a member of the bar of the county since January, 1868. Mr. Pealer was born near Rohrsburg, in Greenwood township, Columbia county, Pennsylvania, January 1, 1842, and is a son of George and Rebecca Boyd (Hampton) Pealer, being of German ancestry on his paternal side and of English ancestry on his maternal side. George Pealer was a son of Daniel and Mary (Kuder) Pealer, and the oldest of twelve children. Daniel Pealer was an extensive farmer and stock raiser, and owned and operated 1,400 acres of land. He was a man of good business judgment and executive ability and at his death left a large estate. George Pealer's mother was a member of a German family and his father's ancestors were from the "Schwartz Wald," or Black Forest of Germany. Rebecca Hampton was a daughter of William and Rosanna (Hopkins) Hampton, and her grandfather, Caleb Hopkins, was a man of superior gifts and education. He was the founder and first rector of the Episcopal church of Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, where he served in that capacity many years, and when a young man served for a time as an officer in the Revolutionary war; he afterwards became rector of the Episcopal church at Angelica, New York. His brother, Usual, was a contractor, and at one time senator in Pennsylvania. George Pealer was born August 22, 1818, in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, and was a farmer and lumberman by occupation. He was a Methodist in church relations. He was an ardent Whig and late a very strong Republican, and served in local offices among them as director of the school board. Rebecca Hampton was born in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1819, and was reared in Angelica, New York, where she received a superior education and became a teacher. Later she taught in Pennsylvania, and at one time boarded in the family of Daniel Pealer, where she became acquainted with her future husband. The boyhood of Russel R. Pealer was spent on his father's farm, and he has always taken an interest in agricultural matters. He studied at home and in the public schools until seventeen years of age, and then entered New Columbia Normal School in Luzerne county, and afterwards the Orangeville Normal in Columbia

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Page  514 RESIDENCE OF JUDGE R. R. PEALER THREE RIVERS, MICHIGAN

Page  515 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 515 county. He often walked five miles to and from school and boarded himself and paid his own expenses most of the time. Mr. Pealer was warmly encouraged by his mother in his efforts to secure a good education, and had a natural fondness for learning, so he read and studied as opportunity afforded, working on the farm during the summer vacations, teaching through the winter, and attending the Normal in the spring and fall terms. He was attending school at the time of the Second Battle of Bull Run, and went to Washington and volunteered to help take care of the wounded. On September 9, 1862, he enlisted for three years as private in Company E, Sixteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, and served until August 11, 1865, when he was honorably discharged. He was promoted from time to time through the grades of noncommissioned officers, to sergeant-major of the regiment, for "meritorious conduct." Later he was commissioned second and then first lieutenant of Company E, and acted as adjutant of the regiment and served on the staff of the commander of the regiment and brigade and at times commanded a company as well as sometimes a squadron, and was assigned temporarily to command the Second Pennsylvania Cavalry at the Battle of Reams Station, Virginia. He was wounded while leading companies E and I in the Battle of Hatcher's Run, Virginia, being carried from the field on a stretcher, and removed a distance of 600 miles to his home on this stretcher. The ball was extracted in Baltimore, and he then proceeded to his father's house in central Pennsylvania, where he was cared for by his mother, until able to return on crutches to his regiment (then near Farmville, Virginia). He participated in thirty-five battles and engagements, taking part in the Chancellorsville and Gettysburg campaigns and was at Shepardstown, Culpeper, Mine Run, Sulphur Springs, through all the Wilderness campaign, at Todd's Tavern, North Anna, Haws Shop, Cold Harbor, in several engagements on the right and left banks of the James river, at Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, Boynton, Plank Road and Hatcher's Run. His service gave him many exciting experiences and he is justly proud of his soldier record. While confined to his bed by his wound he improved the time by studying civil engineering, and after the war he spent some time in surveying, in order to help defray the expenses of his legal education, which he immediately set about acquiring. At the time of enlisting Mr. Pealer had decided to enter Albany Law School in New York, but the call of his country proved too strong for him to resist, with the result as we have seen. He

Page  516 516 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY began reading law at Lynchburg, Virginia, and entered the law office of Robert F. Clark, of Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, September 3, 1865, and was admitted to the bar in that city September 3, 1866, and soon removed to Three Rivers, Michigan, where he entered upon the active practice of his profession November 12, 1867. He had to win his success by patient and earnest endeavor, as for the first four months of his professional career he received $4 and for the first year only $190, while his office rent was $100; however, the second year his cash receipts were $1,551.75 and from that time on he continued to prosper acquiring a large and lucrative practice. He was elected circuit court commissioner and later prosecuting attorney for the county of St. Joseph. It was during his term a grand jury was last called out, thirty-three indictments were returned and three trials followed, and the others all pleaded guilty, and about $1,800 in fines and costs were collected in one term and he was considered an industrious officer throughout. Mr. Pealer served six years, from January 1, 1882, until January 1, 1888, as Circuit Judge of the Fifteenth Judicial Circuit, and the records at Centerville and Coldwater show him to have been prompt and most fair in his decisions, and to have possessed a thorough knowledge and understanding of his profession. Further honor was shown him by the resolution spread upon the court records in February 1888. "Whereas, The Hon. Russel R. Pealer, Judge of this Judicial Circuit, is about to retire from the Bench and resume the practice of his profession: Now therefore, "Resolved, By the Branch County Bar Association, that in all his associations during the past six years with the members of this Bar, whether on or off the Bench, he has been uniformly courteous in his demeanor toward us and a true gentleman in all his relations and that we will cherish his memory with pleasure and gratitude. Presiding with dignity, he was never caustic nor overbearing, always giving a respectful hearing and consideration to the arguments of counsel, his decisions have merited and received our respect, even when against us. Zealous to guard public interests, he has pushed the business of the Court with untiring energy, but at the same time has carefully protected the rights and interests of litigants. An able and conscientious Judge, who has studiously kept himself in line of knowledge and before deciding has carefully investigated all questions coming before him. He has done credit to himself and honor to the Bench from which he is about to retire."

Page  517 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 517 He was afterwards chosen representative to the state legislature, as a Republican, in an adverse district. He served on judiciary and other committees in the session 1889 and took a leading part in the enactment of the Local Option law and in every other important measure of that term. Later he was a candidate for the Republican nomination for judge of the supreme court, and received the vote of every delegate from his county, judicial district and congressional district, as well as a large number of votes from other parts of the state. There were seven candidates and Mr. Pealer had second place, Judge Grant receiving the nomination. Mr. Pealer was generously supported for this nomination on two subsequent occasions. The delegation from his own county was instructed for him for the Republican nomination for Congress in 1892. Mr. Pealer was appointed by Governor Rich, one of the commissioners of the state on compilation of laws, and served in 1897. Governor Bliss appointed him a member of the State Pardon Board, on which he served three years, the last year being president of the board. It is a matter of pride with him that his father and grandfather were ardent Whigs and that at the inception of the Republican party, in the campaign of 1856 his father favored Fremont and in 1860 voted for Lincoln. He was a subscriber of the New York Tribune, edited by Horace Greeley, and it was from the pages of this paper that Russel Pealer gained his first ideas of political affairs. He cast his first vote for Abraham Lincoln in 1864, in the open fields of Virginia while serving as a soldier. The votes were collected and returned to the states from which the soldiers were recruited. He has ever since been a stanch supporter of the principles and platform of the Republican party and has attended many district and State conventions and rendered valuable service in each campaign, and was chairman of the Republican County Committee in the Garfield campaign and made it a live one. Every local speaker was set at work and the last week of the campaign there were twenty-three meetings in the county on one evening. Mr. Pealer has been a member of the Grand Army of the Republic since 1868, and has held all the post and department offices. He has served as post commander, commander of the Department of Michigan, served several times as judge advocate of the department, and at present is Judge Advocate General of the G. A. R. of the United States. He was the first to move for a soldiers' and sailors' monument in Three Rivers and was chairman of the

Page  518 518 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY monument association, and did most to raise the money to build with, and presided at its dedication when the governor and exgovernors and many leading citizens were present, and Washington Gardner delivered the address. He has been commander of the St. Joseph county soldiers' organizations at times. He is also a member of the Loyal Legion, which is composed of commissioned officers who served in the Civil war, and has had the honor of serving as commander of the Michigan commandery. He has attended most of the state and national encampments of the G. A. R. and upon his visit to Europe was given right of way to many places where he might not otherwise have been admitted, on account of his wearing his badge of the Loyal Legion. Among the interesting places he visited was the English House of Commons, and Peace Conference at The Hague. Mr. Pealer is also a member of the Masonic order and a Knight Templar. He has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal church since 1859, and has served as class leader, superintendent of the Sunday school, trustee and steward of the church, delegate to the annual conference and lay delegate from Michigan to the general conference held in New York in 1888. Mr. Pealer was first married, December 25, 1868, to Sallie A. Stevens, the marriage taking place at New Columbus, Pennsylvania. She was a daughter of Benjamin and Mary (Fellows) Stevens, and her ancestors were farmers, of Connecticut stock. She died in September, 1874, leaving two daughters, Anna G. and Mary A. both born at Three Rivers, Michigan. Anna G. married George F. Knappen and they reside at Brookings, South Dakota. They have three bright boys, and Mr. Knappen is a banker. Mary A. married J. W. Breyfogle, a farmer of St. Joseph county, and they have two daughters and three sons. Both daughters were educated in the high school at Three Rivers and at Albion College, and were given every advantage. The grandchildren of Mr. Pealer have a large place in his affections and time, and are a constant source of joy to him. Mr. Pealer married (second) Amanda Stevens, sister of his first wife, who died about a year and a half later. Afterwards he married (third) Sue F. Santee, a highly cultured and well educated lady, who has been a kind mother to his daughters and a good companion and home maker. She is a daughter of William Santee, who was a Methodist minister and strong supporter of David Wilmot, of the "Wilmot Proviso" fame, in whose congressional district Mr. Santee and his family resided. Mrs. Pealer is promi

Page  519 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 519 nent in local women's clubs and is highly esteemed and admired for her many virtues of mind and heart. Mr. Pealer owns a couple of well improved farms, on which he has erected fine buildings, and keeps good stock and raises peppermint among other crops. He also has a fine summer home at Bay View, near Petoskey, Michigan, where the family generally spend a few weeks during July and August of each year. He has been at times a trustee of the Bay View Association and has long been a liberal contributor in every good cause and has served as chairman of the Home Coming and on many other public committees. He has made good investments in western lands, etc., and has often proven his business acumen. He was president of the First National Bank of Three Rivers, for six years and it was during his term that the First National took over the business of the Three Rivers National and was receiver of the First National Bank of White Pigeon and has many financial interests in the county. He has served very creditably in local, school and other affairs. He has always been engaged in the general practice of his profession, except during the time he spent in holding public office. Mr. B. E. Andrews read law with Mr. Pealer and later became his partner, under the name of Pealer and Andrews. This place was later filled by Mr. Pealer's brother, W. O. Pealer, and the firm was known as Pealer Brothers about seven years. W. 0. Pealer then engaged in practice in Duluth, Minnesota, and George E. Miller became associated with R. R. Pealer, under the name of R. R. Pealer and George E. Miller, Att'ys; these two gentlemen have been associated in business together for the last twenty years, and their relations have been mutually pleasant and profitable. They have had a good business in practicing in the U. S. Court, the supreme court and the circuit courts of the state. Mr. Pealer greatly enjoys travel, and has visited Wales, Germany, Holland, Switzerland and France. He is highly esteemed by most who know him, and his legal ability has been widely recognized. He has a host of friends and is very well known throughout many parts of the state. DANIEL M. EVELAND.-One of the venerable and highly esteemed citizens of St. Joseph county is Daniel M. Eveland, who is now living virtually retired in the village of Mendon and who has been a resident of the county for more than a quarter of a century. For many years he was engaged in the paper business and since

Page  520 520 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 1885 he has been actively identified with business interests of Mendon. Daniel M. Eveland was born in West Brunswick, Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, on the 22nd of August, 1836, and is a son of Daniel and Susanna (Freyer) Eveland, both of whom were likewise natives of the Old Keystone state, where the family was founded in the pioneer days. Daniel Eveland, who was a descendant, in a collateral line, of General Burgoyne, became one of the prominent and influential farmers of Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, where he continued to reside until his death, as did also his wife; both were members of the German Reformed church. He was a stanch Republican in his political allegiance and was called upon to serve in various positions of public trust in his home county. Of the children the eldest was Edward R., who was a member of the Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, in the Civil war, and who sacrificed his life in a battle in the state of Virginia; Daniel M., the immediate subject of this sketch; James S. was a member of the Forty-eighth Pennsylvania Infantry and he is now a resident of Tamaqua, Pennsylvania; Lewis B. likewise gave valiant service as a soldier in the war of the Rebellion and was in Kansas City at the time of his death; Henry J., who also was a soldier in the Civil war, is a railroad engineer and resident in Allegan, Michigan; Sarah Ann, twin sister of Daniel H., died in infancy, as did also Elizabeth Hannah; Mary died at the age of five years and Maria C. is the widow of John C. Gallagher and resides in Pennsylvania; and Emma is the widow of Charles Penglase and she also resides in Pennsylvania. Reared to maturity in his native county, Daniel M. Eveland received the advantages of the common schools, and continued as a resident of his native place until 1880, when he came to Michigan and established his home in Schoolcraft, Kalamazoo county, where he was engaged in the printing business about one year. He came to Mendon about twenty years ago and has been a resident here since. Mr. Eveland was one of the gallant sons of the Republic who went forth in defense of the Union in the time of the Civil war. In 1864 he enlisted as a private in Company H, One Hundred Ninety-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, with which he served in the Fifth Army Corps of the Army of the Potomac, under General Warren. He participated in the various engagements in which his command was involved, including that of Pegran Farm, Virginia. He has ever retained a deep interest in his old

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Page  523 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 523 comrades of the Civil war and is now chaplain of the 0. J. Fast Post, No. 193, Grand Army of the Republic, of which he served as commander for several years. He also held the office of colonel of the St. Joseph County Battalion and he has been prominently identified with various demonstrations of the Grand Army of the Republic in his county. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and his political allegiance is given to the Republican party. On the 10th of March, 1859, Mr. Eveland was united in marriage to Miss Amanda R. Zuber, of Drehersville, Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, where she was born and reared, being a daughter of Peter and Elizabeth Zuber, who continued to reside in Drehersville until their death. Concerning the children of Mr. and Mrs. Eveland the following brief record is entered: Elizabeth is the wife of John J. Firestone, who is engaged in the newspaper business in the city of Allegan, Michigan; Caroline died in childhood; Edward Everett died in Ohio at the age of eleven years; Florence Estelle is the wife of Lewis G. Clapp; and Theodore, who was the editor and publisher of the Mendon Leader, resides in Mendon. HIRAM W. HUTTON was born in Bedford county, Pennsylvania, December 7, 1827, a son of Benjamin and a grandson of Levi Hutton, who came to this country from England. Benjamin Hutton married Beulah Harris, born and reared in Pennsylvania, a daughter of Benjamin Harris, a soldier in General Washington's army. In 1847 Benjamin Hutton came with his family to St. Joseph county, Michigan, and here the parents spent the remainder of their lives and died. In their family were six sons and two daughters, including David F., Wesley and Hiram W. Hutton. Hiram W. Hutton was a young man of nineteen years when he came with his parents to St. Joseph county. He had attended school in his native state of Pennsylvania, and he also taught there during one winter. After coming to St. Joseph county he worked by the month as a farm hand, remaining in one man's employ for three years for twelve dollars a month during the summers and ten dollars in the winter. He saved his money and was finally able to buy land of his own, owning now an estate of one hundred and twenty-nine acres in section 30, Constantine township, where he has lived since May of 1855. All of the improvements on his land have been placed there by him. Mr. Hutton married first on March 11, 1852, Emeline Voorheis, born in the state of New York but afterward a resident of Canada. Of their six children two died in infancy, and the four living are Homer F., Charles W., Catherine Vol. II-4

Page  524 524 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY E. and Hattie E. The younger daughter is a graduate of the Constantine High School, and also attended the state normal at Ypsilanti, and she is now teaching in the high school at Bozeman, Montana. The mother of these children died in the fall of 1870, and Mr. Hutton married Sarah Bostock on the 4th of June, 1871. She was born in Yorkshire, England, August 19, 1845, and came with her parents to the United States in 1848. The family first located in Cass county, Michigan, but subsequently came to Mottville in St. Joseph county, where the daughter was reared. Three sons have been born of this union, Edgar C., Hiram M. and Royal C. Mr. Hutton is a Republican voter, and he has attained a high rank in the local councils of the Masonic fraternity, a member of Siloam Lodge, No. 35, F. & A. M., of Constantine Chapter, No. 28, R. A. M., and of Three Rivers Commandery No. 62, K. T. Both he and his wife have attended the Mottville Methodist Episcopal church for many years, Mr. Hutton having been one of its most constant attendants and active workers since 1847. He has served this church as a class leader since 1854, has been twice a delegate to the annual conference, has been one of its efficient local ministers, and during the past fifty-three years has served as its Sundayschool superintendent. He has grown old in the service of his church, and is one of its best loved and most honored members. Mrs. Hutton has been a member of its Ladies' Aid Society for many years. They are revered and esteemed residents of Constantine township, where they have lived for many years, and they are honored for the upright, honest lives which they have lived. ERWIN L. GODFREY, M. D., has been a resident of St. Joseph county from his childhood days to the present time and for nearly thirty-five years he has been actively engaged in the practice of his profession in the village of Colon, where his personal popularity is on a parity with his recognized ability as one of the essentially representative physicians and surgeons of the county. He is an exemplar of the beneficent Homeopathic school of practice and the record of his professional career has been one marked by the most unequivocal success, as well as by unwavering devotion and abiding human sympathy. From the long period of his kindly and effective ministrations to the people of his section of the county it is needless to say that he holds a secure place in the affectionate regard of the community, the while he has ever exemplified the most loyal and progressive citizenship, taking part

Page  525 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 525 in all that has tended to advance the civic and material welfare of his home city and county. Erwin L. Godfrey was born in Wyoming county, New York, on the 28th of September, 1852, and is the eldest child, only son and only survivor of the four children born to Dr. Luman Godfrey and Lydia (Warren) Godfrey, both of whom were born in Wyoming county, New York. Dr. Luman Godfrey was born about the year 1831 and now maintains his home in the village of Kentland, Newton county, Indiana, where he is living virtually retired, after many years of earnest and successful labor as a physician and surgeon of fine ability. Rte came to the west in 1857 and for two or three years thereafter he was engaged in the practice of his profession in the state of Wisconsin. At the expiration of this period, in 1860, he came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, and established his home in the village of Colon, where he continued in the active work of his profession until 1876, when he removed to Kentland, Indiana, which place has since continued to be his home. He is well remembered in St. Joseph county and during his residence here he held prestige as one of the leading physicians and surgeons of this section of the state. He has ever been an uncompromising advocate of the cause of temperance and has been a most zealous worker in behalf of the principles and policies of the Prohibition party. He is a zealous member of the Baptist church, as was also his cherished and devoted wife, and is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Mrs. Lydia (Warren) Godfrey was summoned to the life eternal in the year 1905 and her memory is revered by all who came within the sphere of her gentle and gracious influence. She was a woman of culture and most attractive personality, and prior to her marriage had been a successful and popular teacher in the public schools. Dr. Erwin L. Godfrey was a child of three years at the time of the family immigration from the old Empire state to the west, and was about eight years of age at the time the family home was established in the village of Colon, where he has resided during the long intervening years, which have been marked by large and worthy accomplishment on his part. He was afforded the advantages of the public schools of Colon, as well as those of a business college in the city of Jackson. He has never lacked in decision, self-reliance and resourcefulness, and he early determined to fit himself for the work of the profession in which his honored father had gained such definite success. With this end in view, after having held a clerkship in a drug store in Colon for an in

Page  526 526 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY terval, he began reading medicine under the able direction and preceptorship of his father. This technical training was initiated in the year 1872 and in the following year he was matriculated in Hahnemann Homeopathic Medical College, in the city of Chicago, in which well ordered institution, one of the best of its kind in the Union, he completed the prescribed technical course and was graduated as a member of the class of 1876, duly receiving his well earned tIegree of Doctor of Medicine. In his professional novitiate he was signally favored, in that he was enabled to assume the well established practice that had already been built up by his father in St. Joseph county, as the father removed to Indiana in 1876, as has already been noted in this context. For the long period of nearly thirty-five years has Dr. Godfrey given faithful and effective ministrations in his exacting profession as one of the successful and honored physicians and surgeons of St. Joseph county, and during all this time he has maintained his home in Colon, the while it may consistently be said that in this county his circle of friends is coincident with that of his acquaintances. The Doctor holds membership in the Michigan Homeopathic Medical Society and other professional organizations, and he has continued a close and appreciative student of both medicine and surgery, so that he has kept in touch with the advances made in both sciences and has availed himself of the most modern facilities, methods and remedial agents. He has a large and select library of the best standard and periodical medical literature, as well as a fine general library. His residence, at the corner of Main and Franklin streets, is a modern and spacious brick structure of attractive architectural design and is recognized as one of the finest homes in the county, even as it is known for its gracious and generous hospitality. Well fortified in his opinions as to matters of public import and showing a loyal interest in everything that touches the general welfare of the community, Dr. Godfrey is progressive and publicspirited and is a stanch advocate of the cause of the Republican party, though his loyalty to his profession has been such as to cause him to make all else subservient to its demands, and thus he has never sought or desired public office. He is affiliated with the time-honored Masonic fraternity and various social organizations. Dr. Godfrey has been twice married. In 1873, was solemnized his marriage to Miss B. M. Grover. Mrs. Godfrey was summoned to eternal rest in 1888, and all of the five children survive her. Concerning them the following brief data are incorporated. Clare

Page  527 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 527 E., who is now a resident of Morris, Ripley county, Indiana, is employed in connection with the United States mail service. He availed himself of the advantages of the public schools of Colon, after which he continued his studies for two years in the Michigan Agricultural College, at Lansing. He married Miss Ilda M. Pierce and they have one son, Erwin C. Ina A. is now the wife of John D. Morris, a publisher and prosperous business man of the city of Philadelphia, and they have one daughter, Mary A. Mrs. Morris was graduated in Albion College and for a time she was principal of the high school at Mason, Michigan. Later she attended the medical department of the University of Michigan for two years, but as she proved successful in the selling of high-grade literary works, she gave up the preparation for the medical profession. Prior to her marriage she made an extended sojourn in Europe, and within this period she gave special attention to the study of French and art in the city of Paris. J. L. Godfrey, third child of Dr. Godfrey, was graduated in the Chicago Dental College and is now successfully established in the practice of his profession at Buchanan, Michigan. Glenn E. was graduated in the same college as was his brother, and is now established in practice in his native village of Colon, where he has gained a successful and representative clientage. He married Miss Lelia Cleveland, and they have one daughter, Louise E. Eva E., who was graduated in the Colon high school and who later attended a seminary for young women, in the city of Kalamazoo, is now the wife of Rev. William A. Rex, who is a clergyman of the Reformed church and who is now pastor of St. Paul's church of this denomination in Kansas City, Missouri, where a beautiful church edifice has been erected under his pastorate. Mr. and Mrs. Rex have one son, William Alvin. Dr. Godfrey contracted a second marriage, being united to Miss Julia I. Patridge, who was born and reared in St. Joseph county. Mrs. Godfrey proves a gracious chatelaine of the beautiful home and is a leading factor in the best social activities of the attractive little city of Colon. No children have been born of the second union. DR. JOHN JAMES SWEETLAND, a prominent and successful physician and surgeon of Constantine, was born in Tompkins county, New York, December 28, 1863. He was reared and educated in his native state, and studied medicine with an uncle in Michigan. Later he entered Cincinnati College of Medicine & Surgery, from which he graduated with his degree in 1889.

Page  528 528 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Dr. Sweetland began the practice of his profession in Mottville, St. Joseph county, Michigan, where he continued with success until 1908, and in that year he located in Constantine. Though he has been a resident of the latter city but a comparatively short time, he has made his influence felt, and has won great respect and confidence. He is a member of the County and State Medical Societies, and of the American Medical Association. Politically Dr. Sweetland is a Democrat, though he takes no active part in public affairs, being engrossed in his professional duties. Dr. Sweetland was married, in 1886, to Florence May, daughter of J. R. May, of Edwardsburg, Cass county, Michigan. They became parents of one son, Dennis J., now in South Dakota. ARTHUR W. SCIDMORE, M. D.-It has been given Dr. Scidmore to attain success and prestige in one of the most exacting professions to which man may turn his attention, and he is numbered among the skilled physicians and surgeons of his native state, while in his energy, his fidelity and his earnest devotion to the work of his responsible and humane vocation he gives evidence of those sterling characteristics that have marked the sturdy Scottish race, to which he traces his lineage. He is established in the successful practice of his profession in the city of Three Rivers and is recognized as one of its leading representatives in St. Joseph county. Dr. Scidmore reverts with marked satisfaction to the fact that he is able to claim the Wolverine commonwealth as the place of his nativity, and that he is a scion of one of its worthy pioneer families. He was born on the old homestead farm, in Waterloo township, Jackson county, Michigan, on the 7th of October, 1867, and was the seventh in order of birth in a family of eight children,six sons and two daughters, of whom five sons and one daughter are now living. The honored father, Abraham Scidmore, was born and reared in Saratoga Springs, New York, in which state he was reared and educated. In 1840 he came to Michigan and established his home in Jackson county. He developed one of the valuable farms of Waterloo township and became one of the representative agriculturists of that section, where he gained a fair measure of success as the reward for his indefatigable and earnest efforts as one of the world's noble army of workers. He allied himself with the Republican party at the time of its organization "under the oaks," in Jackson county, was a great admirer of Lincoln and voted for him on each occasion of his candidacy for the

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Page  531 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 531 presidency. He was a man of a high order of intellectual strength and was well fortified in his views as to matters of public polity. He had appreciation of the value of popular education and did all in his power to advance the standard of the public schools of his home county, in order that the rising generation might have advantages that had been denied to him in his youth. He ordered his life upon a high plane of integrity and honor, and the natural result was that he ever commanded the unequivocal esteem of his fellow men. He died on his old homestead farm, in Jackson county, in the year 1879, and his wife is yet living, residing with Dr. Scidmore. Her maiden name was Hannah Swartz, and she was born at Geneva, New York, of German extraction. The influences and conditions that compassed the childhood and youth of Dr. Scidmore were those of the home farm, and the boy soon found many duties devolving upon him in connection with its work, the while he waxed strong in mental and physical powers. His preliminary educational training was gained in the district schools, and after completing the curriculum of the same he entered the high school in the village of Grass Lake, in which he was graduated as a member of the class of 1887, coming forth with a greater appreciation of his dignity and importance than he has ever since been able to muster. In the autumn of the same year he was matriculated in the medical department of the University of Michigan, and in the training and discipline of this famous institution he matured his powers under most favorable circumstances. He completed the prescribed course of study and was graduated as a member of the class of 1890, duly receiving his well earned degree of Doctor of Medicine. He was a close and appreciative student while an undergraduate, and has continued so during his years of active and productive work in his profession, with the advances in both of the departments of which he has kept in constant touch, so that he brings to bear at all times the best learning and skill to be gained from careful and thoughtful study and research in the realms of both medicine and surgery. The ambition and determination of the young student were shown forth in no uncertain way, as he defrayed the expenses of his college course almost entirely through his own efforts. In June, 1890, almost immediately after his graduation, Dr. Scidmore established his residence in Three Rivers and, opening an office of adequate equipment, he initiated the work of his profession. His novitiate was of comparatively brief duration, as he brought to bear not only excellent technical equipment but also a

Page  532 532 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY personality that gained and retained to him the confidence and good will of those with whom he came in contact. His practice has shown a constantly cumulative tendency and is now one of large and representative order. His ministrations have been given with all of zeal, earnestness and ability, and his genial, buoyant nature and abiding sympathy make him a welcome figure at the bedside of the suffering as well as in the social circles of the community. The Doctor is essentially democratic and unostentatious in his bearings, and find the elements of good in all sorts and conditions of men. He is not only a close student of the profession to which he is devoting himself, but he also finds much pleasure and profit in the reading of the best in standard and periodical literature. His library, one of the best in the city, numbers more than seven hundred volumes, including technical works pertaining to medicine and surgery and a wide range of excellent works of a general character. Realizing the great importance of the purity of drugs and chemicals utilized, the finely equipped office of Dr. Scidmore has as a valuable department that devoted to the various remedial preparations demanded in his practice, and by thus handling his drugs in a direct way he is certain to know the definite results and reactions therefrom. His surgical accessories are of the best modern type, and he is specially well prepared to meet all demands placed upon him in the work of his chosen calling. In the midst of the cares and exactions of an essentially busy professional career, Dr. Scidmore has not hedged himself in with narrow barriers, but has found time to denote himself a progressive, liberal and public-spirited citizen. He has shown a commendable interest in all that has touched the welfare of the community, and that his efforts in behalf of good government and civic progress have not lacked popular appreciation is evident when recognition is taken of the fact that he is now serving his third consecutive term as mayor of Three Rivers. His administration has been marked by due conservatism and wise economy, but his policy has been broad and progressive in advocating and furthering those measures and enterprises that have tended to benefit the entire community. The Doctor is uncompromising in his allegiance to the Republican party and has given yeoman service in support of its cause. He has several times been a delegate to the state conventions of the party in Michigan, and in St. Joseph county his name is customarily enrolled on the list of delegates to the county conventions. He served four terms as representative of the First

Page  533 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 533 ward on the board of aldermen and in 1903, by a significantly flattering majority, he was chosen to represent St. Joseph county in the state legislature. The best voucher for the excellence of his service in this capacity is that given by the fact that he was chosen as his own successor in 1905. He was alert, careful and conscientious in his work in connection with the deliberations of the house as well as in the councils of the committee room, and he retired in 1907 with an unblemished record as a loyal and able representative of his constituency and of the interests of the state at large. During his first term he was chairman of the public-land committee and during his second term he was chairman of the committee to which was assigned the work of championing the bill that provided for the general rate of two cents per mile for passenger transportation on all railroads within or traversing the state. He was one of the most zealous advocates of this bill, which was duly passed by both houses of the legislature. In this connection he was made the subject of many commendatory statements in the newspaper press of the state, and he greatly values these evidences of popular approval. Dr. Scidmore is a man of seemingly inexhaustible vitality and energy, and these powers, with his vigorous mental equipment, enable him to compass work that would overtax the capacity of the average man. In his home, city and county, Dr. Scidmore has shown the highest civic ideals and unwavering loyalty. He was foremost among those earnest workers through whose influence was secured to Three Rivers its beautiful public library, and Three Rivers will feel the effect of his work in a Public Park, purchased through his effort, and in an all cement walk system. His enthusiastic co-operation is always to be counted upon in connection with measures projected for the social or material good of the community. He was president of the Three Rivers Lincoln Club, whose definite mission is to further the cause of the Republican party, and he was for three years president of the Three Rivers Improvement Association, organized for the purpose of directing and advancing civic improvements and embellishments. For two years he was chief of the local fire department, and thus it may be seen that his activities know no flagging. He is treasurer of the St. Joseph County Medical Society, and is a member of the Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. He is affiliated with the Free & Accepted Masons, the Chapter of the Royal Arch Masons, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and Castle Hall Lodge, No. 43, Knights of Pythias. Of the last men

Page  534 534 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY tioned organization he served as chancellor commander for two years, and he has twice represented the lodge in the grand lodge of the order in the state. He is a member also of the Uniform Rank of the fraternity, and for four years he was surgeon of the Michigan grand commandery of this branch. He is also examining physician for Three Rivers Camp, No. 840, Modern Woodmen of America. Both he and his wife are zealous members of the Methodist Episcopal church and are active and liberal in the support of the various departments of its local organization. He has been a member of the Michigan State Board of Registration of Nurses for six years, having been appointed by Governor F. W. Warner. On the 5th of November, 1890, was solemnized the marriage of Dr. Scidmore to Miss Louie J. Parsons, and they have an adopted daughter, Margaret, who is now a pupil in the fourth grade of the public schools. Mrs. Scidmore was born in Phelps, New York, and was a child at the time of her parents' removal to Jackson county, Michigan, where she was reared and educated. She was graduated in the Grass Lake high school as a member of the class of 1888, and is a woman of culture and gracious presence. She has delivered public addresses in behalf of the work and support of the Young Women's Christian Association and has delivered effective extemporaneous addresses to the young women at the annual camp meetings held under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal church at Crystal Springs, Berrien county. She is uncompromising in her opposition to the liquor traffic and has given most zealous aid in promotion of the cause of prohibition. She was president of the Epworth League for eight years and vice president of the State Epworth League two years, and of the Women's Club for two years. She graduated from Chautauqua in 1894. Dr. and Mrs. Scidmore are valued and popular factors in the religious, literary and social circles of their home city, and here their circle of friends is coincident with that of their acquaintances. At their attractive home, in Portage avenue, is dispensed a generous hospitality and it is a favorite rendezvous for their wide circle of valued and appreciative friends. CHARLES H. CLARK.-No one could belong more thoroughly to St. Joseph county than Charles H. Clark who was born within its present borders and has within them lived out a useful and successful life as a farmer. It is but natural that he should be widely known in this section of the Wolverine state, and that his

Page  535 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 535 acquaintances are for the most part good friends is an excellent commentary on his character. Mr. Clark's birthplace was Nottawa and the date of his birth January 9, 1848. His parents, William T. and Mary (Twitmyre) Clark were natives of Pennsylvania who came to St. Joseph county some time previous to the middle of the nineteenth century. Seven children were born to them and followed diverse fortunes. John T. lives in Nottawa township; Mary E. is the widow of J. G. Armitage of Central America; Sarah E. is the widow of William P. Leland and resides in Mendon; James W. is a citizen of Concordia, Kansas; Catherine became the wife of George Leland and died in 1873; Cora is the wife of James Mathewson of Mancelona, Michigan; Mrs. Mary Armitage and her husband were missionaries in Central America for the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Armitage died there and daughter Jennie is now engaged in this good work. Mr. Clark received his education in the Michigan public schools, received a practical training in the various departments of agriculture upon his father's farm and remained under the parental roof tree until his marriage in 1875. He became one of Mendon township's property owners by his purchase of two hundred and forty acres of excellent land. This he has improved and put into first-class condition and he may truly be enrolled with the successful and progressive farmers of the locality. He believes not only in keeping in touch with the latest discoveries in his estimable calling, but in studying current events and their bearing on the life of the community in which he makes his home. He gives his allegiance to the Democratic party. On February 9, 1875, Mr. Clark was united in marriage to Miss Mary Baer and two children, Chloe E. and Clyde B., were born to them, both of them living at home. They were both students of the Mendon high school. Mrs. Clark died December 8, 1889, and May 14, 1891, Mr. Clark was a second time married, the lady to become his wife being Miss Catherine Neff. She is a native of Henry county, Ohio, born September 15, 1850, and educated in the common schools. She is a daughter of Michael and Sophia (Shoemaker) Neff, both of German extraction, and both are deceased. The homestead of Mr. and Mrs. Clark is known as "Broad Lands." It is in Mendon township just northwest of the corporate limits of Mendon, Michigan. CLARK RICE.-Among the native-born citizens of St. Joseph county who have spent their lives within its precincts, and have

Page  536 536 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY been prominently associated with its agricultural development and prosperity, is Clark Rice, who was born December 14, 1848, in Fabius, on the homestead where he now resides, a son of the late Stephen Ashley Rice. He comes from honored New England stock. his grandfather, Charles Rice, having been born, October 14, 1788, in Rhode Island. He subsequently removed to New York state, becoming a pioneer of the Genesee valley, where he lived many years. Removing then to Michigan, he spent his last years in Fabius. He married Jane Babbitt. Stephen Ashley Rice was born in Monroe county, New York, in the town of Henrietta, March 9, 1806, and was there bred and educated. In 1829, following the emigrant's trail to Michigan, he settled in St. Joseph county, taking up Government land in section 24, township 6, range 12, west, in what is now Fabius township. Clearing a space in the dense forest, he erected a log cabin, and immediately began the pioneer labor of redeeming a farm from the wilderness. There were no railways in the vicinity for many years, and all supplies had to be brought by team from Detroit, the nearest marketing point. Courageous and persevering, he cleared the land, and made improvements of great value, including the erection of a good set of farm buildings, and a brick residence, the first one of that material in the township. Here he lived, honored and respected as a man and as a citizen, until his death, February 13, 1881. Stephen A. Rice married, December 10, 1834, Lucy Hicks, who was born in Palmyra, New York, May 14, 1813, a daughter of Borden Hicks, and granddaughter of Lawton Hicks, a life-long resident of New England. Borden Hicks migrated from Rhode Island, his native state, to York state, from there coming in pioneer days to Fabius, Michigan, where he spent his last years. He was three times married, his first wife, grandmother of Clark Rice, having been Sarah Starkweather. She was born May 8, 1792, in Preston, New London county, Connecticut, a daughter of Avery Starkweather, and granddaughter of Arthur and Ruth (Ward) Starkweather, the former of whom was born in 1738 and the latter in 1748, their marriage being solemnized in 1766. Avery Starkweather was born in Stonington, Connecticut, October 21, 1767. He married Sarah Meek, who was born in Preston, Connecticut, February 2, 1765, a daughter of Joshua and Lucy (Kimball) Meek. Mrs. Stephen A. Rice preceded her husband to the life beyond, dying on the home farm July 26, 1871. She bore her hus

Page  537 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 537 band six children, of whom but one, Clark, the subject of this sketch, grew to years of maturity. Brought up on the homestead, Clark Rice was educated in the public schools of his district, and on the death of his parents succeeded to the ownership of the entire estate. On September 23, 1873, he married Sarah Shafer, who was born, May 20, 1852, near Fremont, Sandusky county, Ohio, a daughter of John Shafer, and a granddaughter of Adam Shafer. Adam Shafer was born in Pennsylvania, and lived there until after his marriage. He subsequently migrated with his family to Richland county, Ohio, becoming one of the original householders of Belleville. He was very successful in business, becoming owner of large tracts of land in Richland and adjoining counties. John Shafer was born, March 29, 1815, in Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, and was reared in Richland county, Ohio, being taken there by his parents at the age of four years. When he was ready to begin the struggle of life for himself, his father presented him with a tract of timbered land in Sandusky county, Ohio, and he was there busily employed in its improvement until 1865. Emigrating in that year to Fabius, St. Joseph county, Michigan, he purchased land, and was here a tiller of the soil until his death, in September, 1880. John Shafer married Sarah Houston, who was born in Belleville, Ohio, February 6, 1822, a daughter of Samuel Houston. Her paternal grandfather, Hugh Houston, was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, serving under Washington, and an iron kettle belonging to him, and from which coffee was served to the Revolutionary soldiers, has been kept in the family, being now in the possession of Miss Bertha Rice, Mr. Rice's daughter. Born in Newcastle county, Delaware, Samuel Houston inherited the patriotic spirit of his ancestors, and served bravely in the War of 1812. In 1817 he emigrated with his family to Ohio, making the long journey of five hundred or more miles with a team, a large part of the way following a path marked by blazed trees. Following his trade of a millwright, he built and operated one of the first mills in Richland county, carrying on an extensive business, his customers coming from miles away, some on foot, some on horseback, and some with oxen. He married Isabella Hamilton, who was born, March 5, 1805, in Virginia, being descended from the same family that Alexander Hamilton was. Seven children were born to John and Sarah (Houston) Shafer, namely: Mary; Samuel; Sarah, who married Clark Rice; Adam; John; Freeman; and Clinton.

Page  538 538 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Mr. and Mrs. Rice are the parents of two children, namely: Fred and Bertha. Fred married Ethel Catell, and is a resident of Chicago, Illinois. Bertha is a teacher in the public schools in St. Joseph county. Religiously Mr. Rice and his family are Presbyterians. Politically Mr. Rice has been identified with the Democratic party since casting his first presidential vote, in 1872, for Horace Greeley. He has ever taken an active and prominent part in local affairs, and in addition to serving six years as township treasurer has repeatedly been elected township supervisor. He is a member of Masonic Order. ALBERT C. SHIMMEL is a native of St. Joseph county, born in Lockport, January 13, 1858. He is a son of David and Mary (Duncan) Shimmel, the former a native of Jefferson county, New York, born September 23, 1820; he spent his life as a farmer, and came to Michigan in 1844, locating in Nottawa township, where his son now lives. Albert Shimmel's grandfather, John Richard, was born in 1792, in New York state, a descendant of "Mohawk Dutch." The name Shimmel in the Dutch was spelled Schimmelfenning. John Richard Shimmel married Susan Augsbury, and came to Lockport township in 1845, where they spent the remainder of their lives. He died about 1870 and his wife May 23, 1866. To this union were born: David, a farmer; Levi, born in 1822, a carpenter; Solomon, a farmer; Frank, a farmer of Manistee county, Michigan; Elias, died in the army; Susan, wife of Noah Everetts, deceased; Rachel, deceased, married Harrison Vincent; Sabra, married William Bigelow; Ann, deceased, married Dr. Caleb Ward, of Topeka, Kansas. In 1850 David Shimmel married Mary Duncan, and their children were: Fannie, died in infancy; Alicia, died at the age of eighteen; Rachel, unmarried; Albert C.; Ella, wife of Joseph I. Tase, of Athens; Frank, died at the age of eight years; and Jennie, unmarried, living in St. Joseph county. Albert C. Shimmel was educated in his native county, and has always lived on a farm. At the age of nineteen years he began farming with his father, and nine years later commenced farming on his own account. He is an intelligent and enterprising farmer, and has met with well-deserved success. Politically Mr. Shimmel is a Republican. June 12, 1890, Mr. Shimmel married Sarah Hetherington, a native of Florence township, and they have children as follows: Alta, who graduated at the head of her class from Centerville high

Page  539 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 539 school, and will attend college; Earl, born June 12, 1895, attending school; Ethel, born August 6, 1896; Mabel, born in 1898, gives promise of becoming a fine singer; and Lester, born in September, 1900. The entire family have musical talent and good voices, except Mrs. Shimmel. The pretty farmstead is known as "Cherry Grove Farm." REV. JOHN ALLEN GALLAHER.-It is most fitting that, in this history of St. Joseph county and its representative citizens, there be incorporated a brief review of the career of the able and honored pastor of the Presbyterian church in the city of Three Rivers. He is a man of scholarly attainments and in the work of his high calling he has manifested all of consecrated zeal, the while he has not been denied a gracious fruitage in the furtherance of the spiritual and temporal affairs of the various charges which he has held and in which he has labored earnestly to aid and uplift his fellow men in all walks of life. Rev. John Allen Gallaher was born in Ralls county, Missouri, on the 24th of November, 1863, and was the second in order of birth of three sons and three daughters of Rev. Thomas and Sarah (Phillips) Gallaher. Of the children two sons and two daughters are now living. Of these Rev. Thomas F. Gallaher is now pastor of the Utica Presbyterian church, in the city of San Antonio, Texas. Rev. Thomas Gallaher was born in Greene county, Tennessee, April 26, 1832, and he became one of the able and revered members of the clergy of the Presbyterian church, besides which he became a valued factor in connection with educational work, having held for eight years a position as instructor in the public schools of Hannibal, Missouri. He was ordained to the ministry in 1868 and was known as a most able and scholarly speaker, with special facility in the giving of extemporaneous sermons and addresses. He was the author of a valuable book entitled "Baptism," "Gallaher's Short Method," and the same received high commendation by reason of its sound principles and effective handling of an important subject. Mr. Gallaher was educated in Westminster College, at Fulton, Missouri, and in later years he received the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity, in recognition of his scholarly attainments and his ability and noble services as a minister of the gospel. He died, at Rensselaer, Missouri, on October 9, 1909, and his widow now resides with her son in Three Rivers. Her paternal grandfather was a valiant soldier in the Continental line in the war of the Revolution.

Page  540 540 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Rev. John A. Gallaher, the immediate subject of this review, was reared to adult age in his native state, to whose public schools he is indebted for his early educational privileges. After completing the curriculum of the high school at LaGrange, Missouri, he entered the preparatory department of his father's alma mater, Westminster College, in September, 1881, and in this institution he completed the full collegiate course, being graduated June 4, 1886, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He then entered the McCormick Theological Seminary, in the city of Chicago, where he completed the prescribed curriculum and was graduated April 4, 1889. He was ordained to the ministry of the Presbyterian church at Henrietta, Texas, May 8, 1889, and at once assumed his first pastoral charge, at Gainesville, Texas, where he remained until July, 1891, when after a vacation of a few months he assumed the pastorate of the Clifton Heights Presbyterian church in the city of St. Louis, Missouri. This incumbency he retained until November, 1898, when he assumed charge of the Presbyterian church of Belleville, Illinois, where he remained until November, 1903, after which he was for four years pastor of the Avondale Presbyterian church in the city of Chicago. He then, in April, 1908, accepted the call to the pastorate of the Presbyterian church in Three Rivers, where he has since given a most able administration of the temporal interests of the church, in addition to vitalizing its spiritual activities. His fine scholarship, his profound knowledge of the scriptures and his fervid and earnest efforts in furthering the onward march of the church militant, make him a power for good in his present pastorate, where he receives the earnest co-operation of the members of his church. His wife, Mrs. Ada Watson Gallaher, is an efficient helper in every phase of church and social life and makes an ideal home for husband and four children, Raymond, Madelon, Lois and Snellen. Mr. Gallaher has marked musical talent and appreciation, and it should be noted that he was graduated in the musical conservatory of the Presbyterian Synodical College at Fulton, Missouri. During two years of his residence in Chicago, from 1906 to 1908, he was special lecturer on church music and hymnology in McCormick Theological Seminary,-a position for which he was specially qualified, by reason of his studies in music. Progressive and liberal as a citizen, Mr. Gallaher does all in his power to further good government and civic prosperity, and his political allegiance is given to the Republican party.

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Page  543 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 543 AMOS C. WOLF.-One of the honored pioneer citizens of St. Joseph county, with whose history the family name has been closely identified for a period of more than three-fourths of a century, Amos C. Wolf is on this score alone well entitled to consideration in this publication. But in his individuality and personal accomplishment are found other sterling elements that render the more consonant such recognition. He has long been numbered among the able and successful representatives of the great basic industry of agriculture in this favored section of the state and has been a resident of St. Joseph county since his boyhood days. He has assisted in the development and upbuilding of the county, which was scarcely more than a forest wilderness at the time when his parents took up their abode within its borders. He is now one of the venerable citizens of the county and still resides on the fine old homestead farm, in Section 27, Lockport township, that was secured by his father upon coming to the county, in 1834. He has shown progressive spirit in more than one direction, however, and for a long period he was an active and influential factor in public affairs, in the county, besides which he has been largely concerned in banking enterprises and other fields of legitimate business. He is now conceded to be the oldest settler in the county, and none is held in more unqualified confidence and esteem. Amos C. Wolf claims the old Keystone state of the Union as the place of his nativity and the genealogy of the family is traced back to stanch German origin. He was born in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, on the 1st of November, 1829, and is a son of John and Barbara (Dresher) Wolf, both of whom were likewise natives of Pennsylvania, where they were reared to maturity and where their marriage was solemnized. In 1834, when the subject of this review was a child of four years, his parents came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, and took up their residence in Lockport township. His father secured three hundred and twenty acres of government land in section 27, that township, and later became the owner of two other tracts, of eighty acres each, farther north in the same township. The land was to a large extent covered with heavy timber, and thus a gigantic task faced the hardy pioneers upon thus establishing a new home. The first residence of the family was a primitive frame house of the type common to the locality, built by the father. John Wolf was a miller by trade, and as such he found requisition for his services in a number of the early mills established in this section of the state. Under these conditions much of the work of reclaiming the land devolved upon Vol. II-5

Page  544 544 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY his sturdy sons. John Wolf died at the age of fifty-six years, and his wife was seventy-seven years of age at the time of her death. They became the parents of ten children, of whom Amos C. was the eighth in order of birth, and of the number all but one attained to years of maturity. Of the two now living Amos C. is the elder, and his brother, Thomas B. is a resident of Florence, Wisconsin. The parents were persons of great industry and of stanch integrity of character. Both were members of the Methodist Episcopal church and reared their children to lives of righteousness and Christian faith. Amos C. Wolf was reared to the sturdy discipline of the home farm and received such educational advantages as were afforded in the pioneer log school house. He early began to assist in the reclamation and other work of the farm and during the long intervening years he has continued to reside on the homestead to which he came with his parents when he was but four years of age, as has already been stated. Few men of his venerable age in southern Michigan can equal this record and it is certain that no parallel case can be found in St. Joseph county. After his marriage Mr. Wolf continued his association with the work of the home place and in 1869 he erected thereon his present commodious frame house, upon which various improvements have since been made, so that it is modern in its equipment and arrangement and constitutes one of the attractive rural homes of the county. Consecutive industry and progressive methods, coupled with mature judgment and marked discrimination, have enabled Mr. Wolf to gain a substantial competency during his long years of earnest toil and endeavor, and in retrospective view he finds little to regret in having thus continued to make St. Joseph county the scene of his productive activities. In 1881 Mr. Wolf became associated in the organization of the A. C. Wolf and Brothers' Bank at Centerville, the county seat of St. Joseph county. In 1890 he became one of the organizers of the First State Savings Bank of Three Rivers, of which he is now the president and of which his only son, George T., elsewhere mentioned in this volume, is cashier. This is one of the solid and popular financial institutions of the county, and the high reputation of the venerable president has materially contributed to the pronounced success of the enterprise. In politics Mr. Wolf is a Democrat and he has always been identified with the party save during the existence of the Greenback party, when he gave his allegiance to the latter. As the can

Page  545 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 545 didate on the ticket of the Greenback party he was elected county treasurer in 1879, and of this office he was incumbent for two years, during which he gave a careful, conservative and satisfactory administration of the fiscal affairs of the county. He also served for several years in the office of highway commissioner. Mr. Wolf has ever held a secure place in the confidence and esteem of the people of St. Joseph county and is today one of its best known and most highly honored pioneers. He has witnessed the magnificent development and upbuilding of this favored section of the Wolverine state, has contributed much to the civic and industrial progress of his home county, and his reminiscences of the early days are graphic and interesting, being well worthy of preservation in the history of the county. His homestead farm, in Lockport township, now comprises three hundred and twenty acres, and constitutes one of the best improved and most valuable landed estates in this section of Michigan. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity and his wife holds membership in the Presbyterian church. On the 5th of Oct., 1853, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Wolf to Miss Marietta Sickels, who was born in Yates county, New York, on the 28th of February, 1831, and who is a daughter of Garrett Sickels, who came with his family to St. Joseph county, and settled in Lockport township, then Buck's township, in 1831, so that Mrs. Wolf, like her husband, has passed practically her entire life in this county, where she is held in affectionate regard by all who have come within the sphere of her gracious influence. Mr. and Mrs. Wolf became the parents of one child, George T., of whom individual mention is made on other pages of this work. As the gracious shadows of their lives begin to lengthen from the golden west, Mr. and Mrs. Wolf find that their "lines are cast in pleasant places," and, surrounded by a wide circle of devoted and tried friends, they are enjoying the kindly benefices that should ever attend worthy old age. WILLIAM H. MORRISON.-A well-known, capable and successful agriculturist of St. Joseph county, William H. Morrison, of Fabius, owns and occupies a valuable farming estate, on which the greater part of his life has been spent. A man in the prime of life, active and energetic, he has contributed his full share toward the advancement and development of one of the best counties in Michigan, in the meantime proving himself an honest, trustworthy citizen. He was born, August 22, 1863, in Mottville, this county, a son of Andrew J. Morrison, and grandson of William Morrison, an

Page  546 546 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY early pioneer of Michigan. His great-grandfather, Andrew Morrison, was born, October 20, 1778, and at the age of twenty-one years, in 1799, married Sarah Vandercook, a daughter of Henry and Anna (Francisco) Vandercook, early settlers of New' York state, born of Holland ancestry. William Morrison was born in 1801, in New York state, without doubt, and was there reared and married. In 1833, accompanied by his family, he followed the march of civilization westward to Michigan, making the long journey with teams, and bringing all of his household goods with him, bravely daring all the hardships and privations incidental to life in an undeveloped country in order to establish a home where his children and their descendants might enjoy the comforts and even the luxuries of life without the grinding labor and toil in which his years were spent. He lived for two years in Wayne county, from there coming, in 1835, to Fabius, where he secured a tract of timbered land near the south line of the township. He subsequently devoted his time and attention to the clearing of a homestead, on which he resided until his death. His first wife, Permelia Pine, to whom he was married in 1820, died at a comparatively early age, leaving three children, Peter, Arlina, and Andrew J. Andrew J. Morrison was born in Schenectady, New York, December 6, 1828, and was a small child when he came with the family to Michigan. Growing up amid pioneer scenes, he early became acquainted with the hard labor required in improving a farm from the forest, remaining beneath the parental roof-tree until his marriage. He then bought land in Mendon, St. Joseph county, and after living there two years moved to Mottville, where he remained a year. Locating then in Fabius, he purchased a tract of land in the southern part of the township, and a few years later bought the northeast quarter of section twenty-four, in the same township, and with indomitable energy began the improvement of a homestead. He enlarged the few buildings then standing on the place, put up others, and having placed a goodly part of the land under cultivation resided there until his death, in September, 1907. Andrew J. Morrison married, in 1856, Sarah Hamilton, who was born December 1, 1836, on Broad street, Constantine, St: Joseph county, Michigan. Her father, Hon. John Hamilton, was born and bred in New York state, but subsequently became one of the pioneer settlers of St. Joseph county. Locating near Constantine, he cleared and improved a homestead from the dense forest, and there resided until his death, at the venerable age of four score and

Page  547 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 547 four years. One of the leading Democrats of the county, he was prominent in public affairs, at one time representing his district in the state legislature. He married Nancy Poe, who was born in New York state, and died, at the age of sixty-seven years, in Michigan. Mrs. Andrew J. Morrison died March 10, 1902. To her and her husband six children were born, as follows: Ida, who died at the age of seventeen years; Elizabeth; William H.; Ellen; Rhoda; and John. Brought up and educated in Fabius township, William H. Morrison assisted his father in his work of reclaiming a farm for present use, and on the death of his parents succeeded to the ownership of part of the homestead. His land is well improved, being under a high state of culture, and yielding profitable harvests. In the care and management of his estate, Mr. Morrison exercises superior judgment and skill, everything about the premises indicating the supervision of a systematic, enterprising farmer. On October 22, 1887, Mr. Morrison married Lettie Hartman, who was born in Centerville, Snyder county, Pennsylvania, which was likewise the birthplace of her father, William Hartman, and of her grandfather, Jacob Hartman. The latter married Catharine Hummell, a native of the Keystone state, and was for many years proprietor of a hotel. William Hartman, who was of German ancestry, followed the trade of a cabinet maker when young, continuing at it until 1867. In that year, accompanied by his family, he migrated to Michigan, locating in St. Joseph county. He lived for two years in Parkville, after which he was engaged in tilling the soil in Lockport township until 1876, when he bought land on section twelve, Fabius township, and was there engaged in agricultural pursuits until 1895. He then purchased a farm near Union City, and after living upon it a few years moved to Union City, where he is now living retired. He married Sarah Reish, who was born in Pennsylvania, a daughter of Daniel and Margaret Reish. She died in 1896, the mother of five children, Artlissa; Lettie, wife of Mr. Morrison; Sovilla; Blanche; and Jay. Mr. and Mrs. Morrison have one child, Lillian S., a young lady of talent and culture, who was graduated from the Three Rivers High School with the class of 1908 and is a pleasing and accomplished musician. Politically Mr. Morrison is a stanch Democrat, and fraternally he belongs to the National Protective Legion. Religiously Mr. and Mrs. Morrison are consistent members of the Methodist Episcopal church.

Page  548 548 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY HENRY J. FRAYS was born in Sherman township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, May 19, 1874; he is a son of Fred and Lena (Geark) Frays, both natives of Germany, and grandson of John and Mary (Brast) Frays. John Frays and his wife had children as follows: Fred, born in May, 1844; Minnie, wife of Samuel Rodebauch, of Pennsylvania; Henry, of Burr Oak, Michigan; Will, of Centerville, Michigan; Sophie, deceased, wife of Henry Went; and John, of Topeka, Kansas. Fred Frays came to Michigan and settled in Sherman township in 1863 in which year he was married, and has since lived there. Mrs. Lena Frays is a daughter of Charles and Mary (Hepner) Geark, also natives of Germany, who located in Sherman township about 1840 and lived there the remainder of their lives, on a farm. Both were devout members of the German Lutheran church of Sherman. Charles Geark was born in Mecklinburg, Germany, in 1829, and died at the age eighty-four years; his wife, who was born in the same place in 1823, died when sixty-six years, Their children were: Minnie, wife of John Hepner, a farmer of Saline county, Kansas; Lena, wife of Fred Frays; Charles, of Florence township, married Minnie Hepner; Lizzie, wife of Jacob Shuster, of Sherman; and Ida, wife of William Switzer, of Sherman township. Fred and Lena (Geark) Frays had children as follows: Henry J.; George, born September 2, 1875, unmarried, lives in Sherman township; Fred, born in March, 1879, married Carrie Boman and lives in Sherman; Charles, born in April, 1885, unmarried; Mary, born in April, 1888, died at the age of thirteen months; Ella, born in April, 1896, died in February, 1907. Henry Frays received his education in the Tyler and Jones schools of Sherman, and spent one year in the Centerville high school. He was reared on a farm, and at twenty years began working on his own account. He remained five years with John McKinley and then spent three years on George Bucknell's farm, after which he purchased a farm of sixty-four acres from his uncle, Henry Frays, and lived there a year, working the Pierson property, and then he traded his sixty-four acres for his present farm. He is industrious and energetic, and has carried on his farm with success. Both he and his wife are members of the Centerville Presbyterian church, and in political views he is independent. Mr. Frays served six years as director of the School Board of District No. 3, and he is a friend of the public schools, as is attested.

Page  549 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 549 September 2, 1896, Mr. Frays married Ella Walters, of Sherman township, and to this union were born: Ethel and Earl, twins, born December 10, 1898; and Elvin, born in April, 1904. Mrs. Frays was born in Sherman township and educated in common schools. She is the second of five children, two sons and three daughters, born to Christian and Mary (Boman) Walters. Both parents are living in Sherman and all the brothers and sisters of Mrs. Frays are living. The homestead of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Frays is known as "The Prairie River Stock Farm," of Nottawa township. WILLIAM H. BARNARD, secretary and treasurer of the Constantine Milling Company, also supervisor of the township, was born in White Pigeon Prairie, November 5, 1861. His father, Richard Barnard, was a native of England, who came to White Pigeon Prairie, St. Joseph county, Michigan, in 1829, and took up land from the government. He improved his farm and became a successful farmer. He married Betsey Hotchin, also a native of England, who was eight years of age when she came with her parents to America; Samuel and Martha Hotchin settled in Florence township, St. Joseph county, on a farm, where they died. Mr. Barnard was but one year old when he came with his parents, William and Eliza (Cross) Barnard, to Michigan. They were pioneers of White Pigeon Prairie. Richard Barnard spent his entire life in this county, with the exception of 1849-50 when he went to California. He and his wife reared two sons and three daughters, all of whom are now living. They are: Mary E., wife of Ed A. Hamilton, of White Pigeon; Hattie, wife of Aldis H. Barry, of Constantine; William H.; Charles L., in hardware business in Constantine; and Annie L., wife of Howard Bigelow, of Kalamazoo county, Michigan. William H. Barnard was the third child and the elder son of his parents, and lived on the old homestead and received his education in the union schools of Constantine. After leaving school Mr. Barnard spent nine years in the grocery business, five years in the hardware business and five years in real estate business, in Constantine. In January, 1909, Mr. Barnard took his present position in the milling company. The capacity of the company's plant is two hundred and fifty barrels of flour per day; W. M. Spencer is president and Ed S. Hotchin vice president. For the past four years Mr. Barnard has held the office of manager of the Constantine Creamery Company. He is a man of keen business judgment,

Page  550 550 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and unquestioned honesty and uprightness, having the confidence and esteem of his fellow citizens. Mr. Barnard is a stanch Republican and an active worker for the party. He has served as village treasurer, and is now serving his seventh year as supervisor of the township. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias and the Masonic Order, Blue Lodge and Chapter. Having been a lifelong resident of the county he is well known, and is well thought of in the community. Mr. Barnard married, in 1894, Amelia Dragert, daughter of Fred Dragert, of Sturgis, Michigan, and they have one son, Harold D., now attending school. GEORGE E. MILLER, of the firm of R. R. Pealer & George E. Miller, Attorneys, of Three Rivers, was born in Mendon township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, February 16, 1865. His father, James W. Miller, was born also in St. Joseph county, and is a resident of Three Rivers. James W. Miller is a son of John Miller, a native of Virginia, and one of the first settlers of St. Joseph county, Michigan; he having come to the county in 1837. He took up land on Nottawa Prairie, on the "Indian Reserve." James W. Miller married Sarah A. Benfer, a native of Snyder county, Pennsylvania, who came to Michigan with her parents in 1857, when about twelve years of age; they located near Mendon. After his marriage James W. Miller located on a farm in Mendon township, where he remained until 1868 and then removed to Park township and there engaged in farming until 1883. In the latter year he sold his farm and retired to live in Three Rivers. Mrs. Miller died in 1908. They became parents of two sons and one daughter, namely: George E., Anna, and John G., the last-named a resident of Porter township, Cass county, Michigan. George E. Miller was reared on a farm, and received a common school education; at the age of thirteen years he began working on his own account, at various things, farm work, etc., and thus earned his way through high school, graduating at Three Rivers in 1884. He then worked as clerk and bookkeeper, and in 1885 entered Michigan University, from which he was graduated in 1890, from the law department. He had previously graduated from the high school at Ann Arbor, in a special literary course. After taking his degree in law, Mr. Miller entered the office of R. R. Pealer, and so well demonstrated his ability that the following year he became a member of the firm, which has since continued.

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Page  553 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 553 Mr. Miller is a Republican in politics and has always taken an active interest in public affairs. He served three terms as city attorney and one term as circuit court commissioner. He and his partner are leading attorneys and have a large practice. Mr. Miller is interested in the public welfare, and has interests outside his practice; he is interested in the telephone company and is a director and stockholder of the First State Bank of Three Rivers. He is considered one of the substantial business men of the city and a public-spirited, progressive citizen. Mr. Miller is a member of the Castle Hall No. 43, Knights of Pythias, Lodge No. 80, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and Tent No. 87, Knighted Order of Tented Maccabees. September 27, 1887, Mr. Miller married Mrs. Emma Frances Arnold, daughter of William and Elizabeth (Fowler) Chrysler, born in Dunkirk, New York. Mr. Miller and his wife have two children, both at home, Mark M. and Roxie. JOHN A. MILLS.-The late John A. Mills, of Three Rivers, Michigan, who passed away, October 9, 1909, had retired from his farm but a few days and located in Three Rivers to enjoy a wellearned rest. He was one of the highly respected citizens of the community. Mr. Mills was born near Seneca Falls, New York, February 29, 1828, son of Isaac Mills, and of Quaker descent. Isaac Mills was born in Trenton, New Jersey, and his father, Daniel Mills, was born in the same house. Daniel Mills' parents were from Switzerland, and among the earlier settlers in New Jersey. He was a Quaker, but at the time of the British invasion of Trenton his feelings got the better of his religious scruples, and it is related of him that he removed his coat and laid it aside, with the remark, "Lie there, Mr. Quaker, I must help drive the British out of Trenton." Five of his sons served in the Revolution. Some years after his wife's death Daniel Mills removed with two of his sons to Seneca county, New York, and bought a farm, where he spent the remainder of his days, passing away at the age of one hundred and three years. He reared fourteen sons and one daughter, and three of his sons lived to be over one hundred years of age. Isaac Mills was the youngest of the family, and was three years old when his sister removed to New York, where he was reared and married, and he lived in that state until about 1832, when he and his wife, with their five children, moved to Ohio, via the Canal and lake as far as Huron, thence by team to Fitchville, Huron county, where they were among the earliest settlers. In 1846 they removed

Page  554 554 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY to Michigan, by wagon and ox-team, bringing their household goods. He bought forty acres in Florence township, of which twenty acres were cleared. The land also contained a log house, and this was the extent of the improvements. The family continued to live in this log house until the death of Mrs. Mills. After the death of his wife Isaac Mills lived with a daughter, Charity, until her death, and then lived with a son-in-law in Fabius. Mrs. Mills was born in the state of New York and her last days were spent in Michigan. Her maiden name was Leah Connor and she had been married before her union with Mr. Mills, having one son by her first marriage. John A. Mills grew to manhood in Ohio and was eighteen years of age when he removed to Michigan with his parents. At the time the family located in the latter state much of the land was in its wild state, and most of the houses were of log. He began as a youth working out by the day or month, clearing the land or farming. August 24, 1861, Mr. Mills enlisted in Company A, Eleventh Regiment Michigan Volunteer Infantry, went south with his regiment, and served his full enlistment of three years. He participated in many important battles of the war, among them: Stone River, Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge. After the last-named Mr. Mills became ill and was sent to the field hospital at Nashville. As soon as he was able to do so he was allowed to wait on the table in the mess room and later was detailed to take charge of a squad of picked men selected to guard a building filled with army supplies, in charge of which he remained until the expiration of his term of service. Returning home after his service for his country, Mr. Mills bought land in Cass county, and lived there about ten years, after which he bought land in sections 19 and 30 of Fabius township, and resided there until 1909, when he sold out and settled in Three Rivers, where he died soon after. Mr. Mills had spent a long and useful life, and was an honest, upright, hard-working man, who performed his full duty in all relations of life. He was a useful public-spirited citizen in times of peace, and proved his earnest patriotism by risking life and happiness to serve in the fight for the preservation of the Union. He is kindly remembered by many, and had the fullest esteem of all who knew him. Mr. Mills is survived by one daughter. October 30, 1867, Mr. Mills married Mary Elizabeth Masser, who was born near Three Rivers, Michigan, January 8, 1839, and

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Page  557 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 557 was a daughter of John Masser, a native of Sunbury, Pennsylvania, and a pioneer of St. Joseph county. Mrs. Mills died April 2, 1887, leaving one daughter, Sarah Catharine, who cared for her father in his last days. J. MURRAY BENJAMIN, cashier of the Farmers Savings Bank of White Pigeon, was born in Florence township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, September 16, 1862, and is a son of William W. and Mary D. (Murray) Benjamin. William W. Benjamin came to Michigan with his parents in 1835, when four years of age; they located on a farm in Florence township, and he grew up to the occupation of farming. The Murray family were from New York. To William Benjamin and his wife were born four children, two of whom died in infancy. One son, William H., Jr., became a teacher and farmer in St. Joseph county, where he still resides. On a farm J. Murray Benjamin was reared and he attended district school, after which he became a pupil in White Pigeon high school, from which he graduated in the class of 1880. He became a teacher, and for six years was principal of the grammar schools in Dickinson county, Michigan. In 1896 he returned to White Pigeon and accepted a position as clerk of the State Bank; upon the failure of that bank he was appointed receiver, which position he still holds. In 1904, upon the organization of the Farmers' Savings Bank, incorporated as a state bank, under the state laws, Mr. Benjamin was offered the position of cashier, which he still holds. In 1893 Mr. Benjamin married Maude A. Calhoun, and to them were born two children, Willie, born April 28, 1894, and Agnes, June 12, 1899. Willie is a student in the high school. Mr. Benjamin is one of the leading citizens of White Pigeon, upright and honorable in all his dealings, and is held in high esteem. He is a member of the Presbyterian church, being one of the elders. He is affiliated with White Pigeon Lodge No. 104, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, being a past master, and a member of Constantine Chapter, Royal Arch Masons; both he and his wife belong to the Order of Eastern Star. In politics he is a Republican, though he has never taken an active part in such matters. SAMUEL B. HAGENBUCH, president of the First State Bank, of Constantine, is a native of the county, born in Constantine township, one mile south of the village, February 9, 1855. His father, Aaron Hagenbuch, was born in Briarcreek, Columbia county,

Page  558 558 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Pennsylvania, and came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, in 1838. He purchased land on White Pigeon Prairie, and in 1840 moved his family to the farm; at this time the nearest railroad was at Detroit. He made several trips to Detroit by team. Mr. Hagenbuch improved several farms in the county, was very successful and became a leading citizen. He was one of the organizers of the First National Bank, in 1864, and at one time was its president. He died in his eighty-third year, widely mourned. He was identified with the early history of the county and was known all over the state. Mr. Hagenbuch married Rachel Hill, also a native of Columbia county, Pennsylvania, who died at the age of seventyone years. They had six children, four sons and two daughters, all of whom grew to maturity. Samuel B. Hagenbuch is the third child and second son, and was reared and educated in Constantine and Hillsdale College. After his marriage he located on a farm in Fabius township, and for twenty-five years was engaged in farming; he then moved to Constantine. Mr. Hagenbuch was one of the organizers of the First State Bank of Constantine, also the First State Bank at Three Rivers, and in 1899 he became president of the First State Bank of Constantine. He is a stockholder still and director in the First State Bank at Three Rivers. Besides these interests, Mr. Hagenbuch owns about four hundred acres of good farming land in Fabius township, St. Joseph county, which he rents. He is a strong adherent of the Republican party, and is a prominent and leading citizen of the village. In 1872 Mr. Hagenbuch married Rosa C., daughter of William and Sarah (Gauger) Fox, a native of Pennsylvania, who came with her parents to Constantine township, St. Joseph county, in 1865. They have one daughter, Catherine B., wife of Henry E. Lintz, a merchant of Fort Scott, Kansas. HENRY CALEB GLEASON.-A prominent and thriving agriculturist of St. Joseph county, Henry C. Gleason is the owner of a large and well-appointed farm in Fabius township, where he holds high rank among the enterprising and energetic men who are contributing largely toward the development of this industrial interest of this section of the state. A son of Alvah Gleason, he was born, November 27, 1842, in New York state,. which was also the place of birth of his father, and, probably, of his grandfather, Caleb Gleason, who was a life-long farmer, and a veteran of the war of 1812.

Page  559 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 559 Alvah Gleason was brought up on a farm, and being very near sighted adopted farming as his life work in preference to learning a trade. Emigrating with his family to Michigan in 1846, he drove across the country from Allegany county with teams, locating in St. Joseph county, which was then very thinly populated. He bought forty acres of land in Mendon, assumed possession of the small house standing in the clearing that had been made, and occupied it three years. Coming to Fabius in 1849, he purchased eighty acres of heavily wooded land on section twenty-five, and having made an opening in the forest put up a small frame house before a stick of timber was cut from the place. Settlements were few and far between; Three Rivers was a mere hamlet; and the nearest railroad was at Kalamazoo, then a small village. Devoting his time and attention to the improvement of his place, he placed a large part of his land under culture, erected a substantial set of farm buildings, and was here a resident until his death, at the venerable age of seventy-nine years. He married Laura Ann Greene, who was born in New York state, a daughter of Timothy Greene. She died at the age of seventy-five years, leaving four children, namely: Mary; Henry Caleb, the subject of this sketch; Timothy; and Otis. Three years old when he was brought by his parents to Michigan, Henry C. Gleason was reared and educated in Fabius, living with his parents until his marriage. He then began housekeeping on a farm, located on section twenty-five, in Fabius township, which he had previously purchased. That farm, which contains eighty-seven acres of choice land, with substantial and convenient buildings, Mr. Gleason still owns. He has since purchased the adjoining farm of one hundred and fifty-five acres, and on it has made various valuable improvements, including the erection of commodious barns and outbuildings, and has enlarged and rebuilt the house, rendering the place one of the most attractive and desirable in the community. Here Mr. Gleason is actively engaged in general farming' and stock-raising, in his operations meeting with genuine success. Mr. Gleason married, April 29, 1866, Mary Cornelia Burrow, who was born, October 11, 1841, in Bethel, Sullivan county, New York, a daughter of John Burrow, Jr. Her grandfather, John Burrow, Sr., was born in England, where his parents spent their lives. After emigrating to this country, he followed his trade of a carpenter and joiner for awhile, afterward becoming a contractor and builder. Moving, finally, to Sullivan county, New

Page  560 560 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY York, he bought land, and on the farm that he improved spent the remainder of his years. He married Mary Jackson, a native, also, of England. She survived him, and after her second marriage came to Michigan, and spent her last days in Constantine. John Burrow, Jr., was born in New York City, but was educated in Sullivan county, N. Y., where he subsequently began his active career as an agriculturist. In 1849 he came with his family to Michigan, coming up the Hudson river to Albany, thence to Buffalo by the Erie canal, then by lake boat to Detroit, where he changed his mode of travel, going by railway to Kalamazoo, and from that place driving across the rough country to St. Joseph county. Locating in Fabius, he bought government land in the northwest corner of the township, the improvements made on the tract that he purchased having been a log cabin, and seven acres of girdled trees. After occupying the cabin a number of years, he built a set of good frame buildings, and lived on the homestead until after the death of his wife. He subsequently made his home with his daughter, Mrs. Gleason, passing away at the age of eighty-six years. The maiden name of his wife was Anna Maria Denniston. She was born in New York City, and was there brought up and educated. Her father, Alexander Denniston, was born in Ireland, of Scotch ancestry. After emigrating to this country, he engaged in mercantile pursuits in New York City, and soon became prominent in military affairs. He served in the War of 1812, receiving a commission of colonel of his regiment. Subsequently removing to Bethel, Sullivan county, he bought land, and was there employed in agricultural pursuits the remainder of his life. He married Anna Maria Parker, who spent her entire life of sixty-three years in New York state. Mr. and Mrs. Gleason are the parents of two children, namely: Lillian and Harry Otis. Lillian married Leslie McJury, and has three children, Iva, Gladys, and Florence. Harry O. married Lucy Champion, and they have three children, Helen, Elsie and Henry. Politically Mr. Gleason is a Democrat, and religiously he and his wife belong to the Methodist Protestant church. ELMER L. ELDRIDGE, an agriculturist of Mendon township, enjoys in fullest measure the consideration of his associates, both as a man and a progressive representative of his estimable calling. He is of distinguished family, his mother, Jerissa Grover, being one of the Grovers of Massachusetts and a cousin of the late President Grover Cleveland who received his Christian name from that source

Page  561 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 561 The father was Frank Eldridge and his parents, Sylvester and Sybil Eldridge, were also natives of Massachusetts who came to the state of New York in early pioneer times and took their farm from the virgin forest, enduring the peculiar pleasures and pains of the pioneer. Frank Eldridge was a small boy at the time of the family's removal from the Bay State. He was one of a family of six children. Minerva is the wife of Samuel Newton of the state of New York; Sylvester is deceased; Lorenzo who was a citizen of Illinois is deceased; and Francis, James and Ira F. are also deceased. Elmer L. Eldridge was born March 7, 1861, spent his youthful years upon his father's farm and secured his education in the village schools. He remained under the paternal roof tree until the twentysixth year of his age when he severed old associations and came on to Mendon township. For a number of years he made his livelihood by working upon a farm and for four years after his marriage in 1894, made his home with his wife's parents and assisted in the management of their farm. He then purchased two hundred acres of land well situated in Mendon township and for the past sixteen years has engaged successfully in its cultivation. Mr. Eldridge makes it a point to keep in touch with the issues of the day and in the matter of politics gives his support to the Republican party. Both he and his wife are consistent members of the Methodist Episcopal church. The union of Mr. and Mrs. Eldridge was celebrated March 7, 1894, the latter's name previous to her marriage having been Ida Simpson. The date of her birth was December 19, 1859. Her parents were Josiah and Jane (Gibson) Simpson, both natives of Ireland. To Mr. and Mrs. Eldridge have been born two children, Harold J., born March 22, 1896, and Edith L., born January 19, 1900. The beautiful and attractive homestead is named "Ingleside, " a very appropriate name for such a tasty farmstead. ROSCOE B. GOODRICH.-It is pleasing to record that Roscoe B. Goodrich of this review is residing upon the farm which was the place of his birth and that he has proved a worthy representative of the agricultural industry in the county in which his paternal grandparents took up their residence in 1837, which year represented the admission of Michigan to statehood. He has well upheld the prestige of the family name and is a worthy scion of a family whose identification with the history of St. Joseph county has been of the closest order.

