History of Oakland County Michigan a narrative account of its historic progress, its people, its principal interests
Seeley, Thaddeus De Witt, 1867-

Page  [unnumbered] A -it" X lbl 0i; 'IINi1 \IassV'~

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  I c/7 LC/-L I —," q

Page  II HISTORY OF A Narrative Account of its Historical Progress, its People, and its Principal Interests Compiled from the official records of the County, the newslpapers and data of persoual interv iewls, under the editorial supervision of THADDEUS D. SEELEY VOLUME I ILLUSTRATED TUE LE\VTIS PUBLISHING COMPANNY CHTCAGO AND NE-W YORK IqT2

Page  III

Page  IV INTRODUCTION We present this history wilh pleasure, because it deals with a pleasant subject-Oakland county. There is another reason for this attitude toward our subject:-the cooperation of contributors and of citizens has been so general and hearty that the historical work required has been transformed from a task into a labor of love. Oakland county is peculiarly fortunate in the variety of her charms and riches, to which truth these pages bear witness. With her landscape beauties and sunny lakes, she is drawing thousands to her who seek restful homes and profitable investments. At the same time, her soil is fertile and invites the practical farmer, dairyman and horticulturist, while in the urban centers, the industrial and commercial interests have obtained a firm foothold and assure livelihood and profit to the citizen. No county in the state has better schools, and, as will be made plain in the progress of this history, in no section has woman had a more extended or elevating influence. In a word, Oakland is unexcelled as a home county; no more need be said to the good American, whether of native or foreign blood. As to the collaborators on the history, too much cannot be said of the quantity and quality of the assistance rendered by Hon. Aaron Perry. In those homely words which so truly express our feeling toward him-"what could we have done without him!" Also as to Miss Martha Baldwin and Mrs. Lilian Drake Avery-"what could we have done without them,' especially in setting forth the scope of woman's work, and the splendid part taken by the pioneers of the county in laying the foundation upon which the later generations have builded their comfort and prosperity. Thanks are rendered all our associate editorsFred M. Warner, Thomas L. Patterson, Harry S. Gardner and Samuel W. Smith, for their willing and effective cooperation. The county and village officials, business men, farmers and manufacturers-all, in fact, who have worked to make Oakland county what it is today and are laboring for its greater future-have our sincere thanks, both for what they are doing toward the progress of this favored section of the state, and for what they have done in enabling us to picture it in this history of Oakland county. THADDEUS D. SEELEY.

Page  V

Page  VI CONTENTS CHAPTER I THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION WONDERFUL COUNTRY OF LAKES-CASS AND ORCHARD-REMARKABLE NATURAL PHENOMENON-THE LAKE ORION REGION-SUMMER RESORT FEATURES-TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES —AS A FARMING AND LIVE STOCK REGION-FEATURES OF THE TRANSFORMATION. 1 CHAPTER II GENERAL PHYSICAL FEATURES SURFACE AND ELEVATIONS-IMM1ENSE DRIFT AND FORMATIONS BENEATH -SOIL AND CLIMATE-THE SURFACE GEOLOGY OF OAKLAND COUNTY. 9 CHAPTER III INDIAN AND PRIMITIVE RECORD ORCHARD LAKE AND THE GREAT CHIEF PONTIAC-THE LEGEND OF MENAH-SA-GOR-ING —PRIMITIVE TILLAGE AND INDUSTRIES-CONTACT WITH KNOWN TRIBES-SCARS OF BATTLE-C. Z. HORTON'S CONTRIBUTIONS-INDIAN CAMPING GROUND AND CEMETERY-QUEER CUSTOMS-TIIE PASSING OF WE-SE-GAII. 19 CHAPTER IV FIRST SETTLERS AND LAND OWNERS GREAT SET-BACK TO SETTLEMENT-OAKLAND COUNTY'S FIRST SETTLERS -THE MACK COLONY OF PONTIAC-"UNCLE BEN" WOODWORTH-FIRST SURVEYS-LOCATIONS UNDER THE "TWO DOLLAR" ACTTHE "TEN SHILLING" ACT-GREAT EVENT FOR THE PIONEER LAND OWNER-TOWN OF PONTIAC SETTLED-ORION AND OXFORD-ROYAL OAK AND TROY-AVON AND WHITE LAKE-SPRINGFIELD AND GROVELAND-FARMINGTON AND WEST BLOOMFIELD —WATERFORD AND INDEPENDENCE-BRANDON, SOUTHFIELD AND BLOOMFIELD. 27 V

Page  VII vi CONTENTS CHAPTER V PICTURES OF THE PAST HERVEY PARKE COMES TO OAKLAND COUNTY-BLOOMFIELD AND ROYAL OAK IN I82I-INFANT VILLAGE OF PONTIAC-GOVERNOR WISNER AND HIS MULLET STORY-BECOMES HORATIO BEALL'S ASSISTANT-JOSEPH WAMPLER'S ASSIGNED TERRITORY-A SURVEYOR'S HARDSHIPS-RETURNS WITH HIS FAMILY-BIRTHPLACE OF JOHN H. PARKE-HOMESTEAD AT LAST-SURVEYS FROM PONTIAC-RUNNING LINES UNDER DIFFICULTIES-FRESH TRAILS OF THE BLACK HAWK WAR-BETWEEN SAGINAW BAY AND LAKE HURON-SURVEYS IN BLACK HAWK RESERVATION, IOWA-ANOTHER IOWA CONTRACT-CAPTAIN PARKE'S RECAPITULATION-RECOLLECTIONS OF BENJAMIN O. WILLIAMS-INDIAN NEAR DEATH-DEAR OLD OAKLAND, THE BEST OF ALL-A PICTURE OF MEMORY (BY JOHN M. NORTON)-ADVENT OF TIE PIONEER-. RAILROAD AS A FUN-MAKER-THE LIFE BEQUEATHED BY THE PIONEERS-FIFTY YEARS AGO AND NOW (BY S. B. MCCRACKEN)CONTRASTS OF LIFE-"GRANNY" MCCRACKEN-FATIHER AND MOTHER MCCRACKEN —THIE SCHOOLS OF FIFTY YEARS AGO-MORMON VISITATION OF 1832-AUBURN AND TIHE YOUNG PIONEERS. 37 CHAPTER VI REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS AND "DAUGHTERS" COUNTY'S FIRST SETTLER, A REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIER-THE GRAIAM FAMILY-NATHANIEL BALDWIN-GEORGE HORTON-STEPHEN MACK -COLONEL MACK'S FAMILY-JOSEPH TODD AND PARTY-ITHAMAR SMITH-WILLIAM NATHAN TERRY-JOSHUA CHAMBERLIN AND ENOCH HOTCHKISS-ELIJAH DRAKE-EZRA PARKER-JEREMIAH CLARKE-BENJAMIN GRACE-CALEB BARKER MERRELL-LEVI GREEN -JOEL PHELPS-ELIAS CADY-SAMUEL NILES-SILAS SPRAGUEESBON GREGORY-ZADOCK WELLMAN-CALEB CARR-HOOPER BISHOP -DERRICK HULICK - CALEB PRATT - SOLOMON JONES - LYDIA BARNES POTTER-JAMES HARRINGTON AND JACOB PETTY-JOHN BLANCHARD-ALTRAMONT DONALDSON-JOSEPH VAN NETTERBENJAMIN BULSON-NATHAN LANDON-GENERAL RICHARDSON CHAPTER, D. A. R.-THE REVOLUTIONARY GRAVES MARKED-MEMBERSHIP OF THE DAUGHTERS 72 CHAPTER VII PIONEER RECORDS COUNTY PIONEER SOCIETY FOUNDED-THE SUPERVISORS' PICNICS-BETTER PRESERVATION OF RECORDS-SOCIETY INCORPORATED-PIONEER WOMEN-OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY —PIONEER RELICS IN THE COL1,ECTION OF THE SOCIETY 99

Page  VIII CONTENTS V11 CHAPTER VIII DEVELOPMENT OF JUDICIARY TERRITORIAL SUPREME COURT-OLD DISTRICT COURT-COUNTY COURTS - CHANGE IN SUPREME COURT-CIRCUIT COURTS AND JUDGES-THE "ONE-HORSE" COURT-UNDER THE 1850 CONSTITUTION-A SUMMARY-UNDER THE PRESENT CONSTITUTION. 110 CHAPTER IX THE BENCH OF OAKLAND COUNTY COUNTY COURTS AND JUDGES-PROBATE COURTS AND JUDGES-CIRCUIT COURTS AND JUDGES-THE COURT OF CHANCERY-CIRCUIT COURT COMMISSIONERS. 117 CHAPTER X THE BAR OF OAKLAND COUNTY DANIEL LEROY-WILLIAM F. -MOSLEY-THOMAS J. DRAKE-ORIGEN D. RICHARDSON-GIDEON 0. WHIITTEMORE-ROBERT P. ELDREDGESETII A. L. WARNER-WILLIAM DRAPER-RANDOLPH MANNINGCHARLES DRAPER-RUFUS HOSMER-GGEORE W. WISNER-ALFRED H. HANSCOM-GOVERNOR MOSES WISNER-AUGUSTUS CARPENTER BALDWIN-JOIN S. GOODRICI —LEVI B. TAFT-HESTER L. STEVENSMICHAEL E. CROFOOT-HENRY M. LOOK-M]ARK S. BREWER-LIVING MEMBERS OF TIlE BAR-JUDGE THOMAS L. PATTERSON-JOSEPH EDWARD SAWYER-GEORGEE W. SMITH-ROBERT J. LOUNSBURY-AARON PERRY-DANIEL L. DAVIS —KLEBER P. ROCKWELL-ARTHUR R. TRIPP-ELMER R. WEBSTER-JAMIES H-. LYNCH-JOHN H. PATTERSON -F. L. COVERT-HENRY MI. ZIMMERMAN —ANDREW L. M\OORE-H. HI-. COI 'IN —PITER 13. BROMLEY. 126 CHAPTER XI BACKWNARD GLANCES AT BENCH AND BAR JUDGE CROFOOT'S RECOLLECTIONS-BENCH AND BAR PRIOR TO 1840 (BY JUDGE BALDWIN)-CHIEF JUSTICE MOORE'S PICTURES-AARON PERRY'S CONTRIBUTIONS. 158 CHAPTER XII CIVIL AFFAIRS OF THE COUNTY FIRST OFFICIAL ACT COUNTY SEAT FIXED-ORIGINAL TWO TOWNSHIPS-PRESENT BOUNDARIES ESTABLISHED-OAKLAND COUNTY UNDER THE TERRITORY-TERRITORIAL LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL-LEGISLATION AFFECTING TOWN AND COUNTY-TOWNSIIIP GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHED —FIRST SUPERVISORS' MEETING-SOME EARLY ASSESSMENTS-CIRCLE OF TOWNSHIPS COMPLETED —ROSTER OF COUNTY OFFICIALS-ASSESSMENTS AND TAXES-POPULATION FOR NINETY

Page  IX viii CONTENTS YEARS-INCORPORATED CITIES AND VILLAGES-THE COUNTY COURT HOUSES-COST OF COUNTY BUILDING-PRESENT COURT HOUSE-THE OAKLAND COUNTY HOME-COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF THE POOR. 188 CHAPTER XIII OAKLAND COUNTY IN STATE POLITICS QUESTION OF LAND TITLES-GOVERNOR CASS BRINGS STABILITYCHAMPIONS OF PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS-THE STATE CONSTITUTIONSOAKLAND COUNTY'S PART IN CONSTITUTION MAKING-DOCTOR RAYNALE, DELEGATE TO I835 CONVENTION-SENECA NEWBERRY, DELEGATE TO 1835 AND 1850 CONVENTIONS-STATE OFFICIALS, ELECTED AND APPOINTED-TERRITORIAL COUNCIL REPRESENTATIVES-SPEAKERS AND CLERK OF THE HOUSE-MICHIGAN LEGISLATORS FROM OAKLAND COUNTY-STATE SENATORS-STATE REPRESENTATIVES-DISTURBANCES OF WAR ISSUES. 214 CHAPTER XIV THE COUNTY SCHOOL.SYSTEM BASIS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM-CENTRAL UNIVERSITY AND BRANCHES -FIRST ACADEMIES IN OAKLAND COUNTY-HEADS OF THE COUNTY SYSTEM-REMAINS A PERPETUAL FUND-DUTIES OF THE TEACHER OF TODAY - STANDINGS REQUIRED - DISTRICT LIBRARIES - HIGH SCHOOL SCHOLARS-DISTRICT SCHOOLS OF THE COUNTY-PRESENT STATUS OF SCHOOLS. 227 CHAPTER XV MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION FIRST OAKLAND COUNTY HIGHWAY-OTHER ROADS ESTABLISHED-IMPROVEMENT OF THE CLINTON RIVER-FIRST MICHIGAN RAILWAY CHARTERED-DETROIT & PONTIAC RAILROAD COMPANY —FINALLY COMPLETED TO BIRMINGHAM-DETROIT & MILWAUKEE RAILWAY COMPANY-ESTABLISHMENT OF PRESENT SYSTEMS-COMING OF ELECTRIC LINES-THE GRAND TRUNK SYSTEM-THE MICHIGAN CENTRAL-PERE MARQUETTE RAILROAD-DETROIT UNITED RAILWAYSUMMARY. 234 CHAPTER XVI BANKS AND BANKING OAKLAND COUNTY'S FIRST BANK-THE "WILD-CAT" BANKS-ONE "SAFETY FUND" BANK-NATIONAL BANKS IN THE COUNTY-THE STATE BANKS-PONTIAC SAVINGS BANK-THE OAKLAND COUNTY SAVINGS BANK-FIRST COMMERCIAL BANK OF PONTIAC-THE AMERICAN SAVINGS BANK-FIRST STATE SAVINGS BANK OF BIRMINGHAMFARMINGTON EXCHANGE BANK-ROCHESTER SAVINGS BANK-HOLLY SAVINGS BANKS —FARMERS' STATE BANK OF OXFORD —ROYAL OAK SAVINGS BANK-THE ORION STATE BANK-STATE SAVINGS BANK OF SOUTH LYON. 242

Page  X CONTENTS ix.CHAPTER XVII THE MEDICAL PROFESSION PIONEER CONDITIONS-PRIMITIVE STATE OF MEDICAL PRACTICE-ALLOPATHIC PRACTITIONERS PRIOR TO I837-DR. WILLIAM THOMPSON, FIRST PHYSICIAN-DRS. OLMSTEAD AND JOHN CHAMBERLAIN-DR. EZRA S. PARKE —DR. CYRUS CHIPMAN-DRS. LAMB, LAMOND AND ALGER-DR. JOHN C. EMERY-THE OLD COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY -ALLOPATHIC PRACTITIONERS FROM 1837 TO I866-THREE EARLYTIME HOMEOPATHS-PRESENT COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY-PONTIAC MEDICAL SOCIETY-PRESENT PRACTITIONERS. 249 CHAPTER XVIII WOMEN'S INFLUENCE IN THE COUNTY WHAT WOMEN HAVE DONE FOR OAKLAND COUNTY (BY MARTHA BALDWIN) —WOMEN'S WORK IN PONTIAC-THE PONTIAC CITY HOSPITAL -PONTIAC PUBLIC LIBRARY-WOMEN'S LITERARY CLUB OF PONTIAC -THE ROUND TABLE CLUB —WEST SIDE READING CIRCLE-WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION-BIRMINGHAM PUBLIC LIBRARYBIRMINGHAM LITERARY CLUB —GREENWOOD CEMETERY ASSOCIATION -LADIES' LIBRARY ASSOCIATION OF HOLLY. 259 CHAPTER XIX MILITARY MATTERS OAKLAND COUNTY SOLDIERS OF THE WAR OF 8II2-NAPOLEONIC SOLDIERS-EARLY MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS-THE MEXICAN WARTHE WAR OF TIlE REBELLION-FIRST MICHIGAN INFANTRY-SECOND INFANTRY-GENERAL I. B. RICHARDSON-THE SECOND REGIMENTTHIRD INFANTRY-THE FIFTH INFANTRY-SEVENTH REGIMENTEIGHTH AND NINTH INFANTRY REGIMENTS-THE TENTH INFANTRY -DEATH OF ADJUTANT COWLES —THE FOURTEENTH INFANTRYTHE FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH-TWENTY-SECOND INFANTRYGOVERNOR MOSES WISNER-TWENTY-NINTH INFANTRY-THIRTIETH INFANTRY AND "MECHANICS AND ENGINEERS"-CUSTER'S MICHIGAN CAVALRY BRIGADE-THE EIGHTH CAVALRY —NINTH AND TENTH CAVALRY REGIMENTS-MICHIGAN LIGHT ARTILLERY-ONE HUNDRED AND SECOND UNITED STATES COLORED TROOPS-MILITARY MATTERS OF LATE. 271 CHAPTER XX VILLAGE OF PONTIAC COLONEL MACK'S COMPANY-FIRST PONTIAC SETTLERS-WORKS OF MACK, CONANT AND SIBLEY-COLONEL'S MACK, FATHER AND SONSETTLERS OF I822-I836-COUNTY SEAT AND COURTHOUSE-TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION-THE VILLAGE OF AUBURN (AMY) —PONTIAC VILLAGE INCORPORATED-EARLY TRUSTEE MEETINGS-REAL ESTATE

Page  XI x CONTENTS ITEM-THE MILL POND NUISANCE-THE FIRE OF I840-EARLY BRIDGES-COMMON COUNCIL, THE GOVERNING BODY-TIIE VILLAGE FIRE DEPARTMENT-GAS WORKS INAUGURATED —HEADS OF THE VILLAGE GOVERNMENT. 286 CHAPTER XXI CITY OF PONTIAC FIRST ELECTION-CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT BORN-FIRST CITY HALLVALUE OF PROPERTY IN I876-"JOHN P. FOSTER NO. 2"-SMALLPOX EPIDEMICS OF I88I-82-NEWSPAPER SENSATION-RESIGNATION OF CHIEF ENGINEER FOSTER-CITY FINANCES IN I876-BOARD OF WATER COMMISSIONERS CREATED-THE NEW FIFTH WARD-ORIGINAL SYSTEM OF WATER WORKS-ELECTRIC LIGHTING AND TELEPHONE SYSTEMS-FIRST GAMEWELL FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH-MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN I894-FIRST THREE YEARS OF WATER SERVICELIGHTING AND TELEPHONE SERVICE AGAIN-SEWERAGE SYSTEM INAUGURATED-EXTENSION OF WATER WORKS-TELEPHONE SERVICE UP TO DATE —COMMISSION GOVERNMENT ADOPTED-EARLY MEASURES PASSED —INCREASED EFFICIENCY OF FIRE DEPARTMENT —THE PRESENT CITY HALL —MAYORS OF PONTIAC-THE CITY PRESSOAK HILL CEMETERY-GAS LIGHTING AND ELECTRIC POWERPOSTOFFICE AND POSTMASTERS —THE PONTIAC STATE HOSPITAL. 296 CHAPTER XXII INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS PONTIAC DIRECT SUCCESSOR OF 1820 MILL —TilE HOWARD INTERESTS —THE OLD PADDACK MILLS-CHARLES DAWSON AND -IIs WORK —PONTIAC CITY MILLS-PIONEER MACHINE SHOPS AND FURNITURE FACTORIESEARLY BREWERIES-FATHERS OF THE AUTO INDUSTRY-PONTIAC AND OTHER MILLS OF I852-PONTIAC'S EARLY BUSINESS MEN-AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY OF PONTIAC-OAKLAND MVOTOR CAR COMPANY-GENERAL MOTORS TRUCK COMPANY-THE FLANDERS PLANTS-THE CARTERCAR COMPANY —MONROE BODY COMPANY-THE BEAUDELL BODY WORKS —SLATER CONSTRUCTION COMPANY-PONTIAC BREWERYPONTIAC COMMERCIAL ASSOCIATION. 320 CHAPTER XXIII PONTIAC SCHOOLS SARAH MCCARROLL'S SKETCH-TIlE OLD PONTIAC ACADEMY —FIRST COMMON SCHOOLS-PUBLIC SYSTEM ORGANIZED-THE "OLD UNION" -HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING OF I87 —SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS AND HIGH SCHOOL PRINCIPALS-THE NEW HIGH SCHOOL-PUBLIC SYSTEM AND LIST OF SCHOOLS-MIICIIIGAN MILITARY ACADEMY. 333

Page  XII CONTENTS xi CHAPTER XXIV PONTIAC CHURCHES EARLIEST METHODIST PREACIIERS-FIRST METHODIST CHURCH IN COUNTY-PASTORS FROM I826 TO THE PRESENT —MRS. SHATTUCK'S REMINISCENCES-CENTRAL METHIODIST EPISCOPAL CIHURCI —THE FIRST BAPTIST CIIURCII-FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH-How THE CHURCH WAS BUILT-FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CIIURCH —THIRD CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH1 IN TIlE STATE-NEW BI3UILDING-ST. VINCENT DE PAUL'S CHURCH-ALL SAINTS EPISCOPAL CHURCHST. TRINITATIS LUTHERAN CHURCIH-THE AFRICAN M. E. CHURCH -YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION —RED RIBBON CLUB OF PONTIAC. 340 CHAPTER XXV PONTIAC'S FRATERNAL SOCIETIES MASONRY IN PONTIAC-THIRD LODGE IN TERRITORY-PONTIAC LODGE NO. 21-PAST MASTERS-PONTIAC COUNCIL No. 3, R. & S. MI.-OAKLAND CHAPTER NO. 5, R. A. M.-PONTIAC COMMANDERY NO. 2, K. T.PONTIAC CHAPTER NO. 228, 0. E. S. —MASONIC TEMPLE ASSOCIATION-CANTON PONTIAC No. 3, I. O. O. F.-PYTHIAN KNIGHTS AND SISTERS-DICK RICHARDSON POST, G. A. R.-KNIGITS OF COLUMJ:BUS Ro.\L NEIIGHICORS OF AMERICA-B. P. 0. E.-OTHER LODGES, 362 CHAPTER XXVI BLOOCMIFIELD TOWNSHIP PHYSICAL FEATURES —A GOOD IMANY DEAD INDIANS —FIRST LAND EINTRY-FORMATIVE TOWNSHIP PERIOD —TIREE COMPETING TAVERNSMILLS AND STORES OUTSIDE OF BIRMINGHA\M —BLOOMFIELD CENTER -BIRMINGHAM VILLAGE PLATS-OLD TIM\ES AT PIETY HILL-VILLAGE OF BIRMINGIIAM-REINCORPORATED-VIILAGE PRESIDENTS AND CLERKS-PUBLIC WORKS-SOLDIERS' MIONUMENT-BIRMINGIIAM CHURCHES-SECRET AND FRATERNAL SOCIETIES. 371 CHAPTER XXVII HOLLY TOWNSHIP DRAINAGE AND LAKES-FIRST ENTRY AND SETTLEMENT-OTHER PIONEERS OF THE TOWNSHIP-SETTLERS IN I832-I837 —FIRST THINGS -QUAINT ALONZO R. ROOD —DESCENDANTS OF THE PIONEERSFOUNDING OF HOLLY VILLAGE-VILLAGE SCHOOLS —NEW UNION SCHOOL-TOWNSHIP AND VILLAGE LIBRARIES-THE WATERWORKSHOLLY NEWSPAPERS-INDUSTRIES-TIIE CHURCHES-SOCIETIES. 388

Page  XIII xii CONTENTS CHAPTER XXVIII AVON TOWNSHIP JAMES GRAHAM, ORIGINAL SETTLER-THE HERSEY-RUSSELL-GRAHAM COMBINE —VIEMORIES OF THE OLD HERSEY MILL-MILL STONES FROM BOWLDERS-STONY CREEK VILLAGE-ROCHESTER PLATTEDPIONEERS OUTSIDE OF ROCHESTER-FIRST CORPORATION OFFICERSROCHESTER INDUSTRIES-WESTERN KNITTING MILLS-CREAMERY AND FLOURING MILL-THE SCHOOLS-ROCHESTER UNION SCHOOLWATERWORKS AND FIRE PROTECTION-ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWERROCHESTER NEWSPAPERS-THE CHURCHES —ROCHESTER SOCIETIESBIOLOGICAL FARM, PARKDALE-FERRY SEED FARM. 401 CHAPTER XXIX OXFORD TOWNSHIP CIVILLY ORGANIZED-FIRST SETTLERS OF THE TOWNSHIP-FIRST ROADS AND RAILROAD —THOMAS-LAKES-OXFORD VILLAGE INCORPORATED -SCHOOLS-OXFORD CHURCHES-NEWSPAPERS AND SOCIETIES-OXFORD INDUSTRIES-MICHIGAN PRESSED BRICK COMPANY-C. L. RANDALL & COMPANY. 418 CHAPTER XXX ROYAL OAK TOWNSHIP ORIGIN OF THE NAME-GOVERNOR CASS "SEES FOR HIMSELF" —SETTLERS OF 1822-I826-TOWNSHIP ORGANIZED-ROYAL OAK VILLAGE-CORPORATION RECORD-ROYAL OAK SCHOOLS-CHURCHES-SOCIETIESURBAN REST AND FERNDALE-ROSELAND PARK CEMETERY. 428 CHAPTER XXXI ORION AND MILFORD TOWNSHIPS ORION'S FIRST SETTLERS AND EVENTS —A TOWNSHIP OF LAKES-ORION VILLAGE CHURCHES-.MILFORD TOWNSHIP FORMED-THE RUGGLES BROTHERS-PIONEER MILLS-THE PRESENT VILLAGE-MILFORD CHURCHES. 440 CHAPTER XXXII LYON AND FARMINGTON TOWNSHIPS FIRST SETTLERS OF LYON TOWNSHIP —NEW HUDSON AND KENSINGTONVILLAGE OF SOUTH LYON-SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES-SOUTH LYON INDUSTRIES-THE POWER COLONY FOUNDS QUAKERTOWN (FARMINGTON)-OTHER PIONEERS OF THE TOWNSHIP —DOCTOR WEBB ADDS DISTINCTION-FIRST MILLS —RECOLLECTIONS OF P. DEAN WARNER -VILLAGE OF FARMINGTON —SCHOOLS-THE CHURCHES-THE MASONIC LODGE-CLARENCEVILLE AND NORTH FARMINGTON. 449

Page  XIV CONTENTS xiii CHAPTER XXXIII ADDISON AND BRANDON TOWNSHIPS LAKES OF ADDISON TOWNSHIP-LAKEVILLE'S EARLY PROMISE-TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION AND DISTRICT SCHOOLS-VILLAGE OF LEONARD -BRANDON TOWNSHIP-ITS PIONEER SETTLERS-VILLAGE OF OAKWOOD-TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION-VILLAGE OF ORTONVILLE. 461 CHAPTER XXXIV INDEPENDENCE AND COMMERCE SASHABAW PLAINS, INDEPENDENCE TOWNSHIP-WATER COURSESSETTLERS AT CLARKSTON AND THE "PLAINS"-THE PRIMITIVE SCHOOLHOUSES-CLARKSTON UP TO DATE-COMMERCE LAKES AND STREAMS-FIRST SETTLERS AT COMMERCE AND WALLED LAKECOMMERCE OF TODAY-TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION AND FIRST POSTOFFICES-WIXOM AND SWITZERLAND. 466 CHAPTER XXXV SPRINGFIELD AND HIGHLAND SPRINGFIELD TOWNSHIP ORGANIZED-SPRINGFIELD AND ANDERSON SETTLEMENTS-DAVISBURG-HIGHLAND'S PHYSICAL FEATURES-FIRST SETTLERS-HIGHLAND POSTOFFICE AND STATION-VILLAGE OF CLYDE -METHODISM IN THE TOWNSHIP. 471 CHAPTER X'XXVI ROSE AND WEST BLOOMFIELD PHYSICAL FEATURES OF ROSE TOWNSHIP —ROSE CENTER, OR ROSEBLOOMFIELD AS A LAKE TOWNSHIP —EARLIEST PIONEERS-SALE OF INDIAN RESERVATIONS-FIRST POSTOFFICE-ORCHARD LAKE POSTOFFICE-THE POLISH SEMINARY 476 CHAPTER XXXVII NOVI AND WATERFORD TOWNSHIPS THE NAME "NOVI"-THE COLONY OF I825-26-NOVI CORNERS, OR NOVI -WATERFORD TOWNSHIP AND ITS LAKES-COMING OF THE WILLIAMS' FAMILIES-WATERFORD VILLAGE FOUNDED-SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES-WATERFORD OF TODAY —DRAYTON PLAINS-OLD CLINTONVILLE. 482 CHAPTER XXXVIII TROY AND OAKLAND THE TROWBRIDGE FAMILY OF TROY TOWNSHIP-JOHNSON NILES AND TROY-BIG BEAVER AND CLAWSON-UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF TROY-OAKLAND TOWNSHIP IN GENERAL-GOODISON'S. 487

Page  XV xiv CONTENTS CHAPTER XXXIX SOUTHFIELD, GROVELAND AND WHITE LAKE SOUTHFIELD TOWNSHIP'S FIRST SETTLERS-FRANKLIN AND SOUTHFIELD-GROVELAND TOWNSHIP-GROVELAND AND AUSTIN-ALMOST A RAILROAD-WHITE LAKE TOWNSHIP-OXBOW AND WHITE LAKE. 491

Page  XVI INDEX Abbott, James, 33. Abernathy, Thomas, 443. Academies, 228. Academic building, Polish Seminary, Orchard lake, (view), 480. Adams, Isaac, 406. Adams, William W., 760. Addison township-Mention, 194, 195, 198, 199, 200, 206; lakes, 461; Lakeville's early promise, 461; township organization and district schools, 462; village of Leonard, 463. Aderholdt, Henry A., 727. African M. E. church, 358. Agriculture, 7, 23. Aitcheson, William, 255. Albertson, (Mrs.) William, 268. Albright, Egbert F., 109. Alexander, George W., 660. Alger, Charles A., 432. Alger, Ira C., 393. Alger, Josiah, 253. Alger, R. A., 282. Algonquins, 23. Algor, William, 465. Allen, Case J., 399. Allen, Charles A., 432, 433. Allen, Horace E., 552. Allen, Ira, 392. Allen, Jeremiah, 287. Allen, Jonathan T., 389, 392. Allen, Luther D., 664. Allen, Moses, 29, 31. Allen, Orison, 29, 212, 287. Allen, Robert G.. 699. Allen, Sterling W.. 251. Allison, Edwin V., 676. Allison, Henry E., 367. Allopathic physicians (1837-I866), 254. All Saints Episcopal church, 356. Allyn, A. F., 460. Alvord, Russell, 450. Alvord, Thaddeus, 210. American Savings Bank of Pontiac, 245. Amy, 290. Anderson, James W., 258, 8I7. Anderson, John, 287. Anderson. William, 852. Andres, John, 437. Andrews, Amasa, 321. Andrews, Harry C., 120. Andrews, Thaddeus, 458. Annice, Isaac, 425. Applegate, David, 423. Apple Island (see Me-nah-sa-gor-ning). Apple Island, Orchard Lake (view), 22. Armstrong, John L., 445. Armstrong, Stephen, 445. Arnold, Ami, 748. Arnold, Jerome F., 707. Arnold, J. M., 435. Arthur, Frank, 359. Assembly island, 4. Assessments, 193, I98. Auburn, 69. Auburn Academy, 228. Auburn village (Amy), 290. Austin, Darius, 392. Austin, H-andy, 393. Austin, Hiranm 393. Austin, John B., 310, 619. Austin, Nellie, 392. Austin Corners, 493. Automobile industry of Pontiac, 327; Oakland Motor Car Company, 328; General Motors Truck Company, 329; The Flanders Plants, 329; the Cartercar Company, 330; Monroe Body Company, 331; the Beaudett Body Works, 33I. Avery, Aaron B., 833. Avery, Lillian (Drake), 72, 97, IOI, 26I, 266. Avon Riflemen, 273. Avon township-Mention, 33, 194, 195, 198, I99, 200, 206; James Graham, original settler, 401; the Hersey-Russell-Graham combine, 402; memories of the old Hersey mill, 403; mill stones from boulders, 404; Stony Creek village, 404; Rochester platted (1826), 405; pioneers outside of Rochester. 406; first corporation officers, 406; Rochester industries, 408; the Western Knitting Mills, 408; creamery and flouring mill, 409; the schools, 409; Rochester Union school, 409; water works and fire protection, 411; XV

Page  XVII xvi INDEX electric light and power, 412; Rochester newspapers, 412; churches, 412; Rochester societies, 414; biological farm, Parkdale, 416; Ferry seed farm, 417. Avon township hall (view), 402. Axford, Morgan, 419. Axford, Samuel, 418, 419. Axford, William M., 420. Babcock, Floyd B., 746. Babcock, Henry S., 194, 218. Bachelder, Frank S., 256. Backer, Peter E., 582. Backus, Standish, 328. Bacon, Levi, Jr., 312, 315. Bagg, M. La Mont, 120, 245, 295, 312. Bagley, Amasa, 117, II8, 121, 122, I62, 291, 295, 362, 374. Bagley, (Bloomfield Center), 374. Bagley school, 338. Bagnell, Gilbert, 453. Bailey, Roy E., 884. Baker, Calvin, 484. Baker, Charles, 766. Baker, Francis, 212. Baker, George J., 247. Baker, Norman L., 257. Baker, Wilson W., 631. Bald mountain, 9, 443. Baldwin, Augustus C., 102, 123, 133, I6I, 180, 181, 221, 312. Baldwin, Benedict, 30. Baldwin, Edwin, 372. Baldwin, (Mrs.) Edwin, 268. Baldwin, Ezra, 33. Baldwin, J., 33. Baldwin, Martha, 259, 269, 270, 592. Baldwin, Nathaniel, 33, 74, 96. Baldwin, Sherman, 429. Baldwin school, 38. Ball, Hiram, 465. Ball, Horatio, 40. Bancker, James, 96. Bank of Auburn, 243. Bank of Oakland, 243. Bank of Pontiac, 242. Banks and Banking-Oakland county's first bank, 242; the "wild-cat" banks, 243; one "safety fund" bank, 243; national banks in the county, 243; the state banks, 244; Pontiac Savings Bank. 245; the Oakland County Savings Bank, 245; the American Savings Bank. 245; First Commercial Bank of Pontiac, 245; First State Savings Bank, Birmingham, 246; Farmington Exchange Bank, 246; Rochester Savings Bank, 246; Holly Savings Bank, 246; Farmer's State Bank of Oxford. 247; Royal Oak Savings Bank, 246; the Orion State Bank, 247; State Savings Bank of South Lyon, 248. Bar of Oakland county-Daniel LeRoy, 126; William F. Mosley, 127; Thomas J. Drake, 127; Origen D. Richardson, 128; Gideon O. Whittemore, 128; Robert P. Eldredge, 128; Seth A. L. Warner, 129; William Draper, 129; Randolph Manning, 129; Charles Draper, 130; Rufus Hosmer, 130; George W. Wisner, 131; Alfred H. Hanscom, 131; Governor Moses Wisner, 132; Hon. Augustus Carpenter Baldwin, 133; John S. Goodrich, 137; Levi B. Taft, 137; Hester L. Stevens, 138; Michael E. Crofoot, 138; Henry M. Look, 138; Mark S. Brewer, 139; Thomas L. Patterson, 140; Joseph Edward Sawyer, I42; George W. Smith, 145; Robert J. Lounsbury, 145; Aaron Perry, 148; Daniel L. Davis, I50; Kleber P. Rockwell, 151; Arthur R. Tripp, 152; Elmer R. Webster, 152; John H. Patterson, 153; James H. Lynch, 154; Andrew L. Moore, 155:; Peter B. Bromley, 156; F. L. Covert, I57. Barber, Theron W., 292. Barkham (S. W.) & Son, 409. Barkworth, Thomas E., 204. Barnes, Clayton C., 740. Barnes, Hiram, 444. Barnes, Samuel, 415. Barnet, Frank, 348. Barrett, F. J., 598. Barrett, Edith L., 270, 599. Barritt, Hiram, 218. Bartles, Herman, 432. Bartlett, Orson, 321. Barus, Henry, 284. Barwise, Isaac, 599. Bateman, James W., 124. Bauer, M. A., 369. Baum, John, 432, 433. Beach, Elisha, 237. Beach, Lewis C., 790. Beach, S. E., 245, 273, 295, 328, 333. Beaman, Samuel, 362. Beardslee, Aaron, 468. Beardslee, E. C., 212. Beardslee, George E., I25. Beardslee, Henry C., 614. Beardslee, John W., 466, 467. Beardslee, Townsend, 467. Beardslee, T. C., 274. Beardsley, Clark, I0I. Beaudett Body Works, 33I. Beaudett, Oliver J., 331. Beckwith, Mabel T., 5o6. Beebe, Hosea D., 821. Beech, Michael, 33. Beeckman, (Mrs.) Mart, Io9. Belding, Friend, 211, 212. Belding, Ransom R., I73. Belford, Henry, 392. Belford, Hugh, 392. Belford, Joseph, 392. Bell, Thomas A., 57I. Bellaire, Alexander R., 577. Belmore beach (Lake Whittlesey), I6. Bench of Oakland county-County courts and judges, 117; probate courts

Page  XVIII INDEX xvii and judges, I 8; circuit courts and judges, 120; prosecuting attorneys, 123; the court of chancery, 123; circuit court commissioners, 124. Bench and bar (reminiscences), I58-I87. Benjamin, Colonel E., 830. Benjamin, John, 439, 830. Benjamin, Terrel. I94. Bennie, J. W., 258. Benson, (Mrs.) Catherine, 102. Benson, John H., Io2. Bent, Samuel, 352, 354. Benton, John, 216. B. P. 0. E. Lodge No. io, Pontiac, 370. Berry, Bertha, 264. Bettes, Ambro, 412. Betzing, Peter, 368. Big Beaver, 488. Bigler, Jacob, 440. Bigler, Philip, 440. Bingham, Charles A., 5oi. Bingham, George, 819. Biological Farm, Parkdale, 416. Bird, Eli, 247. Bird, J. T., 257. Birge, Henry, 324. Birmingham-Mention, 200, 202; first settlement on site of, 373; village plats, 374; (see also Bloomfield township, 381-387, and Piety Hill). Birmingham Baptist church, 385. Birmingham Lodge No. 44, A. F. & A. M., 386. Birmingham M. E. church, 385. Birmingham Presbyterian church, 385. Birmingham societies, 386. Birmingham United Presbyterian church, 489. Birney, Daniel, 413. Bishop, Hooper, 90. Bishop. Julian, 474. Bissell, Edward J., 124. Black, John C.. 258. Black Hawk war, 48. Blackwood, Joseph, 451. Blair, Maurice R., 438, 814. Blair, Nellie, 438, 8i5. Blakeslee, Elmer E.. 125, I40. Blanchard, Charles E., 349. Blanchard. John, 93. Blodgett, Herbert S., 548. Bloomfield township-Mention, 36, 38, 190, I98, I99, 200, 206; physical features, 371; a good many dead Indians, 372; first land entry. 372; formative township period, 372; three competing taverns, 373; mills and stores outside of Birmingham, 373; Bloomfield Center, 374; Birmingham village plats, 374; old times at Piety Hill, 375; village of Birmingham, 381; reincorporated, 381; public works, 383; soldiers' monument, 384; Birmingham churches, 375; secret and fraternal societies, 386. Board of county commissioners, 193. Board of supervisors, I93. Bodine, John, 383. Bogie, George, 569. Bond, Fred M., I25. Book, James B., 330. Bostwick, Lafayette, 650. Boughner, Charles B., 668. Boughton, Lyman, 194, 462. Bowman, Joseph R., 124, 295. Boyle, Dennis, 597. Brace, Chauncey, 528. Brace, Harry R., 433 Bradford, Andrew, 212. Bradley, F., 212. Bradley, Morton L., 715. Braid, Edward, 512. Brakeman, Isaiah, 34I. Brandon township-Mention, 36, 194, 195, I98, 199. 200, 207; its pioneer settlers, 463; village of Oakwood, 464; township organization, 464; village of Ortonville, 464. Brannack, A. L., 256. Brewer, John J., 246. Brewer, Louise P., 261, 543. Brewer, Mark S., 124, I39, 541. Brewster, William A., 212, 312. Brey, Helen, 269. Bridges, 293. Bristol, William A., 820. Brodhead, Thornton F., 273, 282. Bromley, Peter B., 125, 140, I56, 304, 310, 64I. Bromley, (Mrs.) Peter B., 261. Brondige, George F., 687. Brondige, John E., I40. Brondidge, John F., 309. Bronson, Daniel, 33, II7, 118, 162. Bronson, Henry 0., 272, 429. Brooks, Eugene, 244. Brooks, Joseph, 818. Broughton, Herbert J., 6I2. Brown, Arza, 343. Brown, Avery, 419. Brown, Benjamin, 483. Brown, George A., 315. Brown, Hugh, 337. Brown, John B., 538. Brown, Mills S., 788. Brown, Vincent, 444, 743. Brown, Willard M., 687. Brown, William, 386. Bruder, Charles, 636. Buchanan, Alexander, 322. Buchanan, James G., 315. Buck, F. P., 337. Buckhorn, (Rose), 477. Buckland. Don Carlos, 315. Buckland, (Mrs.) D. C., 265. Buckland Memorial Chapel (view), 314. Buckley, Jennie, 680. Buckley, Pierre, 679. Buhaczkowski, Witold, 481. Bulson. Benjamin, 94. Burbank, William, 33, 405, 409. Burgess. Joseph, 433. Burns, Edward, 626.

Page  XIX xviii INDEX Burr, C. B., 317. Burr, C. D., 255. Burt, Jamies K., 747. Busch, Marsden C., 5I0. Butler, Arthur M., 855. Butler, Samuel A., 256. Button, Francis M., 584. Button, John H., 212, 460. Butts, Philip E., 415. Buzzard, Jacob, 558. Cadle, Richard F., 356, 357. Cady, Elias, 87. Calkins, Eleazur E., 449, 451. Calkins, S., 413. Callow, James E., 845. Campbell, A. C., 432. Campbell, Albert W., 620. Campbell, J. F., 892. Campbell, J. L., 257. Campbell, J. W., 891. Campbell, John L., 617. Campbell, Josephine, 387. Canandaigua City (Orion), 443. Cannon, John, 425. Canton Pontiac No. 3, I. O. F.., 368. Carpenter, Ezra, 324. Carpenter, Ira, 247. Carpenter, William A., 665. Carpenter (Samuel) farm, 449. Carr, Caleb, 89. Carr, W. H., 257. Carroll, Frank H., 245, 312, 356, 367, 370. Carter, Byron J., 330. Carter, Henry, 630. Cartercar Company, 330. Carver, Jerome E., 786. Cass, Lewis, 215, 235, 428. Cass lake, 2, 3. Cassels, Robert, 838. Castell, D. G., 256, 310. Caswell, George W., 140. Castle, Lemuel, 3I, 193. Central M. E. church, Pontiac, 345. Central school, Pontiac, 338. Challis, John, 587. Chamberlain, Addison, 46I, 462. Chamberlain, John, 252. Chamberlain, Olmstead, 251, 292, 315, 320. Chamberlain, Joshua, 80, 96. Chamberlin, L. E., 734. Champion Manufacturing Company, 330. Chapel, Calvin, 273, 415. Chapel, Charles W., 462. Chapman, C. S., 244, 408. Chapman, E. A., 257. Chapman, Harvey S., 245, 256, 312. Chapman, (Mrs.) H. S., 263, 264. Chapman, Joseph B., 256, 257. Chapman, William C., 246, 409. Charter, Elmer 0., 530. Chase, Bela, 449. Chase, David, 218. Chase, Jonathan, 218. Chase, Joseph, 431. Chase, J. B., 334. Chase's Corners, 43I, 434. Chattuck, (Mrs.) Maud, 261, 268. Cheal, William, 873. Chipman, Cyrus A., 33, 252. Chipman, Henry, 122, 159. Chipman, H. L., 284. Chippewas, 24. Christian, E. A., 256, 317. Christian, (Mrs.) E. A., 261, 263, 264. Christian church (see Church of Christ). Chubb, L. D., 566. Church, Judah, 35, 362, 440, 443. Church, R. C., 334. Churchill, William, 275. Church of Christ, Oxford, 422. Circuit court commissioners, 124. Circuit courts, 112, 113, 114, 120. Circuit judges, 112, 114, 122. Citizens' Saving Bank of Holly, 246. Civil affairs of the county-First official act, I89; county seat fixed, T9o; original two townships, I90; present boundaries established, 190; Oakland county under the territory, 19[; territorial legislative council, 191; legislation affecting township and county, 192; township government established, 192; first supervisors' meeting, 193; county commissioners and supervisors, 193; some early assessments, I93; circle of townships completed, I95; roster of county officials, I95; assessments and taxes, I98; population for ninety years, 200; incorporated municipalities, 202; the county courthouses, 202; present courthouse, 209; the Oakland County Home, 210. Civil war (see War of the Rebellion). Clack, Jonathan J., 752. Clarenceville, 460. Clark, Aggie, 451. Clark, Elijah B., 36, 440. Clark, Jeremiah, 84, 96, 123, 194, 468, 47I. Clark, Lawrence C., 672. Clark, Mary J. W., 97. Clark, Ogden, 119, I9I. Clark, Rollin W., 310. Clark, Wilson W., 468. Clarkston, 467, 468. Clarkston mills, 324. Clarkston roller mills, 468. Clarkston village, 201, 202. Clawson, 489. Clayberg, G. M., 337. Cleary, (Mrs.) Sybil B., 204. Clements, Samuel, 345. Clemons, John, 423. Clifford. William A., 278. Climate, I. Clinton Canal Bank, 243. Clinton river, 2, 467, 478, 484. Clinton river improvement, 216, 236. Clinton River Navigation Company, 6, 216. 236. Clintonville, 486.

Page  XX INDEXxi xix Cloonan, S. J., 323. Close, Solomon, 184, 326. Clough, A. B., 475. Clyde, 473. Clyde M. E. church, 475. Coates, Joseph, 218. Cobb, James W., 593. Cobb, Thomas H., 246. Colby, Eastman, 34. Cole, Henlry S., 129. Cole, WV. L.-, 25 7. Coleman, H-arry, 313, 644. Coleman, Ann.L., 26i, 263, 264, 646. Coleman, JaInes, 30. Colemnan, J. DowN'd, 312. Colemiani, Spencer, 11 7. Coleman, Zena, 413. Collier, TIheodore A., 868. Collins, George C., 522. Collins, George WV., 453. Colvin, Hiomer H-., 140, 309, 312. Colvin, N. B., 257. Commerce townshiip-M~ention, i95, 198, 199, 201, 207; lakes and streams, 469; first settlers at Commerce and Walled Lake, 469; Commerce and Walled Lake of today, 470; township organization and first postoffices, 470; Wi'xom, 470. Commi-erce Village, 470. Commi-ission government, 309. Common1 council, 293. Company E, Third Michigan Infantry,:285D. Comjpaniy A, Fifteenth Regiment, U. S. I., 273. Comstock, E.., 352. Comistock, E. B., 295. Comstock, Solon B., 184. Conant, Shubael, 44. Conec, William. 212. Congdon, E. H., 425). Connor, Henry, 461. Converse, F.E, 337.Cook, Egbert W., 179. Cook, Elijah F., 216, 218. Cook, Fred L., 549. Cook, John 1)., 302. Copeland], John T., 282. Copeland, Joseph T., 123. Copeman, Charles W., 563. Corbin, Johnson A., 229, 337. Coroners, 197. Corporations, 217. Corwin, George B., 875. Council No. 600, Pontiac K. C., 369. (County clerks, 195. Couinty courts. TTT1, 1T7. County jail (viewv). 208. County officials, 195. County Pioneer Society (see Oakland County Pioneer Society). County seat, 190. 289. County school commissioner, 229. County school system-Basis of public school system. 227; Central University and branches, 228; first academies in Oakland County, 228; heads of the county system, 228; remains a "perpetual fund," 229; duties of the teachers of today, 229; standings required, 230; district libraries, 230; high school scholars, 23I district schopls of the county, 231; present status of schools, 232. County superintendents of schools, 228. County surveyors, 197. County treasurers, 196. Court of Chancery, 123. Court house of i857-8 (view),:205. Court houses, 183, 202. Court Pride of the Oak No. 24, F. of A., 438. Covert, Frank L., 123, 125. 140, 157. Cowdin, George D)., 532. Cowvdin, Roy B., 575. Cowles, Sylvester D., 278, 279. Cox, B3yron L., 63/7. Craft, A. L., 415. Craft, (Mrs.) A. L., 261. Craft, Ahraham L., 229, 621. Crawford, Alfred, 120. Crawford, John E., 886. Crawyford, Julia, 448. Crofoot, MNichael C. i8i. Crofoot, Michael I. T20, 123, 138, 158, Crofoot scllool, 338. Crooks, J. C. K. 381. Crooks, Wilhlim111 273. Crooks, \Villinni K. 218. Crosby, Arza C. 471. Cross, Aaron II1 678. Cudworth, A. B. ISI 312. Cudworth, AgneS, 266. Cudworth, Apollos, 483. Cumuliugs, C, J. 246 Cummiugs, George, 872. Ctinnien, Patrick, 393. Currey, Daniel R. 140. Ctirrin, John, Jr. 827. Curtis, F., 254. Curtis, Jeremai111 473. Curtis, Nahani, 473. Curtis, Thomas, 124, 2T8. Cuthbert, James, '04. Cutting, Frank D., 769. Dahlmnaun, Frank, 878. Dahlulaun, Theodore, 756. Damnes, George E., 383, 594. IDandison, Frederick, 841. Danes, (-Mrs.) John, 393. Daniels, Francis, 278. IDaniels, John, 491. Danielson, Daniel, 476. Darrauigh, -Archibald, 190. Daughters of the American Revolutioli, 95. 97. Darrow, Francis, 212, 292. Davidson, I. F., 423. Davis & Company, 416. Davis, (Mrs.) Arthur, 26i, 264.

Page  XXI XX INDEX Davis, Cornelius, 472. Davis, Daniel L., 140, I50, 202. Davis, George, 447. Davis, James H., 472. Davis, James S., 659. Davis, John C., 472. Davis, John H., 362. Davis, Joseph P., 691. Davis, Joshua, Jr., 362. Davis, Martin, 364. Davis, Phineas, 473. Davis, R. W,, 295. Davis, Richard P., 842. Davis, Robert M., 212. Davis, Robert W., 312. Davis, Sarah G., 97. Davis, William 0., 557. Davison, Norman, 218. Dawson. Charles, 312, 322. Dawson's mills, 322. Day, John C., 244. Dean, Adam, 451. Dean, Julius, 294, 295. Dean, Ralph B., 337. Dean & Hovey, 327. Decker, Alanson, 419. Decker, Jesse, 36, 44, 415, 440. Decker's settlement, 440. De Cou. C. A., 257. DeCue, John, 393. DeCue, Samuel, 393. Deer lake. 5. DeLano, Edwin E., 555. Deming, Elbridge G., 35, 419. Deming, H. S., 258. "Democratic Balance," 312. Dennison, Avery, 435. Denton, Solomon W., 315. Derragon, Eugene, 609. Detroit & Bay City Railroad, 4, 238, 408, 420, 490. Detroit & Milwaukee Railway Company, 238, 447, 472. Detroit & Pacific Railroad, 431. Detroit & Pontiac electric road, 6. Detroit & Pontiac Railroad, 6, 6o, 216, 237. Detroit & Pontiac turnpike, 235. Detroit & Northwestern Railway Company, 239. Detroit & Saginaw turnpike, 390. Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee Railway, 239. Detroit United Railway, 239. Detroit United Railway car barns, 457. Detroit Creamery Company, 452. Dewey, A. L., 263. Dewey, (Mrs.) A. J., 109. Dewey, Auburn W., 56I. Dewey, Dick, 310. 66I. Dewey, J., 30. Dewey, James S., I80. Dewey, Joseph S., 123. Dewill, A. D., 422. Dick Richardson Post, G. A. R., 369. Dickinson, Geo. W., 221, 367. Dingman, Harry H., 877. District courts, III. District libraries, 230. District schools, 231. Dobat, August F., 867. Dobat, Daniel, 866. Dodge, Harvey, I94. Dole, Sidney, 162, 191, 221. Donation Chapel (Amy), 340. Dondero, George A., I40, 433, 70I. Donaldson, Altramont, 93. Donaldson, Arza B., I02, 343. Donaldson, Joseph M., 649. Donaldson, J. N., 254. Donelson, Ira, 212, 34I, 343, 344, 398. Donovan, John, 472. Dort, David, 405. Doty, Frank L., 140. Doty, Harry L., 515. Dow, Geo., 212. Dow, James, 479. Drahner, William, 507. Drake, Elijah, 80, 96. Drake, George H., 255, 256, 257. Drake, Morgan L., 124, I67, I8I. Drake, Thomas J., 29, 82, IoI, 123, I27, 164, I8I, I88, 216, 221, 272. Draper, Albert, 32I. Draper. Charles, I23, I70, i81. Draper, William, 129, 167, 181, 237, 243. Drayton Plains, 486. Drayton Plains fish hatchery, 484. Drift, I. Dunlap, Lewis L., 486. Dunlap, L. R., 328. Dunlap,. Monroe G., 554. Dunlap, Robert, 451, 452. Dunlap Vehicle Company, 328. Durant, W. C., 328. Durfee, Austin, 486. Durfee, Harvey, 486. Durkee, Lillian D., 395. Durr, George E., 444. Dutcher, William, I94. Dwight, Alfred A., 450. Earle, Chauncey, 254. Earle, Lee, 247. Early industries, 324, 373, 374, 403, 408, 425, 445, 452, 453. Early taverns, 373. Eaton, W. M., 315. Eccleston, J. B., 328. Eddy, Joseph, 483. Educational fund, 217, 229. Educational history-Early schools, 67; Pontiac schools, 333; Rochester schools, 409; Royal Oak schools, 434; Oxford schools, 422; Farmington schools, 458; Early Independence township schools, 468. Edwards, Abraham, 190. Eighth Michigan Cavalry, 282. Eighth Michigan Infantry, 278. Eilett, Jacob, 484. Eldredge, Charles M., 118, 365. Eldredge, Robert P., 128, I65.

Page  XXII INDEX xxi Elevations, I8. Elizabeth lake, 2, 484. Ellenwood, John, 218, 479, 767. Ellerly, Edward, 479. Elliott, Harry S., 229. Elliott, Henry J., 322. Elliott, Marcus D., 284. Elliott, N. K., 465. Elliott, W. G., 254. Ellis, Charles D., 399. Elmore, John, 483. Elwell, Peleg, 415. Elwood, B. F., 245. Ely, Charles H., 807. Emery, John C., 253, 482. Emery, Josiah, 680. Emmendorfer, F. A., 328. Emmendorfer, J. William, 872. Emmons, E. R., 4. Eureka mills, 408. Eveland, (Mrs.) Ida, 367. Everett, Orion H., 822. Everts, Caleb, 777. Everts, William T., 778. Fagan, Edwin, 393. Fagan, John, 393. Fagan, (Mrs.) John, 392. Fagan, Peter, 393. Fagan, Terrence, 389, 392. Fagan, Thomas H., 393, 775. Fagan, William, 392, 393. Fairbank's Corners, 373. Fairbanks, Joseph, 31. Farmer, Edward R., 59I. Farmers' & Mechanics' Bank, 243. Farmers' Bank of Oakland, 243. Farmers' State Bank of Oxford, 247. Farmington, 340. Farmington Baptist church, 459. "Farmington Enterprise," 457. Farmington Exchange Bank, 246. Farmington Lodge No. 15, A. F. & A. M., 460. Farmington Methodist church, 459. Farmington township-Mention, 34, 198, 199, 20o, 207; the Power colony founds Quakertown (Farmington), 452; other pioneers of the township, 453; Dr. Webb adds distinction, 453; first mills, 453; recollections of P. Dean Warner, 454; village of Farmington, 457; Farmington schools, 458; the churches, 459; the Masonic lodge, 460; Clarenceville and North Farmington, 460. Farmington village 201, 202, 457-460 (see Farmington township). Farnham, L. A., 257. Farnsworth, Elon, 124. Fawcett, George, 449. Fay, Ernest H., 309. Feir, John M., I25. Felshaw, C. P., 257. Ferguson, Erastus, 429. Ferguson, Robert Y., 333. Ferguson. R. Y., 257. Ferndale, 439. Ferry seed farm, 417. Fifteenth Michigan Infaittry, 280. Fifth Michigan Infantry ("Fighting Fifth"), 277 Finn, Silas, 436. Fire of I840, 293. Fire department, 294. First Baptist church, Pontiac, 347. First car into Rochester (view), 241. First Commercial Bank of Pontiac, 245. First Congregational church, Pontiac, 352, 353. First court in Oakland county, 118. First court houses, 289. First land entries, 31. First legal case recorded, 118. First M. E. church, Pontiac, 34I. First Michigan Infantry, 275. First Michigan railway chartered, 237. First National Bank of Birmingham, 244. First National Bank of Holly, 244. First National Bank of Pontiac, 243. First National Bank of Rochester, 244. First Oakland county highway, 234. First official act, I89. First Presbyterian church, Pontiac, 349. First settlers and land owners-Great set-back to settlement, 27; Oakland county's first settlers, 29; the Mack colony of Pontiac, 29; "Uncle Ben" Woodworth, 30; first surveys, 30; locations under the "two dollar" act, 31; the "ten shilling" act. 32; great event for the pioneer land owner, 32; town of Pontiac settled, 32; Avon and White lake, 33; Springfield and Groveland, 34; Farmington and West Bloomfield, 34; Waterford and Independence, 35; Orion and Oxford, 35; Royal Oak and Troy, 35; Brandon, Southfield and Bloomfield, 36. First State Savings Bank of Birmingham, 246. First State Savings Bank of Holly, 244, 246. First supervisors' meeting, I93. First surveys, 30. First things and events, 389. Fish, Elijah S., 375, 376, 377, 385. Fish, Fannie E., 375. Fisher, Arthur W., 847. Fisher, Charles A., 284. Fisher, Matilda,' 416. Fisher, W. J., 3I0. Fitch, Ferris S., 3I5, 337. Fitzgerald, Josiah, 45I. Flanders Manufacturing Company, 329. Flanders, Walter E., 329, 330. Fletcher, William A., 112, I2I, 122, 159. Flinn, Thomas, 429. Flint & Pere Marquette Railway, 238, 447. Flint River Baptist Association, 424. Florence Avenue school, 338. Flower, Andrew, 366.

Page  XXIII xxii xxii INDEX Flower, Theron A., 245, 312, 366. Flurnerfelt, George M., 6oo. Flurnerfelt, John H., 742. Flumerfelt, Joseph Ml., 568. Foley, E. J., 369. Ford, Frank, 383. Foote, Orange, 273. Foote, Thaddeus, 283. lordl, Frank, 246. Form-ian, Samuel G., 613. Foster, Charles T., 784. Foster, John P., 301, 367. Fosdick, Edward, 654. Fourteenth Mlichigan Infantry, 279. Fox, C. J., 301. Fox, T. 13., 412. Fox, Thomas, 341, 344. F ox, Truman, 447. Fox, 'W. A.-, 412. Fox, William, 41I, 604. Fox, Willoughby A., 757. Francis hrothers, 420. Fiank, Lucitus L., 837. Ftranklin, 491. Frasi, (. S. 336,'337. Frase, W. J. 415. Frcdenbui oh Judson A., 125', 140, 629..French, C harles WV., 245. Frink, Millardi L., 574. Frishec, Phil S., 212. Fuller, Ann, 47I. Fuller, Asahel, 292, 47I. Fuller, Burdick J., 685. Fuller, C. IT., 247. Fuller, E. C., 2 1)55. Fuller, Luman, 447. Fuller, William H., 421. Fulton, James, 190, 286. Gage, David, 477. Gage, Stephen Al., 728. Gage, WXilliaim, 389, 392. Gadhraith, Frank B.,:254, 256, 274, 3T2. Galhr ith. Stuart F., 2-57, 646. Gallowav, George, 479. Gallowiixay J. B., 30. Gadlowa y. Tames D3., 30. Galushia Lloii, 347. GamewXl ll Fiire Alarm Telegraph Cornpany, 304. Gardner, Elisha, 287. Gardner, Ephirairn S., 31. Gardner, Ezra, 553. Gardner, Harry 5., 511. Gardiier, Thoma-s, 341, 344. Garfield, Orrin, 453. Garling, John, 739. Garner, Andrew A., 6.58. Garner, David Al., 694. Garner. Isa B., 696. Garner, James', 794. Garner, Iohn C., 476. Garner, Levi M., 280. Garner, 'F'. C., 337. Gaskill, Silas B., 123, 179, 18o. Gass, William S., 257. Gas works, 294. Gates, A. G., 412. Gates, Parley W. C., 218. Geer, Harrison, 179. General Motors Truck Company, 329. General Richardson Chapter, D. A. R, 72, 9j6. "Genesee Herald," 312. George, Helmer, 682. Gerls, Frank, 257. Gerls, Thomas, 315. Germa in, Georoge'S., 426. German., Emanuel N., 520. German, F. D., 2,58. German, Frank P., 6o8. Gihhs, Adrian A., 773. Gihson, L. E., 257. Gilboe, George, 703. Giles, S. H., 369. Gillespie, Glenn C., 140. Gilleit, Edmund, 488. Glaciers, 1:2 Glaspie, Andrew B., 425, 756. Glaspie, Andrew P., 735. Glaspie, Charles H., 576. Glaspie, Rohert IH., 762. Glass, D. H., 346. Glines, George WV., 787. Goddard, Josiah, 434. Goig-, (M~rs.) Charles, 261, 264. 265. Goodell, George F., 88o. Goodison, Eda, 416. Goodison, XWilliam, 490. Goodison's, 489. G;oodnman, E. W., 349. cGoodmain, Stepheii, 435. Goodrich, Chester, 46. Goodrich, Elizur, 290. Goodrich, John 5., 137. Gordon, Nathaniel J., 785._ Gouild, John, 4.83. (;race, Benj'amini, 81, 9)6. Grade certificates. 230. Grahami, Alexander, 27, 29, 33, 73, 402. (;ralaiam Benjaminl, 29, 73. Graham, James, 27,:29, 72, 96, 40I, 744. (;raham, WVilliam WV., 524. Grand Trunk system, 239. Granger, Orson E., 576. "Granny" Al~cCracken, 64. Grant, Charles. 218. Graves, Fred R., 336. Gray, James S., 367. Gray, Mason W., 249, 255, 256, 2257, 312. Green, Arthur, 829. Green, Augustus R., 358. Green, Champlin. 33. Greeii, Charles E., 300. Green, Levi, 86, 96. Green, ANforris, 392, 393. Greeii, Samuel, 392. Green, Sa,.nford M., 123, 175,, I8o, 216. Greene, Alhert G., 401, 403. Greenwood Cemetery Association, Birminghami, 269. Gregory, Eshon, 89.

Page  XXIV INDEXxii xxiii Griffin, Michael, 591. Griggs, Charl es K., 76i. Groesbeck, Charles L., 545. Groom, (Mrs.) R. WV., 263. Grosebeck, Charles L., 310. Gross, Jonah, 47I. Grosvenor, Ira R., 278. Groveland College, 493. Groveland township,- 34, 194, 195, I98, I99, 201, 207, 492, 493. Grow, Joseph B., 772. Grow, K. L., 502. Guile, E. B., ~257. Guillot, Harry C., 312, 642. Guillott, H-. C., 2,57. Guillott, (Mtrs.) tII. C., 26i, 263, 264. Gullen, G. E., 459. Hadden, John J., 6o6. Madden, Marshall L', 751. Haddrill, Alfred G.. 247. Hadley, Arthur 0., 793. Hadley, D. D., 247. Hadwin, J. T., 426. Hagerman, Frank, 381. Hagern-an, Mark, 753. Hagerman, William S., 86i. Hale, Frank E., 244. Hall, J. WV., 65s. Hall, William, 373. H1alsey, Edward HI.. 663. H.-amilton, John, 31, 43, 372, 373. Hamliu, G. F., 258. Hamniniod, 1). J., 303, 6-T. Haniuiond, David. 30. Hammond, Judsou A., 301. H-anuon, Williamn, 451. H1ansardl, Charles', 7/96. Hansconi, Alfred HT., 123, T31, 171, 218, 221. 1Ha nsen, Niels J., 595. [larback, C. F., 393. Hlaubridgc, E. It., 399. Haro.'i2r Alark E., 599g. Thularer S. Wilson, 832. hiarp, 'T Lafayette. 846. Hariiic tooton, Cass E., 125. H-arrin-tou, James, 34, 93. Harritnton, T. F., 211. Harris, Edward P., 124, 169, 218. Harris', Frank, 212. H-arris, Jamies H., 337. Harrison, Charles A., 367, 705..Harrison, Elizabeth MU., 706. Hartsoug-h, Christopher, 27, 29, 402. Hartwxell, Simeon P., 25. Hascall, Charles C., 216, 22I. Haselswerdt. MI. HT., 244. Hastings (Troy), 488. Hastiiigs, E. P., 351, 488. Hawkinson, John, 441. Hayes, Alfred, 445. Hazard, James, 30. Heath, Lucretia D., 655 H-eavener, Josiah, 4321, 433. Hebbard, W. B., 447. Hemingway, N., 444. Hemingway, Needham, 30, 443. Hemingway, William, I79. Henderson, W~illiam S., 295. Hendrickson, Herman G., 386. Hendryx, James WV., 514. Ilennessy, T. J., 452. Herrick, Charles, 393. Herrick, Nathan, 388, 389, 392. Herricks, F. B., 452. Herring'ton, Charles, 465. Herrington, James, 478. Hersey, John, 27, 29, 402, 403, 405. Hersey mill, 403. H-ersey-Graham-mill, 408. Hewes, F. WV., 3,36. Ulewitt, J anre MXI., 7 32. Hibruer, Herman, Soi. FtIickev, John, 863. llickey5 1\1ichael G., 472. Hickey Wildham, 472. Hickory Ridge M. E. church, 475. thicks, Beniam-iin. 477. Hi V I-bv lmnoie, 6i i. lig~hi oaIii Uist Ml. F". church, 474. lligh school, Birminlghamn (view), 382. 1Hgi'land (p~ostoftice), 473. II ighland township-MXention, 194, 198, 199, 2901, 207; physical features, 472; fir~t scttleis. 473;1 Highland postoflice -illi station 43village of Clyde, 47 3 Mlethodismi in the township, 474. 11.11, Joshua-t 264. hill11 (,Irs.) Joshtia. 261, 265. Ill1.444 1Ihill Step~hen F., 764. IHilton, S iMiltel, 30. liltV, P. D., 2,'~8. [Iiiinman, Williami G., 30.3. 312..Hitchcock, Porter, 334. H-odgecs, Schuyler, 315.Hlogi e, George. 125, 140. Hogle, james L., 521. Iio)lconiuh brothers, 468. Holcomb, Butler, 467, 468. Holcombil, E. F., 25-7. Holden, Eliza, 468. HJolly, 474. Hollyv Baptist church, 39,9. Holly Electric & Power Company, 395. HollyV libraries, 395. Holly Mlanutfacturing Company, 397. Holly Ml. E. church. 398. Holly Presbyterian church, 398. Holly Produce & Milling Company, 395. Holly Savinlgs Bank, 246. Holly societies, 399. "Holly Times," 397. Holly township-M~ention, 195, 198, I99, 201, 207; drainage and lakes, 388; first entry and settlement, 388; other pioneers of the township, 389; settlers in 1832-i837, 389; first events, 389; quaint Alonzo R. Rood, 390; descendants of the pioneers, 392; founding

Page  XXV xxiv INDEX of Holly village, 393; village schools, 394; new Union school, 394; township and village libraries, 395; the waterworks, 395; Holly newspapers, 397; industries, 397; the churches, 398; societies, 399. Holly village, 20I, 202, 393-400 (see Holly township). Holly Wagon Company, 397. Holmes, Alexander, 31. Holmes, Charles E., 732. Holt, J. M., 475. Homeopathic physicians, 255. Hoodless, Charles, 438. Hooker, William W., 757. Hopkins, Erastus, 494. Hopkins, Frederick, 494. Hopkins, Sherman, 461. Horner, George A., 346. Horticulture, 7. Horton, Christian Z., 24, 403. Horton, George, 74, 96. Hosmer, Rufus, 130, I68, 295. Hotchkiss, Calvin, 272, 273, 287. Hotchkiss, Enoch, 80, 361. Hotchkiss, H., 416. Hough, Benjamin, 30. Hough, H. H., 435. Hovey, Augustus W., 221. Hovey, H. W., 212. Howard, Betsey, 421. Howard, David S., 3I2. Howard, H. A., 324. Howard, H. N., 320, 321, 352. Howarth, E. B., Jr., 125, I40. Howlett, Edward V., 256, 257. Hubbard, Diodate, 429. Hubbard, Frank W., 426. Hubble. W. H., 280. Hubble, William H., 562. Huff, Alexander G., 464. Huff, John, 478. Hulick, Derrick, 91. Hull, William, 214. Humphreys, F. W., 315. Hungerford, Samuel, I94. Hunt, Henry I., I90. Hunt, James B., 123, 172, 2I8. Hunt, James W., 386. Hunt, John, 120, 122, 174. Hunter. Daniel, 373, 43I. Hunter, Elisha, 43, 373. Hunter, John W., 31, 43, 372, 373. Hunter, Ledru R., 588. Hurlburt, Cass, 300. Hurd, Charles, 228, 335, 337. Huron river, 445, 478, 469, 493. Hymers, Elmer E., 140, 309, 472. Idle, D. D., 346. Incorporated villages, 202. Independence Camp No. 3I27, Royal Neighbors of America, 369. Independence township-Mention, 35, 195, I98, 199, 200, 201, 207; Sashabaw plains, 466; water courses, 467; settlers at Clarkston and on the plains, 467; the primitive schoolhouses, 468; Clarkston up to date, 468. Indian and primitive record-Orchard lake and the great chief, Pontiac, 19; the legend of Me-nah-sa-gor-ning, 21; primitive tillage and industries, 22; contact with known tribes, 23; scars of battle, 24; C. Z. Horton's contributions, 24; Indian camping ground and cemetery, 24; queer customs, 25; the passing of We-se-gah, 25. Indian reservations, 479. Indians, 25, 372. Industrial and business Pontiac-Direct successor of 1820 mill, 320; the Howard interests, 321; the old Paddack mill, 322; Charles Dawson and his work, 322; Pontiac City Mills, 322; pioneer machine shops and furniture factories, 322; early breweries, 323; fathers of the "auto" industry, 323; Pontiac and other mills of I852, 323; Pontiac's early business men, 325; automobile industry of Pontiac, 327; Oakland Motor Car Company, 328; General Motors Truck Company, 329; the Flanders plants, 329; the Cartercar Company, 330; Monroe Body Company, 331; the Beaudett Body Works, 331; Slater Construction Company, 331; Pontiac Brewery, 331; Pontiac Commercial Association, 332. Industries (see early industries). Ingals. Daniel F., 423, 425. Ingersoll, E. S., 483. Ingersoll, Erastus, 481, 483. Ingersoll, George P., 712. Ingraham, Roswell, 341. Irish, Benjamin, 479. Irish,Washington E., 876. Irwin, Alexander J., 315. Jackson, E. W., 315. Jackson, Henry M., 677. Jackson, Thomas J., 258. Jackson, Washington, 447. Jacokes, D. C., 342, 344. Jacokes, James A., 120, 124, 245. Jacokes, (Mrs.) J. A., 266. Jacox, Linus, 467. Jails, I83. Jalowski, John, 849. Jamieson. William, 385. Jarrett Brothers, 797. Jarrett, Duke, 797. Jarrett, James, 797. Jarvis, Joseph W., 359. Jarvis, Minnie T., 244. Jarvis, Robert, 443. Jenkins, Frank E., I40. Jenkins, John, 322. Jenner, G. L., 333, 337. Jennings, Perry J., 656. Jennings, Stephen, 460.

Page  XXVI INDEX XXV Jessup, Jesse, 451. Jewell, Anne E., 99. Jewell, Ezra W., 99, I00, 102, I09. Jobes, Samuel, 399. John P. Foster No. 2 fire engine, 298. Johns, Horace, 451. Johnson, A. J., 309, 312. Johnson, Fred L., 258, 900. Johnson, John H., 550. Johnson, Lyman, 474. Johnson, Schuyler D., 464. Johnson, W. J., 4I4. Johnston, Daniel M., 383. Johnston, George C., 310, 546. Jones, Albert D., 544. Jones, George, 848. Jones, J. C., 337. Jones, Samuel, 435. Jones, Solomon, 91. Jones, Thomas, 449. Joslin, A. M., 393. Joslin, James, 393. Joslin, John, 393. Joslyn, George B., 423. Jossman, Esidor, 862. "Journal of the Oakland Medical Society," 256. Judd, D. M., 212. Judd, J. K., 310. Judd, Samuel A., 277. Judges (see bench). Judiciary-Territorial supreme court, iio; old district court, III; county courts, II; change in supreme court, 112; circuit courts and judges, 112; the "one-horse" court, 112; under the I850 constitution, I 3; a summary, 114. Justices of the peace, II5. Kearsley creek, 463. Keeling, Relph F., 140. Kedzie, Robert, 409. Kedzie, W. Roscoe, 353. Keller, Frank S., 780. Keller, Otto, 437. Kelley, Elbert J., 312. Kelley, E. A., 369. Kelsey, M. W., 43. Kelsey, Sullivan R., 374. Kemp, Henry, 867. Kemp, Michael, 33. Kemp, William H., 883. Kenaga, Joseph, 528. Kensar, John, 423. Kensington, 450. Kent, Franklin, 578. Keokuk Canning Company, 452. Kerr, Charles W., 882. Kerr, William R., 882. Kidder. A. D., 433. Kimball, Charles F., 315. Kimball, David L., 284, 285, 360. Kinney, Robert C., 749. Kinney. William A., 899. King, Charles, 388. King, George W., 904. Kinsman, George 0., I40. Kline, T. C. V., 247. Knight, Alvin M., 536. Knight, Belle D., 537. Knight, Benjamin, 425. Knight, Henry C., I72. Knight, Z. B., 120. Knights of Columbus, Pontiac, 369. Knowles, Frank L., 432, 433. Kraft, F. F., 385. Kyle, Henry G., 828. Ladies' Library Association, Birmingham, 385. Ladies' Library Association of Holly, 270. Laing, A., 444. Lake, E. H., 399. Lake Maumee, 14, I5. Lake Orion, 4, 443. Lake Orion Assembly Resort, 5. Lake Orion Summer Homes Company, 5. Lakeville, 46I. Lakeville lake, 5, 461. Lakes, I, 2, 3, 8, 12, I4, 37I, 388, 420, 441, 46i, 467, 469, 473, 476, 478, 484. Lake Warren, 17. Lake Whittlesey, 14, I5, I6, I7. Lakie, William D., 77I. Lamb, Caleb, 253, 255. Lamb, William H., 765. Lambertson, J. V., 415. Lamond, R. D., 253. Lamoreaux, Fred A., 541. Land entries, 31, 372, 388, 402, 429, 440, 489. Land titles, 215. Landon, Nathan, 94. Lamed, Charles, 405. Larzelier, George, 462. Lathrop, Horace, 30. Laubley, Joseph, 272. Laurent & Emmons, 323. Lawson, Finley 0., 633. Lawson, Jacob M., 434, 8i5. Lawyers (see bar). Le Baron, Alfred F., 787. Le Baron, Robert, 254, 257. Lederley, E. J., 435. Lee, George, 473. Lee, Martin, 491. Lee, William, 49I. LeFavour, Heber, 281. Legal Tender mills, 322. Leggett, M. A., 323. Leggett, Percy S., 275. Leggett, Samuel M., 2I. Lehring, Frederick, 393. Lehring, Henry, 393. Leonard, 5, 200, 202, 463. Leonard, John W., 212. Leonard, Mason N., 383. LeRoy, Clare J., 140.

Page  XXVII xxvi INDEX LeRoy, Daniel, 33, 34, II8, 121, I22, I23, I26, i63, 190, 216, 221, 237, 243, 286, 291, 362, 406, 471. LeRoy, Edward H., 710. LeRoy, John P., 295. LeRoy, Maria, 409. Lessiter, llOyd J., 567. Lessiter. Frank H., 741. Letchfield, Hl., 248. Lester, William, 29, 287. Letts, Albert E., 632. Levamseler, L. J., 433. Lewis, George, 755. Lewless, Alexander, 433. Licenses,:299. Lillis, Michael F., 125. Linabury, Joseph, 324. Linn, Charles MN., 278. Little creek, 388. "Little Dick,',S. Livermore,. John S., 218. Lockwood, 1). M., 474. Lockwood, Floyd W., 258. Lodge, Edward A., 257. Look, Henry M., 123, 138. Look, (M,,rs.) H1. M., I0g. Loomis, Delos P., 565 Loomis, L. C., 283. Loomis. Oscar D.,.556 Loop, Jacob, 363, 364. Losee, J. WV., 257. Loughman', Eldmund, 437. Louinsburv, Robert J., 140, 145, 239, 262, 310, 312. Lovejoy, Charles E., 595. Lovejov, Earl A., 140. Luice, George A. C., 121, I0g. Luidwig, William, 56o. Lull, Alba A., 2-45, 301, 303, 321. Lull, AuguLstus A., 5I8. Lulmb~v L. R., 257. Luther, L., 35, 429. Lynclh, James H., 125, 140, 154, 202, 333, 369. Lyon, G. M., 472. Lyon First Presbyterian church, 451. Lyon township-Mention, 194, 195, 198, 199, 200, ~201, 207; first settlers, 449; New Hudson and Kensington, 4:50; village of South Lyon, 450; schools and churches, 451; South Lyon industries, 452. Lyons, D. B., 248. Lyons, W. W.,, 247. Mabley, Thomas, 312. McAlvey, John, 440. McArthur, Abigail H., 93. McBride, James, 377. McCabe, James, 123. McCarroll, Sarah, 333. McCarroll, William, 255,.256, 257. McCauley, William, 564. McClaren, (J.. D.), Company, 452. McConnell, B. B., 255. McConnell, Joseph, 275. -McConnell, Willard M., 212, 218, 274, 292, 325, 341, 342. McConnell school, 338. McCook, R. W., 451. McCord, Don C., 330. McCracken, S. B., 6i. McCracken, William J., 8o8 M\cDace, George, 356. McDonald, '.l'. E., 257. MANclowell, Ebenezer, 436. McDowell, K. H., 432. Mlace Day lake, 5 McGaffey, Daniel A., 648. McGee, Clinton, 140. MlcGee, TIhomas H1., 543..McKinney, A. D., 257. McKinney, J. W., 247. McKinnon, George WV., 258. McKinstry, David C., 35, 190, 429, M~cLaren, Charles M., 733. McLaren, Jamies WV., 703. M~cLauighlin brothers, 474. McOmber, Phiiilp, 493. M~cX~horter, John J., 864. Mack, Alm-on, 76, 77, 272, 288, 289, 4-05. MNack, C. WV.,:257. Mack, Connlant & Sibley, 287. Mack, John M., 77, 406. M\ack, Lovina, 288. Mack, Stephen, 29, 31, 33, 39, 75", 76, 96, 189, 192, 216, 272, 286, 287, 320. Mack, 5., 221, 320. Mlackinnon, G. W., 247. Macomb, Alex., 190. Macomber, Phillip A., i68. i~laetrott, Fred 5., 518. Main street, Holly (view), 396. Mlairs, William, 887. Maitrott, Eluler E., 86g. Makelv, Peter, 423. Makely, Peter D., 418. Malcolm, Frank J., 624. MValcolm. Robert W., 503. Maloy, Peter, 312. Maltby, Sara E., 472. Manly, Ora, 257. Manning, Randolph, 129, 166, i8i, 218 Mansfield, Samuel, 453, 454. Marcero, J. L., 369. Marjison, William, 285. Marlin, Ira, 212. Marsh, Elisha, 393. Marsh, Elmer, 393. Marshall, John D., 334. Martin, Joseph W., 308. Martin, William W., 21T. Mary D. Hive No. 393, L. 0. T. N. M.. 386. Mason, Stevens T., 441. Masonic Temple Association, 367. Mather, Asher F., 274. Mathews, E. R., 246. Mathews, George B., 32I. Mathews, John B., i40. Mathews, Lucy J., 367. Mathews mill, 320. Mathews, Solomon 5., 315.

Page  XXVIII INDEX xxvii Mathews, ('Mrs.) S. S., 267. MXathews. S. 5., 369. Mlatthiews, A. B., 295, 321, 324, 367. Matthews, Charles, 140. Matthewvs, Charles S., I25. Matthew,1,s, Edward, 374. Matthews, S. S.-, 245. Matthews, Salmon J., 212. Matthews, Salm-on S., 870. Mayhee, John. 671. Mead, Amos, 193, 445. Mead, Henry. 212. Mead, John IH., 879. Mead, Polly A., 458. "..Mechanics and Engineers," 282. Medical profession-Pioneer coilditions, 249; primitive state and nie(lical practice, 2~50; physicians of Oakland county prior to 1837, 251; Dr. Will-. iam ThopsnijS1, 251; Dr. Ezra S. Parke, 2529 Dr. Cyrus Chipman, 252; Dr. Ebenezer Raynale', 252; Drs. Lamb, Lamond and Alger, 253; Dr. John C. Emery, 2,, 3, the 01(1 county medical society, 953, the Northeast District miedical societies, 953; allopathic practitioners from 18371 to i866, 254; three earlv-tim-c hiomeopaths, 2'-)55 present Connty MIedic-il SocietV, 255; Pontiac M edicad Soc'etv, 25~6; present practitioners, 256). M'eigs, MAargaret, 264. MWerrell, Caleb B3., 86, 96.,Mellen-Wrighit Lumiber Comupany, 434. 'Merrell, John1 if., 47k. Mce-uah-sa-gor-ninig (Apple island), 21. MNen's rest room, 101. MVerrill, R. T., 374. MNerrill, Roswell LF, 381. Mferritt, John A., 433. Mferz Jul'In1s, 315,. Xlexican war, 273. Mwihi-in Air Line, 239..Alichinin Bass Hlatchery, 486. Michigan Central Railroad, 240. MXichigan Light Artillery, 283. Xlichi -in Mannfactnring & Lumber Company, 397. MWichitzan Mlilitary Academy, 338, 479. Mfichigin Pressed Brick Company, 426. AMichi in State -Medical Society, Branch NI). 256..\i1hi in State Telephone Company, 308..Ailes, Johnlson, 237. Nfilfoid, 474. Xfilfoird \1\iillin Compan11y, 447. \ lilfoird Presbyterian church, 448. Al\Hford township-.Mention, 195, 198, 199, 2100, 201, 207; formed, 445; rcas'onl for names, 445; the Ruggle Brothers, 445; pioneer mnills, 445; societies, 448; the present village, 447; churches, 447. MAilford village, 201, 202, 445-4,48 (see! iAlilford town. hip) - Military matter-s-Oakland county soldiers of the \Var of 18I2, 27I; Nap~oleonic soldiers, 272; early military organizatios, 272; the M~exican war, 273; the War of the Rebellion, 274;1 the First Mi,1chigan Infantryl, 275; the Second -Michigan Infantry, 275; the Third Infiantry, 2717; the Fifth Infantry, 277; the Seventh Infantry, 278; the Eighth andl Ninth Itifantry regiments, 278; the Y11enth Infantry, 278; the Fourteenth Infantry, 279; the Fifteenth and the Sixteenth, 280; the Twenty-second Infantry, 280; Moses WVisner, 281; Twenty-ninth Infantry, 281; Thirtieth Infantry and "Mechanics and Engineers," 282; Custer's Michigan Cavalry Brigade, 282; the Eighth Cavalry, 282; Ninth and Tenth Cavalry regiments, 283; Mfichigan Light Artillery, 283, One Hundred and Second U. S. Colored Troops, 284; military matters of late, 284. Millard, Nathaniel, 119, 191. Mi'll pondl nuisance, 293. Miller, David, 674. Miller, Darwin, 708. Miller, Edward if., 8o6. MAiller, Henry, 409, Miller, if. A., 25-8. MleJohn, 33. Miller, L. P.-, 46.5. Millerd, Natha niel, 405. M1illigan, if. R. if., 351. Alilliman, (;eorge -AlN., 258. Mfills, 403, 445, 453. Mills, Ada P., 803. M\ills, ( Mr IS.) F_,red AM., 264. Mill1s, JosephI E., 207, 263. Miner, Clement E., 140. MfI'nnock, Daniel, 393. Minnock, ~Michael,, 393. MAitchell, David, 392, 393, 774.. M~litchell, George, 392. Mitchell, George 1.,244. Mlitchell, James G., 394. Mlitchell, L. T., 413. Mlivels, George, 437. Mock, F. E., 475. M-onroe, H. G., 300. Mfonroe Hector L., 309. Mionroe, R. F., 31T2. Monroe Body Companly, 331. Montileth, John, 31. MAontgomiery, John, 581 Moore, Andrew L.-, 140, 155, 202, 218. 309. Moore, (ANlrs.) A. L., 261, 267. Aloore, Joseph B., 123, 178, 18o, 202. Alorrell, K. N., 425. Alorell, George, 121, 123. Alorris, Benjam-in B., 218. Morris, Beniamin, 326. Alorris, C. D., 257. Morris, William, i62, 362, 374. Morrish, if. if., 45i. Alorrisoi, if. S., 258.

Page  XXIX xxviii INDEX Morrison, (Mrs.) L. L., 270. Morrison, Thomas W., 535. Mormons (1832), 67. Morse, J., 255, 256. Mosey, Emma, 472. Mosher, Abraham, 730. Mosher, C. W., 399. Moseley, William F., 119, 123, 127, I9I, 216, 221. Moss, R. E., 257. Mother Hur Court, No. 17, 399. Mothersill, (Mrs.) J. W., 392. Mow, John C., 433. Mount Judah, 443. Mowry, Zebina M., 218. Moyer, Douglas B., 725. Mullet,John, 197. Munson, Samuel C., 320, 324, 351, 352, 440, 486. Munger, Charles A., 79I. Murphy, Anne, 261, 263. Murphy, Edwin M., 263, 328, 7o6. Murphy, James J., 257. Murphy, Mary, 707. Mutual Fire Prevention Bureau, 427. Myers, J., 33. Nall, James, 436. Napoleonic soldiers, 272. Narrin, William, 537. Nash, William I., 563. National banks, 243. Neal, John A., 140. Neal & Wieland, 443. Needham, John F., 437. Nelson, Albert A., 602. Nelson, J. C., 745. Nesbett, William P., 312. Newberry, A. F., 246. Newberry, (Mrs.) A. F., 97, 265. Newberry, James, 212. Newberry, Seneca, 218, 219, 237, 405. New Canadiagua (Orion), 441. New Hudson. 450. Newell, E. M.. 247. Newkirk, Chauncey F., I25. Newman, Ezra, 30. Newton. F. H., 366. Newton, Gilbert M., 438. Newton, Isaac, 558. Newton, J. G., 365. Niles, Johnson, 488. Niles, Joseph, Jr., 237. Niles, Samuel, 88, 96. Ninth Michigan Cavalry, 283. Ninth Michigan Infantry, 278. Nixon, Volney, 244. Noble, Donald F., 140, 888. Norris, Caroline, 394. North Farmington, 460. North, Oscar F., 120, 326. North. William F., I40, 275. Northeast District Medical & Scientific Association, 253. Norton, Gad, 33, 409. Norton, John D., 245, 301, 303. Norton, John M., 58. Norton, Lewis, 470. Norton, Samuel H., 299, 312. Norton sawmill, 408. Norvell, Freeman, 282. Nott, Stephen, 840. Novi, A. F., 258. Novi Corners (Novi), 483. Novi (postoffice), 483. Novi township-Mention, 194, 195, I98, I99, 200, 201, 207; the name Novi, 482; the colony of 1825-26, 482; Novi Corners, or Novi, 483. Nushaumer, George, 369. "Oakland Advertiser," 397. Oakland Avenue M. E. church, Pontiac, 345. Oakland Chapter No. 5, R. A. M., 366. "Oakland Chronicle," 312. "Oakland Gazette," 312. Oakland Lodge, No. 343, A. F. & A. M., 362. Oakland Motor Car Company, 328. "Oakland Whig," 312. Oakland county in state politics-Question of land titles, 215; Governor Cass brings stability, 215; champions of public improvements, 216; the state constitutions, 216; Oakland county's part in constitution making, 218; Doctor Raynale, delegate to I835 convention, 219; Lysander Woodward, delegate to 1873 convention, 220; state officials, elected and appointed, 221; territorial council representatives, 221; speakers and clerk of the house, 221; Mlichigan legislators from Oakland county, 222; state representatives, 222; disturbances of war issues, 225. Oakland county court house (view), 203. Oakland county's first legal writ (facsimile), 16. Oakland County Home, 210. Oakland County Medical Society, 250, 253, 255. Oakland County Pioneer Society Founded, 99; the supervisors' "picnics," Ioo; better preservation of records, ioo; society incorporated, IOI; pioneer women, IOI; officers of the society, o10; pioneer relics in the collection of the society, 102. Oakland County Savings Bank, 245. Oakland County Telephone Company, 308. Oakland township. 190, 195, 198, I99, 200, 201, 207, 313, 489. "Oakview," 4I7. Oakwood, 464. O'Connor, T. J., 369. Odell, Bert A., 689. Ogden. Mary, 472. Old Hodges house (view), 326. Old Union school, 335. Old Mathews mill, 320. Olds, Ira M., 451.

Page  XXX INDEX xxix Oliver, Dwight I., 667. Oliver, John, 272. Olmstead. Harley, 33. "One-horse" court, 112. One Hundred and Second U. S. Colored troops, 284. On the Shiawassee river (view), 477. On the shores of Pine lake (view), 478. On the shores of Stony lake (view), 421. Orchard lake, 2, I9, 21. Orchard Lake (postoffice), 479. Orchard Lake Military Academy, 2. Orchards, 7. Orion, I. Orion Congregational church, 444. Orion M. E. church, 444. Orion Park Association, 5. "Orion Review," 443. Orion township-Mention, 35, I94, 195, 198, I99, 200, 201, 207; first settlers and events, 440; a township of lakes, 441; Orion village, 443; Orion churches, 444; other stations, 445. Orion State Bank, 247. Orion village, 201, 202, 443, 444 (see Orion township). O'Riley, James A., 716. Orr, Eleanor J., 835. Orr, James W., 834. Orton, Amos, 464. Orton, Elsworth, 257, 312. Ortonville village, 200, 201, 202, 443, 444, 464, 465. Osman, Mortimer F., 211. Osmun, Charlotte M., 97. Osmun, Israel, 486. Osmun, John, 486. Osmun, William H., 310, 526. Ostrander, Charles J., 125. Otis, Amos, 457, 573. Owen, Asa, 36. Owen, George W., 432. Oxford Agricultural works, 426. Oxford Baptist church, 424. Oxford carriage factory, 426. Oxford creamery, 427. Oxford Institute, 421. Oxford machine works, 426. Oxford M. E. church, 422. Oxford township-Mention, 35, 194, 195, I98, 199, 200, 201, 207; civilly organized, 418; first settlers, 418; first roads and railroad, 420; Thomas, 420; lakes, 420; Oxford village incorporated, 421; schools, 421; Oxford churches, 422; the Methodists, 422; the Baptists, 424; newspapers and societies, 425; Oxford industries, 42q; Michigan Pressed Brick Company, 426; C. L. Randall & Company, 427. Oxford steam planing mills, 426. Oxford Union school (view), 422. Oxford valley mills, 426. Oxford village, 201, 202, 421-427 (see Oxford township). Paddack, Daniel, 123. Paddack, David, 123, 322. Paddack's mills, 322. Paint creek, 441, 489. Palmer, (Mrs.) B. A., 265. Palmer, Charles H., 221. Palmer, R. A., 540. Palmer, William C., 294. Parke, Ezra L., 250, 253. Parke, Ezra S., 43, 252, 372, 385. Parke, Hervey, 37-55, 120, 287, 290, 372. Parke, John H., 43. Parker, Ezra, 83, 96. Parker, Henry, 392. Parker, John D., 392. Parker. Philip M., 229. Parker, Ralzemond A., 634. Parker, William, 798. Parker, W. H., 465. Parks, Calvin C., 124. Parks. Robert, 452. Parmalee, Edward W., 720. Partridge, Lemuel M., 372. Patrick, Pierce, 294, 295. Patrick, William, 218. Patten, George, 212. Patterson, E. & F., 397. Patterson, Fred, 397. Patterson, James, 393. Patterson, James K., 123, 124. Patterson, James W., 397. Patterson, John H., 140, 153, 202. Patterson, John H., (portrait), 153. Patterson, John W., 835. Patterson, Samuel J., 140. Patterson. Thomas L., 102, 120, 140, 392, 393, 5I3. Patterson, Thomas L. (portrait), 126. Patterson, (Mrs.) T. L., 392. Patterson, William F., 393, 514. Patterson Manufacturing Company, 397. Pauli, Henry, 284, 623. Payne, Gennette H., 367. Peabody, Lyman B., 383. Pearce. Samuel, 275. Pearsall, Sherman, 334. Pearson, E. F. H., 315. Pearsons brothers, 323. Peck, Edward W., IOI. Pelton, Carl H., 123, 140, 523. Pelton. Homer J., 897. Pepper. William H., 793. Pere Marquette Railroad 240. Perkins. Thomas V., 397. Perrin. David. 362. Perrin, Jonathan, 362. Perry, Aaron, II, 1Io, 123, 140, 148, 182. 204, 2613. Perry. Aaron (portrait), I47. Perrv. (Mrs.) Aaron, 261, 266, 267. Perry, Gleason F., 247. Perry, John, 443. Perry, John G., 463. Perry, Jonathan, 486. Peters. William C., 607. Pettibone creek, 445, 473. Pettibone, Levi, 445.

Page  XXXI XXX INDEX Pettibone mills, 447. Petty, Jacob,.93. Phelps, Benjamin, 237. Phelps, Edwin, 102. Phelps, Guy, 488. Phelps, Joel, 87. Phel)s, William W., 124. Phelps, Zenas, 473. Pheney, Sylvester, 140. Phillips, Archibald, 30, 31. Phillips, Theodore S., 803. Physical features-Surface and elevations, 9; surface geology, II. Physicians (see medical profession). Pickering, Effie G., 826. Pickering, George 1H., 825. Pierce, A. K., 451. Pierce. Benjamin H., 36, 372. Pierce, Delavan J., 802. Piety Hill (Birmingham), 340, 373, 374, 375. Pilcher, E. -I., 343. Pilcher, Leander W.. 337. Pine Knob, 466. Pine lake, 2. Pine lake (postoffice), 479. Pinkerton, Thomas, 483. Pioneer records, Ioo. Pioneer relics, 102. Pioneer times-Hervev Parke comes to Oakland county, 37; Bloomfield and Royal Oak in 1821, 38; infant village of Pontiac, 39; Governor Wisner and his '"mullet" story, 39; becomes Horatio Ball's assistant, 40; Joseph Wampler's assigned territory, 40; a surveyor's hardships, 41; returns with his family, 42; birthplace of John H. Parke, 43; homestead at last, 44; surveys from Pontiac, 45; running lines under difficulties, 45; fresh trails of the Black Hawk war, 48; between Saginaw bay and Lake Huron, 50; surveys in the Black Hawk reservation, Iowa, 52; another Iowa contract, 53; Captain Parke's recapitulation, 53; recollections of Benjamin 0. Williams, 55; dear old Oakland, the best of all, 57; a picture of memory, 58; advent of the pioneer, 59; railroad as a fun maker, 6o; the life bequeathed by the pioneer, 6I; fifty years ago and now, 61; contrasts of life. 61; "Granny" McCracken, 64; Father and Mother McCracken, 66; the schools of fifty years ago, 67; Mormon visitation of 1832; 67; Auburn the young pioneers, 69; social and industrial revolution, 70. Pittman, C. C., 301. Plummer, Ada, 394. Poe, O. M., 276. Polish Catholic Seminary, Orchard lake, 479, 481. Pontiac Academy. 228, 334. Pontiac & Paint Creek Turnpike Company, 236. Pontiac & Orchard Lake Railroad Company, 239. Pontiac & Sylvan Lake electric road, 6. Pontiac armory, 284. "Pontiac Bill Poster," 312. Pontiac Board of Water Commissioners, 301. Pontiac branch State University, 228, 333. Pontiac breweries, 323, 331. Pontiac Buggy Company, 328. Pontiac Chapter No. 228, 0. E. S., 367. Pontiac (chief), 19, 2i, 24. Pontiac churches - Earliest Methodist preachers, 340; first Methodist church in county, 341; pastors from 1826 to the present, 342; Mrs. Shattuck's reminiscences, 342; Central Methodist Episcopal church, 345; the First Baptist church, 347; First Presbyterian church, 349; how the first church was built, 351; first Congregational church, 352; third Congregational church in the state, 353; new Congregational church. 354; St. Vincent de Paul's church, 355; All Saints Episcopal church, 356; St. Trinitatis Lutheran church, 358; the African M. E. church, 358; Young Men's Christian Association, 359; Red Ribbon Club of Pontiac, 360. Pontiac city-Mention, I98, 200, 201, 202, 207; population by wards, 207; chartered, 296; first election, 297; city police department born, 297; first city hall, 297; value of property in 1876, 298; John P. Foster No. 2, 298; smallpox epidemics of I881-82, 299; newspaper sensation, 299; investigating light and water systems, 300; resignation of Chief Engineer Foster. 300; city finances in I886, 301; Board and Water Commissioners created, 301; the new Fifth ward, 301; original system of waterworks, 302; electric lighting and telephone systems, 304; first Gamewell Fire Alarm Telegraph, 304; municipal government in 1894, 304; first three years of water service, 306; lighting and telephone service again, 306; sewerage system inaugurated, 307; extension of waterworks, 307; telephone service u1-to-date, 308; commission government adopted, 309; increased efficiency of fire department, 311; the present city hall, 311; mayors of Pontiac, 312: the city press, 312; Oak Hill Cemetery, 313; gas lighting and electric power, 314; postoffice and postmasters. 315; the Pontiac State Hospital. 316. Pontiac city hall, 311. Pontiac City Hospital. 261, 262 (view). Pontiac City mills, 322. Pontiac Commandery No. 2. K. T., 366. Pontiac Commercial Association, 332.

Page  XXXII INDEX xxxi Pontiac Company, 7, 7 76, 103, 189, 286. Pontiac Council No. 3, R. & S. MA., 365. "Pontiac Courier," 312. Pontiac Drop Forge Company, 329. Pontiac Educational Society, 335. Pontiac electric lighting, 304, 306. Pontiac English and Classical school, 334. Pontiac Fire Company No. I, 294. Pontiac fire department, 298, 390, 311. Pontiac Foundry Company, 330. P:ontiac's fraternal societies-Masonry in Pontiac, 362; third lodge in territory, 362; Pontiac Lodge No. 21, 364; Pontiac Council No. 3, R. & S. M., 365; Oakland Chapter No. 5, R. A. M., 366; Pontiac Commandery No. 2, K. T., 366; Pontiac Chapter No. 228, O. E. S., 367; Masonic Temple Association, 367; Canton Pontiac No. 3, I. 0. 0. F., 368; Pythian Knights and Sisters, 368; Dick Richardson Post, G. A. R., 369; Knights of Columbus, 369; Royal Neighbors of America, 369: Order of Elks, 369; other lodges, 370. Pontiac gas works, 315. "Pontiac Herald," 312. Pontiac High School, 335, 336 (view). Pontiac indebtedness, 310. Pontiac's industries, 320. "Pontiac Jacksonian," 312. Pontiac Knitting Works, 320. Pontiac Land Company, 29. Pontiac Light Company, 314. Pontiac Literary Society, 334. Pontiac Lodg(e No. 2I, A.. & A.M., 364. Pontiac Lodge No. 19, K. of P., 368. Pontiac Medical Society, 256. Pontiac mills, 321. Pontiac Motor Cycle Company, 329. Pontiac municipal government, 304. Pontiac Oxford & Northern railroad, 238. 239. Pontiac police department, 297. Pontiac postoffice, 315, 316 (view). Pontiac Power Company, 314. "Pontiac Press-Gazette," 8, 26I. Pontiac public library, 264. Pontiac Savings Bank, 244, 245. Pontiac schools - Sarah McCarroll's sketch, 333; the old Pontiac Academy, 334; first common schools, 334; public system organized, 334; the "Old Union," 335; high school building of I871, 336; school superintendents and high school principals, 337; the new high school, 337; public system and list of schools, 337; Michigan Military Academy, 338. Pontiac sewerage system, 307. Pontiac State Hospital, 316. Pontiac State Hospital. main building (view), 317; chapel (view), 318. Pontiac telephone systems. 304, 306, 308. Pontiac township, 32, 195, I98, 199, 200, 20I, 207. Pontiac (village)-In 1821, 39; Colonel Mack's Company, 286 first Pontiac settlers, 287; settlers of 1822, 288; county seat and court house, 289j township orglanization, 289; the vi!lage of Auburn (Amy), 290; Pontiac village incorporated, 291; early trustee imeetilngs, 291; real estate item, 292; the mill pond nuisance, 293; the fire of 1840, 293; early bridges, 293; icommon council," the governing body, 293; the village fire department, 294; gas works inaugurated, 294; heads of the village government, 294. Pontiac water works, 300, 302, 306, 307. Pontiac's conspiracy, 20. Pontiac's early business men, 325. Pontiac's industries, 320. Poppleton, O., 22, 29, 30, IO2, 374. Population, 200. Porter, Daniel L., 250, 253. Porter, Moses, 96. Portion of dormitory and power house and "Castle," Polish seminary, Orchard lake (view), 480. Portraits-Thomas L. Patterson, I26; Aaron Perry, 147; John lI. Patterson, 153. Post, (Mliss) V., 269. Postal, George, 33, 406, 488. Potter, ltlmuel, 92. Potter. Lydia 1., 92, 196. Potts, Henry A., 895. Powell, Joseph C.. 120, 690. Powell, (Mrs.) J. S., 266. Powell, Sybil Maria, 690. Powell, William H., 423. Power, Arthur, 452, 453. 454, 455. Power, D. H., 245. Power, Jared, 452. Power, John, 452, 453. Power, Nathan, 458. Power, Samuel, 454. Powers, Pliny, 254. Power's settlement (Farmington), 455. PralI, J. R., 263, 354. Pratt, Caleb, 91. Pratt, William A., 221. Precipitation, 1o. Predmore, J. C., 247. Predmore, John H., 783. Press-Pontiac newspapers, 312; Holly newspapers, 397; Rochester newspapers, 412; Oxford newspapers, 425. "Press Gazette," 312. Price, Roy F., 709. Price, William. 211, 212. Prince. Eri, 385. Probate courts, 114, ii8, 119. Probate judges, 119, 191. Prosecutinii attorneys, 123. Public lands. 215. Purd\.,Roblert, 449. Pythian Sisters. P)lltiac, 368.

Page  XXXIII xxxii INDEX Quakertown (Farmington), 452. Quick, C. F., 438. Quick, C. P., 393. Quick, Charles '., 393, 432. Quick, John, 393. Quick, William, 393. Quill, James, 465. Ramsey, C. E., 457. Randall, C. L., 427. Randall, C. L., & Company, 427. Randall, Leon, 427. Ransford, Byron L., 124. Rapid Motor Vehicle Company, 329. Raynale, C. M., 257. Raynale, Ebenezer, 218, 219, 252, 49I. Raynale, George P., 258. Raynor, John T., 123, i68. Red Ribbon Club, Pontiac, 360. Redway, Joel, 450. Reed, William, 427. Reese, Joseph, 670. Reeves, George, 360. Reeves, Stephen, 120, 191, 212, 856. Registers of deeds, 196. Reid, Wilson, 489. Religious history-Pontiac church, 340; Holly churches, 398; Rochester churches, 412; Oxford churches, 422; Royal Oak churches, 435; Orion churches, 444; Milford churches, 447; Farmington churches, 459. Reservoir under construction, Rochester (view), 4I0. Revolutionary graves marked, 96. Revolutionary soldiers and "daughters" -County's first settler, a Revolutionary soldier, 72; the Graham family, 73; Nathaniel Baldwin, 74; George Horton, 74; Stephen Mack, 75; Colonel Mack's family, 76; Joseph Todd and party, 77; Ithamar Smith, 78; William Nathan Terry, 79; Joshua Chamberlin and Enoch Hotchkiss, 80; Elijah Drake, 80; Ezra Parker, 83; Jeremiah Clarke, 84; Benjamin Grace, 85; Caleb Barker Merrell, 86; Levi Green, 86; Joel Phelps, 87; Elias Cady, 87; Samuel Niles, 88; Silas Sprague, 88; Esbon Gregory, 89; Zadock Wellman, 89; Caleb Carr, 89; Hooper Bishop, 90; Derrick Hulick, 9I; Caleb Pratt, 9I; Solomon Jones, 91; Lydia Barnes Potter, 92; James Harrington, 93; Jacob Petty, 93; John Blanchard, 93; Altramont Donaldson, 93; Joseph Van Netter, 93; Benj. Bulson, 94; Nathan Landon, 94; General Richardson Chapter, D. A. R., 95; the Revolutionary graves marked, 96; tribute to General Richardson, 97; Membership of the Daughters, 97. Rewold. Henry, 409. Reynolds, Asa, 786. Rhodes. John, 494. Rice, Judson E., 692. Rice, Paul, 443. Rice, Zeba, 373. Richards. Daniel, 450. Richards, George R., 312. Richardson, George B., 641. Richardson, Hosea S., 406. Richardson, Israel B., 97, 274, 275, 276. Richardson, John P., 169. Richardson, Origen D., 123, I28, I64, 221, 291, 292. Richardson, Peter, 479. Riggs, Jeremiah, 218. Riker, John D., 257, 312. Roads (see transportation). Robb, S. B.. 258. Robert, Philip R., 533. Roberts, H. S.. 275. Roberts, Ira, 33. Roberts, William, 34. Robertson, G., 212. Robertson, William, 326. Robinson, John C., 275. Rochester, 200, 405-416 (see Avon township). Rochester Baptist church, 412. Rochester Chapter No. 317, R. A. M., 415. "Rochester Clarion," 412. Rochester Congregational church, 412. Rochester Creamery Company, 409. 'Rochester Era," 24, 412. Rochester industries, 408. Rochester Lodge No. 68, I. O. O. F., 416. Rochester Rebekah Lodge No. 390, 4I6. Rochester Savings Bank, 246. Rochester societies, 414. Rochester water works, 4II. Rochester Woolen Mills, 408. Rockwell, Charles L., 333. Rockwell, Edward J., 902. Rockwell, James H., 615. Rockwell, Kleber P., I20, 123, 140, 903. Rodger, James S., 45I. Rogers, J. Sumner, 338. Rood, Elonzo R., 390. Rose Center. 476. Kose township-Mention, I94, 195, I98, 199, 200, 201, 207; physical features, 476. Roseland Park Cemetery, 439. Ross, A. L., 516. Rossman, Fite, 418, 419. Rossman, John, 418, 419. Round Table Club of Pontiac, 267. Rouge river, 371, a78, 487. Royal Oak Baptist church. 435. Royal Oak Catholic church, 437. Royal Oak Congregational church, 436. "Royal Oak Experiment," 432. Royal Oak German Evangelical church, 437. Royal Oak Lodge No. 424, I. 0. 0. F., 438. Royal Oak Masonic Temple Association, 438. Royal Oak M. E. church, 435. Royal Oak 0. E. S., 438.