Page  562 562 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH' COUNTY Roscoe B. Goodrich was born on his present homestead farm, in section 14, Nottawa township, on the 13th of February, 1852, and is a son of Luther B. and Mary Helen (Doughty) Goodrich, both of whom were born in the state of New York, whence they came to Michigan in the pioneer days, the paternal grandparents settling in Nottawa township, St. Joseph county, and the maternal grandparents settling in Burr Oak township. Luther B. Goodrich was reared to maturity under the conditions and environments of the pioneer days in this section of the country and he became one of the successful farmers and stock-growers of St. Joseph county, where both he and his wife continued to reside until their death. He was summoned to the life eternal about 1884 and his wife passed away about 1852. Of their children the subject of this sketch is the eldest; Charles D. is a representative physician and surgeon of Elkhart, Indiana; Helen is the wife of Marion Grabber, a prosperous farmer of Colon township, this county; Hector died at the age of twelve years; and Clyde is engaged in the drug business in Marcellus, Cass county, Michigan. Luther B. Goodrich was a man of sterling integrity and ever commanded a secure place in the confidence and esteem of the community which represented his home during the major part of his life. He identified himself with the Republican party at the time of its organization and both he and his wife were zealous members of the Methodist Episcopal church. Roscoe B. Goodrich learned the lessons of practical industry under the grateful influences of the home farm and his early educational privileges were those afforded in the public schools of the locality. His entire life thus far has been one of consecutive and fruitful identification with the agricultural industry and he has maintained his home on the old homestead from the time of his birth, having purchased the interests of the other heirs about 1880. His farm comprises one hundred and twenty-two acres of land, which is unexcelled in fertility by any in the county and upon the place he, individually, has made improvements of the best modern type, including a spacious and attractive residence. The old house, long occupied by his parents, is now used for tenant purposes. As a farmer and stock-grower Mr. Goodrich has brought to bear most enterprising ideas and has availed himself of modern machinery and other facilities with the outcome that he has gained the best results from his efforts and is numbered among the leading farmers of his county. In politics he is a stanch supporter of the principles and policies for which the Democratic party stands sponsor

Page  563 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 563 and cast his first presidential vote for Tilden. Both Mr. Goodrich and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. On the 25th of December, 1879, Mr. Goodrich was united in marriage to Miss Eva Rogers, who was born in Colon township and who is a daughter of George and Adeline (Huntley) Rogers; her father was long numbered among the substantial farmers in Nottawa township, where both he and his wife continued to maintain their home until their death. Mr. and Mrs. Goodrich have no children. The pretty homestead is known as " Idlewild." EVERARD GEER, retired from active business life and residing in Constantine, was born in Lyons, Wayne county, New York, December 26, 1829. His father, Harry Geer, was a native of Pennsylvania. He was a farmer and he died at the age of ninety-four years and was buried in Wayne county, New York. He was a son of Levi Geer, a native of Pennsylvania, and a farmer by occupation, who removed to New York state. The family were of Scotch descent, and tradition says that three brothers came to America from Scotland, agreeing each to spell the name in a different way, as Geer, Gear and Gere. Harry Geer married Angeline Roys, a native of Massachusetts; her ancestry is unknown. They had ten children, all of whom grew to maturity, Everard being the second child and oldest son. Everard Geer lived in his native state on a farm until twentytwo years of age and then came west and located in Beloit, Wisconsin. After his marriage he located on a farm in the neighborhood of Beloit, and remained there twenty-four years. He next located in Iowa, and spent some time in Blackhawk, Grundy and Kossuth counties, and near Spirit Lake. In 1900 Mr. Geer located in Constantine, Michigan, and spent some time dealing in farms, buying and selling them; he now owns one good farm. He has been very successful in his business enterprises in this county, and is considered a level-headed business man. He and his wife are members of the Congregational church, and he is one of the trustees. He is a lifelong Republican and has voted for every Republican president since the inception of the party. In 1854 Mr. Geer married, in Beloit, Wisconsin, Sarah, daughter of Peter D. and Martha (Van Antwerp) Goewey; she was born in Lake county, Ohio. Her parents were natives of Lansingburg, New York, and removed to Lake county, Ohio, about 1835, the father being of French descent and the mother German. Mrs. Geer is the last of four children. Her father moved to WisconVol. II-6

Page  564 564 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY sin in 1844, with an ox team. Mr. Geer and his wife have two children, Harvey G., a resident of Rockford, Illinois, and Margaret I., wife of George N. Wood, a real estate dealer of Constantine. Mr. Geer's grandchildren are: Ethel May Geer and Shirley Francis Wood, attending school at Oberlin College and Shirley College, and Harvey G., who is the youngest, was graduated from Constantine Public Schools in the class of 1910, and entered Olivet College. DR. WILLIAM C. CAMERON, a prominent physician of White Pigeon, was born in Steuben county, Indiana, November 27, 1866, son of John and Mary (Carlin) Cameron. John Cameron was born in Scotland, in 1815, and his wife was born in Wooster, Ohio, in 1822. He was a contractor, and came to Indiana in 1840, in connection with his work on the Maumee Canal. He afterward became a farmer, and was very successful in this line. He was a Republican, and served in several public offices, among them justice of the peace, trustee of Richland township, Steuben county, and for six years as county commissioner; he died while chairman of the board of commissioners. Mr. Cameron was a member of the Presbyterian church, and active in religious work. He and his wife had nine children, eight of whom grew to maturity; seven are now living (1909), three of whom are doctors, and one a druggist. Dr. William C. Cameron received his early education in the district schools, and when fourteen years of age entered high school at Angola, Indiana, and in 1889 graduated from the Scientific Course of the Tri-State College, with degree B. S. He taught one year as principal of the school at Hamilton, Indiana, and then entered the office of his brother, Dr. J. F. Cameron, where he spent four years reading medicine. In 1890 he entered Rush Medical College, of Chicago, and took a full course, graduating in 1893. Dr. Cameron located in Metz, Indiana, and two years later removed to White Pigeon, where he has since remained in the successful practice of his profession. He is a member of the County, State, Northern Tri-State, and American National Medical Societies, and has served as secretary and president of the county organization. In 1904 Dr. Cameron was appointed a member of the United States Pension Surgeons at Three Rivers, Michigan. He is a public-spirited and highly respected member of society, and considered one of the representative, substantial citizens of the town. Dr. Cameron is a member of White Pigeon

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Page  567 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 567 Lodge No. 104, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, and Past Master of same. Hp and his wife are members of the Order Eastern Star No. 317, and she has served as Grand Martha of the Grand Lodge of Michigan, one year, and she is Past Worthy Matron. She and her children are members of the Presbyterian church. In politics Mr. Cameron is a Republican, and he is actively interested in local affairs. He belongs to Cold Water Lodge No. 1023, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. Dr. Cameron married Miss Cora Shore, in 1893. She was born near Waterloo, Indiana, in 1866, received her primary education in the district school, and in 1890 graduated from the Tri-State College, at Angola, Indiana, with degree Ph. B. She taught several years in the Pleasant Lake Schools. Dr. Cameron and his wife have two children, Bernardine, a student in high school, and Don B., also a student in high school. LESTER B. PLACE.-The efficient and popular postmaster of the city of Three Rivers has here maintained his home for more than a quarter of a century and the unequivocal esteem in which he is held in the community is adequately indicated by his incumbency of his present official position. He is a veteran of the Civil war and is a man whose loyalty has been shown in an equally significant way in connection with the affairs of the "piping times of peace." Mr. Place has made his own way in the world, has encountered his quota of the "slings and arrows of outrageous fortune," but he has ever shown that individual optimism which makes for success and begets objective confidence and regard. Mr. Place claims the fine old Buckeye state as the place of his nativity, as he was born in Delaware county, Ohio, on the 14th of February, 1842, and he was but one year old at the time of the death of his father, Jacob Place, who was a native of Pennsylvania, whence he accompanied his parents on their removal to Ohio in an early day, his father, who likewise bore the name of Jacob, having been numbered among the sterling pioneers of Delaware county. The latter was a valiant soldier in the war of 1812 and his active career was one of close identification with the great basic industry of agriculture. The lineage is traced back to French extraction but the family was early founded in America. The maiden name of the mother of the subject of this review was, Mary Foust. She likewise was a native of the old Keystone state of the Union, and was a child at the time of the family removal to Ohio. Her father, John Foust, was one of the early settlers of that part of Delaware county that

Page  568 568 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY is now included in Morrow county. This worthy ancestor likewise was enrolled as a soldier in the war of 1812, and the Foust family, of Pennsylvania German ancestry, found many representatives among the early settlers of Delaware county, Ohio, where was solemnized the marriage of the parents of the present postmaster of Three Rivers. The father was a farmer by vocation and was a comparatively young man at the time of his death. His widow lived to attain the venerable age of eighty-seven years and was a resident of Fremont at the time of her death. Both were consistent members of the Lutheran church and were folk of sterling attributes of character. They became the parents of two sons and three daughters, of whom Lester B., of this review, is the youngest. Of the other children, one of his sisters is still living, Mrs. M. A. Dehart of Spencerville, Ohio. Lester B. Place, owing to the exigencies of time and place and to the fact that his widowed mother was left to care for her young children, received but meager educational advantages in his youth, but through self-discipline and through association with men and affairs he has well made good this early handicap and is a man of broad information and mature judgment. His boyhood and youth were passed in the central counties of Ohio, and he became largely dependent upon his own resources when a mere child, turning his attention to any work he could secure and gradually developing in self-reliance and constructive ability. In 1859, when seventeen years of age, he located at Mount Gilead, Morrow county, Ohio, where he learned the trade of iron moulder, under the direction of his only brother. After completing an apprenticeship that had made him a capable workman he became a journeyman at his trade. After passing about one year at Mount Vernon, Ohio, he removed to Galion, that state, where he was employed in a large iron foundry for five years, during the major portion of which period he had charge of the foundry. In April, 1861, soon after the inception of the Civil war, Mr. Place tendered his services in defense of the Union, by enlisting as a private in the Third Ohio Volunteer Infantry, but he was rejected on account of lung trouble. He then became a member of the Home Guard of Ohio, with which he continued to serve until September, 1864, when he enlisted and was accepted in the One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, in which he became a member of Company G and with which he continued in active service until honorably discharged. After thus terminating his military service Mr. Place returned to Galion, Ohio, where he resumed the work of his trade and where

Page  569 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 569 he was in supervision of the foundry conducted by A. C. Squires for a period of five years. Thereafter he was similarly engaged at Mount Vernon, Ohio, until 1871, when he removed to Lockport, New York, where he was in the employ of the Holly Manufacturing Company for the ensuing two years, at the expiration of which he came to Michigan and assumed the supervision of the plant of the Jackson Machine & Foundry Company, in the city of Jackson. He remained in that city about five years and he then went to Allegan as superintendent of the Allegan Agricultural Works, with which concern he was thus identified until 1883, when he came to Three Rivers and assumed the position of manager of the foundry department of the Sheffield Car Company, with which he continued to be identified, as a valued and able executive, for the long period of twenty years. He then effected, about 1902, the organization of the Three Rivers Foundry & Machine Company, of which he was elected manager. This incumbency he retained four years, at the expiration of which he resigned his office to enter upon his duties as postmaster of the city, to which position he was appointed in 1906 and of which he has since continued in tenure. He has given a most careful, discriminating and popular administration of the affairs of this office, which more than all others touches the general public, and he has made many improvements in the facilities and service of the local postal system. He has long been known and esteemed as one of the loyal and progressive citizens and reliable business men of Three Rivers and he has at all times lent his aid and influence in support of measures and enterprises tending to advance the material and civic welfare of the community. In politics Mr. Place has never wavered in his allegiance to the cause of the Republican party, and he has given effective service in behalf of the same. He was chairman of the Republican county committee of St. Joseph county for a period of two years and was also chairman of the Lincoln Club, an effective political and social organization of his home city. He is a member of the local post of the Grand Army of the Republic and also holds membership in other fraternal and civic organizations. His religious faith is that of the Lutheran church, of which his wife likewise was a devout member. In the year 1862 Mr. Place was united in marriage to Miss Emily J. Carpenter, of Mount Gilead, Ohio, in which state she was born and reared, and she was summoned to the life eternal on the 3d of January, 1907. Of the six children none are living.

Page  570 570 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY FREDERICK LEADERS, a native of Hanover, Germany, was born July 31, 1837, and is a son of Henry and Anna (Mitchell) Leaders, both of whom died in Germany. They had four children. When he was fourteen years old, the parents of Frederick Leaders died, and in 1863 he came to the United States. He located first in Defiance, Ohio, where he found work at his trade of tanner. Before leaving his native country he had married Sophia Hankie, also a native of Germany, born October 9, 1839. In 1868 Mr. Leaders removed to St. Joseph county, Michigan, and purchased a tannery six miles west of White Pigeon, which he operated with good profit until 1877. He then sold his business interests, and later engaged in farming. For nearly eighteen years he conducted a meat market in White Pigeon, but has now retired from active business. Mr. Leaders owns a farm of seventy-five acres, as well as residence property and a hotel in the town of White Pigeon. He is a stockholder and one of the directors in the Farmers' Savings Bank, of White Pigeon, and is a prominent citizen of the town and well known and respected in the community. Mr. Leaders is a man of recognized integrity, honesty and high character, and has a wide circle of friends. In political views he is a Republican, though he does not take a very active part in public matters. He belongs to Elks Lodge No. 50, of Kalamazoo, Michigan, and to the, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Mr. Leaders and his wife are members of the Reformed church. Mr. Leaders and his wife are parents of four children, as follows: Herman, of Omaha, Nebraska; Fred, of Michigan City, Michigan; Edward A., a miller, of Wauseon, Ohio; and Louise, wife of Moses Erb, of Elkhart, Indiana. WINFIELD SCOTT HOPKINS.-A farmer of ability and experience, Winfield Scott Hopkins is a fine representative of the nativeborn citizens of Fabius, and one of its most skilful and successful agriculturists. A son of William Sidney Hopkins, he was born, June 26, 1852, in Fabius, of pioneer stock. His paternal grandfather spent his entire life in Maryland, dying while yet in manhood's prime, leaving a widow, who subsequently emigrated with her little family to Ohio. Born in Maryland, William Sidney Hopkins was but a boy when his widowed mother settled in Ohio. In early manhood he came on horseback to Michigan, and had no trouble in finding employment in the woods. After his marriage he bought a tract of

Page  571 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 571 timbered land in the northwest quarter of Fabius township, and began housekeeping with his bride in the log cabin he built in the midst of the forest. Selling that property in 1855, he purchased land in section twenty-six, Fabius township, and in the log house that he erected moved with his family. This entire section of the county was then in its primitive wilderness, with here and there an opening in which the early settler had reared his humble cabin. There were no public highways, and no railroads had then been built in the state, all surplus products being hauled to Detroit, the nearest depot for supplies. With his faithful wife and companion, he bravely endured the trials and privations of pioneer life, and in the course of time had a large part of his land cleared, and his family established in a comfortable home. Here he resided until his death, at the advanced age of eighty-eight years. He married Ruth Beadle, who was born in Ohio, a daughter of Marshall Beadle, who was an early settler of Fabius township. She died at the age of seventy-nine years. Both she and her husband were active members of the Methodist Episcopal church. They reared four children, as follows: Augusta Marshall, Mary, and Winfield Scott. Brought up on the parental homestead, Winfield S. Hopkins obtained his early education in the schools of Fabius township, attending, principally, the winter terms, and laboring on the farm during the summer seasons. Finding the occupation of a farmer congenial as well as profitable, he devoted his energies to agriculture, and has since succeeded to the ownership of the old homestead. This farm has been brought to a high state of cultivation, rendering it one of the richest in the neighborhood, and is well equipped with substantial buildings. Here Mr. Hopkins is carrying on general farming and stock-raising with most satisfactory pecuniary results. Mr. Hopkins married, September 22, 1886, Sarah Weinberg, who was born in Flowerfield, St. Joseph county. Her father, Leander Weinberg, was born in Pennsylvania, of German ancestry. Coming to St. Joseph county at an early day, he bought a tract of timbered land in Flowerfield township, from which not a tree had been felled. With an energetic spirit and a pioneer's axe, he began clearing the land, and from the forest hewed a good farm. He lived to see this part of the country develop from a wilderness to a well-settled, prosperous agricultural region, dying on the home farm, at the advanced age of seventy-eight years. He married Catherine Councilman, who was born in Pennsylvania,

Page  572 572 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and died in Flowerfield township at the age of sixty-two years. To them nine children were born, as follows: William; Polly; Joseph; Catherine; Sarah, now Mrs. Hopkins; Lyman; Charles; Pharos; and Egbert. William served in the Civil war, and was killed in battle. Mr. and Mrs. Hopkins are the parents of two children, namely: Neal S., who married Bertha Avery; and Dennis L. Mr. Hopkins is an adherent of the Methodist church, and he was reared in that faith, and Mrs. Hopkins is a consistent and valued member of the United Brethren church. JAMES SIMPSON, a retired farmer, living at Nottawa, Michigan, was born in Ireland, August 10, 1833. He is a son of John and Rebecca (Adams) Simpson, both natives of Ireland, and he was reared and educated in his native country. At the age of twentytwo years James Simpson came to the United States, and at once located in the locality where he now lives. He worked on a farm in Nottawa township for a year and a half, at a salary of twelve dollars per month. During the first winter he paid his board and attended school three months. The next year he took a position on a farm for one hundred sixty dollars per year, and slept in a log house, where he often would find several inches of snow on his bed in the morning. He then purchased a team and began working a farm on shares, which he continued four years, and then purchased one hundred twenty acres of land in Nottawa township. Later he traded 40 acres of this place for 80 acres, paying a bonus of nine hundred dollars difference. This land was located north of the town, and he carried it on until he retired in 1890. He raised registered cows and hogs, and was a very successful stock-farmer, having at one time a great many sheep. Soon after 1850 Mr. Simpson joined the Presbyterian church, of which he has since remained a devout member. He is very broadminded and liberal in his views on all subjects; he first voted as a Republican, then as a Prohibitionist, and lastly a Democrat. Mr. Simpson is a man of high character, and has the universal esteem of his fellow citizens. About eleven years ago Mr. Simpson visited his birthplace, and he spent eighteen days in Ireland and two weeks in England. Mr. Simpson is a relative of Rev. H. A. Simpson, minister in Homer, Michigan. In 1874 Mr. Simpson married Nettie B. Dirth, of Ohio, who came to Michigan with her parents and located in Niles township, Berrien county. Mrs. Simpson died October 18, 1906. They had two daughters, Rebecca, who died at the age of three years, and

Page  573 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 573 Mary, deceased. They also had one son, James Wray, who carries on his father's farm. James Wray Simpson married Miss Hagen and they have two children, Rebecca and Oscar. JOHN B. GEORGE, now retired from active business life and a resident of Constantine, was born in Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, October 24, 1833, son of William George, also a native of that county. William George was reared and married in his native state and in 1836 came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, locating in Constantine township. He took up land from the government, which he improved, and lived in the county until his death, ninetythree years of age. He was of English descent. William George married Catherine Brower, also a native of Pennsylvania, who lived to be ninety-two years of age. They became parents of five children, all- of whom lived to maturity, and two sons are now surviving, Abram K., of Constantine, born in this county, November 21, 1836, and John B. John B. George is the fourth child, and was about three years of age when he came to the Territory of Michigan. He was reared in St. Joseph county, where he received his education. He remained with his father and helped with the work on the farm until about twenty-one years of age, and then learned the trade of carpenter, at which he worked until about 1863. He then engaged in manufacturing farm implements, worked in the shop and became a partner in the business; the firm became George & Twedale, and they continued doing business in Constantine until 1904, when Mr. George retired from the business. Since this time he has led a quiet life, free from business cares. He was successful in his business enterprises, and is an influential citizen of Constantine. He is a Republican, and has the distinction of having cast his vote for every Republican president since the inception of the party. He served sixteen consecutive years as township supervisor and was postmaster four years. Mr. George is vice president of the Commercial State Bank, and is also interested in the Novelty Works. He was one of the organizers of the Commercial State Bank, and has always taken an active part in public affairs. Mr. George has been a resident of Constantine seventy-three years, and is identified with the early history of the county; he is well known and stands well in the community. Mr. George is a member of the Masonic Order. Mr. George has been thrice married (first) in 1860 to Rebecca A. Fisher, who died in 1864. He married (second) Catherine

Page  574 574 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Fisher, a sister of his first wife, and they have one daughter, Laura Bell, wife of Ed T. Aaron, of Lansing, Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Aaron have one son, George. For his third wife Mr. George married Mrs. Mary E. Roup, a member of the Lutheran church. GEORGE RENGLER has long been identified with the agricultural life of St. Joseph county, but he is a native son of Union county, Pennsylvania, born there on the 15th of February, 1830, to Daniel and Susanna (Duntal) R-engler. Daniel Rengler never left his native commonwealth, living and dying in the Keystone state, the father of Peter, John, Susanna, Daniel, George, Fannie, Jacob and Benjamin, but only four of this once large family are now living. George Rengler is numbered among the honored early pioneers of St. Joseph county. He was reared on a farm in Pennsylvania, and preferring the work of the farm to attending school his educational training in his youth was limited, although in later life he has become a well read man. He remained at home with his parents until his marriage, and afterward rented one of his father's farms until he came to Michigan following the Civil war period. Four of his brothers also came to this state, bringing their families. George Rengler has been very successful as an agriculturist, and now owns one hundred and seventy-nine acres of fine farming land in section 9, Florence township. The wife whom he married in youth, Wilmina Wolfinger, born in Pennsylvania, died in 1901, and of the four children which blessed their marriage union two sons are now living, William C. and James A. The younger son has never married, and is at home with his father. William C. Rengler, born in Pennsylvania November 25, 1860, is one of the prominent farmers and stock raisers of Florence township. He owns a fine blooded horse, Magna Charta, and also a valuable Morgan horse, and he raises the finest stock of all kinds. He is a Democratic voter. He married Rosa Green, and they have three children: Hazel, born in May, 1893; Edward, born February 22, 1895; and Clarence, born in 1897. The family reside on the Rengler homestead in Florence township, one of the valuable farms of the county. George Rengler, the father, is a member of the Reformed church which stands near his home. WILLIAM G. CALDWELL, deceased, one of the most prominent manufacturers of Three Rivers, resided in St. Joseph county for more than half a century, and was a vital force in the upbuilding

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Page  577 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 577 of its industries, both in their infancy and maturity. He was a native of Montour county, Pennsylvania, born near Danville, October 30, 1831, son of Thomas and Jane (Gingles) Caldwell. The paternal grandfather, Thomas Caldwell, was born in Scotland but removed to the north of Ireland, and thence brought his family to Pennsylvania, settling on a farm in Montour county, where he spent his last years. The father was born and reared in that county, and when a young man engaged in merchandise at Danville, spending the last years of his life as a farmer near that place. His wife was also a native of Montour county and spent her life within its bounds; the seven children of her family were Margaret, Susan, Rebecca, William G., Mary, Almira and Martha. Mr. Caldwell, of this biography, was educated at Danville Seminary; while a youth engaged as a clerk in the office of the Montour Iron Works, and in 1852, when he had just attained his majority, located at Plowerfield, this county. There he found employment as a millwright, and in 1857 located at Three Rivers to engage in the manufacture of sash, doors and blinds, associating himself for that purpose with L. T. Wilcox. Later, Mr. Wilcox entered the firm, which remained Arnold, Caldwell and Wilcox until 1876, when the latter sold his interest in the business; Caldwell and Arnold continued it until the death of the latter, and Mr. Caldwell conducted it alone until 1882. He then rented the factory and superintended the re-building of the Emery Mills; upon their completion he became their manager and continued as such for about fifteen years, the remainder of his industrious, useful and honorable life being spent in honorable retirement. His lamented death occurred at Three Rivers on the 25th of July, 1905. On December 19, 1859, William G. Caldwell was united in marriage with Miss Martha Amy Wilcox, who was born not far from Watertown, Jefferson county, New York. Her father, Peter Wilcox, was a native of Montpelier, Vermont, born in 1800, and her grandfather, Caleb W., also of the Green Mountain state, spent nearly his entire life in that city as a manufacturer of monuments and staves. The father was long engaged in the state capital in various mercantile lines; moved to Herkimer county, New York, and there married Miss Mary Youker. In 1852 he migrated to Michigan, on account of ill health, dying soon after at Decatur, Van Buren county. Mrs. Peter Wilcox was a native of that county, as was her father, George Youker, but her grandfather, Rudolph, was a native of the Netherlands and among the early settlers of the Mo

Page  578 578 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY hawk Valley. He was a large land holder and died at the age of ninety-six years, on his large farm known as Youker's Bush. The father, George Youker, spent his life as a farmer of Herkimer county, and married Margaret Duesler, also a lifelong resident of the county. The mother of Mrs. Caldwell was left a widow with six children, and possessed the hardy faithfulness which enabled her to keep the family together until her sons became selfsupporting and her daughters married. She died at the age of eighty-two years, mother of Nathan, Calvin, Luther, Mary, Sarah and Martha. Mrs. Caldwell has two daughters, Mabel, who married Lewis M. Miller and is herself the mother of Jeanne and Kathleen, and resides in Kansas City, Missouri; and Jessie, who became Mrs. John F. Dunckel and has three children: William Caldwell, Lewis Miller and Amy Marie Caldwell, and they reside in Springfield, Missouri. Mrs. Caldwell is an active member of the Three Rivers Woman's Club and her patriotic ancestry has honored her with membership in the Daughters of the American Revolution. William G. Caldwell, of this memoir, was long identified with Three Rivers Lodge A. F. and A. M.; served both as alderman and mayor of the city, and was in every respect entitled to a high place in the great fraternity with which he was identified and in the annals of the St. Joseph county, to whose advancement he contributed in such noteworthy measure. The Youker family reunion of 1909 was held on Saturday, August 28th, with Mr. and Mrs. Marshal Youker at High Falls Park, Dolgeville, New York. The Youkers are a large family not only in numbers but almost invariably in physique. Before this organization they had drifted far and wide. From start to finish it was a good time for all. It was something fine to see that big family moving about, shaking hands and giving the glad words of greeting. They are evidently strong adherents to the scriptural admonition "Sufficient unto the day." The weather was ideal and as every one seemed bent on adding their quota of fun (with much help from college graduates of both sexes). Every minute was filled with something interesting. First on the program was the big dinner preceded by prayer and "America," sung by everybody, followed by election of officers, etc. There were over three hundred of Youker blood present with several hundred regrets from others.-Extracts from Dolgeville Republican, Herkimer county, New York.

Page  579 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 579 WILLIAM FRANKLIN PLUMMER.-Possessing good business ability and judgment, William Franklin Plummer has for many years been an important factor in promoting the industrial interests of Fabius, being a brick manufacturer, and a farmer and stock raiser. Of pioneer descent, he was born January 23, 1852, in Three Rivers, St. Joseph county, Michigan, a son of Peter Smith Plummer. His grandfather, Peter Plummer, was born, it is thought, in Pennsylvania, where he resided until 1841. Migrating with his family in that year to Michigan, he journeyed hither with an ox team, his course being marked a part of the way by blazed trees. Buying eighty acres of wild land in Flowerfield township, he made an opening in the forest for the log cabin which he erected, and immediately began the clearing of a farm. In addition to his agricultural labors, he followed his trade of a blacksmith, erecting one of the very first smithies in St. Joseph county. He made an excellent start in his career, which ere many years was cut short by death. His wife, whose maiden name was Mary E. Smith, was thus left a widow with seven little children to care for. She kept her family together, training them to habits of industry and honesty, living until sixty-six years of age. Peter Smith Plummer was born in Pennsylvania, being but a child when the family came to Michigan. After the death of his father the care of the family devolved to some extent upon him, he being the oldest of the children, and he labored industriously to lessen the burdens of his mother. After learning the trade of a general blacksmith he established himself in Three Rivers, where he built up a good business, and after a time opened the first wagon and carriage manufactory in that part of St. Joseph county. He carried on a substantial manufacturing business for a few years, when he, too, was called to the life beyond, his death occurring when he was but thirty-two years of age. He married Nancy Eddy, who was born in St. Joseph county, a daughter of Jasper Eddy, who migrated from New York, his native state, to Michigan in territorial days. Mr. Eddy first located in Washtenaw county, about three miles from Ypsilanti, where he bought a tract of timbered land, upon which he built a log cabin, and began clearing a farm, living there a few years. In 1837 Mr. Eddy disposed of that property, and came with his family to St. Joseph county, settling in Constantine township, and taking up land near its northern boundary. He subsequently purchased an interest in a saw mill, which he operated for many years, at the same time supervising the improvement of his land. Here he resided until his death, at the age of seventy

Page  580 580 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY two years. He took great interest in the development of the new country in which he had taken up his residence, doing his full share in promoting its growth, and lived to see the wilderness transformed to a wealthy and prosperous agricultural region. Mr. Eddy's first wife, whose maiden name was Polly Pine, died in 1837, leaving four children. He subsequently married Mary Alcott, by whom he had five children. Mrs. Nancy (Eddy) Plummer was left a widow with five children to care for, namely: William F., the subject of this sketch; Charles; Carrie; Martha Jane; and Peter. A few years later she married for her second husband Duane Parsons, and in 1882 removed to Flowerfield, from there going to Three Rivers, where she spent her last years. William F. Plummer was ten years of age when his father died. At the age of thirteen he began to earn his own living. Inheriting the habits of industry and thrift characteristic of his ancestors, he saved his wages, and having become proficient in the making of bricks he became a manufacturer of bricks, and has carried on a thriving and extensive business in that line since 1885. Mr. Plummer supplied from his brick yard a part of the bricks used in building the County Court House, also manufacturing most of the brick used at Three Rivers since he started. He has invested in land, owning a fine farm of one hundred and sixty acres on Clear Lake, where he and his son, who has charge of the estate, are extensively engaged in raising cattle and sheep. On November 17, 1872, Mr. Plummer was united in marriage with Mary E. Spaulding, who was born in Orleans county, New York, a daughter of Isaac and Lucy (Shafer) Spaulding, who came from New York to Michigan in 1859, and after living three years in Parkville bought a farm in Fabius township, and here spent their remaining years. Mr. and Mrs. Plummer have two children, namely: Lucy Elizabeth, wife of Robert Wilson; and Howard S., who married Mabel Osborne, and has two children, Warren and Edna. Politically Mr. Plummer is identified with the Republican party, and fraternally he is a member of Three Rivers Lodge No. 80, I.. O..F. Religiously Mr. and Mrs. Plummer are Christian Scientists. GILBERT S. DANIELS.-Among the native sons of St. Joseph county who are here effectively upholding the prestige of the great basic industry of agriculture is Mr. Daniels, who is the owner of a well improved farm in section 6, Nottawa township, and who is rec

Page  581 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 581 ognized as one of the enterprising and progressive farmers and stock-growers of this county. Gilbert S. Daniels was born in Sherman township, this county, on the 18th of May, 1870, and is a son of Mahlon S. and Mary (White) Daniels, the former of whom was born in Pennsylvania, on the 5th of December, 1835, and the latter in St. Joseph county, their marriage having been solemnized on the 2d of March, 1844. Mahlon S. Daniels is one of the honored pioneers of St. Joseph county and he still resides on his homestead farm in Sherman township. He is a Democrat in his political proclivities and has long been numbered among the prominent and influential citizens of his township, where he has been called upon to serve in various offices of public trust, including those of justice of the peace, highway commissioner and school director. His first wife died on the 23d of February, 1876, and is survived by three children, of whom the subject of this sketch is the youngest; Leona, who was born on the 6th of September, 1865, is the wife of Frank J. Harrison, a successful farmer of Van Buren county, this state; and Cora, who was born on the 8th of June, 1868, is the wife of William B. Towsley, of Downers Grove, a suburb of the city of Chicago. He is assistant manager in Marshall Field's great store. For his second wife Mahlon S. Daniels married Miss Bertha Richardson, and they have one daughter, Adella, who was born on the 11th of June, 1895, and who remains at the parental home. Gilbert S. Daniels was reared to the sturdy discipline of the home farm and his early educational advantages were those afforded in the public schools of his native township and Adrian College. He continued to be associated in the work of his father's farm until he had attained to the age of twenty-three years, when he began an apprenticeship at the barber's trade, to which he devoted his attention for ten years, during a portion of which time he owned and conducted a shop in the village of Centerville. In 1905 he located on his present farm, which comprises eighty-four and three-fourths acres, and he has made the best of improvements on the place, which gives patent evidence of his progressive management and well directed industry. He is essentially liberal and public-spirited as a citizen and though he has never sought the honors or emoluments of public office he gives a stanch support to the cause of the Democratic party. He and his wife hold membership in the Presbyterian church in the village of Centerville. On the 19th of May, 1897, Mr. Daniels was united in marriage to Miss Maude L. Miller, who was born at Berrien Springs, this

Page  582 582 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY state, and who is a daughter of John A. and Harriet (Hardendorf) Miller, the former of whom died in 1876 and the latter is also deceased. Mrs. Daniels was born on the 8th of July, 1870, and was a resident of Centerville, St. Joseph county, at the time of her marriage. In 1885 she was adopted by Mrs. David Hazzard, who resides in the home of Mr. and Mrs. Daniels, who accord to her the utmost filial solicitude. Mr. and Mrs. Daniels have one daughter, Helen Charlotte, who was born on the 5th of September, 1903. Mrs. Helen M. (Brown) Hazzard, widow of David Hazzard, was born in Nottawa township, St. Joseph county, on the 27th of July, 1842, and is one of the sterling pioneer women of this county. Her experiences have been varied and interesting, and it may be stated that she twice made the trip across the plains to California on horseback,-in 1852 and again in 1857-before the famous gold excitement in that state. The party of which she was a member was in almost constant danger from attack by Indians and had a number of narrow escapes. Her parents, Samuel and Martha (Reid) Brown took up their residence in Nottawa township, this county, on the 1st of January, 1832, about five years prior to the admission of Michigan to the Union, and her father reclaimed a farm from the wilderness. His first log house was of the most primitive type and no nails were used in its construction. One of his sons, by a second marriage, still resides on the old homestead. Mrs. Hazzard has a great fund of interesting reminiscences concerning the pioneer days in this county, which has represented her home during practically her entire life. She first married William S. Beardsley and after his death she married David Hazzard, whose brother William was the first white child born in St. Joseph county. Mr. Hazzard was a valiant soldier in the Civil war and he passed the closing years of his life in the village of Centerville, the judicial center of St. Joseph county, where he died on the 15th of May, 1893. Mrs. Hazzard has no children and since the death of her husband she has resided in the home of her foster-daughter, Mrs. Daniels. WIRT M. HAZEN.-Numbered among the representative and essentially enterprising business men of the city of Three Rivers is Wirt M. Hazen, who is here engaged in the retail lumber, coal and building-material business and whose yards and store-houses afford facilities of the best type. Mr. Hazen claims the state of Illinois as the place of his nativity, as he was born in Sidney township, Champaign county, that

Page  583 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 583 state, on the 27th of September, 1876. He is the youngest of the seven children of Nathan L. and Sarah (Moore) Hazen. His parents were numbered among the pioneers of Champaign county, whither they removed from the northwestern part of Massachusetts in the year 1856, and they still continue to reside in that county, where the father has long been recognized as a representative farmer and stockgrower. To the public schools of Sidney, Illinois, Wirt M. Hazen is indebted for his early educational discipline, which was supplemented by an effective course in the business college at Dixon, Illinois. After leaving the latter institution he became identified with the banking business, and for five years he served as cashier of the Exchange Bank of Champaign. In 1904 Mr. Hazen came to Michigan and established his home at Jonesville, Hillsdale county, where he was engaged in the lumber business for three and one-half years, at the expiration of which, in 1908, he disposed of his interests there and removed to Three Rivers, where he has since continued in the same line of enterprise and has built up a most substantial and extensive trade. His lumber yards are the largest in the county and he will have the largest shed in the state of Michigan when completed. The yards are at all times equipped with an adequate stock of the various grades and varieties of lumber and building material, besides which he conducts a large business in the handling of coal. As a citizen Mr. Hazen is essentially liberal and publicspirited, and he is ever ready to lend his co-operation in the support of measures projected for the general welfare of the community. His political proclivities are indicated by the stanch support he accords to the cause of the Republican party, and in the time-honored Masonic Fraternity he has attained the chivalric degrees, his maximum affiliation being with Hillsdale Commandery, Knights Templars. He and his wife are zealous and valued members of the First Presbyterian church of Three Rivers and are active in the various departments of its work. He has served since 1909 as a member of the board of trustees of this church. On the 1st of August, 1899, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Hazen to Miss Etta B. Brewer, daughter of Meshech L. Brewer, of Philo, Champaign county, Illinois, where she was born and reared. Mr. and Mrs. Hazen have two sons, Harold Locke, who was born on the 1st of August, 1900, and Linn Moore, who was born on the 23rd of January, 1909. Vol. II-7

Page  584 584 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ALFRED M. WICKETT has been a resident of White Pigeon since 1866, and was born in Belville, Canada, August 18, 1843. He was reared on a farm, and throughout his life has attended school but three months, but he has always made the most of his advantages and opportunities for obtaining an education, and has acquired most of it through his own unaided efforts. In 1864 Mr. Wickett came to the United States and enlisted in Company C, Eighth Michigan Cavalry; he never saw active service, but is now able to draw a pension of twelve dollars per month. At the close of the war he learned the trade of cabinet maker, which he has since followed. In 1866 he began working in White Pigeon as undertaker and cabinet maker, and has followed it forty years in this town, thirty of which he has been in business on his own account. He has prospered well, and he and his wife own one hundred and twenty acres of land, in St. Joseph county, besides his business location and residence in White Pigeon. He several years ago passed the examination required by state law, and secured his license 'for the practice of his profession. Mr. Wickett was one of the organizers of the Funeral Directors' Association which first met in Jackson, Michigan, January 14, 1880. He is the oldest undertaker in the county and among the oldest in the state in the length of time engaged in this vocation. He is a member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, White Pigeon Lodge No. 104. In political views he is a Democrat, and is now serving his fifth year as mayor of White Pigeon. Mr. Wickett is a public-spirited, patriotic citizen, and has thoroughly imbibed the sentiments of his adopted country. His parents were natives of England, and emigrated to Canada when young. Mr. Wickett married (first), July 4, 1868, Miss Middleton, who died childless in 1878. He married (second) Mary Catton, and they became parents of one daughter, Fannie May, born in 1883, graduate of the high school of White Pigeon, and now the wife of Sherman D. Boone, a book-keeper with a milling company of Coldwater, Michigan. Mr. Boone and his wife have two children, Ralph W. and Walter. MRS. MARIAH RICHARDS is a member of one of the earliest pioneer families of St. Joseph county, their name being traced on the pages of its history from the days of its earliest development. She was born in Montgomery county, New York, September 30, 1831, a daughter of John Young, born in the same county May 27, 1802,

Page  585 I**

Page  586 HOMESTEAD OF CLARK ROATCH FLOWERFIELD TOWNSHIP

Page  587 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 587 and of Jane Dernett, his wife, born February 9, 1802. They came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, in 1835, driving through from New York, and they settled on the land which John Young had previously purchased, he having made the journey to this county some time before he brought his family. He became a well-to-do and influential man in his new home, spending the remainder of his life here, and he was laid to rest among the honored pioneers of St. Joseph county. Mariah was one of the eight children born to John and Jane Young, and she was reared on her parents' farm and attended school in the little log school houses known only to the pioneer period. The country around was then inhabited principally with Indians, deer and wild animals, and she can yet recall to mind those frontier days of St. Joseph county. She married in 1849, on the 21st of March, J. S. Richards, and the following children blessed their marriage union: Harvey, George, Charles, John and Ardella, but John Richards is the only one of the children now at home. He was born in September of 1869, and is now farming his mother's homestead in section 9, Florence township. He is the present supervisor of his township, and has also served as a township clerk and treasurer. Mrs. Richards is a church member, and she is honored and revered as one of the pioneer residents of St. Joseph county as well as for her sterling personal characteristics. CLARK ROATCH.-A prosperous agriculturist, pleasantly located in Flowerfield township, on the farm where the greater part of his life has been passed, Clark Roatch is widely known as a publicspirited, trustworthy man and citizen, who is now rendering excellent service as township supervisor. A son of the late George R. Roatch, he was born April 17, 1871, in Marcellus, Cass county, Michigan, of pioneer ancestry. His grandfather was born, it is thought, in New York state, coming from thrifty Scotch ancestors. During the latter part of his life he came to Michigan, and spent his last days with his children, dying in Middleville, Barry county. To him and his wife seven sons and two daughters were born, a fair sized family in those days. A native of Genesee county, New York, George R. Roatch lived there until ten years old when he came to Michigan to make his home with an older brother. When ready to begin the battle of life for himself, he embarked in the lumber industry, for a number of years owning and operating a saw mill in Marcellus, where he

Page  588 588 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY was subsequently employed for a time in buying and shipping live stock, building up an extensive trade. Coming with his family to St. Joseph county in 1875, he located in Flowerfield township, buying a farm which was located in sections 1, 2 and 11. Here he each season made improvements of a good character, and continued to buy and ship cattle in connection with general farming, carrying on a substantial business until compelled by ill health to retire from active pursuits. He passed away on the home farm in October, 1907, at the age of seventy-three years, his death being a loss to the community. His wife, whose maiden name was Martha Jane Ridgely, was born in Ohio, and died, in 1898, on the homestead, in Flowerfield township. Three children were born of their union, namely: Frank, Edward, and Clark, the youngest. As a young man Frank Roatch, the eldest son, went to Luce county, and having secured a tract of wild land near Newberry cleared a farm from the wilderness, laboring with the courage and perseverance characteristic of the early pioneers of the state. He is now a prominent resident of Escanaba, where he is a leading contractor in the building of roads and bridges. Educated in the public schools, Clark Roatch began when a boy to assist on the farm, and at the age of twenty-two years assumed its entire management. He is a systematic and practical farmer, and under his supervision the land has been highly cultivated and improved, and he, as a general agriculturist and stockraiser is meeting with genuine success. Fraternally Mr. Roatch is a member of Schoolcraft Lodge, No. 118, A. F. & A. M., and Prairie Ronde Chapter, No. 54. Politically he is an earnest supporter of the principles of the Democratic party, and has served wisely and well in official capacities, having for two years been township treasurer, at the present time being its supervisor. GEORGE W. SLOTE.-In the annals of St. Joseph county the name of Slote occupies a place of note, James Slote, grandfather of George W., having been one of its pioneer settlers. A native of Pennsylvania, he came from excellent Holland ancestry, and as a young man learned the trade of a tanner, which he followed to some extent in connection with farming and other industries. He accepted the contract for building the Wire Run Church, in Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, and burnt the brick which was used in its construction. In 1837 James Slote, accompanied by his own family, and those of his son-in-law, William McCormack, and of Henry Snyder,

Page  589 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 589 came to Michigan, making the long trip with teams. He located in Park township, St. Joseph county, purchased a tract of heavily wooded land, and began to clear and improve a homestead. About a year later he made a business trip to Pennsylvania and while there was taken ill and died. He married Hannah Hower, who was born in Pennsylvania, and to them eleven children were born, eight sons and three daughters. His widow survived him many years, dying in Michigan. George Slote, father of George W., was born in Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, and as a boy and youth received excellent educational advantages. Entering upon a professional career while young, he was one of the pioneer teachers of St. Joseph county, teaching school eighteen consecutive winters. For many years after he came here with his parents the people lived in a very primitive manner, much of the travelling being performed on foot or horseback. There were no railways in this section of the country, and Detroit was the nearest marketing place. A flour mill, however, had been built at Three Rivers in 1836, and to this mill he used to take wheat to be ground, rafting it down the St. Joseph river. When ready to establish himself permanently in life, he rented land, but afterwards he purchased the interest of the remaining heirs in a part of the old homestead, and was there engaged in tilling the soil until his death, in 1861. George Slote was twice married. He married first Margaret Fair, who was born in Ireland, and came with her father, Robert Fair, to the United States, living for awhile in New York City, from there coming to St. Joseph county. She died in 1850, leaving three children, namely: James; George W., the subject of this brief sketch; and Margaret. Mr. Slote married second Mary Waldron, who survived him, passing away in 1876. George W. Slote was born, October 1, 1844, in Nottawa township, St. Joseph county, where, during his boyhood, he attended the district schools. He obtained a practical common school education, and on the home farm acquired an excellent knowledge of the various branches of agriculture. Subsequently buying land in Florence township, Mr. Slote was there prosperously employed in general farming until 1896, when he removed to Fabius township, locating in section thirty-five, on the Lewis K. Brody homestead, where he has since resided. Mr. Slote has been twice married. He married first, November 11, 1877, Kate Hartman, a native of Pennsylvania. She died in 1891, leaving one daughter, namely: Myrtle, who married

Page  590 590 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY William Harder, and has one child, La Verne Harder. Mr. Slote married second, February 19, 1896, Miss Arabella Brody, who was born in Fabius township, a daughter of Lewis K. and Rebecca (Crawford) Brody, of whom a brief sketch appears elsewhere in this volume. After the death of her mother, Mrs. Slote remained with her father, caring tenderly for him in his declining years, and has since succeeded to the ownership of the parental estate, known as Oak Hill Farm, which is one of the most valuable and desirable pieces of property in the county. Mr. Brody had made valuable improvements on the farm, including the erection of a fine set of buildings, and Mr. and Mrs. Slote are keeping up the place in the same good way, constantly adding to the improvements already inaugurated, everything about the premises indicating the existence of cultivated tastes and ample means. In his political views Mr. Slote is independent, voting according to the dictates of his conscience. Religiously Mr. and Mrs. Slote are adherents to the Reformed church. LEWIS K. BRODY.-An honored representative of the early pioneers of St. Joseph county, Lewis K. Brody, late of Fabius township, was a true type of the energetic, hardy and enterprising men who actively assisted in the development and growth of this fertile and productive agricultural region. When he first came to this vicinity the wild beasts of the forest had not fled before the advancing steps of civilization, but, with the dusky savage, habited the vast wilderness. In the grand transformation of the forest-covered country that gradually ensued he took an important part, and at the same time, by his sagacity and foresight, he was enabled to accumulate a good property. A native of Ohio, he was born, June 4, 1808, in Columbiana county, where he grew to manhood. James Brody, father of Lewis K., was one of the original settlers of Columbiana county, Ohio, living there a number of years. Migrating then to Michigan, he bought a tract of heavily timbered land, and upon the farm which he redeemed from the wilderness spent the remainder of his life, passing away at a ripe old age. When, in the early thirties, Lewis K. Brody came to St. Joseph county the country roundabout was in its pristine condition, being a veritable wilderness, where few, if any, evidences of civilization existed. Now, through the judicious labor of its settlers, flourishing towns and cities, and magnificent agricultural communities have usurped the place of the

Page  591 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 591 forest, while the well-cultivated acres yield abundantly and to spare. Beginning life here even with the world, Mr. Brody found employment clearing the land and tilling the soil. Industrious and economical, he saved his earnings, and in due course of time invested his money in land, buying a tract of timber in section thirty-five, Fabius township. Making an opening in the forest, he erected a humble log cabin of typical pioneer style, hanging a blanket across the doorway, and in this lived for a time. Bears, deer, wild turkeys and other game were plentiful, and Indians were numerous though seldom unfriendly. There were neither railways nor canals for many years thereafter, all produce and supplies being transported to and from market on river boats. Laboring with courage and perseverance, Mr. Brody cleared a good homestead, and after awhile erected a more substantial house of logs, which, in turn gave way to a commodious frame house. He possessed excellent judgment, and made judicious investments, adding to his estate until he became owner of upwards of eight hundred acres, all lying in Fabius and Constantine townships. Meeting with undisputed success as an agriculturist, he continued his operations throughout his active career, living on his home farm until his death, August 1, 1901. Mr. Brody married Rebecca Crawford, who was born in Virginia, February 13, 1813, a daughter of Robert Crawford. Robert Crawford was a native, it is supposed, of Virginia, where he spent the earlier part of his life. He subsequently came with his family to St. Joseph county, Michigan, making the journey overland with teams, a part of the family riding in the wagon, while his wife and daughter took turns in riding horseback. He died March 26, 1841, aged sixty-five years. His wife, Mary Crawford, survived him, passing away October 28, 1850, aged sixty years. Mrs. Brody passed to the higher life February 7, 1884, leaving eight children, namely: Lucina; Louisa; Amanda E.; James P.; Lewis K.; William S.; Adalia R.; and Arabella, wife of George W. Slote, of whom a brief biographical sketch may be found on another page of this work. Politically Mr. Brody was a Democrat. WILLIAM W. MARANTETTE.-A member of one of the best known pioneer families of St. Joseph county, William W. Marantette is the owner of the Wakeman Hotel, in the village of Mendon, and he is well known and held in unqualified esteem in the community that has represented his home since the time of his birth.

Page  592 592 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Mr. Marantette was born in Mendon township, this county, on the 21st of July, 1844, and is a son of Patric and Frances (Montaw) Marantette, both of whom were of French lineage. Patric Marantette was one of the first settlers in MIendon township and was a citizen of prominence and influence in the pioneer days. Both he and his wife continued to reside in Mendon township until their death, and there he reclaimed a farm from the virgin wilds. He was a Democrat in his political proclivities and both he and his wife were communicants of the Catholic church. William W. Marantette was reared to maturity on the home farm and is indebted to the public schools of his native township for his early educational discipline. After his marriage he was engaged in the mercantile business at Mendon for a period of five years, after which he was for a time located on the farm of eighty acres, which he had inherited from his father. In 1876 he sold his farm and engaged in the hotel business in Mendon. He has since continued in this line of enterprise and his hotel, modern in its equipment and service, caters to a large and appreciative patronage. Mr. Marantette is one of the veteran hotel men of his native state and enjoys marked popularity with the traveling public as does he also in his home county. He has ever shown a deep interest in public affairs of a local order and is one of the influential citizens of the village of Mendon. His political support is given to the Democratic party and both he and his wife are communicants of St. Edward's Catholic church. On the 5th of February, 1868, Mr. Marantette was united in marriage to Miss Celia Reeves, who was born in Ohio and who is a daughter of Lucian B. and Susan Reeves. Her father died when she was a child and her mother later became the wife of Adam Wakeman: they passed the closing years of their lives in St. Joseph county, where Mr. Wakeman was a successful farmer. Mr. and Mrs. Marantette have two children-Edward G., who was born on the 26th of October, 1868, married Miss Elizabeth Harold, and they have two children,-Mignon and Edward, Jr., they now reside in Binghamton, New York; Jessie, who was born on the 8th of October, 1884, remains at the parental home and is one of the popular young ladies in the social circles of Mendon. FRANCISCO KLADY, a prominent farmer of Nottawa township, is a native of that township, born March 12, 1841. His father, William Klady, was born in New York state, in 1810, and was of German descent. He removed from New York to Kalamazoo

Page  593 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 593 county, Michigan, and later located in Nottawa township, St. Joseph county, on a farm. Later he sold his farm and settled at the station, where he lived the remainder of his life. He was a carpenter by trade, and in politics was a Whig and later a Republican. Mr. Klady was a member of the Reformed Church of Centerville, was greatly interested in the schools, and held various school offices. He married Nancy Knickerbocker, in New York, and they came to Michigan together; she was born March 17, 1800, and her parents were well-to-do farmers. Mr. Klady and his wife had children as follows: Hugh A., died in 1872, was married; Isaac, also married, died in 1864; Ray, died in infancy; Francisco; Schram, died in infancy; and Lee, living retired, at Sturgis, Michigan, is unmarried. Francisco Klady received his education in the district schools of Nottawa and Colon townships, and has spent most of his life on a farm. He spent two years learning the trade of cabinetmaker. In August, 1861, Mr. Klady enlisted in the Eleventh Michigan Volunteer Infantry, and after December of that year went to Kentucky and camped the remainder of the winter. For three years he took part in all the important battles, and was in the campaign before Atlanta; he was with the Army of the Cumberland and with General Thomas the remainder of his time, and was mustered out September 30, 1864. He always carried a Springfield rifle. After his marriage Mr. Klady bought one hundred and twenty acres of land, which he cleared himself, and he has built the houses, barns, etc., now on the land, which he keeps in good order, as he also does his fences. He has made moder improvements, and has handsome lawns and other surroundings. He is an expert farmer, and pays close attention to his work on the place. He is a Republican and for two years held the office of township treasurer. He is a charter member of the Grand Army of the Republic David Oaks Post No. 135, at Centerville. In September, 1865, Mr. Klady married Katherine Elizabeth, daughter of John and Margaret McKercher, farmers, who died before the war. She was born in Moscow, Hillsdale county, Michigan,April 14, 1840, and lived there until she was thirteen years of age, when she came to St. Joseph county. She received her education at Moscow and Albion, Michigan, taught school eight terms in the district schools of Nottawa and Lockport townships, one year in Hillsdale county and one year in Jackson county. She purchased a farm on the Centerville and Nottawa road. Her

Page  594 594 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY father, a Republican, served ten years as supervisor of Nottawa township. Mr. Klady and his wife have two children, Florence Elizabeth, born September 23, 1866, and William C., born August 15, 1870. Florence E. is the wife of C. C. Andrews, a salesman, of Sturgis, and William C. is a carpenter and lives at home; he married Winnie Agnes Lohr, and they have one child, Mildred Agnes. DR. WILLIAM H. SNYDER, a rising young physician of White Pigeon, was born in Jefferson township, Wells county, Indiana, January 16, 1871, and is a son of Solomon J. and Elizabeth (Mallonee) Snyder, the latter born in Adams county, Indiana. The parents came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, in 1905. The primary education of William H. Snyder was obtained in the district schools of Wells county, Indiana, and he graduated from the high school of White Pigeon, Michigan, in 1893. He taught in the district schools some time, and in 1897 graduated from the State Normal School of Ypsilanti, Michigan. In 1902 he entered the Detroit College of Medicine, from which he graduated with degree M. D. in 1906. Dr. Snyder first practiced his profession in Kalamazoo county, Michigan, and in 1909 located at White Pigeon. He has built up a good practice, and has a high standing in his profession. He belongs to the County, State and American Medical Societies and gives his best attention to the vocation which he has made his life work. In August, 1902, Dr. Snyder married Bernice Fisher, of Battle Creek, Michigan; she is a graduate of the State Normial School, and was a teacher of prominence and success. Dr. Snyder is a member of the Maccabees, Tent No. 919; his wife is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and an enthusiastic worker in both church and Sunday School affairs. In politics he is a Democrat as to principles, but in local matters votes independent of party. He is a public-spirited citizen, and highly respected. CHARLES D. CUTLER, a prominent merchant of Nottawa, was born October 21, 1881, son of Thomas D. and Eva (Dickinson) Cutler, both natives of St. Joseph county. Thomas D. Cutler was born in Centerville, in 1854, and died August 31, 1905; his wife was born February 18, 1855, and died April 8, 1906. They were married February 19, 1880. The father was a general merchant at Nottawa, and lived there from 1878 until his death. Previous to entering into business on his own account he was postmaster and five years a clerk.

Page  595 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 595 The father of Thomas D. Cutler was born March 25, 1815, and settled at Colon, Michigan, where he became a miller. In 1854 he sailed from New York to California, and was gone six months. He returned to Michigan and spent a few months with his family, when he again went to California, this time by the overland route. He spent some time at various points and then located at Redwood Falls, where he owned a half interest in a mill. He died September 11, 1865, and through the good offices of the Masonic Order, of which he was an honored member, his business interests were disposed of and the proceeds sent home to his family in Michigan. He married, October 28, 1840, at Colon, Michigan, Desire A., daughter of Abel Belote of Nottawa, born October 28, 1824. Thomas D. Cutler and his wife had five children, namely:: Charles D.; Robert Walter, born December 15, 1883, is married and engaged in general merchandise business at Wawaka; George Irving, born June 23, 1886, lives in Colorado; William Lloyd, born May 17, 1888, also in lumber business in Colorado, single; and Frank Harold, born June 22, 1897, is single and makes his home with Charles D. Charles D. Cutler received his education in Centerville high school and spent one year at Kalamazoo College. After leaving college he came to Nottawa and engaged in business in company with his father, in the line of general merchandise. After the death of his father he continued the business in partnership with his brothers. They keep the leading store of the town, and deal in produce, wool, grain, oil and general merchandise. They also buy and ship potatoes. They do a prosperous and constantly growing business, and have proven themselves possessed of good business ability and judgment. Socially Mr. Cutler is a member of Her: man Lodge No. 24, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. June 21, 1904, Mr. Cutler married Neva McIntosh, born January 16, 1882, daughter of Milton and Mary (Onley) McIntosh, residing at Wasepi; they have two children, Lucille and Arnold. JOHN M. LAIRD.-St. Joseph county's strength is in great part due to her substantial and progressive agricultural element and standing as a stanch and estimable representative of his calling is John M. Laird of Mendon township. He was born September 2, 1851, his parents being H. W. and Susan M. (Brown) Laird, both of them natives of Maryland. The father had been a slave-owner and a man of property in his native state, but becoming a convert to the cause of abolition, he freed his slaves, even though at

Page  596 596 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY great personal loss, and moved westward, locating in Ohio. This was in the early '30s. He eventually came to Michigan and became the owner of a valuable farm of three hundred acres located on the prairie. He was a man of influence and one of the promoters of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad. His wife was a worker in the Methodist church. Mr. Laird was one of a family of nine children, these being as follows: William H., George C., Gilbert W., James M., John M., Charles W., Caroline F., Samantha and Mary J. All are alive with the exception of Samantha and Mary J. John M. Laird in the fashion of the usual young American received his education in the public schools and remained under the home roof until his marriage in 1884. He spent ten years farming on the old homestead, and removed to the Bacon farm, which he operated very successfully for fifteen years. Desiring to become an independent land owner he bought eighty acres of excellent land and has ever since engaged in general farming. He gives his support to the men and measures of the Republican party and belongs to the K. O. T. M. Mr. Laird laid the foundation of a happy home life by his marriage April 1, 1882, to Miss Alice J. Simpson, daughter of John and Lydia A. (Vondermark) Simpson. The date of Mrs. Laird's birth was May 30, 1859. This union has been blessed by the birth of the following children: Bessie Happle, born December 20, 1884; Charles H., born June 11, 1887; Winifred M., born December 18, 1890; John P., born February 8, 1893; and Alice M., born March 28, 1894. FRANK MENDENHALL.-Well worthy of representation in this volume is Frank Mendenhall, the genial, accommodating, and popular agent of the Lake Shore Railroad at Moore Park. A native of Indiana, he was born February 20, 1866, at Lima, now Howe, La Grange county, coming from honored Virginian stock. His father, Thomas Mendenhall, was born and bred in Virginia. Emigrating in early manhood to Indiana, he learned the miller's trade, and subsequently operated mills in different parts of the state, being in Bristol a number of years. Finally locating in Van Buren, he purchased a mill, and was there actively employed until his death, at the age of sixty-six years. His wife, whose maiden name was Sarah Calista Wheeler, was born in New York state, and died, at the age of seventy-nine years, in Michi

Page  597 RESIDENCE OF MR. AND MRS. FRANK MENDENHALL MOORE PARK, MICHIGAN

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Page  599 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 599 gan. Five children were born of their union, as follows: Mary Althea, deceased; Thomas, Fred, Ella and Frank. After completing his studies in the public schools, and as a student at the Northern Indiana University, at Valparaiso, Frank Mendenhall learned the trade of a house and carriage painter, which he followed a short time, in 1886 entering the employ of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway Company, as painter, being located at Elkhart. Soon afterwards, Mr. Mendenhall began studying telegraphy at the Flowerfield railway station, and when proficient was given a position at Grand Rapids, where he continued as an operator until 1889. In that year he accepted the office of station agent at Moore Park, and has served continuously since, giving entire satisfaction to the company, and to the general public. He is also agent for the American Express Company, and for the Western Union Telegraph Company. December 3, 1891, Mr. Mendenhall was united in marriage with Lillie May Weinberg, who was born in 1872, at Three Rivers, Michigan, a daughter of Monroe and Sarah (Bramer) Weinberg. In a sketch of Mrs. Mendenhall, on another page of this biographical work, further history of her parents may be found. Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Mendenhall, one of whom, Adrian, died in infancy; Vera, the other child, is living. In 1903 Mr. and Mrs. Mendenhall formed a partnership in the mercantile business, opening a store, which Mrs. Mendenhall has since conducted in an able manner, Mr. Mendenhall's railway and express business occupying his entire time and attention. Mr. and Mrs. Mendenhall are also interested in real estate, owning a fine farm of one hundred and sixty acres, in Park township, which is well improved and in a high state of cultivation. This farm, which is operated by a tenant on shares, yields them a good annual income. Fraternally Mr. Mendenhall is a member of Moore Park Camp, No. 9,972, M. W. M., and he is Clerk of the Camp. MRS. LILLIE MAY (WEINBERG) MENDENHALL. —An accomplished and enterprising business woman, Mrs. Lillie May Mendenhall, of Moore Park, St. Joseph county, is well known in both commercial and social circles, and, in partnership with her husband, Frank Mendenhall, is carrying on a substantial mercantile business, of which she has the sole charge. A daughter of Monroe Weinberg, she was born March 21, 1872, in Three Rivers, coming from German ancestry. Her grantfather, George Weinberg, Jr., was born in Northampton county, Pennsylvania, where her great

Page  600 600 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY grandfather, George Weinberg, Sr., a native of Germany, spent his last years. George Weinberg, Jr., resided in Northampton county, Pennsylvania, until 1836, being engaged as a contractor and builder. Going then to Armstrong county, Pennsylvania, he bought land, and carried on general farming for ten years, at the same time following his former occupation to some extent. Disposing of his interests in that locality in 1846, he came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, accompanied by his family, making the long journey with teams, bringing all of his worldly possessions, and camping and cooking by the wayside. He located at Three Rivers, where, but six months later, his death occurred. He married Susanna Switzer, who was born in Northampton county, Pennsylvania, of German ancestry, and was there bred to habits of thrift. After the death of her husband, she removed with the children to Flowerfield township, bought a tract of land, and at once moved into the only building on the place, a small granary that had been previously erected. She occupied that during the winter, and in the spring built a frame house. The sons at once began clearing the land, working so earnestly and diligently that in due course of time they had a well-improved, productive homestead. There she spent the remainder of her life, passing away at the age of sixty-three years. She reared seven children, as follows: Samuel, Mary Ann, Leander, Reuben, Monroe, George H., and Jerry. Monroe Weinberg gained an excellent knowledge of the various branches of agriculture in his youthful days, and when ready to start in life for himself, bought land in Park township, this county, and was there employed in tilling the soil until 1867. Removing then to Three Rivers, he was engaged in mercantile pursuits for five years, when he became a resident of Moore Park, where he was actively and successfully engaged in buying and shipping grain until his death, June 8, 1908. He married Sarah Bramer, who was born in Park township, a daughter of George and Margaret (Fetter) Bramer, natives of Pennsylvania. She died in December, 1903, leaving five children, as follows: Elizabeth, Darius E., Chailon, Lillie May, and Merle M. Lillie May Weinberg received good educational advantages as a girl; while under her mother's instruction she acquired a practical knowledge of domestic affairs. On December 3, 1891, she married Frank Mendenhall, of whom a brief sketch also appears in this volume. In 1903 Mrs. and Mr. Mendenhall opened a mercantile establishment in Moore Park, and have since built

Page  601 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 601 up an extensive and lucrative trade. The business is under the exclusive management of Mrs. Mendenhall, a woman of tried and true ability, who is meeting with eminent success in her mercantile career. Gifted with a charming personality, she has a host of warm friends, and both she and her husband, whose time is fully occupied at the railway station, are held in high esteem. In addition to managing the store, Mrs. Mendenhall is also serving as postmistress. Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Mendenhall, namely: a daughter, Vera; and a son, Adrian, who died in infancy. Vera wedded Glenn D. Reiff, who is engaged in the railroad business, being the present agent of the Lake Shore Railroad, at Moore Park, Michigan. They reside with Mr. and Mrs. Mendenhall. Mrs. Mendenhall is an active member of the Royal Neighbors Society, No. 1,059, and was recorder of this order for a number of years. JAMES W. FERGUSON.-Noteworthy among the many active and prosperous agriculturists of St. Joseph county is James W. Ferguson, who is successfully employed in general farming in Fabius township, having a well-improved estate. A son of David Ferguson, he was born March 8, 1848, in Toledo, Ohio, coming from thrifty Scotch ancestry. A native of Scotland, David Ferguson was born September 25, 1825, in Wigtonshire, and when a small boy was left fatherless. At the age of ten years he began to earn his own living by herding sheep in the green pastures of his native county. At the age of twelve years he began to learn the shoemaker's trade at Kirkoswald, in Ayrshire, where he served an apprenticeship of five years. He afterwards worked as a journeyman, and supported his aged mother. In 1846, at the age of thirty-one years, he started for America, crossing the Atlantic in a sailing vessel, and being seventy days in making the voyage. Provisions and water ran short, and the passengers landed in New York City a worn and hungry crowd. After living a few months at Nyack-onthe-Hudson, David Ferguson moved to Toledo, Ohio, where for six years he carried on an extensive business in manufacturing soles for custom-made shoes. Coming from there to Michigan, he spent one winter at Sturgis, and then located at Constantine, St. Joseph county, where he was engaged in business until 1856. In that year he bouglt, in Fabius township, forty acres of land, seven of which had been cleared. Building a log house, he cleared and improved about thirty acres of his farm, living there seven years.

Page  602 602 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Returning to Constantine in 1863, he was there employed as foreman in a shoe factory for a number of years, after which he opened a store, and in the sale of shoes, and as a cobbler, he carried on an extensive business, being quite active until his death, in the eighty-third year of his age. He married Jane Boyd, who was born in Greenock, Scotland. She died at the age of thirty-nine years, leaving six children, namely: James W., the subject of this sketch; John B., Ellen, Walter S., David, and Euphemia. James W. Ferguson was a boy of eight years when the family located in Fabius township. There were but few schools in the place at that time, and he first attended the one located near the Morrison cemetery, and the next year attended the Hopkins School, which had been erected in the meantime. At the age of fifteen years he went to Cass county, where for three years he was employed as a farm laborer. Returning to Fabius township, he continued thus employed until 1871, when he assumed charge of his father's farm, which he managed for six years. Removing then to Three Rivers, Mr. Ferguson was for a time employed in a paper mill, after which he was engaged in teaming until 1892. The following three years he had supervision of the Hopkins farm, and on giving it up moved to N'ottawa township, where he rented land for three years. Successful in his undertakings, Mr. Ferguson then bought the farm of sixty acres in Fabius township, on section 22, which he now owns and occupies. Here he is carrying on general farming with encouraging results, having his land in a good state of cultivation, and fairly improved. Mr. Ferguson married in 1872, Adalia Cochran, who was born in Fabius township, a daughter of the late William Cochran. Mr. Cochran came to Michigan in early manhood, locating as a pioneer in St. Joseph county in the early thirties, and for some time was employed in clearing and breaking land, working for wages. Prudent in his expenditures, he accumulated some money, and subsequently bought forty acres of land in Fabius township, built a log cabin, in which he installed his bride. He was fortunate in his labors, and afterward added by purchase four acres to his farm, and erected a set of substantial frame buildings. He continued his work as an agriculturist until his death, at the age of sixty-seven years. His wife, whose maiden name was Phoebe Williams, came with her parents to St. Joseph county when a girl. She died at the age of sixty-seven years, also, leaving four children, namely: Adalia, wife of Mr. Ferguson; Thomas, Uriah and Arthur. The union of Mr. and Mrs. Ferguson has been blessed by

Page  603 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 603 the birth of two children, namely: Arthur and Emma. Arthur, owning and occupying a farm near the parental homestead, is now serving as treasurer of Fabius township. He married Dora Pratt. Politically Mr. Ferguson is a stanch supporter of the principles of the Democratic party, and in 1909 was appointed highway commissioner. RECTOR R. RUSSELL, a prosperous farmer of Nottawa township, was born September 30, 1875, and is a son of Andrew C. and Chrysothemus (Thurston) Russell, both natives of Ohio. Andrew C. Russell was born in 1840, son of Joseph Russell, who lived in Ohio. He was married in 1862 in St. Joseph county, Michigan; his wife was born in St. Joseph county, in 1842, and was a daughter of a farmer. After his marriage Mr. Russell purchased a farm in Nottawa township, which he afterwards sold and invested in a livery stable in Sturgis; afterwards he carried on a meat market there and then purchased a farm in Sherman township. He sold this farm and removed to Nebraska, where he followed farming four years and returned to Branch county, Michigan, where he spent four years on a farm, and then he purchased a farm in Nottawa township, where he spent the remainder of his life. He died in 1901 and his wife survives him. He was a Republican and served as justice of the peace while living in Nebraska. Andrew Russell and his wife had children as follows: Hector D., born in 1866, a farmer of Washington state, married; Clare V., born in 1869, died unmarried in 1889; Iffigenia, born 1873, married Eugene Sharp, of Colon, and died in 1901, left two sons, Obid E., fourteen years of age and Leon R., twelve years; Rector R.; Carlton W., of St. Mary's, Idaho, married and has one child, Andrew, four years old; and Cecil L., born in 1886, single, lives at home. Rector R. Russell was reared on a farm and received his education in the public schools. When seventeen years of age he began working by the month on a farm, and some time later purchased the one hundred and fifty-two acre farm he now occupies. The land is in good condition, he has made all modern improvements, and the buildings and fences are in good condition. In politics Mr. Russell is a Republican, and cast his first presidential vote for McKinley. He is industrious and ambitious, and is a public-spirited citizen. GRANT E. FARRAND.-A member of one of the honored and venerable, old pioneer families of Colon township, Grant E. FarVol. II-8

Page  604 604 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY rand was born and reared to maturity on the old homestead, on which he still resides. He was born on the 25th of September, 1863, and is a son of Phineas and Betsey M. (Kinne) Farrand, both of whom were natives of Naples, Ontario county, New York. The former was born in 1820 and died in 1896, in St. Joseph county, Michigan, and the latter was born in 1826 and died in the year 1894. In October, 1837, the year which marks the admission of Michigan to statehood, when Phineas Ferrand was a youth of seventeen years of age, he accompanied his parents to Colon township, where they purchased a tract of ninety acres of land, which they reclaimed from the virgin forest to the productive farm on which Grant E., the subject of this sketch, and his brother, Joseph K., now maintain their home; Mrs. Farrand likewise came to Leonidas township with her parents, in 1845. Their marriage was solemnized in Leonidas, St. Joseph county, Michigan, and they became the parents of three children, namely: Joseph K., who was born on the 18th of July, 1847, assists his brother in the general supervision and management of the home farm; he is a bachelor; Theron G., who was born on the 22d of May, 1851, and died in 1875, was married but had no children; and Grant E., the subject of this review. Mr. Farrand was a stanch adherent of the principles and policies of the Republican party after its organization in 1856 and he did much to aid in the upbuilding and development of Colon. Grant E. Farrand was reared to the sturdy discipline of the home farm and received his preliminary education in the district schools of the locality and period, which he attended during the winter terms, assisting in the cultivation of the farm during the summers. As already stated, he and his brother Joseph K. maintain their home on the old homestead and they make a specialty of stock-raising, having large herds of registered shorthorn cattle and flocks of Delaine sheep. They are the most extensive stock-growers in the county and their well improved and valuable farm of over 800 acres, on the banks of the St. Joseph river, adds greatly to the attractiveness of this section of the state. The name of this beautiful estate is known as Lakeside Stock Farm. On the 21st of June, 1893, Mr. Farrand was united in marriage to Miss Catherine Roy, who traces her lineage back to stanch old Scotch and Irish origin. She was born on the 4th of July, 1865, and is a daughter of John C. and Elizabeth (Tullis) Roy. The former was born at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, and was one of the first white children to be born in that vicinity; the latter was

Page  605 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 605 born in 1837, at Bellefontaine, Logan county, Ohio. They were married at Constantine, St. Joseph county, Michigan, where they maintained their home until their death and where Catherine was reared to maturity. Mr. and Mrs. Grant E. Farrand became the parents of five children, concerning whom the following brief record is entered here: Phineas Roy was born on the 11th of April, 1894, and he attends the Colon high school; Ray McKinley was born on the 24th of November, 1896, and attends the public schools of Colon; Theron Kitchel was born on the 3d of February, 1900, died April 26, 1902; Virgil Clark was born on the 20th of March, 1902; and Walter Joseph was born on the 4th of February, 1905. All remain at the parental home. Mr. Farrand, like his father, gives his political support to the Republican party. He is a member of the board of review and both he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church at Colon. THOMAS D. GIVAN, M. D.-Within the pages of this historical compilation will be found mention of many of those who stand prominent in professional and business circles, and it is most consonant that recognition be accorded to Dr. Givan, who is one of the representative physicians and surgeons of St. Joseph county and who is established in the practice of his profession in the city of Three Rivers, where he holds a secure place in popular confidence and esteem. Dr. Thomas Dale Givan was born at Liberty, Dekalb county, Tennessee, on the 17th of September, 1875, and is a son of Bluford H. and Cynthia J. (Dodd) Givan, both of whom were likewise born and reared in Tennessee, being representatives of old and honored families of the fair southland. Of the six sons and two daughters all are living except two and all attained to years of maturity, he whose name initiates this review being the fourth son and sixth child. Bluford H. Givan spent the major part of his active career as a clothing merchant, and about the year 1882 he removed with his family to Missouri. He located at Springfield, Missouri, and Dr. Givan secured his early educational discipline in the public schools and after completing the curriculum of the high school he continued his studies in Neosho College, at Neosho, Missouri. In 1895 he began the study of medicine, and in preparation for the work of his chosen profession he finally entered the St. Louis College of Physicians and Surgeons, in which he was gradu

Page  606 606 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ated as member of the class of 1900 and from which he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine. He initiated the active practice of his profession in the city of St. Louis, where he built up an excellent business and where he continued to maintain his home until 1906, in which year he came to Three Rivers, where his professional success has been on a parity with his ability as a physician and surgeon and where his personality has gained to him unqualified popularity. In 1908 Dr. Givan completed a post-graduate course in the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat College, in the city of Chicago, and since that time he has devoted special attention to the treatment of the diseases of the organs mentioned, although he still conducts a general practice. He has continued a close student of the sciences of medicine and surgery and is thoroughly en rapport with his profession, to which his devotion is of the most insistent order and in which he has gained both success and prestige. The Doctor is identified with the St. Joseph County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. In the Masonic order he has become affiliated with the lodge, chapter and commandery of Three Rivers and he is a most appreciaive member of this time-honored fraternity, besides which he holds a membership in Knights of Pythias and other organizations of fraternal or social order. In politics, although never imbued with aught of desire for public office, he is aligned as a stanch supporter of the cause of the Democratic party. He is a member of the Baptist church, and his wife is a member of the English Lutheran church. On the 8th of March, 1906, was solemnized the marriage of Dr. Givan to Miss Emma L. Timm, who was born and reared in St. Joseph county, and who is a daughter of Helmar H. Trimm, an honored pioneer of the county, whither he and his wife came direct from Germany. Dr. and Mrs. Givan are popular factors in connection with the best social activities of the community and as a citizen he is progressive and public-spirited. He and his wife have no children. They reside in one of the prettiest and coziest homes in Three Rivers. It is beautifully lighted by electricity, the stairway is finished in mahogany and the floors laid in squares. The furniture and everything in the place is in keeping with the surroundings. They have a fine library, containing almost one thousand volumes of choice literature. Dr. Givan has his laboratory and office fitted up in the most approved modern style, his apparatus for electrical treatment being of recent design.