Page  XXXIV INDEX xxxiii Roval Oak Savings Bank, 247. Royal Oak township-Mention, 35, 38, I94, I95, 198, I99, 200, 20I, 207; origin of the name, 428; Governor Cass "sees for himself," 428; settlers of 182z-I826, 429; organized, 430; Royal Oak village, 430; business houses, 431; corporation record, 432; Royal Oak schools, 434; Royal Oak churches, 435; Royal Oak societies, 438; Urban Rest and Ferndale, 439; Roseland Park cemetery, 439. Royal Oak societies, 438. Royal Oak (tree), 38, 428. "Royal Oak Tribune," 432. Royal Oak village, 201, 202, 430-438 (see Royal Oak township). Royal Order of Moose, Pontiac, 370. Ruggles, Elizur, 445. Ruggles, Isaac W., 412. Ruggles, J. W., 444. Ruggles, Stanley, 445. Rundell, Julius F., 383. Rundell, Leroy J., 700. Runyon, John, 389. Rush, Daniel, 452. Russell. William, 30, 31, 403. Ryan, T. J., 355. Safford, James, 337. St. Fredericks Parochial school, 356. St. John. W. I., 437. St. Trinitatis Lutheran church, 358. St. Vincent de Paul's church, 355. Salems Evangelical church, Farmington, 459. Saloon licenses, 310. Salyer, C. A., 385. Sanford. Miles, 344. Sanford, Josephine B., 97. Sapp, Resin, 341, 344. Sashabaw creek, 467. Sashabaw plains, 466. Satterlee, Samuel, 123, 216. Sawyer, Edward, 144. Sawyer, Joseph, E., 124, 140, 142, 367. Sayles, Lyman A., 258, 586. Scene on the Rouge river (view), 492. Scenes along Paint creek (views), 442. Schermerhorn, Rufus. 850. Schluchter, J. H., 426. Schofield. S.. 45I. Schulz. A. P., 257. Scott, John. 432. Second Michigan Infantry, 275. Second National Bank, Pontiac, 244. Seed. Charles S., 412. Seeley, Harvey, 211, 212. Seeley, Jesse, 494. Seeley, O. C., 337. Seeley, Thaddeus D., 309, 905. Sellman. Thomas, 449. Serrell, Harry J., 789. Serrell, Samuel J., 780. Sevener, Edward, 539. Seventh Michigan infantry, 278. Seymour, John B., 464. Shackleton, John H., 454. Shain, Charles J., 616. Sharpe, A. X. M., 369. Shattuck, Charles I., 843. Shattuck, Mary D., 342. Shattuck, Maud G., 97. Shaw, George N., 406. Shaw, James, 344. Shaw, N. T., 257. Shear, Bruce C., 581. Sheldon, T. C., 33. Shepard, A. H., 246. Sheriffs, 196. Sherman, G. D., 451. Sherman, Maria, 421. Sherwood, Samuel, 315. Shiawassee river, 388. Shier, W. H., 275, 344. Shippy, John, 405. Shore, James, 341. Short, Marion, 472. Showerman, George, 473. Sibley, Harry, 256, 257. Sibley, J. L., 360. Sibley, Solomon, 33, 122, 159, I90, 286, 287. Simmons. Charles, 823. Simmons, William I., 897. Simonson, James B., 247, 431. Simonson, John B., 43I. Simpson, Thomas, 312. Sixteenth Michigan Infantry, 280. Skidmore, Austin, 551. Slade, Ira, 383. Slater Construction Company, 331. Slocum. Fred, 397. Sly, Addie, 894. Sly, George W., 893. Sly, Jane C., 893. Sly, Joshua, 403. Smith, Aaron, 290. Smith, Ada L., 97. Smith, Ainsley, 257. Smith, Albert B., 625. Smith, Asaph C., 483. Smith. David. 452, 453. Smith, Ebenezer, 290, 363. Smith, Edward R., 383. Smith, Ella L., 97. Smith, Fred A., 338, 572. Smith, Fred, 393. Smith, George W., 114, 123, 124, 140, 145, i8o, 202, 204. Smith, Harrison, 393. Smith, Howard, 393. Smith, I. L., 290. Smith, Ira. 488. Smith, Ithamar. 78. 96. Smith, Jacob H., 627. Smith, Tohn. 274. Smith, Joseph, 77. Smith, Laban, 479. Smith, Lydia, 380. Smith, Mortimer, 323. Smith, Moses, 393. Smith, Nelson P., 580. Smith, Oliver B., 460.

Page  XXXV xxxiv INDEX Smith, Samuel W., 123, 140, 901. Smith, (Alrs.) Samuel W., 261. Smith, (Mrs.) S. W., 263. Smith, Sylvester, 290. Smith, Thaddeus A., 312. Smith, Walter H., 424. Smith, (Mrs.) W. R., 393. Smith, W. 0., 426. Snook, John J., 737. Snow, William T., 343. Snowdon, Harry H., 140, 229. Snyder, C. W., 258. Snyder, Oscar J., 638. Soldier's monument, Birmingham, 384. Soldiers' Relief law, 274. Soil, Io. Soper, Spencer, 859. South Lyon, 450-452 (see Lyon township). South Lyon Free Methodist church, 451. "South Lyon Herald," 451. South Lyon M. E. church, 451r. South Lyon village, 201, 202. South Lyon Presbyterian church, 45. Southfield Centre, 492. Southfield township, 36, 194, 195, 198, I99, 200, 201, 207, 491. Southworth, Constant, 34. Sparhawk, Arthur G., 312. Spear, Archibald. 294. Spencer, B. C. H., 258, 508. Sprague, Eliphalet, 449. Sprague, Frederick A., 33. Sprague, Roger, 192. 193, 216, 221, 406. Sprague, Silas. 88, 96. Spring, J. F., 360. Spring Mills. 473. Springfield township-Mention 34, 194, 195, 198, 199, 200, 201, 207; organized, 471; Springfield and Anderson settlements, 471; Davisburg, 472. Spooner, E. D., 68, 212. Stanley. Luther, 383. Stannard, David, 32, 119, 191, 237, 303, 471. Stanton, Henry L., 330. Stanton, Lottie M., 367. Starke, Lena B., 531. Starke, Philip H., 531. Starker, C. T., 257. Starker, James B., 400. Starkev, Albert 858. State banks, 244. State constitutions, 2i6. State representatives (alphabetically arranged), 222. State Sanitary Commission, 274. State Savings Bank of South Lyon, 248. State senators (alphabetically arranged), 222. State University, 228. Stead, Benjamin, 190. Steel, Edward, 454. Steel, Harman, 454. Steel & Mason, 455. Stephens, Augustus C., 237. Stephens, Henry, 429, 435, 436. Stephens, J. T. M., 398. Stephens, Sherman, 436. Stevens, Hester L., 123, 138, 176. Stevens, Shermaln, 237. Stevens, William S., 243. Stevenson, Hlenry C., 584. Steward, (Mrs.) F. S., 205. Stewart, Clara P., o19. Stewart, David, 272 Stickney, William B., 123. Stickney, Williaim W., 179, I8o. Stiles brothers, 472. Stillson, James, 443. Stockton, John, 283. Stockton, T. B. W., 280. Stockwell, Joseph S., 120, 212, 359, 717. Stockwell, (Mrs.) J. S., 261, 263. Stockwell, Ross, 140. Stone, John, 423. Stony creek, 46I. Stony creek village, 404. Storz, Louis, 809. Stout, Byron G.. 221, 245, 265, 337. Stout, (Mrs.) Byron, 261, 265, 266. Stowell, Hattie M., 97. Strain, Charles S., 258. Stratton, Jonathan F., 473. Stuart, Charles L., 853. Stumpf, C. Martin, 896. Stumpf, Jacob, 770. Subordinate Lodge No. I, K. L,. G., 400. Subordinate Lodge No. 972, I. 0. O. F., 399. Summer resort features, 5. Supervisors' picnics, 1oo. Supreme court, I11, 112, 113. 114, 124. Surveyor general's report, 27. Surveys, 30. Sutherland, C. J., 257. Sutherland, Nina, 422. Sutherland, William C., 759. Swan, Ziba, 123, 362, 372. Swan, Ziba, Jr., 212. Swartout, F. L.. 436. Swartz creek, 388. Sweet, M. E., 353. Sylvan lake, 2, 3. Symmes, John C., IIO. Taft, A. S., 424. Taft, Levi B., 123, 137, I8o. Tafft, Pitts, 483. Taggett, A. C., 474. Taylor, C. V., 328. Taylor (C. V.) Carriage Company, 328. Taylor, Daniel B., 415. Taylor, De Witt H., 439. Taylor, Edson, 559. Taylor, Elisha, 405. Taylor, Firmin T., 839. Taylor, George H., 626. Taylor, Hudson A., 845. Taylor, H. J., 246. Taylor, John R., 882. Taylor, Joshua, 415.

Page  XXXVI INDEX xx xxxv Taylor, Joshua B., 218. Taylor, J. S. D., 337. Taylor, Lemuel, 405. Taylor, Thomas M., 281. Taxable property (1825), 192. Taxes, i98, 192, 193. Tecumseh, 271. Tedmnan, Mariette, 462. Temperature, i i. Ten Eyck, Harry, 109. Ten Eyck, H. S., 507. Ten Eyk, Juits, 120, 123, 124.i. Tenny, Jesse, 5o,5. Tenny, Rufus, 505. 'Ten shillings act," 32. Tenth Mlichigan Cavalry, 283. Tenth Michigan In fantry, 278. T'erry, Caleb, 212. Terry, Charles H-., 890. Terry, Frank B., 854. Terry, HeIcnrx 1-). 277. TPerry, Joshna, 479. Terry, Josiah P. 8-7 Terri-, I ra K. 21T 2 Terry, Willi im N. 79, 96. Thatchier Erastnis 312. Thayer, John, 449. Third i-lhchigan Infanitry, 277. Thirtieth Michigan infantry, 282. Thomas, 4, 20, 464, 465. Thomas, Calvin, 179. Thomas, John. 420. 492. Thiomnas, Stephien, 179. Thoma.-,s, William, 394. Thompson, Otis C., 418. Thom11pson1, Robert R., 452. 'Thompson, Thladdetis, 250, 253. Thompson, William, 29, 33, 117, 118, 119, 162, 190, 191. 250, 251, 253, 286, 402, 406, 450, 452. Thompson, William M.L, 295. Th1-ompson, WV. M.1, 312. Th-omipson's Corners (South Lyon), 450. Thornhill, Eva T., '570. Th-orpe, Joseph I-l., 653. Thorpe, MAabel, 97. Thorpe, Matilda, 653. Thnrber, David D., 312. Thnrher, Horace C., 212, 295. Thnrber, H-. C., 294. Thurber, William, 117. Thurston, Frank, 607. Thurston, George P.,, 194, 463, 464. Thnitrber, William, 31. Tibbets, George, 4,53. Tienk,~en, John, 637. Tillsoii, C. C., 140. Tillson, 1. Arthnr, 140, 309. TillSon. Plhilo, 253. Tindall, Joseph, 423. Tinsm-an. F. H-., 328. Todd, Charles A., 6io. Todd, Joseph, 29, 77, 96, 287.Todd, Mary P., 97. Toledo war, 272. Tower, Corneliuis L., 526. Town, Charles H., 282. Townsend, Harvey, 763. Toxvnships, 31, 190, 192, 195, 289. Toynton, Charlotte N., 8oi. Toynton, John R., 8oo. Traphagan, Ahram, 393. TIraphagan. WV., 393. Transportation-M ention 6,7; First Oakland county highway, 234; other roads established, 235; improvement of the Clinto rier 236; first Michigan railway chartered, 237; Detr(lit & Pontiac Railroad CompanlV 237; finally completed to Birmin-ghjaml 238; Detroit & Milwaukee Ra111way Com-n pany, 238; estahlishment of pr s ut systems, 238; Grand Trunk s\ stem, '239; the Michigan Central, 240' De — troit United Railway, 240 Traver, R. Al., 349. Treadway, Alfred, 169, 243, 295, 315. T[reat, Loren L., 18T. Tripp, Arthur R., 123, 124, 140, 152. Trowhridge, G. Ml., 102. Trowhridge, L. G., 283. TFrowhridge, Rowland E., 487. Trowbridge, Stephen V. R., 193, 216, 221, 48-7. [roy Corners, 488. Troy United Presbyterian church, 489. Troyv township-Mention 35 9, 8, 199, 2001, 201, 207; the Trowbridge family. 487; Johnson Niles and Troy, 487; Bigy Beaver andl Clawson, 488; Unitedl Preshyterian church of Troy, 489. Truesdell, Z., 337. Tryon, Geneva, 257. tryon, M.Nyron Al., Tubbs, Peter, 423. Tucker, W. T., 2 57. Turner, (Ai\rs.) C. B., 266. Turner, C. B., 342. Turner, Josiah, i~o. "Two dollar" act, 31. Twenty-ninth Michig-an Infantry, 281. Twenty-second Michigan Infantry, 280. Typical old grist mills (views), 446. Uloth, AM. J.,~ 258. Union schools-Pontiac',.335; 394; Royal Oak (view), 434. University fund, 2 28. Urban Rest, 439. Utley, Sanford M., 453. Van Atta, Roy 5., 525. Van Biskir'k, Kate C., 97. Van de Venter, Eugene, 273. Van Every, Peter, 374. Van Every mill, 374. Van Gordon, John, 889. Van Leuven, Fanny, 448. Van Ness, E. C., 359. Van Netter, Joseph, 93. Van Sickle, Joseph, 466. Van Sickle, J. R., 258. Holly,

Page  XXXVII xxxvi INDEX Van Valkenburg, Jacob, I8I, 218. Vegetation, I. Views-At Lake Orion, 4; Neeley's flats near Rochester, I6; Apple Island, Orchard lake, 22; Oakland county court house, 203; court house of I857-8, 205; county jail, 208; first car into Rochester, 241; Pontiac City Hospital, 262; Buckland Memorial Chapel, 314; the new Pontiac postoffice, 316; main building Pontiac State hospital, 317; Chapel, Pontiac State hospital, 318; old Hodges house, 326; old high school (I87I), 336; Woodward avenue, Birmingham, 382; high school, Birmingham, 382; Main street, Holly, 396; Avon township hall, 402; Main street, Rochester, 407; water works wells, Rochester, 4Io; reservoir under construction, Rochester, 4IO; on the shores of Stony lake, 421; Oxford Union school, 422; Union school, Royal Oak, 434; scenes along Paint creek, 442; typical old grist mills, 446; on the Shiawassee river, 477; on the shores of Pine lake, 478; front of Academic building, portion of dormitory and power house and "Castle," Polish seminary, Orchard lake, 480; scene on the Rouge river, 492. Vincent, John, 445. Voorheis, Carl S., 684. Voorheis, Isaac L., 212. Voorheis, Jacob N., I93. Voorheis, James K., 713. Vowles, Frank J., 208, 583. Vowles, Joseph, 447. Vulcan Gear Works, 330. Wade, D. W. C., 256. Waite Brothers, 628. Waite, Elwin L., 628. Waite, L. Edwin, 628. Wakefield, Daniel B., 216. Wakelin. Thomas, 398. Wakeman, C. E., & Company, 321. Walch, James A., 34I. Waldo, A. P., 398. Waldo, C. E., 245. Waldron, Henry, IOI. Walker, Amos, 255. Walker, Fred I., 414. Walker, Solomon, 453. Wallace, M. H., 355. Walled lake, 2, 3. Walled lake village, 470. Walrod, Abram, 469. Walter, Mark, 312, 367. Walters, (Mrs.) F. J., 261, 268. Wam-ler, Joseph, 30, 31, 40. Wandle, J. A., 195. Ward. David, 3, 824. Ward, Elizabeth B., 50I. Ward, Henry C., 497. Ward, Willis C., 824. War of the Rebellion, 274. War of 1812, 271. Warner, Fred M., 214, 221, 457, 812. Warner, P. Dean, 218, 221, 454, 457, 8IO. Warner, Seth A. L.. 129, 165, 454. Warner's Exchange Bank, 246. Warren, Henry M., 95. Waterford mills, 324. Waterford township-Mention, 35, I94, 195, I98, I99, 200, 201, 207; its lakes, 484; coming of the Williams' families, 484; Waterford of today, 486; Drayton plains, 486; old Clintonville, 486. Water works wells, Rochester (view), 410. Waters, Sarah W., IO9. Water-shed, 9. Watson, Joseph, 31. Watson, Samuel G., 172. Wattles, John M., 179. Weatherson, Charles, 472. Webb, Alfred, 301, 303, 860. Webb, Ezekiel, 453, 454. Webb, Harriet, 860. Webster, Aaron, 290, 362. Webster, Burt M., 869. Webster, Charles P., I40. Webster. Elmer R., I40, 152, 229, 333, 337. Webster, James, 218. Weed, Leonard, 362, 363, 364. Weeks, James A., IOI, 212, 291, 295, 327. Weeks, Smith, 33, II8, II9, 191. Weelman, Joel, 32. Weir, W. I., 416. Weisbrod, S. L., 258. Welcome Rebekah Lodge No. 246, I. O. O. F., 368. Wellman, Zadock, 89. Wells Cultivator Company, 447. Wendell, John A., 473, 477. Wendell. Matthew, 669. Wendorph, J. A., 439. We-se-gah, 25. Wesson, Suel, 292, 294. West Bloomfield township-Mention, 34, 194, 195, 198, 199, 200, 201, 207; lakes, 478; earliest pioneers, 478; sale of Indian reservations, 479; first postoffice, 479; Orchard Lake postoffice, 479; the Polish seminary, 481. West Highland, 473. West Side Reading Club, 267. Western Knitting Mills, 408. Wetmore, John, 35, 36, 440. Wheaton, F. W., 411. Wheeler, Harris A., 338. Wheeler, Morris, 473. Whipple, Charles W., 121, 123. White, George, 392. White, Jonathan R., 179. White, Phineas, I79. White, Samuel, 212, 218. Whitehead, Almeron, 212, 244, 383. Whitehead, Richard, 275. White Lake postoffice, 494. White Lake township, 33, I95, I98, I99, 200, 20I, 207, 493.

Page  XXXVIII INDEX xxxvii Whitesell, R. J., 367. Whittield, Thomas, 486. Whiting, John L., 190. Whitney, A. G., 190. Whitney, G. H., 385. Whitney, Wilson, 413. Whittemore, Gideon 0., II9, I23, 164, 191, 218, 221, 243, 272, 292, 293. Whittemore, J., 334. Wicart, L. J., 355. Wickens, Fred A., 702. Wieland, Frederic, 123, 140, 743. "Wildcat" banks, 243. W/iggins, George, 465. Wilber, Clinton W., 519. Wilcox, Charlotte E., 603. Wilcox, Edwin T., 24. Wilcox, Mortimer, 603. Wilkins, Ross, 122. Willetts, Elijah, 43, 373, 374. Willetts, Isaac, 33. Williams, Alfred, 237. Williams, Alpheus, 30, 35, 466. Williams, Ephraim, 31. Williams, Ferdinand, 72I. Williams. Frederic A., 124. Williams, Gardner D., I94. Williams, George H., 486. Williams, George P., 228, 333. Williams, Harvey, 287. Williams, Oliver, 28, 30, 31, 33, 35, 55, 362, 484. Willits, Elijah, 117. Willits, William, 506. Willoughby, George, 781. Wilson, A. C., 448. Wilson, Albert W., 433, 683. Wilson. Almon C., 736. Wilson, Charles A., 247. Wilson, (Mrs.) E. H., 261, 267. Wilson, Jesse E., 258, 274, 406. Wilson, Levi, 449, 45I. Wilson, Oscar D., 890. Wilson, Samuel, 419. Wilson, Thomas W.. 328. Wilson, William, 255. Wilson school, 338. Willson, Albert, 438, 683. Windiate, Daniel, 324, 486. Windiate park, 5. Wing, Austin E., 31, 33, I90, 405, 429. Winn, Anna, 472. Winter, George, 398. Wisner, Mrs. Ada McConnell, 97. Wisner, George W., 123, 131, 171. Wisner, Moses, 39, 132, 173, I8I, 221, 274, 281. Wisner, Oscar F., 123. Wisner school, 338. Witherell, James, 120, 122. Wixom, 470. Wixom, Alijah, 470. Wixom, Robert, 453, 457. Wixom, Willard C., 470. Wixson, Isaac, 216. Women's Christian Temperance Union, Pontiac, 268. Wolcott, Chauncey D., 460. Wolfe, William J., 799. Wolverine Sand & Gravel Company, 427. Women's Literary Club of Birmingham, 269. Women's Literary Club of Pontiac, 266. Women's influence in the county-What women have done for Oakland county, 259; women's work in Pontiac, 26I; the Pontiac City Hospital, 26I; Pontiac Public Library, 264; the Women's Literary Club, 266; the Round Table Club, 267; the West Side Reading Circle, 267; Women's Christian Temperance Union, 268; Birmingham Public Library, 268; Birmingham Literary Club, 269; Greenwood Cemetery Association, Birmingham, 269; Ladies' Library Association, 270. Woodbridge, William, 122, I59, 189, 235. Woodward avenue, Birmringham (view), 382. Woodhull, C. H., 212. Woodman, Elias S., 218. Woodward, Augustus B., III. Woodward, Lysander, 220. Woodworth, Benjamin, 30, 31, 403. Wooster, Benjamin, 488. Wormer, G. S., 282. Wright, David A., 493. Wright, Reuben, 469. Wyckoff, Cornelius G., 494. Wyckoff, Herman A., 315. Wyckoff, Thomas, 665. Yankey, W. H., 409. Yellow mill, 324. Yerkes, Robert C., 322. Yerkes, William, 212, 483. Yerkes. William G., 322. York, Samuel, 243. Young, Joseph, 604. Young, Marcus, 394. Young Men's Christian Association, Pontiac, 359. Young, Mrs. Welcome, 267. Young, William, 390. Zahn, Herman H., 894. Zimmerman, Henry M., I40, 22r, 589. Zion church, Pontiac, 357.

Page  XXXIX I

Page  1 History of Oakland County CHAPTER I THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION WONDERFUL COUNTRY OF LAKES-CASS AND ORCHARD-REMARKABLE NATURAL PHENOMENON-THE LAKE ORION REGION-SUMMER RESORT FEATURES-TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES-AS A FARMING AND LIVE STOCK REGION-FEATURES OF THE TRANSFORMATION. The natural features of Oakland county seemed to predestine its material development of the past twenty years or more. Its four hundred and fifty lakes, many of which are thus called only by a generous stretch of the imagination, are thickly sprinkled over its gently rolling surface, while pretty islands stud these little gems of water. As there is a lake to each two square miles of land it is evident that these charming bodies of water had to be reckoned with in the future of the country. In the early times those who settled in the county had to live, had to eat and be clothed, and they therefore did what pioneers have always done; they turned to the soil, and raised crops and live stock. But as the country developed and became known to outsiders, its attractions as a resort for those seeking rest and recreation, its advantages for those who wished permanent homes with beautiful and comfortable surroundings, became so apparent that there was more and more an insistent demand for land, especially in the vicinity of the lakes-which obviously meant that such demand not only became insistent but widespread. Before describing in detail this comparatively lake transformation of Oakland county from an agricultural community to a country of summer and permanent homes, we shall turn in our tracks and note the main features supplied by nature in the bringing about of this change. WONDERFUL COUNTRY OF LAKES The average number of lakes in each township of Oakland county is eighteen, though Troy, Royal Oak, Southfield, Farmington and Lyon are very deficient in comparison with other sections of the county. The largest of the lakes and the most generously supplied of the townships lie west and southwest of Pontiac. Orion, toward the northeast, is also 1

Page  2 2 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY the center of one of the most important development of resorts and homes in the county, as it is the nucleus of some of its most charming lakes, the largest of which is the body of water which gives the place its name. In the Pontiac group are Cass, Orchard, Elizabeth, Sylvan, and Pine. Walled lake to the southwest, lying in both Commerce and Novi townships, is also one of the larger bodies, all of which are over three hundred and fifty acres in extent. The largest is Cass, covering about twelve hundred acres, or nearly two square miles. It was named after Governor Cass, and lies mostly in West Bloomfield township, with two of its arms extending into Waterford. Its extreme length from southwest to northeast is about two and three quarter miles and its extreme breadth, not measuring its arm, is a trifle over a mile. Altogether the lakes of Oakland county cover twenty thousand square acres, and the comparative importance of the townships from the standpoint of natural reservoirs is told in the following figures: West Bloomfield has a lake surface of 4,000 square acres; Waterford, of 2,600; Orion, 1,700; Commerce, 1,700; White Lake, 1,300; Highland, 1,200; Bloomfield, I,200; Addison, I,ooo; Holly, 900; Rose, 900; Independence, 800; Brandon, 6o0; Springfield, 600; Novi, 650; Oxford, 500; Groveland, 250; Oakland, 250; Milford, I60; Lyon, I6o; Avon, 30. CASS AND ORCHARD Continuing the description of the individual lakes: After Cass comes Orchard lake, in size; perhaps exceeding it in beauty and general interest. It is certainly one of the finest sheets of water in southern Michigan, is circular in form, lies wholly in West Bloomfield township, and, including the islands encompassed by its water, covers about eight hundred and fifty acres. Orchard lake derives its name from the beautiful island of some thirty acres embraced by it, which the Indians called "Me-nah-sagor-ning," or the "place of the orchard." When the United States surveyors and the earliest of the permanent settlers came to this locality, they found quite a number of apple trees still in bearing, supposed to have been planted by French settlers, or at least to have been grown from seeds obtained of them at Detroit. Apple island, as it is now called, is almost in the geographical center of the lake. Northwest of it is the smaller Cedar island. Both Cass and Orchard lakes are now surrounded by summer cottages and homes, pleasant walks and drives meandering around their shores. One of the most artistically and thoroughly improved of the beautiful shorelands of Cass lake is known as Keego Harbor, while a popular feature counted among the attractions of Orchard lake is the Polish Seminary, founded upon the old-time Orchard Lake Military Academy. The entire chain of little sparkling lakes from Pontiac, southwest to Cass and Orchard-Crystal, Sylvan, Lord and Pine-presents a succession of cottages, boat landings and summer devices, as well as a display of comfortable, if modest, homes for residents who are justly in love with the sunny and gentle picturesqueness of the country. The majority of the lakes are drained by Clinton river, although quite a large number in the western and southwestern parts of the county are

Page  3 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 3 bound together by the Huron, while some in the northwestern portions find an outlet through the Shiawassee river and thence into Saginaw bay. A few lakes in Bloomfield and West Bloomfield townships are also drained through the Rouge river. Most of the lakes in Oakland county have picturesque, irregular shores, with gravelly beaches, and in the early days were almost wholly encompassed by forests of the American larch, or tamarack. Although these have necessarily been thinned out by both the farmer and the home seeker, they remain in the condensed form of hardy and shady groves and some of the smaller islands are still quite thickly clad in pine and cedar. REMARKABLE NATURAL PHENOMENON A somewhat curious natural phenomenon is noticed in several of the Oakland county lakes, particularly in Cass and Walled Lake, the latter lying mostly in Novi township, southwest of West Bloomfield. Reference is made to the action of the ice which seems to expand from the center and force the sand, gravel and trees back toward the precipitous banks a few rods from the water. By this action immense piles of these materials are forced for some distance from the margin, where they are left high and dry after the ice has disappeared in the spring. Walled lake is a beautiful body of clear water covering about one square mile, and this action has gone on in that locality so long that in places along its shores a regular wall appears to have been erected by the hand of man. At Walled lake, also, the deposition of bowlders is of quite remarkable extent and compactness. Some years ago, David Ward, who had a farm on the shores of Cass lake, and other competent investigators, carefully looked into this matter. The consensus of opinion was this: During the most intense of the freezing weather the ice sometimes accumulates on the surface of the water to the thickness of two feet or more. This, under atmospheric changes, expands from the center toward the margin of the lake with a force, in the case of Walled lake, to move bowlders several tons in weight. Along the southeast shore of Cass lake this action is distinctly marked, a permanent embankment having been formed parallel with the water. Along the eastern shore of Orchard lake there is a broad ridge of lake sand, undoubtedly formed by the same action, and in places overgrown by scattering forest trees. A very careful examination of the phenomenon at Walled lake seems to substantiate the following propositions: During the geological Drift period a large deposit of bowlders accumulated along the western margin of the lake, and extended a long distance into the water, and on this was formed the sand bar which extends into the lake for some sixty or eighty rods. Near the center of the wall-like ridge the ground is some ten feet above the surface of the lake, and here the ridge is wanting; but trending north and south from this high land the slope is gentle until the ridge lies but a few feet above the surface. The soil of this vicinity is filled with bowlders of various sizes, some being perhaps from one to three tons in weight. The expansive action of the heavy ice has operated to simply crowd the surface bowlders together; the movement operates

Page  4 4 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY precisely like the pushing of sand or gravel before a scraper or board, driven sidewise against it-it piles up and forms a ridge. The bowlders are driven together in this way by an action continued for centuries perhaps, and the result is the curious wall, about which so much has been written and conjectured. Anyone who has even a superficial knowledge of geology will understand when it is stated that it is a glacial moraine on a small scale. Sylvan lake, already briefly mentioned, was formerly called Timber lake, and along its shores are some of the most popular resorts for Pontiac people in the county. THE LAKE ORION REGION Outside of the chains stretching for miles to the west of that city none has a wider popularity as a rendezvous for those who enjoy good boatpart of the county, send thither their contributions of resorters. Bellevue, sometimes caller Assembly island, is nearly in the center of the lake, and forms a beautiful spot for summer homes, with which its shores are lined. As the region around and in Lake Orion was one of the first to be developed, a somewhat detailed history of the improvements in that vicinity is allowable. As soon as the Detroit & Bay City Railroad, which runs along its shore, was completed, the region, with Lake Orion as its center, became frequented by pleasure parties from Detroit and other cities. About that time E. R. Emmons improved a natural park on the north shore of the

Page  5 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY lake, which was used largely for picnic purposes. In I874 he placed a small steamer, the "Little Dick," on the lake, and excursions were run to this park and many other islands of the lake. The same year a party of speculators purchased one of the finest of these islands and formed themselves into what is known as the Orion Park Association. A bridge connecting the island with the mainland, a large reception hall with an observatory, a wharf and boathouse for "Little Dick," and other improvements and attractions were inaugurated and completed, which gave the Lake Orion region quite a wide reputation among the really popular summer resorts of southern Michigan. In I899 the Lake Orion Assembly Resort was organized, which practically purchased all the lake front. The company erected fine buildings, hotels and boathouses, and for ten years operated a Chautauqua on quite an extensive scale. In I9IO the Lake Orion Summer Homes Company succeeded by purchase to the assets of the Assembly Resort. Twenty-one islands controlled by the management of the resort give ample assurance of seclusion and privacy to those who wish to go into retreat in vacation days, rather than mingle with the crowds of enthusiastic pleasure seekers, and cottages are for hire on all these little beauty spots for those who are not attracted by hotel life. Many of the homes are owned by regular summer visitors, and the Lake Orion Summer Homes Company has done much for the upbuilding of the place through its plan of building homes to suit the owner. Lake Orion offers many natural advantages which alone would make it a most pleasant summering spot, and the extensive improvements wrought by the company which controls the amusement project have well completed what nature had so fairly begun. Northeast of the Lake Orion region in Addison township is also Lakeville lake, with Leonard as the nearest village in this developing section of summer resorts. Deer lake in Independence township and almost in Clarkson village has lately sprung into considerable notice, while Mace Day lake and Windiate park, in Waterford township, have been for years the resting places of numerous resorters. SUMMER RESORT FEA\TURES Most of the beautiful lakes of Oakland county are readily accessible by means of either the Detroit United Electric Railway or the Grand Trunk lines. The country roads are, as a rule, well built and kept in good repair, and, in all seasonable weather, automobilists are much in evidence. The season of the summer resorters in Oakland county commences early and lasts well into October, which makes both summer homes and hotels profitable. This fact ensures reasonable rents and steady income. While there are no mammoth hotels, such as are found at short-season resorts, there is an abundance of fair-sized hostelries and comfortable boarding houses. Reference has been made to Oakland county as a favorite of the automobilist, on account of its good roads. He himself should be given full credit for bringing about this improvement over the old order. And he has been given his due, as witness the following from a metropolitan sheet: "The advent of the automobile has tended greatly to spread the

Page  6 6 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY knowledge of Oakland county lakes. Before the automobile came into general use few people were able to get about the country to see what it contained. With the automobile, came the tendency toward good roads. Although at the present time many roads of the county are still in bad shape, they are all being gradually improved and a number are in excellent condition. In time there will be perfect automobile roads around the larger lakes of the country and between Detroit and Pontiac, which will undoubtedly mean that Oakland's lakes will be even more popular than they are at present." TRANSPORTATION FACILTIES As stated, the transportation facilities of the county are, on the whole, excellent, and how they have been gradually provided is well told in a booklet issued, more than ten years ago, by Joseph E. Sawyer, who is one of the foremost citizens, as he has been for years past, in the special development of Oakland county property which is being traced in this chapter: "The importance of good roads and other facilities for transporting to market the products of the soil was early appreciated by the settlers of Oakland county, and Clinton river was improved and rendered navigable from Mount Clemens to Rochester by the Clinton River Navigation Company, organized in 1827. This company carried on business several years, but was unable to compete with the Detroit & Pontiac Railroad Company chartered in I834. This railroad was first built from Detroit to Royal Oak and operated by horsepower. It was continued to Birmingham in 1839 and steam power introduced, which was a notable event in the history of the state. The road was extended to Pontiac in I843. "Other and better roads succeeded these primitive affairs, so that up to the time when the electric roads appeared Oakland county considered herself very well supplied. In the last few years, however, her advantages in this respect have been very much increased. The first electric road in the county was the Pontiac & Sylvan Lake, which ran its cars about Pontiac and as far out as Sylvan lake. This was soon followed by the Detroit & Pontiac, named from its terminals and affording twentyminute service between them. In addition to this, the Detroit & Northwestern has for some time been running cars out Grand River avenue to Sand Hill * and will soon be extended to Pontiac by way of Farmington, and Orchard Lake. The Detroit, Rochester, Romeo & Lake Orion has been completed to Rochester, and right-of-way has been obtained for three more-the Pontiac & Flint, the Pontiac & Orion, and the Pontiac & Milford. It is probable that not only these but others will in a short time extend through the entire county, connecting its towns and rich farming districts with the markets at Detroit and other cities. "But it will not be the farmers alone who will be benefited by the improved facilities for transportation. Many busy city people will have reason to be thankful for the ease with which they may reach the lakes and the delightful scenery of the famous country. "The Indians were always admirers of the beautiful in nature, and *It should be remembered that this was written in I899. The prophecies herein made have been more than verified.

Page  7 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 7 the lake district of Oakland was their favorite resort. The great chief, Pontiac, honored it by choosing it as the place of his lodge and retired hither after his repulse at the siege of Detroit. The prosperous city which bears his name, numerous thriving villages and cultivated farms now occupy the hunting ground of the Indian, but art has not entirely usurped the bower of nature." As A FARMING AND LIVE STOCK REGION Thirty years ago Oakland county was, in many respects, the leading agricultural and horticultural section of interior Michigan. That this statement is not made at haphazard is evident from the following extracts taken from an authoritative history of Oakland county: "Oakland county stands deservedly high in its agricultural productions, though its apparent standing as compared with other counties in the state is largely owing to its greater area, it being the largest in the lower peninsula with the exception of Sanilac, which is comparatively a new county with a much larger proportion of waste land. In the production of wheat for 1873 it ranked third, Calhoun and Washtenaw exceeding it. In the raising of Indian corn it stood sixth, the counties exceeding it being Calhoun, Hillsdale, Jackson, Lenawee and Washtenaw. In all other grains it ranked first, and in the production of potatoes it also stood at the head. In the number of tons of hay cut it ranked third, Jackson and Lenawee only exceeding it. In wool it was second to Washtenaw; in cheese 'and butter second to Lenawee, and in pork ninth on the list." In the acreage of orchards Oakland county was second, with twelve thousand, nine hundred and thirty-two acres, in 1873, Berrien having fourteen thousand. It led in the production of apples-five hundred and seventeen thousand, six hundred and forty-two bushels for the year; also in cherries, eight thousand, four hundred and fifteen bushels; and was second only to Wayne county in melons and garden vegetables, its yearly record being fifty-five thousand, two hundred and three bushels. The total value of all its fruits and garden vegetables, $184,884, made it fifth in the state, in this regard, being exceeded by Berrien, Hillsdale, Lenawee, and Wayne. As to live stock at this time, Oakland county stood first in the number of horses produced and second in milch cows and sheep. FEATURES OF THE TRANSPORTATION It requires no very astute business man to understand what this development of farm and even waste lands into sites for summer resorts and homes has meant for the material advancement of the Oakland county property owner. It has brought hundreds of thousands of dollars into the county, advanced numerous small farmers into prosperous land owners, furnished employment to an army of artisans, made of the entire country a region of beauty thickly studded with homesteads, and assured the stranger who comes to invest in new enterprises that he and his family shall be surrounded by the fresh influences of nature as well as modern comforts and advantages. The means for much of this splen

Page  8 8 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY did development has come from the outside; wherein has arisen the danger that the home people may eventually lose much of the real and ultimate advantage of the transformation. This thought is brought out in the following from the Pontiac PressGazette: "There was a time when the advantages of Oakland county lakes were not appreciated and people did not enjoy what nature had offered, but in recent years they have awakened to the possibilities and each year sees more cottages and more people spending the summer months on the shore of some lake. The lakes are so near Detroit, and the metropolis of Michigan is so conveniently connected with the larger lakes by electric lines that Detroit people have not been slow to see the advantages, and many Detroiters now own homes at the lakes and spend their summers there. "Frequently the thought has come to Pontiac people that this city is making a mistake in not reserving a substantial piece of ground at one of the near-by lakes where a natural park and playground might be located. Scarcely realizing that an opportunity is slipping away, the city is watching private parties step in and buy all the available lake shore, and in time the public may be entirely excluded and will be deprived of the enjoyment the lakes afford. Not a few of the smaller lakes of the county are owned by private individuals who keep them stocked with fish and allow no one to fish therein without permission. A few wealthy men have purchased enough land around some of the lakes to form fine estates and have built beautiful homes to grace the shores."

Page  9 CHAPTER II GENERAL PHYSICAL FEATURES SURFACE AND ELEVATIONS-IMMENSE DRIFT AND FORMATIONS BENEATH SOIL AND CLIMATE -THE SURFACE GEOLOGY OF OAKLAND COUNTY. Oakland is one of the extreme southeastern counties of southern Michigan, in the third tier of counties from the Ohio boundary, and lies northwest of Wayne county and Detroit. As it is nine hundred square miles in area, it is among the largest of the counties in this section of the state. Physically, it forms the water-shed between the headwaters of the Clinton, Huron, Rouge and Shiawassee rivers, which drain into Lake St. Clair, Detroit river, Lake Erie and Saginaw bay. SURFACE AND ELEVATIONS The surface of Oakland county is comparatively level, although the land lies far enough above the numerous lakes to make the country remarkably healthful. In various sections the surface is broken by great deposits of sand, gravel and bowlders, especially near these bodies of water, but the highest hills and ridges are found, as a rule, in the townships which least abound in lakes. The most considerable of these elevations are located along the northeastern border of Pontiac township, in the southwestern corner of Independence near Waterford, in the western portions of Waterford township and in Highland township. Bald mountain, lying partly in the northeastern portion of Pontiac and the southeastern part of Orion is generally considered the highest point of land in the county-that is, five hundred and twenty-nine feet above Lake Michigan-although there is some dispute among surveyors as to whether the highest elevation may not really be a little to the north of that locality. The most pronounced ridge is, of course the water-shed of the Clinton, Huron, and Shiawassee rivers, which passes through the county diagonally, crossing the townships of Addison, Oxford, Brandon, Independence, Springfield, White Lake, Commerce, West Bloomfield, Novi and Lyon; spurs are thrown out into Pontiac, Groveland, Rose, Highland and Milford. There are also collections of considerable elevations, some of them quite abrupt, in Bloomfield township. 9

Page  10 10 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY IMMENSE DRIFT AND FORMATIONS BENEATH Geologically considered, Oakland county belongs to the Drift' period. Its water courses nowhere cut through the immense alluvial deposits of sand, gravel and bowlders, to the rocks beneath. No minerals are known to exist, except possibly in isolated sections mingled with the drift. The rock formations underlying the drift all belong to the Carboniferous system. The coal measures are supposed to underlie a fraction of the county northwest of Holly. Below them comes the Palma sandstone, which reaches a little further into the county; next lower, the Carboniferous limestone, with a still greater area; deeper still, the Michigan salt group, which is supposed to underlie about two-fifths of the county; then the Marshall sandstone group, believed to underlie the entire county; and lastly, the Huron group, which extends beyond Oakland county into adjoining districts. Borings in the northwest corner of the county would penetrate all of these formations, while in the southeast corner only the Huron group will be found. The center of this geological basin would be near the line between Gratiot and Midland counties, where the dip of the underlying strata is probably the deepest; thence gradually rising toward the margin of the basin. Fossils of various forms are found in the drift of Oakland county. The following information is condensed from the last report of the Weather Bureau for the section known officially as Eastern Lower Michigan, being especially applicable to Oakland county: In this section there are two high areas of land, the northern covering most of Otsego, Crawford and Roscommon counties. In the southern portion there is another elevated area covering much of Jackson, Washtenaw and Hillsdale counties; this elevation includes the sources of the Grand, Kalamazoo, St. Joseph and Raisin rivers. A part of this elevated area extends northeastward into Oakland county and contains the headwaters of the Huron, Rouge, and Clinton rivers. A comparatively low belt of land, extending from Saginaw bay to the lower valley of the Grand river, separates these elevations. The greater part of the drainage is into Lake Huron, Lake St. Clair or Lake Erie, although a portion finds its way to Lake Michigan through the Manistee, Muskegon, and Grand rivers. SOIL AND CLIMATE The soil is varied in character. In the southern portion it is fertile and well adapted to growing grains, grasses and fruits. In its original state the land was covered with forests-of hard wood in the southern portion and chiefly pine in the northern. The yearly precipitation averages between thirty and thirty-five inches, although there are limited areas where the yearly amount averages between twenty-five and thirty inches. It is well distributed throughout the year, but is slightly greater during the spring and summer than during other seasons. In the northern portion the winter snowfall is heavy and the ground remains covered during most of the winter, the accumulated depth of snow being often from two to three feet. In the south

Page  11 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 11 ern portion the snowfall is less and is apt to be melted by warm or rainy weather, so that during most years the ground is bare during part of the winter season The southern tier of townships is mostly a plain, without even ridges, and has only one of the four hundred and fifty lakes of the county within its borders. In several localities are found extensive tracts of level land, such as those around Orion and Oxford villages, the Sash-a-baw plain in Independence, the Drayton plains in Waterford, and the White Lake plains lying in the townships of Springfield, White Lake, Highland and Rose. The general surface of Oakland county is elevated from three to four hundred feet above the water-level of the great lakes. The climate is substantially that which prevails over southern Michigan-a climate whose temperature is lowered by the pronounced elevation of its surface, as well as by its proximity to the deep, cool waters of Lake Huron; but it is neither as warm in summer nor as cold in winter as in regions adjacent to Lake Michigan. The average summer temperature for Pontiac is seventy-two degrees, and is nearly the same as that of southern Ohio, the districts around the lower end of Lake Michigan and at Ottawa (Illinois), one hundred and fifty miles south of Saginaw. The winter temperature of Pontiac is about twenty degrees, which is somewhat colder than other places in the same latitude in Michigan, being the same as Mackinaw in the extreme north of the lower peninsula. All the climatic conditions, like those of elevation and drainage, are firm guarantees of health and physical vigor, and form another practical reason why Oakland county is so admirably adapted to the founding of homes and the prolonged life and happiness of the individual. As to vegetation, owing to the comparatively cool temperature it is somewhat backward, but as the soil of the county is generally of a sandy loam, the heat of the summer months is rapidly absorbed and the advance is rapid. The autumn is usually agreeable and frosts are uncommon before October. Both the climate and the soil of the county are particularly favorable for the growth of wheat, and for all small grains; it goes without saying that most of the fruits are readily raised. But the agricultural interests have been mostly crowded out by the developments which have brought the county into the front rank of Michigan's residential districts. One exception must be made to this statement. Her dairy interests are still large and growing, particularly in the southern plain districts, with Farmington as their center. THE SURFACE GEOLOGY OF OAKLAND COUNTY By Aaron Perry. The most interesting as well as the most obvious feature of the surface geology of Oakland county is the great body of glacial drift overlying the bed rock of the whole county. This drift is mostly unstratified, or only locally and discordantly stratified. It is from one hundred to five hundred feet or more deep, depending on the locality. It consists of clay, sand and gravel, mixed with rounded and water-worn pebbles, and boulders of all sizes, from sand grains to six feet or more in diameter.

Page  12 12 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY This sketch would not be complete without some mention of the origin of this drift. It is now the accepted theory of geologists that this great body of drift has been ground up, worn and deposited in its present situation and condition by glaciers and moving waters; and geologists are now able to satisfactorily account for its origin. I cannot take space to give the various theories that have been advanced to account for the changes of climate which were necessary to produce and melt away those monstrous glaciers. It is sufficient here to assume as a fact that former great changes in the climate of North America took place, and that within a comparatively recent period in its geological history this county was covered with glacial ice such as is now found on the high table lands of Greenland and on the Antarctic continent at the south pole. The existence of vast coal beds and tropical fossils (petrifications), in the Arctic regions is one of the evidences of such great differences in the climate between former and recent times. Neither was the glacial age continuous and uninterrupted, but there were interglacial colder and warmer periods when the glaciers advanced or melted away and retreated only to advance again. A great part of Oakland county is now, except as modified by snows, rains, streams and ponds, in substantially the same condition in which it was left by the last glaciers. Wherever the reader has seen hills or banks of clay, sand, and boulders entirely unstratified he can assume that they are now just as they were left by the glaciers. Perhaps nowhere can be seen better exhibits of recent glacial drift than are found in Waterford and White Lake, west of Mace Day lake. Many of the bowls and hollows are today without outlets and substantially as left by the ice sheet. Similar illustrations can be seen in many other places in the northerly and westerly parts of the county. Heaven Hill, in White Lake, the Bald Mountain ridge, the Grampian Hills of Addison, and, in fact, most of the hills of this county are substantially as they were left by the glaciers. Oakland county's four hundred lakes are due to the hollows and depressions left by the last glaciers. They show that, geologically speaking, this is a new country. In time all these hills will be rounded down and all the lakes filled with earth or emptied of their water, by the wearing down of their outlets. In the water-washed southeasterly part of the county there are no lakes left; all have been filled and obliterated by the action of the waves. To account for these glaciers it is not necessary to imagine any very great elevation of the lands northerly of us. Centuries of snow piled up farther north and, unmelted and accumulated until they had become thousands of feet thick, was sufficient to furnish all the elevation necessary to force the glaciers. southward across this county. The great weight of such a body of snow would suffice not only to change it into ice but would from pressure alone, convert it into a semiliquid state. In such a condition a glacier will flow, slowly of course, down a declivity little above a dead level and even force itself uphill over a ridge. They may not have moved at a velocity as great as fifty feet in a year, but they did their grinding, crushing work just as effectually, and their underlying and lateral streams of water helped to wear, assort and round the pebbles, gravel and boulders brought by the ice lobe.

Page  13 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 13 Later, I will speak of the melting back of these glaciers, but here I want to help the reader to account for the irregular and discordant stratification that all have noticed so often in sand and gravel banks in this county. It can largely be accounted for by recalling that the glaciers in receding, and perhaps in advancing, with their burden of ground up rock and debris would leave depressions, pools, hollows and dammed up valleys, and that the rains, winds and waves, and the streams of water flowing in and out of such depressions would assort and stratify the sands, clays and gravels the same as they do now in like situations. Often the rims of these hollows were worn away slowly by the gradual deepening and wearing down of their outlets, or quickly by floods or other causes; and then the stratification would begin anew under different circumstances and in a different situation. Is there any wonder then that in a small gravel pit the stratification may be so discordant, tipped and varied that we are puzzled to account for it in detail? The soil of Oakland county has been transported very largely from the northeast. This is established both by the detached fossils and minerals, as well as the fossiliferous boulders we find scattered over the county. Pieces of iron ore, copper and other minerals, as well as corals, brachiopods and other fossils, are often found. The corals are sometimes called by the finders petrified "wasp nests" or "honeycomb," and are very common in our drift. All the above are still found northerly of us in Canada, in places in solid bed rock. These glaciers swept over all Michigan and to, and in some places beyond, the Ohio river. The last great ones that crossed this county ended in northern Ohio and Indiana, and left there and in southern Michigan a great terminal moraine of earth, rock and debris, which accounts for the hilly country of Hillsdale county in Michigan, and in some of the counties in northern Indiana and Ohio. Glacier streams or lobes, like other streams, generally follow depressions and valleys, although ultimately they may leave a hill where a valley existed before. Geologists are now agreed that a number of great glacial sheets swept down from the north, covering the northern states east of Minnesota and north of the Ohio river. These glacial sheets succeeded each other at different periods far apart. To distinguish them geologists have differentiated and named those known, as the Kansas, Iowa, Illinois and Wisconsin Glacial Sheets, and have determined that they came in the order in which they are above mentioned. The Wisconsin, the last of those great glacial sheets, passed over Michigan, including this county. This great ice sheet included numerous subordinate glacial lobes, two of which concern this county and largely shaped its present surface conditions. Both came from the northeast and in all probability originated in the vicinity of Hudson's Bay, in Canada. They traveled over this county in a southwesterly direction. One of them, known as the Saginaw ice lobe, or glacier, came down Saginaw bay and swept south across our state. Its left bank or moraine, as the geologists call it, passed down the "Thumb" and across Huron, Sanilac, Tuscola, Lapeer, Genesee and Oakland counties, and farther south to and beyond Hillsdale and western Lenawee. The right or western moraine of the other, the Maumee ice lobe or glacier, which termin

Page  14 14 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY ated in the Maumee valley in Indiana, passed across the southerly part of Oakland county and thence southwesterly into Ohio and Indiana and, in its course commingling in this county with the eastern moraine of the Saginaw glacier, greatly complicated the surface geology of this locality. The numerous lakes of Oakland county are only a fraction of the number that must have existed at the time of the final melting away and retreating of the last glaciers. Some of these, extinct lakes must have been quite large, for otherwise it is hard to account for the existence of such broad, sandy, gravelly plains as Sashabaw Plains and those found in the township of Commerce, and in Orion and other parts of the county. Those level, sandy, gravelly stretches of land, so common here, clearly show that they have been leveled and the soil assorted and laid down in shallow wave-washed lakes and ponds. But a still greater force leveled and planed down the southeasterly part of this county, including the townships of Troy and Royal Oak and parts of Farmington, Southfield and Bloomfield. That force was the great glacial lakes known as Lake Maumee, Lake Whittlesey and Lake Warren. Those lakes all disappeared many thousands of years ago. Probably no human eye ever saw any of them, but to distinguish them, after generally conceding the evidence of their former existence to be conclusive, geologists have given them the above names. As the Maumee glacier began to melt back from its southerly end in the Maumee valley the lands southwest of the terminus, in Indiana, being higher than the land under the glacier, a lake was formed at the foot of the retreating glacier, which is known as Lake Maumee, the outlet of which was at first at Fort Wayne, Indiana, and the drainage from the lake passed thence into the Wabash and Ohio rivers. When the glacier had melted back as far north as Imlay City, in Lapeer county, another outlet was formed at that place through which the waters of Lake Maumee passed across, near North branch, into the Cass river, thence across Genesee, Shiawassee and Clinton counties into the Grand river, and thence by way of the present site of Chicago to the Mississippi river. Lake Maumee is supposed to have kept both outlets for a time and until the Imlay outlet had lowered so as to carry off all its flood waters, when the outlet at Fort Wayne ceased. The glaciers continued to melt back farther until a still lower outlet was formed across the "Thumb" in Huron county at Ubly, to Cass river, known as the Ubly Outlet; and as this outlet deepened the lake quickly lowered and shrank on its southerly and westerly sides and continued to extend northerly with the retreating glacier. Lake Maumee, after the close of the Fort Wayne and Imlay outlets and while its outlet was across the "Thumb" at Ubly, has been given the name of Lake Whittlesey. The glaciers continued to retreat farther north until finally a still lower outlet for Lake Whittlesey was formed around the end of the "Thumb" or across the north part of it and by way of the Saginaw valley and along Maple river, in Shiawassee and Clinton counties, to the Grand river at Pewamo, a short distance east of Ionia. That last stage of Lake Maumee, the one when its outlet was at the last mentioned place, has been given the name, Lake Warren. This lake continued to exist until

Page  15 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 15 the glaciers had melted back far enough to allow an outlet down the St. Lawrence valley, when the lake retreated from Michigan. Lake Maumee washed the easterly side of the high lands in Oakland county caused by the westerly moraine of the Maumee ice lobe, or glacier, and left its raised beaches as a record of its shore line through this county. The leveling and planing down of the parts of Oakland county easterly of that shore line and the assorting of the surface soil in those parts into sands, gravels and clays was all done by the great glacial Lake Maumee during the various stages of its height above explained. The surface of Detroit river at the foot of Woodward avenue is five hundred and seventy-five feet above the ocean. Lake Maumee when its outlet was at Fort Wayne only, was two hundred and eighteen feet higher than Detroit river at the foot of Woodward avenue. And when it had two outlets at the same time, one at Fort Wayne and one at Imlay City, it had fallen ten feet. When its outlet was at Ubly, and it was known as Lake Whittlesey, it had fallen forty feet more. And when it had become Lake Warren and had its outlet across or across the northerly part of the "Thumb" it had fallen eighty-five feet more, and was then only eighty-three feet higher than Detroit river at the above mentioned place. The above figures as to the height of these shore lines are taken from the report of W. H. Sherzer on the geology of Monroe county, published in Volume VII of the Geological Survey of Michigan, page I43, and it will appear later in this sketch that the first shore line of Lake Maumee in some parts of Oakland county has materially risen since it was originally formed. Leverett, in Monograph 41 of the United States Geological Survey, page 721, described the shores of Lake Maumee where they pass across this county in the following language: "The beach enters Oakland county near the southwest corner of Farmington township and takes a somewhat direct course across that township, passing through the northwestern part of Farmington village and leaving the township in the northeastern part of Section 12. It usually forms a definite gravel ridge three to six feet high, and thirty to fifty yards or more in width. It lies along the inner border of a sharply morainic tract. To the east of it there is a rapid descent to the Belmore Beach but the surface is remarkably smooth." The Belmore Beach is the highest shore line of Lake Whittlesey. Leverett continues: "Immediately northeast of the point where the beach leaves Farmington township there was a bay-like extension up to and beyond the village of Franklin, and in this the beach is not clearly defined. East of Franklin the shore follows the inner border of the moraine, and is usually in the form of a cut bank, as far east as the meridian of Birmingham. The second beach (the one when the lake had the two outlets), runs parallel with it, scarcely one-half mile distant and presents usually a gravel ridge. "Near Birmingham there is considerable complexity caused by a till ridge and moraine hills which appear along the borders of East Rouge river. The till ridge at Birmingham is barely high enough to catch the second beach on its crest. Northeastward along the till ridge, however, A*

Page  16 16 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY it soon rises to the level of the upper beach. The lowering of the lake to the level of the second beach seems to have followed closely the withdrawal of the ice from this till ridge and the opening of the Imlay outlet. Indeed, it is probable that the opening of this outlet is the main cause for the lowering of the lake. "The second beach from Birmingham northward to the Imlay outlet is usually a gravelly ridge. It is exceptionally strong at Romeo and in the vicinity of Almont. It lies along the inner face of the till ridge, just noted, from near Birmingham to Romeo." A peculiar feature of this upper Maumee beach is the fact that as it extends north it rises. At Birmingham, Leverett says, it is nineteen feet higher than at Ypsilanti, and that it is eleven feet higher at Rochester than at Birmingham. That may be due to the gradual tilting of the surVTIEW ox NiEELY's FLATs NEAxR ROCHESTER face of this state. The very eminent United States Geologist, Gilbert, claims to have determined that the north part of the state is now very slowly rising and the southern part as slowly settling. Leverett says that at Birmingham the second Maumee beach is twenty-nine feet lower than the upper one. He also traces the shore of Lake Whittlesey (the Belmore Beach), through this county as follows: "From two miles northeast of Romeo it swings southward and leads through Washington township to Clinton river, just below Rochester. The village of Rochester stands upon a delta which was formed in connection with this beach. The beach continues in a course west of south for about twelve miles from Rochester, passing one and one-half miles southeast of Birmingham. It there curves abruptly westward, forming an interesting series of hooks, in its curving portion, and crosses to the west side of East Rouge river, about two miles southwest of Birming

Page  17 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 17 ham. From this point its course is southwestward through Farmington to Plymouth where it crosses West Rouge river." While I have not personally traced this beach I think the chances are very great that the well marked low, gravelly ridge crossing the south end of the Beekman farm south of Birmingham is the Belmore Beach. At Rochester one can easily imagine the Paint creek and Clinton river emptying into Lake Whittlesey at substantially the same place and together forming the delta plain on which that beautiful village stands. I have no accurate information as to the altitude of the highest shore of Lake Warren, but it was about fifty feet lower than the shore of Lake Whittlesey and entered Oakland county from the northeast about straight east of Troy Corners and passed southwesterly through the vicinity of Big Beaver and Royal Oak village until it reached a point near the south line of Royal Oak township where it turned abruptly west and kept that main direction until it approached to or near the Belmore Beach, at which place it passed southwesterly with it into Wayne county. Wide, low, sandy ridges are stated by the geologists to be characteristic of this beach for much of its length, and probably for a part, at least, of the portion thereof in this county. Beneath the drift in this county is the bed-rock extending, as far as geologists know, to the melted interior of the earth. In all probability all of Oakland county had risen above the ocean before the close of the Carboniferous age. and no rocks more recent than the Carboniferous appear beneath the drift here. The first rock underlying the drift in the southeast corner of the county and under the township of Royal Oak and parts of Southfield and Troy is of the Devonian age, while under all the remainder of the county the first rock is of the next later age, the Carboniferous. The coal basin of the state, which covers the central part of the lower peninsula, only touches the extreme northwest corner of Oakland county if at all, and no coal is likely to be found in the county. It is quite possible that oil may exist in the Trenton rock, but to reach that stratum wells would have to be bored several thousand feet deep. Salt-bearing strata probably underlie all of the county at considerable depths below the first bed-rock, as well as strata impregnated with sulphur and other minerals. Where the sloping shores of Lake Maumee dip and trend away from the westerly Maumee glacial moraine crossing the southeast part of the county porous strata overlaid by impervious strata having been occasionally so deposited and formed by the waters of Lake Maumee as to make artesian wells possible. They are found in Avon, Troy, Bloomfield, Southfield and Farmington townships. Artesian wells are also found in the vicinity of Ortonville and in some other parts of the county, and natural springs are quite common. Most of thie county lies on the easterly slope of the easterly moraine of the Saginaw glacier, but a small part of the county is drained westerly. The relative elevation of different parts of the county is a matter of some interest. As stated above, Detroit river at the foot of Woodward avenue is 575 feet above the level of the ocean. Lake Huron is five feet higher and Lake Erie is two feet lower than the surface of Detroit river at that point. Passing from the river at the foot of Woodward avenue northwesterly along the Detroit and Pontiac electric railway the elevations fol. 1-2

Page  18 18 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY increase as follows: The elevation has increased at Highland Park and at the south line of Oakland county about 65 feet, and at Royal Oak about 19 feet more, Royal Oak village'being about 84 feet above Detroit river. The south part of Birmingham is I9I feet and the northern part about 209 feet above Detroit river. At the Cranbrook road, Bloomfield Hills, the height above Detroit river is 290 feet. At Kimble's Corners the height is 363 feet, and at the United State bench mark on the northeast corner of the courthouse, Pontiac, the height above Detroit river is 369 feet. The following elevations in feet of various other villages in the county may be of interest, viz: Big Beaver, go; Troy Corners, 175; Amy, 298; Rochester, 185 to 225; Goodison, 282; Orion, 419; Eames, 437; Oxford, 486; Thomas Station, 518; Leonard, 435; Andersonville, 472; Drayton Plains, 385; Waterford, 418; Clarkston, 425; Davisburgh, 383; Holly, 362; Southfield, 103; Franklin, 212; Orchard Lake, 372; Farmington, about 175; Novi, 337; Walled Lake, 368; Commerce, 367; Wixom, 358; South Lyon, 365; New Hudson, 356; Milford, 37I; Highland, 435; Clyde, 455; Rose Centre, 405; and White Lake, 466. Thomas Station, 518 feet, is therefore the highest village in the county. The heights in feet of the following hills above Detroit river are: Bald Mountain, in Pontiac township, 618; hills in south part of Springfield township, 585; Mt. Judah, Orion township, 575; Waterford hill, 574;' Heaven hill, White Lake township, 525; hills west of Mace Day Lake, 525. I have no data for the height of the hills in the northern tier of townships of the county but some of them must be nearly if not quite as high as Bald mountain. Cass lake is 356 feet above Detroit river, and very many lakes in the county are over four hundred feet above that river. All are filled with pure water. While, because of its glacial origin, a large part of Oakland county is rolling and somewhat hilly, very few of the hills are too steep to be profitably farmed, and the whole county lies at such an elevation that there is very little of it that cannot be successfully drained. As would naturally be inferred from its geological history, the soil of the county is so constituted that it is eminently fitted for agriculture. Is

Page  19 CHAPTER III INDIAN AND PRIMITIVE RECORD ORCHARD LAKE AND THE GREAT CHIEF PONTIAC-THE LEGEND OF MENAH-SA-GOR-ING-PRIMITIVE TILLAGE AND INDUSTRIES-CONTACT WITH KNOWN TRIBES —SCARS OF BATTLE-C. Z. HORTON'S CONTRIBUTIONS-INDIAN CAMPING GROUND AND CEMETERY-QUEER CUSTOMS-THE PASSING OF WE-SE-GAH. The legitimate history of Oakland county, so far as it relates to the settlement and civilization of the whites, commences with the abandonment of the siege of Detroit by the great Indian chief, Pontiac, in 1764. With this portentous danger removed, the interior of southern Michigan became a field of investigation to adventurers and those seeking homes; so that in I815 the surveyor general of the state commenced to run his lines south from Detroit toward the Ohio boundary. ORCHARD LAKE AND THE GREAT CHIEF, PONTIAC Orchard lake, southwest of Pontiac, was one of the homes of the chief after whom the city was named, and from that region he is said to have drawn not a small portiof of his supplies, such as fish and water fowl, which enabled him to make such an alarming display of his strength and resourcefulness before the English stronghold. Pontiac had not been slow in transferring his allegiance from his oldtime friends, the French, and the new British rulers of the country. In September, I760, four days after the surrender of Montreal, Major Robert Rogers received orders from his superiors to take possession of Detroit, Michilimackinac and other western posts which fell to the British as the result of the war. On his way to Detroit he reached the mouth of the Cuyahoga river, the present site of Cleveland, and there encamped with his command of two hundred rangers who had come hither from Montreal in fifteen whale-boats. Soon after the arrival of the rangers a party of Indian chiefs and warriors entered the camp. They proclaimed themselves an embassy from Pontiac, ruler of all that country, and directed, in his name, that the English should advance no further until they could have an interview with the great chief who was already close at hand. In truth, before the day closed, Pontiac himself appeared; and it is here for the first time that this remarkable character becomes a part of American history. He 19

Page  20 20 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY is said to have greeted Major Rogers with the haughty demand "What is your business in this country; and how dare you enter it without my permission?" Rogers informed him that the French were defeated, that Canada had surrendered, and that he was on his way to take possession of Detroit and'restore general peace to white men and Indians alike. Pontiac listened with attention, but only replied that he "should stand in the path until morning." Having inquired if the strangers were in need of anything which his country afforded, he withdrew with his chiefs at nightfall to his own encampment, while the English stood well on their guard until morning. Pontiac then returned to the camp with his attendant chiefs and made his reply to Rogers' speech of the previous day. He was willing, he said, to live at peace with the English, and suffer them to remain in his country as long as they treated him with deference. The Indian chief and provincial officers then smoked the calumet together. Up to this time, Pontiac had been the fast ally of the French, but, ignorant as he was of what was passing in the great world of the whites, his remarkable instinct told him that the English were in the decided ascendant; that it was the best policy to cultivate their friendship; and he hoped to secure them as allies in furthering his ambitions against tribes of his own race. In the latter expectation he was so bitterly disappointed that he became a fierce and stern foe long to be remembered. When Pontiac found that he could not use the English, he set about to exterminate them. In 1863 culminated his plans and conspiracies of several years' standing. Under his leadership, the Delawares, a portion of the Six Nations, the Wyandots, the Shawnees, the Ottawas (his own people), and the other western Indian nations, had agreed to fall simultaneously upon all the frontiers from Lake Superior to the Susquehanna. Pontiac's eastern coworker in the famous conspiracy was the celebrated Seneca chief, Kyasuta or Guyasuta, whose home was on the Allegheny river, but history has given the palm of greatness to the western leader. The details and outcome of the conspiracy are known of all; how Pontiac and his Warriors attempted to enter the Detroit fort and massacre all therein; how this plan not only failed, but expected relief from the French as well, and how, in chagrin, he raised the siege, upon the approach of Braddock's army in August, I764, and withdrew to the headwaters of the Maumee, where he still endeavored to stir up the red race against the whites. In 1766, at the great Indian council near Otsego, New York, he signed a perpetual treaty of peace with the English, and remained at Maumee until 1769, when he removed to Illinois. Soon afterward he visited St. Louis to call upon his former friend, St. Ange, the commandant of that post. He was dressed in the full uniform of a French officer, which the Marquis Montcalm had presented to him as a special mark of respect toward the close of the French war. Everywhere he was received and entertained as a great man. Pontiac remained at St. Louis for several days, when, hearing that a great number of Indians were assembled at Cahokia on the opposite side of the river, said he would cross over and see what was going on. St. Ange tried to dissuade him, but he replied that he was a match for

Page  21 -HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY the English, and, with a few of his followers, crossed to the Illinois shore. Entering the village, he was soon known and invited to a grand feast where liquor was freely circulated. The chief, with all his dignity and natural strength of character, could not resist the native passion for strong drink. After the feast was over and he was well under the influence of liquor, he strolled down the street into the adjacent woods, where he was heard to sing the weird medicine songs of his race, which proved for him to be his requiem. A Kaskaskia Indian followed close behind, and his dead body was soon after found in a thicket. It is believed that the savage had been hired to tomahawk the great chief by an English trader named Williamson, the wage for the dastardly act having been the promise of a barrel of rum. A terrible vengeance followed this great crime. The Indians of the northwest united and almost exterminated the Illinois tribes, the remnants of whom never afterward cut any figure in history. Whether Pontiac ever made the Orchard lake region his actual place of abode is questionable, but he undoubtedly often passed through the charming region, and that his name is attached to the metropolis of the county is an added reason why his career and personality should be presented at some length. VTHIE LEGEND OF MIE-NAH-SA-GOR-NIN( One of the most noted of the Indian legends attaching to this region has to do with Orchard lake, or more strictly speaking with the beautiful Me-nah-sa-gor-ning (Apple island), which lies in its center. Many years ago, Samuel M. Leggett, one of the county's old settlers, told the story of this legend in verse, but at such length that it cannot be here reproduced. His introduction, however, furnishes matter which is both interesting and available. "In the state of Michigan," it says, "in one county alone-that of Oakland-is a chain of beautiful lakes, some hundreds in number, many of them miles in length and width. Around these wind the roadways, over beaches of white pebbles and shaded by the 'forests primeval.' Two rivers, the Huron and the Clinton, run through these lakes, and, in their tortuous forms, wind, and turn, and twist, till after a course of hundreds of miles, they at last rest in Lakes Erie and St. Clair. These rivers are in the summer dotted with the water-lily, as they flow on through the 'openings,' and on their banks are huge old oaks under which, in the days that are gone, stood many a wigwam. "The legend which I have attempted to verify is founded upon an incident occurring at Orchard lake long before the coming of the white man and while the grand farms now lying around it were merely a vast oak opening, its sole occupant the Indian and the wild beast. Very near the center of this Orchard lake is a farge island, wooded to its very shore. On it are a few apple trees, old and gnarled, remnants of an orchard planted so long ago that the Indians even have no data concerning it. Its name, Me-nah-sa-gor-ning, meaning "apple place," still lives in tradition. "On this island the Algonquin chief, Pontiac, had his lodge after his repulse at the siege of Detroit. On the high bank of this lake, oppo

Page  22 22 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY site the island, is still to be seen the ancient burial ground of the Sacs, Hurons and Wyandots. "Tradition says that back beyond the memory of the tribe a young chief sickened and suddenly died. The maiden to whom he was betrothed became insane, and whenever she could escape from her guardians they would take the body of the chief from its resting place in the old ground across the lake and carry it back to the place where his lodge formerly stood. "At last, weary of guarding her, with the advice of their medicine man the tribe killed her, upon her refusal to marry. This crime, so directly opposed to all former Indian custom, so offended the Great Spirit that he avowed his intention of totally destroying the tribe, and to give the maiden, 'as long as water flowed,' complete control over it. She alone AIPPLE ISLAND ORCHARD LAKE has power to assume her form at any time. She can compel the attendance of the tribe at any time by the beating of the Indian drum. At this sound they must gather and wait where an old canoe has been gradually covered by the drifting sands. Upon the signal of her coming with her dead the warriors must meet her on the shore, bear the chief on his bier and lay him down by the ashes of his council fire and, waiting beside him until she can caress him, bear him back to his resting place. All, however, must be done between sunset and sunrise-a foggy night being always chosen to elude observation." PRIMITIVE TILLAGE AND INDUSTRIES 'One of the most complete sketches of aboriginal history as it relates to Oakland county has been written by O. Poppleton, formerly president of the Oakland County Pioneer Society. It is mainly contained in his address delivered before that body in June, 1884. The portions applicable to the subject now being considered are as follows:

Page  23 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 23 "Oakland county is not barren of traditional or legendary events of deep interest to the historian, and to her people. When the Jesuit fathers and French fur traders first visited this region of the country, and following them the very early pioneers, they found many evidences of a prior occupation by a semi-civilization, in the tillage of the soil by unknown and extinct agriculturists of a very remote period. Many rude agricultural implements have been found in the clearing and tillage of the land and by excavations; thus demonstrating theoretically that the country had been previously occupied by a people who were well versed in the knowledge of practical agriculture, and who subsisted by cultivating the soil, by mining, in pursuit of game of the forests, and the fish of the lakes and rivers. "The very early surveyors in pursuit of their calling, and the pioneer in exploring this region for a favorable location for his homestead, found large areas which, evidently, had been tilled in hoed crops, judging from the regular and well defined rows of hills for corn and vegetables, upon which were then growing the largest oaks and other trees of the forests. By an actual computation of the yearly growth of these trees, the occupation of this region by those people must have been centuries before the discovery of this continent. "The traditions were that corn, beans and other grains and vegetables were raised upon these aboriginal fields; that they had sustained a numerous population, who were proficient in the arts of rude manufacturing of cloths, pottery and copper utensils, silver and copper ornaments, stone axes, hammers, mortars and pestles, flint arrow heads, graining and skinning knives, many of which have been found during the early explorations of the missionaries and traders and since by the first settlements of the pioneers of the county. "At what period those people occupied the county is difficult even to approximate a date. Yet from the modified barbarism which is indicated by works left by a pre-historic race, there can be no other conclusion than that this county has been occupied by a race long since extinct, who were undoubtedly connected with the early civilization of Europe. CONTACT WITH KNOWN TRIBES "In the early explorations of the Great Lakes by the French, commencing in I534-5, they found the descendants of the Algonquin tribes of Indians occupying the country to the north and west of Detroit, with whom they held social and commercial intercourse, yet but little of the French and early Indian history has been preserved. It is known that the fur traders made their annual visits to this region, through the rivers Huron, Rouge, Raisin and Clinton, for the purpose of bartering with the Indians for furs and skins. "But little has been preserved of the Indian history, or of the French nomadic occupation. One Micheau, a French and Indian trader, who died about the time of the first settlement of Wayne, Oakland and Macomb counties, at the advanced age of one hundred and fifteen or one hundred and sixteen years, relates that one of the traditions of the tribes was that a sanguinary conflict occurred between the Foxes and Chippewas,

Page  24 24 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY upon the plains north and west, adjoining what is now the village of Birmingham, and known as the Willits, Doctor Swan and Captain Blake farms, on sections 24 and 25. SCARS OF BATTLE "The village of the Chippewas was situated near the present site of the cemetery and formed a nucleus from which they sallied forth upon their hunting, fishing and warlike expeditions and forays, returning with varied success and bringing game, furs and the scalps of their hated foe, the Foxes. Between these powerful tribes there had existed a deadly feud for many years, until it culminated in an attack by the Foxes upon the Chippewas, at their village. How many braves were engaged in the conflict, tradition has failed to hand down to us. That there were many on each side is evident from the number of dead redskins said to'have been found in the trail of the retreating tribes and on the battlefield. The Chippewas were defeated after a desperate struggle in defending their children, squaws and camp fires, and their village burned. They retreated along the trails towards what is now Detroit, closely pursued by their foes, leaving about seven hundred dead bodies along the course of their retreat; and on the field of battle the dead were too numerous to be counted. The pride and prowess of this once powerful tribe was crushed and humiliated, and thereafter they declined in influence and numbers. "There is one other notable Indian tradition, of an event which occurred in the county-that of a hostile meeting between the great chief Pontiac and another tribe, in the vicinity of a large, while oak tree, in the township of Royal Oak, on section I6, from which the township derives its name; located near the junction of the Crook's, Niles and Paint Creek roads. At the time I first saw it, in I825, it still bore the scars made by the tomahawks, arrows and bullets. But at what date this happened, or what tribe was opposed to Pontiac and his followers, I have never been able to learn, not even through traditional history." C. Z. HORTON'S CONTRIBUTIONS C. Z. Horton has also made valuable contributions to the Indian pictures of Oakland county, some of which are given. They were originally published in the Rochester Era. As to evidences of former tillage, either by Indians or a more primitive race, he says: "In this connection I would state that the appearance of the woodlands when I first came here (to Rochester), especially south of the Clinton river, looked like an old corn field, or like hills where corn had grown, the rows running a little west of north and east of south, about four feet apart each way; besides all the stones had been piled up, as but few scattering ones could be seen and many of them were deeply imbedded in the earth." INDIAN CAMPING GROUND AND CEMETERY "Near the dwelling of Mr. Edwin T. Wilcox, on the Paint Creek road, some two miles south of Rochester," he continues, "there were deep in

Page  25 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTfY dentations in the ground, and from ten to twelve feet across, some of them two or more feet deep. They followed the line of the ridge, were from four to six feet apart-perhaps Ioo of them-and were parallel, showing the appearance of a winter camping-ground where the earth had been thrown up around their wigwams, as it was afterwards discovered, in digging in them, they contained the debris of ashes and charcoal. On the lot owned by Mr. Simeon P. Hartwell, the same broken surface appeared, also the corn hills. On the Chipman farm, now occupied by Mr. Weaver, some eighty or one hundred rods east and north, the same indications were observable, also an old burial ground. These signs I never observed north of the river. QUEER CUSTOMS 'It was a custom with the Indians that when their young arrived at a proper age they were enclosed in a wigwam and had to remain thus in seclusion by themselves a number of days, or until they would dream of some animal, bird, or reptile, and be able to number and tell of it in the morning. Whatever the dream might be that would be an object of worship through life-such as a bear, a deer, a fox, an eagle, hawk, or smaller animals and birds, and even snakes and lizards. I have often seen trees in the woods, in this vicinity, with rude representations of this kind worked on them, which was their habit of doing. I saw two boys in their wigwams undergoing this ordeal-singing during the day and silent at night. This happened in front of Mr. William Burbank's residence in the summer of 1825, where Mr. Conrad Taylor now resides. I asked Mrs. Burbank what was the object of the Indians to be thus engaged on a sultry day? She said it was one of their religious ceremonies. I have since learned that such was the case. "Here is another circumstance, or rather a ceremony of the Indians I have heard narrated by the old settlers, which will be of interest to all those living in this vicinity, which took place in 1824. It is this: south of the Barnes Brothers' paper mill, near the hill, on the land occupied by Mr. Ezekiel Dewey, the Indians cleared off all the flat, built a large logheap, and set it on fire; in building the heap they left an opening in the centre. They then brought forth two white dogs which they had fantastically decorated with red flannel around their necks, tied in their ears and around their legs and tails; and when the pile had fairly become ignited all through, they threw their canine victims into the aperture left in the middle of the blazing pile. They then commenced their songs and dances, which they kept up all night-as the old saying is, 'they made the welken ring.' TiiiH PASSING OF WE-SE-GAH We-se-gah was probably one of the most turbulent of the Indians in this section. He was large and muscular, and when in liquor was ready for fight. Most of the settlers were afraid of him. Of his quarrelsome and pugilistic propensity none perhaps were better acquainted than Alexander and Benjamin Graham. They both had, several times, quarreled

Page  26 26 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY with him. We-se-gah at one time drew a tomahawk on Benjamin while he was at work on his shoe-bench, for which Benjamin gave him a very sound thrashing, and at another time he attacked Alexander. After a long tussle, of nearly an hour's duration, Alexander finally overpowered him. We-se-gah, drawing his blanket over his face, then sat down and waited for Graham to dispatch him according to Indian law-by burying a tomahawk in his head. Graham raised the blanket and said to him: "Go! Never come back. If you do, I will kill you!" We-se-gah went, and was never seen in this section afterward."

Page  27 CHAPTER IV FIRST SETTLERS AND LAND OWNERS GREAT SET-BACK TO SETTLEMENT-OAKLAND COUNTY'S FIRST SETTLERS -THE MACK COLONY OF PONTIAC-"UNCLE BEN" WOODWORTH-FIRST SURVEYS-LOCATIONS UNDER THE "TWO DOLLAR" ACTTHE "TEN SHILLING" ACT-GREAT EVENT FOR THE PIONEER LAND OWNER-TOWN OF PONTIAC SETTLED-ORION AND OXFORD-ROYAL OAK AND TROY-AVON AND WHITE LAKE-SPRINGFIELD AND GROVELAND-FARMINGTON AND WEST BLOOMFIELD-WATERFORD AND INDEPENDENCE-BRANDON, SOUTHFIELD AND BLOOMFIELD. Any general history will inform the reader as to the nature of the civil or judicial jurisdiction which was theoretically exercised over the territory now recognized as Oakland county, but humanly speaking we have no vital interest in the subject until men, women and children commenced to appear and form households in the new country. This happened about two years after the state surveys commenced in southern Michigan, the pioneers in the Oakland county movement being James Graham, his son Alexander, Christopher Hartsough and John Hersey. They located in the township now known as Avon on the I7th day of March, 1817, and brought their families with them. GREAT SET-BACK TO SETTLEMENT It took so many years to counteract the report made by the surveyor general in relation to the military, or southern Michigan lands, that a somewhat extended review of the attending circumstances seems germane to the subject. On the 6th of May, I812, congress passed an act requiring that two million acres of land should be surveyed in the then territory of Louisiana; a like quantity in the territory of Illinois, as well as in the territory of Michigan-in all, six million acres, to be set apart for the soldiers of America in the war of 1812. The lands were surveyed and appropriated, under this law, in Louisiana and Illinois, but the surveyors reported that there were no lands fit for cultivation. The principal meridian and the base line for the Michigan surveys were established in I8I5. The surveyor general's report which so long retarded immigration to southern Michigan and Oakland county was as follows: "The country on the Indian boundary line from the mouth of the Great Auglaize river 27

Page  28 28 HIISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY and running thence for about fifty miles is (with some few exceptions) low, wet land, with a very thick growth of underbrush, intermixed with very bad marshes, but generally very heavily timbered with beech, cottonwood, oak, etc.; thence continuing north and extending from the Indian boundary eastward, the number and extent of the swamps increase, with the addition of numbers of lakes, from twenty chains to two and three miles across. "Many of the lakes have extensive marshes adjoining their marshes, sometimes thickly covered with a species of pine called tamarack, and other places covered with a coarse, high grass, and uniformly covered from six inches to three feet (and more at times) with water. The margins of these lakes are not the only places where swamps are found, for they are interspersed throughout the whole country, and filled with water, as above stated, and varying in extent. "The intermediate space between these swamps and lakes-which is probably near one-half the country-is, with very few exceptions, a poor, barren, sandy land, on which scarcely any vegetation grows, except very small, scrubby oaks. In many places that part which may be called dry land is composed of little, short sand-hills, forming a kind of deep basins, the bottom of many of which are composed of marsh similar to the above described. The streams are generally narrow and very deep compared with their width, the shores and bottoms of which are (with very few exceptions) swampy beyond description; and it is with the utmost difficulty that a place can be found over which horses can be conveyed in safety. "A circumstance peculiar to that country is exhibited in many of the marshes, by their being thinly covered with a sward of grass, by walking on which evinces the existence of water, or a very thin mud immediately under the covering which sinks from six to eighteen inches under the pressure of the foot at every step, and at the same time rises before and behind the person passing over it. The margins of many of the lakes and streams are in a similar situation, and in many places are literally afloat. On approaching the eastern part of the Military lands towards the private claims on the straits and lake, the country does not contain so many swamps and lakes, but the extreme sterility and barrenness of the soil continues the same. "Taking the country altogether so far as it has been explored, and to all appearances, together with information received concerning the balance, is so bad there would not be more than one acre out of a hundred, if there would be one out of a thousand, that would in any case admit of cultivation." The effect of this report upon congress was that so much of the act of I812 as related to Michigan was repealed by an act of April 29, I8I6, which also located 1,500,000 acres of additional land in Illinois and 500,ooo acres in Missouri, in lieu of the original 2,000,000 allotted to Michigan. It was not until 1817 and I818 that a few venturesome pioneers braved the dangers of the terrible morasses depicted in the report of the surveyor general, and demonstrated how flimsy was the basis for its misleading statements. The visits of Major Oliver Williams and his companions, in the fall of I818, marked the great turning point of public

Page  29 IISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 29 o)pinion for the better; it proved beyond question that there was a fertile and beautiful country in the interior, when once the immigrant had penetrated through the marshy belt which girdled Detroit. OA\KL\ND COUNTY'S FIRST SETTLERS Something about these men who thus sowed the seeds of civilization in Oakland county is given by Hon. T. J. Drake in one of his many historical addresses, to which all writers of the early times are so much indebted. His words are: "In early life old Mr. Graham (James), resided near Tioga Point, on the Chemung branch of the Susquehanna river, in Pennsylvania. About sixty years since, he moved to Oxford, in Upper Canada, in I8i6 to Mt. Clemens, and on the I7th day of March, 1817, came into Oakland county to locate on a farm now occupied by Dr. William Thompson, lying on the north bank of the Clinton river. 1I. Graham, a young son of Mr. James Graham, was employed as one of the hands under Colonel Wampler, in surveying that town in I816. John Hersey was the first man that entered lands in the county of Oakland on the 29th of October, 1818. He entered a part of section Io, in this town, on the waters of Paint creek and erected a saw mill, the first in the county. He placed in it a run of stone which were manufactured in the county by a mechanic by the name of Wood, and made the first flour manufactured in Oakland. By his exertions the inconveniences and hardships attendant on a new settlement were greatly relieved and immigration largely induced. The name of John Hersey, whose long life was marked by signal industry and integrity, should be engraven on the memory of every citizen of Oakland. Pioneers of Oakland! Long may his memory be cherished." Mr. O. Poppleton's account in an address before the County Pioneer Society: "It has now been sixty-seven years since the first permanent settlers located in the county of Oakland. The first were John Hersey, James and Alexander Graham and Christopher Hartsough in the township of Avon, with their families, on March 17, I817, who spent their first night on the plat of ground between the junction of Paint creek and Clinton river. These families came by way of Mt. Clemens, following the course of the Clinton river, there being an impenetrable swamp between Detroit and their new home-so reported by the commission sent out by the surveyor general. The report demonstrates how little was known of the interior of the territory and county at that time. Sixty years ago Moses Allen entered the first lands in the county at the United States land office at Detroit on October 24, I818, being the southwest quarter of section 32 in Orion." TIIH MACK COLONY OF PONTIAC In I818, the year after the Grahams settled in Avon township, Colonel Stephen Mack, agent of the Pontiac Land Company, located a small colony on the site of the future county seat. Accompanying him were Orison Allen, William Lester and Major J. J. Todd, with their families, and they were not "planted" until in the fall of that year.

Page  30 30 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY The same autumn and winter, settlements were commenced at Birmingham, Royal Oak, and other places above the Detroit and Saginaw trail, and in March, I819, Major Oliver Williams and his brother-in-law Alpheus Williams, settled in Waterford township. Captain Archibald Phillips also settled in Waterford very early. Among the first to enter land in Troy were Messrs Castle, Hunter, Hamilton and Fairbanks, in February, I819. "UNCLE BEN" WOODWORTH In town 4, north of range I east, now called Oakland, the first purchase was made by Benjamin Woodworth and William Russell, on the i6th of March, I8I9. They entered a part of section 33. The history of father Russell, as he was familiarly called, is truth itself, candid and unassuming. He was an example of sociality and benevolence, upright and just in all his ways. Benjamin Woodworth, "Uncle Ben," as he was known by all who ever stopped at the "Steamboat Hotel" in Detroit, had a heart full of kindness and a hand ever ready to help the distressed. He was the constant friend of Oakland county, and he never forgot or forsook her early inhabitants. In 1824, James Coleman and James Hazard purchased; in 1825, Benedict Baldwin, Horace Lathrop, James D. Galloway, J. B. Galloway, J. Dewey, Samuel Hilton, Ezra Newman, David Hammond and Needham Hemmingway, became purchasers and were among the early settlers. FIRST SURVEYS Most of the earliest explorers of Oakland county came in by way of Mount Clemens and the Clinton river, the year I8I9 being one of the busiest of the very early period. The pioneers followed close on the heels of the government surveyors. Among the latter who saw the country in the pioneer times of which we write were Colonel Joseph Wampler and Captain Henry Parke, and to the latter the author is indebted for an interesting picture which will be presented later. Virtually, the dates of land entries fix the dates of settlement, as most of those who entered land did so for the purpose of founding homes and not to hold it for "speculation." Mr. O. Poppleton has made the most complete synopsis of those who located the first lands in the different townships, and his list is often published without giving him due credit. It was first given in his address before the Oakland County Pioneer Society February 20, I889. From the date of Pontiac's abandoning the siege of Detroit, in 1764, to the time of ordering the survey of the county by the surveyor general, in I815, I find in my researches but little authoritative historical interest," he says. "But in my investigations of the early surveys in the state and county I find it replete with interest. From the old records I learn that the first surveys in the territory of which we find any public record were made by Aaron Greely of 'Private Land Claims' on St. Clair, Detroit and Rouge rivers in the winter of 1809 and from July to November, I8Io. The first surveys upon the meridian line were made by Benjamin Hough in the fall of 1815, from the north line of town 3 west, in Jack

Page  31 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 31 son county, south to the Ohio state line. The first surveys on the base line were east of town 5 east, in Livington county, to Lake St. Clair, by Alexander Holmes, in 1815. The earliest subdivisions of townships are given in the order as surveyed, viz.: In March, 1817, town I north, range Io east, Southfield; in April, I818, towns I and 2 north, range I east, Royal Oak and Troy, by Joseph Wampler; in May, 1817, town I north, range 9 east, Farmington, by Samuel Carpenter. LOCATIONS UNDER THE "Two DOLLAR" ACT Entries under the "credit" system or the "two dollar act" were made in the townships of the county as follows: Waterford, Independence, Southfield, Bloomfield, Pontiac, Orion, Troy, Avon, Oakland and Royal Oak, commencing October 24, 1818, by Moses Allen in Orion, of the southwest quarter, section 32, the first location of land in the county. The second location was made by John Hersey of the southeast quarter, section Io, in Avon, November Io, I818. The third was made by Joseph Watson of the District of Columbia, of the east one-half and northwest quarter of section 35, in Pontiac, November 30, i8i8. Stephen Mack, who has had credit for the first entry in the township, did not locate until September 19, i8i8, nineteen days after that made by Joseph Watson. The fourth location was made by John Montieth of the southwest quarter of section 3, in Southfield, December 15, i8i8. The fifth was made by Austin E. Wing, of the northeast one-quarter of section 29, in Bloomfield, December 23, I818. Mr. Wing was afterwards elected a delegate in congress from the territory to the Nineteenth, Twentieth and Twenty-Second congresses. Mr. Wing accompanied General Cass on one of his explorations through Oakland, Genesee and Saginaw counties. Passing through Bloomfield they camped on the banks of Wing lake, which now bears his name and where he located the land mentioned. The sixth location was by Archibald Phillips, of the east one-half and southwest one-quarter of section 29, in Independence, February 6, I8I9. The seventh was by William Thurber, of the northwest quarter of section 6, Royal Oak, February 4, 18I9. The eighth was by John Hamilton, J. W. Hunter, Lemuel Castle and Joseph Fairbanks, of the northwest quarter of section 19, in Troy, February 12, 18I9. A The ninth was by Ephraim Williams, of the north one-half of section 13 in Waterford, February I8, I819, bordering on the banks of Silver lake, being the homestead of Major Oliver Williams, father of Ephraim S., Gardner D., Alfred, Alpheus, Benjamin 0., James, Mrs. Stephens, Mrs. Mary Hodges and Mrs. Harriet Walker. The tenth was by Benjamin Woodworth and William Russell, on section 33, in Oakland, February I8, 1819. Numerous other locations were made in the ten townships under the "credit" or "two dollar act" until July, I820, when the law passed by

Page  32 )82 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY congress reduciing the price to $1.25 per acre, advance payment, took effect. THE "TEN SHIILIING" ACT The first entry made under this act in the county.was by Davis Stanard, July 3, 1820, of the northeast quarter of section 4, in Bloomfield. The second was by Joel Weelman, July 3, 1820, of the one-half southeast quarter of section 33, in Avon. Colonel Stanard was a popular hotel keeper in those early days of pioneer life and dispensed to the traveling public with a liberal hand choice venison, fresh fish, Ohio hog and Kentucky Bourbon, and later in life imbibed too freely himself for weak eyes. When remonstrated with by his attending physician for so doing and told that he must stop drinking any stimulant or lose his eyes, he replied: "Then good-bye, eyes." There are a few pioneers here today who knew the Colonel well, and no doubt have partaken of his good cheer, not omitting old bourbon. At the opening of the land offices in Michigan, the public lands were offered at auction, and such as were not sold were subject to sale to individuals at two dollars an acre, one-fourth to be paid down, the remainder in one, two and three years with interest. And all the lands which were entered previous to the 3d day of July, I820, were purchased under this act. GREVAT EVENT FOR THE PIONEER LAND OWNER iAt the risk of repetition, here and there, we add facts along this line compiled by Judge Drake, as follows: On the 23d of April, 1820, congress passed an act authorizing the sale of public lands at $I.25 an acre, payments in full at the time of the purchase. This was the great event in the history of Michigan, and indeed of the whole western country. It put an end to that system of vassalage under which the purchasers of public lands had labored. The purchaser became at once the absolute owner of the soil. Every act of improvement was made to benefit him or his children. There was a feeling of certainty in his labors, and in his possessions which was more than wealth. If death overtook the pioneer in his first efforts, the agony of parting from his wife and children was half removed. When he turned upon them the last living gaze and beheld their little forms gathering around his dying bed, he was consoled with the thought that the land on which he had toiled was theirs. No exacting landlord could claim it as forfeited for payments deferred. From the passing of that act, the growth and prosperity of Michigan became a certainty, and the increase of population was surprising. TowN OF PONTIAC SETTLED Ezra Baldwin, Job Smith, John W. Hunter, David Johnson, Oliver Levi Willetts, Joseph Fairbanks, William Morris, Lemuel Castle, Joseph Torry, Daniel Ferguson, Ziba Swan, John Hamilton, Amaza Bagley, Almy and Asa Castle were among the first settlers in town 3 north, range o1 east, called Pontiac.

Page  33 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 33 The first entry of lands was made by Col. Stephen Mack for the Pontiac Company. On the 6th day of November, I818, he entered section 29, and the northeast quarter of section 33, soon after the north half and the southwest quarter of 28, and finally the southeast quarter of 20, on which the company laid out the village in I818. On the south side of the river and on the west side of the Saginaw road, was the great Indian camping ground, where all the Indians used to stop on their way to and from Detroit. In town 2 north, range II east, called Troy, the first lands were purchased by Castle, Hunter, Hamilton and Fairbanks. On the i2th of February, I819, they bought a part of section 19. On the 22d of October, 1819, Ezra Baldwin entered a part of section I8; Michael Kemp on the 25th of November, I819, a part of section 3, and on the 7th of December, I819, Michael Beech a part of section 8. In the years 1820, 1821 and 1822, John Prindle, George Abbey, Joshua Davis, Ebenezer Belding, S. V. R. Trowbridge, Jesse Perrin, P. J. Perrin, Luther Fletcher, Aaron Webster, Stillman Bates, William Wellman, A. W. Wellman, Silas Glazier, Guy Phelps, Johnson Niles, John Waldron, Edward Downer, Ira Jennings, Humphrey Adams and S. Sprague, became purchasers, and were among the early settlers. The second lot, which was entered under the "ten shilling act" was by Joel Wellman, in Troy, a part of section 3. The gentle sloping surface of the country-the majestic growth of timber, the dark, rich soil, attracted many settlers to that town, and the whole was settled with unrivalled rapidity. And now the nicely painted houses, and well cultivated farms show how accurately the pioneer judged, and how well the earth has repaid him for his labor. AVON AND WHITE LAKE In town 3, north range I I east, now called Avon, the first lands were entered on the 29th of October, I818. In 1819, A. E. Wing, T. C. Sheldon, Solomon Sibley, James Abbott, Daniel LeRoy, Alexander Graham, William Williams, J. Baldwin, D. Bronson, J. Myers, Ira Roberts, Nathaniel Baldwin, George Postal, William Thompson, John Miller and Isaac Willetts entered land; in 1821, Cyrus A. Chipman and Frederick A. Sprague; in 1822, Champlin Green, Gad Norton, William Burbank, and Smith Weeks. It was in this town that the seeds of civilization were first planted in the county of Oakland, as has previously been narrated at some length. In town 3, north of range 8 east, now called White Lake, the first entry was made by Harley Olmstead, of Monroe county, New York, on the 7th day of October, 1830; he entered a part of section 36. In 1832 Joseph Voorheis and Jesse Seeley purchased. Thomas Garner, John Garner, C. C. Wyckoff and John Rhodes also bought land and were among the early settlers in that town. "In 1829," says Judge Drake, "while searching for the headwaters of the Shiawassee river, I traveled over the most of the town, visited the shores of that beautiful sheet of water from which the town derives its name, and the charming plain on which now stands the village of White Lake, then clothed in the gorgeous Vol. I-3

Page  34 34 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY dye of autumnal flowers, presented one of the most magnificent views of uncultivated landscape." SPRINGFIELD AND GROVELAND In town 4, north of range 8 east, now called Springfield, on the g9th of July, 1830, Daniel LeRoy made the first entry. He purchased on section I9, including the Petit Lafountain or Little Springs. This place had a wide renown. It was the resting place of the trader and trapper, of the red man as well as the white man when on his journey to and from Saginaw and other places in the northern wilderness. Immediately after the LeRoy purchase the place was occupied by Asahel Fuller. In 1833 Giles Bishop, O. Powell, John M. Calkins and Jonah Gross purchased. In town 5, north of range 8 east, now called Groveland, on the 3d day of September, I829, William Roberts, then of the county of Oakland, made the first purchase. On the 29th of May, I830, John Underhill, E. W. Fairchild and M. W. Richards bought land. In I830 Henry W. Horton purchased at a point then known as Pleasant Valley, and in 1831, Franklin Herrick, Alexander Galloway and Constant Southworth became land owners. Mr. Southworth settled on a famous spot on the old Saginaw trail known in those days as the Big Springs. Those who have taken the trouble to descend from the roadside to the spring of water will bear testimony to its great beauty. It was ever held in great veneration by the Indians, and they seldom passed it without refreshing themselves. Those who have looked into that crystal fountain and beheld the sparkling water as it came bubbling up from the secret chambers of the earth, will not wonder that the redman saw in the aqueous mirror the Chemanito, or Great Spirit. FARMINGTON AND WEST BLOOMFIELD In town I, north of range 9 east, now called Farmington, Eastman Colby, of Monroe county, New York, made the first entry; on the I2th of October, 1822, he entered a part of section 14. In January, I823, Arthur Power purchased. In the same year G. W. Collins, William B. Cogshall, Peleg S. Utley, Benjamin Wixom, Timothy Allen, Leland Green, Abraham Aldrich made purchases and among them were the first settlers in that town. In town 2, north of range 9 east, now called West Bloomfield, James Harrington, of Cayuga county, New York, made the first purchase on the I5th of May, 1823, entering the entire section 36. The same year Rufus R. Robinson, Erastus Durkee, John Huff, Benjamin Irish, Edward Ellerby, Benjamin Leonard and William Annett purchased, and John Huff bought a tract on the south side of Pine lake and erected the first house in that part of the town. William Annett purchased a part of section 22, his wife died at an early day, the old gentleman lived on the farm and cultivated it until his death. It was long afterward owned by his only child, Mrs. Hartwell Green.

Page  35 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 35 WATERFORD AND INDEPENDENCE In town 3, north of range 9 east, now called Waterford, Major Oliver Williams, called by the Indians, Togee, settled on the west bank of Silver lake, in I819, on section 13. His brother-in-law, Alpheus Williams and Captain Archibald Phillips, settled early at the crossing on the Clinton river, where the village of Waterford now stands and erected there a sawmill as early as 1824. David Mayo purchased on the 25th of September, 1821; Captain Chesley Blake, Harvey Durfee and Austin Durfee in 1822; Harvey Seeley, John S. Porter, Samuel Hungerford, W. M. Tappan, Thaddeus Alvord, Charles Johnston and Joseph Voorheis, in I823. In town 4, north of range 9 east, now called Independence, Alpheus Williams made the first purchase on the Ioth of October, 1823. The point was well known to the Indians, and by them called Saepee. In I819, Major Joseph Todd, William Lester and Orrison Allen, were residents in the village; in the same year Calvin Hotchkiss and Jeremiah Allen entered lands, and Judah Church in I820. In 1821 Abner Davis, Eastman Colby, Alexander Galloway, Rufus Clark, Enoch Hotchkiss and James Harrington purchased; and these men, with G. W. Butson, John Edson, Joshua S. Terry, Joseph Harris, Stephen Reeves and Capt. Joseph Bancroft, were among the early settlers of the town of Pontiac. ORION AND OXFORD In town 4 north, range Io east, now called Orion, Judah Church and John Wetmore made the first purchase; on the I8th of October, 1819, they purchased a lot on section I9, being the first choice, in what was known as the Big Pinery. In 1824, Moses Munson, Powell Carpenter, Jesse Decker, Phillip Bigler, Jonathan Pinckney and Simeon Simmons purchased. Alexander McVean, David Bagg, John McElvery and Daniel McVean, were among the early settlers. In town 5 north, range Io east, called Oxford, the first purchase was made by Elbridge G. Deming, on the 28th of January 1823. But few inhabitants settled in this town until 1833, when Joseph Rossman, Fitz Rossman, John Shippy, John Wellman and S. Axford purchased. Daniel Applegate, Jeremiah Hunt, Jutish Bixley and Messrs. Van Wagoners were among the early settlers. The plains about the village of Oxford were passed over by those seeking for farms for many years; and places less valuable were settled in the far off forests, under the supposition that those were valueless for agricultural purposes. Thus one of the best portions of the county remained uncultivated till a late period. ROYAL OAK AND TROY In town I north, range I east, called Royal Oak, L. Luther and D. McKinstry made the first entry; on the 6th of July, 1820, they entered a part of section 33. In 1821, Henry Stephens, Alexander Camp

Page  36 36 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY bell, Diodate Hubbard, Abraham Noyes, J. Goddard, Hezekiah Gridly, James Lockwood and David Williams, and they, together with Henry O. Bronson, Daniel Burrows, Mr. Chase, Mr. Morse and that eccentric old lady, Mrs. Chappel, well known by the soubriquet of Mother Handsome, were among the first settlers. In 1826, John W. Beardsley purchased on the Chesse-bau plains, where he resided for many years afterward. Henry T. Sanderson purchased in I833. In 1831 Melvin Dorr, and Butler Holcomb bought lands, about where stands the village of Clarkston, and erected there, on the east branch of the Clinton river, a sawmill. BRANDON, SOUTHFIELD AND BLOOMFIELD In town 5, north range 9 east, called Brandon, Elijah B. Clark, Asa Owen and Jesse Decker made the first purchase on the 3oth of June, 1831, and entered a part of section 25. In 1833, John Perry, Alexander G. Huff and Mary Quick purchased, and in 1835, G. M. Giddings, Henry Forbes and Daniel Hunt entered lands. But few entries were made in this town before I836. In town I north, range Io east, first organized as Ossewa, but now called Southfield, the first entry of lands were made by John Wetmore in May, 1821. In the same year Peter Dennoyer and John Monteith purchased, and in 1822 Harry Brownson, Samuel Shattuck and Eli Curtis. Dillucena Stoughton, Elijah Bullock, Edward Cook, Philo Reed, John Davis, William Lee, were among the early settlers of the town. In town 2 north, range Io east, called Bloomfield, the first entry of lands was made on the 28th of January, I819, by Benjamin H. Pierce. March I6, I829, Peter Dennoyer entered a lot, and on the 3d day of July, 1820, Col. David Stannard entered a part of section 4. The Stannard entry was the first made in Michigan under what was called the "ten shilling" act.

Page  37 CHAPTER V PICTURES OF THE PAST HERVEY PARKE COMES TO OAKLAND COUNTY-BLOOMFIELD AND ROYAL OAK IN I82I-INFANT VILLAGE OF PONTIAC-GOVERNOR WISNER AND HIS MULLET STORY-BECOMES HORATIO BALL'S ASSISTANT-JOSEPH WAMPLER'S ASSIGNED TERRITORY-A SURVEYOR'S HARDSHIPS-RETURNS WITH HIS FAMILY-BIRTHPLACE OF JOHN H. PARKE-HOMESTEAD AT LAST-SURVEYS FROM PONTIAC-RUNNING LINES UNDER DIFFICULTIES-FRESH TRAILS OF THE BLACK HAWK WAR-BETWEEN SAGINAW BAY AND LAKE HURON-SURVEYS IN BLACK HAWK RESERVATION, IOWA-ANOTHER IOWA CONTRACT-CAPTAIN PARKE'S RECAPITULATION-RECOLLECTIONS OF BENJAMIN O. WILLIAMS-INDIAN NEAR DEATH-DEAR OLD OAKLAND, THE BEST OF ALL-A PICTURE OF MEMORY (BY JOHN M. NORTON)-ADVENT OF THE PIONEERRAILROAD AS A FUN-MAKER-THE LIFE BEQUEATHED BY THE PIONEERS-FIFTY YEARS AGO AND NOW (BY S. B. MCCRACKEN)CONTRASTS OF LIFE-"GRANNY" MCCRACKEN-FATHER AND MOTHER MCCRACKEN-THE SCHOOLS OF FIFTY YEARS AGO-MORMON VISITATION OF 1832-AUBURN AND THE YOUNG PIONEERS. In the previous chapter mention has been made of the first settlers and land owners in the various sections and townships of Oakland county. In this chapter, the author is pleased to present, through the papers of several well known pioneers, pictures which are principally drawn from experience and observation "on the spot." HERVEY PARKE COMES TO OAKLAND COUNTY The first contribution is taken from papers read before the County Pioneer Society in 1874 and I876, by Captain Hervey Parke, the oldtime surveyor whose name has already appeared a number of times in the course of the historical narrative. His first paper is entitled "Recollections of My First Tour in Michigan in I82I," and such selections are taken from it as appear to be most pertinent. Captain Parke was teaching in Oneida county, New York, at the time, but like many enterprising young men had studied surveying and wanted to see the west. Despite the discouraging reports regarding Michigan, which had reached the east through the surveyors' reports, he determined to investigate for himself, and on the 2Ist of March, 1821, in company with Treat 37

Page  38 38 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Bryant and John Simons, started on his journey of five hundred miles, carrying a knapsack containing his surveying instruments and enough other contents to weigh forty-five pounds. After sixteen days of travel through mud and water, often knee deep, the three young men reached Detroit river and crossed over to the city in a rowboat. In Detroit Captain Parke had his first view of the Steamboat Hotel, kept by Benjamin Woodworth, who was to figure considerably in Oakland county affairs, and also passed the store of Oliver Newberry, in whose employ he was to meet Elisha Beach, a future citizen of Pontiac. The travelers did not linger in the metropolis, at this time, but were soon in the highway which led into the interior toward the northwest and Oakland county. The last of the three small houses which they passed before fairly striking the wilderness of southern Michigan, was about nine miles from Detroit, and was occupied by Mrs. Chappel, more familiarly known as Mother Handsome. Here they found shelter for the night. About half a mile beyond, when they resumed their journey in the morning, they reached the causeway built by the troops under Colonel Leavenworth in I8I8. This was a little less than a mile in length and pronounced by Captain Parke as "the worst ever built, as no regard was paid to equalizing the size of the logs, the largest and the smallest lying side by side. BLOOMFIELD AND ROYAL OAK IN 1821 "At the angle of the road, twelve miles from Detroit, we passed the Royal Oak tree, which had nothing remarkable in its appearance, but was known as the point from which Horatio Ball had started the line when surveying the road to Pontiac, known as the Ball line road. This angle also was the point of intersection of Paint Creek road; a Mr. Woodford lived about a mile beyond. A little south of the line between the towns of Bloomfield and Royal Oak two families by the name of Keyser and Thurber had settled. Reaching the beautiful table-land where is now situated the village of Birmingham, we found four families: Elisha Hunter, his son, John W. Hunter, John Hamilton and Elijah Willets-the latter, inn-keeper. Here I got my first glimpse of the lovely land of Oakland county. Three-fourths of a mile this side of Hunter's lived Dr. Swan and his son-in-law, Sidney Dole, who was justice of the peace, register of deeds and county clerk. The next house was that of Deacon Elijah Fish, and on the hill just south of where now is Bloomfield Center, resided Amasa Bagley and his son-inlaw, William Morris, the latter being sheriff of the county. "The next settler was a Mr. Ferguson, whose neighbors, if living, may remember him from the remark he made after the nomination of Austin E. Wing, as delegate to congress in 1824 or 1825. Ferguson was a Whig, and, disputing with a Democrat who asserted Wing could never be elected, replied: 'He will surely be elected, for the very whippoorwills sing "vote for Wing, vote for Wing."' Well, Wing was elected, took his seat in congress, and performed his duty nobly for the young territory. "Major Joseph Todd lived on the farm since known as the Elliott

Page  39 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 39 farm, and near by Asa B. Hadsel. The next house, a half-mile further, was that of Colonel David Stanard, a small framed house, being the same Joseph J. Todd occupied about forty-five years, having added to its length and height. INFANT VILLAGE OF PONTIAC "About one and a half miles through the woods we approached the village of Pontiac, where we found a small framed house on the west side of Saginaw street, nearly opposite where the Methodist church now stands, occupied by Mr. Terry. Crossing the bridge, on the corner of Saginaw and Water streets, we found a small log house, the first erected in the village, and a little beyond and on the east side of Saginaw street (if my memory serves me), O. Bartlett lived in a small framed house. These were the only buildings at this time (June I, 1821) on Saginaw street. This street being well filled with hazel brush, Water street received the travel to Perry street. On the west side of the latter street, between Pike and Lawrence, were three houses, one occupied by Deacon Orisen Allen, and a little beyond on the east side of Perry street, nearly opposite the grist mill, stood a double log house called the 'Company house,' and occupied by Colonel Stephen Mack, agent of the Pontiac company. In addition to the grist mill there was a sawmill and work shop. On the first Monday in June, my first visit to the village, a militia training was in full blast; John W. Hunter commanded the one and only company north of the base line in Michigan territory. On this day the company was divded and a new company formed by electing the late Colonel Calvin Hotchkiss captain. Proceeding northwest on the road occasionally traveled to Saginaw, distant about a mile from the village, Captain Stanley lived on what has more recently been known as the Pier farm, on the present White Lake road. GOVERNOR WISNER AND HIS "MULLET" STORY "The Indian trail from Detroit to Saginaw, which decided the location of Pontiac, crossed the Clinton at the same point as the present bridge on Saginaw street; turned northerly toward the company house, then bore northwesterly, keeping east of the extensive marsh just beyond the residence of the late Governor Wisner, then turned in a northwesterly direction, crossing the Pontiac creek a few rods northwest of the present crossing on the Saginaw road. Oliver Williams, on the southwest side of Silver lake was the next home, three and one-half miles from Pontiac. He had removed to this place from Detroit in 1818; he built the first farm barn in the county, the lumber for enclosing it being manufactured by a couple of Frenchmen from Detroit, with a whip saw. "Mr. Wisner kept open house, and in passing and re-passing to Flint river, in 1821, I invariably called. He was a real gentleman, social, good-natured, remarkably generous and hospitable, and fond of a good story. I well remember late one evening in December, 1821, in returning with our surveying party from Flint, after fording the Clinton at

Page  40 40 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY the little pinery, with the thermometer at zero, when nearly off our legs, we reached and were most kindly cared for in this most hospitable home. During one of my calls I inquired if there were many fish in Silver lake; he replied he could not say in regard to numbers, but he once hauled out a mullet that weighed one hundred and forty pounds. This rather surprised me, and while reflecting, not wishing to dispute his veracity, he observed my embarrassment as to the remark being somewhat fishy, and explained that a brother of John Mullett, the surveyor, was once fishing there, and falling into the lake was rescued by Mr. Williams. In those days of easy familiarity, he was known by the cognomen of Major Togee, and once at a social party at Dr. Chipman's, Mrs. Chipman desiring to address him by his title, and in the excitement of the occasion being forgetful of the same, said 'Major Hot Toddy, Major Hot Toddy!' About four miles beyond O. Williams, and at the crossing of the Indian trail on the Clinton, resided Alpheus Williams and Captain Archibald Phillips, where a sawmill had been erected, and at this time was in operation. BECOMES HORATIO BALL'S ASSISTANT "But I will now return to my temporary home at Captain John Hunter's, of whose kindness, together with that of his excellent wife, long since gone to her reward, I cannot too highly speak. Here I made the acquaintance of Horatio Ball, son of Daniel Ball, who lived three-fourths of a mile southwest of Hunter's. He had received a contract for subdividing ten townships of land between Flint and Cass rivers. I arranged to accompany him as assistant, to carry the compass half of the time. He was waiting for the completion of the town lines, which had been assigned to a young man by the name of Hester. We were soon informed he had aone nothing after having discovered an Indian wigwam near a small lake, and, as he was accompanied by his dogs and was otherwise prepared for a winter's hunt, had decided to pass the winter in this pleasant locality and avoid the swamps. In a week's time every man of his party had left him, while he was taking lessons of the Indians in hunting and of the squaws in moccasin making. Here he remained during the winter. The next June he was seen passing through Pontiac on horseback, accompanied by about a dozen natives of both sexes, to make his report to the surveyor general at Chillicothe, and also to his father for $600 cash advanced. JOSEPH WAMPLER'S ASSIGNED TERRITORY "Hester having thus failed in fulfilling his contract, the work was assigned to Joseph Wampler, of Ohio (the surveyor who sub-divided ranges Io and I I in Oakland county). We set off for our work on the 13th of June, arriving at Flint river before Wampler returned from Saginaw bay. The heavy rains had swollen the river to nearly full banks, and as there was no way of crossing we started up the river to the Kearsley, where we felled a suitable pine, about sixteen feet of which we removed from the main body of the tree and shaped it canoe

Page  41 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 41 like, digging out the same so far as could be done with axes and made it answer our purpose, and we floated it down the river and landed it on the north side, where the city of Flint is now located. Here we found Jake Smith, called 'Wabaseis' by the Indians, who had been an Indian trader for several years and who had recently received the appointment of Indian farmer. He had built a comfortable log house a few rods below the present railroad bridge. This was occupied by Smith, a white man, with his mother and sister; also by a man by the name of Doane. The two men at this time (the middle of June) were hoeing corn, with veiled faces on account of the mosquitoes. "After waiting about a week we were furnished with the field notes, and commenced our work in town 7 north, of range 7 east. After a week's work we returned to the trading house, when soon after Wampler and his party came in, the men utterly refusing to continue longer on account of the suffering they had endured from the mosquitoes, both men and horses being weak from loss of blood and want of rest. Owing to the discontinuance of the township lines survey, we were compelled to discontinue our work and we decided to accompany Wampler's party to Pontiac. During the remainder of the season I made my home with Mr. Hunter, and occasionally accompanied a land-looker. "Early in autumn Wampler returned to Flint river to finish his work, and our party followed for the purpose of finishing our work, in October. A SURVEYOR'S HARDSHIPS "This occupied about sixty days, and from the experience of Ball and the miserable outfits, we suffered both from hunger and cold. We had no tents, only an old second-hand tarpaulin, which had been laid aside as useless for hatchway service. In the absence of a kneading trough, our cook made use of this piece of canvas to mix his bread. This was unfortunate, for on our first visit to the trading house some swine, attracted by the adhering dough, nearly devoured and entirely destroyed it, and we had now no cover besides our blankets. Our provisions were inadequate; we were frequently reduced to a short allowance of only buggy peas, and at one time, when weak from want of food, we found a wigwam where a squaw was cooking succotash, which she kindly divided with us. This occurred on the last day of our survey, while meandering the river. Closing our work on the line of the reserve at sunset and following up the river, forcing our way through thick beds of rushes knee high, at about 9 o'clock we reached Smith's tradinghouse, so hungry from several days' short allowance that we took the.potatoes from the kettle half boiled. I must not forget to mention the names of the men who formed this surveying party. Besides Ball and myself, there were Rufus Stevens, Michael Beach, Chester Webster, and a young man from the Emerald Isle, named Pool. "During the sub-division of town 9 north, of range 6 east, we encountered the most terrible gale of wind I ever witnessed in the woods of Michigan. The trees crackled and fell in all directions close around us. It was on the same night the 'Walk-in-the-Water' lav off Buffalo, deeply laden for Detroit. Captain Rodgers, after discovering the open

Page  42 42 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY ing seams of the steamer, and realizing the impending danger, very properly gave the order to slip the cable, releasing her, and she went on shore. "We finished our work on the last of December, and I decided to accompany Mr. Ball to Chillicothe, Ohio, where he made his returns to the surveying general's office. In addition to letters I already possessed from Governor Clinton, of New York, and from Judge Wright, chief engineer of the Erie canal, I had procured one from Governor Cass, who recommended me from the fact I intended making Michigan my home. Starting on our journey, when a little way below Detroit, we were fortunate in obtaining passage with an Ohio farmer, who had just made sale of his butter and cheese in Detroit. Landing at Sandusky, we footed it to Chillicothe. Presenting my letters, which proved satisfactory, he promised me future work. The purpose of my visit to Michigan being accomplished, and arrangements for future employment as government surveyor perfected, I immediately returned to my home, where I arrived on the I4th of February, having been absent eleven months." RETURNS WITH His FAMILY As stated, during his first visit to Michigan, Captain Parke made arrangements with Edward Tiffin, surveyor general of Ohio, Indiana and Michigan, to return in 1822 to continue his work. In May of that year he started for the west with his wife and child from his home in Camden, New York, and journeyed by the Erie canal and lake steamer. After being delayed for about a week by a severe gale, the family took the steamer "Superior" from Buffalo to Sandusky. "Putting into Sandusky as usual to receive passengers," continues the narrative, "I met Judge Burt for the first time, direct from the surveyor general's office. Arriving at Detroit I met John Hamilton, with whom I formed an acquaintance the previous year. He was provided with an ox-team and being in pursuit of a load, I engaged him to take me to my journey's end. "It was late before we left the city; we did not reach the angle of the road (six miles) until nearly sunset. At this point begins the causeway, constructed by the United States troops when garrisoned at Detroit under the command of Colonel Leavenworth.* * "Arriving at White's tavern, their beds were occupied, but Mrs. White spread a few blankets on the floor where we slept as soundly as the swarming mosquitoes would permit. "In the morning Hamilton came up and we again mounted the wagon, going smoothly along over the plains to the angle of the Paint creek road, where then stood the famous oak tree. The numerous pitchholes made riding so uncomfortable we were glad to get out and walk the remaining five miles to Mr. J. W. Hunter's place of residence. Here we received such a welcome as only himself and family could give, and we were invited to remain several weeks with them. During this time Mr. and Mrs. Hunter visited their eastern home, leaving us in charge of their family of young daughters. *This piece of road has already been described.

Page  43 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 43 BIRTHPLACE OF JOHN H. PARKE "On their return home he offered me the use of the shop, as he called it, an unfinished log house, built but not used for blacksmithing purposes, which he said I would be quite welcome to occupy. Doors, windows and floors were soon put in, and we moved into our first home in the west. There, in 1823, my only son, John H. Parke, was born. Our furniture consisted of a table made by myself from a rough board, and chairs which my brother-in-law, Harry Brownson, who came soon after myself, built with his ax out of rough timber. "These articles, with our beds and bedding, several trunks and a small stock of clothing, comprised all my worldly possessions. I will not neglect to add that $8.50 in cash remained, and I was at this time in my thirty-third year. Of course the strictest economy was necessary, but my hopes were bright. I was in perfect health and all the preliminaries for the future work in surveying public lands entered into the previous year. "It being time I was on the move for family supplies, when, with the asistance of a friend, I raised a sum sufficient, added to the above, and set out on foot for Detroit, encountering mud, water, flies and mosquitoes. "Cattle drovers from Ohio were the chief dependence of the pioneers, but finding none at the time, I bought a fine looking new milch cow from a Frenchman, which proved to be so ungovernable as to require two men to hold and milk her, until I made a pen so constructed that she could neither turn, go ahead, or back out, and the milking could be performed by a single person. After this I made another purchase of a cow at the administrator's sale of the estate of Webster, in the fall of 1824. "Whether Mr. Webster died in 1822, or 1823, I am unable to say. He came as passenger in the steamer 'Superior' in May, 1822, with the mill-irons on board, when it was said that Burtt & Allen, millwrights, were set at work and the sawmill was put in running order at Auburn, called Smith's mill. After the death of Mr. Webster the real estate passed into the hands of the father of Captain Isaac Smith. "At the time of my arrival at Hunter's the settlement (now Birmingham) contained four log dwellings, occupied by Elijah Willetts, John W. Hunter, Elisha Hunter, his father, and John Hamilton. "In the fall of 1822 my brother, Dr. Ezra S. Parke, having recently completed his medical studies, arrived with his wife and one child, an infant daughter, who afterward became the wife of M. W. Kelsey. He was an earnest, zealous Christian, member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and soon after his arrival commenced holding occasional religious services in his own house on Sunday afternoon. On these occasions the singing was principally performed by his wife, who was remarkable for her rich, sweet voice, as well as many other lovely Christian graces. The early settlers and other friends can never forget this excellent woman; her cheerfulness of temper in all circumstances. Her kindness and sympathy in sickness and affliction were unsurpassed. She literally went about doing good. These meetings were the first held in the neighborhood, with the exception of a sermon I heard in 1821, in Wil

Page  44 44 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY lett's barroom, by a Methodist minister who came up the Rouge and whose name I do not remember. "I could get but little employment during the summer. Occasionally I assisted emigrants in land-looking and surveying, but endeavored to wait patiently for the fulfillment of the promise which had been given me. Early in the winter I received the place of teacher in the school on Swan's Plains, where I continued until February, when a letter from Mr. Mullett, of Detroit, proposed our visiting Chillicothe together that we might soon procure the promised contract. "I resigned my place in the school to my brother, Dr. Parke, and soon arranged with Mr. M. for our journey. Our outfit consisted of a French pony, a jumper rudely constructed with a crockery crate for a box (this half filled with straw) and a couple of blankets, not forgetting a saddle; and we were soon gliding down on the ice of the Detroit river to Sandusky. Here we left the jumper, saddled the pony, and proceeded on our journey-one riding and the other walking. After going a certain distance, the horseman would dismount, hitch the pony to a sapling, and proceed, taking his turn in walking, while his companion after a time would pass him on horseback, and in the proper place, he, too, would dismount and hitch, and the journey was concluded on this ride-and-tie principle. "Our interview with the general was most satisfactory. The oath of office was administered and each received a contract. Mr. M. and myself were the first appointed from this territory, except Mr. Ball, who filled one contract of ten townships in I82I. In a year or two William Brockfield, of Detroit, received a contract. Others were furnished work soon after." HOMESTEAD AT LAST From this time on, Captain Parke's duties as surveyor took him into various sections of Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa, his professional labors covering some sixteen years. His home, however, was in the township of Pontiac. "In the autumn of 1823," he says in his second narrative, "I purchased of Shubael Conant, the southeast quarter of section 33 in the township of Pontiac, at a little less than three dollars per acre. The following year I added thirty-one acres on the north and adjoining the same at five dollars per acre. The year previous, however, I purchased of the same sixteen and a half acres to secure building ground, as the line of road from Detroit had cut off my former building ground and first purchase, the price being ten dollars, with the privilege of one, or as many acres as I chose. "In May, 1824, I was ready to take possession, when Judge LeRoy, who owned and occupied the house in which Joseph J. Todd has since resided about forty years, kindly offered me a room for the use of my family while my own house was building. This required the labor of three men besides myself for two weeks. The roof was covered with boards, battened with slabs, and as the house logs were cut in unequal lengths, when raised to their proper place they formed steps convenient for mounting the roof at the alarm of fire. The interior was quite com

Page  45 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY fortable and pleasant, the logs being hewn and partially covered with newspapers, the floor of white pine, and two doors, and windows opposite, of seven by nine glass; a wide, open fireplace, one side of which, in the corner, was a ladder for ascending the loft, where our friends found a comfortable bed. And soon after, for further convenience, especially for the aged, as it was difficult to ascend the ladder, and dangerous with all, I added to the rear of the house a room for their accommodation, and a sixteen by twenty room at the south end for a kitchen. "From the year 1824 up to December, 1829, I surveyed twenty-two townships, in addition to the foregoing, extending from the principal meridian to the west boundary of the large Indian reservation extending to Saginaw bay. In the fall and winter of I826-7, I subdivided six townships on Lookingglass river (Clinton county). This survey extended south and west to the north line of the township in which the state capital is located. "The Stevens family-father of Messrs, Rufus and Sherman Stevens -resided at Grand Blanc, and from this place I packed my provisions; finishing my district the I5th of January, I arrived home in the evening and my wife, on the lookout, having heard of my arrival at the village, met me at the door, welcoming me and presenting to my arms our infant daughter, aged six weeks. This, my youngest child, became the wife of ILevi Bacon, Jr. It was a joyful meeting of the family, I having been absent sixty-two days. SURVEYS FROM PONTIAC "The last week in December, 1829, three surveyors, Clark, Thomas, and Christmas, left Pontiac on a surveying tour west from Saginaw, myself following them a day or two after, my work being twelve townships, from towns I to I8, north from the meridian, east to the reservation above mentioned on the Kankanin river, having engaged Phillip Bigler to transport my provisions to Saginaw, where I made headquarters. Proceeding on the ice of the Saginaw and Tittabawassee rivers to the line of township 12 on the west side of the Tittabawassee river, the snow full knee deep at every step rendered our work slow and tedious, when, before we were aware of it, we found ourselves running a line in the Forks reservation, causing much delay in our work in hunting the lines when backing out for this purpose. Succeeding in this, our work went on at the rate of four or five miles a day only, as the lines were to be walked over the second time; continuing at this rate only throughout the winter, not losing a day on account of the weather until the 8th of April, we started out as usual as soon as it was light. RUNNING LINES UNDER DIFFICULTIES "The wind, rising as the sun rose, increased, and as the treetops were loaded with snow, filled the air, so that we were compelled to return to camp, where we remained two days. When hearing from Thomas, it was said he was about at the point of discouragement

Page  46 46 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY in not being able to find his starting point, this being his first experience in the woods, when he sang out 'I will give any man fifty dollars that will show me my starting point.' "'Will you give me that?' said Chester Goodrich, who had been through one surveying tour with Mr. Mullett. "The next I heard was that Christmas had gone to the settlement and had engaged board for himself with Mr. O. Williams for the winter, leaving two men to keep camp at half pay. Thomas had found his corner, had become stimulated with courage, declaring that he would leave his bones in the woods sooner than leave his work. I never heard whether Chester had received the fifty dollars. "The snow disappeared and warm weather succeeded, the men composing the three parties (for Christmas had now returned) suffered so extremely from inflamed and swollen feet that they were obliged to stop work and went to the forks of the river, where there was a trading house which was our base of supplies. A sub-chief soon brought me a letter from Clark, urging me also to discontinue work, in order to make it a general thing. I had already performed the full amount of my twelve townships, for Clark had been unable to reach me with his lines, and I had been necessitated to run several of his township lines. For eight weeks I had carried the compass with a badly crippled foot, the result of a frost bite, and, during the breaking up of the ice swamps, being compelled to wade a good share of the time in ice cold water. I suffered more than my pen can describe. Being in this position, and John Powel, my axeman, just taken lame, I acceded to the request and we were soon on our way to Pontiac. While traveling together Clark said, 'Parke, if we are ordered to complete our work, you must finish mine, for I would rather lose all I have done than return here.' During this winter we had many hindrances to encounter. When encamped at the northwest corner of township 17 it was necessary to go to the northeast corner of the township to run the line west. "This corner had been previously established on the left bank of the Tittabawassee, when we mistook the Tobacco river for the Tittabawassee river, and sought nearly two days in a blinding snow storm, having passed the junction of the two rivers, when not able to see the corner on account of the brush covered with snow, having passed it several times during the second day. At night I told the boys we must have intersected some other stream, and in the morning we would continue east, when we would find the corner. "My expectations were realized, and we found the corner and a brush-built hut built by Steinbrook, in which he had been awaiting our arrival. Becoming impatient, he had left, probably for Saginaw. On his return, owing to the difficulties of passing through the brush, he rigged a kind of jumper, drawing it on the ice and attaching it to himself in such a manner as to disengage himself when breaking through the ice in deep water; but at one time he came near losing his life. "On another occasion, when returning from Saginaw with his jumper, discovering a pack of wolves feasting on a deer they had just drawn from an ice hole, he decided on sharing a portion of the deer with the

Page  47 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 47 wolves; and, when they growled and glared at him, hastily sprang upon them, yelling and waving his hat; they slowly retired a few steps, while he took a portion that was left, and retired. "Early in autumn, I830, we, the delinquent surveyors of the past year, were notified to go forward and complete our work without delay. When preparing outfits for another campaign in the Saginaw woods, Christmas made his appearance, being on his way to complete his unfinished work. "The two parties, his and my own, left Pontiac together, and when on our way he suggested assisting me in completing the three contracts on my hands. Arriving at Saginaw, the schooner from Detroit, on board of which were our supplies, had grounded on the river bar, causing delay and serious consequences for a time. "Through the kindness of the Messrs. E. F. and Gardner Williams, at Saginaw City, we were supplied with sufficient provisions for a single trip, as they were short, their supplies being on board of the same vessel. Dividing with Christmas and leaving part of my own for the next trip of the packer, Samuel Steinbrook, the parties proceeded together and recommenced work. The other packer went for supplies first, and as the schooner had not arrived my provisions were taken for the other party, Steinbrook being provided with two bags of potatoes, being all our friends, Messrs. Williams, could do for us. "I regretted, when too late, that I did not send Steinbrook with a letter demanding a share of the provisions stolen after dividing with the party. Potato diet, working twelve hours a day, was hardly sufficient. The third day, as we were running a line east, we met the packer, and never did the pony obtain relief so sudden as then. Every man had his pocket knife in requisition, sharpening sticks for broiling pork. "After this occurrence our work went on regularly, as there was no further delay for some time. Steinbrook, on his return, brought a letter from Christmas, desiring to know what I would give for the privilege of completing his work. I answered hini briefly: as for 'giving' for this privilege it was out of question, and, respecting the finishing of his work, no encouragement could I offer. "On the next return trip of the packer this surveyor had taken passage, leaving two men at camp, Eli Sawtels being one of them. Christmas, renewing his application, got my assistance in the further fulfillment of his contract. He had become broken down, discouraged, homesick and sick of the woods, to the shedding of tears, as he was pleading for assistance. "When out of pity to him I said, 'If you will finish the township in which you are engaged, I will complete the remainder (two townships) of your work.' It is not for me to say how I found his work had been performed, having but two men left to assist, the others having left for home. The following year I received a letter from him, stating his expenditures during the two trips exceeded the amount of his receipts ninety dollars. "I never heard from Thomas after his leaving the Saginaw woods. Clark dropped dead from apoplexy, with the compass under his arm,

Page  48 48 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY while extending a range line in the western part of the state in I836 or I837. "I will mention here that I finished the work of the two last named' surveyors in the Saginaw woods and marshes. "In the autumn of 1832 I left home for the purpose of subdividing fifteen townships in the lead mine district in Wisconsin. FRESH TRAILS OF THE BLACK HAWK WAR "This is remembered as the cholera year, and also the one which closed the Black Hawk war. A little cluster of whitewashed houses at the mouth of the Chicago river marked the site of the present great city. A little distance from this point we discovered fresh wagon tracks diverging from the main road which had been made by General Scott's little army in pursuit of Black Hawk and his warriors, which with the aid of a pocket compass for general course, we mainly followed. Our troops must have made about eleven miles a day in their march, as was indicated by their camping grounds, where we found traces of their fires, cast-off clothing and frequent new-made graves. Half a mile east of Rock river we first discovered where Black Hawk and his warriors had encamped three weeks previous, and took possession for one night only. In addition to the tent-poles were six or eight brush heaps twelve or fifteen feet in diameter, three or four feet high, the use of which considering their mode of warfare, we could not comprehend. "At sunrise we were by the river which was filled by new made, sharp, cutting ice, and the depth of the water was midriff to the pony. The poor animal had a hard time taking us all over. Erwin Tyler, the cook, being the smallest man, was selected as ferryman, and crossed and recrossed, carrying one man behind him each trip. From this point the character of the country changed from level to hilly, and reaching the height of ground we could distinctly see, looking ahead, three Indian trails, apparently six feet apart, indicating that the warriors marched in single file. The second day after crossing the river, we came across an Indian trader, rebuilding, the Indians having burned his house and from him obtained a fresh supply of provisions. Arriving at Mineral Point, met a son of General Dodge, from whom I engaged a good supply of smoked side pork, not needed for the troops, as the war had closed. I engaged flour at fourteen dollars per barrel. During our journey the weather had been warm and smoky, but the night of our arrival a terrible snow storm occurred, continuing thirty-six hours, with drifts fifteen to twenty feet high. This was discouraging, for in a prairie country the corners are made by raising mounds of earth two and one-half feet high; in the top a stake is driven and inscribed with marking-iron, denoting town, range and section. The weather was bitter cold and our labor severe, but with a spade and two-edged axe, we overcame all difficulties. "The month of February was pleasant and the honey bees were out flying in the air. One morning I discovered honey-comb near the foot of a hollow tree, from which we took two camp kettles' of as beauti

Page  49 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 49 ful honey as I ever saw, and from this time forward we were constantly supplied with honey. "There was occasionally much excitement caused by the movement of the Indians, although after the battle of Bad Axe, on the Mississippi, where General Dodge gave them a terrible whipping, some of the principal warriors succeeded in crossing the Mississippi. Black Hawk was soon after captured, having left his warriors after crossing Rock river. "One day, sitting there in camp, copying field notes to transmit to the officers, having sent the boys out to complete a couple of lines, I was a little startled in hearing the crack of a rifle close by, and rapidly approaching footsteps, followed by an Indian greatly excited, who pointed in the direction of the gun shot; then stooping to the ground he picked up a piece of bark which he threw in the same direction. Shaking my head he saw I was determined not to understand him, and he looked sullen, mad, and much disappointed. Of course I thought he had an accomplice, and had I left would have robbed the camp. In a few minutes two more Indians appeared and when within six feet of the tent placed the butt of their riffles upon the ground. I felt quite relieved. We exchanged the usual salutation of 'boo shoo,' at their first appearance. I invited them to lunch with me as was always my custom in Michigan, after which we parted good friends. "I finished this work the last of April, and my men returned home, with the exception of my nephew, EM. B. Smith, who accompanied me to Cincinnati, as the surveyor general's office had been removed to the city. "I had waited at Galena three weeks for the arrival of the first steamer going south. During my stay at Galena great excitement existed in regard to Indians, as rumor said they were assembling by hundreds at Dixon's ferry, on Black river. One day a great scare occurred as a horseman appeared on the opposite side of the river, shouting 'to arms! to arms!' All the inhabitants were fleeing from Dixon's ferry to Galena in great terror. He plunged his poor, panting horse into the stream, rapidly urging him over. The poor animal feel dead soon after reaching the opposite shore. Laying aside my papers I set off for the ferry, where drums and fifes were playing and fifty or more men and boys had assembled. About the time I was leaving, the assembled multitude, fifteen or twenty young men mounted on horseback, were crossing the river to assist the women and children on their way. But as usual it proved a false alarm. "While making returns at this time, the surveyor general suggested my entering into contract for surveying the exterior lines of townships in Indiana, and proceeding to the work as soon as I could make the necessary arrangements. Owing to the ill health of my wife when last heard from, I chose to defer giving an answer till I arrived home, when it was suggested my leaving a blank contract, to which I assented. The work in Indiana was afterwards given to Sylvester Sibley and another Michigan surveyor. For this act of the government agent the Indiana surveyors were much displeased, so much so as I was told, it was carried into congress at the next session. Vol. I-4

Page  50 50 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY BETWEEN SAGINAW BAY AND LAKE HURON "During the following autumn orders were received by the surveyor general to cause that part of the territory lying between Saginaw bay and township 9, on Lake Huron, to be surveyed. The chief clerk was instructed to fill the blanks in the above mentioned contract and forward the same to me. This work had been given to Joseph Wampler in the fall of 1822, embracing about eighty township exterior lines, extending south to township 6, and from range 8 east to Lake Huron, he (Wampler). having surveyed about twenty-four townships, leaving the north line of township IO unsurveyed, such being his anxiety to leave the swamps. It was the most dreaded portion of the lower peninsula, and would have been objectionable at the most favorable season of the year, but as there was one deputy surveyor, William A. Burt, at work near the lake, and another on his way, it was necessary the survey of the township lines should be continued or the subdivision must cease. "I was on the ground with a full party or on about the first day of January, 1834, at the northwest corner of township IO east, and therefore nearly forty miles east of township line (9 or Io) left unsurveyed by Wampler. To commence surveying it was necessary to cross the townships by ranging with pocket compass to intersect just south of quarter section corner, it being necessary to measure from said corner a half mile, at which point the town corner was established in readiness to run the line west. This operation was necessary to perform in every range of townships. The snow being eighteen inches deep and the evergreen underbrush bent to the ground, it was extremely difficult ranging to keep our course, which occasioned our falling two miles short of camp when overtaken by night, and the going of this, our first. day without supper, tent, or blankets. In running long lines among swamps, where it is impossible for horses to pass, it was a common thing for each man to shoulder and carry throughout the day a pack containing a blanket and several days' provisions. Continuing my work for a few weeks under great disadvantage, I concluded to return home and wait until the frost should bridge the streams, which would enable us to extend our lines into the interior. "In six weeks I entered the second time, after having obtained the field notes of a survey in township 9, where the timber, beech, denoted hard land, indicating that pack horses could be used. With this view I made a deposit of provisions at Mill Creek in addition to that made at Lapeer, and Burch's mill on Black river, six miles north of Port Huron. In addition to the horses, I engaged an extra pack-man, and proceeded by way of Romeo to Mill creek. Crossed the creek early in the morning, but soon plunged into almost an unpenetrable swamp, where I had expected being able to proceed with the horses, but they repeatedly sank, were unpacked, dragged out through mud and water, repacked, but soon down again, until night overtook us, when we chanced to find a section corner by which we learned we had progressed one and one-half miles. Finding it impossible to get the horses through, I sent them with two men, back to Romeo, with orders to proceed to Port Huron, then up to the lake shore about twenty miles, thence

Page  51 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 51 northwest to the point designated. The axeman, two chainmen and cook, headed by myself, each with a blanket and two weeks' provisions, pocket compass in hand, course northeast, set off through the marsh, readily finding the corner left in my first trip. We commenced work, continuing two weeks, our provisions much reduced, and not hearing from the pack-men, I decided we would go in pursuit. Taking an east course, we intersected Black river, followed down stream, boarded a shingle shanty, and were informed by the men that the men and horses had crossed the river and gone west. Turning back in our course we followed their tracks, and in due time met together. When running west I dispatched our new pack-man, directing him to go southwest by the pocket compass and, when eight miles, look sharply for an east and west line I had surveyed, follow it until he found what I had described on paper (handing it to him) and he would find provisions in a basswood trough covered with a like made trough, secured by heavy logs for safety. "Finding the provisions he made a full pack from the deposit and set off to meet the surveying party. But his return was long delayed. Fortunately the other packer, Steinbrook, was returning from my other deposit-Burch's mill-and met the lost and bewildered man, when the two returned to camp the following day. Of course he had a long story to tell of his adventures and sufferings during his two weeks' solitude in the wilderness. For six or eight weeks the land in the vicinity of the heads of Cass and Black rivers (the English of the Indian name is 'Big Marsh') was under water from knee to waist deep, and we were obliged to dispense with our horses while extending range and township lines, while each man carried on his back his own blanket and provisions. "Our progress, of course, was slow, making two and one-half to three miles per day. We were frequently obliged to lay down poles and pile on them hemlock boughs to keep out of the water while we slept. I remember we built one camp-fire on the earth-covered roots of an overthrown hemlock, after driving center-poles to scaffold up to the fire. The difficulty of transporting provisions caused us to be on short allowance, and I well remember, at one time, when our hunger had not been satisfied for days, and while establishing a corner on the bank of Lake Huron, a couple of the boys killed a coon when starting for camp, and not being able to reach it before night, we roasted one quarter of the coon for supper, and lay down blanketless for our night's repose. The remainder of the Jittle animal, with the last pint of flour at camp, was quickly disposed Qf on our arrival. "In April, finding I was accomplishing so little after two months' hard work, I decided to return home and await a more favorable season. When making returns of the work performed I was offered twelve townships subdividing, with privilege of selecting my own location. This I accepted, and early in the autumn started on my third trip. When recommencing my work on Lake Huron another surveyor was landing his provisions, preparatory to commencing subdividing where I had already surveyed the township lines, and another party was said to be on his way for like purposes. It seemed as though the government

Page  52 52 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY was determined the survey of the part of the Lower Peninsula should be completed, twelve years having passed by since Wampler commenced the township lines. I found the condition of the country more favorable, the water having passed off. We found plenty of game, elk, deer, and indications of moose. "Trappers had marked their lines with numerous dead-falls for martin and other animals, valuable for their furs,' having coasted along the lake shore, as we found their boats well secured at the mouth of one of the streams. "My work of subdividing lay partly on Saginaw bay. I completed it and returned home in February. SURVEYS IN BLACK HAWK RESERVATION, IOWA "In the autumn of 1836 I received a contract for surveying the exterior lines of about sixty townships in Iowa, extending from the south boundary of the territory to a point five miles north of Rock island, being equal to about one-third of the Black Hawk reservation. "Arrived on the left bank of the Mississippi, opposite Burlington the 23d day of December, I836. The river nearly filled with thick cakes of ice, it was with great difficulty that a ferryman, with my assistance in throwing a line to them from shore, by which they hauled the boat to land, having floated with the current far below the city. The packer, going down the river twelve miles, was able to cross over with the pack-horses, returning to the party in about two weeks. During this two weeks were extending lines, putting up at night with the settlers. "During the time required for the performance of this work up to June following, the party suffered extremely with the severity of the weather, it being an open tract of country, principally prairie. The great wonder among the 'squatters' was, why we came to survey in winters. 'Why,' they say, 'you cannot survey half the time, as you cannot endure the cold.' In addition to this, the snow was sixteen inches deep for eight weeks. "Much time was lost daily in travel to and from timber, for camping. We continued many days working, while the 'squatters' were sitting by the firesides. I well remember one rainy morning during this month, entering the open, wide-spread prairie six miles west of Burlington, when running a range line (the pack-man with the horses turning to the right for wood shelter), my nephew, M. B. Smith, said, 'Uncle, your face is frozen.' This was about the middle of the day. Such was the sudden change of weather in three or four hours' time, and increasing, that were it not that we had reached the town corner, and running east with our backs to the wind, we should have been compelled to flee to the timber to avoid freezing. "One terrible cold night the prairie winds blew out all our fires, and our full supply of blankets seemed to afford no protection. Some of the boys started on a bee line for the nearest house, going in their stocking feet as the fire had been insufficient to thaw hard frozen boots. The remainder soon followed and I remained alone in camp until sunrise, when I was glad to follow, the entire company's blankets being

Page  53 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 53 insufficient protection from such terrible cold and wind. During the month of March the reflection of the sun on the snow was extremely painful to our eyes, and notwithstanding we adopted the Indian custom of blacking our faces, it was unsuccessful, and I was compelled to send a long distance for green glasses, giving relief at once. "After the middle of April our work went on finely. Approaching the western boundary of the reservation, we were anticipating some trouble with the Indians, as they had manifested some dissatisfaction regarding the line as surveyed their encampment. But the only annoyance we received from them was stealing the only remaining pack pony, and, as I had sent his mate off with the packman, this compelled the party to carry packs when extending lines. This was the fourth horse stolen by the Indians during my surveys. Completed this work the first of June, having been absent from home about six months. ANOTHER IOWA CONTRACT "Receiving another contract for subdividing twelve townships, also in Iowa, extending from Dubuque to Turkey river, and two ranges west to an extensive prairie, I left home on the 22d day of August, 1837, it being the second day of election under the territorial law. Arrived at Dubuque on the 6th of September, and before the first township was completed three of the party were taken down with the ague and fever, causing much delay with our work. Nevertheless we finished the subdivision in due time, and commenced the survey of the islands in the Mississippi, and when about two-thirds completed the January thaw breaking up the ice compelled us to discontinue our work, the only contract I ever failed to fulfill. After waiting a week in vain for a change of weather we crossed the river with much trouble, for home via Galena, as there was no road open further north. Arriving at Chicago the principal topic was the Michigan wild-cat money, followed by the Canadian patriot war. We frequently met sleighs overloaded with families fleeing from their Canadian troubles. "Arrived home the latter part of February. I then intended discontinuing the survey of public lands. However, in the autumn of 1844, I received a letter accompanied by a contract for resurveying the township of Salem (township i south, range 7 east). The county surveyor declined making further surveys. It furthermore was enjoined on me to pay strict regard to the instructions transmitted, they having emanated from the hand of the commissioner of the land office. This work required three weeks. "Early in the year I845 the office of the surveyor general was removed from Cincinnati to Detroit, when one of the early pioneer surveyors, the late Hon. Lucius Lyon, received the appointment of surveyor general. CAPTAIN PARKE'S RECAPITULATION "The number of miles of established lines which I surveyed in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa, from March, 1822, up to the middle of

Page  54 54 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY January, 1838, including the survey of township I south, range 7 east, Washtenaw county, if performed in subdividing, would be equal to more than three times the size of Oakland county, amounting to 5,400 miles, the ground twice walked over, amounting to I0,8oo; to this add the daily walking from and return to camp, about equal to thirty miles to the township; to this add the travel to and from my districts, sometimes several hundred miles from home, and the whole number would not fall short of 20,000 miles. "I have not penned the foregoing as being anything extraordinary, as there are thousands of men in Michigan who could go through the same fatigue if they would form a resolution to do so. We suffered much from frozen feet, the painful effects of which I am still hourly reminded, after a lapse of forty years.* "It was not uncommon to carry packs of blankets and provisions camping, when overtaken by night. "In the prairie country we occasionally carried poles from two to three inches in diameter, from which to cut posts to set in mounds every half mile, when raised in the spring. These posts we marked with the marking iron-township, range and section. I have occasionally entered a prairie with three poles, equal to nine posts, with compass and staff in hand. "Our food was healthy, highly relished, and never gave us dyspepsia. Our breakfast was eaten before daylight, from October to June, that we might reach our work before sunrise, traveling three or four miles in prairie or open country. This meal consisted of a strong tea, fried or cold boiled pork, and shortcake, yellow with saleratus and rich with pork drippings. Our lunch, finished by Io or I o'clock, and eaten while walking, for we never stopped in winter, consisted of a bite of cold pork and a piece of bread-the latter often frozen too hard for use, until the axe was used to cut it into small pieces. We worked until near dark, and, arriving late in camp, the hot bean soup with bread and tea was eaten with great relish. "Before leaving the subject I would like to record the names of some of the men who assisted me in this work. They were the following: Samuel F. Byran, Oliver Torry, Lucius Hunt, David Wilcox, Calvin and Chester Ball, Moses Peck and brother, John Powell, C. P. Webster, Wim. Phillips, M. B. Smith, Pliny Skinner, Geo. Case, Jed Van Wagoner, Samuel Steinbrook, Marvin Tyler, I. Welch, Davis, George Galloway, C. Killicut, Hannibal, Sawtelles, Pike, Gould, Phipps, Hart, Meacham, Dixon, Walter Ostrander, Allen, Michael Van Buren, E. J. White, and others I do not remember. "I will mention the name of Clark P. Risden, United States surveyor, who published the first map of the surveyed part of Michigan territory and had several contracts. I hear he is still living, and must be near my own age, eighty-six in April next. We are probably all that are left of the pioneers employed by government in surveying the lands of Michigan." This narrative of Captain Parke is quoted quite generously not only because much of it relates to Oakland county and vicinity, as well as *Written in 1876.

Page  55 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 55 to a character well known in the days when the country was a wilderness and for many years after it had become developed into prosperous communities, but because it furnishes pen pictures of the trials and hardships endured by the men of the compass and tripod who run those lines through forest and swamp which must always precede the purchase of lands and the guarantee of permanent homesteads. RECOLLECTIONS OF BENJAMIN O. WILLIAMS Major Oliver Williams was one of the first half a dozen settlers to make Oakland county his home (he located on Silver lake) and, as noted by his son, Benjamin O., in an address at one of the pioneer reunions he himself "thought himself the first settler in the county." The bulk of the address is given, as follows: "Having never considered it a fortunate circumstance to have been reared in a new country, deprived of most of the advantages enjoyed by those brought up in well educated communities and surrounded by highly cultivated people and works of art, I have never felt any especial pride in having been raised a pioneer in the backwoods of even old Oakland county. I would have greatly preferred that fortune should have permitted my parents to have remained where nearly all of their children were born, and, although not quite among those who, according to John G. Saxe's facetious remark df those born in Boston, 'need no other birth,' yet would gladly have been sufficiently near to have received a good education-the greatest blessing to mankind, except it be that 'second birth.' But fate would not have it so, and most of us, at least while young, had to submit to her sway. And fully believing that 'there is a divinity that shapes our ends,' I have ever felt that my honored parents, did all in their power, under the circumstances, to make their children happy, while aiding somewhat to develop the resources of Michigan while a territory. "With her eight children my dear mother arrived in Detroit sixteen days before the county of Wayne was, by the proclamation of Governor Cass, organized and named. She, with my father, had selected their farm while it was still in the county of Wayne, and moved their family into a large, well-built house in less than two months after the governor, by proclamation, organized and named Oakland county, as your county history shows. "Presuming that it is well known that I have contributed to the history of this county in the State Pioneer and Historical Society's Collections, and fully believing that my father was the first to break through the almost impassible woods and swamps back of Detroit, by clearing and opening a road from the end of the Leavenworth road to this place, and to his farm in the fall of I818, before the county was named, the Pontiac company formed, or their land selected; and, no doubt, in entire ignorance of the fact that the Grahams, Mr. Hersey, Mr. Hartsough, and possibly the Hoxies, had followed up the Huron river from Mt. Clemens and formed a settlement, as did my father from another direction, before the boundaries of the county were fixed or its name given, he very naturally thought himself the first settler in the county.

Page  56 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 56 But, Mr. President, I have already occupied too much time on this unimportant subject, and should not have alluded to it but for the fact that you sent me, last year, a list of the first entries of land made in the county, taken by yourself from the books of the United States land office; and why my father's or brother's entries of land did not appear under their proper dates, is to me, a mystery. For I do know that, quite early in the fall of I818, the lands were selected, and that improvements were commenced and the house built, and do not believe it was left subject to entry by others at the land office, until the time, by your list, it appears to have been purchased. "Instead of the above I might have described to you the sickness, privation and hunger endured; the killing by the tyrant chief, Kishkorko and his band, of one of Mr. Austin Durfey's valuable oxen in front of the house on Drayton plains, and of the fight or the breaking of Capt. Archibald Phipps' leg, near Allen Durfey's house, a little south of Drayton Plains station, and of the surgical skill of our family physician, who, upon arriving at the house, decided that it was not necessary to set the limb before the inflammation subsided and the muscles relaxed, for which about one week's time would be necessary; of the hopeless look of the captain when he heard it; of our sending for Doctor Richardson and carrying Phipps home on a litter, and, the same day or the next, myself extending the limb while the doctor adjusted it to the great relief'of all present. Of the great number of rattlesnakes; while mowing a marsh one day, we killed twelve before noon and none of us wore boots; Mr. Harvey Durfey was barefoot and wound a twisted rope of marsh hay around both feet and legs and worked in safety. One massasauga the same day stuck its fangs into brother Ephraim's tow pants and was dragged several rods before discovered and shook off. Of the wolves we killed without thought of bounty, and of their depredations on our sheep and swine; of the pigeons by the million, and their digging acorns out of the deep snow; of the ducks and geese that blackened the surface of the lakes,; of the bee-trees from which we took hundreds of pounds of honey from a single tree; of the pine trees and logs we borrowed from 'Uncle Sam,' and how we rafted the lumber down the Huron river to Ann Arbor from the Walrod place; of my father, Doctor Thompson, and Judge LeRoy, at a very early day, going in our large canoe with an Indian guide down the Clinton river to Orchard lake, and borrowing from the island a boatload of apple trees in the spring of the year-most of these died from having their roots in the water too long-and of Captain Hotchkiss' first drill of militia by platoons, saying he wanted them to wheel to right or left just as his big barn door swung around; or of the lynching of a tramp who robbed his benefactor, Acker Toule, of about $800, all the money he had, and that he had just returned from the east with. (You may be sure that the thief gave up the money.) And of three Indians one day after concluding the sale of skins, furs and beeswax, exhibiting seven skins, stretched nearly round, with the remark, as the oldest man drew from his medicine bag, that 'he didn't suppose my father would care to buy them'; they were once worth five dollars a piece.

Page  57 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY INDIAN NEAR DEATH "Mrs. Hodges first pronounced them scalps. My father's face was terrible to look upon as he first took in the situation and the insult, and I have ever thought that Indian was as near death that moment as he had ever been. My mother, who stood in the door laid her hand on father's shoulder and bade him come into the house at once. I will give you my reasons for that belief. Having often heard my father relate that on the second day after General Winchester's defeat and the massacre, while walking on Jefferson avenue in company with one French gentleman and an English officer, meeting a band of painted Indians all carrying scalps on sticks or at the end of war clubs or tomahawks, one of the tallest and heaviest looking struck my father in the face with the fresh scalps, torn from those unfortunate Kentuckians, and he always turned pale and had the same look of horror and rage as he related it that I then saw on his face. The Indian quickly replaced the scalps, but not before we had all seen to whom they must have belongedtwo men, one woman, a girl, two boys and a fair-haired child or babe, as we judged by the length and cut of the hair. Those Indians belonged to the Grand river bands, and were probably Ottawas. I never saw them afterwards. D'EAR OLD OAKLAND, THE BEST OF ALL "Since then it had been my lot to traverse the valleys, hills and mountain ranges of California; to see those valleys covered with beautiful flowers in all their pristine loveliness; to climb the basalt capped and snow covered mountains; have ridden over the grass covered wide savannahs; clambered up and down and viewed the wild savagery of the Andes; crossed and recrossed the awe-inspiring Cordilleras of Central America, whose forests are filled with the progenitors of Darwin; witnessed on its plains on the night of April 12, 1850, the birth of a volcano, standing at a safe distance; watched through a long, tropical night the grand display of nature's fire-works, and upon the land felt the throbbing of its mother earth. And of all these grand and beautiful scenes none have left more lasting, vivid and pleasant remembrances than did the grand old forest, shining lakes, hills, valleys, flowered covered plains, musical with the hum of bees and the song of birds, of old Oakland as we found and lived among them. Nor will the others ever make as happy homes, or sustain as dense populations. And I now look back and endeavor to recall the often suffering faces of the many respected pioneers by whose kindness, example, friendship, instruction and admonition I was enabled to profit I find of their number nearly all have. crossed the river that we, too, must soon be ferried over. That we shall meet again, retaining full consciousness of our lives and friendships here, it seems to me that no intelligent persons should doubt if they have studied well the past and present history of the world and the life and death of the King of mankind-He who spoke and is still speaking to us as never man did before or ever will

Page  58 58 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY again, when He bade us love one another. Let us all try to keep that precept." A PICTURE OF MEMORY The following address was delivered by John M. Norton at the socalled "supervisors' picnic" (a misleading term, as he says), held August 24, 1892; also at the meeting of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, June 7, I893: "Mr. President, citizens of Oakland county: Once more under bright skies, in health, in prosperity and in peace, we exchange greetings at our annual county reunion. It is termed the 'Supervisors' picnic,' but its meaning and its nature are broader than its name. This yearly assemblage imports something more than a mere summer's day outing for a set of township and ward officers. It signifies something nobler than the atmosphere of office; its dignity is higher and deeper. "This annual picnic is the yearly refreshment of a great people's heart. Its issues are the brightening of thought, the rekindling of healthful emotion, the rejuvenation of life. Cords of union and affection which else might ravel and break, are here strengthened and renewed. For the hour, each individual is transfigured-all utterance is true, every purpose is unselfish. "Two pictures are hung before the eyes of this multitude today. One is traced by the pencil of hope, and it hangs against the sunrise of the future; the other is painted by the brush of the memory, and it leans against the purpling sunset of the past. Not one of us sees them both. Upon the former look all the young, as upon an opening vision of prophecy; upon the latter look all the old, as upon the closing of the gate called Beautiful. Each picture is circled with a glowing framethe one new and fair, unscathed by the flame and sword of life's battle; the other is bruised and scarred, but is of gold tried in the fire. "I am one of the old. Providence has bounteously granted me the full three score and ten years, with two years grace. Come now, my companions in the 'silver gray,' and look with me for a moment upon our picture-the picture painted by memory, and which leans against the sunset in the frame of gold. To your eyes and mine the figures in this picture are clearly drawn, and of life size. The coloring is faultless and the perspective is so perfect that it seems to speak to us like a living voice. All this is partly owing to the skill' and integrity of the artist, but chiefly to the fact that the picture was painted from life. "The background of this painting includes, in a general way, all of the southeastern portion of the lower peninsula of Michigan north of Detroit; but all of its special detail and development are confined to Oakland county, as lines and limits were established by Governor Lewis Cass. in his executive proclamation of the date of March 28, I820, and as the same now are. In the misty distance this beautiful county appears as a land of forest and stream, of hill and vale, fresh and wild as it came from nature's hand, in the possession of savage beasts and more savage men. The Jesuit priest and the French voyager push through the great lakes and up the Clinton river, and open communication with the imperial Pontiac and the rude nations subject to his vast survey.

Page  59 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 59 One lifts the holy cross and the sound of the mission bell echoes across the quiet waters of the lakes along whose borders we encamp today. The other opens his store of trinkets and traffics with the Indians for his furs and peltry. ADVENT OF THE PIONEER "But nothing is accomplished towards the settlement and genuine improvement of the country until the advent of the man who came with the axe and the plow-the enlightened pioneer who came to subdue the forest and to make a home-the man who came to stay. "The first man who built a house within what is now Oakland county, and cut an opening through which the sun might shine upon it, was Alexander Graham. That was within what are now the corporate limits of Rochester, in the township of Avon, and the house he built stood about twenty rods southeasterly from the present 'stone store,' and east of the present Main street. He brought with him his son, and with them came Christopher Hartsough. They all 'came to stay.' That was in 1817. "Then in the next year, I818, came Col. Stephen Mack, Maj. Joseph Todd, Deacon Orison Allen and William Lester, settling at and founding the town of Pontiac. The Grahams were also encouraged by the settling in Avon, in I818, of Ira Roberts, George Postal, Daniel Bronson and William Bronson. "In I8I9 the Pontiac colony was enlarged by the coming of Calvin Hotchkiss; and Major Oliver Williams bought and settled upon land near Silver lake, Waterford, and built thereon the first barn properly such, in the county. Avon was also gladdened in I8I9 by the immigration of Judge Daniel LeRoy, Dr. William Thompson (the widely famed and eccentric 'Dr. Bill'), John Miller, Nathaniel Baldwin, John Meyers and Amozi C. Trowbridge. "In 1820 and 1821 the tide increased. Such well known settlers as Judah Church, Abner Davis, Alex. Galloway, Joshua Terry, Judge Steven Reeves, Capt. Hervey Parke, Enoch Hotchkiss, and Rufus Clark, came to Pontiac and its vicinity, while Linus Cone, Daniel Fowler, Cyrus A. Chipman, and Walter Sprague made Avon their home, and Troy was settled in 1821 by Johnson Niles. 1822 found Almon Mack, Joseph Morris, Asa Murray, Capt. Joseph Bancroft, Schuyler Hodges, and Geo. W. Galloway residents of Pontiac, and S. V. R. Trowbridge, Ebenezer Belding, George Abbey, Joshua Davis, P. J. and Jesse Perrin, Aaron Webster, William and A. W. Wellman, Ira Jennings, and Silas Sprague had followed Joshua Niles to Troy. Champlin Green, Gad Norton, William Burbank and Smith Weeks came into Avon, and more than half the townships in the county had by this time one or more families. "From this date population increased rapidly. In 1824 Nathan and John Power, David Smith, Geo. W. Collins and other representatives of the denomination of Friends, or 'Quakers,' most excellent and highly intelligent people, made important and substantial beginnings in Farmington. "Your present speaker (John M. Norton) came with his parents to

Page  60 60 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Avon in the spring of 1824, aged then only four years, and has ever since resided in the county. M3y mother died the next year, and my father in June, 1832, when I was but twelve years old. My own health and strength were my only resources. These I used as best I could, and with such degree of success as has enabled me comfortably to provide for and educate my family, with a sufficiency remaining for the declining years of myself and of her who has been through all so faithful an helpmate. The latch-string of our home is out today, as it was in the early days, and we shall always take pleasure, not only in entertaining those of our friends of both this and the former generation, but also in showing them the evidence that industry, integrity, and 'pluck' are sufficient for success in this free and fertile country. As I review the long list of my acquaintance, my observation teaches me that an inherited fortune is more often a curse than a blessing, and leads more frequently to ruin than to the substantial success and happiness-not to mention the usefulness-of its possessor. "More and more rapidly the incoming settlers followed each other into the country, until, by 1830, Oakland county was practically redeemed to civilization. Pontiac was by this time a center of trade for all the region lying north and northwest of it as far as the Saginaws, and during the close of navigation even to the mouth of the Saginaw river. Oakland county had five thousand inhabitants in I830, and Pontiac was known commercially throughout the eastern states. "Until about this period the roads between Detroit and Pontiac, and especially between Detroit and Royal Oak ('Mother Handsome's'), were indescribably bad, often absolutely impassible for anything except ox sleds, mud carts, and similar conveyances. For this reason the settlers of Avon and Troy made their journeys to and from Detroit quite as often as otherwise via Mt. Clemens, that is, by team to Mt. Clemens, and thence by boat down Clinton river to Lake St. Clair, thence through that lake and Detroit river to Detroit. RAILROAD AS A FUN MAKER "As an evidence of the growing commercial importance of the capital, the Detroit and Pontiac Railroad was chartered by the legislature of I830, and, although this immediate enterprise failed, it was followed in 1834 by the incorporation of the company which actually built and operated the road. As a fun-maker, the old Detroit and Pontiac Railroad Company probably surpassed any comic minstrels ever organized. Its directors were inveterate practical jokers and fun lovers, and if Mark Twain would write the true antics of these 'innocents at home,' stating only facts, the work would eclipse all the fiction of his 'Innocents Abroad.' "Improvements, in all the meaning of the term, characterized the county henceforward; splendid farms, fine residences, improved highways, enterprising towns, multiplied upon all hands, until it has now become 'Old Oakland' and ranks as one of the finest counties in the nation.

Page  61 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 61 THE LIFE BEQUEATHED BY THE PIONEERS "As we look about us today, where are the men whose names I have mentioned as pioneers of Oakland? Here is their magnificent work, but where are they? The institutions they have founded are the admiration and pride of their successors, but they themselves are gone. "An association of the pioneers who settled in Oakland county in or prior to the year I830, is proposed. Alas, how few would be the names upon the roll! "Watch the pictures again. The forms and faces there, all but a few are stark and still. They breathe not, speak not, move not. Men call them dead. They are not dead; they live in all that we behold about us-their glorious work. They live in the only true life-the only life that is deathless-and they will live thus until civilization shall cease from among men. As we read their names upon the tomb, we call that the shadow in the picture. In the true sense, there is no shadow there. This living work of theirs that is all about us is their truest life. It is the true light of the pictures, and no shadow of death is there. All is light immortal, and its framework is of pure gold, tried in the fire. "Even so may the other picture become when it shall hang at last in the sunset!" FIFTY YEARS AGO AND NOW (Written by S. B. McCracken for the Oakland County Pioneer Society, 1887) Those of us who have passed middle age seem to stand on the divide between two worlds. On the one hand we can view, in memory, what has been; we can live anew in recollection the scenes of fifty years ago; on the other hand, we can realize as a present certainty the things that are. We can appreciate something of the contrast between the life of fifty years ago and now. I select fifty years ago as the point of comparison for manifest reasons. First, it is convenient as a round number. Second, it is a period within the clear recollection of those who still linger among us as pioneers. Third, while it does not comprehend the earliest period of pioneer life in Michigan, it is its representative epoch. Fourth, fifty years ago marks, comparatively, the beginning of that era of marvelous development and discovery in mechanism and in science that has planted this generation so greatly in advance of any in the world's history. To have pictured to the youth of fifty years ago the methods of life that attain today, would have seemed like a fairy tale. To relate to the youth of today the methods of life of fifty years ago would seem like exaggeration, and, but for the confidence that youth happily reposes in the lessons of age, would scarcely obtain credence. CONTRASTS OF LIFE Let us glance briefly at some of the contrasts of life afforded by the two periods, because they will be not only to our edification but to the

Page  62 62 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY instruction of the rising generation and those that will come after. Fifty years ago the children of the pioneers studied their few books either by the firelight from the open fireplace, or by an open lamp made by placing some grease and a cloth wick in a broken saucer, or at best, the light of a tallow candle. Now, we have the kerosene lamp, the gas jet, and the electric light. Then, friction matches were unknown; fire was produced by the flint and steel, and when the fire went out on the hearth, those who were without this device had to send to the neighbors for a coal or a brand. The present generation knowing nothing of the pleasure of watching the burning logs in the fireplace and noting the shifting panorama of warriors, winged chariots, camels, and rampant lions. Nickle plated stoves, or the furnace in the basement, supply the warmth without the pictures. The modern youth, who treads on carpets or on marble tiles, hardly realizes that his grandfather's floor was very likely made of basswood logs split through the center. Our cooking utensils then consisted of a frying pan, bake kettle, dish kettle and dinner pot, and the teakettle, that no longer sings the song that it used to sing. Those who were the better able, sometimes had a brick fireplace, and a crane on which their cooking utensils were hung over the fire. Generally, however, the "lug-pole," with some hooks attached, served the purpose. The bread was baked in a round iron kettle (shaped very much like a large cheese) with a cover, the kettle being placed on coals drawn out on the hearth, with live coals on top, and good bread they made, too. Our spare-ribs and turkeys were suspended by a tow string before the fire for roasting, and there are those who will say that no such roasts ever came from an oven. And then, the act of making a tow string; every well regulated family kept a hutch of tow, which was indispensable not only to good housekeeping, but to good husbandry. I don't believe there is a young man of twenty today, with all the learning of our modern schools, who knows how to make a tow string. We had neither silver nor cut glass goblets in those days, and not always tin cups or dippers, the "noggen" or gourd supplying their place. Our carriages were ox sleds. Fifty years ago there was probably not a threshing machine in Oakland county, all grain being threshed with the flail, or trodden out by horses on the barn floor, where they had horses and barns. Of course there were no reapers, mowers, wheat drills, or cultivators. There were few fanning mills. Grain was separated from the chaff by holding up a shovel full in a stiff breeze and sifting it off by shaking the shovel. Wheat was wholly cut with the cradle, which was a great advance upon the sickle that preceded it, and the hand scythe was the only means of reducing the grass. All grain was sown broadcast, and those who were boys fifty years ago, and retain a vivid recollection of the horrors of riding a horse to plow corn, will appreciate the advantages of the cultivator. Most farmers raised more or less flax and hemp. The flax culture was simply a relic of that domestic industry, which, in former years, expressed itself through the distaff and the manufacture of linen for family use, but which, like many similar arts, has become obsolete through the operation of machinery. The music of the spinning wheel is now unknown, and the doubting maiden today is not permitted

Page  63 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 63 to know whether she will have a handsome husband or not as the well deserved reward of her efforts to build the yarn systematically upon the spindle; nor is the boy now required to break his arms and his back by making a reel of himself for granny to wind her yarn from. In the lesser affairs of life we find striking contrasts. The boy of fifty years ago was happy to possess a pair of indifferent skates that he could strap to his stogy shoes and skim over the crystal surface of some of our lakes or over the mill pond, which looked a great deal larger then than it does now, and many of the older boys will remember the vexation of trying to make the heel corks stay in place. Now they have patent fastenings and they go on of themselves, and they skate in rinks. and go on wheels as well as runners, and where we used to slide down hill on a board, we now have the toboggan. In the matter of music, too, pianos are almost as plenty now as jewsharps used to be, while gingerbread as the classic feed on training days is wholly unknown, as are training days, too, for that matter. India rubber was first coming into use fifty years ago. It was then made into a coarse overshoe, wrought into webbing for suspenders, and also relieved from embarrassment the modest young lady who blushed to speak of her garters, which thereafter became "elastics." And then the average boy was happy if he could get a bit of rubber as a foundation to build his ball upon. Now it would require many folios to indicate the infinite variety of uses to which it is put. Next to rubber, perhaps, if not before it, in the variety of its modern uses, is paper. Fifty years ago it was used only for writing and printing, and in a very coarse form for wrapping. Now it is found in all grades of service, from the collar of the dude to the coffin of the sage. There are other contrasts between the long ago and now. Then, if we wished to communicate with a friend at a distance it could be done only by letter with a mail once a week and postage two shillings. The letter must be folded and sealed by its own fold, as no envelopes were in use. If the letter comprised more than one piece of paper, even if not overweight, the postage was two shillings on each piece. As quarters were distressingly scarce in those days, it may well be conceived that friendly letters were comparatively few. Visits of a few miles were made on foot. Persons frequently passed a period of sickness and were dead and buried before friends at a short distance even were apprised of their condition. Now we are in instant communication with friends far away, by telegraph or telephone, while the railway places us by their side in a few hours even though hundreds of miles distant. I have sometimes queried whether affection is as strong now as in the olden days, and whether the sentiments of love were not more deep and abiding when the distance was greater between us and the objects of our regard. Human emotions are drawn out by trials, and it seems as though the yearning for communion with friends that can be gratified only at rare intervals, if at all, serves to tone and intensify the affections and attachments. The lady who is the possessor of a pair of singing birds knows that the music can be got out of them only by their separation. We are mixed up with so many more people in modern

Page  64 64 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY life, that the divine love within us seems spread out so thin that it is sometimes difficult to find it at all. The old song so remarkable for its doleful pathos, "When shall we three meet again?" could hardly have been written in an age of railways, as the three would scarcely care whether they met again or not, as they would meet some other three the next day or the next hour. Nor do I think that the highly drawn character of Jennie Deans, in her lonely pilgrimage on foot from Edinburgh to London in behalf of her sister, who was in extremity, as portrayed in Sir Walter Scott's charming romance "The Heart of MidLothian," could have been given us in an age like this. Think of the devoted Jennie taking her seat in a railway car with her bundle in her lap, surrounded by the rush and clatter of moving humanity at the present day, and being whirled over the distance in three or four hours' time. All the poetry and adventure would be lost, and poor Jennie's heart could hardly have been attuned to the pitch necessary to the successful prosecution of her mission. We might pursue indefinitely the array of contrasts between the things of long ago and the now, with reflections upon the changed state of affairs, but in addressing a local society of pioneers there seems a propriety in discoursing of things more local in their character. There needs no apology on my part for a reference to my own family. Personal history forms the very essence of our pioneer annals, and this personal history can only be supplied (in most cases at least), by the relatives of the subjects themselves. "GRANNY" MCCRACKEN There are many still living in the county who will remember my grandmother, who was familiarly known as Granny McCracken. Although she died when I was less than six years old, I.remember her very well, and many incidents associated with her. I have always had her in mind as a little old Scotch woman, short, but of sturdy frame. Her lineage, however, so far as I am able to trace it, gives but a small percent of direct Scottish blood. Her family name was Hutchinson, one of the regicide judges who condemned King Charles to the block. The family were, at that time, of quality and some antiquity in England. Although Colonel Hutchinson was included in the act of amnesty after the restoration, he afterwards fell under suspicion, was arrested and died in prison. Some of his descendants, either from political or other causes, went to Ireland, and it is from thence that this branch of the family is immediately. derived, through Thomas Hutchinson, my great grandfather, who came to this country prior to I740, and settled and married in Philadelphia, where my grandmother was born. The old residents who remember Granny McCracken will be impressed the more especially by her bright, quick mind, and her strong physical powers. To go back a little as illustrative of these traits, it may be remarked that during the War of the Revolution, being a resident of Pennsylvania, she was an active patriot, being on confidential terms with General Washington and other leading officers of the army, and not infrequently acting as a bearer of important intelligence. She

Page  65 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 65 came to Michigan with my father's family in 1824 or '25. She built a little log house for herself a few rods from my father's cabin, cutting the logs for it herself, and at the "raising" she carried up her corner, in pioneer phrase, equal to the next man, and she was equal to the average man for a day's work in the field. Though somewhat blunt in her ways the old lady was peculiarly tender in her disposition, and with her naturally strong mind, of marked intelligence considering the limited opportunities which the country then afforded for education and instruction. A few books that had been her companions found their way into our pioneer abode. Among them I remember Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress," a work entitled "The Holy War," and a polemical work, "An Antidote to Deism." Passing over all questions of ethics or of tenets as represented by these works, their titles show the indifference in the class of reading that was deemed the most valuable at that day as compared with the present. I remember also a romance, "Charlotte Temple," and a copy of Scott's "Lay of the Last Minstrel," as forming a part of our limited library. The latter work I had at my tongue's end, and could repeat the most of it from memory before I had ever seen the inside of a schoolhouse. Elsewhere I may advert to the manner in which myself and brothers acquired what little of early education we enjoyed. You will pardon a further brief reference to the dear old lady whom I remember with tender affection. It was a favorite way with her to reply to inquiries and salutations in rhyme, and to carry on a conversation and relate incidents in the same way. My excellent friend, the Hon. B. O. Williams, of Owosso, relates this of her: "An occupation in which she was expert was making straw bee hives. Being thus employed on one occasion, working in the barn at the residence of Mr. William's father, one of his brothers, in her absence, tried his hand at the business. Not succeeding very well, in deep disgust he threw his piece of botch work over the bay in the barn. When Granny returned to her work she discovered it, and gathering the boys about her as an audience, told the story in rhyme, ridiculing the lad's efforts to steal Granny's trade, and closing with the couplet, "'And if you're inclined to have some fun, Just look in the bay and see what he's done.'" Grandmother died March 5, 1830. A notice of her death, probably written by Elder Ruggles, was published soon after in the Detroit Gazette. The notice is preserved in a valuable collection of clippings by Capt. J. W. Hall, of Detroit, to whom I am indebted for a copy. I reproduce it as bearing out the estimate which I have myself placed upon my beloved ancestor. The reference to her descent confirms my early impressions, and varies somewhat from the pedigree before outlined, but it is hardly worth while to try to reconcile the variance at this time. The notice is as follows: "In Pontiac, March 5, Mrs. Mary McCracken, aged eighty-two. Mrs. McCracken was born in the United States, of Scotch parents. She was endowed by nature with a healthy constitution, and uncommon powers of intellect. She educated herself, and through life discovered a great fondness for reading. At the age of thirty, she united herself with a church in Pennsylvania, and about Vol. 1-5

Page  66 66 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY four and a half years since connected herself with the church in Pontiac. Her life was a life of prayer, and evinced that she had much at heart the glory of God and the salvation of souls." Of my father's ancestry I know but little. The family were, I believe, from the north of Ireland, and were probably emigrants from Scotland under the severe policy of the British government after the establishment of the Orange dynasty. The name is unmistakably Gaelic, and has the same root as Craig, Craik, Cregg, Cragen, etc., meaning literally, son of the crags, or son of the rocks. My father's parentage on both sides was of the rigid Scotch or Irish Presbyterian stock, that became a distinguishing element in the emigration to portions of Pennsylvania, Virginia and the Carolinas during the first half of the eighteenth century. My father's father died from camp fever contracted in the patriotic army in the War of the Revolution. FATHER AND MOTHER MCCRACKEN My father represented in a marked degree the mental and physical characteristics of his mother. Like her, he was self-educated. Probably to his relation to this mother in her widowhood, is due to the fact that he married late in life, about the age of forty-three, I think. He came to Michigan in 1824 or '25, and located on a piece of land on section 23, in the now town of Waterford. During the first few years he chopped and cleared, as I now survey the area by the mind's eye, some twenty or thirty acres. He planted an orchard, and I remember very well that he had a small nursery of young apple trees. An increasing family and an invalid wife made the struggle to subdue the forests and at the same time make it yield a subsistence, a hard one. He found more immediate returns in working for others, and this gradually became his preference, to which possibly a naturally convivial temperament contributed, especially when his work lay in the village. A second marriage, on the death of my mother, in 1835, proving anything but satisfactory, he sold his place and removed to Pontiac in the fall of I837, relying upon the income of a laborer for his support. But with a man past his sixtieth year, and with a constitution, however strong, impaired by hardship, the situation was one in which the best of men would find themselves in the descending rather than in the ascending scale. It is in this situation that a recollection of my father dwells more in the memory of those now living than as a pioneer seeking to hew a home out of the forest after having started upon the down grade of life's journey. It was from this situation in his life that the compilers of the Oakland county history derived the information that led them to speak of him as "a queer genius, whose time was spent more or less in writing rhymes," etc. His rhyming was come honestly by, was incidental, merely, and was a pastime and amusement. Two editions of the rhymes in small pamphlet, were published by him. His dedication, in one or both of these editions, should be a sufficient apology, if apology were needed, for the matter of his poetical effort: "And as you read, don't judge too hard Of your unlearned and simple bard,"

Page  67 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 67 covers the whole ground. Some person or persons, for purely mercenary purposes, some years ago made a republication which was wholly without the knowledge or consent of those who had at least a moral right to be consulted in the matter. I remember my mother as a meek, suffering woman, who withered and died at a comparatively early age under the labors and cares incident to a large family, and to the hardships and privations of pioneer life. She was of more than average education for the time and the condition of the country, and of exceptional refinement and delicacy. Her family name was Bromley. She was, I believe, a native of Connecticut, but removed from there to western New York. She died in the fall of I835. THE SCHOOLS OF FIFTY YEARS AGO I promised to say something about the educational methods of fifty years ago, and especially how my brothers and myself came to our first knowledge of the rudiments of book learning. There was a little schoolhouse on the corner where the road leading south from the old Carman place strikes the Elizabeth lake road. It was a modest little frame building, that I remember to have passed many times, though I was never inside of it. It was a mile (more or less) from our dwelling, and as the school was usually open only during the winter season, we could not attend. I have often thought, however, that the instruction received at the hands of my father and mother was of greater value than that which we would have been likely to receive at the school. The four older boys formed a little class, and in some cases the older taught the younger. A boy belonging to a neighboring family also formed a part of our little school for a time. Our text-books were Webster's elementary spelling book, the old English reader, and the New Testament. A work called the American Selection, printed on dingy brown paper, was also among the household treasures. Confined at home, and largely to the house, during winter, with these few books only for companions, their contents became as household words, much of which I could repeat from memory. And here we may fairly raise a question as to whether the multiplicity of books and printed matter at the present day affords as good a mental discipline as the more thorough study of a few carefully selected books would do. It is fairly a question whether so much literature, and of such a varied character, does not affect the mind in a way analogous to that in which food in too great quantity and in great variety affects the stomach, and whether we do not suffer from a mental dyspepsia. It is also a question whether, under the modern development of our schools, education, as it is called, has not become too cheap a commodity to be adequately valued. MORMON VISITATION OF 1832 There is one episode in the local history of the county that I am not aware has been placed on record. I refer to the Mormon visitation about the year 1832, the successful proselyting, and the exodus from the county of people who cast their lot with the Mormon church. My

Page  68 68 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY father became possessed with a copy of the Book of Mormon, and was deeply interested in it. Two Mormon missionaries came into the neighborhood to expound the doctrines. The spread of the new faith seemed to be a contagion; neighborhood meetings were held every day, and new converts announced. Some of the converts claimed to have received a new inspiration and to speak in unknown tongues. My father became an early convert and was received into the church. My mother, either from a feeling of sympathy with my father's action, or yielding to the importunity of the preachers who visited us, was also baptized. I remember the occasion very well. As my-mother sat in the chimney corner arranging a change of habit that she could use after her immersion, by the light that shone down the chimney, the Mormon elder was the chief spokesman, as if eager to add mother to the sacrifice, and impatient at the necessary delay, repeated the question several times, "Are you going to join this Gospel?" The preparations being at length completed, the procession, including my father and mother and the two Mormon elders, started for Watkins lake, about a mile distant. It was a cold day in winter. About a quarter of the distance on the route to the lake was a small pond or cathole. Upon reaching this, the shepherds of souls concluded that it was as good a place to make a new saint as the lake would be, and accordingly a hole was cut in the ice and the sacrifice made there. I was of course too young to realize the shocking inhumanity of the act, or to feel the just sense of indignation that I have since felt in reflecting upon it. It may be asked why my father permitted or stood sponsor at such an outrage. The answer can only be found when we discover the mystery that underlies and inspires fanaticism, those phenomenal epochs in the moral world when the best of men do unwise things. Neither my father or mother maintained a connection with this movement for any considerable time, but quietly withdrew from it by leaving it out of their thoughts and actions. It may be wondered why new ideas and new theories sometimes seem to take root and flourish in isolated neighborhoods, affording a moral analogy to the phenomena of wild shrubs that occupy given areas. Probably at the time of which I am speaking, people thought more deeply and intensely on religious subjects than now. The people of the county were directly descended from localities and times in which religious thought was paramount. Isolated in their cabins in the forests, their religious feeling was rather elemental and one of sentiment, than systematic. It was not crystalized in church connections, but was ready to be moulded into form, and to center around the light that first appeared, even though the light might be a false one. Living substantially in the woods, each family by itself, seldom seeing any other persons except their immediate neighbors, every new voice was to them a charm, and every new face a revelation. These Mormon emissaries coming among and mingling with these people, pretending to bring a religion not opposed to, but in fulfillment of what they already believed; coming in this guise and under these circumstances, it is not strange that they found ready credence and willing proselytes. And it should be noted also that the Mormon agitation was then but just begun, and had given

Page  69 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 69 no intimation of embodying the one feature which has within the past thirty years placed it under the bane of both social and legal outlawry. I believe, however, that one of the earliest developed fancies or purposes of the Mormons was the massing together of the faithful and the building of a new Zion; that idea of unity and oneness of purpose that has been the touchstone of the wonderful growth and power of the Mormon church. As showing the firm hold that the new gospel, as it was called, acquired upon its devotees, a good many families, numbering more than fifty persons in all, in and around Pontiac, abandoned their homes and committed their fortunes to the guidance of the fatal star that hovered first over Nauvoo and subsequently over Salt Lake City. Thaddeus Alvord, an uncle of mine by marriage, his first wife having been a sister of my mother, with his family, were among the converts. I remember hearing Mrs. Alvord (his second wife) repeat what seemed to be a prophecy among them, namely, that they were to acquire their new Canaan either by purchase or by blood, and if by purchase, they were to be persecuted from synagogue to synagogue and from city to city. This prophecy has not been wholly unfulfilled. The Mormons were certainly not left in peaceful occupancy of their first location at Nauvoo, and they will claim that they are now being persecuted in Utah and the western territories. Whether the other portion of the prophecy, that an acquisition by blood shall ensure them immunity from persecution thereafter, implies a struggle of arms on their part in the future, we will have to refer to those who receive inspiration and direct the counsels of the church. Among those who cast their lot with the Mormons at that time within my own knowledge, were Thaddeus Alvord and his family, including two or three sons-in-law and families. Mrs. M. A. Hodges, in a recent letter, kindly supplies me with the names of a number of others, as follows: Ezekiel Kellogg, Seville Harris, Jeremiah Curtis, Nahum Curtis, Joseph Bent, all with their families, and the Stevenson family, one of the latter, Edward Stevenson, being now an elder in the church of Latter Day Saints; also the widow and one or two daughters of Col. Stephen MAack, one of the members of the original Pontiac company, the founders of Pontiac. The Bents, Mrs. Hodges informs me, subsequently left the Mormons and settled in St. Louis. Of those going away, she says, all were members of churches, some Baptists, some Presbyterians and others Methodists, and all except the Bents continuing in the faith. We dismiss this topic, trusting that the attention given it will not be deemed an unprofitable expenditure of time viewed in the light of local history. AUBURN AND THE YOUNG PIONEERS In glancing at the excellent history of Oakland county published some years ago, I was struck with the account there given of the village of Auburn in the earlier days of the county, of its commercial enterprise and its business men, and I reflected somewhat wonderingly upon the number and character of the young men who in the early days cast their lot in the little hamlets that sprung up in the woods. They were men

Page  70 70 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY of keen business faculties, quick, intelligent, and as it seemed to me more generous, of broader views and higher principles than the average of the young men of the present day. I say it so seemed to me, although without disparaging the young men of the present, we can find a solution of the seemingly discrepancy in the thought that the young mind is more susceptible to favorable impressions, and is less critical than the more mature mind. But with what buoyant hopes and ambitions the young men of the former time have left their eastern homes for the untried west. The young men of the two periods certainly differ in so far as this, that the young men of the present, accustomed to the attraction of city life, and to follow the modern channels of commerce, would hardly delve into the forests with the same courage and pluck as did those of the former generation. Alas! how many blasted hopes have left their trace upon the pages of our western local history, either written or unwritten. How many wrecks strew the pathway of time in its march of fifty years. It is after all but the repetition of the processes of all human progress. Life is but an experiment. Its failures count as a thousand to one of its fruitions. The young men who laid the foundations of our civilization did not in all cases judge adequately of the work that they were undertaking. The land of promise did not in all things develop equal to their sanguine hopes and anticipations. The place where in imagination they had builded cities shriveled and withered under the necessary reaction upon an abnormal growth and the exacting laws of commerce. Many of the actors succumbed to the diseases incident to a new country. Others yielded to financial disaster. Others sought new fields. Some rusted Qut, while others weathered the storm, and have left their visible impress upon the things with which they had to do. In the great aggregate of life, in the final balancing of accounts, let us not say that one shall have more honor than another. The comforts and the blessings that we enjoy today are the consensus of their lives and their sacrifices. So let us hold in pleasant and in grateful memory the young men of fifty years ago. The history of Auburn is that of many a western village. In the early days the rival of Pontiac, we need not rehearse the causes that have made it simply a quiet little hamlet, the abode of a number of worthy citizens. SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION As connected with those causes, however, we may refer in closing to the social and industrial revolution that has especially marked the half century. The application of steam has rendered of much less value the water power that is so abundant in the county. The adaptation of machinery brings the best economic results by its aggregation in large manufactories. The construction of railroads, affording unlimited facility for distribution, makes large concentrations of capital and machinery, and the consequent immense production practicable. The local factory and the local mechanic no longer exist. The effect of this change upon the distribution of population is shown by the census returns. In I790 the per cent of the whole population of the country residing in cities was 3.3. In 1830 it was 6.7, and in I880 it was 22.5.

Page  71 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 71 These facts suggest problems in political economy that appeal both to the present and the future. They connect themselves with the past only by comparison and contrast. These problems are the most vital, we had almost said, of any now engaging the public attention. They are vital, nevertheless, for on their wise solution may depend our very civilization itself. But it does not become me to prophecy of evil at this time. Let us hope only for the good now and always, and that the benign influences that have advanced us so immeasurably within the past fifty years will continually beckon and invoke us to come up higher.

Page  72 CHAPTER VI REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS AND "DAUGHTERS" COUNTY'S FIRST SETTLER, A REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIER-THE GRAHAM FAMILY-NATHANIEL BALDWIN-GEORGE HORTON-STEPHEN MACK -COLONEL,MACK'S FAMILY-JOSEPH TODD AND PARTY-ITHAMAR SMITH-WILLIAM NATHAN TERRY —JOSHUA CHAMBERLIN AND ENOCH HOTCHKISS —ELIJAH DRAKE-EZRA PARKER —JEREMIAH CLARKE-BENJAMIN GRACE-CALEB BARKER MERRELL-LEVI GREEN -JOEL PHELPS-ELIAS CADY-SAMUEL NILES-SILAS SPRAGUEESBON GREGORY —ZADOCK WELLMAN-CALEB CARR —HOOPER BISHOP -DERRICK HULICK- CALEB PRATT —SOLOMON JONES —LYDIA BARNES POTTER-JAMES HARRINGTON AND JACOB PETTY-JOHN BLANCHARD-ALTRAMONT DONALDSON-JOSEPH VAN NETTERBENJAMIN BULSON-NATHAN LANDON-GENERAL RICHARDSON CHAPTER, D. A. R.-THE REVOLUTIONARY GRAVES MARKED-MEMBERSHIP OF THE DAUGHTERS By Lillian (Drake) Avery There is, perhaps, no section of the state of Michigan where so great a number of the soldiers of the Revolution settled as in Oakland county; certainly in no other county of Michigan has so many of them been found and their names and burial places noted. General Richardson Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, has succeeded in reviving the memory of these men; has placed markers on the graves of nineteen, and will continue the work until all whose last resting places can be found shall be honored with their official insignia. In some instances, where there were no headstones, they have applied for and placed, government markers. COUNTY'S FIRST SETTLER, A REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIER James Graham, the first permanent white settler to plant his home in old Oakland, was a Revolutionary soldier, whose father, a Scotch-Irish gentleman, came to Pennsylvania several years previous to the Revolution. His Dutch neighbors called him "Grimes" and his enlistment is recorded under that name. James Graham, born in I749, was one of a large family, and there is a tradition that when he emigrated to America he sold himself, as 72

Page  73 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 73 was quite customary, into service to a physician of New York City, to pay the necessary passage money thither. After the term of his service expired, the war was on and he enlisted April 15, I777, for one year, in Pennsylvania, as a member of Captain Hewitt's Company, Colonel Dennison's Regiment of Connecticut troops, and served in that company till Captain Hewitt's death at the battle of Wyoming. He was then attached to Captain Spalding's company in Colonel Butler's regiment and was discharged at the expiration of his enlistment. His home in Pennsylvania, at least after the Revolution, until ISIo, was at Tioga Point, on the Chemung river. At that time he moved to Canada, on the site of the present city of Ingersoll. Mr. Graham must have been in the enemy's country all during the War of I812, but as soon as peace was declared in I816 he crossed the border and took up his residence first at Mt. Clemens. TIE GRAHAM FAMILY His two sons, Benjamin and Alexander, started out during the summer to look up a suitable location for a home. Following up the Clinton river, they passed beyond the site of Rochester for a mile or two and concluded they had found what they were seeking. They cut hay in the open meadows along the stream, built a little hut and returned for their family. The following spring, their father, his sons and son-inlaw, Christopher Hartsough and John Hersey, arrived on the 17th of March. They paid their homage to good St. Patrick by rolling up the first log house in Rochester for Alexander Graham. James Graham stayed for a short time with his son, then took up a squatter's claim on section 21. He lived here only a year or so when he removed to the farm now occupied by William Graham, who inherited it from his father, Benjamin Graham. The wife of James Graham was Mary Van de Mark, a native of Holland, and his family comprised nine children; James, David, John, Alexander, William, Benjamin (b. March 23, I808; d. Oct. 13, I864; m. Nov. I8, 1832; Mary Postal b. March 23, I808; d. Jan. 20, 1845 in Avon, dau. of George Washington and Lydia (Fulham) Postal of Avon, Mich.), Chester, Martha and Mary. The Oakland County History (1877), tells us that Alexander Graham married a Miss Hawkins and lived on the east side of what was afterwards called Main street in the house mentioned, where his eldest son, James, named ifi honor of his grandfather was born early in the year I818, and who was also the first white child born in the county. The proprietors of the village subsequently gave the lot on which the pioneer baby was born to the youngster, who owned it till his decease when it passed to its present owner, which at the date mentioned (1876), was John Barger. James Graham is remembered for his unbounded hospitality and proverbial kindness. He was not only held in high esteem by his white neighbors, but the Indians as well who would do anything Mrs. Graham asked of them. She died September 7, I835. He died September 5,

Page  74 74 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 1837, aged eighty-nine, and they lie buried in the little cemetery the Grahams have consecrated for this purpose. Mr. Alexander Graham was well versed in the Indian tongue, and acted as interpreter. Benjamin also understood the language and was a trader. He was called by the Indians "Mauchung," which meant chunk bottle, as all commodities sold to them (sugar, flour, powder and whiskey, alike), he measured in a chunky glass bottle. Many interesting stories are current of the Graham boys and their representatives are still living in our midst. NATHANIEL BALDWIN Nathaniel Baldwin came only a year after the Grahams, and settled near by. He taught school in a log schoolhouse which stood where the stone blacksmith shop now stands. He was born in Goshen, Connecticut, July 20, I76I. While still a lad he enlisted in the sixth regiment from Connecticut under Colonel Parsons. This regiment was organized at the first call for troops and recruited from New London, Hartford and Middlesex counties. He remained on duty at New London until July 17, 1775, when they were ordered to the Boston camps, where they remained until discharged, December IO, I775. After the war Mr. Baldwin was married to Susanna Sherman, niece of Roger Sherman, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Their children were: (I.) John, b. July I6, I784;- (II.) Martha Minot, b. April 20, I795; d. June 28, 1839; m. Thomas J. Drake;-(III.) Nathaniel Augustus, b. June 27, i8oi; d. Aug. 22, 1845; m. (Ist) Margaret, m. (2) Jane Maxwell, April 2, 1842, died March 23, 1884;(IV.) Susanna Eliza, b. July 12, I805; d. Jan. I8, I858, unmarried;(V.) Walter Baldwin, b. Feb. 5, I809. The Baldwin Genealogy gives two other children, Sherman and Zimri, and the ancestry of Nathaniel as Nathaniel (4), Nathaniel (3), Samuel (2), Nathaniel (I), of Milford, Connecticut. Mr. Baldwin moved with his family from Connecticut to East Bloomfield, New York, where they lived many years before coming to Michigan. The track of land they occupied lies about two miles south of Rochester, where the Crout farm now is located. His daughter, Susan, taught school in the Postal district in a small log house built for the purpose in I82I, one of the earliest schools in the county. Mrs. Baldwin seems to have been a woman of excellent Christian character and patience, and died January 2, I839, aged seventy-four. Nathaniel Baldwin lived until August 30, I840, when he was laid to rest in the cemetery at Rochester. Mrs. Milo Newberry, a granddaughter, is the only member of the family now living in Oakland county. GEORGE HORTON Another Revolutionary soldier to settle as neighbor to Nathaniel Baldwin and James Graham, was George Horton. He gave his military service in Pennsylvania, enlisting in May, 1780, when nineteen years of

Page  75 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 75 age, in Captain Shoemaker's company, Pennsylvania troops. He was in no pitched battles, but participated in several skirmishes with the Indians. He served until September, 1783. Mr. Horton emigrated from Northampton county, Pennsylvania, to Canada in I809, where he settled first at Port Colborne. In 1820 he moved to Yarmouth, Elgin County, Ontario, and in March, 1825, arrived at Detroit, and came to Avon township, settling about two miles south of the village of Rochester. He seems to have lived with his son-inlaw, Cornelius Decker, who located on section 21. His son, Benjamin Horton, took up land on section 22. There were about twenty people who came from Canada at this time, the heads of the families being all related to George Horton. Mrs. Elsie Horton, wife of George Horton, was buried in the Rochester cemetery, in February, 1827. He died in 1835, the exact date being unknown, but his last pension was paid March 4, I835. STEPHEN MACK The blazing of the trail into Oakland county did much for the settlement of Michigan, as it proved that the interior of the territory was not the morass that the interested fur traders had reported it to be, unfit for cultivation, but was as fine farming land as could be desired. A company of Detroit and Macomb county men, called the Pontiac Company, with Colonel Stephen Mack as their agent, purchased 1,280 acres of land for the purpose of establishing a town on the tract. The company was formed in November, I818, and the first building erected on the site of Pontiac was a log cabin put up by their workmen who came out to build the dam and sawmill. It stood on the corner of Saginaw and Water streets, near where the old Clinton House is now located. Colonel Mack was long the most prominent business man in Pontiac. He was born in Lyme, Connecticut, I764, and emigrated with his father, Solomon Mack, before the revolution to Gilsum, New Hampshire. The war found both father and son rendering service with the patriots. Stephen Mack's name appears on a receipt dated Montague, March 24, 1781, for bounty paid said Mack by the town of Montague, to serve in Continental Army for the term of three years; also, descriptive list of men raised in Hampshire to serve in the Continental Army, as returned by Noah Goodwin, superintendent; age, i6 years; stature, 5 feet 4 inches; complexion, light; occupation, farmer; engaged for town of Montague, April 2, 1781, term of three years; also, private in Captain John Trotter's Company, Colonel Rufus Putnam's sixth regiment; muster roll for April, 1781; dated, West Point. (Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolution, Vol. Io, page Io9.) Colonel Mack married, 1788, Temperance Bond of Gilsum, and they settled in Tunbridge, Vermont, where he engaged in the mercantile business. He also built a tavern at the "branch" which became famous in after years as the "White House." It was the first painted building in the place. He took a great interest in military matters and eventually

Page  76 76 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY rose to the command of one of the militia regiments of the Green Mountain state, whence came his title of Colonel. About the year I8Io he came to Detroit, where he again embarked as a merchant, and was here when General Hull surrendered to the British. During their occupancy his affairs were in pretty bad shape. After the war was over he engaged in trade under the firm name of Mack and Conant. He was a trustee of the village of Detroit and a member of the reception committee for President Monroe in I817; supervisor in I816-I818, and director of the Bank of Michigan in I818. After the Pontiac Company was formed he made Pontiac his home. He and his partners associated themselves with Judge Sibley as a silent partner and under the name of Mack, Conant and Sibley obtained from the Pontiac Company the title to the water power for which they were to pay a thousand dollars toward county buildings, if the county seat were located at Pontiac. Beside the dam and sawmill, they erected a grist mill and a small woolen mill, which was of great convenience to the pioneers. COLONEL MACK'S FAMILY Colonel Mack's family, consisting of wife and twelve children, had remained in Vermont on a farm until I816 when they removed to Norwich, Vermont, in order to have better school facilities. A military college was located there where Almon Mack obtained a knowledge of military tactics, which made him quite a prominent officer in the militia of Michigan in after years. In 1822 the family came to Detroit and one of the daughters, Lovina, and an adopted orphan girl, Elvira Jamieson, came to Pontiac and kept house for the colonel. His son, Almon, also came about this time and took charge of his father's books and made himself generally useful about the mills and in time came to be the manager of the business. Colonel Mack as early as I820 had erected a large building which was used as a dwelling and an office, and was called the company's building. It stood nearly in front of the mill. This dwelling was occupied by Colonel Mack's family in 1823 on their arrival from Detroit. Colonel Stephen Mack died November II, I826, and was buried on his own land on the east side of the river and south of Pike street. He was afterward buried in Oak Hill cemetery on the crest of the hill that overlooks the land he was the first white man to possess. Stephen Mack, Jr. (born I798), located in Rockton, Illinois, where he opened a trading house for Indian goods. He afterward married (1828), the daughter of a Winnebago chief. He held various offices, among them that of county judge. His death took place in Rockton about 1849. John M., another son, settled in Hamtramck. (Married April 8, 1827, Maria A. King.) He also held various offices in the gift of the people. Colonel Almon Mack (born April 28, 1805), married the orphan girl, Elvira Jamieson, in March, 1827. She was a woman of extraordinary mental and physical endowment and greatly beloved and respected by all who knew her.

Page  77 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 77 Of the daughters, Lovicy (born September 13, I795), married David Cooper, a wealthy merchant of Detroit. Her twin sister, Lavina, was the first white woman to die in Pontiac, September 2, 1823. Harriet married Reuben Hatch, who had been a lieutenant in the army. He died about 1827 while in charge of the lighthouse at Fort Gratiot. His widow afterward married Hon. Gideon O. Whittemore. Dr. George Drake is one of her descendants. Acseah died young. Joseph Smith, the Mormon prophet, was a cousin of the Macks, and visited Oakland county several times previous to his removal to Illinois. Almira Mack, twin to Almon, joined the Mormons at an early day and followed their fortunes to Utah, where she was living in I876. Mrs. Mack joined her daughter in 1846 and remained with her until her death, which occurred some ten years later. /Ruth Mack married Buckland, and her twin Rhoda married - Stanley. In 1824, during Colonel Stephen Mack's residence in Pontiac he built a grist mill at Rochester. After the Colonel's death his sons, Almon and John M., were appointed administrators of his estate, which was involved in the collapse of the Bank of Michigan. Colonel Mack was one of the bondsmen of James McCloskey, the cashier of the institution who defaulted to a large amount, and being the only one who had available means, his entire estate, except a small dower to the widow, was absorbed in the settlement, and his heirs were virtually left penniless. JOSEPH TODD AND PARTY Although it was through the agency of Stephen Mack that Pontiac was located and settled, yet the first actual settlers were Joseph Todd, his son-in-law, Orisson Allen and William Lester, and their families. Joseph Todd was born February 11, I765, at Warsaw, New York, and was a resident of that place when he enlisted for service in the Revolution in April, 1781, serving ten months and twenty days as a private in Captain Peter Bertholft's company, Colonel Henry Wisner's regiment. His father also was Joseph Todd who was a second lieutenant in the same company. In I8I8, at the time he applied for a pension, he was a resident of Palmyra, New York, and it was in November of the same year that he journeyed to Michigan, taking twenty-eight days to reach Detroit from Buffalo. They were driven back to Erie three times by bad winds. From Detroit they moved by wagons to Mt. Clemens and soon after Mr. Todd and his party set out on an exploring tour into what is now Oakland county. It was now the middle of December and the snow lay ten or twelve inches deep. Each man carried a supply of provisions, a blanket and an axe. Two of them were armed with rifles. The first night's encampment was where the village of Romeo afterward grew up. They cleared away the snow and built a fire and then felled a hollow basswood tree, which they cut in seven foot lengths and split open. Each man took half a log, placed it by the fire and with his blanket snugly wrapped around him lay down in the hollow inside and had a good night's sleep. The next day they camped where Pontiac now is. They returned to Mt. Clemens convinced that Pontiac would

Page  78 78 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY be their future home, and began preparations for moving thither. They were three days making the journey with a team. At the time there were four houses on the road, at two of which they passed the night. They reached Pontiac the g9th of January, I8I9, and occupied the one log house that the company had built, making a little community of fourteen persons. There were no chambers in the house, no chimney, and no floor, except some split logs where they laid their beds. Here they lived until April, when their own houses were ready for occupancy. Mr. Todd was not well after coming to Michigan, and by July the whole party were sick, not one able to help the other. Dr. William Thompson was the only physician in the county and he lived eight miles from Pontiac. Fever and ague was, of course, the complaint. Affairs, however, grew brighter after a little and Mr. Todd lived to see the village a thriving one, even boasting of the advent of a railroad. He married first, Julia Johnson, who died February io, 1843, aged seventy-four. He married, second, Patty Lee, September 21, 1843. Joseph Todd died at Bloomfield, Michigan, August 4, 1848, and is buried in Oak Hill cemetery. Children: (I.) Elizabeth, b. Dec. II, 1791; d. Nov. 5, I846 in Bloomfield; m. ist, - Harding; m. 2d, Asa B. Hadsell. (II.) Catherine, b. Aug. 1796; d. March i8, I845, in Pontiac. m. Orisson Allen. (III.) Julia, m. ist, - Todd; m. 2d, Joseph Voorheis. (IV.) John, m. Polly Smith. (V.) Joseph J., b. 800o; m. Chloe Matthews. (VI.) Jonathan. (VII.) Samuel, b. 1804; m. Dec. 31, 1839, Armena Irons. ITHAMAR SMITH Ithamar Eleazer (5), John (4), John (3), Philip (2), Lieut. Samuel (I) Smith, was born at Longmeadow, Massachusetts, January 13, 1756. He married January 26, I780, Lucy Nevers of Springfield, and had by her thirteen children, seven of whom he buried in New England. She died September 25, I843. Mr. Smith in June, 1776, enlisted for six months as a private in Captain Josiah Smith's company, Col. Whitney's regiment; also in April or May, 1777, as artificer for two years in Capt. Richard Faxon's company, Col. David Mason's regiment; again, in I779, he was in charge of the quartermaster's shop at Springfield, Massachusetts, under Col. William Smith. At the time of his enlistment he was a resident of Wilbraham, Hampshire county, Massachusetts. About the year I8o6 he removed to Marcellus, Onondaga county, New York. September 14, 1832 he applied for and received a pension while resident of this place. From there his wife and children and grandchildren, except his youngest son, Dr. George Smith and family of Syracuse, numbering twenty persons, came to Pontiac in the fall of 1835. When they left Marcellus they came to a place called Jordan on the Erie canal, where they chartered a boat for Buffalo. Some of the neighbors followed them to the canal to bid them farewell, for Michigan was

Page  79 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 79 then considered near the "jumping off place" and the good old minister preached a sermon before they started, from the text "They seek a country." Arriving at Buffalo they took a steamboat for Detroit, and thence over a rough road to Pontiac. They all moved into the house known as the Benjamin Phelps house (now the Presbyterian parsonage) and remained there until they could look around and select a permanent home. Mr. Smith bought the farm of Mr. Griffin, afterwards known as the George Wisner farm, which was managed by his son-in-law, Deacon Frost. He and his family were very regular in their attendance at church, going quite often with oxen for the first year or two. He was quite deaf and used to stand in the pulpit with the minister when he was over eighty years of age, no matter how long the sermon. In I843 he sold his farm to George Wisner, taking in part payment a farm in West Bloomfield. About this time his wife was taken sick and died, aged eighty-four years. They had lived together sixty-three years. On the Ist of September, I844, while getting ready to go to meeting Mr. Smith fell and died in a few minutes. Ithamar Smith was a blacksmith by trade and in 1874 there was still existing an account book he used from 1800 to I812. While in the Revolutionary service he had the pleasure of seeing and shaking by the hand his great commander, George Washington. On the 4th of July, 1838, at a celebration given by the citizens of Pontiac, Mr. Smith and Mr. Beach, another Revolutionary soldier living here, were given the posts of honor. He is buried in Oak Hill cemetery. Children: (I.) Roderick, b. March Io, I78I. (II.) Henry, b. April I9, 1782. (III.) Henry, b. Feb. I7, 1784. (IV.) Sally, b. March 5, I786. The foregoing all died in infancy. (V.) Sarah, b. January 23, 1787, d. February 8, 1876 Pontiac, Mich. (VI.) Fanny, b. January I2, I789, d. March I858, Pontiac, Mich. (VII.) John Morgan, b. Dec. 3I, I790; d. Oct. 26, I864, Grand Rapids; m. January 8, I8II, Lydia Goodrich, b. January 3, I794, d. March 25, I88I, in Manistee, Mich., dau. Allen Goodrich. (VIII.) Eleazer b. October 21, I792; d. Nov. 23, I797. (IX.) Hannah Morgan, b. June 17, 1794; d. May I, 1851, Pontiac, Mich.; m. Josiah Frost. (X.) Louis Nevins, b. March 21, I796; d. May I796. (XI.) George (Dr.) b. August I9, 1797; d. August 25, 1844, Syracuse, N. Y.; m. Electa Ellis. (XII.) Lucy, b. April 17, I799; d. July 8, 1837, Pontiac, Mich.; m. Weston Frost. (XIII.) Eleazar, b. November 25, I801; d. May 22, 1802. WILLIAM NATHAN TERRY William Nathan Terry made his declaration November Io, 1828, at which time he was sixty-eight years old. He enlisted for the war in March, 1774; was at the battle of Bunker Hill in June, 1775, as a member of Capt. Ransom's company of Pennsylvania troops, in Colonel But

Page  80 80 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY ler's regiment. He served till October, 1782. While on a furlough he fought as a volunteer at the battle of Wyoming, and afterward returned to his corps and was engaged in the battle of Princeton. He came to Michigan in 1824, leaving property in Tioga county, New York, out of which he was partially swindled, and was too poor to prosecute his rights for its recovery. He settled on the Saginaw turnpike, two miles northwest of Pontiac, and lived to be about eighty years old. He died January 20, 1840, and is buried on the Charles Terry lot in Oak Hill cemetery. His wife, Eleanor Lewis, died August 25, 1849, aged seventy-three years. Children: (I.) Charles, d. July 3, 1854, aged fifty-two years; cemetery record. (II.) Sarah Lee, b. October 27, I806; d. June 13, 1899; m. July 5, 1827, Isaac Voorheis, b. March I I, I806; d. July 12, I892. (III.) Ellen, m. Sept. 14, 1833, Matthew Stanley. (IV.) William, m. Hannah Lusk. (V.) Jacob. (VI.) Joshua, m. Lucy Tining. (VII.) John. (VIII.) Merritt, m. Emily Lewis. (IX.) Caleb, b. October ii, I816, Palmyra, Wayne county, N. Y.; d. April 26, I890, Lansing, Mich.; m. 1840 Loraine Cole, b. February I, 1821, d. September 13, I9o8, Port Huron, dau. of John and Elizabeth (Skinner) Cole. (X.) Polly, m. Elijah Kirkham. (XI.) Barney. JOSHUA CHAMBERLIN AND ENOCH HOTCHKISS The fifth Revolutionary soldier's grave to be located and marked in Oak Hill cemetery, Pontiac, was that of Joshua Chamberlin. He enlisted April 3, I777, at Richmond, Berkshire county, Massachusetts, serving as a private until April 3, 1780, in Captain Jeremiah Miller's company, Col. Vose's regiment of Massachusetts troops. He applied in I8I8 for a pension, which was granted, he being a resident of Lewiston, Niagara county, New York. In I820 he was a resident of Detroit and undoubtedly came to Pontiac with his sons, Joshua, Jr., and Dr. Olmstead Chamberlin, two years later. Dr. Chamberlin was one of the prominent business men of Pontiac a great many years. His father died February 20, 1827, aged sixty-seven years. Sarah, his wife, died at Gorham, New York, August 14, 1814, aged forty-nine. Enoch Hotchkiss, who is buried in the orchard on the farm he originally settled in I819, is claimed to be a soldier of the Revolution. ELIJAH DRAKE The early life of Elijah Drake was spent in the neighborhood of the Delaware Water Gap, that now famous summer resort where the combination of mountain and river forms scenery unexcelled in beauty. Here he was born July 4, I759. In the sparsely settled country embraced by Smithfield township, the settlers were protected from raids of hostile

Page  81 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 81 Indians by the garrison at Fort Penn. It was located on a large tract of land owned by Col. Stroud and commanded also by him. Lying adjacent to this great property of Col. Stroud was the land of Samuel Drake, father of Elijah. A company belonging to the Associates Battalion formed in Pennsylvania was organized in Smithfield May 22, I775, of which Jacob Stroud was captain and Samuel Drake lieutenant. In I776 Jacob Stroud was colonel and Samuel Drake captain (Vol. 14, second series of Pennsylvania Archives, page 555, 576). In June, 1778, the records of the Bureau of Pensions state that Elijah Drake enlisted as a private and served six months under Capt. Benjamin Schoonhoven, Col. Stroud's Pennsylvania regiment; reenlisted June 5, 1779, for three months under the same captain in Col. Armstrong's regiment Pennsylvania troops. After that a service of fifteen days is recorded under Capt. Samuel Shoemaker and his place of residence is given as Lower Smithville, Northhampton county, Pennsylvania. The state records also show the service of his brother Thomas. This official record is meager enough, for in reality he gave four years of his life to the service of his country. The position of the family on the frontier of necessity demanded the protection of father and sons in the early days of the war and Elijah thus served three years b)efore his official enlistment in 1778. Like others of the valiant volunteers who first viewed the fertile valley of the Susquehanna in time of strife, he was resolved to make this locality his home some time in the future, and after serving as executor of his father's estate in I789 he joined his sister Ruth, who had married Capt. Daniel Mc5owel and settled at Chemung, fourteen miles below Newtown Point, or Elmira, as the place is now called. Living in the beautiful valley of Wyoming at the time of the terrible massacre, was the family of Thomas and Abigail (Culver) Stoddard, settlers from Connecticut. They were warned of the approaching danger by a friendly Indian, in time to escape with their children. Their daughter Abigail was at that time eight or nine years old and many times in the course of her long life of ninety years, she recited the thrilling experiences which were so indelibly stamped upon her memory. The youngest child of two years of age died of exposure and hardships encountered in their long march in the wilderness. Just where was their refuge we do not know, but presumably to the north. This much is fact-that Elijah Drake married Abigail Stoddard in the year 1790 at Newtown Point. Their home was in Chemung, as we find Elijah Drake elected overseer of highways at the fourth town meeting held 1791. The next year he is still a resident, as is proved by a release given by him to his brother Joseph, for his interest in a piece of land adjoining their home farm. His second daughter, Welthy, is said to have been born in Scipio, New York. If so, the change of residence must have taken place early in 1793. His father-in-law, Thomas Stoddard, went with him, and they settled on a farm in the town of Scipio, one and three-fourths miles east of the village of Aurora, lying on Cayuga lake. Here his eight sons were Vol. 1-6

Page  82 82 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY born and here he lived until 1821 when he sold out and bought a farm two miles east of the village of Perry, Genesee county, New York, where he resided ten years. Thomas J., the second son, had made his way to Pontiac, Michigan, in 1824, and became one of the most prominent men of the early history of Oakland county. His success and liking for the new country influenced the rest of the family to leave New York for the land of promise. In I835 Elijah Drake, with six of his sons, and their families embarked from Buffalo on the old time steamer, "Thomas Jefferson." One son, Cyrus, with his family, settled in Huron county, Ohio, but the other five became pioneers of Michigan. After tarrying a while in Oakland county, the old gentleman and his wife went to live with their sons who had settled near Ann Arbor. After a residence there of a few years, they removed with their son, Dr. Flemon Drake, in 1844, to Royal Oak, where they made their home the remaining years of their lives. Elijah Drake died April 8, I848. His wife lived to be over ninety years old and died February 20, I86o. Children: (I.) Sally, b. January II, I79I, at Chemung, N. Y.; d. February 18, 1875, at Humberstone, Ont.; m. April 4, 1810 at Scipio, N. Y., Guy Jerome Atkins. (II.) Welthy, b. March 4, 1793, at Scipio, N. Y.; d. April 30, 1856, at Buffalo, N. Y.; m..March 4, 1820 at Perry, N. Y., Samuel Rudolph Atkins. (III.) Samuel, b. August 27, 1795, at Scipio, N. Y.; d. Sept., 1827, at New Orleans, La.; m. November 28, 1816 at Buffalo, Eliza Chapman, oldest daughter of Col. Asa Chapman. Her mother vxas Electa Doney, daughter of John and Mary (Keyes) Doney. Mrs. Eliza Drake died January 5, 1859, at Farmington, Mich. (IV.) Thomas Jefferson, b. April I8, 1797, at Scipio, N. Y.; d. April 20, I875, at Pontiac, Mich.; m. December 17, I826, Martha Minot Baldwin, daughter of Nathaniel Baldwin of Rochester; m. 2d April I9, 1843, Evelina H. Talbot. (V.) Cyrus, b. December 24, I800, Scipio, N. Y.; d. April I5, I855; m. November 14, 1824, Sylvia Huestis. (VI.) Elias, b. Sept. 25, I803, Scipio, N. Y.; d. Nov. I8, I878, at Madison, Lenawee county, Michigan; m. Sept. I9, 1837 at Lima, Washtenaw county, Michigan., Jane Hudson. (VII.) Elijah, b. December 24, 1805, at Scipio, N. Y.; d. April 14, 1875, at Flint,.Mich.; m. June I, 1839 at Rush, Livingstone county, N. Y., Sally Webster. (VIII.) Flemon, b. April 30, I807, at Scipio, N. Y.; d. November 2, I865, at Royal Oak, Mich.; m. April Io, I834, Electa Depue; m. 2d. Mary E. Pierson. (IX.) Edward L., b. April 30, I8Io, at Scipio, N. Y.; d. Feb. 4, 1896, at McBain, Mich.; m. Ist, I834, Ambrosia Lacy; m. 2d, Mrs. Cynthia B. Capen. (X.) Morgan L., b. Oct. I8, 1813, Scipio, N. Y.; d. April 21, 1865, at Pontiac, Mich.; m. September:9, 1837, Sarah Sophronia Stannard

Page  83 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 83 EZRA PARKER One of the two Revolutionary soldiers buried in the township cemetery of Royal Oak is Ezra Parker. He was born in Wallingford, Connecticut, December 13, 1745, and died in Royal Oak, Michigan, July 7, I842 in the ninety-seventh year of his age. With the family of his father, Andrew Parker, they removed from Wallingford, Connecticut, to Adams, Massachusetts, about I770; having previously married Sarah Tuttle. He married as his second wife, Elizabeth Perry of North Adams, Massachusetts, about 1772 and they had ten children, to-wit: Samuel, David, Ezra, William M., Joel, Cratus, Elizabeth, Ira, Abigail and another son, name unknown, who died young. After the Battle of Lexington, April, I775, Mr. Parker joined the Berkshire company; was present at the battle of Bunker Hill in Boston, and in September of that year was a sergeant among the picked I,200 which constituted Arnold's expedition through the wilds of Maine to Quebec and participated in the entire campaign, returning with the remnants of that expedition. Later a commission was tendered him in the Revolutionary army by the state of Massachusetts, but was declined. He, still as sergeant, was engaged among the troops from western Massachusetts at the battles of Bennington and Saratoga. In I793 the family removed to Herkimer county, New York, and in I795 to Bridgewater, Oneida county, New York. Mr. Parker, however, was the owner of extensive tracts of land in various points, in the state of New York, including St. Lawrence county near Watertown, and upon these tracts he settled his various children. Later, he and Mrs. Parker made their home with their son, William M., in Sangersfield county, New York, from about I8I3 to I835, and removed with his son William to Royal Oak, Oakland county, Michigan, in June, 1835, living there until his death in 1842. His descendants are quite numerous and are scattered all over the United States. The family is connected through various branches with many of the prominent families of the east of that name. The only ones of his immediate descendants living in this section was William M. Parker, who married Lydia Gilbert Bull in Bridgewater, Oneida county, New York, in 1802, and the fruits thereof were eleven children, seven of whom were living and removed with the family to Michigan in I835. William M. Parker also owned numerous tracts of land in the state of Michigan in Oakland and Genesee counties, especially but settled upon the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 6, township of Royal Oak, and on the old road previously described, having purchased the farm or land of Alexander Campbell. Of his children, Asher B. Parker first settled upon the west half of the northeast quarter of section 8 and the east half of the northeast quarter of section 7, township of Royal Oak. For four years, 1840 to I844,.he lived in the township of Genesee, county of Genesee. In I839 Asher B. Parker married Harriet M. Castle, they having seven children, all of whom are living at the present date. One son, Ralzemond A. Parker lives upon the old homestead and is a practicing lawyer in Detroit. William Parker was with Hooker's congregation settling Hartford,

Page  84 '84 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Connecticut, removing thereto from Cambridge, Massachusetts, in I639. He had three sons, the youngest, John, settled in New Haven, Connecticut, and also had among other children a son John (2d). John. 2d was born in I648, married Hannah Bassett in I670 and was among the early planters at Wallingford, Connecticut, giving the name of Parker's farm to a locality there west of the village, which name it still bears. Among numerous children was one Joseph, the fifth child who married Sarah Curtis in 1705, and among eleven children was one Andrew who married Susannah Blakesless. The children of Andrew Parker were Ambros, 1738; Grace, I739, and Patience; Zeruiah, I74I; Oliver, I743; Ezra, December 13, I745; Susannah, 1747; Rachael, 1749; Sybil, I753; and Jason, I764. He moved with the family to Adams, Berkshire county, Massachusetts, where he died. Jason Parker founded stage lines early in the nineteenth century and these lines ran to all parts of the state east, west, north and south, and west as far as Niagara Falls. JEREMIAH CLARKE Jeremiah Clarke was born in Preston, Connecticut, in 1760 or 176I. He lived with his father in Shaftsbury, Vermont, and in the Revolutionary war served under Capt. Bigelow Lawrence, entering service,March 2, 1778; discharged May 2, 1778; in service sixty days. His father, Jeremiah Clarke, Sr., was a member of the first convention of delegates from towns in July, 1776; major in I777; was member of first Council of Safety of Vermont, 1778; Judge of the first court, and member of executive council for years (Vermont Hist. Soc., Vol. I pp. II, I5, 2I, 23, 25; Vermont State Papers, 257, 266, 277, 553, 555). In his journeying to the westward, after the war, his first stop was in Bath, New Jersey, where he built one of the first houses. Here he did not tarry long, however, for we find him one of the early settlers of Nelson, Madison county, New York. He lived north of Erieville and built the first sawmill that was put up in the town, where now is the outlet of the Erieville reservoir. Before I808 he moved to Onondaga county and finally spent the last years of his life in Clarkston, Oakland county, Michigan, where his sons had settled and died there June i, 1845, aged eighty-four years. He married Sarah Millington in I780. She was born in I767; died July I7, 1845, aged seventy-eight years. They had fourteen children and a goodly proportion of the inhabitants of Clarkston claim descent from them. Children: (I.) Julia, m. Elnathan Cobb; lived in Onondaga county, N. Y. (II.) Amasa, m. a Mr. Green; went to Illinois over seventy years ago. (III.) Lydia, b. I781; d. September 14, I845, Clarkston, Mich.; m. Nicholas Brown. (IV.) Henry, left home when eighteen or twenty years of age and never heard of afterward. (V.) Amos.