Page  607

Page  608 RED CLOVER STOCK FARM, RESIDENCE OF JOHN F. FRISBIE LEONIDAS TOWNSHIP

Page  609 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 609 JOHN F. FRISBIE.-The agriculturist is one of the most potent factors in the wealth and prosperity of a state or nation, and in the following review of Mr. Frisbie we present the record of one of the prominent and successful farmers and stockmen of St. Joseph county, where he resides on a beautiful estate in Leonidas township. Mr. Frisbie was born in Ashtabula county, Ohio, April 4, 1854, and is the third in a family of twelve children, -seven sons and five daughters,-born to Theodore and Celia (Moore) Frisbie. There are four sons and three daughters yet living, but only three reside in St. Joseph county. Theodore Frisbie was a native of Ashtabula county, Ohio, and was born February 29, 1830, and died in 1907. By trade he was a carpenter and joiner and by occupation a farmer, and he was reasonably successful in life. Politically he was an old line Whig and well remembered the "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too," campaign, when the log cabin and a barrel of hard cider were made the slogans, but upon the birth of the Republican party under the "Oaks" at Jackson, Michigan, he ever after advocated those principles. Officially he held such offices as supervisor of his township and also director of the public schools. Fraternally he was a member of the Masonic order, his obsequies being conducted by it. He was interred in his home county and cemetery, the latter having been plotted and presented to the community by his father, the subject of this sketch well remembering the plot of ground. The wife and mother was also a native of old Ashtabula county and was reared there. She was a devout member of the Methodist Episcopal church and was a true wife and devoted mother to her large family. Mr. Frisbie, of this review, was reared as a farmer lad and was early in life inured to the tilling of the soil. He is purely a self-made and self-educated man. He began at the early age of eleven years as a wage earner, the first wages he received being six dollars per month. At the age of thirteen he came with his parents to Burr Oak township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, and worked for a Mr. Atwood for five years. Whilst living in Ohio he calls to mind the time of the Civil war, when Lee was invading Pennsylvania and the battle of Gettysburg was fought in '63. At this time the word came to the citizens to collect guns and to be ready to defend their homes, and his employer, Robert Smith, gave him an old musket to do his part, but the citizens escaped being called upon for active duty.

Page  610 610 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY When Mr. Frisbie began life in Michigan he worked as a farm laborer at fifteen dollars per month, so it is readily seen that he began at the bottom and has had to ascend the ladder of life round by round. His educational advantages were quite meager, as he attended school only three months during the winter time and paid his own way. Mr. Frisbie wedded Miss Effie C. Whiting, in Mendon, Michigan, August 14, 1877, and eight children were born to the union, six living at the present. The eldest is Celia M., wife of Claude Adams, an agriculturist of Colon, Michigan, one child having been born to them, named Cecil; Mrs. Adams was one of the successful teachers of St. Joseph county. Eben T. is a resident of Kalamazoo county and one of its successful farmers; he married Miss Allie West. Ida M. is a student in the Kalamazoo Normal school and is also one of St. Joseph county's teachers. Una B. is at home and is a member of the class of 1911 of the Mendon high school. John B. and Cecil E. are in the ninth and eighth grades at school, respectively. Mrs. Frisbie, the mother of the children, is a native of St. Joseph county and like them was educated in the Mendon high school, and afterward taught in the public schools. She is a member of the Congregational church of Leonidas, Michigan. Her mother still resides in Leonidas township. Politically Mr. Frisbie is one of the tried and true Republicans of his county, having always adhered to the principles of the Grand Old Party. He cast his maiden presidential vote for Hayes and has supported Blaine, Garfield, McKinley and Roosevelt, and is a great admirer of the Colonel. He has been selected by his party as delegate to the state conventions held at Detroit and Grand Rapids, and a number of times to the county conventions to represent the interests of the Republican party. Officially he has been a valued member of his county, serving as deputy sheriff of the county for six years, and he has been director of the home school for years. He is a great friend of the public schools and is highly in favor of universal education for both sexes. Fraternally he has passed all the chairs in the I. O. O. F. at Leonidas Lodge, No. 117, and both he and his wife are members of the Rebekahs. At present he is P. C. P. of his lodge, and both he and Mrs. Frisbie are members of the K. O. T. M. and L. O. T. M. at Leonidas. He has been selected as delegate to the coming grand lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Mr. Frisbie is owner of three hundred and six and one-half acres of fine.land all beautifully situated in Leonidas township,

Page  611 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 611 on the banks of the romantic St. Joseph river. This estate is known as "The Red Clover Stock Farm." Its owner is well known in the county as a buyer and shipper of live stock, having been in the business for twenty-six years, and having been in partnership with Wood Brothers, of Athens, Michigan, for nineteen years, and recently retired on account of ill health. During the first year the firm did $106,000 worth of business and last year it amounted to $368,000, sixty-eight carloads having been shipped to Chicago, Detroit and Buffalo in one month. Mr. Frisbie is a gentleman, who, from a business standpoint, has made a signal success of life, for he began with absolutely nothing except strong will power, fortitude and ambition, coupled with rare business ability. It is a pleasure to compile the record of such a man, since it is a worthy example from which poor boys may take courage and try to duplicate. GEORGE A. ASH.-Conspicuous among the able and intelligent men who have taken an active part in promoting and advancing the agricultural interests of Fabius township is George A. Ash, who has the distinction of being a native-born citizen of St. Joseph county, and one of its representative men. A son of George Ash, he was born in Flowerfield township, April 15, 1841, of English ancestry. James Ash, his grandfather, was born in Lincolnshire, England, and after his emigration to America lived several years in Canada. About 1830 he came to the territory of Michigan, and was one of the first settlers of Washtenaw county, where he took up a tract of wild land. Selling out in 1836, he came to St. Joseph county, and bought a section of land in Flowerfield township, where he was one of the first settlers. He cleared and improved a homestead, and acquired a handsome property, as his sons married, giving to each a tract of land, that locality becoming known as the Ash settlement. He lived to the ripe old age of ninety years, and reared four sons and four daughters. Born in Canada, George Ash came with the family to Washtenaw county, Michigan, and there grew to manhood. When he married he received as a gift from his father after his death, eighty acres of land in Flowerfield township, and in the log cabin that he erected he installed his bride as housekeeper. The country roundabout was then in its virgin wildness, game of all kinds was abundant, and the Indians outnumbered the white settlers. There were neither railways nor convenient markets, all trans

Page  612 612 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY portation was with teams. He cleared a part of his land, in the meantime working at various employments in order to get ready money. In the fall of 1841 he went down the river with a load of flour, was taken ill, and died away from home. He married, in Washtenaw county, Mary Ann Lewis, who was born in Seneca, Ontario county, New York, a daughter of Charles C. P. Lewis, and grand-daughter of John Lewis. A native of Massachusetts, John Lewis served as a soldier in the Revolutionary war, after which he settled in New York state, becoming a pioneer of Seneca. Purchasing land, he cleared a farm from the forest, and there resided until his death. He was active in local affairs, and was a member of the State Militia. His wife, whose maiden name was Rebecca Wheaton, was born in Massachusetts, and died, at the age of sixty-eight years, in Seneca, New York. Charles C. P. Lewis was born in York state, and received more educational advantages than the majority of country boys in those days, completing his studies at a college in Geneva. An only son, he assisted his father on the farm during his boyhood days, and after the death of his father, in 1834, he started westward in search of cheap lands, traveling by way of the Erie Canal to Buffalo, thence by lake boat to Detroit, and from there to Washtenaw county with a team. Buying land near Salina village, he began the pioneer labor of reclaiming a farm from the wilderness. Selling out a few years later, he removed to St. Joseph county, and was here a resident a number of years. He spent his last days at the home of a son, in Nebraska. Charles C. P. Lewis was twice married. He married first Nancy Barnard, who died in 1826, leaving three children, namely: Mary Ann, who became the wife of George Ash; John; and James. He married second Mary Woolsey, who died in Nebraska. Mary Ann Lewis inherited the intellectual tastes of her father, and after leaving the district schools, attended a private school in Washtenaw county. Desirous of making good use of her talents, and also of assisting her young husband in his efforts to accumulate some property, she began teaching after her marriage with George Ash, in her log cabin home, opening the first school established in Flowerfield township, having fourteen pupils, and receiving for her services as teacher $20 a month, a handsome remuneration for those times. She was a woman of high moral principles, and when a young girl united with the Baptist church. On coming to St. Joseph county she united with the Methodist

Page  613 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 61.3 Episcopal church, and has since been one of its most valued and consistent members. She was a charter member of the Women's Foreign Missionary Society, and also of the Women's Home Missionary Society. She remained a widow for three years after the death of Mr. Ash, caring tenderly for her only child, George A. Ash, the subject of this sketch. In 1844 she married for her second husband William Arney, Esquire, who was born in Vermont, a son of John Arney. John Arney, a native of England, served as a young man in the British Army. Subsequently emigrating to Vermont, he soon after lost an arm by the premature explosion of a gun. He then fitted himself for a professional career, and for awhile taught school in Pennsylvania. Migrating from that state to Michigan, he bought timbered land in St. Joseph county, and here lived and labored until his death. William Arney taught school when young, and afterwards invested his earnings in land, buying one hundred and sixty acres of land lying four miles west of Three Rivers, and was there successfully employed in tilling the soil the remainder of his years. He was an influential and active member of the Democratic party, and for twelve years served as justice of the peace. To him and his wife eight children were born, as follows: Daniel L.; Charles W., who served in the Civil war, and died while in the service; Mary; Frances; John W.; Edgar; Ella; and Ruth. Mrs. Arney, who now makes her home with her oldest son, Mr. Ash, is a venerable woman of nearly ninety years, well preserved mentally and physically, bearing her burden of years easily and gracefully. Growing to manhood among pioneer scenes, George A. Ash has witnessed with pleasure and gratification the gradual transformation of St. Joseph county from a dreary wilderness to a rich and productive agricultural region, and in its development and advancement has been an important factor. A poem which he has written gives an interesting account of the labors involved in eliminating the vast forests and building up the populous and prosperous villages and towns, and the rich farming estates, giving a brief account of the struggles of the brave pioneers, in whose footsteps the rising generations shall follow with far less exertion, and with a far greater number of the comforts and luxuries of this world. Reared to agricultural pursuits, Mr. Ash has carried on farming a large part of his life. Soon after arriving at man's estate he bought wild land in section 2, Fabius township, and having improved a part of it sold at an advantage, and

Page  614 614 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY bought property at Three Rivers, where for awhile he conducted a restaurant. He afterwards bought a farm about two miles out from the village, and lived there twenty years. Trading that farm for one near Centerville, he resided there five years, and then traded for his present fine estate near Three Rivers, where he is now carrying on general farming with good results. In June, 1864, Mr. Ash married Mary A. Machin, who was born in Lincolnshire, England, and came to this country at the age of two and one-half years. Her father, William Machin, emigrated with his family to the United States in the forties, being three months crossing the ocean in a sailing vessel. From New York City he came to Michigan, and for a time lived in Florence township, St. Joseph county. He subsequently bought wild land in Fabius township, and on the farm which he redeemed from the wilderness passed the remainder of his life, dying at the age of fifty-six years. He married Elizabeth Towne, who attained the age of four score and four years. She reared four children, as follows: John, William, Joseph, Mary, twin sister of Joseph, married Mr. Ash. Ten children have blessed the union of Mr. and Mrs. Ash, namely: George, who married Clara Carver; William married Grace Lovejoy, and they have one child, Leo; Joseph married Mary Saunders, and they have three children, Jacob, Harvey, and La Verne; Elizabeth, wife of Walter Major, has one child, Warren; John married Lora Coloska; Edgar married Mamie Speese, and they have one child, Marie Antoinette; Mary; Nellie; Orin, who married Erta Catell; and Elva. Politically Mr. Ash is a steadfast Republican, and religiously both he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church in Three Rivers. HENRY J. HAMPSON, a prosperous merchant of Centeiville, is a native of that city, born September 27, 1849. He is a son of Henry W. and Mahala (Fletcher) Hampson. His father was born in Pennsylvania, in 1804, and died in Centerville, in 1872; the mother was born in the state of New York in 1806. Henry W. Hampson came to St. Joseph county in 1832, and afterward entered one hundred sixty acres of land; after the founding of Centerville he lived in that village, where he followed the trade of carpenter. His wife came with her parents in 1829 and located two miles northeast of the town; they were married in 1834, and had seven children, of whom but two survive, Henry J. and Mrs. L. A. Clapp.

Page  615 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 615 Henry J. Hampson received his education in the public schools of Centerville, and when sixteen years of age began clerking in a general store, which he continued ten years. He went to Kansas and spent two years in the grocery business, then returned to Centerville, and two years later started business on his own account, in the line of groceries, which he has since continued. He carries a fine stock and the most complete line of groceries in the town. He is an enterprising and competent business man, and has other interests outside of his store, being president of the Electric Light Company since its organization, and Treasurer of the St. Joseph and Branch County Mutual Village Fire Insurance Company. In the spring of 1909 Mr. Hampson was elected justice of the peace. In political views he is a Democrat, and has served six years as township clerk. In October, 1882, Mr. Hampson married Ida, daughter of James Stoddard, born in Van Buren county, Michigan, in 1858; they have no children. ALMERON R. BARNES.-A capable, skilful and thrifty farmer, Almeron R. Barnes, of Fabius township, occupies a position of note among the representative agriculturists of St. Joseph county, and by his strict and honorable dealings has gained the confidence and respect of his neighbors and fellow-associates. A son of the late George W. Barnes, he was born, December 29, 1852, in Dover township, Fulton county, Ohio. His grandfather, who came of Holland ancestry, migrated with his family from Maryland to Ohio in the early part of the nineteenth century, and, with his wife, spent his last years in Fulton county. The youngest member of the household, George W. Barnes was a mere child when he accompanied his parents to Ohio. Brought up on a farm, he became a tiller of the soil from choice, and was busily engaged in agricultural pursuits when the tocsin of war rang out through the land. Leaving his plow in the furrow, he enlisted in Company A, Sixty-seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, went with his cominand to the front, and died while in service. He was twice married. His first wife, whose maiden name was Hester Schoonover was born in New York state, of Holland ancestry. She died about 1860, leaving one child, Almeron R., the subject of this sketch.' George W. Barnes married for his second wife Julia Ann Smith, who outlived him. Left fatherless when young, Almeron R. Barnes began to be self-supporting as a boy, working on a farm, and on a railroad.

Page  616 616 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Coming to Michigan at the age of sixteen years, he was for awhile employed on a farm near White Pigeon, St. Joseph county. Beginning his career subsequently as an independent farmer on rented land, he was exceedingly prosperous, each year making money, and in 1888 he purchased his present fine farm of one hundred and forty acres, in Fabius township. His land is well improved, and the buildings are pleasantly located, and made attractive by the numerous beautiful black walnut and elm trees that furnish ample shade in the summer season. Mr. Barnes married, in January, 1884, Flora C. Seeley, who was born and brought up in this township, a daughter of Clark P. and Dolly (Beadle.) Seeley. Her father, a native of New York state, was a natural mechanic, but after his emigration to Michigan bought wild land in Fabius township, and was here employed in agricultural pursuits until his death. Mr. and Mrs. Barnes had four children,-Dolly, wife of Charles Milhan, a resident of Three Rivers; Leafa, at home; Allie, who died at the age of eighteen months; and G. Lee, at home, a high school student. Mr. and Mrs. Barnes and two of their children are members of the Methodist Episcopal church at Three Rivers. They have on their farm one of the most beautiful barns in the county-a credit to the township of Fabius. Mr. Barnes is a member of K. O. T. M., Tent No. 87 at Three Rivers and Mrs. Barnes a member of the Mystic Workers, also at Three Rivers. FRANK M. CASE.-A valued member of the city council of Three Rivers and recognized as one of the representative citizens and business men of St. Joseph county, Mr. Case is a member of a family whose name has been identified with the industrial and civic history of this county for nearly half a century, and here he has lived from his infancy to the present time, save for an interval of five years passed in the city of Kalamazoo. In Three Rivers he conducts a large and successful business as a wholesale and retail dealer in coal and lumber, in which connection he has the best of facilities, and he is also a stockholder in the Three Rivers Knitting Company, one of the most important industrial concerns of the county. Progressive and public-spirited, he wields no little influence in his home city and county, and his course has been so guided and governed by principles of integrity and honor that he has not been denied the full measure of popular confidence and esteem. Frank Merrit Case was born on a farm in Berrien county, Michigan, on the 14th of February, 1862, and in the following year

Page  617 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 617 his parents removed to St. Joseph county and settled on a farm in Park township. He is a son of William P. and Sarah (Branch) Case, both of whom were born and reared in the state of New York, where their marriage was solemnized and whence they came to Michigan in 1861. The father was of English descent and the family was founded in America in the colonial days, as was also that of the mother, whose lineage likewise is traced back to stanch English origin. Frank M. is the only child of this union and he was three years of age at the time of his mother's death, in 1865. William P. Case later married Mrs. Emeline Snow, now residing in Colon, and they became the parents of two children,-Sarah A., who died at the age of thirty-two years, and Edward P., who is a representative business man of Three Rivers. Upon coming to Branch county the father located in Sherwood township, where he continued to be actively identified with agricultural pursuits until his death, which occurred when he was in his fiftieth year, in 1879. He espoused the cause of the Republican party at the time of its organization and ever afterward continued a stanch advocate of its principles. He was a consistent member and local preacher of the Methodist Episcopal church, as were also his first and his second wives. He whose name initiates this review passed the days of his boyhood and youth on the homestead farm in Sherwood township, and after completing the curriculum of the district schools he continued his studies in the village schools of Athens, in the adjoining county of Calhoun, this place being not far distant from his home. For a number of years after leaving school he continued his active association with the great basic industry of agriculture, and in 1891 he took up his residence in the city of Kalamazoo, where he was engaged in the retail lumber business for about two years, at the expiration of which, in 1893, he removed to Three Rivers, where he engaged in the same line of enterprise, as senior member of the firm of Case & Coon, in which his associate was Fred H. Coon. At the expiration of the first year he purchased his partner's interest in the business, which he has since continued very successfully and to which he has added the handling of coal, both at wholesale and retail. The enterprise is one of the important business undertakings of the county's metropolis, and fair and honorable dealings are the basis of the substantial support accorded. Mr. Case has been a stockholder of the Three Rivers Knitting Company from the time of its incorporation, and in divers other ways has he lent his encouragement and co-operation in the

Page  618 618 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY support of enterprises and measures that have inured greatly to the industrial and commercial advancement of the city. In politics Mr. Case is found arrayed as a stalwart supporter of the cause of the Republican party, and while he has never been a seeker of public office he has never failed in the performance of any civic duty, and since 1908 he has represented the First ward as a member of the city council, in which body he has put forth every possible effort to conserve good municipal government. He is affiliated with Three Rivers Lodge, No. 43, Knights of Pythias, and with the Knights of the Maccabees. On the 8th of March, 1883, Mr. Case was united in marriage to Miss Laura Bowman, who was born in Medina county, Ohio, and reared in Leonidas township, St. Joseph county, and who is a daughter of John W. and Eliza Bowman. Mr. Bowman died Afarch 21, 1880, and his wife is now living in Hastings, Michigan. Mr. Bowman was one of the successful farmers of this part of the county. Mr. and Mrs. Case have no children. They are both members of the Methodist Episcopal church of Three Rivers. CONRAD A. LAMBERSON was for many years one of Colon township's millers, having conducted what is now the oldest mill in the county. It was erected in 1839. From 1877 until 1880 it was conducted by Lamberson and Hoffman, and in the latter year Joseph Farrand purchased Mr. Hoffman's interest. In the meantime, in 1895, Franklin D. Lamberson, a son of Conrad A., had been admitted into the firm as a partner, and until Mr. Farrand came into the company the style of the firm was C. A. Lamberson & Company. The average daily output of the mill is one hundred barrels of flour. Conrad A. Lamberson was born in Brady township, Kalamazoo county, Michigan, January 23, 1841, a son of Abraham Lamberson and a grandson of Conrad Lamberson who was of German descent and lived and died in Pennsylvania. His wife, a Miss Boone, also of German descent and to whom he was married in Pennsylvania, bore him the following children: Nicholas; John, who died in Pennsylvania when fifty years of age; Abraham, mentioned below; Isaac, who died in Pennsylvania when about sixtyfive years of age; and Sarah, wife of Abraham Anthony, who died in her native state at the good old age of eighty-six years. Some of these children died at the home of Conrad Lamberson in Colon township. Abraham Lamberson was born in Pennsylvania in 1809, became a carpenter and farmer, espoused the cause of the

Page  619 I

Page  620 REUNION OF THE SOLDIER FRIENDS OF MR. AND MRS. JOHN B. LARKIN LEONIDAS, MICHIGAN

Page  621 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 621 Whig party, but was not a politician, and was married in Michigan to Maria, a daughter of John Grades, who was born and reared in Berks county, Pennsylvania, and who was a participant in the war of 1812. After his marriage Mr. Lamberson bought land in Kalamazoo, and then moved to Park township in St. Joseph county, and later removing to Vicksburg, he died in that city in 1885. He helped to erect mills and other buildings in the city of Three Rivers. His wife passed away at Vicksburg in 1887. Conrad A. Lamberson received a common school training, worked as a carpenter and later as a farmer, and then entered upon his long and successful career as a miller. He has long been one of the leading citizens of Colon, contributing his share and more toward its growth and upbuilding, and now after a successful and useful career he is living retired from an active business life. In August of 1861 he enlisted in the Sixth Michigan Infantry, going first to Baltimore, thence to Newport News, to the Gulf of Mexico and the mouth of the Mississippi river to New Orleans. He took part in the first assault on Port Hudson, May 27, 1863, and in the battle before the surrender on July 8, 1863. He endured the hardships of the Mississippi campaign, took part in the battle of Baton Rouge on July 8, 1862, was made a high private in rear rank, having charge of the doctors' mess and was mustered out in August, 1864. He is a member of the Masonic order, having served as both junior and senior warden of the Colon Blue Lodge, is also a Knight Templar of Sturgis Commandery, and during the past eight or ten years has served as king of the Colon chapter. On the 28th of March, 1865, Mr. Lamberson married Elizabeth Dentler, born in Park township in June, 1843, a daughter of Pennsylvania farmers. The following children have been born to them: Nettie, who died when but a day old; Franklin D., born March 18, 1870, was wedded twice; first to Miss Katharine Anderson and two children were born-Marie, in the eighth grade and Harriett E. in the fifth grade. The mother of these children died in 1902, and for his second wife Franklin D. married Miss Edith Ralph, and they have one son, Franklin Abraham. Franklin Lamberson is a member of Colon Blue Lodge, Colon R. A. M., and Sturgis Commandery, K. T. JOHN B. LARKIN.-One of the noble and honored veterans of the Civil war, who so freely gave his services to the cause of his

Page  622 622 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY country and who figured prominently at Fredericksburg, Rappahannock and in the battle of Bull Run with Hooker, and who was a member of the Army of the Potomac, is John B. Larkin, pioneer settler in St. Joseph county, Michigan. John B. Larkin was born in Rhode Island on the 10th of September, 1840, and is a son of Christopher and Ruhamah (Bently) Larkin, both of whom were born near Newport, Rhode Island, the father in March, 1817, and the mother on the 18th of January, 1818. Christopher Larkin died in Genesee county, New York, in April, 1895, and his cherished and devoted wife was summoned to the life eternal in the following month of the same year. Except for three or four brief visits to their son, John B., who was the only child to venture forth to seek his fortunes in the then sparsely settled state of Michigan, Mr. and Mrs. Larkin spent their entire lives in the east; they lived in Rhode Island until 1847, whence they removed to the state of New York, when John B., subject of this review, was but seven years of age. Mr. and Mrs. Larkin became the parents of six children, namely: Hannah, wife of Stilwell Stillman, who is now deceased, was born in 1838 and maintains her home in Genesee county, New York; John B., to whom this sketch is dedicated; Mercy, who was born in 1842, is the widow of Henry Norton and resides in Elba, New York, with her two sons; Roland, who was born in Rhode Island and who died in infancy; Mary, who was born in New York in 1846 and who died in 1905, was married to Francis Hackley and is survived by two children; her husband is also deceased; Mertie, who was born in 1848, married Henry Raymond, now deceased, and she lives with her two children in New York. John B. Larkin, whose name initiates this review, received his preliminary education in the east, attending the public schools of Kingston, Rhode Island, until eighteen years of age, when he engaged in agricultural pursuits, and on the 22nd of September, 1861, at the outbreak of the Civil war, he enlisted in Company F, One Hundred and Fifth New York Volunteer Infantry, at Hawley, Orleans county, New York. The company proceeded to Washington, where it went into camp for three or four weeks and whence it proceeded to Alexander, where it remained in winter quarters until June, 1862; Company F then proceeded to Slaughter Mountain, Fredericksburg and Rappahannock and later fought the notable battle of Bull Run, under Hooker. Mr. Larkin was a member of the First Brigade of the First Division of the First Army Corps of the Army of the Potomac, and was mustered out

Page  623 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 623 in Washington, in 1864. In the fall of that year he came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, where his devotion to the good of his country caused him to re-enlist on the 13th of March, 1865, and he was mustered out on the 16th of September, 1865, as a member of Company F, Eleventh Michigan Volunteer Infantry. He went with his company to Nashville, Tennessee, and from there to Cleveland, Tennessee, where they remained until the last of August when they proceeded to Knoxville, from which place the army came home to Jackson, Michigan, where Mr. Larkin was honorably discharged. Mr. Larkin participated in many battles in this great, internecine conflict and he displayed much valor and patriotic loyalty by coming to the front and offering his services at a time when the help of every able man was needed in order to restore peace and order to the seceding states. After his return to Michigan he was employed at farming near Leonidas, St. Joseph county, Michigan, where he has since maintained his home with the exception of two years, which he spent in Mendon, St. Joseph county, Michigan. On the 17th of January, 1866, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Larkin to Miss Elizabeth Ann Harvey, who was born in Leonidas, Michigan, on the 31st of May, 1845, and who is a daughter of Addison and Anna E. (Hall) Harvey. Addison Harvey was a native of Cattaraugus county, New York, and Mrs. Harvey was born in Ashtabula, Ashtabula county, Ohio. The latter died in 1848, when Mrs. Larkin was but three years of age. Mr. Harvey was born in Randolph, Cattaraugus county, New York, on the 21st of August, 1814. In 1837 he removed with his family to Leonidas township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, where he followed the great basic industry of agriculture. Mr. Harvey was thrice married, the mother of Mrs. Larkin being his second wife. Mr. Harvey died on the 1st of October, 1889, in Mendon, St. Joseph county, Michigan. After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Larkin resided in Mendon for seven months, after which they removed to the farm of Mr. Harvey, in Leonidas township, where they maintained their home until 1899, since which time they have been living in Leonidas, St. Joseph county, Michigan, where Mr. Larkin is engaged in farming. Mr. and Mrs. Larkin became the parents of five children, of whom the following brief data is recorded,-Mertie, born in Leonidas, Michigan, on the 6th of October, 1866, became the wife of Adam Longenecker, who is a merchant; they reside in Leonidas and have three children,Margaret, Meda and Ruhamah; Porter, born on the 27th of SepVol. II -9

Page  624 624 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY tember, 1868, resides in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and is an express messenger; he has one son, Clyde, who married Jane Parker; Nellie S., born on the 13th of March, 1873, is the wife of Harvey Schoock and they reside with their four children,-Harlie, Arnold, Vera and Norma, in Three* Rivers, Michigan; Lewis H., born on the 18th of April, 1880, is a resident of Cleveland, Ohio, and is a railroad engineer on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern; he married Leona Burkheart; Leo, born on the 25th of May, 1885, is a barber in Union City, Branch county, Michigan; he is a bachelor. Mr. John B. Larkin has a fine collection of war and Indian relics, gathered on his travels during the Civil war. In politics Mr. Larkin is a stanch adherent of the principles and policies of the Democratic party and though never a seeker of public office he has ever been zealous for the advancement of the general welfare of the community in which he makes his home, and no one ranks higher in the esteem and confidence of his fellow men than does this energetic and progressive citizen. He is affiliated with the Grange and with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and has been a charter member of the 0. J. Fast Post, No. 193, Grand Army of the Republic, for the past twenty-seven years. Mr. Larkin and his wife are devout members of the Congregational church. THOMAS H. BOLES.-Familiarly known to the residents of Fabius township as one of its most prosperous, enterprising and progressive agriculturists, Thomas H. Boles owns and occupies a well-improved homestead, and in its management has ever shown much ability and superior judgment. Coming from thrifty pioneer stock, he was born on the farm where he now resides, May 31, 1835, a son of James Boles. Born June 9, 1790, in Pennsylvania, James Boles was there brought up and married. Soon after his marriage he moved to Ohio, and was a resident of Marion for a number of years. In 1835 he took advantage of the cheap land for sale by the Government in the territory of Michigan, and came with his family to St. Joseph county, being one of the first settlers of Fabius township. The land was in its pristine wildness, with only an occasional householder. He entered the northwest quarter of section 28, paying the regulation price of $1.25 an acre, and after building a rude log house, began the improvement of a homestead. He had made but little progress, however, when, in 1841, his death

Page  625 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 625 occurred, while he was yet a comparatively young man. His wife, whose maiden name was Phyannah Hamilton, was born in Pennsylvania, and died on the farm, in Fabius township, in June, 1885, in the ninety-first year of her age, her birth having occurred September 4, 1794. To her and her husband ten children were born, as follows: Samson, John, Robert R., James C. S., Washington, Thomas H., Sophia, Elizabeth, Henry and Clarissa. But five years of age when his father died, Thomas H. Boles acquired his early education in the pioneer schools of his day, and as soon as physically able began to assist in the farm labors. At the age of fourteen years he assumed the entire management of the homestead, which at that date had only twenty acres cleared, although plenty of grain had been raised for the family use. Deer, wild turkey, and other kinds of game were then abundant, supplying the family larder with what in these days would be called luxuries. Since that time Mr. Boles has witnessed many wonderful transformations in the face of the country, the pathless forests having given way before the axe of the pioneer; the log cabins of the fathers being replaced by commodious frame houses; while the hamlets of early times have developed into thriving villages and populous cities and towns. Succeeding in course of time to the ownership of the home farm, he has cleared the land, putting it in a high state of cultivation, and further enhanced its value by the erection of a good set of farm buildings. Of recent years, with his son, he has become interested in tree planting, having set out several thousand forest trees of different varieties, including black walnut, catalpa, yellow locust, white oak, red oak, hickory, pine, willow, elm, ash, and white maple. On February 19, 1858, Mr. Boles married Rachel V. Trattles, who was born November 28, 1833, in Yorkshire, England, which was also the birthplace of her father, William Trattles. Learning the trade of a wagon maker when young, William Trattles followed it a very short time, and then turned his attention to farming. Leaving his native shire in 1844, he emigrated with his wife and six children to America, embarking on the sailing vessel "Joseph Cunard," and battling with the wind and waves eight weeks and two days before arriving in New York harbor. From there he proceeded by way of the Hudson river and Erie canal to Buffalo, thence by lake boat to Detroit, and from there by railway to Adrian, the western terminus of the road. Going then by team to Cass county, Michigan, he visited his wife's brother, William Hebron, who had previously located there. He purchased forty

Page  626 626 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY acres of land, known as the Oak Opening, built a log house, and had just begun to clear the land when, in April, 1845, his death occurred. The maiden name of his wife was Jane Hebron. She was born in Yorkshire, England, a daughter of William and Ann Hebron, and she and her brother were the only members of the family that ever came to the United States. She survived her husband many years, dying in Porter township, at the home of a daughter. Mr. and Mrs. Trattles reared twelve children, namely: Jane, William, Ann, Mary, Joseph, Sarah, Thomas, Hannah, Elizabeth, Rachel V., Ruth and Daniel. All were born in England, and seven of them came to the United States, William being the first to emigrate. Mr. and Mrs. Boles have three children, namely: Florence A., wife of Eugene Hutchinson, of Portland, Oregon, has two sons, Frederick Boles and Howard; Frances L., wife of Harry C. Hayman, of Constantine township, has one child, Rachel Marie; and Thomas Frederick, a wholesale lumber dealer in Chicago, Illinois, married Annette Hinman, and they have two children, Marion B. and Winifred B. Mrs. Boles was one of the successful teachers of St. Joseph county for five years and her daughters were also teachers, Florence being a teacher in Muskegon for seven years, and Frances also at Muskegon and for several years in Nebraska. Frederick was a teacher in St. Joseph county for years. Mrs. Boles is a member of the Congregational church in Constantine. Mr. and Mrs. Boles have in their possession one of the old deeds executed under the hand and seal of President Van Buren, and dated September 10, 1838. They also have a fine collection of Indian arrow heads, about fifty-five in number, all collected from their own farm. These are arranged in an attractive cabinet. The homestead of Mr. and Mrs. Boles is known as Forest Home. LEVI W. PITTS, a prosperous hardware merchant of Centerville, was born in Florence township, St. Joseph county, September 20, 1855. His parents, Hiram A. and Eliza (Thompson) Pitts, were natives of New York state, and came to Michigan with their parents, about 1832. Hiram's father, Gardner Pitts, entered land in St. Joseph county, and died about forty-five years ago. Hiram Pitts was a Democrat and held township and school offices, and died at the age of seventy-four years. He had children as follows: Maria, deceased; Luella, deceased; Jerome, a railroad clerk, lives in Indianapolis; Levi W.; and Mary Louise, wife of William Mowry, of Branch county, Michigan.

Page  627 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 627 Levi W. Pitts received his education in Florence township and at Constantine, and lived at home until the death of his father. He carried on the farm until 1889 and then moved to Centerville, where, with the exception of one year when he had a meat market, he has since carried on a hardware business. He also buys and sells grain, and does a profitable business. Mr. Pitts takes an active interest in public affairs, and is a Jackson Democrat. He is now supervisor of Nottawa township, for ten years served as moderator of the school board and four years as deputy sheriff under William Addison. Mr. Pitts is a member of the Knighted Order of Tented Maccabees, Star Tent No. 89, in Centerville. His wife belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church. April 21, 1877, Mr. Pitts married Rosanette Mooney, born in July, 1857, in Sandusky, Ohio, and they have three children, namely: Emery, in business with his father, married Lulu Weber; Zoa and Arley, living at home, unmarried. Zoa is a stenographer in Kalamazoo, and Arley is engaged in business with his father. MYRON H. BARKER.-Among the substantial and energetic citizens who have achieved noteworthy success and who have exhibited unlimited interest in all matters pertaining to the general welfare of the community in which they reside, Myron H. Barker has shown himself well capable of maintaining the prestige of the fine old name which he bears. Mr. Barker was born on the 7th of April, 1840, and is a son of Joseph S. and Margaret (McConnell) Barker, natives of Massachusetts and Maryland respectively. The former was born on the 16th of October, 1810, and the latter on the 29th of February, 1811. The paternal grandparents were Elisha D. and Thankful Barker, who immigrated from England to the old Bay state, and who were the founders of the family in America. Mr. and Mrs. McConnell, maternal grandparents of Myron H. Barker, were both representatives of stanch old Scotch ancestry and they came to America about 1800 and settled in Maryland, where the mother of the subject was born and reared to maturity. Joseph Barker and Margaret McConnell were married in New York in 1832, and they became the parents of children whose names are here recorded in order of birth,-Alexander, William B., Betsy, Eliza, Byron V., Myron H. (subject of this sketch), and Thankful S. Betsy died at and early age and Thankful S. is the wife of L. Libbert of St. Joseph county, Michigan.

Page  628 628 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Myron H. was one of triplets and he remained at the paternal home until he had attained his legal majority, in the meanwhile duly availing himself of the advantages afforded in the public schools of his native county, and early exhibiting the sterling traits of character so pronounced in his fore-fathers. Mr. Barker initiated his adventurous career by enlisting in Company A, of the Eleventh Regiment of the Michigan Volunteer Infantry, at the inception of the Civil war. He proved himself a valiant soldier in the battles at Franklin and Chattanooga and was one of the faithful followers in Sherman's historic march to the sea. He also participated in the battle of Chickamauga and at the end of the three years, for which he had first enlisted he further showed his loyalty to the cause of the Union by re-enlisting and finishing the war. He saw much active service and was wounded in the battle at Kingston, Georgia. He received his honorable discharge in 1865, and thereafter followed with profit for forty-five years the trades of masonry and carpentry, which he had learned. On the 8th of October, 1871, in New York, was solemnized the marriage of Myron H. Barker to Miss Lucinda Phillips, who was born on the 29th of February, 1857, and who died on the 5th of October, 1884. To this union were born two children, both of whom died in infancy. For his second wife Mr. Barker married Mrs. Louise Jacobs, who was born on the 22nd of August, 1857, and who was a daughter of Loremus Whiting. Mrs. Barker died on the 4th of February, 1896, and is survived by one daughter, Minnie. ETMIAS WAGNER, who owns one of the most productive farms and most interesting homesteads in St. Joe county, consisting of one hundred and eight acres on the shores of Palmer lake, near Colon, is a native of the county, born October 30, 1836. His birthplace was an old log house in Colon, near the mill race, and the event took place about seven months after his parents had come from Pennsylvania to make this new western country their home. The month of their arrival was March. Peter Wagner, the father, had been born in the Keystone state in 1810; married Catherine Peters, also of Pennsylvania, and for many years engaged in farming about a mile west of Colon, where both he and his wife died. They were the parents of the following: Mary Ann, who was born in Pennsylvania, became the wife of John Wagner, of Mendon, this county, and is now deceased; Joshua, also a native of that state born in 1835, who is now farming west of Colon and is the father

Page  629 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 629 of five children (two being deceased); Elias, of this sketch; Catherine, born in 1838, who died in 1905 as the wife of Charles Frye, of Batavia; Edwin, married, who also lives west of Colon, as does also Isabel; Addie, wife of Edward Bennett; Julia, Mrs. Edward Staminger, the latter a resident of Erie, Pennsylvania; Ellen (Mrs. Charles Shuck) and Daniel, both living near the old homestead west of Colon, and Mrs. Maggie Lepley, a resident of Colon, and has two sons, Glenn and Fred. The father of this family, who died in 1879, devoted most of his time to farming, although he accomplished much in the upbuilding of Colon, his residence for some years being the third house built in the place. Although his education had been neglected, he was a man of decision and native force, and always inspired respect. He was a Democrat and an active member of the Reformed church. Elias Wagner has also been engaged since his youth in some form of agriculture, having been a general farmer, a raiser of livestock and a horticulturist. For a number of years he has followed all of these pursuits, to a greater or less extent. Mr. Wagner has occupied his present farm since he was a comparatively young man; has erected all the buildings of the homestead himself and has always maintained them according to advancing requirements. so that they are now models of convenience. His place is also beautified by the so-called Wagner's grove and includes a fine vineyard. In the latter is a grapevine which is said to be the largest in Michigan. Among the attachments to his farm, which he also greatly prizes, is a hog which good judges pronounce the biggest animal of his kind in the county; literally speaking, he is so attached to his pen that he is all but a fixture. Mr. Wagner can show a ton of hay in good condition which he cut in 1873, a fine collection of Indian relics many of which were gathered in the vicinity of his home, and other curiosities, agricultural and historic, which make a visit to his comfortable homestead both interesting and instructive. In 1862 Mr. Wagner married Miss Nancy Arney, who is a native of Ohio, born February 2, 1843, and they have become the parents of four children. Franklin A., their eldest, was born in 1865, and first married Miss Hattie Ward and secondly, Harriet Long. The three daughters by his first wife, Nina, Pearl and Gladys, are all living in Colon. Lydia Ann, second child of Mr. and Mrs. Elias Wagner, was born in 1867; is now the wife of John Smith, a resident of Idaho, and the mother of Grace, Moe, Wave. Ray and Fred. Catherine, born July 7, 1871, married Elmer Walters, an

Page  630 630 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY electrician of Kalamazoo, Michigan, and, besides the parents, the family consists of Zoe L., born April, 1890; Carl, in January, 1894; Kenneth, born in 1896, and Grace, born in 1904. Isabel, the fourth born to Mr. and Mrs. Elias Wagner, July 11, 1878, is a resident of Colon, the wife of John Watson, but has had no children. ALBERT BEERSTECHER, a leading merchant of Centerville, was born there June 15, 1878, and is a son of Charles Adolph and Mary (Huff) Beerstecher, the former a native of Switzerland. Charles A. Beerstecher was born July 8, 1832, in Berne, Neuveville, and came to the United States at the age of twenty-four years, locating at Kalamazoo, Michigan, where he engaged in bookbinding. Ile came to Centerville in the later sixties, and continued this business until seven or eight years ago; he still resides in Centerville. His wife was born June 20, 1846, in Germany, and came to the United States when three years old, with her parents. They spent one year at Chicago, and then removed to Lake county, Indiana, where they spent the remainder of their lives. Mr. Beerstecher and his wife were married in 1866, at Kalamazoo. He was a Republican and a member of the Presbyterian church. To them were born children as follows: Charles David, a painter and paperhanger, living at Three Rivers; Frederick Henry, a telephone lineman living at Three Rivers; Mary Louise, unmarried, teaching in the city schools, educated at Kalamazoo Normal School; and Albert. Albert Beerstecher received his education in Centerville, and at the age of eighteen years began working as clerk in a grocery store; he started in business on his own account when twenty years old, as grocer, and has since continued at the same location. He keeps a good stock and pays close attention to the wants of his customers. Mr. Beerstecher has a growing trade, and is considered one of the substantial citizens of Centerville. In politics he is a Republican, and holds the office of township clerk, which he has filled four years; he has also served three years as village assessor. He is a member of Mount Herman Lodge No. 24, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, also of the Knighted Order of Tented Maccabees, Star Tent No. 89 at Centerville. He married Miss Daisy E. Welty, January 22, 1910. JOHN S. WILL.-Sterling integrity of character in a man with business ability are the cardinal points of success in life. This ex

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Page  635 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 635 cellent combination is the possession of John S. Will, one of Nottawa township's most influential citizens. Mr. Will can trace his lineage to the sturdy Scotch. He is, however, a native of Flat Rock, Ohio, his birth having occurred in that place, February 18, 1853, and the names of his parents being Benjamin and Margaret (Spayd) Will. The father was born in Center county, Pennsylvania, in 1830, and died in 1898. Although reared as a farmer, he took up the trade of carpenter and joiner. His removal to Ohio was made in 1857 after his marriage and he purchased a lot in Flat Rock, erected a house and there pursued his trade. Later he came to Michigan and purchased forty acres of land near Three Rivers. He sold that and bought eighty acres in Park township which he disposed of in turn to buy one hundred and twenty acres likewise in Park township. The latter property went the way of all the rest (was sold), and for the next two years Benjamin Will worked at his trade. But the memory of former agricultural experiences was attractive and he bought land again,-one hundred and fiftytwo acres near the corporate limits of Mendon, one hundred and four acres not far distant, and one hundred and sixty acres in section 8, just across from the property now possessed by Mr. Will. This made him the possessor of three hundred and twelve acres in Mendon and Nottawa townships. Benjamin Will was independent in politics and cast his vote for the man he considered best fitted for the office, irrespective of party. He was an ardent friend of the public school and a member of the Masonic lodge of Mendon. The mother was also a Pennsylvanian, her birth occurring in 1828 and her demise in 1895. She was a true wife and a tender and affectionate mother. She and her husband are interred in the Mendon cemetery and a beautiful monument stands sacred to their memory. They were the parents of four children, three of whom survive as follows: Fietta, wife of D. W. Langdon, a retired farmer, residing in Mendon; John S.; and George B., a farmer residing in Mendon. Mr. Will was a child but two years of age at the time of the family's removal to Michigan, which means that he was reared and educated in the "Wolverine State." Following in his father's footsteps he learned the trade of carpenter and joiner and for some eight years made his livelihood in its pursuit, the scenes of his activity in this line being St. Joseph and Kalamazoo counties and the city of Chicago. He went to Chicago in the fall of 1871, shortly after the great fire and his residence there lasted for about a year and a half.

Page  636 636 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Mr. Will and his brother George purchased the present farm of one hundred and sixty acres in section 8, Nottawa township, and finally divided the farm, each taking half. They had worked together harmoniously for five or six years. Subsequently he traded his eighty acres for one hundred and fifty-two acres near Mendon, this farm being land belonging to the father, and upon it Mr. Will resided and operated it for about three years. In course of time he traded this farm for his present estate of one hundred and sixty acres; he has two other tracts of forty and eighty acres. lIe thus has two hundred and eighty acres, all in Nottawa township. Mr. Will was married August 10, 1880, in Detroit, Michigan, to Miss Mary House, their union being solemnized in the Episcopal rectory by Rev. George Worthington, D. D. Mrs. Will was a native of Onondaga county, New York. When she was but three years of age death deprived her of her mother and her father is now also deceased. She was educated in the public schools of her native county, later came westward and after her marriage spent the remainder of her life upon the beautiful Will homestead. She died Wednesday, April 6, 1910, after an invalidism of about five years' duration, having been a great sufferer and confined to her bed a considerable portion of the time. To quote from the Centerville Observer of April 14, 1910: "All that love or science could suggest has been done for her, but only death could give her relief and entrance into peace and rest and the joy of the Redeemer. The funeral occurred at the pretty home on Sunday the 10th inst., and was conducted by Rev. Fries, of Mendon, a long-time and intimate friend of the family. Brother members of the Masonic fraternity, J. R. Truckenmiller, Herman Cruse, Joseph Timm and John Person acted as pall bearers. A delegation of ladies of the Eastern Star of which order Mrs. Will was a member acted as escort. The interment was in the family burial lot in the Mendon cemetery." Mrs. Will was a lady of high aspirations and godly character and her married life was one of pleasure and joy. She was of a cheerful and sunny nature and always tried to make her home a welcome haven for her husband and her friends. She was a devout member of the Methodist Episcopal church at Mendon. For over a quarter of a century Mr. and Mrs. Will traveled the journey of life together, sharing alike the joys and sorrows of life. The vacant chair of a loving and affectionate wife is hard to fill. Mr. and Mrs. Will had no children, but in the kindness of their hearts adopted a little boy four years of age, whose name is

Page  637 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 637 Fred S. Will. They have reared and educated him, the latter being accomplished in the common and high schools of Mendon. He is one of the active young men of the community and gives valuable assistance to his father in the farm duties. Mr. Will is a member of the Masonic order, belonging to Mt. Hermon Lodge, No. 24, and Centerville Chapter No. 11, R. A. M. both of Centerville and he belongs to the Eastern Star in which his wife also had membership, the lodge number being 305. He is a member of the Methodist church, he and his wife having joined at the same time. Methodist services were frequently held at the Will residence. Mr. Will is the possessor of a very ancient parchment deed made to Daniel Will for eighty acres in Pennsylvania, the Daniel Will in question being Mr. Will's grandfather. It is a valuable and interesting heirloom. Mr. Will is classed among the successful agriculturists and stockholders of St. Joseph county. He is truly a self-made man and whatever he possesses he came by, by hard work and strict economy. He stands high in the estimation of the people and his word is considered as good as his bond. It is a pleasure to present the full record of this gentleman's life to be preserved and saved in the genealogical record of the history of St. Joseph county, Michigan. CHARLES A. PALMER.-In glancing over the history of St. Joe county, Michigan, it becomes apparent that the greater part of the bone and sinew of the county, consists in those men and women who are native to it. Charles A. Palmer, of this review, a successful merchant of Wasepi, who was born in Nottawa township, St. Joseph county, July 31, 1841, the second in a family of seven children,-six sons and a daughter,-born to Cyrus and Mary (Schreder) Palmer. All of them are living at present. George W. (married) is a resident of Wasepi, Michigan, an agriculturist and sawyer; Charles A. is the second in order of birth; Harvey D. (married) is a Chicagoan and is foreman of the Sherwood Manufacturing Company, this firm being engaged in the manufacture of school furniture. Celia L. resides in Wasepi and has the care of the aged mother. Cyrus A., (married) is a citizen of Detroit and a machinist in an automobile plant. Ellis A. lives in Montcalm county, Michigan, and is an agriculturist; he, also, is married. Fred A. is a resident of Wasepi, Michigan, he and his wife being landlord and landlady of the "Palmer House."

Page  638 638 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The father of this family traces his lineage to English stock, but his immediate progenitors were natives of New England, the cradle of so much of our national history, Connecticut being the scene of their activities. The Palmers of the early days were soldiers and patriots and figured as heroes in the Revolutionary war. The father, Cyrus P. was born in Wayne county, New York, May 7, 1816, and was summoned to his eternal rest, October, 1886. He was reared and educated in his native state until he became eighteen years of age, and at that age came westward with his father, John Palmer, to Lenawee county and there they entered four hundred acres of land from the government. There were eleven sons in the family and no daughters. The grandfather and grandmother resided there until their demise. Cyrus Palmer was in the first place an Old Line Whig and an ardent member of the KnowNothings and at the birth of the Republican party he joined its ranks. He was a public-spirited man and a great friend of the public schools. He was a member of the state militia of Michigan and was successful in all the relations of life. It was in 1833 that he and his brother John entered one hundred and sixty acres of land-eighty acres apiece-and at the death of John, Cyrus purchased his half and since that time the land has never changed hands, always remaining in the name of Palmer. The Palmers retain the original deed, executed by President Andrew Jackson, a valuable document. The land entered in St. Joseph county was northwest quarter section 13, in Nottawa township, and at that time the county was a wilderness and the Indians were more plentiful than the white people. Deer and other wild animals were abundant and the pioneer settler sometimes lived high indeed. The mother of Charles A. Palmer was born in Montgomery county, Pennsylvania, July 21, 1818, and is still living at the age of ninety-two years, her intellect being unimpaired at this advanced age. She was a young maiden twelve years of age when she came to Michigan with her parents, John F. and Susannah (Wambold) Schreder. In the family there were six children, five daughters and one son, and three survive at the present day. She received a good education for those days, attending Brusseltown Academy and afterward she taught school in Lenawee county, this state. She is an ideal mother, having ever been devoted to the interests of her children, and ever mindful of their moral training. She has a great heart and the poor, the needy and the disconsolate have ever found in her a friend. She still maintains her home in Wasepi.

Page  639 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 639 Mr. Palmer was reared as a farmer's boy and was educated in the township schools. At the age of eighteen he began life for himself with no capital save courage, energy and persistence. His first services were as a farm hand at a wage of eleven dollars a month, but he did not stay long at the bottom of the ladder of life. The first land he bought was thirteen acres of Nottawa township, all wild land. He married Miss Ella Nora Powers, August 9, 1864, at Sturgis, Michigan, and one daughter, Lora, was the issue of their union. The untimely death of this daughter occurred at the age of twenty-nine years. She was a graduate of the Mendon high school and a proficient musician, both vocal and instrumental, and a favorite in the community both for her noble character and her accomplishments. The first Mrs. Palmer died August 15, 1901, and on January 1, 1904, Mr. Palmer wedded Miss Julia Newland. She is a native of Ohio, her parents being Robert and Pauline (Brunney) Newland, who removed to Manton, and it was there that she received her education. It was in 1892 that Mr. Palmer began merchandising in Wasepi, and he has continued ever since. He is a stalwart Republican and cast his first vote for the martyred Lincoln, and he was a strong advocate of the President's principles at the time of the Rebellion and has supported every Republican candidate since his maiden vote. He has many times been delegate to county conventions and has advocated all measures for the betterment of his county and state. Officially he has fulfilled his part. At the age of twenty-four he was elected justice of the peace in Nottawa township and he has held the office ever since with the exception of four years,-certainly a splendid record. He has been township drain commissioner for twenty years, and county drain commissioner for sixteen, this office being one of the most important of the county trusts. Thousands and thousands of dollars have passed through his hands and thousands and thousands of acres have been reclaimed. One of the greatest benefits of this drain work was its sanitary effect, for it did away with all miasmatic troubles and with fever and ague. Mr. Palmer has served as school director for a quarter of a century, and he is, indeed, a stanch champion of the betterment of that bulwark of the nation, the public schools. In 1887, under President Cleveland's administration, he was appointed postmaster at Wasepi, Michigan, to fill out a vacancy. In 1900 he was relieved of the office and in 1904 he received his regular appointment, as postmaster at Wasepi.

Page  640 640 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Fraternally Mr. Palmer is a member of the Mendon Masonic body, F. & A. I. No. 137, and he was Worshipful Master for fourteen years. He became a Master Mason, December 24, 1862, and he is a member of the Centerville Chapter, R. A. M., that connection dating from March 4, 1863. In 1904 he joined the Three Rivers Commandery No. 29. He has been a delegate to the Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter as many as twenty times. Mr. Palmer is a man who -has passed his entire life in his native county and state. He stands high in the estimation of the people of St. Joseph county and all who know him, are convinced of his honor and strict integrity of character. Prominent and useful in every walk of life, his value as a citizen is indeed high. C ALVIN MONTGOMERY BINGAMAN. —An able representative of the agricultural, horticultural and floricultural interests of St. Joseph county, Calvin M. Bingaman, of Flowerfield township, is a thorough master of his pleasant and profitable calling. He possesses rare business ability, and this, combined with his close application to the various branches of his favorite industry, has given him a place of importance among the foremost farmers of this section of the state. He was born May 2, 1850, in Buffalo township, Center county, Pennsylvania, a son of Peter Bingaman, Jr. His grandfather, Peter Bingaman, Sr., was born in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, of German ancestors, and was a life-long farmer in his native state. Peter Bingaman, Jr., was also born in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, where he was reared to agricultural pursuits. In early manhood he removed to Center county, and having purchased a tract of timbered land in Buffalo township, cleared and improved a homestead, and was there employed in farming and stock raising until his death, at the age of seventy-six years. He married Catherine Martz, who was born in Union county, Pennsylvania, and died, at the age of seventy-two years, on the home farm. One of a family of nine children, Calvin M. Bingaman remained with his parents until fifteen years old, when he started in life for himself. Ambitious to take advantage of every offered opportunity, he came directly to Michigan, arriving here a stranger among strangers, with no available capital excepting willing hands and a courageous heart. For two years he worked as a farm hand, after which he was employed on a railroad for a year. Then, although quite young, Mr. Bingaman commenced his career as an independent farmer, renting a tract of land. Pros

Page  641 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 641 perity smiled upon his ventures, and in the course of four years he was enabled to buy eighty acres of land, a tract that is now included in his present fine farm in Flowerfield township. At first he confined his attention almost entirely to the raising of stock and grain. Soon, however, seeing the great possibilities in growing fruit, Mr. Bingaman turned his attention to that industry, and is now an extensive grower of apples, pears, peaches, grapes and small fruits, reaping abundant harvests each season. About 1895 he began raising garden herbs, including tansy, peppermint and spearmint, and in connection with this line of business operates a distillery. To these numerous enterprises Mr. Bingaman gives his personal attention, and, it is needless to say, is meeting with eminent success. He now owns upwards of three hundred acres of choice land, situated in sections 34 and 35, his estate, which is one of the finest in its improvements and appointments of any in this part of the county, being a credit to his energy, sagacity and superior judgment and foresight. Mr. Bingaman married, when but eighteen years of age, Mary M. Null, who was born in Ohio, a daughter of Isaac and Martha Null, who were pioneers of Ohio, migrating there from Pennsylvania, their native state. The union of Mr. and Mrs. Bingaman has been brightened by the birth of nine children, namely: William, Franklin, Ida, Newton, Irving, Rosa, Arthur, Lonas, and Claudia. Politically Mr. Bingaman is a sturdy Republican, and religiously Mrs. Bingaman is a worthy member of the United Brethren church in Flowerfield township. PETER L. HARTMAN, M. D.-The medical profession in St. Joseph county has an able representative in the subject of this review, who has here been engaged in the successful practice of his profession since 1893, maintaining his home in the attractive little city of Colon and controlling a large and representative practice throughout this section, where he is held in unqualified esteem as a physician and as a loyal and progressive citizen. The doctor was reared in the stern school of adversity, and his advancement stands as the direct result of his energy and well ordered efforts, so that he is the more worthy of commendation for the large and definite success that it has been his to achieve. Dr. Hartman claims the fine old keystone state of the Union as the place of his nativity and there also were born his parents, a fact that bears evidence that the respective families were early established in that commonwealth. He was born in Luzerne

Page  642 642 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY county, Pennsylvania, on the 9th of November, 1866, and is the younger of the two sons of Daniel and Rebeccah (Rood) Hartman. The elder son, Rev. Franklin E., is a clergyman of the Methodist Episcopal church, and was graduated in the Williamsport Seminary, Pennsylvania, and in the Drew Theological Seminary, in New Jersey. He is now pastor of a church at Mahaffey, Clearfield county, Pennsylvania. The father was born and reared in Pennsylvania and there followed mechanical pursuits during the major portion of his active career. He died in 1868. His wife long survived him, her death having occurred in 1901. Dr. Hartman was afforded the advantages of the common schools of his native state, but early began to depend largely upon his own resources. His ambition to secure an education was satisfied through his own endeavors, as he earned the funds which enabled him to prosecute his higher academic studies, as well as his professional course. He was for two years a student in the high school at Pleasant Hill, Pennsylvania, and for an equal period of time continued his studies in Huntington Mills Seminary, that state, after which he devoted two years to successful teaching in the public schools of Pennsylvania. He began the study of medicine in a private way and made excellent advancement in his work. Finally, in 1887, he was matriculated in the celebrated Jefferson Medical College, in the city of Philadelphia, in which he completed the prescribed course and was graduated as a member of the class of 1890, duly receiving his well earned degree of Doctor of Medicine. He initiated the practice of his profession at Jamison City, Columbia county, Pennsylvania, where he remained until 1893, when he came to Michigan and established his home in St. Joseph county, which has since continued the stage of his earnest and successful endeavors as a physician and surgeon. He has maintained his home in the attractive village of Colon from the time of coming to the county and his practice extends not only throughout this section of St. Joseph county but also into the adjacent county of Branch. The doctor has ever continued a close student of his profession, has a fine library of standard medical works, is a subscriber to the best periodical literature of his profession and keeps in close touch with the advances made in both medicine and surgery, so that he is admirably equipped for the onerous duties and responsibilities of his exacting profession, to which he is devoting his most careful attention. He is a member of the American Medical Association and also of the Michigan State Medical Society. As a citizen he is loyal and public spirited

Page  643 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 643 and his political allegiance is given to the Republican party. In the Masonic fraternity he is identified with Colon Lodge, No. 73, Free & Accepted Masons; Colon Chapter, No. 81, Royal Arch Masons; and Sturgis Commandery, No. 18, Knights Templars, at Sturgis, this county. He and his wife are popular factors in connection with the best social activities of the community. Their home is one of the many attractive and modern residences of Colon and is a center of generous hospitality. Dr. Hartman has been twice married. In 1886 was solemnized his marriage to Miss Daisy Barrett and she is survived by one daughter, Hazel H., who is now the wife of Thomas Lutz, a successful merchant and representative citizen of Cambria, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania. On the 17th of June, 1909, Dr. Hartman was married to Miss Alma Decker, who was born in the city of Muskegon, Michigan, on the 25th of November, 1876, and who was reared in St. Joseph county, this state. She is a daughter of George and Jane (Arnold) Decker. Her father was a native of Pennsylvania and passed the closing years of his life in St. Joseph county, where the mother, who was born in the state of New York, still resides. No children have been born to the second union. CHARLES H. KEPLER, a retired merchant, ex-postmaster and honored pioneer of Flowerfield, St. Joseph county, is a native of Three Rivers, born April 26, 1840, so that he is now in his seventieth year of his residence in the county. He was but one year old when his parents moved from Three Rivers, where the father had resided for several years as a merchant, and located on the Flowerfield homestead. At that time there was not only no railroad in St. Joseph county, but very little of the farming land was improved, deer, wild turkey and Indians being chiefly in possession of the country. At the usual age the boy commenced his winter schooling in the district institution nearest home, James Bates being his first teacher. In the summer months he worked on the family farm, and resided with his parents as long as they lived. In 1862, when he was twenty-two years of age, Mr. Kepler enlisted in Company G, Nineteenth Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Infantry; was with his regiment in all its campaigns and battles; and finally participated in Sherman's famous march to Atlanta, with his northward movements through the Carolinas, and the great review of the Union armies in Washington, one of the most noteworthy military parades of history. Returning to his home Vol. II —10

Page  644 644 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY in Flowerfield township, Mr. Kepler resumed farming for six years, and then located at the village of Flowerfield to engage in general mercantile pursuits. In this line and as postmaster of the place, he was busily and profitably engaged for the succeeding eighteen years, after which he sold his business and retired to the comforts and honors which he had so fairly earned. Mr. Kepler's parents were Reuben and Ann (Huckle) Kepler, the family name indicating sound German ancestry. The paternal grandfather, John Kepler, was a native of Pennsylvania, and spent his business life as a hatter. The father, who was born near Danville, same state, learned the trade of a shoemaker and, locating at Three Rivers in 1836, became one of the pioneers of St. Joseph county. For a number of years he was engaged in custom work, in the line of his trade; then worked as a farm hand for about two years and still later renting land. By this time a master farmer, Reuben Kepler purchased eighty acres of land in section 1, Flowerfield township, which embraced thirty-five acres of improved land and a small house. This was the family homestead for about twenty years, when, through continuous and wise improvements, it had so increased in value that the property was sold at a fine advance, and a farm of one hundred and forty-one acres purchased in the same section. The latter homestead was the scene of the father's death at the age of sixty-four. His wife was a native of Muncy, Lycoming county, Pennsylvania, and a daughter of John and Mary (Adlum) Huckle. Her father was an Englishman, the only member of his family to come to America, who bought large tracts of land near Muncy and prospered as a farmer and a land owner. Mrs. Reuben Kepler, the mother of Charles H., lived to be seventy-three years of age, and also gave birth to two daughters, Mary and Alice. Charles I. Kepler wedded Mary H. Bean, a native of Michigan, of St. Joseph county, in 1871, and they have five children, one son and four daughters; Elta, wife of Guy S. Brown, of Central Lake, Michigan, who has four children: George K., Beulah B., W. Elton and Guy Francis; Lela I., wife of Clayton Allen, a resident of Kalamazoo, has one daughter, Kathryn L.; Eva M., wife of Harry F. Benton, a resident of Toledo, Ohio, has two daughters, Mary E. and Lucile Genevieve; Loo I., residing in Kalamazoo, was educated in high school; and Chas. Willard, a resident of Toledo, Ohio, is time keeper in the American Canning Company. Mr. Kepler died March 17, 1910, and his remains are interred in Flowerfield Cemetery.

Page  645 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 645 JOHN W. MILLER.-A scion of one of the honored pioneer families of St. Joseph county, John W. Miller is numbered among the representative farmers of Mendon township, where he was born on the 17th of June, 1859. He is a son of Joseph J. and Margaret (Bachman) Miller, both of whom were born in Northampton county, Pennsylvania, where they were reared and educated and where their marriage was solemnized. Joseph J. Miller came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, in 1856 and two years later he returned to his native state, where his marriage occurred. He then returned with his wife to St. Joseph county and located in Mendon township, where he reclaimed a farm of eighty acres from the virgin forest. He was one of the honored and influential citizens of his township, where he continued to reside until his death, which occurred on the 28th of August, 1903, and his widow still resides on the old homestead. He was a stanch Democrat in his political proclivities and he served for many years as justice of the peace, having been incumbent of this office at the time of his demise. Joseph J. and Margaret (Bachman) Miller became the parents of five children, concerning whom the following data are given: Mary died in infancy; John W. is the immediate subject of this sketch; Irvin resides in the city of Niles; and Sadie M. is the wife of Perrin Heimbaugh of Mendon township, and they have three children: Margaret, Lillian and Sadie; Margaret is the wife of Harry W. Garman, of Park township, and they have five children: Louise, Neva, Paul, Marlin and infant; Irvin Miller married Miss Pearl Hallam, of Mendon, and they have four children: Ilah, Martha, Thomas and Genevieve. John W. Miller was reared to maturity on the home farm and received the advantages of the public schools of his native township and continued to be associated with the work and management of his father's farm until he was married, when he initiated his independent career as a farmer and stock-grower. He is now the owner of one hundred and five acres of land, besides which he has the supervision of the old homestead farm, on which he was born. He is known as one of the enterprising and progressive farmers of Mendon township and his success has been on a parity with his industry and ability. He gives an unswerving allegiance to the Democratic party and has shown at all times a lively interest in public affairs of a local nature, though he has not been an aspirant for public office, he was on the Board of Directors and Justice of the Peace for six years. He and his wife are prominent members of the Evangelical Association of their township, of

Page  646 646 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY which his father was one of the founders, and he is class leader and superintendent of the Sunday school. On the 28th of September, 1882, Mr. Miller was united in marriage to Miss Mary Lang, who was born near Manheim, Germany, on the 13th of July, 1859, and who is a daughter of Barnard and Elizabeth (Kaiser) Lang, who established their home on a farm in Mendon township, St. Joseph county, in 1870, and who here passed the residue of their lives. Mr. and Mrs. Miller became the parents of three children: Delbert J., Ralph J. and Mabel V. The elder son was born on the 22nd of July, 1886, and he now resides in the city of South Bend, Indiana; he graduated in the public schools and also took a course in a correspondence school; he married Miss Tracy Kehler. Ralph J. is associated in the work of the home farm. Mabel V. is at the parental home and was graduated in the public school, class of 1906, and is a student in the Centerville High School. The pretty homestead is known as "The Elms Farm." MRS. EDNWIN R. IIILL.-Secure in the possession of the friendship and esteem of the inhabitants of Colon, Michigan, is Mrs. Edwin R. Hill, formerly Susan V. Staley, widow of the late Edwin R. Hill, whose loss the town still regrets as one of the flower of her citizenship. To Mrs. Hill, in her capacity of an enlightened and conscientious teacher, is St. Joseph county indebted in high degree, for she gave splendid service previous to her marriage in the district and Colon schools. She is bound to Michigan by ties of birth and ancestry, having been born in Colon, January 9, 1864, her parents being Andrew and Catherine (Evarhart) Staley. She was the fourth child in a family consisting of five daughters and one son, all of whom are living at the present day. Ida became the wife of Dayton Hafer, an agriculturist and resides in Stanton,' Michigan. She is well educated, having been graduated from the Colon high schools and afterward supplementing this with a course at Valparaiso College. Like her sister, Mrs. Hill, she was a teacher, the scene of her activities in a pedagogical capacity being Branch and St. Joseph counties. Adelia, is the wife of William Tomlinson, a lumber dealer residing in Colon. She likewise attended Colon high school and Valparaiso College and became a successful teacher. Ella became the wife of Andrew Jackson, a prosperous farmer located in Colon township. It is a singular coincidence that she too became a public school teacher of marked ability. The fifth child, John W., is a Branch county agriculturist,

Page  647 4

Page  648 (s\^\\tis a c Av IV\\t. Li % d

Page  649 RESIDENCE OF MR. AND MRS. EDWIN R. HILL COLON, MICHIGAN

Page  650 I

Page  651 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 651 and latterly has engaged in the trades of carpenter and joiner. He married Miss Ellen Copeland. Mary, the youngest child, married Wallace Wagner, a successful poultry dealer, resident in Colon. She also was a teacher in Colon and vicinity. Andrew Staley, father of the above family, was a native of Ohio, born in 1829 and living until 1901. He received his education in the common schools and came to Branch county, Michigan, when a young boy. He hearkened to the agricultural calling, which he followed throughout his long life with a good deal of success. He was an adherent of the Republican party, and fraternally was a Mason, having membership in the lodge at Colon, Michigan. His wife was a native of Keystone county, Pennsylvania, her birth having occurred there in 1831. She was a loyal wife and devoted mother and the poor and needy ever found in her a friend. Truly her good deeds will ever live in the hearts of her children and the many who loved her. Her death occurred in 1907. Susan V. Staley Hill spent her early years in Colon and there attended the common and high schools, afterwards attending Albion College and the Alma Summer Normal School. She fitted herself for the teacher's profession and at the age of sixteen began upon her career, which consisted of four years in the schools of St. Joseph county, and nine years in those of Colon. She achieved signal success, not only as an instructor, but as an individual whose example in womanhood alone was beneficial, and to this many of her former pupils will enthusiastically attest. Mrs. Hill was married May 9, 1894, and to her and Mr. Hill were born two children named Amelia Staley and Edwin Ruthven, Jr. The former is preparing to enter the Liggett private school for young ladies, situated at Detroit, and the son is in attendance at the public school. Mrs. Hill and her children reside on State street, in one of the most beautiful residences in Colon, and hers is a home whose portals are ever open to her friends. She is of pleasing personality and plays an important part in the life of the town. She was the founder of the Ladies' Pleasure Club, an organization intended for the attainment of pleasure and literary culture. She was its first president and served in this capacity for four years. The death of Edwin Ruthven Hill, one of the leading factors in the business and civic life of Colon, occurred May 19, 1909, and was the cause of universal sorrowing in the community in which he was best known. He was born in Ostelic, Chenango county,

Page  652 652 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY New York, May 21, 1834, and was the son of Elisha and Mariah Cooley Hill, the latter the daughter of Judge Cooley of Philadelphia. In the '40s Mr. Hill's parents came west to Indiana, later removing to Coldwater, Michigan, and in November, 1849, establishing their home in Colon. Young Edwin was at this time about fifteen years old and two years later he began upon his career as a wage earner by entering Bowman's store as a clerk. Three months later he and his father bought the Bowman store, and the firm of E. Hill & Son came into being. They continued this business until the fall of 1868, when they sold out, and in 1870 they established the Exchange Bank of E. Hill & Sons. This continued until April 1, 1909, when it was changed to the E. Hill & Sons State Bank. On September 29, 1856, Mr. Hill was married to Amelia R. Bowman of Colon, a daughter of John H. Bowman. To them were born two sons, John H. and Elisha B. John died February 27, 1879 and Elisha November 18, 1880, and, August 26, 1892, their mother also departed this life, thus leaving Mr. Hill bereft of both wife and children. As elsewhere mentioned Mr. Hill's second marriage was an event of the year 1894. Although Mr. Hill had been in ill health for a good many years and had endured great suffering, he lived to an old age, being at the time of his death, seventy-four years and eleven months old. Besides his wife and children he left to mourn his loss one brother, Thomas J. Hill and a nephew, Frank E. Hill, who had been associated with his uncle in the bank for twenty years and in whom Mr. Hill had implicit confidence. An extract is hereby appended from an account given in a local paper at the time of the death of this estimable gentleman: "By his honesty and integrity Mr. Hill won many friends and was known all over the country. His word was as good as his bond. As Lawyer Stuart once said of him: 'Mr. Hill is the most refined, most dignified and most gentlemanly business man I have ever met in a country town.' He has been prominently identified with the interests of Colon for more than fifty years and his familiar countenance through the bank window will be sorely missed by the citizens of Colon for many a day to come. He was a great lover of home and family and could always be found at his own fireside, when not at his business. "The funeral which was one of the largest ever held in Colon, took place from his late residence Saturday forenoon and was attended by nearly every business man in Colon, all of whom closed their places of business from 10 o'clock until noon out of respect

Page  653 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 653 for their departed associate. The floral offerings were many and beautiful, which seemed most appropriate, as Mr. Hill was a great lover of flowers-in his daily life always wearing one of his favorites. " The subjects of this review are of that type of citizenship which has served to give St. Joseph county prestige in the state of Michigan. Upright and generous, always ready to give their support to any cause likely to contribute to the general welfare, never confined within the narrow walls of self-interest, it is seemly that the records of Mrs. Hill and her honored husband should be preserved in this genealogical review. EZRA C. GRAHAM.-Having by diligence, persevering labor and thrift accumulated a fair share of this world's goods, Ezra C. Graham is now living retired from active pursuits at his beautiful home in Three Rivers, St. Joseph county, enjoying the reward of his many years of toil and labor. A native of this county, he was born, March 12, 1847, in Lockport township, coming from pioneer stock. James L. Graham, his father, was born near Sandy Hook, New York, August 10, 1807. Reared on a farm, he remained in New York state until about 1830, when, with his wife and three children, he migrated to Ohio, making the journey with teams, and taking along all of his worldly possessions. He became one of the early settlers of Mansfield, where he resided a number of years. Subsequently thinking to still further improve his fortunes by going still nearer the frontier, he made an overland trip with his family and household belongings to Michigan, locating at Long Lake, in what is now Fabius township. At that time the greater part of Michigan was a wilderness, much of the land being owned by the government, and for sale at $1.25 an acre. Deer, wolves, turkeys, wild hogs and other beasts of the forest were plentiful, while the Indians had not yet abandoned their hunting grounds. He lived in Fabius township a number of years, and in addition to farming made a specialty of breaking up new land, using a team made up of fourteen pairs of oxen. He moved to Lockport township during the forties, and was there a resident until his death, in 1850, while yet in the prime of life. James L. Graham married Elizabeth Paul, who was born, May 2, 1804, a daughter of John Paul. She was accomplished in the domestic arts, having learned the trade of a tailoress when young, and being an expert spinner and weaver. When left a widow with

Page  654 654 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY a large family of children to provide for, and but small means, she earned sufficient with her loom and needle to keep the family together until the children became self supporting. She also carded, spun and wove the material from which she made the garments for her household, keeping busy all of the time. She lived to a good old age, passing away December 6, 1888, aged eightyfour years. She reared eleven children, as follows: William L., born September 1, 1828; Jane Agnes, born October 30, 1830; Margaret Ann, born January 11, 1833; Sarah Elizabeth, born September 21, 1834; John Paul, born August 8, 1836; Martha L., born January 11, 1838, died at the age of nine years; Mary Joanna, born November 29, 1839; Charlotte Amanda, born July 8, 1841; Emily S., born March 8, 1843; James H., born March 3, 1845; Ezra C., born March 12, 1847; and Ellis F., born March 11, 1850. Ezra C. Graham was three and one-half years old when his father died, and six years later, at the age of eleven years, he began to earn his own living, working in a paper mill for forty cents a day. He mastered the trade, and as his service became more useful to the company his wages were gradually increased until he commanded a salary of $75 a month. In March, 1864, Mr. Graham enlisted in Company D, One Hundred and Forty-first Regiment of Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and continued with his command, in the states of Kentucky, Tennessee and Missouri, until receiving his discharge, in December, 1864, when he returned to Three Rivers. In 1867 he went to Kent county, where he was employed in a saw-mill for a year. The following two years he resided in Three Rivers, and in 1870 removed to Iowa, locating first in Mitchell county, afterwards going to Worth county, where he bought wild prairie land, from which he improved a farm. Selling out in 1880, Mr. Graham migrated to Traill county, North Dakota, becoming one of the original settlers of Irving township. Securing a homestead eight miles west of the Red river, he began its improvement. In common with the other pioneers, he endured all of the privations and hardships of frontier life for a few years. But the tide of fortune subsequently turned, and slowly but surely prosperity waxed strong, and he, perceiving the future possibilities in the new and growing country, invested in real estate, buying extensively in Traill and adjoining counties, and at the same time was profitably engaged in buying horses in Iowa and Minnesota, and shipping them to Dakota. In 1903 Mr. Graham, having acquired a competency, retired from active business, and having returned to Three Rivers bought his present attractive home,

Page  655 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 655 which is pleasantly located on the west bank of the St. Joseph river. Mr. Graham married, July 3, 1866, Evelyn C. Pentlin, who was born, June 28, 1840, in Macomb township, St. Lawrence county, New York, a daughter of Willard Pentlin, Jr. Her grandfather, Willard Pentlin, Sr., was a Scotchman by birth and breeding, and on emigrating to the United States settled in Vermont, where he followed the trade of a molder until his death. Willard Pentlin, Jr., was born in Vermont in 1803, and there learned the molder's trade. Going to St. Lawrence county when a young man, he there met and married Serena Cole, who was born in that county, June 8, 1805. In 1852, accompanied by his wife and nine children, he came to 1MIichigan, journeying by canal and lake to Detroit, thence to Adrian by railway. Buying land in Lenawee county, he lived there until 1869, when he settled at Three Rivers, where his death occurred during that same year. His widow survived him, and lived to the venerable age of ninety-three years. Of the children born of their union, eight grew to years of maturity, as follows: Melissa, George W., Mary, Julia, Jane, John, Lydia, and C. Evelyn, now Mrs. E. C. Graham. Mr. and Mrs. Graham are the parents of four children, namely: Albert W., Milton E., Mildred E. (twins), and Royce. Albert W. married L. Jean Liggon, and they have three children, Alberta, Jennie, and Edwin Cole. Milton E. married Emma Riley, and they have three children, Max, Doris, and Evelyn. Mildred E., wife of Robert Corry, has one child, Evelyn Corry. Royce lives at home. Politically Mr. Graham and his sons are all stanch Republicans. GEORGE S. MITCHELL is one of the well known and highly esteemed citizens of the village of Colon, where he is engaged in the jewelry business and he is a member of one of the old and honored families of St. Joseph county. He was born on the homestead farm in Colon township on the 25th of November, 1869, and is a son of Dr. Nathan and Harriet (Summereaux) Mitchell. Dr. Mitchell was of English descent and came from Vermont to St. Joseph county, Michigan, in an early day. He located in Burr Oak township, where he was engaged in agricultural pursuits in connection with the practice of his profession. Later he removed to Colon township, where he continued to reside until his death, which occurred in 1879. He was a Republican in politics, served as justice of the peace and was ever held in unqualified confidence and esteem

Page  656 656 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY in the community that so long represented his home. He first married a Miss Trussell and they became the parents of three children of whom Curtis and Eugene are deceased and Sarah, a maiden lady, resides in Colon. No children were born to his second marriage and his third wife, Harriet (Summereaux) Mitchell, who was born in 1817 and died in May, 1896, was of French lineage on the paternal side and Scotch on the maternal side. Concerning the children of this union the following brief data are given,-Henry, who is a resident of Colon, married Miss Alice Nelson; the second child, a son, died unnamed, at the age of three weeks; and George S., the subject of this review, is the youngest. George S. Mitchell is indebted to the public schools of St. Joseph county for his early educational training and when about twenty-five years of age he entered upon an apprenticeship to the jeweler's trade, in connection with which he was employed in the village of Burr Oak for eleven years and he is now engaged in the jewelry business in Colon, where he has a well equipped establishment. In politics he accords a stanch support to the cause of the Democratic party and he is a prominent and valued member of the Colon Lodge, No. 96, of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, in which he has passed the various official chairs. On the 5th of August, 1908, Mr. Mitchell married Miss Elizabeth Gough, who was born on the 3rd of December, 1883, and who is a daughter of Ellis and Harriet Gough, of Staten Island, New York. No children have been born to this union. SIMEON DUNN.-For many years widely known as a farmer, a brick manufacturer and a citizen of high repute in Fabius township, the late Simeon Dunn was a native of Erie county, Pennsylvania, born on the 25th of September, 1820. His father, Ambrose Dunn, was a farmer and teamster of that state, who passed the later years of his life near the city of Erie, while the grandfather was an Englishman, who emigrated to this country and resided successively in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The mother (nee Jane Clossen) spent her life within the Keystone state. Simeon Dunn reached the age of nineteen as a resident of Pennsylvania, and then located in Kalamazoo county, Michigan, then being in the third year of her statehood. The youth at once commenced the manufacture of brick in the growing community and was thus chiefly engaged until 1852, when he purchased a tract of land in Fabius township, this county, and located upon it as his homestead, at the same time continuing the manufacture of brick.