Page  85 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 85 (VI.) Jeremiah, b. Sept. 19, I790, Shaftsbury, N. H.; d. August 29, 1847, Dewitt, N. Y.; m. Phebe Holdridge 1814, b. August 6, I79I; d. August 9, I838. (VII.) Lucy, m. William Johnson; lived in Nelson, N. Y. (VIII.) Amy, b. 1794; d. July 29, 1953, Clarkston, Mich.; m. Oliver Poole. (IX.)Susan, b. October 25, 1797; m. 182I Jeremiah Blair. (X.) Hiram. (XI.) Sarah, b. Feb. 15, I8o6; d. March 5, 1872, Clarkston, Mich.; m. Jacob Walter. (XII.) Nelson, b. June 8, 1808; d. April I7, 1876, Northville, Mich. (XIII.) Sidney. (XIV.) Ebenezer, b. August 6, 1812; d. February 7, I868, Michigan Center, Jackson county, Michigan. BENJAMIN GRACE Benjamin Grace made application for a pension on April 30, i8i8, at which time he was fifty-eight years of age and resided in Lyons, New York. His pension was allowed for three years of actual service as a private in the New Hampshire troops, Revolutionary war. He enlisted at Amherst, New Hampshire, I780, and served under Captain Livermore and Colonel Scammel until I783. He came in 1828 to reside with his children at Farmington, Oakland county, Michigan, and died on the William Grace farm a mile north of Clarenceville, on November I5, 1851, aged ninety-one years and is buried in the Clarenceville cemetery. He was blind for nearly thirty years during the latter part of his life. Benjamin Grace is said to have entered service at the age of fifteen years, at the battle of Lexington, and continued in active duty all during the war, being at the surrender of Yorktown. Children all born in Canaan, Somerset county, Maine: (I.) Benjamin, died in his youth. (II.) Mary (Polly), m. Russell. (III.) James, b. Apr. 27, 1789, d. Mar. 20, I866, Livonia, Wayne Co., Mich.; m. May 22, I814, Hannah Patten, b. June 22, I792, d. Feb. 20, 1879, dau. of James Patten. (IV.) Hannah, b. June 13, 1791, d. Feb. 20, 1879, Livonia, Wayne Co., Mich.; m. Solomon Lambert, b. June 15, 1792; d. Apr. 8, 1882. (V.) William, left home and was never heard of afterward. (VI.) Abigail, m. Williard Lambert. (VII.) Amasa, b. Aug. I797; d. July 14, 1873, Farmington, Mich.; m. in Maine, Jane Barton, a native of Ireland. (VIII.) Sally, b. 1802; d. Oct. 20, I86I, Farmington, Mich.; m. Stephen Jennings, d. Sept. 5, 1850, aged 49 years. (IX.) Amelia, m. John Grace, b. Feb. 13, 1805, Maine; d. Feb. 7, 1860, Fulton, Gratiot Co., Mich.; son of Joseph and Susan (Close) Grace, Joseph, d. in town of Lyons, N. Y., when his son John was 12 years of age. (X.) Harriet, b. March I7, 1807; m. George Barton, m. 2nd. Ward.

Page  86 86 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY (XI.) Darius, b. Oct. 8, 1809; d. Jan. 2, 1892, Conway, Livingston Co., Mich.; m. Dec. io, 1837, Livonia, Mich., Ann Eliza Grant; b. Feb. 27, 1822 Great Barrington, Mass.; living (1912) dau. of Warren G. Grant and Sophia Wilcox of Livonia. CALEB BARKER MERRELL Capt. Caleb Barker Merrell was a commissioned officer in the American army during the struggle for independence, participating in the battles of Bennington, Bemis Heights, Saratoga, Stillwater and the surrender of Burgoyne, October 17, 1777. He was at one time taken prisoner, conveyed to Canada and was for some time confined by British authority. This memorial of him is given in Lakin's History, Military Lodge F. & A. M. No. 93, Manlius, N. Y. (p. 59), of which he was evidently a member. He was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, and died in Springfield, Oakland county, Michigan, July 2, 1842, at the advanced age of eighty-eight years. His wife was Sally Jackson, to whom he was married June 29, 1788. She was born October 3, 1766 and died July 22, I86-, daughter of Col. Giles and Anna Thomas Jackson. Capt. Merrell came to Michigan with his son, John J. Merrell in 1833, and settled in Springfield. He is buried in the cemetery at Clarkston. Children: (i.) John Jackson Merrell, b. March 22, 1797, at Whitestone, N. Y.; d. Apr. 6, 1866; m. July 31, 1822, Maria Paddock, b. Jan. 4, 1804, Caznovia, N. Y.; died May 7, 1883. (II.) Charlotte, b. Jan. I5, I8o4; d. Apr. 4, 1873; m. John W. Pratt, b. Apr. 17, 1802; d. Apr. 24, 1847, Springfield. (III.) Charles. (IV.) Helen, m. - Lovett. (V.) Anna, m. David Leonard. LEVI GREEN Levi Green was born in Coventry, R. I., June 6, 1758, and died in West Bloomfield, Oakland county, Michigan, on the 2ISt of June, 1859. At the time of making application for a pension, September 28, 1832, he was a resident of Livonia, N. Y. He enlisted July i, 1776, for eight and one half months under Captain Baldwin; 2nd enlistment July I, 1777, one month, under Captain Newell; 3rd enlistment August, 1777, under Captain Brown, Colonel Simonds regiment, Massachusetts troops. He was engaged in the battle of Bennington. His grandson, Horace A. Green, has in his possession the original pension papers and a powder horn carved with his name which was carried through the war. Levi Green's wife was Asenath Robinson. Their son, Zephaniah Ripley Green, with whom the father lived, arrived in West Bloomfield in July, 1832. He is buried in the North Farmington cemetery. Many of his descendants are living in Oakland county. Children: (I.) Aurelia, b. Nov. 5, 1785, Cheshire, Mass.; d. 1866, buried in Palermo, N. Y.; m. Joseph Chapel; m. 2nd, Selim Dayton. (II.) Eunice, m. David Cripen. (III.) Waterman, killed by falling tree when 18 years old.

Page  87 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 87 (IV.) Sophia, d. about 1848; m. David Curtis. (V.) Fanny, b. Apr. 3, 1794; m. July 7, I812, Orange Chapin. (VI.) Horace, b. -; d. Jan. 20, I833, Springfield, Mich.; m. Sept. 21, 1820, Livonia, N. Y., Diantha Powell. (VII.) Huldah, b. Sept. 24, 1799, Middleboro, N. Y.; d. Mar. 21, 1897; m. Godfrey Slocum. (VIII.) Zephaniah Ripley, b. Aug. 6, I801; d. Feb. I, I879; m. Dec. 3, I826, Zerilla Gould. (IX.) Emma, b. Apr. 24, I804; d. June 19, I889; m. June 7, I827, Abner Beardsley. (X.) Speedy, b. May 25, I808; d. Mar. 21, I890; m. Gerothman McDonald, June 4, I827. (XI.) Laura, b. Aug. II, I8II; d. 1850 or '5I; m. Sheldon Wilcox. JOEL PHELPS Enlisted June, 1775, and served till January 3, 1776, with rank of sergeant in Capt. John McKinstry's company, Col. John Patterson's Massachusetts regiment; also reenlisted February 2, I776, in same company and was taken prisoner in Canada. In 1777 served first in Capt. Hall's company, Col. Henry Sherborne's regiment, Continental army, and reenlisted June I6, 1777, in Capt. Stephen Hardin's company, Col. Zebulon Butler's Connecticut regiment. He was wounded in this service for which he was pensioned. Appointed quartermaster to accompany Gen. Burgoyne's army to Virginia and served from April or May, 1779, to May, 1780, as issuing commissary at Saratoga. Engaged in battles of the Cedars, Trenton, Princeton, Bound Brook, Wyoming and many skirmishes. Applied April 20, i818, for pension, which was allowed, residing at that time in Bloomfield, Ontario county, New York, and being sixty-two years old, being born July I6, I755. In 1821 soldier's wife "Anner" was fifty-four years old. There were twelve children. In I836 he moved to Michigan and in September, 1837, was living in Oakland county. He is buried in the cemetery at Rose Corners. Children: (I.) Gilbert, b. Dec. 26, I788. (II.) Minerva, b. Dec. I, 1790. (III.) Othanile, b. Feb. Io, I793. (IV.) Martha, b. July 4, I795. (V.) Sarah, b. May 5, 1798. (VI.) Joel, b. May 22, i8oo. (VII.) Daniel, b. Aug. I6, I802. (VIII.) Mariah, b. Aug. I6, 1804. (IX.) Aaron, b. Oct. I8, I806. (X.) Lewis, b. March II, I8O9; d. Feb. io, 1897. (XI.) Henry, b. Jan. I8, 1813. (XII.) Stephen, b. I815. ELIAS CADY Elias Cady, son of Benajar Cady, was born in Providence, R. I., September 7, I756. During the first year of the war the boy took his

Page  88 88 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY musket and went to Boston where he was enlisted as a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and served till its close. He spent the winter at Valley Forge with Washington, and one night he and the general went on a reconnoitering expedition, returning at the break of day with sufficient information to make the American army better prepared to meet the enemy when it came. At the end of the war he was married in a church at Providence, Rhode Island, to Olive Baker. Six children were born to them-Seth B., Rhoda, Mary, Sarah, Philinda and Elias. They moved to Utica, N. Y., where she died, and in 1838 he came with his son, Seth B., to Holly, Michigan, on March 31, 1853, he died at the home of this same son at Genesee and was buried in Oak Hill cemetery, two miles northwest of Holly, Michigan. He was a pensioner. SAMUEL NILES Samuel Niles was born in Rhode Island, and was a private under General Green in the War of the Revolution and was wounded in an action in his native state. He came to Michigan in 1835 and took up his residence with his son Johnson Niles, the first settler in the township of Troy, and remained here until his death in July, 1838. Buried in Crook's cemetery, Troy, Oakland county, Michigan. His wife, Smellage Sisson, died in 1835; m. 2nd, Lucy Roberts. SILAS SPRAGUE Silas Sprague was another early settler and soldier who is buried in the Crooks cemetery at Troy, this county. He was born February I8, 1762, in Connecticut, coming to Michigan in 1824, with his son Silas; died March 8, 1841, in Troy, Michigan. His wife, Polly Leonard, was born October I6, 1763; died October 5, 1813, in New York. Their children were: (I.) Silas, b. Oct. I6, 1785, Middlebury, Conn.; d. July 2, I868, Troy, Mich.; m. Nov. 12, I807, Sarah Crofoot; m. 2nd, 1824, Amanda Bostwick; m. 3rd, 1855, Eunice Fuller. (II.) Polly, b. Mar. 9, 1790. (III.) Charles, b. Dec. 13, I79I, Chenango Co., N. Y.; d. Nov. 30, I871. (IV.) Thomas, b. Apr. 6, I794, Chenango Co., N. Y.; d. Apr. I866. (V.) Orrin, b. Aug. 20, 1796; d. June 8, I874, Troy. (VI.) Barnabas, b. Mar. 20, 1799; d. Sept. 30, I865. (VII.) John, b. July 4, I80I; d. Sept. 29, I866, Troy, Mich. (VIII.) Leonard, b. Aug. 29, 1804; Broome Co., N. Y.; d. July 24, I88o, Pontiac, Mich. "Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors" gives his service as follows: Certificate dated May 31, 1780; signed by Truman Wheeler, muster master of Berkshire county, stating that in the fore part of July, 1779, he had mustered said Sprague and others to serve in the Continental army for the term of nine months, to the credit of the town of Great Barrington; also descriptive list of men raised in Berkshire county to serve in the Continental army for the term of nine months to Capt. Goodrich's company, Col. Ashley's regiment; age seventeen years; stature five

Page  89 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 89 feet, nine inches, complexion light; engaged for the town of Great Barrington; also served twelve days at Stillwater, 1781. ESBON GREGORY The Bureau of Pensions at Washington gives the following record: Esbon Gregory enlisted June 15, 1777, and served till August I7, 1777, as private in Capt. Amariah Babbitt's company, Col. Benjamin Simon's regiment of Massachusetts troops; also re-enlisted August 17, 1777, and served till October 17, 1777, under Capt. Herrick and Col. Seth Warner; also, after October 17, I777, to May or June, 1778, as teamster under Capt. Luther Loomis and Col. Warner; also from May or June, 1778, for eight months in Capt. Peter Porter's company, General Stark's Life Guard; also April, 1779, three months as quartermaster transporting military stores for General Stark; also July I, 1779, served as sergeant under Capt. Barnes in Col. Israel Capen's regiment; also June I, I780, one year as sergeant under Captains Hickok, Spoor and Gross, and Colonels Brown and Willett; also June I, 1781, through November of that year. He engaged in the battle of Bennington in which he was wounded; also battles of Stone Arabia and Johnstown. At the time of his enlistment he was a resident of New Ashford or Lanesborough, Berkshire county, N. Y. and at the time of his application for pension May 4, I8I8, he resided in Manlius, New York. In 1833 he lived in Hanover, that state. In 1837 he was living in Troy, Oakland county, with his son, Jesse Gregory, where he remained until his death in I84-. He is buried in the Plains cemetery, one and one quarter miles east of Troy Corners, Oakland county. His wife was Salome Sherwood. Children: (I.) Solomon, m. Maria Hagerman. (II.) Abigail, m. Johnson. (III.) Salome, m. Absalom Kief. (IV.) Mary Ahn, m. Jan. 15, 1829, Sylvester Francis. (V.) Jesse, b. Sept. 26, 1796, -, N. Y.; d. July 22, 1849, Troy, Mich.; m. Mar. 26, 1826, Laura Downer, b. Dec. 29, I799; d. July 7, 1874; dau. of Jackson and Tabitha (Hackett) Downer. ZADOCK WELLMAN Zadock Wellman and his sons, Joel and Aaron, settled in Troy as early as I819. They came from Vermont and were active in the Baptist church and town affairs until about I847, when their names disappear. Zadock Wellman's name is found in the list of Revolutionary soldiers who were pensioners in I840 when his age is given as seventynine and he resided with Joel Wellman in Troy. The wife of Joel was Martha and Aaron Wellman's wife was Lucy. The Wellmans are buried in the cemetery east of Troy Corners, Oakland county. CALEB CARR Caleb Carr, born October 13, 1762, died July i8, 1839, and is buried in Novi cemetery. He is said to have been a Methodist exhorter, (p. 130, Vol. III "Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors").

Page  90 90 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Caleb Carr, Jr.: Receipt dated Warwick, February, 1777, given to Capt. Squire Millard for wages for services for one day on an alarm November 2, 1776; also, private in Capt. Millard's company, Col. John Waterman's regiment, service between December 4, 1776, and January 9, 1777, thirty-five days; also first division Capt. Squire Millard's company, Col. Wakeman's regiment, service from January 9, I777 to February 3, 1777, thirty-one days; also, receipt dated Warwick, I777, given to Capt. Millard for wages from January 9 to February 8, 1777; also corporal first division, Squire Millard's company, Col. Waterman's regiment, service from April 6, I777, to April 22, I777, fifteen days. The land records show that the Carr family bought land in Kensington in the year 1836, at which time Caleb Carr, Jr., was a resident of that place. A few years later the father and sons lived at Novi, Michigan, where Isaac Carr kept a tavern, which was burned in 1847. He then moved to Redford, Michigan, and kept tavern there the rest of his life. Caleb Carr had children: Caleb, b. Vermont; d. in Williamston, Mich.; Isaac, b. September 6, 1790, Vermont; d. December 1862, Redford, Mich.; Calvin, b. Vermont; d. Waterford, Mich.; Sarah, b. June 5, 800o; d. February 9, I837. HOOPER BISHOP Hooper Bishop, another soldier of the Revolution, buried in Novi cemetery, Michigan, was born March 22, I762; died April 3, I86I. He married February 12, I794, Betsey -; born March 22, 1758; died January 12, 1825. He came to Michigan before I840 to live with his son Levi who owned a farm east of Novi, which is now owned by Mr. West. Mrs. Lozie Paddack remembers him well, as she often visited his granddaughter and he would tell them stories of the war, of which he had kept many relics, including his uniform and musket. He had a wooden leg and was blind and the children looked up to him as a great hero. His service is given in "Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors," Vol. II, p. 78, as follows: Hooper Bishop, private Capt. John Carpenter company; enlisted June 25, 1779; discharged September 25, I779; service with guards at Springfield enlistment three months. Hooper Bishop, private Capt. Caleb Keep's company, Col. Israel Chapen's regiment; enlisted October, I779; discharged November 21, I779; service I month, 1 days; enlisted three months; company raised to reinforce Continental army. Hooper Bishop, South Brinefield descriptive list of men raised to reinforce Continental army for the term of six months, agreeable to resolve of June 5, 1780; Age, eighteen years; stature, five feet, five inches; complexion dark; residence South Brinefield; arrived in Springfield July II, 1780; marched to camp July II, 1780, under command of Captain George Webb. Also list of men raised for the six months service and returned by Brig. Gen. Patterson as having passed muster, in a return dated Camp Toloway, October 25, 1780; also pay roll for six-month men raised by the town of South Brinefield for service in the Continental army dur

Page  91 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 91 ing I780. Marched July, 1870; discharged December, 1780; service five months; discharged at West Point. Also Hooper Bishop, private Capt. Abel King's company, Col. Sear's regiment; enlisted August 20, 1781; discharged November 26, I78I; service three months at Saratoga. Children: (I.) Prudence, b. September 3, I794. (II.) Sally, b. February 26, 1797; d. February 4, 1858. (III.) Levi, b. June 8, I799; d. October I8, I870, Novi, Oakland county, Mich. (IV.) William, b. November 21, I802. DERRICK HULICK Derrick Hulick was born May 5, 1759, Montgomery township, Somerset county, New Jersey. At the time of his enlistment he was still a resident of that county. He served as a private from June i, I776, for seven months in Capt. William Baird's company, Col. Quick's and Henry VanDike's regiment; also under Capt. Rynear Staats and Col. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey. Reenlisted, 1777, for eight months in John Baird's company, Col. Webster's regiment; again in April, 1778, for two months under Capts. Joakim Gulick and John Bair in Col. VanDike's regiment. Also January or February I779, for six months and I780 for one month in the same company. September 3, 1832, he applied for and was allowed a pension and at the time lived in Oxford township, Warren county, New Jersey. In I839 he resided with his son-in-law, Dennis Snyder, in the township of Addison, Oakland county. He died in 1843 and was the first person buried in the Lakeville cemetery. He is said also to have served in the War of I812. CALEB PRATT Obituary from Pontiac Jacksonian, June 13, 1843: "Departed this life on the 24th ult. Caleb Pratt, Esq., aged eighty-three years and seven months, at the residence of his son, Capt. John W. Pratt, Springfield, Oakland county, Michigan. "Mr. Pratt was a soldier of the Revolution. He was a volunteer under the brave Stark at Bennington, and there fought shoulder to shoulder with his compatriots and contributed to the successful issue of that eventful day. "The deceased in the course of his long and active life was frequently called by his fellow citizens to fill offices, both civil and military, and he discharged the duties thereof with honor to himself and satisfaction to the public." SOLOMON JONES Solomon Jones came to Michigan in the fall of 1843 and first stopped in Springfield where his wife died. He lived five years afterward with his son, Jesse, in Groveland, and then went back to New York where he stayed some time and finally returned to Michigan and lived with Jesse until June 1865, when he died at the extreme age of one hundred and

Page  92 92 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY five years. He had served in the Revolutionary war, although but fifteen years old when called upon to bear arms. (Page 176 Oakland County History.) Children: (I.) Daniel, came from Orwell, Rutland county, Vermont, in 1837, to Michigan. (II.) Timothy, came to Michigan 1836, settled in Springfield and later went to Texas. (III.) Jesse, b. in Essex county, N. Y., between Lake George and Lake Champlain, came to Michigan in I838, located in Groveland, Oakland county, Michigan. LYDIA BARNES POTTER General Richardson Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, learning of the services this loyal woman gave to her country, honored her grave with the official marker of the society, placed with appropriate services on the g9th of August, I9II, at the Baldwin cemetery, near Rochester, Michigan. Her granddaughter, Mrs. Abigail H. McArthur, makes the following affidavit: "To all whom it may concern: My grandfather, Lemuel Potter, was a Revolutionary soldier. He enlisted at Hattford, Connecticut, in 1777, when the Continental army was organized. He had seen previous service in the militia companies. His officers were Col. Wyllys and Capt. Robert Warner. He was appointed a corporal, and with a corporal's guard was sent home to gather provisions and clothing for Washington's starving soldiers at Valley Forge. While engaged in this work he met Lydia Barnes, a young woman who was devoting her whole time and strength to the service of her country by making clothing for the soldiers at the front. She spun and wove the wool and cut and made the garments, learning the tailor's trade that she might the more expeditiously supply the soldier's needs. She worked so unremittingly at her task, standing continuously in a half bent position over her cutting table that she was never able to stand upright. "When the young soldier, Lemuel Potter, returned to the front he had won the promise of Lydia Barnes to be his wife when the war was over. But owing to a ruling of congress that a married man could draw a year's rations they were married earlier in February 2, I779. "Lemuel Potter was in the engagement known as the Storming of Stony Point and by his bravery on that occasion won the praise of his commander. On another occasion he was presented with a cane by his major for meritorious conduct. Said cane is now in my possession. He served till the end of the war and was honorably discharged. His military record was obtained from the Pension department at Washington, D. C. "Lemuel Potter died February 26, 1826, and is buried at Chili, N. Y. After his death his widow moved to Paint Creek, Oakland county, and became an inmate of the family of my parents, Needham and Marilla Hemingway (her daughter), till the time of her death, ten years later. She died in August, 1836, and is buried at Baldwin's cemetery, Paint Creek, Oakland county. At the time she was a member of my mother's

Page  93 HISTORY OF OAKLAND.COUNTY 93 family I was a young girl and testify of my own knowledge that the above facts are true as I heard them related by my grandmother, Lydia Potter, in my childhood. "ABIGAIL H. McARTHUR." "State of Michigan, County of Lapeer-On this g9th day of August, I9II, personally appeared before me, a notary public in and for Lapeer county, Michigan, Abigail H. McArthur who being duly sworn deposes and says that the above is true to the best of her knowledge and belief. "WM. E. MCCORMACK, Notary Public." JAMES HARRINGTON AND JACOB PETTY James Harrington's name appears as one of the earliest pioneers of this county, coming to Pontiac in I820 or 21. He made the first purchase of land in the township of West Bloomfield on the I5th of May, 1823. He entered the entire section 36. He served in the Rhode Island troops as corporal in the Revolution. He died in Oakland county I825, aged sixty-two. His wife was Martha Gould and his daughter Mary married Elias Gates. Jacob Petty, of Independence, Oakland county, claimed to have belonged to Washington's bodyguard. His remains were removed from the farm where he died, to the cemetery at Sashabaw Plains, Oakland county. JOHN BLANCHARD AND ALTRAMONT DONALDSON John Blanchard's name is given in the pensioneer's list of I840, his residence is mentioned as White Lake, and his age as seventy-seven. The county records show that a John Blanchard of Farmington in 1834 deeded land to his daughter, Sophia Laqui, which in 1852 was sold by Sophia and Abraham Lakey to Ira F. Gage. In 1835 John Blanchard deeded eighty acres of land to his son David, whose wife was Sally. David owned the west one-half N. E. quarter section 17 and deeded same to Benjamin Sage in 1839. John Blanchard's former residence was Meredith, Delaware county, New York. Altramont Donaldson, another soldier given in the pension list, was aged seventy-seven and resided at Holly in 1840. No further information can be given concerning him. JOSEPH VAN NETTER Joseph Van Netter was the first Revolutionary veteran to file an application for pension in the Oakland county court. On the date of his sworn statement February 12, 1822, he was fifty-nine years old. He enlisted for one year, in April, 1775, in Captain Wendell's company of Colonel Wynkoop's regiment, in the line of the state (colony) of New York, Continental establishment, served till November, and then reenlisted for the war, in the same company and regiment, the latter then commanded by Colonel Van Schaick. He completed his term of service, being engaged with the enemy at the battles of Monmouth and York

Page  94 94 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY town, and was honorably discharged. He filed an inventory of all of his worldly goods, which the court, Judge William Thompson presiding, valued at the munificent sum of nine dollars. BENJAMIN BULSON Benjamin Bulson filed his declaration for a pension July 21, 1823, at which date he was aged sixty-nine years. He enlisted in March, 1776, in a company of infantry on Long Island, commanded by Captain Thomas Mitchell and Lieutenant Cornell, in Colonel Van Courtlandt's regiment of General Putuam's brigade of New York troops. He served till August, 1776, when he was captured by our British cousins at Brooklyn, and sent to Halifax, having been wounded in the leg, from which wound he was, at the date of his declaration, still suffering, though nearly fifty years had elapsed since it was inflicted. He escaped from confinement at Halifax by digging out of the prison, and after lying in the woods for a long time, and almost starving to death, he arrived at Salem, Massachusetts, in September, 1779, and at once reenlisted as a hand on the ship "Julius Brutus," Captain John Brooks, carrying eighteen guns, which on its first cruise captured a British brig and to which Bulson was transferred as one of the prize crew. Soon after, the prize was retaken by the British sloop-of-war "Hornet." The prize was taken to New York, and Bulson confined in the old prison-ship "Jersey," in Waalabout (Brooklyn). At the end of.two months he escaped from the prisonship by cutting off the rivets by which the iron bars which closed the port-holes were fastened, and swimming ashore. He was, however, the next day taken prisoner by Major Murray's Tories, called "The King's American Dragoons," and was sentenced to receive nine hundred lashes for escaping. He did receive four hundred and fifty on his bare back, the last half-hundred being given after he had fainted from pain and exhaustion. He was then taken to the hospital, where he remained just long enough for the recovery of his strength, when he again escaped, and arrived in Salem in 178I, early in that year. All of the time from his enlistment to his final escape he had been without pay, with the exception of two months' wages he had received. While on the prison-ship he changed his name on account of his Tory relatives on Long Island, who had threatened to kill him if they should get a chance. He therefore lost his individuality in the cognomen of Benjamin Smith, and had been known by that name ever since. His wife and himself were all the family he had, the former being sixty-five years old, and his invoiced property was valued at seventy-two dollars and sixty-two and a half cents, and included one wagon and the old soldier's walking-staff. NATHAN LANDON Nathan Landon was the last of these Revolutionary soldiers to file a declaration in the Oakland courts for a pension, and he did so on the I3th of November, 1828, at which time he was seventy-one years old. He enlisted February I, 1776, in Captain Archibald Shaw's company, Colonel William C. Maxwell's regiment of New Jersey troops, and served

Page  95 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 95 in the same until November 14, 1776, when the regiment was dismissed by General Gates, at Ticonderoga. Himself and his wife (seventy years old) lived with a son, Stephen, and his family, and the old people had no property save their wearing apparel and bedding. GENERAL RICHARDSON CHAPTER, D. A. R. General Richardson Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, was organized in October, I899, and received its charter from the National Society on February 17, I9oo, engrossed with the following names: Mrs. Ada Louise Leggett Smith, regent; Mrs. Lillian Drake Avery, viceregent; Miss Mabel Thorpe, secretary; Mrs. Harriet Beach Lounsbury, corresponding secretary; Mrs. Josephine Brown Sanford,treasurer; Mrs. Marion Eliza Seymour Ten Eyck, registrar; and Miss Marcia Richardson, historian; Miss Mary Fitch Crofoot, Mrs. Grace G. Blakesley Thather, Mrs. Eliza Van Campen Birge, Mrs. Ann Loomis Richards Coleman, Miss Lucy Carpenter, Mrs. Kate Beach Gray, Mrs. Julia Talbot Smith, Mrs. Anne Robinson Vernon, and Mrs. Anne Ingoldsby Crawford. The first work undertaken by this active, patriotic society was to collect and send boxes of books and magazines to the soldiers in the Philippines. It next endeavored to arouse an interest in American history by offering prizes to the Pontiac grammar and high schools for the best written essays on subjects selected from the Revolutionary period. These competitions proved very successful and were continued several years. The society has responded liberally to the call for funds to build Memorial Continental Hall. It felt that in no better way could our forefathers be honored than by assisting in erecting this splendid edifice to their memory. The Daughters meet once a month and aside from the regular business, have a program devoted to the study of historical or educational topics. The preservation of the early records of Oakland county is a work which the historical committee has recently taken up and much valuable genealogical material has already been collected. This is especially true of the families of the Revolutionary soldiers of the county, as it is their desire to have a record of all the descendants of these veterans. They have a fine old mahogany bookcase which was formerly owned by Dr. Elliott, an early practitioner of Pontiac. It contains a set of Lineage Books published by the National Society and bound volumes of the American Mlonthly, the official D. A. R. magazine, beside a number of very old books and papers which have been donated to them. They also have been presented with a rare old map of the Provinces as they were in 1776, a spinning wheel and reel, and a silver buckle which was worn by a Revolutionary soldier. To the generosity of Mr. Henry M. Warren of the P. S. H. they owe their famous collection of autographs of celebrities. For twentyfive years Mr. Warren collected these letters, cards and pictures of famous people, and when he presented them to the Daughters, they

Page  96 96 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY showed their appreciation of the gift by ordering a book made especially for their mounting which is now considered one of their most valued possessions. The registrar's book containing the lineage, biography and portrait of each member, will be when completed, greatly appreciated; the scrap book and historian's record are also prized by them more highly as the passing years prove their importance. In I905 General Richardson Chapter entertained the state conference and it was one of the most successful meetings of the kind ever held. In this and in other social affairs, the chapter has won considerable prestige, but the work which they have most at heart and which has won them the reputation of being the "Banner Chapter" of the state, is their indefatigable labors in searching for and marking the graves of the Revolutionary soldiers who have been buried in the county. Each man's record of military service is found, date and place of birth, death and marriage are noted, the name of his wife and a list of his children is sought for, and often it takes years to complete a record. United States government, county, cemetery, church and private records have to be consulted, and even then the result is sometimes very meager. THE REVOLUTIONARY GRAVES MARKED When the burial place of a soldier has been located and his record proven, the Daughters hold a memorial service at the grave, placing on it the official.marker of the society and offerings of flowers. Nineteen graves have thus far been located as follows: i. Elijah Drake, marked June IO, I900, Royal Oak. 2. Ezra Parker, stone marked, Revolutionary soldier, Royal Oak. 3. Levi Green, marked June 14, I906, North Farmington. 4. Stephen Mack, marked July I, 1907, Pontiac. 5. Joseph Todd, marked July I, 1907, Pontiac. 6. Ithamar Smith, marked July i, 1907, Pontiac, with government stone. 7. Joshua Chamberlin, marked July 29, I909, Pontiac. 8. William Nathan Terry, marked October I, 90o9, Pontiac. 9. James Bancker, marked October 28, 1907, Metamora. IO. Moses Porter, marked October 28, 1907, Farmer's Creek. II. Caleb Merrill, marked September 17, I908, Clarkston. 12. Jeremiah Clark, marked September 17, I908, Clarkston. I3. George Horton, marked July 29, I909, Rochester. 14. Nathaniel Baldwin, marked July 29, I909, Rochester. 15. James Graham, marked June 2, I9II, Graham's cemetery, Avon. I6. Benjamin Grace, marked August 3, I910, Clarenceville. *I7. Lydia Potter, marked Aug. i9, I9II, Baldwin cemetery. I8. Silas Sprague, marked July I9, I912, Crooks cemetery, Troy. 19. Samuel Niles, marked July I9, 1912, Crooks cemetery, Troy. * Lydia Potter did not bear a musket, but she served her country by working night and day to clothe the destitute soldiers at Valley Forge, and the Daughters thus honor her memory.

Page  97 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 97 TRIBUTE TO GENERAL RICHARDSON In June it is the custom of the Daughters to observe "Memorial Day," when their beautiful ritual service is read and the graves of their deceased members and the five Revolutionary soldiers buried in Oak Hill cemetery receive their floral offerings. At the services held I907 Mrs. Ada L. Smith gave the following beautiful tribute: "As we decorate today the graves of our Revolutionary heroes, as we cast a flower and a tear upon the graves of the daughters of those heroes, we pause here at the grave of General Richardson. He fought in the Seminole war; he won honors in the Mexican war; he gave his life for his country in the Civil war. He attained by his bravery and ability the highest rank among Michigan's ninety thousand soldiers, that of major general. It is in memory of this that we place this wreath upon his grave and thus we pledge ourselves to teach our children and our grandchildren to love, to revere and to keep green the memory of Michigan's 'Fighting Dick,' Major General Israel B. Richardson." MEMBERSHIP OF THE DAUGHTERS The officers of the society are elected yearly, the office of regent being limited to two terms. The following ladies have held this highest office in the gift of the society for two years each: Mesdames Ada Leggett Smith, Lillian Drake Avery, Josephine Brown Sanford, Ada McConnell Wisner, Carrie Mack Newberry, and Maud Green Shattuck. The secretaries have been: Miss Mabel Thorpe, Mrs. Ada L. Smith, Misses Sarah G. Davis and Ella L. Smith, and Mrs. Mary Pierson Todd. The office of treasurer has been filled by Mrs. Josephine Brown Sanford, Kate Crawford Van Buskirk, Hattie Means Stowell, Charlotte Monroe Osmun and Mary Josephine Wiest Clark. Registrars: Mesdames Marion Seymour Ten Eyck, Anne Ingoldsby Crawford and Lillian Drake Avery, who has held the office since I905. * Miss Marcia Richardson is the only historian the chapter has had. The present membership of General Richardson Chapter is: Regent, Mrs. Kate Beach Gray; vice regent, Mrs. Anne Ingoldsby Crawford; secretary, Mrs. Lottie Stanton Blackstone; treasurer, Mrs. Jennie Chaffee Church; registrar, Mrs. Lillian Drake Avery, and historian, Miss Marcia Richardson; Mrs. Sophronia Means, Vinton, Iowa, real Daughter; Avery, Blanche (Miss), Avery, Lucile (Miss), Beach, Julia Taft (Mrs. Samuel E.), Bailey, Clara Voorheis (Mrs. Roy E.), Bradfield, Elizabeth Palmer (Mrs. Thomas Parks), Baker, Myra A. (Miss), Barnes, Edith (Miss), Barnes, Mae (Miss), Birge, Eliza Van Campen (Mrs. John W.), Canfield, Sarah Bishop (Mrs.), Carroll, Mary Thatcher (Mrs. Frank H.), Castell, Donna Sherman (Mrs. Daniel G.), Clark, Mary Josephine (Mrs.), Coleman, Ann Loomis Richards (Mrs. Harry), Crohn, Bertha Elizabeth Miller (Mrs. Solomon S.), Davis, Sarah Griswold (Mrs.), Eaton, Irma G. (Mrs.), Freeland, Anna Hadsell (Mrs. Orrin B.), Galbraith, Mary R. Wisner (Mrs. Stuart E.), Goss, Myra Voorheis (Mrs. Oscar B.), Goodison, Anne E. Barnes (Mrs. Samuel), Vol. I-7

Page  98 98 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Gross, Evangeline Grow (Mrs. George F.), Harper, Belle Robinson (Mrs. F. B.), Hinckley, Ada Green (Mrs. Milton L.), Hollister, Metta Hosner (Mrs. J. F. C.), Howlett, Mary Rockwell (Mrs. Edward V.), Jackson, Emma Warn (Mrs. Henry C.), Kuttler, Emma Belle (Mrs. George E.), Lounsbury, Elizabeth S. (Miss), Mackin, Edith C. Cook (Mrs. Jas. N.), Marsh, Alice (Miss), Merritt, Edith Kelley (Mrs. Herbert B.), Morgans, Mary Cole (Mrs. William H.), Newberry, Carrie Mack (Mrs. Arthur F.), Northrup, Grace (Miss), Osmun, Charlotte Monroe (Mrs. Homer J.), Parker, Sarah Electa Drake (Mrs. Ralzamond A.), Palmer, Louise Thayer (Mrs. C. A.), Palmer, Virena Marjorie (Miss), Patterson, Ella Stanton (Mrs. John H.), Randall, Anna Leggett (Mrs. Chas. C.), Rockwell, Alma (Miss), Rockwell, Maude King (Mrs. Kleber P.), Sanford, Josephine Brown (Mrs. William C.), Shattuck,. Maude Green (Mrs. Charles), Shattuck, Alice (Miss), Smith, Clara Phelps (Mrs. Walter), Smith, Alice Hadsell (Mrs. Tracy S.), Smith, Ella Louise (Miss), Stoddard, Emma Waite (Mrs. Addison), Stowell, Hattie E. Means (Mrs. Elmer H.), Stanton, Harriet Stanton (Mrs. Lovett), TenEyck, Carrie Willits (Mrs. Harry), Thompson, Margaret S. (Miss), Tobias, Ella Bartlett (Mrs. Louis C.), Todd, Mary A. Pierson (Mrs. William F.), Urch, Alice Hart (Mrs. Edward A.), Van Campen, Addie Bartlett (Mrs. George), Van Buskirk, Kate Louise Crawford (Mrs. Charles), Walters, Frances Fleming (Mrs. Albert E.), Watson, Inez Waite (Mrs. Charles), Welch, Mary Gilbert (Mrs. A. R.), Whetmath, Maude W. (Miss), Willcox, M. Eleanor (Mrs. Elliott R.), Wilder, Gertrude L. Barnes (Mrs. Gardner), Wiest, E. E. (Mrs. Jacob), Willits, Sarah Adell Monroe (Mrs. Frank), Wilson, Mille (Dr.), Wisner, Ada McConnell (Mrs. Henry C.), Wisner, Marguerite Park (Miss), Woodruff, Helen Madeline Peck (Mrs. C. D.).

Page  99 CHAPTER VII PIONEER RECORDS COUNTY PIONEER SOCIETY FOUNDED-THE SUPERVISORS' PICNICS-BETTER PRESERVATION OF RECORDS-SOCIETY INCORPORATED-PIONEER WOMEN-OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY-PIONEER RELICS IN THE COLIECTION OF THE SOCIETY *As each year carries away the settlers of our county, it is important and interesting to our students, statesmen and politicians that recollections of the early events that characterized the pioneers of Old Oakland county be gathered and transmitted to our successors. After much anxiety and deep thought of how to arrest and retain the interest of the younger people and of those who were coming from other states, it became impressed on the minds of a few public spirited citizens that a society should be formed for the purpose of preserving the records that related to the early settlements of the county. Therefore, on January 6, I874, a call was issued for organizing an Oakland County Pioneer Society. COUNTY PIONEER SOCIETY FOUNDED On January 2Ist, at a meeting held at the court house, a committee was appointed to draft a constitution and by-laws and report at a subsequent meeting to be held February 22d. At this meeting, the requirements were approved and adopted, clearly explaining the aim and object of the society. None of the officers were to receive any compensation; labors performed during session and out of it were to be gratuitous. It was decided to hold an annual meeting on February 22d and a semi-annual meeting September Ioth, each year, at Pontiac. A meeting of the pioneers was held on Friday, February 27th, with President Henry H. Waldron in the chair. Rev. T. J. Joslin offered a short prayer, the volunteer choir sung "America," and the Hon. T. J. Drake then offered the following resolution which was unanimously adopted: "The pioneers and early settlers of the county of Oakland in convention assembled at the courthouse in Pontiac, on the 2Ist of January, I874, unanimously resolved to form themselves into a society to be called the Pioneer Society of Oakland County. "It is declared to be the intent and object of the society to gather up * In the preparation of this chapter many obligations are acknowledged to Miss Anne E. Jewell, niece of Ezra W. Jewell, president of the society. 99

Page  100 100 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY and preserve the facts and incidents of the early settlement and history of the county; to collect and preserve the names of the early settlers, with a brief biographical sketch, and such anecdotes, as will illustrate their history and character; to obtain and preserve a correct geographical description of the lakes, rivers and water courses; agricultural and manufacturing facilities and advantages; the chorography of each township and the peculiar advantages thereof connected with any profession, occupation, trade or employment-in fine, to collect and preserve things of the past, present and future, appertaining to the county which will delight and instruct the present and future inhabitants, and enable some gifted one hereafter to write of a perfect history of Oakland county, its pioneers and early settlers." The constitution drafted by the committee appointed by the convention mentioned was adopted. After providing for the usual officers, provision was also made for a president of each township who should be one of the vice presidents of the society. In order to become a member of this society a person should be a resident of the county previous to I840, but from time to time this has been changed, until at present a man may become a member by paying fifty cents and a woman twenty-five cents. THE SUPERVISORS' "PICNICS" For a time the meetings furnished the great day of the year, but with the passing away of many of the pioneers the interest abated, and it was decided to hold annual picnics under the supervision of a Pioneer and Supervisors' Association. These social gatherings were held in different places, where men met to talk over their different modes of farming and to form new acquaintances, and the women to relate their early experiences of pioneer life; for while the husband was busy with his axe and plow, the wife was early and late at her spinning wheel and loom. BETTER PRESERVATION OF RECORDS As no place had been provided for keeping the records, it was found after the death of the secretary in 1896 impossible to locate them. From 1874 to 1889 apparently all records were preserved, but from I889 to 1896 there is a total loss of records. In I896 Ezra W. Jewell was appointed secretary. At the annual meeting in 1897, hp offered the following recommendation: "I consider it my duty to suggest a remedy and leave it with the society to take such action as you deem proper. "First: As to the missing records-by going to the files of our county papers, we can obtain all that has been published appertaining to our society. "Second: As fast as such records are completed, the same should be deposited in some place of safety. I should suggest the vaults in one of our county offices. "Third: Some one responsible, a committee or the president of your society, who shall each year overlook the work of your secretary and

Page  101 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 101 report at each annual meeting; we would then be sure of preserving all that is of interest and benefit to the society." The society approved of this recommendation, and by vote elected a treasurer and appointed a finance committee. *A set of scrap-books, carefully indexed, containing everything of historical interest such as biographies, obituaries, official election returns, etc., has been arranged by Mr. Jewell. In I909, Mr. Jewell was elected president of the society. He has a new record book which he is anxious to complete that contains brief sketches of many of the pioneers who settled in Oakland county. SOCIETY INCORPORATED On October 23, 1909, this society applied for articles of incorporation, which was granted and put on record at Lansing, November 8, I909, and recorded in record of incorporation No. 93, page 408. In January, I9Io, at a meeting of the supervisors they voted the society one hundred dollars and gave them the exclusive privilege of occupying the east side of the Men's Rest Room in the Court House for the preservation of relics, etc., that would be of interest to the public. For the collection of such articles much credit must be accorded to **Mrs. Lillian Avery, who has been untiring in her efforts to collect and classify them. PIONEER WOMEN In closing these remarks, it would be unjust not to make mention of the pioneer women who have done so much to place the society in its present promising condition. On the 22d of each February, the following ladies —Mrs. Henry M. Jackson, Mrs. Homer Colvin, Mrs. B. Ellwood, Mrs. William H. Dawson, Mrs. J. L. Sibley, Mrs. J. R. Taylor, Mrs. Mary Clark, Mrs. George Hicks, Mrs. E. Kelly, Mrs. George Williams, Mrs. Edwin Phelps, Miss Kate Leggett, Miss A. M. Jewell and many others-have supervised a sumptuous banquet where all meet, eat, drink and make merry. But let us not forget that these land-marks and links that connect the past with the present are dropping off, one by one. Let us not forget the strength and heroism that they showed in laying deep the foundations of the institution and privileges that we now enjoy. OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY The following are the officers of the Pioneer and Historical Society who have served since' its organization: 1874-Thomas J. Drake, Pres.; James A. Weeks, Sec. 1875 —Clark Beardsley, Pres.; James A. Weeks, Sec. I876-Henry Waldron, Pres.; James A. Weeks, Sec. I877-Henry Waldron, Pres.; James A. Weeks, Sec. I878-Henry Waldron, Pres.; Edward W. Peck, Sec. * The editors of this work are greatly indebted to this valuable collection for much of the-pioneer material contained therein. ** A full description of these relics follows this sketch.

Page  102 102 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY I879-Augustus C. Baldwin, Pres.; Edward W. Peck, Sec. I88o-Augustus C. Baldwin, Pres.; Edward W. Peck, Sec. I88I-Orrin Poppleton, Pres.; Edward W. Peck, Sec. 1882-Orrin Poppleton, Pres.; Edward W. Peck, Sec. I883-Orrin Poppleton, Pres.; Edward W. Peck, Sec. I884-Orrin Poppleton, Pres.; Edward W. Peck, Sec. I885-Orrin Poppleton, Pres.; Edward W. Peck, Sec. 1886-Orrin Poppleton, Pres.; Edward W. Peck, Sec. I887-Orrin Poppleton, Pres.; Edward W. Peck, Sec. i888-Orrin Poppleton, Pres.; Edward W. Peck, Sec. I889-Orrin Poppleton, Pres.; Edward W. Peck, Sec. Records lost from 1889 to 1893; Mark Walters, Sec. I894-G. M. Trowbridge, Pres.; Mark Walters, Sec. I895-G. M. Trowbridge, Pres.; Mark Walters, Sec. I896-G. M. Trowbridge, Pres.; Ezra W. Jewell, Sec. I897-G. M. Trowbridge, Pres.; Ezra W. Jewell, Sec. I898-G. M. Trowbridge, Pres.; Ezra W. Jewell, Sec. I899-Arza B. Donaldson, Pres.; Ezra W. Jewell, Sec. Igoo-Arza B. Donaldson, Pres.; Ezra W. Jewell, Sec. I90o-Edwin Phelps, Pres.; Ezra W. Jewell, Sec. I902-Thomas L. Patterson, Pres.; Homer H. Colvin, Sec I903-Thomas L. Patterson, Pres.; Homer H. Colvin, Sec. I904-Thomas L. Patterson, Pres.; Homer H. Colvin, Sec. I905-Thomas L. Patterson, Pres.; Homer H. Colvin, Sec. 9go6-Thomas L. Patterson, Pres.; Hamer H. Colvin, Sec. 1907-Thomas L. Patterson, Pres.; Homer H. Colvin, Sec. 9go8-Thomas L. Patterson, Pres.; Homer H. Colvin, Sec. 9go9-Ezra W. Jewell, Pres.; Homer H. Colvin, Sec. IIo —Ezra W. Jewell, Pres; Joshua W. Bird, Sec. I9Ii-Ezra W. Jewell, Pres.; Joshua W. Bird, Sec. 1912-Ezra W. Jewell, Pres.; Joshua W. Bird, Sec. PIONEER RELICS IN THE COLLECTION OF THE SOCIETY I. Ambrotype of Mrs. Catherine Benson, taken by her husband, John H. Benson, one of the first photographers in Pontiac, coming here in I856. Mrs. Benson was the first white girl born in Pontiac, Apr. I4, 1823. Loaned by Mrs. Lena Starke. 2. Hair jewelry worn by Mrs. Ira Clark Seeley in i850. Mrs. Seeley was Matilda Dewey and came to this county about I833. Presented by her daughter, Mrs. H. F. Messenger, Feb. I, 1911. 3. Daguerreotype and note of a friend of Porter A. Hitchcock, dated I853. Mr. Hitchcock's parents came to Oakland county previous to his birth in I833. Presented by Mrs. P. A. Hitchcock. 4. Ode to Washington, composed by Augustus W. Leggett and sung at the concert of the Pontiac Musical Association, Feb. 22, 1858. Mr. Leggett and his wife Eliza Seaman Leggett came to Michigan in 1852. Presented by Miss Kate Leggett. 5. Green glass spectacles over Ioo year sold (I909), worn by Seth

Page  103 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 103 A. L. Warner, one of the pioneers of Farmington. Presented by Hon. P. Dean Warner. 6. Night cap embroidered and worn in 1842 by Mrs. P. Dean Warner, and given to the society by her. 7. Pocket Dictionary bought in 1837 by Hon. P. Dean Warner. Mr. Warner came to Farmington with his parents in 1825, when three years old. 8. Paper knife carried by same when a boy. 9. Infant's day cap embroidered in England and brought to Oakland county by Mrs. William Hanson in I854. It was last worn by her son, Thomas Edward in 1857, by whom it was presented. Io. Night cap worn by Mrs. Benj. Going, an early resident of Pontiac. ii. Cap basket carried by Mrs. Silas Johnson, whenever she went visiting. Mrs. Johnson was formerly the wife of Darius Cowles, who came to North Farmington in I833. Presented by Mrs. L. M. Cowles. 12. Sovereign balance brought from England by Joseph Coates, who settled at Pine Lake, 1832. Presented by Mrs. Lillian D. Avery. 13. Butter knife brought from England by Mrs. Horace Swan and was a wedding present to her grandmother in I730. Mr. Swan kept tavern in Farmington before I85I, at which date he built the hotel now there. Presented by Mrs. Lillian D. Avery. 14. Silhouette of Deacon Erastus Ingersoll, the first white settler in the town of Novi, 1825. Made by his brother-in-law, Samuel Chadwick, who came to Farmington, I839. Presented by Mrs. Lillian D. Avery. I5. Bowl from Mrs. Harrison Philbrick's "mulberry set," which graced a bountiful table for a lifetime. The father of Mr. Philbrick came to Farmington in I826 and Mr. Teas, Mrs. Philbrick's father, a few years later. Presented by Mrs. Lillian D. Avery. I6. Plate belonging to the wedding outfit of Mrs. Fidelia Phelps; who died Feb. 25, 1902, aged 95 years. Was a resident of Highland in the 40's and 50's, afterward of Farmington. Presented by Mrs. Lillian D. Avery. I7. Ox shoe. Presented by Josiah Emery of Waterford. I8. Pair of scissors, property of Mrs. Arthur Davis, Sr., when she went to keeping house in 1836 at Sashabaw Plains. Presented by her daughter-in-law, Mrs. James Davis. 19. Specimen of cross stitch embroidery designed for gentleman's suspender, made by Mrs. Sarah Bishop Canfield in 1856. 20. Slate used by the grandfather of Benj. F. Elwood, for keeping accounts as contractor on the Delaware and Lackawanna canal. Mr. Benj. F. Elwood also carried it to school in the 40's. He was born in Royal Oak in I837. Loaned by Mrs. Benj. F. Elwood. 21. Toothbrush holder that was part of a toilet set brought to Troy, Mich., in 1833 by the Toms family. Presented by Mrs. Maria Powell. 22. Bead bag, sixty or seventy years ago the property of Mrs. Harriet Plum (I9I0). Loaned by Mrs. Benj. F. Elwood. 23. Drawing tools used by the Hon. E. R. Willcox, when a schoolboy in Rochester in the 40's. Presented by Mrs. E. R. Willcox.

Page  104 104 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 26. Albany Almanac of 1803. Was the property of Benjamin Alexander Ellis of Victor, Ontario county, N. Y., and now belongs to Mr. Norman Ellis of Clarkston. Loaned by Mrs. Norman James Ellis. 27. Blue dish said to be 200 years old. Loaned by Mrs. Norman James Ellis. 28. Turnkeys used for pulling teeth in pioneer times. Originally owned by Dr. William H. Jewell, who was a practicing physician in Pontiac from 1845 to I853. Presented by Ezra Jewell. 29. Tailor's shears, owned by Dr. John Riker's great-great-grandfather, Samuel Riker, who brought them from Germany. Presented by Ezra Jewell. 30. Snuffers, property of Mrs. Marcus Riker. Presented by Ezra Jewell. 3I. Fragments of ribbons brought from England by Mrs. William Hanson. Presented by Mrs. Thomas E. Hanson. 32. Pieces of the dresses brought from England, 1854, by Mrs. Hanson. Presented by Mrs. Thomas E. Hanson. 33. Reticule of Miss Mary Eleanor Duncan, afterward Mrs. James Price. Used in the 40's at Rochester, Mich. Presented by Mrs. Lillian D. Avery. 35. Bullet mould found by M. A. Leggett in the township of Waterford while digging a post hole. It had been buried since the land had been first broken in the early thirties by Henry Birge. 36. Sand box, presented by Miss Kate Leggett. 37. Cup plate brought to Oakland county by Mrs. Peter Voorheis when the family settled at Sashabaw Plains. She was great-great-grandmother of Mrs. Edwin Walter of Clintonville. Presented by Miss Kate Leggett. 38. Miniature jug made in Rochester forty years ago and kept by S. Bortle. 39. Candle moulds of John Davis, who settled in Springfield, 1836. This set bought about I850. Presented by Daniel L. Davis. 40. Cheese basket used by Mrs. John Davis in the home manufacture of cheese. Presented by Harvey J. Davis. 4I. Candlestick brought to Michigan by the mother of Palmer Sherman of Farmington. 42. Coal pan used by the early settlers to carry fire. Presented by Miss Kate Leggett. 43. Sleighbell. One of a string of bells brought from Germany by the grandfather of Charles Tuttle an early resident. 45. Black lace veil worn by Mrs. Catherine Stringer during the forties. Presented by her granddaughter, Mrs. Homer Terbush. 46. Bead collar worn by Mrs. D. B. Horton about I86o. Mr. Horton came to Oakland county in I835. Presented by Mrs. Homer Terbush. 47. Party bag embroidered and carried by Mrs. Levi B. Taft about I853. She came to Pontiac in 1839. 48. Waterfall net worn in I860 by Mrs. D. B. Horton of Davisburg. Presented by Mrs. Homer Terbush. 49. Constitution of Pontiac Young Hickory Club, No. I. Written by A. W. Hovey and presented by Mrs. S. Baldwin.

Page  105 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 105 50. Brick from old schoolhouse, which stood on the corner of Auburn and Parke St. Presented by Ezra Jeweli. 5I. Picture of same, presented by Mrs. S. F. Beach. 52. Iron kettle, which was very old when brought to Farmington in 1824 by the family of George Collins. It played an important part in pioneer times. The cooking of his wife, Mrs. Cynthia (Newton) Collins, the first white woman to enter the settlement, was greatly appreciated by the Powers party, which had preceded them a few weeks. Presented by Constantine Collins. 53. Picture of Collins homestead, Farmington, one of the oldest houses in the village. 54. Piece of linen, which was originally part of a straw bed tick. The flax was raised, spun and woven by Mrs. Cynthia Collins. 55. Remnant of a pair of woolen blankets, spun and woven by Mrs. Cynthia Collins, on which she received the first premium at the first agricultural fair held in Oakland county. Presented by Mrs. Maria L. Benson. 56. White woolen stockings. The yarn was spun and knitted by Mrs. Isaiah Ward of Farmington in I850, for her sixteen year old daughter, Maria L., afterward Mrs. Hiram Benson, by whom they were donated. The Ward family 'came to Farmington in I831. 57. Medicine case made and used by Orrison Allen, one of the first settlers of Pontiac, coming here with his family Jan. I9, I819, buried Jan. 19, 1871, aged 87. Presented by Mrs. Lena Starke. 58. Compass brought from Connecticut to the territory of Michigan I818, by Captain Hervey Parke and used by him in all his work surveying that part of Illinois where Chicago now stands, the northern part of Ohio and eastern part of Michigan in the counties of Huron, Tuscola, Sanilac and Lapeer. Presented by Hervey J. Parke, grandson. 59. Fire tongs, hand made by M. Augustus White, an early blacksmith of Farmington. Presented by M. B. Pierce. 60. Cannon ball. 6I. Great Horse shoe. 62. Sampler worked by the mother and grandmother of Mrs. Mary Solis. It was brought to Michigan when her father Cornelius Van Riper settled in Farmington, 1839. Presented by Mrs. Mary Solis. 63. Gold specimens found sixty feet under ground by John V. Seeley, when mining in Calaveras county, California, I850. Presented by Mrs. J. V. Seeley. 64. Linen spun and woven by Lois Palmer Grow, a pioneer; hemstitched by her daughter, Ann Grow Bishop at the age of eighty-five years, (1893). Presented by her granddaughter, Mrs. Levi B. Taft, who is now the same age (1912). 65. Wedding parasol of blue and white brocaded silk, belonging to Mrs. James G. Cannon of Southfield, carried in I855. Presented by her daughters, Mrs. Woodruff and Miss Cannon, 1911. 66. Three infant caps worn by Ann Woodburn in 1838. She married James G. Cannon and was a resident of Southfield from childhood. She died I9II. Presented by her daughters.

Page  106 106 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 67. Pair of pewter plates two hundred years old which have been kept in the Purdy family. Presented by Mrs. Herman Wyckoff. 68. Basket given MIrs. H. A. Wcykoff, when she was three years of age (I840). She was the daughter of Thomas Pinkerton, one of the' first settlers of the town of Novi, in I825. 69. Fancy box brought to Novi about I830 by Emma Smith who became the second wife of Thomas Pinkerton. Presented by Mrs. Herman Wyckoff. 70. China cup and saucer used about 800o by the mother of Thomas Pinkerton. Presented by Mrs. H. A. Wyckoff. 7I. Dark blue cup and saucer belonging to the first set of dishes owned by Mrs. Job Francis (Maria Brown) about I830. Early resident of Novi. Loaned by Mrs. Lillian D. Avery. 72. Cross made from wood that was taken from the first house built in White Lake township by Harley Olmstead in 1832. Presented by Miss Kate Leggett. 73. Lantern-Last of the old kind used by the D. G. H. & M., carried by James Henderson. Presented by Mrs. James Bliss. 74. Shoemaker tools used in pioneer times by Orrison Aller, a "first settler." 75. Teapot used by the grandmother of Mrs. John Whitesell by whom it was presented. 76. Pitcher which came from the family of A. B. Cudworth who resided in Rochester 1842, twelve years later in Pontiac. Presented by Miss Agnes Cudworth. 77. Bonnet worn by Mary Eleanor Duncan of Rochester when a child in 1847 and 1848. Another worn about 1854 or '55. Loaned by,Mrs. Lillian D. Avery. 78. Shirred bonnet worn by Miss Marcia Richardson in the late forties. Presented by Mrs. Joshua Bird. 79. Small leather trunk made in Scotland by Mr. Kelly who brought it to this country in I765. He was the grandfather of Mrs. Eunice Van Buskirk (deceased). Presented by Mrs. Charles Van Buskirk. 80. Pin cushion of pioneer days. Presented by Mrs. Charles Van Buskirk. 8I. Silver cake basket presented to Professor and Mrs. J. A. Corbin by the members of the Oakland County Institute of I874. Presented by Mrs. Richard Elliott. 82. Silver teaspoon was the property of Dr. M. LaMont Bagg's mother. It was taken to Pennsylvania at the time of the oil strike and passed through a disastrous fire. Dr. Bagg came to Pontiac before 1840. The spoon is now over one hundred years old (I9I0). Presented by Miss Clift Howard. 83. Silver table spoon, piece of the wedding silver of Charles and Marcia Elliott who were married 1814 and were early settlers of Oakland county. Presented by Mrs. Richard Elliott. 84. Bellows. 85. Foot warmer brought from Wales late in the seventeenth century. Presented by Justus W. Toms. 86. Powder horn.

Page  107 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 107 87. Indian idol. Presented by Ezra Jewell, who came to Pontiac in I845. 88. Wedding veil worn by an aunt of Mrs. Mary Shattuck in I837. Loaned by Mrs. Mary Shattuck. 89. Pickle dish of a "flown blue" ware from the first dishes of Mrs. Thomas Gerls. She was married December 31, 1846 in Troy. Presented by Mrs. Thomas Gerls. 90. Liquor glass, a relic of stage coach days, from the Sixteen-Mile House kept by Milton Botsford at Clarenceville. Presented by Frank Botsford. 91. Bible-1793. This book has been more than a hundred years in the family of Philip Phelps by whom it was presented. 92. Indian relic found on the farm of Palmer Sherman, Farmington. 93. Collection of relics of the Tuscarora Indians. Loaned by Victor Bacon. 94. Wild cat money, presented by D. B. Horton. 95. Cap ribbon brought from England 1857 by Mrs. Charlotte Pound. Presented by her daughter-in-law, Mrs. Maria Pound. 96. Dish and platter used many years in the Horton family of Davisburg. Presented by Mrs. Lillian D. Avery. 97. Blue glass candlestick, a wedding gift to a pioneer bride. Presented by Mrs. Lillian D. Avery. 98. Old English beer mug. Presented by Mrs. Lillian D. Avery. 99. Willow ware bowl brought from England by John and Grace German in 1837 when they settled in this country. Presented by their youngest daughter, Grace, now Mrs. Williamson. Ioo. Indian arrow heads presented by Mrs. Lillian D. Avery. ioi. Pair of buckskin gloves brought from Utah in 1864 by Thomas J. Drake, when Associate Judge of that territory. They were embroidered by one of Brigham Young's wives and were presented to Mrs. Clara P. Stewart who gave them to the society. I02. Knife and fork basket which has been used in the Grace family since 1783. It was brought from the state of Maine to New York and from there to Farmington, Mich., in I828 by Benjamin Grace who was a Revolutionary soldier. Presented by his granddaughter, Mrs. Emily Comstock. o13. Potato masher which has the same history as the above. 104. Daguerreotype of Silas Sprague who came to Troy, Michigan, in 1822. Presented by Miss Rhobie Niles. io5. Daguerreotype of Mrs. Emily Sprague Donaldson and her daughter Lucy Maria, on other side of case water color miniature of Mrs. Delia Sprague DePuy. Both ladies were daughters of Silas Sprague. Presented by Miss Rhobie Niles. io6. Ambrotype ot Mrs. Lucy Sprague Rhodes, daughter of Elias Sprague. Presented by Miss Rhobie Niles. 107. Daguerreotype of Charles Hastings, an early resident of Troy, Michigan. io8. Daguerreotype of Ira S. Parke; also a resident of Troy and

Page  108 108 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY both young men, friends of the Spragues. The above pictures were taken in Pontiac in I849. Presented by Miss Rhobie Niles. o09. Spoon dug up on the site of the home of Clark M. Harris, the first shoemaker of Troy. IIo. Spoon used in the family of Henry Russell, a native of Troy. Presented by Miss Rhobie Niles. III. Certificate of membership in I. O. O. F. of Egbert F. Albright, bearing date of 1847, and presented by him in July, I9I0. II2. Pioneer broom of hickory splints, presented by Palmer Sherman. II3. Iron toast rack owned by Benjamin Fuller, Sr., in Vermont, later of Southfield, Oakland county. Given by Mrs. Sarah Walters Fuller, Birmingham. II4. Gridiron bought second hand by Benjamin Fuller, Sr., in Oneida county, N. Y., I8Io. Given by Mrs. Sarah Walters Fuller, Birmingham. II5. Portraits of Hon. Augustus and Mrs. Baldwin. Presented by Mrs. E. A. Christian. I 6. Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Bowman. Mrs. Bowman was the daughter of Orrison Allen. 117. Portrait of A. W. Hovey. Presented by Mrs. S. Baldwin. II8. Portrait of Mr. Dean, partner of Mr. Hovey in the drug and grocery business. II9. Photograph of'the original pioneers taken by W. H. Brummitt, September o0, 1874. 120. Spencer carbine, property of C. E. Sherman, Company C, Tenth Michigan Cavalry, Civil war. 121. Knights Templar sword found on Lookout Mountain. 122. Sword used by Capt. J. O. Foote, Mexican war, New York regiment. I23. Cane made in Kansas from cactus. I24. Case of sixty birds of Oakland county, captured and set up by George W. Bowlby. Many of the species are now extinct. 125. Collection of rare old books and papers, caps, collars, shellcomb and ancient housewives, loaned by Mrs. Mary J. Clark. 126. Confederate bond for one thousand dollars. 127. Confederate money, presented by A. W. Johns. 128. Confederate money, presented by Joseph Nusbaumer. I29. Wartime relics of envelopes, buttons and tickets. I30. Tin cup bought of United States government August 22, 1861, by George Alexander, on the day of his enlistment in Company G, First Michigan Cavalry, carried and used by him all through the war and in 1865 in an expedition across the plains. It went through sixty-four engagements. Presented by George Alexander. I3I. Book brandy bottle was given TheoSorus W. Lookwood of Company K of the Ninth Michigan Cavalry, when sick in camp by a lady, near Atlanta. It was full of fine peach brandy. The bottle was brought home in the fall of I865 at the end of the rebellion. Presented by Mrs. T. W. Lockwood, Vermillion, North Dakota, September, I909. 132. Minie ball, presented by George N. Smith.

Page  109 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 109 I33. Pitcher over one hundred years old belonging to the grandmother of Mrs. Mary Giddings, by whom it is loaned. I34. Razor used by Benjamin Graham, son of James Graham, a Revolutionary soldier, and the first white man to make a permanent settlement in Oakland county, March 17, I817. Loaned by Benjamin Graham of Avon. The society has had gifts of valuable old books and papers from Ezra Jewell, Mrs. H. M. Look, Mrs. Clara P. Stewart, Harry Ten Eyck, Mrs. Mart Beeckman, Mrs. Sarah Waters Fuller, Mrs. A. J. Dewey, Egbert F. Albright and others. It also owns a full set of the Michigan State Pioneer and Historical Collections.

Page  110 CHAPTER VIII DEVELOPMENT OF JUDICIARY TERRITORIAL SUPREME COURT-OLD DISTRICT COURT-COUNTY COURTS' - CHANGE IN SUPREME COURT-CIRCUIT COURTS AND JUDGES —THE "ONE-HORSE" COURT-UNDER THE 1850 CONSTITUTION —A SUMMARY —UNDER THE PRESENTY CONSTITUTION. By Aaron Perry As a matter of historic investigation it is of interest to trace the origin of the various courts of justice which have extended their jurisdiction over the southern peninsula of Michigan. Reference has already been made to the Quebec act of 1774 which provided that the civil law of Paris and the criminal law of England should prevail in that region as well as the country farther to the north and northwest. So although it may satisfy historic curiosity to know that William Dummer Powell, afterward chief justice of Upper Canada, was the first to preside over the courts which sat at Detroit until I796, when Jay's treaty went into operation, it is well understood that Northern Michigan was virtually an unpeopled region and was little affected by the supreme court and courts of common pleas and quarter sessions which convened in that city, the seat of justice from I778 of the Canadian "district of Hesse." TERRITORIAL SUPREME COURT By the ordinance of 1787 the Northwest territory was provided with a governor, secretary and three judges, who composed the supreme court which held sway over Michigan. The judges, with the governor, constituted a legislature empowered to compile laws selected from the statutes of the original states, but not to enact original laws. The new territory acquired by the Jay treaty, which included all of Michigan and Wisconsin containing any settlements, was attached to the Northwest territory as the county of Wayne, and it was during the year when that treaty became operative (I796) that the authorities made the first appropriation ($85) for a court in Detroit after Michigan came under control of the United States. One session of the supreme court was held in that city annually and John C. Symmes, the presiding judge who lived in Cincinnati, never missed a session until the Northwest territory was dismembered by the setting off of Ohio in 1800. 110

Page  111 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 111 The territory of Michigan was set off from Indiana in 1805, a separate government modeled after that of the Northwest territory being created on June 3oth of that year. Under the provisions of its constitutions the supreme court consisted of a chief and two associate justices appointed by the president of the United States. The judge holding the earliest commission was placed at the head of the court. The term of office depended solely upon "good behavior." No radical change was made in the provisions governing the organization and jurisdiction of the supreme court until 1824, Augustus B. Woodward having served as chief justice during the entire period and James Wetherell as one of his associates. At first the supreme court had original jurisdiction in all cases involving the title to land, capital criminal cases, and divorce and alimony suits, and afterwards in all cases to which the United States was a party, as well as in all cases of ejectment. During the existence of the district courts, from 1805 to I8IO, jurisdiction in civil matters involving sums to exceed $500 was divided and after the organization of county courts in 1815 the supreme court had jurisdiction over ejectment and civil actions when more than $I,ooo was in controversy. It also determined all legal questions arising in circuit courts on motion for new trial, in arrest of judgments or cases reversed, and issued writs of error to circuit and county courts. OLD DISTRICT COURT Soon after the organization of the territorial government, on July 25, I805, an act was adopted establishing three district courts to be held by the judges of the supreme court, Oakland county being included in the Detroit and Huron judicial district. Demands exceeding $20 were to be adjudicated by that court. In 1807 two associate judges, residents of the district, were added to the members of the court, but proved really of small assistance in the settlement of controversies. These courts were abolished in I8IO and for the succeeding five years there was no intermediate judicial body between the supreme and justice courts. COUNTY COURTS In 18I5 county courts were established, the members consisting of one chief and two associates appointed by the governor. As stated by the "Michigan Manual:" "They had exclusive jurisdiction over all claims exceeding a justice's jurisdiction and not exceeding $I,ooo, but no jurisdiction in ejectment. Until I818 final appeal lay to the county court from justices' courts. Chancery jurisdiction was then given them and provision made for the appointments of masters in chancery. When the act to establish county courts was passed, Wayne county was the only one organized and the district of Michilimackinac was excepted from the provisions of the act. After the.establishment of circuit courts (1824) the county courts began to decline." By act of the governor and judges, July 27, I818, a court of probate was established in each county. A "Court of General Quarter Sessions

Page  112 112 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY of the Peace" had already been provided for by acts of November 25, 1817, composed of the justices of the county courts and the justices of the peace of each county. They were required to hold four stated sessions per year, their duties being similar to those of the board of supervisors as now constituted. Judicial officers (other than the federal judges) including justices of the peace, were appointed by the governor. CHANGE IN SUPREME COURT In 1824 a radical change was made in the organization and functions of the supreme court, its three members being required to hold an annual term in each of the counties of Wayne, Monroe, Oakland, Macomb and St. Clair and special sessions in Michilimackinac, Brown and Crawford, whenever deemed advisable "in their sound discretion." Circuit courts were established in name during the following year, but were still held by the judges of the supreme court. CIRCUIT COURTS AND JUDGES In 1833 the county courts in the territory east of Lake Michigan, except in Wayne, were abolished and their places supplied by the "circuit court of the Territory of Michigan," comprising one judge for the circuit and two associates for each county, whose respective terms were four and three years. The courts already existing were called "superior circuit courts" and were empowered to issue writs of error to the lower circuit courts. William A. Fletcher was judge of the circuit court of the territory from its organization until the coming of statehood. The first state constitution framed by the convention in 1835, became operative when the enabling act for the admission of the state was approved by popular vote June 15, 1836. By act approved March 26th of that year, the state had been divided into three circuits, each of which was presided over by a judge of the supreme court, each to hold court in the several counties of his circuit, and all to sit together for the decision of appeals. These courts were given the same powers as the territorial circuit'courts, except in chancery matters. Under the state constitution equity matters were vested in a court of chancery until that body was abolished in 1846. The circuit judges, under the first constitution, were appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate for a term of seven years. The circuit assigned to Chief Justice Fletcher comprised the counties of Monroe, Lenawee, Hillside, Jackson, Washtenaw, Oakland and Saginaw. As under the territorial system, two associates were chosen for each county. They were known as "side judges," were not necessarily lawyers, and, as they were generally considered more ornamental than useful-perhaps a part of the political "graft" of those days-were dispensed with in 1846. THE "ONE-HORSE" COURT In that year a county court was established by statute, comprising a judge and associate, elected for a term of four years. The second

Page  113 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 113 judge was to act only in cases where the first was a "party in interest or in cases of absence or disability." The court was to sit in term on the first Monday of each month, and during such part of the month as might be requisite for transacting the business before it. This court was the fruit of a reform agitation largely centering in Washtenaw county, which demanded cheaper and more speedy means of securing (or trying to secure) justice for the average citizen or poor litigant than was afforded by the circuit courts. It was not a popular institution with the lawyers, who dubbed it the "one-horse court." It went out of existence with the adoption of the constitution in I850. The circuit judges, sitting together, constituted the supreme court of the state until the system was changed as hereafter noted. UNDER THE 1850 CONSTITUTION "Section I of article 6 of that constitution provides: 'The judicial power is vested in one supreme court, in circuit courts, in probate courts, and in justics of the peace' with authority on the part of the legislature to establish municipal courts in cities. It was provided that after six years the legislature might provide for what was popularly termed an independent supreme court, 'to consist of one chief justice and three associate judges' to be elected by the people. This power was acted upon by the legislature of 1857, and judges were elected at the spring election in that year, the court being organized January I, 1858. The term of the judges was eight years, and they were so classified that their terms expired successively every second year. It is provided in the constitution that the court, when established, should not be changed for eight years. To what extent changes might be made after eight years may be a matter of construction. In 1867 the legislature so far departed from the letter of the constitution as to provide that the judges should be elected as justices or judges of the supreme court, without designating any person as chief justice, and that the senior judge in service should be chief justice. An even number of judges were found to work great inconvenience, because on some questions of importance there was an equal division, and hence no decision of the higher court, and thereby the decision of the lower court was rendered final. In I885 a bill was introduced in the state senate by Senator Hubbell, of Houghton county, providing for an additional judge. An examination of the convention debates of 1850, made at his request, showed quite clearly that the intention was to have a bench of four judges only. Whether this was his reason for not pressing his bill is not known, but no action was had upon it at that session. At the next session a bill was passed for a fifth judge with a ten-year term." By an act approved April 8, I85I, the circuit courts were rearranged and the Sixth judicial circuit created, composed of the counties of St. Clair, Macomb, Oakland and Sanilac. By an act approved March I8, I869, the Sixth circuit was again rearranged and made to consist of the counties of Oakland and Lapeer, and the Sixteenth judicial circuit was created, composed of Macomb, St. Clair, Sanilac and Huron counties. Vol. 1 —,

Page  114 114 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY A SUMMARY To recapitulate: Under the first state constitution, the supreme court consisted of a chief justice and two associates, appointed by the governor, who also had jurisdiction over three circuits, and their term of service was seven years; the constitution of 1850 provided that for the term of six years the five circuit judges of the state should constitute the supreme court, their office being made elective; in 1857 the members of the supreme court were made by legislative enactment to consist of one chief and three associates, elected by the people for a term of eight years; the legislature of 1887 increased the number of justices to five and lengthened the term to ten years, and in I903 the court was made to consist of eight justices with term reduced to eight years. Under the first state constitution Michigan was divided into three circuits, over which the supreme court judge presided; the constitution of I850 made the circuit judge elective and the term of office six years. In 1879 the state was divided into thirty-five circuits; in I899 the thirty-sixth was created; in io9I the thirty-seventh and thirty-eighth and in I907 the thirty-ninth and last. The sixth circuit still comprises Oakland and Lapeer counties and is presided over by George W. Smith of Pontiac. UNDER THE PRESENT CONSTITUTION The constitution now in force, which was accepted by the people November 3, I908, vests the judicial power of the state in "one supreme court, circuit courts, probate courts, justices of the peace and such other courts of criminal and civil jurisdiction inferior to the supreme court, as the legislature may establish by general law, by a two-thirds vote of the members elected to each house." The supreme court consists of a chief justice and seven associates, two members of that body being elected biennially. Four terms of court are held annually, its jurisdiction being generally understood. By the constitution of o909 the courts of the thirty-nine circuits into which the state is divided are also required to be held four times each year in every county organized for judicial purposes. Circuit courts have "original jurisdiction in all matters civil and criminal not excepted in this constitution (Io99) and not prohibited by law, and appellate jurisdiction from all inferior courts and tribunals and a supervisory control of same. They shall have power to issue writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, injunction, quo warranto, and certiorari and to hear and determine the same; and to issue such other writs as may be necessary to carry into effect their orders, judgments and decrees and give them general control over inferior courts and tribunals within their respective jurisdictions and all such other cases and matters as the supreme court shall by rule prescribe." Under the constitution of I909 the probate courts of the state "have original jurisdiction in all cases of juvenile delinquents and dependents," besides the powers usually prescribed for and exercised by them. The judges are elected for a four-year term, provision being made for "more

Page  115 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 115 than one judge of probate in counties with more than one hundred thousand inhabitants." Such additional judges are to be chosen at alternate biennial elections. Justices of the peace were appointed by the governor during the territorial times, but all the state constitutions have made them elective officials, with terms of four years. Not to exceed four justices of the peace are elected in each organized township, the legislature providing for city justices.

Page  116 116 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 11 IFAG. SIMILE OF THE FIRST LEGAL WRIT ISSUED IN OAKLAND COUNTY. i i r OAKLAND CCUNTY's FIRST LEGAL WRIT (FAC-SIMILE)

Page  117 CHAPTER IX THE BENCH OF OAKLAND COUNTY COUNTY COURTS AND JUDGES-PROBATE COURTS AND JUDGES-CIRCUIT COURTS AND JUDGES-THE COURT OF CHANCERY-CIRCUIT COURT COMMISSIONERS. The foregoing information regarding the establishment and development of the several judicial systems and the various courts applicable to southern Michigan has been introductory to the historical narrative which is to picture progress along the same lines in Oakland county. COUNTY COURTS AND JUDGES On March 28, I820, Governor Cass proclaimed the county of Oakland entitled to the rights of civil and judicial organization and established its seat of justice at the town of Pontiac, and two days later the terms of the county court were ordered to commence on the second Monday of February and the third Monday of July of each year. The first court was accordingly held at the county seat named July 17, 1820, with the following present: Hon. William Thompson, chief justice;. their honors, Daniel Bronson and Amasa Bagley, associates; William Morris, esquire, sheriff, who returned the venire for the grand jury, which being called, appeared as follows: Elijah Willits, Ziba Swan, John Hamilton, Elisha Hunter, William Thurber, Ezra Baldwin, Asa Castle, Elijah S. Fish, Alpheus Williams, Oliver Williams, Alex. Galloway, Henry O. Bronson, Nathan I. Fowler, Josiah Goddard, James Graham, Enoch Hotchkiss and Calvin Hotchkiss, who were sworn to discharge their duties according to law. Spencer Coleman, Esq., of Detroit, was, on his own application, admitted to the bar of the court to practice his profession as an attorney, and on his application, Daniel LeRoy, formerly an attorney of New York, was also admitted. (Mr. LeRoy located in Pontiac, being the first resident attorney in the county of Oakland.) William Thurber applied for a license to keep a tavern in Bloomfield for one year and Elijah Willits also asked for. the same franchise in the same township. Both petitions were granted on the principals entering into recognizance in the sum of $50 each-the former with John Hamilton and Willits as his security and the latter with William Morris and William Thurber as security-to keep a respectable house. 117

Page  118 118 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY The grand jury came into court after dinner, and were discharged for lack of something to do in the line of their peculiar duty. The first case on the record appears to be one of Daniel P. Clark vs. Stephen Phelps, Ira Shelby, Alexander Galloway and Ezra Shepardson, in an action of assumpsit, bail being given by the plaintiff, as required. The defendants appearing, the bail was discharged on motion of LeRoy, attorney for defendants, who also moved to dispense with that aid entirely, the writ having been improperly issued, he alleged, the attorneys for the plaintiff not having been admitted to the bar. But Mr. LeRoy withdrew his motion and George Throop and Joshua S. Terry were entered as special bail for Galloway, conditioned that Galloway should satisfy the condemnation of the court if he was condemned, or surrender his body to the sheriff in lieu thereof, and in default of Galloway to perform his undertakings, his securities would pay the condemnation for him. Subsequently the special bail surrendered their principal and he was taken in charge by the sheriff. LeRoy entered his appearance as attorney for Galloway and moved the court that plaintiff file his declaration on or before the next rule day of court, or that judgment by default should be taken by the defendant, and the court granted the reasonable rule. Solomon Sibley, afterwards judge of the circuit court, was admitted to the bar, anid the court adjourned for the day. On the second day the court announced the rule days of the court to be the first Mondays of May and October. The petit jury was called, and there being no prospect of any of their peers being desirous of a hearing and adjudication of disputes at their hands, they were discharged. The court ordered the private seal of the clerk to be used for the public seal of the court until a suitable one was procured. The defendant, Galloway, came into court on this day and was admitted to bail, Samuel Beaman and Joshua S. Terry being his security for his appearance at the next term of the court, and to secure the payment of the condemnation of the court, if one was given against him, and a dedimus potestatem provided for to take testimony in the state of New York, if wanted, and the court adjourned for the term. Thus was inaugurated the first court which had jurisdiction in Oakland county. During the territorial period the following chief justices presided over the county court: Dr. William Thompson, 1820-27; Smith Weeks, I828; Daniel LeRoy, 1829-32; Daniel Bronson and Amasa Bagley were their associates from 1820 to 1832. Under the reorganization of the county court in 1846, the presiding judge from that year until it went out of existence, January I, 1852, was Charles M. Eldredge. PROBATE COURTS AND JUDGES On the 27th of July, I8i8, the governor and judges passed an act creating a probate court in each organized county, which was held by a judge appointed by the governor. A register of wills was also appointed by the same authority, who acted as register of deeds until I835. The probate courts had full cognizance of mortuary matters and the supreme court had appellate jurisdiction over them. The powers

Page  119 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 119 and jurisdictions of the probate court are now substantially the same as when first established, and as its first session in Oakland county was held more than ninety years ago, it has the largest- continuous history of any judicial tribunal in this section of the state. The first session of the probate court in and for Oakland county was held at the house of Col. David Stanard, in the township of Bloomfield, in said county on the I5th day of June, 1822, Judge William Thompson presiding. On the application of Maj. Joseph Todd, Mrs. Elizabeth Harding was cited to appear on the 27th instant next ensuing, and file her petition before the court for administration on the estate of Eliphalet Harding, deceased, and the court adjourned to that time and the same place. On the 29th of June Mrs. Harding appeared, and, together with John Todd, was appointed administratrix of the estate of her late husband. Messrs. David Stanard, Calvin Gibbs, and Charles Howard were appointed appraisers. Before the inventory and appraisement were returned the widow married, and Judge Thompson evidently considered her wedding equivalent to her funeral, for he designated ever afterwards Mr. Todd as the surviving administrator. The Harding estate proving insolvent, the late widow received $I62.84 only, of the goods and chattels of the estate. The first inventory filed in the court was that of the estate of J. S. Davis, deceased, September 7, 1822, the same footing up $498.50 on personal property and $390 on real estate. The widow received $300 of the personal property and the balance was sold by the appraisers. Sidney Dole and David Perrin were commissioners to audit the claims against the estate. The third session of the court was held at the house of Olmstead Chamberlain, in the village of Pontiac, the next session at Colonel Stanard's and the fifth at Maj. Joseph Todd's, in Bloomfield. All of these sessions had been special ones, held for emergency called for the exercise of the authority of the court. But at the fifth session regular sessions were ordered to be held on the first Saturday of each month, in Pontiac, at the office of Daniel LeRoy, Esq. The first order of distribution of an estate was entered April 5, 1823, in the estate of John Prindle, deceased, upon which administration was granted December I6, 1822. The first letters of guardianship were granted August 22, 1823, to Nathaniel Millard, guardian of Maria, Aaron W. and George B. Webster, children of Aaron Webster, deceased. On December 15, 1823, regular sessions were ordered to be held at Bloomfield, at the office of the register, on the first Saturday of each month. The first lunatic examined and restrained was Imri Fish. Elijah H. Fish was appointed guardian of his estate May 7, 1825. The first will probated in the court was that of Alpheus Williams, deceased, which was proven September 6, 1826, and executed on the i9th of April preceeding. The judges of probate from the organization of the county to 1836, all of whom were appointed by the governor, were as follows: Dr. William Thompson, 1821-24; Nathaniel Millard, 1825-6; Smith Weeks, 1827; G. O. Whittemore, I827-28; W. F. Mosely, 1828; Ogden Clarke,

Page  120 120 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY August, 1828 to August, 1832; Stephen Reeves, August, 1832 to I837; and he was then elected for a term of four years and reelected for another term of the same duration, ending December 31, 1844. He was succeeded as follows: M. La Mont Bagg, 1845-48; M. E. Crofoot, 1849-56; Oscar F. North, 1857-61; Harry C. Andrews, April, I861-63; Z. B. Knight, 1863-68; Alfred Crawford, 1869-72; Junius Ten Eyck, 1872; Joseph C. Powell, I873-76; James A. Jacokes, I877-80; Joseph C. Powell, I881-84; Thomas L. Patterson, I885-I900; Joseph S. Stockwell, 1901 to January I, I909; Kleber P. Rockwell, 1909 (present incumbent). CIRCUIT COURTS AND JUDGES The circuit courts of the territory were created by the legislative council in August, 1824, and which reenacted the same in April, 1825, the act taking effect in the following September. As stated, these courts were held in each of the organized counties of the territory by the justices of the supreme court. The first term of the court for Oakland county began June I9, 1826, with the following present: Hon. John Hunt, judge; William Morris, sheriff; William F. Mosley, prosecuting attorney; Sidney Dole, clerk; Calvin C. Parks, Walter Sprague and Joshua S. Terry attended the court as constables, and Ziba Swan, Jr., and Schuyler Hodges as deputy sheriffs. William Burbank was foreman of the grand jury. The grand jury found four indictments for murder-two against Imri Fish and two against a Chippewa Indian called Sa-Kosse-Ka. The indictments against Fish were for the murder of two women, Polly and Cynthia Ann Utter. The jury brought him in not guilty on one charge, and the other indictment was nolle prossed by the prosecuting attorney. The prisoner was discharged from the indictments, but held under charge of insanity, which was proven on trial. He was kept in the county jail for a time and finally died. In the trial of the Indian, Sa-Kosse-Ka, for the murder of Sha-bo-ga-shek, Whitemore Knaggs was sworn as interpreter, and A. M. Robertson and 0. D. Richardson were assigned as the Indian's counsel. The jury returned the prisoner not guilty; and the second indictment against him for the murder of Ka-ka-on-quet was also thrown out of court. Mosley was allowed fifty dollars for his work on the term. At the June term, 1827, Hon. James Wetherell presided, and one William Dunlap declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, which constituted the entire business of the term. Judge Henry Chipman presided in March, 1828, one day only being held. In October, I828, Judges Woodbridge and Sibley presided. The first conviction for horse-thieving was had at the March term in 1829, Platt Winchell being indicted and tried at that time, and sentenced to six months' confinement in the county jail and a fine of two hundred dollars and costs, and to stand committed until fine and costs were paid. The March term was opened by Hervey Parke, sheriff. The October term, I832, held by Judges Sibley and Ross Wilkins, was the last term of that court. On the I5th day of April, 1833, "the circuit court of the territory

Page  121 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 121 of Michigan" was created, the organized counties of the territory constituting one circuit, and the presiding judge to be styled the circuit judge, to be appointed by the governor, and who must be a person learned in the law, and should hold his position for four years. Two associate judges were also to be appointed in each county, to hold their offices three years. Any two of the judges could form a quorum for the transaction of the ordinary business of the court, but no flagrant crime could be tried in the absence of the circuit judge, unless the person charged therewith consented to a trial. These courts possessed chancery and common law jurisdiction, original in all civil cases where justices had not jurisdiction, and had cognizance of all offenses not similarly cognizable by justices, and appellate powers over justices. The circuit courts existing at the time of the passage of the act were in the act denominated "the superior circuit courts of the territory of Michigan," but the business on their dockets was transferred to the new tribunal. The first term of this court was begun June 23, 1833, in Pontiac, Hon. William A. Fletcher, circuit judge, presiding, with Amasa Bagley as associate judge. Judge Fletcher's commission, issued by Governor Porter, was read, and spread on the record. At the July term, 1834, Daniel LeRoy and Bagley appeared as associate judges. The June term, 1836, was the last term of the circuit court of the territory of Michigan, held in Oakland county, though in November the last representatives of the old regime-John Goodrich, deputy clerk; Orison Allen, sheriff; and Oliver Torrey, the crier-met, and the sheriff returned the venire for the grand and petit juries, the most of whom appeared; but no judge came, and the court was adjourned by the clerk until the next morning, November 2d, when the same august person came into the court room at nine o'clock A. M., with the balance of the jury; but the day wore on, no judge appeared and at five o'clock of the second day the court stood adjourned sine die. The first term of the circuit court of the county of Oakland in the state of Michigan, was held in May, 1837, beginning on the first Tuesday of the month; Hon. George Morell, one of the associate judges of the supreme court, presiding, with Samuel Satterlee and David Paddock, associates. G. A. C. Luce was the first attorney admitted to the bar in the state court, May 2, I837. This style of the court continued until October, 1839, when a court was held, styled the circuit court of the fourth circuit within and for the county of Oakland, at which Hon. Charles W. Whipple, one of the associate judges of the supreme court, and presiding judge of the fourth circuit, presided, with Associate Judges Satterlee and Paddock. In the March term, 1840, the placita, designedly or otherwise, changed to the circuit court of the county of Oakland. In 1847, at the September term, Judge Whipple held 'the term alone, the associate judges falling out by law, on the reestablishment of the county court. In April, 1848, another change was made in the courts, the supreme court being recognized and made to consist of one chief and four associate justices, and the state was divided into five

Page  122 122 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY judicial circuits, each one of the supreme court and justices to hold at least two terms in each county in the circuit assigned to him, and in the execution of that duty to be styled circuit judge. The first chancery case brought in the county was commenced in the circuit court, October 2, 1830, John Biddle of Detroit, complainant, and Henry Reynolds of New York, defendant, the action being a bill for the foreclosure of a mortgage. The bill was drawn by G. O. Whittemore, solicitor for complainant, and describes the mortgaged premises as "being situate, lying and being in the county of Oakland, in the territory of Michigan and known and described as the west part of fractional section ii, township 2 north, range 9 east, of lands directed to be sold at Detroit, by the act of congress entitled 'an act providing for the sale of the lands in the United States in the territory northwest of the Ohio and above the mouth of the Kentucky river.'" After laying before their honors, the court, the complaint of his client, expressed in piteous terms, the solicitor concludes the same by a most humble prayer that their honors would grant their orator "the most gracious writ of subpoena, in the name of the United States of America, etc." The first divorce suit was brought in this court July 12, 1834, being the bill of complaint of John Runyan, against his wife, Eunice Runyan, who he alleged had deserted him and also had been guilty of adultery. John obtained a decree of divorce from Eunice in February, 1835, which released him and his property from any claim she might make by virtue of her former wifehood rights; but the decree did not specifically state that either party might marry again. The complainant was fifty-eight years old and the defendant fifty-five. At the October term, 1837, of the circuit court, fifteen libel suits were brought on charge of corruption growing out of the election for member of congress, in September of that year. There were two days used in polling the votes at that time and General Crary, the Democratic candidate, came out some thirty odd votes behind his competitor in the race in Pontiac township, much to the chagrin of his friends. Some of them charged certain of the Whigs with tampering with the ballot box, and issued a hand bill to that effect, which called forth the suits above named. Four of the suits were compromised by taking a judgment of fifty dollars, which were affirmed by the supreme court; seven were dismissed; one was tried and a verdict of three hundred and thirtythree dollars was found for the plaintiff and affirmed by the supreme court; the others were transferred to Genesee county for trial. The regular circuit judges commenced to held court in 1848, previous to that year various associate judges presiding over it, as follows: Hon. James Hunt, 1826; Hon. James Witherell, 1827; Hon. Henry Chipman, 1828; William Woodbridge, Solomon Sibley, Henry Chipman and Ross Wilkins from I828 to I833, when the circuit court of the territory was created.. From June, 1833, to I837, Judge William A. Fletcher, an associate judge of the supreme court, as chief justice, and Daniel LeRoy and Amasa Bagley as associates, held the court. The judges of the first circuit court from June, 1826, to June, 1833, were all

Page  123 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 123 members of the supreme bench of the territory. In 1837 and thence to 1839 the courts were held by Hon. George Morell, one of the associates of the supreme court, and Samuel Satterlee and David Paddack, associate judges of Oakland county. From 1839 to 1848, Charles W. Whipple, an associate of the supreme bench, was the presiding judge of the circuit court of Oakland, Daniel Paddack, G. O. Whittemore, Jeremiah Clark and Ziba Swan being the associates. In I848 Judge Whipple was made chief justice of the supreme court. Since 1848 the following judges have presided: Sanford M. Green, 1848 to January I, I852; Joseph T. Copeland, 1852 to January I, 1858; Sanford M. Green, I858 to January I, 1870; Joseph S. Dewey, 1870 to September I, 1873; Levi B. Taft, September, 1873, to January I, 1876; Augustus C. Baldwin, 1876 to April I4, I880; Silas B. Gaskill, April, I880, to January I, 1882; William B. Stickney, 1882 to January I, I888; Joseph B. Moore, I888 to January I, 1896; George W. Smith, 1896 to date. PROSECUTING ATTORNEYS The following were appointed prosecuting attorneys by the governor between I820 and I853, to-wit: Daniel LeRoy, Gideon O. Whittemore, W. F. Mosely, Thomas J. Drake, Origen D. Richardson, John T. Raynor, George Wisner, James B. Hunt, James McCabe, A. H. Hanscom and Hester L. Stevens. Elected by the people as follows: Augustus C. Baldwin, January i, I851 to January I, 1855; Charles Draper, I855 to I86I; Junius Ten Eyck, I86I to January I, I863; Michael E. Crofoot, 1863 to January I, 1867; Oscar F. Wisner, I867 to January I, I869; Michael E. Crofoot, I869 to January I, I87I; Henry M. Look, I87I to January I, 1873; Charles Draper, 1873 to January i, 1875; James K. Patterson, 1875 to January I, I879; Aaron Perry, I879 to January I, I88I; Samuel W. Smith, I88I to January i, 1885; Arthur R. Tripp, I885 to January i, 1889; George W. Smith, 1889 to January I, 1895; Frederick Wieland, 1895 to January i, 1899; Kleber P. Rockwell, 1899 to January I, I905; Frank L. Covert, I9O5 to I9II; Carl H. Pelton, I9II (present incumbent). THE COURT OF CHANCERY The court of chancery provided for by the constitution of 1836 was created in 1837, and the sessions of the court held up to 1840 in Detroit. The powers of this court were coextensive with those of the chancery courts of England, unless otherwise specially prohibited in the consitution or by legislation. The presiding judge was called a chancellor, and was appointed by the governor for the whole state, and registers were appointed for each circuit. The first circuit included Oakland county, but in I840 two new circuits were formed, the fourth circuit comprising the counties of Oakland, Genesee, Lapeer, Saginaw, Shiawassee and Clinton, the headquarters of the circuit being Pontiac. In 1839 the chancellor's court was given cognizance of the banks, and in

Page  124 124 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY I84I the power was extended to partition and sale of lands concurrent with the circuit court. The supreme court possessed appellate powers over this court. The first term of the court of chancery was held in Pontiac in September, 1840, Hon. Elon Farnsworth, chancellor, being present, and Frederic A. Williams, register. The first case on the docket of this court was that of W. H. H. Sheldon, complainant, vs. Henry Bishop, Jane Bishop, Charles Postal and James Minot. The first two defendants were residents of Michigan, and the others were non-residents, and the complainant was ordered to publish notice of the pendency of the suit in the state paper at Detroit. On the 20th of May, 1840, the chancellor ordered a private seal to be used until a public one was made for the circuit. J. R. Bowman was appointed assistant register and Alfred Treadway was appointed taxing-master. The first decree of foreclosure to be enteredin the court was on the 5th of May, 1841, in the case of Joseph B. Varnum, Dudley B. Fuller and John A. Graham, complainants, vs. Omstead Chamberlain, Mary C. Chamberlain and Moses Wanzer, defendants. The amount of the decree was $2,411.77, the premises ordered to be sold being lot 66 of Pontiac. In the spring of 1842 the official head of the court was changed, when Randolph Manning came into office. He held that position until I846 when Hon. Elon Farnsworth again came into power, and so continued until the court was abolished in 1847. Alfred Treadway was appointed register of the circuit in 1842 and he held that position throughout the existence of the court. The business of the court was transacted and closed up by the associate justices of the supreme court, who held chancery terms of the circuit court. The injunction masters succeeded the associate judges of the circuit court in 1847, and they in turn were succeeded by circuit court commissioners in 1852. CIRCUIT COURT COMMISSIONERS Circuit court commissioners were provided for in the constitution of I85o to take the place and possess the powers of the masters of chancery prohibited by that instrument, and the first one was elected in I85I. Previous to this date, masters in chancery had been named by the governor, and among those who filled the office at different times previous to 185I were Morgan L. Drake, 1847, and Calvin C. Parks, 1848. The firsf circuit court commissioner to be elected was William W. Phelps, who held the office two years (a single term), 1852-53. He was succeeded by Junius Ten Eyck, 1854-57; Edward P. Harris, 1858-61; James A. Jacokes and Joseph R. Bowman, 1862-65; Mark S. Brewer and Byron L. Ransford, I866-69; James K. Patterson and James A. Jacokes, 1870-71; Joseph E. Sawyer and Thomas Curtis, 1872-73; James A. Jacokes and Edward J. Bissell, 1874-75; Edward J. Bissell and George W. Smith, 1876-77; Edward J. Bissell and Arthur R. Tripp, I878-79; Arthur R. Tripp and James W. Bateman, I880-8I; James W. Bateman

Page  125 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 125 and Cass E. Harrington, 1882-83; Cass E. Harrington and Chauncey F. Newkirk, I884-85; James H. Lynch and Peter B. Bromley, I886-9I; George E. Beardslee and Michael F. Lillis, 1892-93; Frank L. Covert and George Hogle, 1894-99; Charles J. Ostrander and Judson A. Fredenburgh, I900-03; Charles S. Matthews and Fred M. Bond, I904-o5; Charles S. Matthews and John M. Feir, I906-07; Charles S. Matthews and Elmer E. Blakeslee, I908-I0; Elmer E. Blakeslee and E. B. Howarth, Jr., I9II-I2.

Page  126 CHAPTER X THE BAR OF OAKLAND COUNTY DANIEL LEROY-WILLIAM F. MOSLEY-THOMAS J. DRAKE-ORIGEN D. RICHARDSON-GIDEON 0. WH1TTEMORE-ROBERT P. ELDREDGESETH A. L. WARNER-WILLIAM DRAPER-RANDOLPH MANNING CHARLES DRAPER-RUFUS HOSMER-GEORGE W. WISNER-ALFRED H. HANSCOM-GOVERNOR MOSES WISNER-AUGUSTUS CARPENTER BALDWIN-JOHN S. GOODRICH-LEVI B. TAFT-HESTER L. STEVENSMICHAEL E. CROFOOT-HENRY M. LOOK-MARK S. BREWER-LIVING MEMBERS OF THE BAR-JUDGE THOMAS L. PATTERSON-JOSEPH EDWARD SAWYER-GEORGE W. SMITH-ROBERT J. LOUNSBURY-AARON PERRY-DANIEL L. D'AVIS-KLEBER P. ROCKWELL-ARTHUR R. TRIPP-ELMER R. WEBSTER-JAMES H. LYNCH-JOHN H. PATTERSON -F. L. COVERT HENRY M. ZIMMERMAN ANDREW L. MOORE-H. H. COLVIN-PETER B. BROMLEY. The early-time lawyers of Oakland county gave a standing to its bar which ran Detroit a close second. Many attorneys of the old capital city practiced in its courts-Sibley, Woodbridge, Fletcher, Larned, Goodwin, O'Keefe, Coleman-but even after members of the profession commenced to settle at Pontiac, as a place with a substantial future, the high standing of the bar was maintained. This is true up to the present day-true both as to professional ability, moral character and manly ideals. The following from the "History of Oakland County," published in 1877, with minor changes in the text to conform to changed conditions, gives a good general idea of the pioneer members of the bar who made reputations both for professional strength and high standing as citizens. DANIEL LEROY The first resident lawyer in the county was Daniel LeRoy, who was admitted to practice in the county court, the first court held in the county, and on the first day of the first term thereof to-wit, July 17, I820. Mr. LeRoy was from Binghampton, New York, and was a regularly admitted and practicing attorney in that state previous to his coming to Michigan. He was the prosecuting attorney of the county for some years, and chief justice of the county court from April, 1829, to the abolishment of the same in I833. He was also the first attorney-gen126

Page  [unnumbered] THOMAS L. PATTERSON

Page  [unnumbered] I

Page  127 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 127 eral of the state, being appointed to that office by Governor Mason, in I836. Judge LeRoy was a lawyer of ability, and ranked high in the bar of the state. He retired from practice late in life and died at Fenton, Genesee county. WILLIAM F. MOSLEY The next resident lawyer in the county appears by the record to have been William F. Mosley, who was admitted to practice before the county court at the February term, 1825; and was appointed by the court prosecuting attorney for the term. At the June term, 1826, the first term of that court held in the county, Mr. Mosley was admitted to practice before that court, and in 1828 was judge of probate. He removed from the county into Shiawassee county, where he died in 1860, while prosecuting attorney. He was from Connecticut. THOMAS J. DRAKE At the same February term of the county court, 1825, Thomas J. Drake was allowed to act as attorney for such parties as had given him powers of attorney for that purpose. Mr. Drake first came to Pontiac in 1822, when there were scarcely half a -dozen houses in the township. He was a leading and prominent advocate for nearly two generations. Hon. A. C. Baldwin, judge of the sixth circuit, says of him: "He was connected as counsel with most of the leading cases in northern Michigan during a long term of years, and was always in his element when advocating the cause of the people." He was a member of the third legislative council in 1828, and, with S. V. R. Trowbridge, represented the whole northern portion of the territory. Mr. Drake was the accredited author of the liberal exemption laws of Michigan, introducing them into the legislative council at a time when they were so unpopular not a single member, save himself, dared to vote for them. From I828 1845 he was prominent in political matters, being a Whig in party affiliation and policy. He was elected in 1834 to the state senate to represent a district which extended from the base-line of the state to the head of Lake Superior, embracing two-thirds of the area of the state. He was president of that body. In 1840 he was one of the Whig presidential electors for Michigan at her first participation in the choice of a president and vice president of the republic. In 1828 he was register of probate for the county, and in 1827 prosecuting attorney, being also the first prosecuting attorney, elected in the county, and held the position from I850 to 1852. In 1864 President Lincoln appointed Mr. Drake chief justice of the United States courts in Utah, which position he held for several years, discharging the duties thereof with signal ability and fidelity, and thereby provoking the bitter hostility of Brigham Young and his cohorts. "The Mormons hated him as cordially as he hated their customs and practice." Judge Drake's associate justice in Utah said: "When once the judge made up his mind that he was right, no power under heaven could swerve him from the path of duty." He died in Pontiac, April 20, I875. Judge Drake, in 1842 or thereabouts, conducted the publication of a Whig newspaper in Flint, which in the winter of 1843-44

Page  128 128 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY was removed to Pontiac and there established as the Gazette. He also built the Genesee House in Flint, and resided there for some years, doing much for the prosperity of the village. ORIGEN D. RICHARDSON The next attorney admitted to the bar in the Oakland courts who attained a "local habitation and a name" in the county was Origen D. Richardson, who, for nearly thirty years, was a leading and prominent member of the bar, and noted as well throughout the state. He was admitted at the July term, I826, of the circuit court, having been a regular practicing attorney in Vermont, from whence he came to Michigan in I826. He began and completed his study of the law, preparatory to his admission to practice, with his brother-in-law, Israel P. Richardson, in Vermont. He was prosecuting attdrney of the county in 1832, and was elected lieutenant-governor of Michigan in the fall of 1841, and again in 1843, serving the state in that position during the years of I841-45. In the fall of 1854, Governor Richardson removed to Omaha, Nebraskaa territory then-and, as a member of the first and second sessions of the legislature of the new state, "acted a prominent and useful part in framing some of the laws now on its statute books." He was one of the commissioners to codify the laws of the state. He died at Omaha, November 29, I876, at the advanced age of eighty-one years, of apoplexy; and was followed by his almost equally aged wife and companion but a brief period afterward, and with her was laid to rest in the same grave in Prospect Hill cemetery and on the same day. GIDEON O. WHITTEMORE Another prominent attorney and citizen of Oakland county, who was admitted to the practice of the law before the courts of the county at the same time as Governor Richardson, viz., February term, I826, was Gideon O. Whittemore, Esquire, who located at Pontiac and was afterwards judge of probate, master in chancery and prosecuting attorney. He was also a prominent justice of the peace. He removed to Tawas, in this state, where he died some years ago. Mr. Whittemore was one of the first regents of the University in I837. ROBERT P. ELDREDGE The next attorney who located in the county was Robert P. Eldredge, who was admitted in the county court November, 1828. He read law with Governor Richardson, and removed early to Mount Clemens, where he was long in practice. He came from the state of New York to Michigan, and he prided himself on his Indian blood, claiming to be a lineal descendant of Pocohontas. His son, who became his legal partner, was at one time judge of probate of Macomb county. Mr. Eldredge was prosecuting attorney of the court at the term of which he was admitted to the bar, and was secretary of state under Governor Barry from 1841 to I846.