Page  657 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 657 When he purchased the place about twenty acres were under cultivation, the other improvements comprising a frame house and barn. In connection with the conduct of his brick manufacture, he gradually placed the greater part of his land under cultivation and erected a substantial brick house, in which he resided until his death September 20, 1909. The maiden name of his wife was Esther Blodgett, who was born in Pennsylvania and was a daughter of Ezra and Clarissa (Kibbee) Blodgett. She died December 6, 1897, mother of four children, Eliza Z., Mary E., John S. and Willis J. WILLIAM G. SIMPSON.-Integrity of character coupled with business acumen are the principal exponents of a successful business man, and the following is a brief review of such a man, one who is respected and revered by the citizens of Mendon and Mendon township. William G. Simpson is a native son of the "Wolverine state" having been born in St. Joseph county, May 10, 1865, and is the fourth child in a family of five, two sons and three daughters, born to Josiah and Jane (Gibson) Simpson. Of these children four are living: Mary J., wife of E. Eldridge, a resident of Mendon township, where he is an agriculturist; Sarah J., is the wife of James Ettwein, a farmer of Colon township; William G. is next in order of birth; and James A., a resident of Leonidas township, who is an agriculturist. Josiah Simpson, was a native of the Emerald Isle, born in 1831. He was reared in his native land till the age of fourteen when he crossed the Atlantic with his parents, coming first to New York state and from there to St. Joseph county, Michigan. He was an agriculturist and a very successful man, and at his death he was a large landowner, having nine hundred acres and excellent buildings. Though virtually a poor boy when he landed in Michigan, by his strict economy and business sagacity he became wellto-do. In politics he was a Democrat. He and his estimable wife were members of the United Presbyterian church. He died in 1897, and his wife, who was also a native of Ireland where she was born in 1822, died in 1908. William G. Simpson of this sketch was reared as a farmer's boy, and received a good practical education in the common schools and at Mendon high school, and also a full business course in Parson's Business College at Kalamazoo. In 1906 he came to Mendon and in the following year he entered into partnership with Sidney Severance in the hardware business which partnership

Page  658 658 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY existed for two years, when Mr. Simpson purchased his partner's interests. He has a staple line of shelf hardware and the volume of business he does amounts to $12,000 to $15,000 annually. A gentleman of fine business ability and character he has now, by his upright dealings, the full confidence of the people. He wedded Miss Mattie Leiser November 7, 1894, in Mendon township. Mrs. Simpson is a St. Joseph county girl, having been educated in the common schools and being a graduate of the Centerville high school. She has also received both vocal and instrumental musical instructions. Mr. and Mrs. Simpson are members of the Methodist Episcopal church at Mendon and she is one of the faithful teachers in the Sunday-school. Her parents, Abraham and Sarah (Leimbach) Leiser are both living and of venerable age. They reside in Mendon. Mr. Leiser, the father, was born in Pennsylvania and was an agriculturist. He served three years as a soldier in the Rebellion and received his honorable discharge. His wife is also a native of Pennsylvania. Mr. Simpson politically is a Democrat and cast his first presidential vote for Grover Cleveland. He has been often chosen to represent his township at county conventions. Officially he served as highway commissioner and justice of the peace for a number of years and also was a member of the town council at Mendon. He was a member of the library board and assisted in establishing the beautiful Carnegie library in Mendon. Fraternally he is a member of the A. F. & A. M. at Mendon. Besides his hardware business he has a splendid farm of eighty acres with excellent improvements in Nottawa township and owns a beautiful brick residence on Main and Pleasant streets in Mendon. Mr. Simpson began in business but a few years ago and has met and is still meeting with signal success and he possesses the attributes of a sound and strict business man. WILLIAM B. TOMLINSON, who has resided at Colon for nearly a quarter of a century as a progressive figure in its building industries and its business activities, is now one of its leading merchants and public spirited citizens. He is a son of Orson and Jane A. (Kennedy) Tomlinson, and was born July 9, 1859, in Colon township, about a year after his parents had come hither from Orleans county, New York, where they were born. Later, for a year, the family resided in Illinois, returning then to Colon where the father purchased a farm of sixty acres west of the village, where he spent the remainder of his life. Orson Tomlinson was a

Page  659 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 659 man of varied and decided abilities. He conducted his farm practically and successfully; was widely read, an original thinker and a ready speaker and writer. When he first came to the township he served as superintendent of schools and was on the board of examiners for teachers. He was a leader in the local Grange; was reporter for a Three Rivers paper; author of a book entitled "The Origin, Growth and Tendencies of Education in the United States," and in numerous other respects a citizen whom the community admired and honored. Seven children were born to the union of Mr. and Mrs. Orson Tomlinson. Leona Electa, the first, was born October 16, 1846; is now the wife of Daniel B. Wagner, lives on a farm about a mile and a half from Colon, and is the mother of six children, of whom five are alive. Dina Maria, born January 30, 1849, is living in Michigan, the childless widow of Charles Wilkinson, a former grocer of Colon. Ellen Jane, the third child, was born April 19, 1851, first married Perry Russell, of Manistee, Michigan, by whom she had three children, and, as his widow, wedded William Wendt, a leading lumberman of that place, who is now engaged in the same line of business at Vancouver, British Columbia. Mrs. Wendt's husband is not only a successful lumberman, but deeply interested in all historical work and researches. Orson Charles, the fourth to be born to Mr. and Mrs. Orson Tomlinson, is now an architect of Colon, his birthday, October 11, 1853. He has never married. Minnie Caroline, his younger sister, was born January 24, 1857, and is the wife of William Wildt, of Homer, Michigan, and mother of four children. William B., of this sketch, was the next to be added to the paternal household, and Lucy Amanda, the seventh, was born May 20, 1865, and died in Colon township, unmarried, February 12, 1885. William B. Tomlinson was a sturdy youth, well educated for one of his day and place, when, at the age of nineteen, he commenced to work by the month and to teach winter terms of school. He married when twenty-four and for a number of years thereafter was employed by neighboring farmers. His next move was to settle in the village of Colon and engage in carpentry and slate roofing for a couple of years. Thereafter, until 1900, he was associated with his brother Orson in the lumber business, since which year he has successfully conducted it alone. Mr. Tomlinson has been of great public service to the community in the management and improvement of its educational system, having served as an active school inspector and member of the board of

Page  660 660 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY education for the past fourteen years. His marriage to Miss Delia Stailey occurred January 2, 1884, his wife having been born February 28, 1858, at Bronson, Michigan, daughter of Andrew and Catherine Eberhard Stailey, Pennsylvanians by birth and early residence. Two sons were born of this union: Cecil Burr, born October 4, 1887, who is unmarried and living at home, his father's business associate; and Frank, who died when only three months of age. JOSEPH FARRAND has been a resident of Colon since 1875 and is a representative of one of the honored pioneer families of St. Joseph county. The lineage in the paternal line is traced back to stanch French-Huguenot stock, the family having been early founded in the state of New York. Mr. Farrand was born in Elmira, Chemung county, New York, on the 5th of May, 1837, and is a son of James Harvey and Fannie Little (Smith) Farrand. Joseph Farrand, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, is supposed to have been born in either New Jersey or New York and he came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, soon after the admission of the state to the Union. He secured a tract of wild land on the St. Joseph river and contributed his share to the industrial and civic development of the county. He here continued to maintain his home until his death and was actively interested in public affairs of a local order though he never sought political preferment. James H. Farrand became a successful lumber man and was one of the prominent and influential citizens of Chemung county, New York, at the time of his death, which occurred in 1842, at which time he was about thirty-two years of age. His wife, who was born about the year 1804, in Elmira, New York, died in that place when about eighty-two years old. Both were members of the Presbyterian church and he was a Whig in politics until the organization of the Republican party, when he identified himself therewith and he continued an ardent supporter of its cause during the remainder of his life. Joseph Farrand is indebted to the common schools of his native state for his early educational discipline. He was for a number of years engaged in railroad contracting and in this connection he was employed by the government in railroad construction work, in the south, during the Civil war, having spent the greater portion of the time in the state of Virginia, and having had charge of six hundred men attached to the Army of the Potomac of the U. S. Construction Corps. He witnessed the battles of Fair Oaks and

Page  661 RESIDENCE OF MR. AND MRS. JOSEPH FARRAND COLON, MICHIGAN

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Page  663 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 663 Fredericksburg and he rendered most efficient service in support of the Union during that climacteric period of its history. In 1875 Mr. Farrand located on a farm southwest of the village of Colon and since 1900 he has resided in the village. He is a stockholder in the Lamb Knit Goods Company, is also a stockholder in the local banks and has always maintained the attitude of a liberal and progressive citizen and he is a stockholder in the Colon Mills, taking a deep interest in all that touches the welfare of the community. He is a Democrat in his political allegiance, has served as a member of the village council of Colon and also as a director of the St. Joseph County Agricultural Society. He is affiliated with Colon Lodge, Free & Accepted Masons and is a member of the Colon Chapter. Mr. Farrand has been a great lover of fine horses and at different times has owned standard bred stock of the best type. At one time he was owner of the pacer, "Silver Maker," with a record of 2:11. He now owns "Frank Arney," who has a record of 2:20, and Mr. Farrand finds much pleasure and diversion in connection with turf events. In 1900, Mr. Farrand was united in marriage to Miss Lillian Clement, who was born and reared in St. Joseph county and who is a daughter of Sylvester and Corinth (Legg) Clement. Her father was a successful farmer and stock-dealer and was especially interested in the breeding of high grade horses. Both he and his wife continued to reside in St. Joseph county until their death. Mr. and Mrs. Farrand have no children. DANIEL W. FEAS.-A man of sterling worth and integrity, Daniel W. Feas fought bravely for his country during the Civil war, and has since been equally as faithful in the performance of his duties as a loyal citizen. He has been actively identified with the industrial interests of Three Rivers for many years, and is well known as one of the successful farmers of Fabius township. He was born, June 29, 1837, in Berks county, Pennsylvania, which was likewise the birth place of his father, Samuel Feas, and the county in which, it is supposed, his grandfather, Henry Feas, spent his entire life. Learning the trade of a cooper, Samuel Feas followed it in Pennsylvania until 1849, when with his wife and family, which then consisted of six children, he moved to Sandusky county, Ohio, where he lived for two years. Coming from there to Michigan in 1851, he located at Three Rivers, St. Joseph county, where he was employed as a cooper until his death, at the age of sixty

Page  664 664 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY three years. His wife, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Schlotenman was born in Berks county, Pennsylvania. She survived him a few years, at her death leaving ten children, as follows: Mary, Abraham, Sarah, Daniel W., Elizabeth, Samuel, John, Hettie, Lucy and Addie. About fourteen years old when he came with his parents to St. Joseph county, Daniel W. Feas began soon after his arrival to work as a farm hand, but afterwards learned the trade of a cooper. On August 11, 1862, his spirit of patriotism being aroused, he enlisted in Company D, Twenty-fifth Michigan Volunteer Infantry, and went with his command to the front, being with his regiment in all of its various marches, campaigns and battles. One of the fiercest contests in which he was actively engaged having been, on July 4, 1863, when, at Tebbs Bend, Kentucky, his regiment, consisting of two hundred men, commanded by Col. Moore, battled with upwards of two thousand of Morgan's guerrillas, and defeated them, the enemy, with a severe loss in killed and wounded, being completely routed. On May 14, 1864, at the Battle of Resaca, Georgia, Mr. Feas was wounded, and sent to the hospital at Knoxville, Tennessee. He was afterwards transferred to Jeffersonville, Indiana, thence to Detroit, Michigan, where, in May, 1865, he received his honorable discharge from the service. Returning to Three Rivers, he here carried on a successful cooperage business a few years, after which he bought land in Fabius township, and has since been prosperously employed in farming and stock raising, although he retains his residence in Three Rivers, making this place his home. Mr. Feas married, June 29, 1867, Jane E. Stull, who was born in Union, Union county, Pennsylvania, November 22, 1840. The only child born to Mr. and Mrs. Feas lived but ten months. Mr. and Mrs. Feas are valued members of the Methodist Episcopal church. Fraternally Mr. Feas belongs to the Ed. M. Prutzman Post, No. 72, G. A. R. at Three Rivers. H. JAMES KLOSE.-As a representative of the worthy agriculturists of St. Joseph county, and as an honored and respected citizen of Moore Park, H. James Klose is especially deserving of mention in this volume. Since the days of his boyhood he has witnessed many changes throughout this locality, and as a general farmer has contributed his share toward the development and growth of its prosperity, at the same time accumulating enough of this world's wealth to enable him to spend his later years retired

Page  665 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 665 from active business. A son of Daniel Klose, he was born September 19, 1842, in Beaver township, Union county, Pennsylvania. Daniel Klose was born in Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, of German ancestry, and remained in the Keystone state, employed in tilling the soil, until 1854, when he migrated with his family to St. Joseph county, Michigan. Locating in Lockport township, he bought a tract of land lying three miles northeast of Three Rivers, and on the farm which he cleared and improved he spent the remainder of his life, dying at the age of seventy-seven years. He was twice married, his first wife dying in early womanhood. He married for his second wife Mrs. Elizabeth (Stenninger) Smith, who was born in Pennsylvania, of German ancestors, and who died at the age of sixty-eight years. She, too, was twice married, and by her two unions became the mother of fifteen children. Twelve years of age when he came with his parents to Michigan, H. James Klose attended the district schools of Lockport township, and as a youth assisted his father on the farm. Having thus acquired a practical knowledge of the various branches of agriculture, he chose farming as his life work, and for two years followed his occupation on rented land. Succeeding well in his ventures, he then bought seventy-nine acres of land in Park township, and there devoted his time and energies to the improvement of a farm, carrying on general farming and stock-raising. He labored wisely, and in course of time erected a substantial brick house and other buildings adapted to farming purposes, and further added to the value and beauty of the place by setting out a variety of fruit and shade trees. In 1881 Mr. Klose retired from active pursuits, and has since resided at Moore Park. He still owns a farm of one hundred and sixty acres in Park township, and from its rental receives a good annual income. On November 22, 1861, Mr. Klose married Lovina Miller, who was born in Northampton county, Pennsylvania, a daughter of John Miller, who migrated with his family from that state to Michigan, and spent his last years in Park township. She died in October, 1890, leaving three children, namely: Mary, wife of Samuel Andre, has five children, Allen, Will, Maude, Enos, and Frankie; John D., married Angie Stahl and they have two children, Clarence and Lovina; and Enos J., who married Emma Bender, has three children, Ethel, Earl and Lloyd. Mr. Klose married for his second wife, in June, 1891, Mrs. Lucinda (Bramer) Weinberg, who was born in Park township, St. Vol. II 11

Page  666 666 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Joseph county, Michigan, August 25, 1845. Her father, George Bramer, was a pioneer of Park township. He traded his house and lot in Pennsylvania, his native state, for ninety-five acres of land lying in the southeast quarter of section 28, Park township, and, bringing with him a team of horses, came here with his family. Building a log house, he began the arduous task of reclaiming a farm from the wilderness, and was there engaged in tilling the soil until his death, in 1850. His wife, whose maiden name was Margaret Fetter, lived until 1871. To the marriage of George and Margaret (Fetter) Bramer seven children were born, two sons and five daughters, of whom three are now living: The eldest, Caroline, resides with Mrs. Klose; Lucinda (Mrs. Klose), is next in order of birth; and Margaret is the wife of Simon Bloom, a retired farmer of Garden City, Missouri, and they have four sons and five daughters and are members of the Evangelical church. Mrs. Lucinda Klose was born and reared in Park township, St. Joseph county. She married first, in 1862, Jeremiah Weinberg, who was a native of Northampton county, Pennsylvania, a son of George Weinberg, a pioneer settler of St. Joseph county. He died October 5, 1886, leaving no children. Mr. and Mrs. Klose are members of the Evangelical church at Center Park. Mr. Klose is a Republican in politics and cast his first vote for the martyred Lincoln, and had the honor of voting for Blaine, Garfield and McKinley as well as for the great typical American, Roosevelt. Although she had no children of her own, Mrs. Klose adopted an infant, Wilma E. Vale, who was left an orphan when a few weeks old, her father, John W. Vale, having died in a hospital while a soldier in the Civil war. The child was reared and educated by Mrs. Klose as her own daughter, and subsequently she was happily married to Dr. G. A. Hughes. Mrs. Hughes passed to the higher life April 17, 1894, at the age of twenty-nine years, seven months and ten days, leaving a host of friends to mourn her loss. The following shows the esteem in which Mrs. Hughes was held: "Wilma E. Hughes, wife of Dr. G. A. Hughes, rested from her labors on the 17th of April, 1894. She was a woman who will be greatly missed in our village. She was identified with every organization for the advancement and welfare of mankind and now that an irreparable loss has come to her own household, let none of those who ever received good at her hands forget their obligations. Her home was always open to the needy, her bounties were shared with others, and her sympathies were not limited to

Page  667 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 667 her own household. Such friendship deserves and will receive life-long gratitude. We honor her as one who stood well and best at home and as a neighbor. We feel as if one of our own household had been taken, and mourn with her family as she and they have mourned with us, and hope that we, as neighbors may meet again in that brighter and better land. A Christian not only in her belief but in her life, she learned to love her Savior in her early youth, uniting at the age of fifteen with the Lutheran church at Moore Park. Married at the age of twenty to Dr. G. A. Hughes, she came with him to Jones, where she joined the Methodist Episcopal church, of which she was a member at the time of her death. She was greatly loved and honored, but we will not mar the sweet memory of a loving wife and daughter by any attempt to speak of her virtues in the home circle, as these are too sacred to be touched upon, but we as neighbors and friends join with her family in cherishing, so far as known, the history of her home life, who will remember with reverence her last hours with us, for if God ever reveals to the spirit while yet in its earthly tenement the peace and happiness of the heavenly home, such revelation was hers. She will hold a place in the memory of her many friends until the bright sun of life sinks in its great West, only to rise in eternity's great East." The funeral of Mrs. Hughes brought together the largest assemblage of people on any similar occasion in the history of the village. The services were conducted by Reverend Montgomery; of Three Rivers, assisted by Reverend Emmons, of Vandalia. The chapter read was Mrs. Hughes' selection, and the text was her own last word. A lover of flowers, her casket was adorned within and without by the loving tributes of her family and friends. The interment was at Pleasant Valley Cemetery, Kalamazoo county. GLOVER E. LAIRD.-Bonnie Scotland, the" Land of the Thistle," has contributed many of her sturdy sons and daughters to aid in the development of Free America and the following is a brief review of a descendant of the Scotch people, the grandfather of Glover E. Laird having been the first to come to the United States to lay the foundation of the Lairds of this line. Mr. Laird, the worthy and genial postmaster of Mendon, Michigan, is a native of St. Joseph county and was born November 20, 1858, being the youngest of three sons born to Gilbert and Soloma (Schofield) Laird, and all the sons are still living. The eldest, George R., is a resident of Egan, South Dakota, and is connected with the United States Mail service. He was a soldier in the

Page  668 668 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Rebellion for three years and received an honorable discharge. He is married. Gilbert J., the second son, resides on the old homestead in Mendon township, and is married. Glover Laird is next. Gilbert Laird came to Michigan when but a young man and he devoted his life to agriculture. He was born in 1815 and died on August 12, 1858. He was always a Republican politically. Glover E. Laird of this sketch, had very meager chances for a good education, as he ceased going to school at the age of fourteen. He was reared as a farmer's lad and had his full quota of work to perform and he is strictly a self-made and self-educated man. He became connected with the United States mail service early in life, as he received his appointment as Route Agent at Mendon in 1900, and on April 1, 1906, under the administration of President Roosevelt, received his commission of Postmaster at Mendon, and is still the present incumbent. He is filling this responsible position with credit to himself and the people. There are six mails delivered every twenty-four hours in Mendon. There are four rural routes and one star route. Mr. Laird has been married twice-first to Miss Della Barnebee, whom he married December 19, 1878, and four children, one son and three daughters, were born to this union. Lulu is the wife of H. H. Davis of Detroit, Michigan, where he is a foreman in an automobile tire manufacturing company and they have three children: Herbert, Newell and Dorothy; Ollie Belle is cashier in the large grocery house of Peter Smith & Son at Detroit, and is highly educated; Glenn W. is deceased; Ruth is the wife of Edison Hadley of Mendon, Michigan. Mrs. Laird, the mother of these children, died October 10, 1892, and for his second wife Mr. Laird chose Mrs. Edith E. (Vale) Reedy, and one son was born to them, Eugene. He is in the fourth grade in school. Mrs. Laird is a native of St. Joseph county, where she was reared and educated. Her father is deceased but her mother still lives and resides in Flowerfield township. Mr. Laird is a stanch and true Republican and has always ardently upheld those sterling principles of the G. 0. P. He cast his maiden presidential vote for the beloved Garfield and has always supported each presidential nominee of the Republican party since. He has always been known to stand firmly on his principles politically, and has been selected at divers times as delegate to the Congressional and county conventions, to represent his party's interests. Mr. Laird is a warm friend of the public

Page  669 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 669 schools, although he received but little education himself and that through his own efforts, but he believes in the practical training of the young, and his influence was felt, in the building of the modern and beautiful high school building, erected in Mendon, only a few years ago, which is a credit to the town and county. In fact he has endeavored to advance all measures for the benefit of his little city. He has seen Mendon when it was a small struggling village, and points out the first brick building erected on Main street. There were no railroads in the township, nor telephones nor rural deliveries of mail. Fraternally he is an enthusiastic Mason, being a member of Lodge No. 137, A. F. & A. M. also a member of the Centerville Chapter R. A. M. He was worshipful master two years and at the present time holds the same office in Mendon, Michigan. He is also a member of the K. O. T. M. Tent, No. 349, at Mendon. Mr. and Mrs. Laird are members of the Methodist Episcopal church at Mendon of which he is one of the stewards. He is a genial, cordial gentlemen, modest in his demeanor, and a friend whom one may prize. He has seen some of the rough places in the pathway of life but by fortitude, diligence and good business ability has now a high place in the estimation of his colleagues and friends. DANIEL B. WAGNER.-Fully three quarters of a century have dropped into the abyss of time since the Wagner family was founded in St. Joseph county and the name has thus been long and prominently identified with the civic and material development and upbuilding of this favored section of the Wolverine state. It is pleasing to record that the subject of this sketch is not only a member of one of the pioneer families of the county but also that he has been identified in a most successful way with the agricultural industry, which enlisted the attention of his father, who absolutely hewed out the farm from the virgin forest. Daniel B. Wagner was born in Colon township, this county, on the 28th of February, 1846, and is a son of Peter and Catherine (Peters) Wagner, both of whom were natives of Pennsylvania, where the former was born on the 24th of March, 1810, and the latter in the year of 1815. They were reared to maturity in their native state, where their marriage was solemnized and whence they removed to Ohio, where they remained one winter, at the expiration of which, in 1835, they came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, where the father purchased one hundred and sixty acres of government land in Colon township. Here he erected his primitive log cabin

Page  670 670 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and set himself the herculean task of reclaiming a farm from the wilderness. A portion of the original estate constitutes the present homestead of the subject of this review. The parents played well their part in connection with the development of this section of the state and here they continued to reside until their death, the father having passed away on the 24th of May, 1889, and the mother on the 21st of May, 1877. They became the parents of thirteen children and of the number three sons and seven daughters are now living. The old homestead lies contiguous to the present village of Colon, which was established a number of years after the family located in this vicinity. Daniel B. Wagner was reared under the conditions and influences of the pioneer days and availed himself of the privileges of the common schools of the locality and period. He continued to be associated in the work and management of the home farm until he had attained to his legal majority when he began working by the month as a farm hand. Soon after initiating his independent career he married and finally he gave evidence of his ambition and resourcefulness by renting a farm and thereafter he continued his operations under these conditions for a period of eight years during which his success was on a parity with his industry and well directed efforts. After the expiration of his farm lease he located on the old homestead, which is now his place of abode; the same comprises thirty-two acres and is an integral portion of the land secured by his father many years ago. Mr. Wagner is known as one of the progressive and essentially representative farmers and stock-growers of his native county and is a citizen who has ever been true to the civic advancement, taking a deep interest in everything that has touched the welfare of the community. He is a Republican in his political allegiance and served three terms as highway commissioner and one term as member of the board of reviews of Colon township. Both he and his good wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. On the 6th of May, 1866, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Wagner to Miss Leona E. Tomlinson, who was born in New York on the 16th of October, 1846, being one of the seven children of Orson and Jane Ann (Kennedy) Tomlinson, who were natives of the state of New York and who established their home in St. Joseph county, Michigan, in the late '50s, here passing the residue of their lives. Concerning the children of Mr. and Mrs. Wagner the following brief record is given: Helen Gladys, who was born on the 31st of December, 1866, is the wife of Eugene Grimes, of Colon;

Page  671 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 671 Wallace Hull, who was born on the 17th of July, 1868, and who is the present supervisor of Colon township, married Miss May Stailey and they have two children; Peter Anthony, who was born on the 2nd of December, 1870, died on the 13th of May, 1884; Ansel Russell, who was born on the 21st of August, 1872, is a telegraph operator in Homer, Michigan; he married Miss Harriet Rathburn and they have two children; Maude Isabel, who was born on the 4th of February, 1874, is the wife of William Simpson, of Leonidas township, this county, and they have one son; Gertrude Jane, who was born on the 12th of February, 1879, is the wife of Frederick Thomes, a successful farmer of Matteson township, Branch county, Michigan, and they have one son; Mary Forestina, who was born on the 26th of October, 1890, and who remains at the parental home, was graduated in the Colon high school as a member of the class of 1910, now a student at Kalamazoo, Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Wagner's homestead is known in Colon township as "Oak Woods." JOHN HENRY WORTHINGTON. —In evidence of the confidence in which he is held by his fellow citizens are the numerous public offices filled by John Henry Worthington. He has, in fact, held nearly all the offices of the township, having been township supervisor for ten years, assessor for two years, highway commissioner for nine years, constable for three, and justice of the peace for four. He stands high in Masonry and has for twenty years held the office of treasurer of Mendon Lodge No. 137. Mr. Worthington was for many years a farmer, but afterward removed to Mendon and for a short time before his retirement from active business was engaged in the butcher trade. John Henry Worthington is English in origin, his parents, William and Mary (Prayforth) Worthington, having been natives of Great Britain who came to America in 1837 and took up their residence in the Empire state. Three years later they came to Kalamazoo county, Michigan, and after living there a short time, entered eighty acres of land in Brady township. They engaged in farming for the rest of their lives and experienced the strenuous, but wholesome life of the Michigan pioneer. The father hauled the first load of lumber into Mendon. He was a Democrat, but afterward gave his allegiance to the Republican party and he and his wife were earnest members of the Methodist church. Born in 1810 he lived to the age of eighty-three, his demise occurring in 1893. The mother, born in 1808, passed to the other shore in 1858.

Page  672 672 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY This estimable couple were the parents of a good sized family of children. William died in infancy; Mary became the wife of Leonard Dutton, a farmer, who lives in Bruce, Wisconsin; Jane, Elizabeth and an unnamed child died in infancy; John Henry was the sixth in order of birth; Richard is a farmer living in Kalamazoo county, Michigan, and Mark and Thomas are likewise Kalamazoo county farmers. John Henry Worthington was born in New York on March 10, 1837. As a lad he attended the district school and assisted in the farm work, the practical experience thus gained serving him in good stead when, grown to manhood, he became an independent agriculturist. When twenty-one years of age he started out for himself, and for three or four years farmed on shares. He then bought a farm of eighty acres in Mendon township and there resided until 1897, when he brought his household into town and engaged in the butcher business. After two years of this new occupation he retired and made his home in the village. He and his family enjoy affiliation with the Methodist church and play a prominent part in the life of Mendon. Mr. Worthington was married in 1858 in St. Joseph county to Sarah Bourn, a daughter of Ezra and Lois Bourn of New York state and to the union the following children were born: Delmar L., born May 16, 1859, and engaged in the grocery business in Mendon until 1909, when he became a dealer in implements; he married Nettie Kepper of Mendon in 1887, and they have one son, Harry, born August 29, 1888. Ida L., born December 17, 1861, is the wife of Chester Stevens, now living in Exeter, Nebraska. Clara B., born in 1863, became the wife of Edward Troy and died in 1890. Lottie is the wife of William Goodrich and lives near Colon. William H. lives on his father's farm; he married Effie Reid and they have one child, Marie. Charles A., born in 1873, lives in Schooleraft and is superintendent of the lighting plant; his wife was Alice Shaffer of Mendon, and a son named Clare has been born to them. Grace, born in 1875, is the wife of Calvin Walters of Mendon, buyer for the New York Poultry Company. George, born in 1880, is an undertaker in Three Rivers, Michigan; his wife was Miss Mabel Schoonmaker. Mrs. John H. Worthington died in Mendon, December 9, 1904. The following is taken from one of the local papers: "Sweetly, quietly, her pure spirit slipped away from her bed of pain to enter the mansions above. She was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ezra Bourn. The family came to Michigan in 1842, set

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Page  677 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 677 ling at Dexter, but Father Bourn soon after purchased a farm near Mendon, where the deceased grew to womanhood among many friends. June 30, 1858, she was united in marriage with J. Henry Worthington. They built their home on a farm just west of Mendon. Eight children came to glorify their lives, seven of whom are living, and were with their mother during her long illness. The children are: Delmar L. of Mendon; William who lives on the home farm; Charles of Schoolcraft; George, of Three Rivers; Mrs. Ida Stevens of Exeter, Nebraska; Mrs. Lottie Goodrich of Colon; and Mrs. Grace Walters of Mendon, all of whom are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. "Mrs. Worthington was a devoted follower of Jesus. She was converted and united with the Methodist Episcopal church at the age of twelve. Her life became radiant through constant communion with her Saviour. She looked forward with unwavering faith to that more abundant life that is with Christ. The prayer-meeting, class-meeting, ladies' aid society and all the church circles will miss her sorely. Hers was an unselfish and beautiful characterfull of thoughtful care for the comfort of others; never murmuring through the long hours of intense suffering of her last eight months of life. The Word was her sweet consolation; in the promises she found peace. During her illness she watched the progress of the new church building, hoping that it might be completed before her summons came. In this she was not disappointed, although the church was not entirely ready for final occupancy. The funeral was held from the church, conducted by her pastor, who spoke from the text that she had selected, 2 Tim. 4:7, 8. The quartet choir rendered beautiful music, and at midday her body was laid away under a canopy of pure white snow. 'Wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow. '-Frank M. Cottrell." In 1907 Mr. Worthington married Miss Alice Kleckner of Flowerfield, born in 1846. She died January 29, 1909, and since that time he has lived alone. SOLOMON YEATTER.-Among the well known and-most successful farmers of St. Joseph county is Solomon Yeatter, born April 13, 1839, to Jonathan and Barbara (Decker) Yeatter. Jonathan Yeatter was born April 8, 1806, in the state of Pennsylvania. Several years after his marriage to Miss Barbara Decker, also a native of Pennsylvania, he removed to Ohio, where they made their home for ten years. To them were born eight children: Michael, Sarah, Katherine, Solomon, John, Lovina, Emanuel and Alfred.

Page  678 678 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Both Lovina and Emanuel died there, when very young. In 1853, when Solomon was thirteen years old, the family left Ohio, coming to Michigan, where they bought two hundred acres of land in Colon township. At that time this section of the country was very sparsely settled, and what afterwards became a well cultivated farm was then merely a stretch of woods. Jonathan Yeatter cleared the land and built a house and barns, a part of the old homestead still being in use. In the early days he was a soldier, and as the years passed held various political offices, at one time filling the position of overseer. After a long and busy life, he passed away at his home on September 18, 1888, at the age of eightytwo. Mrs. Yeatter, who was born April 22, 1814, died August 9, 1879. Solomon Yeatter, having attended the Colon high school, started out for himself at the age of twenty-one by teaching school in Colon and in Bronson. He continued at this work for four years, during which time he bought a farm of sixty acres, and later another of the same size. However, he still lived at home with his father, and when twenty-six years of age, married Miss Martha A. Benedict, daughter of Alfred and Cynthia Benedict of Burr Oak township. Mrs. Yeatter was three years her husband's junior, having been born February 23, 1842, in Morrow county, Ohio. She came to Michigan with her parents when a very young child. She had taught school for several years, her education having been received in Burr Oak and Colon. The young couple lived at the old homestead until the completion of their own new home, which is still occupied by Mr. Yeatter. There were three children born to Mr. and Mrs. Yeatter: Sidney E., born January 27, 1867, married Katherine Dean and has two children; Effie O., born July 17, 1869, wife of Albion Russel, also has two children; and Ethel L., born October 10, 1874, is the wife of Hart Shaffmaster and mother of one son. All of these are now living on farms of their own, in and near Colon. Mr. Solomon Yeatter is a member of the Reformed church, as were his parents and also his wife. He is a stanch Republican, having adhered to the principles of this party since casting his first vote, which was for Abraham Lincoln. His life has been a very successful one, and his ability as a farmer is unquestioned. After about a year's illness, Mrs. Yeatter died during an operation at a hospital in Kalamazoo, on May 14, 1903. She was one of the noble and God fearing women of St. Joseph county and lived a life of love and happiness, her home being her paradise.

Page  679 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 679 She was a devout Christian, having been an active member of the Reformed church and was President of the Ladies' Aid Society and for many years President of the Sunday School. The following is extracted from an obituary published in the Colon Express at the time of her death: She was united in marriage to Solomon Yeatter, February 22, 1866. This union was blessed with three children all of whom are living. Their wedded life was a happy one to which her last dying words bear testimony. Her last words spoken to her husband were: "Solomon, I am going to die; when we lived together we had a happy life, but on account of my disease for the last three years it was nothing but sorrow and grief for both of us, but now comes the crown of joy and everlasting life in dear Jesus." Oh! what a legacy for those left behind. How beautiful are these words, words that will never die. She leaves to mourn her departure, a devoted husband, three children, five grandchildren, two brothers and two sisters besides many dear friends. She was a lifelong member of the Christian church, early giving her heart to God, being in every way a most earnest member of the St. Paul Reformed church of South Colon. She was not simply a member by name, for her Christianity meant far more than that. Her Christian life and spirit was manifested each day in the Saviour whom she loved. No better example could be given other than her beautiful life and character as it was acted out day by day. Her amiable disposition and her wise and good counsels will never die. The funeral services were conducted by her pastor, Rev. H. S. Nicholson, who spoke words of comfort to a very large concourse of people from the 126 Ps., 5, "They that sow in tears shall reap in joy." Her body was laid to rest in the cemetery by the St. Paul Reformed church to await the glorious resurrection. Peace to her ashes. GEORGE FRANKLIN KNEVELS.-Holding high rank among the skilful and prosperous agriculturists of St. Joseph county, George Franklin Knevels owns and occupies a valuable homestead in Fabius township, where the greater part of his life has been passed. A son of the late Granville Knevels, he was born May 15, 1853, in Sullivan county, New York, being descended from distinguished Holland ancestry. His great grandfather, Isaac Adrian Knevels, Sr., a native of Holland, was educated for the ministry, and for twenty-five years had charge of a church on the Island of Saint Johns, a Danish possession in the West Indies.

Page  680 680 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY He married a rich heiress, a Miss Borm, and of the eight sons born of their union but two grew to years of maturity. Isaac Adrian Knevels, Jr., grandfather of George F. Knevels, was born on the Island of Saint Johns, and was but twelve years old when his father died. According to the last request made by his father, he was very soon after sent to New York to be educated. Having completed his preliminary education, he began the study of medicine, and having received the degree of M. D. returned to Saint Johns Island, where he was engaged in the practice of his profession a number of years. Coming back then to New York, Dr. Knevels was for several years a prominent physician of Fishkill-on-the-Hudson. Removing from there to Sullivan county, New York, he bought four hundred acres of land near White Lake, and there continued his professional labors, leaving the management of his farm to his sons, living there until his death. Dr. Isaac A. Knevels, married, on Saint Johns Island, Margaret Catherine Vriehuis, who was born on Saint Thomas Island, one of the Danish islands, a daughter of D. Juno Vriehuis. Her father was born in Prussia, and educated at a German university. He subsequently became the King's physician on board a Danish man-of-war, and went to Saint Thomas, where he practiced medicine a few years. Going from there to the Island of Saint Johns, Dr. Vriehuis became prominent in public affairs, being made burgomaster, as such serving as head of the Burgo Council, which met at his house once each month. There he spent the remainder of his life. He married Miss Tonis, a daughter of Henry Tonis, of Amsterdam, Holland. Their daughter, Margaret Catherine Vriehuis was sent to America when eight years of age to attend a seminary at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Having completed the course of study, Margaret started for Saint Johns Island, to join her parents. The vessel on which she embarked was captured by a French privateer, and the captain was placed under arrest. She and her colored maid, the only women aboard, were treated most courteously, and her baggage was unmolested. Having searched the vessel, the Frenchmen released the captain, who proceeded on his voyage. Upon landing at Saint Johns, Miss Vriehuis met Dr. Knevels, who had just completed his medical course in New York, and she subsequently became his wife, as above stated. She survived him several years, dying at Monticello, New York. Dr. and Mrs. Knevels, reared eleven sons and one daughter.

Page  681 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 681 Granville Knevels was born at Fishkill-on-the-Hudson, and received excellent educational advantages. Choosing farming for an occupation rather than a professional career, he came to Michigan in 1850, and for two years was resident of Three Rivers. Locating then in Fabius township, he purchased a tract of land, ten acres of which had been cleared, and a small frame house had been erected. He superintended the clearing of the remainder of the estate, placed it in a good state of culture, and here resided until his death, in 1894. The maiden name of his wife was Margaret Phillips. She was born in Sullivan county, New York, a daughter of James and Margaret (Debron) Phillips, the former of whom was born, either in York state, of German parents, or in Germany, while the latter was a native of Sullivan county. She died on the home farm, in Fabius township, in 1893. Thirteen children were born to her and her husband, namely: Margaret C., James Adrian, Granville, Sarah J., John H., Mary E., Louise, Octavius, George Franklin, Maria, Frances, Carrie L. and Howard. All received good educations, and, with the exception of George F. and Granville, all became school teachers. James Adrian and John H. were soldiers during the Rebellion. James A. was a member of the Regimental Band, Eleventh Michigan Volunteers, for two years, and in a number of battles including Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga and Siege of Atlanta. John H. was a member of Company E, Eleventh Michigan Volunteers, and served for three years, being in all the actions in which his brother took part. Both were honorably discharged and were very fortunate, since neither was wounded, sick or taken prisoner. But four years of age when brought by his parents to Michigan, George F. Knevels was educated in the rural schools of Fabius township. He became a farmer from choice, and always lived with his parents, during their closing years, caring for them tenderly. Succeeding to the possession of the homestead, he has been extensively engaged in agricultural pursuits during his active life. Enterprising and energetic, he began when a young man to buy and ship cattle to Buffalo and Chicago, and in that profitable industry was employed for a quarter of a century or more, building up a large business. His home, a modernly built frame structure, is pleasantly located near Little Corey Lake, of which it commands a fine view, having also an extended view of the surrounding country. Mr. Knevels married, June 18, 1879, Anna M. Bell, who was born in Hameringham, Lincolnshire, England, a daughter of John

Page  682 682 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and Susan (Bradley) Bell. John Bell learned the trade of a carpenter in Lincolnshire, and became a contractor and builder. His health failing, he came, by the advice of his physician, to America to recuperate. Locating, in 1872, in Cass county, Michigan, he bought a farm in Newburg township, and after living there a while sold, and bought another farm in the same township, and was there engaged in its management until his death, in 1900. His wife, passing away in 1891. Mr. and Mrs. Bell reared nine children, as follows: Mary, Richard, Sarah, Henry, Caroline, Alfred, Timothy, Anna M. and William R. Of these Mary, Richard, Sarah and Caroline, settled in Australia. Six children blessed the union of Mr. and Mrs. Knevels, namely: Clyde Richard, Mary Louise, Anna Lora, Edwin George, Margaret Vriehuis, and her twin sister, Katharine Bell. Clyde R. married Myrtle Heslett, and they have three sons, John Cameron and Robert Granville, Samuel Adrian, Anna Lora, a graduate of the Three Rivers High School of Class 1905, and of the State Normal School at Kalamazoo in class of 1908, was a teacher at Sturgis and at present is at Three Rivers, Michigan. Mrs. Knevels and her daughters are members of the Methodist Protestant church and Margaret and Katharine are students in Three Rivers high school. DAVID B. PURDY, owner of "Lone Oak Farm," is the son of Elijah and Martha (Barker) Purdy, natives of Westchester county, New York. Elijah Purdy was born November 26, 1805, and his wife on March 20th of the same year. They were married on New Year's day, 1830, and remained in their home town for several years, where two of their children were born. In the fall of 1835, Elijah Purdy, together with his brother-in-law, David Barker, left for the West, coming to St. Joseph county, where he acquired four or five hundred acres of land. Mr. Purdy then returned to New York, and in the spring of 1836 brought his family to the new Michigan home. In the course of time, three more children were born. Two daughters, Sarah L., born February 1, 1831, and Martha A., born March 15, 1840, died in infancy. The other children born to this couple were: John A., born October 15, 1833, who in 1862 married Mary Galloway, who died June 20, 1864, and for his second wife married Emily C. Davis, who survives him and still lives in Leonidas; he died February 18, 1902, leaving no children; Mary C., born November 22, 1836, wife of John McDonald, now living in Leonidas; and David B. In politi

Page  683 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 683 cal affairs, Elijah Purdy cast his lot with the Republican party. He died on August 12, 1876, and his wife on July 24, 1898. Both were members of the Leonidas Methodist church. David B. Purdy was born on March 21, 1845, on the farm which he now owns, and he has always lived on this farm. At the age of nineteen, David Purdy started to work, and shortly after received a gift of eighty acres from his uncle, Hakaliah Purdy. After a lapse of two or three years, during which Mr. Purdy devoted his time entirely to the cultivation of this land, he was married, on October 16, 1867, to Dell M., the only child of Bassett and Martha W. Orcutt, natives of Monroe county, New York, who came to St. Joseph county about the year 1846. They remained here only six months, returning to New York for a period of four years, after which they again came to Leonidas. Mrs. Purdy was born November 25, 1847. About six weeks after their marriage, David B. Purdy and his bride came to live on the farm presented him, where they remained until 1880, when they built a beautiful new home. After forty years of happy married life, Mrs. Purdy passed away, at her home, on February 11, 1907. She left no children. David B. Purdy is a Republican, as was his father, and is a charter member of Leonidas Grange. He still lives on the farm, which is one of the best equipped and most prosperous in the county. Miss Martha Sherman, who has been with the family for nearly twenty years, is keeping house for him. GEORGE A. B. COOE. —Few citizens of St. Joseph county have wielded greater or more beneficent influence in the community than George A. B. Cooke, who has maintained his home in the city of Three Rivers for nearly half a century and who is now living virtually retired, after many years of earnest and fruitful endeavor. He came to this county when a young man and gained advancement through his own ability and well directed efforts. As a newspaper editor and publisher, as incumbent of various offices of distinctive public trust, including that of postmaster of his home city, and as a citizen of high civic ideals and utmost loyalty and progressiveness, he has done much to further the best interests of the community and has made for himself a secure place in popular confidence and esteem. No citizen of St. Joseph county is better known than Mr. Cooke, and in points of sterling character and worthy accomplishment none is more distinctively worthy of representation in this publication.

Page  684 684 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY George A. B. Cooke is a scion of a family whose name has been identified with the annals of American history from the early colonial epoch, and the family was early founded in the state of New Jersey, being of stanch English lineage. Mr. Cooke was born at Belvidere, Warren county, New Jersey, on the 8th of February, 1842, and is a son of Colonel Joseph and Sarah A. (Bowman) Cooke, the former of whom was born on a farm near Hope, Warren county, New Jersey, on the 21st of June, 1812, and the latter was born at Mifflinville, Columbia county, Pennsylvania, on the 9th of November, 1816. William Cooke, father of Joseph, was likewise a native of Warren county, New Jersey, and was a son of Consider Cooke, who was a son of Elisha Cooke. The latter was a native of Massachusetts and was a son of William Cooke, who was a son of Jacob Cooke (2). The latter's father, Jacob Cooke (1), was a son of Francis Cooke, who was the founder of the family in America, whither he came with other of the historic Puritan band on the "Mayflower." His wife and children later joined him in the new world, and they made the voyage on the ship "Ann," in 1623. The family home was established in the Plymouth colony, and there both Jacob (1) and his son Jacob died. The latter's son William, died at Kingston, Massachusetts. Elisha Cooke, son of William, eventually emigrated from New England to New Jersey and settled in what is now the county of Warren. He became one of the substantial farmers of that county, where he continued to maintain his home until his death, which occurred in 1799. He was the father of eighteen children, nearly all of whom attained to years of maturity. Consider Cooke, son of Elisha, was born on the 4th of February, 1745, and he married Sarah Bell. He continued to be identified with agricultural pursuits in Warren county, New Jersey until his death. His son William likewise gave his allegiance throughout his active career to the great basic industry of agriculture, and his entire life was passed in Warren county, where, like his father, he was an honored and influential citizen of sterling character. He married Margatet McMurtrie, who was born in Warren county, in 1779, and who was a daughter of Captain John McMurtrie, a valiant soldier and officer of the Continental line in the war of the Revolution. Captain McMurtrie served as first judge of the court of Sussex county, New Jersey, after the close of the war and was a prominent figure in the public affairs of his section of the state. Mrs. Margaret (McMurtrie) Cooke continued to reside in her native county until she was summoned to eternal rest.

Page  685 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 685 Joseph Cooke, son of William and Margaret (McMurtrie) Cooke and father of him whose name initiates this sketch, gained his early educational training in the common schools of his native state and as a youth he entered upon an apprenticeship to the printing trade, at Belvidere, New Jersey. A year later he went to Newton, that state, and he completed his apprenticeship in the office of the Sussex Register. He had strong native powers and became a man of broad intellectuality. After the completion of his apprenticeship in connection with the "art preservative of all arts" he was engaged in teaching school for a time, and he also served as a county official of his native county. In 1848 he removed to Washington, Pennsylvania, where he became associated with Seth T. Hurd in the editing and publishing of the Washington Commonwealth. He continued as one of the publishers of this paper until 1853, when he purchased a printing plant at Waynesburg, Pennsylvania, where he continued editor and publisher of the Waynesburg Eagle, a Whig paper, until 1857, after which he retired from active business. When the dark cloud of civil war cast its gruesome pall over the national horizon Joseph Cooke ardently espoused the cause of the Union, and in 1862 he enlisted with the rank of Commissary Sergeant, in Company A, Eighteenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry, with which he proceeded to the front. He participated in the various battles, marches and campaigns in which his command was involved and was finally captured by the enemy, after which he was held in duress in various southern prisons, including Andersonville prison, in which odious place he was confined for a period of six months. At the time of his capture his weight was two hundred and twenty-five pounds, and when he was released he weighed only ninety-six pounds, a fact that indicates the severity of the hardships and privations he had to endure in the southern prison pens. Wasted in health, he received his honorable discharge soon after his release and he forthwith returned to his home in Waynesburg, Pennsylvania. Soon after his return to that place he was appointed postmaster, and of this office he continued incumbent about twenty-one years. He continued to reside in Waynesburg until his death, in 1890, and his funeral was held on his seventy-ninth birthday. He held a commission of Governor Curtin of Pennsylvania, as Colonel of the State Militia, during Curtin's administration as governor. Sarah Ann (Bowman) Cooke, wife of Colonel Joseph Cooke, was a daughter of Jesse and Sarah (Aten) Bowman, and, as already stated, she was a native of Mifflinville, Pennsylvania. Her Vol. II-12

Page  686 686 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY father was born at Mount Bethel, Northampton county, that state, on the 10th of June, 1769, and his marriage to Sarah Aten was solemnized in 1795. He was a son of Christopher Bowman (or Baumann, as the name was originally spelled), and the latter was born near Ems, Germany, whence he came to America in 1754. He first settled in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, where he remained for a number of years, and he then removed to Northampton county and settled on the banks of the Delaware river, where he maintained his home until late in life, when he removed to Briar Creek township, Columbia county, where he passed the residue of his life. He married Susan Banks, who was of English and Scotch lineage and who was a member of one of the sterling pioneer families of the old Keystone state. Jesse Bowman devoted his active life to agricultural pursuits and he was one of the representative farmers in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, where he died at an advanced age. His daughter, Sarah A., who became the wife of Colonel Joseph Cooke, died at the home of her daughter, Mary A. (Cooke) Bradley, in Cleveland, Ohio, on the 6th of December, 1901, at the venerable age of eighty-five years. Of her five children, the subject of this sketch is the eldest; Mary became the wife of Charles R. Bradley, about 1865. He was a musician in Company I, Eighth Pennsylvania Reserves, and died about 1885; she resides with a daughter, Mabel, at Cleveland, Ohio; Henry, at sixteen years, enlisted in 1862, was corporal in Company A, Eighteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, and was killed at the battle of Opequan, near Winchester, Virginia, under General Sheridan, September 19, 1864; Winfield S. was born in 1848, enlisted in Company I, One Hundred and Ninety-third Pennsylvania Infantry, on July 19, 1864. About 1870 he went to Salt Lake City, Utah, and later married there Laura Hunter, and with his family, consisting of two sons and one daughter, still resides there; he is engaged in mining interests and real estate; Arthur I. was born in 1853, married Arabella B. Adams in 1875, resides in Waynesburg, Pennsylvania; is president of two natural gas companies, and interested in farming and other business enterprises; family consists of one son and five daughters. George A. B. Cooke was seven years of age at the time of the family removal from New Jersey to Washington, Pennsylvania, and when but nine years of age he began to assist in the work of his father's printing and newspaper office, where he proved the consistency of the statement that the discipline of a newspaper office is equivalent to a liberal education. He familiarized him

Page  687 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 687 self with all details of the work of a country printing office and continued to be associated with his father's business until 1857, when he secured employment as compositor in the office of the Pittsburg Gazette, in the city of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. To amplify his knowledge of the printing business he served a virtual apprenticeship of two years in the well equipped job department of this paper, and he then returned to his home in Waynesburg. His patriotic fervor was on a parity with that of his honored father, and both tendered their services in defense of the Union about the same time. In August, 1862, George A. B. Cooke enlisted as a private in Company H, One Hundred and Twenty-third Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, with which he continued in active service until the expiration of his term of enlistment, and he was promoted from the ranks to the non-commissioned office of third sergeant. With the other members of his regiment he received his honorable discharge in May, 1863. He took part in the second battle of Bull Run and also in the sanguinary engagements at Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. It is worthy of note that his father became a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, in which he himself has been a prominent figure, as will be more definitely indicated in another paragraph. In November, 1863, Mr. Cooke took up his residence in Three Rivers, Michigan, where he has since maintained his home and where he has made for himself a place of prominence and influence in civic and business affairs. In November of the year mentioned, he assumed the position of foreman in the office of the Three Rivers Reporter, and he retained this incumbancy until 1868, when he purchased a half interest in the business, in which he was thereafter associated with Wilbur H. Clute until January, 1876, when he retired from the firm. While connected with the Reporter he introduced the first rotary job printing press into Three Rivers. He passed the greatest part of the following year in the east, and upon his return to Three Rivers he established a job printing office, to which he gave his attention until August, 1878, when, in connection therewith, he founded the Three Rivers Tribune, introducing therewith the first steam power printing press ever brought into the city-a four-roller Campbell "Complete" press. He continued editor and publisher until 1895, when he disposed of the plant and business. Since that time he has lived virtually retired. He made of the Tribune one of the model country papers of Michigan, both in the matter of letter-press and news and editorial functions. The aggressive policy and enterprising methods

Page  688 688 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY of Mr. Cooke were shown not only in connection with the specific business affairs of his newspaper and job office, but also in the advanced stand maintained in the furtherance of all measures tending to further the best interests of the community and the able and effective influence given in support of the principles and policies of the Republican party, to which he has ever given an unqualified allegiance. In 1890 Mr. Cooke was appointed postmaster of Three Rivers, and he continued incumbent of this office for four years, under the administration of President Harrison. He retired after the election of Grover Cleveland to the presidency and had no hesitation in admitting himself to be an "offensive partisan. " Mr. Cooke has at all times been zealous and unselfish in his civic attitude and through the columns of his paper as well as through personal influence he has done much to forward the commercial and social progress of his home city and county. He is a man of well fortified opinions and has never lacked in the courage to uphold his convictions, but his genial and kindly nature has made him tolerant of the views of others, so that his antagonisms have not created objective rancor. He is known and respected by the people of St. Joseph county and now, free from the exactions of active business, he finds the full and gracious measure of solace and enjoyment in the indulgence of much and well directed reading and the companionship of friends who are tried and true. He served for a number of years as a member of the board of education, was a member of the village council about four years, prior to the incorporation of Three Rivers under a city charter, and he was the first secretary of the public-library board of Three Rivers. He is one of the appreciative and valued members of Ed. M. Prutzman Post, No. 72, Grand Army of the Republic, and served several terms as adjutant and two terms as its commander. In 1909-10 he was aide-de-camp on the staff of Commander-in-chief of the G. A. R., Samuel R. Van Sant, of Minnesota. Mr. Cooke's wife is a communicant of the First Methodist Episcopal church of Three Rivers and he is a member of the society and of the board of trustees of the church. He was a member of the directorate of the old Three Rivers National Bank, and also a stockholder and director of the First National Bank of this city. On the 23d of February, 1870, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Cooke to Miss Sarah M. Rice, who was born in Trucksville, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, on the 7th of November, 1840, and who is a daughter of Rev. John P. and Sally Ann (Kunkle) Rice,

Page  689 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 689 the former of whom was born on a farm near Hope, Warren county, New Jersey, and the latter near Blairstown, that state, a daughter of Philip and Maria Kunkle. Rev. John P. Rice was a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal church, as was also his father, Rev. Jacob Rice, who likewise was a native of Warren county, New Jersey, and a son of Christopher Rice. The latter was born in Hesse, Germany, in 1757, and was an only son. At the age of nineteen he emigrated to this country with a band of Hessian soldiers to assist the British forces in the Revolutionary war, but after the battle of Trenton, New Jersey, he deserted and joined the American forces and became a stanch supporter of the colonies. After the close of the war he settled near Hope, Warren county, New Jersey, where he was thereafter engaged in farming until his death. His son Jacob removed thence to Trucksville, Pennsylvania, in the vicinity of which place he became the owner of a large farm. He married Sarah Cooke, a daughter of Levi Cooke, who was a brother of Consider Cooke, paternal great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch, so that Mr. Cooke and his wife are of distant kinship in a collateral line. Rev. Jacob Rice and his wife continued to reside in Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, until their death. Their son John P., father of Mrs. Cooke, was a substantial agriculturist and business man of that county, where he operated a woolen mill and conducted a general store. He was a prominent and influential citizen, was a local preacher in the Methodist church, as already stated, and late in life he sold all of his farm land and business property and lived retired, at Hunlock Creek, Luzerne county, until his death, at the age of eightyone years. His wife died at the age of fifty-eight years, and of their children two sons and one daughter are now living. Mr. and Mrs. Cooke have one daughter, Florence, who is the wife of Victor H. Van Horn, a representative business man of Three Rivers. Mr. and Mrs. Van Horn have three children: Robert C., Bernard S. and George W. CAPT. CHARLES P. WHEELER.-Residing in the city of Three iRivers and giving his attention principally to the management of the affairs of the large landed estate of the family in Flowerfield township, Captain Wheeler is a native son of St. Joseph county and is a scion of one of its honored pioneer families, of which he is a representative of the third generation in the county, with whose history the name has been identified for three-quarters of a century. Within this period this section of the Wolverine state

Page  690 690 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY has been developed from the status of little more than a forest wilderness into one of the most opulent and progressive districts of the Michigan commonwealth. The captain maintains his home in Three Rivers save during the winter seasons, which he customarily passes in the state of California. Capt. Charles Partridge Wheeler, who receives his military title from gallant service as an officer in the Spanish-American war, was born in Three Rivers, Michigan, on the 21st of August, 1866, and is a son of William E. and Orissa (Partridge) Wheeler, both of whom were born and reared in the state of New York, where their marriage was solemnized. The first representative of the Wheeler family in St. Joseph county was Daniel Wheeler, grandfather of him whose name initiates this sketch. This honored ancestor, who was of stanch English lineage, was likewise a native of the state of New York and was a member of a family that was founded in New England in the colonial epoch of our national history. He was a successful merchant in his native state, whence he came to Michigan in 1835, about two years prior to the admission of the state to the Union. In Flowerfield township, St. Joseph county, he secured by entry and purchased a tract of fourteen hundred acres of wild land, a considerable portion of which is still retained in the family possession, now constituting a most valuable property. Daniel Wheeler did not personally establish his home in Michigan, but soon returned to New York state, where he died in the prime of life. William E. Wheeler, father of the captain, was a man of broad mental ken and marked business sagacity, and he did much to further the industrial and civic upbuilding of Three Rivers and St. Joseph county. In 1859 he came to Three Rivers, which was then a mere village in the midst of the forests surrounding, and here he became one of the pioneer merchants of the county, the while he assumed the supervision of the reclamation of the large tract of land previously secured by his father, in Flowerfield township. He continued in the mercantile business for a period of fully twenty years and he gained precedence as one of the representative business men and influential citizens of the county. He was a stanch advocate of the principles and policies of the Democratic party and was zealous in the support of its cause. He gave his aid and influence in support of all measures and enterprises projected for the general good of the community, and was known as a broad-minded, liberal and progressive citizen, as well as a man of insuperable integrity and honor. He was one of the or

Page  691 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 691 ganizers of the Three Rivers National Bank and served for a time as its cashier. He was an appreciative member of the timehonored Masonic fraternity and his religious faith was that of the Episcopal church, of which his widow also is a devoted member. He ordered his life to goodly ends, so that there is all of justice and consistency in the high honor accorded to his memory in the city and county that so long represented his home. He died in Three Rivers, on the 18th of January, 1881. His widow now maintains her home in Los Angeles, California, and is venerable in years. She was a gracious figure in the social life of Three Rivers for many years, and here her circle of devoted friends is limited only by that of her acquaintances. She was born at Seneca Falls, Seneca county, New York, and is a daughter of Erastus and Sarah (Bruffu) Partridge. Her father was born at Norwich, Connecticut, on the 9th of May, 1798, and as a young man he removed to the state of New York and engaged in the mercantile business at Cayuga. In 1824 he established a branch store at Seneca Falls, and eventually he transferred his entire business to the latter place, where he met with great success in his various operations. In 1848 he engaged in the banking business, and in 1859 he established the Bank of Seneca Falls. During the disastrous financial panic in 1857 his was one of only three or four banks in the state that met all obligations. Soon after the institution of the national-bank system he secured a charter for his bank, as the First National Bank of Seneca Falls, and he continued as president of the institution until his death. He was without doubt the most influential citizen of Seneca Falls, where he gave his support to all worthy causes and was a large stockholder in most of the leading industrial concerns. In 1820 was solemnized his marriage to Miss Sarah Bruffu, a daughter of William and Ann Bruffu. She was born at Homer, New York, in 1797, and her death occurred on the 5th of February, 1881, her husband having been summoned to the life eternal on the 20th of January, 1873. William E. and Orissa (Partridge) Wheeler became the parents of one son and four daughters, and two of the daughters died in childhood. Jessie is the widow of James W. Morgan, of Los Angeles, California; and Laura E. is the widow of Renick C. Carson, of Los Angeles, California. The only son is the immediate subject of this sketch. Capt. Charles P. Wheeler is indebted to the public schools of Three Rivers for his early educational discipline, which was supplemented by a course in the Michigan Military Academy, at Or

Page  692 692 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY chard Lake, long one of the splendid educational institutions of the state and one whose closing, only a short time ago, was a source of unqualified regret to its many alumni, as well as to the people of the state in general. In this academy Captain Wheeler was graduated as a member of the class of 1884, and thereafter he continued his studies for two years in the literary department of the University of Michigan. In 1889 he became associated with his brother-in-law, James W. Morgan, in the banking business at Bellingham, Washington, where he was thus engaged for a period of seven years. Upon his retirement, in 1893, he went to California, and there he remained until 1896, when he returned to Three Rivers, where he has since maintained his home. Captain Wheeler's thorough military training at Orchard Lake has begotten an abiding interest in military affairs, and that he has not held himself aloof from definite polemic service is shown in the fact that at the inception of the war with Spain, in 1898, he promptly enlisted as a member of Company K, Thirtythird Michigan Volunteer Infantry. This regiment was mustered into the United States service on the 20th of May, 1898, and Captain Wheeler forthwith received his commission as captain of Company K. The regiment was commanded by Colonel Charles L. Boynton, of Port Huron, and it started for Camp Alger, Virginia, on the 28th of May. The regiment participated in the expedition, under General Shafter, against Santiago, and bore its full share of the dangers and hardships of that expedition, in which Captain Wheeler proved a most gallant commanding officer, retaining the unqualified confidence and regard of his men as well as of his superior officers. The regiment continued in active service until the close of the war and was mustered out at Three Rivers, on the 4th of January, 1899. Captain Wheeler manifests his continued interests in his comrades by retaining membership in the Spanish War Veterans Association. In politics Captain Wheeler is arrayed as a stalwart supporter of the cause of the Republican party, and while he has given effective service in behalf of the party he has only once appeared as a candidate for public office. In 1901 he was elected representative from St. Joseph county to the state legislature, in which he served the regular term of two years and made an excellent record. His election to this office was the more gratifying by reason of the fact that he was candidate on the ticket of a party that was normally much in the minority in the county, showing that his friends in the opposition party rallied to his support at

Page  693 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 693 the polls. He is affiliated with the Three Rivers organizations of the Knights of Pythias and Modern Woodmen of America, and while a student in the military academy at Ann Arbor he held membership in the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity. He is well known in his native county and his personal popularity here is of the most unequivocal type, as his genial and buoyant nature and unvarying courtesy have gained him stanch friends in all classes. On the 1st of June, 1899, Captain Wheeler was united in marriage to Miss Cora Drusilla Sager, who was born in Pavilion township, Kalamazoo county, Michigan, and is a representative of one of the honored pioneer families of that county. Her father, Joseph Sager, was likewise born in Pavilion township, on the 21st of April, 1845, and is a son of John Sager, who was a native of Ohio, whence he came to Michigan and settled in Kalamazoo county in the early pioneer epoch. He erected a water-power saw mill in Pavilion township and in addition to operating the same he supervised the clearing of his land. He became one of the prosperous pioneer farmers and business men of that township, where he continued to reside until his death. The maiden name of his wife was Ann Carney, and she was born in September, 1820. At the time of this writing, in 1910, she still resides at Pavilion, and September of this year celebrated her ninetieth birthday, thus being practically the oldest pioneer now resident of Kalamazoo county. Joseph Sager continued to assist his father in the operation of the mill and farm until his marriage, and he then came to St. Joseph county and purchased a farm in Flowerfield township, where he continued to reside until 1898, since which time he has maintained his home in Three Rivers, where he is living retired, after many years of earnest and productive endeavor which placed him among the most extensive farmers of the county, even as he is one of its well known and sterling citizens. His wife, whose maiden name was Catherine Imogene Bartlett, was born at Gilboa, Schoharie county, New York, in 1850, and is a daughter of George and Harriet (Bouten) Bartlett, likewise natives of the old Empire state, whence they came to St. Joseph county and located in Flowerfield township fully a half-century ago. Mr. Bartlett followed his trade of wagonmaker, in connection with farming, and continued his residence in Flowerfield township until his death, in 1897. His wife passed to the life eternal in 1888, and they are survived by one son and one daughter. Captain and Mrs. Wheeler have no children.

Page  694 694 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY SAMUEL ARROWSMITH WALTON, a retired business man of Three Rivers, was born near Chillicothe, Ross county, Ohio, November 17, 1826, and is a son of John Walton, who was a native of New Jersey, and came to Ohio about 1819, locating in Ross county, where he worked at his trade of cooper and also conducted a farm. In 1834 Mr. Walton removed to Crawford county, and later to Wyandot county, Ohio, where he died in 1835, a young man of thirty-eight years. John Walton married Casander Ritter, a native of Kentucky, who died at about the age of fifty-two years. Of their nine children six grew to maturity, four sons and two daughters, of whom Samuel A. is now the only survivor. The boyhood of Mr. Walton was spent in Wyandot county, Ohio, and in 1850 he removed to McLean county, Illinois, traveling on horseback. He purchased one hundred and sixty acres of prairie land for one hundred and forty dollars, which he improved. June 2, 1851, in Colon, Michigan, he married Mary A. Bissell, a native of Pennsylvania, and they returned to the home in Illinois with a wagon, camping out by the way. They remained on this farm six years after marriage, adding eighty acres of prairie and twenty acres of timber; they then sold out and removed to Three Rivers, Michigan, arriving there in the spring of 1857. He at once purchased a store building and engaged in mercantile business, which he followed about seventeen years, with good success. Mr. Walton assisted in organizing the First National Bank of Three Rivers, in 1864; he served twenty-five years as director, also some years as vice president and president. In 1903 Mr. Walton sold his stock in the bank and has since been retired from active business. He owns considerable real estate, and is a selfmade man, having acquired his property and success through his own enterprise and ambition. Mr. Walton has traveled extensively, having been in every state of the Union except five, and in 1894 he took a trip to Europe, traveling through England, Ireland, Scotland, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy and France. He spent three weeks in London, also some time in Rome and Paris. Mrs. Walton, who was born in 1828, died in 1884, leaving four children, namely: Myron K., Marion I., May E. and Sherman G. Mr. Walton married (second) in 1886, Jennie Wheeler, who was born in Michigan, in 1858. Mr. Walton is a stanch supporter of the Republican party and has served as a member of the school board and as a member of the City Council. Mr. Walton has been a resident of Three Riv

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Page  697 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 697 ers for a period of fifty-three years, and has been identified with the progress and development of the city. He has lived in one house forty-two years. He has given liberally to every worthy object and has assisted in building every church in the city. Mr. Walton gave $3,500 to the Methodist Episcopal church, and has attended the same church for a period of forty-two years. He is well known throughout the county, where he is universally respected and esteemed. CHARLES L. BLOOD.-A strong and noble character was that of the late Charles Lyman Blood, who exerted an emphatic and beneficent influence in connection with civic, business and financial affairs in St. Joseph county during the long period of nearly half a century, and who ever commanded secure vantage ground in the confidence and esteem of all who knew him. He gained success through his individual ability and application, ever standing exemplar of that integrity of purpose which figures as the plumb of character and makes 'for objective valuation in connection with the varied relations of life. He was a financier of marked discrimination and conservatism and was long and prominently identified with the affairs of the First National Bank of Three Rivers, of which institution he served in turn as cashier and president, and his aid and influence were ever accorded in support of all measures and enterprises that tended to advance the material and social well-being of the community. His strength was as the number of his days and he was summoned from this mortal life in the fulness of years and honors, his death occurring at his home, in the city of Three Rivers, on the 3d of July, 1907, at the venerable age of seventy-nine years, eleven months and eight days. Charles Lyman Blood was born at Westminster, Windham county, Vermont, on the 25th of August, 1827, and was a son of Ivory and Susan (Lindsay) Blood, the former of whom was born in Pepperell, Middlesex county, Massachusetts, and the latter was a native of Jamaica, Windham county, Vermont. The father devoted his entire active career to agricultural pursuits and passed the closing years of his life at Cavendish, Vermont, as did also his cherished and devoted wife. He was a man of strong mentality and sterling integrity, and his political allegiance was given to the Whig party. The subject of this memoir was reared to the sturdy discipline of the New England farm, and he waxed strong in mind and body through hard manual labor and through availing himself of such educational advantages as were afforded

Page  698 698 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY in the common schools of the locality and period. Like many another youth reared under similar conditions, he initiated his independent career with no financial reinforcement, but his equipment of energy, ambition and integrity of purpose proved adequate, as is shown by the fact that he won large and definite success through his own well directed efforts, the while he gained and retained the inviolable confidence and regard of those with whom he came in contact during the passing years. Honesty of purpose and honesty of character indicated the man during the entire course of his active and useful career as one of the world's noble army of productive workers, and upon the history of his life there rests no shadow of wrong or injustice. He was thirtyone years of age at the time of his marriage, in 1858, and before the close of that year he set forth with his bride for Michigan, which was then considered by residents of New England as being in the "far west." He made Kalamazoo county his destination and located in the village of Schoolcraft, where he entered into partnership with other men and engaged in the general merchandise business, in which he continued for seven years, at the expiration of which the partnership was dissolved and he removed to Three Rivers, which place ever afterward represented his home and the scene of his earnest and productive endeavors. Here he established his home in 1864, at which time he became cashier of the old First National Bank, an incumbency which he retained for nineteen years, after which he served for thirteen consecutive years as president of the institution, to whose upbuilding as one of the strong and popular banking houses of the state he contributed in large measure, through his executive ability and through the prestige of his sterling character. He retired from the presidency only when impaired health demanded this action. He was essentially careful and conservative in all of his business transactions and associations, and this fact made him a strong power in connection with financial and commercial affairs in this section of the state. He was a man of distinct individuality, strong in his convictions but not intolerant, always firm in the right but with no room in his heart for revenge. Compassion and pity dwelt with him as constant guests; flattery could not cajole him into compromise nor power awe him into silence. True to himself and his ideals, he was brave in defense of principle, yet gentle and forbearing in his judgment of his fellow men, who were thus prompted to admiration, respect and friendship.

Page  699 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 699 It was but natural that a man of so broad mental ken and so marked business acumen should show a loyal and helpful interest in public affairs, especially those of a local order, and he was ever to be relied upon for the supporting of all measures projected for the general good of the community, the while the interests of his home city ever lay close to his heart. He identified himself with the Republican party at the time of its organization, having cast his first vote for this party's first candidate for the presidency, General John C. Fremont, and ever afterward having given a stanch allegiance to its cause, though he had naught of ambition for public office in a personal sense. Loyalty was an intrinsic element of his character, and this showed forth in his home life, in his business associations and in his intercourse with his fellow men. His kindly and generous nature had naught of ostentation and he respected every man that was worthy of respect, no matter what his station in life. An appreciative estimate of his character and services was written by one of his tried and valued friends at the time of his death and was published in a local paper. The article is worthy of perpetuation and is therefore reproduced in this memoir, with but slight change in phraseology. "It is certainly well for the younger people to realize their indebtedness to those who have gone before, those who have through many years, furthered the interests of our beautiful city, solved its problems and struggled for its prosperity. Such services, such men are too soon forgotten. One has recently passed away, and it is with the hope of perpetuating a little longer the memory and deeds of Charles L. Blood that these lines are written. "Born and reared in the old Green Mountain state, Mr. Blood's character partook of the granite quality of those hills, and, like them, it was not stern and bare, but clothed upon with a foliage of attractive and genial traits. He came to Michigan in 1858, and located in Schoolcraft, where, as a merchant, he established a reputation for ability and integrity, which made him known in the region around. When the old First National Bank of Three Rivers was organized, by men whose stanchness and honor were from the first a. guaranty of its success, these men looked for one of like qualities and possessing the business abilities to be the power behind the throne. They found him in Mr. Blood, and installed him as cashier and real manager of the institution, which grew and prospered until its name became a synonym for absolute integrity and financial stability. In 1884

Page  700 700 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Mr. Blood was made president of the bank, and he ably and honorably filled this position until 1896, when failing health warned him that he must have relief from the arduous duties of the office. "Mr. Blood loved the town in which he had made his home, rejoiced in its beauty, growth and prosperity, to all of which his interest, counsel and money were given without stint. He was ever the friend of those who needed help or advice, and many a lowly one would gladly have laid a flower of grateful remembrance on his bier when he died. The memory of his pleasing social qualities is yet fresh in the minds of those of us who remain and who have found loyalty to friends a marked characteristic of the man. His genial humor and ready wit made him always a delightful companion, whether in his own attractive home or in the homes of neighbors and friends. While shrinking from publicity of speech, who can forget his rare gift as a narrator of stories, which were always as clean and pure as the streams of his native state. The precincts of the home, where he was the model husband and father, are too sacred to be invaded here. And Mr. Blood loved the church of his adoption in Three Rivers. He was a constant attendant, a reverent worshiper and a liberal contributor to the old First Presbyterian church. Though not a member, such was the strength of his support and such his appreciation of the work that one of the pastors said of him, with deep feeling and real affection: 'Very near the kingdom.' During the long weeks of enforced silence preceding his demise, as he approached the bound of life, his courage, his patience and his gentleness showed that he found the kingdom of God within him. The beautiful verses suggested by the passage, 'He giveth his beloved sleep,' were sigfinicantly read by Dr. Skinner at the brief funeral service. On these Mr. Blood had pondered long, until he came to feel them as the expression of his faith in a loving Father's thought toward himself." On the 9th of May, 1858, at Cavendish, Vermont, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Blood to Miss Mary E. Ely, who survives him, as do also their two children, and who still resides in the beautiful old homestead, in Three Rivers, a home endeared to her by the gracious memories and associations of the past. Mrs. Blood was born in Rockingham, Windham county, Vermont, on the 27th of May, 1834, and was the fifth in order of birth of the six children-four sons and two daughters-of Rev. Richard M. and Lora (Skinner) Ely. Of the children she is now the only

Page  701 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 701 survivor. Her eldest brother, Dr. James W. Ely, was graduated from Brown University and was for sixty years engaged in the practice of his profession, having long been one of the leading physicians and surgeons of the city of Providence, Rhode Island, where his death occurred. Rev. Richard M. Ely was born in Windsor, Vermont, on the 10th of February, 1795, and his death occurred on the 10th of June, 1861. He traced his lineage back to stanch English stock, and the family was founded in New England in the colonial days. He was a clergyman of the Baptist church and his entire ministerial service was in his native state. He erected two churches and also served as pastor of a church at Rockingham, Vermont, whose edifice, still an historic landmark, was erected in 1760. Mr. Ely was a man of fine intellectual powers and his life was one of signal consecration to the work of the divine Master and to the aiding and uplifting of his fellow men. In politics he was originally an old-line Whig, but he gave his support to the cause of the Republican party from the time of its organization until his death, which occurred only a short time after the inception of the Civil war. He was a stanch abolitionist and temperance advocate, and his abiding Christian faith was shown in his daily life. He was an appreciative member of the Masonic fraternity and a close student of its noble teachings. Both he and his wife were laid to rest in the cemetery at Cavendish, Vermont, where a beautiful monument marks their resting place. Mrs. Lora (Skinner) Ely, mother of Mrs. Blood, was born at Pomfret, Vermont, on the 16th of June, 1796, and she was summoned to the life eternal on the 20th of October, 1881. She was a woman of excellent education and of distinctively gracious personality, thus proving a true companion and helpmeet to her husband and a valuable assistant in connection with his ministerial labors. Her father, Benjamin Skinner, was an ardent and loyal soldier of the Continental line in the war of the Revolution, having served as piper for his command at the battle of Bunker Hill, and having also been present at the surrender of General Burgoyne. He was born in Connecticut, in 1754, and died in 1813. Mrs. Blood was reared and educated in the old Green Mountain state, where she was afforded the advantages of Black River Academy, at Ludlow. Her marriage to Mr. Blood was solemnized at Cavendish, Vermont, and the two children of this union, whose associations were ever of ideal order, are Charles Herbert and Lora Isabel. Charles H. Blood was graduated in the Three Rivers

Page  702 702 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY high school, served six years as cashier of the First National Bank and also bookkeeper for seven years, and is now one of the representative business men of this city, where he has the management of the estate left by his honored father. He is a Republican in politics and, like his sister, is a member of the Presbyterian church. He was born in Schoolcraft, Kalamazoo county, on the 9th of August, 1862. Miss Lora Isabel Blood remains with her widowed mother and is a popular factor in connection with the leading social activities of Three Rivers. After graduation in the local high school she entered Mount Holyoke Seminary, in the city of Kalamazoo, in which institution she was duly graduated. She is justly proud of her ancestral history, particularly in that it so closely touches the war of the Revolution, and she has secured her fourth bar in her Revolutionary lineage, as four of her ancestors were soldiers in the great struggle for independence. She has been a teacher in the Sunday school of the First Presbyterian church for fully a decade, has served as president and secretary of the Three Rivers Women's Club. of which both she and her mother are charter members, and is at the present time (1910) secretary of the Abiel Fellows Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, in her home city. In their beautiful home Mrs. Blood and her daughter have a number of interesting heirlooms, including a powder-horn carried by Moses Blood, great-grandfather of the subject of this memoir, in the war of the Revolution. This horn bears the following inscription: "Moses Blood-his horn1742." Other prized relics in the home are an old-time mirror, which was the property of Mrs. Blood's mother and which is fully seventy-five years old; and a double woven coverlet, which was woven by Mr. Blood's maternal grandmother, Mrs. Annie Reed, fully three-fourths of a century ago. The Blood residence has long been recognized as a center of gracious hospitality and is a favored rendezvous for a wide circle of friends. ROBERT ROMEIG.-Noteworthy among the well-known and highly respected citizens of St. Joseph county is Robert Romeig, who is now living retired from active pursuits in the village of Moore Park. He is a self-made man in every sense implied by the term, his success in life being due to his own efforts. Beginning his active career poor in pocket, but rich in energy and ambition, he labored with sturdy industry, toiling onward and upward, rising by slow degrees from a state of comparative poverty to a condition of affluence and influence. A native of Pennsylvania,

Page  703 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 703 he was born, October 18, 1844, in Snyder county, which was also the birthplace of his father, John Romeig, Jr. His grandfather, John Romeig, Sr., was born in Pennsylvania, and as a child removed with his parents to Snyder county when it was included within the limits of Union county, going there from the eastern part of the state, crossing the mountains with teams. John Romeig, Sr., was a small lad when his parents moved to Union county, and as soon as strong enough to wield an axe he began to assist in the pioneer labor of redeeming a homestead from the wilderness. When ready to begin the battle of life for himself he embarked in agricultural pursuits, and in addition to farming, operated a grist mill and a saw mill. He accumulated considerable property for his times, at one time owning two farms, on each of which he built a stone house. He lived to a good old age, he and his wife, whose maiden name was Rebecca Try, spending their last days on the homestead, in Snyder county. John Romeig, Jr., grew to manhood in Snyder county, Pennsylvania, and, following in the footsteps of his ancestors, became a farmer, owning two hundred acres of land in his native county, and there-being employed as a husbandman until 1866. Migrating then with his family to Michigan, he spent two years in Kalamazoo county, and then came to St. Joseph county. He purchased two hundred and nineteen and one-half acres of land in Park township, and was here engaged in agricultural pursuits until his death, at the age of sixty-four years. He married Elizabeth Wyand, who was born in Snyder county, Pennsylvania, where her father, George Wyand, was a pioneer settler. She died at the age of sixty-five years, having borne her husband twelve children, ten of whom grew to years of maturity. Coming with the family to Michigan in 1866, Robert Romeig remained with his parents for two years, and then began life for himself, working as a farm laborer. Industrious and frugal, he saved his earnings, and when he had accumulated a sufficient sum to warrant him in so doing, bought eighty acres of land in Flowerfield township, on which a log barn and a house had been previously erected. With a resolute will, he began clearing the remainder of the land, and in course of time erected a substantial set of buildings. Selling out at an advantage, Mr. Romeig purchased one hundred acres in the same township, and was there actively engaged in general farming for seventeen years, meeting with undisputed success in his labors. He then rented that farm, moved to Moore Park, where he bought the village home which Vol. 11-13

Page  704 704 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY he now occupies, and has since been numbered among the useful and valued citizens of this place. He likewise bought a farm of one hundred acres adjoining the village, and this estate, too, he rents. Mr. Romeig married, in 1866, Rebecca Kline, who was born in Snyder county, Pennsylvania, where her paternal grandparents were pioneer settlers. Her father, John Kline, spent his entire life of seventy years in Snyder county. Her mother, whose maiden name was Lydia Feas, was also a life-long resident of that county, dying there at the age of fifty-five years. Mr. and Mrs. Romeig are the parents of five children, namely: Jack, Ellen, Reuben, Rosa and Frank. Jack married Mamie Northrup, and they have three children, Oscar, Harvey and Neva. Ellen, wife of William Griner, has three children, Maude G., Ray G., and Guy G. Reuben married Sophia Trickle, and they have four children, Verne, Hazel, Bertha and Willard. Rosa, wife of John Welty, has three children, Bessie, Myrtle and Blanche. Frank married Sadie Williams, and they have one child, Mildred. Politically Mr. Romeig is a stanch Republican. Religiously Mrs. Romeig is a member of the Reformed church. CHANDLER R. KINGSLEY, a representative farmer and Civil war veteran of Leonidas, has been justice of the peace for the past fourteen years and an honored resident of St. Joe county since 1866. In many other forms has civil preferment come to him as an unmistakable evidence of the esteem in which his abilities and virtues are held by his associates of the past and the present. As a supporter and vigorous promoter of the moral and religious activities of his community he has been second to none in his enthusiasm and persistency. A faithful and useful citizen, an advocate and a worker for the secret fraternities and the open charities, and a stanch Christian who has been bravely standing by his guns before even the days of the Civil war, Squire Kingsley is the right kind of man to claim as a friend and a citizen whom all delight to honor. Mr. Kingsley traces his American ancestry to John Kingsley, who came from England about 1635 and settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts. From 1648 until his death January 6, 1677, he resided in Rehoboth, that colony, where his first wife (name unknown) also passed away. He married his second wife (nee Mary Mowery) November 16, 1673, and of his six children Eldad was next in direct line of descent. The latter died in August, 1679,

Page  705 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 705 father also of six children. His son, John (II) was born May 6, 1665, married Sarah Sabins, of Rehoboth, July 1, 1686, and by her became the father of eight children. Of these, Jeremiah and Amos were twins, the former being the ancestor of Judge Kingsley. The mother died at Windham, Connecticut, March 9, 1709, and that town remained the family home until it was transplanted to Canaan, New York, and thence to the Western Reserve. Josiah, who spent his life in the Connecticut town, had ten children, of whom Jeremiah was the great-grandfather of Chandler R. Jeremiah, who was born in Windham April 3, 1738, married Hannah Libble January 9, 1757, and died nearly one hundred years of age. His wife passed away September 23, 1830, ninety-one years of age, mother of seven children. Frederick Kingsley, the grandfather, was born May 18, 1782, married Abigail Kellogg June 21, 1808, and a few years thereafter they moved to Canaan, New York, where the former died December 13, 1862, eighty-one years of age, his wife having preceded him April 20, 1835, when fiftyfive years old. Among their children were twins, Aaron K. and Mary, born at Canaan January 14, 1815, the former becoming the father of Justice Kingsley of this sketch. He was a life-long farmer, coming to Leonidas, Michigan, after the Civil war in company with his son, of this sketch. He was killed by falling from a scaffold July 12, 1888, aged more than seventy-three years. The deceased was stanch both as a Republican and as a member of the Congregational church at Leonidas. He first married Miss Cornelia 0. Tracy, on the 4th of November, 1840, and their only child was Chandler R., born at Canaan, New York, February 11, 1843. The mother died August 15, 1855, and in 1859 Mr. Kingsley married Miss Mary E. Lewis, his second wife dying childless, July 27, 1886. Chandler R. Kingsley received his education in the common schools of his New York home, spent several years of his youth and earliest manhood in the conflicts of the Civil war and returned to Canaan immediately after his honorable discharge, in the fall of 1865. In the autumn of the following year he located at Leonidas, and in 1867 purchased the farm which is still his homestead. In politics, he has known nothing but Republicanism, and in public life has held membership on the township board for ten years, besides serving his long term as justice of the peace. Ever since coming to Leonidas he has been one of the leading members of the Congregational church, of which he has been superintendent of the Sunday school and deacon for a number of years. He has also

Page  706 706 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY filled all the chairs in Blackman Lodge No. 117 of the I. O. O. F., and for some years has been an active member of the I. O. G. T. and the Leonidas Grange. On November 24, 1875, at Leonidas, the judge married Miss Lucy D. Clark, daughter of George G. and Nancy (Alexander) Clark, who had been an efficient teacher in the Constantine High School. The child by this marriage is now Dr. Aaron Floyd Kingsley. Chandler R. Kingsley took as his second wife Miss Effie G. Moore, whom he married March 6, 1889, and who bore him Lewis Verne Kingsley. There is no issue by his third marriage to Miss Alice B. Furlong, July 3, 1895. His present wife is a native of Toronto, Canada. NORMAN W. GARRISON.-To the larger and surer vision there is no such thing as luck. No man achieves anything worthy until he learns the power of conviction and, appreciative thereof, bends his energies to the accomplishing of a definite purpose. It has been within the province of the able and popular cashier of the First National Bank of Three Rivers to gain through his own efforts a place of security as one of the essentially representative business men of the county that has been his home from the time of his nativity, and that his course has been marked by invincible integrity of purpose needs no further voucher than that afforded by the unqualified confidence and esteem reposed in him in the community in which he is best known. The responsible office he holds in connection with one of the leading financial institutions of the county stands in significant evidence of his technical and administrative ability, and he is a recognized power in connection with the financial and business activities of his home city and county. Norman W. Garrison was born on the homestead farm of his father, in Fabius township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, and the date of his nativity was March 7, 1875. He is a son of Andrew Lewis Garrison and Louisa (Boles) Garrison, the former of whom was born in St. Joseph county, on the 27th of March, 1845, and the latter was also born in St. Joseph county, on the 27th of March, 1842, members of sterling pioneer families of this county. Andrew Lewis Garrison served three years during the Civil war as a member of Company H, Twenty-eighth Michigan Infantry, after the war living in Kalamazoo county until 1894, when he removed to the city of Three Rivers, where he is now living virtually retired. The mother of Norman W. Garrison died in 1876, the year following his birth, and thus he is the youngest of

Page  707 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 707 the three children. His only sister, Lucy, is now Mrs. M. Owtman, of Leonidas, Michigan, and the brother, Perry J., is engaged as machinist at Mt. Vernon, Illinois. Under the invigorating discipline of the home farm Norman W. Garrison grew to years of maturity, and in its work he early began to lend assistance, the while he availed himself of the advantages of the district school. After completing the curriculum of this rural institution he entered the high school in Three Rivers, in which he continued his studies for two years. Thereafter he completed an effective course in the Three Rivers Business College and fortified himself for the practical responsibilities of life. He began to depend largely upon his own resources when but fifteen years of age, and through his own efforts earned the money that enabled him to defray the expenses of his educational training after that period in his career. It is needless to say that a youth of such marked ambition, determination and self-reliance could not long remain in obscurity, and thus we find that in 1893, when eighteen years of age, Mr. Garrison secured a clerical position in the Three Rivers National Bank, with which institution he remained until December, 1895, when he secured a similar position in the offices of the First National Bank, with which he has since been identified and in which he has won promotion by faithful and effective service. In 1897 he was chosen assistant cashier and of this office he continued incumbent until August, 1900, when he was elected to the office of cashier, in which he has since given careful and able administration of the practical affairs of the institution. The First National Bank is recognized as one of the solid financial institutions of southern Michigan and its history has been one marked by conservative management, so that its reputation is on a parity with its unmistakable solidity. It has received the executive and capitalistic support of the representative business men and capitalists of the county and its hold upon popular confidence is of the most secure order. This bank dates its inception back to the year 1864 and it is incorporated with a capital stock of fifty thousand dollars. Its reserve fund and undivided profits have an aggregate of fully $12,000 at the time of this writing, 1910. Hon. Gardner Powell is president of the institution; Conrad Schaad is vice president; and Charles G. Cox is assistant cashier. Mr. Garrison is a stockholder in the bank and a member of its directorate. Thoroughly interested in everything that tends to conserve the social and civic progress of his native county, Mr. Garrison is public-spirited and liberal in his civic attitude. Though never a

Page  708 708 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY seeker of political office he is a stalwart in the local camp of the Republican party and in a fraternal way he is identified with the Knights of Pythias. On the 7th of June, 1905, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Garrison to Miss Marie Babcock, who was born and reared in Three Rivers and who is a daughter of Darius A. and Olive (Avery) Babcock, of this city, where her father is retired. Mr. and Mrs. Garrison have two children-Keith and Chandler. JOSEPH BROWN, of White Pigeon, is a native of England, born April 9, 1834, son of Charles and Elizabeth (Kempshell) Brown. Charles Brown died when his son was two years of age. The widow married again, and in 1845 the family emigrated to the United States, locating at White Pigeon, Michigan. When still a boy, Joseph Brown began working away from home, earning at first but a sixpence (twelve and one-half cents) per day; he was eleven years of age when the family located in White Pigeon, and soon after he began working on a farm at from six to ten dollars per month. By 1851 he had saved sufficient money to enable him to pay his passage to Panama, and from there worked his passage on a schooner to San Francisco, going from there into the mountains. He first worked at mining at a salary of one hundred dollars per month, and afterwards began mining on his own account, which he continued five years, thus being able to get enough money to start him in business. In 1856 Mr. Brown returned to White Pigeon, and feeling the disadvantages of his meager education began to attend school, though the most he learned was the rudiments of arithmetic, getting little farther than multiplication in this study. Soon after he embarked in the business of threshing, and lost the money he had made in the West. He then found it necessary to begin at the bottom, but kept his courage and ambition, and soon bettered his position, so that not long after he had become possessed of a comfortable fortune. After Mr. Brown's marriage to Catherine Dale, he purchased of the other heirs the whole Dale estate, consisting of four hundred and forty acres of good land, and he still owns three hundred acres, three-quarters of a mile northeast of White Pigeon. Mr. Brown now devoted his time to feeding and buying sheep and hogs, and he was at one time the largest shipper of sheep in the state. He and W. B. Conley were engaged in feeding lambs the last winter, which they shipped at a good profit in the spring.

Page  709 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 709 For twenty-eight years Mr. Brown was occupied with threshing, summer and winter. He has worked hard from childhood, and well deserves his present success and good fortune. He was the first president of the Farmers' Savings Bank, of White Pigeon, and is an influential and prominent citizen. He is enterprising and industrious, and was the first man in the community to use an engine instead of horse power for the work of threshing. In political principles Mr. Brown is a Democrat, though not a supporter of W. J. Bryan. Mr. Brown's wife died in 1890, and he married, August 29, 1896, Mrs. Thankful McBride, who was born March 10, 1841; they have no children. Mrs. Brown was reared on a farm, received her education in the district schools, and married (first) James McBride, who died in 1882. She has a comfortable fortune, and owns some property in White Pigeon. Mrs. Brown is a devout Christian, a member of the Baptist church, and lives in accordance with her beliefs, being a much esteemed, highly-respected, useful member of society. By his first marriage Mr. Brown had five daughters, namely: Mary, wife of H. M. Rouse; Anna, wife of Edward Craig, of Howe, Indiana; Allie, widow of Albert Dale, of Lansing, Michigan; and Virna and Helen, single, living in Benton Harbor, Michigan. In 1908 Mr. Brown made each of his daughters a holiday present of a check for one thousand dollars. FRED A. SPADE, D. V. M.-The professional interests of White Pigeon find a representative in Dr. Fred A. Spade, a veterinary surgeon. He was born in Steuben county, Indiana, September 8, 1878, a son of Cyrus W. and Sarah E. (Arnold) Spade. Cyrus W., the father, was born in Springfield county, Ohio, and is now a retired farmer living in Steuben county, Indiana. Dr. Spade was reared as a farmer's son, receiving in his early life a district school education, and entering the Grand Rapids Veterinary College in 1905 he graduated with the class of 1907, and with the degree of D. V. M. Locating in the same year in White Pigeon, he took up the work that he had laid aside to enter college, for he had previously practiced in this city, and his well known ability in his profession has won for him a large patronage. He deserves great credit for the success he has achieved, for he has been distinctively the architect of his own fortunes. He is a member of the Wolverine Veterinary Associa

Page  710 710 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY tion and of the State Veterinary Association, and stands high in the profession. Dr. Spade married on April 13, 1897, Miss Margaret E. Immel, born in Stark county, Ohio, September 13, 1879, and educated in the common schools. They have three children: Oral, born July 4, 1898; Pauline, born January 4, 1899; and Wayne M., born September 11, 1908. The doctor is a member of White Pigeon Lodge No. 104, F. & A. M., and in politics he is allied with the Republicans. Both he and his wife are members of the Eastern Star, White Pigeon Lodge, No. 317. THOMAS G. GREENE, one of the well known and highly honored citizens of St. Joseph county, where he formerly served as county recorder of deeds, is a scion of a family whose name has been identified with the annals of the state of Michigan for nearly sixty years, and one that was founded in America in the early colonial epoch, as is evident when we state that Christopher Greene, grandfather of the subject of this review, was a second cousin of General Nathaniel Greene, who was a distinguished figure in the war of the Revolution. In Cumberland township, Providence county, Rhode Island, Thomas G. Greene was born on the 2d of July, 1834, and is the eldest of a family of two sons and two daughters, born to William W. and Jane A. (Gray) Greene. Of the children only two are now living,-Thomas G. and Martha J., the latter of whom is the wife of Samuel Gibson, who is engaged in the banking business at Constantine and who is individually mentioned on other pages of this work. William W. Greene was born at Greenwich, Rhode Island, on the 20th of July, 1806, and he passed the closing days of his long and useful life in Cass county, Michigan, where he died at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Lillie Sooy, in January, 1892, at the venerable age of nearly eighty-six years. In his earlier life he was a sailor on the high seas, and in this connection he circumnavigated the globe, having visited many of the foreign ports and having on one occasion been becalmed for three months on the west coast of Africa. He was a man of strong mentality and of sterling character, and he ever commanded a secure place in the confidence and esteem of his fellow men. In 1840 he removed with his family to Ohio and located in Dover township, Cuyahoga county, near the city of Cleveland. There he purchased a small farm, upon which he continued to reside until about the year 1852, when he came to Michigan and bought a tract of land

Page  711 THOMAS G. GREENE

Page  712 0 I

Page  713 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 713 near Millburg, Benton township, Berrien county, where he continned to reside until 1872, when he sold the property and purchased another farm, in the vicinity of Bangor, Van Buren county. There he remained until 1884, after which year he resided in the home of his daughter, Mrs. Lillie Sooy, in Cass county, this state, until he was summoned to the life eternal. After the death of his first wife, he married Miss Betsey Taylor, who likewise preceded him to eternal rest and who is survived by one daughter, Lillie, the wife of Henry Sooy, a prosperous agriculturist in the state of Oklahoma. William W. Greene was a stanch Abolitionist, he being an implacable adversary of the institution of human slavery, and he united with the Republican party at the time of its organization. He was an ardent admirer of Lincoln and gave every possible support to the cause of the Union during the climacteric period of the Civil war. While a resident of his native state he held membership in the old Roger Williams church, an historic institution of Rhode Island. His devotion to principle was of the most impregnable order and he exemplified in all the relations of life the cardinal virtues of integrity and personal honor. His first wife, mother of the subject of this review, was a woman of singularly gentle and gracious character and endeared herself to all who came within the sphere of her influence. She was generous and kindly and the poor and needy ever found in her a sincere and helpful friend. She died at Dover, Ohio, where her remains were laid to rest. Thomas G. Greene, whose name initiates this sketch, was but six years of age at the time of the family removal from Rhode Island to Ohio, and he was reared to the sturdy discipline of the pioneer farm. He was afforded the advantages of the primitive schools of the pioneer days, but his education, implying broad general information, has been gained principally through selfdiscipline and through instruction secured under that wisest of head-masters, experience. When but sixteen years of age Mr. Greene began learning the contracting business, with which he was identified, in the city of Cleveland, Ohio, for a period of three years, at the expiration of which he came to Michigan, where he followed the business of contracting and building until 1867. Upon coming to this state he took up his abode in St. Joseph county, having thus established his home in this county in 1854. Having become a resident of this county more than half a century ago, it has been the privilege of Mr. Greene to witness the magnificent development of this favored section of the old Wolverine

Page  714 714 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY state, and also to contribute in no slight measure to the civic and material progress and upbuilding of St. Joseph county. At the time when he established his home in the county, only one railroad line, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, entered its borders and he has witnessed the development of transportation systems throughout the county, while he recalls with satisfaction the great advantages engaged today in the matter of widely disseminated telephonic service and the installation of the effective rural free delivery of mail,-advantages which the pioneers could little have imagined as possible. When he came to the county, Three Rivers was its largest town, with Sturgis a close second, but both of these thriving cities were then mere villages. In 1867 Mr. Greene and his two brothers-in-law purchased a sash, door and blind factory in Three Rivers, and the same was operated under the title of Schurtz, Greene & Company until 1872, when the partnership was dissolved. Mr. Greene then assumed the position of bookkeeper for Griffith & Dunham, millers and dealers in agricultural implements, with which firm he continued to be thus identified until 1876, when he was elected register of deeds of St. Joseph county, on the Republican ticket. He gave a most effective administration of the duties of this important office and was re-elected in 1878 and again in 1880, thus serving six consecutive years. Since his retirement from office he has been engaged in the abstract and real estate business, in which connection his operations have been of important order as touching the development and progress of the county. He has maintained his home in Centerville, the judicial center of the county, from the time of his election to the office of register of deeds and his long experience in this office enabled him to assemble and perfect his valuable sets of abstracts of titles, which cover the entire county and to which recourse is had by nearly all who make transfers of real estate in the county. Mr. Greene has been aligned as a stalwart in the camp of the Republican party from the time of its organization and he has been an able exponent of its principles and policies. He cast his first presidential vote for the Republican party's first nominee for the presidency, General John C. Fremont, and he has voted for every presidential candidate of the party since that time. He finds pleasure in reverting to the fact that the state of Michigan was the birthplace of the Republican party, which was organized "under the oaks," at Jackson, this state. Mr. Greene has been a delegate to party conventions of the state and of his senatorial

Page  715 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 715 and congressional districts. He was president of the village council of Centerville for two years, for three years served as county superintendent of the poor and for two and a half years he was state oil inspector of this district. For four years he was treasurer of the Republican county committee of St. Joseph county, and for one year he served as chairman of this county. He is president of the St. Joseph county Village Fire Insurance Company, of which office he has been incumbent since 1888, and since 1899 he has been a valued member of the state board of correction and charities. Mr. Greene is a most appreciative member of the time-honored Masonic fraternity, with which he has been affiliated since 1859, when he became a member of Mount Hermon Lodge, No. 24, Free & Accepted Masons, at Centerville. He is also affiliated with Centerville Chapter, No. 11, Royal Arch Masons, and he received the council degrees in Three Rivers Council, No. 7, Royal & Select Masters, in 1867. On the 10th of February, 1871, he received the chivalric degrees in Columbia Commandery, No. 18, Knights Templars, at Sturgis, from which organization he subsequently withdrew and assisted in the organization of the Three Rivers Commandery, No. 29, of which he is now the only living charter member. He received the orders of high priesthood on the 4th of January, 1872, and in 1875 he was elected president of the order in the state, retaining this office one year. On the 15th of January, 1889, Mr. Greene had the distinction of being elected most illustrious grand master of the Michigan Grand Council of Royal & Select Masters, an office of which likewise he remained incumbent for one year. He has served twenty-five years as master of his local lodge, for thirty-four years as high priest of the Centerville Chapter and of the Chapter at Three Rivers, and he has officiated at one hundred and ten Masonic funerals, besides which he has conferred the several Masonic degrees more than two thousand times. He served as master of the Three Rivers Council, Royal & Select Masters, for seven years and eminent commander of Three Rivers Commandery, No. 29, two years. He has been a delegate to the state conventions of the various Masonic bodies for a total of one hundred and forty times and he is well known to the fraternity in the state as a Mason who well exemplifies the high principles and precepts of the order. He is an earnest and consistent member of the First Presbyterian church of Centerville, and has long been active in the various departments of its work. He is recognized as one of the sterling citizens and representative business

Page  716 716 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY men of Centerville and in addition to his abstract business he conducts a successful real estate and loan business. His attractive cottage home is located on Burr Oak street and has long been known for its gracious and refined hospitality. A resident of St. Joseph county for more than one half a century, the career of Mr. Greene, both in private and social connections, has been an open book challenging the closest scrutiny, the while no blemish can be found upon his record, which has been such as to gain to him the inviolable confidence and esteem of his fellow men. No citizen is more worthy of consideration in this twentieth century history of St. Joseph county. On the 13th of January, 1859, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Greene to Miss Julia A. Gibson, a sister of Samuel Gibson, in the sketch of whose career, on other pages of this work, is given due record concerning the family history. Mr. and Mrs. Greene became the parents of one daughter, Jennie A., who is now the wife of George J. Sadler, chief clerk in the ticket office of the Wabash Railroad, in the city of Detroit. Mrs. Sadler completed the curriculum of the public schools of Three Rivers, including the high school, and later continued her studies at Mount Holyoke Seminary, in the city of Kalamazoo. Mrs. Sadler was for six years a successful and popular teacher in the public schools of St. Joseph county, having taught one year in Three Rivers and five years in the schools of Centerville. She is a fine musician, and has particular ability as a pianist. She holds membership in the First Presbyterian church of Detroit. Mrs. Greene was born at Milton, Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, on the 20th of May, 1839, and is a daughter of John S. and Elizabeth (De France) Gibson. Mrs. Greene was a girl at the time of the family removal to St. Joseph county and, having received excellent educational advantages, she became a successful teacher in this county, continuing to follow the pedagogic profession for some time before her marriage. A woman of most noble character, she endeared herself to all who came within the sphere of her gracious and gentle influence, and she was summoned to the life eternal on the 7th of November, 1909, her remains being interred at Riverside cemetery, at Centerville, where a beautiful stone marks her last resting place. Concerning her and her family the following pertinent statements are those that appeared in a Centerville paper at the time of her death, and they are well worthy of reproduction in the present article.

Page  717 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 717 "In 1848 there came to this county from Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, a family destined to play a very prominent part in the social, commercial, religious and political history of southern Michigan. They brought with them that sturdiness of character, indomitableness of purpose, reverence for all things righteous and uplifting, which are characteristic of Pennsylvanians and which win success everywhere. The family was that of John Gibson, and consisted of five daughters and two sons. They purchased the Gibson homestead near Constantine, which soon became, and has since remained, a center around which much local history has revolved. The sons, Samuel and William, now reside in Constantine and Battle Creek respectively. The daughters, Mrs. Daniels and Mrs. Arnold in Three Rivers, and Mrs. Schurtz in Kalamazoo. Mrs. Nancy Wolf and Mrs. Julia A. Greene have passed over to the other shore. "'In this remarkable family, Mrs. Greene was the fourth child. She was born in Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, May 20, 1839. On January 13, 1859, she was married to Thomas G. Greene. They established their home in Constantine and here their one daughter, Mrs. George J. Sadler, about whom their lives thereafter centered, was born. In 1867 they removed to Three Rivers, where Mr. 'Greene was engaged in manufacturing. "In 1876 Mr. Greene was elected register of deeds of this county and shortly thereafter they removed to Centerville. Their fiftieth anniversary occurred in January of this year. Arrangements had been made for celebrating the event, but Mrs. Greene's health prevented. The entire family joined the Presbyterian church in Three Rivers in 1874. Mr. and Mrs. Greene's membership was transferred to the Centerville church in 1908. A few weeks ago on communion Sabbath she desired to participate in that holy commemoration and was served by her pastor and four elders in her home. She participated with a zest and reverence indicative of her deep religious convictions. "For over twenty-two years she has been an invalid and for eleven years has not taken a step, suffering untold agonies from rheumatism. For the past month she has been in a most pitiful condition with suffering so intense that when on Sunday evening, November 7, 1909, the end came peacefully and she 'fell asleep' to awake in the better world, free from pain, it seemed as though the shadow of her joy and peace rested on her features. She was seventy years, five months and seventeen days old.

Page  718 718 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY "The funeral occurred at the home on Tuesday, November 9th, and was conducted by her pastor, Rev. H. A. Simpson. The same elders who officiated so recently in the communion service, acted as honorary bearers-H. F. Major, H. S. Leinbach, James Yauney and Alex Sharp. The active bearers were J. R. Truckenmiller, William F. Meyer, George Weber and L. Reitz. "The floral offerings clearly indicated the respectful affection entertained for the entire family. She was laid to rest in the Greene-Sadler space in our beautiful Riverside cemetery." HENRY B. JONES is a member of one of the oldest families of St. Joseph county, and the name which he bears is indissolubly identified with the annals of White Pigeon township from almost the earliest epoch of its history. Lorenzo Jones, his father, born in Cambria, New York, May 27, 1811, came with his father, John Jones, to this community before the year of 1831. This John Jones was born in Maine, February 26, 1784, a son of Stephen Jones, and coming to Michigan he located on the south bank of Pine Lake, which is now known as Klinger Lake. He purchased land there of a Mr. Klinger, made for himself and family a good farm, and there he lived and labored during the remainder of his life. He was the father of fourteen children, of whom Lorenzo was the eldest, and his daughter Eliza A., was the first child born at Klinger Lake, born June 9, 1832, the year following his settlement there. Lorenzo Jones married Catherine Crounse, a member of another of the pioneer families of St. Joseph county. Her parents came originally from Germany to New York, and in 1835 they located a mile and a half from White Pigeon in White Pigeon township, St. Joseph county, Michigan. Six children were born to Lorenzo and Catherine Jones, and the four now living are: Amelia, wife of Sylvester Noel; Mary, wife of Henry Kittel; Henry B.; and Jane, wife of David Kidd. Henry B. Jones, born on his father's farm in White Pigeon township August 11, 1845, was there also reared, and he now owns and farms this old homestead of one hundred and fifty acres in section 11. He is prominently known as a farmer and stock raiser, and has been successful in his chosen vocation. He married Mary A. Ritz, who was born in Switzerland, October 10, 1849, and coming with her parents to the United States in 1852 they located at Hillsdale, Michigan, where she received a common school education. Nicholas Ritz, her father, was born in Switzerland in 1817, and made the journey to this country with his wife and six chil

Page  719 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 719 dren in a sail boat, spending forty-four days on the ocean. He was then a comparatively poor man, by trade a carpenter, and in his later days he was a farmer. Six children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Jones, namely: Bertha, who was born December 29, 1877, and is the wife of Frank Morrow; John F., born September 3, 1882; May, born February 7, 1879, became the wife of Harold Lockhart of Texas, and she is now deceased; Hallie H., born October 7, 1884; George W., born February 6, 1887; and Ray A., born March 3, 1889. Mrs. Jones is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church at Klinger. LEMUEL S. HUFF is one of the representative business men of White Pigeon township, successful, progressive and well known. He was born near the city of White Pigeon on the 13th of July, 1856, a son of A. W. and Elizabeth (Sixbey) Huff, both of whom were born in the state of New York, the father in the county of Montgomery. They came to Michigan in the year of 1836, locating near White Pigeon, and they were married there in 1847. In 1870 they moved to a farm south of Klinger Lake, and spent the remainder of their lives there. The following seven children were born into their home: Charles S., Ed N., Ida O., L. S., Anna, Henrietta and Almeda. Lemuel S. Huff was the fourth born of this family of children, and he was reared as a farmer's son and received a district school education. After the death of his parents he left the old homestead and bought the farm of eighty-four acres in sections 11 and 12 where he now lives and where he is extensively engaged in general agricultural, horticultural and apiarian pursuits. He has thirty-two colonies of Italian bees, and has an orchard of twenty acres devoted to apples, peaches and some small fruits, including strawberries. Mr. Huff is a well known business man in this section of St. Joseph county, known and honored for his honesty, uprightness and true citizenship. Ile married on January 1, 1893, Mary E. Timmis, who was born in Van Buren township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, February 9, 1868, and their children are: Ethel, born April 8, 1894; Sarah, born December 28, 1896; Andrew, April 11, 1898; Ruth, August 30, 1900; Henry, September 1, 1902; Mary, January 3, 1906, and Theodore Lemuel, February 22, 1910. In politics Mr. Huff has recently transferred his allegiance from the Republican to the Prohibition party, and he and his wife are active members of the Methodist Episcopal church at Klinger Lake, and he is its

Page  720 720 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY steward, trustee, class leader and the superintendent of its Sunday school. JAMES C. GRIMES.-Among the farmers and stock-raisers of White Pigeon township is recorded the names of James C. Grimes, who has spent the greater part of his life in St. Joseph county. He was born in Sandusky, Ohio, March 13, 1855, to the marriage union of Isaac and Margaret (Boor) Grimes, but when he was only eight weeks old the family home was established in St. Joseph county. After a time however they moved from here to Missouri, but returned after an absence in that state of two years. The son James when he became old enough worked on the home farm and attended the neighboring district school, and he remained with his parents until he was twenty-one. He now owns an estate of two hundred and forty-two and a half acres of highly improved land in sections 10 and 11, White Pigeon township, and is well known as a general farmer and stock-raiser. On the 20th of August, 1880, Mr. Grimes was married to Christine Kline, a native daughter of Indiana, and their eight children are: Alta, born December 17, 1881, and now the wife of Herman Schmidt; Edna, born June 17, 1884, and the wife of Frank Blair; Della, born December 25, 1886; Opal, born June 15, 1893; Leona, born April 21, 1895; Florence, born December 6, 1896; Trillie, born November 29, 1897; and Elizabeth, born October 6, 1903. Opal and Leona are students in the White Pigeon High School. The family are members of the Methodist Episcopal church at Klinger Lake, and Mr. Grimes is serving as one of the stewards of his church. In politics his affiliations are with the Democratic party. LEWIS C. PERRIN was born at Conesus, New York, September 2, 1841, and he was reared as a farmer's son there. When he was a boy of fourteen he came with his parents to Michigan, the family locating in what afterward became the station of Perrin, named in honor of his father, and they were early residents of this community. There the son Lewis attained to years of maturity, and in 1858 he was married to Frances Van Vleck, and these children have blessed their marriage union: William who died at the age of two and one half years; Alta, the wife of William T. Favorite; Lewis, whose home is in Chicago, Illinois; and Pearl, at home with her parents.

Page  721 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 721 Mr. Perrin was a traveling salesman for agricultural implements until 1892, and in 1904 he came to White Pigeon and became interested in buying grain. He now owns fifty acres of valuable land at the corporation limits of White Pigeon, where he has erected a good home, and there resides with his family. In politics he is a Republican voter. RICHARD H. FRANK has been identified with the business interests of White Pigeon township during many years, but he is a native son of Indiana, born on the 16th of December, 1862, to Henry and Caroline (Schneider) Frank, both of whom were born in Germany, and they were also married there. Emigrating to the United States about the year of 1848, they established their home in White Pigeon, Michigan, but moved from there to La Grange county, Indiana. Henry Frank bought heavily wooded land there, which he in time cleared and improved, and on this farm which he hewed from the wilderness both he and his wife spent the remainder of their lives, Mr. Frank dying on the 2d of November, 1904, and his wife on the 1st of May, 1902. The three sons and a daughter born to them are: Richard H. of this sketch; Charles H., whose home is in Marshall county, Indiana; Alvin, a La Grange county farmer; Emma, wife of John R. Davey, of Constantine, this state. Richard H. Frank was reared on his father's farm in his native county of La Grange, assisting his father with its work during the summer months and attending the district school in the winters, and this was followed by a course in the White Pigeon High School. During the four years following his marriage he continued to reside in Indiana, and coming to White Pigeon township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, in November, 1894, he bought a farm in section 5, and now owns thirty-eight acres. He has served White Pigeon township during the past seven years as a supervisor, being the present incumbent of the office, and he is prominent in the local councils of the Democratic party. He has also attained prominence as an auctioneer, and that vocation consumes the greater part of his time. On the 12th of March, 1889, Mr. Frank was married to Ida E. Schmidt, also from La Grange county, Indiana, and they have two children: Orlie and Mary, the elder born April 12, 1893, and now a high school pupil at White Pigeon, and the younger was born March 17, 1905. The family are members of the Lutheran church. Vol. 1-14

Page  722 722 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY MARDEN SABIN, M. D.-For nearly half a century Dr. Sabin has been engaged in the practice of his profession in St. Joseph county, maintaining his home in Centerville, the county seat, and the years have told a story of a successful career-successful by reason of his innate talent and acquired ability along the line of one of the most important vocations, to which a man may devote his energies, the alleviation of pain and suffering and the restoration of health, which is a man's most cherished and priceless possession. This is an age of progress in all lines of professional and material achievement and Dr. Sabin has kept abreast of the advancement that has virtually revolutionized methods of medical and surgical practice, rendering the efforts of the physician of much more avail than they were at the time when he himself entered upon his professional career. Not only is Dr. Sabin numbered among the best known and essentially representative physicians and surgeons of St. Joseph county, but he has also been called upon to serve in public offices of distinguished trust, including that of member of the state senate and it was his to render valiant service as a leal and loyal soldier of the Union in the Civil war, so that there is no dearth of interesting data pertaining to his career. Descended in the paternal line from stanch French-Huguenot stock and in the maternal line tracing his ancestry to English origin, Dr. Sabin claims the old Hoosier state as the place of his nativity. He was born at Orland, Steuben county, Indiana, on the 2d of January, 1840, and was the eldest in the family of five children-four sons and one daughter-of Stephen C. and Martha M. (Stocker) Sabin. Of the children only one other than himself is now living-namely: Oscar C., who is a resident of the city of Chicago and who is identified with the United States Collector of Customs Office. Oscar C. Sabin served as a soldier in the Twentyninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, in the Civil war and held the office of quartermaster, continuing in the service for more than three years. He is a stanch Republican in his political proclivities and both he and his wife are members of the Baptist church. Stephen Choate Sabin, father of the doctor, was born at Jamaica, Windham county, Vermont, in the year 1812, and his death occurred in 1894. IHe was a carpenter and joiner by trade but in later years he turned his attention also to agricultural pursuits. He was reared to maturity in the old Green Mountain state and was a man of broad intellectual ken and sterling integrity of character. He finally came to the west and located in Steuben county,

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Page  725 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 725 Indiana, where he purchased a tract of land near the present location of the village of Orland. In business he was successful and he was one of the honored and influential pioneers of that section of the state where his marriage was solemnized. At the time of the memorable gold excitement in California he made the long and venturesome trip across the plains to the new Eldorado, where he remained about two years, at the expiration of which time he returned to the east by the way of the Isthmus of Panama. Mr. Sabin was originally a Whig in his political adherency and he supported General William Henry Harrison for the presidency, having been active in the campaign, which brought forth the cry, "Tippecanoe and Tyler too." He united with the Republican party at the time of its organization and he was very influential in party affairs of a local nature, while his maturity of judgment caused his advice to be sought by his neighbors in matters of personal importance. About the year 1863 he was elected to represent his county in the state legislature of Indiana, in which he served several terms, being prominent in councils of the legislative body and having been selected as one of the representatives of Indiana in escorting the remains of the martyred president Abraham Lincoln from the national capital to Springfield, Illinois, where interment was made. He took a broad-minded interest in all that touched the general welfare of the community and was influential in religious and moral work, as well as in connection with the promotion of the public schools. He was an appreciative member of the Masonic fraternity and both he and his wife were earnest and zealous members of the Baptist church. When they were well advanced in years they removed to Centerville, Michigan, where they passed the residue of their lives in the home of their son, Dr. Sabin, subject of this review, who accorded to them the utmost filial solicitude. They were laid to rest in the Centerville cemetery. The mother of Dr. Sabin was likewise a native of Jamaica, Vermont, where she was bor in the year 1819 and she died in 1894, only a few weeks previously to the death of her honored husband. She endured the vicissitudes of pioneer life in Steuben county, Indiana, and was a woman of most gracious and sympathetic nature with intense interest in religious affairs, her faith having been shown in her daily life. Her mother, whose maiden name was Betsey Howard, was a relative of the mother of President Taft. Her father was numbered among the pioneers of Steuben county, Indiana, where he became a successful agriculturist. Ebenezer Sabin, grandfather of the doctor, was a sol

Page  726 726 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY dier in the war of the Revolution and was wounded in one of the battles thereof. While he was lying practically helpless on the field General Washington passed by and solicitously questioned him in regard to his injuries. By reason of this service of his grandfather, Dr. Sabin is eligible for membership in the Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. Dr. Marden Sabin was reared to adult age in his native county of Steuben, to whose common schools he is indebted for his early educational discipline, which was supplemented by study in a well ordered academy at Orland, that county. In the year 1859, when nineteen years of age, he was matriculated in the literary department of the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, where he continued his studies for three years. After the Civil war had been in progress about a year Dr. Sabin subordinated all other interests to tender his aid in defence of the Union. He returned to his native state and at Orland enlisted in Company B, One Hundredth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, which at that time was being raised by Capt. Joseph W. Gillespie. His enlistment was made on the 15th of August, 1862, and the regiment was mobilized at Fort Wayne, Indiana, whence it proceeded to Indianapolis and then to the front, being assigned to the command of General Sherman, at Memphis, Tennessee. Dr. Sabin was an active participant in the siege of Vicksburg and the battle of Jackson, Mississippi, and he then proceeded with his command to join General Grant's force, with which he participated in the battle of Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain. He also took part in the Atlanta campaign, including the battles of Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain and those about Atlanta and in this connection his regiment was virtually under fire for one hundred consecutive days, or until the capitulation of the city of Atlanta. The doctor then proceeded with Sherman's forces to the pursuit of Hood's army to Tennessee and then on the ever memorable march from Atlanta to the sea and from Savannah, Georgia, proceeded with his command through the Carolinas, taking part in the battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, which was the last definite battle of the war. He had the distinction of accompanying his command to the city of Washington, where he participated in the Grand Review of the victorious but jaded and battle-scarred veterans, an event that has become a matter of important history in the annals of the nation. On the march from Savannah, Georgia, to the north Dr. Sabin held rank as first lieutenant and acting adjutant in his command and his regiment was near Raleigh, North Carolina, when was received the welcome

Page  727 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 727 news of the surrender of General Lee, of which as adjutant he read in orders to his regiment there in bivouac. About five days later the gallant soldiers of the Union found their joy practically set at naught by the receipt of the news of the assassination of President Lincoln. In all of Dr. Sabin's long service as a leal and loyal soldier, of the republic he was never wounded, never taken prisoner and never absent from duty, except a short time in hospital from sickness, a record that redounds to his lasting credit. He was in continuous service from August 15, 1862, until he was mustered out and received his honorable discharge, in June, 1865, having been promoted from sergeant to sergeant major of regiment, and to first lieutenant and to captain of his company which he took to Indianapolis where it was mustered out and disbanded in June, 1865. Soon after the close of the war Dr. Sabin determined to complete his preparation for the medical profession and with this in view he came to Centerville, Michigan, where he began the study of medicine under the able preceptorship of Dr. John Bennitt. Six months later, however, he again entered the University of Michigan, in the autumn of 1865, and from that institution the next year he went to Ohio and entered the medical department of the Western Reserve University, which was located at Cleveland, Ohio. He received credit for his previous academic training in the University of Michigan and was graduated in the medical department of Western Reserve University as a member of the class of 1867, duly receiving his well earned degree of Doctor of Medicine. In May of the same year Dr. Sabin returned to Centerville and during the long intervening period of more than two score years he has continued in the active practice of medicine and surgery in St. Joseph county, where his success has been on a parity with his recognized ability and earnest devotion. He has ministered with all of zeal to the people of this county and has long retained a large and representative clientage so that his services continue to be in demand in many families where he is giving attention to the second and third generations. He has a strong hold upon the affectionate regard of the community, which has so long been his home and no citizen is better known or held in higher esteem. Dr. Sabin gives his allegiance to the cause of the Republican party and he had the privilege of casting his ballot in support of President Lincoln, while he was serving in the ranks of the Union army. He has shown a broad and intelligent interest in matters

Page  728 728 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY of public import and in 1890 he was elected to represent the Eighth senatorial district in the state senate. In 1892 he was reelected but the district had been changed in the meantime and he was thus chosen to represent the Sixth district. The doctor has served for fully twenty years as president of the board of education of Centerville and for several terms was president of the village board of trustees. He has frequently been a delegate to the state and district conventions of his party and for a number of years was a member of the Republican congressional committee of his district. He is an enthusiastic member of David Oaks Post, No. 135, Grand Army of the Republic, of which he has served both as commander and as surgeon. He is a member of the St. Joseph County Medical Society and of the Michigan State Medical Society, of which former he has served several terms as president. The doctor has been a close student and investigator and his private library is of the most extensive order, both in connection with the best standard and periodical literature of his profession and the best in the classics and general literature. His library comprises fully two thousand volumes and is one of the largest and most select private collections in the county. Dr. Sabin is a dignified gentleman of the old-school type and yet is possessed of an affability that has gained him friends in all classes. His personal popularity offers the best voucher of his sterling attributes of character and it is a pleasure to offer even this brief review of his career in this history of the county that has been the scene of his labors for so many years. Both he and his wife are members of the Baptist church. On the 23d of May, 1867, was solemnized the marriage of Dr. Sabin to Miss Mary M. Smith, and they became the parents of two children. Edna B., the elder of the two children, is the wife of H. Curtis Hoffman, who is an architect by profession and who resides at Oak Park, Illinois, one of the beautiful suburbs of the city of Chicago. Mr. and Mrs. Hoffman have one son, Howard B. Mrs. Hoffman completed the curriculum of the Centerville high school and later continued her studies in the Baptist College at Kalamazoo and the Cook County Normal School, in the city of Chicago. Prior to her marriage she was a successful and popular teacher in the public schools at Chicago Heights. Leland Howard, the younger of the two children, is engaged in the practice of law in the city of Battle Creek, Michigan. He attended the Centerville high school and thereafter pursued his studies in both the academic and law departments of the University of Michigan,

Page  729 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 729 in both of which he was graduated, thus receiving the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws. He married Miss Eloise Skinner of Battle Creek, Michigan, and they have one son, Brainard S. The wife of Dr. Sabin was born in Leroy, New York, but was reared and educated in Michigan. She is a daughter of Perrin M. and Harriet T. (Bishop) Judd Smith. Her father likewise was a native of the old Empire state and he became one of the representative members of the bar of Michigan, where he also served as circuit judge of the Fourth Judicial circuit, an office of which he was incumbent at the time of his death February 12, 1866. At the commencement exercises of Michigan University on the 30th of June, 1910, there was given to Dr. Sabin the Honorary Degree of Master of Arts as the following record, under the head of conferring that degree fully sets forth: "Doctor Marden Sabin for three years a member of the Class of 1863 in the Department of Literature, Science and the Arts, he left the university to serve his country in her hour of peril, a brave soldier, a painstaking and conscientious physician and a publicspirited and progressive citizen, who during his terms as state senator exemplified high ideals in public service the degree of Master of Arts." STEPHEN M. SNYDER.-Holding a place of note among the well-known citizens and prosperous residents of Fabius township is Stephen M. Snyder, a successful agriculturist, distinguished not only for the splendid service he rendered his country during the Civil war, but for the honored pioneer ancestry from which he is descended. His birth occurred May 18, 1843, in Lockport township, St. Joseph county, where his father, Henry Snyder, was an early settler. Born in Union county, Pennsylvania, Henry Snyder was brought up on a farm, and as a young man served an apprenticeship at the mason's trade, which he afterwards followed for a time in Snyder county, Pennsylvania. In 1837, about the time Michigan was admitted to statehood, he came here in search of cheap lands, and settled as a pioneer in Park township, St. Joseph county. At that time there were no railways, telegraph lines or telephones, means of transportation and communication with the outside world being scant. Little do the people of this generation realize the hardships and privations endured, the great ambition required, and the physical vigor demanded, to secure the homes established by the early settlers for themselves and their descendants. What

Page  730 730 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY are now considered indispensable necessities of the larder were then luxuries not thought of even by the most opulent. The productions of the farm, and the fruits of the chase, supplied the family tables, while the garments of the entire household were made of homespun material, and manufactured by the good wife and mother. After a few years, Henry Snyder sold his land in Park township, and bought another tract in Lockport township, where he began the improvement of a homestead. Going by way of the Isthmus to California in 1854, he remained there three years, and on returning to his former home, assumed management of the farm which his wife had inherited, and was here engaged in agricultural pursuits until his death, at the age of sixty-eight years. Mr. Henry Snyder was twice married. He married first Sarah Slote, a native of Pennsylvania. She died in 1841, leaving four children, James, Mary J., Hannah M., and William. He married second, in 1842, Mrs. Lydia (Moore) Hoffman, who was born in Lycoming county, Pennsylvania, a daughter of Abner Moore. Migrating from Pennsylvania to Michigan, Abner Moore became a pioneer of St. Joseph county, locating in Mendon, where, in addition to farming, he followed his trade of a cabinet maker for several years, afterwards taking up the business of a cooper. He died at the age of eighty-six years, on his farm in Mendon. Lydia Moore married first John Hoffman, who came from Pennsylvania to St. Joseph county in pioneer days. He died in 1841. Of the five children born of their union, three grew to years of maturity, Mary J. Hoffman, Elizabeth H. Hoffman, and Harriet Hoffman. By her second marriage she had four children, namely: Stephen M., the subject of this sketch; John H.; Catherine R.; and Charles F. Brought up in his native township, Stephen M. Snyder was educated in the district schools, while under his father's instructions he became familiar with the many branches of agriculture. In August, 1862, he enlisted in Company G, Twenty-fifth Michigan Infantry, and with his regiment took part in many important battles, including among others, the engagements at Resaca, Dalton, Rocky Face, Etowah River, Kingston, Altoona, Pine Mountain, Lost Mountain, Culps Farm, Kenesaw Mountain, Chattahoochee River, Decatur, Atlanta, Rome, Georgia, Cedar Bluffs, and Nashville. At Salisbury, N. C., June 24, 1865, he received his honorable discharge with his regiment, and returned to the parental homestead.

Page  731 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 731 He has since confined his attention to general farming, an occupation in which he finds pleasure and much profit. Mr. Snyder married Utica E. Stuck, in February, 1869. She was born in Pennsylvania, a daughter of Jacob and Rebecca (Snyder) Stuck. Her father settled in Flowerfield township, St. Joseph county, in 1860, and subsequently moved to Park township. In 1868 he made another removal, going to Indiana, and is now a resident of Hanna, that state. Mr. and Mrs. Snyder are the parents of two children, namely: Willis C. and Alvin J. Willis C., who manages the home farm, married Mary E. Krum, and they have one child, Frank W. Mr. and Mrs. Snyder are both valued members of the Reformed church, towards the support of which they contribute liberally. Socially Mr. Snyder belongs to the Ed. M. Prutzman Post, No. 72, G. A. R. JOHN B. PROBST has made a remarkable record, and from the study of his life history one may learn valuable lessons, for depending upon his own resources he has made his way from obscurity to a place of prominence in the industrial life of St. Joseph county. From his little German home he made his way to this country and entered upon a career which seems most marvelous, but it is only the outcome of the honest reward of labor, good management, ambition and energy, without which no man can win prosperity. Born in Frank-in-Furst, Germany, June 19, 1829, he was reared on a farm there and attended the public schools until the age of fourteen, being also compelled to attend Sunday-school, and until eighteen years of age he lived out and worked at farm labor. He married in his early life Anna Bower, born in that country October 16, 1831, and coming to the United States, they arrived in Toledo, Ohio, on the 1st of June, 1854, after sixty days spent on the ocean on a sail boat. They remained in that city about a year, Mr. Probst working as a wood sawyer, and from there made their way to Goshen, Indiana, and thence to White Pigeon, Michigan, in 1856, where he obtained work in the harvest fields. He then worked at railroad building at Sturgis, this state, for about a year, was then employed in the railroad yards at Toledo, Ohio, and all this time he worked hard and saved his earnings and was finally able to buy eighty acres of land in St. Joseph county. But he has added to this purchase until he now owns three hundred and twenty-seven acres of the choicest farming lands of the county. During the first years of his residence in

Page  732 732 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY this state he was employed on the railroad then being built here, and after the completion of the road he was retained as a section hand and as a foreman. His life has been characterized by energy and perseverance, and step by step he has climbed the ladder of his own making, until he now occupies a place of prominence in the life of his community, highly esteemed by all who know him. In politics he is allied with the Democracy. The following children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Probst: Anna and Mary, twins; Margaret, John, Helena, Henry; Joseph, deceased; George, died October 23, 1909; Joseph and Rose. The family are members of the Catholic church at White Pigeon, Michigan. Mrs. Probst died February 10, 1910. She was always a kind mother and a faithful wife, and a devout member of St. Joseph Catholic church. She was interred in the Catholic cemetery at White Pigeon. JAMES L. SMITH.-During many years James L. Smith was prominently identified with the agricultural interests of St. Joseph county, but he is now living retired on his estate in Mottville township. He is a native son of this township, born on his father's farm here on the 9th of May, 1853. He is a son of Samuel and a grandson of Daniel Smith, the latter moving from his native state of Pennsylvania to Iowa, where he lived during the remainder of his life. Samuel Smith became in his early life one of the farmers of Mottville township, St. Joseph county, and he was married here to Elizabeth Klechner, they spending the residue of their days here and dying on the farm now owned by James L. Smith. James L. Smith was the only child born to Samuel and Elizabeth Smith, and he grew to mature years on the farm where he now lives, beginning when old enough to help his father with its work during the summer months and attending the district schools in the winter. After laying aside his text-books he gave his entire attention to farm work, and he now owns two hundred and twelve acres in section 15, Mottville township, this tract having been in the Smith name for many years. But in recent years he has laid aside the active work of the farm, and is now enjoying a well earned rest. Mr. Smith remained at home with his parents until twenty-seven years of age, and was then married, on the 27th of October, 1880, to Emma Line, born in Pennsylvania, June 7, 1854, a daughter of Henry Line, who became a resident of Michigan in 1864, establishing then his home in White Pigeon township. A daughter, lone, now the wife of William Friesner, has been born

Page  733 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 733 to Mr. and Mrs. Smith, and she and her husband live with her father on the Smith farm, the parents of two children, James Harvey and Catherine E. Mr. Smith is a member of White Pigeon Lodge, No. 104, F. & A. M., and in politics he upholds the principles of the Republican party, but is an independent local voter. DAVID B. PERRY was born in Montour county, Pennsylvania, March 5, 1839, a son of David and Eva (Barkley) Perry. The father was born, reared, spent his entire life and died in that commonwealth, and he was by trade a blacksmith. The Barkley family were also from Pennsylvania, and the maternal grandfather of David B. served as postmaster of his village there for many years. Of the eleven children which were born to David and Eva Perry, only two are now living, the younger being Wesley Perry, yet living in Pennsylvania. The elder of these two surviving sons, David B. Perry, was reared to agricultural pursuits, and on arriving at a suitable age, he helped his father with the farm work and attended the district schools during the winter months. He began learning the harnessmaker's trade when seventeen years of age, and after working for others for twenty years he embarked in the business for himself. Coming to St. Joseph county, Michigan, in 1859, he located in the town of Mottville, and continued at his trade until the Civil war came on, and he volunteered with the Sixteenth Michigan Regiment and saw his first battle at Petersburg, afterward doing guard duty. He was mustered out of the service at Jeffersonville, Indiana, and was discharged at Detroit, Michigan, returning then to his home in Mottville and to the work of harness-making. He now receives a pension of fifteen dollars a month in compensation for his Civil war services. Mr. Perry, on the 9th of November, 1862, was married to Cornelia Knorr, who was born in Mottville township, St. Joseph county, on December 21, 1842. Her father was from Pennsylvania and her mother from the state of New York. The four children of this union are: May, born June 7, 1864, and now the wife of George H. Arnold, of Three Rivers, Michigan; Maggie, deceased; Joseph, born October 29, 1873; and Jacob, born July 2, 1878. Mr. Perry in politics is a Republican, and he is the present clerk of Mottville township. He has held that office during many terms, and was first elected when the township had a Democratic majority of from thirty-five to forty votes. He is held in the highest esteem by all who know him.

Page  734 734 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY AMos T. PERRIN, an honored and retired farmer of New Hartford, Butler county, stands in the community as one of its most substantial financiers, now holding the presidency of the local bank and the secretaryship of the Butler County Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company. His wide acquaintance, solid abilities and stanch character admirably fit him for these positions and any others of responsibility which he may assume. He comes of an old New York family, of English descent, and was himself born in the Empire state, on the 2d of December, 1843, a son of Amos, and a grandson of Porter Perrin. The latter emigrated to the United States from England, and was married in the United States, his son Amos having been born in Washington county, New York, on the 30th of March, 1810. The father reached manhood as a sturdy farmer of the Empire state, well educated and also an expert judge and dealer in livestock. About 1852 he migrated to Michigan, locating on Sturgis prairie, St. Joseph county. At a later date he moved to Sherman township, section 12, where he continued to reside until his death. Amos Perrin was a man who was highly respected both for his practical abilities and his absolute integrity. The lake near his old homestead in St. Joseph county bears his name, and he has left a strong impress on the community in which he lived for so many years. He was a stanch Republican, and he was one of the many whose attitude toward Lincoln was little short of worship. To the wife of his youth, these four children were born: Thomas P., now a resident of Detroit, Michigan; Lewis C., of White Pigeon, also that state; Amos T., of this biography; and Luna M., Mrs. M. E. Osborn, of New Hartford, Iowa. The mother of this family died in 1847, and Amos Perrin took for his second wife Miss Rachael Van Winkle, who bore him the following children: Lester F., now a farmer of Sherman township, St. Joseph county, Michigan; Eliza, deceased; Mary, wife of Charles Warren of Bancroft, Michigan; William, of Kalkaska county, that state; Edward N., of Sherman township, Michigan, and Fred E., who resides in Montana. Amos T. was a lad of thirteen when the family settled in St. Joseph county, Michigan; received his education in Sherman township of that county, both in the district schools and on the farm; and in the year 1871 migrated to Butler county, a young man of limited means but of abundant energy and resources. As his unchecked progress in his agricultural and livestock enterprises brought him abundant means, his honorable dealings and character gave him a high standing in citizenship, and when he retired from:::I

Page  735 I

Page  736 f a.9i

Page  737 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 737 his activities in these lines and settled at New Hartford, he entered another phase of his broad and useful life. He had been a stockholder in the bank for some years and has since creditably served as its president (which position he still holds); and, as stated, he is also secretary of the Butler County Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company, whose interests have been solidly advanced by his activity and influence. In politics, Mr. Perrin is a firm Republican, but his naturally quiet disposition has prevented him from ever becoming a politician. His record has shown, however, that back of his rather retiring nature there is a goodly fund of determination and a fine supply of practical abilities. Mr. Perrin was first married to Miss Harriet J. Proctor, of Iowa, a woman of high and lovable character, who bore him the following children: Susan, now the wife of Frank Jones; Mary, Mrs. Fred Johnson; and Fred Perrin, who married Miss Lizzie Schreurs. Mrs. Harriet Perrin died in 1884 and in 1888 Amos T. Perrin wedded Miss Maggie Olmstead, a lady of rare intelligence and womanly character. She was born, reared and educated in the Hawkeye state, and is the mother of the following: Willie, who was educated in his native county, and at his death was the efficient cashier of the New Hartford Bank; Edward F., who is a graduate of the Iowa Commercial School at Waterloo, Iowa; and Hazel and Theodore L., born respectively in 1893 and 1905. It should be stated to complete the personal record of Mr. Perrin that he is a stanch Mason, affiliated with Beaver Lodge No. 472, of New Hartford, and is in every respect a worthy exemplar of the principles of that noble fraternity. LEwIS E. MILLER.-He whose name initiates this sketch is specially eligible for representation in this publication, as he is a most valued and efficient factor in connection with educational work in St. Joseph county, where he is the incumbent of the office of county commissioner of public schools, with residence and official headquarters in Centerville. Further interest attaches to his career from the fact that he has passed the major part of his life in this county, where his official preferment well indicates the high esteem in which he is held in the community, besides which it gives evidence of his fine intelectual attainments and marked executive ability, both of which are demanded in the position of which he is incumbent. He has accomplished a most valuable work in systematizing the public schools of the county and has brought the same up to a very high standard, the while he has enlisted the earnest and effect

Page  738 738 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ive co-operation of the people and of the various teachers employed throughout the county. Lewis E. Miller was born in Northampton county, Pennsylvania, on the 19th of December, 1864, and is the second in order of birth of the four children of John J. and Margaret S. (Schall) Miller. Concerning the other children the following brief data are given,-Ambrose P. is now a resident of Garrett, Indiana, and is employed as a conductor on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad; Richard N. is also in the employ of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad as a passenger conductor and resides in the city of Garrett, Indiana; and Jennie M. is the wife of Herbert Snyder, who is engaged in the furniture business at Easton, Pennsylvania. John J. Miller, the father, was likewise born in Northampton county, Pennsylvania, and he died in Lebanon county, that state, on the 31st of March, 1898. During the greater part of his active career he was identified with agricultural pursuits, besides which he operated a mill for several years. He came to Michigan on the 31st of March, 1879, and secured a tract of land in Park township, St. Joseph county, where he continued to be successfully engaged in agricultural pursuits for the ensuing nine years, at the expiration of which he returned to Pennsylvania and located in Lebanon county, where he passed the remainder of his life. He was a stanch Democrat in his political proclivities and while a, resident of Park township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, he served as township treasurer. He was affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and his religious faith was that of the Evangelical church. His cherished and devoted wife, who likewise was born in Northampton county, preceded him to the life eternal and she was a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Miller was again married, his second wife being Cecelia Holland, to which union were born two daughters, Ada and Kate. They both have comfortable homes in Lebanon, Pennsylvania, where they provide for their mother in her latter years. Lewis E. Miller gained his rudimentary education in the public schools of his native state and was a lad of fourteen years at the time of the family removal to St. Joseph county, Michigan. Owing to a physical infirmity it became expedient for Mr. Miller to turn his attention to some vocation not demanding heavy manual labor and his ambition was one of definite action and purpose, as is shown by the fact that he determined to secure a liberal education and prepare himself for the pedagogic profession. After attending the district schools in St. Joseph county for three years he entered the

Page  739 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 739 Three Rivers Business College, where he completed the prescribed course, in the meanwhile working for his board and also earning money to partially defray the expenses of his course. After teaching for four months in district No. 1, Park township, he received in compensation for his services the sum of ninety dollars and with this fortification he was matriculated in the Michgan State Normal School at Ypsilanti, which institution he attended during the spring term of 1885. Thereafter he taught and attended normal school at intervals until he was enabled to complete the normal course and he was graduated as a member of the class of 1888. For the ensuing year he held the position of principal of the public schools at Royal Oak, Oakland county, and for a similar period he thereafter served as principal of the public schools at Birmingham, that county. His next charge was that of principal of the schools at Hanover, Jackson county, where he remained one year, at the expiration of which he became a teacher of sciences in the high school at Howell, Livingston county, where he remained two years. For the ensuing two years he was superintendent of the public schools at Fowlerville, Livingston county, and he then returned to St. Joseph county, where he was principal of the public schools of Mendon for five years. He then accepted the principalship of the schools at Colon, this county, where he remained two years, until the spring of 1901, when he became candidate on the Democratic ticket for the office of county commissioner of public schools, to which office he was elected for a term of two years. The efficiency of his administration has been uniformly conceded and he has been twice re-elected, each time with his majority double the preceding one. His present term of office will expire in July, 1911. He will then have served ten years. Mr. Miller is an indefatigable worker and his ability and genial personality have gained to him the warm friendship of the teachers of the county, who extend to him every possible assistance in the work of his important office. Reared in the faith of the Democratic party Mr. Miller has never severed his allegiance thereto and is well fortified in his opinions as to matters of public polity. He is affiliated with Dennis Lodge, No. 96, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, in the village of Colon, and he and his wife hold membership with the adjunct organization, the Daughters of Rebekah, in the city of Three Rivers, besides which they also hold membership in Centerville Grange, in which Mr. Miller is lecturer. He and his wife are zealous and devout members of the Methodist Episcopal church

Page  740 740 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and he is president of the St. Joseph county Sunday-school association. Both he and his wife are active in all departments of church work and he is teacher of a boys' class in the Sundayschool of a church in Centerville. On the 10th of January, 1895, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Miller to Miss Della Greenaway and they have two sons and one daughter-John H., Fred L. and Margaret E., all of whom are attending the public schools of Centerville. Mrs. Miller was born in Livingston county, Michigan, and is a woman of distinctive culture, having been a successful teacher of instrumental music prior to her marriage. Her parents are both deceased and her father was a native of England. In Centerville, Mr. and Mrs. Miller have builded a comfortable home not only for their family but for many others. They are hospitable and socially inclined and their pleasant home is the scene of many social entertainments. ALFRED FAIRCHILD.-Prominent among the intelligent and energetic agriculturists who have been for many years identified with the farming interests of St. Joseph county, and by good management and thrift have accumulated a fair share of this world's goods, is Alfred Fairchild, now living retired from active pursuits at Three Rivers. A Pennsylvanian by birth, he was born, May 16, 1841, in Newport township, now Nanticoke, Luzerne county, which was likewise the place in which his father, John Fairchild first drew the breath of life. Solomon Fairchild, Mr. Fairchild's grandfather, was a farmer by occupation, and, it is supposed, spent his entire life in Luzerne county, Pennsylvania. He married Elizabeth Lutsey, who was born in Pennsylvania, a daughter of John Lutsey. A native of Germany, John Lutsey was drafted into the German Army, and, in 1775, belonged to the command that was loaned to the British government at so much a head to come to America to fight the colonists during the Revolutionary War. On arriving in this country, he fought under Cornwallis, and was among the troops surrendered at Yorktown. Instead of returning to the Fatherland, he located in Pennsylvania, becoming a pioneer of Luzerne county, where he spent the remainder of his days, there marrying and rearing his family. John Fairchild was reared on the parental homestead in Luzerne county, and became a farmer from choice. Inheriting from his father land in Newport township, he managed it success

Page  741 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 741 fully, becoming one of the leading agriculturists of his community. He was a natural mechanic, and made good use of his talents by doing his own blacksmithing and carpentering, a great saving of time, money and patience in those days as it is now. A part of his farm he platted, and it is now included within the corporate limits of the borough of Nanticoke. There he resided, an honored and respected citizen, until his death, in 1879. He married Martha Line, who was born in Hanover township, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, a daughter of Henry and Ann (Slyker) Line. The father of Henry Line, was born and bred in Hackettstown, New Jersey, and removed from there to Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, in pioneer days. To Mr. and Mrs. John Fairchild five children were born, as follows: Annie E., Henry S., Alfred, Martha L., and John M. The mother survived her husband, passing away in 1882. Alfred Fairchild received his early education in his native county, after eleven years of age attending school during the winter terms, only. Leaving home soon after attaining his majority, he rented land in Luzerne county, and was there profitably engaged in agricultural pursuits until 1879. In that year, impelled by the restless American spirit that is still leading men of energy and enterprise to seek homes in the uncultivated regions of our vast country, Mr. Fairchild came to St. Joseph county, Michigan. Locating in Lockport township, he bought two hundred and eighteen acres of land in section 33, and for ten years carried on general farming and stock raising with most satisfactory pecuniary results. Removing then to Three Rivers, he has since resided here, retired from active labor. Mr. Fairchild still owns his farm, which is now managed by his son, and in addition to this valuable property, he has interests in the coal regions of Pennsylvania. Mr. Fairchild married, November 25, 1863, Euphemia Garinger, who was born in Hanover township, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, March 23, 1842, a daughter of Charles and Elizabeth (Lueder) Garinger. Mr. and Mrs. Fairchild have four children, namely: Laura, Ervin, Gertrude, and Minnie. Laura, wife of Fred Pashby, has one son, Ralph. Ervin married Norma Pashby, and they have two children, Ernest and Edith. Gertrude, wife of M. W. Lott, has three children, Gerald, Hubert, and Winfield. Mr. Fairchild is a Republican politically. The first Fairchild reunion was held at Fairchild Park near Berwick, Pennsylvania, August 27, 1908, and was a great success. The family was represented by one hundred and thirty-two perVol. II-15