Page  129 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 129 SETH A. L. WARNER Seth A. L. Warner was the next attorney to receive a license to practice his profession, being admitted to the bar of the county in March, 1830, and in the circuit court in April following. He located at Farmington, and came from Seneca county, New York, where he previously followed the practice of law. P. Dean Warner, his son, became one of the most prominent public men in the state, and his career is fully expanded in the biography of ex-Governor Warner. WILLIAM DRAPER Henry S. Cole was admitted in October, I833. At the same time, William Draper, the father of Hon. Charles Draper, who succeeded to his practice, was admitted to the Oakland bar, he having been a regularly-admitted and practicing attorney previously in Massachusetts. Mr. Draper was a good laywer, well read, and had an extensive practice. In I838 he had more than one hundred suits on the dockets of the courts. He was the president of the first Ann Arbor convention to act upon the congressional terms imposed upon Michigan's admission into the union. He was located at Pontiac, where he was buried, his death occurring while on a pleasure trip to Mackinac, in July, 1858. Mr. Draper was a very sedate and dignified gentleman, and some of his ways were a little inclined to eccentricity. Several anecdotes are told by his old confreres, which are too good to be lost, and we reproduce two or three of the best. He was a born sportsman, and when the duties of his profession would allow enjoyed most thoroughly the piscatorial pleas- / ures afforded by the well-stocked lakes of Oakland. In order to facilitate such enjoyment he constructed a boat, and fitted it on the running gear of a light wagon, with which he would, on days too dark and dull for office work and "just dark enough for good fishing," drive to some of the many beautiful sheets of water that spread their fair expanse in the openings of Oakland, and, unshipping his wagon body, would launch the same upon the waves, and proceed to his piscatorial delights with the same zest that he pursued larger fish in the meshes of the law. He kept his boat under the shed of the Congregational church, and in an adjoining stall the village hearse was also kept. One day Mr. Draper concluded to try his usual sport and sent his Milesian man of all work down to the shed for his turn-out. But Patrick, by some mistake, hitched the old gray to the funeral car instead of the Waltonian vehicle and backed it up in front of the lawyer's residence. The sportsman soon made his appearance equipped with rod and lines, and stepping precisely down the walk, his eyes rested on the blackplumed carriage at the gate, whereupon he stopped suddenly, and with his peculiar gesture of his forefinger and a sort of snort, said, with grim humor, "Patrick, take it back! I'm not ready to ride in that carriage vet!" RANDOLPH MANNING Among the prominent names of the Oakland bar Randolph Manning's also shines conspicuously. He was admitted about 1828-30, and Vol. 1-9

Page  130 130 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY was previously a practicing attorney in New Jersey. He was an able, though not a brilliant lawyer, conscientious and sound, and a most excellent solicitor in chancery. He held the position of chancellor of the state by appointment of Governor Barry, from 1842 to 1846, and was one of the judges of the supreme court of the state when his death, which was very sudden, occurred. He was secretary of state from I838 to I840, by appointment of Governor Woodbridge. CHARLES DRAPER Charles Draper, long the Nestor of the bar of Oakland county, was admitted to the practice of his profession November 27, 1838. He and Rufus Hosmer, both of whom read law with William Draper, were admitted at the same time. Mr. Draper was the first clerk of the courts under the state constitution and held the position for two years, to 1838. He was also prosecuting attorney and served the county in the state senate. He was in partnership many years with his father, William Draper, had an extensive and valuable library, and ranked high in his profession in the state. RUFUS HOSMER Mr. Hosmer was a native of Massachusetts, where he was thoroughly educated. He was a cousin of Mr. Charles Draper, and formed a partnership with the Wisners soon after his admission to the bar, and subsequently went to Detroit to assume charge of the Detroit Advertiser. He was also state printer at Lansing for a time and was appointed consul to the Netherlands, but died before going to his post of duty. He was a brilliant genius, most companionable, and always ready for a joke. The following good story is told at his expense: He was a very indifferent scribe, and when the trial of his first case came on in the circuit court, at the very term of his admission to the bar, Thomas J. Drake, the opposing counsel, moved the court to quash the declaration in the case, because it was drawn in a foreign language. The court, being struck with the point, asked to see the paper, and on examination granted the motion, giving the young lawyer twenty-four hours to file a new declaration. Mr. Hosmer was always full of fun, and, though a nephew of Mr. William Draper, called him, as did many others, "Father Draper"; and he used to relate with great gusto the following anecdote: One day Hosmer and Mr. Draper were called to Farmington to attend a lawsuit, and, in going to the same, Rufus drove. On coming to the top of a hill of some considerable height, the old gray mare Mr. Draper drove for many years struck a brisk trot, and the somewhat careless driver did not strive to check her speed down the declivity; but on arriving at the bottom a bridge which traversed a small creek was found to be unplanked. However, it was too late to stop, and the old mare cleared it somehow, the wheels by the strangest fortuity squarely striking the sleepers and passing in safety. Not a word was spoken until they arrived at the village when the condition of the bridge was commented

Page  131 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 131 upon calmly. After the trial was over the lawyers set out on their return, Mr. Draper taking the reins into his own hands. They stopped a few minutes at Birmingham, and just as they were seated in the buggy, Mr. Draper's hands, with a rein in each, planted on either knee and ready for a start, a Spanish jack, confined in the yard alongside the hotel, by which they were standing, put his head over the high board fence that separated him from the rest of the world, and lifted up his voice as only that animal can. Old "Gray" shot from her standing like an arrow and tore down the pike on a swinging gallop, Mr. Draper sitting bold upright, his fists firmly pressed on his knees and Rufus clinging for dear life to the buggy-seat. Down the long smooth pike sped the gallant gray, not a word being spoken by the lawyers whom she carried. Past farmhouses the clattering vehicle dashed; dogs barked, children hurrahed, men stared and wondered what had got into Father Draper. Dashing into Saginaw street with unchecked lope, the old mare made straight for her wonted stable, nor stopped nor stumbled until she bumped her nose against the gate she had left a few hours before. She gave a long breath and looked back, not at her drivers, but at her followers; and Mr. Draper in solemn tones broke the silence that had been maintained throughout the entire seven miles' drive. Said he: "Rufus, what an awful noise that was!" GEORGE W. WISNER George W. Wisner came from New York City to Pontiac in July, 1835. He was formerly editor and had a half proprietary interest in the New York Sun, which he disposed of in September of that year and removed his family to Pontiac, where he at once commenced the study of the law under William Draper, who was admitted in January, 1839, to the practice of his profession. He and Alfred Treadway were in partnership for a time and succeeding that partnership was one with his brother Moses and Rufus Hosmer, which was a strong and successful one. In 1837 he was a member of the first legislature of the state and was prosecuting attorney for some years. Politically he was a Whig, with anti-slavery leanings. In the fall of 1847, he purchased with Norman Rawson and H. H. Duncklee, the Detroit Advertiser, and managed the editorial columns so effectively that he was given the credit of largely influencing the Whig triumph in that city in the spring of I848. He died in September, I849, young in years but ripe in experience. ALFRED H. HANSCOM Alfred H. Hanscom, said to be the most eloquent advocate who ever lifted up his voice in defense of innocence and the maintenance of right at the Oakland bar, was admitted to the same in 1838. He was a native of Rochester, New York, whence he came early to Macomb county, and thence removed to Troy, in Oakland county. He was educated in the eastern schools, and in 1842 was speaker of the house of representatives of the legislature of Michigan. He was the district attorney of the county of Oakland for some years, and removed to On

Page  132 132 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY tonagon in 1850 or thereabouts. He died on his return from a visit to Pontiac about half a century ago, on shipboard, en route from Marquette to his home. GOVERNOR MOSES WISNER Hon. Moses Wisner was one of the lawyers whose powers and abilities reflected great credit on the Oakland bar. His father was a farmer residing near Auburn, New York, and Moses and his brother, George W., even in childhood, while toiling and drudging on the farm, evidently were bent on some other development in life's work, for they shirked the labor whenever they might and turned their attention to the cultivation of their minds. George, as he has previously been shown, went to New York and entered journalism for a time previous to his removal to Michigan, and Moses, after an interval, came to the forests of Lapeer county, and began life in what was to him an unpromising line, that of agriculture. After some months of incessant toil he one day stuck his axe into a tree and said to himself: "There! If I can't make a living at a more congenial employment I will starve." And immediately he turned his steps toward Pontiac, where his brother George had already gained something of a standing in the practice of law, and entered his office as a student, being admitted to the bar in I84I. He returned to Lapeer county, where he acted as prosecuting attorney for two or more years and then returned to Pontiac and entered into copartnership with his brother and Rufus Hosmer. On the departure of George to Detroit, Moses continued the practice alone. In the noted case of the Tully boys, tried for the murder of their father, Mr. Wisner was associated with Judge Crofoot and Hon. Thomas J. Drake in the defense, and made a most searching analysis of the testimony. In the celebrated burglary case, wherein Guy M. Trowbridge's house was burglarized, Governor Wisner aided the prosecution, and made a very fine argument in closing the case, also making an effective illustration in the course of it by discharging a pistol which was claimed to be unloaded. He was careful to point it where no damage could accrue to persons, but it damaged with telling effect the defense and its theories. In 1858 Mr. Wisner was elected governor of Michigan, and served the state two years, I859 and I86o, although he did not turn his attention to politics until after the presidential election of 1852. He was an effective stump speaker, as well as a powerful advocate before a jury. In the campaign of 1856 he addressed a Fremont gathering, and the opening sentence of his speech will give the key-note to what followed. It was delivered in the deep chest-tones of the speaker, and thrilled the audience with its earnestness and power. He said: "Two hundred and forty years ago was heard the first clank of chains on a slave on American soil!" At the close of his gubernatorial term Governor Wisner returned to Pontiac and resumed his profession, remaining so engaged until the summer of I862, when he entered the field of war at the head of the Twenty-second Michigan Infantry as its colonel, that regiment being raised largely by his own efforts. He was taken ill with fever and

Page  133 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 133 died at Lexington, Kentucky, January 5, 1863. He lies in the Pontiac cemetery, and a massive monument attests his valor and patriotism. HION. AUGUSTUS CARPENTER BALDWIN Hon. Augustus Carpenter Baldwin, Nestor of the Oakland county lar, who was one of the most distinguished figures in the public life of Pontiac for a period of threescore years, died at his residence in that city on January 21, I903. He had frequently been called to fill positions high in the public trust, serving on the bench, in the Michigan state legislature and in the halls of congress, and in his professional work reached a rare height. In public and private life alike, the same rugged honesty and sincerity of purpose characterized his every act, giving him a place in public esteem which time cannot alter. Judge Baldwin was born in Salina, now Syracuse, Onondaga county, New York, December 24, I817, and was the sixth lineal descendant from Henry Baldwin, who migrated to Woburn, Massachusetts, from Hertfordshire, or more probably, Devonshire, England, about I630. The latter subsequently located in Charlestown, Massachusetts, which town he represented in the general court. He was a subscriber to the "Town Order," drawn at Charlestown for the regulation of the projected settlement. He married Phoebe Richardson, whose parents were ancestors of Governor O. D. Richardson of Michigan. Jonathan Baldwin, father of Judge Baldwin, was a native of Canterbury, Connecticut, and was engaged in the mercantile business until his death in 1822. He married Mary Carpenter, a daughter of Joseph Carpenter of Lancaster, New York. Upon his death the family were left in straitened circumstances, and at an early age Augustus C. Baldwin was thrown upon his own resources. He was but five years old at the death of his father, and during the six years that followed he lived at the home of an uncle. He then located at Lancaster, New York, in which vicinity he remained until I834, when he went to Buffalo, New York, and there entered the office of the Buffalo Bulletin as an apprentice. He continued with this paper until it passed under the management of James Faxon & Company, and was changed to the Buffalo Daily Star, the first daily paper to be published in western New York. He was variously employed during the following four years, teaching school a part of the time, but always continuing his preparation for his betterment by careful study. During the fall and summer of 1837 he attended the academy of Plainfield, and in November of the same year he cane to Oakland county. He alternately engaged in teaching and study and in 1839 began his preparation for the legal profession under the direction of John P. Richardson of Pontiac. A branch of the state university of Michigan was then located in this city, and he took advantage of the opportunity of advancing and perfecting his knowledge of the branches of education embraced in its course. He subsequently entered the office of Hon. O. D. Richardson, with whom he continued until he was admitted to the bar on May 14, 1842, and then entered upon the practice of law at Milford, Oakland county. He continued there until March, 1849, then removed to Pontiac where he would have greater

Page  134 134 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY opportunities and a larger field for the exercise of the superior talents with which he was endowed. He early attained a position of prominence in his profession, and in much of the important litigation during the following half century he was retained either by the prosecution or the defense. As a criminal lawyer he was without peer and was identified with many of the leading criminal trials in Oakland and adjoining counties. Judge Baldwin was always an enthusiastic Democrat and one of the hardest workers for that party's success in Michigan. His first public office was that of school inspector of Bloomfield township in I840, and three years later he was elected to the state legislature. He was reelected to the legislature in I845 and took a prominent part in the sessions of 1844 and I846. He served as a brigadier general of the fifth brigade of Michigan militia from I846 to 1862, in which year the existing militia system was abolished. He was prosecuting attorney of Oakland county during 1853 and I854. In I862 he was elected a member of the thirty-eighth congress from what was then the fifth congressional district of Michigan, defeating the Republican candidate, R. E. Trowbridge, and served on the committees on agriculture and expenditures in the interior department. In the issue concerning the thirteenth amendment to the constitution of the United States, he voted in support of the amendment, that is, for its submission to the states for their approval. He was renominated for congress in 1864 and was again opposed by Mr. Trowbridge. The state had in the meantime enacted a statute authorizing Michigan soldiers in the army to vote in the field. Judge Baldwin received a clear majority of the home votes, and notwithstanding the fact that the supreme court of Michigan declared the statute above mentioned to be void, the house of representatives, upon contest being made, gave the seat to Mr. Trowbridge. Mr. Baldwin was elected mayor of Pontiac in 1874 and for eighteen consecutive years was a member of the school board of the city, during which time many important changes were made in the school system and the high school erected largely through his influence. He was also active in having Pontiac chosen as the location of the eastern Michigan asylum, and for eighteen years he was a member of the board of trustees of that institution. In 1875 he was elected judge of the sixth judicial district of Michigan for a term of six years, and served four years of that time with characteristic impartiality and a high sense of justice, retaining the respect and gaining the commendation of the entire bar. The salary at the time was so utterly inadequate, and the state refusing to make the necessary consitutional amendment, he resigned the office with two years of the term unexpired, to resume a remunerative practice. Every phase of jurisprudence and legal procedure came up in his extensive practice, and not infrequently he had his share in the establishment of precedents in the laws of Michigan. There are few reports of the supreme court of Michigan between I850 and I900 which do not record important cases with which he was identified. The Michigan Military Academy at Orchard Lake also owes much to him for its remarkable success, as he was one of its trustees and for years its president. He was for several years president of the Oakland

Page  135 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 135 County Agricultural Society and of the Oakland County Pioneer Society. For fifty years he was a frequent member and officer of state and local political conventions. He was a delegate to the National Democratic Conventions at Charleston and Baltimore in I86o, delegate-atlarge to the National Peace Convention at Philadelphia in I866, and at different times a member of the national and state central committees. In October, 1842, Judge A. C. Baldwin married Isabella Churchill, who died in I894. He later married Flora E. Belding, a daughter of the late Hon. Friend Belding of Bloomfield. Fraternally he was a Master Mason, being a member of Pontiac lodge No. 2I, A. F. & A. M., and Pontiac Commandery, No. 2, Knights Templar, of which he was past eminent commander. Judge Baldwin had a comfortable home on Clark street in Pontiac, where he was surrounded by the comforts and luxuries of a refined taste. His magnificent library represented years of accumulation, comprising a large number of volumes, treating upon almost every subject which human versatility might suggest. However, a large portion of his library was placed a few years ago at the disposal of the Orchard Lake Military Academy. His home also contained a gallery of fine paintings, rare and in good taste. The following extracts are taken from the biography of Judge Baldwin prepared for the County Pioneer Society by Elmer E. Hymers, the Pontiac attorney in I901, about two years before the death of the venerable and beloved jurist and member of the bar: "A resume of the lives of those early lawyers who composed the bar of Oakland county in the pioneer days would indeed be incomplete if it did not contain some recital of the career of one of the most active members of that early association, and the only living representative of the legal profession in the county of Oakland, whose history dates prior to I840. The respect which Judge Baldwin commands from all individuals, the reputation which he enjoys in the judicial, legislative and social circles of this state, his legal acumen, the physical and intellectual vigor which have for years made him prominent in politics, and a commanding and potent factor in the development of the educational and social life of the state, make it eminently fitting that some attempt be made to preserve a record of his achievements in these particulars for the benefit of posterity and this society.... His legal practice during the years of his active engagement in his profession embraced every phase of procedure known to the profession in this state. The various dockets and calendars of Oakland, Lapeer and neighboring county circuits attest the numerous and important cases in which he has been employed. From the fifth report of the Michigan supreme court, to the last compiled volume of the reports of the decisions of that body, the practitioner searching for judicial precedent will find in almost every volume some case with which Mr. Baldwin has been identified. For a period of over sixteen years, extending from February, 1884, Judge Baldwin acted as counsel for the Pontiac, Oxford & Northern Railway Company, his connection with which terminated September 3oth of the present year (191o). Lack of space forbids an extended notice of the numerous important cases in which he has been employed during more than half a century of active practice; suffice it to say that

Page  136 136 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY during that time he has been employed either on behalf of the people in prosecuting, or in behalf of the defense in a multitude of famous criminal cases, while many of his most famous civil victories are leading cases and recorded landmarks for the guidance of the profession in this state. "As in the legal field, so in the political arena Judge Baldwin has since his first appearance in politics been a recognized leader of the adherents of his party. He has always been a persistent and powerful advocate of the principles of that party which demands the recognition and development of the individual, which is founded in opposition to the idea of centralization; it was impossible for him to be other than a Democrat. Democratic instinct was all powerful in him; he personifies the doctrine of 'individuality,' being a living exponent of what is meant and may be accomplished by the fullest development of the individual life. Although a Democrat, he supported the thirteenth amendment to the constitution of the United States. For the past sixty years and over no political contest, national or pertaining to this state, has failed to see him actively engaged in earnest advocacy of the principles of his political faith. Years of fierce contest over political questions on the hustings and within the walls of the state legislature and of congress, gave him a familiarity with such issues and such a knowledge of the political growth and history of the leading public men and political parties, that he has long been recognized as an authority on all questions relating to the political history of this country, and now, almost a decade and a half after he has reached the limit of the threescore and ten years assigned to the lot of men, it is a marvelous tribute to the mental vigor and retentive memory of this leader of men and molder of forces that he is still able to discuss in remarkable detail all the circumstances attendant on his stormy political career. Men and measures, parties and politics of the past are reviewed by him today as though the circumstances which called them forth were but of yesterday. It is only recently that he has laid off the political harness, his last public appearance on a political platform being during the national campaign of I9oo when, on the evening of October 28, g9oo,'he addressed a crowded meeting of the electors of this county at the village of Birmingham on the issues of that campaign. His last public appearance, however, was on February 22, 1901, when he addressed the Oakland County Pioneer Society at the courthouse in the city of Pontiac. "It is less than a year (written in I9OI) since Judge Baldwin gave up the active practice of his profession. He still, however, visits his office frequently but does not pretend to attend to more than the details of his own private business. In this age of strife and wealth-seeking it is refreshing to record the career of one whose ambition was not solely engrossed with amassing a fortune. Judge Baldwin is, however, able to spend his declining years in comfort at his home on Clark street, Pontiac, where the visitor will find ample evidence of those comforts and refining influences which permit him to apply his leisure in reading and research. "In his home surrounded by a magnificent library, which it has been his life work to accumulate he may nearly always be found buried in

Page  137 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 137 his retreat among his books and other treasures. His library is an excellent one,.comprising many volumes, treating on almost every subject which human versatility may suggest. A large portion of his library, however, was a few years ago placed at the disposal of the Orchard Lake Military Academy, of which institution he is still president and has ever been a liberal patron. His home also contains a gallery of fine paintings collected through years of carefully cultivated artistic taste. "Of Judge Baldwin's personal characteristics it may be said that though he has long since passed the meridian of life, yet he still stands before us a central figure; with a mind still active he keeps in touch with the events of the day, and his intelligent discussion of current topics shows that he still keenly sympathizes with the pulsing life of the community. If asked what is the most prominent element of his nature we would say unhesitatingly, rugged strength, vigor of intellect, unyielding determination. A strong mind in a strong body has demonstrated once more that these are necessary elements to achievement. In judicial conventions, in political and educational gatherings, in legislative halls of the state and nation, the voice of Judge Baldwin has many times been listened to throughout his long and arduous public services, and it is in the recorded actions of such educational, political, legislative, or judicial assembles that we must look for the most lasting record of his efforts expended in behalf of the common weal. His life has embraced practically the whole of the nineteenth century, and now in his declining years he witnesses the twentieth century well launched and wishes God speed to his fellows in the path of achievement in all things that go to the betterment of mankind." JOHN S. GOODRICH John S. Goodrich was from the state of New York and was admitted to the bar of Oakland county in November, 1840. He was elected a judge of the supreme court after he removed from Oakland to Genesee county in April, I85I, and (lied before qualifying as such judge. He was unmarried, rather ungainly in personal appearance, painfully awkward in manner, but possessed of the most wonderful powers of memory, and a library in himself. It is said that he read Hume's history of England through in forty-eight hours, and from that single and rapid perusal could give every important event and its date, recorded therein. He died in I85I at Goodrichville, in Genesee county, a village to which his family gave its name and where representatives of the family made their home for many years. LEVI B. TAFT Judge Levi B. Taft was a native of Bellingham, Norfolk county, Massachusetts, where he was born on August 6, I82I. He came to Michigan in 1834 and read law with Hon. Jacob M. Howard and Messrs. Barstow & Lockwood. He was graduated from Dartmouth college in 1843, and was admitted to the bar in 1845 in the supreme court and also in the United States courts. He practiced his profession sixteen years

Page  138 138 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY in Chicago, and from that city'came to Pontiac, where he continued his practice until 1873, when he was elected judge of the sixth judicial circuit, and presided over the courts of that district until December 31, 1875, when he retired from the bench and resumed his practice in Pontiac, which he continued until his death, April 29, 1895. HESTER L. STEVENS In 1845 General Hester L. Stevens, an eminent attorney of Rochester, New York, located in Pontiac, and began the practice of his profession. He was prosecuting attorney in 1847-48, and with Judge Baldwin formed a partnership in I849 and I850. In 185I he was elected to congress from the district in which he resided and took up his residence in Washington after his congressional term expired, where he practiced extensively before the court of claims. He was an able lawyer and a man of high social position. JUDGE MICHAEL E. CROFOOT Judge Michael E. Crofoot, one of the leading members of the Oakland bar, and whose powers as an attorney reflected great honor upon the profession of the law, was admitted to practice in Rochester, New York, previous to I846, and in the Oakland county courts in February, 1848. His first great case was the trial of the Bismuth murder case, so called, wherein he gained great celebrity in the defense of the accused, and procured the acquittal of his client. He pursued his legal studies with General H. L. Stevens. Judge Crofoot wasjudge of probate for eight years, and for several years before he relinquished active practice and maintained an office in Detroit, whither he went daily when not engaged in the courts elsewhere, conducting an extensive practice both in Oakland and in that city. Judge Crofoot's power was greatest in getting and marshaling his proofs and in the examination of witnesses, but he was also eloquent and effective with a jury. He was always ready for his arguments and uniformly effective in his manner of presenting them, his success, as a probate judge and at the bar having been marked and his high standing as a citizen universally conceded. Judge Crofoot died May 11, 1884. He was always a public spirited and useful citizen. He was a member of the Pontiac school board for many years and one of the principal school buildings of that city now bears his name. Judge Crofoot left two sons who have followed his profession and are prominent and successful lawyers. One, Louis, is located at Aberdeen, South Dakota, and the other, Lodovic, is at Omaha, Nebraska. HENRY M. LOOK Henry M. Look, a prominent attorney of the county and noted throughout the state for his eloquence, was a native of Michigan and of what was once Oakland county, but is now Lapeer county, his birth occurring on October 27, 1837, in Hadley. He began the study of the law in the office of his brother in Kentucky, and completed his studies

Page  139 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 139 with Messrs. Baldwin & Draper, and also attended a course of lectures in the law department of the University of Michigan, in I859. He was admitted to practice in the United States courts in July, I867. Previous to that event, however, he followed the practice of his profession and that of teaching in the south for a time. He was a member of the legislature of Michigan in I865-66, prosecuting attorney for Oakland county in 1871-72, city attorney for Pontiac for several years and a member of the board of education of the city from I864-67, inclusive. Mr. Look had a wide reputation also as a writer. He was a partner of Judge Baldwin for a time. MARK S. BREWER Hon. Mark S. Brewer of Pontiac, was admitted to the bar of Oakland county on March Io, 1864. He was born in the township of Addison, that county, on the 22d day of October, 1837, and until he was twenty years of age remained at home, assisting in the labors of the farm, and attending the district school during the winter season at a log schoolhouse, situated on his father's farm. The country was new, his parents were not liberally endowed with this world's goods, and it was with difficulty that the lad got suitable clothing in which to attend school. His mother often took her own shoes from her feet and gave them to her boy to wear to school, when the weather became too severe for him to go without shoes. In 1857 his health became somewhat impaired from overwork and he was compelled to leave the farm and seek other employment. In the winter of I858 he commenced teaching in a district school and followed that vocation for the three succeeding winters, during the remainder of the seasons of 1859 and I86o attending the school at Romeo and Oxford Academy. In the spring of I86I he entered the law office of Hon. W. L. Weber, of East Saginaw, where he pursued the study of the law until the fall of that year. By that time the slender means he had saved from the preceding winter became exhausted and he again taught school the succeeding winter. In the spring of 1862 he resumed his studies in the office of Governor Wisner in Pontiac, to which place he came on foot with a scanty wardrobe, and but $6o in money, the latter representing his savings from his winter's salary. His stock in trade was "pluck." He pursued his legal studies during the spring, summer and fall of I862, taught school again in the following winter, and in the spring of I863 recommenced his legal studies, this time with Hon. M. E. Crofoot, Governor Wisner having in the meantime given his life to his country. Upon his admission to the bar he formed a partnership with Judge Crofoot which was continued until January I, 1876, when it was mutually dissolved and Mr. Brewer continued in practice alone. He was circuit court commissioner for Oakland county from 1867 to 1871, two full terms; city attorney for Pontiac from I866-67, inclusive. In 1872 he was elected state senator from Oakland county and served as such during the years of I873 and I874. In I876 he was nominated by the Republican party of the sixth congressional district of Michigan as their candidate for representative in congress, and was elected to that and the succeeding congress (45th

Page  140 140 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY and 46th, from 1877 to I880, inclusive), representing the same district also in the 50th and 5Ist congress from 1887 to 1890. He has also filled the office of United States consul at Berlin, Germany. Mr. Brewer had always been an ardent politician, acting with the Republican party from the time he attained his majority, and after the campaign of I864 had been prominent in the canvass of each succeeding election. He was a member of the Republican state central committee and chairman of the committee for Oakland county from I870 until -. Mr. Brewer was a popular and effective stump speaker, as well as when before a jury, and was highly esteemed, not only by his particular political friends, but by his acquaintances of opposite faith generally, all of whom bore willing testimony to his worth as a citizen and a man. His death occurred March I8, 90oI. LIVING MEMBERS OF THE BAR At the present writing (August, I9i2), there are fifty living members of the Oakland county bar in good standing, the oldest of whom (in point of admission to practice) being ex-Judge Thomas L. Patterson, of Holly. The list follows: Thomas L. Patterson, Holly, 1863; Joseph E. Sawyer, Pontiac, 1869; George W. Smith, Pontiac, I874; Robert J. Lounsbury, Pontiac, 1875; Aaron Perry, Pontiac, I876; Arthur R. Tripp, Pontiac, I876; Samuel W. Smith, Pontiac, 1878; Daniel L. Davis, Pontiac, 1879; Homer H. Colvin, Pontiac, 1879; Elmer R. Webster, Pontiac, I880; George 0. Kinsman, Oxford, I882; Elmer E. Blakeslee, Pontiac, I883; Peter B. Bromley, Pontiac, I884; James H. Lynch, Pontiac, I886; John H. Patterson, Pontiac, 1887; Frank L. Covert, Pontiac, I89o; Fred Wieland, Orion, 1890; John B. Mathews, Pontiac, 1890; Daniel R. Currey, Rochester, I890; George Hogle, Pontiac, I892; Frank E. Jenkins, Oxford, I894; Kleber P. Rockwell, Pontiac, 1895; Andrew L. Moore, Pontiac, 1895; Henry M. Zimmerman, Pontiac, 1895; John A. Neal, Orion, I895; Samuel J. Patterson, Pontiac, 1898; George W. Caswell, Birmingham, I898; Elmer E. Hymers, Pontiac, 1899; Judson A. Fredenburgh, Pontiac, J899; J. Arthur Tillson, Pontiac, 1899; John E. Brondige, Pontiac, I900; William F. North, Pontiac, 900oo; Ross Stockwell, Pontiac, I901; Carl H. Pelton, Pontiac, 1902; Clinton McGee, Pontiac, 1903; D. F. Noble, Milford, -; Sylvester Pheney, Holly, 1903; Charles Matthews, Pontiac, 1903; Earl A. Lovejoy, Milford, I905; Clement E. Miner, Holly, 1905; Frank L. Doty, Pontiac, 1907; Charles P. Webster, Pontiac, 1908; Clare J. LeRoy, Royal Oak,; Harry H. Snowdon, Pontiac, 1909; George A. Dondero, Royal Oak, I9IO; E. B. Howarth, Jr., Rochester, 1910; Glenn C. Gillespie, Pontiac, I9IO; C. C. Tillson, Pontiac, I9IO; Relph F. Keeling, Pontiac, 1910. THOMAS L. PATTERSON Thomas L. Patterson, a prominent citizen of Oakland county, an esteemed resident of Holly since he was ten years of age, and a worthy representative of an old pioneer family, was born at Clarkston, Monroe

Page  141 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 141 county, New York, in 1836. He is a son of James and Eliza (Patten) Patterson, both of whom were born in the Peach Bottom valley of the Susquehanna river, York county, of Revolutionary parentage, and the father of this sketch was a veteran of the War of 1812. He moved from York county, Pennsylvania, to Canandaigua, New York, early in life, later locating in Monroe county, New York. In I839 he became one of the great number of New Yorkers who moved to Michigan, and he made a home in Holly township, Oakland county, to which he brought his family in 1845. Nine children were born to them, five sons and four daughters, all of whom are now deceased except the subject of this sketch. Judge Patterson was about ten years old when he came with his father and other members of the family to Holly, and he immediately began attendance at the district school of the town. He recalls today his first teacher there,-one David A. Eliot, the school being known as the Patterson district school. lie attended Clarkson Academy and the Collegiate Institute at Bridgeport, New York, a full term, the school being now in the state normal class. Soon after his graduation he returned from New York to Michigan, and then continued the study of law. In 1863 he was admitted to the bar at Pontiac, and has the distinction of being the oldest member of the Oakland county bar. In addition to his law practice, Judge Patterson served for seventeen years as supervisor from Holly township, and for nine years was chairman of the board of supervisors. In I884 he was elected judge of the probate court, which position he filled with honor and credit for a period of sixteen years. In I866 the law firm of Patterson & Patterson came into life, and was composed of Judge Patterson and his nephew, James K. Patterson, the latter serving as prosecuting attorney of Oakland county from I874 to I879. The name of the firm is still retained, however, and the offices of the firm are maintained at Pontiac, John H. Patterson, his son, and Samuel J. Patterson, his grand-nephew, are now the active members of the firm. It was during Judge Patterson's term as supervisor of Holly township that so large a contingent was sent to swell the Union ranks, that township as such having the record for furnishing the largest number of any township in the county. In I856 Judge Patterson married Eunice A. Hadley, a member of one of the oldest families in the county. She was born in Rose township, Oakland county, in I840, and died at Holly on August 5, I902. She was the daughter of John and Eunice Hadley. Four children were born of this union, three sons and a daughter: John H., Stuard D., and William F., who resides on the home farm adjacent to Holly village. Marion E. died in October, I896, in her twentieth year. In I904, on June 30th, Mr. Patterson again united in marriage to Miss Alice I. Allen, daughter of Ira and Emily Eliot Allen of Holly, both her father and mother being among the very first actual settlers in Holly township. Mrs. Patterson's father was a son of Jonathan T. Allen, long a resident of Holly, having located several sub-divisions of land on section 35 in Holly in I835. On one sub-division of eighty acres, the father of Mrs. Patterson lived continuously since 1835, until

Page  142 142 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY the decease of Mr. Allen, and in which home Mrs. Patterson was born and reared. In his fraternal relations, Judge Patterson is a Mason of high degree, being a member of the Commandery, Knights Templar. His church relations are represented by his attendance at the Methodist Episcopal church. He is one of the most loyal and public-spirited citizens of Holly, and has ever been identified with affairs of local improvement, and throughout his career his activities have been of an order that have wielded a strong influence for good in the community. HON. JOSEPH EDWARD SAWYER Hon. Joseph Edward Sawyer, a member of the legal profession, is the most prominent real-estate dealer of Oakland county and is keenly alive to the value of enterprises calculated to further the development of the city of Pontiac. He was born in Piermont, Grafton county, New Hampshire, January I, 1847, and is the seventh child and only son of Hon. Joseph and Mary (Dole) Sawyer. He is a lineal descendant of Thomas Sawyer, a native Englishman, born there in about I8I6, who died at Lancaster, Massachusetts. His ancestors for generations past have lived to attain advanced ages, notable among them being Rev. John Sawyer, of Bangor, Maine, who reached the age of one hundred and three years and five days; at the time of his death, on October 14, 1858, he was reputed to be the oldest minister in the United States. The father of the subject, who was Hon. Joseph Sawyer, was born in Grafton county, New Hampshire, and for years was identified with the agricultural operations of that district. He was a man of considerable prominence, and served a number of terms as the representative of his district in the state legislature, as well as filling other public offices with honor and ability. He was in the seventy-third year of his life when he passed away on July 4, 1858. His wife was Mary (Dole) Plastridge, a daughter of Captain Moses Dole, who soon after his marriage to Lucy Poor, of Charlestown, New Hampshire, moved to Canaan, New Hampshire, locating there in I802. There he bought the tavern and farm of one Dudley Gilman, and hung out a sign bearing the painted inscription "Mr. Dole's Inn, 1802," which sign swung there for more than a quarter century. He was a member of the "New Hampshire Rangers" during the Revolutionary war, and during his lifetime was elected to various offices of trust, the duties of all of which he discharged with characteristic fidelity. He was a courteous gentleman and Mrs. Dole was distinguished by her innate refinement and intelligence. She died in October, 1826, and Captain Dole lived for two years thereafter, his death occurring in 1828. He was buried with Masonic honors by Mount Moriah lodge. They had two children,-Joseph, who died in 1817, at the age of sixteen years, and Mary, born October 28, I803. Mary Dole was married to Dr. Charles Plastridge, who died October 16, 1824, at the age of twenty-nine years. In I829 she married Hon. Joseph Sawyer. She was a member of the Congregational church from I816 until her death, and was a popular and much beloved woman, ever possessing a host of friends and warm admirers. She died on

Page  143 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 143 February I, 1885, in her eighty-second year, at the home of her daughter, Mrs. C. F. Kimball, at Pontiac, Michigan. All her children were present at her bedside when she passed away, namely: Mrs. C. F. Kimball, Mrs. John Calloway, Mrs. Evan Hughes, Miss Lizzie Sawyer, Mrs. James Newby and Joseph E. Sawyer. In the public schools of Piermont and the academy at Bradford, Vermont, Joseph E. Sawyer received his early education. When he was sixteen years of age he went to Michigan City, Indiana, and then to Cambridge City. He studied in private schools and in the academy at Dublin, Indiana, then entering the literary department of the University of Michigan. He was a member of the class of I869, but left the university before graduation. He went from his studies to Boscobel, Wisconsin, where he entered the law offices of Hon. George Hazelton. In I867 he formed a co-partnership with Benjamin Shearer under the firm name of Shearer and Sawyer, for the practice of law, being then twenty years of age. They continued in practice for a year, when Mr. Sawyer removed to Pontiac and entered the law office of Hon. M. E. Crofoot. He was admitted to the Oakland county bar on September 29, I869, and thereafter continued in active practice. He was elected circuit court commissioner for Oakland county in 1872 and in I875 was appointed United States commissioner for the eastern district of Michigan. In 1878 he became associated with J. D. and F. D. Standish of Detroit, under the name of Sawyer, Standish & Company, with office in Detroit, proprietors of the Tappan, McKilop & Company Commercial Agency, Mr. Sawyer being manager of the legal department. In I89I he with others united in organizing the Pontiac Land & Improvement Company of which he was secretary and general manager, Hon. J. D. Norton being president. This corporation is entitled to much credit for the prosperity which the city of Pontiac has enjoyed since its organization. Mr. Sawyer lent himself to the work with such energy that he was compelled to practically abandon his other interests, and since the organization of the Pontiac Land & Improvement Company, he has platted and sold ten additions to the city, the latest being the Ferry addition, to handle which he organized the Pontiac Investment & Promotive Company, of which he was secretary and manager. Mr. Sawyer was appointed a member of the board of trustees of the Eastern Michigan Asylum by Governor Alger in I885, to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Hon. W. M. McConnell, was reappointed by Governor Luce and again by Governor Rich, serving fourteen years consecutively, during which time he was present at every meeting of the joint board of trustees of Michigan, every monthly and special meeting of his own board save one, every meeting of the executive committee and all meetings of other committees of which he was a member. He is a Republican in politics and was a delegate to the national Republican convention in 1884, which nominated James G. Blaine, and has been chairman of the Republican county committee. He is a man of great energy and ambition, making a success of every venture with which he is connected. On October 17, I877, Mr. Sawyer was united in marriage with Miss Lizzie V. Satterlee, born in Bloomfield township, Oakland county, on July 31, I856, a daughter of George H. and Jane (Flower) Satterlee.

Page  144 144 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY She was three years of age when she came with her parents to Central Mine, Keweenaw county, Michigan, in which place she remained until the death of her father in 1875, when, with her mother and sisters she came to Pontiac. Mr. and Mrs. Sawyer have five children, as follows: Lizzie Belle, born August 8, 1878, the wife of A. R. Stockwell of Pontiac; Mary Lucile, born April 12, 1880; Kate Eleanor, born November 18, I884; Joseph Satterlee, July 25, 189o and Thomas Dole, January 27, 1901. The Sawyer family is one which has long been prominent in Masonry. Col. Edward Sawyer, uncle of the subject, joined the fraternity at the age of twenty-one years and was the second oldest Mason in the United States when he died on February 2, 1885, aged ninety-seven years. Joseph E. Sawyer was initiated May 27, 1870, in Pontiac lodge No. 21, A. F. & A. M., of which he afterwards was master. He was exalted in Oakland Chapter, R. A. M., January 29, I875, of which he became high priest. On June 28, 1875, he became a member of Pontiac council No. 3, R. & S. M., of which he was elected thrice illustrious master; on March 7, I876, was knighted in Pontiac Commandery No. 2, Knights Templar; on March 6, I877, he was elected prelate; in I880 he was elected captain-general and eminent commander in I885. He is also past chancellor of Pontiac lodge No. 19, Knights of Pythias, and has served as district deputy grand chancellor and chairman of the committee on foreign correspondence. The foreign correspondence reports of Michigan for I890 and I89I, written by Mr. Sawyer, received much favorable notice from the reviewers of other grand domains, of which the following from the able pen of Hon. M. L. Stevens, who had written the report for Maine for many years and was universally acknowledged to be the ablest writer of such reviews in the United States, is a fair sample. In reviewing the Journal of Michigan for I89I, he says: "The Correspondence Report (Ioo pp.) is without exception the very best, from any jurisdiction, which we have ever read. Brother Sawyer has reached, almost at a bound, a degree of excellence as a reporter which we have striven vainly for almost a score of years to attain. As furnishing an accurate and thoroughly interesting bird's-eye-view of what is going on throughout the order, he has no peer. The nearest approach to his excellence was made by the lamented Dayton of Connecticut, in I884." In the military branch of the Knights of Pythias, Mr. Sawyer has held the rank of colonel since 1892 and served upon the staff of the major general in the biennial encampments at Kansas City, Cleveland, Washington, Indianapolis and Detroit. He is a venerable sheik of Mecca Temple No. 56, D. O. K. K. and has filled that position since the institution of the temple on May 5, I896, with the exception of one year, when that office was held by Rev. Edward Collins of Detroit. Mr. Sawyer is a member of the Protestant Episcopal church and was for many years a vestryman of Zion church of Pontiac. He was a lay reader under Bishop Harris and held services at various places in Oakland county, and at Clintonville established a flourishing mission in 1887.

Page  145 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 145 HON. GEORGE W. SMITH Hon. George W. Smith, judge of the sixth judicial district since I896, and one of the more prominent citizens of Pontiac, was born at Warsaw, New York, on March 27, 1850, and is now in the prime of life. When he was five years of age Judge Smith accompanied his parents from their eastern home in Michigan, and he was reared in Commerce, Oakland county. He is the son of Orson H. and Jeannette (Armstrong) Smith. Finishing the public schools, Judge Smith carried on his law studies in the University of Michigan, and was admitted to the bar in I874, beginning the practice of law in Pontiac on May I, 1876. In 1877 and 1878 he served as circuit court commissioner of Oakland county, and in I879 and I880 he was city attorney of Pontiac. In November, I888, he was elected to the office of prosecuting attorney of Oakland county and served six years in that position, discharging the duties of the office with all fidelity and fixity of purpose, displaying a splendid ability meanwhile. On January I, I896, Judge Smith entered upon his first term as judge of the Sixth judicial circuit, and in the years that have passed with him as the incumbent of the office, he has made a splendid record upon the bench. He is recognized as a learned. fearless and impartial jurist, and no hint of suspicion has ever been cast upon his integrity. ROBERT J. LOUNSBURY Robert J. Lounsbury, mayor and a well known attorney of Pontiac and the representative of large real estate interests here and in the east, was born in Putnam county, New York, where his father, a prominent farmer of that district, died in I88I. Mr. Lounsbury was prepared for college at Andover, Massachusetts, and was a student at Dartmouth, afterwards graduating from the Columbia Law School of New York City in 1875. Immediately thereafter he came to Pontiac in the interests of certain eastern capitalists who were operating in Michigan, Illinois and adjoining states, and he has had their interests in charge since that time. During the first few years he was able to devote a considerable time to general practice on his own responsibility, but for the most part the demands on his time by his eastern clients has precluded the possibility of making progress as a private practitioner. In recent years he acted as receiver for the P. 0. & N. Railway, and he made a record for efficiency that was commended by both factions of the defunct road. In I9II Mr. Lounsbury was elected mayor of Pontiac under the commission form of government, which provides for three commissioners only, of which the mayor is one, and he has made a distinct success of his administration as chief executive of the city, his term being marked by a straightforward business administration of the affairs of the city. He is a thoroughgoing Pontiacker, has the best interests of the city at heart at all times, and is held in high esteem throughout the city and county. Vol. 1-1 0

Page  146 146 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY In I880 Mr. Lounsbury married a daughter of Col. S. E. Beach, well known in Oakland county. Two children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Lounsbury,-a son and a daughter, the latter still surviving. AARON PERRY Aaron Perry, B.S., LL.B., whose portrait is shown on the opposite page, is one of the best known and most successful lawyers of Oakland county, Michigan, where he has spent nearly his entire life. He was frequently called upon to fill positions of public trust at an earlier day, but has devoted his later years to the practice of his profession and study. He is the senior member of the firm of Perry & Lynch, with offices in Pontiac, where he has resided many years. Mr. Perry was born on a farm in Oakland county, Michigan, November ii, 1848, and is the youngest of a family of eight children born to Abram and Sophia (Andrews) Perry. His father was born in Warren county, New Jersey, and died when our subject was fifteen years of age. He had come to Oakland county in I836 and lived here until his death at the age of fifty-four years. The mother, Sophia (Andrews) Perry, was born in Genesee county, New York, and she died when Aaron Perry was but two years old. From his father's estate Aaron Perry received $700, which, with a sum borrowed, paid his way through school. He received a preparatory education in the Clarkston Union School of Oakland county, then entered the University of Michigan and was graduated therefrom with the class of 1870. He was a member of the Literary Adelphi and was one of the speakers at the second sophomore exhibition. In the fall of 1870 he entered into politics and lacked one vote of securing the Democratic nomination for the office of state representative. He taught during the following school year at the Ortonville Academy, and during the school year of 1871-2 was superintendent of the Ovid Union School in Clinton county. In the famous Greeley campaign of 1872 he was elected a member of the state legislature, and with five others formed the minority in that body. At the close of the session in the spring of 1873 he went to Muskegon, Michigan, and took charge of the United States Harbor improvements under his former classmate, C. M. Wells. In the fall of the year he entered the law department of the University of Michigan, and in March, 1874, attended a special session of the legislature called for the purpose of considering and submitting a new state constitution to the people for their approval at the next election. The session continued about forty days, during which time he roomed with Col. C. B. Grant, the speaker of the lower house and afterward one of the supreme court justices of the state. It is a matter of some pride to Mr. Perry that because of his recognized ability for rushing business through, he was called upon to preside during that session more than was any other member, excepting two, and that during his term of office he was able to do some good work in the interests of the university. During the next summer he was for a time in the service of the United States government as a harbor inspector on the west coast of Michigan, and traveled some in Illinois, Wisconsin and the Northern

Page  147

Page  148 I

Page  149 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 149 Peninsula. In the fall of 1874 he was a candidate for county clerk and with a total of ten thousand votes cast he was defeated by eleven votes. That defeat he now counts as one of the fortunate events of his career, as he subsequently reentered the law department of the university, from which he was graduated the following spring. He next spent two summers at Sand Beach, assisting Mr. Gilbert, of the class of I870, University of Michigan, in charge of the work of constructing the United States harbor refuge at that place, spending the intervening winter in careful study of the law in the office of Judge A. C. Baldwin of Pontiac. In the fall of I876 he entered actively into the Tilden campaign and stumped the county in the interests of Democracy. After the election he became a partner of Judge Taft of Pontiac, with whom he continued for two years. In the spring of 1878 he was appointed city attorney and has filled that office at various times with the utmost efficiency during a period in the aggregate of eight years. In the year 1878 he was elected to the office of prosecuting attorney, in which office he served for two years. Since that time he has been but twice a candidate for public office. He was a candidate for circuit judge and for membership in the state constitutional convention, and, although he ran ahead of his ticket in his own county for both these offices, he met with defeat. In 1912 Mr. Perry was a delegate to the Democratic national convention at Baltimore, Maryland. Since I876 he has practiced law continuously in Pontiac and ranks among the foremost in the county, having participated in much important litigation, and is president of the Bar Association of Oakland county. Both his taste and aptitude fit him better for the trials of issues of law than of fact, and for that reason he has successfully argued a large number of cases before the Michigan supreme court. He has accumulated a large law library and an extensive collection of miscellaneous books. He has traveled very extensively through the United States and in the summer of I9o8 spent three months in Europe with his wife.. Although a member of a fishing club, he has not caught a fish nor fired a gun, with the exception of one season, in thirty years, and has no taste for sports of any kind, preferring to travel or hunt fossils from a rock ledge. He has made a specialty of geology and microscopy and has spent many hours of recreation in gathering fossils and examining microscopical specimens. He has a large cabinet of fossils and geological specimens of different kinds and has a fine collection of books on the subject of geology. He is a member of the National Geographic Society. On Christmas day, 1873, Mr. Perry was united in marriage with Sallie Hoffman, who had been one of his assistants in the Ovid Union School. They have one son,-Stuart H. Perry, who was graduated from the literary department of the University of Michigan in I894 with the degree of A.B., and from the law department two years later. He then entered into partnership with his father under the firm name of A. & S. H. Perry. For a year prior to August I, I9OI, the firm maintained a branch office in the city of Detroit, under the personal charge of the junior partner. At that time, August I, I9OI, Stuart H. Perry retired from the firm to become the editor of the Oakland County

Page  150 150 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Post and the Pontiac Daily Press. His first experience in an editorial way was gained while managing editor of the Inlander while at the university. He is now the editor and proprietor of the Adrian (Mich.) Daily Telegram and lives at that city. He has traveled extensively in the United States, Mexico and Europe, is a member of the American Microscopical Society, and has contributed various articles to the publications of that society. Although his tastes are literary, he also shares his father's inclination for geology. Stuart H. Perry was united in marriage with Maude Caldwell, a daughter of Dr. William C. Caldwell, of Fremont, Ohio, whom he first met as a student at the university. They have two children. While connected with the Detroit bar he wrote a law book entitled "The Legal Adviser and' Business Guide," which was published in January, 1902. There were many prominent and distinguished men in the class of 1870 in the University of Michigan, of which Mr. Perry was a member, among them being Rufus Day, justice of the United States supreme court; William L. Penfield, solicitor of the state department of the United States; Walter B. Stevens, secretary of the St. Louis Exposition; Alfred Noble, one of the most able engineers the world has known, who served on the recent canal commission; Bernard Moses, who was appointed to the Philippine commission by President McKinley in 190o; Lucius B. Swift, the noted civil service reformer of Indiana; and Count Michael Meyerdorf, a well known civil engineer, who at one time occupied a government position in Washington, and is now deceased. Fraternally Mr. Perry is a member of the Pontiac lodge A. F. & A. M., and the Knights of Pythias. His wife is a member of the Protestant Episcopal church, which he also attends. DANIEL L. DAVIS Daniel L. Davis, a prominent member of the Oakland county bar and a resident of Pontiac since 1877, was born in Davisburgh, Michigan, on April 27, I846. He is a son of John C. and Sarah (Griswold) Davis. His paternal grandfather, Cornelius Davis, was born in Shokan, Ulster county, New York, in 1792, and died in Davisburgh, Michigan, in 1852. He was a farmer by occupation and passed his life in that pursuit. He was a Democrat and a member of the Presbyterian church, and was regarded as one of the representative and worthy citizens of his time. He married Agnes Winfield, also a native of New York, and they became the parents of ten children, of which goodly number, John C., the father of Daniel L. of this review, was one. John C. Davis was born at Shokan, New York, on May I, 1821, and lived there until he was eight years of age, coming to Michigan with his parents in I835. They located in Davisburgh, as mentioned previously, and there John C. Davis gave his life to farming, milling and merchandising. He was a man of splendid character and was accorded the respect and esteem of all who knew him. He was fairly successful in his business ventures, and after a lifetime of activity in Davisburgh retired and went to Pontiac, where he passed the remainder of his life, his death occurring there some five years ago. He was a Democrat of conviction, and gave

Page  151 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY1 151 military service as a captain of volunteers under Governor Mason. I-e was postmaster of his home town for a few years, and in other ways gave useful service to his community. He married Sarah Griswold, who was born in Covington, New York on March 8, 1822, and came to Michigan in 1837, the marriage occurring in October, 1840. She died in Pontiac six years ago. She was a daughter of Hiram Griswold, a farmer, well known in Davisburgh during his lifetime. Nine children were born to Mr. and Mrs. John C. Davis, as follows: Mrs. Mary Monroe; George W.; Harry J.; John; J. C.; Hiram G.; Joseph; Martha and Daniel L. Daniel L. Davis was educated in the district schools up to his eighteenth year, followed by four terms at Trenton high school. He devoted himself to farming until he was twenty years old, then taught school for three consecutive terms, afterwards being variously engaged as produce dealer, dealer in agricultural implements, grain and general merchandise, until he was thirty years of age. That period of his life marked his determination to engage in a profession, and he was enabled to carry out his wishes in that respect by being elected to the office of clerk of Oakland county in I876, which office he held for two terms, and in the meantime he improved his time by studying law in such time as he was not engaged with the duties of his office. At the close of his second term as county clerk Mir. Davis was admitted to the bar upon examination, since which time he has been engaged in active practice in Oakland county. It is a matter of record that in the years of his business experience, he has received some of the largest verdicts ever returned in the county. He has also enjoyed commensurate fees. M'r. Davis is an independent Democrat and has been a member of the Democratic state central committee. For a number of years he was president and a director of the Oakland County Agricultural Society, and during that time had in charge the details connected with the Supervisors' picnic, an annual event of some importance in the history of the county. Since I880 Mr. Davis has been associated in a partnership with Peter B. Bromley, under the firm name of Davis & Bromley. On April I8, I873, Mr. Davis was united in marriage with Isabel I. Wilson, who was born at Springfield, Michigan, in July, 1843. They have two children,-Sarah G. Davis, born October 7, I877, and Manley D. Davis, born March 29, 1879, who makes his home in Detroit, where he is engaged in the practice of law. KLEBER P. ROCKWELL Kleber P. Rockwell, prominent among the legal fraternity of Oakland county, was born on November 8, I868, in the township of Bloomfield, Oakland county, and is a son of the late Edward J. Rockwell of West Bloomfield, his ancestors being among the earliest settlers of Oakland county and descendants of William Rockwell, who settled at Dorchester, Massachusetts, in I630. Mr. Rockwell was reared to young manhood on a farm. He received his education in the public schools and began teaching school at the age of twenty, later supplementing his education with a three years' course

Page  152 152 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY at the Fenton Normal School. He began the study of law with George W. Smith in 1893, subsequently entering the office of Taft & Smith, in I894, and has been an office associate with Congressman S. W. Smith from then until the present time. After passing a very creditable examination, he was admitted to the bar on January 8, 1895, since which time he has enjoyed an extensive practice. He was admitted to practice in the United States courts on March 22, I899. Politically, Mr. Rockwell is a Republican and in I898 was nominated by that party for the office of prosecuting attorney and elected by a majority of over I,Ioo; he was unanimously renominated to succeed himself in 900o and I902 and was elected each time by a majority of nearly I,6oo, running several hundred votes ahead of his ticket each time. In the discharge of the duties of his office and in the prosecution of criminals he was especially successful. During his incumbency he was identified with many important criminal trials and has secured convictions of some of the most noted criminals of Michigan, prominent among whom was Henry Wiseman, convicted of murder in the first degree for the murder of Mrs. Ellen Huss. Mr. Rockwell was married September Io, I896, to Maude A. King, daughter of the late George W. King, of Clarkston, and to them were born three children: Alice, Helen and Edward J. In I902 he formed a partnership with Henry M. Zimmerman, under the firm name of Rockwell & Zimmerman, which firm has since enjoyed an extensive law practice. In the fall of I908 he was elected judge of probate of Oakland county for the term of four years and is a candidate for reelection at the fall election of 1912. ARTHUR R. TRIPP Hon. Arthur R. Tripp is one of the leading lawyers of Pontiac, with whose interests he has been closely identified practically since the beginning of his legal career. He is the son of Harris N. Tripp, who was the first postmaster of Hunter's Creek, Lapeer county, Michigan, and a brother of Andrew J. Tripp, who has also been prominent in public affairs in Oakland county for some years and is now its sheriff. Mr. Tripp was educated in the University of Michigan. His public career was commenced early in his professional life and he has served in many important capacities with the passing years. He has twice been prosecuting attorney for his county; has been circuit court commissioner, probate clerk, member of the Pontiac school board and of the state legislature, and in every office his service has characterized him as an able man and a useful and valuable citizen. ELMER R. WEBSTER Elmer R. Webster is known in Pontiac as one of the founders of the present public school system, and as a man who has probably done more than any other one person to establish that system, which is one

Page  [unnumbered] I

Page  [unnumbered] ~ 5 L-LI C ^j3't>CC (^' ^^^(^-^ ---(^-ca'-a000^f ^/^

Page  153 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 153 of the most admirable and efficient in the state today. Mr. Webster is a graduate of the Literary and Law departments of the University of Michigan. He was county superintendent of schools for a number of years, has been a member of the board of supervisors and a member of the board of public works of Pontiac, while for many years he was one of the trustees of the schools of the city. At the present time, he is secretary of the school board. Outside of his professional practice, his interests have been mainly along educational lines, although his services in other respects have been invaluable to the city. JOHN H. PATTERSON John H. Patterson, of the firm of Patterson & Patterson, one of the most prominent law firms in Oakland county, Michigan, has been a resident of Pontiac since first entering upon his professional career, and of Oakland county all his life. Born at Holly, Oakland county, Michigan, in I865, he is the son of Hon. Thomas L. Patterson, a prominent attorney and for many years judge of the probate court of Oakland county. The firm name, Patterson & Patterson, has long been a familiar one in Oakland county, and is almost a name with which to conjure in the districts where best known, so capable and efficient have its members proved themselves as exponents of the law. When first organized, the firm was composed of Judge Thomas L. Patterson, the father of the subject, and James K. Patterson. Upon the decease of the latter, his son, Samuel J., became the partner of John H. Patterson, thus continuing the firm name under a new personnel. Of the parentage of Mr. Patterson, the brief mention made above is sufficient, as the life of Judge Patterson is one of such importance and interest in the history of Oakland county that specific place is given to a detailed setting forth, of at least a portion of that life in this work. John H. Patterson, after finishing the schools of Holly, took a high school course in the public schools of Ann Arbor, preparatory to his entering the University of Michigan at that place. He entered the literary department of the University in 1883, continuing therein for two years, at the same time attending the lectures in the law department. In 1885 he came to Pontiac and served as clerk of the probate court, of which his father was then judge. He continued the study of law under the able preceptorship of his father and of Thomas J. Davis, the latter then an attorney of Pontiac, but in later years of Duluth, Minnesota. In I887, upon examination before the circuit court at Pontiac, he was admitted to the bar, and was subsequently admitted to practice. before the United States courts. In I901 he formed a partnership with his cousin, Samuel J. Patterson with whom he has since been associated. By reason of his early connection with the probate court, Mr. Patterson had gained a valuable experience in its practice, and since that time has had much to do in the handling and ultimate settlement of estates and in general probate practice. His clientele numbers among it some of the most substantial business firms and individuals in the county, and he has won an enviable reputation among the profession

Page  154 154 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY in Oakland county. Mr. Patterson is general counsel for the Pontiac. Oxford and Northern Railroad Company, to which position he succeeded Judge A. C. Baldwin, deceased, in 1901, and he is a director and also attorney for the First Commercial Bank, one of the strongest financial institutions in the county, as well as being identified in similar capacities with many another leading business house in Pontiac and Oakland county. In I889 Mr. Patterson was united in marriage with Miss Ella Stanton, the daughter of L. W. Stanton, at one time sheriff of the county and for a quarter of a century a prominent citizen of Pontiac. He died in I899. Mrs. Patterson was born in Oxford, Oakland county. Three children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Patterson: Donald S., Clarence K. and Marion, all living in Pontiac at this time. Mr. Patterson is a Democrat of strength and conviction and has always given his efforts in the interests of that party. He is identified fraternally with the Knights of Pythias and the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks and the Masonic lodge. JAMES H. LYNCH James H. Lynch, member of the firm of Perry & Lynch, one of the leading law firms of Oakland county, was born March 12, 1859, in Goshen, Orange county, New York; where his parents, Thomas and Mary (Markey) Lynch, natives of Ireland, had settled when they arrived in the United States in about I855. When he was eight years of age his parents moved to Commerce, Oakland county, where the father engaged in farming and where the parents passed the remainder of their lives, and there James H. Lynch attended the district schools of Commerce township. Ile worked on the farm between school seasons, and for a time taught in the country schools of his district. Later he attended the high school at Pontiac, from which he was graduated in 1884, after which he began the study of law in the offices of Aaron Perry and Arthur R. Tripp. So well did he utilize the time devoted to his studies and so apt were his preceptors in the law, that in September, I886, the young man was admitted to the bar, and on January I, 1887, he entered upon the active practice of his profession, in which he has ever been prosperous and prominent. In November of the sme year in which he was admitted to the bar Mr. Lynch was elected circuit court commissioner on the Democratic ticket and reelected in I888 and 1890, and was appointed to the office of city attorney for the years 1898 and 1899. Mr. Lynch is an orator of high reputation and ability, and officiated as presiding officer of the ceremonies attending the laying of the cornerstone of the new Oakland county courthouse, on August 30, 1894. His address as president of the day was a masterly effort, and a brief portion is culled from his speech and here offered as a fair sample of his style and sentiment, lack of space forbidding the using of the entire speech: "Some people who reason lightly and without a full consideration of the subject, express surprise at and speculate as to why it is that the lawyer will defend men whom the world at large and the community in general have branded as guilty. But the principle of the law

Page  155 HISTORY OF OFAKLAND COUNTY 155 still remains, and I trust will ever remain, that, in the eyes of the law, no man is presumed guilty until he has been convicted by a jury of his peers; and so long as that principle stands, just so long will the honest, conscientious attorney be serving the higher, truer and nobler administrations of the law by insisting that however culpable a man may be imagihed to be, it is better that he should go unpunished than that the sacred principle of the law, the presumption of innocence be broken in upon, violated and trampled under foot in order to appease popular prejudice, fanatical frenzy, or mob violence. "It is of as great importance that existing laws be impartially and fully administered as it is that we have good laws. If because of prejudice, passion or still baser motive, the settled rule of the law is disregarded on some particular occasion, it is cause for regret on the part of all good citizens. "The difference between a government with constitutional limitations and an autocracy is not so much in the character of their laws as in their administration-not so much in the severity of the law as in the certainty of its enforcement. "If a settled principle of the law can be set aside in my favor because of some peculiar circumstance which appeals to sympathy or passion, then all our boasted security is as naught; life is not secure; reputation is not safe and property rights are but the toys of a day." Mr. Lynch is the eldest of the five children of his parents. Thomas, the second born, is now a resident of New Mexico; William died when about twenty-one years old; John J. is a resident of Pontiac, and Edward is a farmer in Oakland county. The mother died when she was in the seventy-fourth year of her life, while the father still makes his home in Pontiac, and is now in his seventy-eighth year. They have been lifelong members of the Roman Catholic church. On June 12, i888, Mr. Lynch married Miss Bridget Crotty, of White Lake, Oakland county. She is a daughter of James and Catherine (Gorman) Crotty, both natives of Liponay, Ireland, who came to America in I834, locating in White Lake, Oakland county. Eight children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Lynch, one of the number dying in infancy. The others are: Catherine F., a stenographer in the office of her father; Mary Ursula, at home; Agnes A., Marcia R. and Margaret M. B., also in the parental home; Patrick Sarsfield and Emmet D. are twins. Mr. Lynch is a Democrat, and since arriving at his legal majority has been actively and prominently identified with the labors of the party in Oakland county. He is a stanch Roman Catholic, deeply and practically concerned in the progress of St. Vincent de Paul's church, and one of the most prominent members of the Knights of Columbus to be found in Oakland county, of which he is district deputy for the order. Mr. Lynch is now serving as a member of the school board. ANDREW L. MOORE Andrew L. Moore ranks prominently among the prosperous members of the legal profession in Oakland county. He has passed his

Page  156 156 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY entire life in this county and since the beginning of his law practice has made his home in Pontiac, where he has with the passing years built up. a lucrative and extensive clientele. He is a particularly able trial lawyer and his oratorical ability has won him many laurels. Born in West Bloomfield, on October 28, I870, Mr. Moore is the son of Hiram E. Moore, a prominent farmer and stockman of that township. In I895 Mr. Moore was admitted to the bar and early formed a partnership with Judge Augustus C. Baldwin and James A. Jacokes, which association endured until the death of Judge Baldwin. Mr. Moore was chosen to represent Oakland and Macomb counties in the convention which revised the state constitution and which, among other things, provided for home rule. Because of the active part he bore in that convention, he was chosen a member of the convention which wrote Pontiac's commission charter and was unanimously elected chairman of that body. It was largely through his influence that the initiative, referendum and recall provisions and the "corrupt practice" sections were given places in that document. Mr. Moore is an influential member of the First Methodist church of Pontiac and is a teacher of the Young Men's Bible Class of that Sunday-school. PETER B. BROMLEY Peter B. Bromley is a member of the firm of Davis & Bromley of Pontiac, organized in I893. He was born in Oakland township, Oakland county, in 1863, and is the son of Andrew J. and Sarah P. (Brewster) Bromley. Andrew J. Bromley was also a native of Oakland township, born there in I840 and passing away at the early age of twenty-five years. He was a son of Rosewell Bromley, a Vermonter, born in Rutland county, in I803, who died in Oakland county in I89o, after having passed his life here from the age of twenty-two years. He married Sybil Pinckney, and they were the parents of a goodly family. He was one of the prominent men of this section, serving the county in many public offices during his lifetime. Peter B. Bromley is one of the two children born to his parents, Andrew J. and Sarah Bromley; his one brother is a farmer in St. Clair county, Michigan. After the death of his father his mother married Tunis Rolison and the family moved from the old home to Pontiac when Mr. Bromley was a lad of ten years. He attended the Pontiac high school and after graduating in the teacher's course began teaching, and with his work carried on a course of law reading in I88I. In August, 1884, he was admitted to the bar, and in the years that have elapsed he has won a high degree of prominence in his profession. He served six years as court commissioner of Oakland county-two terms as city clerk of Pontiac and was elected to the office of city attorney by the city council for a term of three years and is now filling that office. Until 1893 he continued in independent practice, but since that time he has been associated with D. L. Dlavis, the well known attorney of Oakland county. Mr. Bromley married Miss Sarah Ditmas, of Brooklyn, New York.

Page  157 -HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 157 and they have two sons, Bruce D. and Ditmas A., both in school in Pontiac. Mr. Bromley is a Democrat, but not a politician in any sense. He is a Mason with affiliations with the Commandery and the Knights Templar. He is also a member of the Maccabees. F. L. COVERT Frank L. Covert, one of the successful lawyers of Pontiac, has been prosecuting attorney for three terms and is now a candidate for election to the state senate. He has been a resident of Oakland county all his life, being a native of Waterford township. He was graduated from Pontiac high school in his youth and studied law in the offices of Taft & Smith in this city, being admitted to the bar in I89o. He has seen a deal of public service since he began the practice of his profession in Pontiac. He served as committee clerk in-the state house of representatives for two years; was elected circuit court commissioner of the county and held the office for six years, and has been county poor commissioner four terms, in addition to his three terms of service as prosecuting attorney, already mentioned. He has always conducted a private practice, which has occupied such of his time as he has been able to spare from his public duties, and is known for one of the representative members of his profession in the city of Pontiac.

Page  158 CHAPTER XI BACKWARD GLANCES AT BENCH AND BAR JUDGE CROFOOT'S RECOLLECTIONS-BENCH AND BAR PRIOR TO I840 (BY JUDGE BALDWIN) —CHIEF JUSTICE MOORE'S PICTURES-AARON PERRY'S CONTRIBUTIONS. At the risk even of repetition, the editor presents for this chapter a number of papers sketching various personages and phases of both the bench and bar of Oakland county. By blending such mental pictures one may obtain a rich and lifelike view of the field, while the harvest of developed judicial systems and finished lawyers was yet in the ear. JUDGE CROFOOT'S RECOLLECTIONS Following are extracts from the sketch of Judge M. E. Crofoot, delivered at the dedication of the "old second courthouse" in 1858: "That old and dilapidated temple now tottering on its foundation, with its crumbling walls tumbling about it, its covering fluttering like the tattered garments of the old man represented as the personification of poverty, was reared (we are told), upon its present locality in 1823, where it has stood 'wasting its sweetness on the desert air' for the last thirty-five years. "But ancient as it appears, it was not the first building to welcome the expounder and legal adjudicator of the law for Oakland county. The ground where a portion of the Ogle House now stands, became (firstly) the seat of justice. "There, in July, I820, those clothed with judicial honors-Chief Justice Thompson, Bagley and Bronson, associate justices-assembled in an old log building, where the free breath of heaven wafted without interruption of those useless modern appendages-a door, floor or chimney, and where too, assembled the grand jurors of the county, at this, the first session of a court of record in our county. "One man was licensed as an attorney and two were licensed to keep tavern, thus keeping up the proper equilibrium of power which is so essential for all new countries. The officers of the court were: Daniel LeRoy, prosecuting attorney; William Morris, sheriff; Sidney Dole, clerk. "Whereupon, the grand jury were discharged, and all business before the court (that above stated) having been transacted, and the law properly expounded and interpreted, the court adjourned. 158

Page  159 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 159 "If any one desires to preserve a lasting memento of this first court of Oakland county, we are told that they can secure a chip from the logs of that same old building, where they presently lie in the rear of that old red house so long occupied by our townsman, Mr. Hendrickson. "In July, I821, the first indictment was found against our old townsman, O. A., for keeping a tavern without license, and a fine of one dollar and costs was imposed upon the defendant, which the truthful historian informs us was all spent at the bar, save the costs of one of the judges, who had some conscientious scruples against ever letting a good thing go. "In I825 Elder Elkanah Comstock, was by the court authorized to celebrate the rites of matrimony, and in I826, the Rev. W. Ruggles was licensed to do likewise; whereupon we have no doubt that innumerable blessings resulted from the rights so conferred. "In 1824 the first court was held in the old courthouse and by I830 the importance of the judiciary, or the convenience of suitors, had the effect to induce the board of supervisors to order the court room to be lathed and plastered. Judges Thompson, Bronson, Bagley, Weeks, LeRoy, Hunt, Moseley, Witherell, Chipman, Woodbridge, Sibley, Morrell, Fletcher, Whipple, Eldredge, Green and Copeland, have there adorned the bench, and all taken their appropriate part in dispensing justice to the citizens of the county from that old building, which we leave with no feelings of regret, except the severance of the ties that a quarter of a century's practice therein has necessarily formed. "Some of the most eminent men of the state who were never residents of the county, have, in the earlier days of our courts, there been formally admitted to the bar, among whose names we find those of William Woodbridge, William A. Fletcher, Solomon Sibley and Henry Chipman-while the names of many no less prominent who have resided among us have there received their licenses and while eminent names have adorned the legal profession all over the state, we claim that the bar of Oakland county, according to its numbers, is second to none in the state in legal attainments. "From our own bar have gone forth editors, judges and members of congress, and most of the offices of honor and trust in our state have been at one time or other filled with some of our number. "But though the labor, toil and close attention which the profession of law requires, has taxed us many times severely, and has furnished its vexations and annoyances, it has not failed to bring with it those pleasant incidents of which the profession is so fruitful. Some of these being entirely original, we claim them all our own, and a few may not be inappropriate in a review of these past events. "Some twenty years ago when justice was making its way into the county, a well known member of our bar had occasion to be called before a justice of the peace to attend to the cause and the interests of his client in one of the towns of the county; and not precisely understanding the nature of his client's defense until the jury was empaneled and the trial commenced, he was unfortunately placed in a quandary by learning for the first time that the testimony of the defense must come from the justice, and how to get at it was the all-important question.

Page  160 160 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY He suggested the difficulty to a personage, commonly called a pettifogger, who had been engaged with him in the cause. 'Why,' replied his associate, 'there is no difficulty at all about that. It is always a common thing in such cases to let the foreman of the jury swear the justice (or the judge). I've seen it done lots of times in the high courts.' Of course our friend thought that as this seemed the only remedy left him, he would let his associate try on the project, while he would say, 'Oh yes, of course that's the law.' "The pettifogger arose, and, with all the assurance of the conviction of assuming a right position, made his proposition to the court to have the justice sworn by the foreman of the jury and proceed to take his testimony in the cause. An eminent lawyer from Detroit who had been engaged for the opposite party seemed surprised at so novel a proposition and objected, of course, but as our friend asserted, 'Oh yes, of course that's the law,' the foreman of the jury took it for granted he knew, and immediately said, 'Mr. Justice, stand up, raise your right hand and be sworn.' The justice almost unconsciously did as directed, was sworn, testified and the jury rendered their verdict for the defendant, and the client of our friend and the cause of justice triumphed on a new principle of law. "Upon another occasion where some questions arose upon a new statute that had not yet received a judicial construction, it happened (not an unusual thing I believe) that the lawyers upon the opposite side of the case did not agree. After elaborately discussing the subject, the same was submitted to the court, each supposing that his own construction had been made as clear as the noon-day sun. The judge settled back in his chair, straightened himself up and assuming all the dignity of his position, was about to announce the judgment of the court upon the question. "Each lawyer stood all agog to hear his own position vindicated. Judge then of their surprise, when it was gravely announced by the court that 'the question seemed new and was involved in a good deal of uncertainty as to a proper construction,' and that as the court was desirous of rendering a correct opinion, 'the opinion of the court is that the court don't know what that is.' "Whether this grave decision was ever reversed or not, we are not informed, but we are assured that both lawyers felt quite gratified to know that he had gained a triumph over his opponent. "Again, and not many years since, one of the oldest members of our bar had occasion to look after his client's interests before a justice of the peace in one of the northern townships. He there met as an opponent our old acquaintance T-, who at that time was quite an efficient practitioner before those courts for the trial of small causes, and withal had provided himself with some law for such occasions, and generally went armed with Cowen's treatise, a panacea for all such cases. "Some questions of law arose and the lawyers differed, but to convince the justice of the correctness of his position our friend T- said he would read some law; he did not want the court to take his word for it. Thereupon he read from Cowen's treatise some text based upon a case decided in New York under a particular statute.

Page  161 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 161 "Our friend of the bar got up and said it was true that such was the adjudication in New York, but that the case was decided under a statute of that state which of course could have no application here. Thereupon T- said he was prepared for all such arguments. These Pontiac lawyers are always coming out into the country and palming off their opinion upon justices as law but he was prepared for all such practices this time, for he had brought the law with him. He thereupon turned to his favorite law book and read 'that the general acts of congress are binding upon all the states of the Union;' and then, with an air of triumph, he turned to the fly leaf of the book and read 'entered according to act of congress,' saying 'Now, Mr. Justice, I'd like to know if that ain't law in Michigan!' Of course our friend of the bar was finished and had to beat a hasty retreat leaving friend T- victor of the field. "Incidents of this kind, all our own, could be collected to fill a volume, but time will not permit their further capitulation here." BENCH AND BAR PRIOR TO 1840 The following paper was contributed by the late Judge Augustus C. Baldwin to volume XXXI of the.Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, and it was one of the most complete as well as one of the last contributions which he made to local history prior to his death in I903. "The time has arrived," he said, "when it is all important that the history of the various individuals belonging to the different professions, residents of this state at an early day, have a brief recital of their acts prepared and filed with this society as matter for future reference. A sketch of the early clergymen and the members of the medical profession, however brief it might be, would be invaluable, as well as afford very interesting reading matter; and I trust that some persons connected with those professions will assume the task and thus preserve the names of their brethren in the archives of this society. With this view of a person's duty, for the purpose of preserving the names of the pioneer lawyers of Oakland county, I have assumed the task of presenting those practicing therein prior to 1840. Time will not permit entering very fully into detail of their various histories, but the brief sketch that I present, will, at least, preserve their names in their professional capacity. "Oakland county's history is not of very ancient origin. Though Detroit was settled in 1701, and the southeastern bounds of Oakland county were only ten miles distant from the city hall of Detroit, yet we have no record of a white man's entrance into Oakland county for the purpose of settlement in the township of what is now Avon. A settlement was made at Pontiac by the Pontiac Company in I818, and in the autumn of the same year settlements were made at Royal Oak, Birmingham, Troy and Waterford. "On the I2th of January, I818, Governor Cass issued a proclamation organizing certain territory into the county of Oakland, and fixing the seat of justice of the county at Pontiac. "It is impossible to state at this time what the population was; no accessible records of the census of I820 can now be found in the county;

Page  162 162 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY that there were numerous families scattered about Oakland county in I8I9 is clearly inferable from what is known of the settlers' families existing at that time. From the first settlements in I817 there was a constant influx of immigrants into the county, and the inference is irresistible that at the perfection of the county's organization the population must have been several hundred. "October 24, 1815, the governor and judges passed an act creating county courts in the various counties of the territory, consisting of one chief justice and two associate justices; all to be appointed by the governor. "June 13, I8I8, chancery jurisdiction was extended to county courts, March 30, I820, the terms of the court were fixed for Oakland county for the second Monday of February and the third Monday of July, and on the I7th day of July, 1820, the first court of record-the Oakland county court-was duly opened and legal proceedings were thereafter supposed to be properly conducted. Hon. Wm. Thompson was chief justice and Amasa Bagley and Daniel Bronson, associate justices. William Morris was sheriff, and Sidney Dole was the clerk. "At the time when General Cass, the territorial governor, was making selections to fill the various judicial offices, he was confronted with the fact that there was not an attorney resident in the county. Necessity compelled him to go outside of the legal profession, and subsequent events showed that his selections were judiciously made. "The appointee for chief justice was a practicing physician residing near Pontiac, Dr. Wm. Thompson; he was born January 15, 1786, in Lenox, Massachusetts. He attended the district school and the academy; at fourteen he was fitted for college. In I8Io he took his degree from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in the city of New York; and about I8I5 he emigrated to the territory of Michigan and first began the practice of his profession at Mount Clemens, and subsequently removed to Pontiac. After his appointment as chief justice he practiced his profession while performing his official duties. Of course his legal duties did not encroach very greatly upon his time, and he held the office of chief justice for some eight years, giving excellent satisfaction. After his retirement from the judgeship he continued his medical practices for some time, and then retired to a farm near Pontiac, where he died honored and respected July Io, 1867. "Amasa Bagley, one of the associate justices, was born near Boston, in Massachusetts, and left his home for Michigan in the winter of I8I8.,He afterwards settled at Bloomfield Center, and he resided there about ten years, when he removed to Pontiac, where he continued to reside until his death. He was appointed associate judge upon the organization of the county court, assuming his duties in July, 1820, and remaining in that office until the admission of Michigan as a state. Judge Bagley was a farmer and practical business man, and in no sense a lawyer, yet he satisfactorily performed his judicial duties. "On Monday, July 17, 1820, the county court of Oakland county was duly opened by proclamation of the sheriff. After impaneling of the grand jury Spencer Coleman, an attorney of Detroit, on his own motion was admitted to practice.

Page  163 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 163 "On his application Daniel Le Roy satisfied the court that he was licensed to practice in the supreme court of New York and was admitted' as an attorney of this court. Mr. Le Roy for many succeeding years occupied a prominent position in the history of Oakland county, as well as in the state of Michigan. He was born in Poughkeepsie, New York, on the 17th day of May, 1775. After due preparation and study he was admitted to practice in the supreme court in April, 800o. He was afterward admitted to the court of common pleas of Tioga county, and in I80o established himself in Binghampton and commenced practice. He also took an active part in political, educational and military matters. In 1817, when the influx of travel from the east was tending westward, he followed with his family to Detroit, and there commenced laboring in his profession. His record shows that he had business relations with Macomb county, filling there the office of judge of probate. "Prior to I820 the Pontiac Company had erected a mill at Pontiac, and the county seat having been established at that place and Mr. LeRoy having made Pontiac his home, he was the first resident lawyer admitted to the court. "It cannot be supposed that business could be very extensive or lucrative; but the county was rapidly filling up; new settlers were continually arriving, and to a discriminating mind it must have been evident that Oakland county would soon furnish adequate support for an industrious lawyer. "Mr. Le Roy was appointed the first prosecuting attorney for the county. He was also justice of the peace, and in 1822 postmaster. In 1831 he was appointed United States attorney for the territory of Michigan. "Mr LeRoy was chief justice of the county court of Oakland county, and held the office for two years, and in 1833 one of the judges of the county for the term of three years. "In November, 1835, Governor Mason, acting governor, appointed him one of the commissioners to settle the boundary dispute between Michigan and Ohio. He was a member as early as I830 and 1831 of the territorial council. Upon the organization of the territory as a state, Mr. LeRoy was appointed in July, 1836, the first attorney general of the new state. "The foregoing brief synopsis shows that Judge LeRoy took a very active and prominent part in our history. The important offices that he held is most convincing evidence of his popularity and ability. About 1850 he left Pontiac and removed to Fenton, where some of his children resided, and where he died at a ripe old age February 1, 1858. "For several years after the organization of the county Mr. Le Roy was the sole resident lawyer. The court was attended, however, by many Detroit lawyers; among them George A. O'Keefe, John Hunt, Benjamin F. H. Witherell, Charles Lamed, William A. Fletcher, Henry Chipman, William Woodbridge and others; all men who subsequently became prominent not only in their profession but in the state's early history. "William F. Moseley was admitted as a practitioner on the I4th of February, 1825. He was the next person admitted after Mr. Le Roy, as the records of the court show, who resided in the county of Oakland. Vol. I- 1

Page  164 164 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Where he previously resided, or where he was educated, I have been unable to learn. The records show that he was a prominent practitioner while a resident of the county. An anecdote that I heard related of him about sixty years ago I think will bear repetition. He was defending some boys for some trivial offense before a justice in a neighboring town. In the course of his argument before the justice he said: 'May it please your honor, these boys being arrested for a criminal offense, it is necessary for the prosecution to prove the offense charged beyond a reasonable doubt; for it is a principle of law that every man is presumed innocent until he is proven guilty.' 'Stop, sir,' said the justice, who was an Old School Presbyterian, 'you are mistaken, Mr. Moseley, the rule is, mankind is naturally depraved.' Mr. Moseley resided in Oakland county about twelve years, when he removed to Genesee or Shiawassee county, Mr. Moseley was a representative of Oakland county in the legislative council in I826. "The succeeding attorneys who settled in Oakland county were Thomas J. Drake and Origen D. Richardson. They came into the county as early as 1825 or 1826, the precise date at this time being very difficult to determine. "Mr. Drake was born April I8, I797, in Scipio, Cayuga county, New York, and was educated in the schools of that vicinity. From the records I should judge he came to Oakland county in 1824, and at that time was not admitted to practice law here, but in March following he entered a plea in a case for the defendant by previously filing letters of attorney, authorizing him to appear. From this time on Mr. Drake took a very active part in legal and civic affairs in Oakland county until near the time of his death. "Prior to the admission of Michigan to statehood he was a member of the territorial council; was register of probate; captain and lieutenant colonel of the militia, and one of the commissioners to locate the county seat of Saginaw county. After the admission of the state, Mr. Drake was elected to the senate, and was made president pro tem of that body. He was elected prosecuting attorney for Oakland county, holding that office two years. About 1837 Mr. Drake removed from Pontiac to Flint, where he resided a few years, when he returned to his prior home, and there continued to live until his death. He was appointed by President Lincoln as one of the associate justices of Utah, which office he continued to hold for many years. He had an intense prejudice against Mormonism, and his nature would not permit him to conceal his views; consequently his judicial life was not as pleasant as it would have been if he had possessed a more yielding nature. His health became somewhat impaired and he resigned his judgeship two months prior to the expiration of the term. He was an unyielding lawyer, indefatigably zealous in the interest of his clients. He possessed strong personal traits, and during his earlier days had many devoted friends and followers. Mr. Drake died in Pontiac on the 20th of April, 1875. "Gideon 0. Whittemore was in active practice in Oakland county in I836, and continued in practice for about fifteen years. The record shows that on the I3th of February, I826, he was appointed prosecuting attorney for the term. He served one term as secretary of state, and was

Page  165 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 165 a member of the Board of Regents and the Board of Education of the state. Soon after this he removed from Pontiac to Tawas, Iosco county, where he died. "There has been some discrepancy as to the time when Origen D. Richardson took up his residence in the county of Oakland. The court records first show his active participation in legal proceedings on the 20th day of July, I826. Mr. Richardson was born in Woodstock, Vermont, July 20, I795. He studied his profession there; and while a student in the office of his cousin, Israel B. Richardson, his patriotism induced him to join the army. He was present and participated in the battle of Plattsburg. He continued in practice in Vermont until 1826, then he removed to Pontiac. He was a patient, painstaking practitioner, and took a deep interest in the affairs of his adopted state. For twenty years after Mr. Richardson settled in Pontiac, his counsel was widely sought, and his legal opinion had almost the effect of statutory law. He was cautious in giving his advice. In his intercourse with his fellow citizens he was not effusive, but was conservative, careful and courteous. He seldom had an altercation with his associate attorneys, and was ever ready to lend a helping hand in case of emergency. The result was that there was a kindly feeling toward him, which added greatly to his popularity. Mr. Richardson was a member of the first convention of assent relating to the admission of Michigan into the Union, held at Ann Arbor in September, I836. He was also a member of the first legislature, which convened at Detroit, November, 1835, and was also a member of the Sixth legislature, which convented at Detroit, January 4, I841. "In the fall of I841, the time that John S. Barry was first elected governor, Mr. Richardson was on the ticket with him for lieutenant governor, and was elected to the office. He was reelected in I843. At the termination of his office he returned to Pontiac and resumed the duties of his profession until the fall of the year 1854, when he went to Omaha, Nebraska. Soon after his arrival there he was elected to the upper house of the first legislature, and was subsequently reelected for the ensuing term. He was appointed one of the commissioners to revise and codify the laws. Though nominally residing in Nebraska and holding official positions there, his family remained in Pontiac, and continued there until 1874, when they removed with Mr. Richardson to Omaha. Mr. Richardson, after his final removal to Omaha, survived only two years, dying November 30, I876. Mr. and Mrs. Richardson had lived together nearly fifty years in the most happy relations, and at his demise she was so stricken with grief that she survived him but three days, and they were buried at the same time. "Robert P. Eldredge was admitted to the bar in Oakland county, November, 1828. He read law with Governor Richardson, and soon after his admission to the bar he removed to Mt. Clemens, where he located and resided until the time of his death. "Seth A. L. Warner, one of the old and prominent attorneys at Oakland county, was born in Saybrook, Connecticut. After pursuing the preliminary studies in the common schools of the country, he perfected his education at Cambridge, Massachusetts. He afterwards located in Tompkins county (now Schuyler), New York. He came to Michigan

Page  166 166 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY in 1825 and settled in what was over two years later organized into the township of Farmington, and in March, 1830, he was admitted to practice his profession of law in the courts of Oakland county. His location in Farmington at that time was not remarkably favorable for a very extensive practice, yet, being a well educated and well read lawyer, he secured his share of business. Mr. Warner, after more than twenty years' residence in the county, and being over sixty years of age, died in Farmington on the 5th of March, I846, honored and respected. "Isaac Stetson, a lawyer who had practiced in Indiana and other states, was admitted in 1830. Nothing more is known of him here. "In October, 1832, John Goodrich was admitted, and he died in September, I838. "In October, 1833, Henry S. Cole was admitted, but nothing further appears relative to him. "Randolph Manning was born in Plainfield, New Jersey, May I9, I804. He studied the profession of law in the city of New York, and in 1832 he.came to Michigan and commenced the practice of his chosen profession in Pontiac. He was careful and studious, persistent and energetic, and his ability at once gave him a standing of the first rank among the attorneys of Michigan. He was prominent in all the undertakings for the improvement and advancement of his selected residence, and for over thirty years after coming to Michigan he filled some of the most important judicial positions. We first ascertain that in 1835, when the question of the admission of Michigan into the Union was being agitated, he was elected one of the delegates to the convention at Ann Arbor to form the constitution and was placed upon the judiciary committee. Among his associates were such men as Ross Wilkins, William Woodbridge, Isaac E. Crary and Robert McClelland, historic characters. Mr. Manning was elected a senator from the county of Oakland and the territory attached, embracing the upper peninsula, holding the office for only one session. February, 1838, he was appointed secretary of state, an office he held for two years. The judiciary system under the constitution of 1835 embraced a court of chancery. Mr. Manning was appointed chancellor in 1842, an office which he resigned in I846. "Walker's Chancery Reports contain Chancellor Manning's opinions while holding his office, and they are a fitting memorial of his capacity, industry and conscientiousness; and although nearly sixty years have elapsed since these opinions were given, they are still cited with great approbation. As chancellor he was ex-officio a member of the Board of Regents. Mr. Manning was a reporter of the decisions of the supreme court, commencing with the January term of 1847, and ending with October, 1850. He was also a member of the State Board of Education in I849. When the present supreme court was organized in 1857, Mr. Manning was elected one of the judges, taking his seat January i, I858, and when the respective judges drew for their term, Mr. Manning's was for four years. He was reelected in I86I for a second term of eight years. For several years before his death he was a sufferer from heart disease, but his condition was not considered precarious. On the

Page  167 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 167 3Ist of August, I864, he spent most of the afternoon with one of his associates, the venerable Judge Christiancy. Judge Manning was in his usual health, and after returning home spent the evening with his family. About nine o'clock in the evening his elder daughter left the room knowing nothing of any danger, and returning immediately, found her father unconscious; he survived but a few moments, passing away without previous warning and without pain. Thus passed away an able and upright judge. On April 3, I889, an oil portrait of Judge Manning was presented to the supreme court by his children. Judge Campbell in accepting the portrait in behalf of the court said: 'Such men when they die do not lose their influence, and I believe the time never can come when the name of Chancellor Manning or Judge Manning, will be separated from the legal reforms of the state or from the rules of justice that he did so much to establish. He was worthy of veneration and his name and memory will always be cherished. We accept the portrait with great pleasure, and it will be preserved on the walls of the court room." "At the October term, I833, at Pontiac, William Draper was admitted to practice. He was born in Marlborough, Massachusetts, February 12, I780, and was educated at Harvard University. He studied law and practiced his profession near Boston. Some of his early acquaintances had removed to Pontiac, Michigan. Meeting them afterwards he decided to make a visit and came to Pontiac in the spring of 1833. Pleased with the country and with the location of Pontiac, he decided to remain and practice his profession here. Mr. Draper was a thoroughly equipped lawyer, and at once entered into an extensive practice. At the time he came to Michigan the question of the admission of Michigan as a state was being agitated, which continued for several years. A convention was held to adopt a constitution, and one was formed. "Congress was in favor of releasing a portion of the southern boundary of Michigan to Ohio, and giving to Michigan the upper peninsula in lieu of such territory. Among others Mr. Draper took an active part against surrendering any territory to Ohio. When the convention was called to meet at Ann Arbor to oppose the scheme, Mr. Draper was elected one of the delegates from Oakland county, and he was selected as the presiding officer of the convention. After Mr. Draper came to Michigan he had a large practice for about twenty years. Part of this time he was in partnership with his son Charles and his nephew, Rufus Hosmer. About I850 his health began to fail and continued to fail until I858, when, hoping for improvement, in July of that year he took a trip to Mackinac, where he soon after died. He was a quaint, peculiar man. He had his own notion of legal ethics, was a strict disciplinarian, and could hardly tolerate some of the simple pleasantries of a country bar, but his brother attorneys all respected him, and 'Father Draper,' as he was called by almost all of his brethren, did not have an enemy among them. During his later years he surrendered his practice and spent his time with his fishing rod among the numerous lakes surrounding Pontiac. "Morgan L. Drake was born in Scipio, Cayuga county, New York, October I8, 18I3. He was educated in the common schools of that vicinity; lived in Perry, New York, studied law, and came to Michigan. bt

Page  168 168 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY He was admitted to the bar in Oakland county in July, I835. He devoted himself to his professional duties until I836, when he was elected register of deeds for the county of Oakland, which office he held for two years. In his profession he made equity and equity practice a specialty, and in equity cases he was more at home than in any other branch of his profession. As a speaker he was extremely prolix. While MIr. Drake devoted much of his time to his professional duties he was also engaged in many other matters tending to develop and improve the country. He was one of the active promoters of the Flint & Pere Marquette railroad. While he was giving his chief attention in his practice to equity, he was fairly well read in the various branches of the law. On one occasion while engaged in a suit pertaining to a mill dam ownership, about two o'clock in the afternoon an important witness for Mr. Drake's client was called. The fact was first made known that the witness had gone to Detroit. Then there were no telephones, telegraphs or railroads, nothing but the dirt road to travel. The witness had not been subpoenaed, but had promised to attend; forgetting his promise he had left without notifying the party engaging him. Mr. Drake appealed to the court to have the case continued until the fqllowing morning, stating his position. The court, Judge Whipple presiding, informed him that it was his duty to have properly subpoenaed the witness, and denied the application. Mr. Drake, not disheartened, then made a motion for continuance. On rising he said: 'Your honor, this being an important matter, contrary to my usual custom, I shall have to discuss it at considerable length.' The court, knowing Mr. Drake's prolixity, was bewildered. He saw in his mind's eye an afternoon's task before him, and he turned to the crier and said: 'Mr. Crier, adjourn the court until tomorrow morning at nine o'clock.' Drake's object was accomplished. He died in Pontiac in I865. "Rufus Hosmer was of Massachusetts origin, and was educated at Harvard University. He came to Michigan soon after his uncle, William Draper, and was admitted to practice in Oakland county. He was more addicted to fun than to the dry technicalities of the law. Soon after his admission he practiced with his uncle, William Draper, and after Charles Draper was admitted the three practiced together. Subsequently he entered into partnership with George W. and Moses Wisner. He continued with them until George W. Wisner went to Detroit to take charge of the Detroit Advertiser, and after his death Mr. Hosmer succeeded him in the charge of that paper. He afterwards removed to Lansing; was state printer for a time, and was connected with the Lansing Republican. He was a ready wit, a fine genius, a companionable and popular man. He was appointed consul to the Netherlands, but death took him before he departed for that post of duty. "Phillip A. Mcomber was admitted to practice as an attorney in the state of New York, and coming to Michigan was admitted to practice here in 1825. He afterwards removed to one of the counties west of Oakland. "John T. Raynor came to the state and was admitted to the practice of law in I835. He located near Franklin. He was a prosecuting attorney in I835; was elected county clerk for the county in I8-, and held that office for four years. After this Mr. Raynor had an official position

Page  169 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 169 in Washington for a short time; on his return from Washington, he removed to Lansing, where he died. He was a pleasant, agreeable man; one who was most careful about saying anything to wound the feelings of another. He was a good lawyer, but his extreme amiability and timidity were not conducive to his general success in his profession. "Edward Pratt Harris was born in Ashburnham, Massachusetts, November 17, 1802. After passing from the common schools, he was prepared for college at Phillips Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, and at Atkinson (N. H.) Academy, and finally graduated at Dartmouth College in I826. For a time he was principal of an academy at Bradford, Vermont, and after his admission to the bar he practiced for a short time at White River Junction, that state. The business of the legal profession in staid New England did not satisfy the ambitious young man. He gathered his worldly possessions and wended his way westward, coming to Michigan in I836 and settling in Rochester, Oakland county, commencing there the practice of his profession. He was postmaster during Fillmore's administration, circuit court commissioner from I859 to I862, and a delegate to the constitutional convention in 1867. He was devoted to his profession, and had a reasonably fair practice in the locality where he resided. He attended most strictly to the interests of his clients and omitted nothing that would have a tendency to protect them. Of course this location was not such as to give him a large or varied assortment of cases, but such as he had were attended satisfactorily to his clients. After his location at Rochester in I836 he continued his residence in that place until his death, which occurred in March, I868. "Alfred Treadway came to Michigan about 1835 or 1836, and soon after was admitted to the bar. "After the organization of the state, one session of the supreme court and one session of the court of chancery were held annually in Pontiac. "Soon after Mr. Treadway's admission he was appointed clerk of the supreme court and register in the court of chancery, which offices he held until the change in the judicial system. He was also an injunction master for the county. At the session of the legislature in 1844 an act was passed empowering the judges of the supreme court to appoint a suitable person to revise the laws of the state. Sanford M. Green was appointed by the judges for that purpose, and he selected Mr. Treadway as his chief clerk and from that time until the session of the legislature in 1846 Mr. Green and his assistants were continuously employed in their laborious duties, and Mr. Treadway copied and wrote during the time the entire Green Code of I846. Mr. Treadway was afterwards a document clerk in the United States senate, and subsequently was an employe in one of the departments in Washington. He did not return to Pontiac to reside, but removed to Rhode Island, near Providence, where he afterward died. He was an ardent Mason, and took a lively interest in the resuscitation of the Masonic lodge in Pontiac. "George A. C. Luce was admitted to practice law in Oakland county May 2, I837. He was a well educated man, thoroughly versed in his profession. After his admission he settled in Troy. Mr. Luce was in feeble health and died at the place of his residence. "John P. Richardson was born in Woodstock, Vermont, August 23,

Page  170 170 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY I792. He was graduated at Dartmouth College in I816, and read law with Israel P. Richardson and Judge Aldis, of St. Albans, and afterward with Heman Alton, of Milton, Vermont. After his admission to the bar he practiced law for some years in Burlington, that state. In 1837 he removed to Pontiac, where he was admitted to practice on the 9th of November of that year. He continued to practice in Pontiac until 1845, when he was appointed in the land office of Sault Ste. Marie, in which office he continued until I848. He also acted as prosecuting attorney during the time he was in Chippewa county. While a resident of Oakland county, he was master in chancery. He removed from Pontiac to Leavenworth, Kansas, where he resided until his death, September 8, i866. He was a kind, a genial man, but was rather singular in some of his opinions. He was a sincere friend of the laboring classes of the community, planning and scheming to elevate their condition. As a lawyer Mr. Richardson was well prepared for his professional duties, but he was not a ready speaker. He was extremely cynical in his remarks before a court or jury. In his intercourse with his fellow men he was just and upright in all his dealings. "Charles Draper was born in Marlborough, Massachusetts, in November, I8II. After pursuing the requisite studies necessary to enter college, he entered Cambridge University and graduated therefrom in June, 1833, taking a degree of bachelor of arts. In November of that year he came to Michigan to meet his father, William Draper, who had about six months previously removed to Pontiac. Mr. Charles Draper taught school about one year in the old academy in Pontiac; at the same time he was reading law under the direction of his father. He was elected county clerk in I836 on what was called the state's rights ticket, and held the office for two years. After pursuing the necessary studies he was admitted to the bar of Oakland county November 27, 1838. After Mr. Draper's admission to practice law he remained in his father's office and practiced with him for many years. He was fortunate in having a large office experience, his father being a lawyer of long standing in Massachusetts. Mr. Draper was well versed in the preparation of legal papers, and after his commencement of practice in Oakland county the knowledge he had thus acquired became extremely useful to him. I think it can truly be said of him that there were few attorneys in Michigan that excelled him in celerity of drafting or in the correctness of his legal papers. He was elected for several terms as prosecuting attorney of Oakland county, and always most satisfactorily performed the duties of the office. In I868 Mr. Draper was elected to the senate of the state of Michigan, and held the office for one term. He was an intense partisan and had no sympathy for, or patience with, any principles adverse to what he himself believed. During the Civil war, and for twenty years after, any person disagreeing with Mr. Diraper's political views was a 'copperhead,' but notwithstanding the intensity of his zeal upon political subjects he was a man of the most genial disposition, and in twenty minutes all excitement would be over and the political feelings of the past forgotten. He was a true and devoted friend, and I can most cheerfully say, after over thirty years association with him in legal business, that a kindlier, more helpful or more upright individual could not be found.

Page  171 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 171 Excitable and intense as he was in his convictions, there was nothing revengeful in his disposition, and if any person had any ill feelings on account of a remark that Mr. Draper made he was always ready to make the fullest acknowledgements. In the prime of his life Mr. Draper was a most excellent lawyer, and had an extensive practice. In I884 he was stricken with apoplexy, and was compelled to retire from business. He partially recovered, but on April 23, 900o, he died at Midland, being at the time one of the oldest lawyers in the state. Through all his eccentricities and the intensity of his political feelings, I do not believe that he had a personal enemy. "George W. Wisner was born near Auburn, New York, in I812. Prior to I835 he had been prominently connected with, and owned a half interest in the New York Sun. He disposed of his interest, and in September of that year removed to Pontiac. Shortly after his arrival he commenced the study of law with William Draper. While in Pontiac he took an active interest in politics, and in 1837 he was elected to the legislature. After this he was admitted to the practice of law in I839, and soon after formed a partnership with Alfred Treadway. Succeeding the partnership with Mr. Treadway a new one was formed with Moses Wisner and Rufus Hosmer, which continued until he removed to Detroit. In the fall of 1847, Mr. Wisner, in connection with others, purchased the Detroit Daily Advertiser, which he creditably managed until his death. He was an intense Whig, and never let an opportunity pass without giving his opponents a castigation. He was a fluent speaker, and indulged freely in sarcasm. In 1842 he was a candidate for congress in the Oakland county district extending to Mackinac, thence through the upper peninsula; after a severe and bitter contest Mr. Wisner was defeated. In the practice of his profession Mr. Wisner was very happy and pertinent in his remarks. On account of his tact he would carry the jury with him. On one occasion he was trying a man for setting fire to his own barn. Hon. Jacob M. Howard, then considered one of the ablest attorneys in Michigan, was the defendant's attorney. Mr. Howard attempted to show that the fire was the result of spontaneous combustion, and made an eloquent appeal to the jury to sustain his theory. The case was one that caused much excitement. Mr. Wisner, in prosecuting the case, entered into it with all his professional zeal and in replying to Mr. Howard's theory of spontaneous combustion (the evidence showed that there were tracks around the stack where the fire originated, which was situated close to the barn) Mr. Wisner said: "Gentlemen of the jury, did you ever hear of a case where Providence came down to earth on a dark stormy night, put on a pair of old boots, sneaked around a straw stack and applied a match to the stack for the purpose of getting the insurance on the barn and its contents?" Suffice to say the j.ury had not heard of such an occurrence, and when they retired to the jury room they promptly found the defendant guilty. "Mr. Wisner died in Detroit, in September, 1849, and was buried in Pontiac. He was the father of Oscar F. Wisner and Henry C. Wisner, two prominent lawyers, the first in Saginaw, the latter in Detroit, and both now deceased. "Alfred H. Hanscom was born in Rochester, New York, and at an

Page  172 172 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY early period of his life came with his family to Macomb county, Michigan. He was educated in New York prior to his removal. From Macomb county he moved to Troy, in Oakland county, and was admitted to the bar in Pontiac in 1838. Few persons have been more gifted as speakers than was Mr. Hanscom, and it was said of him that he was one of the most eloquent advocates in the country. He was appointed prosecuting attorney for Oakland county in 1850, and held the office for two years. He was elected a member of the Michigan house of representatives for I842, and was re-elected for the session of 1845, of which house he was elected speaker. While Mr. Hanscom was in practice in Pontiac, on account of his forensic ability and tact he was employed in all the most important criminal cases. He afterwards removed to Ontonagon; while there he made a visit to Pontiac and died on board the vessel as he was returning to his northern home. Mr. Hanscom was a member of the convention of I850, which convention formed the present constitution of Michigan. "Samuel G. Watson was admitted to the practice of law before he took up his residence in Pontiac. He was prosecuting attorney for a time. While in Pontiac he formed a partnership with James B. Hunt. He was an educated and prominent lawyer. He afterward removed to Detroit, entered into practice there, and subsequently died. "Henry C. Knight was born in Washington county, Pennsylvania. After his admission to the bar he came to Pontiac and entered into partnership with Origen D. Richardson. He was a well educated man and well equipped in his profession. While in Pontiac he gave his whole attention to legal business, and he was a valuable accession to Mr. Richardson's office. Subsequently he removed to Detroit, where he continued his practice of law until his death. "James B. Hunt's father was a citizen of Westchester county, New York, and went to Demarara, South America to reside. During his residence there he was married, and James B. Hunt, his second child, was born in that place. When he was four years old his father returned with him to New York. Mr. Hunt attended the academy at Fairfield, Herkimer county, where he completed his classical studies and there he entered the office of Michael Hoffman to prepare himself for the practice of law. He was admitted as an attorney of the supreme court of New York, February 22, 1824, and as counselor in I837. He was prosecuting attorney for the county of Herkimer for two terms. In I835 he was inspector general with the rank of colonel in the New York militia. In the summer of 1835, on account of a lung difficulty, Mr. Hunt was ordered by his physician to go west, settle on a farm and work out of doors. He came to Michigan in that year and settled on the bank of Elizabeth lake, near Pontiac, Oakland county. In March, I837, Mr. Hunt was appointed one of the commissioners of internal improvement by Governor Mason. As such commissioner he had charge of the construction of the Michigan Central railroad from Detroit to Ann Arbor; the construction of that portion of the Clinton and Kalamazoo canal from Mt. Clemens to Rochester, and other works of internal improvement. After he was admitted to practice law in Oakland county he opened an office in Pontiac, and continued practice in that place until he was elected to con

Page  173 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 173 gress in 1842. He remained in congress for four years, and in January, 1848, he was appointed registrar of the land office at Sault Ste. Marie, which office he held until June, I849. After that he returned to Pontiac, holding the office of circuit court commissioner of Oakland county until he removed to Washington, D. C., where he died in August, I857. "Ransom R. Belding was born in Fabius, New York. He came to Michigan and taught district school for some time. His education was acquired principally from the common schools of Michigan and New York. In I836 he entered the office of O. D. Richardson, of Pontiac, as a student of law. After studying the required period of three years he was admitted to practice in 1839. He was a diligent student, and became well versed in his profession. For some time he was clerk of the circuit court. In the fall of I840 he was elected registrar of deeds for the county of Oakland, which office he held for four years. For a time, in 1841 and 1842, Mr. Belding edited the Pontiac Jacksonian, a democratic newspaper, published in Pontiac. He took a great interest in the cause of education and contributed many articles relative to the improvement of our schools. He had little or no taste for the practice of law, and devoted the most of his time to more congenial matters, notably politics. He died in 1846, in Birmingham, Oakland county. "iMVoses Wisner, in his day one of the most noted and promising lawyers of Oakland county, was born in Springport, Cayuga county, New York, June 3, 1815. His education was acquired in the common schools of the country, such as they were in his boyhood days. He was brought up a farmer. In I837 he left his native place, and migrated to Michigan. He soon purchased a piece of land in Lapeer county, and commenced clearing it for a home. The task was uncongenial, and he decided to abandon it and try his fortune in a different location. He came to Pontiac and entered his brother's office as a student of law. After his admission to the bar Mr. Wisner first removed to the village of Lapeer, and was appointed prosecuting attorney by Governor Woolbridge. He remained in Lapeer but a short time and then returned to Pontiac, entered the firm of Wisner and Hosmer, and engaged in the active practice of the law. He devoted himself assiduously to his profession. It was only a short time before he was recognized as one of the rising lawyers of the country. His partner, Hosmer, was naturally indolent; his brother George was deeply immersed in politics, and the real, hard labor of the office devolved upon Moses. The firm possessed, for that time, a fine library of books and to these Mr. Wisner gave much attention, preparing himself as much as his circumstances would admit for the trial of his cases. In his intercourse with his fellow lawyers he was fair and courteous, never treating them with coarse invective but as professional equals. He had great taste for farming and gardening, was an ardent lover of flowers, and during the latter years of his life he had a great profusion of them around his residence. On his homestead he planted a small forest of pine trees, which still remain after many long years, a monument of his arboreal tastes. Mr. Wisner during his professional career in Pontiac very regularly attended the terms of court in Genesee and Lapeer counties, and there was very rarely an important case in either of those counties in which he was not engaged. As an attorney he was popular and had a

Page  174 174 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY large clientage. He gave great care to the preparation of his cases for trial, and if his life had been spared, and he had continued in his profession, very few would have excelled him as a trial lawyer. After Mr. Wisner came to Michigan he connected himself with the Whig party; and upon the formation of the Republican party he joined that, and was quite ultra in his views relative to the questions advocated by his associates. In 1858 he was nominated for governor by the republican party, and was elected. He assumed the duties of his office, and performed them conscientiously and honorably, and, as was supposed, to the full satisfaction of the people. "John McKinney was elected state treasurer on the ticket with Mr. Wisner. At the time of his election there was not a doubt or suspicion of McKinney's honesty and integrity; every one had the greatest respect for him. The treasurer of Michigan has the control of the state's moneys, and the governor could not at that time remove him unless he was impeached; nor can the governor himself handle, touch, or control, of his volition, one cent of that money. During McKinney's administration rumors arose that matters were not all correct in his office. His friends could not believe that there was any dishonesty in his actions, and they attempted to combat the charges that were hinted against him. Mr. Wisner was among his friends, and believed him to be honest, and he said: 'McKinney is as honest a man as ever lived.? Time passed and McKinney proved to be a defaulter. The time for the nominating of I860 approached. The Democratic papers all over the state were rife in their charges relative to McKinney's defalcation; the Republicans could not in any way justify him. They saw and heard the statement Governor Wisner had made, that 'McKinney was as honest a man as ever lived,' and they were compelled to drop Governor Wisner. He had made as excellent an administration as any one of his party that preceded or succeeded him; but he was the victim of circumstances over which he had no control; he had to suffer for the acts of another. If there were blame, it must lie with the people who nominated and elected John McKinney; but no blame can be attached to them for they believed him at the time, just as Governor Wisner had said. After his retirement from the office, Mr. Wisner resumed the practice of his profession in Pontiac and continued until the summer of 1862. Then he conceived the necessity of raising troops for the Civil war. The regiment was raised in the counties of Oakland, Lapeer and Macomb, and he was commissioned its colonel, September 8, I862. The regiment was assembled at Pontiac, on the old fair ground in that city. It was composed of as fine a body of men as could be found in the respective counties, and Mr. Wisner was untiring in his efforts to educate them in their military duties and make soldiers of them. At the time he lived about half a mile from the camp, and the soldiers lived in their tents. Mr. Wisner to allay all feeling left home and took up his lodging in his tent with the soldiers. His regiment, the 22d, was sent to Kentucky near Lexington, where Mr. Wisner was taken sick and died January 5, I863. "The first circuit court held in Oakland county was begun on the I9th day of June, 1826, almost six years after the first opening of the Oakland county court. Hon. John Hunt, of Detroit, was the first presiding cir

Page  175 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 176 cuit judge; and that court lasted about four days. The next term of the court was the March term, 1828, and the Hon. Judge Chipman, of Detroit, circuit judge presided; that court lasted one day. The third term held began on Monday the 6th day of October, 1828; Hon. William Woolbridge, and Hon. Soloman Sibley, both of Detroit, circuit judges, jointly held that term of court which lasted two days. From that time, through Michigan's territorial existence, until I839, the circuit court was held from time to time by circuit judges residing outside of Oakland county. The first legislature that convened after Michigan became a state passed an act dividing it into four judicial circuits, Oakland county being included in the fourth. The office of circuit judge was not filled until I839; and there was considerable effort made among the various aspirants to obtain the position. The friends of Origen D. Richardson made much effort to have him obtain the office, but they were not successful. After quite a warm contest Governor Mason decided to appoint Hon. Charles W. Whipple, of Detroit. The friends of Mr. Richardson had urged that the nominee should be taken from the judicial district, and this feeling was quite general among the profession; but they yielded gracefully, and acorded Judge Whipple a kind reception. When he came here there had been a long vacation for the'want of a judge, resulting in a large docket; and Judge Whipple held his first term of court in this circuit, in the fall of I839. The circuit extended northerly to Mackinac county, and westerly to and including Ionia county. "I have thus briefly sketched a fragmentary history of all the attorneys practicing in Oakland county, prior to I840. Nearly all of them were more or less intimately associated with its early history; many of them with that of the state, having not only a local reputation, but a state reputation. "Almost from the first organization of the territorial council, Oakland county was represented in that legislative body. In the various conventions relative to constitutions, Oakland county held important positions, and had its share of influence. It is well, therefore, that the names of the attorneys of Oakland county in its infantile days should be preserved. This particularly also applies to the counties older than Oakland, Wayne, Monroe and Macomb. They have had their influential men, whose names will soon pass into oblivion unless some person, or persons, assumes the labor to preserve, even in the slightest degree, their memory. "To write such a history is no easy task. A lawyer moves into a town or city, and practices his profession there for several years; he is an able and influential man; he dies; and how long do you suppose it takes for his name to be utterly forgotten? No person thinks of inquiring into his family history, or his birthplace, or his early education; and for any one to assume the duty a half a century later, with little data to aid him, and with few individuals living to whom he can apply for information is, I can assure you, no easy undertaking. "I cannot close these remarks without adverting to a few attorneys who came into Oakland county, between I840 and I845. "Sanford M. Green was admitted to the bar, and practiced in Rochester, New York. He came to Michigan, and first located in Owosso. He was elected to the state senate in I842, and after the first

Page  176 176 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY session he removed to Pontiac, and entered into partnership with Governor Richardson. In 1844 an act was passed authorizing the revision of the statutes of Michigan, by a person to be appointed by the judges of the supreme court. Mr. Green, then a member of the senate, was selected by them to perform the duty. From the time of the adjournment of the legislature in 1844 Mr. Green labored assiduously in the performance of his task, re-writing the entire body of the laws of Michigan, and had his revision ready for submission to the legislature of I846. In 1845 he was again elected to the senate. His revision was duly reported to the legislature and after a thorough examination by the proper committees, and the house, it was passed by both houses, with only a few changes or amendments, and became the law of this state, known as Green's Revision, to take effect January I, I847. Since that time there has been no revision of the laws of Michigan; and that fact of itself, is the highest commendation that could be given to Mr. Green's labors. Soon after this Mr. Green was elected circuit judge of the Oakland district and held the office in the Oakland, Genesee and Bay county districts until very recent years. His long judicial life, exceeding that of any other person, I believe, in the state, has caused Judge Green to be more generally known than any member of the bar. Some years ago Judge Green prepared a practice for the circuit courts of this state, which has been in use for many years. As a legal worker he has been excelled by but few persons, and in his ripe old age, and after a long life of practical usefulness he passed away August 12, I90o, aged 94 years. "Hester L. Stevens was a practicing lawyer in Rochester, New York, for many years. In 1845 he changed his residence and located in Pontiac, opening an office there and commenced the practice of his profession. Mr. Stevens was a man of great erudition both in law and general literature. He was a thorough practitioner, and an eloquent man. Upon his coming to Pontiac he at once obtained an excellent practice. His suavity and courteous manners made him many warm friends. In I852 Mr. Stevens was elected to congress from the Oakland district. While he was in congress there was a Washington birthday celebration held at Mt. Vernon, and Mr. Stevens was selected as the orator for the occasion. At the end of his congressional term, Mr. Stevens decided to continue his legal practice in Washington, where he remained until his death in I864. "Another person who has held a most prominent part in the legal profession in Pontiac was Michael E. Crofoot. He was born March 14, 1822, in Montgomery county, New York. He was educated in the common schools, and at Temple Hill Academy, at Geneseo, New York. He began his study of law with Gen. H. L. Stevens, in Rochester, New York, in the spring of I843, and after Gen. Stevens moved to Pontiac in the spring of 1845, he advised Mr. Crofoot to come to Pontiac which he did in'the fall of 1845, and was admitted to the practice of law in the winter of 1846. In 1848 he was elected probate judge, and reelected in 1852, holding the office for eight years. In 1862 he was elected prosecuting attorney, and was re-elected in 1864, holding that office for four years. He took an active part in all educational matters; and in the building up,

Page  177 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 177 and improvement of the Oakland County Agricultural Society. He was active in having the Eastern Michigan Asylum for the Insane established at Pontiac, and was a member of the board of trustees for several years. As a trial lawyer, Mr. Crofoot was unexcelled. His practice was not only in the county of Oakland, but in the adjoining counties of Lapeer and Genesee. In his professional matters he was thorough, probing every question to the bottom. He was frank and generous, and in his personal friendships and attachments was warm and sincere. During the last years of his life he suffered most excruciatingly from rheumatic troubles which prostrated him, and rendered him incapable of transacting business. He finally succumbed to the disease, departing this life on the IIth day of May, 1884, mourned and lamented by hosts of loving and appreciative friends. "I have in the foregoing remarks attempted to give the names of all the attorneys resident in Oakland county prior to I840, and a brief synopsis of their professional career. In a paper of this nature more lengthy statement could not be expected. Some of them are entitled to a much fuller account than I have given, but it would require much more research than would be possible to embody in this paper. I have not indulged in a fulsome eulogy of any of them, but have given a plain recital of such facts as were necessary to place them fairly before their successors. "It is not claimed that they were men of superhuman powers, or of extraordinary mental faculties, but they were plain, sensible persons, devoted to their professions; men of intelligence, and some of them of more than ordinary ability. They came into a land sparsely populated, knowing that it had a destiny for great improvement; and they were willing to suffer all the privations of pioneer life, believing that there was a bright prospect in the future; hoping that that future would bear fruit which would fully compensate them for their privations and trials. They anticipated success, and many of them lived to see a full fruition of all their desires. "It was my fortune to come into this state, and the county of Oakland, on the 12th day of November, I837, where I have since resided. In the fall of 1839 I was connected with the county clerk's office, and on Judge Whipple's holding his first term in the fall of that year, I was clerk-of the court. Prior to that time I had an acquaintance with most of the lawyers in Pontiac, and at the first session of the court all the lawyers in the county were present. From that time onward I became more intimate with them, and after an acquaintance of a quarter of a century, I believe they were as able, as learned, and as sober a body of men as the most of the counties can present. They were an honor to the county and their profession, and I am thankful that I have been permitted to present their names to this society, and have them enrolled upon its records, where they will remain so long as the society exists. Their deeds are part of the history of the state, and when some future historian attempts to write a detailed history of Michigan, the acts of some of these men must therein have a permanent abiding place."