Page  742 742 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY sons ranging in age from eight weeks to eighty-six years, four generations. ALLEN WESCOTT.-The worthy representative of an honored pioneer family of St. Joseph county, Allen Wescott inherited in a marked degree the energy, enterprise and thrift characteristic of the brave men and women that assisted in transforming this part of Michigan from a wilderness into a land rich in its agricultural and industrial resources. By untiring industry and good management he has acquired a competency, and is now passing the evening of his days in ease and comfort, having a pleasant home at Three Rivers. He was born, August 2, 1831, at Christian Hollow, Onondaga county, New York, twelve miles from the city of Syracuse. His father, William Wescott, and his grandfather, Samuel Wescott, were both natives of the Empire state. Brought up in New York City, Samuel Wescott there learned the shoemaker's trade, which he followed for a time. Subsequently locating in Onondaga county, he turned his attention to agricultural pursuits, living there until 1836. In the fall of that year he came to Michigan, making the long trip with teams, bringing with him his family, which consisted of his wife, two sons, William and Charles, and a daughter. Locating in St. Joseph county, he secured one hundred and sixty acres of land in Lockport township, buying it from the government. This part of the state was then in its virginal wildness, with few visible evidences of civilization, there being no railways here for many years after, while through the forests, the happy hunting ground of the Indians, wild animals of all kinds roamed at will. He built two log houses on the place, one for himself and one for his son William, and began the clearing and improving of a homestead, a work of no small magnitude, and here lived until a short time before his death, which occurred, when he was eighty-four years of age, at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Wolf. His wife, whose maiden name was Deborah Brown, and to whom he was married in 1802, bore him four children. William Wescott assisted his father in clearing the land that he bought on locating in Lockport township, during the time occupying the log cabin given him for many years. He eventually moved to the farm belonging to his second wife, in the same locality, and was there successfully employed in general farming until his death, May 28, 1843. He married first Sally Ann Wright, who was born in New York state. She died on the home farm, in Lockport township, June 7, 1841, leaving six children, namely:

Page  743 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 743 Alvin; Emeline; Edward; Allen and Alma, twins; and Alonzo. By his second marriage he had one son, Hiram D. Wescott. A child when he came with his parents to St. Joseph county, Allen Wescott received the rudiments of his education in the district school. After the death of his father he lived for a year with his grandparents, and then began earning his own living, working as farm hand, and receiving at first six dollars a month and his board, his wages being gradually increased from time to time. On August 7, 1862, he enlisted in Company G, Twenty-fifth Michigan Volunteer Infantry, and served until the following January, when he was honorably discharged from the army. Returning to St, Joseph county, Mr. Wescott remained here until 1868, when he went to Dakota county, Minnesota, and a short time later bought a tract of land near Farmington, and began his career as an independent farmer. Succeeding in his ventures, Mr. Wescott continued his operations there until 1886, when he rented his farm, and came back to his old home to spend a year. In 1887 he returned to Minnesota and having opened a confectionery and ice cream parlor in Farmington, where he built up a fine business, and this he conducted for about seven years. Disposing then of his business and his farm, he once more came to St. Joseph county, and has since lived retired from active pursuits in Three Rivers. Mr. Wescott has been twice married. He married first, August 18, 1858, Charlotte Amanda Graham, a daughter of James L. and Elizabeth (Paul) Graham, of whom a brief account may be found elsewhere in this volume, in connection with the sketch of Ezra C. Graham. She died January 21, 1891, in Farmington, Minnesota, leaving two children, namely: Alfred B. and Charles 0. Mr. Wescott married second, September 14, 1893, Mrs. Deborah Ann (Rider) Francisco, a native of Syracuse, New York. Her father, William Rider, and her grandfather, Jacob Rider, were both born in Albany, New York. Jacob Rider removed to Rochester, New York, where he owned and operated a line of boats on the Erie Canal for a number of years, continuing his residence in that city until his death. William Rider was born October 21, 1803. He lived near Syracuse for sometime, from there removing to Rochester, where he had charge for awhile of his father's boats, going then to the town of Greece, where he operated a saw mill a few years. Migrating with his family to St. Joseph county, Michigan, in 1838, he lived for a number of seasons in Lockport township, and then bought a farm in Sherman township, and there spent the remainder of his days. He married

Page  744 744 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Rachel Wescott, who was born in New York state, a daughter of Samuel and Deborah (Brown) Wescott, and died in Three Rivers, Michigan, at the home of her daughter, with whom she lived after the death of her husband. Deborah Ann Rider married first, in 1838, Daniel Francisco, a son of Cornelius Francisco. Mr. Francisco lived in his native state until 1844, when he migrated to Michigan, locating in Lockport township, where he was engaged in agricultural pursuits for eight years, after which he resided at Three Rivers until his death. On September 14, 1893, as above stated, Mrs. Francisco married Mr. Wescott. By her marriage with Mr. Francisco, Mrs. Wescott had two children, namely: William B., who married Josetta Knapp, and has two children, Grace and Frank L.; and Frank E., who married Nellie Clapp. Mr. Wescott's oldest son, Alfred B. Wescott, married Anna Hosmer, and they are the parents of three children, namely: Stella, wife of Otis Day, has two children; George; and Charles. The younger son, Charles O. Wescott, married Hattie Needham. Fraternally Mr. Wescott is a member of Three Rivers Lodge, No. 62, A. F. & A. M., and of Ed. M. Ptutzman Post, No. 72, G. A. R. GEORGE W. BUCK.-A venerable and highly respected citizen of Three Rivers, George W. Buck is a son of George Buck, an early pioneer of St. Joseph county, who dauntlessly pushed his way into an uncultivated country, and has left behind him a record for persistent industry, enterprise and usefulness of which his descendants may well be proud. Mr. Buck was born, November 12, 1829, in Columbiana county, Ohio, coming from thrifty Scotch-Irish ancestry. A son of John Buck, George Buck spent his early life in Ohio. In July, 1830, accompanied by his wife and seven children, he came to the territory of Michigan, crossing the intervening country with an ox-team, and a horse, being several weeks on the trip, in the meantime camping and cooking by the wayside. Leaving his family at Mottville, St. Joseph county, he started in search of a favorable location. This entire section was then a wilderness, with only here and there an opening in which stood the cabin of the early settler. Deer, bears, wolves, and other wild animals were plentiful, wild turkeys being more abundant than the barnyard fowl in those days. The land was owned by the government, and sold at the uniform price of $1.25 an acre. On the present site of Three Rivers there were just six log cabins. He selected a tract of timber containing six hundred and forty acres, a part of

Page  745 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 745 which is now included within the corporate limits of the city of Three Rivers, and then went back for his family. On his return, he erected his little cabin at what is now the junction of Buck and Fourth streets, plastering it inside and out with clay, and building a stick and clay chimney. He made the floor of puncheon split from bass wood logs, and the doors of the same material, while the shake-covered roof was held in place by poles. He immediately began clearing his land and putting it under cultivation, in his work having only the most primitive implements, the share of his wooden plow having been covered with tin, while the drag had wooden teeth. He cleared much of his land, and for many years raised flax, and following his trade of a weaver, which he had learned when young, used to scutch, spin and weave the homespun material from which his wife fashioned all the garments worn by the family. A few years after locating here, Mr. George Buck erected a two-story frame house, and opened it to travelers, it being the first public house in this locality. It was known as Buck's Hotel, and the place was called in his honor Bucktown. He built boats, and for several years operated a ferry. He served as first postmaster of the town, as first justice of the peace, and the first convention to nominate county officers was held at his hotel, being largely attended, Mrs. Buck, with the help of his hired man, serving dinners to seventy-six people. The Pottawatomie Indians at that time had a camp near Three Rivers. They were friendly with the whites, and gladly exchanged honey or wild game for potatoes or flour. When the hotel was completed they came there and had a dance in a large room, having no musical instruments, but chanting as they danced. Mr. George Buck married Martha Ira, who was born, it is thought, in Virginia, coming from Holland ancestry. He died in 1856, aged sixty-six years, and she outlived him a number of years, passing away in the seventy-eighth year of her age. Of the thirteen children born of their union, twelve grew to years of maturity, namely: Philip, Lewis, Rachel, Elizabeth, George W., Martha, Hannah, Mary, Susan, Robert, Thomas, and Charles. But seven months old when he came with his parents to Three Rivers, George W. Buck was here brought up. The old log school house in which he received his first lessons was furnished with slab seats having wooden pins for legs, with no desks in front. As a boy he began to assist in felling the giants of the forest, remaining at home until ready to establish a household of his own. His

Page  746 746 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY father then gave him two lots in the village, and in 1855 he erected a dwelling house there. In the meantime his father had organized a company to develop the local water power, and Mr. Buck and his brother Lewis took the contract to build the race, which was to be three-fourths of a mile in length. Subsequently the two brothers built a sawmill, which they operated successfully a number of years. Mr. Buck then invested in land, buying a farm southeast of Three Rivers, where he still continued his residence, at the same time looking after his land. On December 21, 1861, Mr. Buck enlisted in Company H, Thirteenth Michigan Volunteer Infantry, and served about ten months, when he was honorably discharged on account of physical disability. On June 21, 1854, Mr. Buck was united in marriage with Lucy J. Arnold, who was born in Constantine township, St. Joseph county, September 1, 1836, a daughter of William F. Arnold, Esq. Her grandfather, Caleb Arnold, for many years a farmer in New York state, came to St. Joseph county about 1830, purchased a tract of timbered land in Constantine township, and was there engaged in tilling the soil until his death. His wife, whose maiden name was Rachel Bennett, was born in New York state, and died in Constantine township, Michigan. William F. Arnold was born on the home farm, near Unadilla, in 1812, and as a young man accompanied the family to Michigan. Moving from Constantine township to Three Rivers in 1854, he purchased land in Lockport township, and a part of the farm which he improved is now within the city limits. Soon after locating here, Mr. Arnold was elected supervisor, and served in that capacity, and was also justice of the peace several terms. He died at the advanced age of seventyeight years. The maiden name of his wife was Rhoda Churchill. She was born in Ohio, a daughter of William Churchill, a pioneer settler of St. Joseph county. She died at the early age of thirtyseven years, leaving nine children. Mr. and Mrs. Buck are the parents of two children, namely: Effie M., and Gertrude. Effie married Henry Robinson, who died in 1906, leaving two children, John, who married Mamie O'Keefe; and Lulu, wife of Lee Carpenter. Gertrude Buck married Roy Gleason, and they have one child, Harriet Gleason. Mr. Buck is a charter member of the Ed. M. Prutzman Post, No. 72, G. A. R. Mr. Buck's father, George Buck. was a soldier in the war in 1812, and his grandfather was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. Three brothers, Robert, Thomas, and Charles, besides Mr. Buck

Page  747 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 747 himself were soldiers in the Civil war, and all lived to return home and were never wounded. CHARLES S. HUFF is a native born son of Mottville township, where on the 17th of December, 1848, he was born to the marriage union of A. W. and Elizabeth (Sixbey) Huff. Nicholas I. Sixbey, his maternal grandfather, was one of the first settlers of White Pigeon township, settling there among the Indians, and he spent the greater part of the remainder of his life there. He was a member of the Dutch Reformed church at Constantine. A. W. Huff was born at Montgomery county, New York, February 24, 1816, a son of a wealthy farmer and land owner in the Mohawk Valley, the latter owning an estate of four hundred acres there. A. W. Huff came to Three Rivers, Michigan, when a young man, and being a cooper by trade he found ready employment there, but subsequently he moved to the farm of two hundred acres in White Pigeon township, now the property of L. S. Huff, and lived there until his death. He was the father of seven children: Charles S., Edward, Ida O., L. S., Anna, Henrietta and Meda. Charles S. Huff was reared on his father's farm in White Pigeon township, attending in the meantime the district and other schools, and he assisted with the work of that homestead until his marriage. He now owns one hundred and twenty acres of land, a part in Mottville township and the remainder in Constantine township, and he is both a farmer and stock raiser, raising both a high grade of cattle and horses. His marriage in 1875 was to Miss Martha Caskey, born in Mottville township in 1849, and a daughter, Grace, was born to them on the 22d of October, 1876. She attended the public schools and the State Normal at Ypsilanti, and following her graduation at that institution taught in both the country and graded schools. She married on the 10th of March, 1909, and is living on a large farm in Canada. Mr. Huff is a member of the Democratic party, of the Grange and of the Methodist Episcopal church at White Pigeon. He is well known in the community in which he has so long resided and is one of Mottville's representative citizens and business men. HENRY BONEBRIGHT.-The name of Henry Bonebright is enrolled on the pages of the history of St. Joseph county as the first white child born within its borders, and he has always lived here and been prominently identified with its agricultural interests. Jacob Bonebright, his father, was born in Pennsylvania, and mov

Page  748 748 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ing from there to Stark county, Ohio, he was married to Barbara Myers, also from Pennsylvania. Together they came to Constantine, Michigan, arriving on the 20th of May, 1829, and Jacob Bonebright entered one hundred and sixty acres of land in section 22, and later entered another tract of forty acres. He lived there until 1835, settling then at the present home of his son Henry, and the latter has known no other home. Jacob Bonebright built the second house in Constantine, a log cabin with a puncheon floor. The first house had been built by Judge Meek, who laid out the town and it was first called Meek's Mills. Mr. Bonebright died on the 3d of February, 1857, and his wife survived until the year of 1880. They were the parents of nine children, namely: John and Joseph, both deceased; Delilah, born July 16, 1828, is the widow of James H. Voorhees and the mother of two children; Mary J. is the wife of Oliver Harker, of Denver, Colorado; Samuel and Jacob were twins, and both are deceased; Henry was the next born; Catherine was born July 3, 1832; and Rebecca was born November 24, 1834, and is deceased. The children all received good common school educations. Henry Bonebright, born on the 3d of February, 1830, owns the old Bonebright homestead of one hundred and sixty acres, and he resides there with his two sisters, Delilah and Catherine. He is a Democrat in his political affiliations, and he has served in the office of path master. He is highly esteemed in the community where he has so long resided, and he bears a name which is honored in the pioneer history of St. Joseph county. WILLIAM H. WILSON, who is established in the successful practice of his profession in the city of Three Rivers, merits recognition in this volume as one of the representative members of the bar of St. Joseph county. He is a native son of the Wolverine state, where he has ever maintained his home and where he has won prestige in one of the most exacting of professions,-a fact that implies thorough knowledge of the science of jurisprudence and the power of applying its principles and precedents in the practical work of the advocate and counselor. William H. Wilson was born in Marlette township, Sanilac county, Michigan, on the 12th of March, 1874, and is a son of George and Eliza (Rudd) Wilson, both of whom were born in Ireland, but both of whom were children at the time of the immigration of the respective families from the fair Emerald Isle to America. The Wilson family came in the year 1859 and first located in the prov

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Page  751 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 751 ince of Ontaria, Canada; the Rudd family came in the preceding year, establishing a home in the state of New York, but they shortly afterward came to Michigan, where the mother of the subject of this review was reared to maturity and where was solemnized her marriage to George Wilson. Of this union were born five sons and three daughters, all of whom grew to maturity and of whom William H. was the third in order of birth. All are now living. The parents are residents of Marlette township, where the father is a farmer. William H. Wilson was reared to maturity in his native county and there received his early educational discipline, which included a course in the high school at Marlette, Michigan, and in this school he was graduated as a member of the class of 1892. That he made good use of the opportunities thus afforded him is evident when we revert to the fact that upon leaving the high school he proved himself eligible for pedagogic honors, and for a period of seven years he was a successful and popular teacher in the public schools of his native state. He then, in 1899, with the financial reinforcement gained through his efforts as a teacher, was matriculated in the law department of the celebrated University of Michigan, in which he completed the prescribed technical course and was graduated as a member of the class of 1902, with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. He was forthwith admitted to the bar of his native state and he initiated the practice of his chosen profession by locating at Baldwin, the judicial center of Lake county, Michigan, where he soon justified his choice of vocation and proved himself an able trial lawyer and well fortified counselor. He became one of the prominent young representatives of the bar of the northern part of the state, served for six years as prosecuting attorney of Lake county, and continued his residence at Baldwin until 1908, in the fall of which year he came to Three Rivers, where he has found a wider and more attractive field for his professional labors, which have here been likewise attended with unequivocal success, as he is rapidly building up a substantial business and has gained a representative clientage. He has admirably proved his powers in connection with important litigations since coming to Three Rivers, and his abilty and his close observance of the unwrtten ethical code of his profession have gained him the high esteem of his confreres as well as that of the general public. In politics Mr. Wilson has ever accorded an unwavering allegiance to the Republican party, in whose cause he has given effective service in various campaigns as well as in its local councils. He is affiliated with the Masonic fra

Page  752 752 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ternity, and both he and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. On the 6th of August, 1904, Mr. Wilson was united in marriage to Mrs. Rachel (Vernon) McLean, who was born and reared in Canada, and who is a daughter of William Vernon, who is engaged in agriculture at Sarnia, Canada. Attorney Wilson has one of the full and complete law libraries of Three Rivers, Michigan, and is a great reader. SEYMOUR H. HOGLE, cashier of the Burr Oak State Bank, was born at Dale, New York, January 19, 1845. He is a son of Hugh R. and Minerva (Fuller) Hogle, natives of the state of New York. Hugh Hogle was born in 1810, and died in Pekin, Illinois, in 1853; his wife was born in 1826 and died in 1891, in Grand Rapids, Michigan. When nine years of age Mr. Hogle came with his mother and stepfather, David Green, of New York, to Auburn, Indiana, where they spent a year and then went to Wisconsin, where they spent another year, and in 1856 came to Coldwater, Michigan. Mr. Green died in Coldwater and his widow removed to Grand Rapids to live with a son. To Hugh R. Hogle and his wife were born children as follows: Seymour H.; and Alma, born in New York, in 1850, died in Denver, Colorado. The latter was the wife of Henry Kale, formerly of Branch county, Michigan, who removed to Denver; he was a farmer, and they had two sons. Mr. Green and his wife had two children, William H. and Elmer E. William H. Green, born about 1857-8, lives in Chicago, where he is employed as foreman in a shop; he is married and has one daughter. Elmer E. Green, born in 1862, lives in Grand Rapids, Michigan, is married and has a daughter. Seymour H. Hogle began working on a farm by the month when twelve years of age, going to school in the winters, until he was seventeen years old, and then he enlisted in Battery C, First Michigan Light Artillery; he was with Sherman's Army all the time. He took part in the Atlanta campaign in the march to the sea, up through the Carolinas, and took part in twenty-two important engagements, the battle of Atlanta being one of them. Mr. Hogle served under Captain William W. Hyzer, and was mustered out in June, 1865, at Detroit. During the entire war he was wounded only slightly. In 1866 Mr. Hogle returned to Branch county, Michigan, and married Belle, daughter of Jacob Lilly, of Noble township, Branch county; she was born in 1849 and died in Burr Oak in 1897. Her

Page  753 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 753 parents, who were farmers, are now deceased. After his marriage Mr. Hogle removed to Burr Oak and worked four years as clerk in a general store; he then went into partnership with Ed Smith in the line of dry goods and groceries, the firm doing business about a year and a half. He was with D. F. Parsons seven or eight years and then purchased the business of M'Lr. Parsons, carrying it on until 1898. He sold out his mercantile interests and took care of a farm of one hundred and sixty acres, which he continued until taking his present position in the bank. Mr. Hogle enlisted while attending school at Coldwater, Michigan; he holds a scholarship in Bryant & Stratton's Commercial College, from which he graduated in 1866, immediately after he was mustered out. He is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, being the first Post Commander in St. Joseph county, The Post, B. G. Bennett Post, has lost nearly all the older members. Mr. Hogle is affiliated with the Masonic Order, and is a Knight Templar; he held the office of Worthy Master of Eagle Lodge No. 124, and has held an office ever since becoming a member. He belongs to the Presbyterian church of Burr Oak, in which he is an elder, and he was elected a delegate to the National Assembly at Philadelphia, in 1901. He is a prominent and influential citizen, and well known in the community, where he has won universal respect and esteem. MIr. Hogle and his wife had children as follows: Clifford, born in 1871, died November 1, 1909; he lived in Cheyenne, Wyoming, married Cora Fuller, of Bronson, and they had one daughter; Fayette, born in 1880, of Roodhouse, Illinois, married Lucy Doran, of Chicago, and has no children; Marjorie, born in 1890, unmarried, lives at home. Marjorie graduated from Burr Oak High School and for the past year has been in college in Ontario, Canada; she is specializing in music and domestic art. Mr. Hogle married (second) in 1898, Mary Bennett, of Sturgis, Michigan; she is a daughter of Atwell Bennett, who lived at Lawton, Michigan. They have no children. GEORGE S. SHEFFIELD, a leading manufacturer and business man of Burr Oak, was born September 8, 1831, in Geneva, New York; he is a son of James G. and Lydia Ann (Edwards) Sheffield, the father a native of New York and the mother of Rhode Island. James G. Sheffield was born in 1811 and died in 1905; his first wife was born in 1813 and died in 1875. He married (second) Ann Shummell, of Nottawa, who died in 1901. The family came

Page  754 754 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY to Branch county in 1856, and lived with a brother in St. Joseph county some time, where Mrs. Sheffield died. By his first wife James G. Sheffield had children as follows: George S.; Liza Jane, wife of James Henry Mathieson, moved to Kankakee, Illinois, and had three children, both parents now dead; William H., married Miss Hammontree, and has no children; James U., married and living on a farm in Colon township; Mary, wife of James McKay, of Grand Rapids; and Josephine, wife of J. K. Finehart, of Detroit, who died, leaving two children. James G. Sheffield was a Democrat and a member of the Baptist church. He purchased a farm in Branch county, and was a member of Bronson Lodge, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. When twenty-one years of age George S. Sheffield began working as a carpenter, and about 1858 began as cabinet-maker at Centerville. August 24, 1861, he enlisted in Company A, Eleventh Michigan Infantry, under Captain David Oakes. He went to White Pigeon, to Louisville, Kentucky, and then into camp at Bardstown, Kentucky, for the winter of 1861-2. He went to Elizabethtown, Kentucky, by boat to LouisvilIe and Nashville, and the first battle in which he participated was Murfreesborough. Mr. Sheffield took part in fourteen important battles, went across the Tennessee River to Lookout Mountain, and to Stevens Gap, participated in a hard battle at Davis Cross Roads, also Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Kenesaw Mountain, Rough Station, and wound up with the capture of Atlanta. This division of the regiment was under fire ninety days, and was mustered out September 29, 1864, at Sturgis, Michigan. Mr. Sheffield received no wound, but keeps as a dear possession a tobacco box which saved his life from a bullet that cut across his shoulder. Upon returning from the war, Mr. Sheffield spent seven years on a farm and then built a house on the place. In February, 1871, he located in Three Rivers, and began working at pump manufacturing for Willis & Hagen, and in 1878 he secured a patent on a three-wheeled hand-car; he formed a co-partnership for the manufacture of this car and sold a half interest for a half-interest in a pump factory. Four years later he sold out, and the firm is now Willis & Lindsey. Mr. Sheffield then located in Bronson and began perfecting a hand cornplanter, on which he took out a patent in 1891. It is called the Sheffield corn planter, and is used in all parts of the world. Mr. Sheffield came to Burr Oak and formed a partnership with A. C. Himebaugh for the manufacture of the

Page  755 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 755 planter; afterwards he erected a fine white brick plant near the railroad, and the goods are shipped from here to South America, Africa, New Zealand, Australia, and all civilized parts of the world. Mr. Sheffield is still engaged in manufacturing the corn planter, and has been very successful in the venture. Besides his manufacturing interests Mr. Sheffield and Mr. Himebaugh organized the First National Bank, of Burr Oak, of which Mr. Himebaugh is president and Mr. Sheffield holds a halfinterest. Mr. Sheffield owns the fine new bank building where the business of the bank is carried on. Mr. Sheffield is an organizer and a large stockholder in the South Michigan Telephone Company. He is a man of good business judgment, and pays close attention to his financial interests. He has contributed a large share towards the growth and development of Burr Oak, and is one of the leading citizens. Mr. Sheffield is a member of Hackett Post, Grand Army of the Republic, of Bronson. He is a Democrat in politics, but is too much occupied with his business affairs to care to hold public office. Mr. Sheffield married Mary, daughter of Alanson and Ann Haynes of Ontario, Wayne county, New York. They came to St. Joseph county and located in Centerville, afterwards removing to Indiana. Mr. Sheffield was married in 1852. He has no children. WILLIS A. CARPENTER was born in Carlton Center, Barry county, Michigan, August 16, 1876, and is a son of Augustus and Marietta (Conkright) Carpenter, both natives of New York. Augustus Carpenter was born in 1836, and died in Barry county, Michigan, in 1882; his father was a native of Germany. Marietta Conkright was born in Ohio, July 29, 1839; her father was a native of New York, and her grandfather, a Revolutionary soldier, was born in Holland. She was married to Augustus Carpenter in Barry county, Michigan, in 1869, and they had children as follows: Charles H., born September 23, 1872; Frances L., born March 29, 1874, and Willis A. Charles H. is an employe of a railroad and lives at Gladstone, Michigan. Frances L. is the wife of Rev. G. G. Wilson, a pastor of the Church of Christ, of Cadillac, Michigan; they have two daughters, Bessie and Bertha. Mr. Carpenter was a Republican, and held almost every township office. He and his wife were both members of the Methodist church of Carlton Center. For her second husband Mrs. Carpenter married James DuBois, and now lives at Grand Ledge, Michigan, on a farm. Mrs. DuBois

Page  756 756 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY is a woman of considerable literary talent, and has always written for publication since her youth. She is a contributor to the Michigan Christian Advocate, and has recently written a series of articles for a San Francisco paper, entitled "Amusement for the Young," and "The Home." She is a woman of culture and refinement, and widely known and esteemed. Willis A. Carpenter has been a printer since boyhood, and began working on his own account at the age of thirteen years. He spent five years working at the Battle Creek Sanitarium, and has worked in various positions since, at the same time, however, carrying on his printing business until 1900. At the age of nine years he edited and printed, on his own press, the "Carlton Kicker." August 16, 1900, Mr. Carpenter married Lulu, daughter of James and Anna Clark, of Ionia. Her father was a railroad conductor and died some years ago; her mother lives at Fruitport, Michigan. Mrs. Carpenter was born January 6, 1883. Mr. Carpenter and his wife have two children, Helen Aline, born June 21, 1903, and Maxine Adell, born January 15, 1907. In the fall of 1905 Mr. Carpenter and his wife purchased a one-half interest in the Burr Oak Acorn, going into partnership with L. H. Mallory. The paper is widely circulated, and the investment proved successful Mr. Carpenter is a man of literary ability and conducted the paper in a manner that assured him a large number of subscribers. He sold his interest to L. H. Mallory and purchased the Mendon Leader, which he intends to make the best paper in St. Joseph county and will boost Mendon until it is the most talked of town in the county. Mr. Carpenter is a Republican and a member of the Modern Woodmen of America; he and his wife are members of the Presbyterian church. Lucius F. FILLMORE.-Possibly there is not a family in St. Joseph county, Michigan, which has the prestige, genealogically and historically, of the Fillmores. Mr. Fillmore is a relative of President Millard Fillmore, his own father being a nephew of the president. It is true, in the words of Emerson, that the true history and progress of a nation is recounted in the history of the people. The Fillmores of St. Joseph county are so well known as pioneer agriculturists that they need no introduction to the people of the county. Lucius F. Fillmore is a scion of one of the families that have long been founded in America. The first progenitor was Capt. John Fillmore-but the name, which is of English origin, was

Page  757 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 757 variously spelled, as "Filmer," "Filmore," "Fillamore," "Phillmore," and Fillmore, and the rising generation have adopted the present spelling. The original English name is traced to Robert Filmore, living in time of Edward II. A descendant, in time of Queen Elizabeth, had a coat of arms conferred upon him, this coat of arms being-sable, three bars, three cinquefoils in chief-the date of conferring being 1570. The first of the name found in the United States was John Fillmore or Phillmore, mariner of Ipswich, Massachusetts, who purchased an estate at Beverly, Massachusetts, on November 24, 1704, and this Fillmore was the common ancestor of all the Fillmores of America. The Fillmores of this sketch trace their lineage back to the Revolutionary war, since President Millard Fillmore's grandfather was a soldier in the battle of Bennington, where General Stark made the memorable expression that "We will whip the Britishers or Molly Stark will be a widow tonight." This makes the Fillmores eligible to membership in the Sons and Daughters of the Revolution. Mr. Fillmore of this sketch has one of the most costly bibles in the county, which was the property of President Fillmore, and on the clasp of the bible is inscribed, Millard Fillmore, Buffalo, N. Y., 1846. This is a valuable relic and besides this bible Mr. Fillmore has a gold headed cane with his name and the date, 1852, and a thorn cane, cut on the Tippecanoe Battle Ground, and presented by the Whigs of Indiana in 1841. And it was given to his father, Nathaniel Fillmore, and passed on down to the present descendant of the Fillmore family. They also have a gold-plated clock under a glass cover, which was the property of President Fillmore, and Lucius Fillmore also has two steel plates of the president. There is no family possibly in St. Joseph county who can furnish such historical data as the Fillmores. Lucius Fillmore is a native of La Grange county, Indiana, and was born January 28, 1852. He is the oldest of three children, two sons and one daughter born to Benjamin F. and Mary (Baker) Fillmore and all are still living. They are as follows: Lucius F.; Leonard M., who is one of the prosperous agriculturists and stockmen of the county; he was reared to manhood in La Grange and politically is a Democrat; Ella V., wife of B. F. Crandall, a farmer, residing in La Grange township, and they have two daughters. Benjamin F. Fillmore, the father of this family, was born in Erie, New York, December 29, 1825. He was but a small boy when his parents located in Northern Ohio near Fremont in 1830, in the

Page  758 758 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Black Swamp, and there they lived until 1837, when they located in La Grange county, Indiana, when the country was almost an unbroken wilderness. They rented for awhile and then purchased a farm, the father adding to his possessions time and again till he owned over four hundred acres in that county. Benjamin F. Fillmore grew to manhood in his adopted county and there was educated in the pioneer schools. He became an agriculturist and also a thresher. He was a successful man in his business and resided in Indiana till 1891, when he sold his estate and came to Nottawa township, Michigan, and resided with his son till his death, which occurred January 12, 1895. He was a Mason of high rank, being a member of the lodge and chapter and he was always a true Mason and was interred by Masonic rites. He was first a Whig, but later became a Jackson Democrat. Both he and his wife are interred in Brighton, Indiana, and beautiful stones have been erected to their memory. Mother Fillmore was a native of New Hampshire and she was born in Campton, New Hampshire, March 19, 1826. She died June 17, 1883. She was twelve years of age when she came with her parents to New York and was reared there till her marriage. Lucius F. Fillmore of this sketch was reared in his native state of Indiana till manhood. He has been an active man as an agriculturist, teacher and has been a solicitor. His education was received in the common schools and also at the high school at Orland, Indiana. He became one of the successful teachers in Branch county, Michigan, and then taught six terms in La Grange and Steuben county, Indiana. Mr. Fillmore has been twice married, first to Miss Nettie Paxson, in Springfield township, December 25, 1877, and one daughter was born, May, now the wife of Chester Bucknell, a resident of Nottawa township, where he is a prosperous farmer; they have two children, Arthur F. and Pearl. Mrs. Buckner was educated in the common schools. Her mother died March 11, 1887. For his second wife Mr. Fillmore chose Miss Charlotte C. Crandall, to whom he was married January 31, 1890, at La Grange county, Indiana, and four children, two sons and two daughters, have been born to them: Viva A., who received her diploma from the common schools in 1908, and at the present time is a student in the Centerville high school; Verne Z. is in the seventh grade in the public schools; Marian B. is in the second grade, and Clara L. is also in school. Mrs. Fillmore is a native of Constantia, New York, and was born March 2, 1869, being a daughter of Andrew and Sophia

Page  759 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 759 (Hoyt) Crandall. There were three children, two sons and one daughter in her parents' family: Charles Crandall, a resident of near Coldwater, Michigan; Adelbert D., a resident of Orland, Indiana, and Mrs. Fillmore. The father, Andrew Crandall, was a native of New York born in 1840. He was reared as an agriculturist and educated in the common schools. He came to Indiana when Mrs. Fillmore was but an infant, and Angola was but a wilderness. He was a soldier in the Civil war, having enlisted in Company F. 189th New York Volunteer Infantry, September 5, 1864, at Oswego, New York, and was in many battles, including Hatcher's Run, Nelson's Farm, Boylston, Plank Road, Gravelly Run and Five Forks. His regiment was under the command of General Grant, and in the Army of the Potomac. Mr. Crandall was honorably discharged May 30, 1865. In 1901 he came to Michigan and purchased land in Nottawa village. He is a Republican. Mrs. Crandall was a native of New York and was born April 25, 1843, and she died November 8, 1907. She was born in Hastings, Oswego county, New York. She was a devout member of the Methodist Episcopal church and was converted when she was sixteen years of age. Mrs. Fillmore was educated in Orland, Indiana. It was on "Thanksgiving Day," 1891, when Mr. Fillmore came to Michigan and took possession of his present estate. He has a beautiful estate of ninety-four acres of good land in Nottawa township and this pretty place is known as "Ingleside." In politics he is a Democrat, but in local affairs he casts his vote for the man, not the party. He has acted on the board of directors of public charities for several years, and he has also been on the board of review. Fraternally Mr. Fillmore is a member of Mt. Hermon Lodge, F. & A. M., No. 24, and he and his wife are members of the Eastern Star. No. 225, at Centerville, Michigan. He is sentinel and Mrs. Fillmore is Ruth of the Eastern Star and has held the office for three years. The county organization of the Eastern Star was held at Centerville, May 11, 1910. GEORGE T. WOLF.-There is every reason for St. Joseph county to be proud of those of her native sons who are lending their influence and co-operation in forwarding her industrial, commercial and civic advancement, and one of this number is George T. Wolf, who is cashier of the First State Savings Bank of Three Rivers and who is a scion of one of the oldest and most honored pioneer families now represented in the county. On other pages of this Vol. II —16

Page  760 760 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY work appears a brief review of the life history of his father, Amos C. Wolf, one of the county's most venerable and honored pioneers, and to that article reference may be made for further data concerning the family record. George T. Wolf was born on the old homestead farm, in section 27, Lockport township, this county, on the 8th of September, 1854, and the place of his nativity was the property secured from the government by his paternal grandfather more than seventyfive years ago. To the public schools of his native township Mr. Wolf is indebted for his early educational discipline, which was effectively supplemented by a course in the Parson's Business,College at Kalamazoo, Michigan. He learned the lessons of industry in connection with the work of the home farm, and he has ever maintained a deep appreciation of earnest and honorable toil, no matter in what field. In 1878 he became deputy county treasurer, under the regime of his father, and he continued incumbent of this position for two years. In 1881 he became associated with his father in the organization of the A. C. Wolf and Brothers' Bank, at Centerville, the judicial center of St. Joseph county, and he served as cashier of the institution from its inception until 1888 when he came to Three Rivers, Michigan, as assistant cashier of the First National Bank and remained as such until 1891 when he became associated with his father and others in the organization and incorporation of the First State Savings Bank of Three Rivers, of which he has since served as cashier and of which his father has been president from the beginning. The bank is incorporated with a capital stock of $60,000 and is one of the substantial and ably managed financial institutions of the county. It receives a representative support and its business is handled along duly conservative lines. Mr. Wolf has at all times shown a public-spirited interest in all that has touched the welfare of his native county, and as a citizen he is essentially liberal and progressive. He accords an unwavering allegiance to the cause of the Republican party; is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity. His wife is enrolled as member of the Presbyterian church in Three Rivers, where Mr. Wolf is recognized as a representative business man and where he has a secure place in popular confidence and regard. On the 29th of November, 1882, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Wolf to Miss Amanda McKinley, who was born and reared in St. Joseph county and who is a daughter of Robert McKinley, a representative citizen of that place at that time. Mr. and Mrs.

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Page  763 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 763 Wolf have one son, George M., who was born on the 24th of September, 1886, and who is now assistant cashier of the First State Savings Bank of Three Rivers. He is one of the representative young business men of the city and is popular in the social circles of the community. WALTER J. HoSHAL.-In the matter of definite accomplishment and high personal integrity St. Joseph county has every reason to be proud of those of her native sons who are lending their influence and co-operation in the forwarding of her industrial, commercial and civic enterprises. Among such progressive and highly esteemed representatives of the industrial interests of the county is numbered Walter J. Hoshal, who has shown marked initiative and administrative ability in the various lines of activity to which he has directed his attention and who is now general manager of the Beard Skirt Company, whose manufactory and general business headquarters are established in the attractive little city of Burr Oak, where he maintains his home and where he is a valued factor not only in business circles but also in social, public and church work. He has secure vantage ground in the confidence and regard of the people of his native county and is well entitled to representation in this publication. Walter J. Hoshal was born in White Pigeon township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, on the 13th of December, 1879, this county having also been the birthplace of his mother, though the family home was in Newago county at the time of the birth of him whose name initiates this review. ir. Hoshal is the second in order of birth of the three children of Walter J. and Rosella (Robinson) Hoshal. Of the children Walter J. is the elder of the two surviving, and his brother, William F., is now foreman in one of the departments of the Sheffield Car Works, in Three Rivers, this county. William F. is a Republican in his political proclivities, is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias, and he and his wife have two children. Walter J. Hoshal, Sr., was born near the city of Toronto, Canada, on the 16th of November, 1852, and his death occurred, in Newago county, Michigan, on the 25th of January, 1885. He was reared and educated in the province of Ontario and during the greater part of his active career he was identified with the lumbering industry, in which connection he passed many years in the forests of Michigan. He was loyal to old England so long as he remained a resident of the Dominion of Canada, but after coming to the United States he manifested equal loyalty to the

Page  764 764 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY institutions and interests of the great American Republic, in which he became a naturalized citizen. In the year 1873 Walter J. Hoshal, Sr., removed from Ontario, Canada, to Newago county, Michigan, where he remained until 1875, when he came to St. Joseph county and located near White Pigeon, where he found employment in connection with farming operations. Here it was that he formed the acquaintance of Miss Rosella Robinson, a representative of one of the honored pioneer families of Pigeon prairie, this county, and here their marriage was solemnized on the 9th of August, 1876. Mr. Hoshal remained in that locality about one year after his marriage and then returned to Newago county, where he established his permanent home and where he continued to be identified with lumbering enterprises until his death. He was distinctively successful in his independent business activities, was a man of sterling character and strong mentality, and he ever held the high regard of those with whom he came in contact in the various relations of life. He was a stanch supporter of the cause of the Republican party and was loyal to all civic duties. He was affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and under its auspices his funeral was held. One of his ancestors, loyal to the British crown, served as a soldier in the war of the Revolution. Mrs. Rosella (Robinson) Hoshal was born in St. Joseph county, on the 5th of April, 1857, and is a daughter of Peter Robinson, who was numbered among the sterling pioneers of this county, where he reclaimed a farm and where he continued to reside until his death. Mrs. Hoshal married J. E. Weeks in 1890 and now resides in the city of Three Rivers. She is a zealous member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Walter J. Hoshal, the immediate subject of this review, has had a varied experience in the battle of life, and the brief data of this sketch adequately indicate that he has been the artificer of his own fortunes. His course has been characterized by industry, ambition and inflexible integrity of purpose, and he has won his own way to a position of definite success, the while he has not been denied the fullest measure of popular confidence and esteem. The boyhood and youth of Mr. Hoshal were passed in four different states-Michigan, South Dakota, Iowa, and Washington. His rudimentary education was secured in Newago county, Michigan, after which he passed two years in Brown county, South Dakota; one year in the state of Washington; and eight years in Iowa. Through his own efforts principally he secured an excellent practical education, thus admirably fitting himself for the business

Page  765 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 765 responsibilities which he later assumed. He was graduated in the Washington township high school, in Greene county, Iowa, and he recalls with appreciation that the first wages he received was twenty-five cents a day for pulling weeds, which dignified occupation enlisted his attention when he was a lad of twelve years. The distinctive elements that have characterized his career and that have led to definite success have been perseverance and honesty of purpose. After his graduation in the high school Mr. Hoshal put his scholastic acquirements to practical test and utilization by engaging as a teacher in the country schools of Greene county, Iowa, where he successfully followed the pedagogic profession for a period of four years. After remaining in the Hawkeye state for eight years he returned to Michigan and assumed the position of general manager of the sale of the "Reference Library" in this state. In this field of endeavor he made a most excellent record and developed marked executive ability. He devoted his attention to this line of educational work for six years, within which he placed the valuable reference library in countless schools, libraries and private homes. He continued in this line of effort until the autumn of 1909, when he resigned his position to accept that of general manager of the Beard Skirt Company, of Burr Oak. This company was incorporated under the laws of the state in October, 1909, with a capital stock of $3,500, and its executive corps is as here noted: Clinton A. Boyer, president; Robert B. Ferris, vice president; Ansell R. Ferris, secretary and treasurer; and Walter J. Hoshal, general manager. The company has established a well equipped plant in Burr Oak and its products are sold through agents in all sections of the Union. The concern has thus proved a valuable acquisition to the industrial and commercial enterprises of St. Joseph county. Through his previous experience in the securing and directing the work of agents Mr. Hoshal is specially well qualified for his present administrative office, and it is largely due to his efficient supervision of its affairs that the company's business is so rapidly expanding in scope and importance. In politics Mr. Hoshal is aligned as a stanch supporter of the principles and policies for which the Republican party stands sponsor, and he cast his first presidential vote for the late and lamented President McKinley. The high esteem in which he is held in his home city is shown in the fact that in 1909 he was elected mayor of Burr Oak. As chief executive of the municipal government he gave a most able and progressive administration, and he retired

Page  766 766 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY from office in March, 1910. Mr. Hoshal is affiliated with Burr Oak Lodge, No. 123, Free & Accepted Masons, and with the Sturgis chapter of Royal Arch Masons, besides which he holds membership in the Burr Oak Camp of the Modern Woodmen of America. He is president of the Burr Oak Public Library Association, and it is largely due to his earnest efforts that this organization has been brought to its present prosperous condition, involving the collecting and maintaining of an excellent public library. Both Mr. Hoshal and his wife are zealous and valued members of the Methodist Episcopal church in their home village, and he is a member of its board of trustees, as well as superintendent of its Sunday school. He is active in all departments of the church work and is at the present time president of the Niles District Epworth League, a position of which he has been incumbent since August, 1908. He has also shown deep interest in the work of the Young Men's Christian Association and is a member of its executive committee for St. Joseph county. He does all in his power to further educational, moral and social advancement and has ever shown a high sense of his stewardship, thus striving to aid and uplift his fellow men and to prove worthy as one of the world's sterling army of productive workers. The following estimate, given by one familiar with the career of Mr. Hoshal, is worthy of reproduction in this article: "Mr. Hoshal is one of the alert young business men of St. Joseph county, and both he and his wife have the unqualified esteem of all who know them. Their attractive home, at the corner of Fourth and Eagle streets, in Burr Oak, is known for its gracious hospitality, and among its attractions is a fine library of more than five hundred volumes of choice literature. Mr. Hoshal is a close student at all times when his business cares are laid aside, and thus he does not permit himself to retrograde along intellectual lines, striving to keep in touch with the march of progress in this line as well as in that of practical business." On the 29th of November, 1905, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Hoshal to Miss Janie Lancaster, and they have two fine little sons-Walter J., Jr., and LaVerne. Mrs. Hoshal, a young woman of much charm of personality, was born in Burr Oak, on the 23d of May, 1884, and is a daughter of Benjamin and Martha (Ferris) Lancaster, who still reside in this place. Mrs. Hoshal was reared and educated in Burr Oak, and after her graduation in the high school she was a successful and popular teacher in her native county, besides which she held for some time the position of deputy postmaster of Burr Oak, She is active in the work of the

Page  767 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 767 Methodist Episcopal church, is a valued member of the Women 's Club, a social and literary organization, and is a popular factor in the best social activities of the community. DAVID W. EMBLEY.-One of Mendon's most highly esteemed and prominent citizens and one whose interests have long been identified with those of the community in which he now makes his home is David W. Embley. He owns one hundred and twenty acres of fine land and also a desirable home in the village. He and his wife have always led quiet lives, but their influence has been none the less potent, and has always been exerted in the right direction. Mr. Embley was born May 25, 1839, his parents being William and Margaret (Hill) Embley. The father was a native of New Jersey, where he was born in 1810, being either of English or of Scotch descent. The mother was born in New York in 1812, her father having come to America from Ireland at the age of sixteen. Both Mr. and Mrs. Embley came to Michigan with their parents when quite young, and after their marriage bought a farm of eighty acres, which they operated for a number of years, finally selling it and retiring. They were good church members, the mother being a communicant of the Covenant church in New York, and the father belonging to the Methodist church. He voted the Republican ticket and previous to its organization was a Whig. They were the parents of the following children: James, born May 17, 1837, and now lives in Mendon; he married Aseneth Olney and has no children; David W., the subject of this sketch; a twin to David W. died in infancy, unnamed; Margaret E., born January 18, 1843, is the wife of Franklin Woodard and lives in Hershey, Michigan; she was the mother of seven children, six of whom survive; Nancy J., born January 6, 1846, is the wife of Elisha Woodard, a retired farmer, residing at Guide Rock, Nebraska, and they have six children. William Embley died in 1861, and his wife in 1856. Soon after the attainment of his majority, David W. Embley started out for himself as a farmer, by working land on shares. He married in 1864, and by the exercise of industry and thrift, he and his wife were enabled to become independent land owners. They farmed successfully for a number of years, then disposed of part of their land to a son and came to Mendon where they secured a home and are here spending their later years. Mr. Embley subscribes to the policies of the Republican party, is interested in matters pertaining to the common good and for a number of terms

Page  768 768 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY served as justice of the peace. He and his good wife are consistent members of the Methodist church, and give their sympathy to all its good works. Mrs. Embley's name before her marriage was Sarah Eliza Barnabee, she being a daughter of Stephen and Maria Barnabee. They came early in the nineteenth century from Ohio and located near Schoolcraft township, where the father entered a farm in 1833. They removed to Mendon township and later to Mendon village where they lived out the remainder of their days. Mrs. Embley was born July 5, 1844, north of Mendon, and was one of a family of nine children. Her union to Mr. Embley was celebrated on the first day of January, 1864. They are the parents of a good sized family of children, as follows: Edson S., born April 17, 1865, lives on the farm once owned by his father and upon which his wife's father also once lived; his wife was before her marriage Mrs. Nettie (Hall) Caldwell, and there are no children; Nellie M., born November 8, 1866, died October 9, 1867; Margaret was born August 28, 1868, and became the wife of Daniel Marten, and they were the parents of one child; Mr. Marten was killed by lightning about twelve years ago, and the widow married Frank Baer, who is also deceased and she is now living in Idaho; Irvin S. was born December 24, 1872, and died September 9, 1873; Verna, born May 31, 1874, (her twin dying unnamed) is now the wife of Orson Kellogg, an Idaho farmer, and the mother of three children; Jennie, born August 1, 1876, is the widow of Carl Roberts of Mendon, whose death occurred in October, 1909; she has two sons; Louella, born February 16, 1880, is the wife of Guy Hamilton, who is engaged in the implement business in Mendon. Mr. and Mrs. Embley have thus manifold interests in their children and grandchildren and are to be numbered among Mendon's most genial and delightful citizens. WILLIAM H. BURGER is one of the land owners, agriculturists and prominent business men of Constantine township, and he was born in this township July 12, 1857, a son of Jacob and a grandson of Henry Burger. The last named was born in Pennsylvania and was by trade a stone mason. He came to Michigan during its early history, and his son Jacob was born in Pennsylvania in 1830. He married Lavinia George, and their five children are: Mrs. W. B. Allerton, of Constantine township; William H.; Charles M.; John J., deceased; and one who died in infancy. Jacob Burger was a

Page  769 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 769 self-made man and one of the prosperous agriculturists of St. Joseph county. He was a member of the Masonic fraternity. William H. Burger was born, reared and educated in Constantine township, and he now owns two hundred and fifty acres of its rich farming lands and is well known as a general farmer and stock raiser, raising a good grade of stock. He is one of the original stockholders as well as one of the present directors of the Commercial Bank of Constantine, and he owns a half interest in the Constantine Lumber Company. Mr. Burger married first Lizzie Smith, a daughter of Dan and Ellen Smith, and the only child of that union, William M. Burger, was born in May of 1893, and is now a student in the Constantine High School. Mrs. Burger died in September of 1895, and he married for his second wife Carrie E. Helme, born at Rockford, Illinois. The second union has been without issue. Mr. Burger is one of the supporters of the Republican party, and he is one of the most highly esteemed business men and citizens of Constantine township. WILLIAM SMITH is one of the most prominent of the farmers and stock raisers of Constantine township. He was born within the borders of this township on the 10th of November, 1865, and he represents one of the early pioneer families of St. Joseph county. His parents, August and Philipena (Mabius) Smith, came from Germany to this country and established their home in Constantine township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, where they were farming people for many years. There were five children in their family, namely: Christ P., of Three Rivers; Emma, the wife of Carl Johnson, of New York; Minnie, deceased; Henry, of Constantine; and William. William Smith was reared to farm life, and choosing it as a life occupation he has become an agriculturist and he and his wife own an estate of one hundred and ninety-four acres, one hundred and ten acres of which lie in Constantine township. The farm contains one of the finest homes in the township, and it is a valuable estate, well improved and productive. Mr. Smith started in life for himself as a poor lad, and the competence which he has secured is the result of his own patient endeavor. He was married October 9, 1889, to Emma P. Morrison, who was born in February, 1872, and she was reared on a farm in St. Joseph county. The two children of this union are Ethel F. and Gertrude N., born respectively in 1890 and in 1895, and the younger is a student in the district schools. Mr. Smith in politics is a member of the Democratic party.

Page  770 770 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY WILLIAM L. WHITE is numbered among the business men of Constantine, and he was born in Sherman township of St. Joseph county on the 25th of August, 1870, a son of John W. and Martha (Bayn) White. Although his father was a Methodist Episcopal minister William L. White was born and reared on a farm, and he assisted with the farm work while attending school, passing through the high school and later attending college at Albion, Michigan. After farming for a short time he embarked in the real estate business at Coldwater in Branch county, this state, and returning to Constantine in November of 1905 he resumed his real estate operations here, and he is a stock seller and promoter of prominence. He is a member of the firm of White and Stark Company with offices in both Constantine, Michigan, and Elkhart, Indiana, Mr. Stark residing in the latter city. Mr. White married in 1890 Lizza Johnson, and of their five children, Earl L., Rena Mae, Paul N., Bessie and Marguerite, four are living. The family are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and Mr. White is also associated with Constantine Lodge, No. 241, Knights of Pythias. He is a Republican, and while in Branch county he served as a deputy sheriff. He is numbered among the representative business men and citizens of Constantine. ZIBA B. RUGGLES.-For the long period of sixty-five years has the honored subject of this sketch maintained his home in St. Joseph county, and his is the noteworthy distinction of being at the present time the most venerable citizen of this county, as he is ninety-two years of age at the time of this writing, in 1910. His has been an earnest and upright life, and, while he has endured his quota of the vicissitudes and reverses that come to all, he has ever retained a buoyant optimism and has found satisfaction and due recompense in numbering himself among the world's noble army of workers. It is a matter of much gratification to the publishers of this work to be able to offer within its pages a brief review of the career of this patriarchal citizen of Three Rivers. Ziba Bennett Ruggles claims the old Keystone state of the Union as his native heath, as he was born in Hanover township, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, on the 22d of June, 1818. He is a son of Lorenzo and Polly (Bennett) Ruggles, born in Connecticut, where the father followed the trade of blacksmith during the major part of his active career and he resided in Pennsylvania until his death, in his seventy-seventh year. At the present time there are no authentic data by which may be decisively determined the ori

Page  771 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 771 gin of the Ruggles family genealogy, but it is supposed to trace back to stanch German stock and that two brothers of the name came from the Teutonic fatherland in an early day and established homes respectively in Pennsylvania and Ohio. The brother who settled in the latter state became a citizen of prominence and influence and held the office of judge of one of the courts. The lineage of the Bennett family is traced back to French origin, and many representatives of the name were enrolled as valiant soldiers in the Continental line in the war of the Revolution, among the number being the father of Polly Bennett, who became the mother of him whose name introduces this review; she likewise continued to reside in Pennsylvania until her death. Ziba B. Ruggles was reared to the age of sixteen years in his native county and his early experiences were those gained in connection with farm work and through assisting his father in the blacksmith shop. His limited educational edvantages were those offered in the common schools of the locality and period and at the age noted he went to Columbia county, Pennsylvania, where he learned the trade of carriage-maker, serving an apprenticeship of four and one-half years' duration. Thereafter he was for a time engaged in farming for a period of six years in the same county, that state, and in 1845 he came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, and established his home in Three Rivers. For the first four years he was employed by the day, at various lines of work, and he then purchased a farm of one hundred and twenty acres, in Lockport township, where he continued to be identified with agricultural pursuits for six years. He then returned to Three Rivers, where he erected a small shop and engaged in the work of his trade, in which he continued under these conditions for four years. He then purchased an established manufactory of carriages and wagons, and with this line of enterprise he continued to be actively identified for many years. He built up a large and prosperous enterprise and for a number of years gave employment to an average force of twenty-five men. Mr. Ruggles finally disposed of his business and has since lived virtually retired, save that for some time he was engaged in traveling as a salesman of monuments and tombstones. Through his earnest and well directed efforts he gained a sufficient competency to enable him to pass the golden evening of his life in peace and comfort. He is a man of strong mentality and has ever taken deep interest in all that has touched the welfare of his home city and county, as well as in public matters of a generic order. His political allegiance was originally given to the Whig

Page  772 772 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY party, but upon the organization of the Republican party, "under the oaks," in Jackson, Michigan, he was among the first to align himself as a supporter of its cause. During the long intervening years he has continued to be a stanch advocate of the principles and policies of the "grand old party." Mr. Ruggles has been a devout and earnest member of the Methodist Episcopal church since he was seventeen years of age and he is the most revered figure in the local church of this denomination in which he has been most zealous as a worker and in which he has served in every official position except that of pastor. He identified himself with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows many years ago, but does not now maintain active affiliation therewith. He is well known throughout the county that has so long represented his home and no citizen is held in more unqualified confidence and esteem than this sterling patriarch. In the year 1839 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Ruggles to Miss Mary Gearhart, who was born and reared in Pennsylvania and who has continued his devoted wife and helpmeet during the long intervening period of more than sixty years. She died about 1905. Mr. and Mrs. Ruggles became the parents of one son, Ezra C., who died in 1909. SHERMAN D. HASS resides in Constantine, prominently identified both with its business and official life. He was born in Elkhart county, Indiana, August 5, 1868, a son of William and Rebecca (Gray) Hass, both of whom were born in Pennsylvania. They came from there to St. Joseph county, Michigan, but later moved to Elkhart county, Indiana, and both have passed away. Sherman D. was the sixth born of their children, and only two others are now living, Melvin H. and Elizabath, the latter the wife of Alonzo Rainer. Sherman D. Hass was reared on his father's farm in Elkhart county, Indiana, receiving his education in the meantime in the nearby district school, and he remained at home with his parents until the age of twenty-one. During the six years following his marriage he lived in Mottville, and he came from there to Constantine in the fall of 1896. His first work here was running a dray, while later he embarked in the ice and coal business, and he is now employed with the Constantine Hydraulic Company. Mr. Hass is also the present township and village treasurer, and during four years he served as a member of the Constantine council. His political party is the Republican.

Page  773 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 773 Mrs. Hass was before marriage Ida M. Mann, and a daughter, Vinnie, was born to them on the 29th of August, 1890. She was born in Indiana, and is now a high school student. Mr. Hass is a member of Siloam Lodge, No. 35, F. & A. M., and he is also a member of the Modern Woodmen of America. He owns his own property on White Pigeon street, Constantine. JAMES DONOVAN, of Three Rivers, so well known as an inventor and an originator and patentee of related devices, is a native of Bath, province of Ontario, Canada, where he was born April 3, 1858. The history of the family in North America commences with the father, for the grandparents spent their lives in their native county of Cork, Ireland, and so far as known Richard Donovan and his brother Michael were the only members of the family to cross the Atlantic in search of homes and more favorable conditions than were to be found in the Emerald Isle. Michael settled in New York state, while Richard first located at Kingston, later purchasing a farm at Bath, eighteen miles west of that city. There the father spent the remainder of his life, rearing seven children and leaving the heritage of an honorable name. James Donovan, of this sketch, was educated in the schools of Bath, and in his early youth was apprenticed to the trade of carpentry, of which he became a master after four years of faithful work as a learner and a subordinate. At the age of twenty-two he moved to New York state and there conducted a good business as a contractor and builder until 1891, when he became a resident of Three Rivers. At once entering the employ of the Roberts Car Wheel Company as a pattern maker, Mr. Donovan was soon advanced to general superintendent, and while holding that position invented and patented the Donovan Car Wheel and several minor devices quite extensively adopted by car manufacturers. In 1905 he resigned as superintendent, sold his patents and has since devoted himself to the care and development of his investments. In 1878 Mr. Donovan married Miss Harriet Greenwood, a native of Kingston, Canada, daughter of Maxim Greenwood, who was born in Montreal of French ancestry. Mr. and Mrs. Donovan have had two children: Richard, who died at the age of thirteen years, and Oliver, who is now in the grocery business. The latter, who married Miss Margaret Mahana, is the father of a daughter, Eileen. The members of the Donovan families are all identified with the Immaculate Conception church and are loyal Roman Catholics.

Page  774 774 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ROBERT MANDIGO represents one of the early pioneer families of St. Joseph county, but he was born in Greene county, New York, October 11, 1838, a son of Archibald Mandigo, born in the same county and state, on the 9th of October, 1800. With his wife and children he journeyed by canal and lake thence to Florence township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, reaching here on the 12th day of October, 1851, and buying a farm in section 11 he spent the remainder of his life there and died in 1879. He had married Clorinda Haines in the state of New York, and she was born at Webster in Monroe county of that state in 1804. There were eight children born of that union, Jane, John, David, Archibald, Nicholas, Robert, Rachel and Jeremiah, but only three of that once large family, David, Nicholas and Robert, are living in 1909. Robert Mandigo was about fourteen years of age at the time of the family's removal to Florence township, and in those early days he swung the axe, rolled logs and helped to clear, improve and beautify the home farm. He had received the rudiments of his education in New York, completing his studies in Michigan, and although he never enjoyed the advantages of a high school or college training he became a well read and well educated man. Remaining under the parental roof until twenty-two years of age, he in 1863 was married to Anna Pashby, born in Florence township, St. Joseph county, September 26, 1842, a daughter of Robinson and Hannah (Scobie) Pashby, both born in Yorkshire, England, the father in 1.812 and the mother in 1822. Hannah was a daughter of William and Eliza (Moorehouse) Scobie, from England and Scotland respectively. Robinson Pashby and Hannah Scobie came with their respective parents to the United States and were married in Florence township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, December 15, 1841, and there Mr. Pashby entered his land, made his home and finally died, on the 26th of February, 1888, his wife, Hannah, passing away in March of the same year. They became the parents of nine children, namely: Anna, born September 26, 1842; Charles A., February 6, 1844; William F., April 21, 1846; Joseph, December 14, 1848; Mary and Martha, twins, born December 1, 1851; Benjamin F., June 5, 1854; Walter G., March 6, 1857; and Orris L., July 6, 1861. To the marriage union of Robert Mandigo and Anna Pashby seven children were born, five of whom grew to ma. ture years: Edgar, born August 20, 1866; Fannie, May 9, 1868; William, December 31, 1869, and he died in 1903; Clarinda; and Fred, born June 13, 1876.

Page  775 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 775 "Put" AMandigo, as he is familiarly known to his many friends and acquaintances, is out-spoken in manner but fearless and faithful in his honest convictions. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity at Centerville, and follows as closely as possible its honorable precepts. He owns fifteen acres of land on the banks of Klinger Lake in White Pigeon township, a splendid fishing resort and patronized by people from far and near during the fishing seasons. He also owns forty acres of land in section 25, Florence township. Mr. Mandigo is honored and revered in the community in which he has so long made his home. GEORGE T. BOTHAMLEY is one of Florence township's representative agriculturists and well known citizens. He was born in Sherman township of St. Joseph county January 5, 1869, a son of John and Isabelle (Corner) Bothamley, both born in England, the father in Yorkshire and the mother in Lincolnshire, and they were married in their native land and came from there to the United States. John Bothamley was twice married, having four children by his first wife and seven by his second, to whom he was married in Constantine, Michigan. The children of the latter are Clem, George T., Ella, Belle, Fred, Emma and Frank, all living at the present time. George T. Bothamley was reared as a farmer's son in Sherman township, helping with the work of the home farm and attending district schools during his early life, and remaining at home with his parents until twenty-one years, he then began farming for himself, renting land in company with his brother. He continued as a renter for thirteen years and was prosperous, and on the 19th of April, 1904, he bought eighty acres in section 33, Florence township, where he now lives and follows general farming and stockraising. He married December 27, 1893, Luella Tash, born in Sherman township September 14, 1874, a daughter of William and Carrie (Hepner) Tash, the father born in Waukesha, Wisconsin, and the mother in Sherman township, St. Joseph county, Michigan. They were farming people, and their daughter Luella was reared on their farm in Sherman township. Mr. and Mrs. Bothamley have two sons, Harry, born August 22, 1895, and Clarence, born August 24, 1901, both now attending school. Harry is now a student in White Pigeon High School and Clarence in grammar school. Mr. Bothamley is a Democrat in his political affiliations, but has never cared for the honors or emoluments of public office. His family are numbered among the leading residents of Florence

Page  776 776 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY township, and they also have a host of friends in Sherman township. Both Mr. and Mrs. Bothamley are affable, unassuming and gracious, and are held in the highest esteem by all who know them. JOHN A. MIKINDLEY is a successful representative of that honorable class, the agriculturists, and the scion of one of St. Joseph county's pioneer families. He is a man revered by his associates for his sterling manhood and integrity of character. Mr. McKindley is a native of St. Joseph county, Michigan, having been born within its boundaries, February 10, 1866, and is the youngest in a family of three children, he and a brother William, a resident of Kalamazoo, still surviving. The parents were Francis L. and Susan M. (Reynolds) McKindley. The father was born in Galway, Saratoga county, New York, July 3, 1817, dying January 25, 1896. He was educated in the public schools, was of studious inclinations, and learned the trade of a stone and brick mason. He removed to Michigan in 1845 and located in Mendon township, St. Joseph county, where he worked for a very short time at his trade and in the fall of 1845 purchased a one hundred and sixty acre farm in Mendon township. He was an old line Whig, and latterly became a Republican, and although he was interested in the trend of events he was by no means an office seeker. He was a member of the Scotch Reformed church, his ancestry, as the name indicates, having been Scotch. The mother was born near Troy, Rensselaer county, New York, November 20, 1826, and she is now living with her son at the good old age of eighty-four years, her mind clear and her enjoyment of life unimpaired. John A. McKindley was born and reared in St. Joseph county and received his education in the public schools. He spent his youth upon the farm, learned all the secrets of agriculture, and when he grew to maturity was drawn to adopt the same career. He owns a beautiful estate of one hundred and sixty acres, which he has improved in splendid fashion. He is a productive farmer and stock raiser and one of his specialties is the feeding and shipping of sheep. He has all the most modern machinery and keeps in touch with the latest scientific researches in his line. His home, one of the attractive places of Mendon township, is known as "Sunny Side" and is as convenient and comfortable as a city residence, being fitted with steam heat, water and the like. The marriage of Mr. McKindley took place December 12, 1888, the lady to become his wife being Miss Vila A. Olds, and the union being solemnized in Athens, Calhoun county, Michigan. They are

Page  777 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 777 the parents of two sons and a daughter. Mildred A. was a member of the class of 1909 of the Mendon high school, and after attending the Kalamazoo Normal School, took up the profession of a teacher. She belongs to the Women's Club in Mendon and is a communicant of the Methodist Episcopal church. Homer F., although but fifteen years of age, is a junior in the Mendon high school, and has unusual attainments as a Latin scholar for one of his years. Ralph Archie, the youngest, is in the sixth grade at school. Mr. and Mrs. McKindley find one of their greatest sources of gratification in their ability to give their children the benefit of a good education. Mrs. McKindley is a native of Branch county, Michigan, where she was born January 1, 1868. Her parents were Homer H. and Chloe S. (Howard) Olds, and she is the eldest of three children, all of them living. Charles Olds is married, resides in Kalamazoo; and Filla is the wife of Elmer H. Huff, of Reno, Nevada. The father, a native of Genesee county, New York, (born in 1840) is an agriculturist and a Republican in politics. The mother was born in Berrien county, Michigan, in 1848. Both of them are still living and make their home in Bendon, Michigan. Mr. McKindley, the subject, is a sound and unfaltering Republican, who cast his first vote for the martyred president, James A. Garfield, and has supported each Republican candidate since that time. He is the great friend of good schooling and has served upon the board of directors of the public schools for twelve years. His fraternal relations extend to the A. F. & A. M., Mendon Lodge, No. 137, of which he has been an officer. Both he and his wife are members of the Mendon Eastern Star in which order the latter holds the office of Ruth. They are members of the Methodist church and aided financially in the erection of the beautiful place of worship at Mendon. Mr. McKindley is one of its board of trustees and Mrs. McKindley is a member of the Ladies' Aid Society and a teacher in the Sunday school. They stand high in the esteem of those who know them best and this record will be cherished in the years to come. HERBERT W. HAGERMAN is one of the prominent business men of Sturgis, a real estate and insurance dealer. He is a son of William and Lucy (Bentley) Hagerman, and he was born on their farm in Florence township, St. Joseph county, February 9, 1860. His paternal grandfather, John Hagerman, located in section 18 of Florence township in 1836, and he was a successful farmer there. Vol. 11-17

Page  778 778 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY William Hagerman became well known as a raiser and distiller of peppermint, and in his family were three sons and three daughters, but only three are now living: Frank, living in Constantine; Annetta, the wife of Frank Keasey, of Jackson, Michigan; and Herbert. Herbert W. Hagerman was reared on a farm in his native township of Florence, and became the owner of two hundred and forty acres of land there, but in 1887 he left the farm to engage in the drug and grocery business and in 1894 he came to Sturgis to take up the real estate and insurance business. He has been very successful in his operations here, and stands among the leaders of the industrial interests of his city. He owns his property here, and he has served Sturgis seven years as the supervisor of its Second ward, nine years as the secretary of its school board and he has also served as the secretary of the Sturgis Improvement Association. He has also served three terms as the county commissioner, and was a former nominee of his party, the Democratic, for the office of representative. He is a member of Meridian Sun Lodge, No. 495, F. & A. M., and also of the fraternal order of Maccabees. HENRY LEE ANTHONY is the cashier of the First National Bank of Sturgis, one of the strong financial institutions of St. Joseph county. He was born at Bedford in Calhoun county, Michigan, November 9, 1843, and he traces his descent to the fatherland of Germany, to William Anthony, who was born in the city of Cologne of that country in the fifteenth century. He was the father of John Anthony, the founder of the Anthony family in America. He settled at Portsmouth, Rhode Island, and among his children was Abraham Anthony, born in 1650. Abraham had a son William, born October 31, 1675, and among the sons of William Anthony was Jonathan, born in 1733. Jonathan Anthony married Elizabeth Good, born in 1757, and they were the parents of David Anthony, born May 25, 1809. This David Anthony became the father of H. L. Anthony of this review. He was a native son of the Empire state of New York, and with his wife, nee Cynthia Maynard, he came to the west and located on a farm in Calhoun county, Michigan, about the year of 1835. In later years he took up contracting and erected many farm buildings. H. L. Anthony, a son of David and Cynthia Anthony, was born and reared on his father's farm, receiving in the meantime a district and high school training. While attending the Battle Creek high school the Civil war broke out, and young Anthony en

Page  779 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 779 listed in September of 1862 and was made a member of Company A, Seventh Michigan Cavalry, which joined Custer's Brigade and the Army of the Potomac. He was honorably discharged at the close of the war, leaving the ranks in December of 1865. His war record is one of which he may well be proud, and which will ever redound to his credit as a loyal son of America. With his regiment he took part in thirty-five battles, and on the 19th of October, 1863, he was wounded and confined in a hospital during the following six months. He was discharged from the service as a second lieutenant. During the year following his return from the war Mr. Anthony continued his studies, and in June of 1866 he came to Sturgis as a teacher of penmanship. From 1873 until 1895 he was in business for himself as a druggist, and among other investments became interested in the National Bank as one of its stockholders, and in 1895 he was made the cashier of the institution, and has ever since served in that capacity. In 1871 Mr. Anthony was married to Emma A. Morse, who died three months after her marriage, and in 1875 he wedded Louisa M. Pinney. A daughter, Mary E., was born to them in February of 1886. She is a graduate of the Sturgis high school, was two years at Albion College and is now the wife of George B. Hunt, of Battle Creek. Mrs. Anthony died on the 26th of December, 1907. Mr. Anthony usually affiliates with the Republican party, but is known as an independent in politics, and has served as a member and as the president of the board of supervisors. He has attained a high place in the ranks of the Masonic fraternity, becoming a Mason in April of 1870, while in April of 1871 he became a Royal Arch Mason, in both of which bodies he has passed all the chairs, and in January of 1872 became a Knight Templar. On the 12th of March, 1880, he was made the eminent commander, and was elected warder of the Grand Commandery in 1893-4. He served through all the offices in the Grand Commandery up to its highest place as Right Eminent Grand Commander, and is now serving his eleventh year as grand recorder. He is also a member of Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite Masons in the Valley of Grand Rapids. Mr. Anthony is not a member of any religious denomination, but attends the services of the Presbyterian church. JOHN B. WOODMAN, of Burr Oak, St. Joseph county, was born in New Hampshire, December 21, 1835, and is a son of Ira and Phebe (Morrison) Woodman, both natives of New Hampshire. Ira Woodman was born in 1810 and died in 1892, in the house where he

Page  780 780 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY was born. His wife died in 1839, at the age of twenty-five years, and he married for his second wife Betsy Jane Wiggins, also of New Hampshire. He had but two children by his first marriage, John B. and an infant that died unnamed. By his second marriage his children were: Sarah Elizabeth, educated at New Hampton Institute, is unmarried and lives on the old home; Alice, wife of George Leavitt, a New Hampshire farmer, has five children; Charles C., married Miss Mason, lives in New Hampshire and has two daughters. Ira Woodman was a Democrat in political views and served as justice of the peace, and a member of the State Legislature. He and his wife were members of the Baptist church. John B. Woodman became clerk in a store when eighteen years of age, and in the spring of 1859 went to California, where he became clerk in the Vernon House, of Sacramento and remained four years. He then removed to Nevada, where he worked some time as book-keeper and collector for a wholesale firm, later was employed in the postoffice at Virginia City. He worked as bookkeeper in a meat market in Virginia City and later conducted a market of his own at Gold Hill, Nevada. In 1873 he located at Burr Oak, Michigan, where he carried on a farm ten years and then retired and settled in town. He sold his farm and now owns the public scales of Burr Oak, and takes care of them. He makes his home with his daughter, Mrs. Bordner. Mr. Woodman takes an active interest in public affairs, and is a Republican in his political views. He held the office of justice of the peace seven terms of four years each, served two terms as supervisor and one year as school inspector. He is affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and has held all offices in the lodge. He is a public spirited and useful citizen, and well known throughout the community, where he is highly esteemed. Mr. Woodman married in Virginia City, Nevada, March 31, 1865, Sarah, daughter of Israel and Minerva Slocum, of Burr Oak, Michigan, born February 2, 1836, and died January 5, 1894. They had children as follows: Frank R., born November 10, 1869; Harry, born February 21, 1871, died in infancy; Ira G., born August 8, 1874; Vinnie M., born September 28, 1876. Frank R. Woodman is a painter and lives in Burr Oak; he married Lucinda Marvin and has two daughters. Ira G. Woodman is a laborer and lives in Three Rivers; he married Mabel Parkinson, and has one daughter. Vinnie M. is the wife of Guy D. Bordner, cashier of the First National Bank of Burr Oak and they have three children, Howard,

Page  781 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 781 born June 23, 1903, Dorothy, born August 25, 1907, and John B., born November 18, 1909. FRANK L. BURDICK.-A spirit of distinctive enterprise and progressiveness has dominated the business career of this influential and honored citizen of St. Joseph county, and his initiative power has been such as to enable him to achieve marked success in connection with the business and industrial interests with which he has allied himself and in the administration of whose affars his fine executive ability has been called into effective play. He is secretary, treasurer and general manager of the Sturgis Steel GoCart Company, which has a large and well equipped manufacturing plant in the city of Sturgis and which represents one of the most important industrial enterprises of St. Joseph county. He also has other capitalistic interests of importance and is one of the substantial business men of the county in which he has long maintained his home and in which he holds an inviolable place in popular confidence and esteem. Frank L. Burdick was born on a farm in Jamestown township, Steuben county, Indiana, on the 30th of July, 1846, and is a son of Jared and Lurancy (Franklin) Burdick, natives respectively of Vermont and Connecticut. His father was One of the sterling pioneers of Steuben county, where he reclaimed a farm from the sylvan wilds and where he was long a citizen of prominence and influence, commanding the unequivocal esteem of all who knew him. He passed the closing years of his life in Hillsdale county and was about seventy-eight years of age when summoned to eternal rest. His wife was about seventy-two years of age at the time of her death, and of their twelve children, seven are now living. Frank L. Burdick, of this review, was reared to the sturdy discipline of the farm and imbibed deep draughts from the generous chalice ever upheld to those who thus live close to nature " in her visible forms. " After completing the curriculum of the common schools of his native county he found opportunity to realize his ambition for further educational discipline. Though appreciative of the dignity and value of the great basic industry of agriculture, he had a predilection for other lines of endeavor than that to which he had been reared, and his higher educational work tended to fortify him properly for business life. At the age of nineteen years he entered the commercial department of the Commercial College at Ann Arbor, in which celebrated institution he was graduated in 1865, and from which he received the degree of B. A.