Page  178 178 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY CHIEF JUSTICE MOORE'S PICTURES Chief Justice Joseph B. Moore, a native of Commerce, where he was born November 3, 1845, was educated at Hillsdale College and in the law department of the State University, afterward became a leading lawyer of Lapeer (whither he moved in 1868), prosecuting attorney of the county and a prominent member of the state senate in 1879. He served as judge of the sixth judicial circuit for eight years and was elected justice of the state supreme court on the Republican ticket in the spring of I895. On June 8, 1904, he delivered an address before the joint meeting of the Michigan State Judges Association and the Michigan State Bar Association, and, as his narrative progresses, it is evident how well qualified he is to speak of the early-time judges and lawyers who have given fame and dignity to the bench and bar of Oakland county. "In reply to a query put by me to a prominent member of the Ingham county bar," says Judge Moore, "I was informed that in the trial of cases in justice's court the interest of the parties litigant are now attended to by men who have been regularly admitted to practice of the law. When my recollection of the trial of lawsuits first began the practice was very different. I then lived in southwestern Oakland county. The county was comparatively new. There was a disposition upon the part of the individual to assert his rights and to resent any interference therewith. Brawls and personal encounters were much more frequent than they are now and trials growing out of these occurrences, as well as civil cases before justices of the peace, were very frequent and attracted wide attention. The interest of the respective parties were usually attended to by bright, clever men who were not, however, regularly trained in the law and who had not been admitted to practice and were frequently called pettifoggers. I remember one of these men with feelings of gratitude and respect. He was by occupation a harness-maker who lived in the village of Walled Lake. He had a serious lung trouble and was advised by his physicians to relinquish his trade and get out into the air and sunlight, if he hoped to live. He was a bright, quick-witted man, with an excellent vocabulary, a musical voice and a clever way of putting things. He got together a few law books and devoted himself to them with assiduity. He bought himself a gun and a dog, tried what lawsuits he could get before the local magistrates in three or four townships and spent what time he could in the open air. He was afterward elected county clerk, was regularly admitted to the Oakland county bar and died after I became presiding judge of that circuit. He was a kind man, and while I was yet a boy at work in my father's saw-mill he suggested to me to become a lawyer and placed at my disposal his little library of law books. While working twelve hours a day, I read the two volumes of Blackstone loaned me by James D. Bateman, for that was his name. There was great rivalry in the trial of cases before justices of the peace between Mr. Bateman living at Walled Lake, Mark Arnold living at Farmington and Elias Woodman living in Novi. Mr. Woodman was a man of considerable property who has served in the legislature of the state and was a member of the convention which framed the constitution of 1850. His son Hamilton had an excellent record as a soldier in

Page  179 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 179 the War of the Rebellion, with the rank of captain. Mr. Woodman took a great deal of pride in referring to that fact and the fact that he was a soldier in the Mexican war; that his father was a soldier in the War of 1812 and that his grandfather was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. Mr. Bateman thought Mr. Woodman made an undue use of these facts in his arguments to juries and slightingly referred to the harness-maker, Mr. Bateman, who presumed to know something about the honorable profession of the law. "After reading Blackstone as stated, and attending Hillsdale College a few terms, and teaching school three winters, I became deputy county clerk of Lapeer county and, as such, attended the sessions of court, making up the court journals, reading law as I could and familiarizing myself with the pleadings which were filed and the court entries which were made. After a year or six months, as it then was in the law department of Michigan, I applied for admission to practice in the court over which Hon. Joseph Turner presided. Hon. William T. Mitchell of Port Huron, then in attendance upon court in Lapeer, was chairman of the committee who conducted the examinations and, much to my gratification, in October, I869, I was admitted to practice. When I contrast my preparation, or lack of preparation rather, for the practice of law, with the very rigid and searching examination to which the applicants are subjected by the State Board of Law Examiners, and the three years' course of nine months each now required by the law schools before a student can secure his diploma, I am reminded that an evolution has been going on in the law quite as marked as that in other callings. "At the time I applied for admission to the bar, Robert J. Taylor, a graduate of the literary department of the University of Michigan, was also admitted to practice. He was afterward elected prosecuting attorney and state senator, each of which offices he held for two terms, the duties of which he discharged with marked ability. He was a man of some means and preferred the peaceful avocation of growing fruits and the work of an apiarist to the contentions of the court-room, and for some years has not been in the active practice of his profession. "The practicing lawyers at that time in Lapeer county were Mr. Andrus, Egbert W. Cook; Hon. William Hemingway, who had been a member of the Michigan legislature; Hon. Silas B. Gaskill, who was later circuit judge; Hon. William W. Stickney, who succeeded Judge Gaskill upon the circuit bench; Phineas White, Hon. Jonathan R. White Harrison Geer, who was the junior member of the firm of Gaskill & Geer and whom you all know as the very successful and able trial lawyer now living in Detroit; Calvin Thomas; Stephen Thomas, the father of Calvin, now an honored professor in Columbia University; and John M. Wattles, who later established the bank still doing business as John M. Wattles & Company. These men have all gone into the life beyond, except Mr. Geer and Judge Stickney. Most of them were men of ability and character and did much to so shape events in that country as to make it one of the most intelligent and law-abiding in the state. "It is a singular and to me a gratifying circumstance that the chairman of the examining committee before whom Senator Taylor and myself appeared, the genial and learned Judge Mitchell of Port Huron, Vol. I-12

Page  180 180 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY though now upward of eighty years of age, is yet in the active practice of his profession, and within the present year argued a case before the court, over which I have the honor to preside, with a degree of learning and energy which would have done credit to a much younger man. It is also a source of pleasure to know that the presiding judge, Josiah Turner, is still living and within a comparatively short time read a very interesting paper before the annual meeting of the State Association of Judges. "The judges who have presided over the circuit court for the county of Lapeer within my recollection are Josiah Turner, James S. Dewey, Levi B. Taft, Augustus C. Baldwin, Silas B. Gaskill, William W. Stickney, Joseph B. Moore and George W. Smith. The list for the Oakland county circuit is the same as the above except that the name of Sanford M. Green should be substituted for Josiah Turner. All these gentlemen are dead except Josiah Turner, William W. Stickney, Joseph B. Moore and George W. Smith. "On Friday, May 20, 1904, the last session of the court was held in the Oakland county court house, previous to tearing it down to make way for a one hundred thousand dollar building which should be more in keeping with the growth and prosperity of that great county. As I had been presiding judge of that circuit for eight years, I was honored with an invitation to be present. The local paper reproduced the address which had been made by Hon. Michael E. Crofoot at the dedication of the building in March, 1858. In that address it was stated that while nearly all the county was yet a wilderness such was the regard of the people for law and order they deemed it necessary to provide a building in which the law might be administered, and as early as 1820 Chief Justice Thompson and associate Justices Bagley and Bronson met in a court house built of logs and where, because of the poverty of the people, those modern appendages, doors, floors and windows, were entirely lacking. "Judge Crofoot made a most masterly address, tracing the origin of our system of laws and insisting upon it that, in the adoption of the common law of Great Britain and in the organization of the government into three distinct departments, the executive, legislative and judicial, the fathers had formed a government which he described, namely pure democracy, where sovereign power was lodged in the aggregate assembly of all the free members of the community to be exercised in person; second, aristocracies, where it is lodged in an assembly of delegates, and lastly in monarchies. where it is lodged in the hands of one whose will is law, with power to decree, design and execute. Judge Crofoot insisted then, what is equally true now, that no profession demands higher integrity, honor and uprightness than the legal profession; that no position in society requires.higher moral and more thorough education, and no calling in life more honorable dealing. He insisted that the men of eminence in the legal profession are men of integrity who are not disposed to stir up law suits for trivial and imaginary wrongs, but men who are inclined to dissuade from unnecessary litigation and to take only meritorious causes. "As I listened to the able and scholarly address of Hon. Aaron Perry, prior to adjourning court for the last time in the old court room, a flood of recollection came to me. My mind ran back forty-seven years to the

Page  181 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 181 first time I ever saw the old building. In company with my father and mother who lived in the village of Commerce I, a mere boy, visited the then village, now the city of Pontiac. The workmen were employed in what seemed to me the hazardous occupation of putting in position the iron figures of four large American eagles with outspread wings, which were placed upon a tower arising from the center of the roof of the building. "It was stated by Mr. Perry that the active members of the Oakland county bar at the time of the dedication of the building were Thomas J. Drake; William Draper, Morgan L. Drake, Moses Wisner, Randolph Manning, Augustus C. Baldwin, Charles Draper, A. B. Cudworth, Loren L. Treat, Michael E. Crofoot, Jacob Van Valkenburg and Junius Ten Eyck. It was my good fortune to know all of them except William Draper and Randolph Manning, the last of whom was a justice of the supreme court. For all these men the door on noiseless hinges has swung wide and ushered them into what we call eternal life. "Among the greatest lawyers I have ever known were Moses Wisner, Augustus C. Baldwin and Michael E. Crofoot. Had the last named lived in the metropolis of the state, he could have divided the honor which was held for so many years by the able and learned George Van Ness Lothrop of being recognized as standing at the head of the legal profession of Michigan. Augustus C. Baldwin was a member of the legislature, a member of congress and circuit judge, and lived until a little more than a year ago. Moses Wisner, as you all know, was governor of the state and died while colonel of the Twenty-second Michigan Infantry. His handwriting was of such a character as to be almost indecipherable. Judge A. H. Wilkinson of Detroit, an Oakland county boy who was admitted to practice in Pontiac, related an occurence which happened in the old court room. Thomas J. Drake who usually wore a silk hat, was a spare, thin man, very careful of his personal appearance. Morgan L. Drake cared little for dress, and one day when Thomas J. Drake came into the court room to present a motion to the judge and placed his silk hat bottomside up on the table near Morgan L., he picked up an ink-stand and emptied its contents into the head covering. After completing his argument, Thomas J. Drake took up his hat and with a dignified air started to leave the room. Just before getting to the door he put his hat upon his head with the result you might expect and, while the ink was running over his face, he turned to the presiding judge and said 'I desire to solemnly protest against the effort of Moses Wisner to write his name in my hat.' "Upon the occasion of bidding farewell to the old court room it was recalled by Judge Jacokes that in the old room Horace Greeley had delivered an address, and the citizens had from that rostrum heard the political issues of the day discussed by such eminent men as Schuyler S. Colfax, Thomas M. Hendricks, John C. Breckenridge and Cassius M. Clay. "It was also recalled that when fighting Dick Richardson, a favorite not only of Oakland county-but of the commonwealth of Michigan, laid down his life that the nation might be saved, his body lay in state for three days in the old court room and was visited by thousands of people who had respected and loved him. It was also recalled that when the

Page  182 182 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY war was brought near to its close by the surrender of the Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, upon the evening of the day of the receipt of the news a light was placed behind each of the small panes of glass, and the building was brilliantly illuminated and congratulatory speeches were made to the many men and women present, some of whom had given their best beloved to their country, and all of whom rejoiced that the end of the war was in sight. It was stated by Judge Smith, the present presiding judge, that the last court business done in the building was to sign a decree of divorce, and it was estimated by the learned judge that twelve hundred couple had in that room received decrees that legally separated them; while a procession of two thousand, made up of boys, men and a few women, criminal, had stood at the bar of the court and received sentence, while many thousands of civil cases had been decided. A striking commentary upon the part occupied by the courts in the life of a community. "I cannot do better in closing this discursive paper than to quote from Mr. Perry's address: 'The sources of justice must be guarded and kept from pollution and the courts must be respected, dignified, honored and obeyed. When, if ever, our courts shall become corrupt, disrespected, dishonored and disobeyed, anarchy will have arrived and ruin will follow. It is a mere truism to say that the peaceful settlement of disputes is necessary to the perpetuity of any government. "'But important as it is that courts should be furnished and preserved for the peaceful settlement of disputes, that is not the only important function they perform. The imporance of the educational functions of the courts of justice in connection with our jury system cannot be overestimated or excessively magnified. This court and this court-house have constituted, for forty-six years, the greatest educational institution in the county of Oakland. During that time nearly five thousand jurymen and many spectators from all parts of the country have sat and listened day after day to the exposition of the law; the necessity of obeying it, and the inevitable penalties that must follow its breach. Not only that-they have listened day after day to the testimony of experts and other witnesses as to how things ought to be done. They have learned the wrong way and the right way. But still more important than all-those jurymen themselves have sat as judges between man and man and have learned to listen patiently to both sides, and not to decide or act until they have learned all the evidence on the question. They have been given judicial minds. That is the great safeguard to this community and this republic. Men so educated do not act hastily. They do not act first and then think afterwards. They have learned to marshal facts, weigh arguments, reason logically, forstall consequences and to respect and obey the law. Mob violence can not flourish in such a community. Maintain the purity of the judiciary, the present jury system, and the present efficiency of the public schools, and the republic is safe.'" AARON PERRY'S CONTRIBUTION On the ninth day of March, 1858, on the first day of a new term of court, the second court house was dedicated. A grand jury had on the

Page  183 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 183 previous day made its report, and the trial of the celebrated Tulley casewas about to commence. The court, however, paused long enough to dedicate what was then regarded as their magnificent new court house. The principal address on that occasion was made by that skilled examiner and eloquent advocate, Michael E. Crofoot, then at or near the zenith of his fame. Extracts from the speech delivered at that time have already been given. Perhaps I cannot do better than to quote from my address delivered as a farewell to the court house of I858, the words being spoken in 1904: "When we now contemplate this old building with its cracked walls and ceilings, its cramped and crowded offices and its dearth of modern conveniences, we can hardly realize the genuine pride and satisfaction with which the bar of this county then regarded this newly completed building. As we now look about us and are reminded of its numerous inconveniences and its general unfitness and inadequacy and observe its long, crooked stove pipes and ancient, dilapidated and uncouth condition, we realize the fitness of the appellation given it by Captain Howard, when he recently dubbed it the 'Lime Kiln Club.' This court room certainly does have a striking resemblance to the hall in which M. Quad's famous Lime Kiln Club held its nocturnal meetings. "Such thoughts, however, for those of us who have practiced here for over a quarter of a century, are quickly followed by memories that are akin to the pathetic. We are startled and rendered contemplative, when we recall that not a single lawyer who practiced at this bar when this building was first dedicated is now alive. Many months have passed since the last of them, our genial friend, Judge Ten Eyck, finally shut up his law books, closed his accounts and peacefully bid us an everlasting farewell. "There are memories and memories, and thoughts and thoughtssome of them 'that lie too deep for tears'-that linger around this old court room. We shall leave it with feelings that are akin to those that tinge with sadness the joy the head of a family feels when he leaves the old house for the new-the old house in which, in his more impressionable years, he has shared with his good wife, in the companionship of his family, so many joys and so many sorrows. "Old and out of date as this court house now is, it is a palace when compared with its predecessors. "The first settlement within the county of Oakland was made by James Graham in the present township of Avon in March, I817. The next settlements were made at this city, in the fall of I818 under the auspices of the Pontiac company, of which Stephen Mack was then the manager. "John Jones, a pioneer of Bloomfield, is claimed to have cleared the primeval forest from the site of the present court house. He is recorded as having done it at the moderate wages of fifty cents per day. "The predecessor of this court held its first term of court in this city in an old log building which stood near the present Rose House. in the year I820. Judge Crofoot said in his speech dedicating this building that that court house was without door, floor or chimney. "Soon thereafter, in 1823 or 1824, a new court house and jail com

Page  184 184 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY bined were built on the lot where the present jail now stands. The first story was constructed of squared logs or timbers, surmounted with a framed second story. The lower story was used as a jail and the upper story as a court room. The prison cells were made of six inch oak planks sawed by Almon Mack in his saw-mill at Rochester. The sheriff's home also adjoined the court room in the upper story of that building, and those upper rooms were not finally completed until about 1830, when the board of supervisors finally caused the court room to be graced with a modern 'up-to-date' finish of lath and plaster. "But even that palatial court house did not satisfy the progressive people of this county long. As early as 1835 the building was indicted by the grand jury, and the struggle for a new court house began. Efforts were made by the board of supervisors that year to get the legislative council of the territory to authorize a loan for that purpose. The authority for such loan was secured but the board of supervisors finally refused to negotiate the loan. The matter was before that board again in I837. The board voted to submit the matter to a vote of the people in the fall of 1838, but nothing finally resulted from that effort. In April, 1844, the electors of the county voted down a proposition to raise $8,000 for a new court house. The matter was frequently before the board of supervisors after that. In the spring of 1852 a proposition to raise the necessary funds for a new court house was again voted down by the electors of the county. In the spring of 1854 a similar proposition was again rejected by the people. But finally in'the spring of I856 the people by a vote of 2,277 to 744 authorized the building of the present court house During the year of I856 the contract for the erection of this building was let to D. J. Pratt for $I2,594. "In 1848 Solomon Close entered into a contract to erect a building for county officers for the sum of $937.50 and it was probably erected during that year. That was a long one story wooden building situated in front of where this building stands, with a roof sloping to the front, surmounted with a balustrade fifty-nine feet long on which were painted in large letters the words, 'Oakland County Offices.' That building was used for county offices until the present court house was completed. "In 1847-8 Solon B. Comstock built a new jail building for the county, for the sum of $5,539.5I. That structure was replaced by the present very creditable jail building, only a few years ago. In 1874 the fireproof vaults now in this court house, were constructed at an expense of about five thousand dollars. "The old court house was badly cared for. At the time this one was built the benches and tables were badly worn and had been carved in a disrespectful way by pioneer jack knives. The boys of the first generation in this county seem to have had much more license in the use of their 'Whittles,' as Burns calls them, than have the children of the present day. Judge Crofoot speaks in his dedication address of the old court house as then 'tottering on its foundation' and as having 'both graced and disgraced our county.' "On March 9, 1858, after the dedication ceremonies, a jury was impanelled for the trial of the three Tulley boys on the charge of having murdered their father; and the next eight days were devoted to the

Page  185 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 185 trial of that famous case. Thomas J. Drake, Michael E. Crofoot and Moses Wisner appeared for the defendants. Charles Draper, then prosecuting attorney, appeared for the people, and Sanford M. Green presided as judge. All were learned in the law and skilled in its practice. "At that time the following attorneys constituted the members of the Oakland county bar in active practice: Thomas J. Drake, William Draper, Morgan L. Drake, Moses Wisner, Randolph Manning, Augustus C. Baldwin, Charles Draper, A. B. Cudworth, Loren L. Treat, Michael E. Crofoot, Jacob Van Valkinburg and Junius Ten Eyck. Not one of them is now living. "The judges who have presided over this court in this building are the following: Sanford M. Green, Joseph F. Copeland, James S. Dewey, Levi B. Taft, Augustus C. Baldwin, Silas B. Gaskill, William W. Stickney, Joseph B. Moore and George W. Smith. "All have been able judges and an honor to tie bench. Three of them, Hon. W. W. Stickney, Hon. Joseph B. Moore and Hon. George W. Smith still survive. And we are grateful to Providence for having spared their lives and preserved their health. And we appreciate the compliment of their having honored us with their presence on this occasion and joined us in bidding farewell to this old building, filled with recollections and associations dear to them as well as to ourselves. "The tower, or cupola of this building, call it what you may, was formerly ornamented with the iron figures of four large American eagles with spreading wings. And more or less of the spread eagle style has manifested itself in the building ever since. "During the last forty-six years this room has on many occasions resounded to the melodious cadences and fiery appeals of eloquent advocates, as well as to some speeches that have been dull and commonplaceto speeches that have fired the jurors with indignation or suffused their eyes with tears, and to some that have lulled their wearied minds to involuntary slumber. "Once an old lawyer was giving advice to his son who was just entering upon the practice of the father's profession. 'My son,' said the counselor, 'if you have a case where the law is clearly on your side, but justice seems to be clearly against you, urge upon the jury the vast importance of sustaining the law. If, on the other hand, you are in doubt about the law, but your client's case is founded on justice, insist on the necessity of doing justice, though the heavens fall.' 'But,' answered the son, 'how shall I manage a case where both law and justice are dead against me?' 'In that case,' replied the old man, 'talk round it!' "I fear there has been some talking round the subject in this court room. This room has heard many Irish bulls, much keen satire, sparkling wit, quick retorts and ready repartee. But I am pleased that I can affirm that exhibitions of uncontrolled temper, heartless abuse, pettyfogging tactics and sharp practices have been extremely rare. "Business in this court has vastly increased since 1848, both in the number and in the importance of the cases adjudicated. I also believe that there has been a corresponding increase in the gravity and responsibility felt by the attorneys practicing here. "In 1848 the cases in this court rarely involved more than a few hun

Page  186 186 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY dred dollars, while now they frequently involve many thousands. Then there was but one railroad in the county. Estates were small and great enterprises, carried on by corporations or large aggregations of capital, were unknown, will contests and deed contests were rare, or involved only small amounts, and accident or negligence cases, which now form a large proportion of our litigation were almost unknown. "To successfully practice law now requires much more general knowledge and a much wider examination of authorities than in those earlier days. Human affairs have become much more intricate and complicated. The increase in the number and size of incorporated cities and villages, the multiplication of machinery, the multifarious applications of steam and electricity, the increase in wealth and production, and the energy and strenuousness of the present age-all have rendered the practice of law much more onerous and much more difficult. New points and new questions are arising more rapidly than they are being settled. Our supreme court dockets, as well as our circuit court dockets, are crowded and the multiplication of the decisions of the courts of last resort is almost appalling. "When I began the practice of law in 1876 the 33d Michigan report was just out, while now we have I30 of them on our shelves and many more of them in the form of temporary pamphlet publications. "The pace at which we must now do business is set by the stenographer, the typewriter, the telephone and the telegraph. It is little wonder that the courts now seek quickly to reach the merits of controversies, and do not listen patiently to technical objections, or permit attorneys, as in former years, to wrangle over the fine points and abstruse subtleties of common law pleadings. "So much strenuousness, however, is extremely wearisome and wearing, and we sometimes feel as though we were being carried for\ ard by a whirlwind; and, as the hart panteth after the waterbrooks we sometimes long for the old days of indolence and leisure-when the lawyer was permitted to whittle the court room tables, when the court would adjourn business to go fishing, and when, after the regular day's work in court, all hands-court, lawyers, and jurymen-would adjourn to the village tavern, to play cards or sit with their feet on the table and smoke clay or corncob pipes and talk politics and spin yarns until bedtime. "Like quill pens, windlass pumps, oxcarts and corduroy roads, this courthouse has 'seen its day.' It has served its purpose, but now must go. We do not like to see it torn down, but it is in the way, and like other slow and antiquated things, it must not obstruct the road of modern proggress. "Like public libraries, school houses and churches, temples of justice should be among the finest buildings in any community. The sources of justice must be guarded and kept from pollution and the courts must be respected, dignified, honored and obeyed. When, if ever, our courts shall become corrupt, disrespected, dishonored and disobeyed, anarchy will have arrived and ruin will follow. It is a mere truism to say that the peaceful settlement of disputes is necessary to the perpetuity of any government. "But important as it is that courts should be furnished and preserved

Page  187 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 187 for the peaceful settlement of disputes, that is not the only important function they perform. The imporance of the educational function of courts of justice, in connection with our jury system, cannot be overestimated or excessively magnified. This court and this courthouse have constituted, for forty-six years, the greatest educational institution in the county of Oakland. During that time nearly five thousand jurymen and many more spectators from all parts of this county have sat and listened day after day to the exposition of the law, the necessity of obeying it, and the inevitable penalties that must follow its breach. Not only that, but they have listened day after day to the testimony of experts and other witnesses as to how things ought to be done, and how they ought not to be done. They have learned the wrong way and the right way. But still more important than all that-those jurymen, themselves, have sat as judges between man and man, and have learned to listen patiently to both sides, and not to decide or act until they have heard all the evidence on the question. They have been given judicial minds. That is the great safeguard to this community and to this republic. Men so educated do not act hastily. They do not act first and then think afterwards. They have learned to marshal facts, weigh arguments, reason logically, foretell consequences and to respect and obey the courts and the law. Mob violence cannot flourish in such a community. Maintain the purity of your judiciary, your present jury system and the present efficiency of your public schools and the republic is safe. "Let us then not hesitate to bid farewell to this good old building, because we must; and let every vestige of it be removed, in order to make room for a still nobler and better one. But let us do it respectfully and reverently, feeling, as brick by brick shall be removed, that it has nobly fulfilled its purpose and that to tear down and destroy it, surrounded as it is with so many precious memories and associations, even for the purpose of making room for a better one, is a grave matter and one not lightly to be regarded."

Page  188 CHAPTER XII CIVIL AFFAIRS OF THE COUNTY FIRST OFFICIAL ACT-COUNTY SEAT FIXED-ORIGINAL Two TOWNSHIPS-PRESENT BOUNDARIES ESTABLISHED-OAKLAND COUNTY UNDER THE TERRITORY-TERRITORIAL LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL-LEGISLATION AFFECTING TOWN AND COUNTY-TOWNSHIP GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHED-FIRST SUPERVISORS' MEETING-SOME EARLY ASSESSMENTS-CIRCLE OF TOWNSHIPS COMPLETED-ROSTER OF COUNTY OFFICIALS-ASSESSMENTS AND TAXES-POPULATION FOR NINETY YEARS-INCORPORATED CITIES AND VILLAGES-THE COUNTY COURT HOUSES-COST OF COUNTY BUILDING-PRESENT COURT HOUSE-THE OAKLAND COUNTY HOME —COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF THE POOR. Although Lewis Cass, governor of the territory of Michigan, proclaimed the boundaries of the new county of Oakland on the I2th of January, I819, that section of southern Michigan cannot be said to have attained a real civil and political existence until its organization into townships and the inauguration of its board of supervisors, in 1827. The judiciary came into being before the civil machinery, and for that reason its development precedes the latter in the narrative which traces the historic growth of Oakland county. Up to that year the Indian treaties, territorial official acts and judicial proceedings are really applicable to unorganized communities so far as the control of civil authorities is concerned, and are chiefly of interest from the standpoint of the historian and the scholar. Hon. T. J. Drake has so well condensed these preliminary matters that we have mainly relied upon him for the statements which follow. On the 2d day of December, 1795, General Anthony Wayne, on behalf of the United States, formed a treaty with the sachems, warriors and chiefs of the Wyandotte, Delaware, Shawanee, Ottawa, Chippeway, Pottawatamie, Miami, Eel-River, Weas, Kickapoo, Prinkashaw and Kaskaskia tribes of Indians. By that treaty, generally known as the "treaty of Greenville," the United States had conceded to them the post at Detroit, and a strip of land included between the river Rosine (now known as the Raisin) on the south and lake St. Clair on the north, and a line, the general course of which was to be six miles from the west end of Lake Erie and the Detroit river. On the I7th of- November, I807, Gen. William Hull, then governor of the territory of Michigan, on the part of the United States held a treaty 188

Page  189 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 189 at Detroit with the sachems, chiefs and warriors of the Ottawa, Chippeway, Wyandotte and Pottawatamie nations of Indians, at which treaty there was ceded to the United States all the land included in the following boundaries, beginning at the mouth of the Miami River of the Lakes (now known as the Maumee River), thence up the middle thereof to the mouth of the Great Au Glaize river, thence due north until it intersects a parallel of latitude, to be drawn from the outlet of Lake Huron, which forms the St. Clair river, thence running northeast the course that may be found, will lead in a direct line to White Rock, in Lake Huron, thence due east until it intersects the boundary line between the United States and Upper Canada, thence southerly following said line down said lake, through River St. Clair, Lake St. Clair and the River Detroit, to a point due east of the mouth of the aforesaid Miami river, thence west to the place of beginning. It is presumed by this treaty that the land now included in the county of Oakland was ceded to the United States. FIRST OFFICIAL ACT The first official act relating to the county of Oakland, of which any record can be found, is an executive proclamation by Hon. Lewis Cass, then governor of the territory of Michigan, bears date the I2th day of January, I819, and reads as follows: "Whereas, a petition has been presented to me signed by a number of the citizens of the said Territory, requesting that the boundaries of a new county and the seat of Justice thereof may be established by an Act of the Executive, which shall not take effect until the arrival of a period when its population require such measure. "Now, therefore, believing that a compliance with the request will have a tendency to increase the population of such parts of the territory as may be included within these boundaries, and prevent those difficulties which sometimes arise from the establishment of counties where the settlements are formed, and conflicting opinions and interests are to be reconciled. "I do, by virtue of these presents, and in conformity with the provision of the Ordinance of Congress, of July I3th, 1787, lay out that part of the said territory included within the said boundaries, viz: beginning at the southeast corner of township one, north range eleven east north of the Base Line, thence north to the southeast corner of township six in said range, thence west to the Indian boundary line, thence south to the Base Line, thence east to the beginning, into a new county to be called the county of Oakland. And I hereby appoint John L. Leib, Chas. Larned, Phillip La Cuer, John Whipple and Thomas Rowland, Esquires, Commissioners, for the purpose of examining the said County and of reporting to me the most eligible site for the seat of Justice, of said county: To take effect from and after the 3Ist of December, 1822." On the 5th day of November, I818, the "Pontiac Company" was organized for the purpose of purchasing lands upon the Huron river (then so called) of St. Clair, and laying out thereon a town. The company consisted of William Woodbridge, Stephen Mack,

Page  190 190 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Solomon Sibley, John L. Whiting, Austin E. Wing, David C. McKinstry, Benjamin Stead, Henry I. Hunt, Abraham Edwards, Alex. Macomb, Archibald Darraugh, and A. G. Whitney of Detroit, and William Thompson, Daniel LeRoy and James Fulton, of Macomb. COUNTY SEAT FIXED On the I2th of February, 18I9, a letter was addressed to the commissioners appointed to examine the county and report the most eligible place for the seat of justice, making overtures on the part of the company, to give to the county certain lots of land and some money, if the seat of justice should be established at Pontiac. On the 15th of December, I819, a road was laid out and established from the city of Detroit to the village of Pontiac. On the 28th day of March, I820, the governor, Lewis Cass, by proclamation limited and determined the proclamation of the I2th of January, I819, and declared the inhabitants of the county of Oakland, entitled to all the privileges to which the inhabitants of other counties were entitled; and by the same proclamation, the seat of justice was established at Pontiac. ORIGINAL TWO TOWNSHIPS On the 28th of June, I820, the governor by proclamation, divided the county of Oakland into two townships called Oakland and Bloomfield. On the 17th of July, I820, a county court assembled at Pontiac. William Thompson, Esq., had been appointed chief justice, and Daniel Bronson and Amasa Bagley, associate justices. William Morris had been appointed sheriff of the county, and Sidney Dole clerk. On that day, a grand jury was organized, consisting of Elijah Willett, Ziba Swan, John Hamilton, Elisha Hunter, William Thurber, Ezra Baldwin, Asa Castle, Elijah S. Fish, Alpheus Williams, Oliver Williams, Alex. Galloway, H. O. Bronson, Nathan I. Fowler, Josiah Goddard, James Graham, Enoch Hotchkiss, and Calvin Hotchkiss. Spencer Coleman and Daniel LeRoy were admitted to practice, as attorneys. Of the men who participated in the proceedings of that day, but few remain. At an early day, commissioners were appointed by the governor. Ziba Swan, Enoch Hotchkiss and Jonathan Perrin were appointed and remained in that office until the 31st day of December, 1825, at which time the term of office of the justice of the county court, judge of probate, county clerk, county registers, treasurers, sheriffs, justices of the peace and clerk of the supreme court were made to expire by an act of the legislative council approved March 30, 1825. PRESENT BOUNDARIES ESTABLISHED On the 20th day of September, 1822, a proclamation was issued by the governor, altering and defining the boundaries of counties and establishing new ones. By that proclamation the boundaries of Oakland were established as they are now.

Page  191 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 191 William Thompson was appointed judge of probate; and the first probate court was held at the house of David Stannard, in Bloomfield, on the I5th day of June, 1822. Application was made for letters of administration upon the estate of Eliphalet Harding. OAKLAND COUNTY UNDER THE TERRITORY During the time we were under a territorial government the office of judge of probate was successively held by William Thompson, Nathaniel Millard, Smith Weeks, Gideon O. Whittemore, William F. Moseley, Ogden Clark and Stephen Reeves. Sidney Dole was the first county clerk, first register of probate and clerk of the Board of County Commissioners, and one of the first justices of the peace. The first case which was brought before him as a justice of the peace, and it is presumed to be the first brought before any justice of the peace in the county, was that of Thomas Knapp against Ezra Baldwin. The summons was issued on the I5th of June, and the judgment rendered on the 2Ist day of August, I820. Mr. Dole was a cautious man: He usually carried the papers of each case in his hat from the commencement to the termination, and after hearing the evidence, seldom rendered judgment until he had consulted the authorities in Detroit. Few men enjoyed a higher degree of public favor than did he. In connection with Mr. Moseley, Mr. Dole represented the county of Oakland in the second legislative council. He died at his residence in this village on Sunday morning the 2oth of July, 1828. "In the beginning of our territorial existence and up to the 7th of June, 1824," says Judge Drake, "whatever of legislation we had, was by the governor and judge, or by the governor in the form of a proclamation. By the acts-of congress, the governor and judges had power to adopt such laws or parts of laws from the states of the Union as they might deem applicable to the territory. But they had no power to originate any law, and at this day it is difficult to find any warrant for many things which the governor and judges did, in the way of law-making; and the executive proclamations organizing counties, and again altering their boundaries and establishing seats of justice, though they tended to the public good, were wholly without authority. TERRITORIAL LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL "On the 7th of June, 1824, a legislative council convened at Detroit, consisting of nine members. The mode by which they were selected, may not be known to you all. An act of congress authorized an election to be held in the territory for members of the council. The people voted for whom they pleased, and the result at the various polls was certified to the secretary of the territory: A board of canvassers then'ascertained the number of votes given for each person. The names of eighteen persons having the highest number of votes were certified to the president, and from that list he selected nine persons and nominated them to the senate. After their confirmation they were commissioner members of the legislative council, and held their office for two years. The sessions of the council were limited to sixty days in each year."

Page  192 192 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Before the election of members of the second council arrived, the law of congress was amended, the territory was divided into districts, the number was increased from eighteen to twenty-six, and the president nominated thirteen persons. Again, before the election of members of the third council, the law of congress was amended. The people in the several districts elected the number of members apportioned to the district, and the result certified by the district canvassers, entitled the member to his seat. Therefore the president was relieved from the burthen of selecting and commissioning the members, and the election given directly to the people, which mode continued until the establishment of the state government. In the first council, two of its members, Col. Stephen Mack and the Hon. Roger Sprague, were citizens of the county of Oakland. At the election of the members of the second council, the county formed a district and Sidney Dole and William F. Moseley, were selected by the president, they having received the greatest number of votes, to represent this county. LEGISLATION AFFECTING TOWNSHIP AND COUNTY On the 2ist of April, 1825, an act was passed by the legislative council, authorizing the election of county commissioner, county treasurer, constable and coroner. At the first election under this act, William Thompson was elected treasurer; Stephen Reeves, William Burbank and Arthur Power were elected county commissioners. In that year an assessment was made by William Morris, sheriff and S. V. R. Trowbridge, from which it appears there were at that time 78,900 acres of land taxable within the jurisdiction of the county, more than 2,500 acres lay out of the limits of the county. In the villages of Auburn and Pontiac there were 46 lots taxed to individuals. To the Pontiac Company there were taxed I86 lots valued at $II,ooo. There were in the county 282 houses, 47 barns, 2,621 acres of improved lands. Major Oliver Williams, Col. Stephen Mack and John Sheldon, had each sixty acres; no other person exceeded fifty. On the 3oth of March, 1827, an act was passed, authorizing the election of supervisors and other town officers. On the I2th of April, 1827, an act was passed establishing the towns of Oakland, Troy, Bloomfield, Farmington and Pontiac. TOWNSHIP GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHED On the last Monday in May, 1827, elections were held in the several townships, and town officers elected. Then a new era was inaugurated -township governments were established: the board of county commissioners was abolished, and that of supervisors was established, and from that time the finances of the county came under the immediate control of officers selected and chosen from the several towns. As stated, on the 3oth of March, 1827, an act of the territorial council provided for the election in each township of a supervisor and other township officers; and on the same day another act of the council was

Page  193 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 193 approved providing for the meeting of the supervisors of the several townships at the county seat annually, on the third Mondays of January, April, July and October, and at such other times as they should find convenient, but not exceeding eight days in any one year. They were empowered to appoint their own clerk, and on the I2th of April following they formally abolished the board of county commissioners and vested the power thereof in the board of supervisors. FIRST SUPERVISORS' MEETING The first meeting of the board of supervisors of Oakland county was held at the old log court house, at Pontiac, which had been erected in 1824, on the third Monday and Tuesday in July, 1827. The following were present: Roger Sprague, Oakland township; S. V. R. Trowbridge, Troy; Lemuel Castle, Bloomfield; Amos Mead, Farmington, and Jacob N. Voorheis, Pontiac. Mr. Sprague was chosen chairman and Joseph Morrison, clerk. COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND SUPERVISORS Under the territorial law three commissioners were appointed by the governor to transact the necessary county business, which law continued in force until 1825, when the office became elective and was thus until 1827, when, as stated, it was abolished by the board of township supervisors established in its place. In 1839 the board of supervisors for the county was abolished, the supervisors continued as township officers, and a board of county commissioners again established, which was in force until 1842, when it was again displaced by a board of supervisors. SOME EARLY ASSESSMENTS At the October meeting, held on the I5th of the month, a per diem of one dollar was fixed as the full compensation for the services of all township officers not otherwise provided for. The amount raised for county purposes was $I,940.69, the total assessment therefore being $388,138, by townships as follows: Pontiac, $I23,328; Bloomfield, $72,254; Troy, $68,680; Oakland, $77,466; Farmington, $47,40o. The taxes were all collected with the exception of $211.89 on non-resident lands and $6 delinquent personal tax-a pretty good record, and one which would hardly be made (that is, taxes collected in proportion to the assessments) in these days. The assessments and taxes (the latter divided into county and town) for 1828 were as follows: Town Assessment Tax Pontiac.......$................$Io6,377 $ 447.24 Bloomfield.......... 59,368 299.84 Troy............................ 63,190 223.04 Oakland......................... 66,074 293.07 Farmington...... 44,000 168.53 Total........................$339,009 $1,431.72

Page  194 194 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY The property assessed in 1828 consisted of horses and cattle of one year old and upward, wagons, carts, clocks and watches, all assessed at their actual value. Notes, bonds, money and stock in trade were all assessed similarly and indebtedness was deducted therefrom. At the March session, 1830, the following, called by the officials "a moderate cash valuation," was fixed by the board as the rates of assessment for that year: Stallions kept for stock purposes, $I50; other horses (first, second and third rate), $75, $40 and $20 respectively; oxen for the same rates, $50, $40 and $30 per yoke; cows, same grades, $I6, $I2 and $8; hogs, over one year old, $1.50; sheep not valued. In March, 1831, the job of completing the courthouse was let to John W. Hunter and G. O. Whittemore; and at the same meeting in 1833 the balance was paid to the contractors and the work accepted. At the October session of 1831, Southfield township was first represented on the board, Henry S. Babcock being the supervisor. At the March meeting, 1832, Gardner D. Williams, supervisor of Sagana township (Saginaw county) appeared, and at the October session of 1833 the following newly organized townships were represented by their first supervisors: Royal Oak, Major Curtis; Novi, Samuel Hungerford; Grand Blanc (Genesee county), Norman Davison. The townships of 1833 showed up thus financially: Novi was assessed at $85,94I, and yielded $526.22 in taxes; Royal Oak, $28,966 and $I91.55 respectively, and Grand Blanc, $22,906 and $229.06. Four new townships were represented in October, I834-Commerce, by Harvey Dodge; West Bloomfield, by Terrel Benjamin; Lyon, by William Dutcher; and Mia (Lapeer county), by Oliver Bristol. At this meeting, also, the bounty of five dollars for wolf scalps was repealed, and one of three dollars, in conjunction with the state bounty of ten dollars, offered. During the preceding seven years (since 1827) about three hundred and seventy wolves had been killed in Oakland county. The three Oakland county townships were assessed and taxed as follows: West Bloomfield, $40,971 and $226.44; Lyon, $34,364 and $247.I I; Commerce, $16,436 and $90.49. The six new townships of 1835 yielded the following, as to assessment of property and taxes: Avon, $89,209 and $516.87; Waterford, $36,058 and $184.53; Highland, $23,238 and $149.99; Milford, $22,034 and $I57.37; Orion, $21,530 and $125.91; Groveland, $10,089 and $63.05. In October, 1835, the new township of Waterford sent Isaac I. Voorheis as a member of the board of supervisors (he had represented Pontiac on the preceding board);,Milford, Abel Peck; Highland, R. Tenny; Avon, William Price; Groveland, Nathan Herrick; and Orion, Jesse Decker. In the following year only one township was created-White Lake, with Alexander Galloway as supervisor. The six new towns which were created in 1836 bore the following proportion of assessment and taxes: Addison, $59,063 and $354.55; Brandon, $43,666 and $230.68; Oxford, $62,509 and $354.55; Independence, $73,1I8 and $379.I6; Rose, $63,727 and $385.51; Springfield, $73,437 and $432.27. In 1837 Addison township elected Lyman Boughton as its first supervisor; Brandon, G. P. Thurston; Independence, J. Clark, and Rose town

Page  195 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 195 ship, J., A. Wandle. Oxford and Springfield paid taxes that year, but were not represented at the October meeting of the board of supervisors. CIRCLE OF TOWNSHIPS COMPLETED At the October meeting of 1838, Holly came into and completed the circle of townships, with J. T. Allen as her first supervisor. Her property was assessed at $66,634; taxes, $406.56. But the legislature of the state did not seem to take kindly to the system of township and county government and in the year named changed it from a board of supervisors to a body of county commissioners. On the 7th of January, 1839, Isaac I. Voorheis, George Brownell and William M. Axford were sworn in as the first three commissioners, with Mr. Voorheis as chairman. At this meeting they elected the first county superintendents of the poorWilliam Price, Harvey Seeley and Friend Belding-and abolished the distinction between county and township poor. The dates of the organization of the various townships of the county are given in the state census report of 1874 as follows: Addison...................I837 Avon..................... 835 Bloomfield................I 827 Brandon.................. 837 Commerce................. 834 Farmington............... I827 Groveland................. 835 Highland.................. 835 H olly..................... 838 Independence............. 836 Lyon..................... 834 M ilford................... 834 N ovi...................... 832 Oakland................... 827 Orion....................835 Oxford................... 1837 Pontiac................... 827 Rose.....................837 Royal Oak................ 832 Southfield................. 830 Springfield................ 836 Troy...................... 827 W aterford................ 834 West Bloomfield........... 833 White Lake...............836 *ROSTER OF COUNTY OFFICIALS From this time on, the civil government of Oakland county developed along the usual lines, and is largely a matter of dry records which are open to every citizen. The roster of county officials is given, as follows: County clerks-Sidney Dole, 1820 to January I, 1827; Elias Comstock, 1827 to January I, 1837; Horatio N. Howard, 1835 to January I, 1837; Charles Draper, 1837 to January I, 1839; Pierce Patrick, 1839 to January I, 1843; Joseph R. Bowman, 1843 to January I, 1849; John T. Raynor, 1849 to January I, 1853; Alfred Treadway, 1853 to January I, 1855; Edward W. Peck, 1855 to January I, 1859; Charles V. Babcock, 1859 to January I, 1861; Zepheniah B. Knight, I86I to January I, I863; Phillip M. Parker, 1863 to January I, i865; James D. Bateman, i865 to January I, 1867; John Fitzpatrick, 1873 to January I, 1875; Theodorus W. Lockwood, 1875 to January I, 1877; Daniel L. Davis, 1877 to January I, i88i; Mark Walter, I88I to January I, 1883; Charles M. Fay, * For prosecuting attorneys see Chapter IX. Vol. I-1 3

Page  196 196 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 1883 to January I, 1887; Charles P. Grow, 1887 to January I, 1891; Frederick Wieland, 1891 to January i, 1895; Frederick Harris, 1895 to January I, 1899; George A. Brown, 1899 to January 24, I9Io (resigned); Floyd B. Backcock, I9I0 to date. Registers of deeds-Sidney Dole, 1820 to January I, 1827; Thomas J. Drake, I827 to January I, 1831; Walter Sprague, 1831 to january I, 1835; Francis Darrow, I835 to January I, I837; Morgan L. Drake, 1837 to January i, I839; Ransom R. Belding, 1830 to January I, 1843; Thomas J. Hunt, 1843 to January i, 1847; E. H. Budington, 1847 to January I, 1851; Theron A. Flower, I851 to January I, 1853; Robert W. Davis, I853 to January I, I857; Joel P. Toms, I857 to January I, I859; Charles A. Howard, I859 to January I, I86I; Daniel A. Button, I86I to January i, I869; Robert W. Davis, I869 to January I, I871; Thaddeus A. Smith, 1875 to January I, I877; James H. Harger, I877 to January I, I88I; Ludovic R. Cole, I88I to January I, I885; Daniel Morrison, I885 to January I, I889; Melvin D. Sly, I889 to January I, I89I; Gleason F. Perry, 1891 to January I, 1895; William T. Mathews, I895 to January I, 1899; Albert G. Griggs, I899 to January I, 1903; George F. Brondige, 1903 to January I, 1906; Charles H. Glaspie, 90o6 to January I, I909; Harry S. Gardner, 1909 to date. County treasurers-William Thompson, 1825 to January I, I829; Samuel Saterlee, I829 to January I, 1835; James A. Weeks, 1835 to January I, 1837; John P. LeRoy, 1837 to January I, 1839; Horace C. Thurber, 1839 to January I, 1843; Bernard C. Whittemore, 1843 to January I, 1845; William C. Henderson, I845 to January I, 1849; Jacob Hendrickson, 1849 to January I, 185I; Samuel E. Beach, I851 to January I, 1857; Harry C. Andrews, 1857 to January I, I86I; Erasmus E. Sherwood, I86I to January I, 1863; Robert Yerkes, 1863 to January i, i865; Charles C. Waldo, I865 to January i, I867; Lysander Woodward, 1867 to January i, 187I; Hiram Voorheis, 187I to January i, 1873; Albert B. Simpson, 1873 to January i, I877; Alanson Partridge, 1877 to January i, i881; Erasmus E. Sherwood, i88I to January I, 1885; John Allen Bigelow, I885 to January i, I889; George Killam, I889 to January I, 1893; James S. Gray, 1893 to January I, 1895; H. Frank Stone, 1895 to January I, 1899; James L. Hogle, 1899 to January I, 1903; Judson L. Sibley, 90o3 to January i, 1907; John Power, 1907 to January I, 910o; George B. Richardson, I910 to date. Sheriffs-William Morris, I820 to January i, 1828; Schuyler Hodges, 1828 to January I, 1829; Hervey Parke,.829 to January i, 1832; Orisen Allen, 1832 to January i, I837; Caleb Buckman, 1837 to January i, 1841; Warren Hunt, 184I to January I, 1845; Edward Martin, I845 to January I, I849; Moses G. Spear, I849 to January I, 1853; Arthur Davis, 1853 to January i, 1857; Clark Beardsley, 1857 to January i, I86I; Austin N. Kimmis, I86I to January i, I865; Samuel E. Beach, 1865 to January I, 1869; William Satterlee, 1869 to January i, 1871; Edwin S. Harger, 1871 to January i, 1873; Ahizah J. Wixom, 1873 to January I, 1875; Edwin S. Harger, I875 to January i, I877; Lovett W. Stanton, 1877 to January i, I88I; Hiram L. Lewis, i88I to January i, 1885; Christopher S. Voorheis, i885 to January i, 1887; Salmon S. Matthews, 1887 to January i, 1889; Martin W. Bloomburg, I889 to January I, 1893; Hiram Killum,

Page  197 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 197 1893 to January I, I895; John K. Judd, 1895 to January I, 1899; Richard D. Belt, 1899 to January I, 1901; William A. Brewster, 1901 to January I, 1905; George Greer, 1905 to January I, I909; Chauncey A. Harris, I909 to January I, I9II; Arthur J. Tripp, present incumbent (I912.) Coroners-This office was filled by appointment until October, 1825, when it became elective. The records show the following incumbents: S. V. R. Trowbridge and Joseph Morrison, 1829; S. V. R. Trowbridge, 1832; Pierre Patrick, 1835; Leonard Weed and Orange Foote, I836; William Terry and Nathan Herrick, 1838; Nathaniel A. Baldwin and Benjamin Marcer, I840; Daniel V. Bissell and John Vincent, 1842; Jonathan T. Allen, 1844; Jonathan T. Allen and Jacob Loop, I846; Bela Coggeshall and William R. Marsh, 1848; Elias S. Woodman and Bela Coggeshall, I850; Archibald Waterbury and Everett Wendell, 1852; Ziba Swan and Harrison Smith, I854; Charles V. Babcock and Benjamin V. Redfield, I856; Francis B. Owen and Hosea B. Richardson, 1858; Hosea B. Richardson and Zuriel Curtis, I86o; Stephen Reeves and Corydon E. Fay, 1862; Orrin E. Bell and Abram Miller, I864; Archibald H. Green and Orange Culver, I866; Curtis Babcock and John Campbell, i868; David A. Wright and Carlo Glazier, 1870; Ira Goodrich and John Highfield, 1872; George P. Hungerford and George E. Proper, 1874; George P. Hungerford and David A. Wright, 1876; John Lacy and Alexander I. Culver, 1878; George D. Cowdin and John Highfield, I880; George Niles and Carnot N. Northrop, 1882; Andrew J. Culver and Allen P. Wright, 1884; Andrew J. Culver and George Niles, 1886; Andrew J. Culver and Joseph W. Seeley, I888; John Lessiter and Nathan J. Smith, I890; Elbert J. Kelly and John Lessiter, 1892; Chauncey Brace and Charles D. Howard, 1894; Chauncey Brace and Elbert J. Kellogg, i896; Chauncey Brace and Mason N. Leonard, 1898; Chauncey Brace and Clark J. Sutherland, I9oo; Ora C. Farmer and John W. Fox, 1902; Ora C. Farmer and Chauncey Brace, I9o8, present incumbents (I912). County surveyors-Previous to the organization of the county, the territorial surveyors had run it into townships. Colonel Wampler, Hervey Parke and Horatio Ball had been the most prominent who worked in Oakland county, and their labors have already been noted. Mr. Ball surveyed the road from Detroit to Pontiac and marked the "royal oak" with the letter "H." The bulk of Captain Parke's work was accomplished in I82I9, as is evident from his interesting personal narrative, published elsewhere. John Mullet was the first district surveyor and appointed Captain Parke his deputy in 1822. The surveying was in charge of district surveyors until I833, when a county surveyor was elected. Calvin C. Parks held the office in 1833-4, and Captain Parke was elected in the following year; then came John Southard, in I837-8; Captain Parke again in I839 -40, and Mr. Southard in 1841-2. Since 1842 the county surveyors regularly elected have been as follows: Hiram Barritt, 1843; Algernon Merriweather, 1845 and 1847; Sloane Cooley, 1849; John Southard, 1851; Carlos Harmon, 1853; Henry Nicholson, I855; Hervey Parke, I857; Reuben Russell, 1859; Hervey Parke, I86I; Sloane Cooley, 1863; Elias C. Martin, I865; Reuben Russell, 1867; Horatio Merryweather, 1869; Julian Bishop, 1875 and 1877; Hiram Terry, 1878; Quincy A. Thomas,

Page  198 198 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY i880; Joseph Rennier, 1882; Sloane Cooley, i886; Reuben Russell, i888; Samuel J. Serrell, I890 and I892; Reuben Russell, 1894 to I902; Franklin A. Slater, I902, present incumbent (I9I2). ASSESSMENTS AND TAXES In 1876 the total assessment and taxes for the twenty-five townships of Oakland county and Pontiac city presented the following exhibit: Townships Assessment *Taxes Addison.....................$ Avon....................... Bloomfield......... Brandon..................... Commerce................... Farmington.................. Groveland................... Highland................... Holly........................ Independence................ Lyon........................ Milford.................. N ovi........................ Oakland................... O rion...................... Oxford........... Pontiac township............ Pontiac city.................. Rose...................... Royal Oak................... Southfield.................... Springfield................... Troy........................ W aterford................... West Bloomfield.............. W hite Lake................. 241,440 542,470 534,920 222,200 321,480 534, 00oo 204,9Io 272,010 330,195 368,000 410,110 420,408 438,225 366,I95 278,110 330,750 368,845 891,315 225,890 285,680 375,370 260,340 5I0,730 375,900 323,880 222,180 $ 3,359-52 8,735.I6 8,35I.7I 4,464.38 4,944.99 9,069.9o 3,484.49 3,926.83 8,428.15 6.097.23 5,792.59 8,539-35 6,9I7.20 5,I95.27 4,336.99 5,539.66 4,645.72 34,472.06 3,374.39 5,384.74 5,7I2.65 4,081.05 6,882.03 6,534.69 5,I53-05 3,793.90 $I77,2I7.70 Total................. $9,655,733 Following are the figures for October, i880, showing the real and personal property of Oakland county by townships and the city of Pontiac, as equalized by the committee appointed for that purpose by the board of supervisors: Townships Real Estate Addison.....................$ 484,620 Avon....................... I,058,650 Bloomfield................ I,083,950 Brandon.................... 467,750 * State, county, town and school. Personal $II0,445 296,o80 194,040 92,600 Total $ 595,o60 I,354,730 1,277,990 560,350

Page  199 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY19 199 Townships Real Estate Personal Total Commerce...........$ 634,610o 142,130 $ 776,740 Farmington..1.......,048,550 188,750 1,237,300 Groveland........... 447,980 47,020 495,000 Highland........... 620,860 53,1I70 674,030 Holly............. 664,450 i67,590 832,040 Independence......... 750,560 134,940 885,500 Lyon............. 843,060 i67,430 I1,0I0,490 Milford............ 884,830 192,10I 1,076,840 Novi..9........... 16,155 I34,945 1,051,100 Oakland........... 75I,580 142,290 893,870 Orion............ 562,580 88,480 651i,06o Oxford............ 741,413 1 52,617 894,030 Pontiac............ 745,040 I110,070 855, 11I0 First ward (Pontiac)...... 278,855 120,515 399,370 Second ward (Pontiac)..... 298,435 77,1I05 375,540 Third ward (Pontiac)..... 434,090 153,760 587,850 Fourth ward (Pontiac)..... 564,680 265,170, 829,850 Rose............. 476,280 79,460 555,740 Royal,Oak.......... 637,060 54,450 69i,5 10 Southfield........... 775,090 164,390 939,480 Springfield.574....3..0..82,6 656,77J Troy.1...........,039,930 134,580 1,174,5IQ Waterford........... 755,100 T30,320 885,420 West Bloomfield........ 681,260 127,210 808,470 White Lake.......... 493,660 96,820 *590,480 Totals.......... $19,71i6, i88 $3,900,042 $23,61i6,230 As thus equalized the total taxes levied in the countyT amounted to $68,88.5,of which the state tax was $33,534.63 and the county $3, 3 53.191. Within the next decade, as shown f rom. the same source for i89o, the real estate of the county had reached a valuation of $19,o62,o90 and the personal property wvas assessed at $3,937,910. In 1891 the taxes were apportioned as follows: State tax, $37,821.19; county tax, $4I,000. In igoo the real estate, as equalized, amounted to $22,084,805 and the personal property, as assessed at $6,695,778; total, $28,740,583. The committee on ways and means apportioned the taxes thus: State, $78,961.56; county, $35,000. For purposes of comparison with the figures of i88o, the value of the real estate, as equalized, and of personal property, as assessed, is given for the year 191 T Townships Addison..............$ Avon............... Bloomfieldl............ Brandon.............. Commerce............. Farmington............ Real Estate 637,500 1,~822,950 2,400,1i80 711,205 66i,8oo 1,405,800 Personal Property $ 108,755 450,150 669,750 241,715 15o,8oo 459,450 Total $ 746,255 2,273, 100 3,06)9,950 952,920 812,6oo 1,865,250

Page  200 200 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Townships Real Estate Groveland.......................$ 515,090 Highland......................... 748,640 Holly.................. 1,166,325 Independence.................... 774,200 Lyon............................ 987,870 M ilford......................... 943,290 Novi............................. 951,650 Oakland.......................... 757,635 Orion............................ I,ooI,300 Oxford.......................... 1,193,750 Pontiac township.................. 834,060 Pontiac City..................... 7,392,000 Rose............................ 629,330 Royal Oak........................,850,395 Southfield.........................,044,525 Springfield........................ 588,250 Troy............................ 1,222,270 Waterford........................ 850,960 West Bloomfield.................. 1,06,975 White Lake....................... 546,130 Personal Total $ 84,175 $ 599,265 175,375 924,015 306,125 1,472,450 238,100 I,1O2,300 255,600 I,243,470 170,120 1,113,410 136,750 1,088,400 149,450 907,085 210,235 1,211,535 360,930 1,554,680 88,I70 922,230 4,703,000 12,095,000 87,570 716,90o 331,790 2,182,185 168,650 1,213,175 130,400 718,650 246,450 1,468,720 162,310 1,013,270 551,68o 1,613,655 94,200 640,330 Totals......................$32,699,080 $10,731,700 $43,430,780 As assessed on the equalized valuation the taxes. were apportioned for 1911 as follows: State tax, $128,294.08; county tax, $85,670. POPULATION FOR NINETY YEARS The population of Oakland county since its organization, according to the decadal enumerations of the United States census bureau, has been as follows: 1820.................... 330 1870....................40,867 1830.................... 4,910 88o....................41,537 1840....................23,646 i89o....................41,235 1850....................31,270 1900....................44,792 186o....................38,261 191I....................49,576 For purposes of more detailed comparison the 'following table comprising the last three enumerations of the national census, is herewith presented. 1910 Oakland county............................49,576 Addison township, including Leonard village...... 1,043 Leonard village............................ 313 Avon township, including Rochester village........ 2,657 Rochester village........................... 1,516 Bloomfield township, including Birmingham village. 2,833 Birmingham village......................... I,607 Brandon'township, including Ortonville village.... 1,129 Ortonville village........................... 377 190o I890 44,792 41,245 I,II6 1,139 335 276 2,584 I,946 1,535 900 2,296 2,044 1,170 899 1,179 1,260

Page  201 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 201 I910 I900 1890 Commerce township.................... 986 1,124 I,I13 Farmington township, including Farmington village. 1,788 I,753 1,639 Farmington village......................... 564 530 320 Groveland township........................... 772 828 917 Highland township............................ I,40 1,142 1,393 Holly township, including Holly village......... 2,278 2,266 2,I20 Holly village.............................. 1,537 1,419 1,266 Independence township, including Clarkston village. 1,144 1,191 1,297 Clarkston village........................... 345 360 387 Lyon township, including South Lyon village...... 1,427 1,569 i,660 South Lyon village.......................... 615 657 707 Milford township, including Milford village...... 1,660 1,866 1,962 M ilford village................................ 973 I,I08 I,138 Novi township................................ 1,226 1,245 1,306 Oakland township...................... 702 870 896 Orion township, including Orion village.......... 1,393 1,507 1,297 Orion village............................... 717 756 522 Oxford township, including Oxford village....... 1,934 1,990 2,080 Oxford village............................. 1,191 1,172 1,128 Pontiac city........................ 14,532 9,769 6,200 W ard................................... 1,858 W ard 2................................... 3,264 W ard 3................................... 2,971 W ard 4................................... 4,45 Ward 5...................................,987 Ward 5.~1,987 Pontiac township............................. 953 i,oI6 947 Rose township................................ 842 862 958 Royal Oak township, including Royal Oak village.. 2,801 2,012 1,844 Royal Oak village........................... 1,071 468... Southfield township........................... 1,288 1,378 1,444 Springfield township........................... 821 906 1,064 Troy township................................ 1,507 1,527 1,470 W aterford township........................... 1,065 I,079 I,I63 West Bloomfield township..................... 1,113 999,229 White Lake township.......................... 642 718 857 The relative rank among the counties of the state has been: 1840, second, being only exceeded by Wayne, with Washtenaw a close third; 1850, still second (gaining faster than Washtenaw and being left rapidly behind by Wayne); I860, yet second, but being hard pressed by Lenawee county, and having only about half the population of Wayne; I870, fourth, having been overtaken by Kent and Lenawee counties and running neck and neck with Saginaw; I880, sixth, being exceeded by Wayne, Kent, Saginaw, Lenawee and St. Clair, in the order named, and having about one-fourth the population of Wayne; 1890, eleventh, its ten predecessors being Wayne, Kent, Saginaw, Bay, St. Clair, Lenawee, Jackson, Calhoun, Washtenaw and Berrien (by only 40); I900, twelfth, with some changes in the relative position of Calhoun (seventh), Berrien, Jackson and Washtenaw and the displacement of Bay as fourth by Houghton county; I9IO, thirteenth, the order of the counties being

Page  202 202 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Wayne, Kent, Saginaw, Houghton, Bay, Genesee, Kalamazoo, Calhoun, Berrien, Jackson, Huron, St. Clair and Oakland. INCORPORATED MUNICIPALITIES From the last "Michigan Manual" is condensed the following relating to the incorporation of the cities and villages of the county: Pontiac-Incorporated as a village by the state legislature, 1837; amended, 1838, I842, 1843, 1845, I850. Incorporated as a city by legislature, 1861; act relating to, 1861; charter amended 1865, I869, 1871, I877, I88I, 1885, I889, I905, 1907. Birmingham-Incorporated as a village by Board of Supervisors in I864; limits extended by legislative act, 1883; reincorporated by act of legislature, 1885. Clarkston-Incorporated as a village by Board of Supervisors in I884; reincorporated by legislative act, I889. Farmington-Incorporated as a village by state law in 1867; charter amended in I869, I875; reincorporated in 1887; amended, limits extended, I89I. Holly-Incorporated as a village by state law, I865; charter revised, 1873; amended, I893. Leonard-Incorporated as a village by Board of Supervisors in 1889; reincorporated by act of the legislature, I893. Milford-Incorporated as a village by state law in I869; charter amended in I87I; reincorporated, i88i. Orion-Incorporated as a village by state law in I859; charter repealed by legislature in 1863; reincorporated by state law, 1869; amended by legislative act, 1879, 1889; reincorporated by act of legislature, 1891. Ortonville-Incorporated as a village by Board of Supervisors in I902; by legislative act, I903. Oxford-Incorporated as a village by Board of Supervisors in I876; reincorporated by legislative act, I89I. Royal Oak-Incorporated as a village by legislative act in 1891. South Lyon-Incorporated as a village by state law in 1873; and by legislative act in I885; reincorporated by legislative act in 189I. THE COUNTY COURTHOUSES The $Ioo,ooo courthouse, which is the home of the government and judiciary of Oakland county, is a gem of taste and an ideal of convenience and comfort among the public buildings of southern Michigan. Its cornerstone was laid by the grand lodge of Masons of the state of Michigan, August 30, 1904, and the civic ceremonies included addresses by James H. Lynch, president of the day, Daniel L. Davis and others, and music by the Pontiac band. The new court room was dedicated November I, I905, the address of welcome being by George W. Smith, circuit judge, and the dedicatory address by Andrew L. Moore. John H. Patterson spoke on "Our Beloved Country," and Chief Justice Joseph B. Moore indulged in a series of interesting "Reminiscences." The public exercises on November 2d embraced a military parade

Page  203 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 203 0 C-) 0 C) 0 0 C,

Page  204 204 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY and exercises at the Howland Opera House. Aaron Perry presided over the latter and delivered an interesting and finished address of welcome. Mrs. Sybil B. Cleary accepted the rest rooms in the basement of the courthouse in behalf of the ladies of Pontiac and Thomas E. Barkworth delivered the dedicatory address. The address of welcome to the members of the bar delivered by Judge Smith was so alive with facts and manly sentiment that the chief portion of it-that is, the part which deals more especially with the history of the courthouses which had been the scenes of so much which was dear and important to the profession and the people-is here reproduced: "The first term of court in this city was held in an old log building which stood near the site of the present Hotel Woodward, in the year 1820. Judge Crofoot, in describing this building, spoke of it as without door, floor or chimney. In 1824 a courthouse and jail combined was built on the lot where the present jail stands. The first story constituted the jail and was constructed of squared logs. The cells for prisoners were made of six-inch plank sawed at the village of Rochester. The second story was a framed structure and contained a court room with a sheriff's residence adjoining it. No room for offices existed in this building. "In 1848, there was erected upon the front portion of the present site, a long one-story building with a roof sloping towards the front, with a balustrade on which was painted in large letters the words, 'Oakland County Offices.' In 1858 the courthouse of 1824 and this long, one-story building were abandoned for the courthouse, we of the present generation know as the immediate predecessor of the present building. The cost of that building was $12,000, and of the fire-proof vaults placed therein in 1875, $5,ooo. Its was dedicated on March I8, 1858, with considerable ceremony and with an eloquent address by Judge Crofoot. Its court room was the home of the circuit court for the county of Oakland until May 20, 1904. On that date the old court room was formally abandoned. Hon. William W. Stickney, of Lapeer, and Justice Joseph B. Moore, of Lansing, ex-judges of this court, were present. Also the members of the Oakland county bar, and a large number of representative citizens. A scholarly and most appropriate address, one that ranks well up with that of Judge Crofoot, was delivered by the Hon. Aaron Perry, president of the bar, and the next day the beloved portraits that had so long been a part of the room were taken down from its walls. "In speaking of this room, Mr. Perry said: 'During the last fortysix years this room has on many occasions resounded to the melodious cadences and fiery appeals of eloquent advocates, as well as to some speeches that have been dull and commonplace-to speeches that have fired the jurors with indignation, or suffused their eyes with tearsand to some that have lulled their wearied minds to involuntary slumber.' "It was never well arranged for a court room and it had no architectural beauty. But what the old room lacked in beauty, it made up in size. Besides being the home of the court, it was used in the early years for singing schools, lectures, school exhibitions and school elections, and political meetings and farmers' meetings of all kinds. All

Page  205 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 205 county political conventions were held in it, and there were many times when it was packed to the limit as rival candidates struggled for places upon the county ticket. It is almost literally true that forty-six years of the history of this county was made in that old court room. With it are associated memories of some of the most notable trials, civil and criminal, in the history of the state. With it are associated memories of some of the most diligent and forceful lawyers and judges of the state. I omit their names because others today are likely to refer to them by name. COURTHOUSE OF 1857-8 "Merely as a matter of future history, it should be stated that from May 20, 1904, to the present time, the county officers, with their files, books and records, have been quartered in the Davis block (so-called) and the sessions of this court were held in the basement of the Congregational church. During that time, many have attended church who had sadly neglected that duty. It is to be hoped that the religious surroundings and appropriate mottoes of that basement Sunday school room have not been entirely lost upon the jurors or upon the members of the legal profession. I am quite sure that they failed to sufficiently influence some of the witnesses.

Page  206 206 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY "To the older members of this bar, the old court room brings back many splendid and precious memories. Its surroundings and the work done there almost became a part of their daily lives. Its splendid history moved them to zeal and activity. The portraits on its walls of the eminent judges and lawyers seemed to inspire as to imitate them not only in professional skill, but in professional courtesy and professional honor. And after all,-what is professional skill to the lawyer, if he has not also professional courtesy and professional honesty? Professional skill alone is merely the power to earn money from the profession of law, and it leaves its possessor without honor, without conscience, without the respect of the community in which he lives, and without the love and confidence of his brethren of the profession. "And now after forty-six years in the old room and seventeen months of boarding out, we are about to begin life in this new home. The old room is but a memory. The new is a reality. We are not here merely to cherish a memory, but to engage in the activities of the present and to prepare for those of the future. My pleasing duty is to welcome you to the new room-to rejoice with you because of the new home." The following history of the movement which resulted in the erection of the beautiful courthouse which has been the home of county affairs since 1904 is thus given by the official publication issued by the board of supervisors under the title "Memorial of the New Oakland County Building:" "It has taken more than three and a half years to evolve the idea and to complete the construction of Oakland county's magnificent temple of justice and place of business for the people. Prior to the spring of I902, for a long period there were resolutions introduced before the board of supervisors to submit the proposition to the voters of the county. "Finally in January, 1902, the supervisors passed a resolution to bring the matter officially before the people at the April election. That spring the proposition for a new building for the county executives was defeated. However, during the January meeting of the supervisors the following year a banquet was held at the Hodges House, after which there was much discussion by members of the county's lawmakers, the city aldermen and various prominent taxpayers of the county at large. "At that time the sentiment against the inadequate quarters provided for the officials was strong and seemed to be pretty well crystalized in favor of a new building. Again the matter was brought before the voters in the April election in I904 and was carried by a large majority. So much publicity had been given the proposition by the newspapers throughout the county showing the great need for a better building, that the people resolved to support it and it was carried by a good majority. "Result of second vote: For Against Total Addison......................... 89 131 220 Avon......................... 244 289 533 Bloomfield....................... 92 II9 3 I

Page  207 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 207 For Brandon..................... 112 Commerce.................... 92 Farmington..................... 203 Groveland....................... 32 Holly...........................203 Highland........................ 86 Rose............................ 62 Royal Oak....................... I42 Oxford.......................... Io Orion.......................... 69 Oakland......................... 22 Milford......................... 7I Novi............................ 88 Springfield....................... 62 Southfield....................... 98 W aterford....................... I93 West Bloomfield................ 123 White Lake................... 66 Pontiac township................. 6 Troy............................ 89 Lyon............................ 127 Independence................ 94 Pontiac-ist Ward...............272 2d W ard............... 448 3d W ard............... 429 4th W ard............... 454 5th W ard............... 270 Total....................... 4,757 Against 174 I58 I59 I39 327 i86 I46 96 315 148 122 373 I49 II7 57 73 86 9I 27 52 162 IOI 21 25 48 62 34 3,987 Total 286 250 362 I7I 530 272 208 238 424 317 144 444 237 179 I55 266 209 I57 I43 I4I 289 I95 293 473 477 5I6 304 8,744 "Shortly after the election the board of supervisors made no delay in taking up the question of the site of the new courthouse, and ordered its counsel to file a bill quieting the title in the county of the old property, on which the old and new courthouses were erected. From all townships came persons who had numerous ideas as to where the building should be located, and from all parts opinions differed. Some were in favor of selling the old site and constructing the new building on many other properties, such as the Pound homestead on east Huron street, the Hinman property on West Pike street, the Cortrite lots on West Pike street, or the Earl lands on North Saginaw street. Many other sites were offered and about a year's time was consumed by the supervisors in discussion and endeavoring to reach a conclusion as to which was the most desirable location. This discussion continued for some time and finally culminated when the board ordered the bill filed in chancery dismissed and later voted to build on the old site. "After the question of the location was decided the supervisors proceeded to advertise for plans. Several of the greatest architects in the United States submitted their ideas and after a careful study those of Joseph E. Mills, of Detroit, were voted as the best. The plans fur

Page  208 208 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY nished by Mr. Mills to the board called for a building costing $94,000, not including the architect's fee of $5,000. "After the plans had been agreed upon the county officers proceeded to take temporary quarters in the Davis block, where they moved in June, I904, and remained until the present time. "A building committee was appointed, consisting of Frank J. Vowles, chairman of the board and acting as chairman of the building committee; Frank Thurstin, Oakland; Henry Lavery, Royal Oak; LeRoy N. Brown, Independence; Charles A. Fisher, Pontiac; John Power, Farmington, and Ezra Gardner, Oxford. After the death of L. N. Brown, E. L. Davis acted in, his place. "The building committee met twice each month and awarded the contract to build to John G. Schmidt, of Toledo." COUNTY JAIL COST OF COUNTY BUILDING Appropriation.........0.................... $I0,O.00O Accumulated interest and premium on bonds.... 3,I42.99 Total..............................................$103,142.99 Schmidt's original contract....................$ 91,450.00 Schmidt's total for extras..................... 1,574.57 T otal..............................................$ 93-024.57 Deductions from contract............................... 264.25 Total of Schmidt's contract, extras and reductions.......$ 92,760.32 Steel file cases, book racks and tables..........$ 3,200.00 Electric fixtures............................. 1,8oo.oo

Page  209 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 209 Opera chairs for court room.................. 747.50 Furniture.................................. 2,991.01 Decorating interior of building................ 3,000.00 Thermostat heat regulating system............. 535.00 Carpets, rugs and rubber matting.............. 2,800.00 Cuspidors.................................. I23.75 Clocks..................................... 50.00 Hardware extra............................. 115.50 Architect's services.......................... 5,200.00 Total cost of building as erected and furnished........$113,323.18 Cost above appropriation............................ $ IO,80.I9 Items included in the above statement not usually included are as follows: Furniture..................................$ 2,991.OI Decorating interior of building................ 3,000.00 Thermostat heat system.................... 535.00 Carpets, rugs and matting.................... 2,800.00 Cuspidors.................................. 123.75 Clocks..................................... 50.00 Architect's services......................... 5,200.00 Total not usually included in giving cost of building.....$ I4,679.76 Deducting this amount from total cost as above given, building would cost........................................$ 98,623.42 PRESENT COURTHOUSE This "beautiful temple of justice," as the board of supervisors rightly called it, as received from the hands of Superintendent Rufus Swinehart, who represented John G. Schmidt, the contractor, of Toledo, on the 2d of November, I905, is built of gray Cleveland sandstone and fronts nearly ninety feet on West Huron street. Its imposing tower of brick bears a statute of Justice of heroic size, about one hundred and twelve feet above the level of the street. The two entrances and doorways are flanked by two massive stone columns twenty-six feet in height. Red entered largely into the color scheme, with tiled corridors and marble wainscoting. Rest rooms for both men and women are in the basement, which also contains offices for the commissioner of schools and superintendents of the poor and a large audience room used chiefly for school examinations. On the first floor are the other county offices and the accommodations for the probate judge and on the second floor, the circuit court room, which is beautifully decorated; office of the prosecuting attorney, the supervisors' room and the judges private room. Two features are especially noticeable on the first, or main floor. Opposite the Saginaw street entrance and occupying much of the wall space is a large and impressive painting of the great chief Pontiac, and at the foot of the stairs as the visitor passes into the courthouse from West Huron street, is a large marble tablet which presents a record

Page  210 210 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY of historic value. Upon its face is inscribed the names of the building committee holding office during the period of its erection, as follows: Frank J. Vowles, chairman; John Power, Charles A. Fisher, Ezra Gardner, Frank Thurston, LeRoy N. Brown, Henry N. Lowery and E. Laverne Davis. Also the following appear: Frank J. Vowles, chairman, I903-4; Alfred B. Kinney, I905; Joseph E. Mills, architect, Detroit; W. H. Dewey, local superintendent, Pontiac; John G. Schmidt, contractor, Toledo. The above are those officially connected with the erection of the Oakland county courthouse, but there are few public buildings in southern Michigan in which the people as a whole have taken more interest and with which the public are better satisfied, both from the viewpoints of beauty and utility, than this structure devoted to justice. THE OAKLAND COUNTY HOME Oakland county was one of the state leaders in the humane movement to abolish the name "almshouse" or "poorhouse" in connection with the public institution which provides a refuge for the aged and the sick, whose means are insufficient to give them shelter in private institutions, or whose circumstances have perhaps bereft them of friends or protecting relatives. At the annual convention of Michigan superintendents of the poor held in December, I903, it was unanimously recommended that the name County Home be substituted for the obnoxious "Poorhouse," and Oakland county was among the first to adopt this suggestion along the line of modern humanitarianism. The first action taken by the authorities of Oakland county looking towards the acquisition of a "county home" was that of the board of supervisors of I834 at the October sessions, at which time a committee of three were appointed to inquire into the expediency of procuring such an institution for the county. Messrs. Yerkes, Steel and Gregory were the committee, and they reported adversely to the project; but at the same session another committee, consisting of Babcock, Castle, Dutcher,-Gregory and Stephens, made inquiry as to the expediency of acquiring a location for a county farm and reported in favor of purchasing eighty acres, which report was accepted and $700 appropriated. The report of the committee was subsequently reconsidered and rejected, and another committee appointed to examine a location, consisting of Messrs. Castle, Curtis, Babcock, Dodge, Price and Voorheis; and at the March sessions, I835, Messrs. Castle, Curtis and Voorheis were elected a committee to take charge of the funds already raised therefor, and to purchase and fit up a farm for county poor purposes at an expense not exceeding $800, to be paid in four annual installments. This committee purchased the east half of the northeast quarter of section 2, in Waterford, of Thaddeus Alvord, for $I,o50; and in March, I836, there was an allowance of $788 made for the stock, farming utensils and superintendent's salary. The total expenses on account of such relief in I835 amounted to

Page  211 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 211 $1,59I.31. On May 2, 1835, the committee advertised the building as ready for occupancy. In 1839 the county commissioners abolished the distinction of county and township poor, assuming them all as a county charge. Theretofore, only those persons who had acquired no legal residence in the county had been helped directly by the supervisors as a county body corporate, the townships providing for actual residents. At the first meeting of the commissioners in January, I839, they also elected the first county superintendents of the poor, viz.: William Price, Harvey Seeley and Friend Belding, whose terms of office were fixed at three years. The expense of the poorfarm system the first year was $2,083.68. This farm bought in 1835 was occupied by the county until I857, when it was turned in for a payment on a new farm purchased of one Mead, in Waterford, of three hundred and seventeen acres, the old farm being taken at $40 per acre, and the balance of the purchase-money on the new purchase, $9,466.40, secured by mortgage. The land was situated in Waterford, and was known as the northeast quarter and west half, southeast quarter and southwest quarter, section 27, except ten acres reserved therefrom. There were good buildings on the farm. In January, I858, the board resolved to dispose of the Mead farm and buy another containing about one hundred acres, and a committee reported in favor of disposing of a portion of the Mead farm and erecting buildings on the balance. Mead offered to take back the land on the north side of the road at $35 per acre, which proposition was not accepted by the board of supervisors, but about the year I86o the farm reverted to the original owner, Mead, by default in the payments on the mortgage, and the first farm and the expense involved in remodeling the buildings on the second farm was lost by the county. William W. Martin, of Bloomfield, was then engaged by contract to support and care for the county poor for some years, and received nine shillings per head weekly for the same. At the October meeting, I863, the committee on the poorhouse, F. W. Fifield, E. B. Comstock and Noah Tyler, reported as follows: "In regard to the system now practiced of farming out the paupers, it is extremely objectionable, repugnant to humanity, and in opposition to the true interests of the county. The paupers under this system are not cared for, or as comfortably situated as the dictates of humanity or the requirements of justice demand, notwithstanding the keeper is doing the best he can for them. The buildings in which they are kept are inadequate to the wants and absolute necessities of the inmates, and are uncouth, unshapely, and, worse, uncomfortable and unwholesome, and the committee recommends the purchase of eighty acres of land and the erection of suitable buildings at once." In I864, in accordance with the recommendation, the board authorized the county superintendents to purchase a farm, and they accordingly bought, April I, I864, one hundred and twenty acres, being the one-half of the northwest quarter, section 35, and the southeast quarter of southwest quarter, section 26, township 3 north, range 9 east, of Joel Benedict, for $4,833. This farm was subsequently sold to T. F. Harrington, and on June 23, I866, one hundred acres purchased of Mortimer F. Osman, being the east part of the northeast quarter, secVol. I-14

Page  212 212 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY tion 24, in Waterford, for $6,ooo. On the 6th of April, I869, thirty acres or more were purchased from Ira K. Terry, being the southwest part of the northwest quarter, section I9, township 3 north, range io east, for $2,500, the total cost of the land being $8,500, and the farm containing about one hundred and thirty-seven acres. In January, I866, the superintendents of the poor were authorized to receive proposals for buildings on the county farm, the cost of which should not exceed $I5,ooo. The buildings were erected in 1866-67. The value of the property was estimated by the county superintendents in their report to the secretary of state as follows: Farm and buildings, $29,295; live-stock on the farm, $I,330; farming implements, $488; all other property, $900; total valuation, $32,013. COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS OF THE POOR The county superintendents of the poor have been as follows: 1839-42, William Price, Harvey Seeley and Friend Belding; 1842-44, Samuel White, Ziba Swan, Jr. and Ira Donelson; 1845, Salmon J. Mathews, Orison Allen and Ira Donelson; 1846, George Patten, Ziba Swan, Jr. and George Dow; 1847, C. H. Woodhull, Ira Marlin and George Patten; I848, Isaac L. Voorheis, George Patten and Francis Darrow; I849, Francis Darrow, G. Robertson and Friend Belding; I850 to 1853, inclusive, James A. Weeks, I. I. Voorheis and William Yerkes; 1854, I. I. Voorheis, Stephen Reeves and D. M. Judd; I855, Stephen Reeves, F. Belding and Phil S. Frisbee; I856, H. W. Hovey, Henry Mead and F. Belding; 1857, Almeron Whitehead, J. H. Button and F. Bradley; 1858, Almeron Whitehead, J. H. Button and Stephen Reeves; 1859-60, no superintendents elected; I86I, J. H. Button, Robert M. Davis and William Cone; 1862, James Newberry, J. H. Button and Andrew Bradford. In I863, three superintendents were elected, one for one year, one for two years and one for three years. Andrew Bradford was elected for the long term, James Newberry for two years and J. H. Button for one year. J. H. Button was elected in 1864 for three years and again in 1867 for three years, but resigned in I869. Bradford resigned in 1865 and Francis Baker was elected to fill the vacancy. James Newberry was reelected at the end of his first term of two years for a term of three years. To continue the roster: Horace Thurber, 1866-69; Caleb Terry, 1868-71; John W. Leonard, I869-71, to fill vacancy of J. H. Button; William M. McConnell, 1871, 1874 and 1877; J. W. Leonard, 1872, 1875 and 1878. Augustus W. Hovey was first elected in 1870 and served for about thirty years. J. S. Stockwell holds the second record in length of service, as he was in office from I886 to 1901. E. C. Beardslee, one of the three incumbents, was elected in 1902 and commenced his first term of service January I, 1903; his present term expires January I, I9I5. Frank Harris served from I901 until his resignation, June 15, 1908, and was succeeded by William A. Brewster, whose term will expire January I, I9I3. The third superintendent is E. D. Spooner, who commenced his first term January I, I905; his present term expires January I, I914. The farm and grounds of the county home compromise one hundred

Page  213 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 213 acres (the old Osmun property) in Waterford township, and thirtyseven acres in the township of Pontiac. Although it has been improved, modernized, and virtually rebuilt (mostly in 1902) the original residence building was erected in I868. Both interior and exterior, including the surrounding grounds, are neat and cheerful. In I870 the building (forty by forty feet) now used as a horse barn, was erected, but all the large outbuildings have gone up within the past decade. These include the following: A house for the keeping of tools and agricultural implements (thirty by forty feet) and an ice house (twenty by twenty-two feet) in I902; the hog house and corn barn (forty by forty) in I904; the large barn (thirty-six by seventy-six) for other live stock and grain, in 1905; the hen house (twenty by thirty) in 1907 and the pumping plant, for fire protection, in I909. It is the evident desire of the present superintendents of the poor, who are well supported by the board of supervisors, to not only safeguard all those committed to their care, but to make their lives comfortable and pleasant. From seventy to one hundred are thus cared for, of whom two-thirds are men. The total value of the county home property is estimated at $35,000.

Page  214 CHAPTER XIII OAKLAND COUNTY IN STATE POLITICS QUESTION OF LAND TITLES-GOVERNOR CASS BRINGS STABILITYCHAMPIONS OF PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS-THE STATE CONSTITUTIONSOAKLAND COUNTY'S PART IN CONSTITUTION MAKING-DOCTOR RAYNALE, DELEGATE TO 1835 CONVENTION-SENECA NEWBERRY, DELEGATE TO 1835 AND 1850 CONVENTIONS-STATE OFFICIALS, ELECTED AND APPOINTED-TERRITORIAL COUNCIL REPRESENTATIVES-SPEAKERS AND CLERK OF THE HOUSE —MICHIGAN LEGISLATORS FROM OAKLAND COUNTY-STATE SENATORS-STATE REPRESENTATIVES-DISTURBANCES OF WAR ISSUES. By Fred M. Warner On January II, 1805, congress passed an act for the organization of Michigan territory, and on March Ist, President Jefferson appointed General William Hull its governor and Indian agent. The governor and other territorial officers arrived at Detroit on the I2th of June, that year, only to find that the capital (which had been but a two-acre town of little houses surrounded by a palisade of strong pickets)- had been destroyed by fire. When they took the oath of office on the second Tuesday in July, some of the houses had been erected on the old site. Despite this unfavorable outlook for the territorial government "a judicial system was established and the territorial militia was disciplined and brought into the field. The attention of congress was also called to the land claims made by the settlers, founded on occupancy, or grants under the French and English governments. On October Io, I805, a report was made of the affairs of the territory and forwarded to congress, and in May, I806, the first code of laws was adopted and published for the territory, called the Woodward code, after Augustus B. Woodward, one of the judges. The code was signed by General Hull, Judge Woodward and Frederick Bates, judges, by which a civil government for the territory covered by the present state of Michigan was at length established and military rule, whether by French, British or American commandants, forever abolished in times of peace. As stated, prior to the organization of the territory, what is now Michigan had been included in Wayne county of the northwest territory, which boasted a crude "court of common pleas," with headquarters at Detroit. This court was continued when the territory of Michigan was created in 1805. 214

Page  215 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 215 QUESTION OF LAND TITLES It was not until I806 that congress began in earnest to consider the status of land titles in Michigan. In that year Judge Woodward made a report to the secretary of the treasury which was laid before congress in which he stated that the total amount of land in cultivation did not exceed 150,000 acres, or a little more than six townships. He described the farms as from two to four acres front on the river, the houses about twenty-five rods apart, and the people "honest beyond comparison, generous, hospitable and polished." He reported in all 422 farms, with dates of settlement running from 1763 to 1801. Nearly all were held on French claims, bordered on rivers, with from two to five acres frontage and forty acres depth (a French acre was about fourfifths of an American acre). As appeared from the report made by the register of the land office at Detroit in December, 1806, only six of these farms embracing less than 4,000 acres had valid titles. GOVERNOR CASS BRINGS STABILITY The appointment of Lewis Cass as civil governor of Michigan in 1813 was the commencement of a stable order of things in the matter of land titles, as of all else, and marked the starting point of the substantial development of southern Michigan. Under him the government acquired by various treaties all lands south of Grand river to the headwaters of Thunder Bay river, as well as such as were required to make the post of Fort Mackinac safe against Indian attacks, thus safeguarding the interests of traders and settlers in northern Michigan. Great Britain possessed Michigan from the time of Hull's surrender in August, 1812, until Perry's naval victory of September, 1813, and the Americans reentered Detroit on the 29th of that month. Lewis Cass was appointed civil governor of Michigan October 9, I813, but Fort Mackinac was not evacuated by the British forces until the spring of I815. The survey of public lands was begun in 1815 and two years later had progressed sufficiently to permit the authorities to begin the sale. With the settlement of the interior, which practically began in I8I8, came substantial growth and prosperity to the southern part of the Lower Peninsula. In the following year (January I9) Governor Cass proclaimed the civil and political creation of Oakland county. That year (I819) therefore marked its entrance to territorial and state politics and the real chronological commencement of this chapter. The state constitution under which Michigan was admitted into the Union by congressional act approved January 26, 1837, provided for the appointment by the governor (with the advice and consent of the senate) of the secretary of state, auditor general and attorney general. The joint legislature approved the gubernatorial appointment of the superintendent of public instruction. All state officers above mentioned served for two years, the governor and lieutenant governor being elected. Judges of the state supreme court were appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, for a term of seven years.

Page  216 216 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Various provisions of the constitution provided for the improvements of roads, canals and navigable waters in the interior of the state, as well as for the establishment of banks of issue, and wild speculation and inflated and unsecured issues of paper money, so frequent in southern Michigan and the more settled sections of the northwest, brought on the financial panic and the confusion of all permanent projects which marked the period from 1837 to I847. Unfortunately, this was also the period when the state was born and learning to walk alone. As the finances of this wild era, with the inflated schemes of internal improvement, were thoroughly mixed with legislative measures and state politics, the progress of the young commonwealth was very slow and unsteady during its first decade of life, and Oakland county did her full share in maintaining the disturbing combination. Some of her ablest men represented her in both houses of the legislature during that period, but they were also ambitious to see their section of the state advance, as it did, notwithstanding the failure of half a dozen of its banks, under both the "wild-cat" and "safety fund" dispensations. CHAMPIONS OF PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS Fully ten years before the coming of the "wild-cat" schemes the big men of Oakland county saw the necessity of getting it in close touch with the more developed sections centering in Detroit, and even when Michigan was a territory they became active and prominent in state politics, by championing such measures as the improvement of the Clinton river and the construction of the Detroit & Pontiac Railroad. The Clinton River Navigation Company of 1827 was, in fact, the first corporation created for that purpose in the territory, while the incorporation of the Dletroit & Pontiac Railroad in I830 was one of the pioneers of its kind in Michigan, although the latter was not completed to Birmingham until I839 and was not on solid ground until nearly ten years later, and at the time of the collapse of the internal improvement schemes, the Clinton river had been "improved" by state money only as far as Rochester, these enterprises were pushed with such vigor and ability in the territorial legislative council by such good men as Stephen Mack, Roger Sprague, William F. Moseley, Thomas J. Drake, Stephen V. R. Trowbridge, Daniel LeRoy, Charles C. Haskell and Samuel Satterlee, that Oakland county was fully and favorably advertised in the legislative halls. At the later period mentioned (1837-47), under state patronage of public improvements, our good friends, Drake, Trowbridge and LeRoy, were reenforced in the senate by Elijah F. Cook, John Benton, Daniel B. Wakefield, Isaac Wixson, Sanford M. Green and others. THE STATE CONSTITUTIONS To trace further the gradual development of the civil system of the state which seems necessary in order to obtain a clear idea of Oakland's participation in the politics of the commonwealth-the second constitution of I850 was that providing for popular election of all heads of state departments and judges of the supreme court.

Page  217 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 217 In April, I906, the people voted in favor of another revision of the state's fundamental law. The delegates comprising the constitutional convention assembled at Lansing in October, I907, and completed the revision in March of the following year, its work being approved by vote of the people in November, I9o8. What is known as the constitution of I909 is therefore now the basic law of the commonwealth of Michigan. By that instrument, of course, the offices of governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, state treasurer, commissioner of the state land office, auditor general, superintendent of public instruction and attorney general were made elective, and the functions of government were classified as executive, judicial and legislative. The judiciary was divided into supreme, circuit and probate and justices' courts, the incumbents of which were chosen by popular vote. Provision was made for the organization and incorporation of counties, townships, villages and cities and for the purpose of education. The superintendent of public instruction came into being, the State University with its board of regents, the State Board of Agriculture with its Agricultural College, the College of Mines, the State Normal College and normal schools, with the continuation of a system of primary schools. Section ii provided: "That proceeds from the sale of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to the state for educational purposes and the proceeds of all lands or other property given by individuals or appropriated by the state for like purposes shall be and remain a perpetual fund, the interest and income of which together with the rents of all such lands as may remain unsold, shall be inviolably appropriated and annually applied to the specific objects of the original gift, grant or appropriation." Section 12. "All lands, the titles to which shall fail from a defect of heirs, shall escheat to the state, and the interest on the clear proceeds from the sales thereof shall be appropriated exclusively to the support of the primary schools." Section I4. "The legislature shall provide by law for the establishment of at least one library in each township and city, and all fines assessed and collected in the several counties, cities and townships for any breach of the penal laws shall be exclusively applied to the support of such libraries." Section 15. "Institutions for the benefit of those inhabitants who are deaf, dumb, blind, feeble-minded or insane shall always be fostered and supported." Under the head of "Corporations" the constitution provided that such bodies might be formed under general laws, but not created, "nor shall any rights, privileges or franchises be conferred upon them by special act of legislature." No corporation was to be granted a franchise for a longer period than thirty years, "except for municipal, insurance, canal or cemetery purposes, or corporations organized without any capital stock for religious, benevolent, social or fraternal purposes; but the legislature may provide by general laws, applicable to any corporations, for one or more extensions of the term of such corporations." The different sections

Page  218 218 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY of the article on "Corporations" announced the individual liability of stockholders; pronounced against discrimination in transportation charges and against railroad consolidation or monopoly, and laid down the principle that no "general law providing for the incorporation of trust companies or corporations for banking purposes, or regulating the business thereof, shall be adopted, amended or repealed, except by a vote of two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the legislature. Such laws shall not authorize the issue of bank notes or paper credit to circulate as money." OAKLAND COUNTY'S PART IN CONSTITUTION MAKING It looks well on paper to state that Oakland county men have taken a prominent part in the formation and revision of the state constitutions, but for the purpose of proving it in detail, a list of the delegates which she has sent to these august bodies, with special mention of some of the leaders, is herewith presented. The constitution of 1835 convened at Detroit May I th and adjourned June 24th, Oakland county being represented by the following delegates: Isaac I. Voorheis, Randolph Manning, Seneca Newberry, Joshua B. Taylor, Elijah F. Cook, Ebenezer Raynale, John Ellenwood, Jeremiah Riggs, Benjamin B. Morris, William Patrick, Jonathan Chase, Samuel White, Thomas Curtis and Norman Davison. In attendance at the first convention of assent, which was held at Ann Arbor from September 26 to September 30, I836, were Origen D. Richardson, William Draper, S. A. L. Warner, Samuel Satterlee, Edward W. Peck and John L. Brownell. At the second convention of assent, which convened at Ann Arbor December 14 and adjourned Dlecember 15, I836, there were present as delegates from Oakland county: Gideon 0. Whittemore, Hiram Barritt, Joseph Coates, Charles Grant, Parley W. C. Gates, John S. Livermore, Henry S. Babcock, William K. Crooks, Samuel White, James B. Hunt, David Chase and Benjamin B. Morris. Oakland county delegates to the convention which convened at Lansing June 3, and adjourned August 15, I850: James Webster, Alfred H. Hanscom, Seneca Newberry, Jacob Vanvalkenburgh, Ebenezer Raynale, Gideon O. Whittemore, William Axford, Zebina M. Mowry and Elias S. Woodman. Delegates from Oakland county to the convention of 1867, held at Lansing from May 15 to August 22, 1867: P. Dean Warner. Edward P. Harris, Willard M. McConnell and Jacob Vanvalkenburgh. Lysander Woodward represented the county on the constitutional commission of I873, which convened at Lansing, August 27 and adjourned October I6, I873. The last constitutional convention which assembled at Lansing, October 22, 1907, and adjourned March 3, I9o8, sent as delegates from Oakland county (in the twelfth senatorial district) Kleber P. Rockwell and Andrew L. Moore, both of Pontiac.

Page  219 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 219 DOCTOR RAYNALE, DELEGATE TO 1835 CONVENTION In 1835 Dr. Ebenezer Raynale of Bloomfield was elected a member of the convention (as will be noted in the lists published) to form the state constitution, and in the fall of the same year was elected to the state senate for the term of two years, through which he served ably and faithfully. At the first meeting of the legislature, a part of its business was the election of a United States senator, concerning which there was a warm contest, though not between different parties. as there was really but one party, the Democratic, represented in that first legislature. Doctor Raynale sustained the candidates who proved successful. During his senatorial term a great amount of work was done. among which was the establishment of the common school system, of the state university, the lunatic asylum and the state prison, the framing of a new code of laws adapted to the wants of the people and the commencement of a system of internal improvements. At the expiration of his term in the senate, Doctor Raynale settled on a farm in Bloomfield, where he remained for two years, and then settled in Birmingham, resuming the practice of his profession in 1839. In 1850 he was elected a member of the convention to form a new constitution, and he served faithfully with that body also. Doctor Raynale, only son of Ebenezer and Mary Raynale, was born in Hartland, Windsor county, Vermont, on October 2I, I804. His father, who died in September of that year, had done a little farming and had added to this the professions of teacher and land surveyor. Three years after her husband's death, Mrs. Raynale removed with her two children, Harriet and Ebenezer, to Brooklyn, Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania, where a year later she married Jonathan Sabin, and soon after they removed to the township of Ovid, now Lodi, Seneca county, New York. Here they remained but a short time and removed to Reading, Steuben county, New York, where they resided until I819, when they made another move, this time to Cambria, Niagara county, New York. Here young Raynale lived with his stepfather until he reached the age of nineteen years, when he went to Brooklyn, Pennsylvania, his former home, and there for four years devoted himself unremittingly to his preparation for the duties of a professional life, which he had decided upon entering. At the expiration of this time, with certificates of three years' medical study in his pocket, he returned to Cambria and gave another year to hard study in the office of Dr. Darius Shaw, after which he was admitted to the practice of medicine and surgery, under the laws of New York, which at that time were very rigid in this particular. In the first part of May, 1828, having decided to emigrate to,Michigan, Doctor Raynale took passage on the steamboat "Henry Clay" at Buffalo, for Detroit, where he arrived on the 5th of May, and after a short stay in the city, proceeded to the place which is now the village of Franklin, in Southfield township, and there he established and commenced business in the line of his profession on the I2th of May. He was then the only physician in Southfield, and his nearest professional brethren on the east and west were Dr. Ezra S. Parke, at Piety Hill,

Page  220 220 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY and Dr. Eziekiel Webb at Farmington. The country was but sparsely settled, and physicians were called from a long distance. Doctor Raynale, in the performance of his professional duties, was obliged to traverse and retraverse the townships of West Bloomfield, Farmington, Southfield and Bloomfield, always on horseback, and it was not long before he began to enjoy that professional popularity and esteem which has followed him through all the years of his career. During the winter of 1828-29 he procured the establishment of the postoffice of Franklin, and was himself appointed postmaster, a position which he held for seven years. In October, I830, he married Miss Eliza Cassidy, of Springville, Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania. They had four children: Mrs. E. R. King, of Pontiac; S. B. Raynale, of Corunna, Michigan; Mrs. G. A. Patterson, of Detroit; and Dr. C. M. Raynale, of Birmingham. SENECA NEWBERRY, DELEGATE TO I835 AND 1850 CONVENTIONS Seneca Newberry was born December 23, 1802, in Windsor, Connecticut. In 1827 he removed to Detroit and there secured employment with his cousin, Oliver Newberry, where he remained for about two years, then removing to Rochester and engaged in mercantile pursuits. He accumulated a large fortune and was able to retire from business in I847. He was a man of prominence and reliability and was elected a member of the first and second state conventions which were called in 1835 and I850 for the purpose of forming a state constitution. He was a stanch Democrat and served two terms in the state senate as the representative of Oakland county. The Newberry family originated in Devonshire, England, and it has been said that John Newberry of this family discovered the art of weaving. The family is very old and has always been one of respectability and prominence with regard to public affairs. The parents of Seneca Newberry were Dyer and Ruth (Birge) Newberry, natives of Connecticut, the former of whom, a sea captain and a soldier in the Revolutionary war, was one of the guards placed over Governor Franklyn when he was taken from Connecticut to New Jersey.,Mr. Newberry died in Rochester on May 13, 1877. LYSANDER WOODWARD, DELEGATE TO 1873 CONVENTION Lysander Woodward was a New Yorker who located at Rochester soon after attaining his majority, becoming a well-to-do farmer and a leader in state politics. As a Republican, he held numerous important offices in the gift of the people. The office of justice of the peace has been creditably filled by him, and he was several times elected supervisor of the township in which he lived. In I860 he was elected to the representative branch of the legislature from the first district of Oakland county, and served one regular term and two extra sessions. From I866 to I870 he occupied the office of county treasurer, and for three years he was president of the Oakland County Agricultural Society. As noted, he represented Oakland county as a member of the constitutional commission of I873. Mr. Woodward was among the first to conceive and advocate the

Page  221 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 221 building of the Detroit and Bay City railway, and spent much time and money in its construction. In 1871 he was chosen the first president of the company, and held that office for two years, his entire record being one that will bear the closest scrutiny. STATE OFFICIALS, ELECTED AND APPOINTED Following is a list of residents of Oakland county who have been honored by election or appointment to state offices: Moses Wisner, govvernor, 1859-1861; Fred M. Warner (three terms), 1905-I9II; Thomas J. Drake, acting lieutenant governor, 1841-1842; Origen'D. Richardson, lieutenant governor, I842-I846; Gideon O. Whittemore, secretary of state, I846-I848; Fred M. Warner, secretary of state, 1901-I904; Daniel Le Roy, attorney general, I836-1837; Gideon O. Whittemore, state board of education, 1852-I856; Charles H. Palmer, university regent, 1852-1857; Henry M. Zimmerman, commissioner of banking, 1907-1911; George W. Dickinson, state railroad commissioner, 1907-1913. TERRITORIAL COUNCIL REPRESENTATIVES In the various legislative councils for the territory of Michigan from 1824 to 1836, Oakland county was represented as follows: First (first session, June 7 to August 5, 1824; second session, January 17 to April 2I, I825)-Stephen Mack and Roger Sprague. Second (first session, November 2 to December 30, 1826; second session, January I to April 13, I827)-Sidney Dole and William F. Moseley.* Third (first session, May 5 to July 3, I828; second session, September 7 to November 5, I829)-Thomas J. Drake and Stephen V. R. Trowbridge. Fourth (first session, May II to July 31, I830; second session, January 4 to March 4, I831)-Daniel LeRoy and Thomas J. Drake. Fifth (first session, May I to June 29, 1832; second session, January i to April 23, I833)-Charles C. Hascall and Roger Sprague. Sixth (first session, January 7 to March 7, 1834; extra session, September I to September 8, 1834; adjourned session, November II to December 31, 1834; second regular session, January 12 to March 28, 1835; special session, August 17 to August 25, 1835)-Charles C. Hascall and Samuel Satterlee. SPEAKERS AND CLERK OF THE HOUSE Representatives of the lower house of the legislature from Oakland county who have been chosen speakers of that body were Alfred H. Hanscom (1845); Byron G. Stout (I857) and P. Dean Warner (I867). Speakers pro tem: William A. Pratt (1845) and Augustus C. Baldwin (1846). Augustus W. Hovey, of Pontiac, served as clerk of the house of representatives of the state legislature for the sessions of 1844, 1846, 1847, I848 and I849. *Took his seat November 6, I826.

Page  222 222 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY MICHIGAN LEGISLATORS FROM OAKLAND COUNTY The following members of the Michigan legislature served from I835 to 191o inclusive, the subdivisions indicating name, postoffice address, number of district and session of service. In the list relating to representatives, when only Oakland county is mentioned it is to be understood that in the year designated it formed a district alone: STATE SENATORS Willard B. Arms; White Lake; 5th (1885) and 6th (1857, *Samuel Axford; Oxford; 6th; 1851. Charles V. Babcock; Southfield; 5th (1863, '64) and 20th Alfred J. Boss; Pontiac; 4th; I855. Charles B. Boughner; Pontiac; I4th; I891, '92. Mark S. Brewer; Pontiac; 20th; 1873, '74. Thornton F. Broadhead; Pontiac; 6th; 1850. Charles I. Deyo; Oxford; I4th; 1887. Charles Draper; Pontiac; 5th; I867. Franklin B. Galbraith; Pontiac; I4th; I889. Sanford M. Green; Pontiac; 6th; 1844, '6, '7. James M. Hoyt; Walled Lake; 6th; 1859. *Thomas D. Lane; South Lyon; 7th; i86i, '62. John P. LeRoy; Pontiac; 3d (1840, '41) and 6th (1851). ** Randolph Manning; Pontiac; 5th; I837. James McCabe; Pontiac; 6th; 1848, '49. Seneca Newberry; Rochester; 4th; I853. John M. Norton; Rochester; I5th; I883. John G. Owen; Clarkston; 6th; I86I, '62. * Layman B. Price; Lakeville; 5th; 1871, '72. Ebenezer Raynale; Franklin; 5th; 1835-6, '7. * Thaddeus D. Seeley; Pontiac; 12th; 1905, '07. Samuel W. Smith; Pontiac; i5th; 1885. * Byron G. Stout; Pontiac; 5th; I86i, '62. Loren L. Treat; Oxford; 5th; I865. Rowland E. Trowbridge; Birmingham; 5th; 1857, '8, '9. Stephen V. R. Trowbridge; Birmingham; 3d (1839, '40, 'I) (1842). Fred M. Warner; Farmington; i2th; 1895; '7, '8. * P. Dean Warner; Farmington; 5th; 1869, '70. * I. Roy Waterbury; Highland Station; I2th; 1903. *Elliott R. Wilcox; Pontiac; i8th; I877. 'Isaac Wixom; Farmington; 6th; 1842, '43. * David A. Wright; Taylorville; 5th; 1853. STATE REPRESENTATIVES Isaac Adams, Troy, Oakland county, 1838. Abran Allen, Commerce, Oakland county, 4th, 1865. * Also representative (see list). **To fill vacancy caused by resignation of Charles C. Hascall. '58). (i875). and 6th

Page  223 HISTORY O OF OAKLAND COUNTY 223 John L. Andrews, Milford, 3d, I87I, '72. Joseph Arnold, Lakeville, Oakland county, 1842. Seymour Arnold, Lakeville, Oakland county, I845. Andrew V. Austin, Milford, 2d, 1903, '05. Samuel Axford, Jr., Oxford, Oakland county, 1842. William Axford, Clarkston, Oakland county, 1850. Henry S. Babcock, Southfield, Oakland county, I842. Levi Bacon, Jr., Pontiac 2d, I857, '58. Francis Baker, Groveland, Oakland county, 1848. Augustus C. Baldwin, Milford, Oakland county, I844, '46. Charles Baldwin, Rochester and Pontiac, Oakland county (1846) and 3d (I879, '8, '2). Ezra P. Baldwin, Birmingham, Oakland county, I848. Hiram Barritt, Walled Lake, Oakland county, I846. James Bayley, Big Beaver, ist, I865. Uriah Beebe, Orion, Ist, I859. Friend Belding, Birmingham, Oakland county, 1849. George Blakeslee, Birmingham, 5th, I86I, '62. Eli H. Bristol, Commerce, 4th, 1853. Benjamin Brown, Walled Lake, 4th, I859. George Brownell, East Farmington, Oakland county, I835-36. Henry S. Buel, Franklin, 5th, 1859. Ahasuerus W. Buell, Holly, 3d, 1863. William Burbank, Rochester, Oakland county, I837. Delebar Burroughs, Fentonville, Oakland county, I850. John H. Button, Farmington, Oakland county, I840. Allen Campbell, Groveland, Oakland county, I875. Charles K. Carpenter, Orion, 2d, 1859. William E. Carpenter, Pontiac, 2d, 1883, '91, '2. Samuel Chamberlin, Pontiac, 2d, I855. Jonathan Chase, Royal Oak, Oakland county, 1839. Edwin G. Clark, Clarkston, Ist, I877. Elijah B. Clark, New Canandaigua, Oakland county, I847. Jeremiah Clark, Clarkston, Oakland county, 1839, '4I. Bela Cogshall, Holly, 2d, 1869, '70. Lewis M. Covert, Waterford Center, Oakland county, I85r. George D. Cowdin, Oxford, 2d, I907. William W. Crippen, Milford, 2d, 1893. Thomas Curtis, Kensington, Oakland county, 1841. John Davis, Birmingham, Oakland county, 1844, '46. Robert W. Davis, Oxford, Oakland county, 1849. Oliver P. Davison, Highland, Oakland county, I847. Jesse Decker, Orion, Oakland county, 1838, '39. Solomon W. Denton, Pontiac, Oakland county, 1848. * Peter Dow, Pontiac, 2d, I875. Peter Dox, Birmingham, Oakland county, I850. John Ellenwood, Pine Lake, Oakland county, I835-36. Francis W. Fifield, Pontiac, 2d, 1863, '64. * Also senator (see list).