Page  782 782 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY After leaving the university Mr, Burdick located at Cambria, Hillsdale county, Michigan, where he engaged in the general merchandise business, and in this line of enterprise he continued to be associated with his brother-in-law in that county for three years, under the firm name of Gilbert & Burdick, after which time he bought the business and the following ten years the firm was F. L. Burdick. He finally disposed of his interests at Cambria and for somewhat more than two years thereafter he was a traveling salesman for the wholesale dry-goods house of C. L. Luce & Company, of Toledo, Ohio. He then located in Mendon, St. Joseph county, Michigan, where he engaged in the mercantile business and built up a large and flourishing enterprise. His establishment gained wide reputation and drew a large trade from the fine territory tributary to the little city of Mendon. There he continued operations for thirteen years, at the expiration of which, in 1883, he removed to Sturgis, where he opened a large department store. His long experience, enterprising policy and progressive ideas enabled him to make this establishment one of the most extensive and substantial mercantile houses of the county, and his name became known as that of one of the most successful retail merchants of this section of the state. It will be noted as somewhat of a coincidence that he was engaged in business at Cambria, Hillsdale county, for thirteen years; was at Mendon for thirteen years, and the record of his identification with the retail merchandise business in Sturgis covered the same period of time. It is evident that Mr. Burdick has no superstitious fear of the unlucky number, and his pronounced success during the insistent "thirteen" intervals is a gratifying refutation of the dire prophecies so often made in connection with the popularly disfavored numeral. Thus, at the expiration of thirteen years of most successful operation, in 1906, Mr. Burdick disposed of his mercantile interests in Sturgis, and on the 26th of December of that year he became a stockholder and executive officer of the Foyer Manufacturing Company, of which he became general manager in the following January. This company had established a factory in Sturgis and had engaged in the manufacturing of collapsible, metal go-carts for children. Under the active and discriminating management of Mr. Burdick the enterprise was rapidly pushed forward and the scope of its operations was greatly extended. In July, 1907, the business was reorganized and under the title of the Sturgis Steel Co-Cart Company, was duly incorporated under the laws of the state. The collapsible go-carts or carriages manufactured by this company are of original design

Page  783 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 783 and have recognized superiority over other devices of similar order. In attractive appearance, minimum weight and facility of adjustment, they are so effective as to constitute their own best advertising, and the trade of the company now places demands that practically test the large capacity of the well equipped plant. Largely through the personal efforts of Mr. Burdick the commercial growth of the business has been insured, and the products of the factory now find sale not only throughout the United States but also in every foreign nation on the globe. The executive corps of the Sturgis Steel Go-Cart Company is as here noted: Martin E. Aulsbrook, president; Jerrald F. Walton, vice president; and Frank L. Burdick, secretary, treasurer and general manager. In addition to these officers the directorate includes Christopher S. Spofford and Augustine B. Tennent. Mr. Burdick has also other large capitalistic interests, and in this connection it should be noted that he is the largest stockholder and also vice president of the Branch County Savings Bank, at Coldwater, Michigan, a substantial institution that was organized through his personal efforts and that is fortified by his mature business judgment and his own capital. In politics Mr. Burdick is found arrayed as a stalwart supporter of the principles of the Republican party, and both as a business man and as a loyal citizen he has ever given his influence and material support to those agencies and measures that have been projected for the general welfare of the community. He has never been a seeker of political office but is essentially a broad-minded, liberal and public-spirited citizen. He has achieved a large and worthy success, but has not hedged himself in with the affairs of business, and his genial personality, sterling integrity and tolerant views have gained to him unqualified confidence and regard. He is a member of the Presbyterian church, is affiliated with the timehonored Masonic fraternity, and holds membership in various civic organizations of representative order. Mr. Burdick has been twice married. In 1847 he wedded Miss Emma Merritt, who was born in Wisconsin, and reared in the state of Michigan, and who was a daughter of Isaac Merritt. She was summoned to the life eternal, and of the three children two are living: Carrie E. is the wife of Augustine B. Tennent, of Sturgis; Lura L. is the wife of Hall M. Slemons, of Monrovia, California; and Leo J., the only son, died on the 25th of April, 1904, at the age of twenty-nine years, one month and one day.

Page  784 784 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY At Three Rivers, Michigan, on the 11th of January, 1882, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Burdick to Miss Fannie E. Musselwhite, who was born in Kinderhood township, Branch county, Michigan, on the 3d of December, 1853, and who was a daughter of John and Mary A. (Wood) Musselwhite, both of whom were natives of London, England. Mrs. Burdick died in Grace hospital, in the city of Detroit, on the 1st of November, 1907, of uraemic poison and exhaustion following an operation. She was a woman of most gracious personality and the following extracts from an appreciative article appearing in a Sturgis paper at the time of her death are worthy of perpetuation in this connection: "With the responsibility of the home came that of mother to Mr. Burdick's three children, and no mother ever gave to her own children more devoted attention, while her untiring effort in their behalf was rewarded with their love and tenderest devotion. No personal sacrifice was too much or care too great for her to undertake for those she loved. Her whole life was devoted to loving service for her family and friends." No children were born of the second marriage of Mr. Burdick. THEO T. JACOBS has attained a representative place at the bar of St. Joseph county, and is practicing in his home city of Sturgis, where he was born on the 8th of December, 1874, to Thomas H. and Mary A. (Hall) Jacobs, both yet living in Sturgis. The son, Theo, passed through the graded and high schools of Sturgis and graduated with its class of 1894, and in the fall of the same year he matriculated in the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. completed the regular four years' course and graduated from its law department in 1898 and with the degree of LL. B. While at the university he distinguished himself by winning the Governor Pingree prize in Obsolete Law contest. On the 1st of August, 1898, he opened his law office in Sturgis, and has since practiced here, having been retained in the meantime as counsel in important litigated interests. From 1902 until 1904 he served as a circuit court commissioner, and he was five times elected the clerk of Sturgis, finally resigning the position to enter the office of prosecuting attorney of St. Joseph county to which position he had recently been elected, and was re-elected to succeed himself in the fall of 1907, making four years that he served his county in that capacity. The following excerpt from a St. Joseph county paper shows the esteem which Mr. Jacobs commands:

Page  785 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 785 "We do not believe that the only time an official is deserving of comment is just previous to an election, when he generally pays liberally for it, but more so when he is in the midst of official affairs, laboring to carry out the desires of the people and when it comes unsolicited. If ever a young man was deserving of the appreciation of the people of the county he is Prosecuting Attorney Theo T. Jacobs for his vigorous efforts in trying to enforce the liquor laws. There are now eight cases pending in the circuit court for violation of this law in the county and it is apparently a fact that the prosecutor intends to put a stop to the loose manner in which saloons are run. And we believe that where he may make one enemy by doing this he will gain dozens of friends by performing his duties in a fearless manner." Mr. Jacobs has a complete law and literary library comprising about one thousand four hundred volumes. MORRIS D. WOLF.-It cannot be other than gratifying in view of the nomadic spirit, which is growing to animate all classes of American citizens, to find a locality in which are to be found citizens of worth and prominence, who have passed their entire lives in the localities in which they were born and who command the respect and esteem of those who have been familiar with their entire careers. In the older settled sections of the far east we find many instances in which property has been held from generation to generation by one family, and where the old homestead signifies something more than mere names but in the middle and western states this condition has not been so pronounced. In St. Joseph county, Michigan, however, are to be found many representatives of families who here initiated the work of reclaiming the virgin wilderness and who here made for themselves homes which their children and grandchildren are glad to retain. One of the worthy scions of pioneer stock in St. Joseph county is Mr. Wolf and he has well upheld the standard for which the name has ever stood exponent, the while he has, like his father and grandfather, contributed his quota to the civic and industrial progress and upbuilding of this section of the state. Morris Daniel Wolf was born on the old homestead farm in Lockport township, St. Joseph county, on the 7th of July, 1857, and is the second in order of birth of the three children of John F. and Nancy D. (Gibson) Wolf. The other surviving child is Ella M., who is now the wife of Dr. W. E. Clark, who is engaged in the practice of his profession in the city of Three Rivers and who is

Page  786 786 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY one of the representative physicians and surgeons of St. Joseph county. John F. Wolf was born in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, on the 1st.of January, 1825, and his death occurred on the 17th of November, 1893. He was but nine years of age at the time of his parents' removal to Michigan and the family became numbered among the prominent pioneers of St. Joseph county, which section was then an untrammeled sylvan wild, in which the Indians still disputed dominion with the beasts of the forest. The Wolf family made the long and weary trip from Pennsylvania to Michigan with teams and wagons, passing through the mountains and forests and across swampy lands in Pennsylvania and Ohio and finally reaching their destination. The father of John F. Wolf secured a tract of land from the government in what is now Lockport township and there established his home in the year 1834, about three years prior to the admission of Michigan to the Union. The government deed to his land is now in the possession of the subject of this review and is not only a valued heirloom but is also a document that is worthy of preservation in the archives of the county. The deed bears date of December 1, 1835, and bears the signature of General Andrew Jackson, who was then president of the United States. Grandfather Wolf made a clearing on his farm and there erected a log house of a primitive order common to the pioneer days. Settlers were few and widely separated and the farmers of the early days had to make the trip to Detroit in order to find facilities for grinding their grain, while lumber was secured from Grand Rapids, a point still further distant. John F. Wolf was reared to maturity in St. Joseph county and as a youth and man lived up to the full tension of the pioneer days, enduring his share of hardships and vicissitudes but finding satisfaction in the cumulative profit through his identification with the development of the agricultural resources of this now favored section of the Wolverine state. His educational advantages after coming to Michigan were those afforded in the pioneer schools, whose facilities were necessarily meager, and he assisted in the upbuilding of the county, in which he continued to reside until his death and in which he ever held a secure place in popular confidence and esteem. It may be noted that the Wolf family is of stanch German origin, the original progenitors in America coming from Wiirtemberg, Germany, in the year 1771, and establish ing the home in the state of Pennsylvania. It is widely recognized that the German farmer has stood as the highest type in the matter of industry and good judgment and excellent management, not

Page  787 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 787 only in the fatherland but also in the various sections of the United States, where a farm owned and operated by one of German birth or ancestry is, in the average case, readily distinguishable by reason of its manifold evidences of thrift and prosperity. John F. Wolf was a man who was a veritable tower of strength in all that tended to conserve the best interests of his home county who was notable for his exceptional business acumen and his impregnable integrity of purpose in all the relations of life. Not only was he a prominent factor in connection with the hardy agricultural activities of the county but he was one of the most prominent in connection with the development of the growing of peppermint and the distillation of its essential oil,-a line of enterprise that has given to St. Joseph county great commercial prestige and that has contributed greatly to the prosperity of this section. He achieved large and worthy success in connection with the practical activities of life but was ever mindful of his stewardship and was not hedged in by selfish motives or personal aggrandizement. His was a robust and sterling character and he was ever ready to give his sympathy, encouragement and aid to those less fortunate, besides which his civic liberality and progressiveness prompted him to give support to all enterprises and measures tending to advance the social and material prosperity of his community and state. He was active in connection with securing the construction of the Michigan Central Air Line Railroad and was for some time a member of the directorate of the company. He did much for the promotion of the interests of the village of Centerville and to secure the establishing of the county seat at this place. Education and religion found in him a devoted friend. He was a zealous and consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal church at Centerville. In politics he was originally an old-line Whig and in later years he recalled with pleasure many incidents in the campaign which resulted in the election of General William Henry Harrison to the presidency, a campaign which brought forth the historic slogan,-" Tippecanoe and Tyler too. ' He united with the Republican party at the time of its organization, "under the oaks," at Jackson, Michigan, and voted for its first presidential candidate, General John C. Fremont. He was an earnest and appreciative member of the Masonic fraternity, in which he attained to the chivalric degrees, having been a member of the commandery of the Knights Templars, at Three Rivers, and having been affiliated with the lodge and chapter in Centerville.

Page  788 788 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Mrs. Nancy D. (Gibson) Wolf, the beloved and devoted wife of John Wolf, who was born and reared in Lycoming county, Pennsylvania, was born on the 31st of December, 1837, and she died in the village of Centerville on the 17th of March, 1909. The Gibson family was founded in St. Joseph county, Michigan, in the pioneer days and adequate data concerning the family is to be found in the sketch of the career of Samuel Gibson, appearing on other pages of this work. Mrs. Wolf was a woman of most beautiful traits of character and her strength and devotion enabled her to well upbear the burdens which were laid upon the shoulders of the pioneer women of this section of the state. Her gentle and gracious personality won to her the affectionate regard of all who knew her and her memory is revered in the community which was so long her home. Of her it may well be said that "her children rise up and call her blessed." Her remains were laid to rest beside those of her husband in Riverside cemetery and a beautiful monument marks the place where repose the mortal relics of this honored pioneer couple. Morris D. Wolf, the immediate subject of this review, was reared to the sturdy discipline of the home farm and early began to contribute his quota to its work. In the meanwhile he was afforded the advantages of the public schools of Centerville and throughout his mature life he has not served his allegiance to the great basic industry of agriculture, besides which he has been prominently identified with the essential oil industry, in the exploiting of which his father was so important a factor. IHe is a progressive and broad-minded business man and in his attitude as a citizen he has shown his appreciation of the precepts and example of his father and mother, having been true to principle and having ever maintained the high ideal of duty and responsibility so that he has not been denied the finest measure of popular confidence and regard. His capitalistic and business interests are of broad scope and importance and he still retains possession of the old homestead farm, located about one mile distant from Centerville, a place endeared to him by the gracious memories and associations of the past. This farm comprises one hundred and sixty acres of most arable land and its improvements are of the best order in all particulars. He maintains his home in the village of Centerville, where he owns an attractive, modern residence, besides which he is the owner of valuable real estate in the city of Chicago. Mr. Wolf is aligned as a stanch adherent of the Republican party and takes an intelligent interest in the questions and issues

Page  789 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 789 of the hour, the while he gives his support to all measures projected for the general welfare of his native county. He has served for a number of years as a member of the board of education of Centerville, but has never been an aspirant for political office. He holds membership in the Methodist Episcopal church in his home city and is at the present time president of its board of trustees. His affiliations in the Masonic fraternity are as here noted,Mount Hermon Lodge, No. 24, Free and Accepted Masons; Centerville Chapter No. 11, Royal Arch Masons, both in Centerville; Council No. 37, Royal and Select Masters, in the city of Three Rivers, where he is also affiliated with Three Rivers Commandery No. 29, Knights Templars. His Masonic affiliations are further amplified by his membership in Saladin Temple, Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, in the city of Grand Rapids. On the 20th of November, 1895, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Wolf to Miss Emeroy Rees and they have one daughter, Florence Ella, born December 23, 1896, who is now attending the public schools of Centerville. Mrs. Wolf was born near the city of Battle Creek, Calhoun county, Michigan, on the 19th of July, 1867, and is a daughter of Lambert Burghardt Rees and Margaret Elizabeth Lawler Rees. She is a communicant of St. Thomas' church, Protestant Episcopal, at Battle Creek. Mrs. Wolf is the most gracious chatelaine of their beautiful home and is a prominent and valued factor in connection with the best social activities of the community. Mrs. Wolf's father, Lambert Burghardt Rees, was the eldest child of Andrew Rees and Electa Burghardt, both of whom were of Holland descent and natives of West Stockbridge, Berkshire county, Massachusetts. Clarissa Crane, mother of Andrew Rees, was at the time of her death in 1863, the last survivor of the Massacre of Wyoming. Electa Burghardt was born in 1792, during the first term of Washington's administration and her father was a prominent man in Massachusetts. She married Andrew Rees in 1811 and they moved to Michigan in 1833, settling at Battle Creek, Calhoun county, when there were only six houses in the place. The deed of the farm on which they lived for fortyfour years was signed by Andrew Jackson. Martin Van Buren was a cousin of Electa Burghardt, and while he was secretary of state a number of the relatives settled in Michigan, her nephew, Norman Rawson, taking up a tract in St. Joseph county in 1833. His father, Erastus Rawson, lived here two years and then went to Chicago to build the first trestle across Lake Michigan, where the Michigan

Page  790 790 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Central Railroad now runs. He died in Chicago in 1863, and is buried in Graceland cemetery. Col. Isaac Toll was another cousin who settled at Fawn River. Margaret Elizabeth Lawler, Mrs. Wolf's mother, was the daughter of John and Ann Lawler and was born in Onondaga county, New York. She came with her parents to Michigan in 1843, settling on a farm west of Battle Creek. She was married in 1852 to Lambert Burghardt Rees and they built a house on a portion of the old homestead and lived there all their married life. Among the interesting relics in the Wolf family are the pewter plates from which the family used to eat and now in the possession of Amos Wolf; the old musket which the great-grandfather, Daniel Hoan, carried in the Revolutionary war; old lamps in which bears' grease was burned; the old German family Bible, bound in vellum, in which the family record goes away back to the time of the family in Germany; this Bible is now in the possession of Hon. Francis Millard Wolf, a prominent lawyer of St. Louis, Missouri. HON. OTHO MoE.-On the roster of the St. Joseph county officials is recorded the name of the Hon. Otho Moe, a representative to the legislature during the session of 1879, a former supervisor of Fawn River township and one of the honored pioneer residents of St. Joseph county. He was born in Ashtabula county, Ohio, January 29, 1834, a son of Charles and Maranda (Culver) Moe. Captain Charles Moe gained his title as an officer in the war of 1812. He was from the state of New York, and he married there and moved with his young wife to Ashtabula county, Ohio, and in 1836 they came to St. Joseph county, Michigan. Captain Moe entered land here, developing it into a splendidly improved farm. The land was covered with timber when he took possession, his log cabin built there and reared his family, and there died. It was in that pioneer home that the Hon. Otho Moe passed his early life, learning to swing the axe while helping to clear away the trees, and while developing from boyhood to manhood he saw the county pass from an almost unbroken wilderness to a land of prosperity and cultivation. As there were no schools near in his immediate neighborhood he was instructed in a district school two miles away, and he remained at home with his father until the latter's death, when eighty-two years of age. On the 15th of February, 1863, Mr. Moe was married to Sarah A. Lewis, who was born in Wayne county, New York, July 4, 1838, and she came to Michigan with her parents in 1858. A daughter, Alma, was born

Page  791 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 791 to Mr. and Mrs. Moe on the 13th of May, 1860. She attended the Sturgis High School and the Notre Dame Seminary at South Bend, Indiana, and she is the wife of S. E. Williams, of Sturgis. She is a member of the Episcopal church. Mr. Moe has been twice married, and Mrs. Williams is a daughter by his first wife. He is a member of Meridian Sun Lodge No. 49, F. & A. M., of Sturgis Chapter No. 26, R. A. M., and of Columbia Commandery No. 18, K. T. In politics he is allied with the Democracy. He spends his winters in the south. Throughout his life his career has been marked by the strictest fidelity to duty, by loyalty to every trust reposed in him, and his example is well worthy of emulation. ROSSLYN H. VAN BUREN, of the Morincy-Van Buren Manufacturing Company, Sturgis, Michigan, is one of the representative young business men of the city, and as such is entitled to personal mention in this work. A brief sketch of his life gives the following facts: Rosslyn H. Van Buren was born in Florence township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, January 28, 1875, son of William H. and Carrie (Major) Van Buren. William H. Van Buren is one of the well-known and highly respected citizens of the county; engaged in agricultural pursuits for a number of years, and ex-Recorder of Deeds of St. Joseph county, his term in this office having expired in January, 1909. Rosslyn H. was reared on his father's farm and received his early education in the district school. He is a graduate of the Centerville High School, with the class of 1893, and of the State Normal College at Ypsilanti, where he completed the classical course in 1897. His first business experience was in Wolf Brothers' bank at Centerville. He remained there one year, and then for five years he was cashier in the office of the State Auditor General. From the time he became a voter he has been active in Republican politics, and it was on the recommendation of the Republican County Chairman of St. Joseph county that he was appointed to the position in the Auditor's office. In 1901, Mr. Van Buren became associated with Frank W. Wait in the lumber business, under the firm name of Wait-Van Buren Lumber Co., and was engaged in this enterprise until recently, when the business passed into the hands of Mr. Wait. As a member of the firm of Morincy-Van Buren Manufacturing Company, Mr. Van Buren is now interested with A. F. Morincy in the manufacture of plumbers' brass goods.

Page  792 792 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY In 1900, at Lansing, Michigan, Mr. Van Buren married Miss Rebecca McCollum of that city, and they have two children: Tracy, born March 27, 1902, and Mary, October 6, 1903. Mr. Van Buren is a member of Meridian Sun Lodge, No. 49, F. & A. M.; Sturgis Chapter, No. 26, R. A. M., and Columbia Commandery, No. 18, K. T., and he is also a Shriner, having membership at Grand Rapids. CURTIS A. FREELAND, who is prominently identified with the manufacturing interests of Sturgis, Michigan, was born in Elkhart county, in the neighboring state of Indiana, March 22, 1869, son of B. F. Freeland, and was reared and educated in the "Ioosier" state. In 1893, he became one of a company which established at Middlebury, Indiana, a plant for the manufacture of galvanized steel tanks, and which operated there for several years. In September, 1902, this plant was moved to Sturgis, Michigan, where the business has since been successfully conducted, the output comprising furnaces, boilers, tank heaters, galvanized steel tanks and storage oil tanks. From twenty-five to fifty men, all skilled labor, are employed, and the product of the plant is shipped all over the United States and to various foreign countries as well. To the development and general management of this business, Mr. Freeland gave his best energies, and such confidence did he place in the enterprise that from time to time he purchased additional stock until now he is the head of the concern and is its sole owner. Mr. Freeland is in the true sense of the word a public-spirited man. The deep interest he has manifested in the local affairs of Sturgis, his reputation for integrity, and his high-standing as a business man were early recognized, and in 1906 he was honored by being elected to the office of Mayor, in which he served most acceptably in 1906 and 1907. Politically he is a Democrat. He belongs to the Masonic order, having membership in Meridian Sun Lodge, No. 49, of which he is Senior Warden; and he is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Freeland has a wife and four sons, his children in order of birth being as follows: Harold, born January, 1894; Arden, November, 1895; Kenneth, September 19, 1900, and Glenn, June 17, 1904. HENRY R. OSBON, a traveling salesman living at Sturgis, Michigan, is a native of this city, born December 1, 1840, son of G. W. and Cornelia H. (Howes) Osbon. G. W., son of Richard Os

Page  793 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 793 bon, was born in Livingston county, New York, in 1811, and was reared in his native state. He removed to Fort Wayne, Indiana, in 1833, and there traded with the Indians; in 1838 he located at Sturgis, where he engaged in the dry goods business. In 1845 Mr. Osbon moved on to a farm, where he resided until his death, in 1870; his widow survived him and passed away in 1906. They were parents of five children, of whom two survive. George W. Osbon was educated for a Methodist Episcopal minister, and was of a quiet, thoughtful nature. He was a successful dry goods merchant and highly respected; politically he was a Republican. The early days of Henry R. Osbon were spent in Sturgis, where he attended the public schools. He afterward engaged in traveling as a salesman for various lines, and continued this occupation some twenty years, his territory being Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio and all western states and territories except California and the Dakotas. His chief work was the sale of buggies, which he continued until 1906, when he was elected to the office of supervisor of the First ward of the city of Sturgis, which he still holds. He has been very successful in his business enterprises, and his honor and integrity are widely recognized. Mr. Osbon has been a life-long resident of Sturgis, where he is well known and has a large circle of friends. Mr. Osbon is a prominent member of Sturgis Prairie Lodge No. 37, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of which he has been a member since March 28, 1872. He is well informed in the workings of the order and has served twice as representative from his lodge to the grand lodge of Michigan. June 7, 1863, Mr. Osbon married Emma V. McGown, who was born in Trenton, New Jersey, November 27, 1847, and came to Sturgis in 1859; they have two sons, D. Alton A., born October 1, 1864, and Frederick A., born August 24, 1868. D. Alton A. is advance agent for the Hagenbach-Wallace shows, and in this capacity has traveled all through the United States; he is a well-informed, public-spirited citizen, of pleasant manner and high character. He married Edith Vogler, of Sturgis, and they have two sons, D. T., born April 12, 1889, and Walter J., born October 12, 1898. Frederick A. Osbon married Montie Roat, and they live in Sturgis. He owns sixteen acres of the old homestead, and is an industrious, enterprising citizen; politically he is a Republican. G. C. GROVE, a prominent citizen of Sturgis and an enterprising business man, was born in Darke county, Ohio, April 6, 1885, Vol. II —18

Page  794 794 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and is a son of Hiram and Leah (Boyer) Grove. His parents moved to Geneva, Indiana, when he was about eleven years of age, and he finished his education in the public schools of that town; however, while he was still in the eighth grade his eyes became so much affected he found it necessary to leave school, and never returned, although he has since made the most of his opportunities to acquire learning and culture. Mr. Grove was employed for some time in the grain and elevator business at Geneva, and continued in that business after removing to Huntstown, Indiana, until July, 1908. At that time he located in Sturgis, Michigan, in the employ of Egley Grain Company, and is now the manager of the plant. He owns stock in this company, which is incorporated and doing a large business both in Sturgis and the surrounding country. Mr. Grove takes an active interest in local affairs, and is a public-spirited, useful citizen; politically he is a Democrat. He is a bright, hustling business man, and has a promising future before him. Mr. Grove is a member of the United Brethren church and also belongs to Lodge No. 634, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He is well known in Sturgis, and stands high in the estimation of his fellows. In June, 1906, Mr. Grove married Anna Taylor, of Geneva, Indiana, born and reared in Adams county, and educated in the public schools of Geneva. WILLIAM HAZARD.-One of the most venerable and honorable of the native sons of St. Joseph county, with whose history the family name has been identified since the territorial epoch in the history of the nation, this sterling pioneer citizen of Centerville is specially deserving of consideration in this publication not only by reason of his being thus a scion of one of the sterling pioneer families of this section of the state but also on account of his having been for many years one of the prominent and influential citizens of the county, where he has ever commanded a secure vantage ground in popular confidence and esteem. His reminiscences of the early days are most graphic and interesting and his memory forms an indissoluble link between the period when this section was on the border of civilization and the twentieth century with its opulent advantages and prosperity. Mr. Hazard was born on the old homestead farm in Nottawa township, St. Joseph county, on the 12th of March, 1830, and he is the fourth in order of birth of fourteen children-seven sons and seven daughters-of William and Cassandra (Coan) Hazard. Of

Page  795 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 795 this large family he is one of the two now living and the other is Elvira, who is the widow of Mr. Oakly and who now resides in California. William Hazard was born in the state of Vermont in February, 1798, one year before the death of General Washington, and he was eighty years of age at the time of his death, which occurred in Mendon, St. Joseph county, Michigan. He was reared to the sturdy discipline of the farm and was but a boy at the time of the family removal from the old Green Mountain state to that of New York. As a young man he set forth to establish a home in Michigan, which was then considered in the far west. He was accompanied by his widowed mother, two brothers and two sisters and the long and weary journey was made with an ox team. This was in the year 1817, fully twenty years before Michigan was admitted to statehood. He secured a small tract of land near the city of Monroe and the first home of the family was a primitive log house of the type common to the locality and period. In 1829 William Hazard came to St. Joseph county and located in Nottawa township, where he secured a tract of wild land in the midst of the primeval forest and where the neighbors were principally Indians. No highways or bridges had been constructed and the settlers were few and far between. Mr. Hazard set to himself the herculean task of reclaiming a farm from the forest and of him it may well be said that "his strength was as the number of his days." Both physically and mentally he was of the robust type that is best suited to encounter the hardships and vicissitudes of pioneer life land he assisted in reclaiming his land to cultivation. Upon coming to the county he secured eighty acres of government land, to which he later added an adjoining tract of equal area. This homestead he retained until the time of his death. In politics he was originally a stanch Democrat of the Jeffersonian type, but upon the organization of the Republican party he transferred his allegiance thereto, ever afterward remaining a stanch advocate of its principles and policies. Both he and his wife were devout and earnest members of the Methodist Episcopal church and were numbered among the organizers of the first church of this denomination in St. Joseph county. Their home was one in which the pioneer ministers were sustained and these circuit riders in their arduous and devout work found gracious hospice in the modest home of this sterling pioneer couple. William Hazard, Sr., assisted in the interment of the first white man in this county, this man having been killed by the falling of a tree. Mr. Hazard himself was laid to rest in the same cemetery, which has long been known as Pioneer cemetery and

Page  796 796 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY which is located in section 16, Nottawa township. Mrs. Cassandra (Coan) Hazard, mother of the subject of this review, was born in the province of Ontario, Canada, in the year 1806 and was sixtyfour years of age at the time of her death, which occurred in 1870. She was one of the noble pioneer women of St. Joseph county and her gracious and gentle influence was felt and appreciated in the community in the early days. She was a most devout member of the Methodist Episcopal church and her faith was shown in her daily walk and conversation. She was a friend to those in affliction and distress and no wayfarer was sent empty away from her home. Her remains were laid to rest beside those of her husband in the Pioneer cemetery. William Hazard, Jr., the immediate subject of this review, has passed the long period of eighty years in an honorable and useful life in his native county and he has the distinction of being at the present time the oldest citizen who was born and reared in the county and who is now living within its borders. The pioneer log school house of this section found him enrolled as a student and he well recalls this primitive institution with its puncheon floors, slab benches and desks and wide fireplace-a school far different from those whose privileges are enjoyed by the youth of the present day in the same section of the state. Of the twelve children who attained adult age in the Hazard family, all became successful teachers with the exception of the subject of this sketch, who had a natural predilection for business and who thus gave his attention to conducting work along other lines. In a reminiscent way Mr. Hazard recalls that Pottawotamies used frequently to stop at his father's home for something to eat and for the purpose of trading in the simple commodities of the locality. Mr. Hazard was reared to the sturdy invigorating discipline of the husbandman and throughout his active career he gave close allegiance to the great basic art of agriculture. He assisted actively in the reclamation of nearly fourteen hundred acres of timbered land. It is a recognized fact that he has plowed up a greater area of virgin soil than any other man now living in St. Joseph county. He continued to be associated in the work and management of his father's farm until he had attained to his legal majority, at which time his father gave him five hundred dollars which figured as the basis of his independent operations. He secured one hundred acres of land in Nottawa township and through industry and good management he was able to add to his landed estate until he became the owner of three hundred acres of good land, all of which was located in that township.

Page  797 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 797 Mr. Hazard ever give his aid and influence in support of all measures and enterprises tending to advance the material and social welfare of his native county and in thought and action he has been animated by the highest principles of integrity and honor. He is an uncompromising supporter of the cause of the Prohibition party. He has been true to high ideals of duty in all relations of life and has maintained a high sense of stewardship as touching his influence upon all with whom he has come in contact. He has been an earnest and consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal church for sixty-eight years and he is the only one identified with that church in Centerville that can claim so long a continuous identification therein. He has been most liberal in his support of all branches of church work and has contributed with earnestness to charitable and benevolent objects. No citizen is held in more unqualified esteem and as the gracious shadows of his life begin to lengthen from the golden west he finds that "his lines are cast in pleasant places, " as he is surrounded by a host of friends, though most of those who were associated with him in the earlier days have now crossed over the "great divide." Mr. Hazard has made several trips to California, where he has found pleasant recreation and where he has also been able to visit with his brother, the late Rev. Augustus C. Hazard, who was for many years a clergyman of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Hazard has maintained his home in the village of Centerville since 1870, but still retains the ownership of his fine farm in Nottawa township. On the 2nd of April, 1851, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Hazard to Miss Salina E. Jones and they became the parents of two children,-Alice, who is the wife of Herbert L. Day, who is engaged in farming near Battle Creek, Michigan; and Salina, who is the wife of William Ablett, who resides in Allegan county and who is a skilled carpenter and joiner. Mrs. Day, the elder of the two daughters, was afforded the advantages of the public schools of Centerville and those of Albion College, and for a number of years before her marriage she was a successful and popular teacher in the public schools of Calhoun county. She is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, as is also her sister, Mrs. Ablett. Mrs. Salina E. (Jones) Hazard was summoned to the life eternal on the 30th of August, 1857, and her remains are interred in the Centerville cemetery. She was a devoted wife and mother and was a woman who was held in high esteem in the community. In 1857 Mr. Hazard contracted a second marriage, being then united to Miss Laura S. Auten. She passed to the life eternal in February,

Page  798 798 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 1894, having been a devout church worker and having been known for her many gracious attributes of character. Concerning the children of the second marriage the following brief data are given: Charles M., who is employed as an engineer on the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad, has been connected with this company for the past fifteen years, and he maintains his home in Watseka, Illinois. He received a good practical education and for several years was a successful teacher in the schools of St. Joseph county. He married Miss Julia Smith and they have one son, William H. Eleanor S., the second child of the second marriage, is now the wife of George L. Peacock, who is identified with the coal, ice and wood business in the city of Detroit, with the Pitmans & Dean Company, one of the largest concerns engaged in this line of enterprise in the metropolis of the state. Mrs. Peacock is a vocalist of distinctive talent and has pursued her musical studies in a number of the leading colleges in Europe. She has recently returned from a sojourn in Europe and has been tendered, in 1910, a position as a teacher in the Conservatory of Music, in the city of Ypsilanti, Michgan. Mr. and Mrs. Peacock have three children,-Marshall, Edward and Laura. Mr. and Mrs. Peacock are both members of the Methodist Episcopal church. In 1896 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Hazard to Mrs. Harriet Adelaide Welch, the widow of Wesley Welch. She is the mother of two daughters by her first union,Grace M., who is employed in the office of the probate court of St. Joseph county at Centerville and who likewise held a position in the office of the county treasury; and Gertrude E., who is the wife of Arthur Pashby, a resident of Chicago and an electrician by profession. Mrs. Hazard is a most zealous member of the Methodist Episcopal church in Centerville and is a teacher of the Ladies' Bible Class, besides which she is a prominent factor in connection with the work of the Ladies' Aid Society of the church. J. H. WHITMER, a leading citizen and successful business man of Sturgis, Michigan, was born in Wells county, Indiana, April 25, 1843, son of Michael and Volumnia A. (Knox) Whitmer. Both parents were natives of Pennsylvania, where they were reared and married, and later emigrated to Indiana, where they located in Lancaster township, Wells county, in 1838. In the spring of 1865 they removed to St. Joseph county, Michigan, on a farm northeast of Sturgis; here Michael Whitmer still resides, at the age of ninetysix years.

Page  799 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 799 The boyhood days of J. H. Whitmer were spent in his native county, and he received his education in the district schools. He was still a boy at the breaking out of the Civil war, but enlisted in 1861 in Company H of the Forty-seventh Indiana Regiment, and spent three years and nine months in service; he participated in the siege and capture of Vicksburg and many other important battles. Meanwhile, Mr. Whitmer's father had purchased a farm in St. Joseph county, Michigan, whither he also went, and bought a part interest in the farm; he and his father carried on the farm together ten years and then J. H. Whitmer sold his interest and located in Sturgis. He purchased an interest in a small planing mill in Sturgis, in 1876, and has since been occupied with this enterprise; as soon as he was able he bought out his partner, and has since continued the business on his own account. He has been very successful in a business way, and now has extensive lumber yards in connection with his planing mill. He is a highly respected citizen of the town and a man of undoubted business honesty and probity. He is a stockholder and vice president of the First National Bank of Sturgis, as well as a director of same; he owns four houses in Sturgis besides his own residence. Politically Mr. Whitmer is a Republican, and he has served as supervisor of the Third ward and several times as alderman. He and his family are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, of which he is a trustee and he has served for the past twenty-four years as superintendent of the Sunday School. He is a member of Meridian Sun Lodge No. 49, A. F. & A. M., and is a prominent member of the Grand Army of the Republic, Post No. 73, and attends the national meetings of the organization. Mr. Whitmer is past commander of the post, and receives a soldier's pension. He started in life with very small capital, and by his industry and ambition has acquired a competence. Mr. Whitmer married Cornelia Thompson, a native of Sherman township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, and they have two children, Mabel, wife of Albert Eastman, of Sturgis, and Eva, who died in 1895. CHARLES W. SCHELLHOUS, district deputy oil inspector, is a grandson of Lorensie and a son of Leonard E. Schellhous, all prominently connected with the development of St. Joseph county. The grandfather-as will be seen in the general history-lived for many years at Colon, where he died, and of his sons, Leonard E. passed away at Parkville and Loran W. is a citizen of Colon.

Page  800 800 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Mr. Schellhous, of this sketch, succeeded his father, Leonard E., as proprietor of the woolen mill at Parkville and continued thus for twenty-five years. He lived in the house in which he was born at that place for fifty years, lacking a month, but for some time has resided in Three Rivers, engaged in the real estate businsss and the inspection of essential oils, in connection with his present office. His district embraces three full counties and a part of Allegan county. Mr. Schellhous has also been active in local politics, having served as chairman of the Republican County Committee for three terms, or six years. He is married and has two sons, Ellis L. and Roy A. Schellhous. LEVI B. BLASS, a successful business man of Sturgis, Michigan, was borne in Wayne county, New York, April 25, 1827, son of Jacob and Maryby (Newell) Blass. In 1832 Jacob Blass removed to Branch county, Michigan, locating near Batavia, where he entered a farm, and lived two years; he then located in La Grange county, Indiana, near Lima, now Howe. He lost his wife in 1838, and after he was eleven years old Levi B. Blass was reared by relatives. He worked on a farm, and being fond of horses began learning the trade of blacksmith in 1851, at LaGrange, Indiana, where he served as apprentice four years. In 1855 Mr. Blass removed to Sturgis, Michigan, and became machine forger for the Sturgis Foundry & Machine Company, where he worked fifty-four years. He walked to and from his work for all these years, a distance altogether of some thirty-three thousand miles, and during that time had as many as seventeen foremen over him; he saved enough meanwhile to buy him two houses and also a shop of his own in Sturgis. He has a good trade, and is a man of sterling business honesty and good character. He is well known in the city, and respected by all. Politically Mr. Blass is a Republican and has served the city as school commissioner. He belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church, where he and his wife have belonged for fifty-six years; he has held all the official positions in the church, and has been many years secretary and treasurer. He is affiliated with Meridian Sun Lodge, No. 49, A. F. & A. M., of which he has been a member for forty-six years, and he has held many offices in the lodge. January 1, 1851, Mr. Blass married Amorett Gurney, who was born October 2, 1829, and they became parents of seven children, of whom five survive, namely: Chester, a mechanic, foreman in a furniture factory in Chicago; Mary, wife of George Phelps, of

Page  801 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 801 Chicago; George; Clary and Clayton, twins; Vondovia, a graduate of Evanston school, is deceased, and Inez is also deceased. CHARLES ERBSMEHL. a citizen of Sturgis, Michigan, and connected with manufacturing interests in the city, is a successful and highly respected business man. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in May, 1854, and is a son of Ferdinand and Caroline (Leupold) Erbsmehl; both parents were natives of Germany and came to the United States in their youth. They were married in this country and located in Philadelphia, where their family was reared. The early years of Charles Erbsmehl were spent in his native city, where he received his education in the public and private schools. He learned the trade of printer, at which he worked several years, and in 1878 came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, where he has since resided. He successfully conducted a German newspaper at Sturgis, from 1878 until 1886, the only one ever published in the county, or southern Michigan, which had a wide circulation and became well known throughout the state. He is well known in the city of Sturgis, where he has resided since 1878, except for four years spent in Centerville, while he served the county as clerk. Politically he is a stanch Republican and actively interested in public affairs; he was elected county clerk by a large majority, and served with efficiency in this office from 1889 until 1893. Mr. Erbsmehl is a keen and enterprising business man, and is a stockholder in the First National Bank of Sturgis. He belongs to the Presbyterian church, and is affiliated with the Maccabees and Sturgis Prairie Lodge, No. 37, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, of which he is past noble grand and has served twenty years as secretary. In 1876 Mr. Erbsmehl was married, in Philadelphia, and he and his wife became parents of three children, who are graduates of the Sturgis high schools. JOHN S. FLANDERS is a native of Sturgis and at present holds the office of City Attorney and is manager of the city water, electric light and power utility and of the municipal hydro-electric development of the St. Joseph river in Lockport township, in which $175,000 is being expended by the city for the purpose of supplying the city and its citizens with water and electric light and power for its extensive manufacturing industries. The subject of this sketch was born February 10, 1861, the son of Jonathan W. and Elizabeth Flanders. Jonathan W. Flanders

Page  802 802 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY was born at Colbrook, New Hampshire, April 18, 1822, the son of Francis and Elizabeth (Chandler) Flanders and grandson of Ezekiel Flanders who was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. He moved with his parents to Ontario county, New York, where he received his early education and later graduated from the Canandaigua Academy at Canandaigua, New York, where he studied law and was admitted to the bar. He engaged in the practice of law at Sturgis, Michigan, in 1856, and continued here until his death August 9, 1896. Mr. Flanders was one of the leading Democrats of the county and prominent in state politics. He was the nominee of his party for the office of Attorney-General, State Senator, Circuit Judge and other positions of honor and filled many positions of honor and trust in his home city, for the upbuilding of which he devoted much of his time and means. Mrs. Flanders was a daughter of Josiah Sutherland of Canandaigua, New York, where she united in marriage with ir. Flanders in 1856. Her death occurred May 2, 1879, and Mr. Flanders died August 9, 1896. The primary education of John S. Flanders was acquired in the schools of Sturgis and he graduated from the high school in 1878. In the same year he entered the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, from which he graduated in 1882 with the degree of Bachelor of Law. With his father he established the Michigan Democrat in 1880, which has been the recognized organ of the Democracy of this county and section for thirty years. He became its editor and publisher in 1882, which work he continued, with the exception of six years, until 1908 when he sold the paper to Henry O. Eldridge. In 1888, Mr. Flanders with his uncle, Dr. D. L. I. Flanders, organized the Diffusible Tonic Company, acting as secretary and treasurer, until the present time and looking after the business interests of the concern, which is engaged in the preparation and distribution of Dr. Flanders' Diffusible Tonic, a remedy for the relief of feverish colds, malaria and all fevers, for which ailments it has proved a specfic remedy and is extensivey used throughout the United States and in the tropics. Politically Mr. Flanders is one of the prominent Democrats of St. Joseph county. He takes an active interest in public affairs and has given his support to many of the leading measures for the public welfare. His fellow citizens have honored him politically, and he has served three consecutive terms as mayor of the city. He also served as postmaster of Sturgis from 1894 to 1898, has been a member of the school board, library board and board of

Page  803 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 803 public works. Mr. Flanders has also been twice the nominee of his party for the office of State Senator and for member of the State Constitutional Convention. He is well known in the county, where his life thus far has been spent and has a wide circle of personal friends. He is a member of Meridian Sun Lodge, No. 49, Free and Accepted Masons, and of Sturgis Chapter, No. 26, Royal Arch Masons. His grandfather, Francis Flanders, organized Meridian Sun Lodge and was its first Master. April 26, 1882, Mr. Flanders married Miss Henrietta Sturgis, of the well known family from which the city of Sturgis was named. She is a daughter of William Sturgis and granddaughter of Judge John Sturgis, who came to this locality in 1827 and became the first settler of Sturgis Prairie. Her father, William Sturgis, came with his parents in 1828 and spent many years of his active life in pioneer work in the west, developing water powers and building and operating saw-mills in Iowa, Minnesota and Montana. Ile built the dam at Cedar Falls, Iowa, and organized the company that built the dam across the Mississippi at Little Falls, Minnesota, which was the foundation of that thriving city. He built the first saw mill in southwestern Montana and at one time was operating three saw mills in Beaverhead county. He furnished the lumber for the first placer mining at Butte, Montana, and for many other camps that became famous producers of gold and silver. He married Rosanna Steele at Iowa City, Iowa, and, after years of pioneer life, they spent the last years of their lives at their homestead on Sturgis Prairie. Henrietta Sturgis was born in Little Falls, Minnesota, June 15, 1859. She resided with her parents five years in Montana and returned with them to Sturgis in 1871; attended the Sturgis school, graduating from the high school with the class of 1879. Mrs. Flanders is an active member of the Woman's Club and Sorosis, having been honored with the office of president in both and is a member of Olive Branch Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star. As president of the Woman's Club she started the movement and negotiations that resulted in the building of the Carnegie Free Public Library, which is one of the most attractive buildings of the city and contains a lecture room for the women's clubs. Mr. and Mrs. Flanders have one son, Dr. Henry I., born June 7, 1883, a graduate of the Detroit College of Medicine, with the class of 1906; now located at Salt Lake City, Utah. He married Grace, daughter of W. H. McCord, of Greenwich, Connecticut, October 5, 1907.

Page  804 804 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY MRS. NELSON I. PACKARD has been a resident of Sturgis, Michigan, since 1855, when she came here with her parents, who settled on a farm and here spent the remainder of their lives. She was born in Schenectady county, New York, in August, 1838, daughter of Bracey Tobey. He became possessed of considerable wealth, and died in 1884, in Sturgis. She was reared in New York and at ( the age of seventeen years began teaching school. She was married one year after coming to Michigan, in October, 1856, to Dr. Nelson I., son of Dr. Ira Packard, a pioneer physiican of Sturgis, Michigan. In 1849 Nelson Packard graduated from the Medical School at Cleveland, Ohio, and during the same year his father went to California, leaving the practice to his son. Dr. Nelson I. Packard was born in New York, April 8, 1830, and was not of age when he began practising medicine in Sturgis, where he remained until his death in 1897. He had the entire confidence and esteem of all who knew him, and met with great success in his profession. During the Civil war he served as first assistant surgeon in the Eleventh Michigan Infantry. Dr. Packard took a high place in his profession, and belonged to the county, state and national medical associations. He was railroad physician for a number of years. He was a man of generosity and sympathy, having a kind heart and pleasant manner; he was always ready to give his influence freely to any cause for the public good, and was a public-spirited, useful citizen. He was a man of great nature and high attainments, who devoted his life to others and was never weary of doing good. Politically he was a Democrat, and fraternally was a member of the Masonic Order, having attained the degree of Knight Templar, and had served as eminent commander of the local lodge. He was twelve years president of the National Bank and six years president of the Citizens Bank, and was a good business manager. His fellow citizens delighted to show him honor, and he served four different times as president of the village board of Sturgis and for many years was connected with the village board. His loss was mourned by all, and his presence was missed from many gatherings, both public and private. Mrs. Packard is a lady of high character and refinement; she is an earnest member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and a liberal supporter of every good cause, connected with the church, as well as for any worthy object. She has many friends and her influence for good is widely appreciated.

Page  805 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 805 ORLANDO D. RUSSELL.-St. Joseph county numbers among her native sons Orlando D. Russell, and since 1888 Sturgis has claimed him among her citizens and business men. He was first engaged in the agricultural implement business in this city, continuing in that vocation until 1896, and he has since been engaged in the sale of farm produce. During the past eight years he has represented the Second ward on the board of supervisors and was a member of Sturgis city council two terms. Mr. Russell was born in Nottawa township on the 15th of March, 1840, to the marriage union of Joseph and Luncinda (Knox) Russell. The father was born in Defiance, Ohio, and came to St. Joseph county in 1833 or 1834 and he spent the remainder of his life here. Orlando D. Russell was early inured to the work of the farm, for his early life was spent in the country, and he attended the country schools as well as those of Sturgis, and for two years he was a student in the Agricultural College at Lansing. In 1861 he offered his services to the Union cause in the struggle between the North and the South, becoming a member of Company G, First Michigan Infantry, and with his command he went to Washington. His first battle was that of Bull Run, and owing to illness he was brought back to Washington and was never afterward able to rejoin his regiment. He now draws a pension from the government and is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic and the commander of his post at Sturgis. Some time after returning home from the war Mr. Russell located on a farm in Nottawa township, St. Joseph county, but afterward sold his farm there to come to Sturgis. He is a prominent local worker in the interests of the Republican party. Mrs. Russell was before her marriage Miss Louisa Schoch, born at New Berlin in Union county, Pennsylvania, June 6, 1840, and their only son living is Dorian M. Russell, a graduate in pharmacy at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and now a salesman representing the Parke Davis Company of Detroit, Michigan; another son died in infancy. Mrs. Russell was a daughter of Samuel Schoch and wife. She was married January 28, 1864, to Orlando D. Russell and the young couple came direct to St. Joseph county and during the forty-six years of their married life their home has been here. Mrs. Russell's death on February 8, 1910, was not only a bereavement to her family but a loss to the community. The following from an obituary in a local paper speaks for itself:

Page  806 806 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY "Mrs. Russell, during her long residence in this city, gathered around her a large circle of friends, who deeply regret that she was called from them at this time, but rejoice in the knowledge that they were permitted her acquaintanceship for so many years, for the deceased was something more than a loving wife and mother to those nearest her heart. She was a woman who lived and moved in a sphere of womanhood to which many aspire, but few enter within; with cheerful disposition and high ideals the sordid cares of life were met and disposed of by a woman of firm mind and quick decision. Unlike many, she was not disposed to sit idly by and watch the setting of the sun in the evening of life, but rather preferring to live a useful life until the end, which she was permitted to do. From the life of this woman many inspiring and uplifting sermons might be written, for those who have known her longest mourn deepest." JACOB RUSTERHOLTZ, numbered among the agriculturists of Sturgis township, was born in McKean township, Erie county, Pennsylvania, on the 4th of August, 1836, to Jacob and Catherine (Kaufman) Rusterholtz, natives respectively of Switzerland and of Wurtemberg, Germany. The father came to the United States in 1816, and at Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, he was sold for three years for his passage money. The mother came to this country under the same unfortunate conditions, and they were married in Lancaster county in 1824, and started on their married life very poor as regards this world's goods. They later drove with a team to Erie county, Pennsylvania, and there they lived and labored until death. They were farming people, and Jacob Rusterholtz cleared his land in Erie county, owning at first but fifty acres, but in time increased his landed possessions to two hundred acres. Jacob Rusterholtz, the son, was reared on that Erie county farm, working there until twenty-one years of age, and he too started out in life for himself as a poor boy, working by the month as a farm hand for three years. Since then he has farmed for himself, being at first able to purchase ninety acres. He married Louisa Weigel, also born in McKean township of Erie county, Pennsylvania, and in 1875 they came to Michigan and settled on a farm in Fawn River township, St. Joseph county, where they spent eighteen months, and in 1877 bought and moved to their present estate of two hundred and eighty acres in Sturgis township. With the exception of the home, which had already been erected, Mr. Rusterholtz has made all the other improvements the farm contains,

Page  807 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 807 and it is now one of the best of the township. He is a Republican in his political affiliations. The following four children, two sons and two daughters, have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Rusterholtz: Clara J., James C., Garfield A., and Margaret L., who has been teaching for three years in Sherman township. James C., the elder son, is a graduate of the Sturgis High School and of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, and he is now a druggist in Sturgis. Mrs. Rusterholtz, the wife and mother, has been called from this life, her death occurring January 18, 1894. DANIEL L. ARNEY is a farmer in Sturgis township, owning a splendid estate there of one hundred and ten acres, where he is quite extensively engaged in the raising of hogs and was in former years in the dairy business. He has spent his entire life in St. Joseph county, and was born in its township of Fabius on the 21st of September, 1844, a son of William and Mary (Lewis) Arney. His paternal grandfather took up government land in St. Joseph county in an early day and lived here during the remainder of his life, and his son William, although born in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, was reared on the land here and subsequently married and lived in Fabius township. The last years of his life, however, were spent in Three Rivers, Michigan, and his widow is yet living there, she having attained the age of eighty nine years. They became the parents of ten children, but only five are living at the present time. Daniel L. Arney worked on his father's farm until the age of twenty-two years, attending school in the meantime until twentyone, and this included a course at the college in Ontario, Indiana. He thus obtained a sufficient knowledge to enable him to teach, and he remained in the profession for twelve years in St. Joseph county, teaching mostly in Sherman and Sturgis townships. He married in 1873 Emily Hibbard, who was born and reared in Sturgis township, and of their three children only the son is now living, the two daughters, Ruth and Grace, being both deceased. The son, William Arney, born on the 15th of May, 1877, is a graduate of the Sturgis High School and for two years was a student at Lansing, Michigan. He married Ola Sharp, from Centerville, and has two children, Ruth and William. He is a Sherman township farmer. Daniel L. Arney and his family are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, and he has served his church as a member of its official board. He exercises his right in support of Republican principles, and has served Sherman township as superintendent of schools.

Page  808 808 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY GEORGE KLINE.-Although born in Wayne county, New York, George Kline was but two years old when brought to St. Joseph county, Michigan, by his parents, and he has since been identified with its interests and has long been one of its land owners and business men. He was born in 1857 to Andrew and Mary (Engle) Kline, who located in St. Joseph county in the year of 1859, becoming farmers of Florence township. They afterward moved to Burr Oak township, where the son George was reared, and the latter now owns a valuable farm there. For some time he was in charge of the elevators in Findley, and during two years of the time his wife was the postmistress of the town. In 1907 Mr. Kline was appointed keeper of the county home, his wife being its matron, and the members of the board of the county home include Elias Zable, of Sherman; Dr. M. Sabin; and Samuel Jordon, of Three Rivers. Mr. Kline is well adapted for the many public positions to which he has been appointed, and he is an active local worker in the ranks of the Democratic party. He married in 1885 Mattie Mowery, who was born in Holmes county, Ohio, in 1860, a daughter of James W. Mowery, a farmer, and their two children are Harvey, born in 1887, and Leo, born in 1894. Mr. and Mrs. Kline are members of the Methodist Episcopal church at Burr Oak, of which he is a member of the board of trustees and Mrs. Kline is the president of its Ladies' Aid Society. They are well known residents of their community and active in the various walks of life. WILLIAM E. McKEE has long been associated with the public life of St. Joseph county, whither he came with his parents in 1865. During seventeen years he was a member of the board of supervisors of Fawn River township, and he was the chairman of the board during the building of the court house at Centerville, so that he has the honor of having his name incribed on that building. He also serves as the superintendent of the township schools during a long period, and he is an active and influential worker in the ranks of the Democratic party. His splendid estate in Fawn River township contains one hundred and twenty acres of valuable land. Mr. McKee traces his ancestry on the paternal side to the time of the Revolutioniary war, his great-grandfather serving with Washington in that struggle and was with him at Valley Forge. The grandfather was Captain James McKee, a valiant soldier of the War of 1812. William S. and Nancy (Ellis) McKee, the parents of William E. of this review, were from Columbia county Pennsyl

Page  809 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 809 vania, the birthplace of the son on the 9th of November, 1844. They were also married in Columbia county, and came from there in 1865 to LaGrange county, Indiana. The son William was reared on the home farm in Pennsylvania, and when old enough assisted in its work and attended the neighborhood schools, later teaching during one term in Indiana. And he was married while in that state to Rose H. Fobes, who was born in its county of LaGrange, and their five children are: Nellie E.; Mary E., wife of Mark Bordner; Rose, wife of Claude Van Vorst, of St. Joseph county, Michigan; Edward F., who is married and living in Iowa; and Bessie B., the wife of Frank Spaide, of Idaho. Mr. McKee is a member and a past noble grand of Sturgis Prairie Lodge, No. 37, I. O. O. F. PAULINA ADAMS.-Fawn River township numbers among its representative citizens the Adams family, who have been identified with its interests for many years, and Henry Adams, the eldest son in the family of Paulina Adams, is the present township treasurer. Mrs. Adams was born in Mecklenburg, Germany, May 24, 1852, and she was but two years of age when brought to this country by her father, Henry Spongberg. Her mother had died during her early infancy, and her father was afterward again married. He lived for some time in Canada after coming to America. The daughter Paulina came to Michigan at the age of eighteen years, and on the 11th of April, 1873, she was married to Fred Adams, who was also born in Mecklenburg, Germany. They became the parents of five children, namely: Henry, Emma, Lena, Lizzie and Sarah. Henry Adams is a young man of splendid business ability, progressive and enterprising, and he has gained the confidence of the citizens of Fawn River township and is now serving his second term in its office of treasurer. He resides with his mother, and the family is an honored one in the township. Mrs. Adams is a member of the German Lutheran church at Sturgis. BENJAMIN F. BORDNER.-St. Joseph county numbers among her upright, substantial and prosperous citizens and business men Benjamin F. Bordner, one of the property owners and farmers of Fawn River township. Mr. Bordner was born in Williamsville, New York, August 2, 1841, a son of Jacob Bordner. His parents both died when he was three years old, and he afterward lived with his maternal grandmother, Mrs. Wolf, until he attained the age of twelve, when he found a home with an older brother, George Bordner. In the meantime he had attended school. During the progVol. II —19

Page  810 810 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ress of the Civil war he enlisted in Company D, Eleventh Michigan Infantry, and during his army service of three years he took part in the battles of Stone River and Chickamauga and in the Atlanta campaign. He now draws a pension in compensation for his military services. Returning to Burr Oak, where a brother was living, Mr. Bordner began learning the cooper's trade, and from Burr Oak he went to Three Rivers, where he worked at his trade for some time, and then returning to Burr Oak was in the grocery business there a short time. At the close of this period Mr. Bordner moved to a farm of forty acres which he had bought, and from there in 1874, he came to his present homestead in Fawn River township, a splendidly improved estate of two hundred acres. In politics he upholds the principles of the Republican party, and is an active local worker in its cause. In February, 1866, was celebrated the marriage of Benjamin F. Bordner and Mary Dunlap. She was born in Branch county, Michigan, in October, 1842, a daughter of John Dunlap, who was a Pennsylvanian by birth. Three sons have blessed this marriage union: Ralph, born November 14, 1870, a graduate of the business school at Kalamazoo and now an agriculturist; Guy, born May 4, 1876, also a graduate of the Kalamazoo Business College, and the present cashier of the National Bank of Burr Oak; and Mark, born July 19, 1879, a carpenter in Burr Oak. Mr. Bordner of late years has been greatly afflicted with deafness, and for that reason demitted from the Masonic lodge. As a citizen he commands th. respect of all who know him, and as a business man he has long been a leading factor in his community. FRANK L. SWIHART is one of Fawn River township's best known agriculturists and business men. He owns one hundred and seventy-seven acres of its richest and best improved land, and is prominently known both as an agriculturist and as a sheep feeder and shipper. Mr. Swihart was born in La Grange county, Indiana, January 10, 1870, a son of Benjamin F. and Savilla (Lilly) Swihart, and a grandson on the paternal side of Jonathan Swihart. Frank L. was the eldest of the three children born to Benjamin F. and Savilla Swihart, and his brother, Harry C. Swihart, is engaged in farming in Canada, and his sister, Mary G., is the wife of George Watson. Frank L. Swihart was reared as a farmer boy, attending first the district schools, then the Burr Oak High School and from 1889 to 1890 was a student in the Northern Indiana University at

Page  811

Page  812 THE MAPLES RESIDENCE OF MR. AND MRS. ANDREW N. VIEMAN

Page  813 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 813 Valparaiso. He was thus well fitted to begin the active duties of a business life. February 8, 1892, he was married to Marinda W. Cummins, who was born in Branch county, Michigan, February 6, 1873, and a son and a daughter have been born to them, but the only son, Clair B., born on the 5th of April, 1898, died in April, 1902. The daughter, Helen C., born September 9, 1894, is a member of the Burr Oak High School, class of 1911. Mr. Swihart has membership relations with the Grange at Burr Oak, and in politics he affiliates with the Republican party. He is a practical, progressive and influential farmer, using the latest and best improved methods of agriculture, and he is one of the township's most highly esteemed citizens. The pretty country seat of Mr. and Mrs. Swihart is known in Fawn River Township as "Maple Street Farm" and is a credit to the township. ANDREW N. VIEMAN is one of the most prominent of the farmers of White Pigeon township, and his entire life has been spent in this township. He was born here on the 21st of August, 1858, a son of William Vieman, from the fatherland of Germany, born there in November of 1823. William Vieman came to this country when a young man, a stone mason by trade, and he was married in New York to Margaret Callahart, born in the year of 1839. In December of 1858 they came to White Pigeon, Michigan, Mr. Vieman then turning his attention to farming, and both lie and his wife are yet living on their homestead in White Pigeon township, honored early residents of the community. Five sons and five daughters blessed their marriage, as follows: Andrew N., Maggie, Tresa, Johanna, Emma, Ellen, William, Fred, Michael and George. Andrew N. Vieman attained to mature years on his father's farm in White Pigeon township, attending meanwhile until his fourteenth year, the Crooked Creek school, and finishing at the Barnes school. He left the parental home at the age of twentythree, married, and began farming for himself. He now owns eighty acres of land in section 36, a well kept and well improved farm on the north bank of Klinger Lake. This is a valuable estate, and it represents years of honorable effort and determined purpose, for he started out in life for himself a poor man. In politics he votes with the Democracy, and he has held several of the township offices. June 9, 1881, Mr. Vieman married Matilda Rhoades, born March 3, 1863, and reared in White Pigeon township, and a son,

Page  814 814 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Lyman W. Vieman, was born to them on April 5, 1882. He attended the same district school which gave to his father his early educational training. The family are representative citizens of White Pigeon township. The beautiful country home of Mr. and Mrs. Vieman is known as "The Maples." SIMON W. NIDY was born in Portage county, Ohio, but he was only about nine years of age when he come to Michigan, and he has since resided within its borders, and has for a number of years past been one of the well known farmers and stock raisers of Fawn River township in St. Joseph county. He was born on the 29th of March, 1857, to Adam and Nancy (Snider) Nidy, the father born on the 28th of April, 1825, and the mother on the 27th of February, 1826. They came to Michigan in 1872, and locating in Kalamazoo they spent the remainder of their lives in that city, both dying in the year of 1892, the father on the 9th of October and the mother on the 4th of December. They had become the parents of eight children, four sons and four daughters. Simon Nidy began farm work in his early life, receiving in the meantime a district school training, and after coming to St. Joseph county he was married to Mary Moe, a daughter of Albert Moe. She was born on the farm where she now lives on May 26, 1857. A daughter, Emma, was born to Mr. and Mrs. Nidy on the 15th of June, 1883, and she was married to Lloyd E. Coler on the 17th of March, 1909. She attended both the common schools and the Sturgis High School and was a teacher of drawing for one year before her marriage. She is not only proficient in her art of drawing but is also a splendid musician, a violinist of well known ability. Mr. Nidy is a Democratic voter but not an active politician, but he is one of the substantial and enterprising agriculturists of Fawn River township. He is a Unitarian in religious views. ALFRED D. MILLER.-One of the finest farming estates in Fawn River township is the property of Afred D. Miller, who is one of the township's native sons and a representative of old and well known families of St. Joseph county. He was born on the 15th of October, 1857, a son of Adam and Nancy (Van Ausdal) Miller, born respectfully in Ohio and in Pennsylvania, but they came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, in their early lives and were married and spent the residue of their days in Fawn River township. They became the parents of nine children, and seven of the number are living at this writing (1910).

Page  815 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 815 Alfred D. Miller was early inured to the work of the farm, working in the fields during the summer months and attending the district schools during the winters, and thus he passed the early years of his life until he attained the age of eighteen, after which he gave his entire attention to the farm. He continued with his father until his marriage, and with his bride he then located on a little farm in Fawn River township, which continued as their home until moving to their present farm in the spring of 1894. The estate is located in sections 12, 13 and 14, and contains two hundred and fifteen acres of the richest and best improved land of the township, constituting one of the most valuable estates in Fawn River. The place is devoted to general farming and stock raising, and Mr.. Miller devotes his time to looking after the estate, having relegated its actual work to others. He is a Democratic voter and one of the influential citizens of his community. On the 17th of September, 1882, Mr. Miller was married to Olive Deal, who was born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, October 13, 1858, but accompanied her parents to Fawn River townhsip in St. Joseph county, Michigan, in her youth. A daughter, Zada, was born to them on the 11th of June, 1891, and she was educated in the common schools and in the Burr Oak High School, and has also received a good musical training. Mrs. Miller is a member of the United Brethren church at Fawn River. CHRISTIAN ZABEL is numbered among Sherman township's substantial citizens. He has resided within its borders during the greater part of his life, and he is well known to its residents and has proved a citizen of worth in its public life. He is one of its justices of the peace, and in October of 1907 was elected the superintendent of the poor for a term of three years, being the present incumbent of the office. He owns an estate of one hundred and sixty-eight acres in sections 9 and 16, Sherman township, but owing to his skill as a carpenter the work of the farm has been carried on by his sons, although during the last two years he has devoted his attention entirely to his estate. Mr. Zabel is a native son of the Fatherland of Germany, born September 27, 1845, to Joseph and Carrie (Drager) Zabel. The wife and mother died during the early boyhood of her son, Christian, and Joseph Zabel subsequently married Frederica Tedaman, who reared his children, and the family in 1857 came to the United States and settled in Genesee county, New York. After three years there they came to Sherman township, St. Joseph county, Michi

Page  816 816 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY gan, arriving here in the spring of 1860, and Joseph Zabel spent the residue of his life here and died in 1875. He was a member of the Lutheran church. The three sons which were born of his first marriage are John, Fred and Christian, and there were also two children by his second marriage: Mary, the wife of Charles Balk, and William, deceased. Christian Zabel was a lad of eleven years at the time of the emigration of the family to the United States, and in New York he continued the education begun in the Fatherland, continuing his studies until about sixteen years of age. He then spent two years at work on a farm, receiving but small wages in compensation for his services, and from the close of that period until 1864 he was an employe of the Lake Shore Railroad Company. Then going south to Chattanooga, Tennessee, he was in the employ of the government there until returning to Sherman, Michigan, in 1865, where he resumed work and later bought forty acres of land in Sherman township and continued its cultivation until 1870. He then began work at the carpenter's trade and continued along that line for forty years or more, at the same time giving more or less attention to his farm. He is one of Sherman township's oldest and best known residents, and is prominent in local Democratic circles. On the 23d of December, 1873, Mr. Zabel was united in marriage with Lena Brast, who was born in Germany, July 6, 1856. She came to the United States in 1857, and her home thereafter was in the state of New York until she came with her family in 1865 to Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Zabel have become the parents of nine children, namely: Lillie, born October 15, 1874; Fred, born May 7, 1878; Leda, born June 27, 1880, deceased; Carrie, born April 28, 1883; Louis, April 14, 1885; Freda, March 9, 1887; Christ, December 23, 1888; Walter, April 7, 1891; and Frances, December 5, 1893. The children have all received good educational advantages. Mr. Zabel and his family are members of the German Lutheran church. CLINTON J. WOLFINGER was born on the farm where he now lives in Sherman township, and he represents a family which has long been identified with St. Joseph county and its interests. His parents, Solomon and Leah (Smith) Wolfinger, were both from Pennsylvania, the mother from Bucks county, and they came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, before their marriage, in 1857. Their union, which occurred in this county, was blessed by the birth of eight children, and the following five are living at this writing:

Page  817 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 817 Clinton J.; John A., in Colon, Michigan; Margaret, the wife of C. H. Bemenderfer; Judson C., whose home is in Canton, Ohio, a traveling salesman; and Gertrude, the wife of A. A. Timm, of the state of Idaho. Clinton J. Wolfinger, born on the 20th of September, 1860, has spent his entire life on the farm where he now lives, and it represents the scenes of his boyhood and youth, of his first business venture and his subsequent success as an agriculturist and business man. It contains one hundred and forty acres of rich and fertile land, all lying within Sherman township with the exception of twenty acres in Nottawa township, and it is a valuable and well improved estate. Mr. Wolfinger is a member of the directorate of the Farmers' Mutual Insurance Company in St. Joseph, and he is a Democratic voter. On the 2d of June, 1897, he married Dora Leyda, born in Carroll county, Ohio, and their union has been without issue. CHRISTOPHER Foss.-One of the highly esteemed citizens of Sherman township is Chritsopher Foss, whose life history furnishes a splendid example of what may be accomplished through determined purpose and well directed efforts. He started out in life a poor boy, and has steadily worked his way upward, gaining at the same time success and the public esteem. He was born in Prussia, Germany, December 6, 1848, and his parents dying when he was but a year old he was adopted by John Foss and his wife and by them was brought to the United States in 1849. Their home afterward was in New York until coming to St. Joseph county, Michigan, in 1852, and young Foss remained with his adopted parents until his marriage, working on the home farm and obtaining his education in the district schools. He now owns an estate of one hundred and twenty acres of well improved land in section 8, Sherman township, and this goodly estate represents many years of hard and persistent labor and years of purposes well directed. Mr. Foss married on the 7th of November, 1868, Ida Mecklenberg, also from Prussia, Germany, born on the 10th of November, 1852, and who came with her parents in her early life to the United States and to Sherman township, St. Joseph county, Michigan; she attended its district schools and grew to maturity here. The following children have graced their marriage union, namely: Matilda, born June 9, 1870, the wife of Andrew Jessy and a resident of Sturgis, Michigan; Lewis, born November 29, 1872, living in Chicago; Anna, born February 9, 1874, is the wife of Fred Ded

Page  818 818 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY rick, of Sherman township; Caroline, born February 24, 1880, is the wife of Henry Kruger and lives near Centerville, this state; Alta, born March 11, 1888, is the wife of Hugh Holtz; and George, born March 17, 1891, is at home with his parents. Mr. Foss is one of Sherman township's Democratic voters, and he and his family are members of the Lutheran church. FREDERICK J. KRUGER.-St. Joseph county numbers among her early settlers the Kruger family, and its representatives have been substantial citizens, taking an active and helpful part in the progress and welfare of the community. Frederick J. Kruger was born in Sherman township April 5, 1866, a son of Henry and Sophia (Hardwick) Kruger, both of whom came from their native land of Germany to the United States when young, and their marriage was celebrated in St. Joseph county, whither they had come from the state of New York in 1862 and the father spent the residue of his life here. Mrs. Kruger survives her first husband, and has been a second time married. Five sons were born of the first union, namely: George, F. J., Edward, William and Henry, all living in Sherman township with the exception of Henry, whose home is in Nottawa township. Frederick J. Kruger attained to mature years on his parents' farm in section 15, Sherman township, and from an early age he assisted in its work, attending the district schools during the winter months, and after his father's death he continued on the farm with his mother until his twentieth year. At the time of his marriage he bought land, which placed him in debt, and with the passing years he has not only cleared his place of its indebtedness but has also added to its acreage until it now ocntains two hundred acres of rich and well cultivated land in section 18, Sherman township. Its complete set of new and substantial buildings have been placed there by its present owner. On the 23d of March, 1886, Mr. Kruger was married to Anna Hecht, who was reared in Fawn River township, St. Joseph county. Her parents came from Germany. A daughter, Myrtie, was born to them on the 8th of March, 1893, and a son, Clarence, was born on the 16th of June, 1897. The daughter is now a student in the Centerville High School. The family are members of the German Lutheran church. Mr. Kruger in politics is a Democrat. He served Sherman township two years as its treasurer, and is its present supervisor, in which position he is now serving his ninth year.

Page  819 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 819 ALEXANDER SHARP.-Although Alexander Sharp, the old-time farmer and honored citizen of Sherman township is in his seventyfirst year, he is far from retired, but still takes a lively interest and an active part in the progress of the agricultural, public and religious affairs of St, Joseph county, of which he has been a resident for the past thirty-five years. For a quarter of a century of that period he has occupied the fine country place formerly known as the Silas Cady farm of two hundred and twelve acres. Mr. Sharp has not only been active in farmers' institutes and served as president of the County Agricultural Association for four years, but was elected county treasurer in 1894, serving one term, and was renominated but was carried away by the wave of Bryanism which swept the county. There is no more ardent or stanch Republican than Mr. Sharp, and for twenty years he has represented his township as a member of the county committees. As a typical Scotchman he has also evinced his sturdy patriotism in the cause of the Union of his adopted country. Mr. Sharp was born near the old town of Ayr, Scotland, on the 1st of August, 1839, his father, George Sharp, dying during that year. The result was that the widow brought her two children to live near her relatives in the town of Coalsnaughton, near the Frith of Forth. At the age of sixteen, with his mother, he emigrated to the United States, going directly to Bellevue, Ohio, where he arrived May 4, 1856. After completing his education the youth worked steadily on a farm for some time, and in 1862 went to Saginaw, Michigan, as an employe of the salt works. While thus engaged he enlisted (November, 1862) in Company H, First Michigan Engineers' and Mechanics' Regiment, and remained in the service until the close of the war. Mr. Sharp was with his regiment throughout the Nashville, Chattanooga and Atlanta campaigns, and (being on detached duty at the time) witnessed the historic act of Major Anderson, April 14, 1865, in the raising of the same flag and hanging of the same mail bag at Fort Sumter, which he was compelled to take down just four years before. Upon that occasion Henry Ward Beecher delivered an eloquent oration on the Reconstruction of the States, which is still fresh in the mind of the Michigan veteran. Mr. Sharp also marched with Sherman's army to Washington, and participated in the grand review before President Johnson and Generals Grant and Sherman, on the 22d of May, 1865. His regiment was mustered out of the service in October of that year, and Mr. Sharp returned to Bellevue, where his mother and brother still resided.