Page  224 224 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Henry K. Foote, Walled Lake and Milford, Oakland county, (1837, '40) and 4th (1861, '62). Philip S. Frisbee, Davisburg, 3d, 1859. Almon B. Frost, Oakland, Ist, 1871, '2. William Gage, Holly, Oakland county, 1843. John Galloway, Waterford Center, Oakland county, I845. Samuel N. Gantt, Pontiac, Oakland county, 1838. James S. Gray, Troy, Ist, I883. David A. Green, Pontiac, ISt, 1909. John Hadley, Jr., Holly, 3d, i86I, '62. D. Judson Hammond, Pontiac, ist, I897, '98, '99, '00. Alfred H. Hanscom, Pontiac, Oakland county, 1842, '45. Seeley Harger, West Bloomfield, Oakland county, 1849. Haran Haskins, Pine Lake, Oakland county, I837. William H. Haze, Farmington, 5th, I857, '8, '63, '4. Cass E. Herrington, Pontiac, ISt, I887. Hiram Higley, Rochester, Oakland county, 1835, '36. David Hobart, Holly, 2d, I889. Joseph H. Holman, Rochester, Ist, I885. Sardis F. Hubbell, Milford, Oakland county, I85I. Augustus S. Johnson, Springfield, Oakland county, I845. Daniel F. Johnson, Groveland, Oakland county, I840. Alonzo S. Knapp, South Lyon, 2d, I873, '74. Elbridge G. Knowleton, Groveland, Oakland county, I844. Daniel S. Lee, Novi, Oakland county, I843. William E. Littell, Orion, Ist, I879, '8I, '2. John S. Livermore, Rochester, Oakland county, 1839, '42. Major F. Lockwood, Milford, Oakland county, 1849. Henry M. Look, Pontiac, 2d, I865. Thomas N. Loomis, Oxford, Oakland county, 1847. Almon Mack, Rochester, Oakland county, I848. Peter D. Makley, Oxford, Oakland county, I847. Robert W. Malcolm, Commerce, 2d, 1885. William R. Marsh, White Lake, 3d, I853. Harry N. McCracken, Farmington, Ist, 1905, '07. Thomas McGraw, Pontiac, Oakland county, I847. Henry Miller, Rochester, Ist, I853, '63, '4. Zebina M. Mowry, Milford, Oakland county, I848. *Johnson Niles, Troy, Oakland county, I835-36. John D. Norton, Pontiac, 3d, I875, '77. Nathan C. Parkhurst, Pontiac, Oakland county (1849) and 2d (I853). James Patterson, Fenton, Oakland county, I85I. Aaron Perry, Oakland, Ist, I873, '74. Nathan S. Philbrick, Farmington, Oakland county, I841. Orrin Poppleton, Birmingham, 5th, 1853. William Poppleton, Birmingham, Oakland county, I843. Nathan Power, Farmington, 5th, I855. Pliny Power, Oxford, Oakland county, I844. William A. Pratt, Franklin, Oakland county, 1843, '4, '5. *Also senator (see list).

Page  225 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 225 Jacob Price, Brandon, Oakland county, I850. Asa Reynolds, Rose, 3d, 1855. Origen D. Richardson, Pontiac, Oakland county, 1835-6, '4I. Squire W. Rowe, Highland, 3d, 1865. Harvey Seeley, Pontiac, Oakland county, 1843. Jesse Seeley, White Lake, Oakland county, I847. Morgan L. Smith, Milford, 4th, I855. Erastus Spaulding, Pontiac, 4th, 1867. Rollin Sprague, Rochester, Oakland county, 1840. Horace Stevens, Waterford, Oakland county, 1845. *Byron G. Stout, Troy, ist, I855, '7. Jefferson K. Tindall, Davisburg, 2d, 1887. Arthur R. Tripp, Pontiac, Ist, 1891, '2, '3. Hiram Voorheis, New Canandaigua, Oakland county, 1851. Isaac I. Voorheis, Pontiac, Oakland county, 1835-6, '48. Peter Voorheis, Pontiac, Ist, I895. Sebring Voorheis, White Lake, 4th, 1863, '64. George Vowles, New Hudson, 3d, I869, '70. * Daniel B. Wakefield, Springfield, Oakland county, I838. * P. Dean Warner, Farmington, Oakland county (1851), 5th (1865) and 3d (I867). * I. Roy Waterbury, Highland Station, 2d, 899'oo, 'oI. Alanson J. Webster, Pontiac, 2d, 1871, '72. James Webster, Groveland, Oakland county, I846. Marshall M. Welles, Kensington, Oakland county, I85o. John A. Wendell, Rose, Oakland county, 1842. Darwin O. White, Southfield, 4th, 1869, '70, 'I, '2. * Elliott R. Wilcox, Rochester, ist, I869, '70. George Willoughby, Clyde, 2d, I909. Jeremiah C. Wilson, Rochester, Ist, I867. George W. Wisner, Pontiac, Oakland county, I837. * Isaac Wixom, Farmington, Oakland county, I838, '39. * David A. Wright, Austin, Oakland county, 1849. Horatio Wright, Austin, 2d, I867. Herman A. Wyckoff, White Lake, 2d, i88r, '82. George Yerkes, Novi, 2d, 1879. William Yerkes, West Farmington and Northville, Oakland county (1837) and 4th (1857, '58). Elisha Zimmerman, Pontiac, 3d, 1873, '4. DISTURBANCES OF WAR ISSUES The various wars which have agitated the state since Oakland county was organized have caused political disturbances to a more or less degree. The Civil war was the only event of that kind, however, which became a real issue. In the cases of the "Toledo war" over the Michigan-Ohio boundary dispute, the home sentiment was unanimous in maintaining the contentions of the home state. The same statement applies * Also senator (see list).

Page  226 226 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY to the Mexican war, but it is well known that in Oakland county, as in all the northern states, there was a small but persistent element which fought the prosecution of the war a very few of its members going to an extent which bordered on disloyalty to the national government.

Page  227 CHAPTER XIX THE COUNTY SCHOOL SYSTEM BASIS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM-CENTRAL UNIVERSITY AND BRANCHES FIRST ACADEMIES IN OAKLAND COUNTY-HEADS OF THE COUNTY SYSTEM-REMAINS A PERPETUAL FUND —DUTIES OF THE TEACHER OF TODAY - STANDINGS REQUIRED - DISTRICT LIBRARIES - HIGH SCHOOL SCHOLARS-DISTRICT SCHOOLS OF THE COUNTY-PRESENT STATUS OF SCHOOLS. The county system of public schools is, of course, an integer of the greater system which originates in the state constitution and laws. For that reason, if for no other, a brief review of the legislation through which the splendid Michigan system has been developed is herewith given. BASIS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM The ordinance of 1787 for the government of the northwest territory contained the oft-quoted provision that "schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged," and the congressional act of I804 reserved from the sale of public lands section I6 in each township "for the support of schools." These acts were confirmed when Michigan became a territory in I805; but the first regular school law of the territory was not enacted until 1827, the year when the township form of government was fully established in Oakland county, as has been already described in chapter XII. By the provisions of that act the citizens of any township having fifty householders were obliged to provide themselves with a schoolmaster of good morals, to teach the children to read and write; and a township containing two hundred householders was obliged to have a schoolmaster who could teach Latin, French and English. Neglect to comply with these provisions made the people of the township liable to a fine of from fifty to one hundred and fifty dollars. In 1833 the law was passed which created the office of superintendent of public schools, and provided for three commissioners and ten inspectors to take charge of the school lands, which had by the congressional act of 1828 been under the control of the governor and territorial council. As it often happened that school section 16 was under water, or otherwise almost valueless, when Michigan was admitted into the Union in January, 1837, provision was made for securing land which Vol. I-1 5 227

Page  228 228 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY might be of some real advantage to the school fund-the ordinance by which it became a state declaring that "section No. I6 in every township of the public lands (and where such section has been sold or otherwise disposed of, other lands equivalent thereto, and as contiguous as may be) shall be granted to the state for the use of schools." This provision also greatly simplified the work of managing the school lands and the accruing fund. One great advantage of this plan has been that all sections of the state shared equally and at once in the benefits of this general fund. The loss in consequence of poor sections was shared by the whole state. CENTRAL UNIVERSITY AND BRANCHES The act of congress of I804 for the disposal of the public lands of the northwest territory reserved three townships for the use of seminaries of learning, and one of these townships was for that part of the territory now constituting the state of Michigan. In 1817 three sections were granted to the College of Detroit. The proceeds of this last grant were afterward added to the university fund, which was established by legislative act in 1837. This not only provided for the founding of the State University, but for the establishment of several branches, one of which was at Pontiac. This branch was opened on the I5th of September, I837, under the principalship of Professor George P. Williams. The magnificent plan of Judge Woodward for a grand central university, with branches at various localities throughout the state, was tested and found wanting. Its principal drawback was that which incumbered most of his plans; they were too large for the times and the available funds. The last appropriation for the maintenance of the branches was made by the legislature of I846. FIRST ACADEMIES IN OAKLAND COUNTY Two academies were incorporated in Oakland county in territorial times-the first at Auburn village, under an act approved March 2, I83I, with Benjamin Phelps, S. V. R. Trowbridge, Elizur Goodrich, Ezra S. Park, Reuben Woodford, Seth Beach and George Hornell as trustees. The Pontiac Academy, the second institution of the kind, was incorporated by territorial act of April 23, 1833, and its original trustees were Samuel Sherwood, Hervey Parke, Olmstead Chamberlin, Amasa Andrews and William Thompson. With the advent of the state public school system these academies and various private and select schools disappeared, since which the people of Oakland county, in common with those of the entire commonwealth, have depended with ever increasing appreciation upon the system provided by the state. HEADS OF THE COUNTY SYSTEM The county superintendency of schools was established by legislative act of I866-7, and continued until it was abolished in I875. In April, 1867, -Charles Hurd was elected and served until September of that

Page  229 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 229 year, when he resigned and Philip M. Parker was appointed in his place, serving the balance of the two-years term. In April, I869, William Littell was elected, but did not qualify and Mr. Parker was reappointed. The latter resigned in September, I870, and a Mr. Wilbur was appointed to fill his term. Johnson A. Corbin was elected in April, 1871, reelected in April, 1873, and served until the repeal of the law in 1875. A law was then enacted creating the office of township school superintendent, giving Oakland county twenty-five, each supreme within his jurisdiction. REMAINS A "PERPETUAL FUND" Section II, of Article XI, of the I909 constitution, is as follows: "The proceeds form the sales of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to the state for educational purposes and the proceeds of all lands or other property given by individuals or appropriated by the state for like purposes shall be and remain a perpetual fund, the interest and income of which, together with the rents of all such lands as may remain unsold, shall be inviolably appropriated and annually applied to the specific objects of the original gift, grant or appropriation." The original constitution of the state also required that the proceeds derived from the sale of the school lands should remain a prepetual educational fund. The county school commissioner is now at the head of the system. Since 1877 the management of the schools of Oakland county has been in the hands of Elmer R. Webster, Harry H. Snowdon, Harry S. Elliott and Abram L. Craft (present incumbent). No section of the state has made more substantial advancement in superior and practical developments of its system of public education than this; and the very mention of these names is a forcible explanation for the solid work accomplished during the past thirty-five years. DUTIES OF THE TEACHER OF TODAY What is expected of the teacher of today in the Oakland county schools is well put in the last "directory" issued by Commissioner Craft, under the head "Duties of Teachers." I. It is the duty of the teacher to place upon the blackboard or wall, within three days after the beginning of school, a program of the daily work, giving the time of each recitation. 2. The teacher should practice such discipline as would be exercised by a wise parent in a well governed home; being always firm, but prudent. 3. Use good judgment in teaching the pupils to be neat and orderly at all times. 4. Insist upon having order in the room during the recess interval as well as during school hours. 5. Teach pupils the principles of morality and virtue and impress upon their minds the value and care of school property. 6. Keep the school room comfortably warm and well ventilated.

Page  230 230 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 7. Have plenty of "busy seat work" for young pupils when not in recitations. 8. Encourage the Eighth Grade pupils; give them frequent reviews in all studies and insist upon thorough advance work. STANDINGS REQUIRED The following standings are required in Oakland county by the board of school examiners: First grade certificates, 85 per cent average, 75 per cent minimum. Second grade certificates, 85 per cent average; 70 per cent minimum. Third grade certificates, 80 per cent average, 65 per cent minimum. A standing of not less than 75 per cent is required in arithmetic, grammar, orthography and spelling for all grades of certificates. Eighth grade, average 80 per cent; 65 per cent minimum. Applicants not known to any member of the board must furnish letters of recommendation. Teachers holding certificates issued by other authority than the county board of school examiners, must promptly file the same in the office of the commissioner of schools to become legally qualified teachers. A male teacher is required to pay an annual fee of one dollar and a female teacher an annual fee of fifty cents, to the director or secretary of the board at time of contracting providing such fee has not been previously paid within the current year, and no teacher is legally qualified until such fee is paid. The growing sentiment among school officers and patrons of school districts in favor of teachers who have had some preparation besides high school to begin their work in the school room, has caused the board of school examiners to adopt the recommendation of the superintendent of public instruction, that applicants for third grade certificates should attend the Ypsilanti Summer School, the Ferris Institute, or some equivalent school. DISTRICT LIBRARIES School district libraries are provided for in Sections 4757 to 4764 of the school laws. Any district, by a two-thirds vote of all the qualified voters present at an annual meeting, may establish a district library. When so established the district is entitled to such a share of the fine moneys, apportioned by the state superintendent through the county treasurer to the township, as the number of children of school age in the district bears to the whole number of children in the township. The district board has charge of the library, may appoint a librarian other than the director. The librarian must report annually to the state librarian through the commissioner of schools. The director must report the library in his annual report to the superintendent of public instruction in order to enable the district to draw its share of the fine moneys. The law provides that the director shall purchase a case for library books, and the library should be kept at the school house.

Page  231 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 231 There is no reason why every school district in the state should not maintain a library, and it is hoped that school officers and teachers will make a strenuous effort to provide this means of culture for the children placed under their care. HIGH SCHOOL SCHOLARS All eighth grade scholars who have passed the eighth grade county examination and received diplomas may enter any of the three nearest high schools and their tuition must be paid by their district. Provided, that the parent or legal guardian of such children must notify the officers of their district of their intention to send their children to a specified high school on or before the fourth Monday in June. The amount of such tuition cannot exceed twenty dollars per year. Surplus primary money may be used to pay tuition, and the school board may vote a tax for the payment of transportation of such children. DISTRICT SCHOOLS OF THE COUNTY The district schools included in the public school system of Oakland county are as follows: Addison township-Brewer, Leonard, Lakeville, Kingsbury, National and Arnold schools. Avon township-Stony Creek, Wilcox, Frank, Hamlin, Rochester, Brewster, Ross, Hubbell, Christian Hill, Graham and Stiles schools. Bloomfield township-Birmingham, Bloomfield Hills, Hickory Grove, Linton, Gilbert Lake, Hammond, Tuscarora, Wing Lake and Bartlett schools. Brandon township-Seymour Lake, Oak Hill, Union, Brandon Center and Ortonville schools. Commerce township-Plains, Walled Lake, Sugden, Stephens, Sleeth, Union, Burch, Killam, Wixom, Jones, Commerce and Patten schools. Farmington township-Coleman, German, Nichols, Green, Thayer, Fair View, West Farmington, Farmington, Clarenceville and Noble schools. Groveland township-Algoe, Stone, Campbell, Groveland Center, Cottage and Bird schools. Highland township-Hickory Ridge, Clyde, Excelsior, Highland Station and Grub schools. Holly township-Stony Run, Belford, Five Points, Olive Branch, Holly, Patterson, Willover and Traphagan schools. Independence township-Sashabaw, Clarkston, Bailey Lake, Hunter and Bigelow schools. Lyon township-Kensington, Wood, Wilson, Blackwood, Smith, New Hudson, Bullard and South Lyon schools. Milford township-Town Line, Foote, Bird, Milford, Stone, Tuck) Taylor, Welch, Pickett and Hale schools. Novi township-Bassett, East Novi, Stone, West Novi, Yerkes, Chapman, Novi, Griswold and Sanford schools. Oakland township-Snell, Goodison, Kline, Brush, Eaton and Carpenter schools.

Page  232 232 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Orion township-Howarth, Clark, Orion, Shanghai, Prospect, Bigler, Wilson, Proper and Block schools. Oxford township-North Oxford, Oakwood, East Travis, Oxford, Town Corners and West Travis schools. Pontiac township-Amy, Shattuck, Stanley, Kemp, Ball Mountain, Five Points, Phillips and Hallstead schools. Rose township-Seaver, Craft, Jones, Stone, Rose Corners, Rose Center and Pioneer schools. Royal Oak township-Parker, Starr, Clinton, Lamphere, Stumpf, Royal Oak, Baker, Hazel Park and Porter schools. Southfield township-Franklin, Bingham, Erity, Jackson, Beddow, Angling, McKinley, Brace, Klett and Southfield. Springfield township-Springfield Plains, Brondige, Davisburg, Andersonville, Springfield, Covell and Austin schools. Troy township-Troy Fractional, Troy, Leonard, Smith, Coleran, Big Beaver, Log Cabin, Poppleton and Stone schools. Waterford township-Elizabeth Lake, Four Towns, Covert, Waterford Center, Clarkston Station, Clintonville, Drayton Plains, Wyckoff and Waterford schools. West Bloomfield-Eagle, Scotch, Pennell, Pine Lake, Hosner, Green and Walnut Lake schools. White Lake township-Webster, Granger, White Lake Center, Gibson, Fair, Thompson, Dublin and White Lake schools. PRESENT STATUS OF SCHOOLS Commissioner Craft's annual report to the state board of education was filed in July, I912, the Pontiac city schools not being included in the figures given. From this document it appears that the entire census enrollment in the county is 11,968, with an average school attendance of 8,378. The total number of teachers employed, including Pontiac city, is 408, while the whole number of legally qualified teachers in the county is 424, showing that all but I6 are employed. The school commissioner made 340 visits from September I5th to June I5th, 20 schools were visited twice. Fifty-five inexperienced teachers were added to the force during the year. The amount of fees collected and credited to the teachers' institute fund is the largest ever known in the county to date, being $506, after paying for expenses of the teachers' mid-winter institute and the summer school at Ypsilanti. The total amount paid the teachers is $I 16,ooo00, leaving a surplus of $I9,65I.37 primary money. There are 285 female teachers employed receiving $92,140 or an average salary of $32.33 a month, while 32 male teachers receive for the same length of term, $19,460, or an average monthly salary of $62. The above average includes superintendents and principals of all high schools outside of Pontiac city. The districts raise for general expenses, $45,192, or $4 per capita. There is a surplus library fund of $2,228.85. All but 58 schools in the county maintain libraries. The township of Lyon has no surplus primary money on hand, while the township of Royal Oak has $3,514.76. Three districts in the county have enough primary money on hand

Page  233 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 233 to run their school for two years. Four districts closed their schools during the past year and paid tuition to adjoining districts. There are 334 eighth grade pupils in the county exclusive of the graded schools, of this number I92 received diplomas at the May examination and will enter the high schools, being eligible to free tuition from their respective districts. The number of districts supplied with maps, charts, globes and dictionaries is I92, while 140 have flags and IIo have wells as required by law. There are no districts in the county furnishing free text-books. Three public examinations were held during the year and I65 teachers and 3II eighth grade pupils attended the same; 115 certificates were issued to teachers and I92 diplomas granted to eighth grade pupils. There are in the county Ioo state normal graduates, 63 county normal graduates and 12 who hold state life and University of Michigan certificates and 25 who have city certificates. All but 20 schools in the county have a uniform series of text-books, following an adopted course of study as prescribed by the commissioner, and 25 districts have a regular course of study adopted by the school board_ Not a district in the county has lost its primary money in two years through neglect of directors or school commissioners. Oakland county, through careful management, is one of the first to file reports with the state department, and no report has ever been rejected by the state.

Page  234 CHAPTER XV MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION FIRST OAKLAND COUNTY HIGHWAY-OTHER ROADS ESTABLISHED-IMPROVEMENT OF THE CLINTON RIVER-FIRST MICHIGAN RAILWAY CHARTERED-DETROIT & PONTIAC RAILROAD COMPANY-FINALLY COMPLETED TO BIRMINGHAM —DETROIT & MILWAUKEE RAILWAY COMPANY —ESTABLISHMENT OF PRESENT SYSTEMS-COMING OF ELECTRIC LINES-THE GRAND TRUNK SYSTEM,-THE MICHIGAN CENTRAL-PERE MARQUETTE RAILROAD-DETROIT UNITED RAILWAYSUMMARY. It was not until the late 'twenties that the roads which brought immigrants to Oakland county from north and south were sufficiently established to encourage settlement. The military road begun by Colonel Leavenworth in 1817, started from Detroit and followed the old Indian trail to Saginaw. Previous to I8I9 this highway had been completed about three miles, besides "corduroyed" several additional miles. What manner of road it was, has been already told by Capt. Hervey Parke, the surveyor, and other early comers into this region by way of Detroit. FIRST OAKLAND COUNTY HIGHWAY An act to establish a road along the Detroit-Saginaw route was passed December 7, 1818, and the following proclamation by Governor Cass completed the legislation relating to it: "Whereas, by virtue of the provisions of an act of this territory passed the 7th day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighteen, entitled 'An act to establish a certain road,' the governor was empowered to lay out and make a public highway and road mentioned therein, and to appoint three commissioners for carrying the said act into effect; and whereas, John Hunt, Ezra Baldwin and Levi Cook, Esquires, commissioners as aforesaid, did, on the I3th day of December instant, transmit to me their report upon the subject of the said road; "Now, therefore, by virtue of said act and in conformity with the said report, I do lay out the following as a public road or highway namely: Commencing at the center of the military square in Woodward avenue, in the city of Detroit, and running along said avenue to Witherell street, and thence with Witherell street to the commencement of the 234

Page  235 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 235 space of one hundred feet between lots 56 and 57, in Fletcher's plan of the survey of the tract of land granted by the act of congress passed April 2I, I806, and entitled (an act to provide for the adjustment of the titles of land in the town of Detroit and territory of Michigan, and for other purposes); thence along the said space of one hundred feet and, with the course thereof, through the said tract; then thence westwardly on the road which was opened and cut by the troops of the United States to the termination thereof; thence westwardly to a large oak tree standing on the right of the Saginaw trail, so-called, and within a short distance of the same, the said tree being marked with the letter H; thence westwardly in a direct line as surveyed and marked by Horatio Ball, to the main street in the village of Pontiac, and thence along said street to the termination; and the line surveyed as aforesaid is to be the center of the road. "In testimony whereof I have caused the seal of the said territory to be hereunto affixed. Given under my hand at Detroit, this fifteenth day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and nineteen. "LEWIS CASS. "By the Governor: "WILLIAM WOODBRIDGE, "Secretary of Michigan Territory." This road, originally commenced by Colonel Leavenworth, was extended from time to time, under various acts of legislation by the territorial government, until it reached a point some six miles beyond the present city of Flint, about 1834. It was cut out of the width of one hundred feet through its whole course and graded to a width of eighty feet. Subsequent to the admission of Michigan as a state, it was worked by the various counties through which it passes until it became a splendid turnpike. OTHER ROADS ESTABLISHED By act of July 23, 1828, a road was ordered laid out from the northeast corner of Oakland county, running south along the county line until it intersected the Detroit and Pontiac turnpike. Under the same act a road commencing at the bridge over the Clinton river in Pontiac and running along the north side of Pine lake, the east side of Orchard lake and the north side of Walled lake, was also ordered. The council act approved March 4, 1831, ordered a road laid from Pontiac southwest to a point on the road between Monroe and Ypsilanti; that of June 26, 1832, one running from section I8 in Southfield township to Detroit; and the acts of April 4 and April 20, 1833, authorized thoroughfares from Bloomfield west to the Pontiac and Monroe road and from the same point, through Auburn, to Flint. Nearly all of these roads were afterwards substantially graded and graveled. The legislative records show, however, that the act of ISIg ordering the Detroit and Pontiac turnpike was not fully carried out; for in June, I822, another act was passed by the council authorizing the governor to appoint three commissioners to establish a road from Detroit via Pontiac, to Saginaw, or the Saginaw river. Again, an act approved

Page  236 236 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY / August 5, 1824, incorporating the Pontiac and Paint Creek Turnpike Company, named the following as the incorporators: John R. Williams, Daniel LeRoy, Peter I. Desnoyers, William Thompson, Solomon Sibley, Amasa Bagley, James McCloskey, David Sauard, Benjamin Woodworth, Jonathan Kearsley, Johnson Niles, David C. McKinstry, Thomas Palmer, Cyrus Chipman and Olmstead Chamberlain. This turnpike was to extend from a point three miles from the Detroit river on the present road, by the most practicable route via Royal Oak to the courthouse in Pontiac, with a branch from Royal Oak to a point on Paint creek to be fixed by the commissioners. The corporation stock was fixed at $200,000, divided into eight hundred equal shares. Jamtes McCloskey, Daniel LeRoy and Johnson Niles were appointed commissioners to receive subscriptions. This was a toll-road, with two gatesone near Detroit and the other within half a mile of where the Paint creek branch commenced. The contrast of the old and the more modern roads, noted in the following paragraph written thirty-five years ago is further intensified by the many improvements made in the thoroughfares of the county within the intervening period: "The contrast between the smooth turnpike-roads of the present day, upon which an ordinary roadster can easily make eight miles an hour, and the bridle paths and subsequent 'corduroys,' where the speed was seldom more than one or two miles per hour, is indeed wonderful. The first twelve miles from Detroit on the Saginaw trail was nearly an impenetrable swamp, covered with heavy timber and so level that the water stood upon the surface a greater part of the year. Many a venturesome pioneer, who had perhaps found his way from New York or New England, has had the last atom of faith in the new country taken from him in this indescribable morass." IMPROVEMENT OF THE CLINTON RIVER The difficulties of transporting persons and goods over the early roads projected between Detroit, Flint, Saginaw and Pontiac, naturally drew attention to the waterways which connected the interior with the lake regions. The valley of the Clinton river was thought to be especially feasible as an outlet for the products of Oakland county and an inlet for goods and settlers, and the improvement of that stream was pushed so persistently that the legislative council of the territory passed an act, which was approved by the governor April 17, 1827, incorporating the Clinton River Navigation Company. Specifically, it was incorporated "for the purpose of removing obstructions from the Clinton river, and making such river navigable for boats from the village of Mount Clemens to Mack's lower mills in the county of Oakland." The length of this proposed improvement was about thirty miles and it was calculated that it would afford invaluable shipping facilities to a large extent of rich agricultural country. It was the first incorporated company of the kind in the territory, and but for the advent of railways would undoubtedly have been a success. The incorporators of this company were Nathaniel Millard, Jonathan Kearsley, Levi Cook, Charles Lamed, Ellis Doty, John R. Sheldon, Christian Clemens, Alfred

Page  237 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 237 Ashley, Jacob Tucker, Ignace Morass and Joseph Hayes. Under the act of incorporation, the company was required to clear out the river to the east line of Oakland county. The work was to commence, at latest, by July I, 1827, and when the stream had been made navigable for flatbottomed boats the company could collect toll not exceeding fifty cents per ton for the entire distance and a proportionate rate for a less distance. Parties owning water-power on the river below the east line of Oakland county were required to construct locks at every dam sufficient for the passage of the company's boats. The river above the said line was declared by the act of incorporation a public highway, but persons owning land extending across the river had the right to construct dams for water-power purposes by putting in the necessary locks, or the company could construct them at the expense of the parties owning the lands. The improvements were finally completed as far as Rochester, a portion of the state loan of $5,ooo,ooo being appropriated therefor. Business was carried on to a small extent for a number of years, but the enterprise was never a prosperous one. FIRST MICHIGAN RAILWAY CHARTERED In the meantime the subject of railways had become an earnest subject of discussion and even an object of legislation. Oakland county has, in fact, the honor of inducing the legislative council of the territory to incorporate the first railway company chartered in Michigan; that event occurring July 31, I830, when Governor Cass approved the act conferring a charter on the Pontiac and Detroit Railway Company. Its original incorporators were John P. Helfenstein, Gideon O. Whittemore, William F. Moseley, William Thompson and Hervey Parke, "and such other persons as shall associate for the purpose of making a good and sufficient railway from Pontiac to the city of Detroit." Nothing practical was done under this charter. DETROIT & PONTIAC RAILROAD COMPANY A second company was formed and a new charter obtained, which was approved by the governor March 7, I834. Under this act William Draper, Daniel LeRoy, David Stanard, Johnson Miles, Seneca Newberry, Elisha Beach, Benjamin Phelps, Joseph Niles, Jr., and Augustus C. Stephens, were appointed commissioners to receive subscriptions to the stock of the Detroit & Pontiac Railroad Company, the amount of which was fixed at one thousand shares at $50 per share. The company was vested with the power to construct a single or double track, but the work was to be commenced within two years from the passage of the act and completed within six years, or otherwise the rights, privileges and powers of the corporation were to become null and void. The principal stockholders and managers of the new railroad company were Alfred Williams and Sherman Stevens of Pontiac, and their control continued until I840. But as they gave more attention to "wild cat banking" than to the Detroit & Pontiac Railway, the progress of the

Page  238 238 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY "iron horse" was slow and often balky; and, although the bank was an offshoot of the railway, the tail really wagged the horse. FINALLY COMPLETED TO BIRMINGHAM In 1839 the line was finally completed to Birmingham, and in September of that year Henry J. Buckley, agent and conductor, put forth an advertisement in the county papers announcing two trips a day to Birmingham, the cars running in connection with "post coaches" to Pontiac and Flint, together with a semi-weekly line to Grand river. Wooden rails and horse power were the features of the earliest period of the road. In I840 the Detroit & Pontiac Railroad was bid in by several eastern creditors, and was completed to Pontiac in I843. At this time it was owned by various Syracuse capitalists, who leased it for ten years to Gurdon Williams, but in 1848 it came into possession of a company headed by H. N. Walker and N. P. Stewart. The former was elected president, negotiated bonds for a sufficient amount to relay the track, and the enterprise was taken permanently out of the class of "laughing stocks," in which it heretofore had figured. DETROIT & MILWAUKEE RAILWAY COMPANY The Oakland & Ottawa Railroad Company was chartered on the 3d of April, 1848. This enterprise was also carried along through the persistency and good management of Mr. Walker. Work was actually commenced in 1852 and in the following year that gentleman went to Europe and succeeded in purchasing twenty-six hundred tons of rails with which the track was laid to Fentonville, in the southeastern corner of Genesee county near the Oakland county line, fifty miles northwest of Detroit. This point was not reached until October 2, I855, the Detroit & Pontiac and the Oakland & Ottawa railroads having been consolidated in the preceding February under the name of the Detroit & Milwaukee Railway Company. This afterward became a section of what is now known as the Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee Railway, the main line of the Grand Trunk system in Michigan. ESTABLISHMENT OF PRESENT SYSTEMS The Flint & Pere Marquette Railway was completed from Holly to Flint in 1862, and the Holly, Wayne & Monroe line was finished in I870. The two were afterward consolidated under the name of the Flint & Pere Marquette Railway (now Pere Marquette Railroad). The Detroit & Bay City road (now a part of the Michigan Central) was completed through Oakland county in I872. The Pontiac, Oxford & Northern Railroad (now a part of the Grand Trunk System) was a product of the late seventies, but the line was not fully completed to Port Austin, on the Lake Huron shore, eightyfour miles, until November, 1883. For twenty-five years it had a checkered career, and in March, I908, was sold at auction by judicial

Page  239 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 239 decree. R. J. Lounsbury acted as receiver of the road for some time before its acquisition by the Grand Trunk management. COMING OF ELECTRIC LINES On November 5, I889, an ordinance was passed through the city council granting the Pontiac & Orchard Lake Railroad Company permission to construct its lines along certain thoroughfares; the routes thus laid down were changed in several details before the system was completed, which has given the city (now owned by the Detroit United Railway) such excellent service. Under the ordinance all locomotion by steam was debarred within the city limits, and the fare within such limits fixed at five cents per individual. When the Detroit & Northwestern Railway Company built its line from Detroit to Orchard Lake, in I890, it purchased the Pontiac & Orchard Lake Railway, which gave that corporation a complete route to the county seat and metropolis. In 1902 the Detroit United Railway commenced that process of absorbtion by which it acquired all the interests of the Detroit & Northwestern, as well as of the Detroit & Pontiac Railroad, and obtained a virtual monopoly of the electric service within Oakland county. THE GRAND TRUNK SYSTEM Of the steam railways, the three lines included in the Grand Trunk System furnish Oakland county with its most complete facilities for transportation. Generally speaking, they pass diagonally through its territory, crossing and centering at Pontiac. The main line, known as the Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee Railway, runs diagonally through the county from Royal Oak to Holly, passing through Royal Oak, Bloomfield, Pontiac (southwest corner), Waterford (northeast corner), Independence (southwest corner), Springfield, Rose (northeast corner), and Holly (southwest corner) townships, and including the following stations: Royal Oak, Birmingham, Pontiac, Drayton Plains, Waterford, Windiate Park, Clarkston, Davisburg and Holly. There are about forty miles of the Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee line within the county, following being the distances between the stations: Royal Oak to Birmingham, 5 miles; to Pontiac, 8; to Drayton Plains, 5; to Waterford, 2; to Windiate Park, I; to Clarkston, I; to Davisburg, 7; to Holly, 5. Commencing at South Lyon, in the southwestern corner of the county, the Michigan Air Line division of the Grand Trunk runs in a northeasterly direction, twenty-five miles to Pontiac, and thence eight miles to Rochester near the eastern county line. The stations along the way are South Lyon, New Hudson, Wixom, Walled Lake, Orchard Lake, Sylvan Lake, Pontiac, Almy and Rochester. The line passes through Lyon, Milford (southeast corner), Commerce and West Bloomfield townships. The Pontiac, Oxford & Northern branch of the Grand Trunk System takes a northerly direction from the county seat, as its name indicates, traversing Pontiac, Orion, Oxford and Addison townships, and embracing these stations: Pontiac, Eames, Cole, Oxford, Shoup and

Page  240 240 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Leonard. It includes twenty-one miles within the county, the direction from Pontiac to Oxford being almost due north; then to Leonard, east by north. In November, I907, the Grand Trunk completed a convenient passenger depot, and within the succeeding four years is said to have expended something like $400,000 within the city limits. This sum included the extension of its trackage and the erection of buildings, the latter including a large freight house which alone cost $Ioo,ooo and was put in commission during the latter part of I9II. THE MICHIGAN CENTRAL Seventeen miles of the Bay City division of the Michigan Central Railroad runs through the northeastern townships of the county from Rochester to Thomas, the station beyond Oxford, including Orion and Goodison's in its route. PERE MARQUETTE RAILROAD The western townships of Oakland county are accommodated by the Pere Marquette Railroad. Its branch from Detroit to Grand Rapids runs along the southwest corner of Lyon township, with South Lyon as a station, while the branch from Toledo to Ludington traverses Novi, Commerce (extreme southwest corner), Milford, Highland, Rose and Holly townships. The latter branch embraces as stations, Novi, Wixom, Milford, Highland, Clyde, Rose Center and Holly, and furnishes the county with thirty-two miles of railway. DETROIT UNITED RAILWAY After the Grand Trunk System, the Detroit United (Electric) Railway is the most important transportation agent of Oakland county; and in the points of frequency of running and convenience of stoppage it has the advantage of the steam railway. Perhaps the most important sections covered by the electric lines are those in the southeastern, southern and central portions of the county, which are not well accommodated by the steam railways. Within the city of Pontiac they not only give easy access to the business and manufacturing sections of the city, but to the homes in the northern and western sides and the Pontiac State Hospital. The Flint division of the Detroit United runs through Royal Oak, Clawson, Big Beaver, Rochester, Lake Orion Junction and Goodison, to Orion and Oxford; thence to Ortonville, in the northern part of the county. Its general course is north to Rochester and thence northwest to Ortonville, and it covers about fifty-five miles of trackage. The Orchard Lake division of the Detroit United runs from Farmington to Pontiac, fifteen miles, taking in its course Orchard, Cass and Sylvan lakes, and the cream of the summer resort region in the central sections of the county. The Pontiac division covers the fourteen miles

Page  241 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 241 between Pontiac and Royal Oak, and runs southeast from the county seat through Bloomfield Hills and Birmingham. SUMMARY To condense: The Grand Trunk System embraces sixty-one miles of continuous road (including Pontiac, Oxford & Northern, twenty-one miles) in Oakland county; Michigan Air Line, twenty-five miles; Pere Marquette Railroad, twenty-five miles; Michigan Central, seventeen miles; Detroit United Railway, eighty-four miles. Total, two hundred and twelve miles. FIRST CAR INTO ROCHESTER

Page  242 CHAPTER XVI BANKS AND BANKING OAKLAND COUNTY'S FIRST BANK-THE "WILD-CAT" BANKS-ONE "SAFETY FUND" BANK-NATIONAL BANKS IN THE COUNTY-THE STATE BANKS-PONTIAC SAVINGS BANK-THE OAKLAND COUNTY SAVINGS BANK-FIRST COMMERCIAL BANK OF PONTIAC-THE AMERICAN SAVINGS BANK-FIRST STATE SAVINGS BANK OF BIRMINGHAMFARMINGTON EXCHANGE BANK-ROCHESTER SAVINGS BANK-HOLLY SAVINGS BANKS —FARMERS' STATE BANK OF OXFORD-ROYAL OAK SAVINGS BANK-THE ORION STATE BANK-STATE SAVINGS BANK OF SOUTH LYON. In consideration of its population and undeveloped condition in the late thirties, Oakland county had its full share of experience in "wild-cat banking," and all that the expression implies. As in other sections of Michigan, the banks of that period were largely the mediums through which it was excepted to develop the canal and railroad enterprises included in the grand state scheme of internal improvements. The proposed improvements were ahead of the times and far in advance of the available funds to carry them out; and when the railroads and other improvements flattened out, in their initial stages, the banks went with them. OAKLAND COUNTY'S FIRST BANK The first bank of issue established in Oakland county was the Bank of Pontiac, which was established on a franchise of the Detroit & Pontiac Railroad Company and authorized by the charter of that corporation approved March 26, I835, which allowed the incorporators, or their successors, to found a bank of issue under the foregoing name, with a capital of $Ioo,ooo. The books for the subscription to the capital stock of the bank were opened on the 26th of May, 1835, in Pontiac, and the whole amount, less $Io,ooo, taken, and the required ten per cent in cash paid in during the same day. Banknotes were shortly afterward put into circulation. During the suspension of specie payments, in the panic of 1837, the Bank of Pontiac redeemed its bills in specie for a time, after all the other banks in the state had suspended. It finally collapsed, was revived for a short period by Joseph Dows and E. B. Comstock, and then really died. 242

Page  243 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 243 THE "WILD-CAT" BANKS The general banking law of 1837, which specifically produced the "wild-cat" system, brought six failures to the banks of Oakland county. The first was founded in July of that year and was called the Bank of Oakland. It had a capital of $50,ooo, and its board of directors was as follows: Daniel LeRoy, president; G. O. Whittemore, cashier; Schuyler Hodges, C. C. Hascall, Amasa Bagley, Olmstead Chamberlain, G. W. Williams and Francis Darrow, directors. This was soon followed by another called the Farmers' & Mechanics' Bank, with a capital of $50,ooo, of which Schuyler Hodges was president, G. W. Williams, cashier; and G. O. Whittemore, teller. In December, 1837, the Clinton Canal Bank was established with the same amount of capital-William S. Stevens, president, and Alfred Treadway, cashier. In the early part of 1838 the Farmers' Bank of Oakland and the Bank of Auburn, each capitalized at $50,ooo, were established, and at once proceeded to pour into the market their promises to pay, which the good citizens trustfully received as real money. But the circulatory power of the "wild-cat" banks proved to be of short duration, as they all suspended payment in 1838, on the decision of the supreme court relieving the stockholders from any liability touching the redemption of the bank bills. The Clinton Canal Bank was reported in good standing with the state institutions in June, 1838, but in October it was enjoined against further operations, and S. Beach appointed receiver. The Farmers' & Mechanics' Bank failed July 9, I838, William Draper being appointed receiver therefor, and others were wound up shortly afterward. Samuel York, at Lee, was the receiver of the Farmers' Bank of Oakland. ONE "SAFETY FUND" BANK The Safety Fund system produced only one bank-the Oakland County-which was chartered April 28, I836, and on the 2d of December, 1842, called in ten per cent of the stock, being the first business done. In August, I843, F. A. Williams was president and in October Norman Rawson was cashier. The real owner and operator of the bank, however, was Wesley Truesdell, who also owned the Monroe Bank, which he removed to Detroit. The Oakland County Bank suspended in 1846, after it had succeeded in getting out a large amount of circulation in Detroit, and its charter was repealed in the following year. No other banks of issue were established in the county until the national banks were founded under the national banking law. NATIONAL BANKS IN THE COUNTY The First National Bank of Pontiac was organized April 29, I864, with a capital of $50,00o. W. H. Perry was elected its first president, but never qualified; Theron A. Flower was also elected and immediately resigned; and in July E. B. Comstock was chosen to head the directors. Charles R. Durand was the first cashier. Vol. I —1 6

Page  244 244 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY The Second National Bank, which was established September I, 1865, was the predecessor of the Pontiac Savings Bank, and the First National Bank of Holly, founded in December, 1870, preceded the First State Savings Bank of that place. There are now two national banks in the county, both young-the First National of Rochester, organized in 1908, and the First National of Birmingham, established in I910. In 1887 Almeron Whitehead and George H. Mitchell founded a private bank in Birmingham. Under the name Exchange Bank its business continuously developed into one of the leading institutions of the kind in Oakland county. On the 9th of November, I9Io, this was merged into the First National Bank of Birmingham, of which Mr. Whitehead is president; Eugene Brooks vice president, and Minnie T. Jarvis, cashier. Mr. Mitchell and Volney Nixon are also directors. The last available statement of the bank indicates a capital stock of $25,000; surplus and undivided profits, $8,223.61; deposits, $278,215.70. The First National Bank of Rochester is one of the comparatively new financial institutions in this part of the county, its organization having been effected on September 24, 1908. It has prospered most creditably in the time that has elapsed since then, and is able to make a most satisfactory showing among the banks of the county. The original officers of the concern were John C. Day, president; C. S. (hapman, vice-president; Frank E. Hale, vice-president; M. H. Haselswerdt, cashier. The president and cashier remain the same. The bank has a capital stock of $50,oo0; surplus and profits, $8,094.96; deposits, $365,789.97, according to their official report rendered to the comptroller of the currency on April I8, 1912. THE STATE BANKS According to the last list of state banks compiled for the Michigan Manual of 1911, Oakland county has the following of this class: First State Savings Bank of Birmingham. Farmington Exchange Bank. Citizens' Savings Bank of Holly. First State Savings Bank, Holly. Citizens' State Savings Bank, Orion. Orion State Bank. Farmers' State Bank, Oxford. Oxford Savings Bank. American Savings Bank, Pontiac. First Commercial Bank, Pontiac. Oakland County Savings Bank, Pontiac. Pontiac Savings Bank. Rochester Savings Bank. Royal Oak Savings Bank. State Savings Bank, South Lyon. Sketches of the banks now doing business in Oakland county follow, and they are institutions in which the entire community takes solid pride. All suspicion of. the "wild-cat" element has been eradicated from them

Page  245 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 245 years ago, and they stand for the substantial advancement and the present prosperity of Oakland county. PONTIAC SAVINGS BANK The Pontiac Savings Bank, one of the leading financial institutions in Oakland county, was organized in I898, with a capital stock of $50,000.00. It was organized to succeed the Pontiac National Bank, the latter having been the successor of the Second National Bank, founded in September, I865. The subscribers to the capital stock of the Second National Bank, fixed at $Ioo,ooo, were M. Lamont Baggs, Theren A. Flower, Stephen Baldwin, Horatio N. Howard, A. A. Lull and William Brown, which company of gentlemen with the exception of Mr. Brown, comprised the board of directors of the bank. Dr. M. L. Baggs was the first president, Theron A. Flower, vice president, and Alba A. Lull, cashier. The first president of the Pontiac Savings Bank was B. F. Elwood, who was succeeded in the same year of organization (I898) by James A. Jacokes. Mr. Jacokes was succeeded by D. H. Power in the presidency in I902; and after a year of service Mr. S. S. Matthews followed Mr. Power. The death of Mr. Matthews in I9II brought about the appointment of Mr. S. E. Beach to the office of president, and he is at present serving in that capacity. Vice presidents of the bank from.date of organization to the present time are as follows: I898, D. J. Hammond; 900o, Harry Coleman; 1902, S. S. Matthews; I903, F. H. Hale. Cashiers: I898 to 1902, D. H. Power; 1902 to present date, Camer Smith. The bank has a surplus of $40,000, and in I912 the capital was increased from $50,000oo to $100,000. THE OAKLAND COUNTY SAVINGS BANK The Oakland County Savings Bank commenced business in February, I893, with a capital of $50,000 (which has never been increased) and the following officers: Byron G. Stout, president; A. C. Baldwin, vice president; and Charles W. French, cashier. Mr. Stout continued as president for three years, and in I896 was succeeded by Joshua Hill, the present head of the bank. J. A. Greeley is vice president and Frank L. Perry, cashier. The capital of the Oakland County Savings Bank is $50,ooo; surplus and undivided profits, $25,000; deposits, $1,250,000. FIRST COMMERCIAL BANK OF PONTIAC The First Commercial Bank of Pontiac, the successor of the first National Bank of Pontiac, was organized in I892 with Jbhn D'. Norton as president; Goodman Jacobs, vice president; and Benjamin S. Tregent, cashier. The present officers of the bank are F. H. Carroll, president; A. A. Corwin, vice president; C. E. Waldo, cashier. The bank is capitalized at $IOO,OOO. THE AMERICAN SAVINGS BANK The American Savings Bank of Pontiac was established in I903, the first officers being H. S. Chapman, president; A. G. Griggs, vice

Page  246 246 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY president; A. F. Newberry, cashier; and A. W. Dickinson, assistant cashier. The present officers are the same with the exception of a change in the position of assistant cashier, that post being filled now by Charles Merz. The bank has a capital stock of $50,ooo, with surplus and undivided profits of $15,ooo and deposits of $660,000. FIRST STATE SAVINGS BANK, BIRMINGHAM The First State Savings Bank of Birmingham was organized and established in November, I909. The bank has a capital stock of $20,000, surplus and undivided profits of $3,I57.53, with deposits of $280,172.26. In addition to its banking operations, the bank writes fire insurance and sells real estate. The present officers of the bank are: Frank Ford, president; Frank Hagerman, vice president; Thomas H. Cobb, cashier; Charles E. Toms, auditor. Frank Ford, Frank Hagerman and T. B. Smith are directors. FARMINGTON EXCHANGE BANK What is now known as the Farmington Exchange Bank was incorporated as a state institution on October I, I91o. Its predecessor was Warner's Exchange Bank, a private concern founded in 1898 by the following copartners: P. Dean Warner, C. J. Sprague, F.,M. Warner, M. B. Pierce, C. W. Wilber, O. M. Whipple, George W. Whipple, Samuel D. Holcomb. The paid in capital of the bank amounted to $6,000 and the responsibility $15o,ooo. The present officers of the Farmington Exchange Bank are: Fred M. Warner, president; Samuel D. Holcomb, vice president; C. W. Wilber, cashier. The capital stock is $25,000; surplus, $700; deposits, $145,000. ROCHESTER SAVINGS BANK The Rochester Savings Bank was organized in September, 900o, with the following officers: E. R. Mathews, president; F. C. Andrews, vice president; John J. Brewer, cashier. The present officers are: William C. Chapman, president; M. I. Brabb, vice president; H. J. Taylor, cashier; H. A. Case, assistant cashier. The capital stock of the bank is $25,ooo; surplus and undivided profits, $I4,445.61; deposits, $426,789.87, according to their statement on February 20, I912. Four per cent interest is paid on deposits. HOLLY SAVINGS BANKS The Citizens' Savings Bank of Holly was organized August I, 1902, with A. H. Shepard as president, John W. Patterson, vice president, and C. J. Cummings, cashier. H. Lee Wright is now president, but otherwise the officials are unchanged. The capital of the bank is $20,000, surplus and undivided profits $3,750 and deposits $140,000. The First State Savings Bank was organized as the First National Bank of Holly in December, 1870, with a capital of $5o,ooo and James

Page  247 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 247 B. Simonson as president. On January I, 1872, this amount was increased to $60,00o. J. C. Simonson was the second president of the institution, which in I890 was reorganized as a state savings bank-J. C. Simonson president and E. M. Newell cashier. In 1895 Charles A. Wilson was elected cashier, and Mr. Simonson retained the presidency until January I, 1907. Eli Bird served as president for the suceeding four years and on January I, I9II, D. D. Hadley, present incumbent, assumed the office. Since that date J. W. McKinney has been vice president. The capital of the bank is $30,000; surplus and undivided profits, $60,ooo; deposits, $640,000. FARMERS' STATE BANK OF OXFORD The Farmers' State Bank of Oxford, Michigan, was organized in 1905 with the following official personnel: G. W. Mackinnon, president; J. B. Shoemaker, vice-president; M. L. Hagle, second vice-president and W. W. Lyons, cashier. In April, 1907, Mr. Hagle succeeded W. W. Lyons as cashier, Mr. Lyons resigning to accept a similar position with the Otisville State Bank, and T. C. V. Kline stepped into the vacancy thus brought about. In June, I909, Mr. C. H. Fuller, who had been with the Oxford Savings Bank for six years as teller, succeeded M. L. Hagle as cashier, and A. McCarty was appointed assistant cashier. The capital stock of the bank is $20,000; surplus and undivided profits, $3,735; deposits; $I55,284. ROYAL OAK SAVINGS BANK The Royal Oak Savings Bank was established in 1907. Its official report issued in April, 1912, indicates its financial condition to be as follows: Capital stock, $20,000; surplus and undivided profits, $Io,460.5o;, deposits, $254,152.05. George J. Baker is cashier. THE ORION STATE BANK Since its organization on July 28, 1896, the Orion State Bank has built up a surplus fund of $15,000 out of its earnings, a circumstance which gives it place on the "roll of honor" list, being one of but two banks in the county to claim that distinction. Upon organization, Ira Carpenter was elected president of the bank and has retained that position throughout the years that have elapsed. J. C. Predmore was the first vice-president, and after two years service he was succeeded by Alfred G. Haddrill, who has continued in the office to the present time. Gleason F. Perry was the first cashier, and he was succeeded in turn by Cramer Smith, W. W. Lyons and Lee Earle, the latter of whom assumed his duties on September I, 1905, continuing to the present date. The capital stock of the bank upon organization was $15,000; surplus, as noted above, $15,000; total deposits at this writing (July, I912) aggregate about three hundred thousand dollars, with loans of about two hundred and sixty thousand, of which more than seventy-five per cent is represented by real estate first mortgages.

Page  248 248 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY STATE SAVINGS BANK OF SOUTH LYON The State Savings Bank of South Lyon, Michigan, was established on April 17, I905. Its present officers and directors are named as follows: H. Letchfield, president; J. H. Sayre and J. B. Bradley, vice presidents; D. B. Lyons, cashier. The capital stock of the bank is $20,000; surplus and undivided profits, $5,927.50.; deposits, $179,128.I7.

Page  249 CHAPTER XVII THE MEDICAL PROFESSION PIONEER CONDITIONS-PRIMITIVE STATE OF MEDICAL PRACTICE-ALLOPATHIC PRACTITIONERS PRIOR TO I837-DR. WILLIAM THOMPSON, FIRST PHYSICIAN-DRS. OLMSTEAD AND JOHN CHAMBERLAIN-DR. EZRA S. PARKE —DR. CYRUS CHIPMAN-DRS. LAMB, LAMOND AND ALGER —DR. JOHN C. EMERY-THE OLD COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY -ALLOPATHIC PRACTITIONERS FROM 1837 TO I866-THREE EARLYTIME HOMEOPATHS-PRESENT COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY —PONTIAC MEDICAL SOCIETY-PRESENT PRACTITIONERS. By Mason fW/. Gray, A. D. The first settlement in Oakland county in 1817 was followed, one year later, by the opening of the Erie canal to Buffalo and by steamboat navigation between Buffalo and Detroit in 1819, thus making the region appropriately called Oakland more accessible for these heroic men and women from New York state and the eastern states who were destined to transform the wilderness into the productive farms and the modern firesides enjoyed by the present generation. PIONEER CONDITIONS Consequently the first settlement was rapidly followed by others, so that two years later the territorial government found this section of sufficient importance to establish the boundaries of Oakland county. In I820 the population of the county was 300, but so rapidly did settlers occupy the land that in I830 it was 5.000, and in the territorial convention of 1836 Oakland was entitled to six delegates and Wayne eight, which presumably was an index of the comparative number of inhabitants of the two counties. During this period it is doubtful if the pioneers enjoyed any more of the physical comforts than had been the common lot of English-speaking people for three hundred years. It is true they were a free people to whom were vouchsafed full civil and religious liberty, but their homes were crudely built, as we know, from the unhewn trees of the forest and heated by a single fireplace which served also for cooking purposes. The outfit of the pioneer consisted chiefly of his axe, his rifle and his ox-team. 249

Page  250 250 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY PRIMITIVE STATE OF MEDICAL PRACTICE But if the life of the average pioneer was one of privation and hardship, that of the pioneer doctor was one beset with greater difficulties. His patients were widely scattered throughout the wilderness, and previous to 1830 Oakland county roads were little better than blazed trails, which during a good part of the year were impassable. The outfit of the pioneer doctor was quite as meager as was that of his brother settler. His lancet and calomel, his turnkeys and Peruvian bark, constituted his essential armamentarium. We, in this generation, are sometimes prone to speak jestingly of the practice of those early doctors, but due reflection will accord to them a full measure of credit for what they did for their patients. In the first third of the nineteenth century the healing art was primitive and largely empirical. But two epoch-making discoveries had been made in the world of medicine up to that timenamely, the discovery of the circulation of the blood and that of vaccination. The use of ether as an anesthetic was not demonstrated until 1846, and chloroform was introduced two years later; so that any necessary surgical operation was most painful for the patient and difficult for the doctor. The great scourge of those times was the malarial fevers, but chemistry had not devised a method for the separation of quinine from Peruvian bark until 1820, and for years after, this drug was so very expensive that only the rich could obtain it. Pharmacy had not yet come to the aid of medicine, so the practitioner necessarily was obliged to make his own tinctures, triturate his powders, roll his pills and gather, each in its season, the native herbs and plants having medicinal qualities. However, it is certain that the early practitioners of the county were men capable of bringing to their work in the care and relief of the sick every available means and influence. They were, moreover, prominent in the community. They were the educated men and therefore the influential citizens. As family physicians they sustained with their patients the relation of counsellor and friend. Indeed, it has been said the pioneer doctor was generally present at all the important family events: "He was present at every birth, he sat with the minister by every death-bed, and his signature was affixed to every will." Most of these physicians had, for the time, thorough qualifications. Many of them were graduates of medical colleges. Some had graduated in New York; others in Philadelphia; still others, from European institutions. Some, of course, had not had the benefit of collegiate training, but they had served long and active apprenticeships under the tutelage of some physician and surgeon, and had earned the right to practice by passing a rigid examination before a committee of the County Medical Society. The first Oakland County Medical Society being chartered and having authority to grant licenses to practice had been organized under a permit granted June 12, 1831, on petition of Drs. William Thompson, Daniel L. Porter, Ezra L. Parke and Thaddeus Thompson. The permit to organize was granted by the first Michigan Medical Society which had been organized August Io, I8I9, under territorial law.

Page  251 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 251 PHYSICIANS OF OAKLAND COUNTY PRIOR TO I837 DR. WILLIAM THOMPSON The first physician to locate in this county was Dr. William Thompson. He came to Michigan from Lisle, Broome county, New York, in 1815, visiting Detroit and stopping for a time in Mt. Clemens. He then came to Avon township and finally to Pontiac, in I819, where he spent the remainder of his active life in the practice of his profession. William Thompson was the son of Thaddeus Thompson, a surgeon in the American army during the Revolutionary war, and Betty Whitlock, the widow of a British officer. He was born at Lenox, Berkshire county, Massachusetts, January 15, I786. His education was obtained in the district school and academy for Latin and Greek of his native town, and when fourteen years of age he was said to be fitted for college. At about this period of his life, with his parents he moved to Lisle, Broome county, New York. He commenced the study of medicine in the office of John McWhorten in the neighboring village of Cincinnatus, New York, a graduate of Glasgow University, a man of strong personality and rare qualities as a practitioner. After two years of study Dr. Thomson was licensed to practice his profession, but not being satisfied with his preparation he attended the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York City for two years, from which institution he was graduated, receiving the degree of M. D. in 181o. His death occurred in 1867. There were few, if any, specialists in those days, but Dr. Thompson for many years after locating in Pontiac was the acknowledged expert obstetrician in this part of the country. His former preceptor had taught him the use of the obstetric forceps, and his personal reminiscences and notes on practice record many cases of instrumental delivery by himself to which he had been called in consultation, some of them in Detroit, others as far away as Romeo and Saginaw. That Doctor Thompson soon occupied a prominent place in the community is evidenced by his appointment by Governor Cass as the first chief justice of the newly organized county court, there being two associate justices. The first session of the court was held July 17, 1820, and the doctor held the judicial office until 1827. Dr. Thompson was also one of the organizers of the Pontiac Company which was such a factor in the settlement and organization of the county. Dr. Thaddeus Thompson, brother of William, located at Troy, this county, previous to I828, where he practiced his profession for many years, afterward moving to Detroit. DRS. OLMSTEAD CHAMBERLAIN AND JOIIN CHAMBERLAIN Among the first to settle and practice in Pontiac after Dr. Thompson were Dr. Olmstead Chamberlain and Dr. Sterling W. Allen. The latter came from Monroe county, New York, and located at Pontiac in 1825. He was a skillful physician and afterwards resided at Grand Rapids. Dr. Olmstead Chamberlain came from Lewiston, New York, but did not follow his profession as a business. He settled in Pontiac in I82I. He was born in Richmond, Vermont, in I787. He was a prominent citi

Page  252 252 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY zen of Pontiac and Oakland county for forty-three years, and was postmaster of Pontiac for several years. While a resident of Pontiac in the early days, an epidemic broke out among a company of United States troops stationed at Saginaw, from which many soldiers died, and the surgeon of the post was stricken down. A courier was sent to Pontiac for aid. The only road was an Indian trail through the woods, but the doctor at once mounted his horse, and traveling night and day, at times obliged to dismount and feel for the trail on his hands and knees, arrived in good time, and rendered good service for the sufferers. In 1864 he left Pontiac and went to reside with a son, Samuel, at Waupun, Wisconsin, with whom he remained until October io, I876, at which date he died, aged eighty-nine years. Dr. John Chamberlain came from near Auburn, New York, in 1825, or thereabouts and located at the village of Auburn. He was the most learned physician in the county in his day, and was a most able practitioner. He removed from the county in or about I830, and died in the early seventies. DR. EZRA S. PARKE Dr. Ezra S. Parke, a native of Middle Haddam, Connecticut, and brother of Captain Hervey Parke, of Pontiac, came to Bloomfield, from Onondaga county, New York, in 1822. He studied medicine with Dr. Ransom, of Camden, Oneida county, New York. He had a good practice, which he continued to follow until his death, which occurred in 1846. He was postmaster at Bloomfield for several years. (Hervey Parke, organizer and senior partner of the great firm of manufacturing chemists, was his son.) DR. CYRUS CHIPMAN Dr. Cyrus Chipman came to Avon township in 1821, and was for many years a prominent physician in the township. He held the position of postmaster twelve years, and then removed to Rochester village. He was originally from Vermont, and about I850 removed to Grand Rapids, where he died a few years ago. He was a good practitioner and a very excellent man. He was in Troy for a time previous to his removal to Grand Rapids. DR. EBENEZER RAYNALE Dr. Ebenezer Raynale was born in Vermont, but spent the most of his life until 1828 in New York and Pennsylvania. At this date he came to Michigan and located at Franklin, Southfield township. He read medicine in Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania, and Niagara county, New York, and had for many years an extensive practice in Oakland county, and even beyond, in the early days. He retired from practice in I873 on account of ill health, surrendering his business to his son, Dr. Charles M. Raynale, of Birmingham, with whom the old doctor afterward resided until his death. The young doctor read medicine with his father, and graduated from Detroit medical college,. Ebenezer Raynale was a prominent citizen outside of his profession, was a member of the

Page  253 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 253 state senate in I836-37, and also a member of the first and second constitutional conventions of Michigan. (A sketch of the Doctor is given in the chapter on "State Politics.") DRS. LAMB, LAMOND AND ALGER Dr. Caleb Lamb, a Baptist divine as well as a physician, came to Oakland county in 1830 from western New York and located first in Bloomfield, at Gilbert's lake, and subsequently at Farmington for a time. Hie changed his practice during his later years in Oakland county to the homeopathic school. Dr. R. D. Lamond located in Pontiac previous to 1833, coming there from Canada, but was a native of the United States. He removed to Flint where he was for many years the principal physician of the place. Dr. Josiah Alger located in Troy in or before I831. Dr. Z. M. Mowrey came to Milford in I840, and was in practice with Dr. Foote; was in the legislature in 1849, and in- the constitutional convention in I850. He died in 1874 with the harness on, actively engaged in his profession. DR. JOHN C. EMERY In the year 1830 Dr. Emery came from Seneca, New York, and located in Novi township. He was born in New Hampshire July II, 1796, served in the Thirty-first Vermont Volunteers in the War of I812 under Major Hamilton, and was in several important battles of that war with the British and Indians in northern New York and the Canadian frontier. The education of Dr. Emery was received in Ludlow (Vt.) Academy, at the Castleton (Vt.) Medical College. and a course of study under the auspices of the New Jersey Medical Society. He commenced the practice of medicine in I822. In 1823 Dr. Emery married Miranda Haines, of Marion county, New York. He resided in Novi until i850, when he went to California, but finally settled in Lansing, Michigan, in I868, where he died January 21, T880. Dr. Emery was the grandfather of Josiah Emery, of Waterford, and Charles S. Emery, of Lansing. THE OLD COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY The first Oakland County Medical Society was organized by authority granted by the Michigan Medical Society June I2. i831, to Drs. William Thompson, Daniel L. Porter, E. S. Parke and Thaddeus Thompson. The parent society had authority from the territorial council and was organized August Io, I8I9. Although the organization never flourished vigorously, it lived until well into the 'seventies. THE NORTHEAST DISTRICT MEDICAL SOCIETIES In the meantime (June 14, 1854) the Northeast District Medical and Scientific Association had been formed at Romeo, Macomb county. This organization had jurisdiction over that county, as well as Oakland, Lapeer, St. Clair and Sanilac. Its first president was Philo Tillson, of

Page  254 254 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Romeo, and the association held yearly meetings for nearly half a century, excepting for two years during the Civil war period. In 1870 its name was abbreviated to the Northeast District Miedical Society. The society came to an end at the time of the reorganization of the profession in the state during 1902, when the existing medical society of the county was founded. ALLOPATHIC PRACTITIONERS FROM I837 TO I866 Dr. Pliny Powers came to what was known as Deming's Corners, Oxford township, in 1837, from the state of New York. In 1838 Egbert Burdick, of New York, was associated with him in practice, and at Oxford village, in I839. He removed to Detroit, where he died. Dr. Morrison practiced in Addison. He came there in 1842. D'r. Drake came to Royal Oak in 1849 from Cayuga county, New York. He was a brother of Hon. Thomas J. Drake, and died in the late sixties. Dr. W. G. Elliott was first located in Pontiac previous to I850, and removed shortly after that date to the state of New York, from whence he entered the hospital service of the army at Alexandria, and after the war returned to Pontiac, where for many years he followed a lucrative practice. He pursued his medical studies with Dr. Paddock, and graduated at the Cleveland Medical College. Dr. J. N. Donaldson came to Lakeville in I854. He pursued the study of medicine under the instruction of Dr. Asahel Barnard, of the United States army, at Dearborn, Michigan, and graduated at the University of Michigan in I853. He practiced sixteen years in Lakeville, and then removed to Pontiac, where he opened a drug store and continued in the business for four years, when ill health compelled him to cease active work of all kinds. He died in Pontiac, July 15, I877. He was a native of Mendon, Monroe county, New York. The late Dr. F. B. Galbraith, of Pontiac, was a graduate of the University of Michigan, class of I86o, and of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York City, in I86I. He was surgeon in the Tenth Michigan Infantry and Fourth Michigan Cavalry, and located in Pontiac in I865. Dr. Lawrence located in Oxford village in I862. Dr. Robert Le Baron, of Pontiac, graduated from the University of Michigan, class of I86I. He practiced with Dr. Hayes, in Livingston county, one year, was two years surgeon of the Fourth Michigan Infantry, and located at Pontiac in I864. Dr. Chauncey Earle graduated in I853 at the Michigan University, having pursued his studies under Dr. Spaulding, of Oxford, Dr. Earle began his practice in Addison township, where he remained one year, and then removed to Orion, where he remained till the fall of I866, when he came to Pontiac. Dr. F. Curtis, long a practioner of Holly, located first at Rochester in 1832. At one time he was the physician of every family in Livingston county, when there were not well persons enough to take care of the sick. This was between 1835 and 1840.

Page  255 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 255 Dr. B. P. McConnell, a brother of William M. McConnell, of Pontiac, was for many years a prominent physician of that city. He was a skillful surgeon, and went into the military service as surgeon of the Twentysecond Michigan Infantry, Colonel Wisner commanding. He removed to Ludington in I873. Dr. William Wilson settled at Pine Lake, in I835. He was a Scotchman, educated thoroughly at the Glasgow University, and had a very extensive practice. He was a skillful surgeon. He died in August, I863. His son, John P. Wilson, read with his father and graduated at the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons in I85t, and was long in practice. He was surgeon of the Fifth Michigan Cavalry, and also brigade surgeon of the cavalry brigade. Dr. William Aitcheson located in Ortonville, Oakland county in 1873 immediately after graduating in medicine from the University of Michigan and lived and practiced his profession there until his death. He was born in Paris, Ontario, in 1846; prepared for college at the Galt Collegiate Institute, and graduated from Toronto University in I869. In I87I he entered the medical department of Michigan University from which he was graduated in I873. Dr. Aitcheson was a valued member of the Oakland County Medical Society, Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. He married Isabella Murdie who was born near Seaforth, Huron county, Ontario, of Scotch parentage, but had no children. He died at his home in Ortonville, January Io, I909, of pneumonia. THREE EARLY-TIME HOMEOPATHS The first practitioner of the school of Hahnemann was Dr. Caleb Lamb, who located first in Farmington, and practiced under the allopathic system, but came to Pontiac in 1847, and began the practice of homeopathy. He removed from Pontiac in December, I847. Dr. Amos Walker, of Pontiac, begun the practice in 1847, in Brooklyn, Jackson county, Michigan. He was educated under the allopathic system, graduating at Pittsfield, Washtenaw county, Massachusetts, where he remained eight years, and then went to Brooklyn, and thence came to Pontiac in I848, where he remained for thirty years or more, with the exception of the years 1871-73, when he was in Arkansas. Dr. E. C. Fuller came to Pontiac in I863, from Dutchess county, New York; was a graduate of the Geneva medical college, and graduated from the Detroit Homeopathic College in 1872. PRESENT COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY. Pursuant to a circular letter sent out by Dr. C. D. Burr of Flint, Michigan, councilor of the Sixth District, of the Michigan State Medical Society and a call issued by Drs. M. W. Gray, Wm. McCarroll, George H. Drake and J. Morse, these being then the executive committee of the Pontiac Medical Society, thirty-two members of the medical profession of Oakland county assembled at Pontiac, September 9, I902, and organized the Oakland County Miedical Society, Dr. F.

Page  256 256 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Galbraith, of Pontiac, was unanimously elected as the first president for one year; Dr. D. W. C. Wade, of Holly as vice president, and Dr. William McCarroll as secretary and treasurer. A constitution was later drawn up and adopted. The society is designated as Branch No. 5 of the Michigan State Medical Society. It has continuously grown in numbers and usefulness until at the present time it has nearly fifty members throughout the county. Meetings are held six times annuallythe first Thursday of February, April, June, August, October and December, the later being the annual meeting. Three meetings per year are held at the county seat, usually during the winter and spring, the balance of the time throughout the county. Two or three papers are usually given at each meeting which are followed by general discussion. Outside talent is very often secured for the meeting and many prominent members of the profession, both in and outside the state, have addressed the society on various occasions. The society issues a publication appearing every two months previous to the meetings, entitled the Journal of the Oakland Medical Society. The officers of the society for 19I2 were: Dr. E. A. Christian, president; Dr. William McCarroll, vice president; Dr. J. B. Chapman, secretary and treasurer, who also acts as editor for the Journal; directors -Dr. R. Y. Ferguson, Dr. George H. Drake and Dr. M. W. Gray. PONTIAC MEDICAL SOCIETY The first Pontiac Medical Society was organized June 27, I892, but while it served a useful purpose for a time it soon became dormant largely because of the informal plan of organization without a president. October 8, I9oI, a meeting of former members of the Pontiac Medical Society was called in the office of Dr. M. W. Gray, to consider plans for reorganization. At this meeting there were present Drs. William McCarroll, Jason Morse, Irving H. Neff, George H. Drake, and Mason W. Gray. A reorganization on a more permanent basis was effected and the following officers elected: President, Mason W. Gray; vice president, Jason Morse; secretary, Mr. McCarroll; treasurer, George H. Drake. This society has proved a valuable means for the unification of the profession of the city and for the advancement of scientific work of its members. Its present officers are: President, Edward V. Howlett; vice president, Geo. H. Drake; secretary, Harry Sibley; treasurer, Samuel A. Butler. PRESENT PRACTITIONERS The following are the names of the profession in Oakland county with locations and years of graduation: ** E. A. Christian *.......................................... 882 ** Frank S. Bachelder *..................................... I905 A. L. Brannack.............................................. 903 ** Samuel A. Butler *...................................... I907 D. G. C astell............................................... 899 H. S. Chapman *........................................... 1885 *Members of County Medical Society. ** Pontiac State Hospital.

Page  257 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 257 Joseph B. Chapman *......................................... N. B. Colvin *...............................................882 George H. Drake........................................... 893 L. A. Farnham *.............................................I905 R. Y. Ferguson *.................................... 896 S. E. Galbraith *.1......................................... 899 Mason W. Gray*............................................. I880 H. C. G uillott............................................... 891 E. V. Howlett *.............................................. 902 Robert Le Baron*............................. 86I J. W. Losee................................................. I89 L. R. Lumby................................................893 C. D. M orris *............................................... 894 James J. M urphy *........................................... 897 John D. R iker *.............................................. 89 C. T. Starker *................................. 1905 **C. W. Mack*............................................. 908 J. T. B ird*................................................. 908 William McCarroll *...................................... 88I A. D. McKinney................................... 1903 R. E. M oss................................I...... 1880 Elsworth O rton........................................ 892 H. A. Sibley *............................................... 907 **Geneva Tryon.............................................. 907 Frank Gerls........................................ I912 All the above are located in Pontiac. W. L. Cole, O xford........................................... 88i L. E. Gibson, Oxford..................................... I906 Dr. W atson, Orion........................................... Dr. Hathaway, Orion......................................... Dr. Hughes, Orion........................................... C. A. De Cou, O rion......................................... A. P. Schulz, O rion.......................................... 906 E. B. Guile, Ortonville.............................I.895 W. T. Tucker, New Hudson.................................... 877 C. P. Felshaw, Holly *.........................I1877 T. E. M cDonald, Holly *......................................894 Ora M anly, H ighland *.......................................879 E. F. Holcomb, Farmington................1..889 W. H. Carr, Davisburg..9............................... 902 C. J. Sutherland, Clarkston *................................ 891 J. L. Campbell, Birmingham...................................880 C. M. Raynale, Birmingham............................. 1869 N. T. Shaw, Birmingham............................. 1.892 Norman L. Baker, Milford *..................................I902 Edward A. Lodge, Milford................... 1879 E. A. Chapman, Walled Lake *.................................1876 W illiam S. Gass, Royal Oak............................... 1899 Ainsley Smith, Royal Oak.....................................884 *Members of County Medical Society. **Pontiac State Hospital.

Page  258 258 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Dr. Snyder, Royal Oak....................................... A. F. Novi, Holcomb......................................... 1884 G. F. Hamlin, Rochester...................................... 896 Floyd W. Lockwood, South Lyon.............................. 909 Lyman A. Sayles, South Lyon.................................1901 B. C. H. Spencer, Rochester.................................. I88I H. S. Demming, Oxford.................................... I892 George W. McKinnon, Oxford................................ 890 M. J. Uloth, Ortonville *...................................... 902 S. B. Robb, Leonard *..................................... 1892 F. L. Johnson, H olly *.........................................903 J. R. Van Sickle, Holly *.....................................19o6 F. D. German, Franklin *...................................... 906 J. A. Miller, Farmington *.............I9............ i.. 9 C. W. Snyder, Clyde *.........................................I903 J. W. Bennie, Big Beaver...................................... 9 P. D. Hilty, Birmingham *......................... 911 George P. Raynale, Birmingham *.............................902 John C. Black, M ilford..................................... 887 Thomas J. Jackson, Milford...................................88a S. L. W eisbrod, M ilford *.............................894 James W. Anderson, Royal Oak *...............................89I J. S. M orrison, Royal Oak..................................... 905 Jesse E. W ilson, Rochester*.................................. 855 Charles S. Strain, Rochester................................... 1902 George M. Milliman, South Lyon............................... 888 * Members of County Medical Society.

Page  259 CHAPTER XVIII WOMEN'S INFLUENCE IN THE COUNTY WHAT WOMEN HAVE DONE FOR OAKLAND COUNTY (BY MARTHA BALDWIN)-WOMEN'S WORK IN PONTIAC-THE PONTIAC CITY HOSPITAL PONTIAC PUBLIC LIBRARY-WOMEN'S LITERARY CLUB OF PONTIAC -THE ROUND TABLE CLUB-WEST SIDE READING CIRCLE-WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION-BIRMINGHAM PUBLIC LIBRARYBIRMINGHAM LITERARY CLUB —GREENWOOD CEMETERY ASSOCIATION LADIES' LIBRARY ASSOCIATION OF HOLLY. Women's influence in Oakland county, as everywhere, has been determined largely by what she has done; her thoughts and words have ever blossomed into deeds and institutions of charity and love. None of her sex is better qualified to speak for her from this standpoint than Martha Baldwin, of Birmingham, who, through her earnest words and practical works, has exerted a fine, invigorating influence upon her home community first, and upon a far more extended field with herself and Birmingham as the points of radiation. She speaks, therefore, as one having authority. WHAT WOMEN FHAE DONE FOR OAKLAND COUNTY By lMartha Baldwin. The part that women have taken in the building up of Oakland county can never be fully told. Coming into a wilderness nearly one hundred years ago, she bravely took her share of the burdens of pioneer life and bravely has she carried these burdens down through all these years. She walked beside the ox-teams that were drawing the household goods; she helped to build the log house; she planted the tiny seed whence came the orchards for which the county was soon to be famous. She had left home and friends, her whole early life, but she resolutely faced the future; she must find courage, not for herself alone, but for all. If she had tears and regrets the others must not know. She helped to build the school house and gathered the little ones within its walls. She tended the sick and went miles on errands of mercy. She carded the wool, spun the yarn, wove the cloth, bleached the flax, baked in the out-of-door oven, made the garden, and then mended and patched the garments of the sleeping children till morning hours. The floors must Vol. I-17 259

Page  260 260 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY be scrubbed, for there were no carpets; the fruit must be dried, for there were no fruit cans; the candles must be dipped; the geese must be picked; the children must be helped with their lessons-and with all this she found time to read the news of the day and to keep up with the times in which she lived. From that early day to this, she has led in all the reforms; she has kept up the interest in the church, taught in the Sabbath school and led in the social life of the community. How has she done it all? The lips are hushed now, and the hands are at rest; hands that toiled for us; lips that prayed for us; souls that struggled on patient to the end. This interest in her home and in her country has come down from mother to daughter till today we see her through many different activities still doing her best. Through the W. C. T. U. she is striving to guard the young and uplift the fallen. She is smoothing the pillow of the sick and suffering, for it is the noble effort of a courageous band of women that has placed the Oakland County Hospital in our midst. It is the women of our county that have carried words of cheer to our County Home, looking after the needs of their less fortunate sisters. It is the women of Oakland county who have united in one the fifteen women's clubs from east to west and from north to south, and these gaining strength by union are working for better schools, for forestry, for the neatness of our highways, of our towns and villages, for civil service reform, for pure food, for better things in the home and for better state laws. It was the women's clubs that worked for the rest rooms in our county court house. In this, as in all these works, they have been most generously aided by the splendid manhood of the county, without whose help they could not have succeeded. Take the work of the women out of our churches and how many would exist? Yet they question if women should vote on church government. Girls are leading in our schools and universities and Oakland has her share in the great work, thanks to the mothers who have trained these women in the home. Conditions have changed, surroundings have changed, but not the workers. The loom and the knitting needles have gone' from the home to the factory, the fruit is at the cannery, the clothing comes to the home ready made, but she is not idle. If she has not been forced to follow these industries she is still working. Today politics come into the home with the water, with the milk, with the meat and with the impure food, and if she would keep her home pure, her loving ones well, she must have a voice in these things that the politicians control. It is for this that she is asking for the ballot, for today all these things are settled by the voter. Look back at her splendid record as pioneer, ever foremost in good works, as the home maker ever guarding all within that home, and ask yourselves if every weapon of defense should not be placed in her hands. If Oakland county stands among the first counties of our state, thanks must be given to her women, as well as to her sturdy loyal men. She is

Page  261 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 261 now and ever will be urging the needed reforms, leading where the lonest, the pure and best will gladly follow. WOMAN'S WORK IN PONTIAC There are few cities in southern Michigan where the women have accomplished so much both in the elevating influences of thought and deed as Pontiac. Its hospital, library, literary clubs and temperance union are virtually her sole creations, while it goes without saying that the churches would quickly perish without her ministrations. Mrs. Harry Coleman, Mrs. Samuel W. Smith, Mrs. Aaron Perry, Mrs. Charles Going, Miss Anne Murphy, Mrs. A. B. Avery, Mrs. J. S. Stockwell, Mrs. H. C. Guillot, Mrs. E. A. Christian, Mrs. Peter B. Bromley, Mrs. Arthur Davis, Mrs. Mark S. Brewer, Mrs. Joshua Hill, Mrs. Byron Stout, Mrs. A. L. Moore, Mrs. A. L. Craft, Mrs. E. H. Wilson, Mrs. F. J. Walters, Mrs. Maud Chattuck and others have been leaders in the charitable, literary and reformatory movements which have centered in Pontiac and raised her to such a high standard of municipal life. At the county seat, as in other communities, the history of many of the most worthy and noteworthy institutions are placed to the credit of the women, and the following sketches bear out in detail all of Miss Baldwin's general statements. THE PONTIAC CITY HOSPITAL In a very comprehensive and appreciative article devoted to the history of the Pontiac City Hospital, the Pontiac Press Gazette says in part: "When Mrs. Charles Going met Mrs. Harry Coleman on the corner of Lawrence and Saginaw streets, some ten years ago, and told a tale of a sick man being taken to the jail as the only place of refuge for a stranger and further remarked, from the depths of her pity, 'we ought to have a hospital!' neither knew what she was starting or getting into. For if they had been able to look into the future they might have elected not to have met at all, or meeting, to talk on any subject under the sun save that of sick strangers and jails! But at any rate, the meeting happened and the words were spoken, and a troublesome idea hatched out which grew in ten years to a very respectable looking bird, indeed. "One of the secrets of success of the women who built the Oakland hospital was, of course, hard work. But perhaps the chief secret of success was in trying to solve but one problem at a time. They used to meet with Miss Webb or Mrs. Cowles in their dressmaking rooms in the Le Baron block and talk over the most simple plan of opening a room or two where the sick might be taken to be under the care of a trained nurse. This idea grew into a plan of renting a house. And thus the first problem arose for solution. Should they rent a house? No. Nobody would have them. They wouldn't be desirable tenants. Should they buy a house? This they discussed very seriously. They looked at many houses and many thought it a grievous mistake that they did not accept the offer of the octagon house on Huron street, offered at a most generous figure for a hospital. The answer to this problem was that old houses require

Page  262 262 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY too much money in alterations to make them hospital-fit. Then should they build? Yes. And to that end they bought three lots of Robert J. Lounsbury on Huron street." Thus was inaugurated a project which in the course of ten years has developed into one of the finest institutions known to the city of Pontiac, and probably the one of which the city is most proud. With the beginning of the evolution of their idea, the ladies had begun to earn money for the support of the plan, and at the end of 1902 they had a credit of $886.57 in the treasury, variously earned, and it was then they bought the three lots of Mr. Lounsbury, paying for them the sum of $500. Many people considered them unwise in that they went so far out of town, but they knew what the qualities were which went to make a desirable hospital location, and accordingly chose a site sufficiently distant from any factory and on naturally high land and on a car line. PONTIAC CITY HOSPITAL On October 7, 1902, they incorporated under the state laws as the Pontiac City Hospital, and those who signed the articles of incorporation were: Mrs. Samuel W. Smith, Mrs. W. R. Sanford, Mrs. Harry Coleman, Mrs. C. V. Taylor, Aaron Perry, Mrs. Charles Fisher, Mrs. J. R. Mitchell, Miss Anne Murphy, Mrs. S. S.,Mathews, Mrs. M. S. Brewer, Mrs. J. S. Stockwell, Mrs. Elizabeth Smith, Mrs. Charles Going, Charles A. Fisher and E. W. Murphy. In I903 they began bringing the Lyman Howe moving pictures to Pontiac, and since then that has been an annual source of revenue to the board. At the end of that year they had a treasury fund of $I,602.I9. At the end of 1904 they had $2,655.96; 1905, $3,530.80; I906, $5,326.29. In 1907 they began to build, and their tribulations increased in complete accordance with their extended operations. Mrs. S. W. Smith at the time made searching studies of different hospitals in Washington, D. C.,

Page  263 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 263 and Mrs. Groom of Ann Arbor hospitals. Others visited hospitals in Bad Axe, Batavia, New York, and Detroit. Joseph Mills, the architect, was asked to plan a hospital to cost about $Io,ooo, although some time previous they had rejected plans, very attractive, but in excess of the $6,000 which they originally expected to expend. They had made the discovery, however, that the absolute necessities of a hospital, including diet kitchen, baths, linen room, supply and chart room for each ward, besides operating room, sterilizing room, office, elevator, dining room and general room, must be maintained, no matter how small the hospital may be, and that all details of that nature must be considered as carefully for ten patients as for one hundred. It developed that the hospital, built in dull times, with much of the work and material donated, cost over $I7,000. It will accomodate twenty-five patients and is regarded as a model of completeness and convenience, experts claiming that it could be improved in but few minor details. On July 12, I908, the corner stone was laid, with interesting and impressive ceremony. Rev. Fr. T. J. Ryan made the opening prayer and the address by Judge Stockwell was a masterly effort. In May, I909, the building was opened, absolutely free of debt. Mrs. E. A. Christian, of the board of trustees, supervised in person the furnishing of the hospital and saw to the placing of every item of equipment in the establishment. While the work of construction had been going on, the advisory board, a company made up of representatives from every church and women's society in the county, was busily at work making provision for the linen furnishing of the hosiptal, and on opening day, not only sheets, pillow cases, towels, mattress covers, table cloths, doilies, tray cloths and napkins were in place, but also bed gowns, door hushers and operating pads were in readiness for the first patient. The operating room was furnished and equipped by the physicians of the city as a memorial to the late Dr. F. B. Galbraith. The building committee was composed of Aaron Perry, Miss Anne Murphy, Mrs. R. W. Groom, Edwin M. Murphy and A. L. Dewey, with J. R. Prall as superintendent in charge. The committee on plans was represented by Mrs. S. W. Smith, Mrs. R. W. Groom, Mrs. H. C. Guillot, Mrs. H. Coleman, Mrs. J. S. Stockwell, Mrs. H. S. Chapman, and Joseph E. Mills of Detroit, architect. The work of raising money for the building extended over a period of eight years, and at no time the sums coming in were large. The amounts donated usually were small, and the largest subscribers were Mrs. David Ward who gave $500 and furnished two rooms and Judge J. L. Jacokes who gave $I,ooo. The bulk of the money came in as profits from entertainments given, rummage sales and catering. When the building was opened, $1,200 was raised through the columns of the Gazette to pay the final cost of the building. It is the present plan of the board of directors to build an addition comprising six private rooms, with room for nurses, they being housed at present in a cottage rented by the hospital. The institution is out of debt, and, when run at its capacity, is self-supporting. The average number of patients cared for during I9II was fifteen. Thus far the city and county

Page  264 264 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY have each given $I,ooo annually for the maintenance of the hospital, and the board of directors continues to raise about $I,ooo annually. At the time of the laying of the corner stone the hospital was a city institution, being known as the Pontiac City Hospital, but later designated as the Oakland County Hospital. The present officers of the association are as follows: Mrs. H. C. Guillot, president; Mrs. E. A. Christian, first vice president; Mrs Harry Coleman, second vice president; Mrs. H. S. Chapman, financial secretary; Mrs. Charles Going, treasurer; Mrs. Fred M. Millis, treasurer; Miss Margaret Meigs, superintendent; Miss Bertha Berry, assistant superintendent. The board of trustees is composed of Mrs. Guillot, Mrs. Christian, Mrs. Coleman, Mrs. Chapman, Mrs. Going, Mrs. Millis, Mrs. Jas. A. Cash, Mrs. Jayno Adams, Miss Emily Parent, Mrs. George Smith, Mr. Aaron Perry, Mr. Henry Pauli, Mrs. John J. Grant, Mrs. Peter B. Bromley. With the solid establishment of the hospital, the women of the city and county have not "wearied in well doing," but have continued to give liberally to the support of the institution, and the shelves of the storerooms have been kept filled with canned fruit, vegetables and jellies by the women who have from the beginning displayed unusual interest in the project. The hospital is in excellent hands with Miss Margaret Meigs in charge. She is a graduate of the Harper Hospital of Detroit, and was the former superintendent of the Lansing Hospital. A training school for nurses has been established, with a course of two years and three months, the last three months' instruction to be given in a Detroit hospital. Rooms in the hospital have been furnished by Mrs. Pelouge, Mrs. E. M. Murphy, the D. A. R., the Pythian Sisters, the Y. W. C. T. U., the Walnut Lake ladies, Miss Marcia Richardson, and The Willing Workers -the last, an auxiliary organization of the advisory board of the hospital, furnishing two rooms. Mrs. Arthur Davis is president of this society; Mrs. Oscar Carpenter first vice president; Mrs. Wilson Bailey, second vice president; Mrs. George Cotcher, secretary; Mrs. George Hoyt, treasurer. The new apartments for the housing of the nurses in training mentioned in a previous paragraph, now being planned for, it is estimated will cost in the neighborhood of $3,000. Joshua Hill has subscribed the first $I,ooo of the amount. The hospital board, while for the most part being made up of women, has been ably supported by men who have been particularly active in their labors for the institution. To Aaron Perry especially do they owea debt of gratitude for his wise counsels and timely help from their earliest operations as an organized institution up to the present time, which has been heartily acknowledged upon many occasions. PONTIAC PUBLIC LIBRARY An organization of which Pontiac is justly proud is the Ladies' Library Association, which has in the thirty years of its existence seen much growth and progress. The library is located on Williams street, and has a down-town department which is open on Tuesdays and Saturdays. The association today owns something more than five thousand volumes.

Page  265 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 265 The origin of the association and its struggles for existence during the earlier part of its thirty years of life make interesting history and show forth the unselfish devotion which has made the library a possibility and a fact. In May, 1882, the association was founded by the younger women of the city. Mrs. Byron Stout was one of the leaders in the movement, and was for years interested deeply in literary work of all kinds. She was ably assisted by Misses Louise Parker, now Mrs. Mark S. Brewer, Flora McConnell, now Mrs. Butts of Ann Arbor, Ella Green, Belle and Effie Harris, Mary Crofoot and Mary Dawson Elliott, all of whom devoted many hours of hard and conscientious work to the project. They were aided by a number of the married women of the city, and received very material assistance from the merchants and other business men of the city. In July, 1882, the library was opened in one of the second floor rooms of the old Gazette building on East Lawrence street. A little catalogue compiled and prepared by Mrs. Stout has been printed, giving a complete list of all books belonging to the library at that time. The patronage was small at first, and the finances of the little association were too often in a precarious condition, but they managed to weather the lean years by giving frequent entertainments, catering at banquets and in various other methods, not finding any work too difficult for their cause. The erection of the present library was due to the kindly interest of Mr. and Mrs. Byron Stout, each leaving to the association sufficient money to make the building a possibility. Mrs. Stout left the association the brick building at the corner of Auburn avenue and Saginaw street with instructions that the management should sell it and use the proceeds toward the erection of a library building. When Mr. Stout died a few years later, he left in his will a provision that the association might have his life insurance of $5,000, which, in conjunction with the bequest of his wife, was to be used in the erection of a building for the library. The will also contained the clause that if the building was ever used for other than library purposes, it should revert to the Stout heirs. This fact has given rise to a problem which the association has often discussed. For the present there is no necessity for larger quarters, but if at any time in the future the location should become undesirable, or for any reason it might be deemed best to move it elsewhere, the association would be powerless to realize anything upon the building or secure anything for the improvements which it has made upon it from time to time, and expects to make in the years to come. At the present time the library has an endowment fund of $2,000, the interest of which is only used toward the support of the library. Mrs. D. C. Buckland left the association a gift of $i,ooo at her death and Mrs. B. A. Palmer made a similar gift when she died. The present officers of the association are: Mrs. Joshua Hill, president; Mrs. A. F. Newberry, vice president; Mrs. F. S. Stewart, secretary; and Mrs. Charles H. Going, treasurer. These, with the following named ladies compose the executive board: Mesdames F. E. Starker, Joseph Newbiggins, E. D. Benjamin, J. W. Lossee, George W. Smith, C. V. Taylor, John Dudley Norton, G. H. Drake, A. L. Craft, and the Misses Addie Jewell and Mae Woodward. The book committee is composed of Mes

Page  266 266 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY dames F. E. Starker, Joseph Newbigging and A. F. Newberry. To this committee falls the lot of selecting the new books each year, although members of the association are permitted to send in the title of one book they wish purchased. The books are being added to the collection at the rate of about twenty volumes each month. Board meetings are held the first Tuesday in each month. Among those women who served as presidents in the past years doing very creditable work for the library, are: Mirs. Byron Stout, who was the first president; Mrs. J. S. Powell; Mrs. J. A. Jacokes and Mrs. C. B. Turner, both of whom are now deceased. Miss Agnes Cudworth has served as librarian for the past fifteen years and has been a most worthy incumbent of that post. The present membership of the association is one hundred and thirty-three, not a large membership in view of the size of the city. The membership fee is $I.oo a year, and all persons are eligible. This merely nominal fee entitles the members to draw two books each week. Six months and three months subscriptions are also accepted at corresponding rates. The association is one which has been of inestimable value to the city, and is deserving of better support in the way of annual memberships than it has yet experienced. The library is maintained by subscriptions from members, fines collected on books, and interest from the endowment fund. The sum of $Ioo is expended annually for new books. THE WOMEN'S LITERARY CLUB The Women's Literary Club of Pontiac is now in the twentieth year of its life, and as a society has a history both interesting and enviable. It was founded in 1892, as the successor of the Chautauqua, which was organized in 1884 and after four years was followed by the Ladies' Round Table, a club which lived for a year only. Thereafter until 1892 the energies of the ladies of Pontiac were directed in lighter paths, and it was not until 1892 when a Mrs. Lewis of Detroit, visiting friends in Pontiac, was instrumental in bringing about the organization of the Women's Literary Club. The first meeting was held at the home of Mrs. Lillian D. Avery in October, 1892, when the, club was organized, Mrs. Avery being chosen as president, and Mrs. Aaron Perry drafting its first constitution. For a time weekly meetings were held, after which the fortnightly plan was adopted and obtained until I9oo, when the club reverted to its former plan of holding weekly meetings. The first study course outlined was that of Grecian history, and since then a vast number of subjects have been covered by the work of the club. They have been mainly literary, but some attention has been given as well to philanthropy, music, art, social service and civic affairs. The membership of the club was limited to forty and since the sixth year the roll has been full. The roster now includes fifty active members, twenty honorary members (retired active), and twenty-five associate members. At first the dues of the club were twenty-five cents yearly, but they have been advanced to two dollars. The club has been active in matters aside from its studies, and in 1898

Page  267 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 267 brought about the organization of a soldier's aid society. In I889 it joined the state federation and in 1902 originated the County Federation of Women's Clubs. Of the original members of the club, but three remain;-Mrs. S. S. Mathews, Mrs. Aaron Perry, and Mrs. Lillian D. Avery, who was the first president of the club. The present officers are: Mrs. A. L. Moore, president; Mrs. George Cleary, vice president; Mrs. A. L. Craft, second vice president; Mrs. Otto Sachse, recording secretary; Mrs. C. C. Freeman, corresponding secretary; Mrs. E. L. Keyser, treasurer; Mrs. D. H. Glass, parliamentarian. THE ROUND TABLE CLUB The Round Table Club of Pontiac, an organization founded with the idea of mutual improvement, came into existence on February II, I9IO, and is now in the second year of its life. Upon organization the following officers were chosen: Mrs. Welcome Young, president; Mrs. W. R. Harrison, vice president; Mrs. John Springer, second vice president; Alta Springstein, secretary; Mrs. F. H. Walters, treasurer; Hazel Tibbels, corresponding secretary. In I911, the officers were continued in their respective positions with the two exceptions of president and corresponding secretary, Mrs. E. H. Wilson being elected to the presidency and Mrs. Crossett, corresponding secretary. The present officers are Mrs. E. H. Wilson, president; Mrs. H. Monroe, first vice president; Mrs. H. Stevens, second vice president; Mrs. T. Knight, recording secretary; Mrs. B. H. Warner, corresponding secretary; Mrs. J. Watchpocket, treasurer. The present membership of the club is twenty-six, and all are enthusiastic and ardent supporters of the study courses which have thus far been inaugurated by the society. The meetings are held on the first and third Thursdays of each month, and are well attended at all times. Thus far in its life, the Round Table Club has confined its studies to matters of historical interest, and while their progress has not been rapid in the course of study outlined, it has been of a most thorough nature, and intensely interesting as well as educational. THE WEST SIDE READING CIRCLE The first Ladies' Reading Society in Pontiac was organized as early as 1862, and thereafter was active for some years, it being one of the pleasing features of Pontiac society during its reign. Most delightful meetings were held weekly, and the exercises were participated in by the elite of the city. In later years, various literary and reading clubs have come into life in Pontiac, among which the West Side Reading Club is prominent and representative of the best. It was organized in 1902 by six women in the western part of the city who felt the need of social and intellectual betterment, and during the first few years a systematic course of reading was pursued. During recent years, however, the order of miscellaneous programs has been followed. Anniversaries of important events in the history of the state and nation and in the lives of noted men, such as Michigan day, Lincoln day, Dickens day, and other days com

Page  268 268 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY memorating affairs of national import, such as Reciprocity day, have been in turn observed fittingly by the club. Various programs have been arranged dealing with nature studies, civic reform, etc. The club is limited in membership to twenty-five, and the roll is now full, with several names on the waiting list. Meetings are held on every alternate Monday during the year. The circle is affiliated with the county and state federation of women's clubs, and its members have always taken an active and important part in the work of those organizations. Since the beginning of the West Side Reading Circle, the various presidents have been as follows: Mrs. Turnbull, first president; Mrs. Alex Buchanan; Mrs. Albe Lull; Mrs. C. E. Hawkins; Mrs. Daniel Johnson; Mrs. N. A. Dewey; Mrs. F. J. Poole; Mrs. H. M. Dickie; Mrs. Pardon Doty; Mrs. G. M. Campbell. Officers for I912-I9I3 are as follows: Mrs. F. J. Walters, president; Mrs. C. S. Johnson, vice president; Miss Fannie Anderson, second vice president; Mrs. John Fowler, recording secretary; Mrs. Newton Beach, corresponding secretary; M.rs. J. Springer, treasurer; Mrs. G. M. Campbell. parliamentarian; Mrs. Roy Middleton, reporter; Mrs. F. J. Poole, delegate to state federation; Mrs. F. H. Walters, alternate. WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION The W. C. T. U. of Pontiac was organized on April 3, 1877, in the old Congregational church, with a membership of about two hundred and fifty. The first officers of the society were: Mrs. Cressy, president; Mrs. William Albertson, recording secretary; Mrs. Gelston, treasurer; Mrs. J. W. Rice, corresponding secretary. Some of these officers only held for a brief time, there being numerous changes during the first year. There were no vice presidents during that year, but in later years a vice president was chosen from every church in the city. At the first annual meeting Mrs. William Albertson was elected president; Mrs. Harrison Voorheis, vice president; Miss C. E. Cleveland, corresponding secretary; Mrs. C. B. Turner, recording secretary; Mrs. J. W. Rice, treasurer. The present officers are,Mrs. Maud Chattuck, president; Mrs. Electa Rice, corresponding secretary; Mrs. Annette Fisher, recording secretary; Mrs. Jane Ogden, treasurer. The vice presidents are: Mrs. Catcher, representing the Presbyterian church; Mrs. Newbiggins, of the Episcopal church; Mrs. Hodge of the Baptist church; Mrs. Wright of the First Methodist Episcopal church; Mrs. Kendrick of the Central Methodist church; and Mrs. Beach of the Congregational church. The present membership of the society is one hundred and twenty-eight. BIRMINGHAM PUBLIC LIBRARY In the year I869 a few persons gathered at the home of Mrs. Edwin Baldwin for the purpose of forming a Library Association. About forty dollars had been secured from persons who had been members of a Good Templars' lodge, recently disbanded. The first purchase was thirty-nine volumes. As years passed the society grew and was soon incorporated under the state law.

Page  269 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 269 The old Methodist church was bought and was used by the society till 1893, when a lot on one of the main corners of Birmingham was bought and a building erected at a cost of thirty-five hundred dollars. Money was raised by the women in every conceivable way by holding baby shows, fairs, balls, dramatic entertainments, dinners, banquets, etc., till there were twenty-five hundred books on the shelves. In I907 the society offered their property to the village provided a tax of one-half mill on a dollar was voted for the support of a free public library. Miss Martha Baldwin, who had served many years as secretary of the society, offered to give to the village a mortgage of twenty-five hundred dollars, held by her upon the building. After a hotly contested election, the library won. The decision was carried to the Supreme Court and there the library won again. It was not till August, I907, that it was catalogued under the Dewey system and opened to the public. Its success has far exceeded the expectations of its friends. It is now open four times a week with a skilled librarian in charge. It was the first public library in the county. It now numbers four thousand volumes and many magazines and papers are on the reading tables. Birmingham is proud of its library and it is also prouder of the women who worked for it and of the men who voted for it. A list of those is kept in the library records. Miss Baldwin has been president and Miss V. Post, secretary of the board since its organiaztion. The present board is composed of the following: President, Miss M. Baldwin; vice president, Mrs. Mary Cooper; secretary, Miss V. Post; treasurer, Dr. J. Rainy; Mrs. J. A. Bigelow and Mrs. Lena Wilson. BIRMINGHAM LITERARY CLUB The Women's Literary Club of Birmingham was organized in I890. It is a member of the county and state federations. Mrs. Helen Brey is president; Mrs. Stanley Todd, secretary; Mrs. William H. Poole, corresponding secretary. GREENWOOD CEMETERY ASSOCIATION, BIRMINGHAM In September of 1881, two women were strolling through the village cemetery. Dr. Raynale, who had done so much for its care and preservation, had finished his labors and was at rest within its limits and there was no one to carry on the work. The younger woman was loud in her praises of the good conditions of a neighboring ground. The older one said nothing, but thought "what they can do, we can do, and more." Within a week a dozen women were called together and an association formed. The yearly dues were placed at fifty cents. The grass was mowed and the grounds cleaned. In 1885 the society was incorporated under the laws of the state and two and one-half acres of adjoining land were bought at a cost of $50o. This was platted according to the landscape gardening plan. The dues were raised to one dollar per year. In I901 and I904 further additions were made; a new tool house was built, water pipes laid, a gasoline en

Page  270 270 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY gine put in which pumps water from a creek. By the payment of twentyfive dollars perpetual care is insured. There is now twenty-five hundred dollars in that fund. Since I903 no lot has been sold except with perpetual care. In I9IO a vault was built that will hold nine bodies. Since I88I the same person has held the office of secretary and superintendent (Miss Martha Baldwin). The association is officered entirely by women and all business is done by them. They have had to combat old-time prejudice, but the up-to-date condition of the grounds reflects credit on their arrangement. LADIES' LIBRARY ASSOCIATION The Ladies' Library Association of Holly was organized February I, I877, with Mrs. L. L. Morrison president of a managing board of twelve ladies. For many years the members of the association paid one dollar a year dues, and had the privilege of drawing two books per week. Later it was made a free library with reading room attached and was open two days of the week. During this time the funds for carrying on the work were obtained by public subscriptions, library lecture courses and other entertainments of various natures. In February, I9II, after thirtyfour years of existence as a Ladies' Library, and after having expanded to something more than two thousand volumes, it was made a township library, largely through the efforts of the president of the board, Mrs. F. J. Barrett; Mrs. T. L. Patterson, treasurer, and Mrs. A. Steinbaugh, secretary.

Page  271 CHAPTER XIX MILITARY MATTERS OAKLAND COUNTY SOLDIERS OF THE WAR OF 8I2 —NAPOLEONIC SOLDIERS-EARLY MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS-THE MEXICAN WARTHE WAR OF THE REBELLION-FIRST MICHIGAN INFANTRY-SECOND INFANTRY-GENERAL I. B. RICHARDSON-THE SECOND REGIMENTTHIRD INFANTRY-THE FIFTH INFANTRY-SEVENTH REGIMENTEIGHTH AND NINTH INFANTRY REGIMENTS-THE TENTH INFANTRY -DEATH OF ADJUTANT COWLES-THE FOURTEENTH INFANTRYTHE FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH-TWENTY-SECOND INFANTRYGOVERNOR MOSES WISNER-TWENTY-NINTH INFANTRY-THIRTIETH INFANTRY AND "MECHANICS AND ENGINEERS"-CUSTER'S MICHIGAN CAVALRY BRIGADE-THE EIGHTH CAVALRY —NINTH AND TENTH CAVALRY REGIMENTS-MICHIGAN LIGHT ARTILLERY-ONE HUNDRED AND SECOND UNITED STATES COLORED TROOPS-MILITARY MATTERS OF LATE. In Chapter VI has been recorded the careers of those soldiers of the Revolution who settled in Oakland county, some of whom became prominent in her citizenship. For several years previous to the War of I812 the military spirit of the Revolution had been kept keenly alive by the campaigns.of the American soldiery against the Indians, inspired and supported by the British, and at the time of the defeat of Tecumseh by Harrison in November, 18II, a large force of home troops had been collected in Ohio ready for contingencies. They were divided into three regiments and placed under the command of Colonels McArthur, Findlay and Cass. A fourth regiment under Colonel Miller joined them, and the entire command was placed under Governor Hull, of Michigan territory. His disgraceful surrender of the American army, so eager to uphold the native name for bravery and patriotism, is, unfortunately, a matter of history. So far as the War of 1812 directly affects the record of Oakland county and her citizens, lies in the fact that a number of those who participated in its campaigns afterward located within her limits. In this connection it should be remembered that the county's first permanent settler did not appear until I817. OAKLAND COUNTY SOLDIERS OF THE WAR OF 18I2 The list of soldiers of the War of I812 who became citizens of this county is as follows: Addison township-Derrick Hulich and Jesse Elwell; the latter died in I874. 271

Page  272 272 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Avon township-John Sargent served from I812 to I817; was stationed for a long time at Fort Gratiot. Brandon township-James Arnold from New York; Adam Drake, who died in 1874, aged ninety-seven years. Commerce township-Cornelius Austin. Farmington township-A Mr. Burns. Oakland township-Ezra Brewster, served in Captain Lacey's company of New York militia; also Josiah Dewey and James Coleman, in the same command. Oxford township-Peter Stroud, served in Captain Abraham Matteson's company of New York troops. Pontiac township-Elizur Goodrich and Robert Parks, settled in Troy in 1822-3; former afterward moved to Auburn for a time. Troy township-Solomon Carswell and Captain Robert Parks. Waterford township-Isaac Willets. NAPOLEONIC SOLDIERS It is known that at least two soldiers of Napoleon the Great have been residents of Oakland county-Joseph Laubley, a native of the canton of Berne, Switzerland, who settled in Groveland township in 1836 and died in 1841; and John Oliver, who located in Rochester about I830 and died there about I875. EARLY MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS Under territorial laws every man between the ages of seventeen and forty-five was liable to be called upon for military service, and a regiment was organized in Oakland county as early as I825. Among its earliest commanders were Colonel David Stewart, Henry O. Bronson and Calvin Hotchkiss. Within a few years the regiment grew so rapidly that it had to be divided into what were known as the Rifle and the Militia (or Floodwood) regiments. The first company organized in Pontiac was commanded by Calvin Hotchkiss, who subsequently rose to the rank of general of the state militia. A general muster occurred annually in the autumn and the company drills were of frequent occurrence. At the time of the celebrated "Toledo war" great preparations were made by the Pontiac contingency to cover itself with glory; but its efforts, as is well known, were fruitless. In I826 Almon Mack was elected ensign of Captain Hotchkiss' company and T. J. Drake, lieutenant. Lieutenant Drake afterward resigned and G. O. Whittemore, formerly ensign, was promoted. Ensign Mack was promoted lieutenant in the fall of 1827 and detailed as acting adjutant the same year. Governor Cass was present at the general muster in 1827 and made an address to the regiment. The Governor was a strong Jackson man and the regiment is said to have had three Jackson men in its ranks; so that his really interested audience was very select. Colonel Stephen Mack, so prominent in the early affairs of Pontiac, received his military title in Vermont previous to removing to Michigan,

Page  273 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 273 as he was a colonel of a Green Mountain regiment before the War of I812. In 1835 the military of Oakland county formed the Third brigade of the Second division, Brigadier General John Stockton, commanding, Colonel Wells Waring commanding the brigade. In 1837 the brigade was. commanded by Colonel Calvin Hotchkiss. In 1838 Oakland county contained two regiments-the Ninth and Tenth, of the Fifth brigade, Third division. William Crooks was colonel of the Ninth, and Orange Foote of the Tenth. Avon, as one of the townships first settled, was quite prominent in military matters. The Avon Riflemen were considered a star organization. Calvin Chapel was captain of the company; Calvin A. Green, first lieutenant; Almeron Brotherton, second lieutenant; Thomas Stewart, third lieutenant, and Christian Z. Horton, Ormul Stewart, Francis Brotherton, and Calvin H. Potter, the four sergeants. There were four corporals, two bass drummers, two snare drummers, three fifers and forty-four privates. The first officers were commissioned July 9, 1838, Almeron Brotherton being elected captain in May, I840. THE MEXICAN WAR Oakland county was represented in the Mexican war by Company A, Fifteenth Regiment United States Infantry, which served from the commencement of hostilities in I847 until it was mustered out of the service July 30, 1848. The privates numbered a full hundred and most of the men enlisted in March and April, I847, nearly a half being enlisted by Lieutenant Samuel E. Beach in Pontiac. Captain Eugene Van de Venter was the first commander, being afterward promoted to major, his commission for the latter rank dating from December 22, I847. He was transferred to the Thirteenth Infantry. Company A saw active service at Chapultepec, Churubusco, Vera Cruz and the city of Mexico, and her dead and wounded were practical tributes to the bravery of the boys who went from Oakland county. The officers of the command who led the soldiers into the field were as follows: Thornton F. Brodhead, captain; W illiam R. Srafford, first lieutenant; Samuel E. Beach, second lieutenant, breveted for meritorious conduct at Contreras and Churubusco and promoted first lieutenant, February 28, 1848; Edwin R. Merryfield, second lieutenant; Lewyllen Boyle, second lieutenant; Charles Peternell, second lieutenant, promoted first lieutenant January 26, 1848; Thomas W. Freelove, first lieutenant. That the soldiers who went from Oakland county were honorable men is proven by the records which note but two cases of desertion. On the other hand the list of killed in battle and died of wounds and sickness is large, in proportion to the number enlisted and recruited. Killed in battle:-Samuel Carney, at Churubusco, August 20, 1847, and John Haviland, at Chapultepec, September I3, 1847; both privates. Died of wounds:-Hiram Brown, battle of Churubusco, October 26, 1847; William R. Koch, battle of Chapultepec, September 17, 1847; Henry Wydner, battle of Churubusco, August 28, 1847. Died of sickness:-Thomas Ainsley, Vera Cruz, July 2, I847; John

Page  274 274 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Aseltine, Jr., Chapultepec, December I, 1847; William R. Buzzell, city of Mexico, October 29, 1847; Charles Calkins, Puebla, July 28, 1847; Chandler Delong, Puebla, July 28, 1847; Andrew J. Griffin, Perote, August 20, 1847; Daniel D. Haines, Perote, July 15, 1847; Edward Kelley, Camp Rio San Juan, June 13, 1847; James M. Proper, Chapultepec, December 9, I847; Claudius H. Riggs, Vera Cruz, July I2, I847; Henry Clay Rice, Vera Cruz, July 2, 1847; George Scudder, Chapultepec, December 8, 1847; Jacob Strobe, Perote, September 20, 1847. THE WAR OF THE REBELLION In proportion to her wealth and population, Oakland county was second to none in Michigan in her contributions of men and funds to support the Union. The amount of money raised by the county and its townships during the Civil war was $586,556.98, which sum was exceeded only by Wayne county in the state of Michigan. Under the Soldiers' Relief law $127,993.38 was expended, and large amounts were raised for sanitary purposes by the Sanitary Commission and the various Ladies' Aid Societies. "God bless the women" was no empty sentiment in those days, when uttered by the soldiers in the field or hospital. The State Sanitary Commission included as delegates from Oakland county: Rev. J. M. Strong, of Clarkston, Rev. W. P. Wastell, Holly; Rev. J. W. Allen, Franklin, and Rev. John Pierson, Milford, all attached to the Army of the Potomac and all engaged for six weeks with their duties of relieving the soldiers of Michigan in the field. Among the volunteer surgeons from Oakland county were Drs. John Smith, J. E. Wilson, and F. B. Galbraith. In the fall of I864 commissioners were appointed by the governor, under authority of the state legislature, to proceed to the various sections of the country at which Michigan troops were in service and superintended an election for presidential electors; in other words, to place the privilege of the franchise within the hands of the soldiers in the field from their state. Upon this commission was Asher E. Mather, of Pontiac, who had charge of the casting of the presidential ballots by the Ninth and Twenty-second Infantry, Army of the Cumberland. No commonwealth has a more magnificent memorial to its soldiers and sailors than has Michigan at Detroit, and upon the board of directors which brought the enterprise to such a splendid conclusion were M. E. Crofoot and W. M. McConnell, of Pontiac. They officially represented a county which had sent to the front more than 3,700 of its brave men, of whom more than 400 laid down their lives for the Union cause in battlefield, prison and hospital. Scattered throughout the county are also minor monuments which stand as mute memorials of love and honor erected by the living, while many a grave in the beautiful homes of the dead is yearly covered with the flag which the sleeper loved so well. In Oak Hill cemetery is an especially gallant company-Major General I. B. Richardson, United States Volunteers, mortally wounded at Antietam; Colonel Moses Wisner, Twenty-second Michigan, died at Lexington, Kentucky; Captain T. C. Beardslee, Twenty-second Michigan Infantry,

Page  275 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 275 died at Nashville; Lieutenant Samuel Pearce, Fifth Michigan Infantry, killed at the crossing of the North Anna, Virginia; Lieutenant Percy S. Leggett, Fifth Michigan Cavalry, killed near the Rappahannock; Lieutenant Richard Whitehead, Fifth Michigan Cavalry, killed near Hanover Courthouse; Lieutenant Joseph McConnell, Eighteenth United States Infantry, killed at Stone river; Sergeant Major William Churchill, Seventh Michigan Infantry, killed at Antietam; Captain William North, Fifth Michigan Cavalry, killed at Cedar creek. Memorial day has generally been observed in Pontiac, especially interesting and impressive ceremonies being observed on June 4, 1869. Upon that occasion Rev. W. H. Shier delivered the principal address of the day. Among other statements which he made were that twenty-seven soldiers ranking from a major general down to a private lay in the Oak Hill cemetery, and out of that number he knew of but one who had nothing to mark his resting place, and that was Major General I. B. Richardson (or, as he was more familiarly known in the army, "Fighting Dick"). He proceeded to state that the General was a graduate of West Point, fought under General Scott in all the important battles in the Mexican war, and as soon as the rebellion broke out was one of the first to offer his services to his country. He fought bravely in the Army of the Potomac up to the time he was killed, but after he had gained such a national reputation as a patriot and a fighting general, being the first to be created a major general, a stranger desirous of visiting his grave could not find it in Oak Hill cemetery, as it remained up to that time (1869), wholly unmarked.* THE FIRST MICHIGAN INFANTRY The First Michigan Infantry was naturally a three months' organization. Under Colonel Wilcox, it lead the advance of state troops to the front, and at the battle of Bull Run fixed the standard of Michigan troops for the entire period of the Civil war. The boys from the Wolverine' state were both stubborn and dashing, and at Bull Run, as in many a hard fought battle afterward, the dead of the First Regiment were found nearest the enemy's works. Among the loss to the regiment were Captain Butterworth, Lieutenants Mauch and Casey wounded and taken prisoners (who afterward died of their wounds in the hands of the enemy), and Colonel Wilcox, who was wounded, taken prisoner and held at Richmond for fifteen months. The regiment was mustered out at the expiration of the three months' term of service, August 7, I86I, but was soon afterward reorganized as a three-year's regiment. It returned to the Army of the Potomac, August i6th, under command of Colonel John C. Robinson, who was succeeded on his promotion to a brigadiership, by Colonel H. S. Roberts. THE SECOND INFANTRY The Second Infantry was commanded by Oakland county's most distinguished and popular soldier, Israel B. Richardson, who was wounded *A tasteful and impressive monument was erected to the memory of General Richardson. Vol. I-1 8

Page  276 276 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY at the battle of Antietam and died November 3, I862. A West Point cadet from his native state of Vermont, upon his graduation from the military academy he was breveted second lieutenant and assigned to the Third United States Infantry. As first lieutenant, to which he was promoted in September, I846, he commanded his company in the Mexican war (at Cerro Gordo), and was afterward breveted captain and major for gallantry at Churubusco and Chapultepec. It was soon after the close of the Mexican war that he moved to Oakland county, where the War of the Rebellion found him. GENERAL I. B. RICHARDSON On the first call for volunteers General Richardson offered his services. Governor Blair at once appointed him colonel of the Second Michigan Infantry, and, when he arrived at Washington, General Scott fittingly acknowledged his services in the Mexican war by assigning a brigade to him. He was in the first battle of Bull Run; was soon after promoted to the rank of brigadier general, and both his dash and judgment in the peninsula campaign under McClellan were so conspicuous that he was advanced to the major-generalship. As had been well stated: "At Antietam his zeal led him to do a colonel's work, and in leading a regiment he received his mortal wound." General Richardson's remains were brought home to Pontiac for interment, and the funeral obsequies were performed November I, I862, a little more than three weeks after the battle of Antietam at which the splendid soldier received his death wound. At the courthouse the dead general lay shrouded in the colors to which he had sworn fealty in boyhood and which he had so faithfully and ably defended in two wars. Detachments from the military organizations then in the state were in attendance, including the Detroit Light Guards and Captain Daniel's battery of light artillery. Rev. Mr. Eldridge, of the Fort Street Presbyterian church, Detroit, delivered the funeral oration; the procession to Oak Hill cemetery was formed and commanded by General Henry D. Terry, a companion in arms; and the remains of "Fighting Dick" were laid to rest with the solemn ritual of the Episcopal church and the soldiers' volley. THE SECOND REGIMENT The Second Regiment was under the immediate command of Colonel O. M. Poe, in Richardson's brigade, participated in the engagement at Blackburn's Ford and covered the retreat of the army at first Bull Run. Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Malvern Hill, second Bull Run and Chantilly followed; and in I863 it participated in Grant's Mississippi campaign, being also with Burnside in east Tennessee and the defense of Knoxville. In General Sherman's pursuit of Johnston it is credited with making one of the most daring and gallant charges of the war, it being then commanded by Colonel Humphrey. The regiment also won bright laurels at the siege of Knoxville by Longstreet in November, 1863. Its charge of the 24th against a force of investing confederates was another notable event of the war. Afterward the Second returned to the Army of the

Page  277 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 277 Potomac and participated in the famous campaign of General Grant in I864, the last notable operations in which it participated being the siege of Petersburg from June 17, 1864, to April 5, 1865. THE THIRD INFANTRY Although the original Third Michigan Infantry was raised in Grand Rapids, the decimation in its ranks was largely filled by Oakland county men. It was a part of Richardson's brigade at Blackburn's Ford and afterward belonged to Berry's celebrated brigade of Kearney's division. It was particularly distinguished at Fair Oaks, where its losses were heavy and Captain Samuel A. Judd was killed. It lost forty-one, killed, wounded, and missing at Gettysburg, and followed the fortunes of the Army of the Tennessee and the Army of the Potomac until the final siege of Petersburg in April, i865. On June 20, 1864, the regiment was mustered out of the service, but reorganized and left for the field in Tennessee October 20th, following. With the Second, it afterward returned to the campaigns in Virginia being conducted by Grant through the Army of the Potomac. The reorganized Third was stationed in Texas during the winter of I865-6 and was mustered out May 26, I866. THE FIFTH INFANTRY The Fifth regiment, often called the Fighting Fifth, left Detroit for Virginia, September II, 1861, commanded by Colonel Henry D. Terry and, as a part of Berry's brigade, had its first engagement at Williamsburg, May 5, 1862. There its conduct was gallant and its losses heavy, among the killed being Lieutenant James Gunning and the wounded, Lieutenant Colonel S. E. Beach, of Pontiac. Captain L. B. Quackenbush and Lieutenant Charles H. Hutchins were killed at Fair Oaks, and Lieutenant Charles*H. Traverse mortally wounded. At Chickahominy, Peach Orchard and Charles City Cross Roads, the regiment conducted itself as it should, Lieutenant W. T. Johnson being killed and Major John D. Fairbanks being mortally wounded at the engagement last named. Fredericksburg caused the death of its commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel John Gilluby, the losses of the rank and file at these battles telling the story of general bravery. The regiment participated in the desperate charge made on the rear of Stonewall Jackson's forces, near Chancellorsville, which threatened the destruction of the right flank of the Union army; was at Gettysburg during the two days' battle, losing on July 2d, in one hour, IO5 men and officers, and on July 2d, assisting to repel the final charge of the Confederates on Cemetery Hill. In May, 1864, under Colonel Pulford the regiment entered the great campaign of Grant against Richmond, and within the following three weeks participated in the general movement to the North Anna river, in the crossing of which Lieutenant Samuel Pierce was killed. On the Ioth of June the Third Michigan was consolidated with the Fifth. From March until April, of I865, the regiment was engaged in the general movements around Petersburg, on the 3d of the latter month participating in the general assault and capture of the enemy's fortifications.

Page  278 278 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Brigadier General Berry complimented the Second, Third and Fifth (all of which regiments were in his brigade), most highly when he said of them: "A nobler set of men never lived. Any man can win fights with such material." THE SEVENTH INFANTRY More than one hundred men from Oakland county joined various companies in the Seventh Infantry, Francis Daniels of Company H being promoted from a sergeantcy to second lieutenant in December, 1864. The regiment was organized under the direction of Colonel Ira R. Grosvenor at Monroe, and served through the Peninsula campaign, one of its greatest services being performed as the rear guard of the Army of the Potomac on the retreat to Harrison's Landing. It was also engaged in all the Maryland actions, and at Antietam it lost more than half its forces engaged, including Captains Allen H. Zacharias and J. H. Turrill and Lieutenants J. B. Eberhard and John A. Clark. The regiment passed through the Wilderness campaign under Major S. W. Curtis, especially distinguishing itself at Hatcher's Run by the capture of an important Confederate command five hundred strong with a force of only eighty-five. The Seventh continued in active service until the surrender of Lee, April 9, 1865, being finally mustered out on the 5th of the following July. THE EIGHTH AND NINTH INFANTRY REGIMENTS Only about sixty men from Oakland were with these commands. The former, raised by Colonel W. M. Fenton, of Flint, was engaged in nine battles in four states-South Carolina, Georgia, Virginia, and Marylandand afterward served in the several campaigns of the Ninth corps in Tennessee and Mississippi until the close of the war in Virginia. The only officer from Oakland county was William A. Clifford, who entered the service as sergeant major of Company B; was promoted to be first lieutenant October 5, 1864, and adjutant of the regiment, April 25, I865. The Ninth Infantry was chiefly noted for the part it took in the brilliant defense of Murfreesboro, July 13, I862, and its participation in the battle of Stone River, in January, I863. It was mustered out of the service September I5, 1865. Officers from Oakland county: C. C. Starkweather, who joined Company I, as sergeant, was made second lieutenant May 14, 1863, first lieutenant (Company E), September 20, 1864, and Captain of Company B, April 20, 1865; John B. Gunning, sergeant of Company I, promoted to second lieutenant Company D, April 20, I865; and William Wilkinson, Jr., who was mustered out as a non-commissioned staff officer,' September 15, 1865. TIE TENTH INFANTRY The Tenth Infantry, organized at Flint by Colonel Charles M. Linn, contained a large element of Oakland county soldiers, and its officers were well represented among the citizens of this section of the state. The latter include the following: Sylvester D. Cowles, first lieutenant

Page  279 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 279 and adjutant (formerly first lieutenant in Fifth Infantry), who was killed by a Confederate sharpshooter at Farmington, Mississippi, May 26, 1862; John Piersons, first captain of Company H, and promoted to be lieutenant colonel of the Iogth United States Colored Troops, August 30, 1864; Alva A. Collins, second lieutenant Company C, who was promoted first lieutenant, June 2, I862, and captain of Company H, August 30, 1864; Fred S. Stewart, sergeant major and promoted first lieutenant and adjutant, May 28, I862; Benjamin B. Redfield, first lieutenant; Sylvan Ter Bush, first lieutenant of Company H, and promoted to captain of Company C, March 31, 1863 (wounded at Jonesboro, Ga., September I, I864), major May 20, I865, and lieutenant colonel June 7, 1865; Joseph E. Tupper, sergeant major, and promoted second lieutenant, May 13, 1863, and major United States Colored Troops, November, 1863; Warren G. Nelson, sergeant Company H, and promoted first lieutenant of Company C, February 24, 1865; Eslie R. Redfield, sergeant Company C, and promoted first lieutenant Company F, September 3, I864, and captain Company I, May 20, I865; Charles P. Rice, sergeant, and promoted second lieutenant June 7, I865; Alex. H. Allen, sergeant, and promoted second lieutenant June 7, I865; Mark H. Ridley, sergeant Company C and promoted second lieutenant Company B, June 7, 1865; and Fletcher W. Hewes, sergeant Company C and promoted first lieutenant Company D, May 8, I865. The Tenth Regiment first encountered the enemy in battle near Corinth, Mississippi, and among the most marked events in its splendid history were the engagement at Buzzard's Roost, Georgia, February 25, I864; the battle of Jonesboro, September I, I864, and the fight at Bentonville, March 19 and 20, 1865. DEATH OF ADJUTANT COWLES The death of Adjutant Cowles was a great blow to the Oakland county boys. In company with other officers of the regiment he was riding along the picket line at Corinth examining the rebel works. He dismounted, in order to get a better view, and at first stood behind a tree. Not satisfied with that position he stepped into the open, remarking as he did so, "I guess they won't hit me." Ie had scarcely uttered the words when the bullet from the Confederate sharpshooter struck him in the left breast, passing through the body obliquely and coming out through the right shoulder. He simply exclaimed, "I am hit," and expired. THE FOURTEENTH INFANTRY The county sent more than ninety into the Fourteenth Infantry, including the following officers: Frank Powell, captain Company I; John P. Foster, first lieutenant of Company I, who was promoted to be captain January 29, 1863, and wounded at Averyboro, North Carolina, March i6, I865; Alfred A. Parker, second lieutenant of Company I and promoted first lieutenant June 20, 1862; Frederick Banks, sergeant of Company I, and promoted second lieutenant June 20, 1862; New

Page  280 280 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY come Clark, sergeant of Company I, and promoted second lieutenant June I6, 1862, major First Michigan Colored Infantry (io2d United States Colored Troops), March I2, 1864, and lieutenant colonel June I9, 1865; Cornelius Losey, sergeant Company I, and promoted first lieutenant August Io, I864, and captain, February 13, 1865 (wounded March 20, 1865); and Isaac Olive, sergeant Company I, and promoted second lieutenant Company F, March 14, I865, and first lieutenant, July 7, 1865. The Fourteenth Infantry left Ypsilanti, where it was rendezvoused, in command of Colonel Robert P. Sinclair, of Grand Rapids, under whose direction it had been recruited, and joined the Western Army at Pittsburgh Landing. It participated in the battle of Stone River, in December, I862, and January, I863, and was also actively engaged in the Atlanta campaign. The battles of Jonesboro, Georgia, on September I, 1864, and Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19 and 20, 1865, were its special fields of honor. THE FIFTEENTH AND THE SIXTEENTH Both the Fifteenth and the Sixteenth Infantry regiments received a number of recruits from Oakland county, each about sixty, and several officers were also drawn from her citizens. Dr. Levi M. Garner, surgeon of the Fifteenth, died May I7, I862; W. H. Hubble, sergeant of Company F, was promoted to the first lieutenantcy October I, I862, and to the captaincy, March 4, 1863. Most of the recruits of this regiment were received during the later days of the war, the engagements in the Atlanta campaign and "Sherman's March" being the only actions in which they participated. The Sixteenth was raised and organized during the summer of I86I by Colonel T. B. W. Stockton, and was for some time known as Stockton's Independent Regiment. Its active service began with the siege of Yorktown in April, I862, and ended at Appomattox Court House, after having passed through the various campaigns of the Army of the Potomac with highest credit, as a part of the Third brigade, first division, Fifth corps. Among the battles in which it participated none are perhaps more.to its credit than Gaines Hill and Peebles' Farm. In the former engagement Captain Thomas C. Carr and Lieutenants Byron McGraw and Richard Williams were killed, and Colonel Stockton had his horse shot from under him. Captains Mott and Fisher and Surgeon Wixom were taken prisoners. At Prebles' Farm, Colonel N. E. Welch was instantly killed while going over the enemy's works sword in hand. THE TWENTY-SECOND INFANTRY Of all the regiments which went to the front, the Twenty-second created the most widespread interest throughout the county. More men from Oakland county joined its various companies than those of any other regiment (something like 560) and its commanding officer was Moses Wisner, who had already served as governor of the state and was among its most honored and popular citizens. It was largely through *

Page  281 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 281 his efforts and personal influence that it was raised. His command left the state of Kentucky September 4, I862, and Colonel Wisner died of typhoid fever at Lexington, Kentucky, January 5, I863. It is thought that his unremitting labors in the raising, organization and drilling of the regiment brought about such a nervous condition as to make him an easy victim to the disease which caused his death. GOVERNOR MOSES WISNER Governor Wisner was an able lawyer and a broad minded public man, and as he was a thorough disciplinarian and deeply read in military tactics his friends and the public at large looked confidently to see him make a splendid reputation as a soldier. He not only possessed the true temperament for a military leader, but he inherited the ambition to be such from his father (also Moses), who was a colonel in the War of 1812 and brave and masterly in battle. Colonel Wisner was buried in Oak Hill cemetery on January 9, 1863, without military display, but as unostentatiously as he had lived. The legislature, the supreme court of the state and the bar of Oakland county all adopted resolutions of respect and affection, and, as expressed by a local publication, "the resolutions passed by his own regiment were like the wailings of orphans for a dead father." The deceased was succeeded in the command by Colonel Heber LeFavour, who first led the regiment against the enemy at Danville, Kentucky, March 24, I863. At Chickamauga, on September 9th, it formed part of Whittaker's brigade, and played a leading part in coming to the rescue of Thomas' imperiled line. The Twenty-second lost on that day 372 in killed, wounded and missing, and among those mortally wounded were Captains W. A. Smith and Elijah Snell. Most of the missing were taken prisoners, including Colonel LeFavour. The regiment also participated in the battle of Missionary Ridge, November 26, 1863, its last action being before Atlanta, Georgia, July 22 and 23, 1864. Elijah Snell, captain of Company D, died of wounds received at Chickamauga, September 20, I863. Altogether sixteen officers of the regiment hailed from Oakland county. TWENTY-NINTH INFANTRY Over one hundred men were recruited in Oakland county for the Twenty-ninth regiment, one of the latest to enter the service. Under command of Colonel Thomas M. Taylor'it arrived at Nashville, October 3, 1864, and, although "new at the game of war," when it met the enemy at Decatur, under Hood, on the 26th of the month, it behaved with great coolness. The regiment moved out from the breastworks behind which it was sheltered and, in the face of a hot fire of musketry and artillery took possession of a line of rifle pits. Colonel Doolittle, who was in charge of the Union force, had but five hundred men but with them he successfully resisted five thousand Confederates-Waltham's division of Stewart's corps. The Twenty-second was mustered out of the service September 6, I865.

Page  282 282 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY THIRTIETH INFANTRY AND "MECHANICS AND ENGINEERS" The citizen soldiery of Oakland county was slightly represented in the Thirtieth Infantry, a home regiment which was stationed at different points in Michigan during the last year of the war, and the "Mechanics and Engineers," who so distinguished themselves in Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia and North Carolina both as fighters and bridge builders. CUSTER'S MICHIGAN CAVALRY BRIGADE Of the cavalry regiments, the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and Tenth, all received considerable accessions from Oakland county. The First Cavalry was organized during the summer of I86I by Colonel T. F. Brodhead, of Detroit (formerly of Pontiac), and left that city for Washington, December 29th. It participated in the campaigns on the upper Potomac, in the Shenandoah valley and on the slopes of the Blue Ridge in I862, Colonel Brodhead being killed at the second battle of Bull Run, August 30, 1862. He was an educated lawyer, a member of the Oakland county bar, and after moving to Detroit served for some years as postmaster of that city. The First Michigan Cavalry was in the Gettysburg campaign of I863. With the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh regiments of cavalry, it was incorporated into what became widely known as the Michigan Cavalry Brigade in command of the lamented Custer. After the death of Colonel Brodhead the First Cavalry was commanded by Colonel Charles H. Town, and at Gettysburg his command successfully resisted a full infantry brigade of the enemy, putting them to route with drawn sabers. It was also at this terrific battle that the Fifth went to the relief of the Seventh Michigan Cavalry. The history of the four brigades composing the command which Custer led forms a bright chapter in the Union operations of this branch of the service in the campaigns of the Army of the Potomac from Winchester to Appomattox. Colonel John T. Copeland of the First cavalry organized the Fifth, but in November, I862, being promoted to the rank of a brigadier, he was succeeded in the command of the regiment by Colonel Freeman Norvell. Major R. A. Alger, of the Second Cavalry, was commissioned colonel of the Fifth on the 28th of the same month, and served in that capacity until September 20, I864, when ill health compelled him to resign. The sixty or seventy men from Oakland county who joined the Sixth and Seventh Cavalry regiments were generally transferred to the First; so that the record of the Fifth and First virtually covers all of interest to the readers of this history. THE EIGHTI CAVALRY More than two hundred men from Oakland county enlisted in the Eighth Michigan Cavalry, under command of Lieutenant Colonel G. S. Wormer. It formed part of the Union forces who pursued Morgan on his raid through Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio in 1863, and whose sixteen

Page  283 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 283 days' chase resulted in the rout of the Confederate leader at Buffington Island, in the Ohio river, July Igth of that year. The Union troops captured 573 prisoners, 487 horses and mules and a large quantity of arms, but Morgan himself avoided capture for a week. A detachment of the regiment in charge of Lieutenant Boynton led a force commanded by Major Rue, of the Ninth Kentucky Cavalry, which captured the famous rebel cavalryman near New Lisbon, Ohio, on the 26th of July, I863. The Eighth was raised by Colonel John Stockton, who commanded it until his health failed. During the war it was opposed by such brilliant leaders as Forrest and Wheeler and invariably held its own against them. Its achievements are most conspicuous while checking the advance of Longstreet's army and in the defense of Knoxville. One of its last engagements was that of November 28, I864, at Duck Creek, Tennessee, where the Eighth Michigan and the Fourteenth and Sixteenth Illinois Cavalry dismounted, fixing bayonets and charged through the surrounding enemy, driving one hundred of the rebels into the river. In the following month, followed the engagements around and in front of Nashville, lasting from December I4th to 22d, the decisive battle between Hood and Thomas being fought on the I5th and i6th. NINTH AND TENTH CAVALRY REGIMENTS Oakland county contributed over one hundred men to the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry. The former was the only regiment in this branch of the service which had the honor of accompanying Sherman in his entire march from Atlanta to the sea, composing the escort of General Kilpatrick when he opened communication between the army and the Atlantic coast. The Ninth also bore a conspicuous part in the pursuit and capture of General Morgan in his raid through Indiana and Ohio. The operations of the Tenth Cavalry were mainly in Tennessee and extended from January, I864, to April, I865, the last three months of service being in North Carolina and Virginia. The regiment left Grand Rapids in December, 1863, in command of Colonel Thaddeus Foote, and was afterward led by Lieutenant Colonel L. G. Trowbridge. Among the officers contributed by Oakland county was James H. Cummins, who joined the Tenth as first lieutenant of Company L; was promoted to be captain April I, I864; and was breveted major of United States Volunteers March 13, 1865, for capturing with one battalion at High Point, North Carolina, on April Io, 1865, $3,ooo,ooo worth of property and destroying it. MICHIGAN LIGHT ARTILLERY The regiment of Michigan Light Artillery was composed of twelve six-gun batteries, and was commanded by Colonel L. C. Loomis; but from the character of that arm of the service the batteries were never brought together as a regiment. About a hundred men were scattered through its several batteries-A, C, D, G, H, I, L and M-and also through the First, Fourth, Fifth, Eighth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth. Battery A, the first to leave the state, was originally designated Loomis's. It departed for western Virginia, under Colonel Loomis, on July I, I86I, first engag

Page  284 284 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY ing the enemy on the IIth of that month at Rich Mountain. Thence it was transferred to Kentucky, and did its full share in defeating a flanking movement launched against the right wing of the Union army. At Stone River it lost heavily, but won distinction, and at Chickamauga suffered little short of annihilation in defense of its guns. Missionary Ridge, Tennessee, November 25, 1863, was its last battle. Battery H had quite a contingent from Oakland county, both of officers and gunners. Marcus D. Elliott was promoted through two grades to the captaincy on January 8, I864; William Garner became first lieutenant May 29, i865, and William King, second lieutenant June io, i865. This battery rendezvoused in Monroe in connection with the Fifteenth Infantry and left that place March 13, 1862 under command of Captain Samuel DeGobyer, to report to General Halleck at St. Louis. Thence it was ordered to New Madrid, Missouri, and afterward served in Kentucky, west Tennessee and northern Mississippi, taking an active part in the Mississippi campaign which preceded the siege of Vicksburg, during which Captain DeGobyer received a wound from which he died August 8th following. The operations of Battery H were conducted entirely in Mississippi and Georgia, its last engagement being at Lovejoy's Station, in the latter state, September I, I864. ONE HUNDRED AND SECOND U. S. COLORED TROOPS Forty citizens of Oakland county joined the only colored regiment raised in Michigan during the war. It was known as the Io2d United States Colored Troops, was raised by Colonel Henry Barus of Detroit, and organized by Lieutenant Colonel W. T. Bennett. In March, I864, it took the field in command of Col. H. L. Chipman, then a captain in the regular army who had procured a leave of absence for that purpose. The colored troops first faced the Confederates at Baldwin, Florida, in August, 1864, and decisively repulsed the attacking force of cavalrymen. The men there proved that they were gallant and stanch fighters, and fully sustained that reputation in the Carolinas and other states in which they were engaged in their progress northward. The regiment was mustered out of the service with honor on the 30th of September, 1865. MILITARY MATTERS OF LATE Pontiac is proud of her armory, as she should be. It came after years of effort and waiting, and is largely the result of the consistent work of D. L. Kimball, Alderman Henry Pauli and Charles A. Fisher. An independent company was organized soon after the Spanish-American war, in which Captain Kimball commanded a company (Thirtyfifth Michigan Infantry). It originally occupied quarters in the Bradley block on East Pike street and the third floor of the Howland building on West Pike. Along in 1907 a keen agitation was started for the erection of a separate armory, the original plan being for the state to appropriate $Io,ooo and the city to raise $8,000. The final decision was $I5,ooo for the state and $6,00ooo for the city, and the bonds which were issued for $21,000 were sold chiefly through the exertions of Alder

Page  285 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 285 man Pauli, in April, I9I0. The armory was opened to Company E, Third Infantry (as the command was then known), December 22, I9II. On June 23, I905, the original company was mustered into the regular service as a part of the First Battery, Michigan National Guard. In June, I906, it was transferred from the artillery to the infantry, by action of the military board of the state, and was incorporated into the First Infantry, with William Marjison as captain, C. L. Allen as first lieutenant and H. H. Ross, second lieutenant. Late in 1906 Mr. Allen resigned, Mr. Ross was promoted to the first lieutenantcy and Fred Thorpe to the second lieutenantcy. In December, I906, Captain Marjison resigned and on the I3th of the month, David L. Kimball received his commission as captain of Company E, Third Infantry. He is one of the best disciplinarians in the state and one of the most popular citizens of Pontiac. In go9.First Lieutenant Ross resigned and Second Lieutenant Thorpe was promoted to the vacancy. Max Hodgdon was made second lieutenant. Company E has forty members in good standing.

Page  286 CHAPTER XX VILLAGE OF PONTIAC COLONEL MACK'S COMPANY-FIRST PONTIAC SETTLERS-WORKS OF MACK, CONANT AND SIBLEY-COLONEL'S MACK, FATHER AND SONSETTLERS OF 1822-I836-COUNTY SEAT AND COURTHOUSE-TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION —THE VILLAGE OF AUBURN (AMY) —PONTIAC VILLAGE INCORPORATED-EARLY TRUSTEE MEETINGS-REAL ESTATE ITEM-THE MILL POND NUISANCE —THE FIRE OF I840-EARLY BRIDGES-COMMON COUNCIL, THE GOVERNING BODY-THE VILLAGE FIRE DEPARTMENT-GAS WORKS INAUGURATED-HEADS OF THE VILLAGE GOVERNMENT. The village of Pontiac was not incorporated by regular legislative act until March 20, 1837, but it had an existence as a growing settlement from the time of the formation of the Pontiac Company, by Stephen Mack, of Detroit, on November 5, 1818. Colonel Mack, who obtained his title as the head of one of the Vermont regiments to which he rose before coming from his native state to Detroit, was a prosperous hotel keeper and merchant before he became a citizen of the Michigan metropolis, in I8IO. In that year he located in Detroit with Thomas Emerson, one of his business acquaintances of Vermont, and they were engaged in trade at that point when Hull surrendered to the British. That event deranged their plans, but after the war was over Colonel Mack again engaged in trade at Detroit under the firm name of Mack & Conant. The partnership continued until the Pontiac Company was formed and the Colonel proceeded, as its agent, to lead a small colony to the site selected for the new town. COLONEL MACK'S COMPANY The company, which was formed, as stated, on the 5th of November, 1818, at the city of Detroit, comprised William Woodbridge, Stephen Mack, Solomon Sibley, John L. Whiting, Austin E. Wing, David C. McKinstry, Benjamin Stead, Henry I. Hunt, Abraham Edwards, Archibald Darragh, Alexander Macomb (General Macomb, of the U. S. army) and Andrew G. Whitney, of that place, and William Thompson, Daniel LeRoy and James Fulton, of the county of Macomb (of which Oakland county was then a part). As shown by the records of the land office, the Pontiac Company, by its agent, Stephen Mack, purchased 286

Page  287 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 287 on the day following its formation, the eighteen hundred acres comprising section 29, the northeast quarter of section 32, and the northeast, northwest and southwest quarters of section 28, township 3 north, range Io east. Between that date and the I9th of February, 1819, the original town plat of Pontiac was laid out on the southeast quarter of section 29, by Maj. John Anderson. According to Capt. Hervey Parke's recollections, all the corners were marked with posts made of four-inch scantling sawed at the mill completed in the spring of I8I9 by Mack, Conant & Sibley. FIRST PONTIAC SETTLERS The first settlers on the spot now occupied by the city of Pontiac were undoubtedly Col. Stephen Mack, Maj. Joseph Todd, William Lester and Orisen Allen, who, with a body of workmen, located on the southeast quarter of section 29, in November or December, I8I8. In I8I9 Calvin Hotchkiss and Jeremiah Allen entered lands in the vicinity; that year also witnessed the coming of Harvey Williams and Elisha Gardner, the first blacksmiths of the place who worked in the old shop built by Colonel Mack. Among those who came in I820 and I82I were Charles Howard, Oliver Parker, Capt. Hervey Parke, Judah Church, Abner Davis, Eastman Colby, Alexander Galloway, Rufus Clark, Enoch Hotchkiss, James Harrington, G. W. Butson, John Edson, Joshua S. Terry, Joseph Harris, Stephen Reeves and Capt. Joseph Bancroft. WORKS OF MACK, CONANT & SIBLEY The firm of Mack, Conant & Sibley (Judge Solomon Sibley was a silent partner) made the first improvements in Pontiac. They obtained from the Pontiac Company the title to the water power, in consideration for which they agreed to pay a bonus of $I,ooo toward the erection of county buildings, in case the county seat should be located at Pontiac. The company itself also donated certain lots as an inducement for such location, and reserved various sites for schools, churches and a cemetery. This firm built a dam on Clinton river below Pike street and spent the winter and spring of I818-I9 in the erection of their sawmill; but the first house which rose on the present site of Pontiac was a small log cabin built for the workmen who were engaged on these enterprises. It stood where the Commercial Hotel was afterward built, and in March, I819, after the sawmill was completed, it was occupied by Maj. Joseph Todd and family, William Lester and Orisen Allen. After this cabin, the next building completed was the blacksmith shop which stood near the mill. In I819-20, the flour mill was finished-the first in the county. It contained one or two burr stones, and one run of common stone made from native boulders; but its completion was a great event, and quite a number of the Pontiac Company from Detroit, as well as others, celebrated the opening of the mill for business. Among those who attended were William Woodbridge, Solomon Sibley, John L. Whiting, Austin E. Wing, David C. McKinstry, Henry I. Hunt, Andrew C. Whitney, William Thompson, Judge Whipple, Daniel LeRoy and Colonel

Page  288 288 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY Mack; and, as was the custom of the times, they freely circulated the flowing bowl. COLONELS MACK, FATHER AND SON In I820 Mr. Conant retired from the firm of Mack, Conant & Sibley, and the two remaining partners continued the business until the Colonel's death in 1826. About 1823 Colonel Mack built a distillery, which was run in connection with the flour mill and in I824 also erected and operated a small woolen mill. The latter contained one set of machinery, for carding, spinning and weaving, and in its day did quite a business. In the meantime Almon Mack, the son of the Colonel, had come to Pontiac (1822), had taken charge of the mill business and become his father's active manager. A daughter of the Colonel also came on to keep house for her father. These, with an adopted daughter, occupied what was known as the company's building, which was used both as a dwelling and an office. Miss Lovina Mack, the daughter mentioned, died September 2, 1823, and this is believed to have been the first death of an adult white woman in Oakland county. The father died in November, I826, and was buried near his daughter on land which he owned on the east side of the river south of Pike street. The bodies were afterward disinterred and buried in Oak Hill cemetery. Colonel Mack raised a family of twelve children. Joseph Smith, the Mormon prophet, was a cousin of the Macks, and visited Oakland county several times previous to his removal to Illinois. Almira, one of the Colonel's nine daughters, joined the Mormons at an early day and followed their fortunes to Utah. About 1846 Mrs. Colonel Mack joined this daughter at Salt Lake and remained with her until her death ten years later. Almon Mack, the third son of the Colonel, became quite prominent in business and military matters. In his earlier years he had received a military training at the Vermont Military College, Norwich, and eventually became a colonel in the Michigan state militia; so that both father and son were legitimate "colonels." SETTLERS OF 1822-I836 The same year of Almon Mack's arrival also saw the coming of S. L. Millis, Joseph Morris, Asa Murray and Capt. Joseph Bancroft. Among others who became settlers of Pontiac and vicinity prior to 1837, the year of its incorporation, may be mentioned the following: 1823-John Southard, Ira Goodrich, Chester Webster and Joseph Harris. I824-E. B. Comstock, Francis J. Smith, Merritt Ferry, Henry W. Thomas, Deacon Jacob N. Voorheis, John Powell and Hon. Thomas J. Drake. I825-D. C. Buckland, S. T. Murray and H. W. McDonald. 1826-Laban Smith and Ira Stowell, Sr. I827-Origen D. Richardson. 1828-Luke Phillips.

Page  289 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 289 I830-W. C. Palmer, Nelson Reynolds, Joseph R. Bowman, Joseph Hunt and Eli Welch. I83 i-Hugh Kelly, James Henry, George Hopkinson, G. W. Gray and Levi Dewey. I832-Alonzo Barbour and James Loop. I833-George Reeves, Charles Torrey and Harrison Voorheis. I834-David Cummings, E. E. Sherwood and Joseph Voorheis. I835-W. B. Frederick, D. C. Dean and Ithamar Smith. I836-Deacon A. P. Frost, W. H. McConnell, H. C. Linaburv and John Springer. COUNTY SEAT AND COURT HOUSE The proclamation of Governor Cass, issued January 12, I819, announcing the bounds of Oakland county, also provided for the appointment of John L. Leib, Charles Lamed, Philip LaCuer, John Whipple and Thomas Rowland, as commissioners to report upon the most eligible site for the seat of justice. The town platted by the Pontiac Company was duly selected as the county seat, March 28, 1820, and about 1824 the log building which was to combine the qualifications of court house and jail was begun. The distinction between the two lay in the quality of raw material used in their construction; the upper part, or framed portion, was the court room, and the first story, built solidly of logs, was the jail. Major Oliver Williams, of Waterford, had the contract for getting out the timber, and the plank of which the cells were made and which were six inches thick was sawed at Mack's mill. The saw which did the work was run by Colonel Mack's son, Almon. This first county building stood near the present court house. The court room was not finished until I830. In February, I835, the structure was condemned by the grand jury, and the agitation for a convenient court house, or at least for one fairly adequate to the needs of the county, resulted, after more than twenty-one years, in the erection of the 1856-7 structure. TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION It was during the year 1827 that the original township of Oakland was divided into five townships, of which Pontiac was one. When first formed it included all of congressional townships Nos. 3, 4 and 5 north, ranges 7, 8 and 9, and township 3, range io east, and also had attached to it for township purposes a portion of the present county at Lapeer, and all of the counties of Shiawassee and Saginaw. On the 29th of May, 1828, the present township of Orion was detached from Oakland township and attached to Pontiac. Subsequently, the counties of Lapeer, Shiawassee and Saginaw were organized, and the following townships were formed from the original township of Pontiac, in the years named: Waterford, 1834; Orion, Highland and Groveland, 1835; Springfield, Independence and White Lake, 1836; Brandon and Rose, 1837; Holly, I838. The first meeting for the township of Pontiac was held at the old court house on Monday, May 28, I827; present-Sidney Dole, Charles C. Hascall, Gideon 0. Whittemore, Henry O. Bronson and David Stan

Page  290 290 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY nard, justices of the peace. The meeting was organized by the choice of Joseph Morrison, Jr., as moderator. The town was divided into eleven road districts. At this meeting the polls were also declared open for the election of supervisor. Jacob N. Voorheis, Elisha Beach and Oliver Williams presented their names for the office, and Mr. Voorheis, receiving 74 out of the IIo votes cast, was declared elected. Thus the township machinery was put in operation at Pontiac. THE VILLAGE OF AUBURN (AMY) The only settlement in Pontiac township outside of the county seat was the village of Auburn (now Amy), in the extreme southeast corner. Its first settler was a man by the name of Elijah Thornton, a Canadian, who settled on the south side of Clinton river in the early part of I82I. He located as a "squatter" a little above the present station of Amy, on the Grand Trunk line. Aaron Webster, of Cayuga county, New York, was the first property owner and permanent settler of Auburn, coming from Troy township. Webster went.to the nearest sawmill, that at Pontiac, for the purpose of getting lumber with which to build his cabin, but when he interviewed Colonel Mack he decided that the price asked (ten dollars per thousand) was too high, and concluded that he himself would build a sawmill and cut his own lumber. He had noticed the water power at the expansion of the river just northwest of where Auburn afterward was platted. Squatter Thornton had planted himself on a portion of the land which he required and Mr. Webster offered him one hundred dollars for his claim; this was promptly accepted and Thornton departed for a point near Romeo, Macomb county. Webster then disposed of his property in Troy township and, with the proceeds, entered 320 acres of government land, including the tract upon which Thornton had squatted and that controlling the water power. He at once built a dam and a mill race, erected a sawmill, and was preparing to build a gristmill, when he was taken down with typhoid fever and died in August, I823. After Webster's death, the entire property was purchased by Ebenezer Smith, and his son, with others, erected the gristmill which had been projected by the deceased. Elizur Goodrich, an old friend of Webster's who had bought some of his Troy township property, afterward located at Auburn, purchased the sawmill and operated it for a time. The village of Auburn was laid out in September, I826, its proprietors being Ebenezer Smith, I. L. Smith, Elizur Goodrich, Aaron Smith and Sylvester Smith, thy Smiths having become interested in the sawmill. Ebenezer Smith died soon after the village was laid out by Captain Hervey Parke. The gristmill then became the property of Aaron Smith, son of the deceased. Two additions were made to the village of Auburn in I836, by which time it had become quite a place, with carding and cloth dressing works, a trip hammer shop, tannery, and a flourishing academy. A good flouring and custom mill was erected at a later day; but the earlier promise of the village has not been realized by the events of subsequent years.

Page  291 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 291 PONTIAC VILLAGE INCORPORATED The village of Pontiac was incorporated by legislative act approved by the governor March 20, 1837. Its original limits were one and a half miles square, including all of section 29, the north half of section 32, the west half of section 28 and the northwest quarter of section 33, comprising an area of 1,400 acres. The first regular election for village officers was held at the court house on the first day of May, 1837, and the result is told on the first page of the first book of village and city records, still in a good state of preservation in the possession of the city clerk of Pontiac. The words are as follows: "At a meeting of the qualified electors of the village of Pontiac held at the courthouse in said village on the first day of May, A. D., 1837, pursuant to public notice, to elect seven trustees of said village, Origen D. Richardson and Amasa Bagley were elected (viva voce) judges of said election. "Origen D. Richardson was sworn by J. P. LeRoy, Esq., and Amasa Bagley and James A. Weeks were sworn by O. D. Richardson, in conformity to law. After the ballotting and canvassing were finished, it appeared that Schuyler Hodges received IO5 votes; Randolph Manning 103 votes; George W. Williams, 103; Gideon O. Whittemore, Io6; Orisen Allen, 103; Benjamin Davis, IOO; Daniel LeRoy, IO5; David Paddock, 57; William Draper, 54; Seth Beach, I56; Alonzo Barber, 54; John P. LeRoy, 58; Elkanah B. Comstock, 57; Abel H. Peck, 57; and scattering, 4. "Origen D. Richardson then declared to the meeing that Schuyler Hodges, Randolph Manning, George W. Williams, Gideon O. Whittemore, Orisen Allen, Benjamin Davis and Daniel LeRoy were elected trustees for the village of Pontiac for the current year. "The meeting was then adjourned. "We hereby certify that the foregoing is a true account of the proceedings of the meeting for the purposes aforesaid. "0. D. RICHARDSON "AMASA BAGLEY, Judges of Election. "JAMES A. WEEKS. Clerk. "I hereby certify that I have this day notified the within Schuyler Hodges, Randolph Manning, George W. Williams, Gideon O. Whittemore, Orisen Allen, Benjamin Davis and Daniel LeRoy that they were elected trustees for the village of Pontiac for the current year. "JAMES A. WEEKS, Clerk of within named election. "Recorded May 8th, A. D., I837. JAMES A. WEEKS, Clerk." Thus with due formality and solemnity, was the nucleus of Pontiac village created. On the 8th of May six of the trustees elected met at the courthouse-Messrs. Hodges, Manning, Whittemore, LeRoy, Williams and Davis-were sworn into office and elected Daniel LeRoy president. James A. Weeks was chosen clerk. EARLY TRUSTEE MEETINGS At a meeting held a week thereafter the by-laws creating the village offices and defining their duties, drafted by Messrs. Manning, WhitteVol. I-19

Page  292 292 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY more and Davis, were adopted. It was further resolved that all bylaws be published in the Democratic Balance and Pontiac Advertiser for three successive weeks; Francis Darrow was elected treasurer; Theron W. Barber, marshal; and Origen D. Richardson, Olmsted Chamberlin and Asahel Fuller, assessors; and the president of the board appointed standing committees, consisting of two members each, on the following: Streets and highways, accounts, taxation, nuisances, and stoves,, chimneys and fires. Trustee Allen did not appear to be sworn into office until May 27th, when, at the meeting held in Mr. Bagley's house, President LeRoy resigned and Gideon 0. Whittemore was elected head of the village board. As one means of guaranteeing a quorum, the trustees present at the courthouse meeting of June 5th resolved to fine each member one dollar "who shall not attend any regular meeting without a reasonable excuse." July I7th was a red-letter day, in that the village board passed an ordinance "relative to fire buckets and to guard against fire." The receipts and expenditures for the first current year of the corporation were as follows: Receipts, $863.77; expenditures, $697.47; balance in treasury, $I66.30. The trustees elected May 7, 1838, were Charles W. Harbach, Willard M. McConnell, M. LaMont Bagg, Seth Beach, Elkanah B. Comstock, Abel H. Peck and Suel Wesson. The highest number of votes (I39) was received by Mr. McConnell. In the following week Mr. Wesson was elected president and Mr. Weeks, clerk; G. O. Whittemore, treasurer; Julius Dean, marshal; Samuel Sherwood, Horatio N. Howard and James A. Weeks, assessors. At the meeting of May 22d, Mr. Weeks reported that "a suitable fire engine for this village will cost from $500 to $750; that the rivet hose will cost 85 cents per foot, the 'sewed' hose $i per foot, and that the terms on which they are purchased by the city of Detroit are one-half down, the balance in six months." At the meeting of the trustees held May 7, 1839, the report of the treasurer indicated a balance on hand as follows: Non-resident tax unpaid, $o1.89; two certificates of canal bills, $39; cash; (Pontiac and Oakland county) $5; and current funds $3.66. Total balance in village treasury, $58.55. It cost $I,091.20 to "run the village" in 1838; leaving the board in debt for 1838, $36.56. But on May 7, 1839, taking everything into consideration, the village clerk figured a "balance in favor of corporation" of $I 9.95. REAL ESTATE ITEM An interesting real estate item taken from the record of the board meeting of May 28, I839, is that the trustees agreed upon the following prices at which village lots should be offered for sale: Nos. i, 2 and 3, $I75, each; Nos. 4 and 5, $125 each; No. 6, $140; No. 7, $145; Nos. 8 and 9, $I75 each; No. IO, $150; No. 12, $I35. But it appears from the July report that there were no bidders even at those prices. In the fall of 1839 the Public Nuisance committee commenced to stir up the community, the board of trustees declaring among other things that Asher Buckland's "nine or ten pin alley" and "the tolling of the bell in cases of death and at funerals" were placed in the list of public

Page  293 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 293 nuisances-the latter, "inasmuch as it disturbs the public peace and is considered by the physicians as injurious to those who may be sick," also the dam and millpond across the Clinton river and the residence of Sewell Wisson. THE MILL POND NUISANCE The two mill ponds long remained public nuisances and objects of contention, legal and otherwise, between the village and the city and owners of abutting properties. As late as 1840 the channel of Clinton river was badly obstructed with brush and dead timber, and in September of that year we find the council ordering the same removed, from "H. N. Howard's dam to the Yellow mill," the job to be let to the lowest bidder. The work seems, however, to have hung fire, for in June, 1841, petitions were circulated and presented to the council praying that Clinton river and Pontiac creek might be cleared of rubbish, and the marshal was instructed to remove carcasses from the river at fifty cents each. A low water mark was established on the mill dams below which the mill owners were not permitted to draw water under penalty. It is impossible and would answer no good purpose to go into details concerning the litigation extending over a period of some sixty years by which the Corporation, or the People, endeavored to abate an evil which often threatened the public health. A compromise was finally effected by which the city agreed to erect banks around the offending mill pond and narrow the channel of the river. This work was not fully completed until about I902, but now the old-time pond, with its freeflowing outlet, the Clinton river, is a thing both of beauty and sanitation. THE FIRE OF 1840 The village had not even a hand engine when the fire of April 30, 1840, broke out in the Exchange, recently occupied by E. Burlington, corner of Saginaw and Lawrence. The flames soon swept across Saginaw street, which they swept clean to Pike street. Twenty-five buildings were destroyed altogether, at a loss of some $25,ooo. These figures do not now look appalling; but they did at that time, as they represented the destruction of the business heart of Pontiac. The Jacksonian says that at the time the fire swept along Saginaw street "the spectacle was truly awful and sublime"; further, that "every one acted with commendable coolness. The ladies, who turned out and carried buckets, water, etc., are worthy of all praise." EARLY BRIDGES During the summer of 1841 bridges were built over the mill pond at Pike street and over Pontiac creek at Clinton street. In the following year the Pontiac & Detroit Railroad was approaching the place, and the question of the right-of-way began to be discussed. "COMMON COUNCIL," THE GOVERNING BODY The election of officers for May, 1842, was held under the amended charter, which changed the title of the corporation from "president

Page  294 294 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY and trustees" to "common council," and allowed the people to choose a president, three trustees, a recorder and a marshal. The treasurer was appointed by the council. The first election under the new order of things resulted as follows: President, Pierce Patrick; trustees, Francis Darrow, Rufus Hosmer and Willard M. McConnell; recorder, Warren J. Nelson. Julius Dean was appointed treasurer. It would appear that the people became tired of the monotony of the place under the order prohibiting the ringing of bells, for in I850 a petition signed by 221 citizens was presented to the common council praying that Martin Bransby be appointed bell ringer. Their prayer was granted and said Bransby was allowed a salary of $52 for ringing the bell at five, nine and twelve o'clock A. M. and at one, five and nine o'clock P. M. In 1851 a new bridge was constructed over the Clinton river on Pike street, at the mill pond, and in 1853 one was built on Andrews street, now Orchard Lake avenue. A bridge was built over the mill pond on Pike street in i858, and in I860 one on Pike street, west of the railroad, was completed. THE VILLAGE FIRE DEPARTMENT The question of applying for a city charter began to be discussed early in I859. In the meantime the fire department had been so developed that it consisted of Pontiac Fire Company No. I, with forty-one men, and Deluge Fire Company No. 2, with thirty-seven members, two hand engines and one hose cart. The first company was organized in 1833, but the men appear to have got along with buckets until I844, when a hand engine was purchased in Rochester, New York, for six hundred dollars. In 1847 a Piano engine was purchased, and in the following year a one story brick house was completed; herein was housed the engine of 1844 (No. I) and the engine of 1847, which was christened Deluge Fire Engine No. 2," the second fire company being formed in that year. In 1847 H. C. Thurber was appointed chief engineer of the department, being succeeded by Colonel Archibald Spear in 1850, William C. Palmer in I85I, and James A. Weeks in 1852. GAS WORKS INAUGURATED Previous to the incorporation of Pontiac as a city in I86I the department consisted only of the two companies mentioned. The year before it became a municipality preliminary steps were taken to erect gas works, a committee of the common council being appointed to look after the matter and an ordinance passed March 21, I86o, authorizing Enos F. Chappell to form a stock company for that purpose. At the 'time Pontiac donned city garb, however, the gas works were still "in the air." HEADS OF THE VILLAGE GOVERNMENT The heads of the village government when the popular body was known as the "board of trustees" were as follows: 1838, Suel Wesson,

Page  295 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 295 president; I839, Amasa Bagley; 1840, G. O. Whittemore; I841, E. B. Comstock. After the governing body became the "common council" its presidents, year by year, were as follows: 1842, Pierce Patrick; I843, William S. Henderson; 1844, John P. LeRoy; 1845, Rufus Hosmer; I846, Joseph R. Bowman; I847, Rufus Hosmer; 1848, Horace C. Thurber; 1849, Horace C. Thurber; 1850, Alfred Treadway; i85I, William M. Thompson; I852, M. La Mont Bagg; 1853, Alfred Treadway; 1854, Alfred Treadway; 1855, James A. Weeks; 1856, Samuel E. Beach; 1857, Julius Dean; 1858, Julius Dean; 1859, R. W. Davis; i860, A. B. Matthews.

Page  296 CHAPTER XXI CITY OF PONTIAC FIRST ELECTION-CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT BORN-FIRST CITY HALLVALUE OF PROPERTY IN I876 —"JOHN P. FOSTER NO. 2"-SMALLPOX EPIDEMICS OF I881-82-NEWSPAPER SENSATION-RESIGNATION OF CHIEF ENGINEER FOSTER-CITY FINANCES IN I876-BOARD OF WATER COMMISSIONERS CREATED-THE NEW FIFTH WARD-ORIGINAL SYSTEM OF WATER WORKS-ELECTRIC LIGHTING AND TELEPHONE SYSTEMS-FIRST GAMEWELL FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH-MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN I894-FIRST THREE YEARS OF WATER SERVICELIGHTING AND TELEPHONE SERVICE AGAIN-SEWERAGE SYSTEM INAUGURATED-EXTENSION OF WATER WORKS-TELEPHONE SERVICE UP TO DATE-COMMISSION GOVERNMENT ADOPTE —EARLY,MEASURES PASSED-INCREASED EFFICIENCY OF FIRE DEPARTMENT-THE PRESENT CITY HALL-MAYORS OF PONTIAC-THE CITY PRESSOAK HILL CEMETERY-GAS LIGHTING AND ELECTRIC POWERPOSTOFFICE AND POSTMASTERS-THE PONTIAC STATE HOSPITAL. This chapter deals with the history of Pontiac as a city, tracing its general development as a municipality, with sketches of its various departments, from its first incorporation in I86I to the adoption of the commission form of government in I9II, a period almost exactly of half a century. CHARTERED Pontiac was chartered as a city by an act of the legislature approved by the governor March 15, 1861, its territorial limits being the same as those of the village-that is, section 29, the west half of section 28, the north half of section 32 and the northwest quarter of section 33. By the amendment of March 20, I867, the limits were extended so as to include the south half sections of 19, 20 and 2I and all of sections 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33, making an area of three by two and a half miles and including 4,800 acres. The same territory was covered by the city, although of course settled and improved along every modern line, at the commencement of the commission form of government April I, I9II. By the amended act of March 20, I867, Pontiac was divided into four wards, and a fifth was added in I889. The above may be designated as the chief divisions in the history of Pontiac as a city. The steps in this progress are to be described hereafter somewhat in detail. 296

Page  297 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 297 FIRST 'ELECTION The first election for city officers was held April I, I86I, and a few days later the War of the Rebellion broke upon the country with its hideous storm of death and destruction. Pontiac responded to Lincoln's call for 75,000 volunteers with patriotic promptness, and on the 27th of April the common council voted to raise one thousand dollars for the benefit of families of volunteers, the same to be issued in city orders of fifty dollars each. For the entire year of 1861 the total tax raised was $3,621.79; school tax, $I,850; the total receipts were $8,433.56, and the expenditures, the same. In I863 the valuation of city property is given as follows: First ward, $272,052; second ward, $388,235; total, $660,287. The school tax amounted to $3,575. In February, 1864, the council agreed to pay a bounty of one hundred dollars to each volunteer for Civil war service, and in the early part of the following year Mayor Cudworth, representing that body, entered into a contract with the gas company to supply Pontiac with illumination. The treasurer's report for the year ending April 25, 1865, showed the total receipts of the city to have been $17,066.9I and expenses $I6,700.53. City indebtedness: War bonds issued, $9,840; city bonds, $20,000. CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT BORN A night police was established during the winter of I867-8, this being the first attempt at the establishment of a city police department, but one of the first acts of the newly-elected council of I868 was the dis. bandment of the night force. It was soon afterward reestablished. Under the amended charter of March, 1867, the city made a jump from two to four wards, and under the same act the school limits of the Pontiac union district were made coextensive with the municipal limits. FIRST CITY HALL In I868 the two-story brick building on Pike street, which was afterward remodeled for the fire department, was completed for the use of the municipal officers at a cost of $I2,000. In 1871 the iron bridge on Saginaw street was built by the Canton Iron Bridge Company, of Ohio, for $4,500. For that year the receipts into the city treasury amounted to $43,247.IO and the expenditures, $39,448.04; balance, $3,799.06. Five years afterward, March 20, I876, the balance in the hands of the city treasurer amounted to $5,111.55; the receipts for the year had been $40,205.I8 and the disbursements, $35,093.63. The largest sources of income were the liquor tax ($3,122); city tax to pay face and interest of bonds ($4,239) and that raised for school purposes ($17,500).

Page  298 298 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNLTY VALUE OF PROPERTY IN 1876 At the council meeting of October I, 1876, the assessed valuation of city property was reported as follows: Wards Real Estate Personal Total First................$125,180 $ 29,800 $154,980 Second............... 128,250 42,400 170,650 Third................ 183,075 50,150 233,225 Fourth.............. 240,550 83,910 324,460 Totals...............$677,055 $206,260 $883,315 The amount of taxes levied for the year 1876 on the above valuation was as follows: City tax (three-fourths of one per cent), $6,624.86; sinking fund (one-tenth of one per cent), $883.3I; matured bonds, with interest, $2,280; bridge fund, $1,000; for school purposes, $I7,000. Total, $27,788.17. The common council at its meeting of December 30, 1878, passed resolutions of respect and condolence on the death of Hiram Voorheis, so long a valued and beloved member of that body. "JOHN P. FOSTER, NO. 2" At the session of January 20, 1879, bids were received from four or five well known manufacturers of steam fire engines, east and west, offering to "deliver the goods" in Pontiac for $4,ooo, the Silsby Manufacturing Company of Seneca Falls, New York, also agreeing to repair the old steamer "Pontiac," which was all but out of commission. The Ahrens Manufacturing Company of Cincinnati, offered to take its pay in Pontiac city bonds, payable five years from delivery of engine, or eight per cent off for cash. The Silsby concern secured the contract and by February, 1879, the so-called Silsby "combination engine" was safely housed in Pontiac. It was received from Chicago and failed to give satisfaction. The council then refused to ratify the purchase of the new engine, but agreed to pay the eastern concern for the repair of the old engine. The Silsby Company threatened to sue the city for violation of contract, but a compromise was finally effected and the engine was retained. It was named John P. Foster, No. 2. Mayor Mabley resigned at the meeting of the council held July 7, I879, and a special election was called for the first Monday in August to select his successor. Alderman Jacobs became acting mayor. Charles Dawson became mayor at the April election of I880. William Smith & Sons petitioned the common council, December 27, I88o, for permission to lay gas pipes in the city streets and alleys, alleging that the "gas made by our process is free from all impurities and is five times greater candle power than coal gas; hence it requires only one-fifth the quantity to produce the same amount of light." Their petition was granted at the next meeting, provided the pipes for the aforesaid gas were laid within two years; but the enterprise failed to materialize.

Page  299 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 299 SMALLPOX EPIDEMICS OF 1881-82 On account of the threatened prevalence of smallpox in I88I and the prevailing carelessness of citizens to take proper precautions, the board of health, of which John Meloy was chairman, adopted a houseto-house vaccination campaign, being, of course, backed by the common council. At the same time vigorous measures were put in force to eradicate all filthy conditions which would naturally stimulate the spread of any epidemic. A pesthouse was established during this period, as several cases run their course notwithstanding all the precautions taken. When the epidemic had abated the pesthouse was closed, but several blankets were unfortunately left behind-most unfortunately, because a certain colored family appropriated them for private uses, and started an epidemic in the following year which was worse than the first. But that was also stamped out by energetic measures. An interesting item taken from the records of I8$4 is that which presents the schedule of licenses adopted at the meeting of the common council held on April 21, of that year. A menagerie and circus were to pay into the city treasury $15 each; circus and menagerie combined, $25; side show, $5; stand or booth, $2; concert or minstrel show, per day or night, $2; theatrical troupe, per day or night, $2; rope walker, per day or night, $2; street exhibition of animals, per day or night, $2; other entertainments not mentioned in the foregoing, $2 per day or night; wagons or tables (transients), per day, $5; street peddlers other than the foregoing, $5; meat peddlers, per year, $25; fish stands, per year, $Io; vegetable, fruit or candy stands, carts or wagons (single or combined), per year, $io; hacks, omnibuses and other public carriages, transient, per day, $5; auctioneer, transient, per day, $5; auctioneer, local, per year, $5. NEWSPAPER SENSATION Some excitement was caused at the council meeting of April 20, 1885, by the introduction of a resolution to the effect that the city papers (Gazette and Bill Poster) had charged that body with misappropriating cemetery funds for general purposes; one correspondent in the Bill Poster stated that the amount so taken was as much as $3,000; and, in view of said charge and contemplated purchase of new cemetery ground "Resolved, that the mayor appoint a committee of five to investigate such charges and any other matters concerning said cemetery and report at the next meeting, said committee to consist of two aldermen and three citizens." Such investigation showed that the council had borrowed about $2,000 from the trust fund with which to buy the south addition to the cemetery grounds, with no other intention than of promptly paying it back (which was done); so the excitement and newspaper sensation effectually evaporated. The council held a special meeting April 27, I885, to take appropriate action on the death of Mayor Samuel H. Norton, and resolutions were adopted and engrossed at the meeting of May 5th.

Page  300 300 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY INVESTIGATING LIGHT AND WATER SYSTEMS Aldermen Meloy, Taylor and Weston were appointed a committee, at the council session of August Io, 1885, to visit neighboring cities and investigate the matter of supplying the city with electric light. At the same meeting, Aldermen William R. Rowley, G. H. Turk and Alf. Webb made a long report on their examination of different systems of water works. They examined the gravity system of Ann Arbor, the direct pressure systems of Lansing and Grand Rapids, and the works at Big Rapids, Reed City, Petoskey and Flint, which also illustrated the stand-pipe system. The committee collected complete figures as to the difference between actual ownership, cost of fire protection and the cost of the same by franchise, its final recommendation being that the city build and operate its own works, and that, in view of the existing low prices of material and machinery, a special election be called to submit the question of voting bonds at once. On October 5, i885, however, the council adopted a resolution to submit the proposition of issuing bonds not to exceed $7,5,oo0 for the proposed water works, at the regular charter election. In February, I886, the council invited proposals from construction companies and named March ISt as the date for opening them. Professor Charles E. Green, of the civil engineering department of the Michigan University, was called to the city to make the necessary surveys and estimates and report to the council. At the charter election of April 5, I886, however, the water works proposition was defeated, 573 voting "no" and 418 "yea" on the issuing of bonds. RESIGNATION OF CHIEF ENGINEER FOSTER Chief Engineer Foster, of the fire department, made his annual report and resigned his office, to the deep regret of all, April I4, 1886, in the following communication to the mayor and common council: "Gentlemen: I herewith submit my annual report as chief engineer of the Pontiac fire department from April I, I885, to April 14, I886. We have had during the year three small fires and eight false alarms. The loss of property has been very small. "We have on hand two steamers and two hose carts, all in good condition. We have about 2,200 feet of hose, 500 feet of which is No. I, 500 feet No. 2, and the balance No. 3. This comprises all the property belonging to the city for use in the fire department which has been placed in my hands. "With this report will terminate my services as chief engineer of the Pontiac fire department for the past thirty-six years. I wish to retire now from further service and, in retiring, I feel that I leave it in good hands. Some of the men have been with me for a number of years and are selected from the best material that is available. They are all good men and thoroughly understand their business. Mr. H. G. Monroe, the engineer, in my judgment is a very valuable man for the city, perfectly competent and second to none in the state. He is ably assisted by Mr. Cass Hurlburt.

Page  301 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 301 "Hoping the same good fortune may attend our city in the future as of late years, I remain, "Your obedient servant, "J. P. FOSTER, Chief Engineer." CITY FINANCES IN 1886 From the reports of various city officers we now present the several items which best exhibit the financial status of Pontiac, and those who are interested in this subject should revert to similar figures already published for the year 1876, or a decade before. The balance in the treasury March I2, 1886, was $I,661.22; the total receipts for the year having been $34,359.93 and the disbursements, $33,698.71. The property valuation and tax apportionment, by wards, was as follows: Wards Valuation General Fund Bridges Schools First...............$ 449,500 $ 2,065.54 $ I87.77 $ I,877.4I Second.............366,800 1,68553 I5333 1,532.42 Third.............. 659,000 3,028.24 275.27 2,754.02 Fourth.............. 918,000 4,220.69 383.63 3,836.I5 Total............ $2,39,3300 $II,ooo.oo $I,oo0.oo $Io,ooo.oo BOARD OF WATER COMMISSIONERS CREATED At a meeting of the council held August 22, 1887, an ordinance was passed establishing a city board of water commissioners, to consist of four members, with the mayor ex officio president of such board. Their regular term of office was to be four years. As the first members of the new board the council elected J. D. Norton, whose term of office was to expire the second Wednesday in April, I889; Alfred Webb, whose term was to expire on the same date in 1890; Judson A. Hammond, in 1891, and A. A. Lull, in 1892. THE NEW FIFTH WARD The first officials of the Fifth ward, which was created in 1889, were as follows: C. J. Fox, supervisor, who served until I892; C. C. P. Pittman, alderman, who was succeeded the same year by J. W. Bird, Daniel Linabury, constable; William Jay, treasurer. It was first announced in the council which met March 4, I889, that there was a movement afoot to divide the Fourth ward. Although there was considerable opposition to its creation, the measure finally went through the council. Its first appearance in the city finances of that year indicates that it embraced property valued at $555,700, and bore the following taxes: General, $3,953.85; bridges, $213.94; interest on water bonds, $818.09; schools, $2,780.43-total, $7,766.31. The entire valuation of city property -was $2,598,200 and its tax levy, $36,311.50.

Page  302 302 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY ORIGINAL SYSTEM OF WATERWORKS The first report of the board of water commissioners submitted to the council February Io, I89o, is as follows: "To the Honorable Mayor and Common Council-Gentlemen: Since the creating of the board of water commissioners by your predecessors a complete system of waterworks has been established in the city of Pontiac. Large powers and responsibilities were entrusted to this board; no system decided on, or a plan proposed. The board accepted of the trust in the same spirit in which it was given, and have endeavored to give to this city the best system of waterworks they could with the money to be expended. We feel that our efforts have been successful and assert, without fear of successful contradiction, that no city has a better plant for the money expended than has this city. "Your commissioners, ignorant of the kind of a plant most desirable and unskilled in the practical establishment and working of the same, endeavored by a personal visit to our neighboring cities, similar in size and surroundings, to inform themselves as to the most efficient system to adopt. "Two systems of waterworks were practicable to us-one pumping into a standpipe and taking the distribution from said pipe; the other, pumping direct into the mains. Both systems have their adherents. In order to have Ioo pounds pressure-fire pressure-the standpipe would have to have been 200 feet in height. A less height would have necessitated the constant presence of an engineer or fireman at the pumping station, in order to make fire pressure, if needed; hence, no economy in regard to labor. Again, the bids submitted for a suitable standpipe would have taken about one-fourth of the total appropriation. "Your board adopted the system of pumping direct into the mains. The wisdom of this course seems fully justified. The location of the pumping station was fixed near the railroad for economy in fuel, and near the river, above the city sewage, for unfailing water supply. John D. Cook, of Toledo, was engaged as consulting engineer, who prepared the specifications for the construction of the works and laid out the system of pipe distribution. Bids for the construction of the works were opened December 22, 1887, and on February 6, I888, the contract was approved by the council and awarded to W. S. Parks & Company, they being the lowest bidders. On November 12, I888, the works were in operation, since which time they have been under constant pressure. "The season of i888 being near its close, but few taps could be made before the ground was frozen, and rental of water takers commenced January I, I889. Bonds of the city to the amount of $85,ooo were issued, drawing interest at the rate of four and a half per cent per annum, interest payable semi-annually, and were sold to the Wayne County Savings Bank of Detroit at par; $75,000 of these bonds were dated March I, I888, and $Io,ooo May I, I888, the savings bank paying out the funds as needed and allowing four per cent interest on balances. Of these bonds, $5,000 matured in i888, and $5,000 each and every year thereafter until paid. "In the pipe distribution, the first consideration was fire protection

Page  303 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 303 to as large a portion of the city as possible; second, to accommodate the most water consumers. Unfortunately and unjustly, many living in the suburbs have not the advantages of the water, nor can they, without additional appropriations. "The plant embraces duplicate pumping machinery and boilers, with sufficient capacity to accommodate a city of twenty-five thousand people, with about 13 miles of mains, 115 hydrants and 72 gates. "The board has held sixty meetings since its organization and has given such attention as required. On January I, I889, H. G. Monroe was appointed general superintendent and engineer, under whose personal supervision the works are conducted. D. J. Hammond was appointed secretary to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Fred Van Hoven. "All of which is respectfully submitted, "WILLIAM G. HINMAN, "A. A. LULL, "ALF. WEBB, "D. J. HAMMOND, "JOHN D. NORTON. "Board of Water Commissioners." John D. Norton, treasurer of the board, also made the following report: "Financial statement of the Pontiac Waterworks from the commencement of construction to January I, I890: Receipts From issue of bonds........................$85,000.00 Interest on account........................... 622.23 From city treasurer for I889.................. 5,794.50 From private consumers for I889.............. 1,447.84 From overdraft at First National Bank......... 323.81 From money borrowed...................... I,5oo.oo From hay sold.............................. 3.00 Total...................................$94,691.38 Expenditures For construction account.....................$85,891.49 Interest on bonds for I889................... 3,825.00 Running expenses for 1889................... 4,388.64 Tapping material on hand.................... 140.68 Tapping dues unpaid......................... I08.90 Break under bridge (unsettled)............... 65.37 Total on hand............................... 271.30 Total...................................$94,69I.38 It appears, further, that the total gallons of water pumped for the year 1889 was 55,098,I84, ranging from the lowest month, April (when

Page  304 304 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY I,897,244 gallons were pumped), to the highest, August, when the amount was 8,726,6IO. To accomplish this work 770,467 pounds of coal were consumed. Superintendent Monroe also reported that the total number of water consumers was 253. ELECTRIC LIGHTING AND TELEPHONE SYSTEMS In the fall of I891 the citizens of Pontiac and the common council were especially interested in providing an adequate system of electric lighting. Visits were made to Chicago and other cities and in September the city fathers received a proposition from the Commercial Electric Company of Detroit, offering to install and sell a plant for $13,300, to be operated in connection with the city waterworks, $2,000 being added for the purchase of grounds. The proposition was subsequently accepted. In March, I892, the company offered to sell the plant to the city for $I9,849.67, either in cash or in bonds running for three years. On March 7, I893, the council passed the ordinance granting to John D. Norton, William G. Hinman, Joseph E. Sawyer, Judson Hammond, Alfred Webb and their associates (the Michigan Bell Telephone Company), the exclusive right to operate a telephone exchange in Pontiac, provided they accepted the ordinance within six months from its passage and commenced the erection of such exchange. The rate for service was not to exceed $24 per telephone for business places and $I8 for residences, seven free telephones being supplied the city. FIRST GAMEWELL FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH On May 29, 1893, the council entered into a contract with the Gamewell Fire Alarm Telegraph Company for the installation of its well known system in connection with the city fire department of Pontiac. The contract was not for its purchase at that time, but for its lease until February 15, I897. Twenty-five fire alarm boxes were provided for. The company agreed to sell the system for $4,700, with interest. MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN 1894 It is impossible to give the reader a better idea of the functions of the municipal government, as developed at this time (I894) than to make liberal extracts from the report of the special committee of the common council, headed by City Attorney P. B. Bromley, to whom had been referred the communication of the Michigan Municipal Commission, asking for information on the subject. The report was read July 30, 1894, and was in substance as follows: (First) Organization-The city of Pontiac is incorporated by a special act of the legislature approved March 15, 1861, as amended March 18, 1865, March 20, 1867, March 20, I869, March 9, 1871, May 23, 1877, May 28, 1879, May 26, I88I, June 2, 1885, and March 26, I889. (Second) Officials-Mayor: Chosen by the electors of the city; term one year; salary, $IOO and fees of the office. Ten aldermen, two from each of the five wards of the city; elected

Page  305 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 305 one each year; term, two years; salary, $2 per meeting for not more than twenty-six meetings. City attorney: Appointed by the council; term, one year; salary, $Ioo per year and reasonable pay in the judgment of the council for the conduct of actual cases in court, or other extraordinary services. City marshal: Appointed by the council; term, one year; salary, $450. City treasurer: Appointed by the council; term, one year; salary, $50. Official paper: Designated by the council; term, one year; salary, the fees allowed by the statutes of the state for legal printing. Night watchman: Appointed by the council; term, one year; salary, $700. Chief of the fire department: Appointed by the council; term, one year; salary, $50; two assistants to chief, $25 salary each. Health officer, or city physician: Appointed by the council; term, one year; salary, $50 and pay for extraordinary services. Driver to hose cart: Appointed by the council; term, one year; salary, $500. Driver to hook and ladder truck: Appointed by the council; term, one year; salary, $400. The council have the power to remove for cause any appointive officer. (Third) Schools-The city and school district include the same territory. The school board have charge of the schools. Its members are chosen at an annual meeting of the electors held on the first Monday in September of each year. Woman may vote at school elections. The school board is composed of five members; term of office, three years, and same are elected each year. (Fourth) Assessment and Review-The city has a supervisor in each of the five wards and they are the assessing officers. The city collects city, state and county taxes at the same time. The board of review is composed of the supervisors of the city, but the city clerk is made clerk of the meetings of this board. The limit of the city's taxation is three-quarters of one per cent and a permitted indebtedness of $3,000 outside of bonded indebtedness; and that is regulated by the statutes of Michigan. The taxes are collected by the ward treasurer of each ward, who holds his office (elective) for one year. The compensation of ward treasurer is the same as township treasurer, the fees allowed being fixed by statute. (Fifth) Public Improvements-The city has waterworks, owned and controlled by the municipality through a.board of water commissioners composed of four members, the mayor being an ex-officio member. Said four members are appointed by the council, the term of office of one member expiring each year. The city streets are lighted by the arc system of electricity, the plant being owned by a private company. Light is furnished under a threeyear contract which expires in October of the present year (1894). Street improvements are assessed in the first instance to the city at large. The city keeps the streets in repair. Under the statutes of the state it is discretionary with the city to either pay for private property

Page  306 306 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY taken for public improvement out of the general fund, or to assess the property benefited by such public improvement. The city has experienced no great trouble in collecting special assessments. When private property is taken for public improvement the city acquires the property by agreement and purchase; the amount has to be paid from the general fund and the city in such case has no power to assess the property benefited. It was recommended that the city in such cases have the power to constitute an assessment district and assess and collect the whole amount or any portion thereof, on and from the property benefited. (Sixth) Boards-The city has a board of water commissioners, hereinbefore referred to; also a board of control of cemeteries, comprising three members with annual terms of office. Its members are appointed by the common council and serve without compensation. (Seventh) Fiscal year-The fiscal year begins on the second Wednesday after the first Monday in April. The eighth section of the report was devoted to recommendations to the following effect: That the city marshal be elected annually; that the limit of taxation be fixed at one per cent outside of the amount to be raised for bridge purposes; that if property owners fail to build sidewalks the city do the work and assess an additional ten per cent to the cost thereof; and that the city have the right to issue bonds to commence the establishment of a sewerage system and create a board of sewer commissioners for the purpose. The report was adopted at the council meeting held September Io, 1894, after it had been amended so as to fix the mayor's salary at $200 and that of the aldermen at $ioo per year. FIRST THREE YEARS OF WATER SERVICE In March, 1894, Superintendent Monroe reported the following gallons of water pumped and pounds of coal consumed during the three years the works had been in operation: Year Gals. Pumped Lbs. Coal Consumed I891........................107,591,190 940,661 1892........................124,471,380 I,180,464 I893....................... 157,362,070 1,285,948 LIGHTING AND TELEPHONE SERVICE AGAIN The city, through its common council, made an agreement with the Pontiac Standard Lighting Company, October 8, I894, for electric lighting for a term of five years from October 25th of that year. The contract called for not less than ninety arc lights for the streets at a rate of $60 per light per annum. The Home Telephone Company (by its secretary, J. E. Sawyer) gave the council notice March I, 1895, that it had commenced the erection of the exchange, and awaited instructions from the city as to the placing of the telephone poles. Messrs, Alf. Webb, G. Jacobs and D. J. Hammond, of the board

Page  307 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 307 of water commissioners, petitioned the mayor March 25, 1895, that W. H. Brummit, of the First ward, be appointed an associate member to fill the vacancy caused by the death of J. D. Norton. Such appointment was made. SEWERAGE SYSTEM INAUGURATED The people of Pontiac voted in favor of expending, at most, $25,000 on a sewerage system, at the general election of November 28, I894. A special committee presented a bill to be introduced to the legislature looking to that end, and also to legalize the creation of a board of sewer commissioners. The bill was adopted and the council requested their legislative representatives to use their best efforts at Lansing to have it passed into law. In 1897, 250,103,010 gallons were pumped by the city waterworks, and 267,195,I80 gallons in I898. EXTENSION OF WATERWORKS Superintendent H. G. Monroe, in compliance with a request from the board of public works, on May 24, I900, submitted an estimate of the cost for required improvements in the waterworks. The items included $14,000 for an air-lift plant, with a daily capacity of five million gallons; $i8,8oo for pumping machinery of like capacity, and $17,200 for extension of the water mains. On September 23, I901, the council adopted a resolution accepting the bid of the Snow Pump Works of Buffalo, New York, for furnishing and erecting on foundation a five million-gallons daily capacity pumping engine (triple expansion, high duty) for $2I,ooo, in line with the recommendation of Superintendent Monroe. On January Io, I902, the board of public works employed I-. L. Monroe as third engineer at the waterworks. It appears from the report made by the board in May of that year that the water bond sale realized $53,333.78, to be applied to the improvement of the waterworks. The $Io,ooo bonds for remodeling the fire hall were awarded to Dennison & Farnsworth, of Cleveland, oh May 6, I907. The report of the finance committee of the common council March 4, I90I, contains the following on the then financial status: "The city has a bonded indebtedness of $25,000 sewer bonds bearing five per cent interest per annum; water bonds, $85,ooo, bearing four and a half per cent, and $56,ooo special assessment paving bonds, bearing five per cent. "The following is a statement of the salaries paid the officers of the city per annum: Mayor, $50; ten aldermen, each $50; clerk, $720; city treasurer, $600; attorney, $Ioo and not to exceed $300 for special services; health officer, $Ioo; city engineer, $Ioo; city marshal, $6oo; chief of fire department, $50; assistant chief, $25; two night police, each $700; drivers of hose cart and hook and ladder. each $500; hose company of fourteen members, each $65; city assessor, $600." Vol. I-20

Page  308 308 HIlSTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY At a special election held July 8, 1901, for the purpose of authorizing the city to raise $50,000 for improving the waterworks, the proposition was carried by a vote of 757 to 121. The rapid growth of Pontiac is illustrated in no more forcible way than in the increased demands of its people for adequate water supply, and by I909 the cry for an extension of the system was loud and insistent. On September 2oth of that year the common council therefore resolved to submit to voters a proposition to issue bonds in the amount of $25,00oo0 for the extension of the water-supply system. As advised by the board of public works, the improvements comprised the following: The construction of a two million-gallon reservoir at a cost of $25,000; sinking and equipment of eight additional wells, $5,600; purchase and installation of 1,600 feet of 24-inch suction, $7,200; one five million-gallon pumping engine, with foundation and pipe connections, $28,200; to provide for adequate extension of the water mains, auxiliary force mains and pumping engines to Bagley street, $56,907.22, and to purchase land for additional wells, $2,092.78. Making a total of $125,o00. Later, the board of public works cut down their estimate to $8I,907.22-that is, $25,000 for the reservoir and $56,907.22 for the auxiliary force mains and extensions. Therefore, the question before the voters at the November election was that of raising bonds in the sum of $82,000, bearing date from January I, I9IO, not in excess of four and a half per cent interest, to be paid in twenty-one annual assessments beginning with the year I918. The proposition carried by 557 to I66. TELEPHONE SERVICE UP-TO-DATE On June II, I900, the franchise was granted to Joseph W. Martin as the Oakland Telephone Company, and the same was later acquired by the Oakland County Telephone Company. The common council passed an ordinance, December 8, I91o, providing that if the Michigan State Telephone Company should purchase the property and franchise of the Oakland County Telephone Company and operate the system, all rights should pass to the new corporation. This property and franchise were offered for sale by a decree of the circuit court on December 9, 190o, and were purchased by the Michigan State Telephone Company. The purchase was duly confirmed on the 29th of that month, and the latter thereby entered into possession of the plant of the Oakland County Telephone Company. On January I, I9II, the Michigan State Telephone Company took over the Oakland County Telephone property. On assuming control of the business, they erected a fine new building at a cost of about $I5,oo0, which came into use on January I, I912. The Pontiac office has within its jurisdiction nine exchanges, which are here given, with the number of phones in operation at each exchange: Pontiac, 2,800; Birmingham, 530; Royal Oak, 345; Rochester, 270; Oxford, 350; Orion, 185; Leonard, 8I; Ortonville, 250; Clarkston, 254.

Page  309 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 309 In June, 1910, the council placed the salary of the chief of police at $I,ooo per annum and regular policemen at $900, and organized the fire department with a chief engineer and twelve full-paid firemen. At a meeting of the board of public works held December 23, I9Io, Hector L. Monroe was appointed superintendent of the waterworks, and on the 26th the appointment was confirmed by the common council. COMMISSION GOVERNMENT ADOPTED The sentiment in favor of a general revision of the city charter had so increased in strength that at the April election of 1910, 2,I96 votes were cast in its favor and only 812 against. On May 23d a charter commission was chosen by popular vote consisting of the following: Commissioners at large, A. J. Johnson, Elmer E. Hymers and Thaddeus D. Seeley; First ward, Homer H. Colvin; Second ward, Ernest H. Fay; Third ward, John E. Brondidge; Fourth ward, J. Arthur Tillson; Fifth ward, Andrew L. Moore. Having completed their labors, the members of the commission submitted the proposed charter to the governor, his approval being affixed to it on the 28th of December, i9IO. It was submitted tothe voters for their approval at the special election of January 30, 1911, the result by wards being as follows: Wards For Against Mutilated Total First................. 53 91 7 156 Second...............63 135 8 306 Third................236 94 330 Fourth................194 102 5 30I Fifth................173 72 2 247 Total.............. 824 494 22 1,340 The council at its meeting of February 2, I911, unanimously confirmed the action of the voters and Pontiac was thereby placed under government by commission from "12:00 noon on the second Monday in April following the election of the commissioners." The term of mayor, with his two associates forming the commission, was fixed at three years, with an annual salary of $2,000. The charter made no changes in the boundaries of the city; but the radical departure was, of course, in the form of government. The executive and administrative powers are by it divided into six departments, those of Public Safety, Finance, Sewers and Drainage, Streets and Public Improvements, Water Supply and Public Utilities, the mayor having charge of the first two, one commissioner of the next two, and the other commissioner of the other two. The commission constitutes the legislative body of the city, assuming, under the charter, all the powers previously exercised by the board of public works and the common council. While divided into departments and allotted to the mayor and the two commissioners, the work of the city and its finances are at the same time subject to the general supervision of the commission as a body. The object of the change has been thus far realized. Full re

Page  310 310 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY sponsibility has been centered in a few officials, who are paid to devote their entire time to municipal affairs. The charter further provides that the commission shall appoint the city clerk, city treasurer and board of review; the mayor to appoint the city attorney, chief of fire department, chief of police and health officer. The appointment of the city engineer is left to the two commissioners, while the selection of the employees necessary to conduct the several departments is vested in the commissioners having special charge of such. The Recall and Initiative and Referendum are both in force. The former provision provides that a petition signed by at least twenty per cent of the voters of the city shall be sufficient to warrant the commission in calling a special election on the question of removing the official whose fitness is called in question. Any proposed ordinance may also be submitted to the commission by the same proportion of citizens; whereupon the commission must pass the ordinance without alteration, or submit it to vote at a special election called within thirty days, unless a municipal election is to be held within ninety days from the date of submission. These are the most striking features of the city government which is now in force; for the details the reader must go to the charter itself. Under its provisions the first commission consisted of Robert J. Lounsbury, mayor; Richard (Dick) Dewey, commissioner for three years; William H. Osmun, commissioner for one year. Mayor Lounsbury went into office by a majority of 659 over Daniel Thomas. On April 29, I9II, the commission passed an ordinance fixing the salaries of the appointive officers, and appointed J. K. Judd, ex-sheriff, as chief of police; John B. Austin, chief of the fire department; P. B. Bromley, city attorney; Dr. D. G. Castell, health officer; Rollin W. Clark, water collector; Charles L. Grosebeck, city clerk; George C. Johnston, city treasurer; W. J. Fisher, city engineer. EARLY MEASURES PASSED At the meeting of the commission of April 17, I9II, an ordinance was placed on file regulating and granting saloon licenses, limiting the number to twelve within the city limits. An estimate as to the money required to pay the general indebtedness of the new city until June i, I9II, was made as follows: General fund..................... $52,649.08 Bonds and interest......................... 4,374.14 W ater fund............................... 9,395.oo Sewer fund................................. I4,093.43 Other general.............................. 3,678.00 Total..........................$94,I89.65 To meet the situation on April 25, I9II, the commission passed an ordinance providing for the bonding of the city for $Ioo,ooo. The commission made its report for the nine months ending January I, I912,

Page  311 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 311 during which the city had been under the new form of government, which conveyed the welcome intelligence that there was not then a dollar of indebtedness which was past due, and that the city had been enabled to uniformly discount its bills. The proposition to bond the city had been carried at the election of May 22, I9II, by a majority of twelve to one. Although there had been some delay in commencing public improvements, which depended on the sale of the bonds when once commenced they progressed so rapidly that more had been accomplished than during any previous year under the old system of city government. INCREASED EFFICIENCY OF FIRE DEPARTMENT The report also noted the purchase of the automobile fire truck as a decided increase to the efficiency of the department. It should be added, in explanation, that in September, I9II, the city purchased from the American-LaFronce Fire Engine Company, of Elmira, New York, an automobile chemical and hose wagon, with I,ooo feet of hose, at a cost of $5,00o. There is no better apparatus of the kind in Michigan, and the commission figured a saving through its use of at least thirty dollars a month. In (May, I912, the efficiency of the fire department was further increased when the city purchased an eight-circuit electrical fire alarm equipment to replace the two-circuit affair which had been in use nineteen years. Taking this safeguard into consideration few cities in Michigan have a better fire service than Pontiac; certainly none of its size. According to Chief Austin's figures for I912, it costs about $13,000 to maintain the department, of which amount over $Io,ooo goes to pay salaries. Reverting to the work accomplished during the first nine months of the commission's life, the following are given as important items: Increased saloon licenses for more than enough to pay increased salaries; built twenty-five sanitary sewers, 6,ooo feet of surface sewer, and built and repaired 58,878 square feet of cement sidewalk; collected more old accounts than were ever before collected in one year; completed the city water reservoir, and auxiliary main and laid I5,000 feet of new mains; adopted system of payment in advance of flat water rates, thus being able to discount its bills. THE PRESENT CITY HALL On February 4, I908, the common council awarded the contract for the construction of the new city hall, southeast corner of Pike and Mills, to the Slater Construction Company. The building was completed during the year at a cost of $9,737.43. The home of the commission and other city officers is a handsome two-story and basement brick building, with a large auditorium formerly used by the common council in the upper story. In the basement are the heating plant, vaults, etc. As a whole, the city hall is modern in all its arrangements and equipments. The appointments for new city officers were made in,May, I912, but there were no changes in the original staff except in the board of review.

Page  312 312 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY MAYORS OF PONTIAC The mayors of Pontiac since its incorporation in I86I have been as follows: Erastus Thatcher, I861-62; Theron A. Flower, I863; A. B. Cudworth, 1864; Robert W. Davis, 1865; Levi Bacon, Jr., 1866-67; M. L. Bagg, i868; Mark Walter, 1869; George R. Richards, 1870; David D. Thurber, I871; A. C. Baldwin, 1872; Daniel D. Thurber, I873-74; Theron A. Flower, 1875-76; Thomas Mabley, 1877-79 (resigned, July 7th); Charles Dawson, I880-8I; Samuel H. Norton, I882; Homer H. Colvin, 1883-84; Mason W. Gray, 1885; Frank B. Galbraith, i886-88; William G. Hinman, I889; David S. Howard, I89o-9I; Thaddeus A. Smith, I892; David S. Howard, 1893; Harvey S. Chapman, I894; Frank H. Carroll, I895-96; Elbert J. Kelly, I897; William A. Brewster, I898; Peter Maloy, I899-900o; Harry C. Guillot, 1901-03; John D. Riker, 1904; Harry C. Guillot, 1905-06; Ellsworth Orton, I907; A. J. Johnson, I908-o9; R. F. Monroe, I9IO; Robert J. Lounsbury, I9II (present incumbent, October, I912). THE CITY PRESS Although the newspapers of Pontiac, as a whole, have no official connection with the city government, as printers of the council and commission proceedings some of them have been closely identified with it, and all are associated in the public mind as the main agents through which municipal affairs are brought to the people. Hence, they are noticed at this point in the history. The first paper printed in Oakland county was established at Pontiac May 31, I830, by Thomas Simpson. It was called the Oakland Chronicle, and died in its infancy, April 22, 1832. It reappeared in Detroit. The Democratic Balance appeared from I836 to 1837, when it was merged into the Pontiac Herald, which suspended on the first of the new year 1839 and was moved to Flint. Arthur G. Sparhawk started the Oakland Whig on the 28th of January, 1835; its name was changed to the Pontiac Courier in February I, 1836, and to the Jeffersonian in 1840, when J. Dowd Coleman became its owner. Mr. Coleman, who was a Flint newspaper man, soon sold to W. M. Thompson, and in January, 1844, brought his Genesee Herald from that place to Pontiac, but in the following month ceased its publication and founded the Oakland Gazette. On January 14, I868, William P. Nesbett established the Pontiac Bill Poster as a monthly journal; its full title was the Bill Poster and the Monthly Visitor. It was enlarged at various times prior to July 7, 1869, when it first appeared as a weekly. In 1874 Mr. Nesbett sold a half interest to E. J. Kelly, who became sole proprietor January I, 1876. For many years the Gazette and the Bill Poster divided the city printing. The Pontiac Jacksonian was one of the old and substantial newspapers of the city. Its first number was issued March 24, 1838, by Eldredge & Denton, and it did not die until May, 1873. The Press Gazette, the only daily newspaper in Oakland county, was

Page  313 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 313 established September 15, 1900, by Harry Coleman, its present publisher. Conceiving the idea that the establishment of rural delivery made possible an independent newspaper which should be primarily a home county paper, Mr. Coleman canvassed the situation thoroughly among the leading business men and citizens of Pontiac. He met with no encouragement. It had been'tried before. "The city is not rightly situated," argued his friends. "We cannot support a paper every day." But Mr. Coleman was not discouraged by this sentiment. He backed the proposition with all the money he could command and went in debt heavily for machinery and other equipment. At different periods of the paper's existence he was much discouraged, a heavy loss being recorded the first two years. But he kept on and added new features. Finally the county awoke to the fact that nearly two-thirds of all the people in Oakland county were readers of the paper. Mr. Coleman had opinions, which he freely expressed in his editorials but it was the policy of the paper to always print the news no matter whether it agreed with his ideas or not. In discussing the question of the paper's success he said: "The Press Gazette has succeeded because it has been fair. It has printed the news. It has printed the news of Republicans as readily as it printed the news of Democrats. It has given all classes a chance to be heard. Its columns are not closed to anybody. Its news is never colored and notwithstanding the fact that its editorials are vigorous and that the editor invariably takes sides the reader always knows that the news columns are unbiased and present the facts as near as human hand and mind can present them." Mr. Coleman's instructions to his editorial force are contained in the following: "This paper is the follower of no particular party. It chooses the best out of all parties. It hits at the wrong wherever such wrong applies to the general public. It desires that its reporters present facts only; that a true picture be taken every day of what takes place in Oakland county in order that the readers may see the picture. The paper has no friends to reward or enemies to punish, but above all it will print what happens in the community." The Press Gazette has the largest circulation of any paper in lichigan which is published in a city of equal size. It is a member of the Associated Press and enjoys connection for the collection of news from all over the world. Its mechanical equipment is complete, one of its features being a new Hoe press capable of printing 24,000 papers per hour up to twenty pages. The hyphenated name Press Gazette comes from the absorption of the Gazette by the Press, after the latter paper had been published six years, the experience of the. community being that two papers could not exist near a large city like Detroit. OAK HILL CEMETERY This beautiful resting place for the dead is under the control of a board of five members appointed by the mayor. The cemetery comprises a tract of one hundred and sixty acres lying on either side of Mt. Clemens street, the grounds sloping gradually from Clinton river. Oak Hill cemetery is really three quarters of a century old and contains many honored dead of the city, county and state. Briefly stated, the events

Page  314 314 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY which preceded its founding were as follows: The earliest burials in Pontiac were on Colonel Stephen Mack's land on the ridge east of the river, and on the corner of Huron and Saginaw streets, as early as I819-20. In February, I839, the village trustees procured a deed of out lot No. 9 of the original plat, which said lot was surveyed and subdivided in April of that year by Captain Harvey Parke, and lot No. I of the subdivision was set apart for a public burying ground. This was the beginning of Oak Hill cemetery, the original plat of which consisted of but eleven acres. Oak Hill is laid out with all the skill and taste of the landscape gardener, and also contains many handsome and costly memorials. The BUCKLAND MEMORIAL CHAPEL Buckland Memorial chapel was completed November 4, I898, and is a tasteful structure of Old English style built of Berea sandstone, with roof of German mottled tiling. Its windows are of opalescent glass, and set in the rear walls are three memorial tablets of solid bronze bearing inscriptions in memory of Don C. Buckland, Mrs. Sarah A. Buckland and Mrs. Harry G. Hamilton. Besides the Buckland memorial, the old portion of the cemetery contains tasteful monuments to the memory of Major General Richardson, Governor Wisner, A. A. Lull and David Ward. The grounds accupy an unusually imposing site, sloping gradually and gracefully toward the banks of the Clinton river. GAS LIGHTING AND ELECTRIC POWER The gas lighting of Pontiac and the electric power used are supplied by the Pontiac Light Company and the Pontiac Power Company. These

Page  315 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 315 corporations are under the general control of New York directors, with F. W. Humphreys as general manager. Julius Merz, the secretary, is located at Pontiac, and F. W. Jackson is treasurer. The headquarters of both companies are in in a substantial building erected in I902. Officers of the Pontiac Light Company: B. C. Cobb, president; W.-H. Morgans, F. H. Carroll and W. H. Barthold, vice presidents. Officers of the Pontiac Power Company: W. M. Eaton, president; B. C. Cobb, vice president. The gas works are located at Wesson street and the Grand Trunk Railway, and their capacity has been practically doubled within the past three or four years. The total number of consumers is more than 2,700 (nearly I,ooo residences) and over 200 street lamps are supplied. The power plant, which is on Rapid street, has supplied the electric current to the entire city since the early part of 1912. The combined value of the light and power plants is about $500,000. POSTOFFICE AND POSTMASTERS The postoffice at Pontiac was established as early as I8I9, and the first postmaster was Alexander J. Irwin, appointed in that year or I820. He served for about two years. Dr. Olmstead Chamberlain was appointed in 1823 and continued in the office until 1836. A short period between the service of Irwin and Chamberlain was filled by one Almon Mack, although he was never officially appointed to the office. In I836 Schuyler Hodges was appointed, serving until 1840. During this period, which included the first three years of Pontiac's life as a city, the mail facilities of the locality were as follows: Detroit, twice per week, Mondays and Thursdays: Auburn, Troy, Lapeer, Saginaw and Plymouth, one mail weekly, with special weekly route from Lake Elizabeth, Salome and Commerce. Samuel Sherwood succeeded Mr. Hodges in 184I and served until 1842, when he was removed by President Tyler, and Alfred Treadway followed him in the service. Thereafter the following men were regular appointees to the office: Solomon W. Denton, Levi Bacon, Jr., Don Carlos Buckland, Solomon S. Mathews, Charles F. Kimball, Thomas Gerls, James G. Buchanan, E. F. H. Pearson, Ferris S. Fitch, Herman A. Wyckoff and George A. Brown, the latter being the present incumbent. With the establishment of the postal savings banks, Pontiac was made a station, and the bank is gradually finding favor with the public. A comparion of the annual statements of the Pontiac postoffice for the years 1877 and 191i will give a comprehensive idea of the growth and progress of the city. In 1877 the aggregate income of the postoffice for the year was $6,500; total money order business for the year, $60,000. In I911 the stamp sales aggregated $46,oo000, with a postal money order business of $260,000. Pontiac's new postoffice building for the transaction of the growing local business was completed in the summer of I912 and is one of the best examples of a structure which combines mechanic convenience, tastefulness of architecture and furnishing, and comfort for both em

Page  316 316 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY ployee and patron, to be found in any of the smaller cities of southern Michigan. The building is one and a half stories in height, colonial in style and fronts ninety feet on East Huron street, running back fifty-six feet toward Mt. Clemens. The grounds are bounded on one side by Mills street, a pretty lawn sloping toward Mt. Clemens. The building materials of the new postoffice are white stone, brick and marble. A wide cement walk and steps lead to the main entrance on Huron street, six large columns Corinthian capped being the architectural features of the front. The public room, or lobby, is fifty-six by sixteen feet, with flooring of Meadow Gray Tennessee marble and wainscotting of the same material. One side of the room is occupied by private boxes and carrier and general delivery windows. The postal money order and registered letter THE NEW POST OFFICE offices are accommodated in a space fifty-four by forty feet. On the Mills street side are the quarters for the postmaster and his assistants, and a comfortable rest room for the carriers has been provided in the basement. The estimated cost of the entire building, exclusive of furnishings, is $70,000. THE PONTIAC STATE HOSPITAL By an act of the legislature in I9II the name of this institution, formerly known as the Eastern Michigan Asylum, was changed to the Pontiac State Hospital. Although a ward of the state, it is so identified with the city, as one of the institutions that has much contributed to local distinction, that the sketch of its founding and growth is here given. From the report of the board of state commissioners having in charge

Page  317 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 317 the erection of the asylum, covering the period from September 30, 1876, to September 30, I878, it is learned that it was opened for the reception of patients August i, 1878. The sums placed in the hands of the board for constructing and furnishing the asylum aggregated $467,ooo. It was designed to provide a building for 300 patients; one was actually provided to accommodate, normally, 330, and with a full capacity of 400. On the 30th of September, 1878, 306 had been actually received, the total expenditures, including the cost of locating the asylum and cost of land, having been $448,401.36. In I890 the training school for attendants was established, the first of the kind in the state and the eighth in the country. An ice famine during the previous winter led to the construction of the first of two large ice houses for the storage of ice. Plans for the enlargement of MAIN BUILDING PONTIAC STATE HOSPITAL the institution were interrupted by the fire of 1891 which destroyed the interior of the administration building, as well as the halls. By autumn of the following year the damage had been repaired at a total cost of $75,000. In I89I the fifty acres known as the Hickey and Mawhinney parcels were added to the grounds of the institution, and the construction of a slaughter house the same year initiated the plan long followed thereafter of slaughtering on the premises. The cottages known as the Baldwin and the Vinton were occupied in I894. It was during that year that Dr. C. B. Burr resigned as medical superintendent to accept the medical directorship of the Oak Grove Hospital at Flint, Michigan, and,vas succeeded by the present incumbent, Dr. E. A. Christian. In I895 the farm was increased by the addition of the west half of the Seeley tract (eighty acres), and in I898 the electric light and power plant was installed and the new laundry building completed. An isolation

Page  318 318 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY hospital was improvised in 1898 from the upper portion of the former laundry, and in I899 the Stevens and Kinney buildings were occupied. They provided for one hundred patients of each sex, and the completion of each cost $75,000. From I89I special attention had been given to the improvement of the asylum herd of cattle, and thoroughbreds and registered Holstein Friesian stock had replaced grade animals. The attention given to this subject by the steward, C. E. Smith, resulted in a rapidly increased supply of milk, and in the creation of a herd that, in time, became famous among cattle breeders the country over. In I901 small hospital wards were set apart for the isolation of cases of tuberculosis, and a start was made in the erection, from year to year, of verandas upon which disturbed and feeble patients could spend CHAPEL, PONTIAC STATE HOSPITAL the greater part of their time in the open air. In the same year an autopsy room was added to the hospital, and the former silos of wood construction were replaced by substantial brick silos, the feeding of ensilage having become an established procedure. The former water supply was abandoned as inadequate in 1903, and new wells equipped with modern pumping apparatus were sunk; a central hot water plant for all the buildings was also installed, and the Abbott farm of seventy acres was added to the grounds. In I906 a complete fire-lighting equipment was placed in commission, the apparatus comprising a pump connected with an independent high pressure system of mains devoted entirely to fire purposes. An infirmary building caring for one hundred women patients was completed in I907 at a cost of $40,000, and the legislature of that year provided for the erection of a new chapel and assembly hall building, the former chapel being converted into a dining room and the ward dining rooms into dormitories.

Page  319 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 319 In March, 1909, the central dining room was opened with provision for 600 patients, both sexes eating in the same room. These changes (dining room, chapel and assembly hall) cost in the neighborhood of $6o,ooo. In I907 the old water tanks in the attics were abandoned and an outside water tower erected, one more vertical water tube boiler installed and a central heating plant connected with all of the detached buildings was erected; all at an expense of $40,000. The laundry building was partially destroyed by fire in I908, and in I9I0 a modern dairy barn was completed for the valuable herd of Holstein cattle belonging to the asylum. In I9I money was appropriated by the legislature to complete the rehabilitation of the boiler room; two more vertical water tube boilers were erected, replacing the former ones of the old horizontal type and supplying the institution for the first time in many years with a reserve horse power. An infirmary building for men and a home for night nurses are perhaps the most important projects now under way in the development of the Pontiac State Hospital. In general, it may be stated that the I,300 patients are so classified that the most violent, and those requiring the closest attention, are housed in the main building-the administration building; while the milder cases are cared for in the cottages and hospital proper.

Page  320 CHAPTER XXII INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS PONTIAC DIRECT SUCCESSOR OF 1820 MILL-THE HOWARD INTERESTS-THE OLD PADDACK MILLS-CHARLES DAWSON AND HIS WORK-PONTIAC CITY MILLS-PIONEER MACHINE SHOPS AND FURNITURE FACTORIESEARLY BREWERIES-FATHERS OF THE AUTO INDUSTRY-PONTIAC AND OTHER MILLS OF I852-PONTIAC'S EARLY BUSINESS MEN-AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY OF PONTIAC —OAKLAND MOTOR CAR COMPANY-GENERAL MOTORS TRUCK COMPANY-THE FLANDERS PLANTS THE CARTERCAR COMPANY —MONROE BODY COMPANY —THE BEAUDELL BODY WORKS-SLATER CONSTRUCTION COMPANY-PONTIAC BREWERYPONTIAC COMMERCIAL ASSOCIATION. At Pontiac, as elsewhere, industry preceded commerce and local trade;- that is, the first sawmill and gristmill were erected before the general store appeared for the convenience of the pioneers. They picked their way through the woods, over Indian trails to Detroit, where they bought their goods and supplies before any of their number opened a store "on the spot." Pontiac, as has been said, is indebted to Colonel Mack and his associates for the first of everything in these lines-mills and general supply store; and it is very interesting, and somewhat remarkable, in this changing western country, that the city still has a direct connecting link between the old Mack properties and the present-day industries. DIRECT SUCCESSOR OF 1820 MILL The Pontiac Knitting Works are the direct successors of the Old Mathews mill, built originally by Col. Stephen Mack in I820, and therefore cover the most historic industrial ground in the city. Colonel Mack operated his combination flour and gristmill from I820 until his death in 1826, when it was rented for a short time to Dr. O. Chamberlain, or to Chamberlain & Whittemore. Samuel C. Munson eventually purchased the property, and it is believed that he obtained his title from Eurotus P. Hastings, president of the Bank of Michigan, into whose hands it had fallen. Munson repaired and improved the mill, putting in an additional run of stone, a merchant bolt,' etc. In 1832 H. N. Howard, who came to Pontiac from New York state in 1829, purchased the mill, paying for it about eight thousand dollars. 320

Page  321 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY 321 The purchase included besides the flouring mill, the woolen factory, the trip hammer shop, and all property connected therewith. Mr. Howard owned and operated the property until about I845, when he sold a twothird interest to A. A. Lull and Albert Draper. In the same year the company built the Pontiac Mills, making it the largest and most complete establishment of the kind in this section of the country. It contained four run of burr-stone, and had a large storage capacity. It was in every respect first class. The motive power was produced by a gigantic breast-wheel, twelve feet in diameter and thirty-six feet length of bucket. The shaft was a splendid piece of workmanship for that time. It was thirty-six inches in diameter and required a team of thirtysix yoke of oxen to haul it from the forest to the mill. It was cut from a gigantic white-oak tree, found on the farm of Jacob Voorheis, living two miles west of Pontiac and was hauled to town on a set of trucks constructed expressly for the work. This firm operated, the mill for about two years, at the end of which time Mr. Howard sold his interest to his partners, and in I849 they sold out to A. B. Mathews. Mr. Mathews raised the old gristmill, and also raised the dam about thirty inches. The mill built by Howard, Lull & Draper was at one time valued as highly as $40,000. After Mr. Mathews took charge of the mill, he operated it until his death in about I870, after which his son, George B. Mathews, carried on the business for several years, selling it eventually to James Orvis. In I88I C. E. Wakeman & Company purchased the property and conducted the knitting business under that name until about I890, when the business was incorporated under the style of the Pontiac Knitting Works Company. It operated under this name until May, I902, when it was again incorporated, this time as the Pontiac Knitting Company, and it has continued since that time under the present management. The concern employs from one hundred to one hundred and fifty people, and has an annual output of about $I50,ooo to $200,000, their product being a general line of knit goods. THE HOWARD INTERESTS Probably the first general store after that operated by Colonel Mack and his company was that established by H. N. Howard when he came to Pontiac in 1829. Mr. Howard, with Orson Bartlett and Amasa Andrews, also built a dam on the river where the Parsons dam was afterward located and dug a race across the peninsula to the subsequent site of the old gas works, where he erected a machine shop. Soon afterward he purchased the interests of his partners and changed it to what was so long known as the "old red mill." This gristmill had two run of stone and did a good business until its destruction by fire a number of years after it commenced to grind. After Colonel Mack's death, Mr. Howard also bought the distillery and operated it in connection with his flour mill for quite a time; he commenced to use the old distillery as an ashery about I846, built another ashery on the bank of the river at Huron street, and engaged quite extensively in that industry. Mr. Howard was another of the "hustlers" of those early days.

Page  322 322 HISTORY OF OAKLAND COUNTY THE OLD PADDACK MILLS David Paddack was still another. In I829 he erected a woolen mill and in 1845 a flouring mill, and operated them both until his death in I856. The two sons afterward operated the latter, and Paddack's mills for many years represented one of the solid industries of Pontiac. They were located on Mt. Clemens street and were destroyed by fire in July, I9II. CHARLES DAWSON AND HIS WORK Another old-time concern was the flouring mill erected by Charles Dawson in I849. In that year he purchased the original dam built near the Orchard Lake road by John Jenkins for the purpose of running his little sawmill. This was said to have been the first water power improvement constructed below the lakes. The old sawmill was also operated by Mr. Dawson until 1870, or until the lumber of the locality was exhausted. Mr. Dawson at one time owned the Legal Tender mills, built about I850, but retired to his farm in 1855 and the establishment known as Dawson's Mills was long conducted by his sons. When first established by Mr. Dawson the elder, in I849, the plant was represented by a building thirty-two by forty-four feet. Two run of stone were first installed, a third being added in I855. About this time he also erected what was the