Page  820 820 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY On the 26th of October, 1869, Alexander Sharp was united in marriage to Miss Mary Ann Aigler, of Bellevue, and in March, 1874, the family moved to Michigan, locating on a farm in section 20, Nottawa township, which he had previously purchased. In March, 1884, just ten years thereafter, he located on his present homestead, and here he has reared a large family, lived a happy domestic life and earned honor for himself and his descendants. Besides becoming prominent as a progressive agriculturist and citizen of public affairs, he has served for a decade as president and treasurer of the Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company of St. Joseph county. He was long an active member of the Reformed church of Centerville. About two years ago that body went over to the Presbyterian church of which Mr. Sharp is now an elder. He is also president of the St. Joseph County Pioneer Society and has been for six years. Mr. and Mrs. Sharp have raised to maturity and usefulness six sons and three daughters. The eldest, Clarence, is at present making the tour of Palestine with his wife; Chester D. and Elmer E. are Kansas City attorneys; Roy H. and Alexander T. are in Chicago, the latter having just completed a course in law; and Carmi G. is assisting in the farm work and management. One of the daughters, Oly, is married to William H. Arney, of Sherman township; Blanche is the wife of Dr. L. H. Power, of Battle Creek, Michigan, and Lulu is Mrs. William Price of Fairfax. Colon township. WILLIAM F. WAHL is well known throughout Sherman township and this vicinity because of his effective, earnest labors in behalf of the Republican party, being one of the few Republicans of Sherman township, and he is at the present time the chairman of the Republican Central Committee of the township. He is also well known as an agriculturist and stock raiser, owning a well improved estate of one hundred and five acres. Mr. Wahl was born in Germany December 1, 1864, and is a splendid example of the enterprise and progressiveness of the German-American citizen. His parents, Carl and Hattie (Bower) Wahl, came from the Fatherland with their respective parents in 1874 and located in Lockport township of St. Joseph county, Michigan, from whence they came to Sherman township in 1884. As soon as old enough the son, William, began working on the home farm, which he alternated with his attendance at the district schools until his twentieth year, and he continued on the home

Page  821 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 821 stead until his marriage at the age of twenty-five to Emma Senf, who was born in Lockport township, of St. Joseph county. Her splendid educational training included attendance at the common and high schools and the Three Rivers Business College, and she was one of St. Joseph county's teachers before her marriage. After their marriage in 1893 Mr. and Mrs. Wahl located on their present homestead in Sherman township. They have six children, namely: Willis, a graduate of the high school, John and Hazel, who are both high school students, and Melva, Carl and Blanche. Mr. and Mrs. Wahl are members of the Presbyterian church in Centerville, and he is also affiliated with the Maccabees and with the M. W. A. Camp 840, of which he is also a charter member. WILLIAM MEYER.-One of the prominent and respected citizens of Sherman township is William Meyer, who through struggles and hardships has worked his own way to high esteem and a place of prominence in his community. It was 1870 that he came to St. Joseph county and to the farm where he now lives in Sherman township, and building a log house for himself and his young wife and a place for his team, he, in the midst of the forest, set to work to hew out a farm. He accomplished the arduous work in time and finally completed the many improvements which now adorn the homestead, including the erection of a splendid residence in 1883 and his substantial and commodious barn in 1877. This is now one of the best farms in Sherman township and includes one hundred and one acres, all well improved and fertile. Mr. Meyer was born in Ferken, City of Demmen, Province of Stettin, Prussia, Germany, September 1, 1843, a son of Christ and Marie (Brandt) Meyer. He was reared in his native land and educated in his native tongue, attending school until his fifteenth year, and he was then confirmed in the Lutheran church and turned his attention to farming. At the age of twenty-three he came from his native Fatherland to the United States, and making his way to Chicago, Illinois, he arrived in that city with four dollars as his entire capital. He worked for a farmer and also on the railroad, and in time was able to purchase a team of horses and work independently. In 1870 he came to St. Joseph county, Michigan, and in the following year of 1871 was married to Caroline Schacko, who was also born in Prussia, and she came to the United States in 1867. They had known each other in their native land, and were' also in Chicago at the same time. Their union has been blessed by the birth of seven children: John C., born in 1873, and

Page  822 822 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY now a farmer in Burr Oak township; August, born in 1876, of Sherman township.; Ida, born March 24, 1878, the widow of Edward Meyer; Adam, born in 1880, living in Sturgis; Louise, born in 1882, the wife of Edward Menelson; Fred, born October 26, 1885; and Henry, born May 9, 1888. The family are members of the Lutheran church at Sturgis, and in politics Mr. Meyer is allied with the Democratic party. JOHN KASDORF is one of Sherman township's oldest and most highly esteemed residents and has been for many years one of its leading agriculturists. He was born in Glendoln, province of Stettin, Prussia, Germany, July 1, 1838, a son of Michael and Mary (Kasdorf) Kasdorf, who were of the same name but not related by the ties of blood. The son John at the age of seventeen years left his native Fatherland for the United States, where he arrived in the spring of 1856, a stranger in a strange land, unable even to speak the English language. His first employment in this country was on a farm in the state of New York, moving from there to La Porte county, Indiana, in August of 1856, where he secured employment on the Lake Shore Railroad, and from there he went to Chicago, Illinois, and spent a year in that city. It was in the year of 1858 that he arrived in Sherman township, St. Joseph county, Michigan, and this place has continued his home since those early days. He had only about sixty dollars in money when he arrived here, and he worked first at farm labor and at threshing, thus accumulating a small capital, and he was also identified for some time with the carpenter's trade. On the 6th of January, 1864, Mr. Kasdorf was united in marriage with Caroline Peters, who was born in Prussia, Germany, September 3, 1842, and she came to the United States in the fall of 1856 and to St. Joseph county, Michigan. Their eight children are: Adam, a Burr Oak township agriculturist; Adeline, wife of Fred Hecht; Louise, wife of Fred Sauer; Minnie, the wife of Fred Michael; Ida, wife of Charles Wagnor; Helen, wife of Charles Remer; August, whose home is in Sherman township; Emma, wife of Frank Michel. The family are members of the Evangelical Lutheran church at Sturgis. Mr. Kasdorf is a Democratic voter, and he has held many of the offices of his township, including those of justice of the peace, treasurer and the supervisor from 1882 until 1900, his incumbency in the latter office covering eighteen years. He and wife own a valuable estate of two hundred and twentyfive acres in Sherman township, and although advanced in years

Page  823 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 823 he superintends the work of his large farm and is active in the public life of his community. Mr. and Mrs. Kasdorf are numbered among the old and honored settlers of Sherman township, esteemed for their true worth of character. ALBERT NALLINGER is numbered among the substantial and successful farmers and stock raisers of Sherman township, St. Joseph county. He was born in Germany on the 13th of November, 1854, and his parents, Francis and Rose Nallinger, were born, reared and spent their lives in that country. After leaving school at the age of fourteen Albert Nallinger farmed for three years, and then for two years attended an agricultural college, after which he was employed as an overseer of a number of farms for nine years. In 1882 he emigrated to the United States, and locating in Noble township, Branch county, Michigan, he was employed at farm labor there for three and a half years. He was married at this time, and the young couple located in Sturgis, where Mr. Nallinger was employed as a section man on the Grand Rapids and Illinois Railroad until moving to Sturgis township, where for nine years he farmed as a renter. At the close of that period, in 1899, he came to Sherman township and bought his present farm of one hundred and ninety-two acres, where he is extensively engaged in farming and stock raising. Mary Kalberer became the wife of Mr. Nallinger. She was born in Germany on the 7th of July, 1862, and was twenty years of age when she came to the United States and to Sturgis, Michigan. The five children which have been born of their marriage are: Emil, born March 25, 1888, is a teacher in the Elkhart, Indiana, Business College; Carl, born May 15, 1891; Dora, born May 25, 1893; Gustav V., born December 27, 1897 and Esther, born November 13, 1904. The family are members of the German Lutheran church at Sturgis, and in politics Mr. Nallinger upholds the principles of the Republican party, but he is an independent voter and not bound by party ties. BENJAMIN F. SHELDON, an extensive grain dealer, living at Burr Oak, Michigan, was born in La Grange county, Indiana, June 29, 1841, son of Dr. William and Chloe (Goodsall) Sheldon. Dr. Sheldon was born in the state of New York, and after moving to Indiana practiced medicine; he had graduated from a fine medical institution and stood high in his profession. He was a publicspirited citizen and liberal in his views. He worked considerable

Page  824 824 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY among the poor, from whom he did not try to collect his fees, and did a great deal for the betterment of the community in which he lived. Dr. Sheldon died in 1852, but his wife survived him many years, passing away in Burr Oak, Michigan, in 1903. They were parents of but one child, Benjamin F. The early days of Benjamin F. Sheldon were spent on a farm, and he attended school in his native county until twelve years of age; he then removed with his parents to Orleans, Indiana, where he attended school until he was seventeen years old. He worked on a farm in the summer time and attended the district school winters, and then attended the academy at La Grange, Indiana. In February, 1861, Mr. Sheldon married Sarah Richards, a native of Branch county, Michigan, and they moved to a farm in that county, in Noble township, where he purchased 160 acres of land, eighty acres of which was partially cleared, and the rest in the woods. After living on this farm three years he sold it at a nice profit; later he purchased another eighty acres, which he sold at a profit, and in 1865 removed to Burr Oak township, St. Joseph county, where he purchased 160 acres of land one mile south of the town of Burr Oak. He lived on this place two years, after which he sold it at a good price, and invested in another farm, which he soon sold, also at a profit. He then located in Burr Oak, where he began buying grain, and has since dealt etxensively in this commodity. While at times he has lost some money, yet in the main Mr. Sheldon has done very well financially, and has proven himself a business man of ability, good judgment and enterprise. Politically Mr. Sheldon is a Republican, and he served at one time as Supervisor of Burr Oak; he is a public-spirited citizen, and accounted one of the representative men of the county. Mr. Sheldon has money invested outside of his grain business, and is a stockholder in the National Bank, of Burr Oak. Mr. Sheldon and his wife became parents of two sons,-Frank, who died at the age of twelve years, and F. W., a grain buyer at Angola, Indiana. Mrs. Sheldon died in the fall of 1901 and Mr. Sheldon married (second) Miss Jessie Maude Lyons. DR. F. W. CLEMENTS, a prominent physician and surgeon of Burr Oak, St. Joseph county, Michigan, graduate of Detroit Medical College, was born at Laingsburg, Michigan, December 5, 1876. He is a son of George W. Clements, and was reared on a farm, receiving his primary education in the common schools and Laings

Page  825 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 825 burg High School. He entered Detroit Medical College in 1901, and was graduated May 4, 1905. Dr. Clements has been engaged in the practice of his profession at Burr Oak since 1906, locating in that town in May, of that year, taking an office over the State Bank. He is a member of the Phi Rho Sigma, of his college, was secretary of his class in his senior year, and is now president of St. Joseph Medical Society. He is a member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, being connected with Eagle Lodge, No. 124; Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, Coldwater Lodge No. 1023; Modern Woodmen of America, Camp No. 5698, and Royal Neighbors, No. 4654. In 1902 Dr. Clements married Genevieve M. Pratt, a native of Grand Rapids, Wisconsin; she was a graduate of high school, had passed the necessary government examination, and had taught two years among the Indians at Hyword, Wisconsin. Dr. Clements and his wife have one son, Floyd Wayne. Dr. Clements is actively interested in all measures for progress and improvement, is a public-spirited citizen, well known and highly esteemed in the community. He stands high in his profession, and his high character and professional ability have won him many friends. Politically he is a Republican, and he is a prominent member of the State Medical Society, and of the American Medical Association. ROBERT AKEY, who has lived in St. Joseph county, Michigan, most of his life, owns a large farm, where he carries on general farming and stock-raising. He was born in Defiance county, Ohio, September 8, 1864, son of J. B. and Mary E. (Yates) Akey. J. B. Akey and his wife were both natives of Pennsylvania, the former born in Fredericksburg, and both were brought as children, by their parents, to Ohio, where they grew to maturity and married. In the fall of 1864 they removed to St. Joseph county, Michigan, settling on a farm near Burr Oak. He became a prosperous farmer and owned 180 acres; later he purchased fifty acres more. Mr. Akey made a specialty of stock-raising, and became a very prosperous man. He was quiet and unassuming, and a strong Republican. He was a member and elder of the Presbyterian church. J. B. Akey had four children, of whom three survive, namely: William B., of California; J. B., also of California, and Robert. When his parents removed to Michigan, Robert Akey was a babe, and he has spent his entire life since in St. Joseph county; he was reared on a farm and attended school in Burr Oak. When he reached his majority he engaged in farming and stock-raising,

Page  826 826 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and has been very successful, being now the owner of 450 acres of land in Burr Oak township; he has earned a large part of his property himself, raising sheep, cattle and horses, and he also buys cattle for feeding, in carload lots, and afterwards ships them to market. Mr. Akey is an enterprising, wide-awake farmer, and has acquired his present success by industry, thrift and economy. He is a public-spirited citizen, and takes a keen interest in public affairs. Mr. Akey is a good business man and has money invested in various enterprises, he is a stockholder in the two banks of Burr Oak. Fraternally Mr. Akey is a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Coldwater Lodge, and of Eagle Lodge, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, Sturgis Chapter and Columbus Commandery, Knights Templars. He has travelled some, is well known in the community where he lives, and is highly esteemed. GEORGE W. BAUMEISTER.-Farming has attracted many men who have begun their active business life engaged in other occupations, but have recognized the fact that very good profits could be obtained from agricultural pursuits. George Baumeister, of Burr Oak township, was well educated in music, and in early life gave private lessons in instrumental music, but later on gave it up in order to give his best efforts and attention to the care of his farm. He was born in the township where he now lives, January 19, 1861, a son of John and Sophia (Stull) Baumeister. John Baumeister was born in Germany, and married November 20, 1859; he had only one son, George W. In his native township George W. Baumeister was reared and he attended the Burr Oak schools. He married, January 25, 1888, Ella Trost, who was born September 12, 1864, and was reared on a farm in Colon township; she attended the common schools. They became parents of children as follows: Maude, born June 15, 1889, now a student of Bush Temple Conservatory, of Chicago, Illinois; Clara, born January 21, 1892; Lena, born August 28, 1893, and John, February 7, 1899. They are all members of the Lutheran church, of Burr Oak, Mr. Baumeister being one of the trustees. Politically Mr. Baumeister is a Democrat, and takes a commendable interest in public affairs. He is an intelligent, progressive farmer, who well deserves the success he has achieved. He has two hundred and sixty acres of land in sections 2 and 11, where he carries on general farming and stock-raising. He is well known in the community, and has a host of friends.

Page  827 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 827 F. C. KINSEY, M. D.-St. Josph county is favored in the personnel of its representatives of the medical profession, and numbered among those who stand unmistakably as able and popular disciples of Aesculapius within the county is Dr. Kinsey, who is established in the successful practice of his profession in the city of Three Rivers and who is known as a man of fine intellectual and professional attainments. Dr. Kinsey reverts to the fine old Hoosier state as the place of his nativity, as he was born in the city of Ft. Wayne, Indiana, on the 10th of February, 1877. He is the son of J. J. and Letitia (Palmer) Kinsey, both of whom were likewise born in Indiana, the father having been a native of Switzerland and Mrs. Kinsey being of stanch Scottish lineage. Of the two children the subject of the sketch is the younger, and Edward A., is now a resident of New York City. J. J. Kinsey has been identified with manufacturing enterprises during the greater part of his active business career and he and his wife are now residents of Saginaw, Michigan. When Dr. Kinsey was young his parents removed to Grand Rapids, Michigan, in whose public schools he gained his early educational training. After his graduation in the high school he was matriculated in the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, in which he was graduated in 1901 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. In 1903 he received the degree of Master of Arts from the Northwestern University, at Evanston, Illinois. While a student in the literary department of the University of Michigan he attended lectures in the medical department of the institution for two years and for three years was a regular student in that department. He completed his medical course, however, in the medical department of the Northwestern University, from which he received his degree of Doctor of Medicine. After his graduation Dr. Kinsey returned to Grand Rapids, Michigan, where he served for some time as interne and general assistant in Butterworth Hospital. In this connection he gained most valuable clinical experience. While incumbent of this position he was tendered the post of assistant surgeon in the Michigan Soldiers Home, at Grand Rapids, but he deemed it expedient to establish himself in the private practice of his profession and accordingly came to Three Rivers, in 1904. Here he has met with unqualified success in the work of his profession, having gained precedence as an earnest and skillful physician and surgeon and as one who keeps constantly in touch with advances made in both departments of his chosen vocation. Vol. II —20

Page  828 828 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The doctor is a valued member of the St. Joseph County Medical Society, of which he is secretary and treasurer at the time of this writing, in 1910. He also holds membership in the Michigan State Medical Society, the American Medical Association and the American Academy of Medicine. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Knights of Pythias. Dr. Kinsey has social characteristics of the most attractive type and this fact has contributed materially to his personal popularity in the city in which he has elected to establish his home. FRANKLIN C. MARANTETTE.-The late Franklin C. Marantette was a representative of one of the old and honored families of St. Joseph county with whose annals the name has been prominently identified since early pioneer days. The lineage, as the name indicates, is French and the family was founded in America in Colonial days. His parents were Patric and Frances (Moutaw) Marantette, the father being a descendant of the Navarres who until the time of the Civil war conducted one of the leading French trading posts for the Indians. The mother was a descendant of the Moutaws, who were among the first settlers in this territory. Patric Marantette was one of the earliest settlers in Mendon township, with whose civic and industrial history the name has been prominently identified for more than three-quarters of a century. There were ten children in the family and of this number the following six survive: Mrs. William McLoughlin of Sturgis, Michigan; Mrs. I. A. Bosset of Detroit; Mrs. J. R. Wilhelm of Defiance, Ohio; and three brothers,-W. W.; P. H. and L. E., all of Mendon, Michigan. Franklin C. Marantette was born in St. Joe county on the 20th of May, 1842, and spent almost his entire life in the township which had witnessed his birth. The pioneer schools of Mendon township afforded Mr. Marantette his early educational advantages, his training for life being completed in Notre Dame University and Toronto College. He was also reared to the sturdy discipline of the farm and never severed his allegiance to the great basic industry of agriculture and the home farm where his death occurred was developed by him. He was one of the few remaining pioneers of the section and to converse with him was both delightful and beneficial for his memory of events in the locality was remarkable and he well remembered the laying of the foundation of the town of Mendon. He owned at the time of his death a fine estate of three hundred and twenty acres, the present home of his widow and family. He was a man of sterling integrity and com

Page  829 RESIDENCE OF MR. AND MRS. FRANKLIN C. MARANTETTE PHOTOGRAPHED 1890

Page  830

Page  831 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 831 manded the implicit confidence and esteem of the community in which his life was passed. He was a Democrat in political allegiance and his religious faith was that of the Catholic church, he and his family being communicants of St. Edward's church, in the village of Mendon. Although it was known that he was in poor health, his death came as a shock to his friends and neighbors and indeed to many throughout this part of the state of which he was a representative and influential citizen. Impressive obsequies were held on August 17, 1908, in St. Edward's church and he was laid to rest in the adjacent cemetery beside the loved ones who had preceded him. To quote from an appreciation in a local paper: "IIH was a very cheerful as well as a popular and charitable man. He always had a pleasant smile and word for those passing his home, and was always ready to help the poor or give his assistance to those who needed it, thereby gaining many friends. Spending very little time away from his family, he will be especially missed in the home which he loved so much and where he was always seen. " Mr. Marantette was twice married, the first time on the 26th of August, 1870, to Miss Emma Johnson who died in the following year. He was again married on June 15, 1881, to Miss Mary Ewing, daughter of Robert and Mary (Connor) Ewing, both of whom were natives of Ireland. Both of them emigrated to America in their youth and were married in the east. They lived for a time in the state of New York and later came to St. Joseph county, numbering themselves among the pioneer settlers of Mendon township. Robert Ewing was a soldier in the Civil war, belonging to Company E, Twenty-seventh Michigan Volunteer Infantry. He gave up his life for the country of his adoption being killed in the Battle of the Wilderness in June, 1864. The mother survived him for many years, dying in Mendon township, May 29, 1892. They became the parents of three children, namely: Sarah E., who is the wife of P. H. Marantette of Mendon township; Mary A., the widow of the subject of this memoir; and Jennie M., the wife of William English. Concerning the children of the second marriage of Mr. Marantette the following brief record is given. Franklin Leo is a resident of the city of Indianapolis; M. Adelaide who was born on the 25th of July, 1884, became the wife of Grant Fisher, and her death occurred on March 9, 1908; Loretta C., who was born on the 15th of September, 1886, remains on the old homestead with her widowed mother; as do also Joseph H., who was born on the 2d of December, 1892, and Ruth B., who was born on the 20th of August,

Page  832 832 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 1899. A third son, Robert, died in February, 1892. All of the children were afforded the advantages of the public schools of Mendon, as well as those of Nazareth Academy, in the city of Kalamazoo. The two elder daughters, M. Adelaide and Loretta C., became successful and popular teachers in the public schools of their home county. Mrs. Marantette is a communicant of St. Edward's church in Mendon, and the attractive Marantette home is known as the center of generous hospitality. G. C. HILL, superintendent of the plant of the Oscar Felt & Paper Company, of White Pigeon, was born in Kentucky in 1880. Thrown upon his own resources at the age of fourteen, he began learning his trade, and when he had finished, began working at ninety cents per day as a start. By strict application to the work he had in hand, and untiring energy and industry, Mr. Hill was promoted from time to time, and in 1905 he was made superintendent of the General Roofing Manufacturing Company plant at Marseilles, Illinois, where he remained four years. He assumed his present position July 17, 1909, and has proven his ability and fitness for the position from the first. Though he is comparatively young in years, his experience has been valuable, along the line of his work, and his employes give him their hearty support in all ways. Mr. Hill is a man of keen perceptions and good business instinct, and stands well in the community. Mr. Hill married Pearl Smock, of Willington, Illinois, and they have three children, Ethel, Harry and James. The plant of Oscar Felt & Paper Company was erected in 1908, and the concern is operated by a stock company. They operate one of the largest paper machines in the country, having two cylinders, eighty-one dryers, one stack of calenders and a winder. They manufacture dry roofing, felt and paper; the building is 580 by 85 feet, two stories high, made of brick. They have sixteen beading engines, four rag cutters and three refining engines. The capacity of the plant is about forty-five tons of paper daily, and the product is sold in carload lots. The enterprise has been a marked success, and has a promising future, having at its head some of the most substantial citizens of the community. ISAAC S. ULRICH, who died thirty-two years ago, was one of the earlist and most useful pioneers of Park township and St. Joseph county, migrating to the territory of Michigan in the early thirties, when the Indians were still lingering in their reservations

Page  833 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 833 and around their old hunting grounds. As a skillful surveyor he staked out Indian lands which were thrown open to the settlement of the whites, ran lines for plank roads through the wilderness and eventually was identified with the building of the pioneer railroads. In his more personal relations he was a farmer and a splendid type of the domestic man. Mr. Ulrich was born in Marden Creek township, Berks county, Pennsylvania, on the 12th of May, 1801, his father having been a paper manufacturer of that section, of German ancestry, if not parentage. Early in life the son commenced to work in his father's mill, and continued to reside in Pennsylvania until 1834, when he placed his wife, five children and household goods in a wagon and commenced his journey overland to the frontier territory of Michigan. Although he had a good team of horses, it took him six weeks to penetrate the forests and ford the streams which lay between his old home and his destination on the east side of Fisher's lake, Park township. At that time the greater portion of Michigan was government land and, after entering the northeast quarter of section 35, that township, he entered government employ as a surveyor of P;ottawatomie and Nottawa Indian reservations. St. Joseph river was then the great highway of commerce; later, the plank road was built from Kalamazoo to Grand Rapids. For years afterward the latter was used by the farmers who found their nearest markets at those points for their grain and other produce. For years after his coming Mr. Ulrich also enjoyed a wonderful abundance of game around his homestead, his first season yielding him one hundred and twenty-six deer within his own lands, while turkeys and squirrels were "too numerous to mention" While not employed in surveying, he mainly devoted himself to the cultivation of his farm, which readily and abundantly responded to his efforts. When Mr. Ulrich first located in the township he built a substantial log cabin which accommodated his rapidly growing family for twenty years. Eventually he erected a large and. comfortable frame residence, in which he died at the age of seventy-six, in 1877. The deceased had married Miss Elizabeth Leach, born in Union county, Pennsylvania, in 1804, daughter of John Leach, also of that state. Mrs. Ulrich survived until 1898, when she died in her ninety-fifth year, mother of the following: Lafayette W. F.; Johanna M. C., who died at the age of twelve; Peter I. L., Sarah C. E., John J. J., Madison J. M.; Belinda E. N.; Susanna M. M. and Johanna M. C., twins; Cyrus V. H., Josiah M. D. and Albert W.

Page  834 834 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY JOSHUA WAGNER was an honored and venerable pioneer of St. Joseph county, where he maintained his home since the time of his birth, and was a member of a family whose name has been inseparably identified with the annals of the county for nearly three quarters of a century. He had been a resident of Colon township from his infancy, as his parents, Peter and Catherine (Peters) Wagner, here took up their residence in the year 1835, about two years before the admission of Michigan to statehood. He was born in Center county, Pennsylvania, on the 21st of October, 1834, and was thus an infant at the time of the family removal to Michigan. He was reared to the sturdy discipline of the pioneer farm and his educational advantages were those afforded in the primitive log schoolhouse with its puncheon floor and slab benches. He contributed his quota to the reclamation of the home farm, which was a forest wilderness at the time of the location of the family in Colon township, and it has been his to witness and assist in the development of this section of the country into one of the most opulent and attractive divisions of the state of Michigan. The homestead, comprising eighty acres, is an integral part of the land secured from the government by his father many years ago and the same is one of the well improved farms which lend attractiveness and stability to St. Joseph county. Mr. Wagner not only showed a deep interest in all that touched the welfare of the community, but was also liberal and public spirited in his attitude. He was a Democrat in his political allegiance and with his wife held membership in the Methodist Episcopal church at Colon. On the 7th of April, 1855, Mr. Wagner was united in marriage to Miss Mary Ann Snook, who was born in Pennsylvania, on the 6th of May, 1835, and whose death occurred in September, 1874. She was a daughter of William and Rebecca Snook, who were numbered among the sterling pioneers of St. Joseph county. Concerning the children of this marriage the following data are entered-Minerva, who was born on the 18th of June, 1857, was the wife of Don Goodrich of Fairfax, Michigan; she died November 11, 1909; Fransina, born on the 12th of April, 1860, became the wife of Louis Baker, of Burr Oak township, St. Joseph county, where she died on the 14th of October, 1907; Charles, who was born on the 29th of February, 1865, married Miss Caroline Goodwin and they reside in Leonidas township. On the 25th of April, 1879, Mr. Wagner contracted a second marriage, being then united to Miss Margaret Boyer, daughter of Joseph and Catherine (Kline) Boyer, of Union City, Branch county, Michigan. Three children were born to the second mar

Page  835 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 835 riage, namely: Hiram, who was born on the 9th of January, 1881, is employed as a painter by the Michigan Central Railroad Company; he married Miss Jennie McLeod of Bay City, Michigan. Joseph Ray, born on the 1st of April, 1886, is likewise employed by the Michigan Central Railroad Company and resides at home; and Neal, who was born on the 17th of August, 1888, was drowned in the lake at Colon, on the 29th of December, 1905. Mr. Wagner died May 12, 1910. The following is taken from an obituary printed in the Colon Express of May 19th: In life's school from his first consciousness he has always answered "Present" to its duties and its responsibilities, its joys and its sorrows, its disappointments and its accomplishments. He has never been a shirk but was always up and doing and was a success. There have been no vacations and no recesses. Life was real to him and time too precious to spend in loitering. He accepted its punishments and its rewards and strove with all his might to learn life's lessons and finally merit the approbation of the Supreme Teacher. While he was increasingly conscious of the stern realities of life, he was also keenly alive to its beauties and refinements, and to him nature spoke in lessons of joy and beauty. He lived close to nature and in it saw the handiwork of his Creator. His parents brought him to Michigan when but two years of age and he has ever since resided in Colon township, witnessing its transformation from a wilderness to a garden. That he had endeared himself to his neighbors was evidenced by the large company present at his funeral and the unusual respect and esteem shown by countenances and words. Of his father's family of twelve children, six sisters and three brothers survive. His illness has been long and most distressing. For the last thirty-six days of his life no nourishment was accepted by his disease stricken body and though his sons and wife, to whom he was tenderly attached, were unceasing in their devotion to him he longed for relief from his suffering. His funeral occurred at his home on Saturday and was conducted by his pastor, Rev. J. C. Cook. He was laid to rest in Lakeside cemetery. JOHN C. THOMS, a prominent grocer of Three Rivers, was born in Lockport township, this county, on the 10th of May, 1852, and is a son of J. F. and Eleanor (Dougherty) Thoms. He is the third born and the younger son, the other members of the family being as follows: Alice, wife of Alfred R. Klose, of Sherwood, Michigan;

Page  836 836 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Fannie, wife of A. A. McKey, of Chicago; and Frank J., who died at Sherwood, Michigan, at the age of fifty-five years. J. F. Thoms, the father of this family, was born in the canton of Neufchatel, Switzerland, July 28, 1813. The grandfather was an honored soldier in the army of Napoleon the Great, and, what was more to the purpose, was a man of industrious and unblemished private life. At the age of four years, J. F. was brought by his parents to Philadelphia, where he was educated and assisted his father in various mercantile pursuits until 1836. In that year, at the age of twenty-three, he located in St. Joseph county and commenced to clear a tract of land entered by his father and which he subsequently purchased and improved. The senior Mr. Thoms not only prospered in a material sense, but in the way of building up a character in whose ability and probity his fellows had firm confidence. At different times he was elected assessor, justice and commissioner of the corporation of Three Rivers, and reached a high station in Masonry. In politics he was a stanch Democrat and in his religious connection, a faithful Methodist. He was married twice-in 1838 to Louisa Friedelin, and three years after her death in 1840 to Miss Eleanor Dougherty, of Branch county, Michigan, who became the mother of John C. Thoms. Mr. Thoms, of this review, was reared in his native township, and attended local schools until he was fifteen years of age, when he took advantage of the more complete educational advantages of Three Rivers. He then began his business career as clerk in the employ of Barkman & Thorp, grocers of that city. With them he remained six years and in March, 1876, formed a partnership with Jacob Dunham, the firm being known as "Jake & Jack." They continued associated for sixteen years, when Mr. Dunham became sole proprietor of the business and Mr. Thorns established the grocery which he has since continued so successfully. He has been engaged continuously in this line of business, at Three Rivers, for a period of forty-one years-the oldest grocer in the city-and throughout his long career has built up a high reputation for honest dealing and close attention to the varied wants of his customers. Mr. Thorns has spent his entire life in Lockport township and, outside his business, is widely and favorably known, as he has always taken an active part in public affairs and used his strong influence in the furtherance of any good cause. In his political views, he is decidedly Democratic. He is also a leading Mason, having advanced from the Blue Lodge through the Shrine and held many offices in the different bodies of the order. In 1875 John C. Thoms married Ella A., daughter of Theodore and Rosann (Clubine) Troy, who died in 1904, leaving three chil

Page  837 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 837 dren, namely: Gertrude, wife of J. Frank Starr, of Three Rivers; Athol, wife of W. J. Predmore, also of that city; and Jim E., a mining engineer. In 1906 Mr. Thors married (second) Mrs. Rose M. (Davis) Crout, daughter of Charles Davis and widow of Norman Crout. The family homestead consists of a good farm of eighty acres two miles northeast of Three Rivers and a substantial, comfortable residence.

Page  838 I

Page  839 INDEX Abiel Fellows Chapter, D.A.R., Three Rivers, 350. Abbott, Ira C., 265-6. Adams, Isaac 0., 145, 440. Adams, Paulina, 809. Adams, Samuel P., 327. Akey, Robert, 825. Alba Columba Club, 448. Allen, Albert, 146. Allen, John, 203. Allen, Moses, 32, 199. Allman, William, 359, 364-5. Amidon, E. S., 374. Amulet, David B., 299. Anderson, John W., 42, 79, 91, 144-5, 294-7. Andrews, Bishop E., 129, 130, 304-5, 325, 335. Andrews, E. H., 304-5, 336. Andrews, Lucy (Fellows), 305, 350-1. Andrews, Norman S., 92, 278, 325. Antes, David D., 51. Anthony, Henry L., 374, 778. Arlen, Henry, 446. Arney, Daniel L., 807. Arney, John, 338. Arney, William, 338, 341. Arnold, Duane D., 333. Arnold, George E., 334. Arnold, Lydia, 176. Arnold (Dr. Orin B.) & Son, 331. Arnold, T. L., 337. Arnold, William F., 103, 175-6, 121, 345. Ash, George A., 611. Ashley, W. Irving, 94, 423. Aulsbrook & Jones Furniture Co., 373. Aulsbrook, M. E., 358, 373-4. Avery, L. G., 282. Avery, O. T., 333, 335-6. Bacon, Nathaniel, 291. Bailey, Isaac G., 92, 223, 224. Bailey, Romanzo J. E., 260. Bair, William, 155, 156. Baird Skirt Company, 430. Baker, John J., 252, 253, 254. Balch, Nathaniel, 301. Baldwin, Frank D., 252, 253, 255, 282. Ball, Albert E., 440. Bancker, Floris, 184. Bandholtz, Harry H., 283. Barker, Myron H., 627. Barnard, William E., 327, 335. Barnard, William H., 378, 549. Barnes, Almeron R., 615. Barnett, J. N., 387-8. Barnum, Joshua, 81. Barrows, David, 392. Barry, Charles, 376. Barry, John S., 145, 149, 169, 292, 300, 375, 376, 379. Bartholomew, Joseph, 187. Bassett, Isaac C., 348. Bateman, David M., 292, 327. Baumeister, George W., 826. Baxter, Levi, 148, 149, 151. Beadle, Michael, 163, 165, 176, 217, 218. Bean, Lyman, 173. Bear, Asa. 166. Bearss, Truman, 195, 196. Beatty, C. J., 333. Beatty, Frank E., 333. Beaver, C. G., 399. Beckley, David R., 406. Beckwith, Levi, 159. Beerstecher, Albert, 630. Beisel, George W., 106, 151. Bell, Digby V., 292. Belote, Abel, 211, 213. Belote, Isaac R., 87. Bench and Bar-State Supreme Court, 284, 287; first judges, 285; division of legislative and judicial, 286; state supreme court as a separate body, 289; circuit court judges, 289; probate court judges, 292; pioneer probate matters, 294; first regular court room, 296; the old county court, 296; first lawyer admitted to the bar, 298; pioneer lawyers, 300; attorneys of 1877, 305; lawyers of today, 305. Benedict, Myron C., 242. Benham, Isaac, 170. Benham, Tower S., 264. Benjamin, J. Murray, 557. Bennett, Asa, 386, 425, 426. Bennett, Benjamin C., 242, 245. Bergstresser, Peter, 387. Beuchterlein, Louis G., 346. 839

Page  840 840 INDEX Bingaman, Calvin M., 640. Bishop, James L., 366. Black Hawk, 22, 29. Black Hawk War, 236. Blass, Levi B., 800. Bliss, W. W., 45. Blood, Charles L., 334, 697. Blood, Mary E., 700. Blue, Isaac, 445. Blue, John, 380. Blue, Minnie, 436. Boardman, W. E., 379, 418. Boles, Thomas H., 624. Bonebright, Henry, 107, 747. Bonebright, Jacob, 169. Bonham, Asher, 119. Bordner, Benjamin F., 809. Bosset, Alice (Marantette), 18. Boss, Charles, 408. Bothamley, George T., 775. Bothwell, C. L., 336. Botting, L. J., 381. Bourn, Ezra, 412. Bower, Adam, 396, 398. Bowman, John H., 163, 164, 167, 211, 310, 391, 394. Bowman, William F., 211, 394, 398, 400. Boyer, C. A., 429, 430, 431. Boyer, (C. A.) Lumber Company, 429. Boynton, Jeremiah, 432. Brady, Anna, 381. Branch, A. L., 399. Brezee, Harry H., 182. Brody, Lewis K., 590. Bronson & Doan, 402. Brosy, J. D., 345. Brown, Eldredge, 402. Brown, Hazen W., 252. Brown, Joseph, 708. Brown, Melvin, 402. Brown, William, 365. Buck, George W., 42, 47, 81, 162, 164, 165, 176, 183, 195, 196, 197, 314, 356, 744. Buck, Philip, 182, 197, 198, 356, 359. Buck, Susan S., 356. Buck's township, 81, 174. Buell. J. I., 425. Building and Loan Association, Three Rivers, 335. Bumphrey, M. H., 280, 314, 316, 350. Bungay, Frank, 125, 127, 128. Burdick, Frank L., 373, 781. Burger, William H., 768. Burke, W. H., 333, 336. Burns, David, 340, 343. Burrows, J. C., 120. Burr Oak-Platted and founded, 428; the corporation, 429; manufactories, 430; banks, 431; electric light and power plant, 432; churches, 433; societies, 434. "Burr Oak Acorn," 432. Burr Oak Methodist church, 433. Burr Oak township-Its creation, 213; first town meeting, 214; general description, 216, first comers to, 35. Butler, Joseph, 38. Cade, Stephen W., 122, 181. Cadre, Thomas, 1,02, 179, 180, 183,188. Caldwell, Martha W., 577. Caldwell, William G., 574. Calhoon, Alvin, 33, 102, 111, 167, 172, 173, 174, 442. Cameron, William C., 140, 436, 448, 564. Campbell, H. C., 417. Campbell, James V., 70, 289, 290. Cann, J. L., 336. Carey, Christopher, 183. Carpenter, Talcott, C., 92, 303. Carpenter, Willis A., 432, 755. Case, Frank M., 616. Case, Fred M., 282. Case, Richmond E., 327, 336. Castle, W. H., 118, 120. Cathcart, G., 170. Cathcart, John G., 384. Cavanaugh, John, 369. Cavin, W. A., 361. Centerville-Original plat surveyed, 34, 205; its founding, 414; village corporation, 416; manufactories, 417; banks, 417; village of today, 422; newspapers and schools, 423; churches, 425; societies, 427. Centerville Knit Goods Manufacturing Company, 417. Centerville "Leader," 423. Centerville Methodist church, 425. Centerville Presbyterian church, 425. Centerville Reformed church, 425. Centerville Water & Electric Company, 422. Chapin, David, 179. Chapman, William, 384. Charlton, Thomas, 171, 380. Chicago road, 31. Chicago trail 28, 30. Chief White Pigeon, 136, 153. Chipman, Henry, 144, 286, 287, 298. Christiancy, Isaac P., 289-90. Church, (Mrs.) Henry, 62. Church of the Immaculate Conception, Three Rivers, 34. Church, J. W., 276. Churchill, Rhoda, 171. Churchill, Rose, 175. Churchill, Thomas, 176.

Page  841 INDEX 841 Churchill, William, 175, 177, 345. Citizens' State Bank, Sturgis, 374. Civil War-Michigan's part in it, 240-2; Eleventh Michigan Infantry, 242-52; Nineteenth, 252-6; Twentyfifth, 256-61; Seventh, 261-5; First, 265-7; Second, 267-71; Fourth, 271 -3; Sixth, 273-5; Fifteenth, 275-6; artillery, 276. Clapp, E. L., 422. Clapp, H.A., 374. Clapp, H. C., 405, 406. Clapn, Leverett A., 505. Clark, Charles E., 273. Clark, Charles H., 534. Clark, Duncan R., 42. Clark, Fred T., 273. Clark, George M., 379. Clark, John B., 78, 195, 197, 356. Clark, John M., 153. Clark, Robert, Jr., 42, 145, 153, 182. Clark, Ruth A., 42, 195. Clark, Thomas M., 322. Clark, W. A., 50. Clark, Whitman E., 322, 335. Clarke, Adam, 365. Clemens, Clayton W., 381, 383. Clemens, Earle R., 383. Clement, Charles, 394. Clements, F. W., 824. Clute, Wilbur H., 336. Coffinberry, S. C., 181, 301, 389. Coffinbury, Jacob W., 91, 176. Cole, Ezra, 348. Cole. G. W., 334. Cole, Levi, 406. Cole, Nathan A., 432. Collins, T. J., 374. Colon-Its projectors, 34; first mills founded, 391; Opera House block, 393; manufactories, 394; secures railroad connections, 394; in the seventies, 396; newspapers, 396; schools. 397; library, 398; churches and societies, 399. Colon Baptist church, 399. "Colon Express," 396. Colon Methodist church, 400. Colon Seminary, 397. Colon township-81; description of, 207; village platted, 210; roads a nd bridges, 213; first town meeting and officials, 213. Colon village —Its platting, 210; industries and business, 211. Corry, Joshua, 175. Connor, William, 36. 102, 115, 199, 203, 204, 292. Constantine-Its original site, 33; founded, 375; development of river trade, 376; corporations of 1837 and 1861, 376; water-power improvement, 377; early banks, 378; the town of the present, 380; newspapers, 381; churches, 383-9; societies, 389. "Constantine Advertiser-Record," 381. Constantine Board and Paper Company, 378. Constantine Casket Company, 378. Constantine Congregational church, 384. Constantine Hydraulic Company, 377. Constantine Methodist church, 383. Constantine Milling Company, 377. "Constantine Record," 383. Constantine Reformed church, 386. Constantine's "Safety Fund Bank," 378. Constantine township-Meek's mills, or Constantine, 168; village surveyed, 169; first town meeting, 170; natural features, 171. Constantine village-Founded as Meek's mills, 168; Judge Meek surveys Constantine, 169; early manufactories, 169. Constantine "Weekly Mercury," 382. Converse, H. C., 432. Cook, D. M., 190. Cook, Joseph C., 400. Cook, J. D., 359. Cooke, George A. B., 683. Cooley, Thomas M., 289. Cooper, Cora B., 441. County Agricultural Society, 50. County records (robbery of), 87. Cowen, James, 92, 223-4. Cowen, Jane, 39. Cowen, Robert, 39, 223, 224. Cowen Mills, 223. Cox, Charles WT., 334. Crane, E. H., 16-17. Crawford, David, 48, 146, 172-3. Cross, Julius C., 256. Cross, William H.. 36, 120, 292-3. Crossman, Abel, 179. Crossette, George I., 377, 379-80, 476. Crossette, (Mrs.) Delia S., 10, 109, 380, 385, 468. Cummings, Frank S., 417, 493. Cummings, Solomon, 82. Cush-ee-wees, 237. Cushman, Henry D., 417. Cutler, Charles D., 594. Cutler, Leonard, 32, 42, 43, 142, 168. "Daily Commercial Hustler," 336. Daniels, Gilbert S., 580. Day, Gershom B., 365, 366. Defrees, John D., 48, 441. Denison, Arthur C., 284.

Page  842 842 INDEX Dr. Denton Sleeping Garment Knitting Mills, 417, 492. Dickinson, George, 128, 129. Diffusible Tonic Company, 374. Dimick, Elisha, 173. Doan, G. P., 403, 404. Dockstader, Cadalzo A., 292, 322. Donovan, James, 773. Doty, Sherman, 336. Doty, W. S., 396. Douglass, Luther, 197. Drake, John P., 378. Draper, Hiram, 214. Dudley, Augustus M., 461. Dudley, G. M., 441. Dukette, (Mrs.) Fanny, 406. Dukette, Michael, 412. Dunkin, Isaac B., 291. Dunkin, James B., 37. Dunkin, Samuel, 37. Dunn, Simeon, 656. Eberhard, John P., 261-3. Eck, William R., 391, 398. Eddy, Henry D., 309. Eddy Paper Company, 309. Edwards, Abram S., 42. Ed. M. Prutzman Post, G.A.R., Three Rivers, 349. Eesley (J. F.) Milling Company, 378. Eldred, Andrew J., 339. 364. Eldredge, H. 0., 371, 372. Eldridge, Elmer L., 560. Elliott, W. N., 49, 103, 116, 440. Ellison, Andrew, 125. Ely, Lora S.. 701. Embley, David W., 767. Engle, George, 422. Engle, Jonathan, Sr., 117, 203. Erbsmehl, Charles, 801. Ercanbrack, John, 342, 363, 364, 383. Evans, P. H., 366. Evangelical Lutheran St. John's church, 433. Eveland, Daniel M., 407, 519. Eveland, T. Z., 405, 407. Evers, H., 433. Evert, John F., 96, 406. Fairchild, Alfred, 740. Fabius township-Formation of, 174; its sparkling lakes, 174; first permanent settler, 175; first elections and officers, 176. Factoryville, 228. Fanning, Gamaliel (murder of), 191. Farmers' Savings Bank of White Pigeon, 441. Farquhar, John M., 382. Farrand, Grant E., 393, 603. Farrand, Henry K., 211, 395, 397. Farrand, James, 268. Farrand, Joseph, 393, 660. Farrand, Phineas, 397. Fast,O. J., 405. Fawn River, 2. Fawn River Manufacturing Company, 377. Fawn River township-Formation and first settlers, 186; first postmasters, 187; rise of manufactories, 188; first elections and roads, 188; property and population, 189; village of Freedom, 190; Fawn River village, 192; Fawn River mills, 193; present township, 194. Feas, Daniel W., 663. Fellows, Clarence A., 322. Felton, Erastus, 146, 161, 198, 337, 338, 342, 383, 425, 442. Fenner, R. J., 378. Ferguson, James W., 601. Ferrier, Edward A., 371. Ferris, R. B., 431. Fillmore, Lucius F., 756. First National Bank, Burr Oak, 431. First National Bank of Centerville, 418. First National Bank, Three Rivers, 334. First State Bank of Mendon, 404. First things and events-Land entries, 41; land offices, 42; orchards, live-stock and agricultural implements, 43; mills, 43; merchants, 46; hotel, postoffice and mail route, 46; railroad, 47; marriage, birth and death, 47; churches, schools and newspapers, 48; physicians, 49. Fisher, J. Emery, 444, 445. Fitch, Charles B., 163. 165, 169, 176, 291, 440. Fitch, Samuel, 118. Flanders, (Mrs.) E., 406. Flanders, Francis, Jr., 194, 240. Flanders, Francis, Sr., 187, 193, 194, 369. Flanders, J. W., 301, 372. Flanders, John S., 301, 359, 372, 374, 801. Flanders, L. I., 374. Fletcher, John W., 32, 33, 113, 120. 188, 203. Fletcher, William A., 287, 288. Florence township-Formation of, 172; earliest settlements, 172; Alvin Calhoon, 172; banner mint and oil township, 174. Flowerfield township-Old township, 217; Flowerfield and Howardville, 218; reduced to present area, 219; noted trail, 219; first township officers, 220. Fogarty, (Mrs.) Mary, 448.

Page  843 INDEX 843 Foley, Nelson, 378. Foote, Harriet, 183. Foreman, Alexander, 223. Foss, Christopher, 817. Foster, John J., 322. Francisco, Daniel, 321. Frank, Richard H., 721. Frays, Henry J., 548. Freedom village, 190. Freeland, Curtis A., 361, 792. Freeman, E. W., 372. French, Ebenezer, 272. French, Jacob, 359. French, J. W., 309. French, Willard W., 322. Frisbie, John F., 609. Fulkerson, William, 256-60. Gallaher, John A., 344, 539. Garrison, Norman W., 334, 706. Gascon, Washington, 166. Gaston, Albert H., 344. Gates, Alvin, 214. Geer, Everard, 563. George, John B., 378, 573. Gibson, Ethelyn, 397. Gibson, John, 109. Gibson, Samuel. 380, 480. Gilbert, Henry, 48, 252-3. Gill, Robert, 218. Gillet, D. A., 340. (Givan, Thomas D., 605. Gladdy, C. L., 333. Gleason, Henry C., 558. Glover, William, 153. Gloyd, Martin, 400. Godfrey, Erwin L., 524. Goff, E. J., 429. Goldsmith, J. D., 405. Goodrich, Benjamin D., 192. Goodrich, Roscoe B., 561. Gose, H. 367. Graham, Ezra C., 653. Granger, T. B., 342-3. Green, Cogswell K., 300. Greene, Thomas G., 91, 92, 347. 348, 710. Grimes, James C., 720. Grobhiser, W. C., 373. Crobhiser-Cabinetmakers' Companies, 372. Grove, G. C., 793. Gurley, Lyman B., 338, 383. Haas, John A., 412. Hackstaff. (Mrs.) Mary, 371. Hagenbuch, Aaron, 379-80. Hagenbuch, Samuel B., 380, 557. Hagerman, Herbert W., 777. Hagerman, William, 174. Hahn, Theodore, 367. Halbert. Chauncey J., 482. Hall, Henry, 7. Hall, Robert, 7, 322. Hall, Thomas, 187. Hamilton, (Mrs.) Burritt, 371. Hamilton, John, 237. Hamilton, Robert C., 63, 371, 451. Hampson, Henry J., 422, 614. Handy, John B., 256, 260. Hartman, Peter L., 641. Hartman, Solomon, 160. Harvey, George Crossett, 380. Harvey, Norman, 379. Harvey, N. S. & Company, 403. Harvey, O. K., 378. Harvey, W. W., 379-80. Harwood, E. E., 335. Harwood, Hiram, 176. Haslet, Samuel, 35, 215. Hass, Sherman D., 772. Hatch, Indian trader, 222, 237. Haynes, William K., 356, 361. Hazard, William, 794. Hazen, Wirt M., 582. Hazzard, Helen B., 582. Hazzard, William, 111, 126, 200. Heald, Arba, 33, 42, 43, 143. Hecox, Hiram A., 201, 203. Heimbaugh, A. C., 430, 431. Henkel, G. A., 367. Hennicke, F. J., 366. Hewitt, Adolphus E., 325. Heywood. Henry, 161. Hill, Edwin R., 393, 395, 646. Hill, Mrs. Edwin R., 646. Hill. Frank E., 393-4. Hill. G. C., 832. Hill, Thomas J., 393-4, 489. H4ill, William T., 442. Hill, E. & Sons, 393, 396. Hill, (E. & Sons) State Bank, 393. Hoffman, C. B., 391, 395. Hoffman, John, 391. Hoffman, Philip H., 163, 164, 165, 322. Hoffman & Troy, 396. Hogle, Seymour H., 431, 752. Hollingshead, James, 391. Holmes, John T., 431. Hood, Calvin C., 242. Hopkins, Winfield S., 570. Hoshal, Walter J., 430, 763. Hotchin, E. S., 378. House, Peter, 228. House, W. T., 379. Hovey, W. S., 328. Howard, Clarence A., 322, 336. Howard, Edward W., 482. Howard, Franklin, 218. Howard, John, 173. Howe, Amos, 33, 101, 112, 201. Hubbard, George, 32, 199. Huff, Charles S., 747. Huff, Lemuel S., 719.

Page  844 844 INDEX Hull, (F. W. & L. W.), 383. Hull, Lee G., 382, 383. Humphrey, Hiram, 182. Hunt, John, 286-7. huss, M. J., 325, 328, 336. Hutchinson, James, 234. Hutton, Hiram W., 523. Ikeler, William M., 50. Indians-Nottawa-seepe reservation, 17; the Pottawatomie nation, 18; the Pottawatomies in 1830, 19; Sau-au-quett relinquishes reservation, 20; started for Kansas, 21; the Black Hawk war, 22; killing of Sau-au-quett and Morreau, 26. Ingersoll, Cyrus, 292, 416. Irwin Brothers, 378. "Items of Constantine," 383. Jacobs, Crebilion, 360, 362-3. Jacobs, Hiram, 116, 198, 199, 362. Jacobs, Orange, 301. Jacobs, Oscar E., 442. Jacobs, Theo T., 784. Jewett, Joseph, 231. Johnny Cake prairie, 175. Johnson, James, 188. Johnson, J. Eastman, 50, 119, 292, 300. Johnson, Lyman H., 433. Johnson, Samuel E., 231. Johnson, S. S., 182. Johnson, William, 180. Jones, Charles, 181. Jones, DeGarmo, 357. Jones, E. L., 373. Jones, Henry B., 718. Jones, John H., 380. Jones, Mero, 181. Jones, William, 145, 181, 442, 444. Jorn, G. N., 373. Joss, John C., 268. Joss. John J., 417. Judson, Melancthon, 291. Kasdorf, John, 822. Kass, H. C., 431. Kaufmann, H. J., 369. Kaufmann, Henry J., 346, 407, 411, 447. Keech, George, 182. Keightley, Edwin W., 92, 109, 132, 134, 291, 303, 305, 451. Kellogg, (Mrs.) A. E., 156. Kellogg, Charles B., 107, 125, 127, 129, 130, 132, 134, 149, 151, 465. Kellogg, Edwin, 45, 149. Kellogg, Elizabeth, 107. Kellogg, Erastus, 174, 363, 383, 425. Kellogg, George, 149. Kellogg (R. M.) & Co., 329-333. Kellogg, Russell M., 330. Kellogg & Brothers, 148, 149. Kelsey, James, 325, 327. Kelsey, Stephen, 322, 327. Kennedy, J. B., 266. Kepler, Charles H., 643. Ketchum, Isaac S., 425. Kingsley, Chandler R., 704. Kinne, A. J., 395, 398, 400-1. Kinney, Harvey, 232. Kinsey, F. C., 827. Klady, Francisco, 592. Kline, A. J., 211. Kline, George, 808. Klinger, Peter, 117, 147. Klose, H. James, 664. Knapp, James, 145. Knapp, John, 297, 298. Knapp, Joseph, 47. Knappen, Loyal E., 284. Knevels, George F., 679. Knights of Pythias, Three Rivers, 348. Knowles, Francella W., 459. Knowles, Lawrence D., 49, 454. Knox, Charles H., 416. Knox. David, 198, 363. Knox, Sarah, 188, 202. Korst, C., 410, 447. Kroh, Daniel, 345. Kruger, Frederick J., 818. Kums, John, 183. Kyte, J. A., 371. Laffey, William, 87. Laird, Glover E., 667. Laird. John M., 595. Lamb, Isaac W., 393. Lamb Knit Goods Company, 393, 397. Lamberson, Conrad A., 618. Lamberson, C. A., 392. Lamberson, Frank D., 392. Lamphere, C. H., 277. Lancaster, Columbia, 91. 118, 205, 298, 299, 300, 418. Land offices, 75, 77. Langley, M. S., 336. Langley, Thomas C., 103. Langley, Thomas W., 205, 296, 415, 416. 418. Langley, William B., 103, 124, 415. Lanrick, John, 199. Lantz, Philip, 321. Larkin, John B., 621. Laughran, Peter, 410. Lawrence, Jeremiah, 173. Lawrence, Wolcott H.. 174. Leaders, Frederick, 570. Lee. S. P., 340. Leland. John M., 163. Leland, Louis A.. 210. Leonard. William, 183. Leonidas township-How it was named, 220; description, 221.

Page  845 INDEX 845 Leonidas village, 228. Levison, Henry, 123. Lilley, E. F., 426. Linsley, Edward B., 324, 328, 329, 335, 336, 499. Livermore, Josiah, 215. Livermore, Marshall, 214, 215. Lock, William, 428. Lockport Hydraulic Company, 310. Lockport township- Formation of, 161; drainage of, 162; first settlers, 162; Eschol's rise and fall, 163; early mill enterprises, 163; Moab and St. Joseph villages, 164; Three Rivers platted, 164; first town meeting and officers, 164; boat building and boating, 166. Lockwood, C. J., 372. Logan, Samuel C., 384. Longaker, George, 345. Loomis, Hubbel, 48, 49, 79, 145, 292, 294-5. Lovell, Cyrus, 300. Luce, Cyrus G., 123. Ludwig, Samuel, 345. Lyman, Lewis B., 403. McCrary, Henry, 256-60. McCune, Newell A., 343, 485. MacDonald, J. C., 366. McDowell Brothers, 396. McGaffey, George, 125. McGaffey, Neal, 48, 79, 145, 148, 298, 300, 440, 443, 444. McInterfer, Jacob, 34, 47, 162, 164. McInterfer, Mary, 166. McKee, Jeff P., 327, 334. McKee, William E., 808. McKenzie, J. H., 369. McKerlie, James, 189. McKindley, John A., 776. McLaughlin, William, 368. McLean, W. A., 424. McMath, Robert, 344. McMillan, Alexander, 33, 38, 49, 202. McMillan, Paulina (Harmon), 412. McNeish, David, 386-7. Maffett, C. A., 337. Mail routes and stage lines, 31. Major, John J., 417. Major, P. P., 334. Major, W. J., 417. Mallory, L. H., 432. Mandigo, Robert, 774. Manning, Randolph, 289. Marantette, Franklin C., 828. Marantette, Mary E., 831. Marantette, Patrick, 18, 19, 24, 29, 30, 34, 229, 230, 402, 406, 408, 409, 410. Marantette, Patrick H., 412. Marantette, William W., 591. Vol. II-21 Marsh, James A., 380. Martin, George, 289. Martin, John, 172. Mason, J. J., 389. Masonic lodges, Three Rivers, 346. Massey, Albert, 91. Matthews, George, 36, 222. Matthews, Otis, 173. Matthews, Reuben, 173. May, Chauncey, 291. Medical societies, 48. Meek, Richard C., 338, 342, 363, 383. Meek, William, 11, 33, 44, 45, 168, 169, 170, 297, 389. Melendy, R. W., 291, 303. Mendenhall, Frank, 596. Mendenhall, Lillie W., 599. Mendon-French pioneers of, 34; the present village, 401; early manufactories, 402; old hotels, 402; the corporation, 404; schools, 405; township library, 406; newspapers, 406; churches and societies, 407. "Mendon Eagle," 406. Mendon Exchange Bank, 404. "Mendon Globe," 407. "Mendon Independent," 406. "Mendon Leader," 407. Mendon M. E. church, 412. Mendon township-How named, 228; Mendon village founded, 230; settlers of 1833-7, 231; old-time officials, 231; physical features, 232. Mendon Township Free Public Library, 406. "Mendon Weekly Times," 407. Merrill, Fred D., 322. Messiah Evangelical Lutheran church, 387. Metcalf, Ezekiel, 41, 195. Metha, Leander, 35, 230, 231, 402. Mexican war, 238. Meyer, William, 821. Michigan Boxboard Company, White Pigeon, 442. "Michigan Statesman and St. Joseph Chronicle," 441. Middagh, (Mrs.) Henry (nee Betsey Klinger), 108, 117. Millard, Elisha, 166. Millard & Troy, 310. Millard, Joseph B., 310, 325. Miller, Alfred D., 814. Miller, Charles L., 211, 292, 392, 398. Miller, George, 35, 215, 216. Miller, George E., 550. Miller, Hagenbuch & Harvey, 376. Miller, John W., 645. Miller, Lewis E., 96, 737. Miller, W. E., 328-9. Mills, John A., 553. Miner, William, 404.

Page  846 846 INDEX Miskill, J. D., 373. Mitchell, George S., 655. Moe, Charles, 187. Moe, Jane, 188. Moe, Otho, 790. Moffatt, Orlando, 398. Moore, Edward S., 165, 233, 234, 310, 312, 325, 327, 334, 343. Moore & Prutzman, 310, 312. Moore Park, 234. Moore Park Reformed church, 345. Morell, George, 287, 288. Morreau, Isadore, 26. Morrison, William H., 545. Morse, Charles H., 328, 329. Morse, J. C., 320, 321, 322. Morton, (Mrs.) F. H., 398. Mosher, C. D., 419. Mottville township-Its creation, 158; first settlement, 159; Mottville village platted, 160; first bridge, 160; a great shipping point, 161. Mound builders-Garden beds in St. Joseph county, 16; the Colon mounds, 16; fortifications, 16; sacrificial fireplace, 17. Moutan, Frances, 230. Moutan, Francois, 34, 229, 402. Mowry, H. P., 431. Naggs, William (Billy), 145, 155. Nallinger, Albert, 823. National Bank of Sturgis, 374. Neddeaux, Peter, 35, 230. Newhall, John S., 196. Newsom, C. B., 366. "News Reporter," Three Rivers, 337. Newton, Luther, 42, 43, 79, 145, 291, 297. Nichols, George, 220. Nicholson, S. H., 398. Nidy, Simon W., 814. Noffze, Paul, 399, 434. Nottawa, 428. Nottawa Creek, 2. Nottawa-seepe reservation, 17, 36, 235. Nottawa township-Creation of, 81; its beautiful prairies, 199; Judge William Connor, first settler, 199; Judge John Sturgis arrives, 200; other early comers, 200; introduction of fruits and grains, 203; organized, 204. Oakes, David, Jr., 242. Odd Fellows lodges, Three Rivers, 348. Odell, Thomas, 161. Ogden, Benjamin, 344. Oil distillation, 7. Olds, Joseph, 144. Osbon, Henry R., 792. Osborn, Nathan, 291, 301. Osborne, S. A., 340, 383. Osgood, Benjamin, 292. Osgood, Grace, 406. Pack, William F., 279. Packard, Ira F., 49. Packard, J. J., 359. Packard, (Mrs.) J. J., 63. Packard, Nelson I., 17, 49, 369, 374, 804. Packard, (Mrs.) Nelson I., 804. Page, David, 33, 49, 91, 144, 440. Page, William, 344. Paine, Philander A., 45. Palmer, Charles A., 637. Park township-Its creation, 232; first settlers along Fisher's lake, 232; first town meeting, 233; Parkville and Moore Park, 234. Parker, John, 181, 196. Parker, J. E., 196. Parker, J. J., 337. Parkville, 234. Patterson, (Mrs.) S. G., 360. Pealer, Russel R., 92, 119, 235, 280, 284, 291, 304, 327, 334, 349, 508. Pealer, Sue S., 518. Pealer, W. 0., 335. Pearsoll, Rice, 199. Peatling, J. D., 407, 413. Peirce, Jarius, 227. Pendleton, (Mrs.) E. W., 128. Pengelly, Richard, 383. Perrin, Amos T., 734. Perrin, Andrew, 182. Perrin, Lewis C., 720. Perry, David B., 733. Petty, David, 180, 196. Phillips, (Mrs.) Ada, 448. Physicians, 49. Pitts, Levi W., 626. Place, Lester B., 129, 130, 322, 567. Platt, Henry S., 242. Plummer, William F., 579. Podgham, Philip, 304. Porter, C. G., 432. Post, Henry, 203. Post, Russell, 33, 200, 202. Powell, Gardner, 334. Powers, Henry, 33, 79, 201, 203. Powers, James, 101. Pratt, Samuel, 45, 92, 145, 151. Probst, John B., 731. Prutzman, Abraham C., 165, 310, 313, 325, 327. Prutzman, Edward M., 260. Prutzman, J. E., 313. Prutzman, J. P., 313. Purdy, David B., 682. Putney, L. S., 372.

Page  847 INDEX 847 Quimby, Joseph, 159. Railroads-First in the county, 47. Randall, C. L., 407. Ranney, Joseph A., 344. Ransom, Epaphroditus, 48, 287, 288, 291. Raymond, Oliver, 182, 196, 197, 198, 214. Reading, (Mrs.) George B., 63. Redfield, Alexander H., 300. Reed, Richard, 374. Reichert, Selinda, 47. Rengler, George, 574. Reynolds, A. H., 417. Reynolds (Mrs.) Jessie A., 436, 448. Rhodes, Lewis, 122. Rice, Clark, 535. Rich, L. B., 322. Richards, J. S., 587. Richards, Mariah, 584. Richardson, Orlo W., 317-20. Richter, H. C., 367. Riley, H. H., 301, 377. Ringe, Alfred, 407. Risdon, Orange, 160. Risley, Carl S., 425. Roatch, Clark, 587. Roberts, Cyrus, 335, 348. Roberts, H. S., 241. Roberts Wheel and Car Company, 308, 310. Robinson, (Mrs.) Alma, 371. Robinson, James D., 372-3. Robinson, Richard, 363. Roderick, Edward, 442. Roe, Alfred, 238. Rolfe, James, 182. Romeig, Robert, 702. Roode, J. Q., 381. Root, H. E., 121. "Rosette" paper mill, 309. Rowen, Matthew, 166. Roys, Norman, 173. Rudd, F. M., 334. Ruggles, Ziba B., 770. Ruggles, (Mrs.) Z. B., 339. Runyan, Isaac, 199. Russell, Orlando D., 805. Russell, Rector R., 603. Rusterholtz, Jacob, 806. Ryan, William, 400. Ryckaert, C., 368, 410, 447. Sabin, Marden, 130, 131, 722. Sabin, Peter, 364, 383. Saddler, William, 302. Salsig, (Mrs.) Louis (McInterfer), 338. Sau-au-quet, 20, 24, 26. Savery, Asahel. 42, 46, 78, 100, 106, 144, 145. Schaeper, Fred, 411. Schalm, W. T., 367. Schellhous family, 34. Schellhous Brothers, 391. Schellhous, Charles W., 6, 799. Schellhous, Cyrus, 209, 291. Schellhous, George F., 208, 209, 213. Schellhous, Lorensie, 101, 208, 209, 210, 399. Schellhous, Martin G., 208, 209, 210, 213. Schellhous, Robert, 81. Schellhous, Roswell, 208, 210, 213. Scidmore, Arthur W., 50, 322, 325, 528. Sears, Reuben, 297. Seaver Brothers, 432. Severens, Henry F., 92, 130, 284, 302. Shank, George E., 405. Sharp, Alexander, 132, 819. Sheffield Car Company, 327, 329. Sheffield, George S., 328, 329, 430, 753. Sheffield (George S.) & Company, 328. Sheffield Manufacturing Company, Burr Oak, 430. Sheldon, A. C., 327. Sheldon, Benjamin F., 823. Sheldon, E. H., 378, 379. Sheldon, T. P., 42. Sherman, Benjamin, 38, 92, 117, 164, 203. Sherman, E. B., 298. Sherman township-Its formation, 178; early settlers, 179; lands, taxes and products, 180; cultivation of mint, 181; township officers, 181; roads and postoffice, 182; schools, 183; population, 185; politics, 185. Sherman (see Sturgis). Shimmel, Albert C., 538. Shinnaman, Christopher, 164. Shipman, John B., 291, 302. Shoecraft, (Mrs.) F. W., 361. Showerman, R. E., 433. Sibley, Solomon, 286, 287. Sickles, Garrett, 175. Sides, I., 401. Sidner, Jacob, 359. Silliman, Arthur, 315. Silliman, Sue I., 325. Simonds, C. E., 372. Simons, J. W., 380. Simpson, H. A., 133, 417. 426. Simpson, James, 572. Simpson, William G., 657. Sixbey, Nicholas I., 92. Slote, George W., 588. Slote, James, 343. Smith, George F., 359. Smith, James L., 732.

Page  848 848 INDEX Smith, Niles F., 414. Smith, Perrin M., 291, 301, 304. Smith, William, 769. Snyder, Stephen M., 729. Snyder, William H., 594. Southern Michigan Telephone Company, Burr Oak, 432. Spade, Fred A., 709. Spencer, A. F., 378. Spencer, W. M., 378. Sperry, T. A., 334. Starr, C. H., 122. State Bank of Burr Oak, 431. State Savings Bank, Three Rivers, 334. Steele, Salmon P., 339, 342. Stevens, Wilmot E., 384. Stewart, Alanson C., 42, 46, 187. Stewart, Charles H., 300. Stewart, Hart L., 42, 46, 160, 161, 196, 291, 298. Stewart, H. P., 417, 419. Stewart, Samuel, 187. Stewart, William, Jr., 183. St. Edwards Parish (Catholic), Mendon, 408-12. St. John's Evangelical Lutheran church, 345. St. Joseph Canal and Lockport Manufacturing Company, 309. St. Joseph county-Drainage, 1; rivers and lakes, 2; prairies and oak openings, 3; geological features, 3; building materials, 4; soil and agriculture, 5; peppermint and oil, 5; the county in 1838, 10; St. Joseph river, 10; land and water area, 10; government inaugurated, 78; original townships, 78; first election, 79; changes in government, 79; subdivision of townships, 81; first town meeting, 81; county seats, 82; first county building, 83; court houses, 85; the county's poor, 89; county officials (1830-1910), 91; education, 94; bird's-eye view of pioneer history, 96. "St. Joseph County Advertiser and Constantine Weekly Mercury," 382. "St. Joseph County Advertiser," 381. St. Joseph County Bank, 417. "St. Joseph County Democrat," 372. St. Joseph's Mission, White Pigeon, 447. St. Joseph County Pioneer Society (1873 to 1910)-Organized, 98; constitution, 99; first officers, 100; came prior to 1840, 100; death of Hon. E. H. Lothrup, 111; first native male speaks, 111; year 1845 made membership limit, 114; settlers of thirty years eligible, 114; historical contribution in 1880, 117; death of three former presidents, 120; letter from Samuel P. Williams, 123; last (thirty-seventh) annual meeting, 134. St. Joseph County Republican, 423. St. Joseph river-Drainage by, 1; Mrs. Delia S. Crossette's paper on, 10; first bridge on, 12; first dam across, 13; Indian name, 155. St. Joseph township, 77. Stoner, W. G., 364. Stoughton, W. L., 241, 245, 301, 303. Stoughton, William L., 356, 359, 361. Stoughton, (Mrs.) William L., 360. Sturgis, Albert, 373. Sturgis, Amos, 198. Sturgis, Charles A., 333. Sturgis, David, 187, 198. Sturgis, John, 33, 41, 78, 79, 181, 186, 187, 198, 200, 291, 297. Sturgis, Thomas, 198. Sturgis, William, 120. Sturgis-Its railroads, 353; replatted under present name (1858), 356; present city, 357; public schools, 358; city water, light and power, 359; free public library, 360; corporation and fire department, 361'; Oak Lawn cemetery, 362; churches, 363-9; societies, 369-71; newspapers, 371; manufactories, 372-4. Sturgis township-Organization of, 195; settlers on site of Sturgis, 195; first hotels and landlords, 197; other first things, 197. "Sturgis Journal," 371. Sturgis "Michigan Democrat," 371. Sturgis Steel Go-Cart Company, 373. Sumner, Watson, 170, 376. Swan creek, 2. Swartwout, Wade L., 279. Sweet, Charles P., 407. Sweet, Ebenezer, 187, 188. Sweetland, John J., 527. Sweitzer, F., 336. Swihart, Frank L., 810. Taft, Moses, 228, 231. Talbot, George, 417. Taylor, Elias, 48, 79, 144, 160. Taylor, William, 365. Tedrow, W. L., 389. Temperance societies, 48. Temple, C. M., 360, 440. TenBrook, G. N., 427. Terry, Elmore G., 228, 399. Three Rivers-Its original site, 34; its founding, 307; water power and manufactories, 307-10; Moore & Prutzman, 310; Home-coming pioneer literature. 314-21; corpora

Page  849 INDEX 849 tion of Three Rivers, 321; public schools, 322; public library, 324; fire department and water works, 325; Riverside Cemetery, 325; banks, 334; civic league, 336; newspapers, 336; churches, 337; societies, 347. Three Rivers Baptist church, 344. "Three Rivers Herald," 337. Three Rivers Methodist church, 337. Three Rivers Presbyterian c h u r c h, 343. Three Rivers Publishing Company, 336. Three Rivers Reformed church, 345. "Three Rivers Reporter," 336. Three Rivers Robe Tannery, 333. Thomas, D. E., 360. Thomas, F. W., 417. Thomas, Wilbur F., 292. Thompson, David, 291. Thompson, Elijah, 179. Thompson, Julius A., 213, 214, 428, 429. Thoms, James F., 327. Thors, John C., 835. Thorne, Edward, 377. Throop, W. A., 266. Thurston, George, 114, 187. Tinker, Chauncey, 218. Tinker Town, 218. Tisdel, Freeman A., 188. 189, 190. Titus, A. C., 335. Todd, Albert M., 7. Toll, Isaac D., 91, 112, 187, 191, 238, 240, 414, 415. Toll, Philip R., 187, 192, 193, 414, 416. Tomlinson, William B., 658. Town meetings (first), 81. Townships (original), 78, 81. Trowbridge, Luther H., 345. Troy, Sylvester, 316, 391. Truesdell, S. W., 49, 91. Trumbull, Edward A., 91. Trussell, Reuben, 214. Tucker, E. G., 132, 133, 141, 318, 320. Tulloss, R. E., 389. Turner, E. D., 92, 301. Tyler, Ansel, 102. Tyler, Comfort, 211, 396. Tyler family, 227. Tyler, Job, 212. Tyler, Samuel, 102. Tyler, William, 102. Ulmann, Isaac J., 196. Ulrich, Isaac S., 233, 234, 832. Upson, Charles, 291. Urie, C. P., 359. Valentine, James, 177. Van Buren, E. J., 416, 423. Van Buren, George, 403. Van Buren, Rosslyn H., 791. Vander Mel, C., 387. Van Doren, D. A., 346. Van Patten, John P., 193. Vansaw, R. P., 397. Van Vleck, V. H., 360. Van Vranken, A. H., 426. Vieman, Andrew N., 813. Voorhis, Isaac S., 211. Vough, Justus L., 227. Wagner, Daniel B., 669. Wagner, Elias, 628. Wagner, Joshua, 834. Wagner, Peter, 396. Wahl, William F., 820. Wait, Frank W., 359, 452. Wait, Jonathan G,, 354. Wakeman, Adams, 231. Wakeman, Mark H., 50. Wakeman & Lewis, 403. Wakeman House, 403. Wakeman township, 82, 228. WValker, George W., 338. Wallace, E. H., 357. Walton, A. P., 374. Walton, J. E., 374. Walton, J. F., 373, 374. Walton, Samuel A., 334, 694. Ware, Freeman, 345, 447. Warren, Charles C., 334. Warriner, P. W., 156, 384. Wasepi, 428. Washburn, Sarah, 214. Washtenaw trail, 35. Waterman, John A., 275. Waterman, Levi, 197. Watkins, Andrew, 40. Watkins, L. D., 51. Watkins, Levi, 221, 224, 226, 227. Watkins, Martin C., 227. Watkins, William M., 122, 226. Watson, F. B., 336. Watson, James V., 442. WMayne county-Pioneers, 32; organized, 74. Webster, Daniel, 157, 376. Weir, John, 378. Weir, Robert, 378. Wells, Franklin, 125, 377. Wescott, Allen, 317, 742. Wetherbee, Asa, 166. Wheaton, James H., 266. Wheeler, Challenge S., 218. Wheeler, Charles P., 279, 280, 689. Wheeler, C. S., 220. Whipple, A. V., 345. Whipple, Charles W., 291. White, Elisha, 43. WThite. Levant E., 374.

Page  850 850 INDEX White Pigeon-Sketch of village, 435; historical review, 437; White Pigeon Academy, 440; district and union schools, 440; newspapers and banks, 441; churches, 442; societies, 448. White Pigeon Academy, 146, 440. White Pigeon M. E. church, 442. "White Pigeon News," 441. White Pigeon Presbyterian church, 442. White Pigeon Reformed church, 446. White Pigeon river, 2. White Pigeon township-Original, 81; The prairies, 135; story of Chief White Pigeon, 136; unveiling of memorial by Willie White Pigeon, 137; Mrs. W. C. Cameron's address, 140; the three pioneers, 142; first farms, 144; "Old Diggin's," first hotel, 144; village platted, 145; first schools and churches, 146; changes in area, 146; natural features, 147; pioneer incidents, (Charles B. Kellogg), 148; Webster's visit to White Pigeon (Mrs. A. E. Kellogg), 156. White, William L., 770. Whitehouse, Alfred I., 431. Whitehouse Underwear Mills, 431. Whitmer, J. H., 798. Whitmore, W., 401. Wickett, Alfred M., 584. Wiegand, Henry, 446. Wilcox, Edward K., 119. Wilcox, Luther T., 327. Wilhelm, Christian, 361, 468. Wilkins, John, 287. Wilkins, Ross, 287. Will, John S., 630. Will, Mary H., 636. Willard, Isaac W., 91. Williams, Joseph R., 50, 376. Williams, Samuel P., 106, 125. Willis, Joseph, 372. Willits, Warren J., 327, 329, 335. Wilson, Isaiah, 341. Wilson, William H., 748. Winchell, David, 166. Winchell, John, 32, 42, 46, 79, 91, 142. Witherell, James, 286-7. Wolf, (A. C. & Bros.) Bank, 418. Wolf, Amos C., 92, 335, 543. Wolf brothers, 6, 165, 417. Wolf Brothers Bank, 419. Wolf, Frank, 419, 442. Wolf, George M., 335. Wolf, George T., 334, 335, 759. Wolf, John, 421. Wolf, Josiah, 419. Wolf, Morris D., 422, 785. Wolfinger, Clinton J., 816. Wood, A. R., 271-2. Woodbridge, William, 144, 286, 287, 298. Woodman, John B., 779. Woodward, Augustus B., 285, 287. Worthington, Delmar L., 677. Worthington, John H., 671. Wright, W. A., 359. Yaple, George L., 119, 291. Yauney, Henry, 327. Yauney, James, 127. Yauney, (Mrs.) Mary J., 108. Yeatter, Martha B., 678. Yeatter, Solomon, 677. Zabel, Christian, 815. Zacharias, Allen H., 261.

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